WorldWideScience

Sample records for catch fishhook injury

  1. Demographic monitoring of Wright fishhook cactus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Kass

    2001-01-01

    Wright fishhook cactus (Sclerocactus wrightiae Benson) is a small barrel cactus endemic to the San Rafael Swell in south-central Utah. It was listed as an endangered species in 1979 due to its small population size, threats of over-collecting, and development associated with oil and gas. Demographic monitoring was initiated in 1993 with the following objectives: to...

  2. Fish Hook Injury of Eyelid: An Unusual Case

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [Figure 6]. Barb can be single or multiple with different types of baits like colored feathers (to imitate insect wings) and live baits like earthworm or grasshopper. Kamath[1] described a case of fishhook injury to the eyelid in which the fish hook was loaded with live maggots. Multiple barb fishhooks are much difficult to remove.

  3. Weekend catch-up sleep is independently associated with suicide attempts and self-injury in Korean adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seung-Gul; Lee, Yu Jin; Kim, Seog Ju; Lim, Weonjeong; Lee, Heon-Jeong; Park, Young-Min; Cho, In Hee; Cho, Seong-Jin; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2014-02-01

    The current study aims to determine the associations of insufficient sleep with suicide attempts and self-injury in a large, school-based Korean adolescent sample. A sample of 4553 middle- and high-school students (grades 7-10) was recruited in this study. Finally, 4145 students completed self-report questionnaires including items on sleep duration (weekday/weekend), self-injury, suicide attempts during the past year, the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire (SIQ), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). A multiple linear regression model showed that higher SIQ scores were associated with longer weekend catch-up sleep duration (p=0.009), higher BDI score (psleep duration (p=0.011), higher BDI score (psleep duration--which is an indicator of insufficient weekday sleep--might be associated with suicide attempts and self-injury in Korean adolescents. © 2014.

  4. Oncoplastic surgery for inner quadrant breast cancer: fish-hook incision rotation flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seokwon; Lee, Jeeyeon; Jung, Younglae; Bae, Youngtae

    2017-10-01

    In oncoplastic breast surgery, the size and location of the defect are two of the major factors affecting the post-operative cosmetic outcome after partial mastectomy. We introduce a modified superior-based dermoglandular rotation flap technique, which can be applied for relatively large tumours and in cases of inner quadrant defects of the breast without surgery of the contralateral breast. Between January 2007 and December 2012, a total of 34 female patients with breast cancer underwent breast-conserving surgery using the 'fish-hook incision rotational flap'. A fish-hook-shaped skin incision line was designed from an axillary site to the tumour, about 2-3 cm below the skin crease of the inframammary fold. After partial mastectomy, a superior-based dermoglandular tissue flap was mobilized off the pectoralis major muscle and the lower abdominal flap was dissected downward. The dermoglandular flap was then rotated and the lower dissected lower abdominal flap was advanced in the upward direction to fill the defect and restore the breast shape. The cosmetic results were self-estimated 12 months after surgery. Mean excised volume of the breast was 23.2 ± 6.1%. The location of the tumours was as follows: upper inner (n = 13, 38.2%) and lower inner quadrant (n = 21, 61.8%). The overall cosmetic satisfaction was self-estimated as follows: excellent (n = 19, 55.9%); good (n = 10, 29.4%); fair (n = 4, 11.8%); poor (n = 1, 2.9%). The 'fish-hook incision rotation flap' is a feasible, effective oncoplastic technique that can be applicable to a relatively large defect located in the inner quadrant of the breast. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  5. SIS - Annual Catch Limit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Annual Catch Limit (ACL) dataset within the Species Information System (SIS) contains information and data related to management reference points and catch data.

  6. Protective and Catching Safety Systems In Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzhin Marat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article is described application of protective and catching systems in construction. Classification of similar systems, their types and purpose are listed. Dangerous zones on construction site and events to for limiting their influence or protection from the factors. Protective and catching systems is one of the most effective technical equipment, applied in recent time. Protective fences and catching systems are important part in the problem solution. Protective fences protect workers from falling from height. Protective and catching systems allows avoid injuries by workers, also catch debris, fallen from constructing buildings. In regard with continuing development in technical and technological solutions, protective and catching systems require adaptation to a new requirements of construction industry and requirements of normative documents. Technical regulations in the appliance sphere of protective and catching systems requires actualization and aligning with modern normatives. Important role should be given to developing organizational and technological documentation for application of the systems. Scientific studying of technical parameters of fences and protective catching nets also has great interest.

  7. Catch-In-Areas Main

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Catch-In-Areas database integrates catch data from the Catch Accounting System (which has the spatial resolution of a NMFS Reporting Area) into a database that...

  8. Environmental and physiological variables during the catching of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ML de V Queiroz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the critical points of the operation of broiler catching for transport to the processing plant from animal and operational perspectives. During catching, chickens, environmental variables (temperature and relative humidity were constantly monitored to determine the Enthalpy Comfort Index (IEC. Also, the physiological variable rectal temperature (RT was monitored as an indicator of stress suffered by the birds during this handling procedure. Bird welfare were evaluated by analyzing their behavior. The bag method was effective to prevent the struggling of birds while being taken from the broiler house to the transport truck, reducing physical injuries and losses during catching.

  9. Hawaii DAR Fisherman Reporting System Data (Catch)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the catch data from fishers who take marine life for commercial purposes and report their catch, effort, and sales on a commercial catch...

  10. LPS Catch and Effort Estimation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data collected from the LPS dockside (LPIS) and the LPS telephone (LPTS) surveys are combined to produce estimates of total recreational catch, landings, and fishing...

  11. BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM CATCH CROPS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molinuevo-Salces, Beatriz; Larsen, Søren U.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2014-01-01

    Catch crop cultivation combined with its use for biogas production would increase renewable energy production in the form of methane, without interfering with the production of food and fodder crops. The low biomass yield of catch crops is the main limiting factor for using these crops as co......-substrate in manure-based biogas plants and the profit obtained from the sale of biogas barely compensates for the harvest costs. A new agricultural strategy to harvest catch crops together with the residual straw of the main crop was investigated to increase the biomass and thereby the methane yield per hectare...... biomass. Leaving the straw on the field until harvest of the catch crop in the autumn could benefit biogas production due to the organic matter degradation of the straw taking place on the field during the autumn months. This new agricultural strategy may be a good alternative to achieve economically...

  12. Passing and Catching in Rugby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namudu, Mike M.

    This booklet contains the fundamentals for rugby at the primary school level. It deals primarily with passing and catching the ball. It contains instructions on (1) holding the ball for passing, (2) passing the ball to the left--standing, (3) passing the ball to the left--running, (4) making a switch pass, (5) the scrum half's normal pass, (6) the…

  13. MSY from catch and resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ole A; Chrysafi, Anna

    A simple Schaefer model was tested on the Greenland halibut stock offshore in NAFO SA 0 and 1. The minimum data required for this model is a catch time series and a measure of the resilience of the species. Other input parameters that had to be guessed were the carrying capacity, the biomass...

  14. WHEN SCIENCE CATCHES THE EYE

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WHEN SCIENCE CATCHES THE EYE · Slide 2 · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Concept Overview · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Slide 8 · Accommodation: Biomechanics · Accommodative IOL: Crystalens · Slide 11 · Enhanced Single Optic Designs · A Dual Optic Accommodating IOL · Slide 14 · A-IOL Implantation being done by Dr. Virender ...

  15. Catching up with the Keynesians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ljungqvist, L.; Uhlig, H.F.H.V.S.

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines the role for tax policies in productivity-shock driven economies with \\catching-up-with-the-Joneses" utility functions.The optimal tax policy is shown to a ect the economy countercyclically via procyclical taxes, i.e., \\cooling down" the economy with higher taxes when it is

  16. AKRO/SF: Catch Accounting System (CAS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Catch Accounting System (CAS) creates total catch estimates for the groundfish fisheries in the Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands and Gulf of Alaska. Each year, quotas...

  17. Fishing Catch and Catch Rate Assesment of Mini Trawl, Trapnet and Setnet Fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Firdaus

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper purposed to assessment for fishing catch and catch rate of the dragged gear on shrimp, trapnet and setnet fisheries in Tarakan. Catch and effort data (number and species, fishing time of capture unit, were used in analysis qualitative fishing catch and catch rate to describe catch compotition and catch rate from three unit capture fisheries in Tarakan. The result of research showed that in the operation draged gear on shrimp have two main catch are nomei fish and shrimp. on the their two fishing season. Nomei fish as to be a main catch on the trapnet fisheries and pelagic fishes that estuary and coastal of waters as to be a main catch on the setnet fisheries. Dragged gear on shrimp operation with nomei fish as a main catch have catch rate of value are 16.10 kg/hour and trapnet fisheries are 1.67 kg/hour. Catch rate of value from setnet fisheries are 5.39 kg/day and dragged gear on shrimp operation with shrimp as a main catch have a catch rate of value 2.05 kg/hour.

  18. Biogas production from catch crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molinuevo-Salces, Beatriz; Larsen, Søren U.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2013-01-01

    Manure-based biogas plants in Denmark are dependent on high yielding biomass feedstock in order to secure economically feasible operation. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of ten different catch crop species or mixtures as feedstock for biogas production in co......, being in the ranges of 1.4–3.0 t ha−1 and 0.3–1.7 t ha−1 for Holstebro and Aabenraa, respectively. Specific methane yields were in the range of 229–450 m3 t−1 of VS. Methane yields per hectare of up to 800 m3 ha−1 were obtained, making catch crops a promising source of feedstock for manure-based biogas...

  19. Timely Healthcare Checkup Catches Melanoma Early

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skin Cancer" Articles Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone / Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment / Timely Healthcare Checkup Catches Melanoma Early / NIH Research to Results / Skin and Sun – ...

  20. School students "Catch a Star"!

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    School students from across Europe and beyond have won prizes in an astronomy competition, including the trip of a lifetime to one of the world's most powerful astronomical observatories, on a mountaintop in Chile. ESO, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, together with the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE), has just announced the winners of the 2007 "Catch a Star!" competition. ESO PR Photo 21/07 "Catch a Star!" is an international astronomy competition for school students, in which students are invited to 'become astronomers' and explore the Universe. The competition includes two categories for written projects on astronomical themes, to ensure that every student, whatever their level, has the chance to enter and win exciting prizes. For the artistically minded, "Catch a Star!" also includes an astronomy-themed artwork competition. Students from 22 countries submitted hundreds of written projects and pieces of artwork. "The standard of entries was most impressive, and made the jury's task of choosing winners both enjoyable and difficult! We hope that everyone, whether or not they won a prize, had fun taking part, and learnt some exciting things about our Universe", said Douglas Pierce-Price, Education Officer at ESO. The top prize, of a week-long trip to Chile to visit the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) on Paranal, was won by students Jan Mestan and Jan Kotek from Gymnazium Pisek in the Czech Republic, together with their teacher Marek Tyle. Their report on "Research and Observation of the Solar Eclipse" told how they had studied solar eclipses, and involved their fellow students in observations of an eclipse from their school in 2006. The team will travel to Chile and visit the ESO VLT - one of the world's most powerful optical/infrared telescopes - where they will meet astronomers and be present during a night of observations on the 2600m high Paranal mountaintop. "It's fantastic that we will see the

  1. Catch reconstructions reveal that global marine fisheries catches are higher than reported and declining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Daniel; Zeller, Dirk

    2016-01-19

    Fisheries data assembled by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) suggest that global marine fisheries catches increased to 86 million tonnes in 1996, then slightly declined. Here, using a decade-long multinational 'catch reconstruction' project covering the Exclusive Economic Zones of the world's maritime countries and the High Seas from 1950 to 2010, and accounting for all fisheries, we identify catch trajectories differing considerably from the national data submitted to the FAO. We suggest that catch actually peaked at 130 million tonnes, and has been declining much more strongly since. This decline in reconstructed catches reflects declines in industrial catches and to a smaller extent declining discards, despite industrial fishing having expanded from industrialized countries to the waters of developing countries. The differing trajectories documented here suggest a need for improved monitoring of all fisheries, including often neglected small-scale fisheries, and illegal and other problematic fisheries, as well as discarded bycatch.

  2. Comparative evaluation of light-trap catches, electric motor mosquito catches and human biting catches of Anopheles in the Three Gorges Reservoir.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Duo-quan

    Full Text Available The mosquito sampling efficiency of light-trap catches and electric motor mosquito catches were compared with that of human biting catches in the Three Gorges Reservoir. There was consistency in the sampling efficiency between light-trap catches and human biting catches for Anopheles sinensis (r = 0.82, P0.01, while the correlation between electric motor mosquito catches and human biting catches was found to be not statistically significant (r = 0.43, P>0.01 and its sampling efficiency was below that of human biting catches. It is concluded that light-traps can be used as an alternative to human biting catches of Anopheles sinensis in the study area and is a promising tool for sampling malaria vector populations.

  3. Comparative evaluation of light-trap catches, electric motor mosquito catches and human biting catches of Anopheles in the Three Gorges Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duo-quan, Wang; Lin-hua, Tang; Zhen-cheng, Gu; Xiang, Zheng; Man-ni, Yang; Wei-kang, Jiang

    2012-01-01

    The mosquito sampling efficiency of light-trap catches and electric motor mosquito catches were compared with that of human biting catches in the Three Gorges Reservoir. There was consistency in the sampling efficiency between light-trap catches and human biting catches for Anopheles sinensis (r = 0.82, P0.01), while the correlation between electric motor mosquito catches and human biting catches was found to be not statistically significant (r = 0.43, P>0.01) and its sampling efficiency was below that of human biting catches. It is concluded that light-traps can be used as an alternative to human biting catches of Anopheles sinensis in the study area and is a promising tool for sampling malaria vector populations.

  4. Are dragons and tigers catching up?

    OpenAIRE

    Kozlova, Olesia; Noguera-Santaella, Jose

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the catching-up process in per capita income of the so-called Asian Dragons and Tigers. It contributes to the literature in several ways. First, it tests the catching-up hypothesis using the longest time span ever considered, from 1870 to 2014. Second, it documents the experiences of these two groups of countries and provides potential explanations for them. Third, by using the Kejriwal and Perron (2010) algorithm, we are able to endogenously estimate multiple structural br...

  5. The regulation of catch in molluscan muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twarog, B M

    1967-07-01

    Molluscan catch muscles are smooth muscles. As with mammalian smooth muscles, there is no transverse ordering of filaments or dense bodies. In contrast to mammalian smooth muscles, two size ranges of filaments are present. The thick filaments are long as well as large in diameter and contain paramyosin. The thin filaments contain actin and appear to run into and join the dense bodies. Vesicles are present which may be part of a sarcoplasmic reticulum. Neural activation of contraction in Mytilus muscle is similar to that observed in mammalian smooth muscles, and in some respects to frog striated muscle. The relaxing nerves, which reduce catch, are unique to catch muscles. 5-Hydroxytryptamine, which appears to mediate relaxation, specifically blocks catch tension but increases the ability of the muscle to fire spikes. It is speculated that Mytilus muscle actomyosin is activated by a Ca(++)-releasing mechanism, and that 5-hydroxytryptamine may reduce catch and increase excitability by influencing the rate of removal of intracellular free Ca(++).

  6. Catch shares slow the race to fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkenbach, Anna M.; Kaczan, David J.; Smith, Martin D.

    2017-04-01

    In fisheries, the tragedy of the commons manifests as a competitive race to fish that compresses fishing seasons, resulting in ecological damage, economic waste, and occupational hazards. Catch shares are hypothesized to halt the race by securing each individual’s right to a portion of the total catch, but there is evidence for this from selected examples only. Here we systematically analyse natural experiments to test whether catch shares reduce racing in 39 US fisheries. We compare each fishery treated with catch shares to an individually matched control before and after the policy change. We estimate an average policy treatment effect in a pooled model and in a meta-analysis that combines separate estimates for each treatment-control pair. Consistent with the theory that market-based management ends the race to fish, we find strong evidence that catch shares extend fishing seasons. This evidence informs the current debate over expanding the use of market-based regulation to other fisheries.

  7. Factors influencing contraction and catch in Mytilus smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twarog, B M

    1967-10-01

    1. Conditions are defined which determine the level of catch after acetylcholine stimulation of Mytilus muscle.2. Catch tension in dissected muscle is absent when connexions with ganglia are intact.3. Catch tension is absent at temperatures above 30 degrees C.4. Catch tension decreases when intervals between stimuli are increased.5. Increasing concentrations of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) from 10(-8)M to 10(-6)M quantitatively decreases catch tension.6. The length-tension curve of ganglion-free Mytilus muscle bundles suggests that catch tension varies in proportion to the tension developed in contraction.7. External Ca(2+) concentration has no selective influence on catch.8. All factors which reduce catch also increase muscle excitability, suggesting that catch may depend on a mechanism controlling the intracellular concentration of an activator such as Ca(2+).

  8. Storage of catch crops to produce biogas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molinuevo-Salces, Beatriz; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Uellendahl, Hinrich

    2014-01-01

    Catch crop biomass is a promising co-substrate for manure-based biogas plants in Denmark since the cultivation of catch crops is mandatory to retain nutrients in the soil, contributing to protect the aquatic environment. In general, the growth period for catch crops is from harvest of the previous...... crop in July-August to the end of the growing season and harvest in late October. Hence, for use of the biomass in biogas production there is a need for storage of the biomass. Storage as silage would guarantee the availability of the feedstock for biogas production during the whole year. A proper...... ensiling process determines the storage loss and the quality of the final silage and, thus, the possible use of it as a substrate for biogas production. Moreover, silage has been considered as a pre-treatment since it partially hydrolyses organic matter improving cellulose convertibility. Since a large...

  9. CATCHING FISH CONCEPT IN BALINESE LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gede Putu Sudana

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is intended to explore to what extent the Theory of Natural Semantic Metalanguage can be employed to minimize the ambiguity resulting from different interpretations of the Balinese verbs indicating the action ‘ngejuk bé’ (catching fish. As far as such verbs are concerned, it can be stated that the Balines e language is more sophisticated and richer than Indonesian, as it has so many verb phrases used to refer to the activity of catching fish. The data were collected through the interview and note taking techniques, and were analyzed using Natural Semantic Metalanguage. The result of the study shows that the verbs which can be used to express the activity of ‘ngejuk be’ (catching fish are ngenyat, mencar, nyau, memancing, nuba, mekena bubu, memancing tungguh, menumbak, nudul and nyuluh, depending on how such an activity is done and what tools are used.

  10. Catch Composition, Abundance and Length- Weight Relationships ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    loading Salter digital balance for small fish (<2.0 kg) or on a hanging Salter ... white- spotted grouper,. Epinephelus caeruleopunctatus, was numerically the most abundant (15.6%) in the catch followed by Cephalopholis boenak. (13%) and E. fasciatus ... Vanga, the commonly landed species were the white-spotted grouper,.

  11. Book review: Methods for catching beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beetles are the most speciose animal group and found in virtually all habitats on Earth. Methods for Catching Beetles is a comprehensive general sourcebook about where and how to collect members of this diverse group. The book makes a compelling case in its Introduction about the value of scientif...

  12. Catching up with the Future of Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    With most of the high-energy physics world on tenterhooks waiting for the startup of the Large Hadron Collider in Switzerland later this year, it's a good time to catch up (if you haven't already) on what all the excitement is about.

  13. 50 CFR 660.511 - Catch restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... § 660.511 Catch restrictions. (a) All CPS harvested shoreward of the outer boundary of the EEZ (0-200... salmon (Salmonidae) and Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis) are prohibited species and must be... guideline for Pacific sardine is allocated coastwide within the fishery management area. (g) On July 1, 40...

  14. Hunting the Shadow, Catching the Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Anne Elisabeth; Nielsen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    From 28 October to 6 November 2009 twenty-one 3rd year students in interior design from Central Academy of Fine Arts (CAFA), School of Architecture, Beijing participated in the workshop Hunting the Shadow - Catching the Light. The workshop was conceived and led by the Danish architects Torben...

  15. Nitrogen accumulation and residual effects of nitrogen catch crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1991-01-01

    sativum L.), was studied in three field experiments. The effect of catch crop incorporation in the soil on the yield and N accumulation in succeeding crops was also investigated. An aftersown catch crop should be used for pea, since undersown ryegrasses reduced the pea yield. Undersown perennial ryegrass......The nitrogen accumulation in Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) and tansy phacelia (Phacelia tanacetifolia L.), under- or aftersown as nitrogen catch crops to spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and field pea (Pisum...... or an aftersown catch crop can be used for spring barley. The catch crops had accumulated up to 70 kg N ha-1 at the time of ploughdown in early December. The nitrogen accumulation in catch crops following pea was significantly higher than in the catch crop following barley supplied with 100 kg N ha-1. Barley...

  16. Le catch, la domestication du risque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Lacoste

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cet article vise à questionner les logiques de gestion, réappropriation et détournement du risque à travers le catch. Il s’appuie sur la monographie d’un club de la région parisienne observée durant huit mois. Parce que la discipline est à mi-chemin entre la sportivité théâtrale et la scénarisation pugilistique, elle pioche dans le registre de la représentation. Ainsi, art de la surenchère et du pastiche, le catch constitue un terreau majeur pour déconstruire les figures du risque.

  17. Vision Algorithms Catch Defects in Screen Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Andrew Watson, a senior scientist at Ames Research Center, developed a tool called the Spatial Standard Observer (SSO), which models human vision for use in robotic applications. Redmond, Washington-based Radiant Zemax LLC licensed the technology from NASA and combined it with its imaging colorimeter system, creating a powerful tool that high-volume manufacturers of flat-panel displays use to catch defects in screens.

  18. Does recreational catch impact the TAC for commercial fisheries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Margit; Strehlow, H. V.; Adams, C. M.

    2015-01-01

    The western Baltic cod is one of the first fish stocks in Europe that, since 2013, includes recreational catches in stock assessment and fisheries management advice. In this paper, we investigate the sensitivity of the calculated commercial total allowable catch (TAC) to including recreational...... and age structure of recreational catch. Our study is intended to inform potential debates related to resource allocation between the commercial and recreational sectors and contribute to developing a general framework for incorporating recreational catches in fisheries management advice in ICES...... catches in stock assessment. Our results show that the most crucial aspect in terms of the impact on commercial TAC is the assumption on recreational catch dynamics relative to that of commercial fisheries used in forecast. The results were less sensitive to the information on the historical amount...

  19. Catch tanks inhibitor addition 200-East and 200-West Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palit, A.N.

    1996-01-01

    Reported is the study of 11 catch tanks in the 200-East Area and the 7 catch tanks in the 200-West Area listed as active. The location, capacity, material of construction, annual total accumulation, annual rain intrusion, waste transfer rate, and access for chemical injection in these tanks are documented. The present and future utilization and isolation plans for the catch tanks are established

  20. 50 CFR 660.18 - Certification and decertification procedures for observers, catch monitors, catch monitor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of embezzlement, theft, forgery, bribery, falsification or destruction of records, making false... involved in the catching, taking, harvesting or processing of fish, (B) Any business involved with selling... business involved with purchasing raw or processed products from any vessel, shorebased or floating...

  1. Estimation of total catch of silver kob argyrosomus inodorus by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A statistical sampling method is described to estimate the annual catch of silver kob Agryrosomus indorus by recreational shore-anglers in Namibia. The method is based on the theory of progressive counts and on-site roving interviews of anglers, with catch counts and measurements at interception, using data taken during ...

  2. Assessment of catches in shore angling competitions from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By mass, most of the catch was made up of R. annulatus (24 %), D. c. chrysonota (19 %), Carcharius taurus (16 %) and A. japonicus (13 %). These species constituted the most important species during each year of the study period. Mean annual catch per unit effort (CPUE) by number and mass has decreased slightly over ...

  3. Fish Catch Composition of Artisanal and Bottom Trawl Fisheries in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Africa; 4Gent University, Marine Biology Research Group, Krijgslaan 281 – S8, 9000,. Gent, Belgium; 5Technical University of Mombasa, Department of Environment and Health. Sciences, Marine Sciences Section, PO Box 90420, 80100 Mombasa, Kenya. Keywords: Trawl bycatch, artisanal catch, catch composition, ...

  4. Comparative study on the human landing catch and light trap ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As part of a longitudinal study on the epidemiology of filariasis, this study was carried out to test a hypothesis that three light traps catch about the same number of mosquitoes as a team of two Human Landing Catch collectors. The comparison was done to analyze possible differences between the two techniques in the ...

  5. Catch composition and efficiency of major fishing gears used in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (8.8%) and Bagrus spp. (2.6%). Catches by 'atidza' and basket traps were predominantly Tilapias and Chrysichthys spp., respectively, while that by gillnets and net traps were more heterogeneous. The highest catch of 20 t during the period was made by basket traps, while that from the other gears ranged from 0.33 to 6 t ...

  6. Marine mammal population decline linked to obscured by-catch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Stefan; Robertson, Bruce C; Chilvers, B Louise; Krkošek, Martin

    2017-10-31

    Declines of marine megafauna due to fisheries by-catch are thought to be mitigated by exclusion devices that release nontarget species. However, exclusion devices may instead conceal negative effects associated with by-catch caused by fisheries (i.e., unobserved or discarded by-catch with low postrelease survival or reproduction). We show that the decline of the endangered New Zealand (NZ) sea lion ( Phocarctos hookeri ) is linked to latent levels of by-catch occurring in sub-Antarctic trawl fisheries. Exclusion devices have been used since 2001 but have not slowed or reversed population decline. However, 35% of the variability in NZ sea lion pup production is explained by latent by-catch, and the population would increase without this factor. Our results indicate that exclusion devices can obscure rather than alleviate fishery impacts on marine megafauna. Published under the PNAS license.

  7. Social Cultural Data - Social Impacts of Catch Shares in the West Coast Groundfish Fishery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Catch shares are one method of catch allocation utilized by fisheries managers in the United States West Coast groundfish fishery. Catch share management results in...

  8. NC CATCH: Advancing Public Health Analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studnicki, James; Fisher, John W; Eichelberger, Christopher; Bridger, Colleen; Angelon-Gaetz, Kim; Nelson, Debi

    2010-01-01

    The North Carolina Comprehensive Assessment for Tracking Community Health (NC CATCH) is a Web-based analytical system deployed to local public health units and their community partners. The system has the following characteristics: flexible, powerful online analytic processing (OLAP) interface; multiple sources of multidimensional, event-level data fully conformed to common definitions in a data warehouse structure; enabled utilization of available decision support software tools; analytic capabilities distributed and optimized locally with centralized technical infrastructure; two levels of access differentiated by the user (anonymous versus registered) and by the analytical flexibility (Community Profile versus Design Phase); and, an emphasis on user training and feedback. The ability of local public health units to engage in outcomes-based performance measurement will be influenced by continuing access to event-level data, developments in evidence-based practice for improving population health, and the application of information technology-based analytic tools and methods.

  9. Cooperative Research to Evaluate an Incidental Catch Distribution Forecast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M. Turner

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Concern over incidental catches in commercial fisheries has been increasing, and while simple mitigation strategies have been effective, few effective mitigation strategies have been established for more complex species interactions. Incidental catches of alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus and blueback herring (A. aestivalis in the commercial Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus fishery have received substantial attention on the Northeast U.S. continental shelf, despite an existing bycatch avoidance program. This study evaluates the utility of existing species distribution forecasts to predict river herring catches in the southern New England small mesh bottom trawl Atlantic herring fishery, with the ultimate goal of incorporating incidental catch forecasts into the bycatch avoidance program. Commercial Atlantic herring bottom trawl vessels assisted with field-based evaluation of alewife, blueback herring, and Atlantic herring species distribution forecast models. Vessels were equipped with conductivity, temperature, and depth probes, and sampling occurred throughout the fishery season (January–March. Locations of expected low and high forecasted incidental catches were sampled, as well as locations the captain expected to find low and high incidental catches. This allowed us to sample within the spatial area the fishery occurs, and to evaluate the forecasted conditions, and predictions, at the spatial scale of the fishery. Catch differences between high and low probability stations were small and variable, as were differences in modeled probability of species presence. No differences were observed between observations at model-predicted stations and captain-selected stations. The sampling provided a better understanding of the potential effectiveness of distribution forecasts for further reducing incidental catches. Existing models have limited use at the spatial scale of this fishery, but could be improved by developing models with fishery

  10. Prediction of fish catch in the Danube River based on long-term variability in environmental parameters and catch statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smederevac-Lalić, Marija M; Kalauzi, Aleksandar J; Regner, Slobodan B; Lenhardt, Mirjana B; Naunovic, Zorana Z; Hegediš, Aleksandar E

    2017-12-31

    The effects of physical factors on fish catch in the Serbian part of the Danube River were studied for period of six decades. The data on total catch for the Danube River from river kilometre 845 to river kilometre 1433 were collected from Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia, while water level and water temperature data were collected from 16 water gauge stations along the investigated part of the Danube River for the period 1948-2009. Cross-correlation functions have been used to analyse the functional connection between Danube water level, water temperature and fish catch while ARMA model which combines cyclic (deterministic) and random (stochastic) components of the analysed sequences was used for the forecasts. The cross-correlation function showed negative correlation between water level and temperature as well as between water temperature and catch and positive correlation between water level and catch. The Danube water level and catch were coherent at the periods of 2.06, 4.13, 6.2, 10.33, 20.66years, while the cross correlation function between these time series did not show phase lag. The results of reconstruction and forecast of water level, temperature, and catch of fish in the Danube River, obtained by summing the cyclic and stochastic components, was used for the forecast till 2029. In 2016, seven years after, the initial forecasts were made, validity of the model was checked by obtaining data for water temperature, water level and fish catch in the Danube River for the period 2010-2015. Model gave the best prediction for water temperature; average standard error was 1.6 times higher for predicted value than for model value while for fish catch and water level they were 1.96 and 4.97, respectively. Methods used in this work could be powerful tool for prediction of fish catch and serve as the basis for better fisheries management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Yields of Selected Catch Crops in Dry Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Handlířová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Catch crops mainly reduce soil erosion and leaching of nutrients as well as enrich the soil organic matter. The aim of this research is to evaluate the yields of catch crops of Sinapis alba, Phacelia tanacetifolia, Fagopyrum esculentum, Carthamus tinctorius and Secale cereale v. multicaule, and thus determine the possible applicability of catch crops in areas with high average annual temperature and low precipitation totals. The small-plot field experiment was performed on clay-loam gleyic fluvisol at the Field Experimental Station in Žabčice, Southern Moravia, Czech Republic, within the period of 2006-2014. The catch crops were set up after winter wheat in mid-August. The results have shown a statistically significant difference among different catch crops in yield of dry matter and even among years. The yield of catch crops is mainly dependent on a sufficient supply of water in the soil and the appropriate amount and distribution of rainfall over the growing season. Sinapis alba and Phacelia tanacetifolia regularly reached the highest yields. High yields were also achieved with Fagopyrum esculentum. Due to the method of crop rotation in the Czech Republic, with a predominance of Brassica napus var. napus, it is inappropriate to include Sinapis alba. It is the best to grow Phacelia tanacetifolia and even Fagopyrum esculentum, or a mixture thereof, depending on the use of catch crops.

  12. Prenatal Diagnosis Of Catch22 Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Karayalçın

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Deletions involving the long arm of chromosome 22 (22q11 are involved in various congenital heart diseases and congenital anomalies. In most cases, patients also have the features of DiGeorge Syndrome (DGS, Velocardiofacial Syndrome (VCFS, Shprintzen Syndrome, Conotruncal Anomaly Face Syndrome (CTAF, Caylor Cardiofacial Syndrome or Autosomal Dominant Opitz G/BBB Syndrome. CATCH22 is the summarizing name of all the syndromes caused by 22q11 deletion. We present a prenatally diagnosed case at 19 th week of gestation with tetralogy of Fallot. Amniocyte tissue cultures resulted in normal karyotype at 550 band level. 22q11.2 deletion was detected by using DiGeorge/VCFS TUPLE1 (Cytocell FISH probe. 22q11 testing is necessary in case of detection of conotruncal heart anomalies in pregnancies. Chromosome analysis is not enough in many cases and FISH testing combined with chromosome analysis is an effective way of diagnosing affected cases.

  13. Thailand's Missing Marine Fisheries Catch (1950–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany Derrick

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Overexploitation of marine resources has led to declining catches in many countries worldwide, and often also leads to fishing effort being exported to waters of neighboring countries or high seas areas. Thailand is currently under pressure to curb illegal fishing and human rights violations within its distant water fleets or face a European Union import ban. Simultaneously, Thailand is attempting to reduce fishing effort within its Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ. Crucial to these endeavors is a comprehensive knowledge of total fisheries catches over time. A reconstruction of fisheries catches within Thailand's EEZ and by Thailand's fleet in neighboring countries' EEZs was undertaken for 1950–2014 to derive a comprehensive historical time series of total catches. This includes landings and discards that were not accounted for in official, reported statistics. Reconstructed Thai catches from within Thailand's EEZ increased from approximately 400,000 t·year−1 in 1950 to a peak of 2.6 million t·year−1 in 1987, before declining to around 1.7 million t·year−1 in 2014. Catches taken by Thai vessels outside their own EEZ increased from 52,000 t·year−1 in 1965 to a peak of 7.6 million t·year−1 in 1996, before declining to around 3.7 million t·year−1 by 2014. In total, reconstructed catches were estimated to be nearly three times larger than data reported by Thailand to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO. Reconstructed Thai distant-water fleet catches were almost seven times higher than the comparable non-domestic catch deemed reported for Thailand. Thai landings from recreational fishing were conservatively estimated for the first time, and while they contributed less than 1% of current catch, they can be expected to grow in volume and importance with increasing tourism. As Thailand takes measures to reduce fishing effort within its EEZs and increases monitoring and enforcement of illegal and foreign

  14. Mitigating by-catch of diamondback terrapins in crab pots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Kristen M.; Crowder, Larry B.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic by-catch of diamondback terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin) in blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) pots is a concern for terrapin conservation along the United States Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts. Despite the availability of by-catch reduction devices (BRDs) for crab pots, adoption of BRDs has not been mandated and by-catch of terrapins continues. We conducted experimental fishing studies in North Carolina's year-round blue crab fishery from 2000 to 2004 to evaluate the ability of various BRDs to reduce terrapin by-catch without a concomitant reduction in the catch of blue crabs. In 4,822 crab pot days fished, we recorded only 21 terrapin captures. Estimated capture rates were 0.003 terrapins/pot per day in hard crab experimental fishing and 0.008 terrapins/pot per day in peeler experimental fishing. All terrapin captures occurred from April to mid-May within 321.4 m of the shoreline. Longer soak times produced more dead terrapins, with 4 live and 4 dead during hard crab experimental fishing and 11 live and 2 dead during peeler experimental fishing. The 4.0-cm BRDs in fall and 4.5-cm and 5.0-cm BRDs in spring reduced the catch of legal-sized male hard crabs by 26.6%, 21.2%, and 5.7%, respectively. Only the 5.0-cm BRDs did not significantly affect the catch of legal-sized hard male crabs. However, BRDs had no measurable effect on catch of target crabs in the peeler crab fishery. Our results identify 3 complementary and economically feasible tools for blue crab fishery managers to exclude terrapins from commercially fished crab pots in North Carolina: 1) gear modifications (e.g., BRDs); 2) distance-to-shore restrictions; and 3) time-of-year regulations. These measures combined could provide a reduction in terrapin by-catch of up to 95% without a significant reduction in target crab catch.

  15. What's the catch? Validity of whaling data for Japanese catches of sperm whales in the North Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivashchenko, Yulia V; Clapham, Phillip J

    2015-07-01

    The failure of international efforts to manage commercial whaling was exemplified by revelations of large-scale illegal whale catches by the USSR over a 30 year period following World War II. Falsifications of catch data have also been reported for Japanese coastal whaling, but to date there has been no investigation of the reliability of catch statistics for Japanese pelagic (factory fleet) whaling operations. Here, we use data of known reliability from Soviet whaling industry reports to show that body lengths reported to the International Whaling Commission (IWC) by Japanese factory fleets for female sperm whales caught in the North Pacific are not credible. In 1968/1969, Japanese whaling fleets in the North Pacific killed 1568 females, of which 1525 (97.3%) were reported as being at or above the IWC's minimum length of 11.6 m (legal-sized females, LSFs). By contrast, Soviet fleets operating during this period killed 12 578 females; only 824 (6.6%) were LSFs. Adjusting for effort, catches of LSFs were up to 9.1 times higher for Japan compared with the USSR, and even higher for very large females. Dramatic differences in body length statistics were evident when both nations operated in the same area. Significantly, the frequency of LSFs and very large females in the Japanese catch markedly declined after the IWC's International Observer Scheme in 1972 made illegal whaling more difficult. We conclude that the Japanese length data reflect systematic falsification of catch statistics submitted to the IWC, with serious implications for the reliability of data used in current population assessments. The apparent ease with which catch data were falsified in the past underscores the necessity of transparent and independent inspection procedures in any future commercial whaling.

  16. Signature of ocean warming in global fisheries catch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, William W L; Watson, Reg; Pauly, Daniel

    2013-05-16

    Marine fishes and invertebrates respond to ocean warming through distribution shifts, generally to higher latitudes and deeper waters. Consequently, fisheries should be affected by 'tropicalization' of catch (increasing dominance of warm-water species). However, a signature of such climate-change effects on global fisheries catch has so far not been detected. Here we report such an index, the mean temperature of the catch (MTC), that is calculated from the average inferred temperature preference of exploited species weighted by their annual catch. Our results show that, after accounting for the effects of fishing and large-scale oceanographic variability, global MTC increased at a rate of 0.19 degrees Celsius per decade between 1970 and 2006, and non-tropical MTC increased at a rate of 0.23 degrees Celsius per decade. In tropical areas, MTC increased initially because of the reduction in the proportion of subtropical species catches, but subsequently stabilized as scope for further tropicalization of communities became limited. Changes in MTC in 52 large marine ecosystems, covering the majority of the world's coastal and shelf areas, are significantly and positively related to regional changes in sea surface temperature. This study shows that ocean warming has already affected global fisheries in the past four decades, highlighting the immediate need to develop adaptation plans to minimize the effect of such warming on the economy and food security of coastal communities, particularly in tropical regions.

  17. China-United States Productivity Catch-Up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Paul Duo; Jefferson, Gary H.

    China’s gap in industrial labor productivity with the United States has been steadily shrinking over recent decades. In this paper we examine the main sources of gap reduction and the potential for further catch-up. Using Chinese above-scale firm-level data during 1998-2007 period and BEA industry...... -level data in the US, we first document the respective rates of growth of labor productivity, gap reduction, and contributions to overall catch-up of China’s manufacturing sector during 1998-2007. We then aggregate the firm-level data to the 3-digit industry level to estimate a productivity gap...... reduction function and find that the key drivers for the productivity convergence are the initial technology gap, increased R&D spending, firm’s ownership restructuring, and industry level entry-exit ratio, a measure of competitive dynamism. A key finding is that the catch-up dynamic entails the break out...

  18. Catching large herring larvae: Gear applicability and larval distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter

    1988-01-01

    A series of night hauls were made both along a transect from the Danish coast to the Dogger Bank and at a fixed position in the southern North Sea. The aim was to evaluate the suitability of two midwater trawls (IKMT and MIK) for catching large herring larvae (20-40 mm), with special attention...... given to the influence of gear speed on catching effectiveness. An additional objective was to investigate larval distributional patterns of potential importance to sampling strategy. Gear speed had a pronounced influence on the efficiency of the IKMT. Catches per unit volume filtered decreased to one...... third when speed was increased by one knot. The efficiency of the MIK did not change in the speed range investigated, and this gear was in every case more efficient than the IKMT. Larvae were found to be patchily distributed at the scale of sampling, and the degree of patchiness did not increase when...

  19. Modelling and forecasting monthly swordfish catches in the Eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos I. Stergiou

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we used the X-11 census technique for modelling and forecasting the monthly swordfish (Xiphias gladius catches in the Greek Seas during 1982-1996 and 1997 respectively, using catches reported by the National Statistical Service of Greece (NSSG. Forecasts built with X-11 were also compared with those derived from ARIMA andWinter’s exponential smoothing (WES models. The X-11 method captured the features of the study series and outperformed the other two methods, in terms of both fitting and forecasting performance, for all the accuracy measures used. Thus, with the exception of October, November and December 1997, when the corresponding absolute percentage error(APE values were very high (as high as 178.6% because of the low level of the catches, monthly catches during the remaining months of 1997 were predicted accurately, with a mean APE of 12.5%. In contrast, the mean APE values of the other two methods for the same months were higher (ARIMA: 14.6%; WES: 16.6%. The overall good performance of X-11 andthe fact that it provides an insight into the various components (i.e. the seasonal, trend-cycle and irregular components of the time series of interest justify its use in fisheries research. The basic features of the swordfish catches revealed by the application of the X-11 method, the effect of the length of the forecasting horizon on forecasting accuracy and the accuracy of the catches reported by NSSG are also discussed.

  20. Injuries in Cricket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardiwala, Dinshaw N; Rao, Nandan N; Varshney, Ankit V

    Cricket is a popular global sport that requires a combination of physical fitness, skill, and strategy. Although a noncontact sport, overuse and impact injuries are common since players engage in a wide range of physical activities, including running, throwing, batting, bowling, catching, and diving. Significant or match time-loss injuries are defined as those that either prevent a player from being fully available for selection in a major match, or during a major match, cause a player to be unable to bat, bowl, or keep wicket when required by either the rules or the team's captain. This review describes the various region-wise injuries sustained in cricket along with their epidemiology, biomechanics, treatment, and prevention. Data were collected from peer-reviewed articles (obtained via PubMed search) published through November 2016 that involved the medical, biomechanical, and epidemiological aspects of cricket injuries. Clinical review. Level 4. Cricket was one of the first sports to publish recommended methods for injury surveillance in 2005 from England, South Africa, Australia, the West Indies, and India. While the incidence of injuries is about the same, the prevalence of injuries has increased due to game format changes, increasing number of matches played, and decreased rest between matches. Bowling (41.3%), fielding, and wicket keeping (28.6%) account for most injuries. Acute injuries are most common (64%-76%), followed by acute-on-chronic (16%-22.8%) and chronic ones (8%-22%). The most common modern-day cricket injury is hamstring strain, and the most severe is lumbar stress fracture in young fast bowlers. With improved understanding of the scientific and medical aspects of cricket, along with advances in surgical and nonsurgical treatment techniques, the time to return to play has shortened considerably. While the prevalence of cricket injuries has increased, their severity has decreased over the past decades.

  1. InterCatch - a tool for fish stock assessment, status and methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjems-Nielsen, Henrik; Larsen, Lena Inger; Zarecki, Maria

    2006-01-01

    InterCatch is a web-based system for handling fish stock assessment data focusing on documenting characteristics of the catches. These national fish stock data are uploaded to InterCatch by national data submitters. After all data are uploaded the stock coordinators (working for the fish stock as...... assessment group) can then check and set up allocation schemes for unsampled catches. After applying the best allocation scheme to the unsampled catches, the catch data are aggregated as required and exported for analysis, e.g. XSA or ICA....

  2. Catch of the Day, Tomorrow, and the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J.

    2017-12-01

    There are many fishermen and women in Pensacola, Florida, specifically at the Plaza De Luna Circle at the end of Palafox street. What are these fisherpeople hoping to catch? Do they want to eat their harvest or just catch for sport? Surveying the locals will help answer these questions and more. These answers will turn into data that will be shared and discussed with the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission in hopes that it will give them ideas on how to manage our natural resources while best serving the interests our community.

  3. A simple statistical method for catch comparison studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, René; Revill, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    For analysing catch comparison data, we propose a simple method based on Generalised Linear Mixed Models (GLMM) and use polynomial approximations to fit the proportions caught in the test codend. The method provides comparisons of fish catch at length by the two gears through a continuous curve...... with a realistic confidence band. We demonstrate the versatility of this method, on field data obtained from the first known testing in European waters of the Rhode Island (USA) 'Eliminator' trawl. These data are interesting as they include a range of species with different selective patterns. Crown Copyright (C...

  4. Markov chain model for demersal fish catch analysis in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdaniza; Gusriani, N.

    2018-03-01

    As an archipelagic country, Indonesia has considerable potential fishery resources. One of the fish resources that has high economic value is demersal fish. Demersal fish is a fish with a habitat in the muddy seabed. Demersal fish scattered throughout the Indonesian seas. Demersal fish production in each Indonesia’s Fisheries Management Area (FMA) varies each year. In this paper we have discussed the Markov chain model for demersal fish yield analysis throughout all Indonesia’s Fisheries Management Area. Data of demersal fish catch in every FMA in 2005-2014 was obtained from Directorate of Capture Fisheries. From this data a transition probability matrix is determined by the number of transitions from the catch that lie below the median or above the median. The Markov chain model of demersal fish catch data was an ergodic Markov chain model, so that the limiting probability of the Markov chain model can be determined. The predictive value of demersal fishing yields was obtained by calculating the combination of limiting probability with average catch results below the median and above the median. The results showed that for 2018 and long-term demersal fishing results in most of FMA were below the median value.

  5. Nitrogen accumulation and residual effects of nitrogen catch crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1991-01-01

    The nitrogen accumulation in Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) and tansy phacelia (Phacelia tanacetifolia L.), under- or aftersown as nitrogen catch crops to spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and field pea (Pisum...

  6. Catching fly balls: a simulation study of the Chapman strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kistemaker, D.A.; Faber, H.; Beek, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Chapman [Chapman, S. (1968). Catching a baseball. American Journal of Physics, 36, 868-870] showed that a catcher may be guided to the landing spot of a fly ball by zeroing out its optical acceleration. Subsequently, various studies have provided evidence for what is now known as the Chapman

  7. Management of fisheries by Total Allowable Catch (TAC) regulation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    1997) and inshore or deep-sea commercial fisheries (Patterson 1998, Hutchings and Ferguson. 2000). Treatment of ... in 2000/01 to restrict fishing effort (days at sea) on the basis of quota size and vessel efficiency. .... fleet was restricted to port after May 2001. The under- reported catch for 1998/99, when the quota was 80.1.

  8. Catch Up® Literacy: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutt, Simon; Kettlewell, Kelly; Bernardinelli, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    Catch Up® Literacy is a structured one-to-one literacy intervention for pupils between the ages of 6 and 14 who are struggling to learn to read. It teaches pupils to blend phonemes (combine letter sounds into words), segment phonemes (separate words into letter sounds), and memorise particular words so they can be understood without needing to use…

  9. Catch Up® Numeracy: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Endowment Foundation, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Catch Up® Numeracy is a one to one intervention for learners who are struggling with numeracy. It consists of two 15-minute sessions per week, delivered by teaching assistants (TAs). The approach is based on research indicating that numeracy is not a single skill, but a composite of several component skills that are relatively discrete. The…

  10. Two-dimensional kinematic analysis of catch and finish positions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... enough to increase the frequency of drive. As the rowing distance got longer, rowers started to change their body angles and action. Performance could be improved by maintaining suitable rowing technique during competition. Keywords: Biomechanics; Rowing; Catch and finish positions; Concept IID rowing ergometer.

  11. Catch them young: The librarians concern | Oriogu | Nigerian School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Education is vital in the development of a nation. The axiom “catch them young” expresses the desire to train, cater, support and guild children early in life to develop love for education in order to become lifelong learners. This is a paramount concern to librarians in school libraries to meet the intrinsic fact in nation building.

  12. Estimating the unreported catch of Eritrean Red Sea fisheries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unreported catches from three major fisheries in the Eritrean Red Sea were investigated in order to estimate the impact of the total extraction of fish from the ecosystem, which will help the assessment of the resource and its management. The fisheries target small pelagics, demersal finfish and shrimps, and were chosen for ...

  13. Flexible timing of eye movements when catching a ball

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López-Moliner, Joan; Brenner, Eli

    2016-01-01

    In ball games, one cannot direct ones gaze at the ball all the time because one must also judge other aspects of the game, such as other players' positions. We wanted to know whether there are times at which obtaining information about the ball is particularly beneficial for catching it. We recently

  14. Fisketuristenes fangster er kartlagt : Recording the catches of fishing tourists

    OpenAIRE

    Hauge, Marie; Nilsen, Merete; Vølstad, Jon Helge

    2010-01-01

    Figures from the Institute of Marine Research show that fishing tourists using the organised tourism industry catch an estimated 3,300 tonnes each year. The estimate is based on advanced statistical methods, practical field work and self-reporting by fishing tourists at a number of fishing tourism companies.

  15. Comparing fish bycatch of shrimp trawlers with catches made by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This present study identifies resource use overlap and conflict by comparing species composition, distribution patterns and abundance of bottom trawl fish bycatches and artisanal fish catches in the bay. Bottom trawl surveys were undertaken during the dry Northeast Monsoon (NEM) season and during the wet Southeast ...

  16. UNDER-REPORTING OF CATCHES OF SOUTH COAST ROCK ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The malpractice increased sharply between the 1997/98 and 2000/01 fishing seasons. The index of abundance for the resource (standardized catch per unit effort) increased by 2% for 1998/99, 12% for 1999/00 and 14% for 2000/01, after eliminating under-reported information from the input data. An agestructured ...

  17. Catch-up operation on old pesticides: an integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canton JH; Linders JBHJ; Luttik R; Mensink BJWG; Panman E; van de Plassche EJ; Sparenburg PM; Tuinstra J

    1991-01-01

    The "catch-up operation on old pesticides" project has resulted in a summary and RIVM conclusion of the environmental aspects of 152 pesticides which were already marketed in the Netherlands before 1975. The RIVM conclusion was subsequently rewritten to form an environmental synopsis.

  18. Catch-up operation on old pesticides: an integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canton JH; Linders JBHJ; Luttik R; Mensink BJWG; Panman E; Plassche EJ van de; Sparenburg PM; Tuinstra J

    1991-01-01

    The "catch-up operation on old pesticides" project has resulted in a summary and RIVM conclusion of the environmental aspects of 152 pesticides which were already marketed in the Netherlands before 1975. The RIVM conclusion was subsequently rewritten to form an environmental synopsis. The

  19. Quantifying commercial catch and effort of monkfish Lophius ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both indices, one standardized on vessel horsepower and the other standardized by means of a Generalized Linear Model, showed an increase in catch rate of monkfish from 1991 to 1994 and between 1996 and 1998, but a decline from 1994 to 1996 as well as during 1999. Conversion factors for landed or tail weight to ...

  20. Advance knowledge effects on kinematics of one-handed catching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijtgat, P.T.L.; Bennett, S.J.; Savelsbergh, G.J.P.; de Clercq, D.; Lenoir, M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to examine the effects of advance knowledge on the kinematics of one-handed catching. Balls were launched from a distance of 8.4 m by a ball-projection machine with adjustable launching speed. Fifteen skilled ball catchers caught 160 balls with their preferred hand

  1. Analysis of anglers' catch data from the Swartkops Estuary | Marais ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An analysis of anglers' catch data from 1972-1978 revealed that the spotted grunter Pomadasys commersonni is the most abundant angling species in the Swartkops estuary (83% of mass and 87% of numbers). It is followed by Lithognathus lithognathus, Argyrosomus hololepidotus and Lichia amia. During the early part of ...

  2. Deepening Thermocline Displaces Salmon Catch On The Oregon Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, C. S.; Lawson, P.

    2015-12-01

    Establishing a linkage between fish stock distributions and physical oceanography at a fine scale provides insights into the dynamic nature of near-shore ocean habitats. Characterization of habitat preferences adds to our understanding of the ecosystem, and may improve forecasts of distribution for harvest management. The Project CROOS (Collaborative Research on Oregon Ocean Salmon) Chinook salmon catch data set represents an unprecedented high-resolution record of catch location and depth, with associated in-situ temperature measurements and stock identification derived from genetic data. Here we connect this data set with physical ocean observations to gain understanding of how circulation affects salmon catch distributions. The CROOS observations were combined with remote and in situ observations of temperature, as well as a data assimilative regional ocean model that incorporates satellite and HF radar data. Across the CROOS data set, catch is primarily located within the upwelling front over the seamounts and reef structures associated with Heceta and Stonewall Banks along the shelf break. In late September of 2014 the anomalously warm "blob" began to arrive on the Oregon coast coincident with a strong downwelling event. At this time the thermocline deepened from 20 to 40 m, associated with a deepening of salmon catch depth. A cold "bulb" of water over Heceta Bank may have provided a thermal refuge for salmon during the initial onshore movement of the anomalously warm water. These observations suggest that a warming ocean, and regional warming events in particular, will have large effects on fish distributions at local and regional scales, in turn impacting fisheries.

  3. Effect of fishing effort on catch rate and catchability of largemouth bass in small impoundments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, M. G.; Schramm, Harold; Neal, J. W.; Gerard, P.D.

    2018-01-01

    Largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides (Lacepède) catch rates decline with sustained fishing effort, even without harvest. It is unclear why declines in catch rate occur, and little research has been directed at how to improve catch rate. Learning has been proposed as a reason for declining catch rate, but has never been tested on largemouth bass. If catch rate declines because fish learn to avoid lures, periods of no fishing could be a management tool for increasing catch rate. In this study, six small impoundments with established fish populations were fished for two May to October fishing seasons to evaluate the effect of fishing effort on catch rate. Closed seasons were implemented to test whether a 2‐month period of no fishing improved catch rates and to determine whether conditioning from factors other than being captured reduced catch rate. Mixed‐model analysis indicated catch rate and catchability declined throughout the fishing season. Catch rate and catchability increased after a 2‐month closure but soon declined to the lowest levels of the fishing season. These changes in catch rate and catchability support the conclusion of learned angler avoidance, but sustained catchability of fish not previously caught does not support that associative or social learning affected catchability.

  4. Thirty years of monitoring traditional fish trap catches at Kosi Bay ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The catches of the traditional fish traps in the Kosi Bay estuarine lakes were monitored over a 30-year period from 1981 to 2010. Monitoring data were used to provide estimates of, and insights into, catch size and species composition as well as seasonal and annual cycles of catch abundance. Over 1.2 million fish, ...

  5. 78 FR 6798 - Western Pacific Fisheries; 2013 Annual Catch Limits and Accountability Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    .... 121107617-3050-01] RIN 0648-XC351 Western Pacific Fisheries; 2013 Annual Catch Limits and Accountability... ecosystem fisheries, and accountability measures to correct or mitigate any overages of catch limits. The proposed catch limits and accountability measures support the long-term sustainability of fishery resources...

  6. 77 FR 6019 - Western Pacific Fisheries; 2012 Annual Catch Limits and Accountability Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    .... 110826540-2069-02] RIN 0648-XA674 Western Pacific Fisheries; 2012 Annual Catch Limits and Accountability... fisheries, and accountability measures to correct or mitigate any overages of catch limits. The catch limits and accountability measures support the long-term sustainability of fishery resources of the U.S...

  7. 77 FR 66 - Western Pacific Fisheries; 2012 Annual Catch Limits and Accountability Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    .... 110826540-1774-01] RIN 0648-XA674 Western Pacific Fisheries; 2012 Annual Catch Limits and Accountability... ecosystem fisheries, and accountability measures to correct or mitigate any overages of catch limits. The proposed catch limits and accountability measures support the long-term sustainability of fishery resources...

  8. 78 FR 15885 - Western Pacific Fisheries; 2013 Annual Catch Limits and Accountability Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    .... 121107617-3181-02] RIN 0648-XC351 Western Pacific Fisheries; 2013 Annual Catch Limits and Accountability... fisheries, and accountability measures to correct or mitigate any overages of catch limits. The catch limits and accountability measures support the long-term sustainability of fishery resources of the U.S...

  9. 78 FR 77089 - Pacific Island Fisheries; 2014 Annual Catch Limits and Accountability Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    .... 131028907-3999-01] RIN 0648-XC954 Pacific Island Fisheries; 2014 Annual Catch Limits and Accountability... ecosystem fisheries, and accountability measures to correct or mitigate any overages of catch limits. The proposed catch limits and accountability measures support the long-term sustainability of fishery resources...

  10. The world's marine fisheries currently generate a catch of about 150 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    The world's marine fisheries currently generate a catch of about 150 million tons per year, about 90 mil- lion tons of nominal catch reported by individual countries to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (Garcia and Newton 1997),. 20–30 million tons of discarded by-catch (Alverson et al. 1994) and ...

  11. Grasping in One-Handed Catching in Relation to Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesqui, Benedetta; Russo, Marta; Lacquaniti, Francesco; d'Avella, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Catching a flying ball involves bringing the hand to the aimed interception point at the right time, adjusting the hand posture to receive the incoming ball and to absorb the ball momentum, and closing the hand to ensure a stable grip. A small error in any of these actions can lead to a failure in catching the ball. Here we sought to gather new insights on what aspects of the catching movements affect the interceptive performance most. In particular, we wondered whether the errors occurred in bringing the hand to the interception point or in closing the fingers on the ball, and whether these two phases of interception differed between individuals. To this end, we characterized grasping and wrist movement kinematics of eleven participants attempting to catch a ball projected in space with different ball arrival heights and flight durations. The spatial position of the ball and of several markers placed on the participant's arm were recorded by a motion capture system, the hand joint angles were recorded with an instrumented glove, and several movement features were extracted. All participants were able to intercept the ball trajectory (i.e. to touch the ball) in over 90% of cases, but they differed in the ability to grasp the ball (success rate varied between 2% and 85%). Similar temporal features were observed across individuals when they caught the ball. In particular, all participants adapted their wrist movements under varying temporal and arrival height constraints, they aligned the time of peak hand closing velocity to the time of hand-ball contact, and they maintained the same hand closing duration in the different experimental conditions. These movement features characterized successful trials, and hence allowed to evaluate the possible sources of errors underlying unsuccessful trials. Thus, inter-individual and inter-trial variability in the modulation of each kinematic feature were related to catching performance. We observed that different participants

  12. Grasping in One-Handed Catching in Relation to Performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetta Cesqui

    Full Text Available Catching a flying ball involves bringing the hand to the aimed interception point at the right time, adjusting the hand posture to receive the incoming ball and to absorb the ball momentum, and closing the hand to ensure a stable grip. A small error in any of these actions can lead to a failure in catching the ball. Here we sought to gather new insights on what aspects of the catching movements affect the interceptive performance most. In particular, we wondered whether the errors occurred in bringing the hand to the interception point or in closing the fingers on the ball, and whether these two phases of interception differed between individuals. To this end, we characterized grasping and wrist movement kinematics of eleven participants attempting to catch a ball projected in space with different ball arrival heights and flight durations. The spatial position of the ball and of several markers placed on the participant's arm were recorded by a motion capture system, the hand joint angles were recorded with an instrumented glove, and several movement features were extracted. All participants were able to intercept the ball trajectory (i.e. to touch the ball in over 90% of cases, but they differed in the ability to grasp the ball (success rate varied between 2% and 85%. Similar temporal features were observed across individuals when they caught the ball. In particular, all participants adapted their wrist movements under varying temporal and arrival height constraints, they aligned the time of peak hand closing velocity to the time of hand-ball contact, and they maintained the same hand closing duration in the different experimental conditions. These movement features characterized successful trials, and hence allowed to evaluate the possible sources of errors underlying unsuccessful trials. Thus, inter-individual and inter-trial variability in the modulation of each kinematic feature were related to catching performance. We observed that

  13. Synthesis of underreported small-scale fisheries catch in Pacific island waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, D.; Harper, S.; Zylich, K.; Pauly, D.

    2015-03-01

    We synthesize fisheries catch reconstruction studies for 25 Pacific island countries, states and territories, which compare estimates of total domestic catches with officially reported catch data. We exclude data for the large-scale tuna fleets, which have largely foreign beneficial ownership, even when flying Pacific flags. However, we recognize the considerable financial contributions derived from foreign access or charter fees for Pacific host countries. The reconstructions for the 25 entities from 1950 to 2010 suggested that total domestic catches were 2.5 times the data reported to FAO. This discrepancy was largest in early periods (1950: 6.4 times), while for 2010, total catches were 1.7 times the reported data. There was a significant difference in trend between reported and reconstructed catches since 2000, with reconstructed catches declining strongly since their peak in 2000. Total catches increased from 110,000 t yr-1 in 1950 (of which 17,400 t were reported) to a peak of over 250,000 t yr-1 in 2000, before declining to around 200,000 t yr-1 by 2010. This decrease is driven by a declining artisanal (small-scale commercial) catch, which was not compensated for by increasing domestic industrial (large-scale commercial) catches. The artisanal fisheries appear to be declining from a peak of 97,000 t yr-1 in 1992 to less than 50,000 t yr-1 by 2010. However, total catches were dominated by subsistence (small-scale, non-commercial) fisheries, which accounted for 69 % of total catches, with the majority missing from the reported data. Artisanal catches accounted for 22 %, while truly domestic industrial fisheries accounted for only 6 % of total catches. The smallest component is the recreational (small-scale, non-commercial and largely for leisure) sector (2 %), which, although small in catch, is likely of economic importance in some areas due to its direct link to tourism income.

  14. "Catch 22": Biosecurity awareness, interpretation and practice amongst poultry catchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millman, Caroline; Christley, Rob; Rigby, Dan; Dennis, Diana; O'Brien, Sarah J; Williams, Nicola

    2017-06-01

    Campylobacter contamination of chicken on sale in the UK remains at high levels and has a substantial public health impact. This has prompted the application of many interventions in the supply chain, including enhanced biosecurity measures on-farm. Catching and thinning are acknowledged as threats to the maintenance of good biosecurity, yet the people employed to undertake this critical work (i.e. 'catchers') are a rarely studied group. This study uses a mixed methods approach to investigate catchers' (n=53) understanding of the biosecurity threats posed by the catching and thinning, and the barriers to good biosecurity practice. It interrogated the role of training in both the awareness and practice of good biosecurity. Awareness of lapses in biosecurity was assessed using a Watch-&-Click hazard awareness survey (n=53). Qualitative interviews (n=49 catchers, 5 farm managers) explored the understanding, experience and practice of catching and biosecurity. All of the catchers who took part in the Watch-&-Click study identified at least one of the biosecurity threats with 40% detecting all of the hazards. Those who had undergone training were significantly more likely to identify specific biosecurity threats and have a higher awareness score overall (48% compared to 9%, p=0.03). Crucially, the individual and group interviews revealed the tensions between the high levels of biosecurity awareness evident from the survey and the reality of the routine practice of catching and thinning. Time pressures and a lack of equipment rather than a lack of knowledge appear a more fundamental cause of catcher-related biosecurity lapses. Our results reveal that catchers find themselves in a 'catch-22' situation in which mutually conflicting circumstances prevent simultaneous completion of their job and compliance with biosecurity standards. 3 Hence, although education about, and enforcement of, biosecurity protocols has been recommended, our findings suggest that further reforms

  15. Key factors influencing the potential of catch crops for methane production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molinuevo-Salces, Beatriz; Fernandez-Varela, Raquel; Uellendahl, Hinrich

    2014-01-01

    explained up to 84.6% and 71.6% of the total variation for 2010 and 2011 samples, respectively. Specific methane yield, climate conditions (rainfall and temperature) and total nitrogen in the biomass were the variables classifying the different catch crops. Catch crops in the Brassicaceae and Graminaceae......Catch crops are grown in crop rotation primarily for soil stabilization. The excess biomass of catch crops was investigated for its potential as feedstock for biogas production. Ten variables affecting catch crop growth and methane potential were evaluated. Field trials and methane potential were...... studied for 14 different catch crops species, with 19 samples harvested in 2010 and 36 harvested in 2011. Principal component analysis was applied to the data to identify the variables characterizing the potential for the different catch crops species for methane production. Two principal components...

  16. Can an observer really catch up with light?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Guihua; Zheng, Zhao

    2003-01-01

    Given a null geodesic γ 0 (λ) with a point r in (p, q) conjugate to p along γ 0 (λ), up to the second variation, there will be a variation of γ 0 (λ) which will give a timelike curve from p to q. This is the well-known theory proved in the famous book (Hawking S W and Ellis G F R 1973 The Large Scale Structure of Space-Time (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)). In this paper, we prove that the timelike curves coming from the above-mentioned second variation have a proper acceleration approaching infinity as the timelike curves approach the null geodesic. This means no observer infinitesimally near the light can begin at the same point with it and finally catch up with it. Only when separated from the light path finitely, can the observer begin at the same point with it and really catch up with it

  17. Electronic catch recordings for scientific and commercial use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundersen, Agnes C.; Dyb, Jan Erik; Fossen, Inge

    For assessment and management of marine fish resources, representative data of statistically good quality describing the actual catch are lacking for many fisheries. Even for the most studied fisheries in the North Atlantic, the uncertainty regarding what is actually caught has implications...... for management. Fish stock assessments and sound advice in most cases rely on representative samples of catches. Distant and high sea fisheries often suffer from poor sampling due to sampling personal logistics. Consequently, stock assessment and management of marine fish resources exploited by those fisheries...... on the fishery, thereby meeting the challenges of obtaining representative fishery data, that is continuous and complete and willprovide sufficient data for fish stock assessments and, hence, subsequent fisheries management of species found in distant waters....

  18. Assessment of selenium mineralization and availability from catch crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stavridou, Eleftheria; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian; Young, S.D.

    2011-01-01

    lower than that in the control, indicating Se immobilization. In the pot incubation experiment, the results were consistent with those from the leaching experiment. The addition of enriched plant material increased Se concentration in Indian mustard plants compared with unamended soil. However......Selenium (Se) release from four plant species (Indian mustard, fodder radish, Italian ryegrass and hairy vetch) was measured under controlled leaching conditions and in a pot incubation experiment as part of a study of the potential for using these plant species as Se catch crops. Catch crops may...... reduce Se leaching and, by subsequent release of Se from the plant material, increase the available Se for succeeding crops. Plants grown both without and with Se addition (250 g Se ⁄ ha) were tested. In the leaching experiment, frozen plant material was incorporated into soil columns and incubated...

  19. Playing catch with energy between two superconducting coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Masayoshi; Shintomi, Takakazu; Asaji, Kiyoyuki.

    1979-03-01

    The first performance of playing catch with energy between two 100 kJ superconducting magnets has been presented. The mechanism of the energy transfer as an interface between the superconducting coils is a thyristorized DC-AC-DC converter. The obtained experimental efficiency of energy transfer has been compared with the theory and good agreement has been obtained. The method will offer a versatile extension of superconductive technique in energy problems. (author)

  20. Seasonal abundance, distribution and catch per unit effort of fishes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Catch per unit effort (CPUE) of fish in the Krom estuary was obtained by means of gill-nets. Each net consisted of five 100m sections, 3 m deep with stretched mesh sizes of. 55; 70; 85; 110 and 145 mm covering an area of 150 m2. •. The nets were set for 12-h periods (from dusk till dawn) across the estuary during week days ...

  1. Anglers' catches as an indicator of fish population status

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lusk, Stanislav; Lusková, Věra; Halačka, Karel; Smutný, Martin

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 1 (2003), s. 113-119 ISSN 1642-3593. [International Symposium on the Ecology of Fluvial Fishes /8./. Lodz, 04.06.2001-07.06.2001] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6093105; GA AV ČR IAA6087704; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : fish community * cormorant * statistics of catches Subject RIV: GL - Fishing

  2. Industrial Catching Up in the Poor Periphery 1870-1975

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey G. Williamson

    2011-01-01

    This paper documents industrial output and labor productivity growth around the poor periphery 1870-1975 (Latin America, the European periphery, the Middle East, South Asia, Southeast Asia and East Asia). Intensive and extensive industrial growth accelerated there over this critical century. The precocious poor periphery leaders underwent a surge and more poor countries joined their club. Furthermore, by the interwar the majority were catching up on Germany, the US and the UK, a process that ...

  3. People favour imperfect catching by assuming a stable world.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan López-Moliner

    Full Text Available The visual angle that is projected by an object (e.g. a ball on the retina depends on the object's size and distance. Without further information, however, the visual angle is ambiguous with respect to size and distance, because equal visual angles can be obtained from a big ball at a longer distance and a smaller one at a correspondingly shorter distance. Failure to recover the true 3D structure of the object (e.g. a ball's physical size causing the ambiguous retinal image can lead to a timing error when catching the ball. Two opposing views are currently prevailing on how people resolve this ambiguity when estimating time to contact. One explanation challenges any inference about what causes the retinal image (i.e. the necessity to recover this 3D structure, and instead favors a direct analysis of optic flow. In contrast, the second view suggests that action timing could be rather based on obtaining an estimate of the 3D structure of the scene. With the latter, systematic errors will be predicted if our inference of the 3D structure fails to reveal the underlying cause of the retinal image. Here we show that hand closure in catching virtual balls is triggered by visual angle, using an assumption of a constant ball size. As a consequence of this assumption, hand closure starts when the ball is at similar distance across trials. From that distance on, the remaining arrival time, therefore, depends on ball's speed. In order to time the catch successfully, closing time was coupled with ball's speed during the motor phase. This strategy led to an increased precision in catching but at the cost of committing systematic errors.

  4. Conched out: Total reconstructed fisheries catches for the Turks and Caicos Islands uncover unsustainable resource usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylin eUlman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Turks and Caicos Islands’ total marine fisheries catches were estimated for 1950-2012 using a catch reconstruction approach, estimating all removals, including reported catch destined for export, and unreported domestic artisanal and subsistence catches. Total reconstructed catch for the period is approximately 2.8 times that reported by Turks and Caicos to the FAO, and 86% higher than the export-adjusted national reported baseline. The pattern of total catches (strong decline to 1970, followed by gradual increase differs distinctly from that shown by data reported to FAO. Reported landings show a steady increase from less than 1,000 t∙year-1 in the 1950s to around 6,000 t∙year-1 in the 2000s. In contrast, the total reconstructed catches suggest declines in total catches from around 20,000 t in 1950 to a low of about 5,000 t in 1970, before gradual increases to about 12 500 t·year-1 in the late 2000s. Major discrepancies between reported and reconstructed data are under-reported artisanal catches in the early decades (accounting for 86% of total catches, and the absence of subsistence catches (14% of total catches in reported data. Queen conch (Strombus gigas and Caribbean spiny lobster (Panulirus argus dominate reconstructed catches. No discards were estimated as fishing has been highly selective, carried out by hand collection (conch, trap or hook (lobster, or hook and line (finfish. New data published here from local seafood consumption surveys demonstrates that the total local consumption of conch equates to almost the entire total allowable catch, before exported amounts are even factored. Policy-makers in the Turks and Caicos need to act if the sustainability of the fisheries stock and fishing industry is to be ensured.

  5. Aspects of smooth muscle function in molluscan catch muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twarog, B M

    1976-10-01

    1) Catch in Mytilus ABRM may be a specialization of a mechanism common to all muscles that gives rise to stretch resistance in the resting state. Catch appears to be due to actin myosin interaction. Since this interaction is regulated by nerves, it provides a convenient model for studying resting stretch resistance. 2) Studies of the structure of Mytilus ABRM revela two types of intercellular connections: a) direct connections between muscle fibers [these nexal (gap) junctions interconnect the muscle cells electrically]; b) muscle fiber-collagen-muscle fiber connections [these provide mechanical connections between muscle cells via collagen fibers]. The structure of Mytilus ABRM supports speculation that smooth muscle filaments are organized into contractile units. 3) A rise in cAMP levels occurs in response to the relaxing transmitter, serotonin. It is not certain whether the cAMP system directly controls the ability of the contractile proteins to interact or whether it regulates intracellular levels of Ca2+. 4) Calcium ions in activation are derived from two sources: an internal source, probably the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and an external source, across the muscle membrane. 5) The nature of catch remains in question, although most evidence favors the linkage hypothesis.

  6. Flexible timing of eye movements when catching a ball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Moliner, Joan; Brenner, Eli

    2016-01-01

    In ball games, one cannot direct ones gaze at the ball all the time because one must also judge other aspects of the game, such as other players' positions. We wanted to know whether there are times at which obtaining information about the ball is particularly beneficial for catching it. We recently found that people could catch successfully if they saw any part of the ball's flight except the very end, when sensory-motor delays make it impossible to use new information. Nevertheless, there may be a preferred time to see the ball. We examined when six catchers would choose to look at the ball if they had to both catch the ball and find out what to do with it while the ball was approaching. A catcher and a thrower continuously threw a ball back and forth. We recorded their hand movements, the catcher's eye movements, and the ball's path. While the ball was approaching the catcher, information was provided on a screen about how the catcher should throw the ball back to the thrower (its peak height). This information disappeared just before the catcher caught the ball. Initially there was a slight tendency to look at the ball before looking at the screen but, later, most catchers tended to look at the screen before looking at the ball. Rather than being particularly eager to see the ball at a certain time, people appear to adjust their eye movements to the combined requirements of the task.

  7. Catch history of ringed seals (Phoca hispida in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall R Reeves

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The ringed seal (Phoca hispida has always been a staple in the diet and household economy of Inuit in Canada. The present paper was prepared at the request of the NAMMCO Scientific Committee to support their assessment of ringed seal stocks in the North Atlantic Basin and adjacent arctic and subarctic waters. Specifically, our objective was to evaluate recent and current levels of use of ringed seals by Canadian Inuit. Annual removals probably were highest (possibly greater than 100,000 in the 1960s and 1970s, a period when sealskin prices were particularly strong. Catches declined substantially in the 1980s following a collapse in sealskin prices, presumably related to the European trade ban on skins from newborn harp and hooded seals (Phoca groenlandica and Cystophora cristata, respectively. Recent catch levels throughout Canada (1980s and early 1990s are believed to be in the order of 50,000 to 65,000 ringed seals, with a total average annual kill (including hunting loss in the high tens of thousands. No reliable system is in place to monitor catches of ringed seals, so any estimate must be derived from a heterogeneous array of sources.

  8. Fast pitch softball injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, M C; Brown, B R; Bloom, J A

    2001-01-01

    The popularity of fast pitch softball in the US and throughout the world is well documented. Along with this popularity, there has been a concomitant increase in the number of injuries. Nearly 52% of cases qualify as major disabling injuries requiring 3 weeks or more of treatment and 2% require surgery. Interestingly, 75% of injuries occur during away games and approximately 31% of traumas occur during nonpositional and conditioning drills. Injuries range from contusions and tendinitis to ligamentous disorders and fractures. Although head and neck traumas account for 4 to 12% of cases, upper extremity traumas account for 23 to 47% of all injuries and up to 19% of cases involve the knee. Approximately 34 to 42% of injuries occur when the athlete collides with another individual or object. Other factors involved include the quality of playing surface, athlete's age and experience level, and the excessive physical demands associated with the sport. Nearly 24% of injuries involve base running and are due to poor judgement, sliding technique, current stationary base design, unorthodox joint and extremity position during ground impact and catching of cleats. The increasing prevalence of overtraining syndrome among athletes has been attributed to an unclear definition of an optimal training zone, poor communication between player and coach, and the limited ability of bone and connective tissue to quickly respond to match the demands of the sport. This has led routinely to arm, shoulder and lumbar instability, chronic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use and time loss injuries in 45% of pitching staff during a single season. Specific attention to a safer playing environment, coaching and player education, and sport-specific training and conditioning would reduce the risk, rate and severity of fast pitch traumas. Padding of walls, backstops, rails and dugout areas, as well as minimising use of indoor facilities, is suggested to decrease the number of collision

  9. Digital Health in Francophone Sub-Saharan Africa: Catching Up!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepère, P; Tchounga, B; Ekouevi, D-K

    2017-11-01

    Digital health has the potential to strengthen health systems and empower patients to prevent ill health and manage their own care. To confirm this potential, however, it is urgent to shift from pilot studies to the implementation of programs at a sufficient scale, with interoperable solutions and integrated into the national health system, while respecting human rights. It is also important to plan for studies to demonstrate the impact and produce the necessary evidence. Francophone sub-Saharan Africa can catch up in this area.

  10. Hydrology and angler’s catches in the Czech reservoirs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Draštík, Vladislav; Kubečka, Jan; Šovčík, P.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 4 (2004), s. 429-439 ISSN 1642-3593. [Ecohydrology and physical fish habitat modifikation in lakes. Mondsee, 26.11.2003-28.11.2003] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/02/0520; GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS6017004; GA AV ČR(CZ) KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6017912 Keywords : angler’s catch * fish species composition * bream/perch ratio Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology

  11. Variation in angler distribution and catch rates of stocked rainbow trout in a small reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Brian S; Martin, Dustin R; Chizinski, Christopher J; Pope, Kevin L

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the spatial and temporal relationship of catch rates and angler party location for two days following a publicly announced put-and-take stocking of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Catch rates declined with time since stocking and distance from stocking. We hypothesized that opportunity for high catch rates would cause anglers to fish near the stocking location and disperse with time, however distance between angler parties and stocking was highly variable at any given time. Spatially explicit differences in catch rates can affect fishing quality. Further research could investigate the variation between angler distribution and fish distribution within a waterbody.

  12. Spatiotemporal characteristics of muscle patterns for ball catching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia eD'Andola

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available What sources of information and what control strategies the CNS uses to perform movements that require accurate sensorimotor coordination, such as catching a flying ball, is still debated. Here we analyzed the EMG waveforms recorded from 16 shoulder and elbow muscles in six subjects during catching of balls projected frontally from a distance of 6 m and arriving at two different heights and with three different flight times (550, 650, 750 ms. We found that a large fraction of the variation in the muscle patterns was captured by two time-varying muscle synergies, coordinated recruitment of groups of muscles with specific activation waveforms, modulated in amplitude and shifted in time according to the ball’s arrival height and flight duration. One synergy was recruited with a short and fixed delay from launch time. Remarkably, a second synergy was recruited at a fixed time before impact, suggesting that it is timed according to an accurate time-to-contact estimation. These results suggest that the control of interceptive movements relies on a combination of reactive and predictive processes through the intermittent recruitment of time-varying muscle synergies. Knowledge of the dynamic effect of gravity and drag on the ball may be then implicitly incorporated in a direct mapping of visual information into a small number of synergy recruitment parameters.

  13. Catch-up growth or regression to the mean? Recovery from stunting revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Noël; Preece, Michael A; Cole, Tim J

    2005-01-01

    An important question for policy is the extent to which catch-up growth can ease the impact of early stunting. Martorell et al. (1992) showed that stunted Guatemalan infants remain stunted into adulthood, whereas Adair (1999) found appreciable catch-up growth in Filipino children from 2-12 years. Both groups defined catch-up as an inverse correlation between early height and subsequent growth, but Martorell based the correlation on height, whereas Adair used height z scores. The statistical phenomenon of regression to the mean is much like catch-up growth, an inverse correlation between initial height and later height gain. The objective of this study was to reexamine the relationship between stunting and later catch-up growth in the context of regression to the mean. The design was a theoretical analysis showing that catch-up growth is more evident based on height z scores than on height, validated using data on 495 stunted South African children seen at 2 and 5 years of age. The correlation between height at 2 and height change from 2 to 5 was small based on height (-0.11) but large and highly significant based on height z score (-0.58), providing strong evidence of catch-up growth. We argue that catch-up growth should be estimated using height z score not height and that catch-up is present only when the change in z score exceeds that predicted by regression to the mean. This leads to a compact definition of catch-up growth: if z1 and z2 are the initial and final (mean) height z scores, and r is the correlation between them, then catch-up growth for groups or individuals is given by (z2 - rz1). Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  14. Factorial Validity of the Chedoke-McMaster Attitudes towards Children with Handicaps Scale (CATCH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossaert, Goele; Petry, Katja

    2013-01-01

    The Chedoke-McMaster Attitudes towards Children with Handicaps Scale (CATCH) has been developed to measure the attitudes of children toward peers with disabilities. The present study aims to evaluate the factorial validity of the CATCH in a sample of 2396 students in 7th grade, including 179 students with disabilities and 2217 typically developing…

  15. Using electronic monitoring to record catches of sole (Solea solea) in a bottom trawl fishery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmond, van A.T.M.; Chen, Chun; Poos, Jan Jaap

    2017-01-01

    Electronic monitoring (EM) is often presented as a solution to document all catches through video observations under the EU landing obligation. However, identifying small fish on video in large volumes of catch is challenging. In this study, logbook records were compared with video observations for

  16. 50 CFR 679.63 - Catch weighing requirements for vessels and processors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and processors. 679.63 Section 679.63 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... Management Measures § 679.63 Catch weighing requirements for vessels and processors. (a) What are the requirements for listed AFA catcher/processors and AFA motherships?—(1) Catch weighing. All groundfish landed...

  17. A Global Analysis of the Relationship between Farmed Seaweed Production and Herbivorous Fish Catch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E James Hehre

    Full Text Available Globally, farmed seaweed production is expanding rapidly in shallow marine habitats. While seaweed farming provides vital income to millions of artisanal farmers, it can negatively impact shallow coral reef and seagrass habitats. However, seaweed farming may also potentially provide food subsidies for herbivorous reef fish such as the Siganidae, a valuable target family, resulting in increased catch. Comparisons of reef fish landings across the central Philippines revealed that the catch of siganids was positively correlated to farmed seaweed production whilst negatively correlated to total reef fish catch over the same period of time. We tested the generality of this pattern by analysing seaweed production, siganid catch, and reef fish catch for six major seaweed-producing countries in the tropics. We hypothesized that increased seaweed production would correspond with increased catch of siganids but not other reef fish species. Analysis of the global data showed a positive correlation between farmed seaweeds and siganids in Southeast Asia (Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines but not Africa (Tanzania and Zanzibar, or the Western Pacific (Fiji. In Southeast Asia, siganid catch increased disproportionately faster with seaweed production than did reef fish catch. Low continuity, sporadic production and smaller volumes of seaweed farming may explain the differences.

  18. A Global Analysis of the Relationship between Farmed Seaweed Production and Herbivorous Fish Catch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehre, E James; Meeuwig, Jessica J

    2016-01-01

    Globally, farmed seaweed production is expanding rapidly in shallow marine habitats. While seaweed farming provides vital income to millions of artisanal farmers, it can negatively impact shallow coral reef and seagrass habitats. However, seaweed farming may also potentially provide food subsidies for herbivorous reef fish such as the Siganidae, a valuable target family, resulting in increased catch. Comparisons of reef fish landings across the central Philippines revealed that the catch of siganids was positively correlated to farmed seaweed production whilst negatively correlated to total reef fish catch over the same period of time. We tested the generality of this pattern by analysing seaweed production, siganid catch, and reef fish catch for six major seaweed-producing countries in the tropics. We hypothesized that increased seaweed production would correspond with increased catch of siganids but not other reef fish species. Analysis of the global data showed a positive correlation between farmed seaweeds and siganids in Southeast Asia (Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines) but not Africa (Tanzania and Zanzibar), or the Western Pacific (Fiji). In Southeast Asia, siganid catch increased disproportionately faster with seaweed production than did reef fish catch. Low continuity, sporadic production and smaller volumes of seaweed farming may explain the differences.

  19. The Effect of Intellectual Property Standards on the Catch-Up Process Of Emerging Market Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darendeli, Izzet Sidki; Brandl, Kristin; Mudambi, Ram

    The catch-up process of emerging market economies is dependent on multiple factors, such as local governmental regulations but also global industry developments. We investigate how intellectual property (IP) protection standards affect this catch-up process. The alignment of these standards...

  20. The Effect of Intellectual Property Standards on the Catch-Up Process Of Emerging Market Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darendeli, Izzet; Brandl, Kristin Martina; Hamilton, III, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    The catch-up process of emerging market economies is dependent on multiple factors, such as local governmental regulations but also global industry developments. We investigate how intellectual property (IP) protection standards affect this catch-up process. The alignment of these standards...

  1. Improving understanding of the functional diversity of fisheries by exploring the influence of global catch reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Kirsty L; Watson, Reg A; Halpern, Benjamin S; Fulton, Elizabeth A; Blanchard, Julia L

    2017-09-06

    Functional diversity is thought to enhance ecosystem resilience, driving research focused on trends in the functional composition of fisheries, most recently with new reconstructions of global catch data. However, there is currently little understanding of how accounting for unreported catches (e.g. small-scale and illegal fisheries, bycatch and discards) influences functional diversity trends in global fisheries. We explored how diversity estimates varied among reported and unreported components of catch in 2010, and found these components had distinct functional fingerprints. Incorporating unreported catches had little impact on global-scale functional diversity patterns. However, at smaller, management-relevant scales, the effects of incorporating unreported catches were large (changes in functional diversity of up to 46%). Our results suggest there is greater uncertainty about the risks to ecosystem integrity and resilience from current fishing patterns than previously recognized. We provide recommendations and suggest a research agenda to improve future assessments of functional diversity of global fisheries.

  2. TEST OF THE CATCH-UP HYPOTHESIS IN AFRICAN AGRICULTURAL GROWTH RATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalu Ukpai IFEGWU

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper tested the catch-up hypothesis in agricultural growth rates of twenty-six African countries. Panel data used was drawn from the Food and Agricultural Organization Statistics (FAOSTAT of the United Nations. The Data Envelopment Analysis Method for measuring productivity was used to estimate productivity growth rates. The cross-section framework consisting of sigma-convergence and beta-convergence was employed to test the catching up process. Catching up is said to exist if the value of beta is negative and significant. Since catching up does not necessarily imply narrowing of national productivity inequalities, sigma-convergence which measures inequality, was estimated for the same variables. The results showed evidence of the catch-up process, but failed to find a narrowing of productivity inequalities among countries.

  3. Effects of catch crop type and root depth on nitrogen leaching and yield of spring barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sapkota, Tek Bahadur; Askegaard, Margrethe; Lægdsmand, Mette

    2012-01-01

    [chicory (Cichorium intybus L.), fodder radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)] and their effect on soil mineral N (NO3− and NH4+) in different soil layers by using the FASSET model. The simulated results of catch crop biomass and root growth and mineral N in the soil......Catch crop root growth and nitrogen (N) uptake from both shallow and deeper soil layers are important for N management in arable farming systems, particularly in climates where excess winter precipitation induces N leaching. We simulated the root growth and biomass yield of three common catch crops...... simulations showed that fodder radish developed the deepest root system and depleted N from deeper soil layers than chicory and ryegrass. Thirty years of simulations showed that the system with ryegrass catch crop had a smaller amount of N leaching from 1 m depth than the system with other catch crops...

  4. Characterising stormwater gross pollutants captured in catch basin inserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Zahanggir; Anwar, A H M Faisal; Sarker, Dipok Chandra; Heitz, Anna; Rothleitner, Craig

    2017-05-15

    The accumulation of wash-off solid waste, termed gross pollutants (GPs), in drainage systems has become a major constraint for best management practices (BMPs) of stormwater. GPs should be captured at source before the material clogs the drainage network, seals the infiltration capacity of side entry pits or affects the aquatic life in receiving waters. BMPs intended to reduce stormwater pollutants include oil and grit separators, grassed swales, vegetated filter strips, retention ponds, and catch basin inserts (CBIs) are used to remove GP at the source and have no extra land use requirement because they are typically mounted within a catch basin (e.g. side entry pits; grate or gully pits). In this study, a new type of CBI, recently developed by Urban Stormwater Technologies (UST) was studied for its performance at a site in Gosnells, Western Australia. This new type of CBI can capture pollutants down to particle sizes of 150μm while retaining its shape and pollutant capturing capacity for at least 1year. Data on GP and associated water samples were collected during monthly servicing of CBIs for one year. The main component of GPs was found to be vegetation (93%): its accumulation showed a strong relationship (r 2 =0.9) with rainfall especially during the wet season. The average accumulation of total GP load for each CBI was 384kg/ha/yr (dry mass) with the GP moisture content ranging from 24 to 52.5%. Analysis of grain sizes of GPs captured in each CBI showed similar distributions in the different CBIs. The loading rate coefficient (K) calculated from runoff and GP load showed higher K-values for CBI located near trees. The UST developed CBI in this study showed higher potential to capture GPs down to 150μm in diameter than similar CBI devices described in previous studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Using demographic data to better interpret pitfall trap catches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Matalin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The results of pitfall trapping are often interpreted as abundance in a particular habitat. At the same time, there are numerous cases of almost unrealistically high catches of ground beetles in seemingly unsuitable sites. The correlation of catches by pitfall trapping with the true distribution and abundance of Carabidae needs corroboration. During a full year survey in 2006/07 in the Lake Elton region (Volgograd Area, Russia, 175 species of ground beetles were trapped. Considering the differences in demographic structure of the local populations, and not their abundances, three groups of species were recognized: residents, migrants and sporadic. In residents, the demographic structure of local populations is complete, and their habitats can be considered “residential”. In migrants and sporadic species, the demographic structure of the local populations is incomplete, and their habitats can be considered “transit”. Residents interact both with their prey and with each other in a particular habitat. Sporadic species are hardly important to a carabid community because of their low abundances. The contribution of migrants to the structure of carabid communities is not apparent and requires additional research. Migrants and sporadic species represent a “labile” component in ground beetles communities, as opposed to a “stable” component, represented by residents. The variability of the labile component substantially limits our interpretation of species diversity in carabid communities. Thus, the criteria for determining the most abundant, or dominant species inevitably vary because the abundance of migrants in some cases can be one order of magnitude higher than that of residents. The results of pitfall trapping adequately reflect the state of carabid communities only in zonal habitats, while azonal and disturbed habitats are merely transit ones for many species of ground beetles. A study of the demographic structure of local

  6. Using demographic data to better interpret pitfall trap catches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matalin, Andrey V; Makarov, Kirill V

    2011-01-01

    The results of pitfall trapping are often interpreted as abundance in a particular habitat. At the same time, there are numerous cases of almost unrealistically high catches of ground beetles in seemingly unsuitable sites. The correlation of catches by pitfall trapping with the true distribution and abundance of Carabidae needs corroboration. During a full year survey in 2006/07 in the Lake Elton region (Volgograd Area, Russia), 175 species of ground beetles were trapped. Considering the differences in demographic structure of the local populations, and not their abundances, three groups of species were recognized: residents, migrants and sporadic. In residents, the demographic structure of local populations is complete, and their habitats can be considered "residential". In migrants and sporadic species, the demographic structure of the local populations is incomplete, and their habitats can be considered "transit". Residents interact both with their prey and with each other in a particular habitat. Sporadic species are hardly important to a carabid community because of their low abundances. The contribution of migrants to the structure of carabid communities is not apparent and requires additional research. Migrants and sporadic species represent a "labile" component in ground beetles communities, as opposed to a "stable" component, represented by residents. The variability of the labile component substantially limits our interpretation of species diversity in carabid communities. Thus, the criteria for determining the most abundant, or dominant species inevitably vary because the abundance of migrants in some cases can be one order of magnitude higher than that of residents. The results of pitfall trapping adequately reflect the state of carabid communities only in zonal habitats, while azonal and disturbed habitats are merely transit ones for many species of ground beetles. A study of the demographic structure of local populations and assessment of the

  7. Mechanisms of anterior cruciate ligament injury in World Cup alpine skiing: a systematic video analysis of 20 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bere, Tone; Flørenes, Tonje Wåle; Krosshaug, Tron; Koga, Hideyuki; Nordsletten, Lars; Irving, Christopher; Muller, Erich; Reid, Robert Cortas; Senner, Veit; Bahr, Roald

    2011-07-01

    There is limited insight into the mechanisms of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in alpine skiing, particularly among professional ski racers. This study was undertaken to qualitatively describe the mechanisms of anterior cruciate ligament injury in World Cup alpine skiing. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Twenty cases of anterior cruciate ligament injuries reported through the International Ski Federation Injury Surveillance System for 3 consecutive World Cup seasons (2006-2009) were obtained on video. Seven international experts in the field of skiing biomechanics and sports medicine related to alpine skiing performed visual analyses of each case to describe the injury mechanisms in detail (skiing situation, skier behavior, biomechanical characteristics). Three main categories of injury mechanisms were identified: slip-catch, landing back-weighted, and dynamic snowplow. The slip-catch mechanism accounted for half of the cases (n = 10), and all these injuries occurred during turning, without or before falling. The skier lost pressure on the outer ski, and while extending the outer knee to regain grip, the inside edge of the outer ski caught abruptly in the snow, forcing the knee into internal rotation and valgus. The same loading pattern was observed for the dynamic snowplow (n = 3). The landing back-weighted category included cases (n = 4) where the skier was out of balance backward in flight after a jump and landed on the ski tails with nearly extended knees. The suggested loading mechanism was a combination of tibiofemoral compression, boot-induced anterior drawer, and quadriceps anterior drawer. Based on this video analysis of 20 injury situations, the main mechanism of anterior cruciate ligament injury in World Cup alpine skiing appeared to be a slip-catch situation where the outer ski catches the inside edge, forcing the outer knee into internal rotation and valgus. A similar loading pattern was observed for the dynamic snowplow. Injury prevention

  8. Comparison of catching efficiency of two Indonesian traditional traps, Ayunan and Tamba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The catching efficiency of traditional traps: Ayunan and Tamba were tested in Sungai Batang River, South Kalimantan of Indonesia. Trials consisted of 320-trap hauls/type using 1-day submersion time of 24 hr. The baited traps sampling accounted for 82 specimens assigned to 5 species of 5 families. There was a large variability in number of catch between prawns and fish species collected (T=2.318, P<0.05. The prawns catch was represented by only the species Macrobrachium rossenbergii with total of 53 and 1,015 g weight. The prawns weight of Tamba was significantly higher than that of Ayunan (T=3.453, P<0.01.The fish catch composed of Mystus gulio 79%, Osteochilus hasselti 10%, Hypostomus plecostomus 7%, and Macrognathus aculeatus 3%, with total weight ranged from 35 to 560 g. A clear difference was found in catching efficiency. Comparative fishing trials showed that Tamba collected specimens were 1.8 times higher than Ayunan (T=2.223, P<0.05. Catch per unit effort for Tamba ranged from 58.13 to 80.00, and for Ayunan ranged from 5.31 to 7.19. The gear modifications and various treatments (e.g. bait odor, light are necessary to be taken to increase their relative catching efficiency.

  9. Reconstruction of domestic marine fisheries catches for Oman (1950-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Khalfallah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Domestic marine fisheries in Oman are increasingly viewed as the eventual economic alternative to the soon to be depleted oil reserves. This has galvanized the Omani government to invest in the management of its marine living resources. This study aims to provide a better estimation of Oman's domestic marine fisheries catches that can be used to improve fisheries management in the country. Using the catch reconstruction approach, total domestic marine fisheries catches by Oman are estimated for the time period 1950-2015, including reported and previously unreported large-scale and small-scale commercial catches, subsistence, and recreational catches, as well as major discards. Catches from the Omani exclave, Musandam, are estimated separately, given this governorate’s geographical separation from the rest of Oman. Reconstructed total catches increased from around 64,000 t∙year-1 in the 1950s to over 200,000 t·year-1 in the 2000s, which are overall 1.2 times the landings reported by the FAO on behalf of Oman. Fish stocks need to be sustainably managed to allow long-term economic viability. This cannot be done without the improvement of fisheries statistical systems around the world, including in Oman.

  10. Factors influencing the feasibility of using catch crops for biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molinuevo-Salces, Beatriz; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Uellendahl, Hinrich

    2013-01-01

    In order to secure an economically feasible operation of manure-based biogas plants in Denmark there is a need for supplying the plants with high yielding biomass feedstock. The aim of this study was to investigate the biomass yield and the methane potential of three different catch crop species ...... perspectives since it would combine renewable energy production with agricultural and environmental benefits....... in three different locations of Jutland, Denmark. Differences in climate and soil conditions between locations determined mainly the biomass yield. Methane potentials were in the range of 252-435 ml CH4/ g VS depending on catch crops species. The use of catch crops for biogas production has large...

  11. SIZE CHARACTERISTICS OF FISH FROM ANGLERS’ CATCHES IN THE KAKHOVKA RESERVOIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Maksimenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the size composition of anglers’ catches in major fishing gears in the Kakhovka reservoir. Methodology: The work is based on ichthyological material obtained from anglers’ catches and commercial catches in gill nets with mesh size 36–120 mm during 2011–2013 in the upper and middle parts of the Kakhovka reservoir. Data collection and processing have been carried out based on generally accepted methods. In total, 7775 fish from 455 day anglers’ catches as well as 18165 fish from commercial catches for 6435 net-days have been analyzed during the study period. Statistical data processing was carried out in MS Excel. Findings: In the Kahovka reservoir, 76.96% in the anglers’ catches is by-catch of juvenile fish and this exceeds the respective value in commercial fisheries (5.97%. Catches from boats are characterized by the largest mean size of fish – 19.27 cm as well as the maximum body length – 74 cm, however, the by-catch of juvenile fish is the highest among the examined angling techniques – 77.26%. The largest amounts of juvenile fish are caught during winter period. Among popular hook and line gears, leger rigs catch the lowest percentage of juvenile by-catch (58.61% compared to float fishing (96.79%. The degree of the relationship between the fish caught and hook size is small and characterized by a correlation coefficient from 0.33 (for summer fishing to 0.56 (for ice fishing. Originality: A complex assessment of size characteristics of major targets of recreational fishing with the most common techniques and fishing gears has been carried out for the first time for a Ukrainian water body. Practical value: It was found that the anglers’ catches consist mainly of fish, which did not reach the minimum legal sizes set by Fishing rules and allowed for angling. Measures for conservation of fish juveniles when practicing recreational fishing have been proposed.

  12. Environmental DNA from seawater samples correlate with trawl catches of Subarctic, deepwater fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Philip Francis; Møller, Peter Rask; Sigsgaard, Eva Egelyng

    2016-01-01

    such as bottom trawling, and on official reporting of global catches, which can be unreliable. Thus, there is need for alternative and non-invasive techniques for qualitative and quantitative oceanic fish surveys. Here we report environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding of seawater samples from continental slope...... depths in Southwest Greenland. We collected seawater samples at depths of 188-918 m and compared seawater eDNA to catch data from trawling. We used Illumina sequencing of PCR products to demonstrate that eDNA reads show equivalence to fishing catch data obtained from trawling. Twenty-six families were...

  13. Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The structure of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or ...

  14. Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sometimes you can injure yourself when you play sports or exercise. Accidents, poor training practices, or improper ... can also lead to injuries. The most common sports injuries are Sprains and strains Knee injuries Swollen ...

  15. Catching the light the entwined history of light and mind

    CERN Document Server

    Zajonc, Arthur

    1995-01-01

    In 1910, the surgeons Moreau and LePrince wrote about their successful operation on an eight-year-old boy who had been blind since birth because of cataracts. When the boy's eyes were healed they removed the bandages and, waving a hand in front of the child's physically perfect eyes, asked him what he saw. "I don't know," was his only reply. What he saw was only a varying brightness in front of him. However, when allowed to touch the hand as it began to move, he cried out in a voice of triumph, "It's moving!" He could feel it move, but he still needed laboriously to learn to see it move. Light and eyes were not enough to grant him sight. How, then, do we see? What's the difference between seeing and perception? What is light? From ancient times to the present, from philosophers to quantum physicists, nothing has so perplexed, so fascinated, so captivated the mind as the elusive definition of light. In Catching the Light, Arthur Zajonc takes us on an epic journey into history, tracing how humans have endeavore...

  16. Optimal Passive Dynamics for Physical Interaction: Catching a Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Kemper

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available For manipulation tasks in uncertain environments, intentionally designed series impedance in mechanical systems can provide significant benefits that cannot be achieved in software. Traditionally, the design of actuated systems revolves around sizing torques, speeds, and control strategies without considering the system’s passive dynamics. However, the passive dynamics of the mechanical system, including inertia, stiffness, and damping along with other parameters such as torque and stroke limits often impose performance limitations that cannot be overcome with software control. In this paper, we develop relationships between an actuator’s passive dynamics and the resulting performance for the purpose of better understanding how to tune the passive dynamics for catching an unexpected object. We use a mathematically optimal controller subject to force limitations to stop the incoming object without breaking contact and bouncing. The use of an optimal controller is important so that our results directly reflect the physical system’s performance. We analytically calculate the maximum velocity that can be caught by a realistic actuator with limitations such as force and stroke limits. The results show that in order to maximize the velocity of an object that can be caught without exceeding the actuator’s torque and stroke limits, a soft spring along with a strong damper will be desired.

  17. The Effect of Intellectual Property Standards on the Catch-Up Process Of Emerging Market Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darendeli, Izzet; Brandl, Kristin Martina; Hamilton, III, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    The catch-up process of emerging market economies is dependent on multiple factors, such as local governmental regulations but also global industry developments. We investigate how intellectual property (IP) protection standards affect this catch-up process. The alignment of these standards...... with the country’s level of innovation capabilities set the framework for the study. We use patent data from the United States Patent Office and compare the catch-up process of Brazil, India and Turkey based on the countries implementation of TRIPS regulations. We find that countries with a gradual implementation...... of IP protection standards gain a higher level of innovation capabilities compared to countries that immediately ratify the standards. These countries require more time to catch-up to global standards as a misalignment of IP protection and innovation capabilities is evident....

  18. How position, velocity, and temporal information combine in the prospective control of catching: data and model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dessing, J.C.; Peper, C.E.; Bullock, D.N.; Beek, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    The cerebral cortex contains circuitry for continuously computing properties of the environment and one's body, as well as relations among those properties. The success of complex perceptuomotor performances requires integrated, simultaneous use of such relational information. Ball catching is a

  19. AFSC/FMA/NPRB Alternative Catch Monitoring Table and ccolumn Definitions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data arise from a field study of groundfish catch monitoring in Kodiak, AK trawl fisheries. Two monitoring components were included in the study: 1) at-sea...

  20. Effect of fisher's soak tactic on catch pattern in the Danish gillnet plaice fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savina, Esther; Krag, Ludvig Ahm; Frandsen, Rikke Petri

    2017-01-01

    of the unwanted dab and edible crab, respectively, for 12 h at day compared to the other soak tactics (12 h at night or 24 h). Gillnetters participating in the coastal summer fishery for plaice follow the theoretical optimal soak tactic. The commercially used 12 h deployment during day maximises the catch....... Different soak tactics were compared to estimate the role that the choice of a soak tactic plays in the catch efficiency of both target and unwanted species. In the Danish summer gillnet fishery targeting plaice (Pleuronectes platessa), nets are deployed approximately 12 h (h) during day. Unwanted species...... are common dab (Limanda limanda) and edible crab (Cancer pagurus). The commercially used 12 h deployment during day was compared to 12 h deployment during night and 24 h deployment. On average, there were about 1.5 more catches of commercial size plaice (above 27 cm), and 2 and 4 times less catches...

  1. Nitrogen release from differently aged Raphanus sativus L. nitrate catch crops during mineralization at autumn temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Elsgaard, Lars; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind

    2016-01-01

    pool at both temperatures. The N mineralization and nitrification potential at these low soil temperatures suggest that a considerable fraction of the N captured by nitrate catch crops may be remineralized, nitrified and thus available for plant uptake but also for loss by leaching and denitrification.......In temperate climates with surplus precipitation and low temperatures during autumn and winter, nitrate catch crops have become crucial in reducing nitrate leaching losses. Preferably, the N retained by the catch crop should remain in the soil and become available to the next main crop. Fodder...... radish (Raphanus sativus, L.) has emerged as a promising nitrate catch crop in cereal cropping, although the course of remineralization of residue N following termination of this frost-sensitive crucifer remains obscured. We incubated radish residues of different age (different planting and harvest dates...

  2. The effect of catch crop species on selenium availability for succeeding crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stavridou, Eleftheria; Young, Scott D.; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    2007–10 investigated the ability of catch crops (Italian ryegrass, fodder radish and hairy vetch) under different fertiliser regimes to reduce soil Se content in the autumn and to increase its availability in spring to the succeeding crop. Results and Conclusions The catch crops (Italian ryegrass...... and fodder radish) increased water-extractable Se content in the 0.25–0.75msoil layer in only one of the experiments. Selenium uptake by the catch crops varied between 65 and 3263 mg ha−1, depending on species, year and fertilisation treatment; this corresponded to 0.1–3.0% of the water-extractable soil Se......Background and Aims Selenium (Se) is an essential nutrient for humans and animals. In order to ensure an optimal concentration of Se in crops, Se fertilisers are applied. Catch crops may be an alternative way to increase Se concentrations in vegetables. Methods Three experiments in Denmark between...

  3. 77 FR 28924 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel VAN'S CATCH TWO; Invitation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... entered into this docket is available on the World Wide Web at http://www.regulations.gov . FOR FURTHER...'S CATCH TWO is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Sport Fishing Charter.'' Geographic Region...

  4. Maintenance of the classroom health education curricula: results from the CATCH-ON study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Carolyn C; Li, Donglin; Galati, Todd; Pedersen, Sheryl; Smyth, Mary; Parcel, Guy S

    2003-08-01

    Maintenance of the interactive Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH) third- to fifth-grade curricula was studied in the 56 original intervention schools and 20 of the original control schools 5 years postintervention in four regions of the United States. Target grade teachers completed a self-administered survey that included questions regarding use of the CATCH materials, training in CATCH or other health education, barriers and perceived support for health education, and amount of health education currently taught. Percentage of teachers who continued to teach CATCH in the classroom was low; however, percentages were significantly higher in former intervention compared with control schools, even though control schools received training and materials following the main field trial. The results of this study can provide useful information for future development of classroom health promotion materials with a higher level of sustainability.

  5. Technology transfer and catch-up; Lessons from the commercial aircraft industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.; Heerkens, Johannes M.G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses the technology development and technology transfer strategies in the aircraft manufacturing industry for four industrially developing countries. It is concluded from four case studies that technology catch-up is extremely difficult due to aircraft technology characteristics.

  6. Safety catching device for pipes in missile shielding cylinders of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hering, S.; Doll, B.

    1976-01-01

    The safety catching device consists of a steel wire passed in U-shape around the pipe to be caught and supported by two anchor ties embedded in the concrete of the missile shielding cylinder. This flexible catching device is to cause the energy released in case of a pipe rupture to be absorbed and no dangerous bending shesses to be transferred to the walls of the missile shielding cylinder. (UWI) [de

  7. Tracing possible drivers of synchronously fluctuating species catches in individual logbook data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jankovský, Martin; Boukal S., David; Pivnička, K.; Kubečka, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 4 (2011), s. 297-306 ISSN 0969-997X R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7F10070 Grant - others:NFM(CZ) A/CZ0046/2/0029 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517; CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : angler preferences * catch statistics * reservoirs * catch per unit effort * time series correlations Subject RIV: GL - Fishing Impact factor: 1.294, year: 2011

  8. Combining telephone surveys and fishing catches self-report: the French sea bass recreational fishery assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Rocklin

    Full Text Available Fisheries statistics are known to be underestimated, since they are mainly based on information about commercial fisheries. However, various types of fishing activities exist and evaluating them is necessary for implementing effective management plans. This paper assesses the characteristics and catches of the French European sea bass recreational fishery along the Atlantic coasts, through the combination of large-scale telephone surveys and fishing diaries study. Our results demonstrated that half of the total catches (mainly small fish were released at sea and that the mean length of a kept sea bass was 46.6 cm. We highlighted different patterns of fishing methods and type of gear used. Catches from boats were greater than from the shore, both in abundance and biomass, considering mean values per fishing trip as well as CPUE. Spearfishers caught the highest biomass of sea bass per fishing trip, but the fishing rod with lure was the most effective type of gear in terms of CPUE. Longlines had the highest CPUE value in abundance but not in biomass: they caught numerous but small sea bass. Handlines were less effective, catching few sea bass in both abundance and biomass. We estimated that the annual total recreational sea bass catches was 3,173 tonnes of which 2,345 tonnes were kept. Since the annual commercial catches landings were evaluated at 5,160 tonnes, recreational landings represent 30% of the total fishing catches on the Atlantic coasts of France. Using fishers' self-reports was a valuable way to obtain new information on data-poor fisheries. Our results underline the importance of evaluating recreational fishing as a part of the total amount of fisheries catches. More studies are critically needed to assess overall fish resources caught in order to develop effective fishery management tools.

  9. Combining telephone surveys and fishing catches self-report: the French sea bass recreational fishery assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocklin, Delphine; Levrel, Harold; Drogou, Mickaël; Herfaut, Johanna; Veron, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    Fisheries statistics are known to be underestimated, since they are mainly based on information about commercial fisheries. However, various types of fishing activities exist and evaluating them is necessary for implementing effective management plans. This paper assesses the characteristics and catches of the French European sea bass recreational fishery along the Atlantic coasts, through the combination of large-scale telephone surveys and fishing diaries study. Our results demonstrated that half of the total catches (mainly small fish) were released at sea and that the mean length of a kept sea bass was 46.6 cm. We highlighted different patterns of fishing methods and type of gear used. Catches from boats were greater than from the shore, both in abundance and biomass, considering mean values per fishing trip as well as CPUE. Spearfishers caught the highest biomass of sea bass per fishing trip, but the fishing rod with lure was the most effective type of gear in terms of CPUE. Longlines had the highest CPUE value in abundance but not in biomass: they caught numerous but small sea bass. Handlines were less effective, catching few sea bass in both abundance and biomass. We estimated that the annual total recreational sea bass catches was 3,173 tonnes of which 2,345 tonnes were kept. Since the annual commercial catches landings were evaluated at 5,160 tonnes, recreational landings represent 30% of the total fishing catches on the Atlantic coasts of France. Using fishers' self-reports was a valuable way to obtain new information on data-poor fisheries. Our results underline the importance of evaluating recreational fishing as a part of the total amount of fisheries catches. More studies are critically needed to assess overall fish resources caught in order to develop effective fishery management tools.

  10. Combining Telephone Surveys and Fishing Catches Self-Report: The French Sea Bass Recreational Fishery Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocklin, Delphine; Levrel, Harold; Drogou, Mickaël; Herfaut, Johanna; Veron, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    Fisheries statistics are known to be underestimated, since they are mainly based on information about commercial fisheries. However, various types of fishing activities exist and evaluating them is necessary for implementing effective management plans. This paper assesses the characteristics and catches of the French European sea bass recreational fishery along the Atlantic coasts, through the combination of large-scale telephone surveys and fishing diaries study. Our results demonstrated that half of the total catches (mainly small fish) were released at sea and that the mean length of a kept sea bass was 46.6 cm. We highlighted different patterns of fishing methods and type of gear used. Catches from boats were greater than from the shore, both in abundance and biomass, considering mean values per fishing trip as well as CPUE. Spearfishers caught the highest biomass of sea bass per fishing trip, but the fishing rod with lure was the most effective type of gear in terms of CPUE. Longlines had the highest CPUE value in abundance but not in biomass: they caught numerous but small sea bass. Handlines were less effective, catching few sea bass in both abundance and biomass. We estimated that the annual total recreational sea bass catches was 3,173 tonnes of which 2,345 tonnes were kept. Since the annual commercial catches landings were evaluated at 5,160 tonnes, recreational landings represent 30% of the total fishing catches on the Atlantic coasts of France. Using fishers' self-reports was a valuable way to obtain new information on data-poor fisheries. Our results underline the importance of evaluating recreational fishing as a part of the total amount of fisheries catches. More studies are critically needed to assess overall fish resources caught in order to develop effective fishery management tools. PMID:24489885

  11. Influence of anglers' specializations on catch, harvest, and bycatch of targeted taxa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Kevin L.; Chizinski, Christopher J.; Wiley, Christopher L.; Martin, Dustin R.

    2016-01-01

    Fishery managers often use catch per unit effort (CPUE) of a given taxon derived from a group of anglers, those that sought said taxon, to evaluate fishery objectives because managers assume CPUE for this group of anglers is most sensitive to changes in fish taxon density. Further, likelihood of harvest may differ for sought and non-sought taxa if taxon sought is a defining characteristic of anglers’ attitude toward harvest. We predicted that taxon-specific catch across parties and reservoirs would be influenced by targeted taxon after controlling for number of anglers in a party and time spent fishing (combine to quantify fishing effort of party); we also predicted similar trends for taxon-specific harvest. We used creel-survey data collected from anglers that varied in taxon targeted, from generalists (targeting “anything” [no primary target taxa, but rather targeting all fishes]) to target specialists (e.g., anglers targeting largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides) in 19 Nebraska reservoirs during 2009–2011 to test our predictions. Taxon-specific catch and harvest were, in general, positively related to fishing effort. More importantly, we observed differences of catch and harvest among anglers grouped by taxon targeted for each of the eight taxa assessed. Anglers targeting a specific taxon had the greatest catch for that taxon and anglers targeting anything typically had the second highest catch for that taxon. In addition, anglers tended to catch more of closely related taxa and of taxa commonly targeted with similar fishing techniques. We encourage managers to consider taxon-specific objectives of target and non-target catch and harvest.

  12. Impact of catch shares on diversification of fishers' income and risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Daniel S; Speir, Cameron; Agar, Juan; Crosson, Scott; DePiper, Geret; Kasperski, Stephen; Kitts, Andrew W; Perruso, Larry

    2017-08-29

    Many fishers diversify their income by participating in multiple fisheries, which has been shown to significantly reduce year-to-year variation in income. The ability of fishers to diversify has become increasingly constrained in the last few decades, and catch share programs could further reduce diversification as a result of consolidation. This could increase income variation and thus financial risk. However, catch shares can also offer fishers opportunities to enter or increase participation in catch share fisheries by purchasing or leasing quota. Thus, the net effect on diversification is uncertain. We tested whether diversification and variation in fishing revenues changed after implementation of catch shares for 6,782 vessels in 13 US fisheries that account for 20% of US landings revenue. For each of these fisheries, we tested whether diversification levels, trends, and variation in fishing revenues changed after implementation of catch shares, both for fishers that remained in the catch share fishery and for those that exited but remained active in other fisheries. We found that diversification for both groups was nearly always reduced. However, in most cases, we found no significant change in interannual variation of revenues, and, where changes were significant, variation decreased nearly as often as it increased.

  13. ‘Reported’ versus ‘likely’ fisheries catches of four Mediterranean countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pauly

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The fisheries catch statistics that member countries report annually to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations were compared, for the years 1950 to 2010, with ‘reconstructed’, and more likely catch data from the Mediterranean coasts of mainland Spain, France, Italy and Turkey. Reconstructed catches were 2.6 times higher than those submitted to the FAO by these countries in the 1950s, and 1.8 times higher since 2000. If discarded by-catch is ignored they were 2.3 and 1.6 times higher, respectively. The contributors to the reconstructed catch from 1950 to 2010 were large-scale industrial fisheries (46%, discards (29%, artisanal fisheries (10%, recreational fisheries (9% and subsistence fisheries (6%. The non-reported catch was high in all fishing sectors, including industrial, artisanal and recreational fisheries. The non-inclusion of discards in national and FAO statistics undermines the transition to ecosystem-based fisheries management, but needs to be overcome, as discards must be tracked before discarding itself is eliminated. The systematic underestimation of small-scale fisheries is part of a global phenomenon that will have to be overcome if the potential of these fisheries for sustainable exploitation of coastal systems is to be realized, perhaps in the context of reducing overall fishing capacity, which is excessive in the Mediterranean Sea as elsewhere in the world.

  14. From bonito to anchovy: a reconstruction of Turkey’s marine fisheries catches (1950-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. ULMAN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Turkey’s marine fisheries catches were estimated for the 1950-2010 time period using a reconstruction approach, which estimated all fisheries removals, including unreported landings, recreational landings and discards.  We added these estimates to the ‘official’ data, as reported in TURKSTAT, which are also available from the United Nation’s Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO.  The total reconstructed catch for the 1950-2010 time period (inclusive of the reported data is approximately 32 million t, or 74% more than the 18.4 million t of reported data. This added approximately 13.6 million t to the reported data, consisting of 6.9 million t of unreported landings, 2.6 million t of discards, 2.4 million t of recreational catches, and 1.7 million t of subsistence catches.  In 2010, total reported marine landings for Turkey were 445,680 t and the total reconstructed catch was 763,760 t, or 73% more than the reported data.   The main unreported taxon by tonnage was European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus due to its sheer high proportion of catch.  The major reasons for underreporting include a general distrust fishers have towards the taxing system combined with inefficient fisheries monitoring and surveillance capabilities.  Accounting for all fisheries components is crucial in understanding the development of fisheries resources, improving management, and reducing threats to the domestic food security of Turkey.

  15. Modelling the cost-effectiveness of catch-up 'MenB' (Bexsero) vaccination in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Hannah; Trotter, Caroline L

    2017-01-05

    We assessed the cost-effectiveness of offering catch-up vaccination with Bexsero against meningococcal disease to children too old to receive the vaccine under the recently introduced infant programme. Offering catch-up vaccination to increasingly older children is less economically attractive because of declining disease burden. We estimate catch-up vaccination of 1year old children could be cost-effective, incremental on the infant programme with a vaccine price of ⩽£8 per dose. Extending vaccination to 2year olds could only be cost-effective (incremental on infant and 1year old catch-up) with a vaccine price of ⩽£3 per dose and was not cost-effective in sensitivity analyses with more conservative vaccine assumptions. Extending catch-up further to 3-4year olds was not cost-effective. Employing the current criteria for assessing vaccines, our models suggest that even with low vaccine prices only catch-up vaccination in 1year old children could be cost-effective, when considered incrementally on the infant programme. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Catch rates, composition and fish size from reefs managed with periodically-harvested closures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippa Jane Cohen

    Full Text Available Periodically-harvested closures are commonly employed within co-management frameworks to help manage small-scale, multi-species fisheries in the Indo-Pacific. Despite their widespread use, the benefits of periodic harvesting strategies for multi-species fisheries have, to date, been largely untested. We examine catch and effort data from four periodically-harvested reef areas and 55 continuously-fished reefs in Solomon Islands. We test the hypothesis that fishing in periodically-harvested closures would yield: (a higher catch rates, (b proportionally more short lived, fast growing, sedentary taxa, and (c larger finfish and invertebrates, compared to catches from reefs continuously open to fishing. Our study showed that catch rates were significantly higher from periodically-harvested closures for gleaning of invertebrates, but not for line and spear fishing. The family level composition of catches did not vary significantly between open reefs and periodically-harvested closures. Fish captured from periodically-harvested closures were slightly larger, but Trochus niloticus were significantly smaller than those from continuously open reefs. In one case of intense and prolonged harvesting, gleaning catch rates significantly declined, suggesting invertebrate stocks were substantially depleted in the early stages of the open period. Our study suggests periodically-harvested closures can have some short term benefits via increasing harvesting efficiency. However, we did not find evidence that the strategy had substantially benefited multi-species fin-fisheries.

  17. Catch rates, composition and fish size from reefs managed with periodically-harvested closures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Philippa Jane; Alexander, Timothy J

    2013-01-01

    Periodically-harvested closures are commonly employed within co-management frameworks to help manage small-scale, multi-species fisheries in the Indo-Pacific. Despite their widespread use, the benefits of periodic harvesting strategies for multi-species fisheries have, to date, been largely untested. We examine catch and effort data from four periodically-harvested reef areas and 55 continuously-fished reefs in Solomon Islands. We test the hypothesis that fishing in periodically-harvested closures would yield: (a) higher catch rates, (b) proportionally more short lived, fast growing, sedentary taxa, and (c) larger finfish and invertebrates, compared to catches from reefs continuously open to fishing. Our study showed that catch rates were significantly higher from periodically-harvested closures for gleaning of invertebrates, but not for line and spear fishing. The family level composition of catches did not vary significantly between open reefs and periodically-harvested closures. Fish captured from periodically-harvested closures were slightly larger, but Trochus niloticus were significantly smaller than those from continuously open reefs. In one case of intense and prolonged harvesting, gleaning catch rates significantly declined, suggesting invertebrate stocks were substantially depleted in the early stages of the open period. Our study suggests periodically-harvested closures can have some short term benefits via increasing harvesting efficiency. However, we did not find evidence that the strategy had substantially benefited multi-species fin-fisheries.

  18. Inhalation Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhalation injuries are acute injuries to your respiratory system and lungs. They can happen if you breathe in toxic substances, such as smoke (from fires), chemicals, particle pollution, and gases. Inhalation injuries can also be caused by extreme heat; these are a type of thermal injuries. ...

  19. Catching the Light - The Entwined History of Light and Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajonc, Arthur

    1995-04-01

    In 1910, the surgeons Moreau and LePrince wrote about their successful operation on an eight-year-old boy who had been blind since birth because of cataracts. When the boy's eyes were healed they removed the bandages and, waving a hand in front of the child's physically perfect eyes, asked him what he saw. "I don't know," was his only reply. What he saw was only a varying brightness in front of him. However, when allowed to touch the hand as it began to move, he cried out in a voice of triumph, "It's moving!" He could feel it move, but he still needed laboriously to learn to see it move. Light and eyes were not enough to grant him sight. How, then, do we see? What's the difference between seeing and perception? What is light? From ancient times to the present, from philosophers to quantum physicists, nothing has so perplexed, so fascinated, so captivated the mind as the elusive definition of light. In Catching the Light , Arthur Zajonc takes us on an epic journey into history, tracing how humans have endeavored to understand the phenomenon of light. Blending mythology, religion, science, literature, and painting, Zajonc reveals in poetic detail the human struggle to identify the vital connection between the outer light of nature and the inner light of the human spirit. He explains the curiousness of the Greeks' blue and green "color blindness": Odysseus gazing longingly at the "wine-dark sea"; the use of chloros (green) as the color of honey in Homer's Odessey ; and Euripides' use of the color green to describe the hue of tears and blood. He demonstrates the complexity of perception through the work of Paul Cézanne--the artist standing on the bank of a river, painting the same scene over and over again, the motifs multiplying before his eyes. And Zajonc goes on to show how our quest for an understanding of light, as well as the conclusions we draw, reveals as much about the nature of our own psyche as it does about the nature of light itself. For the ancient

  20. Non-Straub type actin from molluscan catch muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelud' ko, Nikolay S., E-mail: sheludko@stl.ru; Girich, Ulyana V.; Lazarev, Stanislav S.; Vyatchin, Ilya G.

    2016-05-27

    We have developed a method of obtaining natural actin from smooth muscles of the bivalves on the example of the Crenomytilus grayanus catch muscle. The muscles were previously rigorized to prevent a loss of thin filaments during homogenization and washings. Thin filaments were isolated with a low ionic strength solution in the presence of ATP and sodium pyrophosphate. Surface proteins of thin filaments-tropomyosin, troponin, calponin and some minor actin-binding proteins-were dissociated from actin filaments by increasing the ionic strength to 0.6 M KCL. Natural fibrillar actin obtained in that way depolymerizes easily in low ionic strength solutions commonly used for the extraction of Straub-type actin from acetone powder. Purification of natural actin was carried out by the polymerization–depolymerization cycle. The content of inactivated actin remaining in the supernatant is much less than at a similar purification of Straub-type actin. A comparative investigation was performed between the natural mussel actin and the Straub-type rabbit skeletal actin in terms of the key properties of actin: polymerization, activation of Mg-ATPase activity of myosin, and the electron-microscopic structure of actin polymers. -- Highlights: •We developed method of repolymerizable invertebrate smooth muscle actin obtaining. •Our method does not involve use of denaturating agents, which could modify proteins. •Viscosity and polymerization rate of actin, gained that way, is similar to Straub one. •Electron microscopy showed that repolymerized mussel actin is similar to Straub one. •Repolymerized mussel actin has greater ATPase activating capacity, than Straub actin.

  1. Catch crops impact on soil water infiltration in vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Bagarello, Vincenzo; Iovino, Massimo; Ferro, Vito; Keesstra, Saskia; Rodrigo-Comino, Jesús; García Diaz, Andrés; di Prima, Simone

    2017-04-01

    Infiltration is the key component of the hydrological cycle (Cerdà, 1999; Bagarello et al.,, 2014; Zema et al., 2016). Infiltration determines the partitioning of rainfall into runoff and subsurface flow (Cerdà, 1996; Bagarello et al., 2006; Wang et al., 2016). In the Mediterranean, agriculture resulted in the degradation of the soil structure, reduction of the organic matter and increase in the soil losses (Cerdà et al., 2009; Laudicina et al., 2015; Iovino et al., 2016; Willaarts et al., 2016). There is an urgent need to restore the agriculture soils to avoid floods, reduce the carbon emissions and avoid reservoir siltation (Aksakal et al., 2016; Ben Slimane et al., 2016; Yagüe et al., 2016). Catch Crops are widespread used due to their impact on the soil fertility (Mwango et al., 2016; Nishigaki et al., 2016 ; Nawaz et al., 2016). Catch crops also increase the amount of organic matter but little is known about the effect on soil infiltration. Two paired plots were selected in Les Alcusses (Moixent municipality) in Eastern Iberian Peninsula to compare the infiltration rates between a 8-years catch crop (Vicia sp) with a control (plough) soil. The measurements were carried out by means of ring infiltrometer in August 2014 and December 2014 under dry and wet conditions (Cerdà, 2001; Di Prima et al., 2016). The results show that the steady-state infiltration rates were 1.8 higher during the summer period, and that the catch crops did not increase the infiltration rates. Acknowledgements The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n 603498 (RECARE project) and the CGL2013- 47862-C2-1-R and CGL2016-75178-C2-2-R national research projects. References Aksakal, E. L., Sari, S., & Angin, I. (2016). Effects of vermicompost application on soil aggregation and certain physical properties. Land Degradation and Development, 27(4), 983-995. doi:10.1002/ldr.2350

  2. Education, Catch-up and Growth in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Manca

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El debate sobre el impacto de la educación en el crecimiento económico ha recientemente evidenciado la escasa significatividad empírica del efecto del capital humano medio sobre el crecimiento económico. Con este trabajo nos proponemos revisar estos resultados con el objetivo de analizar cómo inciden los diferentes niveles educativos (más que el stock de capital humano promedio sobre el crecimiento económico de las regiones. Con este objetivo construimos y analizamos un modelo de technology catch-up en el que la adopción de tecnologíase lleva a cabo en función de la composición del capital humano de cada región. Nuestros resultados demuestran para 50 provincias españolas (NUTS3 cómo la convergencia hacia la frontera tecnológica se debe mayoritariamente a la educación superior y, en menor medida, a la formación profesional entre los años 1965 y 1997. Tanto los resultados teóricos como los empíricos son una alternativa a la formalización del modelo propuesto por Vandenbussche, Aghion y Meghir (2006. Los importantes problemas de endogeneidad, así como los sesgos debidos al uso de una muestra pequeña, se abordan mediante el uso de estimadores system GMM y de la corrección propuesta por Windmeijer (2005. Clasificación JEL, I25, 030, 040.

  3. The Effect of Moon Phase on The Catch of Bigeye Tuna (Thunnus obesus in Eastern Indian Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwan Jatmiko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Tuna is one of the important export commodities to increase government income. One of economically important tuna species is bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus which has a proportion of 21% of the total production of large tuna group. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different moon phase on the catch of bigeye tuna (T. obesus in Eastern Indian Ocean. Data collection was conducted by the scientific observers from August 2005 to June 2014 in the tuna longline vessels were based in the port of Benoa, Bali. Moon phase data were collected from August 2005 to June 2014 from National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA. Catch data were calculated using the catch rate formula which defined as the number of catches per 100 hooks. The number of catch rate then was sorted into each moon phases and were analyzed using one-way Anova. This study covered 62 trips and 1,480 numbers of operations or sets was conducted from sampled vessels. The result showed that the average catch rate of bigeye tuna differed significantly among the moon phases. Tukey post-hoc tests showed that the average catch rate at full moon was the highest among the groups with around 0.3/100 hooks. This study showed that moon phase had significant effect on the catch of bigeye tuna (T. obesus that increased the catch during full moon. Keywords: moon phase, catch rate, Eastern Indian Ocea, tuna, Thunnus obesus

  4. Spatial-temporal dynamics of stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) trap catches in Eastern Nebraska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, David B; Friesen, Kristina; Zhu, Junwei Jerry

    2013-06-01

    Spatial and temporal relationships among catches of adult stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), on sticky traps in eastern Nebraska were evaluated. Twenty-five alsynite sticky traps were placed in a 5 by 5 grid with ≍1.6-km intervals in a mixed agricultural environment from 2003 to 2011. Denser grids of 45-90 traps were implemented for varying lengths of time during the course of the study. More than two million stable flies were collected over 9 yr. Seasonal abundances based upon total collections from the primary grid of 25 traps were bimodal most years with population peaks in June and September or October. Individual trap catches varied greatly, both spatially and temporally. Trap catches were spatially aggregated with autocorrelation extending to ≍2 km. Synchrony among trap catches declined linearly with respect to distance between traps and differences in seasonal distribution increased asymptotically relative to distance between traps. Proximity to confined livestock facilities increased catch and proportion of catch collected later in the season. Fifteen to 20 traps were adequate for estimating stable fly populations with the standard error of the mean equal to 30% of the mean for most of the stable fly season. Early and late in the season, when mean trap catches were low, between 100 and 135 traps would be needed to maintain that level of confidence. Seasonal collection distributions from permutations of subsets of the data with fewer than 24 traps differed significantly from those of the complete grid of 25 traps, indicating that 20 or more traps may be needed to evaluate the seasonal dynamics of a stable fly population.

  5. Uncertainty in future projections of global and regional marine fisheries catches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reygondeau, G.; Cheung, W. W. L.; Froelicher, T. L.; Stock, C. A.; Jones, M. C.; Sarmiento, J. L.

    2016-02-01

    Previous studies have projected the global redistribution of potential marine fisheries catches by mid-21st century under climate change, with increases in high latitude regions and pronounced decreases in tropical biomes. However, quantified confidence levels of such projections are not available, rendering it difficult to interpret the associated risk to society. This paper quantifies the confidence of changes in future fish production using a 30-member ensemble simulation of the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory ESM2M (representing internal variability of oceanographic conditions), three structural variants of a mechanistic species distribution model (representing uncertainty in fisheries models and different greenhouse gas emission and fishing scenarios (representing scenario uncertainty). We project that total potential catches of 500 exploited fish and invertebrate stocks, that contribute most to regional fisheries catches and their variability, will likely decrease in the 21st century under a `business-as-usual' greenhouse gas emission scenario (RCP8.5). Fishing and it's management remains a main factor determining future fish stocks and their catches. Internal variability of projected ocean conditions, including temperature, oxygen level, pH, net primary production and sea ice contributes substantially to the uncertainty of potential catch projections. Regionally, climate-driven decreases in potential catches in tropical oceans and increases in the Arctic polar regions are projected with higher confidence than other regions, while the direction of changes in most mid-latitude (or temperate) regions is uncertain. Under a stringent greenhouse gas mitigation scenario (RCP 2.6), climate change impacts on potential catches may not emerge from their uncertainties. Overall, this study provides a foundation for quantifying risks of climate change impacts on marine fisheries globally and regionally, and how such risk may be altered by policy interventions.

  6. LeukoCatch, a quick and efficient tool for the preparation of leukocyte extracts from blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Whole-protein extracts from peripheral blood leukocytes are ideal for basic and clinical research. However, lack of a simple preparation technique has limited the use of such extracts. The aim of this study is to develop a simple and easy system that can selectively obtain leukocyte extracts without hemoglobin. Methods A filter that captures the leukocytes but not RBCs was set at the bottom of a 10-mL medical syringe by sandwiching it between plastic stoppers. The capturing efficiency of leukocytes with this tool, called LeukoCatch, was examined using human macrophage cells (MONO-MAC-6). The abilities of LeukoCatch system to capture the leukocyte proteins and to remove the hemoglobin from RBCs were tested by western blot analysis using human blood samples. Results This study presents the development of LeukoCatch, a novel tool that allows the preparation of leukocyte extracts from blood samples within 3 min without centrifugation. Tissue-cultured human macrophage cells were tested to determine the optimal filter numbers and pass-through frequencies of LeukoCatch, which was then applied to 2-mL blood samples. Samples were passed 2~5 times through a LeukoCatch equipped with 5 filters, washed twice with phosphate-buffered saline for red cell removal, and leukocyte proteins were extracted with 0.5 mL of elution buffer. Western blot analysis of the purified extract indicated that more than 90% of hemoglobin was removed by the LeukoCatch and that the protein recovery rate of leukocytes was at least 4 times better than that of the conventional centrifugation method. Conclusion We conclude that LeukoCatch is useful not only for diagnosis at the bedside but also for basic research using blood samples or tissue culture cells. PMID:21849019

  7. LeukoCatch, a quick and efficient tool for the preparation of leukocyte extracts from blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yabuta Norikazu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whole-protein extracts from peripheral blood leukocytes are ideal for basic and clinical research. However, lack of a simple preparation technique has limited the use of such extracts. The aim of this study is to develop a simple and easy system that can selectively obtain leukocyte extracts without hemoglobin. Methods A filter that captures the leukocytes but not RBCs was set at the bottom of a 10-mL medical syringe by sandwiching it between plastic stoppers. The capturing efficiency of leukocytes with this tool, called LeukoCatch, was examined using human macrophage cells (MONO-MAC-6. The abilities of LeukoCatch system to capture the leukocyte proteins and to remove the hemoglobin from RBCs were tested by western blot analysis using human blood samples. Results This study presents the development of LeukoCatch, a novel tool that allows the preparation of leukocyte extracts from blood samples within 3 min without centrifugation. Tissue-cultured human macrophage cells were tested to determine the optimal filter numbers and pass-through frequencies of LeukoCatch, which was then applied to 2-mL blood samples. Samples were passed 2~5 times through a LeukoCatch equipped with 5 filters, washed twice with phosphate-buffered saline for red cell removal, and leukocyte proteins were extracted with 0.5 mL of elution buffer. Western blot analysis of the purified extract indicated that more than 90% of hemoglobin was removed by the LeukoCatch and that the protein recovery rate of leukocytes was at least 4 times better than that of the conventional centrifugation method. Conclusion We conclude that LeukoCatch is useful not only for diagnosis at the bedside but also for basic research using blood samples or tissue culture cells.

  8. Relationships among catch, angler catisfaction, and fish assemblage characteristics of an urban small impoundment fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivasauskas, Tomas J.; Xiong, Wilson N.; Engman, Augustin C.; Fischer, Jesse R.; Kwak, Thomas J.; Rundle, Kirk R.

    2017-01-01

    Urban fisheries provide unique angling opportunities for people from traditionally underrepresented demographics. Lake Raleigh is a 38-ha impoundment located on the North Carolina State University campus in Raleigh. Like many urban fisheries, little is known about angler use and satisfaction or how angling catch rate is related to fish availability in Lake Raleigh. We characterized the recreational fishery and fish assemblage with concurrent creel and boat electrofishing surveys over the course of one year. In total, 245 anglers were interviewed on 68 survey days. On average, anglers spent 1.7 h fishing per trip and caught 0.385 fish h –1. A large proportion of anglers (43.9%) targeted multiple species, whereas 36.5% targeted largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), 10.0% targeted panfish (i.e., sunfishes [Lepomis spp.] and crappies [Pomoxis spp.]), and 9.6% targeted catfish (Ameiurus spp. and Ictalurus spp.). Most anglers (69.4%) were satisfied with their experience, and overall satisfaction was unrelated to catch rate. Pulsed-DC boat electrofishing was conducted on 25 dates, and 617 fish were sampled. Angler catch rate was unrelated to electrofishing catch rate, implying that anglers' catch rate was independent of fish density or availability. Our results demonstrate that even minimally managed urban fisheries can provide high angler satisfaction, with limited dedication of management resources. Relationships Among Catch, Angler Satisfaction, and Fish Assemblage Characteristics of an Urban Small Impoundment Fishery (PDF Download Available). Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/316636550_Relationships_Among_Catch_Angler_Satisfaction_and_Fish_Assemblage_Characteristics_of_an_Urban_Small_Impoundment_Fishery [accessed Aug 11, 2017].

  9. Mean temperature of the catch (MTC in the Greek Seas based on landings and survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanassios C. Tsikliras

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The mean temperature of the catch (MTC, which is the average inferred temperature preference of the exploited species weighted by their annual catch, is an index that has been used for evaluating the effect of sea warming on marine ecosystems. In the present work, we examined the effect of sea surface temperature on the catch composition of the Greek Seas using the MTC applied on the official catch statistics (landings for the period 1970-2010 (Aegean and Ionian Seas and on experimental bottom trawl survey data for 1997-2014 (southern Aegean Sea. The MTC of the landings for the study period increased from 11.8 οC to 16.2 οC in the Aegean Sea and from 10.0 οC to 14.7 οC in the Ionian Sea. Overall, the rate of MTC increase was 1.01 οC per decade for the Aegean and 1.17 οC per decade for the Ionian Sea and was positively related to sea surface temperature anomalies in both areas. For the survey data, the increase of the MTC of the bottom trawl catch in the southern Aegean Sea was lower (0.51 οC per decade but referred to a shorter time frame and included only demersal species. The change in MTC of official and survey catches indicates that the relative catch proportions of species preferring warmer waters and those preferring colder waters have changed in favour of the former and that this change is linked to sea surface temperature increase, both internally (through the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation or externally (warming trend driven.

  10. Utility of a Work Process Classification System for characterizing non-fatal injuries in the Alaskan commercial fishing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura N. Syron

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The US commercial fishing industry is hazardous, as measured by mortality data. However, research on non-fatal injuries is limited. Non-fatal injuries constitute the majority of occupational injuries and can result in workers’ lowered productivity and wages, lost quality of life, and disability. In the United States, a Work Process Classification System (WPCS has previously been applied in Alaskan freezer-trawl and freezer-longline fleets to identify causes of injuries and specific hazards, but not to other fishing fleets. Objectives: This descriptive epidemiologic study aimed to explore the application and modification of the WPCS in multiple Alaskan fleets, characterize non-fatal occupational injuries in these fleets, and identify work processes that could be targeted for further investigation and future injury prevention efforts. Design: Traumatic, non-fatal injuries on-board Alaskan commercial fishing vessels were identified through United States Coast Guard investigative reports. Characteristics of injuries, as well as worker characteristics, were analysed. Injuries were coded using the WPCS. Results: We successfully utilized the WPCS to code non-fatal injury cases (n = 136. The most frequent main work processes associated with non-fatal injuries included: on-board trawlers, handling frozen fish and processing the catch; on-board vessels using pot/trap gear, handling the gear and shooting/setting the gear; on-board longliners, traffic on board and hauling the gear; and on-board processor vessels, processing the catch, other work with the catch, and handling frozen fish. Conclusions: The study confirmed that a WPCS can be applied to multiple Alaskan fleets to identify hazardous tasks. Hazards were unique for each vessel gear type. Future injury prevention efforts should target work processes associated with the most frequent and most severe injuries. Future studies should establish time estimates for work processes in order to

  11. Utility of a Work Process Classification System for characterizing non-fatal injuries in the Alaskan commercial fishing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syron, Laura N; Lucas, Devin L; Bovbjerg, Viktor E; Bethel, Jeffrey W; Kincl, Laurel D

    2016-01-01

    The US commercial fishing industry is hazardous, as measured by mortality data. However, research on non-fatal injuries is limited. Non-fatal injuries constitute the majority of occupational injuries and can result in workers' lowered productivity and wages, lost quality of life, and disability. In the United States, a Work Process Classification System (WPCS) has previously been applied in Alaskan freezer-trawl and freezer-longline fleets to identify causes of injuries and specific hazards, but not to other fishing fleets. This descriptive epidemiologic study aimed to explore the application and modification of the WPCS in multiple Alaskan fleets, characterize non-fatal occupational injuries in these fleets, and identify work processes that could be targeted for further investigation and future injury prevention efforts. Traumatic, non-fatal injuries on-board Alaskan commercial fishing vessels were identified through United States Coast Guard investigative reports. Characteristics of injuries, as well as worker characteristics, were analysed. Injuries were coded using the WPCS. We successfully utilized the WPCS to code non-fatal injury cases (n = 136). The most frequent main work processes associated with non-fatal injuries included: on-board trawlers, handling frozen fish and processing the catch; on-board vessels using pot/trap gear, handling the gear and shooting/setting the gear; on-board longliners, traffic on board and hauling the gear; and on-board processor vessels, processing the catch, other work with the catch, and handling frozen fish. The study confirmed that a WPCS can be applied to multiple Alaskan fleets to identify hazardous tasks. Hazards were unique for each vessel gear type. Future injury prevention efforts should target work processes associated with the most frequent and most severe injuries. Future studies should establish time estimates for work processes in order to determine risk estimates. Efforts to improve non-fatal injury reporting

  12. The role of catch crops in the ecological intensification of spring cereals in organic farming under Nordic climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doltra, Jordi; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2013-01-01

    common practices in organic farming. Measurements of dry matter (DM) and N content of grain cereals at harvest, above-ground biomass in catch crops and green manure crops in autumn and of the green manure crop at the first cutting were performed. The effect of catch crops on grain yield varied...... the nitrate leaching and increasing N retention, but also by improving yields. Management practices in relation to catch crops must be adapted to the specific soil and cropping systems....

  13. How position, velocity, and temporal information combine in the prospective control of catching: data and model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessing, Joost C; Peper, C Lieke E; Bullock, Daniel; Beek, Peter J

    2005-04-01

    The cerebral cortex contains circuitry for continuously computing properties of the environment and one's body, as well as relations among those properties. The success of complex perceptuomotor performances requires integrated, simultaneous use of such relational information. Ball catching is a good example as it involves reaching and grasping of visually pursued objects that move relative to the catcher. Although integrated neural control of catching has received sparse attention in the neuroscience literature, behavioral observations have led to the identification of control principles that may be embodied in the involved neural circuits. Here, we report a catching experiment that refines those principles via a novel manipulation. Visual field motion was used to perturb velocity information about balls traveling on various trajectories relative to a seated catcher, with various initial hand positions. The experiment produced evidence for a continuous, prospective catching strategy, in which hand movements are planned based on gaze-centered ball velocity and ball position information. Such a strategy was implemented in a new neural model, which suggests how position, velocity, and temporal information streams combine to shape catching movements. The model accurately reproduces the main and interaction effects found in the behavioral experiment and provides an interpretation of recently observed target motion-related activity in the motor cortex during interceptive reaching by monkeys. It functionally interprets a broad range of neurobiological and behavioral data, and thus contributes to a unified theory of the neural control of reaching to stationary and moving targets.

  14. Catch-up growth in small for gestational age babies: good or bad?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Ken K

    2007-02-01

    Most small for gestational age infants show rapid early postnatal growth and weight gain. Increasing trends towards childhood overweight and its metabolic consequences, and their epidemiological associations with lower birth weight, have led to critical assessments of the benefits and disadvantages of rapid early growth. In the last 12 months, three systematic reviews have described the consistent association between rapid infancy growth and subsequent obesity risk in childhood and later life. Recent studies have also described the very early development of insulin resistance in small for gestational age children who show catch-up growth, and this insulin resistance may, in turn, adversely affect body composition, growth and puberty. Long-term randomized trials of growth hormone therapy, however, remind us of the persisting short stature and significant adult height deficit in untreated children without early spontaneous catch-up. Even in modern societies with low rates of childhood infection and mortality, the small for gestational age infant may face a dilemma over whether or not to catch up. Current nutritional strategies that promote catch-up growth should include some monitoring of weight-for-length and adiposity, and the concept of 'healthy catch-up growth' should be the goal of future research.

  15. Spatially explicit estimates of stock sizes, structure and biomass of herring and blue whiting, and catch data of bluefin tuna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huse, G.; MacKenzie, B. R.; Trenkel, V.

    2015-01-01

    on the other pelagic stocks during summer. The results show that there were substantial changes in the herring and blue whiting distribution during the 1990s and early 2000s. The earliest bluefin tuna catches noted were in 1907. The catches in the Norwegian Sea area peaked in the 1950s and there have been very...... small catches since the 1980s. The reported catches in the Mediterranean, on the other hand, peaked in the late 1990s and subsequently had a strong reduction....

  16. Head Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... numbness in the arms or legs. Loss of consciousness. Seizures. What causes a head injury? There are ... Aid and Injury Prevention Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight ...

  17. Pediatric Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Division of Unintentional Injury Prevention. (2012). Protect the ones you love: child injuries are preventable . Retrieved August 23, 2012, from ... Disclaimer FOIA Privacy Policy Accessibility NIH...Turning Discovery ...

  18. Synthesis of Seafood Catch, Distribution, and Consumption Patterns in the Gulf of Mexico Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steimle and Associates, Inc.

    1999-08-16

    The purpose of this task was to gather and assemble information that will provide a synthesis of seafood catch, distribution and consumption patterns for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) region. This task was part of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored project entitled ''Environmental and Economic Assessment of Discharges from Gulf of Mexico Region Oil and Gas Operations.'' Personal interviews were conducted with a total of 905 recreational fishermen and 218 commercial fishermen (inclusive of shrimpers, crabbers, oystermen and finfishermen) in Louisiana and Texas using survey questionnaires developed for the study. Results of these interviews detail the species and quantities caught, location of catch, mode of fishing, distribution of catch, family consumption patterns and demographics of the fishermen.

  19. Cyclic stretch induces cell reorientation on substrates by destabilizing catch bonds in focal adhesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Chen

    Full Text Available A minimal model of cellular mechanosensing system that consists of a single stress fiber adhering on a substrate via two focal adhesions made of catch bonds is adopted to investigate the phenomena of cell reorientation on substrates induced by an applied uniaxial cyclic stretch. The model indicates that the catch bonds in the focal adhesions experience a periodically oscillating internal force with amplitude and frequency controlled by two intrinsic clocks of the stress fiber, one associated with localized activation and the other with homogeneous activation of sarcomere units along the stress fiber. It is shown that this oscillating force due to cyclic stretch tends to destabilize focal adhesions by reducing the lifetime of catch bonds. The resulting slide or relocation of focal adhesions then causes the associated stress fiber to shorten and rotate to configurations nearly perpendicular to the stretching direction. These predicted behaviors from our model are consistent with a wide range of experimental observations.

  20. Synthesis of Seafood Catch, Distribution, and Consumption Patterns in the Gulf of Mexico Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steimle and Associates, Inc.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this task was to gather and assemble information that will provide a synthesis of seafood catch, distribution and consumption patterns for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) region. This task was part of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored project entitled ''Environmental and Economic Assessment of Discharges from Gulf of Mexico Region Oil and Gas Operations.'' Personal interviews were conducted with a total of 905 recreational fishermen and 218 commercial fishermen (inclusive of shrimpers, crabbers, oystermen and finfishermen) in Louisiana and Texas using survey questionnaires developed for the study. Results of these interviews detail the species and quantities caught, location of catch, mode of fishing, distribution of catch, family consumption patterns and demographics of the fishermen

  1. Relationships between tuna catch and variable frequency oceanographic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. I. Ormaza-González

    2016-08-01

    analysis of the skipjack catch per unit effort (CPUE on floating aggregating devices (FADs suggests higher CPUE on FADs (around 20 mt set−1 when oceanographic indexes ONI/MEI are below −0.5. Findings of this work suggest that fishing and management of commercial fish must be analyzed under the light of oceanographic conditions.

  2. The influence of Community Access to Child Health (CATCH) program on community pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Neelkamal S; Hobson, Wendy L; Ruch-Ross, Holly; Finneran, Maureen; Varrasso, Denia A; Keller, David

    2014-01-01

    The CATCH (Community Access to Child Health) Program, which supports pediatricians who engage with the community to improve child health, increase access to health care, and promote advocacy through small seed grants, was last evaluated in 1998. The objective was to describe the characteristics of CATCH grant recipients and projects and assess the community impact of funded projects. Prospective data was collected from CATCH applications (grantee characteristics, topic area and target population for projects funded from 2006-2012) and post-project 2-year follow-up survey (project outcomes, sustainability, and impact for projects funded from 2008 through 2010). From 2006 through 2012, the CATCH Program awarded 401 projects to grantees working mostly in general pediatrics. Eighty-five percent of projects targeted children covered by Medicaid, 33% targeted uninsured children, and 75% involved a Latino population. Main topic areas addressed were nutrition, access to health care, and medical home. Sixty-nine percent of grantees from 2008 to 2010 responded to the follow-up survey. Ninety percent reported completing their projects, and 86% of those projects continued to exist in some form. Grantees reported the development of community partnerships (77%) and enhanced recognition of child health issues in the community (73%) as the most frequent changes due to the projects. The CATCH Program funds community-based projects led by pediatricians that address the medical home and access to care. A majority of these projects and community partnerships are sustained beyond their original CATCH funding and, in many cases, are leveraged into additional financial or other community support.

  3. The influence of catch trials on the consolidation of motor memory in force field adaptation tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne eFocke

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In computational neuroscience it is generally accepted that human motor memory contains neural representations of the physics of the musculoskeletal system and the objects in the environment. These representations are called internal models. Force field studies, in which subjects have to adapt to dynamic perturbations induced by a robotic manipulandum, are an established tool to analyze the characteristics of such internal models. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether catch trials during force field learning could influence the consolidation of motor memory in more complex tasks. Thereby, the force field was more than double the force field of previous studies (35 Ns/m. Moreover, the arm of the subjects was not supported. A total of forty-six subjects participated in this study and performed center-out movements at a robotic manipulandum in two different force fields. Two control groups learned force field A on day 1 and were retested in the same force field on day 3 (AA. Two test groups additionally learned an interfering force field B (=-A on day 2 (ABA. The difference between the two test and control groups, respectively, was the absence (0% or presence (19% of catch trials, in which the force field was turned off suddenly. The results showed consolidation of force field A on day 3 for both control groups. Test groups showed no consolidation of force field A (19% catch trials and even poorer performance on day 3 (0% catch trials. In conclusion, it can be stated that catch trials seem to have a positive effect on the performance on day 3 but do not trigger a consolidation process as shown in previous studies that used a lower force field viscosity with supported arm. These findings indicate that the results of previous studies in which less complex tasks were analyzed, cannot be fully transferred to more complex tasks. Moreover, the effects of catch trials in these situations are insufficiently understood and further research

  4. Modeling the potential benefits of catch-crop introduction in fodder crop rotations in a Western Europe landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, P; Ruiz, L; Raimbault, T; Vertès, F; Cordier, M O; Gascuel-Odoux, C; Masson, V; Salmon-Monviola, J; Durand, P

    2012-10-15

    Among possible mitigation options to reduce agricultural-borne nitrate fluxes to water bodies, introduction of catch crop before spring crops is acknowledged as a cost-efficient solution at the plot scale, but it was rarely assessed at the catchment level. This study aims to evaluate a set of catch crop implantation scenarios and their consequences in a coastal catchment prone to eutrophication. The objectives are (i) to discuss the potential benefits of catch crop introduction taking into account the limitations due to the physiographic and agricultural context of the area (ii) to propose a multicriteria classification of these scenarios as a basis for discussion with stakeholders. We used the distributed agro-hydrological model TNT2 to simulate 25 scenarios of catch crop management, differing in length of catch crop growing period, place in the crop rotation and residue management. The scenarios were classified considering the variations in main crop yields and either nitrogen fluxes in stream or the global nitrogen mass balance at the catchment level. The simulations showed that in the catchment studied, little improvement can be expected from increasing the catch crop surface. Catch crop cultivation was always beneficial to reduce nitrogen losses, but led to adverse effects on main crop yields in some cases. Among the scenarios involving additional catch crop surface, introducing catch crop between two winter cereals appeared as the most promising. The classification of scenarios depended on the chosen criteria: when considering only the reduction of nitrogen fluxes in streams, exporting catch crop residues was the most efficient while when considering the global nitrogen mass balance, soil incorporation of catch crop residues was the most beneficial. This work highlights the interest, while using integrated models, of assessing simulated scenarios with multicriteria approach to provide stakeholder with a picture as complete as possible of the consequences of

  5. By-catch of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) in Baltic fisheries--a Bayesian analysis of interview survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhatalo, Jarno; Vetemaa, Markus; Herrero, Annika; Aho, Teija; Tiilikainen, Raisa

    2014-01-01

    Baltic seals are recovering after a population decline. The increasing seal stocks cause notable damage to fisheries in the Baltic Sea, with an unknown number of seals drowning in fishing gear every year. Thus, sustainable seal management requires updated knowledge of the by-catch of seals--the number of specimens that die in fishing gear. We analyse the by-catch of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) in Finland, Sweden, and Estonia in 2012. We collect data with interviews (35 in Finland, 54 in Sweden, and 72 in Estonia) and analyse them with a hierarchical Bayesian model. The model accounts for variability in seal abundance, seal mortality and fishing effort in different sub-areas of the Baltic Sea and allows us to predict the by-catch in areas where interview data was not available. We provide a detailed description of the survey design and interview methods, and discuss different factors affecting fishermen's motivation to report by-catch and how this may affect the results. Our analysis shows that the total yearly by-catch by trap and gill nets in Finland, Sweden and Estonia is, with 90% probability, more than 1240 but less than 2860; and the posterior median and mean of the total by-catch are 1550 and 1880 seals, respectively. Trap nets make about 88% of the total by-catch. However, results also indicate that in one of the sub-areas of this study, fishermen may have underreported their by-catch. Taking the possible underreporting into account the posterior mean of the total by-catch is between 2180 and 2380. The by-catch in our study area is likely to represent at least 90% of the total yearly grey seal by-catch in the Baltic Sea.

  6. By-Catch of Grey Seals (Halichoerus grypus) in Baltic Fisheries—A Bayesian Analysis of Interview Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhatalo, Jarno; Vetemaa, Markus; Herrero, Annika; Aho, Teija; Tiilikainen, Raisa

    2014-01-01

    Baltic seals are recovering after a population decline. The increasing seal stocks cause notable damage to fisheries in the Baltic Sea, with an unknown number of seals drowning in fishing gear every year. Thus, sustainable seal management requires updated knowledge of the by-catch of seals—the number of specimens that die in fishing gear. We analyse the by-catch of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) in Finland, Sweden, and Estonia in 2012. We collect data with interviews (35 in Finland, 54 in Sweden, and 72 in Estonia) and analyse them with a hierarchical Bayesian model. The model accounts for variability in seal abundance, seal mortality and fishing effort in different sub-areas of the Baltic Sea and allows us to predict the by-catch in areas where interview data was not available. We provide a detailed description of the survey design and interview methods, and discuss different factors affecting fishermen's motivation to report by-catch and how this may affect the results. Our analysis shows that the total yearly by-catch by trap and gill nets in Finland, Sweden and Estonia is, with 90% probability, more than 1240 but less than 2860; and the posterior median and mean of the total by-catch are 1550 and 1880 seals, respectively. Trap nets make about 88% of the total by-catch. However, results also indicate that in one of the sub-areas of this study, fishermen may have underreported their by-catch. Taking the possible underreporting into account the posterior mean of the total by-catch is between 2180 and 2380. The by-catch in our study area is likely to represent at least 90% of the total yearly grey seal by-catch in the Baltic Sea. PMID:25423168

  7. Economics of an adolescent meningococcal conjugate vaccination catch-up campaign in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Sanchez, Ismael R; Meltzer, Martin I; Shepard, Colin; Zell, Elizabeth; Messonnier, Mark L; Bilukha, Oleg; Zhang, Xinzhi; Stephens, David S; Messonnier, Nancy E

    2008-01-01

    In June 2005, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended the newly licensed quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine for routine use among all US children aged 11 years. A 1-time catch-up vaccination campaign for children and adolescents aged 11-17 years, followed by routine annual immunization of each child aged 11 years, could generate immediate herd immunity benefits. The objective of our study was to analyze the cost-effectiveness of a catch-up vaccination campaign with quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine for children and adolescents aged 11-17 years. We built a probabilistic model of disease burden and economic impacts for a 10-year period with and without a program of adolescent catch-up meningococcal vaccination, followed by 9 years of routine immunization of children aged 11 years. We used US age- and serogroup-specific surveillance data on incidence and mortality. Assumptions related to the impact of herd immunity were drawn from experience with routine meningococcal vaccination in the United Kingdom. We estimated costs per case, deaths prevented, life-years saved, and quality-adjusted life-years saved. With herd immunity, the catch-up and routine vaccination program for adolescents would prevent 8251 cases of meningococcal disease in a 10-year period (a 48% decrease). Excluding program costs, this catch-up and routine vaccination program would save US$551 million in direct costs and $920 million in indirect costs, including costs associated with permanent disability and premature death. At $83 per vaccinee, the catch-up vaccination would cost society approximately $223,000 per case averted, approximately $2.6 million per death prevented, approximately $127,000 per life-year saved, and approximately $88,000 per quality-adjusted life-year saved. Targeting counties with a high incidence of disease decreased the cost per life-year saved by two-thirds. Although costly, catch-up and routine vaccination of adolescents can have a

  8. Effects of noise and by-catch on a Danish harbour porpoise population - computer code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    PorpoiseModel v.1.0: an individual-based model used for evaluating cumulative effects of by-catch and noise on the harbour porpoise population in the inner Danish waters. This was the model used to generage the results presented in the scientific publication: Nabe-Nielsen, J., Sibly, R.M., Tougaard......, J., Teilmann, J. & Sveegaard, S. (2014) "Effects of noise and by-catch on a Danish harbour porpoise population". Ecological Modelling, 272, 242–251. Please refer to this publication for the full documentation....

  9. Effects of noise and by-catch on a Danish harbour porpoise population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob; Sibly, Richard M.; Tougaard, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    Ships and wind turbines generate noise, which can have a negative impact on marine mammal popu- lations by scaring animals away. Effective modelling of how this affects the populations has to take account of the location and timing of disturbances. Here we construct an individual-based model of har...... on the population. Annual by-catch rates ≥10% lead to monotonously decreasing populations and to extinction, and even the esti- mated by-catch rate from the adjacent area (approximately 4.1%) has a strong impact on the population. This suggests that conservation efforts should be more focused on reducing by...

  10. Reconstructed Marine Fisheries Catches at a Remote Island Group: Pitcairn Islands (1950–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy R. Coghlan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The remote Pitcairn Island Group in the South Pacific was designated one of the world's largest marine reserves in 2016, encompassing some of the few remaining near-pristine areas within EEZ boundaries. Pitcairn's domestic fisheries are small-scale, and consist mainly of subsistence (non-commercial and limited artisanal (commercial catches. There is no locally-based industrial (large-scale commercial fishery and the level of foreign industrial activity in recent times has been minimal, due in part to the low biomass of commercially valuable species, along with economic constraints of the EEZ's geographic isolation. Using a catch reconstruction method we estimated the total domestic marine catches for the Pitcairn Islands from 1950 to 2014. We show that overall the Pitcairn Islands' small-scale fisheries catches were almost 2.5 times higher than the data reported by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO of the United Nations on behalf of the Pitcairn Islands, however, this primarily reflects discrepancies prior to the 1980s. Overall, catches for the subsistence and artisanal sectors started with around 12 t·year−1 in 1950, but declined to 4 t·year−1 by 2014. Domestic reconstructed subsistence catch levels were entirely driven by changes in the human population on the island, with reconstructed artisanal catches only occurring in recent years (2000 onwards. Industrial fishing is entirely executed by foreign vessels, this catch is considerably variable throughout the years and ceases entirely in 2006. The implementation of one of the world's largest marine reserves surrounding the offshore waters of Pitcairn Island has been specifically designed not to affect the rates of subsistence and artisanal fishing conducted by the resident population. Although there is no industrial fishing in the Pitcairn EEZ at present, climate change is predicted to influence the routes of migrating commercially-targeted species, potentially altering fishing

  11. Development of new concepts for escape windows to minimise cod catches in Norway lobster fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Niels; Frandsen, Rikke; Holst, René

    2010-01-01

    —where a 300 mm window is placed at the top section at about 3–6 m from the codline. Acoustic release technology was used to avoid catch loss during gear retrieval. Sea trials were conducted in the Skagerrak and Kattegat from a commercial trawler. The sorting box yielded a high reduction of the cod catch......Gear selectivity with regard to cod (Gadus morhua) needs to be improved in the Kattegat and Skagerrak Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) fishery. One way to achieve this goal is to improve the selectivity of an escape window (henceforth window) in the gear. Our gear development focused...

  12. Conservation strategies on citrus plantation in eastern Spain. Catch crops, geotextiles and mulches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Dominguez, Alfons; Giménez Morera, Antonio

    2010-05-01

    Tillage (6 %), and herbicides (89 %) are the most widespread soil management methods in eastern Spain citrus orchards. The bare soils, the high intensity thunderstorms and the steep slopes result in high erosion rates. Over the last 3 years an experimental station has been developed at Montesa municipality in order to determine the effect of different types of mulch, geotextiles and catch crops. Rainfall simulation experiments on 20 m2 plots shown that soil losses can be control by catch crops (85 %), chipped pruned branches (89 %), straw mulch (97 %) and geotextiles (99 %). Then, vegetation can contribute to control the soil and water losses on the highly erodible soil of Mediterranean orchards.

  13. Nitrogen dynamics following grain legumes and subsequent catch crops and the effects on succeeding cereal crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Mundus, Simon; Jensen, Erik Steen

    2009-01-01

    The effects of faba bean, lupin, pea and oat crops, with and without an undersown grass-clover mixture as a nitrogen (N) catch crop, on subsequent spring wheat followed by winter triticale crops were determined by aboveground dry matter (DM) harvests, nitrate (NO3) leaching measurements and soil ......−2) compared to lupin (950 g m−2), pea (850 g m−2) and oat (1,100 g m−2) independent of the catch crop strategy. Faba bean derived more than 90% of its N from N2 fixation, which was unusually high as compared to lupin (70–75%) and pea (50–60%). No effect of preceding crop was observed...

  14. Method for the removal of smut, fine dust and exhaust gas particles, particle catch arrangement for use in this method and use of the particle catch arrangement to generate a static electric field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ursem, W.N.J.; Marijnissen, J.C.; Roos, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    This inventions provides a method for the removal of smut, fine dust and exhaust gas particles from polluted air comprising providing a particle catch arrangement with a charged surface, the particle catch arrangement being arranged to generate a static electric field, wherein the electric field is

  15. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation ... Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation ...

  16. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury What is a Spinal Cord Injury Levels of Injury and What They Mean Animated Spinal ... Cord Injury What is a Spinal Cord Injury Levels of Injury and What They Mean Animated Spinal ...

  17. Impact of catch crop mixtures and soils on microbial diversity and nitrogen cycling communities in agroecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbano, Claudia S.; Große, Julia; Hurek, Thomas; Reinhold-Hurek, Barbara

    2017-04-01

    In light of the projected world's population growth, food supplies will necessary have to increase. Soils are an essential component for achieving this expansion and its quality and fertility are crucial for bio-economic productivity. Catch crops can be an option to preserve or even improve soil productivity because of their effect on soil fertility and health. A long-term field experiment of the CATCHY project (Catch-cropping as an agrarian tool for continuing soil health and yield-increase) with two contrasting crop rotations was established in two different locations in Northern and Southern Germany. Single catch crops (white mustard, Egyptian clover, phacelia and bristle oat), catch crop mixtures (a mixture of the above and a commercial mixture) and main crops (wheat and maize) have been grown. To investigate how catch crops can affect the microbial diversity and particularly the microbial nitrogen cycling communities, we are studying first the short-term effect of different catch crop mixtures on the microbiomes associated with soils and roots. We compared these microbiomes with wheat plants, representing the microbial community before a catch crop treatment. Roots, rhizosphere and bulk soils were collected from representative samples of wheat plants from one field. The same compartments were also sampled from one fallow treatment and three catch crops variants from three fields each. The variants consisted of white mustard and the two catch crop mixtures. All fields were sampled by triplicate. Quantitative analyses were carried out by qPCR based on key functional marker genes for mineralization (ureC), nitrification (amoA), dissimilatory nitrate and nitrite reduction to ammonium -DNRA- (nrfA), denitrification (nirK, nirS, nosZ), and nitrogen fixation (nifH). These genes were targeted at the DNA and RNA level for the characterization of the microbial population and the actual transcription activity, respectively. We detected the presence and activity of

  18. Meeting the Dietary Goals for School Meals by the Year 2000: The CATCH Eat Smart School Nutrition Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklas, Theresa A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Provides an overview of the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH) Eat Smart School Nutrition Program, an elementary school health promotion program. The article examines components of the CATCH kitchen visits and intervention materials, including the School Meal Program Guide, Fat and Sodium Criteria, Recipe File Box, Vendor…

  19. 76 FR 21705 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Catch Accounting in the Longline Catcher...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    ... the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Catch Accounting in the Longline Catcher/Processor Pacific Cod... longliners in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands to support different catch accounting methods for Pacific... is sorted and weighed; and the use of electronic logbooks to facilitate timely vessel reporting of...

  20. Optimization of the Co-Digestion of Catch Crops with Manure Using a Central Composite Design and Reactor Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molinuevo-Salces, Beatriz; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Uellendahl, Hinrich

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of catch crops as co-substrate on manure-based anaerobic digestion. Batch experiments were carried out for two catch crops, namely Italian ryegrass (IR) and oil seed radish (OSR), in co-digestion with manure. Methane yields in the range of 271–558 and 216–361 ml...

  1. A model of gillnet catch in relation to the catchable biomass, saturation and soak time and sampling period

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prchalová, Marie; Mrkvička, T.; Peterka, Jiří; Čech, Martin; Berec, L.; Kubečka, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 107, 1-3 (2011), s. 201-209 ISSN 0165-7836 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB600960810 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : catch interpretation * catch correction * video recording * reservoir * CPUE Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 1.586, year: 2011

  2. An Improved Reconstruction of Total Marine Fisheries Catches for the New Hebrides and the Republic of Vanuatu, 1950–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Léopold

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available For many small island nations, fisheries provide residents with both food security and economic stability. However, in order to create effective and sustainable fisheries policies and management that will ensure a growing population can prosper, policy makers need to know what is being fished and how much is fished. Vanuatu, the smallest country in Melanesia, has a declared and claimed Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ of over 820,000 km2 and fisheries resources play a large part in the food security and economic stability of this country. This reconstruction of the total marine fisheries catch of Vanuatu for 1950–2014 faced major data gaps. It showed that the reconstructed total catches of nearly 1.4 million tonnes (metric tons 40% higher than the 977,997 tonnes reported by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO on behalf of Vanuatu for the same period. However, if large-scale industrial catches are excluded, the reconstructed small-scale fisheries catches (~270,000 tonnes were over 200% higher than the 114,862 tonnes of reported catch that were assumed to represent the small-scale sector in FAO data. Subsistence catches made up almost 93% of small-scale catches, followed by artisanal and recreational catches with ~7 and <1%, respectively. By continuously improving the fisheries data of Vanuatu for both the past and the present, policy makers, stakeholders, and fishers can make better decisions that will maintain the benefits of marine fishery resources.

  3. 76 FR 59373 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Generic Annual Catch Limits...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ...) control rules; establish annual catch limits (ACLs) and ACL control rules; modify framework procedures... control rule, an ACL/annual catch target (ACT) control rule, and framework procedures for implementing... state waters, and include: Anchor tilefish, misty grouper, sand perch, dwarf sand perch, blackline...

  4. Leaf CO2 assimilation and leaf dynamics in catch crops during autumn and winter at two levels of nitrogen supply.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van A.M.; Lantinga, E.A.

    1998-01-01

    This study relates the leaf CO2 assimilation and leaf dynamics of nitrogen catch crops to environmental conditions. Winter rye (Secale cereale) and fodder radish (Raphanus sativus) were grown as catch crops in an outdoor pot experiment at two rates of nitrogen supply (N2 higher than N1) in

  5. GLM-based standarization of the catch per unit effort series for South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reasons that the GLM indicated a lesser increase in resource abundance were that the effective average power of the fleet increased, the fleet moved over time to deeper water, where catch rates were higher, and the increase in fish density in deeper water was more than offset by a simultaneous decrease in density in ...

  6. Changes in fishing behaviour of two fleets under fully documented catch quota management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmond, van A.T.M.; Chen, C.; Trapman, B.K.; Kraan, M.; Poos, J.J.

    2016-01-01

    A Dutch pilot study of fully documented fisheries provided the opportunity to observe actual changes in fishing behaviour under catch quota management (CQM). Interviews with fishers in the pilot study aided in interpreting the results and giving insight in the decision making process and

  7. CATCH : New pharmacological treatment options for crack-cocaine dependence. Results from three randomised controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuijten, M.A.A.

    2017-01-01

    Crack-cocaine dependence is a serious and complex problem with as yet no adequate treatment. The CATCH project was initiated to explore new pharmacological treatment options for crack-cocaine dependence in the Netherlands. In three separate parallel-group, randomised controlled, feasibility trials,

  8. Affirmative Action in Higher Education in India: Targeting, Catch Up, and Mismatch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisancho, Veronica; Krishna, Kala

    2016-01-01

    Using detailed data on the 2008 graduating class from an elite engineering institution in India, we evaluate the impact of affirmative action policies in higher education focusing on three issues: targeting, catch up, and mismatch. We find that admission preferences effectively target minority students who are poorer than average displaced…

  9. Evaluations of nordmore grid by-catch reduction device (BRD) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    01) while large and flattened fish specimens with a total length range of 11 to 30 cm were mostly excluded , ego Dasyatis margaritas (p<0.05;0. 01) and Carcha rhinus brachyrus (p<0.05;0. 01). The high percentage reduction of the 3 species of most aboundance and priortised croaker by-catch family sciaenidae ego ...

  10. A robust method for generating separate catch time-series for each ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Here, species-separated data from an observer programme and scientific surveys are used to model the spatio-temporal overlap of the two species, which are then used to predict the catch by species in each commercial trawl. The study presents a method that compensates for both the escapement and codend retention ...

  11. Small is beautiful: Marine small-scale fisheries catches from the South-West Maluku Regency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutubessy, BG; Mosse, JW; Hayward, P.

    2017-10-01

    The fisheries data supplied by fisheries agency have served as the primary tool for regional fisheries statistics. However, it is recognized these data are incomplete and often underestimate actual catches, particularly for small-scale fisheries. There is no widely accepted definition of small-scale fisheries or global data on number of small-scale fishers and their catches. This study reconstructed total marine catches from 1980 to 2015 for South-west Maluku (MBD) regency, by applying an established catch construction approach utilizing all available quantitative and qualitative data, combined with assumption-based estimations and interpolations. As newly established regency since 2009, there is lack of fisheries data available which is needed for fisheries management. Fishers’ knowledge is important information taken from to construct long-term fisheries data. Estimated total fish withdrawal from MBD waters was 86,849.66 tonnes during 1980 - 2015, dominated by pelagic fishes. Consistency of estimated total removal and total landings at MBD regency play important role in small-scale fisheries management and this method of visualizing the history of fishery from poor-data condition might be an optimistic effort.

  12. Shark fishing effort and catch of the ragged-tooth shark Carcharias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An integrated telephone and on-site questionnaire survey was used to estimate total shark fishing effort and specific catch of the ragged-tooth shark Carcharias taurus by coastal club-affiliated shore-anglers, primarily along the east coast of South Africa. Mean total shark fishing effort was estimated to be 37 820 fisherdays ...

  13. IMPACT OF CLIMATE ANOMALY ON CATCH COMPOSITION OF NERITIC TUNA IN SUNDA STRAIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairul Amri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tongkol komo/kawakawa (Euthynnus affinis and tenggiri (Scomberomerus guttatus are commonly caught by mini purseiners operated in Sunda Straits and landed in Labuan, West Java. This species inhabits coastal water and has preference staying in relatively warm water. Oceanography parameters commonly influencing the distribution of Euthynnus affinis are temperature, current, and salinity. The oceanography of Sunda Strait is influenced by water masses coming from the north that mainly originated from the Java Sea and water masses from the south mainly originated from Indian Ocean. The internal oceanography of Sunda Strait is also influenced by upwelling and monsoon as regional climate anomaly (ENSO and Indian Ocean Dipole Mode. This paper describes the influence of Dipole Mode (positive and negative event and ENSO (El- Nino/La-Nina to the catch dynamics of neritic tuna particularly in Sunda Straits waters. The results shown that regional climate anomaly influenced neritic tuna catch and its composition. The catches Euthynnus affinis in phase negative dipole mode or La-Nina were higher and dominated the catch composition of pelagic fishes of Sunda Strait. Similar situation also is showen by Scomberomorus commerson.

  14. Pilot-Testing CATCH Early Childhood: A Preschool-Based Healthy Nutrition and Physical Activity Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shreela; Chuang, Ru-Jye; Hedberg, Ann Marie

    2011-01-01

    Background: The literature on theoretically-based programs targeting healthy nutrition and physical activity in preschools is scarce. Purpose: To pilot test CATCH Early Childhood (CEC), a preschool-based nutrition and physical activity program among children ages three to five in Head Start. Methods: The study was conducted in two Head Start…

  15. Comparison of arboreal beetle catches in wet and dry collection cups with lindgren multiple funnel traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Miller; Donald A. Duerr

    2008-01-01

    We compared the effectiveness of a dry collection cup (with an insecticide killing strip) to a wet collection cup (containing antifreeze) for use with Lindgren multiple-funnel traps in catching several common species of bark and wood-boring beetles, and their associates in southern pine forests. All traps were baited with either the binary combination of ethanol and...

  16. Relationship between weekend catch-up sleep and poor performance on attention tasks in Korean adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seog Ju; Lee, Yu Jin; Cho, Seong-Jin; Cho, In-Hee; Lim, Weonjeong; Lim, Wonshin

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the relationship between insufficient sleep and poor attention in Korean adolescents, adjusting for potential confounding factors of depressed mood and habitual snoring. School-based cross-sectional study. Eight high schools in 3 cities in the Republic of Korea. A sample of 2638 urban high school students (42.2% male and 57.8% female; mean [SD] age, 17.3 [0.6] years [age range, 14-19 years]) completed questionnaires and computerized attention tasks during the school term. Weekend catch-up sleep. Self-reported sleep schedules and habits, including sleep duration, bedtime, wake-up time, depressed mood, and habitual snoring. Also measured were numbers of omission and commission errors on computerized attention tasks. The mean (SD) sleep duration on weekdays was 5 hours 42 minutes (1 hour 0 minutes) per day and on weekends was 8 hours 24 minutes (1 hour 36 minutes) per day. The mean (SD) weekend catch-up sleep was 2 hours 42 minutes (1 hour 42 minutes) per day. After adjusting for age, sex, depressed mood (Beck Depression Inventory score, ≥10), habitual snoring, and weekday sleep duration, increased weekend catch-up sleep was significantly associated with more omission and commission errors on sustained attention tasks (P sleep as an indicator of insufficient weekday sleep is associated with poor performance on objective attention tasks. Assessment of catch-up sleep and sleep duration may be useful for physicians to evaluate sleep insufficiency and its adverse effects on attention in adolescents.

  17. Review of catch trends and changes in fish species composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    insectivorous fish species (e.g., Chrysichthys, Schilhe and Synodontis) at the initial stages of the formation of the lake to those with vegetarian food habits dominated by the tilapias. The dominance oftilapias in catches, which persisted till the early parts of the 1990s, has given way to Chrysichthys spp., suggesting that the ...

  18. Gradual catch up and enduring leadership in the global wine industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrison, A.; Rabellotti, Roberta

    The wine industry is an extremely interesting sector from a catch -up point of view because the latecomers in the international market have changed how wine is produced, sold and consumed and, in doing so, they have challenged the positions of incumbents. Until the end of the 1980s, the European

  19. Occurrence of macro-algae in the by-catch of Beach Seine Fisheries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The species composition, abundance and seasonality of macro-algal species in fisheries by-catch of beach seine nets at Sakumono, Ghana were determined between November 1999 and September 2001. Data was analysed using a combination of both univariate and multivariate procedures. The species richness of ...

  20. Uncertainty in catch and effort data of small- and medium-scale tuna fisheries in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuniarta, Shinta; Zwieten, van Paul A.M.; Groeneveld, Rolf A.; Wisudo, Sugeng Hari; Ierland, van E.C.

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to identify the sources and magnitude of uncertainty in the collection and processing of catch and effort data of small- and medium-scale tuna fisheries in Indonesia, as well as the causes of uncertainty on an operational level. We identified possible sources of uncertainty

  1. Characterization of Catch-Up Behavior: Accession of Lecture Capture Videos Following Student Absenteeism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Newton

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of lecture capture in higher education is becoming increasingly widespread, with many instructors now providing digital videos of lecture content that can be used by students as learning resources in a variety of ways, including to catch up on material after a class absence. Despite accumulating research regarding the relationship between lecture capture and attendance, the nature of catch-up behavior following an absence has not been well characterized. This study measured attendance in relation to lecture video accesses to determine whether students catch up after missing a class, and if so, within what timeframe. Overall, it was found that 48% of absences were not associated with a corresponding lecture video access, and that when absences were caught up, the length of time taken to access the video was highly variable, with the time to the next exam being the likely determinant of when the video was viewed. Time taken to access a video was directly associated with deep learning approach score (as measured by the R-SPQ-2F. Males took significantly longer to view a corresponding lecture video after an absence than females, and missed significantly more classes than females. This study confirms that students use lecture capture variably, and that characteristics such as gender and learning approach influence lecture capture behavior including catch-up following an absence, a finding that is not unexpected given the diversity of students in higher education.

  2. Characterization of Catch-Up Behavior: Accession of Lecture Capture Videos Following Student Absenteeism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Magen; Wong, Rachel; Newton, Genevieve

    2013-01-01

    The use of lecture capture in higher education is becoming increasingly widespread, with many instructors now providing digital videos of lecture content that can be used by students as learning resources in a variety of ways, including to catch up on material after a class absence. Despite accumulating research regarding the relationship between…

  3. Catching-up and integration in new and future EU member states ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The round of new membership had strong impact on the functioning of the European economy, both in terms of regulation, distribution of resources, and place of economic and regional developpment, catching up policies (converging policies). This goes along with an important flow of foreign capital pouring in the region ...

  4. Fish cage culture catches on in Nepal | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... for their children, unlike many rural communities in Nepal. And the role of women in decision-making has been strengthened. Women take part alongside the men in all activities, from cleaning and repairing the fish cages to participating in meetings of farmers'' associations, attending workshops, and marketing the catch.

  5. 76 FR 37285 - Fisheries in the Western Pacific; Mechanism for Specifying Annual Catch Limits and Accountability...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    ... Limits and Accountability Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... procedures and timing for specifying annual catch limits (ACLs) and accountability measures (AMs) for western... accountability measures to ensure that the ACL is not exceeded. Restrictions may include, but are not limited to...

  6. 78 FR 48075 - Western Pacific Fisheries; 2013 Annual Catch Limits and Accountability Measures; Correcting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 665 [Docket No. 121107617-3628-03] RIN 0648-XC351 Western Pacific Fisheries; 2013 Annual Catch Limits and Accountability...-Deep 7 bottomfish fishery is not subject to in-season closure or other in- season accountability...

  7. 76 FR 14367 - Fisheries in the Western Pacific; Mechanism for Specifying Annual Catch Limits and Accountability...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 665 RIN 0648-AY93 Fisheries in the Western Pacific; Mechanism for Specifying Annual Catch Limits and Accountability... limits (ACLs) and accountability measures (AMs), adopt the ecosystem component species classification...

  8. 50 CFR 679.84 - Rockfish Program recordkeeping, permits, monitoring, and catch accounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rockfish Program recordkeeping, permits, monitoring, and catch accounting. 679.84 Section 679.84 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Rockfish Program § 679.84 Rockfish Program recordkeeping...

  9. 50 CFR 679.93 - Amendment 80 Program recordkeeping, permits, monitoring, and catch accounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amendment 80 Program recordkeeping, permits, monitoring, and catch accounting. 679.93 Section 679.93 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY...) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Amendment 80 Program § 679.93 Amendment 80 Program...

  10. Toward Technology-Sensitive Catching-Up Policies: Insights from Renewable Energy in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binz, Christian; Gosens, Jorrit; Hansen, Teis

    2017-01-01

    -complex product systems (CoPS). In this paper, we extend this argument by introducing a set of separate policy mixes for each industry type, which appears most capable of providing the key resources required for catching-up: knowledge, market access, financial investment and technology legitimacy. This framework...

  11. Gill net selectivity and catch rates of pelagic fish in tropical coastal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-05

    Nov 5, 2008 ... Gill net selectivity and catch rates of pelagic fish in tropical coastal lagoonal ecosystem ... index (phytoplankton primary productivity, total phospho- rus) have been preferred. Albaret and Lae (2003) ..... time in relation to availability of food and environmental favourability, since nutrients are flushed form ...

  12. Few data but many fish: marine small-scale fisheries catches for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fisheries data supplied to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) by national agencies have served as the primary tool for many global and regional studies. However, it is recognised that these data are incomplete and often underestimate actual catches, particularly for small-scale fisheries.

  13. Assessment of fishing gear and catch rate in Oguta Lake, south ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out in Oguta Lake, Imo State, Nigeria, from January, 2012 to December, 2013 at five stations (Onu Utu, Okposha, Ogbe Hausa, Osemotor and Ede Ngwugwu) to ascertain the percentage abundance and catch rate of gear and craft. The average weight of fish caught per canoe per day ranged between ...

  14. A hybrid ARIMA and neural network model applied to forecast catch volumes of Selar crumenophthalmus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Ronald L.; Alcantara, Nialle Loui Mar T.; Addawe, Rizavel C.

    2017-11-01

    The Selar crumenophthalmus with the English name big-eyed scad fish, locally known as matang-baka, is one of the fishes commonly caught along the waters of La Union, Philippines. The study deals with the forecasting of catch volumes of big-eyed scad fish for commercial consumption. The data used are quarterly caught volumes of big-eyed scad fish from 2002 to first quarter of 2017. This actual data is available from the open stat database published by the Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA)whose task is to collect, compiles, analyzes and publish information concerning different aspects of the Philippine setting. Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model and the Hybrid model consisting of ARIMA and ANN were developed to forecast catch volumes of big-eyed scad fish. Statistical errors such as Mean Absolute Errors (MAE) and Root Mean Square Errors (RMSE) were computed and compared to choose the most suitable model for forecasting the catch volume for the next few quarters. A comparison of the results of each model and corresponding statistical errors reveals that the hybrid model, ARIMA-ANN (2,1,2)(6:3:1), is the most suitable model to forecast the catch volumes of the big-eyed scad fish for the next few quarters.

  15. Brasil (1955-2005: 25 anos de catching up, 25 anos de falling behind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Arend

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Brazil (1955-2005: 25 years of catching-up, 25 years of falling behind. The present paper discusses the Brazilian industrial development under a neo-schumpeterian perspective in the period after 1955. The hypothesis is that, in the last 50 years, Brazil spent the first 25 years catching up and, next, the following 25 years falling behind. The 1955-1980 period, by means of international funding, allowed catching up with the paradigm in maturation within the fourth technological revolution. However, in this period, it was determined the main debilitating elements for the country's entrance in the new techno-economical paradigm of the fifth technological revolution which emerged in the middle of the 70s. It is in the strategy to internationalize the economy, granting the mutinational companies the key-sectors of the national economy dynamics during the catching up period, the main element of dependence in the journey that conditions the current performance, responsible for technology subordination and keeps the Brazilian economy with low dynamism.

  16. The information for catching fly balls : Judging and intercepting virtual balls in a CAVE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaal, FTJM; Michaels, CF

    Visually guided action implies the existence of information as well as a control law relating that information to movement. For ball catching, the Chapman Strategy-keeping constant the rate of change of the tangent of the elevation angle (d(tan(alpha))/dt)-leads a catcher to the right location at

  17. The information for catching fly balls: judging and intercepting virtual balls in a CAVE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaal, F.T.J.M.; Michaels, C.F.

    2003-01-01

    Visually guided action implies the existence of information as well as a control law relating that information to movement. For ball catching, the Chapman Strategy - keeping constant the rate of change of the tangent of the elevation angle (d(tan(α))/dt) - leads a catcher to the right location at

  18. Employment assimilation of immigrants in the Netherlands: catching up and the irrelevance of education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zorlu, A.; Hartog, J.

    2008-01-01

    Using two Dutch labour force surveys, employment assimilation of immigrants is examined. We observe marked differences between immigrants by source country. Non-western immigrants never reach parity with native Dutch. Even second generation immigrants never fully catch up. Caribbean immigrants, who

  19. Employment assimilation of immigrants in the Netherlands: Catching up and the irrelevance of education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zorlu, A.; Hartog, J.

    2008-01-01

    Using two Dutch labour force surveys, employment assimilation of immigrants is examined. We observe marked differences between immigrants by source country. Non-western immigrants never reach parity with native Dutch. Even second generation immigrants never fully catch up. Caribbean immigrants, who

  20. A trouser bag experiment that quantify by-catch species escaping ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sea fishing trials were conducted to quantify by-catch species escaping from a modified shrimp trawl codend and retained in a trouser bag. Modification was by inserting a rectangular aluminum frame excluder device with bar spacing of 20mm at the anterior bunt. Thirty replicate landings showed that; Drepane africana have ...

  1. Influence of the annual flood-pulse on catch per unit effort, condition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of the annual flood-pulse on catch per unit effort, condition and reproduction of Clarias gariepinus from the upper Okavango Delta, Botswana. ... therefore, that conservation efforts should be focused on maintaining natural flow patterns in the face of climate change and potential water extraction schemes upstream.

  2. Anchoring to determine negotiated catch limits: a case study of an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite refinement in scientific methods of setting total allowable catches (TACs), the choice of values is affected by uncertainty that arises as a result of incomplete information and the behavioural intentions of resource users, among others. In this context, this paper promotes 'anchoring' – which is a subject of behavioural ...

  3. Solid-phase oligosaccharide synthesis with tris(alkoxy)benzyl amine (BAL) safety-catch anchoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolborg, Jakob Fjord; Jensen, Knud Jørgen

    2000-01-01

    A tris(alkoxy)benzylamine (BAL) handle strategy was developed for safety-catch anchoring of D-glucosamine derivatives in solid-phase synthesis of oligosaccharides; the linkage between the BAL handle and the amine proved stable to conc. TFA and Lewis acids, but after N-acylation the amide could...

  4. Fish catches from Lake Tanganyika mainly reflect changes in fishery practices, not climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarvala, J.; Langenberg, V.T.; Salonen, K.; Chitamwebwa, D.; Coulter, G.W.; Huttula, T.; Kanyaru, R.; Kotilainen, P.; Makasa, S.; Mulimbwa, N.; Molsa, H.

    2006-01-01

    Recently it was claimed that an increase in regional temperature, related to global climate change, has resulted in substantial decline in the pelagic fish catches from Lake Tanganyika, East Africa. Surface temperatures of Tanganyika indeed show warming trends, but evidence for decreased

  5. Factors influencing bruises and mortality of broilers during catching, transport, and lairage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijdam, E.; Arens, P.; Lambooij, E.; Decuypere, E.; Stegeman, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    A multilevel analysis was performed to identify and quantify risk factors associated with mortality and bruises occurring between catching and slaughter of broiler flocks. The effect of each factor in the final model was expressed as an odds ratio (OR). Data included 1,907 Dutch and German broiler

  6. Gear selectivity of large-mesh nets and drumlines used to catch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There were few significant differences in the size of both sharks and bycatch in the two gear types, apart from significantly smaller (p < 0.05) tiger sharks Galeocerdo cuvier being taken on drumlines and smaller green turtles Chelonia mydas in nets. Catch per unit effort showed orders of magnitude differences among ...

  7. Long-term trends in catch and effort in the Kwazulu-Natal nearshore ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Long-term trends in catch and effort in the Kwazulu-Natal nearshore linefisheries. AJ Penney, JB Mann-Lang, RP Van der Elst, C Wilke. Abstract. The boat-based linefishery is the most important marine fishery along the coast of KwaZulu-Natal, producing 40% of the total annual mass of fish landed there. Since 1900, the ...

  8. Project Catch: A space based solution to combat illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing. Part I: Vessel monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detsis, Emmanouil; Brodsky, Yuval; Knudtson, Peter; Cuba, Manuel; Fuqua, Heidi; Szalai, Bianca

    2012-11-01

    Space assets have a unique opportunity to play a more active role in global resource management. There is a clear need to develop resource management tools in a global framework. Illegal, Unregulated and Unreported (IUU) fishing is placing pressure on the health and size of fishing stocks around the world. Earth observation systems can provide fishery management organizations with cost effective monitoring of large swaths of ocean. Project Catch is a fisheries management project based upon the complimentary, but independent Catch-VMS and Catch-GIS systems. Catch-VMS is a Vessel Monitoring System with increased fidelity over existing offerings. Catch-GIS is a Geographical Information System that combines VMS information with existing Earth Observation data and other data sources to identify Illegal, Unregulated and Unreported (IUU) fishing. Project Catch was undertaken by 19 Masters students from the 2010 class of the International Space University. In this paper, the space-based system architecture of Project Catch is presented and analyzed. The rationale for the creation of the system, as well as the engineering trade-off studies in its creation, are discussed. The Catch-VMS proposal was envisaged in order to address two specific problems: (1) the expansion of illegal fishing to high-latitude regions where existing satellite systems coverage is an issue and (2) the lack of coverage in remote oceanic regions due to reliance on coastal-based monitoring. Catch-VMS utilizes ship-borne transponders and hosted-payload receivers on a Global Navigation Satellite System in order to monitor the position and activity of compliant fishing vessels. Coverage is global and continuous with multiple satellites in view providing positional verification through multilateration techniques. The second part of the paper briefly describes the Catch-GIS system and investigates its cost of implementation.

  9. Tuna and swordfish catch in the U.S. northwest Atlantic longline fishery in relation to mesoscale eddies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ango C; Boustany, Andre M; Roberts, Jason J; Chang, Jui-Han; Halpin, Patrick N

    2015-11-01

    To analyze the effects of mesoscale eddies, sea surface temperature (SST), and gear configuration on the catch of Atlantic bluefin ( Thunnus thynnus ), yellowfin ( Thunnus albacares ), and bigeye tuna ( Thunnus obesus ) and swordfish ( Xiphias gladius ) in the U.S. northwest Atlantic longline fishery, we constructed multivariate statistical models relating these variables to the catch of the four species in 62 121 longline hauls made between 1993 and 2005. During the same 13-year period, 103 anticyclonic eddies and 269 cyclonic eddies were detected by our algorithm in the region 30-55°N, 30-80°W. Our results show that tuna and swordfish catches were associated with different eddy structures. Bluefin tuna catch was highest in anticyclonic eddies whereas yellowfin and bigeye tuna catches were highest in cyclonic eddies. Swordfish catch was found preferentially in regions outside of eddies. Our study confirms that the common practice of targeting tuna with day sets and swordfish with night sets is effective. In addition, bluefin tuna and swordfish catches responded to most of the variables we tested in the opposite directions. Bluefin tuna catch was negatively correlated with longitude and the number of light sticks used whereas swordfish catch was positively correlated with these two variables. We argue that overfishing of bluefin tuna can be alleviated and that swordfish can be targeted more efficiently by avoiding fishing in anticyclonic eddies and in near-shore waters and using more light sticks and fishing at night in our study area, although further studies are needed to propose a solid oceanography-based management plan for catch selection.

  10. Rowing Injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thornton, Jane S; Vinther, Anders; Wilson, Fiona

    2017-01-01

    understanding in pre-participation screening, training load, emerging concepts surrounding back and rib injury, and relative energy deficiency in sport. Through a better understanding of the nature of the sport and mechanisms of injury, physicians and other healthcare providers will be better equipped to treat......-rowing populations. It has further expanded beyond its traditional flatwater format to include the discipline of open-water or coastal rowing, and an increased focus on indoor rowing. Rowing-specific injury research has similarly increased over the last decade since our last review, revealing areas of improved...... and prevent injuries in rowers....

  11. Injury Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Certification Import Surveillance International Recall Guidance Civil and Criminal Penalties Federal Court Orders & Decisions Research & Statistics Research & Statistics Technical Reports Injury Statistics NEISS ...

  12. On rational usage of catches during the trap fishery in the Barents Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolov K. M.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work is the search for resources to increase the fullness and complexity of using commercial catches of the red king crab and snow crab in the Barents Sea. The causes of the by-catches during the new trap fishery for commercial crustaceans in the Barents Sea have been analyzed and discards from the catches have been estimated. The main portion of discards is crab processing wastes, including the cephalothorax and internal organs and tissues placed in. According to estimations in 2006–2015 during the Russian trap fishery of red king crab and snow crab, the annual weight of discards ranged from 1.3 to 4.6 thou. t. These years about 2.8 thou. t of biological materials have been thrown back at sea annually. About 85 % of the total mass of wastes in 2006–2015 has been the red king crabs body parts. Due to the high abundance and biomass of the red king crab stock observed in the recent years accompanied by an increase of the snow crab commercial stock, some increase in the total mass of discards of two crabs can be expected, as well as some increase in the portion of discards from snow crab fishery. Current circumstances preventing the full processing of crabs catches are the technical limitations of fishing vessels, as well as the absence of onshore enterprises capable for processing waste from crab fishery. The full use of catches of the red king crab and the snow crab in the Barents Sea could provide the raw materials for production of food products, as well as a wide range of pharmaceuticals for humans and animals.

  13. The effect of load uncertainty on anticipatory muscle activity in catching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckerle, Jason J; Berg, William P; Ward, Rose Marie

    2012-08-01

    To investigate how the CNS copes with load uncertainty in catching, anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) in one-handed catching of balls of known and unknown weights were compared. Twenty-nine (n = 29) men (mean age = 21.1 years) participated, all of whom had engaged in a sport activity requiring hand-eye coordination. Participants' muscle activity in the biceps brachii, triceps brachii, wrist flexor group, and bilateral erector spinae at L4-5 was recorded using electromyography (EMG) while they caught visually identical balls of four different weights (0.5, 1.33, 2.17, and 3.0 kg). EMG integrals were computed for the 1 s prior to ball drop (pre-drop period), and the interval between ball drop and catch (drop period). Uncertainty about ball weight had no effect on APA activity during the pre-drop period. During the drop period, however, load uncertainty did influence APA activity in the biceps brachii, triceps brachii, and the wrist flexor muscles (i.e., the effect of ball weight on APA magnitude depended on the presence or absence of load knowledge). In the known ball weight condition, participants exhibit greater APA magnitude with increases in ball weight. In contrast, under the unknown ball weight condition, APA magnitude was relatively consistent across ball weights and at a level similar to the APA magnitude for an intermediate weight (i.e., the second heaviest ball of four) in the known weight condition. In catching balls of unknown weights, the CNS appears to scale APA magnitude to afford the greatest chance of catching the ball, regardless of the weight.

  14. Catch-Up Growth of Children After Renal Transplantation - Labafi-Nejad Hospital (1998-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Otukesh

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children with coronary renal failure had problems with their catch-up growth. The aim of this study was the Assessment of catch-up growth of children after renal transplantation by analyzing the 6 months changes in height deficit and height standard deviation scores (SDS on age, sex, initial height deficit, initial SDS, graft function, renal failure duration and renal transplantation duration. Methods and Materials: Between 22 September 1998 and 2000, 25 pediatric recipients followed up quarterly for height in the Labafi-Nejad hospital. Data on height submitted at each 6-month follow-up were converted into height and SDS. All the results were analyzed by simple and multiple regression and t-test. Results: 68 percents were male and 32 percent were female Mean age at transplantation was 10.39±2.95 SD years. The average duration of renal transplantation was 20.7±8.96 SD months. The aerage of height deficit was 20.7 cm (±10.55 SD and SDS -3.5 (±1.72 SD at the time of renal transplantation. The height deficit was more significant in the patients with tubulopathy. Catch-up growth observed at month 12. That was more obvious in females, in patients with tubulopathy disorders, in preemptives and in all three age groups. Simple and stepwise regression analysis showed that at month 12 only initial height deficit (P<0.05 and at month 24, only sex (P<0.05 were independent predictor of improved height post transplantation. Catch-up growth were seen in more student patients and girls. This may be the result of puberty spurt that occur two years sooner in girls than in boys. Conclusion: In this study we concluded that the renal transplantation alone is not sufficient measure for correction of catch-up growth in renal failure children and because of that the other treatments should come under consideration.

  15. Physiological response of some economically important freshwater salmonids to catch-and-release fishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedemeyer, G.A.; Wydoski, R.S.

    2008-01-01

    Catch-and-release fishing regulations are widely used by fishery resource managers to maintain both the quantity and quality of sport fish populations. We evaluated blood chemistry disturbances in wild brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, brown trout Salmo trutta, cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii, and Arctic grayling Thymallus arcticus that had been hooked and played for 1-5 min in waters of the intermountain western United States. A hatchery stock of brown trout was included for comparison. To assess time needed for recovery, additional test groups were played for 5 min and then released into net-pens, where they were held for up to 72 h. The osmoregulatory and metabolic disturbances associated with catch-and-release fishing under the conditions we tested were minimal and judged to be well within normal physiological tolerance limits. In fish that were held for recovery, the blood chemistry alterations that did occur appeared to be related to stress from confinement in the net-pens. Our results confirm the results of previous studies, showing that prerelease air exposure and handling cause more physiological stress than does either hooking per se or playing time. Fishery managers must be aware of the differences in the perceptions, attitudes, and values of different societal groups, some of which feel that catch-and-release fishing should be banned because it is cruel to the animals. On the basis of brain anatomy, it seems highly unlikely that fish experience pain in the same manner as humans experience it, because fish lack a neocortex, the brain structure that enables the sensation of pain in higher vertebrates. However, independent of the neurobiological argument, our results indicate that under conditions similar to those tested, fish subjected to catch and release are neither suffering nor particularly stressed. Improved education programs about the relatively benign physiological effects of catch-and-release fishing as a fishery management practice would

  16. QUESTIONS OF EVALUATION OF POSTNATAL GROWTH IN PRETERM CHILDREN PART 2. CATCH-UP GROWTH IN PRETERM INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Kiosov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The term catch-up growth is now widely used in neonatology and pediatrics to describe the growth of preterm infants. Catch-up growth — is a compensatory strengthening of the body's growth after a period of slow growth. The lower the gestational age of the premature baby, the more intense catch-up growth in the future.Catch-up growth is considered an important criterion for evaluating nursing preterm infants. Formation of catch-up growth is seen as a favorable outcome. Evaluation of catch-up growth is carried out with the use of percentiles and standard deviations (Z-score. Catch-up growth has a positive effect on neurological outcome. Catch-up growth achieved if the growth rates are between 5 and 10 percentile. The values of growth are satisfactory if they are located at the 10th percentile and above. Catch-up growth is achieved with a standard deviation greater than minus 2 (Z-score. The optimal parameters are considered indicators located within two standard deviations of the mean.Estimation of the growth should be carried out optimally weekly. Growth curves help to determine when the catch-up growth begins. After discharge from the hospital catch-up growth continues. Catch-up growth occurs within the first year of life. The critical period for catch-up growth are considered the first 6 months. Subsequently, the growth rate decreases. The growth is not sufficient, if the values are below the 3 percentile. About 50% of the causes impaired growth is due to the shortage of supply. Premature babies can have problems with food and after discharge from the hospital. The very rapid growth may lead to the development of metabolic syndrome in later life. Low birth weight is associated with increased risk of hypertension, stroke, and diabetes. Compensatory growth often occurs with excessive deposition of fat. In assessing the growth necessary to accommodate the growth of muscle mass and fat mass. Maintaining optimal growth rate is important for the

  17. ACL Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... U.S. Soccer have seen positive results and fewer injuries with PEP. The Santa Monica Sports Medicine Foundation (SMSMF) created this program. There is no clear evidence that use of a knee brace prevents ACL injuries. There also is no ...

  18. Non-minor injuries among children sustained in an outdoor environment--a retrospective register study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyllencreutz, Lina; Rolfsman, Ewa; Saveman, Britt-Inger

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to investigate non-minor injuries sustained during outdoor activities among 0-12 year old children and to explore self-reported circumstances surrounding these incidents. During 2007-2009, the Umeå University Hospital injury database (IDB) registered 795 children with moderate (n = 778) and serious (n = 17) injuries, such as fractures. The IDB includes data from a questionnaire completed in the emergency department by the injured child or a parent. The open-ended questions catch the injured child's description of what circumstances precede the injury incident. The most commonly reported activities contributing to injuries were play, sport, and transport. Surface impacts were also reported as contributing factors along with products such as trampolines, bicycles, and downhill skis. By achieving a deeper knowledge about the activities and circumstances that precede non-minor injury incidents, creating safer outdoor environments may be feasible.

  19. Seasonal Variations of Oceanographic Variables and Eastern Little Tuna (Euthynnus affinis) Catches in the North Indramayu Waters Java Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syamsuddin, Mega; Sunarto; Yuliadi, Lintang

    2018-02-01

    The remotely derived oceanographic variables included sea surface temperature (SST), chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and Eastern Little Tuna (Euthynnus affinis) catches are used as a combined dataset to understand the seasonal variation of oceanographic variables and Eastern Little Tuna catches in the north Indramayu waters, Java Sea. The fish catches and remotely sensed data were analysed for the 5 years datasets from 2010-2014. This study has shown the effect of monsoon inducing oceanographic condition in the study area. Seasonal change features were dominant for all the selected oceanographic parameters of SST and Chl-a, and also Eastern Little Tuna catches, respectively. The Eastern Little Tuna catch rates have the peak season from September to December (700 to 1000) ton that corresponded with the value of SST ranging from 29 °C to 30 °C following the decreasing of Chl-a concentrations in September to November (0.4 to 0.5) mg m-3. The monsoonal system plays a great role in determining the variability of oceanographic conditions and catch in the north Indramayu waters, Java Sea. The catches seemed higher during the northwest monsoon than in the southeast monsoon for all year observations except in 2010. The wavelet spectrum analysis results confirmed that Eastern Little Tuna catches had seasonal and inter-annual variations during 2012-2014. The SST had seasonal variations during 2010-2014. The Chl-a also showed seasonal variations during 2010-2011 and interannual variations during 2011-2014. Our results would benefit the fishermen and policy makers to have better management for sustainable catch in the study area.

  20. Catch-Up Growth Occurs after Diarrhea in Early Childhood123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Stephanie A.; Black, Robert E.; Gilman, Robert H.; Guerrant, Richard L.; Kang, Gagandeep; Lanata, Claudio F.; Mølbak, Kåre; Rasmussen, Zeba A.; Sack, R. Bradley; Valentiner-Branth, Palle; Checkley, William

    2014-01-01

    Diarrhea and linear growth faltering continue to burden low-income countries and are among the most important contributors to poor health during early childhood. Diarrhea is thought to adversely affect linear growth, but catch-up growth can occur if no additional insults are experienced. We sought to characterize catch-up growth in relation to diarrhea burden in a multisite dataset of 1007 children. Using longitudinal anthropometry and diarrheal surveillance data from 7 cohort studies in 4 countries, we examined the relation between diarrhea prevalence and growth in 3- to 6-mo periods using linear mixed-effect models. Growth during each period was calculated as a function of age using linear splines. We incorporated the longitudinal prevalence of diarrhea in both current and previous periods into the model. Diarrhea during the current period was associated with slower linear and ponderal growth. Faster (catch-up) growth in length was observed in children with no diarrhea in age groups immediately after an age group in which diarrhea was experienced [age group >6–12 mo: 0.03 mm/mo for each percentage diarrhea prevalence in the previous period (95% CI: 0.007, 0.06) relative to 11.3 mm/mo mean growth rate; age group >12–18 mo: 0.04 mm/mo (95% CI: 0.02, 0.06) relative to 8.9 mm/mo mean growth rate; age group >18–24 mo: 0.04 mm/mo (95% CI: 0.003, 0.09) relative to 7.9 mm/mo mean growth rate]. The associations were stronger in boys than in girls when separate models were run. Similar results were observed when weight was the outcome variable. When diarrheal episodes are followed by diarrhea-free periods in the first 2 y of life, catch-up growth is observed that may allow children to regain their original trajectories. The finding of a greater effect of diarrhea on linear growth in boys than in girls was unexpected and requires additional study. Diarrhea burdens are high throughout the first 2 y of life in these study sites, therefore reducing the likelihood of

  1. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available menu Understanding Spinal Cord Injury What is a Spinal Cord Injury Levels of Injury and What They Mean Animated Spinal Cord Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and ...

  2. Repetitive Stress Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Repetitive Stress Injuries KidsHealth / For Teens / Repetitive Stress Injuries What's ... t had any problems since. What Are Repetitive Stress Injuries? Repetitive stress injuries (RSIs) are injuries that ...

  3. Effectiveness of catch basins equipped with hoods in retaining gross solids and hydrocarbons in highway runoff, Southeast Expressway, Boston, Massachusetts, 2008-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2011-01-01

    Stormwater mobilizes litter and other debris along the roadway where it is transported to the highway drainage systems. Initial treatment for stormwater runoff typically is provided by catch basins in highway settings. Modification of catch basins to include hoods that cover the catch-basin outlet is intended to enhance catch-basin performance by retaining floatable debris and various hydrophobic organic compounds that tend to float on the water surface within the sump of the catch basin. The effectiveness of six deep-sump off-line catch basins equipped with hoods in reducing the mass of gross solids greater than 0.25 inches in diameter and concentrations of oil and grease (OG) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was examined along the Southeast Expressway, in Boston, Massachusetts. Two deep-sump catch basins were equipped with cast-iron hoods. Three were equipped with molded plastic hoods, known as an Eliminator, and a single catch basin was equipped with a fiberglass anti-siphoning hood, known as a Snout. Samples of gross solids greater than 0.25 inches in diameter, excluding gravel and metallic materials, were routinely collected for a 6-month period from a collection structure mounted at the end of each catch-basin outlet pipe. After about 6 months, all floatable, saturated low-density and high-density solids were removed from each catch basin. In addition to the collection of samples of gross solids, samples of sump water from five catch basins and flow-weighted composite samples of stormwater from the outlet of one catch basin were collected and analyzed for concentrations of OG and TPH. A mass balance approach was used to assess the effectiveness of each catch basin equipped with a hood in retaining gross solids. The effectiveness of the deep-sump catch basins fitted with one of three types of hoods in retaining gross solids ranged from 27 to 52 percent. From 45 to 90 percent of the gross solids collected from the catch-basin sumps were composed of

  4. Catch-Quota Management - an example of result based fisheries management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Eskild; Schou, Mogens; Dalskov, Jørgen

    The European Commission tabled in July 2011 a proposal for a revision of the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP). A central element of the revision is the introduction of a quota management system where all fish caught count against the quotas. The principle of full accountability of the catch...... to plan and conduct the fishing operation to meet these results. Experiences from Danish trials with Catch Quota Management (CQM) conducted in 2008 to 2012 is presented and the possibilities of simplifying the current EU fisheries management and control regulations under a CQM system are evaluated...... is a complete change from present management where only the fish landed count against the quotas. The principle of full accountability opens for the introduction of a result based fisheries management strategy, where a fishery is regulated by clearly stated results and the fisher enjoys a maximum of freedom...

  5. Reconstruction of walleye exploitation based on angler diary records and a model of predicted catches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willms, Allan R; Green, David M

    2007-11-01

    The walleye population in Canadarago Lake, New York, was 81-95% exploited in the 1988 fishing season, the year in which a previous restriction on the length and number of legally harvestable fish was liberalized. Using diary records from a subset of fishermen, growth estimates, and an estimate of the walleye population in the following year, a method is developed to reconstruct the fish population back to the spring of 1988 and thus determine the exploitation rate. The method is based on a model of diary catches that partitions time and fish length into a set of cells and relates predicted catches and population sizes in these cells. The method's sensitivity to the partitioning scheme, the growth estimates, and the diary data is analyzed. The method could be employed in other fish exploitation analyses and demonstrates the use of inexpensive angler-collected data in fisheries management.

  6. Catch of pelagic hauls in Mediterranean acoustic surveys: Is it the same between day and night?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanassios Machias

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fish sampling is a critical aspect of acoustic surveys, because it is directly related to the “transformation” of echo into species biomass and subsequently affects the accuracy of acoustic estimates. In the present study, we investigated the differences between day and night sampling in a the catch composition through certain diversity indices and b the length frequency distribution of anchovy and sardine using catch data of pelagic hauls collected from four different regions of the European Mediterranean waters. In addition, the possible bias in trawl efficiency due to sampling time and the possible error introduced in acoustic estimates were investigated. No statistically significant differences were found between day and night in any of the parameters examined. The results showed that a more flexible strategy can be adopted to reduce the duration and the cost of acoustic sampling for small pelagic species. The advantages and disadvantages of the two sampling strategies are discussed.

  7. Sensory Properties of Frozen Herring (Clupea harengus) from Different Catch Seasons and Locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldig, Grethe; Jørgensen, Bo Munk; Undeland, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    Freezing of herring (Clupea harengus) for human consumption is increasing in the Nordic herring industry, either onboard the fishing vessels or right after landing. The quality of frozen herring as a raw material does not only depend on the frozen storage conditions applied, but also on compositi......Freezing of herring (Clupea harengus) for human consumption is increasing in the Nordic herring industry, either onboard the fishing vessels or right after landing. The quality of frozen herring as a raw material does not only depend on the frozen storage conditions applied, but also...... content, which in turn varied with season. An unexpected conclusion was that catching location only had a minor affect on the changes in sensory quality of herring during frozen storage. Knowledge about how season and catching location affect herring during frozen storage will be useful for optimizing...

  8. Catch crop biomass production, nitrogen uptake and root development under different tillage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Hansen, Elly Møller

    2012-01-01

    ). Above-ground biomass production and N uptake were measured in the catch crops and the main crop. Catch crop root growth was studied using both minirhizotron and core methods. Soil penetration resistance was recorded to 60 cm depth. Fodder radish and RG produced up to 1800 kg/ha dry matter and DW 900 kg...... tinctoria L.), perennial ryegrass (RG) (Lolium perenne L.) and fodder radish (FR) (Raphanus sativus L.) under three tillage systems. For that, we used a tillage experiment established in 2002 on a Danish sandy loam. The tillage treatments were direct drilling (D), harrowing to 8–10 cm (H) and ploughing (P...... significant in 2008. The minirhizotron root measurements showed that the crucifers FR and DW achieved better subsoil rooting than RG. In contrast, the soil core data showed no significant difference between FR and RG in subsoil root growth. Our study highlights the need for further studies on subsoil root...

  9. Catch-slip bonds can be dispensable for motor force regulation during skeletal muscle contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chenling; Chen, Bin

    2015-07-01

    It is intriguing how multiple molecular motors can perform coordinated and synchronous functions, which is essential in various cellular processes. Recent studies on skeletal muscle might have shed light on this issue, where rather precise motor force regulation was partly attributed to the specific stochastic features of a single attached myosin motor. Though attached motors can randomly detach from actin filaments either through an adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis cycle or through "catch-slip bond" breaking, their respective contribution in motor force regulation has not been clarified. Here, through simulating a mechanical model of sarcomere with a coupled Monte Carlo method and finite element method, we find that the stochastic features of an ATP hydrolysis cycle can be sufficient while those of catch-slip bonds can be dispensable for motor force regulation.

  10. Big catch, little sharks: Insight into Peruvian small-scale longline fisheries

    OpenAIRE

    Doherty, Philip D; Alfaro-Shigueto, Joanna; Hodgson, David J; Mangel, Jeffrey C; Witt, Matthew J; Godley, Brendan J

    2014-01-01

    Shark take, driven by vast demand for meat and fins, is increasing. We set out to gain insights into the impact of small-scale longline fisheries in Peru. Onboard observers were used to document catch from 145 longline fishing trips (1668 fishing days) originating from Ilo, southern Peru. Fishing effort is divided into two seasons: targeting dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus; December to February) and sharks (March to November). A total of 16,610 sharks were observed caught, with 11,166 identi...

  11. Pendekatan Catching-Up Product Cycle untuk Industri Elektronika di Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Wiratmo, Masykur

    2002-01-01

    Catching-up product cycle (CPC) is still as powerful framework to analyze industrial performance, especially for foot-loose industry such as electronics in Indonesia although the CPC approach is established in Japan having different culture, social-politics and economic environment. The CPC can explain well the development of industry.Indonesian electronic industry has grown since Indonesia industrialized its economy. However, almost 20 years electronic Industry grew slowly as the CPC framewo...

  12. Pendekatan Catching-Up Product Cycle Untuk Industri Elektronika Di Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Wiratmo, Masykur

    2009-01-01

    Catching-up product cycle (CPC) is still as powerful framework to analyze industrial performance, especially for foot-loose industry such as electronics in Indonesia although the CPC approach is established in Japan having different culture, social-politics and economic environment. The CPC can explain well the development of industry.Indonesian electronic industry has grown since Indonesia industrialized its economy. However, almost 20 years electronic Industry grew slowly as the CPC framewo...

  13. Stranding and incidental catch of sea turtles in the coastal Tumbes, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Rosales

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Strandings and incidental catches of four sea turtles species (Chelonia mydas, Lepidochelys olivacea, Dermochelys coriacea and Eretmochelys imbricata were registered in Tumbes Region since August 2007 to August 2009. These registers (52.6% of strandings and 47.4% of incidental catches occurred during all year; most frequently in Punta Picos (50.5%, Canoas (20.0% and Baja de Punta Mero (14.7%. The most registered species were C. mydas (64.2% and L. olivacea (30.5%; their sizes did not present significant differences between areas and climatic seasons. The higher percentage of C. mydas, L. olivacea and D. coriacea were considered sub-adults, including the only specimen of E. imbricata. The incidental catches were made with gillnets of different mesh sizes, but 8 inches mesh was most frequently. A high proportions of specimens were died with signs of drowning (22.2% this was due to the prolonged time of soak time of gillnet (approximately 12 hours. No significant differences in CPUE were found between climatic seasons and no seasonal pattern was evident. Lesions in 14% of stranded specimens were caused possibly by human attacks or by collisions with fishing boats. 77.8% of incidental catch specimens were sacrificed for the commercialization of his meat, and sometimes of his shell, this shows the lack of awareness of conservation. These observations indicate that the coast of Tumbes is an important foraging area and development of sub-adult specimens of sea turtles; so it is recomend to develop monitoring, awareness and critical areas protection programs to foment the conservation of these organisms in the Eastern Pacific.

  14. BUBBLE-NET - System to catch fish and the respective method of use

    OpenAIRE

    Teresa Margarida Mouga

    2014-01-01

    Fishing is a socio-economic activity of great relevance worldwide. However the environmental sustainability of the fishing arts is far from being effective. It is necessary to find more selective types of fishing to ensure sustainable catches of target species and also to protect other organisms accidentally caught with no commercial value. The answer to these problems arise, often, from the nature itself, as is the case of bubble net feeding, the feeding behavior of the humpback whale (Megap...

  15. Lightning Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News) Small Study Uncovers Brain Disease in Former Soccer Players (Video) Anterior Cruciate Ligament (Video) Resisted Finger Abduction and Extension With Putty Additional Content Medical News Lightning Injuries By Daniel P. Runde, MD, MME, Assistant Clinical ...

  16. Urethral Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News) Small Study Uncovers Brain Disease in Former Soccer Players (Video) Anterior Cruciate Ligament (Video) Resisted Finger Abduction and Extension With Putty Additional Content Medical News Urethral Injuries By Noel A. Armenakas, MD, Clinical Professor of ...

  17. Electrical injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... RS, Gausche-Hill M, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 134. Price LA, Loiacono LA. Electrical and lightning injury. In: Cameron JL, Cameron AM, eds. Current Surgical ...

  18. Spinal injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2016. Kaji AH, Newton EJ, Hockberger RS. Spinal injuries. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  19. Corneal injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001017.htm Corneal injury To use the sharing features on this page, ... Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  20. Electrical Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... how quickly you get treatment. Causes of electrical injuries include Lightning strikes Faulty electrical appliances Work-related exposures Contact with household wiring or power lines Accidents in small children, when they bite or suck on electrical cords, ...

  1. Hamstring Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a hamstring injury if you play soccer, basketball, football, tennis or a similar sport that involves sprinting ... may not be able to bear the full force of the action required during certain activities. Muscle ...

  2. Testicular Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can happen when the testicle receives a forceful direct blow or when the testicle is crushed against ... to avoid testicular injuries, especially if you play sports, exercise a lot, or just live an all- ...

  3. Crush injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... M, Ragazzoni L, Djatali A, Della Corte F. Introduction to structural collapse (crush injury and crush syndrome). ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  4. Improvement of red pepper yield and soil environment by summer catch aquatic crops in greenhouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, X. F.; Wang, L. Z.; Peng, J.; Wang, G. L.; Guo, X. S.; Wen, T. G.; Gu, D. L.; Wang, W. Z.; Wu, C. W.

    2016-08-01

    To investigate effects of the rotation of summer catch crops on remediation retrogressed soils in continuous cropping, a field experiment was conducted. Rice, water spinach, or cress were selected as summer catch crops; bare fallow during summer fallow was used as the control group. Results showed that aquatic crops grown in summer fallow period could effectively reduce soil bulk density and pH, facilitate soil nutrient release, and improve soil physical and chemical properties compared with those grown in fallow period. Paddy-upland rotation could improve soil microbial members and increase bacterial and actinomycete populations; by contrast, paddy-upland rotation could reduce fungal populations and enhance bacterium-to-fungus ratio. Paddy-upland rotation could also actively promote activities of soil enzymes, such as urease, phosphatase, invertase, and catalase. The proposed paddy-upland rotation significantly affected the growth of red pepper; the yield and quality of the grown red pepper were enhanced. Summer catch crops, such as rice, water spinach, and cress significantly increased pepper yield in the following growing season by 15.4%, 10.2% and 14.0%, respectively, compared with those grown in fallow treatment. Therefore, the proposed paddy-upland crop rotation could be a useful method to alleviate continuous cropping problems involved in cultivating red pepper in greenhouses.

  5. Catch up growth and social capability in developing countries: A conceptual and measurement proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Andersson

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available While the income per capita in the developing world since the turn of the Millennium has grown faster than that of the developed world, the question whether there is an ongoing process of catching up between countries remains. The notion of income convergence has provided many insights into the sources for long-run growth but has largely neglected the role of social capabilities in economic development. By social capabilities we mean the qualification of the ‘theory of convergence’ which asserts that productivity growth rates  between countries tend to vary inversely with regard to productivity levels. The social capabilities approach holds that a country’s potential for rapid growth is strong when “it is technologically backward but socially advanced” (see Abramovitz, 1986:388. This means that the potential to catch up under globalization is strongest for countries in which social capabilities are developed to allow successful use of technologies and where institutional arrangements are conducive to economic progress. Yet there is no clear agreement in the literature on the main components of social capabilities or how to measure them. Our framework argues that the role of capabilities in catching up needs to understand them in terms of structural transformation, economic and social inclusion, state´s autonomy and accountability. Without progress in these dimensions within-country inequality may increase and might in turn lead to stagnating growth and slim prospects for global income convergence.

  6. Paper Fish and Policy Conflict: Catch Shares and Ecosystem-Based Management in Maine's Groundfishery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer F. Brewer

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration professes support for ecosystem-based fisheries management, as mandated by Congress in the Fishery Conservation and Management Act, and as endorsed by the Obama Administration's national ocean policy. Nonetheless, driving agency policies, including catch shares and fishing quotas, focus principally on individual species, diverting attention from ecosystem considerations such as habitat, migratory patterns, trophic relationships, fishing gear, and firm-level decision making. Environmental non-governmental organization (ENGO agendas manifest similar inconsistencies. A case study of Maine's groundfishery demonstrates implications of this policy conflict at the local level. There, multigenerational fishing villages have historically pursued diversified and adaptive livelihood strategies, supported by local ecological knowledge. This tradition is increasingly eroded by regulatory constraints, including catch shares. Field observation, interviews, survey data, and archival review reveal that industry-supported, ecosystem-focused proposals have been rejected by the New England Fishery Management Council, despite the apparent failure of single-species approaches to sustain fish populations, fished ecosystems, and fishing-dependent communities. The creation of groundfishery catch share sectors is likely to perpetuate industry consolidation and political entrenchment under more mobile capital, following precedent set by days-at-sea, and making area protections and gear restrictions less likely. Pending marine spatial planning efforts could enhance social-ecological resilience by creating new opportunities for transdisciplinary decision support, and broader public participation and accountability.

  7. The Potential Research of Catch Crop in Decrease Soil Nitrate Under Greenhouse Vegetable Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YIN Xing

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to clarify the impact of catch crops on greenhouse vegetable soil nitrate, explore the mechanism of barrier and controll soil nitrogen leaching losses in greenhouse, and provide a theoretical basis for control nitrogen leaching and prevention of groundwater pollution, this study selected the traditional greenhouse vegetable rotation system in North China plain as research subjects, using field situ remediation technologies on deep-root planting catch crops in the vegetable fallow period by sweet corn, Achyranthes bidentata and white Chrysanthemum. The results showed that: nitrogen content and nitrogen uptake of sweet corn and sweet corn with Achyranthes bidentata intercropping were the highest, respectively 20.11 t·hm-2, 19.62 t·hm-2 and 240.34 kg·hm-2, 287.56 kg·hm-2, significantly higher than white Chrysanthemum. The density of root length and root dry weight decreased with soil depth in the profiles, root length density was demonstrated in order as: intercropping sweet corn> sweet corn> white Chrysanthemum> intercropping Achyranthes bidentata blume. The reduction of NO3--N of sweet corn reached 907.87 kg·hm-2 in soil profile 0~200 cm, significantly higher than sweet corn and hyssop intercropping and white Chrysanthemums. In the interim period of vegetable crop rotation, planting catch crops could effectively reduce nitrate accumulation in the soil, control the soil profile nitrate leaching down.

  8. Genetic Evidence Highlights Potential Impacts of By-Catch to Cetaceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Martin; Rosenbaum, Howard C.; Wells, Randall S.; Stamper, Andrew; Bordino, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    Incidental entanglement in fishing gear is arguably the most serious threat to many populations of small cetaceans, judging by the alarming number of captured animals. However, other aspects of this threat, such as the potential capture of mother-offspring pairs or reproductive pairs, could be equally or even more significant but have rarely been evaluated. Using a combination of demographic and genetic data we provide evidence that i) Franciscana dolphin pairs that are potentially reproductive and mother-offspring pairs form temporal bonds, and ii) are entangled simultaneously. Our results highlight potential demographic and genetic impacts of by-catch to cetacean populations: the joint entanglement of mother-offspring or reproductive pairs, compared to random individuals, might exacerbate the demographic consequences of by-catch, and the loss of groups of relatives means that significant components of genetic diversity could be lost together. Given the social nature of many odontocetes (toothed cetaceans), we suggest that these potential impacts could be rather general to the group and therefore by-catch could be more detrimental than previously considered. PMID:21179542

  9. Applying a reservoir functional-zone paradigm to littoral bluegills: differences in length and catch frequency?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Ruhl

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Reservoirs exhibit gradients in conditions and resources along the transition from lotic to lentic habitat that may be important to bluegill ecology. The lotic–lentic gradient can be partitioned into three functional zones: the riverine, transitional, and lacustrine zones. We measured catch frequency and length of bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus captured along the periphery of these areas (i.e., in the littoral zone of each functional zone for four small reservoirs in Southeastern Ohio during the summer months of three years. Catch frequency differed between zones for two reservoirs, but these differences were not observed in other years. There was no relationship between reservoir zone and either standard length or catch frequency when the data for all reservoirs were pooled, but we did observe a bimodal length distribution in all reservoirs. A combination of ecological factors including inter and intraspecific competition, predation intensity, management practices, limnology, and assemblage complexity may be mitigating bluegill distribution and abundance in reservoirs. Therefore, a functional zone (categorical approach to understanding bluegill ecology in reservoirs may not be appropriate.

  10. Deletion mapping of 22q11 in CATCH22 syndrome: Identification of a second critical region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurahashi, Hiroki; Nakayama, Takahiro; Nishisho, Isamu [Osaka Univ. Medical School, Yokohama (Japan)] [and others

    1996-06-01

    The deletion at 22q11.2 implicates a variety of congenital anomaly syndromes, for which the acronym CATCH22 has been proposed . Most patients with these syndromes share the common large deletion spanning 1-2 Mb, while the phenotypic variability of the patients does not seem to correlate with the extent of the deletions. On the basis of the deletions of rare cases with unbalanced translocation, the shortest region of overlap (SRO) had been identified in the most-centromeric region of the common large deletion. One patient (ADU) has been reported to carry a balanced translocation with the breakpoint located in the SRO. Recently, three transcripts were identified at or very close to the ADU breakpoint (ADUBP), making them strong candidates for CATCH22 syndrome. Here, we describe one patient with a unique deletion at 22q11.2 revealed by quantitative hybridization and/or FISH with six DNA markers in the common large deletion. The patient was dizygous at loci within the SRO and hemizygous only at the most-telomeric locus in the common large deletion. This finding suggests that there must be another critical region in the common large deletion besides the breakpoint of the ADU and that haploinsufficiency of genes in this deletion may also play a major role in CATCH22 pathogenesis. 15 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Test Plan for Measuring Ventilation Rates and Combustible Gas Levels in TWRS Active Catch Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NGUYEN, D.M.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this data collection activity is to obtain data for a screening of combustible gases in catch tanks that are currently operated by the River Protection Project (RPP). The results will be used to support closure of the flammable gas unreviewed safety question for these facilities. The data collection will be conducted in accordance with the ''Tank Safety Screening Data Quality Objective'' (Dukelow et al. 1995). Combustible gas, ammonia, and organic vapor levels in the headspace of the catch tanks will be field-measured using hand-held instruments. If a combustible gas level measurement in a tank exceeds an established threshold, vapor grab samples (i.e., Hoke and SUMMA) will be collected for laboratory analysis. In addition, ventilation rates of some catch tanks will be determine using the tracer gas injection method to evaluate removal of flammable gas by air flowing through the tanks. This test plan identifies the field tests, sample collection, laboratory analysis, quality assurance, and reporting objectives for this data collection effort. The plan also provides step-by-step direction for field measurement of combustible gas concentrations and determination of ventilation rates

  12. Test Plan for Measuring Ventilation Rates and Combustible Gas Levels in TWRS Active Catch Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NGUYEN, D.M.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this data collection activity is to obtain data for a screening of combustible gases in catch tanks that are currently operated by the River Protection Project (RPP). The results will be used to support closure of the flammable gas unreviewed safety question for these facilities. The data collection will be conducted in accordance with the ''Tank Safety Screening Data Quality Objective'' (Dukelow et a1 1995). Combustible gas, ammonia, and organic vapor levels in the headspace of the catch tanks will be field-measured using hand-held instruments. If a combustible gas level measurement in a tank exceeds an established threshold, vapor grab samples will be collected for laboratory analysis. In addition, ventilation rates of some catch tanks will be determined using the tracer gas injection method to evaluate removal of flammable gas by air flowing through the tanks. This test plan identifies the field tests, sample collection, laboratory analysis, quality assurance, and reporting objectives for this data collection effort. The plan also provides step by-step direction for field measurement of combustible gas concentrations and determination of ventilation rates

  13. Assessing environmental performance in the European Union: Eco-innovation versus catching-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltrán-Esteve, Mercedes; Picazo-Tadeo, Andrés J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper assesses environmental performance in the European Union (EU) using Luenberger productivity indicators, directional distance functions and Data Envelopment Analysis techniques. It considers four indicators of the pressures exerted by economic activity on the environment: global warming, tropospheric ozone formation, acidification and particulate formation. The change in environmental performance from the early 2000s onwards is decomposed at the levels of country and environmental pressure, and as the result of eco-innovations and catching-up with the best available environmental technologies; furthermore, we distinguish between the periods of economic growth (2001–07) and severe crisis (2007–13). Our main finding is that environmental performance improved in both periods, mainly fuelled by advances in environmental technology. Accordingly, environmental policies aimed at boosting catching-up are highly recommended, particularly in the newer member states that joined the EU from 2004 onwards, which perform further away from their respective environmental technological frontiers. In addition, re-establishing the pre-crisis eco-innovation investment levels would also be highly advisable in order to return to the rates of environmental technical progress registered in the expansion period. - Highlights: • Environmental performance has noticeably improved in the EU since the 2000's. • Eco-innovations have bolstered progress in environmental performance. • Policies aimed at boosting catching-up are highly recommended in the EU.

  14. THE CATCHING-UP DEVELOPMENT: THE ASEAN EXPERIENCE AND IMPORT SUBSTITUTION POLICY OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т Ю Шалденкова

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The experience of catching-up development of ASEAN countries becomes valuable in the conditions of the Russian of import substitution policy and “turn to the East” in geopolitics. The objective of the paper is revealing the prospects of native catching-up development based on the analysis of theoretical aspects of the model of “flying geese” and their practical application in the ASEAN countries and Russia. The paper presents the theoretical foundations of catching-up development in the framework of the Flying Geese paradigm in the works of K. Akamatsu, R. Vernon, K. Kojima and indicates its main stages. The author reviews the measures of industrial, trade and investment policy of the ASEAN countries on the initial stages of the model and the modern aspects of their economic development. The materials of statistical reports of IMF, UNCTAD, ASEAN, the statistical data of Federal state statistics department of Russia, Federal customs department of Russia, the programs of the Russian Government in the field of import substitution are studied. The achievements and problems of implementing the programs of import substitution in agriculture, industry, IT-technologies in Russia were analyzed. The study showed the factors, hindering the domestic development in the framework of the Flying Geese paradigm. The recommendations for solving existing problems include the stimulation of aggregate demand and the development of high-tech exports. Special attention was drawn to the possibilities of applying selected elements of the model in terms of territorial heterogeneity of Russia.

  15. 77 FR 56791 - Main Hawaiian Islands Deep 7 Bottomfish Annual Catch Limits and Accountability Measures for 2012-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-14

    ... Accountability Measures for 2012-13 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... accountability measure will help prevent overfishing and ensure sustainable, long-term catches for fishermen...

  16. THE STRUCTURE AND YIELD LEVEL OF SWEET CORN DEPENDING ON THE TYPE OF WINTER CATCH CROPS AND WEED CONTROL METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Rosa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Organic manuring is suggested to be necessary in sweet corn cultivation. It is not always possible to use farmyard manure due to economic, production or technical reasons. Catch crops used as green manures can be an alternative source of organic matter. The experiment was carried out in central-east Poland (52°06’N, 22°55’E, in years 2008–2011. The successive effect of winter catch crops (hairy vetch, white clover, winter rye, Italian ryegrass, winter turnip rape and the type of weed control on the growth and yielding of sweet corn was examined. The catch crops were sown in early September, incorporated in early May. The effect of the winter catch crops on yield was compared to the effect of FYM at a rate of 30 t·ha-1 and the control without organic manuring. The sweet corn was grown directly after organic fertilization. Three methods of weed control was used: Hw – hand weeding, twice during the growing period, GCM – herbicide Guardian CompleteMix 664 SE, immediately after sowing the seed corn, Z+T – a mixture of herbicides Zeagran 340 SE + Titus 25 WG, in the 3–4 leaf stage sweet corn. The highest yields of biomass were found for winter rye (35.5 t·ha-1 FM and 7.3 t·ha-1 DM, the most of macroelements accumulated winter turnip rape (480.2 kg N+P+K+Ca+Mg·ha-1. Generally, leguminous catch crops had similar to the FYM and better than non-leguminous catch crops yield-forming effect. The highest yield of marketable ears of sweet corn was obtained after FYM (14.4 t·ha-1 and after hairy vetch catch crop (14.0 t·ha-1. A similar yield-forming effect also had white clover and Italian ryegrass. The most of ears from 1 ha was achieved after white clover catch crop (59.3 tausend, similar after FYM and hairy vetch catch crop. The highest kernel yields were found after FYM (10.7 t·ha-1. The yields of kernel after hairy vetch and white clover catch crops were significantly higher than after non-leguminous catch crops. Z+T weed control

  17. Cold injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, R J

    1995-01-01

    There are two categories of cold injury. The first is hypothermia, which is a systemic injury to cold, and the second is frostbite, which is a local injury. Throughout history, entire armies, from George Washington to the Germans on the Russian Front in World War II, have fallen prey to prolonged cold exposure. Cold injury is common and can occur in all seasons if ambient temperature is lower than the core body temperature. In the 1985 Boston Marathon, even though it was 76 degrees and sunny, there were 75 runners treated for hypothermia. In general, humans adapt poorly to cold exposure. Children are at particular risk because of their relatively greater surface area/body mass ratio, causing them to cool even more rapidly than adults. Because of this, the human's best defense against cold injury is to limit his/her exposure to cold and to dress appropriately. If cold injury has occurred and is mild, often simple passive rewarming such as dry blankets and a warm room are sufficient treatment.

  18. Growth of legume and nonlegume catch crops and residual-N effects in spring barley on coarse sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askegaard, Margrethe; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    Askegaard, M. and Eriksen, E. 2007. Growth of legume and nonlegume catch crops and residual-N effects in spring barley on coarse sand. J. Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 170, 733-780.......Askegaard, M. and Eriksen, E. 2007. Growth of legume and nonlegume catch crops and residual-N effects in spring barley on coarse sand. J. Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 170, 733-780....

  19. Volatile Semiochemicals Increase Trap Catch of Green Lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Flower Flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) in Corn and Soybean Plots

    OpenAIRE

    Hesler, Louis S.

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on the attractiveness of volatile chemicals to green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and flower flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) as measured by catch on yellow sticky traps within corn [Zea mays L.?(Cyperales: Poaceae)] and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr. (Fabales: Fabaceae)] plots. Green lacewings were attracted to eugenol-baited traps in two tests in soybean plots. Follow-up testing in corn showed that catch of green lacewings was enhanced when traps were baited with eugeno...

  20. Catch and discardfish species of trawl fisheries in the Iskenderun Bay (Northeastern Mediterranean with emphasis on lessepsian and chondricthyan species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. YEMISKEN

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fish species in catch and discard of trawl fisheries in and around Iskenderun Bay were examined within the fishing closure period and fishingperiod.The sampling was performed from May 2010 to January 2011 by a commercial trawl vessel.Chondricthyan species composed 49 % of discard catch biomass whileGymnura altavela and Dasyatis pastinacawere dominant in hauls. 27 lessepsian fish species were captured during the study,nine of them beingtarget species for trawl fisheries. In total, 14 of the lessepsian fish species were determined as discard species.In both sampling periods, Equulites klunzingeriand Citharus linguatula contributed to discard fish catch dissimilarity among depth ranges (deeper and shallower than 60 m. E. klunzingerishowed high abundance in discard catch.There were no significant differences in the distribution of the discard fish biomass between the sampling periods (ANOVA test, p>0.05. However, depth range pointed out significantdifferences in discard fish catch composition (p<0.05.Among major commercial fish species of trawl fisheries, Mullus surmuletus and Sparus aurata were not separated as discard in anyhaul by fishermen. Any size of these two species  were included in commercial catch (Total length ranged from 61 to 721 mm.

  1. AMMA-CATCH studies in the Sahelian region of West-Africa: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebel, Thierry; Cappelaere, Bernard; Galle, Sylvie; Hanan, Niall; Kergoat, Laurent; Levis, Samuel; Vieux, Baxter; Descroix, Luc; Gosset, Marielle; Mougin, Eric; Peugeot, Christophe; Seguis, Luc

    2009-08-01

    SummaryThe African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) is an international and interdisciplinary experiment designed to investigate the interactions between atmospheric, oceanic and terrestrial systems and their joint controls on tropical monsoon dynamics in West Africa. This special issue reports results from a group of AMMA studies regrouped in the component " Couplage de l'Atmosphère Tropicale et du Cycle Hydrologique" (CATCH). AMMA-CATCH studies focus on measuring and understanding land surface properties and processes in West Africa, the role of terrestrial systems in altering boundary layer dynamics, and thus the potential that surface hydrology and biology, and human land use practices, may directly or indirectly affect monsoon dynamics and rainfall in the region. AMMA-CATCH studies focus on three intensively instrumented mesoscale sites in Mali, Niger and Benin that sample across the 100-1300 mm/annum rainfall gradient of the Sahel, Sudan and North-Guinean bioclimatic zones. Studies report on: (i) surface-boundary layer interactions that may influence atmospheric convergence and convective processes and thus rainfall type, timing and amount; (ii) vegetation dynamics at seasonal to decadal time-scales that may respond to, and alter, atmospheric processes; (iii) surface-atmosphere fluxes of heat, water and carbon dioxide that directly influence the atmosphere; (iv) soil moisture variability in space and time that provide the proximate control on vegetation activity, evapotranspiration and energy balance; and (v) local and mesoscale modeling of hydrology and land surface-atmosphere exchanges to assess their role in the hydrological, atmospheric and rainfall dynamics of West Africa. The AMMA-CATCH research reported in this issue will be extended in future years as measurements and analysis continue and are concluded within the context of both CATCH and the wider AMMA study. This body of research will contribute to an improved understanding of the

  2. Environmental DNA from Seawater Samples Correlate with Trawl Catches of Subarctic, Deepwater Fishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Francis Thomsen

    Full Text Available Remote polar and deepwater fish faunas are under pressure from ongoing climate change and increasing fishing effort. However, these fish communities are difficult to monitor for logistic and financial reasons. Currently, monitoring of marine fishes largely relies on invasive techniques such as bottom trawling, and on official reporting of global catches, which can be unreliable. Thus, there is need for alternative and non-invasive techniques for qualitative and quantitative oceanic fish surveys. Here we report environmental DNA (eDNA metabarcoding of seawater samples from continental slope depths in Southwest Greenland. We collected seawater samples at depths of 188-918 m and compared seawater eDNA to catch data from trawling. We used Illumina sequencing of PCR products to demonstrate that eDNA reads show equivalence to fishing catch data obtained from trawling. Twenty-six families were found with both trawling and eDNA, while three families were found only with eDNA and two families were found only with trawling. Key commercial fish species for Greenland were the most abundant species in both eDNA reads and biomass catch, and interpolation of eDNA abundances between sampling sites showed good correspondence with catch sizes. Environmental DNA sequence reads from the fish assemblages correlated with biomass and abundance data obtained from trawling. Interestingly, the Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus showed high abundance of eDNA reads despite only a single specimen being caught, demonstrating the relevance of the eDNA approach for large species that can probably avoid bottom trawls in most cases. Quantitative detection of marine fish using eDNA remains to be tested further to ascertain whether this technique is able to yield credible results for routine application in fisheries. Nevertheless, our study demonstrates that eDNA reads can be used as a qualitative and quantitative proxy for marine fish assemblages in deepwater oceanic

  3. Cold injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Wm J; Jenabzadeh, Kamrun; Ahrenholz, David H

    2009-11-01

    The pathophysiology of true frostbite reveals that the direct injury produced during the initial freeze process has a minor contribution to the global tissue damage. However, rapid rewarming to reverse the tissue crystallization has essentially been the lone frostbite intervention for almost half a century. The major pathologic process is the progressive microvascular thrombosis following reperfusion of the ischemic limb, with the cold-damaged endothelial cells playing a central role in the outcome of these frozen tissues. Newer interventions offer the opportunity to combat this process, and this article offers a scientific approach to frostbite injuries of the upper extremities.

  4. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal ... Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal ...

  5. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Spinal Cord Injury 101 Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David ...

  6. Dealing with Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Dealing With Sports Injuries KidsHealth / For Teens / Dealing With Sports Injuries ... a long way toward preventing injuries. Types of Sports Injuries Common reasons why teens get injured playing ...

  7. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal Cord Injuries Video Library SCI Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal ... Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal Cord Injuries Video Library SCI Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal ...

  8. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Spinal Cord Injury 101 Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 ...

  9. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Diane M. Rowles, MS, NP How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Nancy Rosenberg, ... Children with Spinal Cord Injury Patricia Mucia, RN Family Life After Pediatric Spinal Injury Dawn Sheaffer, MSW ...

  10. Creating Aerosol Types from CHemistry (CATCH): A New Algorithm to Extend the Link Between Remote Sensing and Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, K. W.; Meskhidze, N.; Burton, S. P.; Johnson, M. S.; Kacenelenbogen, M. S.; Hostetler, C. A.; Hu, Y.

    2017-11-01

    Current remote sensing methods can identify aerosol types within an atmospheric column, presenting an opportunity to incrementally bridge the gap between remote sensing and models. Here a new algorithm was designed for Creating Aerosol Types from CHemistry (CATCH). CATCH-derived aerosol types—dusty mix, maritime, urban, smoke, and fresh smoke—are based on first-generation airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL-1) retrievals during the Ship-Aircraft Bio-Optical Research (SABOR) campaign, July/August 2014. CATCH is designed to derive aerosol types from model output of chemical composition. CATCH-derived aerosol types are determined by multivariate clustering of model-calculated variables that have been trained using retrievals of aerosol types from HSRL-1. CATCH-derived aerosol types (with the exception of smoke) compare well with HSRL-1 retrievals during SABOR with an average difference in aerosol optical depth (AOD) transport of smoke is underpredicted by the Goddard Earth Observing System- with Chemistry (GEOS-Chem) model. Spatial distributions of CATCH-derived aerosol types for the North American model domain during July/August 2014 show that aerosol type-specific AOD values occurred over representative locations: urban over areas with large population, maritime over oceans, smoke, and fresh smoke over typical biomass burning regions. This study demonstrates that model-generated information on aerosol chemical composition can be translated into aerosol types analogous to those retrieved from remote sensing methods. In the future, spaceborne HSRL-1 and CATCH can be used to gain insight into chemical composition of aerosol types, reducing uncertainties in estimates of aerosol radiative forcing.

  11. Catching COBRAs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muntinga, D.G.

    2013-01-01

    With social media usage increasingly widespread and influential, companies face the challenge of inspiring and cultivating Consumers’ Online Brand-Related Activities (COBRAs). This dissertation argues that they can do so effectively only when they have a good understanding of consumers’ willingness

  12. Catching Butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Maisha T.

    2008-01-01

    Playmaking for Girls, founded by Rachel May and directed by Susie Spear Purcell, assembles a diverse ensemble of teaching artists committed to using playwriting and performance to help with incarcerated and formerly incarcerated teen girls to help them "think and thus act for themselves" (Freden, 2001, p. 70). These teaching artists, with the…

  13. Technical Suitability and Static Stability of Sungkur Fishing Boats for Fish and Shrimp Catching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusmilyansari; Rosadi, E.; Iriansyah

    2017-10-01

    Sungkur fishing gear is operated actively on one the side of fishing boat, which requires technical suitability and fishing gear stability to ensure success in fish catching. This is a case study which aimed to analyze some technical issues related to the boat, boat’s hydrostatic parameters, and the boat’s stability. The data were collected though observation, measuring the boat to obtain the offset table. The data were analyzed numerically and descriptively. The data were processed with technical formula, Microsoft Office’s Excel software, graphic display, minitab, statistical data processing, and maxsurf program. The research results showed that: (1) the sungkur fishing boat dimensional ratio L/B (6.47 - 7.00); L/D (10.90 - 11.20) and B/D (1.60 - 1.668) is within the range value of Indonesian fishing boats suitable to operate the fishing gear by towing or dragging. However, during fish catching operation, there have been problems in a hydrodynamic force due to the fishing gear movement, which affect the fish catching efficiency. (2) The boat’s coefficient of fineness is in the fine type shape; the displacement on each waterline has increased; the loads of the boat are getting larger following the increase of waterline from one to five; this is also shown from the increasing midship area value. Ton per centimeter immersion to change wl 1 by 1 cm needs 0.04 tons of weight. (3) Sungkur fishing boat have a good static stability, which is proven by the positive value of angle of maximum GZ by 79.1 - 83.6. In other words, the boat has the ability to return to its original position after tilting; however, stability dynamics happens because fishing gear operation are located on just one side of boat.

  14. Regulation of Long Bone Growth in Vertebrates; It Is Time to Catch Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselló-Díez, Alberto; Joyner, Alexandra L

    2015-12-01

    The regulation of organ size is essential to human health and has fascinated biologists for centuries. Key to the growth process is the ability of most organs to integrate organ-extrinsic cues (eg, nutritional status, inflammatory processes) with organ-intrinsic information (eg, genetic programs, local signals) into a growth response that adapts to changing environmental conditions and ensures that the size of an organ is coordinated with the rest of the body. Paired organs such as the vertebrate limbs and the long bones within them are excellent models for studying this type of regulation because it is possible to manipulate one member of the pair and leave the other as an internal control. During development, growth plates at the end of each long bone produce a transient cartilage model that is progressively replaced by bone. Here, we review how proliferation and differentiation of cells within each growth plate are tightly controlled mainly by growth plate-intrinsic mechanisms that are additionally modulated by extrinsic signals. We also discuss the involvement of several signaling hubs in the integration and modulation of growth-related signals and how they could confer remarkable plasticity to the growth plate. Indeed, long bones have a significant ability for "catch-up growth" to attain normal size after a transient growth delay. We propose that the characterization of catch-up growth, in light of recent advances in physiology and cell biology, will provide long sought clues into the molecular mechanisms that underlie organ growth regulation. Importantly, catch-up growth early in life is commonly associated with metabolic disorders in adulthood, and this association is not completely understood. Further elucidation of the molecules and cellular interactions that influence organ size coordination should allow development of novel therapies for human growth disorders that are noninvasive and have minimal side effects.

  15. Musculoskeletal injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gigirey, V

    2012-01-01

    This presentation is about musculoskeletal injuries and the diagnosis of osseous tumors. The use of the radiology, bone scintigraphy, computed tomography and magnetic resonance contribute to detect the localization of the osseous lesions as well as the density (lytic, sclerotic, mixed) and the benign and malignant tumors.

  16. Ocular Injuries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    Ophthalmologist (NOG) that protective polycarbonate glasses be worn while lighting and watching of fire-works is also advocated (7). Banger-related ocular injuries result in significant ocular morbidity and unilateral visual loss. Public education regarding proper use of bangers along with strict legislation regulating their use ...

  17. Foreign Direct Investments in Poland and the Quality Catch-Up of Polish Foreign Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    The concept of unit value is shown to be a useful tool in analysing changes in the price-quality competitiveness of the export of Poland, which, until 1996 has shown signs of a quality "catching-up" for products surviving international competition. However, the quality level of export products...... is still lagging substantial behind that of the EU-countries. The number of products where Poland competes in the export markets is increasing, but the quality level of new products is, in fact, less than that of older surviving products, indicating that Poland is increasingly specialising in price...

  18. Hepatic mitochondrial energetics during catch-up fat after caloric restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Falcone, Italia; Prisco, Marina; Dulloo, Abdul G; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2010-08-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate whether changes in liver mitochondrial energetics could underlie the enhanced energetic efficiency that drives accelerated body fat recovery (catch-up fat) during refeeding after caloric restriction. Rats were subjected to caloric restriction (50% of ad libitum intake) for 15 days and then refed for 1 or 2 weeks on an amount of chow equal to that of controls matched for weight at the onset of refeeding. Whole-body metabolism was characterized by energy balance and body composition determinations as well as by indirect calorimetric measurements of 24-hour energy expenditure, substrate oxidation, and whole-body de novo lipogenesis estimated from nonprotein respiratory quotient. Hepatic mitochondrial energetics were determined from measurements of liver mitochondrial mass, respiratory capacities, and proton leak (both basal and fatty acid stimulated), whereas hepatic oxidative status was assessed from measurements of hepatic mitochondrial lipid peroxidation, aconitase, and superoxide dismutase activity. Furthermore, hepatic lipogenic capacity was determined from assays of fatty acid synthase activity. Compared with controls, isocalorically refed rats showed an elevated energetic efficiency and body fat gain over both week 1 and week 2 of refeeding, as well as a lower 24-hour energy expenditure and higher rates of whole-body de novo lipogenesis at the end of both week 1 and week 2 of refeeding. Analysis of the liver revealed that after 1 week (but not after 2 weeks) of refeeding, the mitochondrial mass (but not mitochondrial density) was lower in refed rats than in controls, associated with higher state 3 mitochondrial respiratory capacity, increased superoxide dismutase activity, as well as higher fatty acid synthase activity. These results suggest that, although at the whole-body level elevations in energy efficiency and de novo lipogenesis are coordinated toward catch-up fat, the overall hepatic mitochondrial energetic

  19. Professor Gerschenkron goes to Brussels. Russian Catch-up Economics and the Common European Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Hedlund

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Ongoing discussions between Russia and the EU on the formation of a Common European Economic Space bring back to mind Alexander Gerschenkron's classic essay on economic backwardness in historical perspective. This paper argues that the institutions that once produced a specific kind of catch-up economics in Czarist Russia still remain largely the same. Unless negotiations between Moscow and Brussels take into consideration such fundamental institutional incompatibility, attempts at harmonization, expressed by Brussels as an attempt tp spread Western values, will be doomed to fail. A cynical conlusion views potential convergence as adaptation by Brussels to traditional Russian institutional patterns of rule evasion, rather than a Westernization of Russia

  20. Safety catching device for pipe lines in missile shielding cylinders of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hering, S.; Doll, B.

    1975-01-01

    The safety catching device for pipes in the missile shielding cylinders consists of a flexible steel cable surrounding the pipe in a distance in U-shape. The arrester cable - which works as a spring and is freely movable in all directions - is attached to the cylinder wall. For this, the ends of the cable are primarily fastened to anchor boxes which are then inserted in a stay tube with the same axis as the cable ends. The anchor boxes are fastened to the outer wall of the missile shielding cylinder by anchor bolts and holding plates. (DG/AK) [de

  1. Library of biphenyl privileged substructures using a safety-catch linker approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severinsen, Rune; Bourne, Gregory T; Tran, Tran T

    2008-01-01

    A biphenyl privileged structure library containing three attachment points were synthesized using a catechol-based safety-catch linker strategy. The method requires the attachment of a bromo-acid to the linker, followed by a Pd-catalyzed Suzuki cross-coupling reaction. Further derivatization......, activation of the linker with strong acid and aminolysis afforded the respective products in high purity and good overall yield. To show the versatility of the synthesis, a 199-member library was generated. The library samples both conformational and chemical diversity about a well-known privileged...

  2. A Bio-economic Study of the Trophic Structure of the Omani Fish Catch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Rahman, Medhat Abd El-Barr

    2014-08-01

    The present study was conducted to obtain estimates of certain biological and economic indices of the trophic structure of the Omani landed fish catch, namely, the mean trophic level (MTL), the fishing-in-balance (FiB) index and the relative price index (RPI). The MTL generally decreased from 1995 to 2010, indicating a fishing-down of the marine trophic web. The FiB index increased, indicating an imbalance in the fisheries. An economic index, the RPI, decreased from 1994 to 2007, indicating that the values of lower trophic level (TL) species increased relative to those of higher TL species.

  3. A Bio-economic Study of the Trophic Structure of the Omani Fish Catch

    OpenAIRE

    Abd El-Rahman, Medhat Abd El-Barr

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to obtain estimates of certain biological and economic indices of the trophic structure of the Omani landed fish catch, namely, the mean trophic level (MTL), the fishing-in-balance (FiB) index and the relative price index (RPI). The MTL generally decreased from 1995 to 2010, indicating a fishing-down of the marine trophic web. The FiB index increased, indicating an imbalance in the fisheries. An economic index, the RPI, decreased from 1994 to 2007, indicating t...

  4. Cost-effectiveness analysis of catch-up hepatitis A vaccination among unvaccinated/partially-vaccinated children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankin-Wei, Abigail; Rein, David B; Hernandez-Romieu, Alfonso; Kennedy, Mallory J; Bulkow, Lisa; Rosenberg, Eli; Trigg, Monica; Nelson, Noele P

    2016-07-29

    Since 2006, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has recommended hepatitis A (HepA) vaccination routinely for children aged 12-23months to prevent hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection. However, a substantial proportion of US children are unvaccinated and susceptible to infection. We present results of economic modeling to assess whether a one-time catch-up HepA vaccination recommendation would be cost-effective. We developed a Markov model of HAV infection that followed a single cohort from birth through death (birth to age 95years). The model compared the health and economic outcomes from catch-up vaccination interventions for children at target ages from two through 17years vs. outcomes resulting from maintaining the current recommendation of routine vaccination at age one year with no catch-up intervention. Over the lifetime of the cohort, catch-up vaccination would reduce the total number of infections relative to the baseline by 741 while increasing doses of vaccine by 556,989. Catch-up vaccination would increase net costs by $10.2million, or $2.38 per person. The incremental cost of HepA vaccine catch-up intervention at age 10years, the midpoint of the ages modeled, was $452,239 per QALY gained. Across age-cohorts, the cost-effectiveness of catch-up vaccination is most favorable at age 12years, resulting in an Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratio of $189,000 per QALY gained. Given the low baseline of HAV disease incidence achieved by current vaccination recommendations, our economic model suggests that a catch-up vaccination recommendation would be less cost-effective than many other vaccine interventions, and that HepA catch-up vaccination would become cost effective at a threshold of $50,000 per QALY only when incidence of HAV rises about 5.0 cases per 100,000 population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Use of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Gravid Trap in Catch Basins: Proof-Of-Concept Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Nicholas; Mettelman, Robert C; Baker, Susan C; Harbison, Justin E

    2015-06-01

    Gravid traps are commonly used by mosquito control agencies to collect local populations of Culex pipiens, which are then tested for the presence of West Nile virus. Culex pipiens adults disperse a relatively short distance (~2.5 km) from their breeding site, so it can be challenging to position a sufficient number of gravid traps to accurately monitor these mosquitoes in large urban areas. As placement of these traps is often limited to locations out of public?view, the potential for placing these traps belowground in commonly found storm-water catch basins was investigated. We compared the numbers of mosquitoes isolated in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) gravid traps placed aboveground with various types of CDC gravid traps placed in nearby catch basins. We found that the gravid traps placed in catch basins collected significantly fewer Culex pipiens females as compared to the aboveground traps. However, the 2 types of catch basin traps continued to function and collect mosquitoes despite heavy rainfall and runoff, demonstrating their utility for sample collection in an urban setting. The potential advantages and disadvantages of using catch basins for the placement of CDC gravid traps are discussed.

  6. Trade-Based Estimation of Bluefin Tuna Catches in the Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean, 2005–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagern, Antonius; van den Bergh, Jeroen; Sumaila, Ussif Rashid

    2013-01-01

    The Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean stock of Bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus (BFTE) has long been considered overfished and at risk of collapse. Although ICCAT quotas for this stock have decreased considerably over the past years, uncertainty exists about the degree of catch beyond this quota. The extent of such catch is an important piece of information in stock assessment models as well as being an indicator of the effectiveness of fisheries management. We present a model using Bluefin tuna trade data to infer actual catches. Basing our calculations on 25 countries involved in BFTE trade, we estimate that between 2005 and 2011, allowable quotas were exceeded by 44 percent. This gap between catch and quotas has slightly increased over past years, leading to estimated excess catches of 57 percent for the period between 2008 and 2011. To improve assessments, preparation and design of BFTE management, we suggest that the estimated total removals reported in this paper be included in stock assessment models for BFTE. An implication of our findings is that ICCAT member states should take stronger measures to monitor and enforce compliance with quotas. PMID:23922870

  7. Trade-based estimation of bluefin tuna catches in the Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean, 2005-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonius Gagern

    Full Text Available The Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean stock of Bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus (BFTE has long been considered overfished and at risk of collapse. Although ICCAT quotas for this stock have decreased considerably over the past years, uncertainty exists about the degree of catch beyond this quota. The extent of such catch is an important piece of information in stock assessment models as well as being an indicator of the effectiveness of fisheries management. We present a model using Bluefin tuna trade data to infer actual catches. Basing our calculations on 25 countries involved in BFTE trade, we estimate that between 2005 and 2011, allowable quotas were exceeded by 44 percent. This gap between catch and quotas has slightly increased over past years, leading to estimated excess catches of 57 percent for the period between 2008 and 2011. To improve assessments, preparation and design of BFTE management, we suggest that the estimated total removals reported in this paper be included in stock assessment models for BFTE. An implication of our findings is that ICCAT member states should take stronger measures to monitor and enforce compliance with quotas.

  8. Management practices utilization in organizations – A comparison between catching-up and well-developed economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojko Potočan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to examine the utilization of management practices in catching-up and well-developed economies. Within that framework, the paper examines the utilization of management practices in Slovenian and Croatian organizations, as both are considered the representatives of catching-up economies from Central and East Europe (CEE, while also comparing the utilization of management practices in the two selected economies to the global use of management practices. Evidences about management practices utilization reveal that in well-developed economies in the forefront are management practices aiming to support customer relationship management, strength customer relations and customer satisfaction, while in Slovenia and Croatia prevail practices that are oriented toward optimization of the business and its processes. Based on the research results and the situation in organizations, a possible future pattern of management practice utilization in organizations operating in catching up economies is outlined, with the aim to reduce the developmental lag and increase competitiveness of those organizations. The paper also provides several practical implications for future utilization of management practices in catching-up economies. The sample of catching up-countries includes 155 responses from employees in Slovenian organizations and 185 from Croatian ones. Data for samples from well-developed economies are obtained from a global survey of management practices.

  9. Ecology of sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae in a restricted focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Northern Venezuela: II. Species composition in relation to habitat, catching method and hour of catching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dora Feliciangeli

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available The ecology of phlebotomine sandflies in an endemic focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Northern Venezuela (San Esteban, Carabobo State was investigated through a year-term study. Three different habitats: viz. a house, a pridomestic area and a sylvatic area, were covered and the species composition, the abundance and occurrence of each species were analyzed in relation to the habitats, catching methods and hour of catching. L. panamensis, L. gomezi and L. ovallesi are the species which bite man, although almost exclusively at night. All of them hide by day and are common in the sylvatic area. Moreover, L. panamensis and L. gomezi successfully approach the house and seem to settle in the peridomestic area. L. shannoni and L. olmeca bicolor also approach and accidentally bite man. L. trinidadensis, L. atroclavata and L. cayennensis are the common non-antrhopophilic species in the area.Foi realizado um estudo ecológico dos flebótomos em um foco endêmico de leishmaniose cutânea na Venezuela a partir de observações em três ambientes: doméstico, peridoméstico e silvestre, durante o período de um ano. Foram analisadas a composição, a abundância e a ocorrência de cada espécie em relação ao ambiente, ao método e horário de captura. As espécies L. panamensis, L. gomezi e L. ovallesi são as que picam o homem, apesar de quase que exclusivamente durante a noite, escondendo-se durante o dia, e são comumente encontradas em áreas silvestres. Além disso, as espécies L. panamensis e L. gomezi se aproximam das casas e aparentemente se estabelecem na área peridoméstica. As espécies L. shannoni e L. olmeca bicolor também se aproximam das casas e acidentalmente picam o homem. Jás as espécies L. trinidadensis, L. atroclavata e L. cayennensis que geralmente não são antropofílicas, são comuns nesta área.

  10. BIOLOGY AND CPUE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF ESCOLAR Lepidocybium flavobrunneum (Smith, 1843 IN EASTERN INDIAN OCEAN (EVOLVING FISHERIES: TODAY’S BY-CATCH IS TOMORROW’S TARGET CATCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathur Rochman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Discharge of by catch is a significant problem in world fishery. Every commercial fishery such as tuna longline has a suite of bycatch species, escolar fish (LEC. LEC as by catch product has received a little attention because of its lower economic value and given its importance as a secondary market. With time, however, market can become establish for this presently undesirable species. Acknowledging that today’s by catch might become tomorrow’s target fish. The aims of this study areto provide information on biological aspect and catch per unit of effort (CPUE spatial distribution of escolar (Lepidocybium flavobrunneum as by catch in Indonesian longline fishery operating in the Eastern Indian Ocean. Total escolar samples of 1,815 were taken from scientific observer data from 2011-2013. The study area of escolar was between 0.897-33.175°S and 85.366– 138.733°E of Eastern Indian Ocean. Results show that the escolar length (cmFL is distributed from 27-178 cmFL (median=83 cmFL, mode=85 cmFL, mean=83.95 cmFL and n= 1.812 and dominated by the size of 85 cmFL. The length weight relationship was determined to be W=0.0002FL2.2926(W in kg, FL in cm. In terms of CPUEs distribution, the lower CPUEs(1.0001 to 7.382 generally occurred in Western Australian, precisely on grid between 10-35°S and 85-110°E. These grids would be a potential for fishing LEC with the best time to catch in June to August.

  11. Overuse Injury: How to Prevent Training Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... http://www.niams.nih.gov/Health_Info/Sports_Injuries/sports_injuries_ff.asp. Accessed Dec. 21, 2015. Tips for ... cfm?topic=A00132. Accessed Dec. 21, 2015. Overuse injury. The American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine. http://www.stopsportsinjuries.org/overuse-injury.aspx. ...

  12. Diel variation in the catch of fishes and penaeid shrimps in a tropical estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, Allan W.

    1991-07-01

    In Laguna Joyuda, Puerto Rico, 24-h trawl surveys were conducted to test the hypothesis that there is no diel variation in the catch rate of fishes and penaeid shrimps in a turbid, microtidal estuary relatively free of visual predation. The null hypothesis was not rejected for the two most abundant fishes in the lagoon, Eucinostomus gula (Gerreidae) and Achirus lineatus (Bothidae). Conversely, the total number of fishes, Diapterus rhombeus (Gerreidae), and the engraulids Anchoa cubana and A. hepsetus were collected in significantly higher numbers during hours of darkness. Total penaeid catch was significantly higher in night than in day collections. The most abundant species were Penaeus notialis and P. subtilis, both of which appeared to be strong daytime burrowers. Small penaeids demonstrated greater diel variation in trawl capture rate than larger (subadult) shrimps. Diel variation in capture rate was related to habitat associations of individual species. Fauna resident in the very turbid lagoon demonstrated no diel variation in activity patterns and trawl susceptibility. Those species which spend only the early part of their lives in the lagoon, or live in both turbid and clear water, had significant diel variation in activity and trawl catchability.

  13. Miniature and micro spectrometers market: who is going to catch the value?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouyé, Clémentine; d'Humières, Benoît

    2017-02-01

    The market of miniature and micro spectrometers is evolving fast. The technology is getting ever smaller and cheaper while keeping high performances. The market is attracting new players: spin-offs from major research institutes, large companies outside the classic spectroscopy market, software providers with innovative analytical solutions, … The goal of this involvement is to bring spectroscopy closer to the end-users and provide spectrometers able to operate on-field or in-line. The high potential of compact spectrometers is recognized for a wide variety of applications: chemistry, pharmaceutics, agro-food, agriculture, forensics, healthcare, consumer applications, … But its emergence as a large volume market faces a major bottleneck. Each application implies specific processes and analyses and specific parameters to control, i.e. a specific interpretation of the raw spectra in order to provide information usable by nonphotonic experts. Who is going to pay for that adaptation effort? Are there ways for reducing the adaptation costs, by means of selflearning algorithms and/or flexible and easily adaptable sensors? In other words, who is going to catch the value? In this article, we will investigate the potential of each major industrial application market and provide market data. We will also wonder, what are the strengths and weaknesses of the different players - spectrometer manufacturers, algorithms developers, full-systems providers, … - to catch the value of the compact spectrometer market.

  14. Evidence for catch-up in cognition and receptive vocabulary among adolescents born very preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Thuy Mai; Vohr, Betty R; Allan, Walter; Schneider, Karen C; Ment, Laura R

    2011-08-01

    Very preterm adolescents display persistent deficits in neuropsychological functions. To compare cognitive and language outcomes at 16 years and cognitive and receptive vocabulary trajectories throughout school years between very preterm and term children and to determine child and family factors associated with better developmental trajectories. At 8, 12, and 16 years, 322 very preterm children with birth weights of 1250 g or less and 41 term children had cognitive and language testing. Hierarchical growth-curve modeling was used to delineate the differences in cognitive and receptive vocabulary development between participants. Cluster analyses allowed for the characterization of very preterm children with different patterns of cognitive and receptive vocabulary development. At 16 years, very preterm adolescents had deficits in general cognition and higher-order language skills (phonological awareness and phonemic decoding) compared with term peers. Although the between-group difference in cognitive scores remained stable from 8 to 16 years, very preterm children demonstrated catch-up gains in receptive vocabulary during the same period. Moreover, subgroups of very preterm children displayed developmental trajectories in cognition similar to term children (55% on the vocabulary and 46% on the block-design subtests). These children had lower rates of neurosensory impairment and mothers with higher education and were from an ethnic nonminority. Significant catch-up in receptive vocabulary is observed by the age of 16 years among very preterm children compared to term peers. The absence of neurosensory impairment and residing in a favorable socioeconomic milieu are associated with the most optimal developmental trajectories.

  15. Functional diversity of catch mitigates negative effects of temperature variability on fisheries yields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dee, Laura E; Miller, Steve J; Peavey, Lindsey E; Bradley, Darcy; Gentry, Rebecca R; Startz, Richard; Gaines, Steven D; Lester, Sarah E

    2016-08-17

    Temperature variation within a year can impact biological processes driving population abundances. The implications for the ecosystem services these populations provide, including food production from marine fisheries, are poorly understood. Whether and how temperature variability impacts fishery yields may depend on the number of harvested species and differences in their responses to varying temperatures. Drawing from previous theoretical and empirical studies, we predict that greater temperature variability within years will reduce yields, but harvesting a larger number of species, especially a more functionally diverse set, will decrease this impact. Using a global marine fisheries dataset, we find that within-year temperature variability reduces yields, but current levels of functional diversity (FD) of targeted species, measured using traits related to species' responses to temperature, largely offset this effect. Globally, high FD of catch could avoid annual losses in yield of 6.8% relative to projections if FD were degraded to the lowest level observed in the data. By contrast, species richness in the catch and in the ecosystem did not provide a similar mitigating effect. This work provides novel empirical evidence that short-term temperature variability can negatively impact the provisioning of ecosystem services, but that FD can buffer these negative impacts. © 2016 The Author(s).

  16. Root biomass in cereals, catch crops and weeds can be reliably estimated without considering aboveground biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Teng; Sørensen, Peter; Wahlström, Ellen Margrethe

    2018-01-01

    Reliable information on belowground plant biomass is essential to estimate belowground carbon inputs to soils. Estimations of belowground plant biomass are often based on a fixed allometric relationship of plant biomass between aboveground and belowground parts. However, environmental and managem......Reliable information on belowground plant biomass is essential to estimate belowground carbon inputs to soils. Estimations of belowground plant biomass are often based on a fixed allometric relationship of plant biomass between aboveground and belowground parts. However, environmental...... and management factors may affect this allometric relationship making such estimates uncertain and biased. Therefore, we aimed to explore how root biomass for typical cereal crops, catch crops and weeds could most reliably be estimated. Published and unpublished data on aboveground and root biomass (corrected...... to 0–25 cm depth) of cereal crops (wheat and barley), catch crops and weeds were collected from studies in Denmark. Leave one out cross validation was used to determine the model that could best estimate root biomass. Root biomass varied with year, farming system (organic versus conventional...

  17. The plant characters and corm production of taro as catch crop under the young rubber stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DJUKRI

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed at revealing the chlorophyll content, leaf area (the plant characters, and the corm production of taro as catch crop under the young rubber stand. This research was conducted by means of Nested Design with nine replication. The intercropping planting used independent variables i.e. N0 (open condition, N1 (under the two-year-old young rubber, and N2 (under the three-year-old young rubber. The dependent variables were the chlorophyll content, leaf area, and production of the taro corm. The parameters investigated were the leaves area, the chlorophyll a and b content, the weight of fresh corm, the weight of dry corm, and the corm production per plots. The research result showed that the leaves area, and the chlorophyll a and b content significantly increased, while the weight of fresh corm, and the weight of dry corm significantly decreased (P<0.05. The fresh corm production per plots under the young rubber two- and three-year-old were significantly decreased compared the control (P<0.05. The intercropping planting or catch crop showed that the taro corm production per plot decreased both of under two- and three-year-old young rubber shades, although the reduction of each clone was significant or not significant, so that tolerant clones could be conserved.

  18. Should We Promote Catch-Up Growth or Growth Acceleration in Low-Birthweight Infants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Atul

    2015-01-01

    The idea that catch-up growth or growth acceleration has adverse effects on long-term health has generated much debate. This pattern of growth is most commonly seen after birth in infants of low birthweight; a global problem affecting over 20 million newborns a year. Faster postnatal growth may have short-term benefits but increases the long-term risk of aging, obesity and metabolic disease. Consequently, the optimal pattern of postnatal growth is unclear and is likely to differ in different populations. In infants born prematurely, faster postnatal growth improves long-term cognitive function but is associated with later risk factors for cardiovascular disease. So, on balance, the current policy is to promote faster growth by increasing nutrient intake (e.g. using higher-nutrient preterm formulas). Whether the same policy should apply to larger preterm infants is not known. Similarly, in infants from impoverished environments, the short-term benefits of faster postnatal growth may outweigh long-term disadvantages. However, whether similar considerations apply to infants from countries in transition is uncertain. For term infants from developed countries, promoting catch-up growth by nutritional supplementation has few advantages for short- or long-term health. Overall therefore, a 'one size fits all' solution for the optimal pattern of postnatal growth is unlikely. © 2015 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Behaviour of fish by-catch in the mouth of a crustacean trawl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queirolo, D; Gaete, E; Montenegro, I; Soriguer, M C; Erzini, K

    2012-06-01

    The behaviour of fish by-catch was recorded and characterized by in situ observations in the mouth of a crustacean trawl using an underwater camera system with artificial light, at depths between 106 and 461 m, along the central coast of Chile. The groups or species studied were rattails (family Macrouridae), Chilean hake Merluccius gayi gayi, sharks (orders Carcharhiniformes and Squaliformes), skates (family Rajidae), flatfishes (genus Hippoglossina) and small benthopelagic and demersal fishes (orders Osmeriformes, Stomiiformes, Gadiformes, Ophidiiformes and Perciformes). The fish behaviour was categorized in terms of (1) position in the water column, (2) initial orientation with respect to the trawl, (3) locomotion and (4) swimming speed with respect to the trawl. Rattails, sharks, skates and flatfishes were passive in response to the trawl and showed similar behavioural patterns, with most fishes observed sitting or touching the bottom with no swimming or other activity. Merluccius gayi gayi was the most active species, displaying a wide combination of behavioural responses when the trawl approached. This species showed several behavioural patterns, mainly characterized by swimming forward at variable speed. A fraction of small bentho-pelagic and demersal fishes also showed an active behaviour but always at lower speed than the trawl. The species-specific differences in behaviour in the mouth of the trawl suggest that improvements at the level of the footrope can be made to reduce by-catch, especially of passive species. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  20. Catch up growth in low birth weight infants: striking a healthy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vandana; Singhal, Atul

    2012-06-01

    Catch-up growth in the first few months of life is seen almost ubiquitously in infants born small for their gestational age and conventionally considered highly desirable as it erases the growth deficit. However, recently such growth has been linked to an increased risk of later adiposity, insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease in both low income and high-income countries. In India, a third of all babies are born with a low birth weight, but the optimal growth pattern for such infants is uncertain. As a response to the high rates of infectious morbidities, undernutrition and stunting in children, the current policy is to promote rapid growth in infancy. However, with socio-economic transition and urbanization making the Indian environment more obesogenic, and the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, affecting progressively younger population, the long term adverse programming effect of fast/excessive weight gain in infancy on later body composition and metabolism may outweigh short-term benefits. This review discusses the above issues focusing on the need to strike a healthy balance between the risks and benefits of catch-up growth in Indian infants.

  1. Musculoskeletal injuries resulting from patient handling tasks among hospital workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompeii, Lisa A; Lipscomb, Hester J; Schoenfisch, Ashley L; Dement, John M

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate musculoskeletal injuries and disorders resulting from patient handling prior to the implementation of a "minimal manual lift" policy at a large tertiary care medical center. We sought to define the circumstances surrounding patient handling injuries and to identify potential preventive measures. Human resources data were used to define the cohort and their time at work. Workers' compensation records (1997-2003) were utilized to identify work-related musculoskeletal claims, while the workers' description of injury was used to identify those that resulted from patient handling. Adjusted rate ratios were generated using Poisson regression. One-third (n = 876) of all musculoskeletal injuries resulted from patient handling activities. Most (83%) of the injury burden was incurred by inpatient nurses, nurses' aides and radiology technicians, while injury rates were highest for nurses' aides (8.8/100 full-time equivalent, FTEs) and smaller workgroups including emergency medical technicians (10.3/100 FTEs), patient transporters (4.3/100 FTEs), operating room technicians (3.1/100 FTEs), and morgue technicians (2.2/100 FTEs). Forty percent of injuries due to lifting/transferring patients may have been prevented through the use of mechanical lift equipment, while 32% of injuries resulting from repositioning/turning patients, pulling patients up in bed, or catching falling patients may not have been prevented by the use of lift equipment. The use of mechanical lift equipment could significantly reduce the risk of some patient handling injuries but additional interventions need to be considered that address other patient handling tasks. Smaller high-risk workgroups should not be neglected in prevention efforts.

  2. Unexpectedly high catch-and-release rates in European marine recreational fisheries: implications for science and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferter, Keno; Weltersbach, Marc Simon; Strehlow, Harry Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Unexpectedly high catch-and-release rates in European marine recreational fisheries: implications for science and management. – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 70: .While catch-and-release (C&R) is a well-known practice in several European freshwater recreational fisheries, studies on the magnitude...... and impact of this practice in European marine recreational fisheries are limited. To provide an overview of the practice and magnitude of C&R among marine recreational anglers in Europe, the existing knowledge of C&R and its potential associated release mortality was collected and summarized. The present...... study revealed that in several European countries over half of the total recreational catch is released by marine anglers. High release proportions of >60% were found for Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), pollack (Pollachius pollachius), and sea trout (Salmo trutta...

  3. A database of global marine commercial, small-scale, illegal and unreported fisheries catch 1950-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Reg A

    2017-04-11

    Global fisheries landings data from a range of public sources was harmonised and mapped to 30-min spatial cells based on the distribution of the reported taxa and the fishing fleets involved. This data was extended to include the associated fishing gear used, as well as estimates of illegal, unregulated and unreported catch (IUU) and discards at sea. Expressed as catch rates, these results also separated small-scale fisheries from other fishing operations. The dataset covers 1950 to 2014 inclusive. Mapped catch allows study of the impacts of fisheries on habitats and fauna, on overlap with the diets of marine birds and mammals, and on the related use of fuels and release of greenhouse gases. The fine-scale spatial data can be aggregated to the exclusive economic zone claims of countries and will allow study of the value of landed marine products to their economies and food security, and to those of their trading partners.

  4. Should total landings be used to correct estimated catch in numbers or mean-weight-at-age?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewy, Peter; Lassen, H.

    1997-01-01

    Many ICES fish stock assessment working groups have practised Sum Of Products, SOP, correction. This correction stems from a comparison of total weights of the known landings and the SOP over age of catch in number and mean weight-at-age, which ideally should be identical. In case of SOP...... discrepancies some countries correct catch in numbers while others correct mean weight-at-age by a common factor, the ratio between landing and SOP. The paper shows that for three sampling schemes the SOP corrections are statistically incorrect and should not be made since the SOP is an unbiased estimate...... of the total landings. Calculation of the bias of estimated catch in numbers and mean weight-at-age shows that SOP corrections of either of these estimates may increase the bias. Furthermore, for five demersal and one pelagic North Sea species it is shown that SOP discrepancies greater than 2% from...

  5. Síndrome de deleção 22q11.2: compreendendo o CATCH22 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: catching the CATCH22

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Fabiano M. Rosa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO:Realizar uma revisão dos aspectos históricos, epidemiológicos, clínicos, etiológicos e laboratoriais da síndrome de deleção 22q11.2, salientando-se a importância e as dificuldades do seu diagnóstico. FONTES DE DADOS: Pesquisa nas bases de dados Medline, Lilacs e SciELO, além da Internet e capítulos de livros em inglês, acerca de publicações feitas entre 1980 e 2008. Para isso, utilizaram-se os descritores "22q11", "DiGeorge", "Velocardiofacial" e "CATCH22". SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A síndrome de deleção 22q11.2, também conhecida como síndrome de DiGeorge ou velocardiofacial, foi identificada no começo da década de 1990. A microdeleção 22q11.2 é considerada uma das síndromes de microdeleção genética mais frequentes em seres humanos. Caracteriza-se por um espectro fenotípico bastante amplo, com mais de 180 achados clínicos já descritos do ponto de vista físico e comportamental. Contudo, nenhum achado é patognomônico ou mesmo obrigatório. A maioria dos pacientes apresenta uma deleção pequena, detectada somente por técnicas de genética molecular, como a hibridização in situ fluorescente. Apresenta padrão de herança autossômico dominante, ou seja, indivíduos acometidos apresentam um risco de 50% de transmiti-la a seus filhos. CONCLUSÕES: Pacientes com a síndrome de deleção 22q11.2 frequentemente necessitam, ao longo de suas vidas, de um grande número de intervenções médicas e hospitalizações. O diagnóstico precoce é fundamental para a adequada avaliação e manejo clínico dos indivíduos e seus familiares.OBJECTIVE:To review historical, epidemiological, clinical, etiological and laboratorial aspects of the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, highlighting the importance of the diagnosis and its difficulties. DATA SOURCES: MedLine, Lilacs e SciELO databases, as well as internet and book chapters written in English, were searched for the period of 1980-2008, with the following descriptors "22q11

  6. Extravasation injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gault, D T

    1993-03-01

    The leakage of cytotoxic drugs, intravenous nutrition, solutions of calcium, potassium, bicarbonate and even 10% dextrose outside the vein into which they are delivered is known not only to cause skin necrosis but also to precipitate significant scarring around tendons, nerves and joints. In this review of 96 patients with extravasation injuries seen between 1987 and 1992 at St Thomas' Hospital, Mount Vernon Hospital and The Hospital for Sick Children, Great Ormond Street, several patients required extensive reconstruction and in some, despite this, extravasation injury has rendered a limb virtually useless. Two techniques, liposuction and saline flushout, are described to remove extravasated material while conserving the overlying skin. Analysis of flushout material confirmed that the extravasated material was actually being removed. Forty four of the study group in whom noxious materials were known to have extravasated underwent such early treatment. The results in this group were quite striking--the majority (86%) healed without any soft tissue loss at all. The early referral and treatment of extravasation injuries is, therefore, recommended.

  7. THE EFFECT OF WINTER CATCH CROPS ON WEED INFESTATION IN SWEET CORN DEPENDING ON THE WEED CONTROL METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Rosa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out in east-central Poland (52°06’ N, 22°55’ E over 2008–2011 to study the effect of winter catch crops on the weed infestation, number, and fresh matter of weeds in sweet corn (Zea mays L. var. saccharata. The following winter catch crops were grown: hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth., white clover (Trifolium repens L., winter rye (Secale cereale L., Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L. and winter turnip rape (Brassica rapa var. typica Posp.. The catch crops were sown in early September and incorporated in early May. The effect of the catch crops was compared to the effect of FYM (30 t·ha-1 and control without organic manuring (NOM. Three methods of weed control were used: HW – hand weeding, twice during the growing period, GCM – the herbicide Guardian Complete Mix 664 SE, immediately after sowing of corn seeds, Z+T – a mixture of the herbicides Zeagran 340 SE and Titus 25 WG applied at the 3–4-leaf stage of sweet corn growth. Rye and turnip rape catch crops had least weeds in their fresh matter. Sweet corn following winter catch crops was less infested by weeds than corn following farmyard manure and non-manured corn. Least weeds and their lowest weight were found after SC, BRT and VV. LM and BRT reduced weed species numbers compared with FYM and NOM. The greatest weed species diversity, determined at the corn flowering stage, was determined after SC and FYM. The number and weight of weeds were significantly lower when chemically controlled compared with hand weeding. The best results were observed after a post-emergent application of the mixture Z+T. The weed species diversity on Z+T-treated plots was clearly lower compared with GCM and HW.

  8. Management implications of the biodiversity and socio-economic impacts of shrimp trawler by-catch in Bahía de Kino, Sonora, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Lorayne; Blinick, Naomi S; Fleishman, Abram B

    2012-01-01

    The shrimp fishery is the most economically important fishery in Mexico. The trawler-based portion of this fishery results in high rates of by-catch. This study quantifies and describes the biodiversity of by-catch associated with trawling in the Bahía de Kino region of Sonora, Mexico. Data were collected from 55 trawls, on six boats, over 14 nights, during November of 2003, 2004, 2006-2009. By-catch rates within trawl samples averaged 85.9% measured by weight. A total of 183 by-catch species were identified during the course of this study, including 97 species of bony fish from 43 families, 19 species of elasmobranchs from 12 families, 66 species of invertebrates from eight phyla, and one species of marine turtle; seven of the documented by-catch species are listed on the IUCN Red List, CITES, or the Mexican NOM-059-ECOL-2010; 35 species documented in the by-catch are also targeted by local artisanal fishers. Some of the species frequently captured as juveniles in the by-catch are economically important to small-scale fishers in the region, and are particularly sensitive to overexploitation due to their life histories. This study highlights the need for further research quantifying the impacts of high levels of by-catch upon small-scale fishing economies in the region and presents strong ecological and economic rationale for by-catch management within the shrimp fishery of the Gulf of California. Site-specific by-catch management plans should be piloted in the Bahía de Kino region to address the growing momentum in national and international fisheries policy regimes toward the reduction of by-catch in shrimp fisheries.

  9. Catch crops as universal and effective method for reducing nitrogen leaching loss in spring cereal production: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkama, Elena; Lemola, Riitta; Känkänen, Hannu; Turtola, Eila

    2016-04-01

    Sustainable farms produce adequate amounts of a high-quality product, protect their resources and are both environmentally friendly and economically profitable. Nitrogen (N) fertilization decisively influences the cereal yields as well as increases soil N balance (N input in fertilizer - N output in harvested yield), thereby leading to N losses to the environment. However, while N input reduction affects soil N balance, such approach would markedly reduce N leaching loss only in case of abnormally high N balances. As an alternative approach, the growing of catch crops aims to prevent nutrient leaching in autumn after harvest and during the following winter, but due to competition, catch crops may also reduce yields of the main crop. Although studies have explored the environmental effects of catch crops in cereal production in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Sweden, Finland and Norway) during the past 40 years, none has yet carried out a meta-analysis. We quantitatively summarized 35 studies on the effect of catch crops (non-legume and legume) undersown in spring cereals on N leaching loss or its risk as estimated by the content of soil nitrate N or its sum with ammonium in late autumn. The meta-analysis also included the grain yield and N content of spring cereals. To identify sources of variation, we studied the effects of soil texture and management (ploughing time, the amount of N applied, fertilizer type), as well as climatic (annual precipitation) and experimental conditions (duration of experiments, lysimeter vs. field experiments). Finally, we examined whether the results differed between the countries or over the decades. Compared to control groups with no catch crops, non-legume catch crops, mainly ryegrass species, reduced N leaching loss by 50% on average, and soil nitrate N or inorganic N by 35% in autumn. Italian ryegrass depleted soil N more effectively (by 60%) than did perennial ryegrass or Westerwolds ryegrass (by 25%). In contrast, legumes (white

  10. The Coordination and Activity Tracking in CHildren (CATCH) study: rationale and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairney, John; Missiuna, Cheryl; Timmons, Brian W; Rodriguez, Christine; Veldhuizen, Scott; King-Dowling, Sara; Wellman, Sarah; Le, Tuyen

    2015-12-21

    Past studies have found that children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) engage in less physical activity than typically developing children. This "activity deficit" may result in children with DCD being less physically fit and more likely to be overweight or obese, potentially increasing later risk for poor cardiovascular health. Unfortunately, the majority of DCD research has been limited to cross-sectional designs, leading to questions about the complex relationship among motor ability, inactivity and health-related fitness. Of the few longitudinal studies on the topic, determining precedence amongst these factors is difficult because study cohorts typically focus on mid to late childhood. By this age, both decreased physical fitness and obesity are often established. The Coordination and Activity Tracking in CHildren (CATCH) study will examine the pathways connecting DCD, physical activity, physical fitness, and body composition from early to middle childhood. The CATCH study is a prospective cohort study. We aim to recruit a cohort of 600 children aged 4 to 5 years (300 probable DCD [pDCD] and 300 controls) and test them once a year for 4 years. At Phase 1 of baseline testing, we assess motor skills, cognitive ability (IQ), basic anthropometry, flexibility and lower body muscle strength, while parents complete an interview and questionnaires regarding family demographics, their child's physical activity, and behavioural characteristics. Children who move on to Phase 2 (longitudinal cohort) have their body fat percentage, foot structure, aerobic and anaerobic fitness assessed. An accelerometer to measure physical activity is then given to the child and interested family members. The family also receives an accelerometer logbook and 3-day food dairy. At years 2 to 4, children in the longitudinal cohort will have all baseline assessments repeated (excluding the IQ test), and complete an additional measure of perceived self-efficacy. Parents will

  11. Reduced translucency and the addition of black patterns increase the catch of the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum, on yellow sticky traps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Sampson

    Full Text Available The greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae is a pest of a wide range of vegetable and ornamental crops in greenhouses around the world. Yellow sticky traps are highly attractive to flying adults and so are frequently used to monitor the pest. Our aim was to test whether changes in trap translucency or the addition of printed black patterns could increase the catch on yellow sticky traps in greenhouses. Field trials were carried out in commercial crops of strawberry and tomato under glass over three years. Reduced trap translucency increased trap catches by a factor of 1.5 to 7.0 and the catch increased significantly for both females and males. Spectrometer measurements showed that the increased catch was consistent with an increased landing stimulus from a colour opponency mechanism i.e. the ratio of energy from 500-640 nm to the energy from 300-500 nm. Printed black patterns increased trap catches on specific types of trap, by a factor of 1.4 to 2.3, and the catch increased significantly for both females and males. The patterns increased trap catch on moderately translucent traps, but decreased trap catch on less translucent traps. The evidence points to a contrast/edge effect of pattern, but laboratory experiments are needed to clarify this. Exploitation of these translucency and pattern effects could improve the efficacy of yellow traps for monitoring and mass trapping in crops.

  12. Reduced translucency and the addition of black patterns increase the catch of the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum, on yellow sticky traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Clare; Covaci, Anca D; Hamilton, James G C; Hassan, Nayem; Al-Zaidi, Shakir; Kirk, William D J

    2018-01-01

    The greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a pest of a wide range of vegetable and ornamental crops in greenhouses around the world. Yellow sticky traps are highly attractive to flying adults and so are frequently used to monitor the pest. Our aim was to test whether changes in trap translucency or the addition of printed black patterns could increase the catch on yellow sticky traps in greenhouses. Field trials were carried out in commercial crops of strawberry and tomato under glass over three years. Reduced trap translucency increased trap catches by a factor of 1.5 to 7.0 and the catch increased significantly for both females and males. Spectrometer measurements showed that the increased catch was consistent with an increased landing stimulus from a colour opponency mechanism i.e. the ratio of energy from 500-640 nm to the energy from 300-500 nm. Printed black patterns increased trap catches on specific types of trap, by a factor of 1.4 to 2.3, and the catch increased significantly for both females and males. The patterns increased trap catch on moderately translucent traps, but decreased trap catch on less translucent traps. The evidence points to a contrast/edge effect of pattern, but laboratory experiments are needed to clarify this. Exploitation of these translucency and pattern effects could improve the efficacy of yellow traps for monitoring and mass trapping in crops.

  13. ORBITAL INJURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Kansky

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Orbit is involved in 40% of all facial fractures. There is considerable variety in severity, ranging from simple nondisplaced to complex comminuted fractures. Complex comminuted fractures (up to 20% are responsible for the majority of complications and unfavorable results. Orbital fractures are classified as internal orbital fractures, zygomatico-orbital fractures, naso-orbito-ethmoidal fractures and combined fractures. The ophtalmic sequelae of midfacial fractures are usually edema and ecchymosis of the soft tissues, subconjuctival hemorrhage, diplopia, iritis, retinal edema, ptosis, enophthalmos, ocular muscle paresis, mechanical restriction of ocular movement and nasolacrimal disturbances. More severe injuries such as optic nerve trauma and retinal detachments have also been reported. Within the wide range of orbital fractures small group of complex fractures causes most of the sequelae. Therefore identification of severe injuries and adequate treatment is of major importance. The introduction of craniofacial techniques made possible a wide exposure even of large orbital wall defects and their reconstruction by bone grafts. In spite of significant progress, repair of complex orbital wall defects remains a problem even for the experienced surgeons.Results. In 1999 121 facial injuries were treated at our department (Clinical Centre Ljubljana Dept. Of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery. Orbit was involved in 65% of cases. Isolated inner orbital fractures presented 4% of all fractures. 17 (14% complex cases were treated, 5 of them being NOE, 5 orbital (frame and inner walls, 3 zygomatico-orbital, 2 FNO and 2 maxillo-orbital fractures.Conclusions. Final result of the surgical treatment depends on severity of maxillofacial trauma. Complex comminuted fractures are responsable for most of the unfavorable results and ocular function is often permanently damaged (up to 75% in these fractures.

  14. Strategic Entrepreneurship Based Model of Catch-up University in Global Rankings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlov Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper will help answer the question, why only few universities managed to succeed significantly in their global ranking advancement, while most of their competitors fail. For this purpose it will introduce a new strategically entrepreneurial catch-up university framework, based on the combination of the resource based view, dynamic capabilities, strategic entrepreneurship and latecomer organization concepts. The new framework logics explains the advantages of being ambidextrous for ranking oriented universities and pursuing new potentially more favorable opportunities for research development. It will propose that substantial increase in the level of dynamic capabilities of the universities and their resource base accumulation is based on the use of the new combination of financial, human and social capital combined with strategic management of these resources in the process of identification and exploitation of greater opportunities.

  15. Vision: are models of object recognition catching up with the brain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggio, Tomaso; Ullman, Shimon

    2013-12-01

    Object recognition has been a central yet elusive goal of computational vision. For many years, computer performance seemed highly deficient and unable to emulate the basic capabilities of the human recognition system. Over the past decade or so, computer scientists and neuroscientists have developed algorithms and systems-and models of visual cortex-that have come much closer to human performance in visual identification and categorization. In this personal perspective, we discuss the ongoing struggle of visual models to catch up with the visual cortex, identify key reasons for the relatively rapid improvement of artificial systems and models, and identify open problems for computational vision in this domain. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  16. Innovation systems in small catching-up economies new perspectives on practice and policy

    CERN Document Server

    Varblane, Urmas; Roolaht, Tõnu

    2012-01-01

    In several parts of the world, countries are undergoing economic, social, and political transitions, enhanced and accelerated by the forces of globalization. These transition economies can serve as laboratories for understanding the innovation process. This volume features original theoretical and empirical research. It offers the first comprehensive view of innovation system development in the context of small catching-up economies. Smallness, path dependency, and latecomer status of such economies create some inherent limitations for their innovation systems, but these special characteristics can offer advantages as well. For example, smallness is often related with increased flexibility and shorter reaction times, while latecomers can benefit from earlier experiences of their more advanced neighbors. Path-dependency highlights the fact that the innovation system development processes are considerably influenced by the past experience of a particular country or region. By incorporating these features into a...

  17. Learning and robustness to catch-and-release fishing in a shark social network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourier, Johann; Brown, Culum; Planes, Serge

    2017-03-01

    Individuals can play different roles in maintaining connectivity and social cohesion in animal populations and thereby influence population robustness to perturbations. We performed a social network analysis in a reef shark population to assess the vulnerability of the global network to node removal under different scenarios. We found that the network was generally robust to the removal of nodes with high centrality. The network appeared also highly robust to experimental fishing. Individual shark catchability decreased as a function of experience, as revealed by comparing capture frequency and site presence. Altogether, these features suggest that individuals learnt to avoid capture, which ultimately increased network robustness to experimental catch-and-release. Our results also suggest that some caution must be taken when using capture-recapture models often used to assess population size as assumptions (such as equal probabilities of capture and recapture) may be violated by individual learning to escape recapture. © 2017 The Author(s).

  18. Application of the upper lip catch test for airway evaluation in edentulous patients: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Zahid Hussain; Arbabi, Shahriar; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed; Khan, Ramooz Hussain

    2014-01-01

    Application of upper lip catch test (ULCT) for airway evaluation in edentulous patients. This research is an evaluation of a clinical diagnostic test in edentulous patients prior to operation. Five hundred eighty eight edentulous patients in a referral university hospital, between March 2008 and June 2011 scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia were enrolled. Those unable to open the mouth and those with pharyngo-laryngeal pathology were excluded. ULCT was assessed and compared with Cormack-Lehane grading as a gold standard for airway evaluation. A high negative predictive value of 99.4% was a notable finding for the ULCT. The results also showed a high specificity (89.4%), high sensitivity (75.0%) and a high accuracy (89.3%) in a comparatively higher range for the ULCT. The ULCT proved to be a useful predictor for airway assessment in edentulous patients in this setting. Further studies are needed to reconfirm its validity in other ethnic groups.

  19. Nitrate Leaching, Yields and Carbon Sequestration after Noninversion Tillage, Catch Crops, and Straw Retention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elly Møller; Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2015-01-01

    Crop management factors, such as tillage, rotation, and straw retention, need to be long-term to allow conclusions on effects on crop yields, nitrate leaching, and carbon sequestration. In 2002, two field experiments, each including four cash crop rotations, were established on soils with 9 and 15......% clay, under temperate, coastal climate conditions. Direct drilling and harrowing to two different depths were compared to plowing with respect to yield, nitrate N leaching, and carbon sequestration. For comparison of yields across rotations, grain and seed dry matter yields for each crop were converted...... fodder radish due to the efficient catch crop. Soil organic carbon (SOC) did not increase significantly after 7 yr of straw incorporation or noninversion tillage. There was no correlation between N balances calculated for each growing season and N leaching measured in the following percolation period....

  20. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Spinal Cord Injury 101 ... arrow What is the “Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems” program? play_arrow What are the most promising ...

  1. Eye Injuries at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recreation Eye Injuries at Work Fireworks Eye Safety Sports Eye Injuries by the Numbers — Infographic Five ... Edited By: Shirley Dang Feb. 22, 2016 The personal and economic toll of eye injuries at work is alarming. ...

  2. Preventing Knee Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blog Skip breadcrumb navigation Preventing Knee Injuries Knee injuries in children and adolescent athletes may be the result of ... occur in childhood sports, but with any knee injury in a growing child there is a possibility of a fracture related ...

  3. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... cord injury? play_arrow Why are high-dose steroids often used right after an injury? play_arrow ... arrow What are the latest developments in the use of electrical stimulation for spinal cord injuries? play_ ...

  4. Wounds and Injuries

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    An injury is damage to your body. It is a general term that refers to harm caused by accidents, ... millions of people injure themselves every year. These injuries range from minor to life-threatening. Injuries can ...

  5. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Spinal Cord Injury 101 Adult ... LLC Understanding Spinal Cord Injury About Us Expert Videos Contact Us Personal Experience Videos Blog Videos By ...

  6. Eye Injuries in Sports

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    ... and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well-Being Mental Health ... Splints Home Prevention and Wellness Exercise and Fitness Sports Safety Eye Injuries in Sports Eye Injuries in ...

  7. Facial Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Facial Sports Injuries Facial Sports Injuries Patient Health Information News ... should receive immediate medical attention. Prevention Of Facial Sports Injuries The best way to treat facial sports ...

  8. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Spinal Cord Injury ... Jennifer Piatt, PhD David Chen, MD Read Bio Medical Director, Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Program, Rehabilitation Institute ...

  9. Nerve Injuries in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Kathryn; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Over a two-year period this study evaluated the condition of 65 athletes with nerve injuries. These injuries represent the spectrum of nerve injuries likely to be encountered in sports medicine clinics. (Author/MT)

  10. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... L Sarah Harrison, OT Anne Bryden, OT The Role of the Social Worker after Spinal Cord Injury ... a spinal cord injury important? play_arrow What role does “compression” play in a spinal cord injury? ...

  11. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... spinal cord injury? play_arrow What kind of surgery is common after a spinal cord injury? play_ ... How soon after a spinal cord injury should surgery be performed? play_arrow Is it common to ...

  12. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury Diane M. Rowles, MS, NP How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Nancy ... Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury Allen Heinemann, PhD How Peer Counseling Works Julie Gassaway, MS, RN Pediatric ...

  13. Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) happens when a bump, blow, jolt, or other head injury causes damage to the brain. Every year, millions of people in the U.S. suffer brain injuries. More than half are bad enough that ...

  14. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... RN Pediatric Injuries Pediatric Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation ... Rogers, PT Recreational Therapy after Spinal Cord Injury Jennifer Piatt, PhD David Chen, MD Read Bio Medical ...

  15. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation Sara Klaas, MSW Transitions for Children with Spinal Cord Injury Patricia Mucia, RN Family Life After Pediatric Spinal Injury Dawn Sheaffer, MSW Rehabilitation ...

  16. Catch, bycatch and discards of the Galapagos Marine Reserve small-scale handline fishery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerhackel, Johanna S; Schuhbauer, Anna C; Usseglio, Paolo; Heel, Lena C; Salinas-de-León, Pelayo

    2015-01-01

    Fisheries bycatch is a significant marine conservation issue as valuable fish are wasted and protected species harmed with potential negative ecological and socio-economic consequences. Even though there are indications that the small-scale handline fishery of the Galapagos Marine Reserve has a low selectivity, information on its bycatch has never been published. We used onboard monitoring and interview data to assess the bycatch of the Galapagos handline fishery by estimating the bycatch ratio, determining species compositions of landings and bycatch, identifying fishers' reasons for discarding certain individuals, and revealing historical trends in the bycatch ratio. The estimated bycatch ratio as a function of biomass of 0.40 and a diverse species composition of target catch and bycatch confirmed the low selectivity of this fishery. Most individuals were not landed for economic motivations, either because species (77.4%) or sizes (17.7%) are unmarketable or for regulatory reasons (5.9%). We found that bycatch contributes to growth overfishing of some target species because they are discarded or used as bait before reaching their first maturity. Moreover, over half of interviewees perceived a historical decrease in bycatch ratios that was explained by a diversification of the target catch due to the reduction in abundance of the traditionally most important target species. As some target species show signs of overfishing and to date there are no specific regulations for the finfish fishery species in place, we recommend the implementation of a series of management measures to protect critical life stages of overexploited species and to improve the selectivity of the Galapagos handline fishery.

  17. Reduction of weed pressure by establishing catch crops in maize-bean-intercropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer, Jenny

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Intercropping field experiments with maize and Phaseolus beans are conducted at the Thünen-Institute of Organic Farming (Schleswig-Holstein, SL, 740 mm, 8.7 °C from 2014-2016. As known from previous experiments, maize and beans have a very low competitiveness against weeds, due to their relative slow youth development. Therefore, the beans were sown subsequently to the mechanical weed control with harrow and hoe, at the 4-leaf development stage (BBCH 14 of maize. Hence a mechanical weed control after bean emergence is critical, a field experiment is conducted to find out whether the establishment of an additional catch crop can reduce weed pressure substantially. For this purpose two catch crop mixtures are evaluated in pure maize plots as well as in intercropping plots with scarlet runner beans (Phaseolus coccineus, cv. Preisgewinner or common runner beans (Phaseolus vulgaris, cv. Tarbais respectively. As control variants, plots without undersown crops were used. The undersown crop mixtures are composed of Italian ryegrass (cv. Gersimi, sowing density: 15 kg ha-1, which is combined with subterranean clover (cv. Seaton Park, sowing density: 30 kg ha-1 in US1 and with Chicory (cv. Puna II, sowing density 7.5 kg ha-1 in US2. The highest biomass (50 g DM m-2 was produced by US1 in all variants, while the biomass of US2 was significantly lower with 32 g DM m-2. As a result of a successful mechanical weed control as well as a good development of the main crops, the weed pressure in 2014 was generally low. Nevertheless, the results show that undersown crops can reduce weeds substantially. While the significantly highest weed biomass was recorded in the plots without undersown crops, it was reduced by 70% with US1 and by 80% with US2 on average respectively.

  18. Catch, bycatch and discards of the Galapagos Marine Reserve small-scale handline fishery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna S. Zimmerhackel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fisheries bycatch is a significant marine conservation issue as valuable fish are wasted and protected species harmed with potential negative ecological and socio-economic consequences. Even though there are indications that the small-scale handline fishery of the Galapagos Marine Reserve has a low selectivity, information on its bycatch has never been published. We used onboard monitoring and interview data to assess the bycatch of the Galapagos handline fishery by estimating the bycatch ratio, determining species compositions of landings and bycatch, identifying fishers’ reasons for discarding certain individuals, and revealing historical trends in the bycatch ratio. The estimated bycatch ratio as a function of biomass of 0.40 and a diverse species composition of target catch and bycatch confirmed the low selectivity of this fishery. Most individuals were not landed for economic motivations, either because species (77.4% or sizes (17.7% are unmarketable or for regulatory reasons (5.9%. We found that bycatch contributes to growth overfishing of some target species because they are discarded or used as bait before reaching their first maturity. Moreover, over half of interviewees perceived a historical decrease in bycatch ratios that was explained by a diversification of the target catch due to the reduction in abundance of the traditionally most important target species. As some target species show signs of overfishing and to date there are no specific regulations for the finfish fishery species in place, we recommend the implementation of a series of management measures to protect critical life stages of overexploited species and to improve the selectivity of the Galapagos handline fishery.

  19. SU-E-T-158: Catching Errors with Trajectory Log Files

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijesooriya, K; Seitter, K; Desai, V; Dharia, I; Read, P; Larner, J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To present our single institution experience on catching errors with trajectory log file analysis. The reported causes of failures, probability of occurrences (O), severity of effects (S), and the probability of the failures to be undetected (D) could be added to guidelines of FMEA analysis. Methods: From March 2013 to March 2014, 19569 patient treatment fields/arcs were analyzed. This work includes checking all 131 treatment delivery parameters for all patients, all treatment sites and all treatment delivery fractions. TrueBeam trajectory log files for all treatment field types as well as all imaging types were accessed, read in every 20ms, and every control point (total of 37 million parameters) compared to the physician approved plan in the planning system. Results: Couch angle outlier occurrence: N= 327, range = −1.7 −1.2 deg; gantry angle outlier occurrence: N =59, range = 0.09 – 5.61 deg, collimator angle outlier occurrence: N = 13, range = −0.2 – 0.2 deg. VMAT cases have slightly larger variations in mechanical parameters. MLC: 3D single control point fields have a maximum deviation of 0.04 mm, 39 step and shoot IMRT cases have MLC −0.3 – 0.5 mm deviations, all (1286) VMAT cases have −0.9 – 0.7 mm deviations. Two possible serious errors were found: 1) A 4 cm isocenter shift for the PA beam of an AP-PA pair, under-dosing a portion of PTV by 25%. 2) Delivery with MLC leaves abutted behind the jaws as opposed to the midline as planned, leading to a under-dosing of a small volume of the PTV by 25%, by just the boost plan. Due to their error origin, neither of these errors could have been detected by pre-treatment verification. Conclusion: Performing Trajectory Log file analysis could catch typically undetected errors to avoid potentially adverse incidents

  20. Stormwater solids removal characteristics of a catch basin insert using geotextile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Zahanggir; Anwar, A H M Faisal; Heitz, Anna

    2018-03-15

    Suspended solids in urban runoff have multiple adverse environmental impacts and create a wide range of water quality problems in receiving water bodies. Geotextile filtration systems inserted within catch basins have the potential to mitigate these effects, through flow attenuation and pollutant removal. This study modelled a catch basin in a column and assessed the hydraulic and solids removal characteristics of a new type of non-woven geotextile (NWG1) in the capture of solids from stormwater runoff. The new geotextile was compared with two others readily available on the market (NWG2, NWG3). Synthetic stormwater containing TSS (200mg/L) was used with two particle size distributions of 0-180μm (P1; D 50 :106μm) and 0-300μm (P2; D 50 :150μm). The results revealed that the desired stormwater TSS concentration (soil with the larger range of particle sizes (P2) than for the soil with smaller particle sizes (P1). Geotextile fibre pattern appeared to have a significant influence on the TSS removal capacity. The NWG1 has higher permittivity than NWG3 but similar to NWG2. NWG1 could capture overall more TSS (which also resulted in earlier clogging) than NWG2 and NWG3 because of the special fibre structure of NWG1. The experimental data shows that these geotextiles may start to clog when the hydraulic conductivity reaches below 1.36×10 -5 m/s. The overall hydraulic performances of geotextiles showed that the NWG1 has better potential for use in CBIs because of its higher strength and multiple reuse capability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Spatial and temporal consumption dynamics of trout in catch-and-release areas in Arkansas tailwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinders, John M.; Magoulick, Daniel D.

    2017-01-01

    Restrictive angling regulations in tailwater trout fisheries may be unsuccessful if food availability limits energy for fish to grow. We examined spatial and temporal variation in energy intake and growth in populations of Brown Trout Salmo trutta and Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss within three catch-and-release (C-R) areas in Arkansas tailwaters to evaluate food availability compared with consumption. Based on bioenergetic simulations, Rainbow Trout fed at submaintenance levels in both size-classes (≤400 mm TL, >400 mm TL) throughout most seasons. A particular bottleneck in food availability occurred in the winter for Rainbow Trout when the daily ration was substantially below the minimum required for maintenance, despite reduced metabolic costs associated with lower water temperatures. Rainbow Trout growth rates followed a similar pattern to consumption with negative growth rates during the winter periods. All three size-classes (400 mm TL) of Brown Trout experienced high growth rates and limited temporal bottlenecks in food availability. We observed higher mean densities for Rainbow Trout (47–342 fish/ha) than for Brown Trout (3–84 fish/ha) in all C-R areas. Lower densities of Brown Trout coupled with an ontogenetic shift towards piscivory may have allowed for higher growth rates and sufficient consumption rates to meet energetic demands. Brown Trout at current densities were more effective in maintaining adequate growth rates and larger sizes in C-R areas than were Rainbow Trout. Bioenergetic simulations suggest that reducing stocking levels of Rainbow Trout in the tailwaters may be necessary in order to achieve increased catch rates of larger trout in the C-R areas.

  2. Schema-based learning of adaptable and flexible prey- catching in anurans II. Learning after lesioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbacho, Fernando; Nishikawa, Kiisa C; Weerasuriya, Ananda; Liaw, Jim-Shih; Arbib, Michael A

    2005-12-01

    The previous companion paper describes the initial (seed) schema architecture that gives rise to the observed prey-catching behavior. In this second paper in the series we describe the fundamental adaptive processes required during learning after lesioning. Following bilateral transections of the hypoglossal nerve, anurans lunge toward mealworms with no accompanying tongue or jaw movement. Nevertheless anurans with permanent hypoglossal transections eventually learn to catch their prey by first learning to open their mouth again and then lunging their body further and increasing their head angle. In this paper we present a new learning framework, called schema-based learning (SBL). SBL emphasizes the importance of the current existent structure (schemas), that defines a functioning system, for the incremental and autonomous construction of ever more complex structure to achieve ever more complex levels of functioning. We may rephrase this statement into the language of Schema Theory (Arbib 1992, for a comprehensive review) as the learning of new schemas based on the stock of current schemas. SBL emphasizes a fundamental principle of organization called coherence maximization, that deals with the maximization of congruence between the results of an interaction (external or internal) and the expectations generated for that interaction. A central hypothesis consists of the existence of a hierarchy of predictive internal models (predictive schemas) all over the control center-brain-of the agent. Hence, we will include predictive models in the perceptual, sensorimotor, and motor components of the autonomous agent architecture. We will then show that predictive models are fundamental for structural learning. In particular we will show how a system can learn a new structural component (augment the overall network topology) after being lesioned in order to recover (or even improve) its original functionality. Learning after lesioning is a special case of structural

  3. Effect of chemical ratios of a microbial-based feeding attractant on trap catch of spotted wing drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (SWD) can be trapped with a feeding attractant based on wine and vinegar volatiles and consisting of acetic acid, ethanol, acetoin and methionol. Using that 4-component blend, we found that the catch of SWD increased with increases in the release rate of acetoin (from 0...

  4. Catch-Quota Pilot Study on the Dutch commercial fishery on cod (Gadus morhua)(first period: 2010-2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmond, van A.T.M.; Couperus, A.S.; Warmerdam, M.J.M.; Tuinen, van D.W.

    2012-01-01

    The possibility to operate a catch-quota scheme on Dutch commercial fishing vessels was investigated in a pilot study on the commercial fishery on cod (Gadus Morhua). The project started at the end of 2010 and was fully operational, with five Dutch registered vessels, in 2011. To be able to

  5. 76 FR 44155 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Catch Sharing Plan for Guided Sport and Commercial Fisheries in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... Halibut Fisheries II. History of Management in the Guided Sport Halibut Fisheries III. Proposed Catch... this additional management measure in the Area 2C charter fishery to limit guided sport halibut harvest... comprehensive management program for the guided sport halibut fisheries in Area 2C and Area 3A. If approved, the...

  6. 78 FR 75843 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Catch Sharing Plan for Guided Sport and Commercial Fisheries in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-12

    ... management measures has been around March 15. Thus, the period between the February 1 opening of the sport... 1 opening for the sport fishing season. However, implementation of the annual management measures in... annual allocations and guided sport catch limits are adopted by the Commission as annual management...

  7. Incentivising selective fishing under catch quotas: using an FCube modelling approach to evaluate management options for North Sea mixed fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Condie, Harriet M.; Dolder, Paul J.; Catchpole, Thomas L.

    Reforms of EU Common Fisheries Policy will make fundamental changes to European fisheries management, including a discard ban with catch quotas for regulated species and management to achieve MSY. We evaluate the impact of these changes on revenue of North Sea demersal finfish fleets and fish...

  8. Study of the effect of a By-catch Reduction Panel in a twin-trawl on reducing plaice discards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marlen, van B.; Helmond, van A.T.M.; Pasterkamp, T.L.; Bol, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Comparative fishing trials were conducted in November 2008 on the euro-cutter MFV TH-7 “Adriana Maria” on fishing grounds in the North Sea to investigate the effect of By-catch Reduction Panels inserted in a twin-trawl. In a total of 17 experimental hauls two nets were fished simultaneously, a

  9. 50 CFR 300.65 - Catch sharing plan and domestic management measures in waters in and off Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... measures in waters in and off Alaska. 300.65 Section 300.65 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING... sharing plan and domestic management measures in waters in and off Alaska. (a) A catch sharing plan (CSP... Ketchikan and Juneau non-subsistence marine waters areas as defined in paragraphs (h)(3)(i) and (h)(3)(ii...

  10. Trade-Based Estimation of Bluefin Tuna Catches in the Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean, 2005–2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gagern, A.; van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.; Sumaila, U.R.

    2013-01-01

    The Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean stock of Bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus (BFTE) has long been considered overfished and at risk of collapse. Although ICCAT quotas for this stock have decreased considerably over the past years, uncertainty exists about the degree of catch beyond this quota. The

  11. Getting hold of approaching objects : In search of a common control of hand-closure initiation in catching and grasping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Kamp, Cornelis; Bongers, Raoul M.; Zaal, Frank T. J. M.

    Both in the catching and grasping component of prehension, the hand opens and closes before hand-object contact is made. The initiation of hand closure has to be coordinated with the time course of the decrease of the distance between the hand and the target object, i.e., with the reaching component

  12. Catching up with society - what, how, and why: the regulation of the UN Security Council's targeted sanctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanetake, M.

    2014-01-01

    Professor Ryuichi Ida’s contributions in the study of international law have been guided by his underlying conviction that law, or more precisely, law-makers, will be catching up to a social change. For Professor Ida, the identity of "law" is the "substantive binding force". The substantive

  13. 76 FR 55343 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Extension of Public Comment Period on Proposed Rule for a Catch...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... on Proposed Rule for a Catch Sharing Plan for Guided Sport and Commercial Fisheries in Alaska AGENCY... sport and commercial fisheries for Pacific halibut in waters of International Pacific Halibut Commission... comments identified by 0648-BA37 by any one of the following methods: Electronic submissions: Submit all...

  14. 78 FR 44920 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Catch Sharing Plan for Guided Sport and Commercial Fisheries in Alaska...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ... Sport and Commercial Fisheries in Alaska; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... proposed regulations to implement a catch sharing plan for the guided sport and commercial fisheries for... Docket Number NOAA-NMFS-2011-0180, by any of the following methods: Electronic Submission: Submit all...

  15. The confluence of intrinsic and extrinsic constraints on 3- to- 9-month-old infants' catching behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hof, P.; van der Kamp, J.; Caljouw, S.R.; Savelsbergh, G.J.P.

    2005-01-01

    The present study sought to uncover what constraints shape the early development of the perceptual-motor skill of catching, and how intrinsic (i.e., movement possibilities) and extrinsic constraints (i.e., object speed imposes temporal precision) impinge on the perception of whether or not a moving

  16. Feasibility of a Catch-Up HPV Vaccination Program among College Students Attending a Large Rural University in the South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Alice R.; Haithcox-Dennis, Melissa J.; Allsbrook, Ashley R.

    2012-01-01

    Our study explored the eligibility and willingness of students to participate in a university-wide catch-up Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination program. A total of 1804 electronic surveys (82% response) assessing demographics, HPV knowledge, eligibility, and willingness were gathered. HPV knowledge was moderate, with just over a quarter (26%)…

  17. Positive Catch & Economic Benefits of Periodic Octopus Fishery Closures: Do Effective, Narrowly Targeted Actions ‘Catalyze’ Broader Management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Thomas A.; Oleson, Kirsten L. L.; Ratsimbazafy, Hajanaina; Raberinary, Daniel; Benbow, Sophie; Harris, Alasdair

    2015-01-01

    Overview Eight years of octopus fishery records from southwest Madagascar reveal significant positive impacts from 36 periodic closures on: (a) fishery catches and (b) village fishery income, such that (c) economic benefits from increased landings outweigh costs of foregone catch. Closures covered ~20% of a village’s fished area and lasted 2-7 months. Fishery Catches from Each Closed Site Octopus landings and catch per unit effort (CPUE) significantly increased in the 30 days following a closure’s reopening, relative to the 30 days before a closure (landings: +718%, poctopus fishery income doubled in the 30 days after a closure, relative to 30 days before (+132%, p<0.001, n = 28). Control villages not implementing a closure showed no increase in income after “no ban” closures and modest increases after “ban” closures. Villages did not show a significant decline in income during closure events. Net Economic Benefits from Each Closed Site Landings in closure sites generated more revenue than simulated landings assuming continued open-access fishing at that site (27/36 show positive net earnings; mean +$305/closure; mean +57.7% monthly). Benefits accrued faster than local fishers’ time preferences during 17-27 of the 36 closures. High reported rates of illegal fishing during closures correlated with poor economic performance. Broader Co-Management We discuss the implications of our findings for broader co-management arrangements, particularly for catalyzing more comprehensive management. PMID:26083862

  18. Root, soil water and nitrogen dynamics in a catch crop-soil system in the Wageningen Rhizolab.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van A.M.; Leffelaar, P.A.

    1998-01-01

    Catch crops (winter rye [Secale cereale] and fodder radish [Raphanus sativus]) were grown on lysimeters with rhizotron facilities in Wageningen, Netherlands, from September-March (1993-94) and August-March (1994-95) in order to study root growth and water and nitrogen dynamics under different

  19. 78 FR 39121 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Catch Sharing Plan for Guided Sport and Commercial Fisheries in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... Alaska). If approved, this catch sharing plan will replace the Guideline Harvest Level program, define an... necessary to achieve the halibut fishery management goals of the North Pacific Fishery Management Council.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Contents I. Current Management of the Halibut Fisheries A. Regulatory...

  20. Catch up patterns in newly industrializing countries : an international comparison of manufacturing productivity in Taiwan, 1961-1993

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, Marcel P.

    1998-01-01

    Taiwan has undergone a process of swift industrialization after 1948. Rapid accumulation of physical and human capital enabled Taiwan to exploit new technologies and products, resulting in rapid catch up in labour productivity relative to more advanced economies. Using the industry-of-origin

  1. A novel tool to mitigate by-catch mortality of baltic seals in coastal fyke net fishery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksanen, Sari M; Ahola, Markus P; Oikarinen, Jyrki; Kunnasranta, Mervi

    2015-01-01

    Developing methods to reduce the incidental catch of non-target species is important, as by-catch mortality poses threats especially to large aquatic predators. We examined the effectiveness of a novel device, a "seal sock", in mitigating the by-catch mortality of seals in coastal fyke net fisheries in the Baltic Sea. The seal sock developed and tested in this study was a cylindrical net attached to the fyke net, allowing the seals access to the surface to breathe while trapped inside fishing gear. The number of dead and live seals caught in fyke nets without a seal sock (years 2008-2010) and with a sock (years 2011-2013) was recorded. The seals caught in fyke nets were mainly juveniles. Of ringed seals (Phoca hispida botnica) both sexes were equally represented, while of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) the ratio was biased (71%) towards males. All the by-caught seals were dead in the fyke nets without a seal sock, whereas 70% of ringed seals and 11% of grey seals survived when the seal sock was used. The seal sock proved to be effective in reducing the by-catch mortality of ringed seals, but did not perform as well with grey seals.

  2. Understanding acute ankle ligamentous sprain injury in sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fong Daniel TP

    2009-07-01

    . Immobilization should not be used as it results in joint stiffness, muscle atrophy and loss of proprioception. Traditional Chinese medicine such as herbs, massage and acupuncture were well applied in China in managing sports injuries, and was reported to be effective in relieving pain, reducing swelling and edema, and restoring normal ankle function. Finally, the best practice of sports medicine would be to prevent the injury. Different previous approaches, including designing prophylactice devices, introducing functional interventions, as well as change of games rules were highlighted. This paper allows the readers to catch up with the previous researches on ankle sprain injury, and facilitate the future research idea on sport-related ankle sprain injury.

  3. Preventing Children's Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dealing With Sports Injuries Concussions: What to Do Sports and Concussions Burner (Stinger) Concussions: Alex's Story Compulsive Exercise Repetitive Stress Injuries View more Partner Message About Us Contact ...

  4. Playground slide-related injuries in preschool children: increased risk of lower extremity injuries when riding on laps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennissen, Charles A; Koos, Maggie; Denning, Gerene

    2018-04-10

    The purpose of this study was to better understand the factors associated with playground slide-related injuries in preschool children and to test the hypothesis that riding on laps increases the likelihood of lower extremity injuries. Playground slide-related injuries (product code 1242) in children ≤5 years of age treated in emergency departments from 2002 to 2015 were identified (N = 12,686) using the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission's National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS). Descriptive and comparative analyses, including chi-square testing and binary logistic regression, were performed. Based on NEISS stratified national sampling estimates, over 350,000 children ≤5 years of age were injured on slides from 2002 to 2015. Overall, 59% of the children were male, and 65% were white. Almost 60% of injuries occurred in parks or other public areas. The most frequent diagnosis was a fracture (36%); lacerations were 19% of the injuries. A higher proportion of musculoskeletal injuries were seen in toddlers < 3 years old as compared to those 3-5 years of age (p < 0.001). Injuries to the lower extremities increased in frequency as age decreased, whereas injuries to the upper extremities and head/neck/face were more common in older preschoolers. Children < 3 years of age were 12 times more likely to be identified from narratives as being on another person's lap at the time of injury. Children identified as being on a lap had an increased odds of injury to the lower extremity than to other body parts (OR 43.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 32.0-58.0), and of lower leg/ankle fracture than fractures elsewhere (OR 49.5, 95% CI 31.7-77.4). Decreasing age was associated with a higher likelihood of being identified as sliding down on another person's lap and a higher likelihood of lower extremity injuries. Healthcare providers should be mindful of the potential for these slide-related injuries as they can result in a toddler's fracture of

  5. Dynamics of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis and Lysinibacillus sphaericus spores in urban catch basins after simultaneous application against mosquito larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidi, Valeria; Lehner, Angelika; Lüthy, Peter; Tonolla, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) and Lysinibacillus sphaericus (Lsph) are extensively used in mosquito control programs. These biocides are the active ingredients of a commercial larvicide. Quantitative data on the fate of both Bti and Lsph applied together for the control of mosquitoes in urban drainage structures such as catch basins are lacking. We evaluated the dynamics and persistence of Bti and Lsph spores released through their concomitant application in urban catch basins in southern Switzerland. Detection and quantification of spores over time in water and sludge samples from catch basins were carried out using quantitative real-time PCR targeting both cry4A and cry4B toxin genes for Bti and the binA gene for Lsph. After treatment, Bti and Lsph spores attained concentrations of 3.76 (± 0.08) and 4.13 (± 0.09) log ml(-1) in water, then decreased progressively over time, reaching baseline values. For both Bti and Lsph, spore levels in the order of 10(5) g(-1) were observed in the bottom sludge two days after the treatment and remained constant for the whole test period (275 days). Indigenous Lsph strains were isolated from previously untreated catch basins. A selection of those was genotyped using pulsed field gel electrophoresis of SmaI-digested chromosomal DNA, revealing that a subset of isolates were members of the clonal population of strain 2362. No safety issues related to the use of this biopesticide in the environment have been observed during this study, because no significant increase in the number of spores was seen during the long observation period. The isolation of native Lysinibacillus sphaericus strains belonging to the same clonal population as strain 2362 from catch basins never treated with Lsph-based products indicates that the use of a combination of Bti and Lsph for the control of mosquitoes does not introduce non-indigenous microorganisms in this area.

  6. Synergistic Effects of Marine Reserves and Harvest Controls on the Abundance and Catch Dynamics of a Coral Reef Fishery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopf, Jess K; Jones, Geoffrey P; Williamson, David H; Connolly, Sean R

    2016-06-20

    Marine no-take reserves, where fishing and other extractive activities are prohibited, have well-established conservation benefits [1], yet their impacts on fisheries remains contentious [2-4]. For fishery species, reserves are often implemented alongside more conventional harvest strategies, including catch and size limits [2, 5]. However, catch and fish abundances observed post-intervention are often attributed to reserves, without explicitly estimating the potential contribution of concurrent management interventions [2, 3, 6-9]. Here we test a metapopulation model against observed fishery [10] and population [11] data for an important coral reef fishery (coral trout; Plectropomus spp.) in Australia's Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP) to evaluate how the combined increase in reserve area [12] and reduction in fishing effort [13, 14] in 2004 influenced changes in fish stocks and the commercial fishery. We found that declines in catch, increases in catch rates, and increases in biomass since 2004 were substantially attributable to the integration of direct effort controls with the rezoning, rather than the rezoning alone. The combined management approach was estimated to have been more productive for fish and fisheries than if the rezoning had occurred alone and comparable to what would have been obtained with effort controls alone. Sensitivity analyses indicate that the direct effort controls prevented initial decreases in catch per unit effort that would have otherwise occurred with the rezoning. Our findings demonstrate that by concurrently restructuring the fishery, the conservation benefits of reserves were enhanced and the fishery cost of rezoning the reserve network was socialized, mitigating negative impacts on individual fishers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Dynamics of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis and Lysinibacillus sphaericus spores in urban catch basins after simultaneous application against mosquito larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Guidi

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti and Lysinibacillus sphaericus (Lsph are extensively used in mosquito control programs. These biocides are the active ingredients of a commercial larvicide. Quantitative data on the fate of both Bti and Lsph applied together for the control of mosquitoes in urban drainage structures such as catch basins are lacking. We evaluated the dynamics and persistence of Bti and Lsph spores released through their concomitant application in urban catch basins in southern Switzerland. Detection and quantification of spores over time in water and sludge samples from catch basins were carried out using quantitative real-time PCR targeting both cry4A and cry4B toxin genes for Bti and the binA gene for Lsph. After treatment, Bti and Lsph spores attained concentrations of 3.76 (± 0.08 and 4.13 (± 0.09 log ml(-1 in water, then decreased progressively over time, reaching baseline values. For both Bti and Lsph, spore levels in the order of 10(5 g(-1 were observed in the bottom sludge two days after the treatment and remained constant for the whole test period (275 days. Indigenous Lsph strains were isolated from previously untreated catch basins. A selection of those was genotyped using pulsed field gel electrophoresis of SmaI-digested chromosomal DNA, revealing that a subset of isolates were members of the clonal population of strain 2362. No safety issues related to the use of this biopesticide in the environment have been observed during this study, because no significant increase in the number of spores was seen during the long observation period. The isolation of native Lysinibacillus sphaericus strains belonging to the same clonal population as strain 2362 from catch basins never treated with Lsph-based products indicates that the use of a combination of Bti and Lsph for the control of mosquitoes does not introduce non-indigenous microorganisms in this area.

  8. MORAL INJURY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, Mildred

    2017-12-01

    The devastating effect on the self of moral injury, often a core component of trauma, occurring when one's actions have profoundly violated one's code of ethics, when one has been a victim of such violation, or when one has been a passive witness, has been extensively explored as it has occurred in veterans of the wars in Vietnam, Iraq and Afghanistan. Two examples illustrate its prevalence in civilian life. The literature shows violation of expected empathy from and for others, inherent in our nature, is more devastating than violation of the ethical code of our culture or sub-culture, adherence to which becomes urgent as our need emerges to belong to the culture or subculture of which we are a part, values which often contradict our innate sense of "what is right."

  9. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... injury? play_arrow How does the spinal cord work? play_arrow Why is the level of a spinal cord injury important? play_arrow What role does “compression” play in a spinal cord injury? play_arrow Why are high-dose steroids often used right after an injury? play_arrow What is meant ...

  10. Head Injuries in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    School nurses play a crucial role in injury prevention and initial treatment when injuries occur at school. The role of school nurses includes being knowledgeable about the management of head injuries, including assessment and initial treatment. The school nurse must be familiar with the outcomes of a head injury and know when further evaluation…

  11. Patterns of work injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lander, Flemming; Nielsen, Kent Jacob; Rasmussen, Kurt Arend

    2014-01-01

    To compare work injuries treated in an emergency department (ED) and injuries reported to the Danish Working Environment Authority (DWEA).......To compare work injuries treated in an emergency department (ED) and injuries reported to the Danish Working Environment Authority (DWEA)....

  12. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Diane M. Rowles, MS, NP How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Nancy Rosenberg, PsyD ... Children with Spinal Cord Injury Patricia Mucia, RN Family Life After Pediatric Spinal Injury Dawn Sheaffer, MSW Rehabilitation ...

  13. Managing eye injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothy Mutie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on what you found during the eye examination, classify the injury as a non-mechanical injury (chemical or thermal injury, a non-globe injury (orbital or adnexal injury or as a mechanical globe injury. In the case of mechanical globe injuries, it is important to classify the injury according to the Birmingham Eye Trauma Terminology System (BETTS and write it down in the patient’s notes; this will help to ensure that everyone involved in caring for the patient will have a consistent understanding of the type of injury. The resulting uniformity of terminology also helps with research, making it possible to compare data and do audits of injuries – which is essential for prevention.

  14. Ecology of sandflies (Diptera:Psychodidae) in a restricted focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in northern Venezuela. II. Species composition in relation to habitat, catching method and hour of catching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliciangeli, M D

    1987-01-01

    The ecology of phlebotomine sandflies in an endemic focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Northern Venezuela (San Esteban, Carabobo State) was investigated through a year-term study. Three different habitats: viz. a house, a peridomestic area and a sylvatic area, were covered and the species composition, the abundance and occurrence of each species were analyzed in relation to the habitats, catching methods and hour of catching. L. panamensis, L. gomezi and L. ovallesi are the species which bite man, although almost exclusively at night. All of them hide by day and are common in the sylvatic area. Moreover, L. panamensis and L. gomezi successfully approach the house and seem to settle in the peridomestic area. L. shannoni and L. olmeca bicolor also approach and accidentally bite man. L. trinidadensis, L. atroclavata and L. cayennensis are the common non-anthropophilic species in the area.

  15. LATERAL ANKLE INJURY

    OpenAIRE

    Pollard, Henry; Sim, Patrick; McHardy, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Background: Injury to the ankle joint is the most common peripheral joint injury. The sports that most commonly produce high ankle injury rates in their participating athletes include: basketball, netball, and the various codes of football. Objective: To provide an up to date understanding of manual therapy relevant to lateral ligament injury of the ankle. A discussion of the types of ligament injury and common complicating factors that present with lateral ankle pain is presented along with ...

  16. Effect that Smell Presentation Has on an Individual in Regards to Eye Catching and Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomono, Akira; Kanda, Koyori; Otake, Syunya

    If a person's eyes are greater attracted to the target objects by matching the smell to an important scene of a movie or commercial image, the value of the image contents will rise. In this paper, we attempt to describe the image system that can also present smells, and the reason behind the improvement, from gaze point analysis, of the presence of smell when it is matched to the image. The relationship between the eye catching property and the position of the sight object was examined using the image with the scene where someone eats three kinds of fruits. These objects were gazed at for a long time once releasing their smells. When the smell was not released, the gaze moved actively to try and receive a lot of information from the entire screen. On the other hand, when the smell was inserted, the subject was interested in the object and there was a tendency for their gaze to stay within the narrow area surrounding the image. Moreover, we investigated the effect on the memory by putting the smell on the flowers in the virtual flower shop using immersive virtual reality system (HoloStageTM). It was memorized more easily compared with a scentless case. It seems that the viewer obtains the information actively by reacting to its smell.

  17. Catching a Wave: The Hypnosis-Sensitive Transference-Based Treatment of Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Ira

    2018-01-01

    In this article, I will describe the way in which I work with enactment-prone dissociative patients in the transference. This approach requires an appreciation of the phenomena of hypnosis and the auto-hypnotic aspects of some forms of dissociation. Essentially, I learn from the patient and my interactions with the patient how hypnotic phenomena and auto-hypnotic defenses manifest themselves in the therapeutic relationship in order both to understand them and ultimately to bring them under conscious control. Because of the fluidity and turbulence of these states, I use the analogy of catching a wave, in which timing and balance are essential, albeit elusive factors in effecting a successful treatment. The importance of having experience with many patients, attending conferences, seeking supervision, and undergoing one's own therapy will be also discussed as important prerequisites for the clinician endeavoring to utilize this type of approach. This preparation, this quest for such a "balance," is modeled after the so-called tripartite model of training employed in psychoanalytic training institutes. I will offer clinical material to illustrate this approach, which I have described as "psychoactive psychotherapy." In such treatments, the clinician may be taken by surprise and is likely to be thrown "off balance" from time to time. The mutually shared understanding of such moments is essential to regaining clinical balance in the therapeutic setting, and can lead to if not create important turning points in the treatment process.

  18. Potential impact of ocean circulation on the declining Japanese eel catches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Lin K; Miyazawa, Yasumasa; Miller, Michael J; Tsukamoto, Katsumi

    2018-04-03

    Recruitment of Japanese eels, Anguilla japonica, has declined in recent decades possibly due to both anthropogenic and ocean-atmosphere factors. The potential impact of ocean circulation on the decreasing Japanese eel catches in the western North Pacific was examined based on a three-dimensional particle-tracking method, in which virtual larvae (v-larvae) were programmed to swim horizontally and vertically, in addition to being transported by ocean currents after being released in their North Equatorial Current (NEC) spawning area. Transport patterns varied among years between 1993 and 2013, and dispersion of v-larvae towards East Asia decreased in the last two decades, especially for the western Taiwan and Japan regions. In recent years, instead of entering the Kuroshio and moving towards East Asia as in the 1990s', more v-larvae tended to enter the southern areas due to the weakening of the NEC and strengthening of subsurface southward flow near the spawning area. Changes in ocean circulation in the western Pacific appear to be caused by the weakening of subtropical and tropical wind stress curl in the past two decades. This suggests that decadal changes in ocean circulation have occurred that affect the larval migration success of the Japanese eel to their recruitment areas.

  19. Can Mosquito Magnet® substitute for human-landing catches to sample anopheline populations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Rubio-Palis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of the Mosquito Magnet Liberty PlusTM (MMLP trap was evaluated in comparison to human-landing catches (HLCs to sample anopheline populations in Jabillal, state of Bolivar, southern Venezuela. The village comprised 37 houses and a population of 101; malaria in this village is primarily due to Plasmodium vivax and the Annual Parasite Index is 316.8 per 1,000 population. A longitudinal study was conducted between June 2008-January 2009 for three nights per month every two months between 17:30 pm-21:30 pm, a time when biting mosquitoes are most active. Anopheles darlingi and Anopheles nuneztovari were the most common species collected by both methods, whereas Anopheles marajoara was more abundant according to the HLC method. The MMLP trap was more efficient for collecting An. nuneztovari [63%, confidence interval (CI: 2.53] than for collecting An. darlingi (31%, CI: 1.57. There were significant correlations (p < 0.01 between the two methods for An. darlingi [Pearson correlation (R² = 0.65] and An. nuneztovari (R² = 0.48. These preliminary results are encouraging for further investigations of the use of the MMLP trap for monitoring anopheline populations in remote malaria-endemic areas in the Amazon Basin.

  20. Can Mosquito Magnet® substitute for human-landing catches to sample anopheline populations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Palis, Yasmin; Moreno, Jorge E; Sánchez, Víctor; Estrada, Yarys; Anaya, William; Bevilacqua, Mariapia; Cárdenas, Lya; Martínez, Angela; Medina, Domingo

    2012-06-01

    The efficiency of the Mosquito Magnet Liberty Plus™ (MMLP) trap was evaluated in comparison to human-landing catches (HLCs) to sample anopheline populations in Jabillal, state of Bolivar, southern Venezuela. The village comprised 37 houses and a population of 101; malaria in this village is primarily due to Plasmodium vivax and the Annual Parasite Index is 316.8 per 1,000 population. A longitudinal study was conducted between June 2008-January 2009 for three nights per month every two months between 17:30 pm-21:30 pm, a time when biting mosquitoes are most active. Anopheles darlingi and Anopheles nuneztovari were the most common species collected by both methods, whereas Anopheles marajoara was more abundant according to the HLC method. The MMLP trap was more efficient for collecting An. nuneztovari [63%, confidence interval (CI): 2.53] than for collecting An. darlingi (31%, CI: 1.57). There were significant correlations (p < 0.01) between the two methods for An. darlingi [Pearson correlation (R²) = 0.65] and An. nuneztovari (R² = 0.48). These preliminary results are encouraging for further investigations of the use of the MMLP trap for monitoring anopheline populations in remote malaria-endemic areas in the Amazon Basin.

  1. Visual illusions in predator-prey interactions: birds find moving patterned prey harder to catch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämäläinen, Liisa; Valkonen, Janne; Mappes, Johanna; Rojas, Bibiana

    2015-09-01

    Several antipredator strategies are related to prey colouration. Some colour patterns can create visual illusions during movement (such as motion dazzle), making it difficult for a predator to capture moving prey successfully. Experimental evidence about motion dazzle, however, is still very scarce and comes only from studies using human predators capturing moving prey items in computer games. We tested a motion dazzle effect using for the first time natural predators (wild great tits, Parus major). We used artificial prey items bearing three different colour patterns: uniform brown (control), black with elongated yellow pattern and black with interrupted yellow pattern. The last two resembled colour patterns of the aposematic, polymorphic dart-poison frog Dendrobates tinctorius. We specifically tested whether an elongated colour pattern could create visual illusions when combined with straight movement. Our results, however, do not support this hypothesis. We found no differences in the number of successful attacks towards prey items with different patterns (elongated/interrupted) moving linearly. Nevertheless, both prey types were significantly more difficult to catch compared to the uniform brown prey, indicating that both colour patterns could provide some benefit for a moving individual. Surprisingly, no effect of background (complex vs. plain) was found. This is the first experiment with moving prey showing that some colour patterns can affect avian predators' ability to capture moving prey, but the mechanisms lowering the capture rate are still poorly understood.

  2. ECLogger: Cross-Project Catch-Block Logging Prediction Using Ensemble of Classifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Lal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Software developers insert log statements in the source code to record program execution information. However, optimizing the number of log statements in the source code is challenging. Machine learning based within-project logging prediction tools, proposed in previous studies, may not be suitable for new or small software projects. For such software projects, we can use cross-project logging prediction. Aim: The aim of the study presented here is to investigate cross-project logging prediction methods and techniques. Method: The proposed method is ECLogger, which is a novel, ensemble-based, cross-project, catch-block logging prediction model. In the research We use 9 base classifiers were used and combined using ensemble techniques. The performance of ECLogger was evaluated on on three open-source Java projects: Tomcat, CloudStack and Hadoop. Results: ECLogger Bagging, ECLogger AverageVote, and ECLogger MajorityVote show a considerable improvement in the average Logged F-measure (LF on 3, 5, and 4 source -> target project pairs, respectively, compared to the baseline classifiers. ECLogger AverageVote performs best and shows improvements of 3.12% (average LF and 6.08% (average ACC – Accuracy. Conclusion: The classifier based on ensemble techniques, such as bagging, average vote, and majority vote outperforms the baseline classifier. Overall, the ECLogger AverageVote model performs best. The results show that the CloudStack project is more generalizable than the other projects.

  3. Application of the upper lip catch test for airway evaluation in edentulous patients: An observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahid Hussain Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Application of upper lip catch test (ULCT for airway evaluation in edentulous patients. Methods: This research is an evaluation of a clinical diagnostic test in edentulous patients prior to operation. Five hundred eighty eight edentulous patients in a referral university hospital, between March 2008 and June 2011 scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia were enrolled. Those unable to open the mouth and those with pharyngo-laryngeal pathology were excluded. ULCT was assessed and compared with Cormack-Lehane grading as a gold standard for airway evaluation. Results: A high negative predictive value of 99.4% was a notable finding for the ULCT. The results also showed a high specificity (89.4%, high sensitivity (75.0% and a high accuracy (89.3% in a comparatively higher range for the ULCT. Conclusion: The ULCT proved to be a useful predictor for airway assessment in edentulous patients in this setting. Further studies are needed to reconfirm its validity in other ethnic groups.

  4. The feasibility and effectiveness of Catch It, an innovative CBT smartphone app.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinderman, Peter; Hagan, Paul; King, Sophie; Bowman, James; Chahal, Jasprit; Gan, Li; McKnight, Rebecca; Waldon, Charlotte; Smith, Matthew; Gilbertson, John; Tai, Sara

    2016-05-01

    The widespread use of smartphones makes effective therapies such as cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) potentially accessible to large numbers of people. This paper reports the usage data of the first trial of Catch It, a new CBT smartphone app. Uptake and usage rates, fidelity of user responses to CBT principles, and impact on reported negative and positive moods were assessed. A relatively modest proportion of people chose to download the app. Once used, the app tended to be used more than once, and 84% of the user-generated content was consistent with the basic concepts of CBT. There were statistically significant reductions in negative mood intensity and increases in positive mood intensity. Smartphone apps have potential beneficial effects in mental health through the application of basic CBT principles. More research with randomised controlled trial designs should be conducted. None. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence.

  5. Changing the choice architecture of ageing: live different and 'catch old'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Physical ageing and being old are broadly feared or denied, particularly by the young (Chittister 2008: 53). The future is viewed in terms of vague, looming, disabilities, despite the fact that no one can know their personal, ageing fate. As physical and functional limitations become more apparent over time, expected validation occurs in support of the conventional narrative of decline. It is necessary to understand the traditional negative perceptions about ageing if we are to alter them. At present, they do not match the unfolding realities of what it means to grow old, in the early twenty-first century.The challenge of the new longevity is learning to navigate the unexplored life terrain between middle and extreme age. How, then, can we redefine this life stage, navigate new pathways for growing old in order to maximize the untapped contributions of the largest and longest ever living cohort? The baby boomers (born 1946-1964) are not homogenous but they are in position to become the standard bearers for a new narrative and an alternative way to live differently, while ageing.This will require changes to choice architecture and decision making about personal ageing that will challenge long held attitudes, perceptions and mindsets. Hence, changing the narrative about living long and well is the void addressed here.Life is ultimately terminal. In the interim, the process of catching old by living different is the ultimate, life enhancing skill. It is all in the choosing.

  6. A prototype splitter apparatus for dividing large catches of small fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Edwards, William H.

    2012-01-01

    Due to financial and time constraints, it is often necessary in fisheries studies to divide large samples of fish and estimate total catch from the subsample. The subsampling procedure may involve potential human biases or may be difficult to perform in rough conditions. We present a prototype gravity-fed splitter apparatus for dividing large samples of small fish (30–100 mm TL). The apparatus features a tapered hopper with a sliding and removable shutter. The apparatus provides a comparatively stable platform for objectively obtaining subsamples, and it can be modified to accommodate different sizes of fish and different sample volumes. The apparatus is easy to build, inexpensive, and convenient to use in the field. To illustrate the performance of the apparatus, we divided three samples (total N = 2,000 fish) composed of four fish species. Our results indicated no significant bias in estimating either the number or proportion of each species from the subsample. Use of this apparatus or a similar apparatus can help to standardize subsampling procedures in large surveys of fish. The apparatus could be used for other applications that require dividing a large amount of material into one or more smaller subsamples.

  7. Catch-up growth does not associate with cognitive development in Indian school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolovic, N; Selvam, S; Srinivasan, K; Thankachan, P; Kurpad, A V; Thomas, T

    2014-01-01

    Stunting is significantly associated with lifetime morbidity and poorer cognitive outcomes in children. Although several studies have examined the relationship between stunting, catch-up growth and cognitive performance in young populations, this relationship has not yet been explored in school-aged children. In this study, we used data from three different nutritional intervention studies conducted over a 4-year period on school-age children in Bangalore, India to assess these relationships. A battery of cognitive tests was conducted before each intervention to determine whether stunting status at baseline was related to cognitive performance across four separate domains, and repeated after a 6-month period to assess whether changes to stunting status is related to cognitive advancement. Results of independent t-tests showed that while stunted children had significantly poorer performance on short-term memory, retrieval ability and visuospatial ability tests (P=0.023, 0.026 and 0.028, respectively), there was no significant difference in the change in cognitive scores following nutritional interventions over a 6-month period between those who remained stunted and those who were no longer stunted (P>0.10). Evidently, stunting remains associated with cognitive ability in school-age children; however, the reversal of these effects in this age group may be quite difficult.

  8. Catching moving targets: cancer stem cell hierarchies, therapy-resistance & considerations for clinical intervention.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gasch, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    It is widely believed that targeting the tumour-initiating cancer stem cell (CSC) component of malignancy has great therapeutic potential, particularly in therapy-resistant disease. However, despite concerted efforts, CSC-targeting strategies have not been efficiently translated to the clinic. This is partly due to our incomplete understanding of the mechanisms underlying CSC therapy-resistance. In particular, the relationship between therapy-resistance and the organisation of CSCs as Stem-Progenitor-Differentiated cell hierarchies has not been widely studied. In this review we argue that modern clinical strategies should appreciate that the CSC hierarchy is a dynamic target that contains sensitive and resistant components and expresses a collection of therapy-resisting mechanisms. We propose that the CSC hierarchy at primary presentation changes in response to clinical intervention, resulting in a recurrent malignancy that should be targeted differently. As such, addressing the hierarchical organisation of CSCs into our bench-side theory should expedite translation of CSC-targeting to bed-side practice. In conclusion, we discuss strategies through which we can catch these moving clinical targets to specifically compromise therapy-resistant disease.

  9. Incidental catch of marine turtles by the artisanal fisheries on Santa Catarina Island, SC, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Hanazaki

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The five species of sea turtles, which inhabit the Brazilian shore, have a wordwide distribution and are threatened with extinction. The south of Brazil is characterized as a feeding and breeding area of at least three of these species. The presence of turtles close to the shore and their incidental catch are occurrences reported by artisan fishermen of the Island of Santa Catarina in this work. The study was based on a questionnaire, applied to fishermen and fishfarmers at selected spots on the island. Scientific and popular names were matched using illustrations. The spots with the highest number of events and captures were close to the islands, rocky coasts and stony grounds, i.e. areas related with the foraging habits of the most abundant species, Chelonia mydas. The place, depth and size of the net are characteristics, which influence the capture. The time the net remains in the water is a factor which is fundamental to the survival of the captured turtles. The flesh of the turtle is used as an occasional feeding resource. Capacitation programs and training applied to the communities involved are recommended.

  10. A simple, efficient and inexpensive method for malaria parasites' DNA catching from fixed Giemsa-stained blood slides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandarian, Abbas Ali; Moradi, Sara; Abedi, Saeed

    2016-09-01

    As parasitological or microscopic method is the gold standard and the best method for diagnosis of malaria, so fixed Geimsa-stained blood slides in the form of thick and thin blood smears are the most important data collections of malaria, especially historical slides. The parasites are dead but their DNA is valuable for many molecular biologic researches. A simple and efficient method for catching and extraction malaria parasites' DNA with a desired yield from dried and stained blood on slides is the first and major step. Introduction of an applicable, efficient and inexpensive DNA catching method and assessment of its performance in following molecular applications  was the main objective of present study.

  11. Nitrogen leaching: A crop rotation perspective on the effect of N surplus, field management and use of catch crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Notaris, Chiara; Rasmussen, Jim; Sørensen, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Components of the field nitrogen (N) balance (input and surplus) are often used to predict nitrate leaching from agricultural lands. However, management factors, such as use of catch crops, greatly affect the actual loss and are a key to reduce N leaching. The present study is based on the 4th...... cycle of a long-term crop rotation experiment in Denmark, and it aims to quantify, from a crop rotation perspective, the influence on N leaching from N input and surplus or management factors. The experiment included three cropping systems (two organic and one conventional) with or without use of animal......, with legume-based catch crops being as effective as non-legumes. Animal manure increased N leaching in one of the organic systems. The organic system with two years of green manure per rotation cycle was the one at highest risk of N leaching, especially from crops following green manure incorporation. Spring...

  12. Effect of bottom type on catch rates of North Sea cod (Gadus morhua) in surveys with commercial fishing vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Kai; Pedersen, Eva Maria; Olesen, Hans Jakob

    2009-01-01

    Seven surveys with commercial fishing vessels were conducted during a collaborative fishermen-scientist project on the distribution of cod in the north-eastern North Sea between June 2006 and June 2008. A flyshooter, a trawler and a gillnetter participated in this study. In general, catch rates w...... and the flyshooter. The latter suggest that bottom type preference may change with season, e.g. with respect to spawning migrations in winter and in relation with changes in the availability of food during spring and summer.......Seven surveys with commercial fishing vessels were conducted during a collaborative fishermen-scientist project on the distribution of cod in the north-eastern North Sea between June 2006 and June 2008. A flyshooter, a trawler and a gillnetter participated in this study. In general, catch rates...

  13. Effects of contrasting catch crops on nitrogen availability and nitrous oxide emissions in an organic cropping system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiaoxi; Petersen, Søren O; Sørensen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    the results from a one-year field experiment, which investigated N availability and N2O emissions as affected by three LBCCs, i.e., red clover (CL), red clover–ryegrass mixture (GC) and winter vetch (WV), two non-LBCCs, i.e., perennial ryegrass (GR) and fodder radish (FR), and a control (CO) without catch...... of catch crops, especially LBCCs, tended to reduce crop yield. The annual N2O emissions were comparable across treatments except for fodder radish, which had the highest N2O emission, and also the highest average yield-scaled N2O emission, at 499 g N2O-N Mg−1 grain. Although the sampling strategy employed...

  14. Identification of factors influencing shark catch and mortality in the Marshall Islands tuna longline fishery and management implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromhead, D; Clarke, S; Hoyle, S; Muller, B; Sharples, P; Harley, S

    2012-04-01

    Recent average annual catches of sharks by tuna longline vessels fishing in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) are estimated to be between 1583 and 2274 t. Although 22 shark species have been recorded by the observer programme for this fishery, 80% of the annual catch comprises only five species: blue shark Prionace glauca, silky shark Carcharhinus falciformis, bigeye thresher shark Alopias superciliosus, pelagic thresher shark Alopias pelagicus and oceanic whitetip shark Carcharhinus longimanus. Wire leaders (i.e. branch lines or traces) were also used by nearly all observed vessels. Generalized additive model (GAM)-based analyses of catch rates indicated that P. glauca and A. superciliosus are caught in higher numbers when vessels fish in relatively cooler waters, at night, close to the full moon, when the 27° C thermocline is close to the surface and during El Niño conditions. In contrast, C. falciformis, A. pelagicus and C. longimanus are caught in higher numbers when shark lines are used (all three species) or hooks are set at a shallow depth (A. pelagicus and C. longimanus and, also, P. glauca). These findings are generally consistent with current knowledge of these species' habitat preferences, movement and distribution. The results of these analyses were combined with information pertaining to shark condition and fate upon capture to compare the likely effectiveness of a range of potential measures for reducing shark mortality in the longline fishery. Of the options considered, the most effective would be to combine measures that reduce the catch rate (e.g. restrictions on the use of wire leaders, shark baits and shark lines) with measures that increase survival rates after post-capture release (e.g. finning bans). © 2012 Secrtariat of the Pacific Community. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  15. The role of early sensory experience in the prey catching responses of Salamandra salamandra to stationary prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, G; Luthardt, G

    1980-01-01

    Two groups of newly metamorphosed Salamandra salamandra (L.) were raised with living and with stationary prey, respectively. One year later, the group which had experience exclusively with stationary prey was significantly better in responding to stationary prey than the group which only had experience with moving prey. This was the case both under light and dark conditions. The experiments show that prey-catching behavior in salamanders can be considerably modified by experience.

  16. Hepatic mitochondrial energetics during catch-up fat with high-fat diets rich in lard or safflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Falcone, Italia; Tsalouhidou, Sofia; Yepuri, Gayathri; Mougios, Vassilis; Dulloo, Abdul G; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2012-09-01

    We have investigated whether altered hepatic mitochondrial energetics could explain the differential effects of high-fat diets with low or high ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acid content (lard vs. safflower oil) on the efficiency of body fat recovery (catch-up fat) during refeeding after caloric restriction. After 2 weeks of caloric restriction, rats were isocalorically refed with a low-fat diet (LF) or high-fat diets made from either lard or safflower oil for 1 week, and energy balance and body composition changes were assessed. Hepatic mitochondrial energetics were determined from measurements of liver mitochondrial mass, respiratory capacities, and proton leak. Compared to rats refed the LF, the groups refed high-fat diets showed lower energy expenditure and increased efficiency of fat gain; these differences were less marked with high-safflower oil than with high-lard diet. The increase in efficiency of catch-up fat by the high-fat diets could not be attributed to differences in liver mitochondrial activity. By contrast, the lower fat gain with high-safflower oil than with high-lard diet is accompanied by higher mitochondrial proton leak and increased proportion of arachidonic acid in mitochondrial membranes. In conclusion, the higher efficiency for catch-up fat on high-lard diet than on LF cannot be explained by altered hepatic mitochondrial energetics. By contrast, the ability of the high-safflower oil diet to produce a less pronounced increase in the efficiency of catch-up fat may partly reside in increased incorporation of arachidonic acid in hepatic mitochondrial membranes, leading to enhanced proton leak and mitochondrial uncoupling.

  17. Biology of Incidental Catch Sea Star Stellaster childreni Gray, 1840 (Echinodermata: Asteroidea), from Malaysian Borneo Exclusive Economic Zone

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, Ruhana; Lee, Suet Yee; Morni, Wan Zabidii Wan

    2017-01-01

    Sea star (class Asteroidea, phylum Echinodermata) is one of the most successful marine organisms inhabiting a wide range of habitats. As one of the key stone species, sea stars are responsible for maintaining much of the local diversity of species within certain communities. Malaysian Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) Resource Survey had been carried out from 16th Aug to 6th Nov 2015 and one of the invertebrate by-catch organisms is sea star Stellaster childreni Gray, 1840. This study documents m...

  18. Positive Catch & Economic Benefits of Periodic Octopus Fishery Closures: Do Effective, Narrowly Targeted Actions 'Catalyze' Broader Management?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A Oliver

    Full Text Available Eight years of octopus fishery records from southwest Madagascar reveal significant positive impacts from 36 periodic closures on: (a fishery catches and (b village fishery income, such that (c economic benefits from increased landings outweigh costs of foregone catch. Closures covered ~20% of a village's fished area and lasted 2-7 months.Octopus landings and catch per unit effort (CPUE significantly increased in the 30 days following a closure's reopening, relative to the 30 days before a closure (landings: +718%, p<0.0001; CPUE: +87%, p<0.0001; n = 36. Open-access control sites showed no before/after change when they occurred independently of other management ("no ban", n = 17/36. On the other hand, open-access control sites showed modest catch increases when they extended a 6-week seasonal fishery shutdown ("ban", n = 19/36. The seasonal fishery shutdown affects the entire region, so confound all potential control sites.In villages implementing a closure, octopus fishery income doubled in the 30 days after a closure, relative to 30 days before (+132%, p<0.001, n = 28. Control villages not implementing a closure showed no increase in income after "no ban" closures and modest increases after "ban" closures. Villages did not show a significant decline in income during closure events.Landings in closure sites generated more revenue than simulated landings assuming continued open-access fishing at that site (27/36 show positive net earnings; mean +$305/closure; mean +57.7% monthly. Benefits accrued faster than local fishers' time preferences during 17-27 of the 36 closures. High reported rates of illegal fishing during closures correlated with poor economic performance.We discuss the implications of our findings for broader co-management arrangements, particularly for catalyzing more comprehensive management.

  19. Engineering Task Plan for the Integrity Assessment Examination of Double Contained Receiver Tanks (DCRT) Catch Tanks and Ancillary facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BECKER, D.L.

    2000-05-23

    This Engineering Task Plan (ETP) presents the integrity assessment examination of three DCRTs, seven catch tanks, and two ancillary facilities located in the 200 East and West Areas of the Hanford Site. The integrity assessment examinations, as described in this ETP, will provide the necessary information to enable the independently qualified registered professional engineer (IQRPE) to assess the condition and integrity of these facilities. The plan is consistent with the Double-Shell Tank Waste Transfer Facilities Integrity Assessment Plan.

  20. Catch-up growth in Japanese quail (Coturnix Japonica): relationships with food intake, metabolic rate and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Eunice H; Storm-Suke, Andrea L; Kelly, Ryan J; Burness, Gary

    2013-08-01

    The effects of early environmental conditions can profoundly affect individual development and adult phenotype. In birds, limiting resources can affect growth as nestlings, but also fitness and survival as adults. Following periods of food restriction, individuals may accelerate development, undergoing a period of rapid "catch-up" growth, in an attempt to reach the appropriate size at adulthood. Previous studies of altricial birds have shown that catch-up growth can have negative consequences in adulthood, although this has not been explored in species with different developmental strategies. Here, we investigated the effects of resource limitation and the subsequent period of catch-up growth, on the morphological and metabolic phenotype of adult Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), a species with a precocial developmental strategy. Because males and females differ in adult body size, we also test whether food restriction had sex-specific effects. Birds that underwent food restriction early in development had muscles of similar size and functional maturity, but lower adult body mass than controls. There was no evidence of sex-specific sensitivity of food restriction on adult body mass; however, there was evidence for body size. Females fed ad lib were larger than males fed ad lib, while females subjected to food restriction were of similar size to males. Adults that had previously experienced food restriction did not have an elevated metabolic rate, suggesting that in contrast to altricial nestlings, there was no metabolic carry-over effect of catch-up growth into adulthood. While Japanese quail can undergo accelerated growth after re-feeding, timing of food restriction may be important to adult size, particularly in females. However, greater developmental flexibility compared to altricial birds may contribute to the lack of metabolic carryover effects at adulthood.

  1. Comparative Influence of Ocean Conditions on Yellowfin and Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Catch from Longlines in the Gulf of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Teo, Steven L. H.; Block, Barbara A.

    2010-01-01

    Directed fishing effort for Atlantic bluefin tuna in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), their primary spawning grounds in the western Atlantic, has been prohibited since the 1980s due to a precipitous decline of the spawning stock biomass. However, pelagic longlines targeted at other species, primarily yellowfin tuna and swordfish, continue to catch Atlantic bluefin tuna in the GOM as bycatch. Spatial and temporal management measures minimizing bluefin tuna bycatch in the GOM will likely become import...

  2. Comparative influence of ocean conditions on yellowfin and Atlantic bluefin tuna catch from longlines in the Gulf of Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven L H Teo

    Full Text Available Directed fishing effort for Atlantic bluefin tuna in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM, their primary spawning grounds in the western Atlantic, has been prohibited since the 1980s due to a precipitous decline of the spawning stock biomass. However, pelagic longlines targeted at other species, primarily yellowfin tuna and swordfish, continue to catch Atlantic bluefin tuna in the GOM as bycatch. Spatial and temporal management measures minimizing bluefin tuna bycatch in the GOM will likely become important in rebuilding the western Atlantic bluefin stock. In order to help inform management policy and understand the relative distribution of target and bycatch species in the GOM, we compared the spatiotemporal variability and environmental influences on the catch per unit effort (CPUE of yellowfin (target and bluefin tuna (bycatch. Catch and effort data from pelagic longline fisheries observers (1993-2005 and scientific tagging cruises (1998-2002 were coupled with environmental and biological data. Negative binomial models were used to fit the data for both species and Akaike's Information Criterion (corrected for small sample size was used to determine the best model. Our results indicate that bluefin CPUE had higher spatiotemporal variability as compared to yellowfin CPUE. Bluefin CPUE increased substantially during the breeding months (March-June and peaked in April and May, while yellowfin CPUE remained relatively high throughout the year. In addition, bluefin CPUE was significantly higher in areas with negative sea surface height anomalies and cooler sea surface temperatures, which are characteristic of mesoscale cyclonic eddies. In contrast, yellowfin CPUE was less sensitive to environmental variability. These differences in seasonal variability and sensitivity to environmental influences suggest that bluefin tuna bycatch in the GOM can be reduced substantially by managing the spatial and temporal distribution of the pelagic longline effort without

  3. Comparative influence of ocean conditions on yellowfin and Atlantic bluefin tuna catch from longlines in the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Steven L H; Block, Barbara A

    2010-05-28

    Directed fishing effort for Atlantic bluefin tuna in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), their primary spawning grounds in the western Atlantic, has been prohibited since the 1980s due to a precipitous decline of the spawning stock biomass. However, pelagic longlines targeted at other species, primarily yellowfin tuna and swordfish, continue to catch Atlantic bluefin tuna in the GOM as bycatch. Spatial and temporal management measures minimizing bluefin tuna bycatch in the GOM will likely become important in rebuilding the western Atlantic bluefin stock. In order to help inform management policy and understand the relative distribution of target and bycatch species in the GOM, we compared the spatiotemporal variability and environmental influences on the catch per unit effort (CPUE) of yellowfin (target) and bluefin tuna (bycatch). Catch and effort data from pelagic longline fisheries observers (1993-2005) and scientific tagging cruises (1998-2002) were coupled with environmental and biological data. Negative binomial models were used to fit the data for both species and Akaike's Information Criterion (corrected for small sample size) was used to determine the best model. Our results indicate that bluefin CPUE had higher spatiotemporal variability as compared to yellowfin CPUE. Bluefin CPUE increased substantially during the breeding months (March-June) and peaked in April and May, while yellowfin CPUE remained relatively high throughout the year. In addition, bluefin CPUE was significantly higher in areas with negative sea surface height anomalies and cooler sea surface temperatures, which are characteristic of mesoscale cyclonic eddies. In contrast, yellowfin CPUE was less sensitive to environmental variability. These differences in seasonal variability and sensitivity to environmental influences suggest that bluefin tuna bycatch in the GOM can be reduced substantially by managing the spatial and temporal distribution of the pelagic longline effort without substantially

  4. Volatile Semiochemicals Increase Trap Catch of Green Lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Flower Flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) in Corn and Soybean Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesler, Louis S.

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on the attractiveness of volatile chemicals to green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and flower flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) as measured by catch on yellow sticky traps within corn [Zea mays L. (Cyperales: Poaceae)] and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr. (Fabales: Fabaceae)] plots. Green lacewings were attracted to eugenol-baited traps in two tests in soybean plots. Follow-up testing in corn showed that catch of green lacewings was enhanced when traps were baited with eugenol, its structural analog isoeugenol, or 2-phenylethanol; trap catch of green lacewings was greater with these compounds than with structural analog, 4-alllylanisole. In a follow-up test in soybean, more green lacewings were caught on traps baited with isoeugenol than with 4-allylanisole. Catch did not differ among traps baited with eugenol, isoeugenol, or 2-phenylethanol or among those baited with eugenol, 2-phenylethanol, or the ethanol control. In a 6-wk experiment in soybean, green lacewings were attracted to eugenol-baited traps in 5 of 6 wks but to traps baited with structural analog methyl eugenol in only 1 wk. Flower flies were attracted to 2-phenylethanol in initial tests in corn and soybean plots. Subsequent testing in soybeans with 2-phenylethanol and structural analogs confirmed attraction to 2-phenylethanol and also showed attractancy of 2-phenylacetaldehyde but not benzylamine. A 6-wk test in soybean found that flower flies were also attracted to traps baited with either eugenol or methyl eugenol. This is the first report of green lacewing attraction to eugenol and isoeugenol and first report of flower fly attraction to eugenol. Structure-activity relationships among attractants and practical aspects of their use are discussed. PMID:27531905

  5. A replication of "Education and catch-up in the Industrial Revolution" (American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, 2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Jeremy S. S.

    2017-01-01

    Although European economic history provides essentially no support for the view that education of the general population has a positive causal effect on economic growth, a recent paper by Becker, Hornung and Woessmann (Education and catch-up in the Industrial Revolution, 2011) claims that such education had a significant impact on Prussian industrialisation. The author shows that the instrumental variable they use to identify the causal effect of education is correlated with variables that in...

  6. A replication of "Education and catch-up in the industrial revolution" (American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, 2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Jeremy

    2018-01-01

    Although European economic history provides essentially no support for the view that education of the general population has a positive causal effect on economic growth, a recent paper by Becker, Hornung and Woessmann (Education and Catch-Up in the Industrial Revolution, 2011) claims that such education had a significant impact on Prussian industrialisation. The author shows that the instrumental variable BHW use to identify the causal effect of education is correlated with variables that inf...

  7. Factors influencing the technology upgrading and catch-up of Chinese wind turbine manufacturers: Technology acquisition mechanisms and government policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Yueming; Ortolano, Leonard; David Wang, Yi

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses firm level data for the Chinese wind turbine manufacturing industry from 1998 to 2009 to quantify the effects of technology acquisition mechanisms – purchasing production licenses from foreign manufacturers, joint design with foreign design firms, joint-ventures and domestic R and D – on wind turbine manufacturers' technology levels (as measured by turbine size, in megawatts). It also examines the impacts of government policies on manufacturer technology levels. Technology upgrading (measured by increase of turbine size) and catch-up (measured by decrease in the distance to the world technology frontier in terms of turbine size) are used to measure advances in technology level. Results from econometric modeling studies indicate that firms' technology acquisition mechanisms and degree of business diversification are statistically significant factors in influencing technology upgrading. Similar results were found for the catch-up variable (i.e., distance to the world technology frontier). The influence of government policies is significant for technology upgrading but not catch-up. These and other modeling results are shown to have implications for both policymakers and wind turbine manufacturers. - Highlights: ► Technology acquired through joint design has the highest level. ► Technology acquired through purchasing production license has the lowest level. ► Technology acquired through domestic R and D has the level in between. ► A firm with related other businesses tends to have a higher level of technology. ► The influence of policies is significant for technology upgrade but not catch-up

  8. Volatile Semiochemicals Increase Trap Catch of Green Lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Flower Flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) in Corn and Soybean Plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesler, Louis S

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on the attractiveness of volatile chemicals to green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and flower flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) as measured by catch on yellow sticky traps within corn [Zea mays L. (Cyperales: Poaceae)] and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr. (Fabales: Fabaceae)] plots. Green lacewings were attracted to eugenol-baited traps in two tests in soybean plots. Follow-up testing in corn showed that catch of green lacewings was enhanced when traps were baited with eugenol, its structural analog isoeugenol, or 2-phenylethanol; trap catch of green lacewings was greater with these compounds than with structural analog, 4-alllylanisole. In a follow-up test in soybean, more green lacewings were caught on traps baited with isoeugenol than with 4-allylanisole. Catch did not differ among traps baited with eugenol, isoeugenol, or 2-phenylethanol or among those baited with eugenol, 2-phenylethanol, or the ethanol control. In a 6-wk experiment in soybean, green lacewings were attracted to eugenol-baited traps in 5 of 6 wks but to traps baited with structural analog methyl eugenol in only 1 wk. Flower flies were attracted to 2-phenylethanol in initial tests in corn and soybean plots. Subsequent testing in soybeans with 2-phenylethanol and structural analogs confirmed attraction to 2-phenylethanol and also showed attractancy of 2-phenylacetaldehyde but not benzylamine. A 6-wk test in soybean found that flower flies were also attracted to traps baited with either eugenol or methyl eugenol. This is the first report of green lacewing attraction to eugenol and isoeugenol and first report of flower fly attraction to eugenol. Structure-activity relationships among attractants and practical aspects of their use are discussed. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America 2016. This work is written by a US Government employee and is in the public domain in the US.

  9. Engineering Task Plan for the Integrity Assessment Examination of Double-Contained Receiver Tanks (DCRT), Catch Tanks and Ancillary facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BECKER, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    This Engineering Task Plan (ETP) presents the integrity assessment examination of three DCRTs, seven catch tanks, and two ancillary facilities located in the 200 East and West Areas of the Hanford Site. The integrity assessment examinations, as described in this ETP, will provide the necessary information to enable the independently qualified registered professional engineer (IQRPE) to assess the condition and integrity of these facilities. The plan is consistent with the Double-Shell Tank Waste Transfer Facilities Integrity Assessment Plan

  10. Comparative Influence of Ocean Conditions on Yellowfin and Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Catch from Longlines in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Steven L. H.; Block, Barbara A.

    2010-01-01

    Directed fishing effort for Atlantic bluefin tuna in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), their primary spawning grounds in the western Atlantic, has been prohibited since the 1980s due to a precipitous decline of the spawning stock biomass. However, pelagic longlines targeted at other species, primarily yellowfin tuna and swordfish, continue to catch Atlantic bluefin tuna in the GOM as bycatch. Spatial and temporal management measures minimizing bluefin tuna bycatch in the GOM will likely become important in rebuilding the western Atlantic bluefin stock. In order to help inform management policy and understand the relative distribution of target and bycatch species in the GOM, we compared the spatiotemporal variability and environmental influences on the catch per unit effort (CPUE) of yellowfin (target) and bluefin tuna (bycatch). Catch and effort data from pelagic longline fisheries observers (1993–2005) and scientific tagging cruises (1998–2002) were coupled with environmental and biological data. Negative binomial models were used to fit the data for both species and Akaike's Information Criterion (corrected for small sample size) was used to determine the best model. Our results indicate that bluefin CPUE had higher spatiotemporal variability as compared to yellowfin CPUE. Bluefin CPUE increased substantially during the breeding months (March-June) and peaked in April and May, while yellowfin CPUE remained relatively high throughout the year. In addition, bluefin CPUE was significantly higher in areas with negative sea surface height anomalies and cooler sea surface temperatures, which are characteristic of mesoscale cyclonic eddies. In contrast, yellowfin CPUE was less sensitive to environmental variability. These differences in seasonal variability and sensitivity to environmental influences suggest that bluefin tuna bycatch in the GOM can be reduced substantially by managing the spatial and temporal distribution of the pelagic longline effort without

  11. Relationship between horizontal hydroacoustic stock estimates and gillnet catches of surface-oriented fish in shallow Lake Balaton (Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    György Á.I.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined whether gillnetting and hydroacoustics provide comparable relative fish density and fish size distribution estimates in the uppermost water layer of a shallow turbid lake and whether the inclusion of environmental and stock parameters could improve comparability of data between different gears. According to gillnetting, most fish shorter than 14 cm in total length were Alburnus alburnus, and most fish longer than 14 cm were Pelecus cultratus. Size distributions and median sizes obtained from gillnetting and acoustics differed. Pure acoustics-derived density estimates accounted for only <8.8% of the variation in the gillnet catch by number and no correlation was found in biomass indices. Most variances observed in the gillnet catch-per-unit-effort data were associated with water transparency, none of the other investigated variables had significant explanatory power. We conclude that the feasibility of establishing a powerful model describing the relationship between fish density estimates of gillnetting and acoustics is low in shallow and turbid habitats, and it might be successful only if the crucial sampling and environmental parameters affecting catch efficiency of gillnets and post-processing of acoustic data are considered. This study cautions again that gillnetting should be used carefully to analyse trends of fish abundance.

  12. Estimation of peacock bass (Cichla spp. mortality rate during catch-release fishing employing different post-capture procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. A. Barroco

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The effect of catch-and-release fishing on the survival of peacock bass (Cichla spp. was evaluated by comparing two types of artificial bait (jig and shallow-diver plugs and two types of post-catch confinement. Two experiments were conducted during the periods January-February and October-November 2012 in the Unini River, a right-bank tributary of the Negro River. In total, 191 peacock bass were captured. Both groups of fish were subjected to experimental confinement (collective and individual for three days. Additionally, 11 fish were tagged with radio transmitters for telemetry monitoring. Mortality rate was estimated as the percentage of dead individuals for each type of bait and confinement. For peacock bass caught with jig baits, mortality was zero. The corresponding figure for shallow-diver bait was 1.66% for fish in collective containment, 18.18% for fish monitored by telemetry and 0% for individuals confined individually. Our results show low post-release mortality rates for peacock bass. Furthermore, neither the type of confinement nor the type of bait had a statistically significant influence on mortality rates. While future studies could include other factors in the analysis, our results show that catch-and-release fishing results in low mortality rates.

  13. Growth hormone activates hepatic and cerebral cholesterol metabolism in small-for-gestational age children without catch-up growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Satoshi; Nagasaka, Hironori; Nakagawa, Saori; Takuwa, Mayuko; Nakacho, Mariko; Yorifuji, Tohru; Kondou, Hiroki; Tsukahara, Hirokazu; Morioka, Ichiro; Ishida, Akihito; Yamato, Susumu; Miida, Takashi

    Growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy improves hypercholesterolemia in patients with GH deficiency, suggesting that GH modulates cholesterol metabolism. We examined GH effects on lipid profiles and cholesterol-related markers reflecting hepatic and cerebral cholesterol metabolism in small-for-gestational age (SGA) children without catch-up growth. This study examined SGA children without catch-up growth (n = 22) and healthy children (controls, n = 11). Based on parents' choice, 11 SGA children received GH at 0.23 to 0.25 mg/kg/d for 6 months, and at 0.34 to 0.36 mg/kg/d for the subsequent 6 months (GH (+) group). The other SGA children received no GH (GH (-) group, n = 11). We ascertained baseline and posttreatment lipid profiles and cholesterol-related markers reflecting hepatic and cerebral cholesterol metabolism. Baseline lipid profiles of SGA children and controls were similar. Serum 24S-hydroxycholesterol (marker for cerebral cholesterol metabolism) concentration was 19% lower in SGA children than in controls (P children without catch-up growth. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Positive Catch & Economic Benefits of Periodic Octopus Fishery Closures: Do Effective, Narrowly Targeted Actions 'Catalyze' Broader Management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Thomas A; Oleson, Kirsten L L; Ratsimbazafy, Hajanaina; Raberinary, Daniel; Benbow, Sophie; Harris, Alasdair

    2015-01-01

    Eight years of octopus fishery records from southwest Madagascar reveal significant positive impacts from 36 periodic closures on: (a) fishery catches and (b) village fishery income, such that (c) economic benefits from increased landings outweigh costs of foregone catch. Closures covered ~20% of a village's fished area and lasted 2-7 months. Octopus landings and catch per unit effort (CPUE) significantly increased in the 30 days following a closure's reopening, relative to the 30 days before a closure (landings: +718%, poctopus fishery income doubled in the 30 days after a closure, relative to 30 days before (+132%, p<0.001, n = 28). Control villages not implementing a closure showed no increase in income after "no ban" closures and modest increases after "ban" closures. Villages did not show a significant decline in income during closure events. Landings in closure sites generated more revenue than simulated landings assuming continued open-access fishing at that site (27/36 show positive net earnings; mean +$305/closure; mean +57.7% monthly). Benefits accrued faster than local fishers' time preferences during 17-27 of the 36 closures. High reported rates of illegal fishing during closures correlated with poor economic performance. We discuss the implications of our findings for broader co-management arrangements, particularly for catalyzing more comprehensive management.

  15. Catch per unit efforts and impacts of gears on fish abundance in an oxbow lake ecosystem in Eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipankar Ghosh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxbow lakes are abundant in indigenous fishes, but they are subject to unsustainable fishing practices, potential overexploitation, and indiscriminate use of fine-meshed fishing gear. To quantify the catch per unit effort (CPUE and impact of fishing gears on fish abundance, a survey was carried out in an oxbow lake in eastern India. Methods: The gear-wise CPUE for fish caught in per unit hour of operation was calculated by dividing the total sampling gear catch in biomass, which is the observed value of fish caught by a particular gear, by the total sampling effort hours. A value of P 71%. Cone-framed cast net hauled the maximum catch in biomass (31.51%, and gill nets contributed the maximum number of fish (64.92%. The lower CPUE values of line and hook, gill net, cone-framed cast net and long lines identified them as the most harmful among all gears. Conclusion: Indiscriminate use of gear, particularly line and hook, gill nets, cone-framed cast nets, and long lines, demands regulations and preventions concerning such gear to obtain higher fish abundance.

  16. The importance of social norms for uptake of catch-up human papillomavirus vaccination in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Visser, Richard; Waites, Louisa; Parikh, Chandni; Lawrie, Aaron

    2011-09-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the cause of almost all cases of cervical cancer. The current UK government immunisation program includes free routine HPV vaccination of girls aged 12-13, with a catch-up vaccination program for 13-18-year-old girls. The aim of this study was to identify correlates of intended and actual uptake of catch-up HPV vaccination. An online questionnaire was completed by 591 young women aged 16-20. Of the 350 women who had been offered catch-up HPV vaccination, 90.6% had accepted. In multivariate analyses, vaccine uptake was significantly correlated with subjective norms more supportive of HPV vaccination, and greater uptake of other childhood vaccinations (χ²(3))=39.34, Pvaccination, the average intention was 3.70 on a five-point scale. Multivariate analyses revealed four significant independent predictors of stronger intentions to accept vaccination: subjective norms more supportive of HPV vaccination, greater worry about sexually transmissible infections, greater support for young people's sexual health services and greater support for childhood vaccination (F((4,236))=18.67, Pways to encourage uptake of HPV vaccination. Uptake of HPV vaccination may be increased if interventions use appropriate media to promote social norms supportive of HPV vaccination.

  17. Traditional and experimental floating fish aggregating devices in the Gulf of Castellammare (NW Sicily: results from catches and visual observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D'Anna

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Floating fish aggregating devices (FADs have long been used to attract fish in NW Sicily since antiquity. Recently, a number of changes have been made to the type of material employed to construct FADs, with the aim of increasing their effectiveness. In this paper we compare the catches made at eight experimental floating FADs (polypropylene ropes frayed at the ends with those obtained at eight traditional FADs in the Gulf of Castellammare. A total of 672 samples were collected during summer and autumn in 1995 and 1996 at the 16 FADs using a surrounding net. Visual observations of fishes associated with the FADs were also conducted to obtain qualitative information about the spatial distribution of species. A total of 1632 specimens weighing 144 kg and belonging to eight species were caught during the survey. Seriola dumerili, Caranx crysos, C. rhonchus and Coryphaena hippurus were the most frequent and abundant species accounting for 96% of the total catch. Average fish abundance and weight, characterised by high variance, were significantly higher at the sites with experimental FADs than at the sites with traditional FADs. S. dumerili was the only species with higher catches around the experimental FADs. Some spatial and temporal variations in fish abundance and size were also detected. Younger individuals of S. dumerili were observed to show high affinity for the experimental FAD tufts.

  18. Understanding the size selectivity in diamond mesh codends based on flume tank experiments and fish morphology: effect of catch size and fish escape behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Junita Diana; Krag, Ludvig Ahm; Herrmann, Bent

    2013-01-01

    (Gadus morhua) and Nephrops (N. norvegicus) to simulate potential size selection. By assuming certain patterns of fish escape behaviour in the codend, it was demonstrated that it was possible to replicate results for size selection based on sea trials with similar codends. Results show that L50 can......This study quantifies potential size selection of a fish and a crustacean species in di-amond mesh codends during a fishing process. Changes in mesh geometry along the codends and at different catch weights were recorded in a flume tank and subse-quently used together with the morphology of cod...... happens mostly in the area of catch accu-mulation. In response to questions, it was also noted that FISHSELECT methodology has been used. Mesh penetrations were simulated for each individual. Considering the relationship between catch weight and codend selectivity, studies with lower catches can...

  19. Recreational fishery catch and effort estimates for large pelagic species from Maine through Virginia from 2002-06-01 to 2014-10-31 (NCEI Accession 0137959)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On the Atlantic Coast from Maine to Virginia, NOAA Fisheries uses the Large Pelagics Survey (LPS) to measure the total recreational catch of large pelagics fish...

  20. Fine-scale environmental effects on Cape hake survey catch rates in the Northern Benguela, using data from a trawl-mounted instrument package

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kainge, Paulus Inekela; Wieland, Kai

    2017-01-01

    rates of both hake species, whereas solar zenith angle representing diel effects and surface layer chlorophyll appeared to be less important. The explained deviance for the best models ranged from 71.4% for M. capensis to 92.7% for M. paradoxus between 43 and 57 cm in length. Differences in catch rates...... hake trawl survey of 2016, and was made possible for the first time in Namibia by collecting oceanographic information with a trawl-mounted instrument package concurrently with the catch data. Depth, geographical position, bottom oxygen and bottom temperature had the most pronounced effect on the catch...... between species and size groups were most pronounced for bottom depth and bottom oxygen. The results show the potential value of trawl-mounted instrumental packages for the collection of reliable environmental data important in the study of environmental influence on abundance, catch rates...

  1. Patterns of Injury in Hospitalised One-Year-Old Children: Analysis by Trimester of Age Using Coded Data and Textual Description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie Scott

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The second year of life is a time of rapid developmental changes. This paper aims to describe the pattern of unintentional injuries to one-year old children in three-month age bands to better understand the risks associated with developmental stages and, therefore, identify opportunities for proactive prevention. Injury surveillance data were used to identify children admitted to hospital in Queensland, Australia for an unintentional injury from 2002–2012. Falls were the most common injury, followed by burns and scalds, contact injuries and poisonings. Falls and contact injuries remained roughly constant by age, burns and scalds decreased and poisonings (by medications increased. Animal- and transport-related injuries also became more common, immersions and other threats to breathing less common. Within the falls and contact categories falls from play equipment and injuries due to contact with persons increased, while falls down stairs and catching fingers in doors decreased. The pattern of injuries varies over the second year of life and is clearly linked to the child’s increasing mobility and boldness. Preventive measures for young children need to be designed—and evaluated—with their developmental stage in mind, using a variety of strategies, including opportunistic, developmentally specific education of parents; and practitioners should also consider potential for lapses in supervision and possible intentional injury in all injury assessments.

  2. Spinal injury in sport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barile, Antonio [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)]. E-mail: antonio.barile@cc.univaq.it; Limbucci, Nicola [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Splendiani, Alessandra [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Gallucci, Massimo [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Masciocchi, Carlo [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)

    2007-04-15

    Spinal injuries are very common among professional or amateur athletes. Spinal sport lesions can be classified in overuse and acute injuries. Overuse injuries can be found after years of repetitive spinal load during sport activity; however specific overuse injuries can also be found in adolescents. Acute traumas are common in contact sports. Most of the acute injuries are minor and self-healing, but severe and catastrophic events are possible. The aim of this article is to review the wide spectrum of spinal injuries related to sport activity, with special regard to imaging finding.

  3. Trauma: Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Matthew J; Martin, Matthew J

    2017-10-01

    Injuries to the spinal column and spinal cord frequently occur after high-energy mechanisms of injury, or with lower-energy mechanisms, in select patient populations like the elderly. A focused yet complete neurologic examination during the initial evaluation will guide subsequent diagnostic procedures and early supportive measures to help prevent further injury. For patients with injury to bone and/or ligaments, the initial focus should be spinal immobilization and prevention of inducing injury to the spinal cord. Spinal cord injury is associated with numerous life-threatening complications during the acute and long-term phases of care that all acute care surgeons must recognize. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Spinal injury in sport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barile, Antonio; Limbucci, Nicola; Splendiani, Alessandra; Gallucci, Massimo; Masciocchi, Carlo

    2007-01-01

    Spinal injuries are very common among professional or amateur athletes. Spinal sport lesions can be classified in overuse and acute injuries. Overuse injuries can be found after years of repetitive spinal load during sport activity; however specific overuse injuries can also be found in adolescents. Acute traumas are common in contact sports. Most of the acute injuries are minor and self-healing, but severe and catastrophic events are possible. The aim of this article is to review the wide spectrum of spinal injuries related to sport activity, with special regard to imaging finding

  5. Bodygraphic Injury Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboi, Toshiki; Kitamura, Koji; Nishida, Yoshihumi; Motomura, Yoichi; Takano, Tachio; Yamanaka, Tatsuhiro; Mizoguchi, Hiroshi

    This paper proposes a new technology,``a bodygraphic injury surveillance system (BISS)'' that not only accumulates accident situation data but also represents injury data based on a human body coordinate system in a standardized and multilayered way. Standardized and multilayered representation of injury enables accumulation, retrieval, sharing, statistical analysis, and modeling causalities of injury across different fields such as medicine, engineering, and industry. To confirm the effectiveness of the developed system, the authors collected 3,685 children's injury data in cooperation with a hospital. As new analyses based on the developed BISS, this paper shows bodygraphically statistical analysis and childhood injury modeling using the developed BISS and Bayesian network technology.

  6. Complementarity of no-take marine reserves and individual transferable catch quotas for managing the line fishery of the great barrier reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, L R; Grafton, R Q; Kompas, T; Smith, A D M; Punt, A E; Mapstone, B D

    2011-04-01

    Changes in the management of the fin fish fishery of the Great Barrier Reef motivated us to investigate the combined effects on economic returns and fish biomass of no-take areas and regulated total allowable catch allocated in the form of individual transferable quotas (such quotas apportion the total allowable catch as fishing rights and permits the buying and selling of these rights among fishers). We built a spatially explicit biological and economic model of the fishery to analyze the trade-offs between maintaining given levels of fish biomass and the net financial returns from fishing under different management regimes. Results of the scenarios we modeled suggested that a decrease in total allowable catch at high levels of harvest either increased net returns or lowered them only slightly, but increased biomass by up to 10% for a wide range of reserve sizes and an increase in the reserve area from none to 16% did not greatly change net returns at any catch level. Thus, catch shares and no-take reserves can be complementary and when these methods are used jointly they promote lower total allowable catches when harvest is relatively high and encourage larger no-take areas when they are small. ©2010 Society for Conservation Biology.

  7. Does by-catch pose a threat for the conservation of seabird populations in the southern Ionian Sea (eastern Mediterranean? A questionnaire based survey of local fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. KARRIS

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A significant number of studies worldwide have shown that incidental catches (by-catch of seabirds in fishing gear might pose a considerable risk for the conservation of their populations. Nevertheless reliable data on by-catch rates of seabirds in European marine ecosystems are patchy and need to be improved. This study constitutes a first attempt at the evaluation of by-catch rates in the southern Ionian Sea. Data were obtained by distributing a specific questionnaire to the fishers of Zakynthos Island. 150 professional fishers (representing 90% of the local fishing fleet participated in the research, and were interviewed during July-December 2010. The information collected showed that commercial longline and (to a lesser extent gillnet fishery gears caused incidental catches mostly of Scopoli’s Shearwater and Mediterranean Shag. The temporal analysis of the incidental bird mortality showed that seabirds were more susceptible to be trapped in fishery gears set around sunrise during spring and summer whereas spatial analysis of by-catch data indicated variations in the number of seabirds caught in different fishery areas.

  8. Conservation Concerns of Small-Scale Fisheries: By-Catch Impacts of a Shrimp and Finfish Fishery in a Sri Lankan Lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin L. Jones

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available By-catch is considered a significant problem in large-scale fisheries yet in small-scale fisheries (SSF, employing >99% of the world's fishers, there is limited quantitative understanding of by-catch, and catches in general. We provide an assessment of by-catch from fishing gears (fyke, trawl, set trammel, and drift trammel nets commonly used in small-scale fisheries across the globe, using a representative Sri Lankan case study and placing this in the context of local resource use patterns. We reveal evidence of how SSF generate significant finfish by-catch with potentially significant ecological impacts. Fishers targeting shrimp (fyke, trawl, and drift trammel nets caught more non-target species than global averages (44, 44, and 67% by weight, respectively. Fishers targeting finfish (set trammel nets caught fewer non-target species. We found that by-catch depends more on target species and gear type, supporting suggestions that SSF are not “inherently more sustainable” than their large-scale counterparts and a collective effort is required for an improved understanding of the impacts of SSF. This study highlights an additional issue of valuable food fish discards, raising questions about fisheries exploitation in the context of food security in areas where poverty and food insecurity are prevalent.

  9. (De)synchronization of advanced visual information and ball flight characteristics constrains emergent information-movement couplings during one-handed catching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, J A; Maynard, I W; North, J S; Panchuk, D; Davids, K

    2015-02-01

    Advance visual information of a projection action and ball flight information is important for organizing dynamic interceptive actions like catching. However, how the central nervous system (CNS) manages the relationship between advance visual information and emerging ball flight information in regulating behavior is less well understood. Here, we sought to examine the extent that advance visual information to the CNS constrains regulation of catching actions by synchronizing and desynchronizing its relationship with ball trajectory characteristics. Novel technology was used to present video footage of an actor throwing a ball at three different speeds, integrated with information from a real ball projected by a machine set to the three speeds. The technology enabled three synchronized and six desynchronized conditions between advance visual information and subsequent ball flight trajectories. Catching performance, kinematic data from the catching hand and gaze behaviors were recorded. Findings revealed that desynchronization of video images of ball projection shaped emergent catching behaviors. Footage of slower throws, paired with faster ball projection speeds, caused catching performance decrements. Timing in early phases of action was organized by the CNS to match the advance visual information presented. In later phases, like the grasp, ball flight information constraints adapted and regulated behaviors. Gaze behaviors showed increased ball projection speed resulted in participants tracking the ball for a smaller percentage of ball flight. Findings highlighted the role of the two visual systems in perception and action, implicating the importance of coupling advanced visual information and ball flight to regulate emergent movement coordination tendencies during interceptive behaviors.

  10. Estimating environmental preferences of South African pelagic fish species using catch size- and remote sensing data [review article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agenbag, J. J.; Richardson, A. J.; Demarcq, H.; Fréon, P.; Weeks, S.; Shillington, F. A.

    2003-10-01

    We have studied the relationship between the variations in density of South African anchovy ( Engraulisicapensis), sardine ( Sardinopssagax) and round herring ( Etrumeuswhiteheadi) from commercial catch records (1987-1997) and a suite of variables describing the environment. The indicator of density (local fish abundance) used was Catch-per-set, obtained from the more than 130 000 catches made during the 11-year study period. The set of environmental parameters included: temporal ( Year, Month, time of day or Hour), spatial ( Latitude, Longitude and water Depth), lunar ( Moonphase and Moonelevation), and thermal conditions of the environment (sea surface temperature together with indices of thermal frontal intensity and temporal change). Boatlength was used to account for fishing gear effects. Previous investigations of this nature have tended to use simple bivariate correlation approaches, which suffer from the problem of covariance between the predictive variable and other environmental- or fisheries related variables not included in the analysis. We have, therefore, adopted a multivariate modelling approach, which identifies relationships between Catch-per-set and each environmental variable, accounting for covariation amongst predictors. Model building consisted of first constructing generalised additive models (GAM) as an exploratory tool to identify the shapes of the relationships, followed by parameterising these relationships using general linear models (GLM) to provide a robust predictive tool. Using this modelling approach, the suite of environmental variables explained 19.6% of the variation in Catch-per-set of anchovy, 33.9% of sardine, and 54.3% of round herring in the final GLM models. Temporal variables ( Year, Month, Hour), accounted for the major part of the variability in Catch-per-set but variables derived from SST and the lunar cycle provide insight into the effects of environmental factors on fish behaviour. For instance, it appears that

  11. Evaluating the catching performance of aerodynamic rain gauges through field comparisons and CFD modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Michael; Colli, Matteo; Stagnaro, Mattia; Lanza, Luca; Quinn, Paul; Dutton, Mark; O'Donnell, Greg; Wilkinson, Mark; Black, Andrew; O'Connell, Enda

    2016-04-01

    observed in the vicinity of the collector, compared to the standard gauge shapes. Both the air velocity and the turbulent kinetic energy fields present structures that may improve the interception of particles by the aerodynamic gauge collector. To provide empirical validation, a field-based experimental campaign was undertaken at four UK research stations to compare the results of aerodynamic and conventional gauges, mounted in juxtaposition. The reference measurement is recorded using a rain gauge pit, as specified by the WMO. The results appear to demonstrate how the effect of the wind on rainfall measurements is influenced by the gauge shape and the mounting height. Significant undercatch is observed compared to the reference measurement. Aerodynamic gauges mounted on the ground catch more rainfall than juxtaposed straight-sided gauges, in most instances. This appears to provide some preliminary validation of the CFD model. The indication that an aerodynamic profile improves the gauge catching capability could be confirmed by tracking the hydrometeor trajectories with a Lagrangian method, based on the available set of airflows; and investigating time-dependent aerodynamic features by means of dedicated CFD simulations. Furthermore, wind-tunnel tests could be carried out to provide more robust physical validation of the CFD model.

  12. Eye Injuries (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Eye Injuries KidsHealth / For Parents / Eye Injuries What's in ... sand, dirt, and other foreign bodies on the eye surface) Wash your hands thoroughly before touching the ...

  13. Knee Injuries and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cartilage in the knee gradually wears away, causing pain and swelling. Injuries to ligaments and tendons also cause knee problems. A common injury is to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). You usually injure your ACL ...

  14. Extensor Tendon Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Extensor Tendon Injuries Email to a friend * required fields From * ... to straighten one or more joints. Common Extensor Tendon Injuries Mallet Finger refers to a drooping end- ...

  15. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Kristine Cichowski, MS Occupational Therapy after Spinal Cord Injury Katie Powell, OT ... does not provide medical advice, recommend or endorse health care products or services, or control the information ...

  16. Eye Injuries at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Steps to Safer Champagne Celebrations Eye Injuries at Home Leer en Español: Lesiones de los ojos en ... chore is being done. Preventing Eye Injuries at Home Wearing protective eyewear will prevent 90 percent of ...

  17. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... spinal cord injuries? play_arrow What does stem-cell research on animals tell us? play_arrow When can we expect stem-cell treatments to become available for spinal cord injuries? ...

  18. Head injury - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000028.htm Head injury - first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... a concussion can range from mild to severe. First Aid Learning to recognize a serious head injury and ...

  19. Overview of Head Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kept in the emergency department or hospital for observation. Children who have had a minor head injury ... penetrating trauma (such as a knife or gunshot wound). Injuries may range from relatively small hematomas (collections ...

  20. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injuries Video Library SCI Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources ... Spinal Cord Injuries Video Library SCI Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources ...

  1. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Experiences by Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate close search Understanding Spinal Cord Injury What ... Experiences by Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics ...

  2. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... How Peer Counseling Works Julie Gassaway, MS, RN Pediatric Injuries Pediatric Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation Sara Klaas, MSW Transitions for Children ...

  3. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury Diane M. Rowles, MS, NP How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Nancy Rosenberg, PsyD ... Rehabilitation Donald Peck Leslie, MD Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Lisa Rosen, MS Spasticity, Physical ...

  4. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Living with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources Peer ... Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David Chen, MD Preventing Pressure Sores Mary Zeigler, MS Transition from Hospital to ...

  5. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... electrical stimulation for spinal cord injuries? play_arrow What is “Braingate” research? play_arrow How would stem-cell therapies work in the treatment of spinal cord injuries? play_ ...

  6. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... spinal cord injuries. The website does not provide medical advice, recommend or endorse health care products or services, ... spinal cord injuries. The website does not provide medical advice, recommend or endorse health care products or services, ...

  7. Trade-offs among catch, bycatch, and landed value in the American Samoa longline fishery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jordan T; Bigelow, Keith A

    2014-08-01

    The interspecific preferences of fishes for different depths and habitats suggest fishers could avoid unwanted catches of some species while still effectively targeting other species. In pelagic longline fisheries, albacore (Thunnus alalunga) are often caught in relatively cooler, deeper water (>100 m) than many species of conservation concern (e.g., sea turtles, billfishes, and some sharks) that are caught in shallower water (<100 m). From 2007 to 2011, we examined the depth distributions of hooks for 1154 longline sets (3,406,946 hooks) and recorded captures by hook position on 2642 sets (7,829,498 hooks) in the American Samoa longline fishery. Twenty-three percent of hooks had a settled depth <100 m. Individuals captured in the 3 shallowest hook positions accounted for 18.3% of all bycatch. We analyzed hypothetical impacts for 25 of the most abundant species caught in the fishery by eliminating the 3 shallowest hook positions under scenarios with and without redistribution of these hooks to deeper depths. Distributions varied by species: 45.5% (n = 10) of green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas), 59.5% (n = 626) of shortbill spearfish (Tetrapturus angustirostris), 37.3% (n = 435) of silky shark (Carcharhinus falciformis), and 42.6% (n = 150) of oceanic whitetip shark (C. longimanus) were caught on the 3 shallowest hooks. Eleven percent (n = 20,435) of all tuna and 8.5% (n = 10,374) of albacore were caught on the 3 shallowest hooks. Hook elimination reduced landed value by 1.6-9.2%, and redistribution of hooks increased average annual landed value relative to the status quo by 5-11.7%. Based on these scenarios, redistribution of hooks to deeper depths may provide an economically feasible modification to longline gear that could substantially reduce bycatch for a suite of vulnerable species. Our results suggest that this method may be applicable to deep-set pelagic longline fisheries worldwide. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  8. Catch-up of delayed tooth eruption associated with uranium intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujadas Bigi, M M; Ubios, A M

    2007-04-01

    The population at large is at risk of oral exposure to uranium. Previous studies performed at our laboratory showed delayed tooth eruption 7 d post-administration of a single oral dose of uranyl nitrate in newborn rats. Rat kidney exhibiting severe damage 2 d post-acute uranyl nitrate exposure showed signs of recovery after 7 d; however, tooth eruption and development were significantly lower as compared with their age-matched controls. The aim of the present work was to establish whether tooth eruption and development, delayed by uranium exposure, can catch up to normal values at longer experimental times. In addition, since it is well documented that uranium intoxication by other routes of entry causes alterations in bone growth, we also aimed to evaluate the effect of oral exposure to uranium on mandibular growth. An experimental group of 16 1-d-old Wistar rats received a single 90 mg kg-1 body weight oral dose of uranyl nitrate. Another group of 16 age-matched rats received an equal volume of saline solution and served as the control. Eight animals in each group were killed 7 d post-treatment, and the remaining animals were killed 27 d after the onset of the experiment. Morphometric measurements of mandibular growth were performed on radiographs. Tooth eruption and development were evaluated histomorphometrically on histologic sections obtained at the level of the mesial root of the first molar. Our results showed that the tooth eruption, dental development, and mandibular growth retardation observed 7 d post-acute uranyl nitrate exposure caught up completely after 27 d.

  9. Higher Alu methylation levels in catch-up growth in twenty-year-old offsprings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittipan Rerkasem

    Full Text Available Alu elements and long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1 or L1 are two major human intersperse repetitive sequences. Lower Alu methylation, but not LINE-1, has been observed in blood cells of people in old age, and in menopausal women having lower bone mass and osteoporosis. Nevertheless, Alu methylation levels also vary among young individuals. Here, we explored phenotypes at birth that are associated with Alu methylation levels in young people. In 2010, 249 twenty-years-old volunteers whose mothers had participated in a study association between birth weight (BW and nutrition during pregnancy in 1990, were invited to take part in our present study. In this study, the LINE-1 and Alu methylation levels and patterns were measured in peripheral mononuclear cells and correlated with various nutritional parameters during intrauterine and postnatal period of offspring. This included the amount of maternal intake during pregnancy, the mother's weight gain during pregnancy, birth weight, birth length, and the rate of weight gain in the first year of life. Catch-up growth (CUG was defined when weight during the first year was >0.67 of the standard score, according to WHO data. No association with LINE-1 methylation was identified. The mean level of Alu methylation in the CUG group was significantly higher than those non-CUG (39.61% and 33.66 % respectively, P < 0.0001. The positive correlation between the history of CUG in the first year and higher Alu methylation indicates the role of Alu methylation, not only in aging cells, but also in the human growth process. Moreover, here is the first study that demonstrated the association between a phenotype during the newborn period and intersperse repetitive sequences methylation during young adulthood.

  10. Rotator Cuff Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, G. Patrick

    Many baseball players suffer from shoulder injuries related to the rotator cuff muscles. These injuries may be classified as muscular strain, tendonitis or tenosynovitis, and impingement syndrome. Treatment varies from simple rest to surgery, so it is important to be seen by a physician as soon as possible. In order to prevent these injuries, the…

  11. Preventing Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating ... Infographic Five Steps to Safer Champagne Celebrations Preventing Eye Injuries Leer en Español: Lesiones de los ojos ...

  12. Injury prevention in football

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and cool downs before and after training and matches, respectively. As part of injury prevention, adequate injury management and rehabilitation are essential; especially in the prevention of re-injury. Unfortunately, youth football is often disadvantaged with inadequate or unavailable sports medicine personnel and treatment ...

  13. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Allen Heinemann, PhD How Peer Counseling Works Julie Gassaway, MS, RN Pediatric Injuries Pediatric Spinal ... injury? play_arrow How does the spinal cord work? play_arrow Why is the level of a ...

  14. HAND INJURIES IN VOLLEYBALL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BHAIRO, NH; NIJSTEN, MWN; VANDALEN, KC; TENDUIS, HJ

    We studied the long-term sequelae of hand injuries as a result of playing volleyball. In a retrospective study, 226 patients with injuries of the hand who were seen over a 5-year period at our Trauma Department, were investigated. Females accounted for 66 % of all injuries. The mean age was 26

  15. Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types of illnesses and disabilities Spinal cord injury Spinal cord injury Read advice from Dr. Jeffrey Rabin , a pediatric ... your health on a daily basis. Living with spinal cord injury — your questions answered top What are pediatric ...

  16. Spinal Cord Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... forth between your body and your brain. A spinal cord injury disrupts the signals. Spinal cord injuries usually begin with a blow that fractures or ... down on the nerve parts that carry signals. Spinal cord injuries can be complete or incomplete. With a complete ...

  17. Lightning injury: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritenour, Amber E; Morton, Melinda J; McManus, John G; Barillo, David J; Cancio, Leopoldo C

    2008-08-01

    Lightning is an uncommon but potentially devastating cause of injury in patients presenting to burn centers. These injuries feature unusual symptoms, high mortality, and significant long-term morbidity. This paper will review the epidemiology, physics, clinical presentation, management principles, and prevention of lightning injuries.

  18. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... from Hospital to Home Kim Eberhardt Muir, MS Coping with a New Injury Robin Dorman, PsyD Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Diane M. Rowles, MS, NP How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Nancy Rosenberg, ...

  19. Assessment of Ankle Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Nicholas; Cooper, Leslie

    2009-01-01

    School nurses are faced with the challenge of identifying and treating ankle injuries in the school setting. There is little information guiding the assessment and treatment of these children when an injury occurs. It is essential for school nurses to understand ankle anatomy, pathophysiology of the acute ankle injury, general and orthopedic…

  20. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... OTR/L Sarah Harrison, OT Anne Bryden, OT The Role of the Social Worker after Spinal Cord Injury Patti Rogers, ... the spinal cord work? play_arrow Why is the level of a spinal cord injury important? play_arrow What role does “compression” play in a spinal cord injury? ...