WorldWideScience

Sample records for catch crops

  1. BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM CATCH CROPS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molinuevo-Salces, Beatriz; Larsen, Søren U.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær;

    2014-01-01

    Catch crop cultivation combined with its use for biogas production would increase renewable energy production in the form of methane, without interfering with the production of food and fodder crops. The low biomass yield of catch crops is the main limiting factor for using these crops as co......-substrate in manure-based biogas plants and the profit obtained from the sale of biogas barely compensates for the harvest costs. A new agricultural strategy to harvest catch crops together with the residual straw of the main crop was investigated to increase the biomass and thereby the methane yield per hectare...... biomass. Leaving the straw on the field until harvest of the catch crop in the autumn could benefit biogas production due to the organic matter degradation of the straw taking place on the field during the autumn months. This new agricultural strategy may be a good alternative to achieve economically...

  2. Biogas production from catch crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molinuevo-Salces, Beatriz; Larsen, Søren U.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær;

    2013-01-01

    Manure-based biogas plants in Denmark are dependent on high yielding biomass feedstock in order to secure economically feasible operation. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of ten different catch crop species or mixtures as feedstock for biogas production in co......, being in the ranges of 1.4–3.0 t ha−1 and 0.3–1.7 t ha−1 for Holstebro and Aabenraa, respectively. Specific methane yields were in the range of 229–450 m3 t−1 of VS. Methane yields per hectare of up to 800 m3 ha−1 were obtained, making catch crops a promising source of feedstock for manure-based biogas...

  3. Storage of catch crops to produce biogas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molinuevo-Salces, Beatriz; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Uellendahl, Hinrich

    2014-01-01

    Catch crop biomass is a promising co-substrate for manure-based biogas plants in Denmark since the cultivation of catch crops is mandatory to retain nutrients in the soil, contributing to protect the aquatic environment. In general, the growth period for catch crops is from harvest of the previous...... crop in July-August to the end of the growing season and harvest in late October. Hence, for use of the biomass in biogas production there is a need for storage of the biomass. Storage as silage would guarantee the availability of the feedstock for biogas production during the whole year. A proper...... ensiling process determines the storage loss and the quality of the final silage and, thus, the possible use of it as a substrate for biogas production. Moreover, silage has been considered as a pre-treatment since it partially hydrolyses organic matter improving cellulose convertibility. Since a large...

  4. Assessment of selenium mineralization and availability from catch crops

    OpenAIRE

    Stavridou, Eleftheria; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian; Scott D. Young

    2011-01-01

    Selenium (Se) release from four plant species (Indian mustard, fodder radish, Italian ryegrass and hairy vetch) was measured under controlled leaching conditions and in a pot incubation experiment as part of a study of the potential for using these plant species as Se catch crops. Catch crops may reduce Se leaching and, by subsequent release of Se from the plant material, increase the available Se for succeeding crops. Plants grown both without and with Se addition (250 g Se/ha) were tested. ...

  5. The effect of catch crop species on selenium availability for succeeding crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stavridou, Eleftheria; Young, Scott D.; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    and fodder radish) increased water-extractable Se content in the 0.25–0.75msoil layer in only one of the experiments. Selenium uptake by the catch crops varied between 65 and 3263 mg ha−1, depending on species, year and fertilisation treatment; this corresponded to 0.1–3.0% of the water-extractable soil Se...... content. The influence of catch crops on Se concentrations and uptake in onions and cabbage was low. There was a decrease in Se uptake and recovery of applied Se by onions following catch crops, which might indicate Se immobilisation during catch crop decomposition....

  6. Key factors influencing the potential of catch crops for methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinuevo-Salces, Beatriz; Fernández-Varela, Raquel; Uellendahl, Hinrich

    2014-08-01

    Catch crops are grown in crop rotation primarily for soil stabilization. The excess biomass of catch crops was investigated for its potential as feedstock for biogas production. Ten variables affecting catch crop growth and methane potential were evaluated. Field trials and methane potential were studied for 14 different catch crops species, with 19 samples harvested in 2010 and 36 harvested in 2011. Principal component analysis was applied to the data to identify the variables characterizing the potential for the different catch crops species for methane production. Two principal components explained up to 84.6% and 71.6% of the total variation for 2010 and 2011 samples, respectively. Specific methane yield, climate conditions (rainfall and temperature) and total nitrogen in the biomass were the variables classifying the different catch crops. Catch crops in the Brassicaceae and Graminaceae botanical families showed the highest methane yield. This study demonstrates the importance of the crop species when choosing a suitable catch crop for biogas production.

  7. Nitrogen accumulation and residual effects of nitrogen catch crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1991-01-01

    The nitrogen accumulation in Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) and tansy phacelia (Phacelia tanacetifolia L.), under- or aftersown as nitrogen catch crops to spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and field pea (Pisum s...

  8. Assessment of selenium mineralization and availability from catch crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stavridou, Eleftheria; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian; Young, S.D.

    2011-01-01

    Selenium (Se) release from four plant species (Indian mustard, fodder radish, Italian ryegrass and hairy vetch) was measured under controlled leaching conditions and in a pot incubation experiment as part of a study of the potential for using these plant species as Se catch crops. Catch crops may...... reduce Se leaching and, by subsequent release of Se from the plant material, increase the available Se for succeeding crops. Plants grown both without and with Se addition (250 g Se ⁄ ha) were tested. In the leaching experiment, frozen plant material was incorporated into soil columns and incubated...... lower than that in the control, indicating Se immobilization. In the pot incubation experiment, the results were consistent with those from the leaching experiment. The addition of enriched plant material increased Se concentration in Indian mustard plants compared with unamended soil. However...

  9. Nitrogen dynamics following grain legumes and subsequent catch crops and the effects on succeeding cereal crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Mundus, Simon; Jensen, Erik Steen

    2009-01-01

    The effects of faba bean, lupin, pea and oat crops, with and without an undersown grass-clover mixture as a nitrogen (N) catch crop, on subsequent spring wheat followed by winter triticale crops were determined by aboveground dry matter (DM) harvests, nitrate (NO3) leaching measurements and soil N...... balances. A 2½-year lysimeter experiment was carried out on a temperate sandy loam soil. Crops were not fertilized in the experimental period and the natural 15N abundance technique was used to determine grain legume N2 fixation. Faba bean total aboveground DM production was significantly higher (1,300 g m...... on the subsequent spring wheat or winter triticale DM production. Nitrate leaching following grain legumes was significantly reduced with catch crops compared to without catch crops during autumn and winter before sowing subsequent spring wheat. Soil N balances were calculated from monitored N leaching from...

  10. Winter turnip rape as a soil N scavenging catch crop in a cool humid climate

    OpenAIRE

    Tuulos, Antti; Yli-Halla, Markku; Stoddard, Frederick; Mäkelä, Pirjo

    2015-01-01

    International audience Leaching of nitrogen fertilizers such as nitrates from agricultural systems causes watershed eutrophication and is an economic loss for the farmer. This issue may be solved by including a catch crop in a crop rotation. For instance, winter turnip rape is a potential N catch crop for cold climates. Here, we studied winter turnip rape as a catch crop from 2009 to 2011 in Finland. Winter turnip rape was either undersown with barley in May or sown after harvesting barley...

  11. Catch crop biomass production, nitrogen uptake and root development under different tillage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Hansen, Elly Møller

    2012-01-01

    Catch crops are generally regarded as an efficient tool to reduce nitrate leaching. However, the benefits need to be balanced against potential adverse effects on the main crop yields. The objectives of the study were to study three contrasting catch crops, that is, dyer’s woad (DW) (Isatis...

  12. Key factors influencing the potential of catch crops for methane production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molinuevo-Salces, Beatriz; Fernandez-Varela, Raquel; Uellendahl, Hinrich

    2014-01-01

    explained up to 84.6% and 71.6% of the total variation for 2010 and 2011 samples, respectively. Specific methane yield, climate conditions (rainfall and temperature) and total nitrogen in the biomass were the variables classifying the different catch crops. Catch crops in the Brassicaceae and Graminaceae...

  13. Effects of catch crop type and root depth on nitrogen leaching and yield of spring barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sapkota, Tek Bahadur; Askegaard, Margrethe; Lægdsmand, Mette;

    2012-01-01

    [chicory (Cichorium intybus L.), fodder radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)] and their effect on soil mineral N (NO3− and NH4+) in different soil layers by using the FASSET model. The simulated results of catch crop biomass and root growth and mineral N in the soil...... simulations showed that fodder radish developed the deepest root system and depleted N from deeper soil layers than chicory and ryegrass. Thirty years of simulations showed that the system with ryegrass catch crop had a smaller amount of N leaching from 1 m depth than the system with other catch crops and...... without catch crops. However, estimated total N leached at 2 m soil depth was smallest in the system with fodder radish followed by the system with chicory, indicating that these catch crops are capable of taking soil N also from below 1 m depth. On average, the system with fodder radish was estimated to...

  14. The role of catch crops in the ecological intensification of spring cereals in organic farming under Nordic climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doltra, Jordi; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2013-01-01

    common practices in organic farming. Measurements of dry matter (DM) and N content of grain cereals at harvest, above-ground biomass in catch crops and green manure crops in autumn and of the green manure crop at the first cutting were performed. The effect of catch crops on grain yield varied...... the nitrate leaching and increasing N retention, but also by improving yields. Management practices in relation to catch crops must be adapted to the specific soil and cropping systems....

  15. Nitrogen release from differently aged Raphanus sativus L. nitrate catch crops during mineralization at autumn temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Elsgaard, Lars; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind;

    2016-01-01

    radish (Raphanus sativus, L.) has emerged as a promising nitrate catch crop in cereal cropping, although the course of remineralization of residue N following termination of this frost-sensitive crucifer remains obscured. We incubated radish residues of different age (different planting and harvest dates......In temperate climates with surplus precipitation and low temperatures during autumn and winter, nitrate catch crops have become crucial in reducing nitrate leaching losses. Preferably, the N retained by the catch crop should remain in the soil and become available to the next main crop. Fodder...... pool at both temperatures. The N mineralization and nitrification potential at these low soil temperatures suggest that a considerable fraction of the N captured by nitrate catch crops may be remineralized, nitrified and thus available for plant uptake but also for loss by leaching and denitrification....

  16. Factors influencing the feasibility of using catch crops for biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molinuevo-Salces, Beatriz; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Uellendahl, Hinrich

    2013-01-01

    In order to secure an economically feasible operation of manure-based biogas plants in Denmark there is a need for supplying the plants with high yielding biomass feedstock. The aim of this study was to investigate the biomass yield and the methane potential of three different catch crop species in...... three different locations of Jutland, Denmark. Differences in climate and soil conditions between locations determined mainly the biomass yield. Methane potentials were in the range of 252-435 ml CH4/ g VS depending on catch crops species. The use of catch crops for biogas production has large...

  17. Effects of contrasting catch crops on nitrogen availability and nitrous oxide emissions in an organic cropping system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiaoxi; Petersen, Søren O; Sørensen, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    crops. The effect of two catch crop management strategies was also tested: autumn harvest of the catch crop versus incorporation of whole-crop residues by spring ploughing. LBCCs accumulated 59–67 kg N ha−1 in their tops, significantly more than those of the non-LBCC, 32–40 kg N ha−1. Macro...... of catch crops, especially LBCCs, tended to reduce crop yield. The annual N2O emissions were comparable across treatments except for fodder radish, which had the highest N2O emission, and also the highest average yield-scaled N2O emission, at 499 g N2O-N Mg−1 grain. Although the sampling strategy employed...

  18. Breeding of catch crops - a way to reduce nitrate leaching from arable land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydberg, I. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Plant Biology

    1998-12-01

    Nitrogen in the form of nitrate is soluble in water and nitrate can therefore leach into water systems. Several changes of agricultural practice the last 50 years have promoted nitrogen leaching. Crops with long vegetation periods give less leaching problems than crops with short growing seasons. In Sweden, areas in the South West have the most severe leaching. A catch crop can be defined as a crop grown between two main commercial crops, with the specific mission to reduce leaching of nutrients. The motivation for this plant breeding project was the positive effect of decreased leaching obtained when undersown catch crops were used. A research programme was initiated with the aim of developing a theoretical ideotype for an optimal catch crop and of identifying species for use in applied agriculture. The characteristics of the ideotype include the interaction of the catch crop with the main crop (low influence on the yield of the main crop), its function as a catch crop for nitrogen (high influence on nitrate leaching) and presumed consequences in the cropping system (low influence on crop rotation). 134 species (1083 different accessions) of both agrarian, non agrarian, domesticated and non domesticated origin were included in a screening. The work included model experiments in the greenhouse for responses to reduced light and uptake of nitrogen using {sup 15}N fertilizer as well as field trials, testing growth of catch crop, grain yield of the main crop, and reduction of nitrate in the soil. The ideotype was very useful in the screening, and promising species were identified. A number of biennial and perennial species proved to comply with the ideotype and possess prerequisites beneficial for catch crop purposes. One of them, chicory, showed that a depletion of nitrate during periods with risk of high nitrate leaching, could be combined with later access to this nutrient by the succeeding crop. Legumes had problems in combining all traits presented in the

  19. Improvement of red pepper yield and soil environment by summer catch aquatic crops in greenhouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, X. F.; Wang, L. Z.; Peng, J.; Wang, G. L.; Guo, X. S.; Wen, T. G.; Gu, D. L.; Wang, W. Z.; Wu, C. W.

    2016-08-01

    To investigate effects of the rotation of summer catch crops on remediation retrogressed soils in continuous cropping, a field experiment was conducted. Rice, water spinach, or cress were selected as summer catch crops; bare fallow during summer fallow was used as the control group. Results showed that aquatic crops grown in summer fallow period could effectively reduce soil bulk density and pH, facilitate soil nutrient release, and improve soil physical and chemical properties compared with those grown in fallow period. Paddy-upland rotation could improve soil microbial members and increase bacterial and actinomycete populations; by contrast, paddy-upland rotation could reduce fungal populations and enhance bacterium-to-fungus ratio. Paddy-upland rotation could also actively promote activities of soil enzymes, such as urease, phosphatase, invertase, and catalase. The proposed paddy-upland rotation significantly affected the growth of red pepper; the yield and quality of the grown red pepper were enhanced. Summer catch crops, such as rice, water spinach, and cress significantly increased pepper yield in the following growing season by 15.4%, 10.2% and 14.0%, respectively, compared with those grown in fallow treatment. Therefore, the proposed paddy-upland crop rotation could be a useful method to alleviate continuous cropping problems involved in cultivating red pepper in greenhouses.

  20. Optimization of the Co-Digestion of Catch Crops with Manure Using a Central Composite Design and Reactor Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molinuevo-Salces, Beatriz; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Uellendahl, Hinrich

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of catch crops as co-substrate on manure-based anaerobic digestion. Batch experiments were carried out for two catch crops, namely Italian ryegrass (IR) and oil seed radish (OSR), in co-digestion with manure. Methane yields in the range of 271–558 and 216–361 ml...

  1. Nutrient cycling in a cropping system with potato, spring wheat, sugar beet, oats and nitrogen catch crops. II. Effect of catch crops on nitrate leaching in autumn and winter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J.; Putten, van der P.E.L.

    2004-01-01

    The Nitrate Directive of the European Union (EU) forces agriculture to reduce nitrate emission. The current study addressed nitrate emission and nitrate-N concentrations in leachate from cropping systems with and without the cultivation of catch crops (winter rye: Secale cereale L. and forage rape:

  2. Nitrate Leaching, Yields and Carbon Sequestration after Noninversion Tillage, Catch Crops, and Straw Retention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elly Møller; Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Olesen, Jørgen E;

    2015-01-01

    fodder radish due to the efficient catch crop. Soil organic carbon (SOC) did not increase significantly after 7 yr of straw incorporation or noninversion tillage. There was no correlation between N balances calculated for each growing season and N leaching measured in the following percolation period....

  3. Efficacy and limitations of Triticale as a nitrogen catch crop in a mediterranean environment

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, M. A.; Coutinho, João; Martins, Fernando

    2002-01-01

    During 3 consecutive years (1996/97–1998/99) the efficacy was studied of Triticale as a nitrogen (N) catch crop sown after the harvest of the potato crop cultivated in the preceding summer season under several N fertilizer treatments. In October, shortly after the harvest of the potatoes, there were registered significative differences in the soil N–NO3− levels among N fertilizer treatments of the potato crop. The higher values were recorded on the plots corresponding to higher N doses. At th...

  4. Economic efficiency of winter catch crops applicationin the sweet corn cultivationdepending on herbicide selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Rosa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the successive effect of winter catch crops (hairy vetch, white clover, winter rye, Italian ryegrass, winter turnip rape and weed control (A – preemergence herbicide Guardian CompleteMix 664 SE, B – postemergence herbicides Zeagran 340 SE + Titus 25 WG + Trend 90 EC on the economic effects of sweet corn cultivation. The experiment was carried out in central-eastern Poland, in 2008-2011. Economic evaluation of sweet corn cultivation was performed according to the standard gross margin method. The calculation was based on the prices of 2014. Irrespective of the investigated factors the profitability index was on a very high level and amounted to 309–485%. The use of winter catch crops (with the exception of Italian ryegrass and winter turnip rape in the weed control A increased the economic effect of the sweet corn cultivation in relation to a combination of farmyard manure. The highest gross margin and profitability index of sweet corn cultivation in weed control A was calculated for hairy vetch catch crop combination, and in B – for white clover.

  5. Field observations on nitrogen catch crops. I. Potential and actual growth and nitrogen accumulation in relation to sowing date and crop species.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J.; Putten, van der P.E.L.

    1997-01-01

    In temperate climates with a precipitation surplus during autumn and winter, nitrogen catch crops can help to reduce nitrogen losses from cropping systems by absorbing nitrogen from the soil and transfer it to a following main crop. The actual and potential accumulation of dry matter and nitrogen in

  6. Mustard catch crop enhances denitrification in shallow groundwater beneath a spring barley field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangir, M M R; Minet, E P; Johnston, P; Premrov, A; Coxon, C E; Hackett, R; Richards, K G

    2014-05-01

    Over-winter green cover crops have been reported to increase dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in groundwater, which can be used as an energy source for denitrifiers. This study investigates the impact of a mustard catch crop on in situ denitrification and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from an aquifer overlain by arable land. Denitrification rates and N2O-N/(N2O-N+N2-N) mole fractions were measured in situ with a push-pull method in shallow groundwater under a spring barley system in experimental plots with and without a mustard cover crop. The results suggest that a mustard cover crop could substantially enhance reduction of groundwater nitrate NO3--N via denitrification without significantly increasing N2O emissions. Mean total denitrification (TDN) rates below mustard cover crop and no cover crop were 7.61 and 0.002 μg kg(-1) d(-1), respectively. Estimated N2O-N/(N2O-N+N2-N) ratios, being 0.001 and 1.0 below mustard cover crop and no cover crop respectively, indicate that denitrification below mustard cover crop reduces N2O to N2, unlike the plot with no cover crop. The observed enhanced denitrification under the mustard cover crop may result from the higher groundwater DOC under mustard cover crop (1.53 mg L(-1)) than no cover crop (0.90 mg L(-1)) being added by the root exudates and root masses of mustard. This study gives insights into the missing piece in agricultural nitrogen (N) balance and groundwater derived N2O emissions under arable land and thus helps minimise the uncertainty in agricultural N and N2O-N balances.

  7. Growth of legume and nonlegume catch crops and residual-N effects in spring barley on coarse sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askegaard, Margrethe; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    Askegaard, M. and Eriksen, E. 2007. Growth of legume and nonlegume catch crops and residual-N effects in spring barley on coarse sand. J. Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 170, 733-780.......Askegaard, M. and Eriksen, E. 2007. Growth of legume and nonlegume catch crops and residual-N effects in spring barley on coarse sand. J. Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 170, 733-780....

  8. An original experiment to determine impact of catch crop introduction in a crop rotation on N2O production fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallec, Tiphaine; Le Dantec, Valérie; Zawilski, Bartosz; Brut, Aurore; Boussac, Marion; Ferlicoq, Morgan; Ceschia, Eric

    2015-04-01

    The raise in N2O concentration from the preindustrial era (280 ppb) to nowadays (324 ppb) is estimated to account for approximately 6% of the predicted global warming (IPCC 2014). Worldwide, soils are considered to be the dominant source of N2O, releasing an estimated 9.5 Tg N2O-N y-1 (65% of global N2O emissions), of which 36.8% are estimated to originate from agricultural soils (IPCC 2001). Most N2O originating from agricultural soils is a by- or end-product of nitrification or denitrification. The fate of N2O produced by microbiological processes in the subsoil is controlled by biotic (crop species, occurring soil organic matter, human pressure via mineral and organic nitrogen fertilisation) and abiotic (environmental conditions such as temperature, soil moisture, pH, etc.) factors. In cropland, contrary to forest and grassland, long bare soil periods can occurred between winter and summer crops with a high level of mineral (fertilizer) and organic (residues) nitrogen remaining in the soil, causing important emissions of carbon and nitrogen induced by microbial activities. Introduction of catch crop has been identified as an important mitigation option to reduce environmental impact of crops mainly thanks to their ability to increase CO2 fixation, to decrease mineral nitrogen lixiviation and also reduce the potential fate of N2O production. Uncertainty also remains about the impact of released mineral nitrogen coming from crushed catch crop on N2O production if summer crop seedling and mineral nitrogen release are not well synchronized. To verify those assumptions, a unique paired-plot experiment was carried in the south-west of France from September 2013 to august 2014 to test impact of management change on N2O budget and production dynamic. A crop plot was divided into two subplots, one receiving a catch crop (mustard), the other one remaining conventionally managed (bare-soil during winter). This set-up allowed avoiding climate effect. Each subplot was

  9. Reduction of weed pressure by establishing catch crops in maize-bean-intercropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer, Jenny

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Intercropping field experiments with maize and Phaseolus beans are conducted at the Thünen-Institute of Organic Farming (Schleswig-Holstein, SL, 740 mm, 8.7 °C from 2014-2016. As known from previous experiments, maize and beans have a very low competitiveness against weeds, due to their relative slow youth development. Therefore, the beans were sown subsequently to the mechanical weed control with harrow and hoe, at the 4-leaf development stage (BBCH 14 of maize. Hence a mechanical weed control after bean emergence is critical, a field experiment is conducted to find out whether the establishment of an additional catch crop can reduce weed pressure substantially. For this purpose two catch crop mixtures are evaluated in pure maize plots as well as in intercropping plots with scarlet runner beans (Phaseolus coccineus, cv. Preisgewinner or common runner beans (Phaseolus vulgaris, cv. Tarbais respectively. As control variants, plots without undersown crops were used. The undersown crop mixtures are composed of Italian ryegrass (cv. Gersimi, sowing density: 15 kg ha-1, which is combined with subterranean clover (cv. Seaton Park, sowing density: 30 kg ha-1 in US1 and with Chicory (cv. Puna II, sowing density 7.5 kg ha-1 in US2. The highest biomass (50 g DM m-2 was produced by US1 in all variants, while the biomass of US2 was significantly lower with 32 g DM m-2. As a result of a successful mechanical weed control as well as a good development of the main crops, the weed pressure in 2014 was generally low. Nevertheless, the results show that undersown crops can reduce weeds substantially. While the significantly highest weed biomass was recorded in the plots without undersown crops, it was reduced by 70% with US1 and by 80% with US2 on average respectively.

  10. The plant characters and corm production of taro as catch crop under the young rubber stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DJUKRI

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed at revealing the chlorophyll content, leaf area (the plant characters, and the corm production of taro as catch crop under the young rubber stand. This research was conducted by means of Nested Design with nine replication. The intercropping planting used independent variables i.e. N0 (open condition, N1 (under the two-year-old young rubber, and N2 (under the three-year-old young rubber. The dependent variables were the chlorophyll content, leaf area, and production of the taro corm. The parameters investigated were the leaves area, the chlorophyll a and b content, the weight of fresh corm, the weight of dry corm, and the corm production per plots. The research result showed that the leaves area, and the chlorophyll a and b content significantly increased, while the weight of fresh corm, and the weight of dry corm significantly decreased (P<0.05. The fresh corm production per plots under the young rubber two- and three-year-old were significantly decreased compared the control (P<0.05. The intercropping planting or catch crop showed that the taro corm production per plot decreased both of under two- and three-year-old young rubber shades, although the reduction of each clone was significant or not significant, so that tolerant clones could be conserved.

  11. Comprehensive analysis of soil nitrogen removal by catch crops based on growth and water use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasutake, D.; Kondo, K.; Yamane, S.; Kitano, M.; Mori, M.; Fujiwara, T.

    2016-07-01

    A new methodology for comprehensive analysis of the characteristics of nitrogen (N) removal from greenhouse soil by catch crop was proposed in relation to its growth and water use. The N removal is expressed as the product of five parameters: net assimilation rate, specific leaf area, shoot dry weight, water use efficiency for N removal, and water requirement for growth. This methodology was applied to the data of a greenhouse experiment where corn was cultivated under three plant densities. We analyzed the effect of plant density and examined the effectiveness of the methodology. Higher plant densities are advantageous not only for total N removal but also for water use efficiency in N removal and growth because of the large specific leaf area, shoot dry weight, and decreased soil evaporation. On the other hand, significant positive or negative linear relationships were found between all five parameters and N removal. This should improve the understanding of the N removal mechanisms and the interactions among its components. We show the effectiveness of our analytical methodology, which can contribute to identifying the optimum plant density according to the field situations (available water amount, soil N quantity to be removed) for practical catch crop cultivation.

  12. THE EFFECT OF WINTER CATCH CROPS ON WEED INFESTATION IN SWEET CORN DEPENDING ON THE WEED CONTROL METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Rosa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out in east-central Poland (52°06’ N, 22°55’ E over 2008–2011 to study the effect of winter catch crops on the weed infestation, number, and fresh matter of weeds in sweet corn (Zea mays L. var. saccharata. The following winter catch crops were grown: hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth., white clover (Trifolium repens L., winter rye (Secale cereale L., Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L. and winter turnip rape (Brassica rapa var. typica Posp.. The catch crops were sown in early September and incorporated in early May. The effect of the catch crops was compared to the effect of FYM (30 t·ha-1 and control without organic manuring (NOM. Three methods of weed control were used: HW – hand weeding, twice during the growing period, GCM – the herbicide Guardian Complete Mix 664 SE, immediately after sowing of corn seeds, Z+T – a mixture of the herbicides Zeagran 340 SE and Titus 25 WG applied at the 3–4-leaf stage of sweet corn growth. Rye and turnip rape catch crops had least weeds in their fresh matter. Sweet corn following winter catch crops was less infested by weeds than corn following farmyard manure and non-manured corn. Least weeds and their lowest weight were found after SC, BRT and VV. LM and BRT reduced weed species numbers compared with FYM and NOM. The greatest weed species diversity, determined at the corn flowering stage, was determined after SC and FYM. The number and weight of weeds were significantly lower when chemically controlled compared with hand weeding. The best results were observed after a post-emergent application of the mixture Z+T. The weed species diversity on Z+T-treated plots was clearly lower compared with GCM and HW.

  13. Catch crops as universal and effective method for reducing nitrogen leaching loss in spring cereal production: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkama, Elena; Lemola, Riitta; Känkänen, Hannu; Turtola, Eila

    2016-04-01

    Sustainable farms produce adequate amounts of a high-quality product, protect their resources and are both environmentally friendly and economically profitable. Nitrogen (N) fertilization decisively influences the cereal yields as well as increases soil N balance (N input in fertilizer - N output in harvested yield), thereby leading to N losses to the environment. However, while N input reduction affects soil N balance, such approach would markedly reduce N leaching loss only in case of abnormally high N balances. As an alternative approach, the growing of catch crops aims to prevent nutrient leaching in autumn after harvest and during the following winter, but due to competition, catch crops may also reduce yields of the main crop. Although studies have explored the environmental effects of catch crops in cereal production in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Sweden, Finland and Norway) during the past 40 years, none has yet carried out a meta-analysis. We quantitatively summarized 35 studies on the effect of catch crops (non-legume and legume) undersown in spring cereals on N leaching loss or its risk as estimated by the content of soil nitrate N or its sum with ammonium in late autumn. The meta-analysis also included the grain yield and N content of spring cereals. To identify sources of variation, we studied the effects of soil texture and management (ploughing time, the amount of N applied, fertilizer type), as well as climatic (annual precipitation) and experimental conditions (duration of experiments, lysimeter vs. field experiments). Finally, we examined whether the results differed between the countries or over the decades. Compared to control groups with no catch crops, non-legume catch crops, mainly ryegrass species, reduced N leaching loss by 50% on average, and soil nitrate N or inorganic N by 35% in autumn. Italian ryegrass depleted soil N more effectively (by 60%) than did perennial ryegrass or Westerwolds ryegrass (by 25%). In contrast, legumes (white

  14. The occurrence of fungi on the stem base and roots of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. grown in monoculture depending on tillage systems and catch crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kraska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in the period 2006-2008 based on an experiment established in 2005. The study evaluated the effect of conservation and plough tillage as well as of four catch crops on the level of infection by fungal pathogens of the stem base and roots of the spring wheat cultivar ‘Zebra’ grown in monoculture. The species composition of fungi colonizing the stem base and roots of spring wheat was determined. The split-plot design of the experiment set up on rendzina soil included plough tillage and conservation tillage with autumn and spring disking of catch crops. The experiment used four methods for regeneration of the spring wheat monoculture stand using the following: undersown red clover and Westerwolds ryegrass crops as well as lacy phacelia and white mustard stubble crops. Plots without catch crops were the control treatment. Red clover and Westerwolds ryegrass catch crops as well as lacy phacelia and white mustard stubble crops had a significant effect on the decrease in the stem base and root infection index of spring wheat compared to the control without catch crops. The disease indices in the tillage treatments under evaluation did not differ significantly from one another. The stem base and roots of spring wheat were most frequently infected by fungi of the genus Fusarium, with F. culmorum being the dominant pathogen of cereals. Compared to conservation tillage, in plough tillage the pathogenic fungus Bipolaris sorokiniana was not found to occur on the stem base and roots. The Westerwolds ryegrass catch crop promoted the occurrence of F. culmorum, both on the stem base and roots of spring wheat.

  15. Assessment of soil nitrogen and related enzymes as influenced by the incorporation time of field pea cultivated as a catch crop in Alfisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowska-Długosz, Anna; Wilczewski, Edward

    2014-12-01

    The effect of the time of catch crop (field pea) incorporation [catch crop incorporated in the autumn (A) or in the spring (B) versus plots without a catch crop (C)] on the soil enzymes related to N transformation (urease - UR, protease - PRO, nitrate reductase - NR, arginine ammonification rate - AAR), the total N and mineral N as well as microbial biomass N (MBN) contents were investigated in a 3-year experiment. The catch crop was sown at the beginning of August and plowed in the autumn in 2008, 2009 and 2010 or left as mulch during the winter. Soil samples for microbial activity were taken from spring barley plots that were grown in 2009, 2010 and 2011 before sowing (March), during the tillering phase (May), shooting (June) and after the harvesting of spring barley (August). The use of catch crop significantly increased the soil mineral and MBN contents as well as the activities of PRO and NR as compared to the control soil. The spring incorporation of the field pea significantly increased the MBN content in contrast to the autumn application, while the activity of N-cycle enzymes were clearly unaffected (UR and AAR) regardless of the time of the incorporation of field pea or else the results were inconsistent (PRO and NR). When the catch crop was incorporated in the spring, a significantly higher content of mineral N as compared to autumn incorporation was noted on only two of the four sampling dates. The enzymatic activity (PRO and AAR) was about 1.3-2.8 times higher in May and June as compared with March and August. Both spring or autumn incorporation of catch crop can be a useful management practice to increase the soil mineral N content and enhance the soil biological activity.

  16. Catch the Best: Novel Screening Strategy to Select Stress Protecting Agents for Crop Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christin Zachow

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Climate change increases stress levels for crops and affects the economic and environmental aspects of agricultural management systems. The application of stress tolerance-mediating microorganisms is an auspicious strategy for improving crop protection, and as such, we developed a direct selection strategy to obtain cultivable microorganisms from promising bioresources using the bait plants, maize, oilseed rape, sorghum and sugar beet. Alpine mosses, lichens and primrose were selected as bioresources, as each is adapted to adverse environmental conditions. A 10% crop-specific selection was found for bait plant rhizosphere communities using cultivation-independent fingerprints, and their potential role as stress protecting agents (SPA was evaluated following the cultivation of captured bacteria. In addition to assays identifying phytopathogen antagonism and plant growth promotion capacities, our evaluation included those that test the ability to allocate nutrients. Moreover, we developed new assays to measure tolerance in diverse stress conditions. A score scheme was applied to select SPAs with desired properties, and three Pseudomonas species with pronounced antagonistic activity that showed elevated tolerance to desiccation and an improved seed germination rate were subsequently chosen. Screening for environmentally-conditioned and host-adapted microorganisms provides a novel tool for target-oriented exploitation of microbial bioresources for the management of ecofriendly crops facing biotic and abiotic stresses.

  17. Catch Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Talbert, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Catch Chain is a book of poems that traces the journey of a Corrections Officer who attempts to combat issues of isolation, inhumane treatment of inmates and societal rejection in jails by embarking upon a cross-country road trip. However, the same issues the officer initially wrestled with begin cropping up in different cities, on various highways and in a multitude of states. The excitement and adventure of the open road runs parallel to the recurring imprisonment of the guard's mind.

  18. Quantifying biological nitrogen fixation of different catch crops, and residual effects of roots and tops on nitrogen uptake in barley using in-situ 15N labelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiaoxi; Sørensen, Peter; Li, F C;

    2015-01-01

    Contributions of legume-based catch crops (LBCCs) to succeeding cereals may be significant. We quantified biological N fixation (BNF) and residual N effects of contrasting CC tops and roots. Methods BNF of three LBCCs (red clover, winter vetch, perennial ryegrass-red clover mixture) was quantified...... N uptake was derived from non-LBCCs. The 15N-based N fertiliser values of LBCC tops were 34–47 % against 26–29 % for non-LBCCs. LBCC roots contributed substantial amounts of N to the system, a source that is usually underestimated. N immobilisation after incorporation of non-LBCCs may hamper...

  19. Straw export in continuous winter wheat and the ability of oil radish catch crops and early sowing of wheat to offset soil C and N losses: A simulation study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peltre, Clément; Nielsen, M; Christensen, Bent Tolstrup;

    2016-01-01

    the autumn. The effects of straw export, oil radish catch crop and early sowing of wheat on soil C storage, N leaching losses and N2O emissions were simulated by applying the Daisy model to winter wheat grown continuously for a period of 100 years on a sandy loam soil in a Danish climate. The simulations...... included five levels of initial soil C content (1–3% C), three levels of straw incorporation (0, 50 and 100%), +/− catch crop (oil radish) and two sowing dates (1 and 22 September). Exporting the entire straw production reduced soil C stocks by 1.2 to 14% after 100 years, depending on the initial C content....... Inclusion of the oil radish catch crop could offset this loss by 2–3 percentage points. Earlier sowing of wheat increased straw production by 18% and reduced loss of soil C by 3–5 percentage points compared to normal sowing time with full straw export. Catch crops and early sowing also reduced N...

  20. Clean catch urine sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urine culture - clean catch; Urinalysis - clean catch; Clean catch urine specimen; Urine collection - clean catch ... lips" (labia). You may be given a special clean-catch kit that contains sterile wipes. Sit on ...

  1. 填闲作物阻控设施菜田土壤功能衰退研究进展%Research Progress on Catch Crop Planting for Reducing Soil Function Degradation in Greenhouse Vegetable Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田永强; 高丽红

    2012-01-01

    The intensive facility agriculture is an important part in Chinese agricultural production systems. However, continues cropping and simple rotation, these 2 conventional practices are relying on limited land area with large input of chemical fertilizer and pesticide, and have caused soil degradation and brought obstacles to plant growth, resulting in a reduction of plant production. Thus, how to reduce the soil function degradation, improve soil quality and realize the sustainable development of greenhouse vegetable production becomes an issue demanded be solved. Catch crop is a biological tool to minimize soil degradation. With the continuous studies on soil nutrient cycling by catch crop , people's understanding about catch crop mechanism and its ecological efficiency has become more and more thoroughly. The paper expounded the research progress made both in China and foreign countries about effects of catch crops on reducing soil function degradation and analyzed the feasibility of using catch crop to reduce soil function degradation in greenhouse vegetable field.%土地集约化经营的设施农业是我国农业的重要组成部分.然而,集约化种植体系中传统的连作和简单轮作更多地依赖农药和化肥,由此引发了温室土壤质量的下降和作物生长障碍,从而使得作物产量下降.如何阻控土壤功能衰退,修复并保持土壤健康,实现设施蔬菜产业可持续发展是设施蔬菜生产上亟待解决的问题.填闲作物是维持集约化种植体系土壤功能的生物途径,随着填闲作物改善土壤养分循环研究的深入,人们对填闲作物生态效应及其机制的认识也越来越深入.本文阐述了国内外填闲作物阻控土壤功能衰退研究进展,并在此基础上分析了填闲作物阻控设施菜田土壤功能衰退的可行性.

  2. 填闲作物既降低氮淋溶也减少土壤CO2排放%Catch Crop Known to Decrease N-leaching also Counteracts Soil CO2 Emissions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marie MATTSSON; Marie MAGNHEDEN; Siegfried FLEISCHER

    2015-01-01

    CO2 emissions to the atmosphere were studied in a fertilized sandy agricultural soil with and without a catch crop sown into the main crop. The catch crop was grown primarily with the purpose to decrease N-leaching but this study also wanted to ifnd out if the catch crop could have an effect in a climate change perspective. Plots with catch crop showed decreased CO2 emissions from the soil. Since previous results have shown that catch crops effectively decrease N-leaching we recommend growing catch crops as an effective measure for helping both the climate and the eutrophication issue. Seasonal variations in CO2 emissions were pronounced with maximum emissions from the fertilized agricultural soil in June and from an adjacent unmanaged grassland in August. From the plot with catch crop emissions decreased in July and August but somewhat increased later in the autumn. Fertilized agricultural soil showed a within-soil CO2 sink after harvest, i.e. within-soil CO2 uptake. Availability of NH4+ or NO3- in the soil seems to inlfuence the within-soil CO2 sink, with NH4+ enforcing the sink while the same amount of NO3- instead increased CO2 emissions.%我们研究了沙质施肥农业土壤有或没有填闲作物情况下的CO2大气排放。种植填闲作物的最初目的是降低氮淋溶,但我们也想通过本研究发现填闲作物在气候变化背景下是否有起着某种作用。填闲作物样地显示土壤CO2排放有所降低。因为早先的结果表明填闲作物有效减少了氮淋溶,我们建议把种植填闲作物作为应对气候及富营养化问题的有效措施。CO2排放的季节差异表明,施肥农业土壤在6月、相邻一块无管理措施的草地在8月,排放值分别达到最高。样地中填闲作物的CO2排放于7月和8月有所降低但之后的秋天里又有所上升。施肥农业土壤呈现出收获后土壤内CO2汇的特征,即土壤内CO2的收贮。NH4+加强着CO2汇而等量的NO3-增加了CO2

  3. A Preliminary Study of Catch Crop Growing in Greenhouse in Yel ow River Irrigation Area of Ningxia%宁夏引黄灌区设施菜田填闲作物种植试验初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冒辛平; 陈晓群; 罗健航; 张学军; 赵营

    2015-01-01

    为了明确宁夏引黄灌区设施菜田在夏休闲期种植填闲作物的土壤培肥效应和土壤残留硝态氮的消减效应。通过田间试验,在夏休闲常规大水漫灌下,研究了常规裸地休闲、种植饲料玉米和种植甜玉米处理对土壤硝态氮累积、填闲作物地上部生物量及氮磷吸收量的影响,同时探讨了填闲作物直接还田对下茬设施番茄产量和土壤理化性质的影响。结果表明,饲料玉米、甜玉米的干物质累积量和氮磷养分固定均无显著差异,都可以作为设施菜田的填闲作物;种植填闲作物能够对0~120 cm土壤残留硝态氮进行生物固定和淋洗阻控;填闲作物还田还能提高下一茬蔬菜产量,对设施菜田土壤起到很好的改良和培肥效果。因此,综合考虑土壤培肥效应、土壤残留硝态氮的消减及对下茬蔬菜产量的影响,饲料玉米和甜玉米都可作为宁夏引黄灌区设施菜田夏休闲期的填闲作物。%In order to make clear the effects of the catch crops growing on improvement of soil fertility and reduction of soil residual nitrate in the summer fallow period in the greenhouse in the Yellow River Irrigation area of Ningxia. A field exper-iment was conducted with conventional flood irrigation by the Yellow River water in the summer fallow period, to investigate the effects of fallow, growing feed corn, and growing sweet corn on the soil nitrate accumulation, shoot dry biomass and N, P uptake of catch crops, and at the same time, the effects of catch crops directly returning to field on the yield of tomato in the next season and the soil physical and chemical characteristics were discussed. The results indicated that there were no significant differences in shoot dry biomass and N, P uptake of feed corn and sweet corn, both crops could be grown for catch crops in the greenhouse. Soil residual nitrate leaching in 0~120 cm was reduced by growing catch crops. Yield of the

  4. SIS - Annual Catch Limit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Annual Catch Limit (ACL) dataset within the Species Information System (SIS) contains information and data related to management reference points and catch data.

  5. Recovery of nitrogen by spring barley following incorporation of 15N-labelled straw and catch crop material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, I.K.; Jensen, E.S.

    1994-01-01

    receiving (NH4NO3)-N-15-N-15 were included. Plant samples were taken every second week until maturity during the first growing season and at maturity in the two following years. Incorporation of plant material had no significant influence on the above-ground dry matter yield of the barley. The barley....... Mean recoveries of ryegrass N were 2.3% in the second year and less than 1% in the third year after incorporation. Recovery of mineral fertilizer in the year of application was relatively low (29-40%), probably due to long periods of spring drought in all 3 years. The recovery of N from residual...... mineral fertilizer was in the second and third barley crop similar to the recovery of N from incorporated plant residues....

  6. How effective are slurry storage, cover or catch crops, woodland creation, controlled trafficking or break-up of compacted layers, and buffer strips as on-farm mitigation measures for delivering an improved water environment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall Nicola P

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Agriculture has intensified over the last 50 years resulting in increased usage of fertilizers and agrochemicals, changes in cropping practices, land drainage and increased stocking rates. In Europe, this has resulted in declines in the quality of soils and waters due to increased run off and water pollution. Fifty percent of nitrates in European rivers are derived from agricultural sources in the UK this value is as high as 70%, where agriculture also contributes to approximately 28% of phosphates and 76% of sediments recorded in rivers. Catchments dominated by agricultural land use have increased levels of pesticides and bacterial pathogens. European member states have a policy commitment to tackle water pollution through the Water Framework Directive. An analysis of the effectiveness of water pollution mitigation measures should enable decision makers and delivery agencies to better facilitate catchment planning. The aim of this systematic review is to assess the effectiveness of slurry storage, cover/catch crops, woodland creation, controlled trafficking/break-up of compacted layers and buffer strips, as on farm mitigation measures, for delivering an improved water environment. Methods The systematic review will consist of a searchable systematic map database for all the named interventions. Where possible, quantitative analysis will be used to assess the effectiveness of interventions. Electronic databases, the internet, and organisational websites will be searched, and stakeholders will be contacted for studies that investigate the impact of the on-farm mitigation measures on water quality. All studies found will be assessed for suitability for inclusion in the next stage. Inclusion criteria will be based on subject, intervention, comparator and outcome. The details of included studies will be incorporated into the systematic map database, and studies scored for effectiveness of intervention and study design. Where

  7. Energy crops for biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This investigation aims at describing the effects on cropping systems, containing a.o. leguminosae plant leys for biogas production. Problems treated are effects on soil physics, circulation of crop nutrients, use of chemical pesticides, preceding crop effects, and the possibility of utilizing catch crops for methane production. It is observed that the studied biogas-crop sequences gives positive effects on soil structure, reduced need for artificial fertilizers and chemical pesticides. 26 refs, 28 tabs

  8. Catch-In-Areas Main

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Catch-In-Areas database integrates catch data from the Catch Accounting System (which has the spatial resolution of a NMFS Reporting Area) into a database that...

  9. Catch a Star!

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    ESO and the European Association for Astronomy Education are launching today the 2007 edition of 'Catch a Star!', their international astronomy competition for school students. Now in its fifth year, the competition offers students the chance to win a once-in-a-lifetime trip to ESO's flagship observatory in Chile, as well as many other prizes. Students are invited to 'become astronomers' and embark on a journey to explore the Universe. ESO PR Photo 42/06 The competition includes separate categories - 'Catch a Star Researchers' and 'Catch a Star Adventurers' - to ensure that every student, whatever their level, has the chance to enter and win exciting prizes. For the artistically minded, 'Catch a Star!' also includes an artwork competition, 'Catch a Star Artists'. "'Catch a Star!' offers a unique opportunity for students to learn more about astronomy and about the methods scientists use to discover new things about the Universe", said Douglas Pierce-Price, Education Officer at ESO. In teams, students choose an astronomical topic to study and produce an in-depth report. An important part of the project for 'Catch a Star Researchers' is to think about how ESO's telescopes or a telescope of the future can contribute to their investigations of the subject. As well as the top prize - a trip to one of ESO's observatory sites in Chile - visits to observatories in Germany, Austria and Spain, and many other prizes are also available to be won. 'Catch a Star Researchers' winners will be chosen by an international jury, and 'Catch a Star Adventurers' will be awarded further prizes by lottery. Entries for 'Catch a Star Artists' will be displayed on the web and winners chosen with the help of a public online vote. The first editions of 'Catch a Star!' have attracted several hundred entries from more than 25 countries worldwide. Previous winning entries have included "Star clusters and the structure of the Milky Way" (Budapest, Hungary), "Vega" (Acqui Terme, Italy) and "Venus

  10. Catch Hilton Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Ready to spice up Beijing's nightlife? Come on to Zeta Bars, Hilton! If sneak previews are anything to go by, it's clear that The Third Ring will consistently perform to sellout crowds keen to catch a glimpse of the stunningly redesigned restaurants and bars that line the tri-level

  11. How flowers catch raindrops

    OpenAIRE

    Amador, Guillermo; Yamada, Yasukuni; Hu, David

    2011-01-01

    Several species of plants have raindrop-sized flowers that catch raindrops opportunistically in order to spread their 0.3-mm seeds distances of over 1 m. In the following fluid dynamics video, we show examples of these plants and some of the high speed videography used to visualize the splash dynamics responsible for raindrop-driven seed dispersal. Experiments were conducted on shape mimics of the plants' fruit bodies, fabricated using a 3D printer. Particular attention was paid to optimizing...

  12. Plant protection in an organic crop rotation experiment for grain production

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Ilse A.; Askegaard, Margrethe; Jørgen E. Olesen

    1999-01-01

    The plant protection carried out in the Danish crop rotation experiment is described. These measures can be quite different in the different systems. While mechanical weed control can be carried out in systems without catch crops, it is not possible to do so in systems with catch crops without affecting the establishment of the catch crop. The occurrence of weeds, pests and diseases is recorded, and the results are described. Since the results are only from the two first years of the expe...

  13. Hawaii DAR Fisherman Reporting System Data (Catch)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the catch data from fishers who take marine life for commercial purposes and report their catch, effort, and sales on a commercial catch...

  14. How flowers catch raindrops

    CERN Document Server

    Amador, Guillermo; Hu, David

    2011-01-01

    Several species of plants have raindrop-sized flowers that catch raindrops opportunistically in order to spread their 0.3-mm seeds distances of over 1 m. In the following fluid dynamics video, we show examples of these plants and some of the high speed videography used to visualize the splash dynamics responsible for raindrop-driven seed dispersal. Experiments were conducted on shape mimics of the plants' fruit bodies, fabricated using a 3D printer. Particular attention was paid to optimizing flower geometries and drop impact parameters to propel seeds the farthest distance. We find off-center impacts are the most effective for dispersing seeds. Such impacts amplify the raindrop's speed, encapsulate seeds within drops, and direct the seed trajectory at angles optimal for long-distance dispersal.

  15. LPS Catch and Effort Estimation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data collected from the LPS dockside (LPIS) and the LPS telephone (LPTS) surveys are combined to produce estimates of total recreational catch, landings, and...

  16. Crop production during the first course of an organic crop rotation trial in Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Olesen, Jørgen E.; Askegaard, Margrethe; Rasmussen, Ilse Ankær

    2000-01-01

    Three factors are included in a factorial field experiment: 1) fraction of grass-clover and pulses in the rotation (crop rotation), 2) catch crop (with or without catch crop), and 3) manure (with or without animal manure). Manure is applied as slurry in rates corresponding to 40 % of the nitrogen demand. Grain yields for three sites and three years of the experiment are presented for two four-course rotations. One rotation has a green-manure crop, which is replaced by winter wheat in the o...

  17. Long-term organic crop rotation experiments for cereal production – yield development and dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Askegaard, Margrethe; Olesen, Jørgen E.; Rasmussen, Ilse A.

    2005-01-01

    A crop rotation experiment was established in 1996/97 at three locations representing different soil types and climates. Three factors were tested: i) crop rotation with different proportions of N2-fixing crops, ii) with and without a catch crop, and iii) with and without animal manure. A green manure crop increased yields in the following cereal crops, but at the rotational level, total yields were larger in crop rotations without a green manure crop. There were positive effects of animal ma...

  18. Pea-barley intercropping and short-term subsequent crop effects across European organic cropping conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Gooding, M.; Ambus, Per;

    2009-01-01

    and the United Kingdom included subsequent spring wheat with grass-clover as catch crops. The experiment was repeated over the three cropping seasons of 2003, 2004 and 2005. Irrespective of sites and intercrop design pea–barley intercropping improved the plant resource utilization (water, light, nutrients...... preceding crop and residue quality. Just as with the soil mineral N, the subsequent crop response to preceding crop was negligible. Soil N balances showed general negative values in the 2-year period, indicating depletion of N independent of preceding crop and cropping strategy. It is recommended to develop...

  19. AKRO/SF: Catch Accounting System (CAS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Catch Accounting System (CAS) creates total catch estimates for the groundfish fisheries in the Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands and Gulf of Alaska. Each year,...

  20. Passing and Catching in Rugby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namudu, Mike M.

    This booklet contains the fundamentals for rugby at the primary school level. It deals primarily with passing and catching the ball. It contains instructions on (1) holding the ball for passing, (2) passing the ball to the left--standing, (3) passing the ball to the left--running, (4) making a switch pass, (5) the scrum half's normal pass, (6) the…

  1. MSY from catch and resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ole A; Chrysafi, Anna

    A simple Schaefer model was tested on the Greenland halibut stock offshore in NAFO SA 0 and 1. The minimum data required for this model is a catch time series and a measure of the resilience of the species. Other input parameters that had to be guessed were the carrying capacity, the biomass...

  2. Learning from a long-term crop rotation experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Olesen, Jørgen E.; Askegaard, Margrethe; Rasmussen, Ilse A.

    2005-01-01

    A crop rotation experiment was established in 1996/97 at three locations representing differ-ent soil types and climates. Three factors were tested: i) crop rotation with different propor-tions of N2-fixing crops, ii) with and without a catch crop, and iii) with and without animal manure. A green manure crop increased yields in the following cereal crops, but at the rota-tional level, total yields were larger in crop rotations without a green manure crop. There were positive effects of animal...

  3. The Effect of Crop Rotation on Soil Nematode Community Composition in a Greenhouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingwen LU; Wei SHENG; Qian YU; Zijing CHEN; Qiang XU; Qian WANG; Linlin DONG

    2015-01-01

    Objective] The aim was to identify changes in a nematode community in response to crop rotation and to determine the appropriate catch crop for a green-house. [Method] The experiment was carried out in a typical 6-year-old greenhouse, in which cucumber crops were cultivated twice each year (in spring and autumn), and catch crops were planted in summer. The total number of nematodes was counted and nematode community indices were calculated after col ecting soil sam-ples in different stages. [Result] Total nematode abundance was decreased in the soils of catch crop in contrast with former crops (cucumber crops). The abundance of the nematode community was reduced in the treatment of crop rotation compared to the soils of catch crop. ln addition, the number of nematode taxa was significant-ly reduced by the treatment of crown daisy compared to the treatments of fol owing crops. Crop rotation regulated the functional composition of the nematode community by increasing the omnivores-predators functional group and decreasing the relative abundance of root herbivores. [Conclusion] These results indicate that crop rotation affects the nematode community in abundance, diversity and functional composition of the nematode community and crown daisy can be served as the most appropri-ate catch crop in the greenhouse.

  4. Can non-inversion tillage and straw retainment reduce N leaching in cereal based crop rotations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elly Møller; Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Melander, Bo;

    2010-01-01

    drilling, or ploughing to 20 cm. The hypothesis was that (i) decreasing soil tillage intensity would decrease leaching compared to ploughing, (ii) leaving straw in the field would decrease leaching compared to removing straw, and (iii) a spring/winter crop rotation with catch crops would be more efficient...... would have been bare soil in autumn and winter. The spring/winter crop rotation with catch crops was not found to be more efficient in reducing nitrate leaching than the winter crop rotation. In contrast, in a single year the winter crop rotation showed significantly lower leaching than the spring...

  5. Crop rotation and crop management effects on cereal yields in arable organic farming in Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    J. E. Olesen; Askegaard, M.; Rasmussen, I. A.; K. Kristensen

    2011-01-01

    One of the main challenges in organic crop production is to ensure high and stable crop yields. In this study we used data from a 12 year old crop rotation experiment in Denmark to estimate the contribution of various management factors to yields of winter and spring cereals. The experiment included three factors in two replicates: 1) Grass-clover green manure crop (with and without), 2) catch crop (with and without), and 3) animal manure (with and without). Animal manure was the most importa...

  6. Crop yield, root growth, and nutrient dynamics in a conventional and three organic cropping systems with different levels of external inputs and N re-cycling through fertility building crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian; Dresbøll, Dorte Bodin; Kristensen, Hanne Lakkenborg

    2012-01-01

    systems based on fertility building crops (green manures and catch crops). In short, the main distinctions were not observed between organic and conventional systems (i.e. C vs. O1, O2 and O3), but between systems based mainly on nutrient import vs. systems based mainly on fertility building crops (C...

  7. New Compound catches more thrips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van R.W.H.M.; Kogel, de W.J.; Teulon, D.

    2007-01-01

    An odour to attract western flower thrips, as well as onion thrips, has been tested successfully, resulting in a new patented product to improve the monitoring and application of integrated pest management. Thrips is an important pest that affects many different crops and causes direct feeding damag

  8. School students "Catch a Star"!

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    School students from across Europe and beyond have won prizes in an astronomy competition, including the trip of a lifetime to one of the world's most powerful astronomical observatories, on a mountaintop in Chile. ESO, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, together with the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE), has just announced the winners of the 2007 "Catch a Star!" competition. ESO PR Photo 21/07 "Catch a Star!" is an international astronomy competition for school students, in which students are invited to 'become astronomers' and explore the Universe. The competition includes two categories for written projects on astronomical themes, to ensure that every student, whatever their level, has the chance to enter and win exciting prizes. For the artistically minded, "Catch a Star!" also includes an astronomy-themed artwork competition. Students from 22 countries submitted hundreds of written projects and pieces of artwork. "The standard of entries was most impressive, and made the jury's task of choosing winners both enjoyable and difficult! We hope that everyone, whether or not they won a prize, had fun taking part, and learnt some exciting things about our Universe", said Douglas Pierce-Price, Education Officer at ESO. The top prize, of a week-long trip to Chile to visit the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) on Paranal, was won by students Jan Mestan and Jan Kotek from Gymnazium Pisek in the Czech Republic, together with their teacher Marek Tyle. Their report on "Research and Observation of the Solar Eclipse" told how they had studied solar eclipses, and involved their fellow students in observations of an eclipse from their school in 2006. The team will travel to Chile and visit the ESO VLT - one of the world's most powerful optical/infrared telescopes - where they will meet astronomers and be present during a night of observations on the 2600m high Paranal mountaintop. "It's fantastic that we will see the

  9. Catch reconstructions reveal that global marine fisheries catches are higher than reported and declining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Daniel; Zeller, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Fisheries data assembled by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) suggest that global marine fisheries catches increased to 86 million tonnes in 1996, then slightly declined. Here, using a decade-long multinational 'catch reconstruction' project covering the Exclusive Economic Zones of the world's maritime countries and the High Seas from 1950 to 2010, and accounting for all fisheries, we identify catch trajectories differing considerably from the national data submitted to the FAO. We suggest that catch actually peaked at 130 million tonnes, and has been declining much more strongly since. This decline in reconstructed catches reflects declines in industrial catches and to a smaller extent declining discards, despite industrial fishing having expanded from industrialized countries to the waters of developing countries. The differing trajectories documented here suggest a need for improved monitoring of all fisheries, including often neglected small-scale fisheries, and illegal and other problematic fisheries, as well as discarded bycatch.

  10. Soil properties, crop production and greenhouse gas emissions from organic and inorganic fertilizer-based arable cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chirinda, Ngonidzashe; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind; Porter, John Roy;

    2010-01-01

    crops, respectively. Nevertheless, SOC levels in 2008 were similar across systems. The cumulative soil respiration for the period February to August 2008 ranged between 2 and 3 t CO2–C ha-1 and was correlated (r = 0.95) with average C inputs. In the organic cropping systems, pig slurry application...... and inclusion of catch crops generally increased soil respiration, PMN and PAO. At field capacity, relative gas diffusivity at 0–5 cm depth was >50% higher in the organic than the inorganic fertilizer-based system (P Crop yields in 2008 were generally lower in the low-input organic rotations than......Organic and conventional farming practices differ in the use of several management strategies, including use of catch crops, green manure, and fertilization, which may influence soil properties, greenhouse gas emissions and productivity of agroecosystems. An 11-yr-old field experiment on a sandy...

  11. Global marine primary production constrains fisheries catches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassot, Emmanuel; Bonhommeau, Sylvain; Dulvy, Nicholas K; Mélin, Frédéric; Watson, Reg; Gascuel, Didier; Le Pape, Olivier

    2010-04-01

    Primary production must constrain the amount of fish and invertebrates available to expanding fisheries; however the degree of limitation has only been demonstrated at regional scales to date. Here we show that phytoplanktonic primary production, estimated from an ocean-colour satellite (SeaWiFS), is related to global fisheries catches at the scale of Large Marine Ecosystems, while accounting for temperature and ecological factors such as ecosystem size and type, species richness, animal body size, and the degree and nature of fisheries exploitation. Indeed we show that global fisheries catches since 1950 have been increasingly constrained by the amount of primary production. The primary production appropriated by current global fisheries is 17-112% higher than that appropriated by sustainable fisheries. Global primary production appears to be declining, in some part due to climate variability and change, with consequences for the near future fisheries catches.

  12. Nitrate leaching from organic arable crop rotations is mostly determined by autumn field management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askegaard, M; Olesen, Jørgen E; Rasmussen, Ilse Ankjær;

    2011-01-01

    in the manured treatments the application rate was lower than crop demand. The results identify management of crop and soil during autumn as the main determinant of N leaching. Nitrate leaching was lowest for a catch crop soil cover during autumn and winter (avg. 20 kg N ha−1), a soil cover of weeds......Two main challenges facing organic arable farming are the supply of nitrogen (N) to the crop and the control of perennial weeds. Nitrate leaching from different organic arable crop rotations was investigated over three consecutive four-year crop rotations in a field experiment at three locations...... in Denmark (12 years in total). The experimental treatments were: (i) crop rotation, (ii) catch crop and (iii) animal manure. Nitrate leaching was estimated from measured soil nitrate concentration in ceramic suction cells and modelled drainage. There were significant effects on annual N leaching of location...

  13. Improving electrofishing catch consistency by standardizing power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Randy W.; Gutreuter, Steve

    1995-01-01

    The electrical output of electrofishing equipment is commonly standardized by using either constant voltage or constant amperage, However, simplified circuit and wave theories of electricity suggest that standardization of power (wattage) available for transfer from water to fish may be critical for effective standardization of electrofishing. Electrofishing with standardized power ensures that constant power is transferable to fish regardless of water conditions. The in situ performance of standardized power output is poorly known. We used data collected by the interagency Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) in the upper Mississippi River system to assess the effectiveness of standardizing power output. The data consisted of 278 electrofishing collections, comprising 9,282 fishes in eight species groups, obtained during 1990 from main channel border, backwater, and tailwater aquatic areas in four reaches of the upper Mississippi River and one reach of the Illinois River. Variation in power output explained an average of 14.9% of catch variance for night electrofishing and 12.1 % for day electrofishing. Three patterns in catch per unit effort were observed for different species: increasing catch with increasing power, decreasing catch with increasing power, and no power-related pattern. Therefore, in addition to reducing catch variation, controlling power output may provide some capability to select particular species. The LTRMP adopted standardized power output beginning in 1991; standardized power output is adjusted for variation in water conductivity and water temperature by reference to a simple chart. Our data suggest that by standardizing electrofishing power output, the LTRMP has eliminated substantial amounts of catch variation at virtually no additional cost.

  14. Capture of non-target flies (Diptera: Lauxaniidae, Chloropidae, Anthomyiidae) on traps baited with volatile chemicals in field crop habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volatile chemicals increased trap catch of flies from the families Lauxaniidae [Homoneura bispina (Loew) and Camptoprosopella borealis Shewell], Chloropidae (Olcella sp.) and Anthomyiidae (Delia spp.) in field crops. With cotton rolls as dispensers, baiting with 2-phenylethanol increased catch of H...

  15. Liberal Arts Catch-Up Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyder, John

    2014-01-01

    This paper replicates the work of Giles and Drewes from the 1990s. They showed a catch-up effect whereby graduates of liberal arts undergraduate programs, although at an early-career disadvantage compared with graduates of applied programs, had higher incomes by mid-career. Working with the Panel 5 Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (2005-2010),…

  16. Hunting the Shadow, Catching the Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Anne Elisabeth; Nielsen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    From 28 October to 6 November 2009 twenty-one 3rd year students in interior design from Central Academy of Fine Arts (CAFA), School of Architecture, Beijing participated in the workshop Hunting the Shadow - Catching the Light. The workshop was conceived and led by the Danish architects Torben Nie...

  17. Catching up with the Future of Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    With most of the high-energy physics world on tenterhooks waiting for the startup of the Large Hadron Collider in Switzerland later this year, it's a good time to catch up (if you haven't already) on what all the excitement is about.

  18. Going Dutch : Catch-All Insider Trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenhuijsen, M.S.; Kristen, F.G.H.

    1999-01-01

    In the Netherlands new legislation has come into force in order to deal with insider trading. The legislator followed a new strategy. This time, instead of a provision with well-defined criteria, a sort of a catch all-provision was created. The aim was to avoid difficulties in proving the offence. A

  19. PyCatch: catchment modelling in the PCRaster framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karssenberg, Derek; Lana-Renault, Noemí; Schmitz, Oliver

    2015-04-01

    ), subsurface flow and surface water flow (kinematic wave). A number of components for modelling of water erosion have been implemented, providing capability to model water erosion largely following Modified Morgan-Morgan-Finney model equations (Morgan and Duzant 2008), soil creep, and bedrock weathering. PyCatch is built in a modular way, which makes it relatively easy to swap model components, for instance to compare different process representations, or to add new model components, for instance for modelling pollution transport or vegetation growth. By combining hydrological and land degradation components it can be used for landscape evolution modelling at geological time scales. It comes with all functionality offered by PCRaster and thus is capable of Monte Carlo simulation to calculate error propagation in models and Bayesian data assimilation. We would like to invite the modelling community to contribute to further development of PCRaster and PyCatch. References Morgan, R. P. C., and J. H. Duzant. 2008. Modified MMF (Morgan-Morgan-Finney) model for evaluating effects of crops and vegetation cover on soil erosion. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 33:90-106.

  20. Alternative crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surplus cereal production in the EEC and decreasing product prices, mainly for cereals, has prompted considerable interest for new earnings in arable farming. The objective was to examine whether suggested new crops (fibre, oil, medicinal and alternative grains crops) could be considered as real alternatives. Whether a specific crop can compete economically with cereals and whether there is a market demand for the crop is analyzed. The described possibilities will result in ca. 50,000 hectares of new crops. It is expected that they would not immediately provide increased earnings, but in the long run expected price developments are more positive than for cereals. The area for new crops will not solve the current surplus cereal problem as the area used for new crops is only 3% of that used for cereals. Preconditions for many new crops is further research activities and development work as well as the establishment of processing units and organizational initiatives. Presumably, it is stated, there will then be a basis for a profitable production of new crops for some farmers. (AB) (47 refs.)

  1. Catch bond mechanism in Dynein motor driven collective transport

    CERN Document Server

    Nair, Anil; Mitra, Mithun K; Muhuri, Sudipto; Chaudhuri, Abhishek

    2016-01-01

    Recent experiments have demonstrated that dynein motor exhibits catch bonding behaviour, in which the unbinding rate of a single dynein decreases with increasing force, for a certain range of force. Motivated by these experiments, we propose a model for catch bonding in dynein using a threshold force bond deformation (TFBD) model wherein catch bonding sets in beyond a critical applied load force. We study the effect of catch bonding on unidirectional transport properties of cellular cargo carried by multiple dynein motors within the framework of this model. We find catch bonding can result in dramatic changes in the transport properties, which are in sharp contrast to kinesin driven unidirectional transport, where catch bonding is absent. We predict that, under certain conditions, the average velocity of the cellular cargo can actually increase as applied load is increased. We characterize the transport properties in terms of a velocity profile phase plot in the parameter space of the catch bond strength and ...

  2. Crop Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of crop biotechnology on outcomes of agricultural practices and economics is readily evidenced by the escalating acreage of genetically engineered crops, all occurring in a relatively short time span. Until the mid 1990s, virtually no acreage was planted with commercial genetically mo...

  3. Grass-clover undersowing affects nitrogen dynamics in a grain legume–cereal arable cropping system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Mundus, Simon; Jensen, Erik Steen

    2012-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out in an arable organic cropping system and included a sequence with sole cropped fababean (Vicia faba L.), lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.), pea (Pisum sativum L.), oat (Avena sativa L.) and pea–oat intercropping with or without an undersown perennial ryegrass...... N2 fixation and 15N labeling technique to determine the fate of pea and oat residue N recovery in the subsequent crop. The subsequent spring wheat and winter triticale crop yields were not significantly affected by the previous main crop, but a significant effect of catch crop undersowing...

  4. Vision Algorithms Catch Defects in Screen Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Andrew Watson, a senior scientist at Ames Research Center, developed a tool called the Spatial Standard Observer (SSO), which models human vision for use in robotic applications. Redmond, Washington-based Radiant Zemax LLC licensed the technology from NASA and combined it with its imaging colorimeter system, creating a powerful tool that high-volume manufacturers of flat-panel displays use to catch defects in screens.

  5. Impacts of crop rotations on soil organic carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobin, Anne; Vos, Johan; Joris, Ingeborg; Van De Vreken, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    Agricultural land use and crop rotations can greatly affect the amount of carbon sequestered in the soil. We developed a framework for modelling the impacts of crop rotations on soil carbon sequestration at the field scale with test case Flanders. A crop rotation geo-database was constructed covering 10 years of crop rotation in Flanders using the IACS parcel registration (Integrated Administration and Control System) to elicit the most common crop rotation on major soil types in Flanders. In order to simulate the impact of crop cover on carbon sequestration, the Roth-C model was adapted to Flanders' environment and coupled to common crop rotations extracted from the IACS geodatabases and statistical databases on crop yield. Crop allometric models were used to calculate crop residues from common crops in Flanders and subsequently derive stable organic matter fluxes to the soil (REGSOM). The REGSOM model was coupled to Roth-C model was run for 30 years and for all combinations of seven main arable crops, two common catch crops and two common dosages of organic manure. The common crops are winter wheat, winter barley, sugar beet, potato, grain maize, silage maize and winter rapeseed; the catch crops are yellow mustard and Italian ryegrass; the manure dosages are 35 ton/ha cattle slurry and 22 ton/ha pig slurry. Four common soils were simulated: sand, loam, sandy loam and clay. In total more than 2.4 million simulations were made with monthly output of carbon content for 30 years. Results demonstrate that crop cover dynamics influence carbon sequestration for a very large percentage. For the same rotations carbon sequestration is highest on clay soils and lowest on sandy soils. Crop residues of grain maize and winter wheat followed by catch crops contribute largely to the total carbon sequestered. This implies that agricultural policies that impact on agricultural land management influence soil carbon sequestration for a large percentage. The framework is therefore

  6. Capture of Nontarget Flies (Diptera: Lauxaniidae, Chloropidae, and Anthomyiidae on Traps Baited with Volatile Chemicals in Field-Crop Habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis S. Hesler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile chemicals increased trap catch of flies from the families Lauxaniidae [Homoneura bispina (Loew and Camptoprosopella borealis Shewell], Chloropidae (Olcella sp., and Anthomyiidae (Delia spp. in field crops. With lauxaniids, baiting with 2-phenylethanol on cotton-roll dispensers increased catch of H. bispina in two corn plot tests, and methyl salicylate increased trap catch in one test. Traps baited with methyl salicylate increased the catch of C. borealis. When using plastic-sachet dispensers, traps baited with methyl salicylate caught more H. bispina than ones baited with 2-phenylethanol, whereas traps baited with 2-phenylethanol caught more C. borealis than those with methyl salicylate. For chloropids, traps baited with 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine greatly increased catch of Olcella flies in corn and soybean. With anthomyiids, catch of male Delia flies in wheat increased with 2-phenylethanol on cotton rolls and with either 2-phenylethanol or methyl salicylate using plastic dispensers. In soybean, 2-phenylethanol formulated on cotton rolls or in plastic dispensers increased catch of male Delia flies, but methyl salicylate did not affect trap catch. Trap catch of female Delia flies did not vary among chemicals. In another test in soybean, trap catch of both male and female Delia flies was greater with 2-phenylethanol than with other volatile chemicals.

  7. Does recreational catch impact the TAC for commercial fisheries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Margit; Strehlow, H. V.; Adams, C. M.;

    2015-01-01

    The western Baltic cod is one of the first fish stocks in Europe that, since 2013, includes recreational catches in stock assessment and fisheries management advice. In this paper, we investigate the sensitivity of the calculated commercial total allowable catch (TAC) to including recreational...... catches in stock assessment. Our results show that the most crucial aspect in terms of the impact on commercial TAC is the assumption on recreational catch dynamics relative to that of commercial fisheries used in forecast. The results were less sensitive to the information on the historical amount...... and age structure of recreational catch. Our study is intended to inform potential debates related to resource allocation between the commercial and recreational sectors and contribute to developing a general framework for incorporating recreational catches in fisheries management advice in ICES...

  8. Catch tanks inhibitor addition 200-East and 200-West Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reported is the study of 11 catch tanks in the 200-East Area and the 7 catch tanks in the 200-West Area listed as active. The location, capacity, material of construction, annual total accumulation, annual rain intrusion, waste transfer rate, and access for chemical injection in these tanks are documented. The present and future utilization and isolation plans for the catch tanks are established

  9. A probability-based approach to setting annual catch levels.

    OpenAIRE

    Shertzer, Kyle W.; Prager, Michael H.; Williams, Erik H.

    2008-01-01

    The requirement of setting annual catch limits to prevent overfishing has been added to the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Reauthorization Act of 2006 (MSRA). Because this requirement is new, a body of applied scientific practice for deriving annual catch limits and accompanying targets does not yet exist. This article demonstrates an approach to setting levels of catch that is intended to keep the probability of future overfishing at a preset low level. The proposed fra...

  10. Catching up from early nutritional deficits? : evidence from rural Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Outes-Leon, Ingo; Porter, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    We examine the nutritional status of a cohort of poor Ethiopian children and their patterns of catch-up growth in height-for-age between three key development stages: age one, five and eight. We use ordinary least squares (within community) and instrumental variables analysis. During the earliest period, we find that nutritional catch-up patterns vary substantially across socioeconomic groups: average catch-up growth in height-for-age is almost perfect among children in relatively better-off ...

  11. Ethical Concern in Joseph Heller’s Catch-22

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAN Yu-jing

    2015-01-01

    In Catch-22, Joseph Heller shows his ethical concern behind absurdity, which is manifested from his attitude toward individualism and utilitarianism, religious belief, sexual promiscuity, interpersonal relationship, etc.

  12. What's the catch? Validity of whaling data for Japanese catches of sperm whales in the North Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Ivashchenko, Yulia V.; Clapham, Phillip J.

    2015-01-01

    The failure of international efforts to manage commercial whaling was exemplified by revelations of large-scale illegal whale catches by the USSR over a 30 year period following World War II. Falsifications of catch data have also been reported for Japanese coastal whaling, but to date there has been no investigation of the reliability of catch statistics for Japanese pelagic (factory fleet) whaling operations. Here, we use data of known reliability from Soviet whaling industry reports to sho...

  13. Canaryseed Crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Cogliatti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Canaryseed (Phalaris canariensis L. is a graminaceous crop species with production practices and cycle similar to those of other winter cereal crops such as spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and oat (Avena sativa L.. Currently its grains are used almost exclusively as feed for birds, alone or mixed with other grains like millet, sunflower seed, and flaxseed. Canaryseed is a genuine cereal with a unique composition that suggests its potential for food use. P. canariensis is cultivated in many areas of temperate climates. Currently, its production is concentrated in the southwestern provinces of Canada (Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba and on a smaller scale in Argentina, Thailand and Australia. Globally it is considered to be a minor crop with regional relevance, with a production about of 250000 tonnes per year, which restricts private investment and public research on its genetic and technological improvement. For this reason, the type of crop management that is applied to this species largely depends on innovations made in other similar crops. This work provides an updated summary of the available information on the species: its requirements, distribution, genetic resources, cultivation practices, potential uses, marketing and other topics of interest to researchers and producers.

  14. Catching the wave at its crest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenke, R

    1995-09-01

    Leland Kaiser, PhD, a long-time member of the ACPE faculty, describes opportunities in terms of surfers. Many smaller and insignificant waves will appear before the surfer senses "the big one." The knowledgeable and skilled surfer will distinguish these small waves (mere fads in management terms) from the real one (a significant trend for the medical manager). If the surfer catches the big wave before its crest, there is a formidable danger of being too far in front and being crushed by it. If the surfer misjudges the wave and starts behind the crest, the wave will leave the surfer behind. It is only by catching the wave at or near its crest that the surfer has a chance for a long and exciting ride. And, of course, even having judged the wave perfectly, there is no guarantee of success. The surfer must still use his or her skills with daring and precision if the ride is to end in the calmer waters of the shore and not in the toss and tumble of a spill. PMID:10161232

  15. Globalization, nation-state and catching up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Bresser-Pereira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Globalization and nation-states are not in contradiction, since globalization is the present stage of capitalist development, and the nation-state is the territorial political unit that organizes the space and population in the capitalist system. Since the 1980s, Global Capitalism constitutes the economic system characterized by the opening of all national markets and a fierce competition between nation-states. Developing countries tend to catch up, while rich countries try to neutralize such competitive effort, using globalism as an ideology, and conventional orthodoxy as a strategy. Middle-income countries that are catching up in the realm of globalization are the ones that count with a national development strategy. This is broadly the case of the dynamic Asian countries. In contrast, Latin American countries have no longer their own strategy, and grow less. To add data to the argument, the author conducts an econometric test comparing these two groups of countries, and three variables: the rate of investment, the current account deficit or surplus that would indicate or not a competitive exchange rate, and public deficit.

  16. Cereal yield and quality as affected by N availability in organic and conventional crop rotations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doltra, Jordi; Lægdsmand, Mette; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2011-01-01

    systems. Scenario analyses conducted with the FASSET model indicated the possibility of increasing N fertilization without significantly affecting N leaching if there is an adequate catch crop management. This would also improve yields of cereal production of organic farming in Denmark......The effects of nitrogen (N) availability related to fertilizer type, catch crop management, and rotation composition on cereal yield and grain N were investigated in four organic and one conventional cropping systems in Denmark using the FASSET model. The four-year rotation studied was: spring...... loamy soil. DM yield and grain N content were mainly influenced by the type and amount of fertilizer-N at all three locations. Although a catch crop benefit in terms of yield and grain N was observed in most of the cases, a limited N availability affected the cereal production in the four organic...

  17. Social Cultural Data - Social Impacts of Catch Shares in the West Coast Groundfish Fishery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Catch shares are one method of catch allocation utilized by fisheries managers in the United States West Coast groundfish fishery. Catch share management results in...

  18. Trap catches of the sweetpotato whitefly (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) in the Imperial Valley, California, from 1996 to 2002

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG-CHI CHU; EDWARD BARNES; ERIC T. NATWICK; TIAN-YE CHEN; DAVID RITTER; THOMAS J. HENNEBERRY

    2007-01-01

    An outbreak of the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), biotype B occurred in the Imperial Valley, California in 1991. The insects destroyed melon crops and seriously damaged other vegetables, ornamentals and row crops. As a result of the need for sampling technology, we developed a whitefly trap (named the CC trap) that could be left in the field for extended time periods. We used the traps to monitor populations of B. tabaci adults during year-round samplings from 1996 to 2002 to study variations in the weekly trap catches of the insect. The greatest number of B. tabaci adults was recorded in 1996, followed by a continuing annual decrease in trap catches each year through 2002. The overall decline of B. tabaci is attributed in part to the adoption of an integrated pest management (IPM) program initiated in 1992 and reduced melon hectares from 1996 to 2002. Other factors may also have contributed to the population reductions. Seasonally, B. tabaci trap catches decreased during the late summer and fall concurrent with decreasing minimum temperatures that are suggested to be a significant factor affecting seasonal activity and reproduction.

  19. Weed control through crop rotation and alternative management practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Böhm, Herwart

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Economic as well as agricultural and socio-political changes have an impact on crop management and thus also on crop rotation design and the related effects on the weed flora. Likewise other changes in cultivation such as reduced tillage practices, earlier sowing date, etc. cause an increase in weed infestation resp. an increased use of herbicides and if so contribute to herbicide resistance. The positive effects of crop rotation, but also of alternative management practices such as choice of varieties, catch crops, mixed cropping, green chop, and the share of predators, as well as methods of direct non-chemical weed control are presented and discussed for both, conventional and organic farming. If alternative management methods should be more practiced, especially trade-offs need to be broken, or incentives be offered.

  20. Precordial Catch Syndrome in Elite Swimmers With Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Don; Younger, Bradley R; Mansour, Heidi M; Strawbridge, Heather

    2016-02-01

    Precordial catch syndrome is a benign cause of chest pain in children and adolescents that remains underrecognized. Because of distinctive symptoms, precordial catch syndrome is not necessarily a diagnosis of exclusion. However, a detailed history eliciting diagnostic features is important, along with a physical examination excluding other pathologic disorders. We present the cases of 2 elite swimmers with asthma who had acute episodes of precordial catch syndrome, one associated with an acute asthma exacerbation and one not, while swimming during competitive swim meets that required rescue efforts for both and eventual evaluation in the emergency department. PMID:26835568

  1. Environmental and physiological variables during the catching of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ML de V Queiroz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the critical points of the operation of broiler catching for transport to the processing plant from animal and operational perspectives. During catching, chickens, environmental variables (temperature and relative humidity were constantly monitored to determine the Enthalpy Comfort Index (IEC. Also, the physiological variable rectal temperature (RT was monitored as an indicator of stress suffered by the birds during this handling procedure. Bird welfare were evaluated by analyzing their behavior. The bag method was effective to prevent the struggling of birds while being taken from the broiler house to the transport truck, reducing physical injuries and losses during catching.

  2. Emissions of nitrous oxide from arable organic and conventional cropping systems on two soil types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chirinda, N.; Carter, Mette Sustmann; Albert, Kristian Rost;

    2010-01-01

    . The main objective of this study was to compare nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from soil under winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) within three organic and one conventional cropping system that differed in type of fertilizer, presence of catch crops and proportion of N2-fixing crops. The study.......056). A positive effect (P = 0.03) of soil temperature was identified at Flakkebjerg, but the number of soil samplings was limited. Effects of cropping system on N2O emissions were not observed....

  3. Catch Composition of Tsetse Flies (Glossina: Glossinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Okoh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: A study to determine the composition of tsetse flies species was conducted between January and December, 2007 in Kamuku National Park, Nigeria, using Biconical and Nitse traps. Tsetse flies were trapped along gallery forest in five streams for two trapping days and were collected daily. Approach: All tsetse flies caught were identified to species level, sexed, separated into teneral and non-teneral, hunger staged and Mean Hunger Stage computed. Fly density were calculated, the age structure examined using wing fray techniques for males and ovarian technique for females; the reproductive status of female flies were assessed. Two species of tsetse flies (Glossina palpalis palpalis robineau-desvoidy and Glossina tachinoides Westwood were caught in total of five hundred and two (502 flies. Out of these, 309(61.6% Glossina tachinoides and 193(38.4% G. palpalis were caught. Male catches (309, 61.6% were significantly (P Results: The estimated mean age for males was 11 days and females were 8 days. The insemination rate of 93.8% generally was high, G. tachinoides recorded 95.5% more than G. palpalis of 91.6%. Whereas parity rate (25.8% was low; G. palpalis was 37.4% while G. tachinoides parity rate is 17.2%. Conclusion: The study shows that two species of tsetse flies abound in the park although at low densities their presence may bear semblance to Trypanosomiasis and its impact to ecotourism.

  4. FISH CATCH IN THE AREA OF STRUGA COUNTY 1986 - 1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simo Georgiev

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents data and analysis of the fish catch in the part of the lake of Ohrid under the concession of »Letnica« company from Struga in the period from 1986 to 1997. There are general tendencies of total catch decrease on one side, and great catch fluctuations of particular fish species in particular years. In the year 1988 a catch of 102 tons was recorded, while in 1997 only 26 tons were caught. All this indicates that this part of this biotop* and ecosystem of exclusive geographic, hydrographic, ecological, biological, taxonomic-evolutionary, phytogeographic, zoogeographic, ichthyologic and on its coasts cultural-civilisatory characteristics has not been managed reasonably.

  5. EMNE Catch-up Strategies in the Wind Turbine Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awate, Snehal; Larsen, Marcus M.; Mudambi, Ram

    2012-01-01

    Emerging economy multinationals (EMNEs) are catching up with advanced economy MNEs (AMNEs) even in emerging, high technology industries, where their knowledge-based disadvantages are most severe. We explain this phenomenon by distinguishing between output and innovation capabilities. Successful...

  6. Does load uncertainty affect adaptation to catch training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, William P; Richards, Brian J; Hannigan, Aaron M; Biller, Kelsey L; Hughes, Michael R

    2016-09-01

    Catching relies on anticipatory and compensatory control processes. Load uncertainty increases anticipatory and compensatory neuromotor effort in catching. This experiment tested the effect of load uncertainty in plyometric catch/throw training on elbow flexion reaction time (RT), movement time (MT) and peak torque, as well as the distribution of anticipatory and compensatory neuromotor effort in catching. We expected load uncertainty training to be superior to traditional training for improving elbow flexion MT and peak torque, as well as for reallocating neuromotor effort from compensatory to anticipatory control in catching. Three groups of men (mean age = 21), load knowledge training (K) (n = 14), load uncertainty training (U) (n = 13) and control (C) (n = 14), participated. Groups K and U trained three times/week for 6 weeks using single-arm catch/throw exercises with 0.45-4.08 kg balls. Sets involved 16 repetitions of four different ball masses presented randomly. Group K had knowledge of ball mass on every repetition, whereas group U never did. Change scores were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis tests and follow-up Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. Group K improved both RT and MT (by 6.2 and 12 %, respectively), whereas group U did not. Both groups K and U improved peak eccentric elbow flexion torque. Group K reallocated neuromotor effort from compensatory to anticipatory processes in the biceps, triceps and the all muscle average, whereas group U did so in the triceps only. In sum, plyometric catch/throw training caused a reallocation of neuromotor effort from compensatory to anticipatory control in catching. However, load uncertainty training did not amplify this effect and in fact appeared to inhibit the reallocation of neuromotor effort from compensatory to anticipatory control.

  7. Influence of Previous Crop on Durum Wheat Yield and Yield Stability in a Long-term Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Stellacci

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Long-term experiments are leading indicators of sustainability and serve as an early warning system to detect problems that may compromise future productivity. So the stability of yield is an important parameter to be considered when judging the value of a cropping system relative to others. In a long-term rotation experiment set up in 1972 the influence of different crop sequences on the yields and on yield stability of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. was studied. The complete field experiment is a split-split plot in a randomized complete block design with two replications; the whole experiment considers three crop sequences: 1 three-year crop rotation: sugar-beet, wheat + catch crop, wheat; 2 one-year crop rotation: wheat + catch crop; 3 wheat continuous crop; the split treatments are two different crop residue managements; the split-split plot treatments are 18 different fertilization formulas. Each phase of every crop rotation occurred every year. In this paper only one crop residue management and only one fertilization treatment have been analized. Wheat crops in different rotations are coded as follows: F1: wheat after sugar-beet in three-year crop rotation; F2: wheat after wheat in three-year crop rotation; Fc+i: wheat in wheat + catch crop rotation; Fc: continuous wheat. The following two variables were analysed: grain yield and hectolitre weight. Repeated measures analyses of variance and stability analyses have been perfomed for the two variables. The stability analysis was conducted using: three variance methods, namely the coefficient of variability of Francis and Kannenberg, the ecovalence index of Wricke and the stability variance index of Shukla; the regression method of Eberhart and Russell; a method, proposed by Piepho, that computes the probability of one system outperforming another system. It has turned out that each of the stability methods used has enriched of information the simple variance analysis. The Piepho

  8. Crop production and N leaching in arable organic farming

    OpenAIRE

    Olesen, Jørgen E.; Askegaard, Margrethe; Rasmussen, Ilse A.

    2003-01-01

    The possibilities for increasing grain yields and reducing N leaching losses in organic ce-real production through manipulation of crop rotation design were investigated in a field experiment on different soil types in Denmark from 1997 to 2000. Three experimental fac-tors were included in the experiment in a factorial design: 1) proportion of grass-clover and pulses in the rotation, 2) catch crop (with and without), and 3) manure (with and with-out). Three four-course rotations were compared...

  9. Catch, effort and bycatch of longline fishery in central Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Ayala

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study is to report some characteristics of fishing trips, effort, catches, fishing areas and bycatch through observations on board and logbooks. 85% of sets were in the first 574 Km of distance from the coast (309 nautical miles. Farthest set was located at 1320 Km (712 nautical miles. A total of 382000 hooks were used to catch Mahi mahi, in 224 sets and 29 fishing trips, 94.6% of catch was Mahi mahi, 2.7% blue shark (Prionace glauca y 1,3% mako shark (Isurus oxyrinchus. Also, 103790 hooks were used to catch sharks, in 109 sets y 12 trips, 81.9% of catch was blue sharks and 16.8% mako sharks. Catch per Unit of Effort (CPUE for Mahi mahi shows significative difference among seasons; with a peak from November to January. CPUE for shark shows significative difference among seasons, with peaks in September and October. The Green turtle Chelonia mydas agassizii was the most caugth species and two of three were juveniles. All Loggerhead turtles, Caretta caretta, caught were juveniles. A petrel is reported as bycatch and, probably, mammal bycatch is scarce. Considering the huge effort of this fishery, it is important to monitor it and establish management actions.

  10. The effects of cropping systems on selenium and glucosinolate concentrations in vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Stavridou, Eleftheria

    2011-01-01

    Selenium (Se) and glucosinolates has been found to have beneficial effects for human health. The most common way to increase Se and glucosinolates in plants is through using inorganic fertilizers however, concerns over environmental contamination by fertilizers increased the demand for sustainable produced foods. Thus, the aim of this project was to evaluate the efficiency of different crop management strategies (catch crops, intercropping) to increase Se and glucosinolates concentrations in ...

  11. IMPROVEMENT OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CATCHING SEEDS WITH DOSING ELEMENTS OF THE SOWING MACHINE OF A PRECISION DRILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesmiyan A. Y.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We have special demands to the planting of the tilled crops. Unlike grain crops, the tilled crops are sowed in a line with the certain step, which permits to provide the rational placing of the plants on the feeding areas. Due to this, the necessary conditions were made for their further growth and getting of big crops. For planting of the tilled crops all over the world people apply pneumatic precision drills with vacuum seed-sowing mechanisms and the quality of realization of the operation depends on their work greatly. The process of work of the vacuum seed-sowing mechanism can be divided on basic stage, the process of catching a single seed and carrying it out of the layer of the others with the drawing hole is the most responsible among them. The analyses of the work which has been done let conclude that the influence of the agitator on the layer of the seeds in the zone of their catching with the drawing holes increases the efficiency of this process. With an aim of the activation of the working process of the central agitator the authors offer to make its blades in such a way that their working sides would be turned in the direction of rotation of the agitator and the plane of the feed disk. All this let use the agitator not only for activation of the layer of seeds but for their push to the drawing holes of the feed disk. The proof of the offered construction is presented in the article, the results of the comparative experimental researches of the serial and the modernized vacuum seed-sowing mechanisms and the analyses of obtained data are shown, conclusions have been formulated

  12. Mitigating by-catch of diamondback terrapins in crab pots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Kristen M.; Crowder, Larry B.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic by-catch of diamondback terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin) in blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) pots is a concern for terrapin conservation along the United States Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts. Despite the availability of by-catch reduction devices (BRDs) for crab pots, adoption of BRDs has not been mandated and by-catch of terrapins continues. We conducted experimental fishing studies in North Carolina's year-round blue crab fishery from 2000 to 2004 to evaluate the ability of various BRDs to reduce terrapin by-catch without a concomitant reduction in the catch of blue crabs. In 4,822 crab pot days fished, we recorded only 21 terrapin captures. Estimated capture rates were 0.003 terrapins/pot per day in hard crab experimental fishing and 0.008 terrapins/pot per day in peeler experimental fishing. All terrapin captures occurred from April to mid-May within 321.4 m of the shoreline. Longer soak times produced more dead terrapins, with 4 live and 4 dead during hard crab experimental fishing and 11 live and 2 dead during peeler experimental fishing. The 4.0-cm BRDs in fall and 4.5-cm and 5.0-cm BRDs in spring reduced the catch of legal-sized male hard crabs by 26.6%, 21.2%, and 5.7%, respectively. Only the 5.0-cm BRDs did not significantly affect the catch of legal-sized hard male crabs. However, BRDs had no measurable effect on catch of target crabs in the peeler crab fishery. Our results identify 3 complementary and economically feasible tools for blue crab fishery managers to exclude terrapins from commercially fished crab pots in North Carolina: 1) gear modifications (e.g., BRDs); 2) distance-to-shore restrictions; and 3) time-of-year regulations. These measures combined could provide a reduction in terrapin by-catch of up to 95% without a significant reduction in target crab catch.

  13. Signature of ocean warming in global fisheries catch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, William W L; Watson, Reg; Pauly, Daniel

    2013-05-16

    Marine fishes and invertebrates respond to ocean warming through distribution shifts, generally to higher latitudes and deeper waters. Consequently, fisheries should be affected by 'tropicalization' of catch (increasing dominance of warm-water species). However, a signature of such climate-change effects on global fisheries catch has so far not been detected. Here we report such an index, the mean temperature of the catch (MTC), that is calculated from the average inferred temperature preference of exploited species weighted by their annual catch. Our results show that, after accounting for the effects of fishing and large-scale oceanographic variability, global MTC increased at a rate of 0.19 degrees Celsius per decade between 1970 and 2006, and non-tropical MTC increased at a rate of 0.23 degrees Celsius per decade. In tropical areas, MTC increased initially because of the reduction in the proportion of subtropical species catches, but subsequently stabilized as scope for further tropicalization of communities became limited. Changes in MTC in 52 large marine ecosystems, covering the majority of the world's coastal and shelf areas, are significantly and positively related to regional changes in sea surface temperature. This study shows that ocean warming has already affected global fisheries in the past four decades, highlighting the immediate need to develop adaptation plans to minimize the effect of such warming on the economy and food security of coastal communities, particularly in tropical regions.

  14. A simple statistical method for catch comparison studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, René; Revill, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    For analysing catch comparison data, we propose a simple method based on Generalised Linear Mixed Models (GLMM) and use polynomial approximations to fit the proportions caught in the test codend. The method provides comparisons of fish catch at length by the two gears through a continuous curve...... with a realistic confidence band. We demonstrate the versatility of this method, on field data obtained from the first known testing in European waters of the Rhode Island (USA) 'Eliminator' trawl. These data are interesting as they include a range of species with different selective patterns. Crown Copyright (C...

  15. Biogas from ley crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the cost of producing biogas from energy crops. Five process systems, sized 0.25-8 MW are studied. The cultivation of biogas-crops is made in three regions in Sweden. Also valued are the positive cultivation effects obtained when cereal dominated crop rotation is broken by biogas crops. 8 refs, 40 figs, 10 tabs

  16. Multiple Peril Crop Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, William M.; Hofstrand, Donald

    2003-01-01

    Multiple Peril Crop Insurance (MPCI) is a broad-based crop insurance program regulated by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and subsidized by the Federal Crop Insurance Corporation(FCIC). Crops eligible for MPCI coverage in Iowa include corn, sobyeans, oats, wheat, seed corn, popcorn, barley, potatoes, sweet corn, canning beans, dry beans, forages, grain sorghum, green peas, tomatoes, and nursery stocks. Not all of these crops can be insured in all counties.

  17. 76 FR 21705 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Catch Accounting in the Longline Catcher...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    ... Alaska; Catch Accounting in the Longline Catcher/Processor Pacific Cod Fishery AGENCY: National Marine... Islands to support different catch accounting methods for Pacific cod catch. NMFS is considering...

  18. Emerging Technologies Look Deeper into the Eyes to Catch Signs of Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the eyes to catch signs of disease Emerging technologies look deeper into the eyes to catch signs ... to eye gazing Adaptive optics (AO) is one technology helping to overcome this problem. It deals with ...

  19. Comparing catch orientation among Minnesota walleye, northern pike, and bass anglers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.

    2013-01-01

    We compared the catch orientations of Minnesota walleye (Sander vitreus), northern pike (Esox lucius), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) anglers. Results were derived from 2009, 2010, and 2012 surveys of anglers targeting these different species. Consistent with previous research, we identified four dimensions of anglers’ catch orientation: (a) catching something, (b) catching big fish, (c) catching many fish, and (d) keeping fish. Walleye anglers were the most motivated to keep fish, while northern pike anglers were more oriented toward catching big fish. Largemouth bass anglers, and to a lesser extent smallmouth bass anglers, were also oriented toward catching big fish. Bass anglers reported the lowest interest in keeping fish. An orientation to keep fish was negatively related to more restrictive management actions, regardless of species. A stronger orientation to catch big fish was associated with support for increased harvest restrictions only for northern pike and smallmouth bass.

  20. 76 FR 14300 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Catch Sharing Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... 2011. The changes to the previous IPHC regulations (75 FR 13024, March 19, 2010) include: 1. New... offloaded. Non-substantive changes to the previous IPHC regulations include minor editorial and grammatical... changes to the CSP and recreational management measures for Area 2A (76 FR 2871). The final catch...

  1. Direct observation of catch bonds involving cell-adhesion molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Bryan T.; Long, Mian; Piper, James W.; Yago, Tadayuki; McEver, Rodger P.; Zhu, Cheng

    2003-05-01

    Bonds between adhesion molecules are often mechanically stressed. A striking example is the tensile force applied to selectin-ligand bonds, which mediate the tethering and rolling of flowing leukocytes on vascular surfaces. It has been suggested that force could either shorten bond lifetimes, because work done by the force could lower the energy barrier between the bound and free states (`slip'), or prolong bond lifetimes by deforming the molecules such that they lock more tightly (`catch'). Whereas slip bonds have been widely observed, catch bonds have not been demonstrated experimentally. Here, using atomic force microscopy and flow-chamber experiments, we show that increasing force first prolonged and then shortened the lifetimes of P-selectin complexes with P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1, revealing both catch and slip bond behaviour. Transitions between catch and slip bonds might explain why leukocyte rolling on selectins first increases and then decreases as wall shear stress increases. This dual response to force provides a mechanism for regulating cell adhesion under conditions of variable mechanical stress.

  2. China-United States Productivity Catch-Up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Paul Duo; Jefferson, Gary H.

    reduction function and find that the key drivers for the productivity convergence are the initial technology gap, increased R&D spending, firm’s ownership restructuring, and industry level entry-exit ratio, a measure of competitive dynamism. A key finding is that the catch-up dynamic entails the break out...

  3. Whole-rotation dry matter and nitrogen grain yields from the first course of an organic farming crop rotation experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Olesen, Jørgen E.; Rasmussen, Ilse Ankær; Askegaard, Margrethe; K. Kristensen

    2002-01-01

    The possibilities for increasing total grain yield in organic cereal production through manipulation of crop rotation design were investigated in a field experiment on different soil types in Denmark from 1997 to 2000. Three experimental factors were included in the experiment in a factorial design: 1) proportion of grass-clover and pulses in the rotation, 2) catch crop (with and without), and 3) manure (with and without). Three four-course rotations were compared. Two of the rotations had on...

  4. Deepening Thermocline Displaces Salmon Catch On The Oregon Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, C. S.; Lawson, P.

    2015-12-01

    Establishing a linkage between fish stock distributions and physical oceanography at a fine scale provides insights into the dynamic nature of near-shore ocean habitats. Characterization of habitat preferences adds to our understanding of the ecosystem, and may improve forecasts of distribution for harvest management. The Project CROOS (Collaborative Research on Oregon Ocean Salmon) Chinook salmon catch data set represents an unprecedented high-resolution record of catch location and depth, with associated in-situ temperature measurements and stock identification derived from genetic data. Here we connect this data set with physical ocean observations to gain understanding of how circulation affects salmon catch distributions. The CROOS observations were combined with remote and in situ observations of temperature, as well as a data assimilative regional ocean model that incorporates satellite and HF radar data. Across the CROOS data set, catch is primarily located within the upwelling front over the seamounts and reef structures associated with Heceta and Stonewall Banks along the shelf break. In late September of 2014 the anomalously warm "blob" began to arrive on the Oregon coast coincident with a strong downwelling event. At this time the thermocline deepened from 20 to 40 m, associated with a deepening of salmon catch depth. A cold "bulb" of water over Heceta Bank may have provided a thermal refuge for salmon during the initial onshore movement of the anomalously warm water. These observations suggest that a warming ocean, and regional warming events in particular, will have large effects on fish distributions at local and regional scales, in turn impacting fisheries.

  5. Factors affecting purse seine catches: an observer-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. TSITSIKA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 72 fi shing trips were carried out by fi shery scientists onboard a purse seiner in the Pagasitikos Gulf (Greece in an attempt to identify factors affecting total and individual species’ catches. As trawling is completely banned in the study area, purse seining is the main fi shing method. It was found that month, water depth and fi shing area affected total and Trachurus spp. catches of the purse seine fi shery, with month and water depth alone explaining 77.8% and 6.4% respectively of the total variation of the data. Signifi cant interactions observed indicate that the fl uctuations in total catches differed by month and fi shing area as well as fi shing area and water depth. Fishing area and water depth interaction were found to affect Trachurus spp. catches signifi cantly. Results also suggested that generalized linear modelling of the purse seine catches can be used to obtain representative abundance indices by reducing the observed variability. Fishery scientists’ onboard observations alongside fi sh market recordings during the same period confi rmed that each fi sher has developed an individual decision-making fi shing process. Fisher’s trip choice behaviour was found to be modulated by several factors, such as distance of fi shing grounds from the port, market demands (both in terms of species and market prices, weather conditions, alternative fi shing strategies, previously gathered information, economic pressure and personal skills. These fi ndings are discussed in the light of the need to incorporate additional quantitative information to stock abundance estimates if improved fi sheries management scenarios are to be advanced.

  6. Rapid shifts in catch composition in the artisanal Red Sea reef fisheries of Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsehaye, I.W.; Machiels, M.A.M.; Nagelkerke, L.A.J.

    2007-01-01

    Shifts in catch composition were registered in the Eritrean artisanal fisheries, which were launched into a renewed development after the end of the independence war in 1991. Our analysis of catch and effort data showed that total fishing effort as well as total annual catch increased more than two-

  7. 76 FR 7155 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Announcement of Billfish and Swordfish Catch Card Pilot...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... accuracy of recreational billfish and swordfish landings data, NMFS will pilot test a new catch card... pilot test a new catch card program in Puerto Rico in 2011. The program will be implemented by the...; Announcement of Billfish and Swordfish Catch Card Pilot Program for Puerto Rico AGENCY: National...

  8. 36 CFR 13.908 - Fishing limit of catch and in possession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... possession. 13.908 Section 13.908 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Preserve General Provisions § 13.908 Fishing limit of catch and in possession. The limit of catch per.... Possession of more than one day's limit of catch by one person at any one time is prohibited....

  9. Catch of small cetaceans at Pucusana Port, central Peru, during 1987

    OpenAIRE

    Van Waerebeek, K.; Reyes, J C

    1990-01-01

    The small cetacean catch by artisanal fishermen in Peru was the subject of a IUCN/UNEP project in 1985–1986. In a follow-up study during 1987 we monitored the port of Pucusana, on the central Peruvian coast, for 298 days. In order to estimate monthly and total annual catches, mean daily catch rates were calculated for each species, stratified by month. Total landed volume, catch seasonality and capture methods were compared to results of former years. For the four main species 1987 catch esti...

  10. Rainfed intensive crop systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jørgen E

    2014-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the importance of intensive cropping systems in contributing to the world supply of food and feed. The impact of climate change on intensive crop production systems is also discussed.......This chapter focuses on the importance of intensive cropping systems in contributing to the world supply of food and feed. The impact of climate change on intensive crop production systems is also discussed....

  11. Biogas production from energy crops and crop residues

    OpenAIRE

    Lehtomäki, Annimari

    2006-01-01

    The feasibility of utilising energy crops and crop residues in methane production through anaerobic digestion in boreal conditions was evaluated in this thesis. Potential boreal energy crops and crop residues were screened for their suitability for methane production, and the effects of harvest time and storage on the methane potential of crops was evaluated. Co-digestion of energy crops and crop residues with cow manure, as well as digestion of energy crops alone in batch leach bed reactors ...

  12. Conched out: Total reconstructed fisheries catches for the Turks and Caicos Islands uncover unsustainable resource usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylin eUlman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Turks and Caicos Islands’ total marine fisheries catches were estimated for 1950-2012 using a catch reconstruction approach, estimating all removals, including reported catch destined for export, and unreported domestic artisanal and subsistence catches. Total reconstructed catch for the period is approximately 2.8 times that reported by Turks and Caicos to the FAO, and 86% higher than the export-adjusted national reported baseline. The pattern of total catches (strong decline to 1970, followed by gradual increase differs distinctly from that shown by data reported to FAO. Reported landings show a steady increase from less than 1,000 t∙year-1 in the 1950s to around 6,000 t∙year-1 in the 2000s. In contrast, the total reconstructed catches suggest declines in total catches from around 20,000 t in 1950 to a low of about 5,000 t in 1970, before gradual increases to about 12 500 t·year-1 in the late 2000s. Major discrepancies between reported and reconstructed data are under-reported artisanal catches in the early decades (accounting for 86% of total catches, and the absence of subsistence catches (14% of total catches in reported data. Queen conch (Strombus gigas and Caribbean spiny lobster (Panulirus argus dominate reconstructed catches. No discards were estimated as fishing has been highly selective, carried out by hand collection (conch, trap or hook (lobster, or hook and line (finfish. New data published here from local seafood consumption surveys demonstrates that the total local consumption of conch equates to almost the entire total allowable catch, before exported amounts are even factored. Policy-makers in the Turks and Caicos need to act if the sustainability of the fisheries stock and fishing industry is to be ensured.

  13. Catching up on conventions grammar lessons for middle school writers

    CERN Document Server

    Francois, Chantal

    2009-01-01

    Are Chantal Francois and Elisa Zonana's students like yours? Economically, linguistically, and culturally diverse; excited to write; yet underprepared for the kinds of writing demanded in middle school and beyond? For success in school, Standard English grammar isn't optional-it's an option every student must have. Don't be daunted. Francois and Zonana found a solution, and in Catching Up on Conventions they share lessons that help kids quickly master Standard English grammar.

  14. Catch history of ringed seals (Phoca hispida in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall R Reeves

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The ringed seal (Phoca hispida has always been a staple in the diet and household economy of Inuit in Canada. The present paper was prepared at the request of the NAMMCO Scientific Committee to support their assessment of ringed seal stocks in the North Atlantic Basin and adjacent arctic and subarctic waters. Specifically, our objective was to evaluate recent and current levels of use of ringed seals by Canadian Inuit. Annual removals probably were highest (possibly greater than 100,000 in the 1960s and 1970s, a period when sealskin prices were particularly strong. Catches declined substantially in the 1980s following a collapse in sealskin prices, presumably related to the European trade ban on skins from newborn harp and hooded seals (Phoca groenlandica and Cystophora cristata, respectively. Recent catch levels throughout Canada (1980s and early 1990s are believed to be in the order of 50,000 to 65,000 ringed seals, with a total average annual kill (including hunting loss in the high tens of thousands. No reliable system is in place to monitor catches of ringed seals, so any estimate must be derived from a heterogeneous array of sources.

  15. Estimating historical eastern North Pacific blue whale catches using spatial calling patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cole C Monnahan

    Full Text Available Blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus were exploited extensively around the world and remain endangered. In the North Pacific their population structure is unclear and current status unknown, with the exception of a well-studied eastern North Pacific (ENP population. Despite existing abundance estimates for the ENP population, it is difficult to estimate pre-exploitation abundance levels and gauge their recovery because historical catches of the ENP population are difficult to separate from catches of other populations in the North Pacific. We collated previously unreported Soviet catches and combined these with known catches to form the most current estimates of North Pacific blue whale catches. We split these conflated catches using recorded acoustic calls from throughout the North Pacific, the knowledge that the ENP population produces a different call than blue whales in the western North Pacific (WNP. The catches were split by estimating spatiotemporal occurrence of blue whales with generalized additive models fitted to acoustic call patterns, which predict the probability a catch belonged to the ENP population based on the proportion of calls of each population recorded by latitude, longitude, and month. When applied to the conflated historical catches, which totaled 9,773, we estimate that ENP blue whale catches totaled 3,411 (95% range 2,593 to 4,114 from 1905-1971, and amounted to 35% (95% range 27% to 42% of all catches in the North Pacific. Thus most catches in the North Pacific were for WNP blue whales, totaling 6,362 (95% range 5,659 to 7,180. The uncertainty in the acoustic data influence the results substantially more than uncertainty in catch locations and dates, but the results are fairly insensitive to the ecological assumptions made in the analysis. The results of this study provide information for future studies investigating the recovery of these populations and the impact of continuing and future sources of anthropogenic

  16. Estimating historical eastern North Pacific blue whale catches using spatial calling patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnahan, Cole C; Branch, Trevor A; Stafford, Kathleen M; Ivashchenko, Yulia V; Oleson, Erin M

    2014-01-01

    Blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) were exploited extensively around the world and remain endangered. In the North Pacific their population structure is unclear and current status unknown, with the exception of a well-studied eastern North Pacific (ENP) population. Despite existing abundance estimates for the ENP population, it is difficult to estimate pre-exploitation abundance levels and gauge their recovery because historical catches of the ENP population are difficult to separate from catches of other populations in the North Pacific. We collated previously unreported Soviet catches and combined these with known catches to form the most current estimates of North Pacific blue whale catches. We split these conflated catches using recorded acoustic calls from throughout the North Pacific, the knowledge that the ENP population produces a different call than blue whales in the western North Pacific (WNP). The catches were split by estimating spatiotemporal occurrence of blue whales with generalized additive models fitted to acoustic call patterns, which predict the probability a catch belonged to the ENP population based on the proportion of calls of each population recorded by latitude, longitude, and month. When applied to the conflated historical catches, which totaled 9,773, we estimate that ENP blue whale catches totaled 3,411 (95% range 2,593 to 4,114) from 1905-1971, and amounted to 35% (95% range 27% to 42%) of all catches in the North Pacific. Thus most catches in the North Pacific were for WNP blue whales, totaling 6,362 (95% range 5,659 to 7,180). The uncertainty in the acoustic data influence the results substantially more than uncertainty in catch locations and dates, but the results are fairly insensitive to the ecological assumptions made in the analysis. The results of this study provide information for future studies investigating the recovery of these populations and the impact of continuing and future sources of anthropogenic mortality. PMID

  17. Species composition and catch per unit of effort of Monterey Bay surf, pier, and skiff anglers in 1979

    OpenAIRE

    Spratt, Jerome D.

    1982-01-01

    In 1979, Monterey Bay sport anglers were sampled for species composition of the catch and catch per unit of effort. A total of 4150 surf, pier, and skiff anglers was interviewed. Catch per hour was 0.71, 0.58, and 1.25 for surf, pier, and skiff anglers, respectively. Barred surfperch, Amphisticus argenteus, totaled 76% of the surf catch. The species composition of the pier catch was dominated by juvenile bocaccio, Sebastes paucispinis; white croaker, Genyonemus lineatus; and walleye sur...

  18. GM Crops: Patently Wrong?

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, J.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract This paper focuses on the ethical justifiability of patents on Genetically Modified (GM) crops. I argue that there are three distinguishing features of GM crops that make it unethical to grant patents on GM crops, even if we assume that the patent system is in general justified. The first half of the paper critiques David Resnik’s recent arguments in favor of patents on GM crops. Resnik argues that we should take a consequentialist approach to the issue, and that the best way to do s...

  19. The South China Sea: analyzing fisheries catch data in an ecosystem context

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, V.; Pauly, D

    1991-01-01

    The South China Sea is an important fishing area with an annual harvest of some 5 million tonnes, or 10% of the catches jointly taken by the developing nations of the world. Details are given of a model of the area describing fisheries catches and biological interactions. The area, viewed as a large marine ecosystem, was divided into 10 subsystems; each subsystem was then linked with adjacent subsystems by predatory links, and detritus flows. An analysis was then made of catch statistics for ...

  20. Concepts in crop rotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop rotations have been a part of civilization since the Middle Ages. With colonization of what would become the United States came new crops of tobacco, cotton, and corn, the first two of which would play significant roles in both the economic beginnings and social fabric of the new country, how ...

  1. Numerical simulation of cropping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo; Hutchinson, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Cropping is a cutting process whereby opposing aligned blades create a shearing failure by exerting opposing forces normal to the surfaces of a metal sheet or plate. Building on recent efforts to quantify cropping, this paper formulates a plane strain elastic-plastic model of a plate subject to s...

  2. Simulation of crop evapotranspiration and crop coefficient in weighing lysimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate quantification of crop evapotranspiration (ET) is critical in optimizing irrigation water productivity, especially, in the semiarid regions of the world where limited rainfall is supplemented by irrigation for profitable crop production. In this context, cropping system models are potential...

  3. Catch-bond behavior of DNA condensate under tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Wong, Wei-Juan; Lim, Ci-Ji; Ju, Hai-Peng; Li, Ming; Yan, Jie; Wang, Peng-Ye

    2015-12-01

    Toroid formation is an important mechanism underlying DNA condensation, which has been investigated extensively by single-molecule experiments in vitro. Here, the de-condensation dynamics of DNA condensates were studied using magnetic tweezers combined with Brownian dynamics simulations. The experimental results revealed a surprising non-monotonic dependence of the unfolding rate on the force applied under strong adhesion conditions, resembling the catch-bond behavior reported in the field of ligand-receptor interactions. Simulation results showed that the different unfolding pathways of DNA condensate under large forces derive from the force-dependent deformation of the DNA toroid, which explains the catch-bond behavior of DNA condensate in the magnetic tweezers experiments. These results challenge the universality of the regular toroidal DNA unwrapping mechanism and provide the most complete description to date of multivalent cation-dependent DNA unwrapping under tension. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11104341, 11474346, 11274374, and 61275192), the National Key Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB837200), and the Mechanobiology Institute at National University of Singapore.

  4. Crop Sequence Economics in Dynamic Cropping Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    No-till production systems allow more intensified and diversified production in the northern Great Plains; however, this has increased the need for information on improving economic returns through crop sequence selection. Field research was conducted 6 km southwest of Mandan ND to determine the inf...

  5. Ecology of sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a restricted focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Northern Venezuela: II. Species composition in relation to habitat, catching method and hour of catching

    OpenAIRE

    M. Dora Feliciangeli

    1987-01-01

    The ecology of phlebotomine sandflies in an endemic focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Northern Venezuela (San Esteban, Carabobo State) was investigated through a year-term study. Three different habitats: viz. a house, a pridomestic area and a sylvatic area, were covered and the species composition, the abundance and occurrence of each species were analyzed in relation to the habitats, catching methods and hour of catching. L. panamensis, L. gomezi and L. ovallesi are the species which bite...

  6. A Global Analysis of the Relationship between Farmed Seaweed Production and Herbivorous Fish Catch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E James Hehre

    Full Text Available Globally, farmed seaweed production is expanding rapidly in shallow marine habitats. While seaweed farming provides vital income to millions of artisanal farmers, it can negatively impact shallow coral reef and seagrass habitats. However, seaweed farming may also potentially provide food subsidies for herbivorous reef fish such as the Siganidae, a valuable target family, resulting in increased catch. Comparisons of reef fish landings across the central Philippines revealed that the catch of siganids was positively correlated to farmed seaweed production whilst negatively correlated to total reef fish catch over the same period of time. We tested the generality of this pattern by analysing seaweed production, siganid catch, and reef fish catch for six major seaweed-producing countries in the tropics. We hypothesized that increased seaweed production would correspond with increased catch of siganids but not other reef fish species. Analysis of the global data showed a positive correlation between farmed seaweeds and siganids in Southeast Asia (Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines but not Africa (Tanzania and Zanzibar, or the Western Pacific (Fiji. In Southeast Asia, siganid catch increased disproportionately faster with seaweed production than did reef fish catch. Low continuity, sporadic production and smaller volumes of seaweed farming may explain the differences.

  7. Movement Coordination in Ball Catching: Comparison between Boys with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przysucha, Eryk P.; Maraj, Brian K. V.

    2010-01-01

    This investigation examined the catching coordination of 12 boys (M age = 9.9 years, SD = 0.8) with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD; M age = 10.5 years, SD = 0.8), under different task constraints. Participants attempted a total of 60 catches in central and lateral locations, under blocked and randomized conditions. No effect…

  8. 50 CFR 679.84 - Rockfish Program recordkeeping, permits, monitoring, and catch accounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rockfish Program recordkeeping, permits, monitoring, and catch accounting. 679.84 Section 679.84 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND..., permits, monitoring, and catch accounting. (a) Recordkeeping and reporting. See § 679.5(r). (b)...

  9. 50 CFR 679.93 - Amendment 80 Program recordkeeping, permits, monitoring, and catch accounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amendment 80 Program recordkeeping, permits, monitoring, and catch accounting. 679.93 Section 679.93 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY... recordkeeping, permits, monitoring, and catch accounting. (a) Recordkeeping and reporting. See § 679.5(s)....

  10. Control of mosquitoes in catch basins in Connecticut with Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis, Bacillus sphearicus, and Spinosad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catch basins are a major source of Culex pipiens pipiens, Cx. restuans, and Aedes japonicus in northeastern U.S. VectoBac CG®, VectoLex CG®, and VectoBac 12AS® applied at maximum label rates to catch basins in Stratford, CT on June 30 and July 28, 2008 significantly reduced numbers of larvae for on...

  11. Time series analyses reveal environmental and fisheries controls on Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) catch rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão, Francisco

    2015-12-01

    Time-series models (Dynamic factorial analyses and; Min/max autocorrelation factor analysis) were used to explore the relative influences of environmental variables and fishing pressure of trawl, seine and artisanal fleets on catch rates on Trachurus trachurus in ICES IXa sub-divisions (IXaCN-North coast; IXa- CS-South coast; IXaS-Algarve, South coast, Algarve). Fishing effort influenced catch rates in all areas with a 2 year lag and fishing pressure for each area was related to specific fleet sectors effort. In IXaCN, winter upwelling (spawning peak) and both summer northerly wind and wind magnitude (outside of the spawning peak) were strongly correlated with catch rates. In IXaCS summer/autumn westerly winds were related with catch rates. Northerly winds in spring, upwelling and SST (winter and autumn) were related with catch rates in IXaS-Algarve. For species with a long spawning season such as horse mackerel, seasonal analyses at broad regional scales can detract from a better understanding of variability in short term sub-stock catch rates. Favorable environmental conditions, even during seasons with low spawning activity can positively affect catch rates. Ignoring the role of regional oceanographic features on the spatial distribution of the sub-stocks when analysing variability in catch rates can lead to poor inferences about the productivity of the populations.

  12. Factorial Validity of the Chedoke-McMaster Attitudes towards Children with Handicaps Scale (CATCH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossaert, Goele; Petry, Katja

    2013-01-01

    The Chedoke-McMaster Attitudes towards Children with Handicaps Scale (CATCH) has been developed to measure the attitudes of children toward peers with disabilities. The present study aims to evaluate the factorial validity of the CATCH in a sample of 2396 students in 7th grade, including 179 students with disabilities and 2217 typically developing…

  13. Catching up with Harvard: Results from Regression Analysis of World Universities League Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei; Shankar, Sriram; Tang, Kam Ki

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses regression analysis to test if the universities performing less well according to Shanghai Jiao Tong University's world universities league tables are able to catch up with the top performers, and to identify national and institutional factors that could affect this catching up process. We have constructed a dataset of 461…

  14. TEST OF THE CATCH-UP HYPOTHESIS IN AFRICAN AGRICULTURAL GROWTH RATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalu Ukpai IFEGWU

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper tested the catch-up hypothesis in agricultural growth rates of twenty-six African countries. Panel data used was drawn from the Food and Agricultural Organization Statistics (FAOSTAT of the United Nations. The Data Envelopment Analysis Method for measuring productivity was used to estimate productivity growth rates. The cross-section framework consisting of sigma-convergence and beta-convergence was employed to test the catching up process. Catching up is said to exist if the value of beta is negative and significant. Since catching up does not necessarily imply narrowing of national productivity inequalities, sigma-convergence which measures inequality, was estimated for the same variables. The results showed evidence of the catch-up process, but failed to find a narrowing of productivity inequalities among countries.

  15. Egocentric and allocentric reference frames for catching a falling object.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Séac'h, Anne Brec'hed; Senot, Patrice; McIntyre, Joseph

    2010-04-01

    When programming movement, one must account for gravitational acceleration. This is particularly important when catching a falling object because the task requires a precise estimate of time-to-contact. Knowledge of gravity's effects is intimately linked to our definition of 'up' and 'down'. Both directions can be described in an allocentric reference frame, based on visual and/or gravitational cues, or in an egocentric reference frame in which the body axis is taken as vertical. To test which frame humans use to predict gravity's effect, we asked participants to intercept virtual balls approaching from above or below with artificially controlled acceleration that could be congruent or not with gravity. To dissociate between these frames, subjects were seated upright (trunk parallel to gravity) or lying down (body axis orthogonal to the gravitational axis). We report data in line with the use of an allocentric reference frame and discuss its relevance depending on available gravity-related cues. PMID:20024651

  16. Noncovalent catch and release of carboxylates in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Christie L; Winter, Arthur H

    2014-04-01

    Association constants of a bis-(acetylguanidinium)ferrocene dication to various (di)carboxylates were determined through UV-vis titrations. Association constant values greater than 10(4) M(-1) were determined for both phthalate and maleate carboxylates to the bis-(acetylguanidinium)ferrocene salt in pure water. Density functional theory computations of the binding enthalpy of the rigid carboxylates for these complexes agree well with the experimentally determined association constants. Catch and release competitive binding experiments were done by NMR for the cation-carboxylate ion-pair complexes with cucurbit[7]uril, and they show dissociation of the ion-pair complex upon addition of cucurbit[7]uril and release of the free (di)carboxylate.

  17. Cereal Crops Research Unit

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The mission of the Cereal Crops Research Unit is to 1) conduct basic research to identify and understand the biological processes affecting the growth, development...

  18. Cover crop biomass harvest for bioenergy: implications for crop productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter cover crops, such as rye (Secale cereale), are usually used in conservation agriculture systems in the Southeast. Typically, the cover crop is terminated two to three weeks before planting the summer crop, with the cover biomass left on the soil surface as a mulch. However, these cover crops ...

  19. Transgenics in crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Wu, Y. H.; McAvoy, R.; Duan, H.

    2001-01-01

    With rapid world population growth and declining availability of fresh water and arable land, a new technology is urgently needed to enhance agricultural productivity. Recent discoveries in the field of crop transgenics clearly demonstrate the great potential of this technology for increasing food production and improving food quality while preserving the environment for future generations. In this review, we briefly discuss some of the recent achievements in crop improvement that have been made using gene transfer technology.

  20. Radioactivity in food crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Published levels of radioactivity in food crops from 21 countries and 4 island chains of Oceania are listed. The tabulation includes more than 3000 examples of 100 different crops. Data are arranged alphabetically by food crop and geographical origin. The sampling date, nuclide measured, mean radioactivity, range of radioactivities, sample basis, number of samples analyzed, and bibliographic citation are given for each entry, when available. Analyses were reported most frequently for 137Cs, 40K, 90Sr, 226Ra, 228Ra, plutonium, uranium, total alpha, and total beta, but a few authors also reported data for 241Am, 7Be, 60Co, 55Fe, 3H, 131I, 54Mn, 95Nb, 210Pb, 210Po, 106Ru, 125Sb, 228Th, 232Th, and 95Zr. Based on the reported data it appears that radioactivity from alpha emitters in food crops is usually low, on the order of 0.1 Bq.g-1 (wet weight) or less. Reported values of beta radiation in a given crop generally appear to be several orders of magnitude greater than those of alpha emitters. The most striking aspect of the data is the great range of radioactivity reported for a given nuclide in similar food crops with different geographical origins

  1. Radioactivity in food crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drury, J.S.; Baldauf, M.F.; Daniel, E.W.; Fore, C.S.; Uziel, M.S.

    1983-05-01

    Published levels of radioactivity in food crops from 21 countries and 4 island chains of Oceania are listed. The tabulation includes more than 3000 examples of 100 different crops. Data are arranged alphabetically by food crop and geographical origin. The sampling date, nuclide measured, mean radioactivity, range of radioactivities, sample basis, number of samples analyzed, and bibliographic citation are given for each entry, when available. Analyses were reported most frequently for /sup 137/Cs, /sup 40/K, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 226/Ra, /sup 228/Ra, plutonium, uranium, total alpha, and total beta, but a few authors also reported data for /sup 241/Am, /sup 7/Be, /sup 60/Co, /sup 55/Fe, /sup 3/H, /sup 131/I, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 95/Nb, /sup 210/Pb, /sup 210/Po, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 125/Sb, /sup 228/Th, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 95/Zr. Based on the reported data it appears that radioactivity from alpha emitters in food crops is usually low, on the order of 0.1 Bq.g/sup -1/ (wet weight) or less. Reported values of beta radiation in a given crop generally appear to be several orders of magnitude greater than those of alpha emitters. The most striking aspect of the data is the great range of radioactivity reported for a given nuclide in similar food crops with different geographical origins.

  2. On the importance of appropriate precipitation gauge catch correction for hydrological modelling at mid to high latitudes

    OpenAIRE

    S. Stisen; Højberg, A. L.; L. Troldborg; Refsgaard, J. C.; B. S. B. Christensen; Olsen, M.; H. J. Henriksen

    2012-01-01

    Precipitation gauge catch correction is often given very little attention in hydrological modelling compared to model parameter calibration. This is critical because significant precipitation biases often make the calibration exercise pointless, especially when supposedly physically-based models are in play. This study addresses the general importance of appropriate precipitation catch correction through a detailed modelling exercise. An existing precipitation gauge catch co...

  3. 78 FR 21071 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Sub-ACL (Annual Catch...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ...-ACL is set aside for research (75 FR 48874, August 12, 2010). The regulations at Sec. 648.201 require... Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Sub-ACL (Annual Catch Limit) Harvested for Management..., acceptable biological catch, annual catch limit (ACL), optimum yield, domestic harvest and processing,...

  4. 77 FR 10668 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Sub-ACL (Annual Catch...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... 22,146 mt, and 0 mt of the sub-ACL is set aside for research (75 FR 48874, August 12, 2010). Section... Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Sub-ACL (Annual Catch Limit) Harvested for Management... the overfishing limit, acceptable biological catch, annual catch limit (ACL), optimum yield,...

  5. 77 FR 61299 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Sub-ACL (Annual Catch...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ... research in the 2010-2012 specifications (75 FR 48874, August 12, 2010). Section 648.201 requires the... Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Sub-ACL (Annual Catch Limit) Harvested for Management... specification of the overfishing ] limit, acceptable biological catch, annual catch limit (ACL), optimum...

  6. 76 FR 66654 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Sub-ACL (Annual Catch...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... 1A is 26,546 mt, and 0 mt of the sub-ACL is set aside for research (75 FR 48874, August 12, 2010... Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Sub-ACL (Annual Catch Limit) Harvested for Management... specification of the overfishing limit, acceptable biological catch, annual catch limit (ACL), optimum...

  7. Cover crops and N credits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover crops often provide many short- and long-term benefits to cropping systems. Legume cover crops can significantly reduce the N fertilizer requirement of non-legume cash crops that follow. The objectives of this presentation were to: I) educate stakeholders about the potential benefits of cover ...

  8. Biotechnology: herbicide-resistant crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic, herbicide-resistant (HR) crops are planted on about 80% of the land covered by transgenic crops. More than 90% of HR crios are glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops, the others being resistant to glufosinate. The wide-scale adoption of HR crops, largely for economic reasons, has been the mos...

  9. Energy balance of five fodder cropping systems in the irrigated lowlands of Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Tomasoni

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Extensification has recently become an important option in Western European agriculture, driven both by economic considerations (product surpluses together with the fact that developed countries cropping systems have been heavily relying on fossil energy and growing public concern on the possible adverse effects of intensive farming on the environment and human health. The adoption of rational fodder crop rotations, with the rediscovery of the beneficial effect of the meadow, is viewed as a possible mean to reduce the impact of farming systems in the lowlands of Northern Italy, characterised by highly intensive cropping and animal husbandry. For this reason our study examines the effects of crop rotation on the energy balance during 1985-2007 period in a long-term crop rotation trial in Northern Italy comparing five fodder crop systems, different in the degree of crop intensification and for the presence or absence of the meadow: a 1-year continuous cereal double cropping (R1; a 3-year rotation (R3; a 6-year rotation (R6; a permanent meadow (PM; and a continuous grain maize cropping (CM. Each rotation was subjected to two input treatments, defined as high (mostly used in lowlands of northern Italy and low (input reduction of ca. 30% respectively, in terms of nutrient levels, herbicide doses, and soil tillage methods. The crop rotations exerted a marked influence on the energy balance. The most efficient rotations in terms of net energy production energy efficiency have been characterized by reduced length and presence of maize and catch-crops.

  10. Comparison of catching efficiency of two Indonesian traditional traps, Ayunan and Tamba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The catching efficiency of traditional traps: Ayunan and Tamba were tested in Sungai Batang River, South Kalimantan of Indonesia. Trials consisted of 320-trap hauls/type using 1-day submersion time of 24 hr. The baited traps sampling accounted for 82 specimens assigned to 5 species of 5 families. There was a large variability in number of catch between prawns and fish species collected (T=2.318, P<0.05. The prawns catch was represented by only the species Macrobrachium rossenbergii with total of 53 and 1,015 g weight. The prawns weight of Tamba was significantly higher than that of Ayunan (T=3.453, P<0.01.The fish catch composed of Mystus gulio 79%, Osteochilus hasselti 10%, Hypostomus plecostomus 7%, and Macrognathus aculeatus 3%, with total weight ranged from 35 to 560 g. A clear difference was found in catching efficiency. Comparative fishing trials showed that Tamba collected specimens were 1.8 times higher than Ayunan (T=2.223, P<0.05. Catch per unit effort for Tamba ranged from 58.13 to 80.00, and for Ayunan ranged from 5.31 to 7.19. The gear modifications and various treatments (e.g. bait odor, light are necessary to be taken to increase their relative catching efficiency.

  11. Evaluation of nontarget effects of methoprene applied to catch basins for mosquito control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Mari; Ginsberg, Howard S.; LeBrun, Roger A.; Gettman, Alan

    2010-01-01

    The mosquito larvicide methoprene is a juvenile growth hormone mimic that is widely used to control mosquito larvae in stormwater catch basins. This study addresses two concerns pertaining to methoprene's use for mosquito control. First, measurements of methoprene concentrations were made from water in catch basins that had been treated with methoprene and from an adjoining salt pond near where the treated catch basins emptied. The concentrations of methoprene in catch basins and at drainage outlets after application at the rates currently used for mosquito control in southern Rhode Island were 0.5 ppb and lower, orders of magnitude below what has been determined as detrimental to organisms other than mosquitoes. Second, the effects of methoprene on the communities that live in catch basins were evaluated both in simulated catch basins in the laboratory and in actual catch basins in the field. We found no evidence of declines in abundances of any taxa attributable to the application. Furthermore, we found no consistent changes in community-level parameters (e.g., taxonomic richness, and dominance-diversity relationships) related to methoprene application in either field or laboratory trials.

  12. Catch trials in force field learning influence adaptation and consolidation of human motor memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eStockinger

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Force field studies are a common tool to investigate motor adaptation and consolidation. Thereby, subjects usually adapt their reaching movements to force field perturbations induced by a robotic device. In this context, so-called catch trials, in which the disturbing forces are randomly turned off, are commonly used to detect after-effects of motor adaptation. However, catch trials also produce sudden large motor errors that might influence the motor adaptation and the consolidation process. Yet, the detailed influence is far from clear. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of catch trials on motor adaptation and consolidation in force field experiments. Therefore, 105 subjects adapted their reaching movements to robot-generated force fields. The test groups adapted their reaching movements to a force field A followed by learning a second interfering force field B before retest of A (ABA. The control groups were not exposed to force field B (AA. To examine the influence of diverse catch trial ratios, subjects received catch trials during force field adaptation with a probability of either 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, or 40%, depending on the group. First, the results on motor adaptation revealed significant differences between the diverse catch trial ratio groups. With increasing amount of catch trials, the subjects’ motor performance decreased and subjects’ ability to accurately predict the force field – and therefore internal model formation – was impaired. Second, our results revealed that adapting with catch trials can influence the following consolidation process as indicated by a partial reduction to interference. Here, the optimal catch trial ratio was 30%. However, detection of consolidation seems to be biased by the applied measure of performance.

  13. An assessment of West African seahorses in fisheries catch and trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros-Montemayor, A M; West, K; Boiro, I S; Vincent, A C J

    2016-02-01

    This study provides the first assessment of a heavily traded West African seahorse species, Hippocampus algiricus, and the first information on short-snouted seahorse Hippocampus hippocampus biology in Africa. A total of 219 seahorses were sampled from fisher catch in Senegal and The Gambia, with estimated height at reproductive activity for H. algiricus (161 mm) larger than mean ± S.D. catch height (150 ± 31 mm). Catch composition, height at reproductive activity and potential biases in fishery retention are discussed with regard to the current Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species (CITES) guidelines. PMID:26676971

  14. An assessment of West African seahorses in fisheries catch and trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros-Montemayor, A M; West, K; Boiro, I S; Vincent, A C J

    2016-02-01

    This study provides the first assessment of a heavily traded West African seahorse species, Hippocampus algiricus, and the first information on short-snouted seahorse Hippocampus hippocampus biology in Africa. A total of 219 seahorses were sampled from fisher catch in Senegal and The Gambia, with estimated height at reproductive activity for H. algiricus (161 mm) larger than mean ± S.D. catch height (150 ± 31 mm). Catch composition, height at reproductive activity and potential biases in fishery retention are discussed with regard to the current Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species (CITES) guidelines.

  15. The Effect of Intellectual Property Standards on the Catch-Up Process Of Emerging Market Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darendeli, Izzet Sidki; Brandl, Kristin; Mudambi, Ram;

    The catch-up process of emerging market economies is dependent on multiple factors, such as local governmental regulations but also global industry developments. We investigate how intellectual property (IP) protection standards affect this catch-up process. The alignment of these standards...... with the country’s level of innovation capabilities set the framework for the study. We use patent data from the United States Patent Office and compare the catch-up process of Brazil, India and Turkey based on the countries implementation of TRIPS regulations. We find that countries with a gradual implementation...

  16. The Effect of Intellectual Property Standards on the Catch-Up Process Of Emerging Market Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darendeli, Izzet; Brandl, Kristin Martina; Hamilton, III, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    The catch-up process of emerging market economies is dependent on multiple factors, such as local governmental regulations but also global industry developments. We investigate how intellectual property (IP) protection standards affect this catch-up process. The alignment of these standards...... with the country’s level of innovation capabilities set the framework for the study. We use patent data from the United States Patent Office and compare the catch-up process of Brazil, India and Turkey based on the countries implementation of TRIPS regulations. We find that countries with a gradual implementation...

  17. Catch rates as indicators of ecosystem health and exploitation status in the shrimp fishery in the South China sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen; van Thi, Dang

    2008-01-01

    Based on catch and effort data analyses covering the period 1996-2002, time series of catch rates in the trawl fisheries in the South China Sea along the coasts of Bac Lieu and Ca Mau in South East Vietnam were estimated. The indicators include catch rates for total shrimp catch, five major shrimp...... that might reflect seasonality in shrimp recruitment was found, making this resource potentially suitable for a fishery management system based on closed seasons. Further, the data indicate that the major part of the catches are comprised of low value species belonging to the genera Parapenaeopsis; whereas...... the requirement of a dynamic fishery management system....

  18. Will a catch share for whales improve social welfare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martin D; Asche, Frank; Bennear, Lori S; Havice, Elizabeth; Read, Andrew J; Squires, Dale

    2014-01-01

    We critique a proposal to use catch shares to manage transboundary wildlife resources with potentially high non-extractive values, and we focus on the case of whales. Because whales are impure public goods, a policy that fails to capture all nonmarket benefits (due to free riding) could lead to a suboptimal outcome. Even if free riding were overcome, whale shares would face four implementation challenges. First, a whale share could legitimize the international trade in whale meat and expand the whale meat market. Second, a legal whale trade creates monitoring and enforcement challenges similar to those of organizations that manage highly migratory species such as tuna. Third, a whale share could create a new political economy of management that changes incentives and increases costs for nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to achieve the current level of conservation. Fourth, a whale share program creates new logistical challenges for quota definition and allocation regardless of whether the market for whale products expands or contracts. Each of these issues, if left unaddressed, could result in lower overall welfare for society than under the status quo. PMID:24640530

  19. Catching the light the entwined history of light and mind

    CERN Document Server

    Zajonc, Arthur

    1995-01-01

    In 1910, the surgeons Moreau and LePrince wrote about their successful operation on an eight-year-old boy who had been blind since birth because of cataracts. When the boy's eyes were healed they removed the bandages and, waving a hand in front of the child's physically perfect eyes, asked him what he saw. "I don't know," was his only reply. What he saw was only a varying brightness in front of him. However, when allowed to touch the hand as it began to move, he cried out in a voice of triumph, "It's moving!" He could feel it move, but he still needed laboriously to learn to see it move. Light and eyes were not enough to grant him sight. How, then, do we see? What's the difference between seeing and perception? What is light? From ancient times to the present, from philosophers to quantum physicists, nothing has so perplexed, so fascinated, so captivated the mind as the elusive definition of light. In Catching the Light, Arthur Zajonc takes us on an epic journey into history, tracing how humans have endeavore...

  20. AFSC/FMA/NPRB Alternative Catch Monitoring Table and ccolumn Definitions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data arise from a field study of groundfish catch monitoring in Kodiak, AK trawl fisheries. Two monitoring components were included in the study: 1) at-sea...

  1. Transpiration and crop yields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de C.T.

    1958-01-01

    Theoretical and practical aspects of the transpiration of crops in the field are discussed and he concludes that the relationship between transpiration and total dry matter production is much less affected by growing conditions than has been supposed. In semi-arid and arid regions, this relationship

  2. Mycorrhiza and crop production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayman, D.S.

    1980-10-09

    This article describes recent research with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza, a symbiotic fungus-root association. The suggestion that the symbiotic association may be harnessed to achieve more economical use of phosphate fertilizers is discussed and the results from various test crops are given.

  3. Orphan Crops Browser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamei, Claire Lessa Alvim; Severing, E.I.; Dechesne, Annemarie; Furrer, Heleen; Dolstra, Oene; Trindade, L.M.

    2016-01-01

    Many important crops have received little attention by the scientific community, either because they are not considered economically important or due to their large and complex genomes. De novo transcriptome assembly, using next-generation sequencing data, is an attractive option for the study of

  4. Biotechnology Towards Energy Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaritopoulou, Theoni; Roka, Loukia; Alexopoulou, Efi; Christou, Myrsini; Rigas, Stamatis; Haralampidis, Kosmas; Milioni, Dimitra

    2016-03-01

    New crops are gradually establishing along with cultivation systems to reduce reliance on depleting fossil fuel reserves and sustain better adaptation to climate change. These biological assets could be efficiently exploited as bioenergy feedstocks. Bioenergy crops are versatile renewable sources with the potential to alternatively contribute on a daily basis towards the coverage of modern society's energy demands. Biotechnology may facilitate the breeding of elite energy crop genotypes, better suited for bio-processing and subsequent use that will improve efficiency, further reduce costs, and enhance the environmental benefits of biofuels. Innovative molecular techniques may improve a broad range of important features including biomass yield, product quality and resistance to biotic factors like pests or microbial diseases or environmental cues such as drought, salinity, freezing injury or heat shock. The current review intends to assess the capacity of biotechnological applications to develop a beneficial bioenergy pipeline extending from feedstock development to sustainable biofuel production and provide examples of the current state of the art on future energy crops. PMID:26798073

  5. Crop yields in intercropping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract

    Intercropping, the cultivation of two or more crop species simultaneously in the same field, has been widely practiced by smallholder farmers in developing countries and is gaining increasing interest in developed countries. Intercropping can increase the yield per

  6. Comparison of catching efficiency of two Indonesian traditional traps, Ayunan and Tamba

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadi; Muhammad Arief Yanuar Rachman; Irhamsyah; Saaluddin Husin

    2014-01-01

    The catching efficiency of traditional traps: Ayunan and Tamba were tested in Sungai Batang River, South Kalimantan of Indonesia. Trials consisted of 320-trap hauls/type using 1-day submersion time of 24 hr. The baited traps sampling accounted for 82 specimens assigned to 5 species of 5 families. There was a large variability in number of catch between prawns and fish species collected (T=2.318, P

  7. Deriving acceptable biological catch from the overfishing limit: implications for assessment models

    OpenAIRE

    Prager, Michael H.; Shertzer, Kyle W.

    2010-01-01

    The recently revised Magnuson–Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act requires that U.S. fishery management councils avoid overfishing by setting annual catch limits (ACLs) not exceeding recommendations of the councils’ scientific advisers. To meet that requirement, the scientific advisers will need to know the overfishing limit (OFL) estimated in each stock assessment, with OFL being the catch available from applying the limit fishing mortality rate to current or projected stock b...

  8. The Imbalanced Catch-up to Rational Expectations : Capital Flows during Convergence

    OpenAIRE

    Cozzi, Guido; Davenport, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    How long shall a country take to learn the world technological fron- tier? What would happen if that country found the same difficulties in learning the true model of its economy? After all, countries catching up often experience life-changing transformations during the catch-up to a balanced growth path. We show that an open economy, learning rational expectations alongside foreign technology, may be characterized by excessive saving and current account surpluses, as often observed in ...

  9. Crop yield response to climate change varies with cropping intensity

    OpenAIRE

    Challinor, AJ; Parkes, B.; Ramirez-Villegas, J.

    2015-01-01

    Projections of the response of crop yield to climate change at different spatial scales are known to vary. However, understanding of the causes of systematic differences across scale is limited. Here, we hypothesize that heterogeneous cropping intensity is one source of scale dependency. Analysis of observed global data and regional crop modelling demonstrate that areas of high vs. low cropping intensity can have systematically different yields, in both observations and simulations. Analysis ...

  10. From bonito to anchovy: a reconstruction of Turkey’s marine fisheries catches (1950-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. ULMAN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Turkey’s marine fisheries catches were estimated for the 1950-2010 time period using a reconstruction approach, which estimated all fisheries removals, including unreported landings, recreational landings and discards.  We added these estimates to the ‘official’ data, as reported in TURKSTAT, which are also available from the United Nation’s Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO.  The total reconstructed catch for the 1950-2010 time period (inclusive of the reported data is approximately 32 million t, or 74% more than the 18.4 million t of reported data. This added approximately 13.6 million t to the reported data, consisting of 6.9 million t of unreported landings, 2.6 million t of discards, 2.4 million t of recreational catches, and 1.7 million t of subsistence catches.  In 2010, total reported marine landings for Turkey were 445,680 t and the total reconstructed catch was 763,760 t, or 73% more than the reported data.   The main unreported taxon by tonnage was European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus due to its sheer high proportion of catch.  The major reasons for underreporting include a general distrust fishers have towards the taxing system combined with inefficient fisheries monitoring and surveillance capabilities.  Accounting for all fisheries components is crucial in understanding the development of fisheries resources, improving management, and reducing threats to the domestic food security of Turkey.

  11. Regulation of actin catch-slip bonds with a RhoA-formin module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cho-Yin; Lou, Jizhong; Wen, Kuo-Kuang; McKane, Melissa; Eskin, Suzanne G.; Rubenstein, Peter A.; Chien, Shu; Ono, Shoichiro; Zhu, Cheng; McIntire, Larry V.

    2016-10-01

    The dynamic turnover of the actin cytoskeleton is regulated cooperatively by force and biochemical signaling. We previously demonstrated that actin depolymerization under force is governed by catch-slip bonds mediated by force-induced K113:E195 salt-bridges. Yet, the biochemical regulation as well as the functional significance of actin catch bonds has not been elucidated. Using AFM force-clamp experiments, we show that formin controlled by RhoA switches the actin catch-slip bonds to slip-only bonds. SMD simulations reveal that the force does not induce the K113:E195 interaction when formin binds to actin K118 and E117 residues located at the helical segment extending to K113. Actin catch-slip bonds are suppressed by single residue replacements K113E and E195K that interrupt the force-induced K113:E195 interaction; and this suppression is rescued by a K113E/E195K double mutant (E/K) restoring the interaction in the opposite orientation. These results support the biological significance of actin catch bonds, as they corroborate reported observations that RhoA and formin switch force-induced actin cytoskeleton alignment and that either K113E or E195K induces yeast cell growth defects rescued by E/K. Our study demonstrates how the mechano-regulation of actin dynamics is modulated by biochemical signaling molecules, and suggests that actin catch bonds may be important in cell functions.

  12. Effect of catch bonding on transport of cellular cargo by dynein motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Anil; Chandel, Sameep; Mitra, Mithun K.; Muhuri, Sudipto; Chaudhuri, Abhishek

    2016-09-01

    Recent experiments have demonstrated that dynein motors exhibit catch bonding behavior, in which the unbinding rate of a single dynein decreases with increasing force, for a certain range of force. Motivated by these experiments, we study the effect of catch bonding on unidirectional transport properties of cellular cargo carried by multiple dynein motors. We introduce a threshold force bond deformation (TFBD) model, consistent with the experiments, wherein catch bonding sets in beyond a critical applied load force. We find catch bonding can result in dramatic changes in the transport properties, which are in sharp contrast to kinesin-driven unidirectional transport, where catch bonding is absent. We predict that under certain conditions, the average velocity of the cellular cargo can actually increase as applied load is increased. We characterize the transport properties in terms of a velocity profile plot in the parameter space of the catch bond strength and the stall force of the motor. This plot yields predictions that may be experimentally accessed by suitable modifications of motor transport and binding properties.

  13. A Brave Failure——An Analysis of Yossarian in Catch - 22

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓锋

    2005-01-01

    Catch - 22 , the masterpiece of Joseph Heller, is the major work of Black Humor literature. The core of Black Humor is the Absurd. This paper mainly deals with the protagonist of Catch - 22, who is caught in an absurd situation Catch-22. Through analysis, we can see that Yossarian is a brave person, for he rejects Catch - 22, which increases his horror of death and makes him feel that his bombing mission is pointless and unimportant. And at the same time, he is a fail person, for he can never escape the world - spread Catch - 22, and his retreating to Sweden also means his failure. The whole situation is absurd and illoggical, which is irrevocable in that age, like the same situation in 1960s, especially like the situation those Hippies were in. After WW II , many Americans suffered persecution, both in political area and in business area. People felt very hopeless. So they rebelled constantly. They refuse to conform the tradition of morality and revolted the rule of government, like what yossarian has done against Catch- 22, in the totally chaotic world, though they cannot predict any hope of victory.The ages they were in decided that they were failures, the same as the essence of war decides Yossarian a failure.The war, together with the island Pianosa allude to the insane, trance- like, con, fused American society in 1960s; Yossarian, the drug- taking hippy generation of 1960s. Both of them, according to their ages, are brave failures.

  14. Crop responses to climatic variation

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, John R; Semenov, Mikhail A.

    2005-01-01

    The yield and quality of food crops is central to the well being of humans and is directly affected by climate and weather. Initial studies of climate change on crops focussed on effects of increased carbon dioxide (CO2) level and/or global mean temperature and/or rainfall and nutrition on crop production. However, crops can respond nonlinearly to changes in their growing conditions, exhibit threshold responses and are subject to combinations of stress factors that affect their growth, develo...

  15. Governing the GM crop revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Paarlberg, Robert L.

    2000-01-01

    Will developing countries adopt policies that promote the planting of genetically modified (GM) crops, or will they select policies that slow the spread of the GM crop revolution? The evidence so far is mixed. In some prominent countries such as China, policies are in place that encourage the independent development and planting of GM crops. Yet in a number of other equally prominent countries the planting of GM crops is not yet officially approved. The inclination of developing countries to ...

  16. Managing Risk with Crop Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, William M.

    2003-01-01

    Every year Iowa farmers face the threat of damage to their crops from drought, hail, flood, insects, and other natural disasters. The U.S.D.A. Risk Management Agency (RMA) and private crop insurance venders have developed a set of insurance programs to help control crop production risks at a reasonable cost. Crop insurance coverage is not mandatory, but it does provide a financial safety net in case of severe production losses.

  17. Catching the Light - The Entwined History of Light and Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajonc, Arthur

    1995-04-01

    In 1910, the surgeons Moreau and LePrince wrote about their successful operation on an eight-year-old boy who had been blind since birth because of cataracts. When the boy's eyes were healed they removed the bandages and, waving a hand in front of the child's physically perfect eyes, asked him what he saw. "I don't know," was his only reply. What he saw was only a varying brightness in front of him. However, when allowed to touch the hand as it began to move, he cried out in a voice of triumph, "It's moving!" He could feel it move, but he still needed laboriously to learn to see it move. Light and eyes were not enough to grant him sight. How, then, do we see? What's the difference between seeing and perception? What is light? From ancient times to the present, from philosophers to quantum physicists, nothing has so perplexed, so fascinated, so captivated the mind as the elusive definition of light. In Catching the Light , Arthur Zajonc takes us on an epic journey into history, tracing how humans have endeavored to understand the phenomenon of light. Blending mythology, religion, science, literature, and painting, Zajonc reveals in poetic detail the human struggle to identify the vital connection between the outer light of nature and the inner light of the human spirit. He explains the curiousness of the Greeks' blue and green "color blindness": Odysseus gazing longingly at the "wine-dark sea"; the use of chloros (green) as the color of honey in Homer's Odessey ; and Euripides' use of the color green to describe the hue of tears and blood. He demonstrates the complexity of perception through the work of Paul Cézanne--the artist standing on the bank of a river, painting the same scene over and over again, the motifs multiplying before his eyes. And Zajonc goes on to show how our quest for an understanding of light, as well as the conclusions we draw, reveals as much about the nature of our own psyche as it does about the nature of light itself. For the ancient

  18. Community implementation outcomes of Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, E B; Weston-Lee, Patria; Haggerty, Danielle; Dozier, Mary

    2016-03-01

    Bringing evidence-based treatments to community practice is a critical challenge for the field. When implemented in the community, evidence-based treatments often fail to provide the benefits shown in laboratory settings. Therefore, when evidence-based treatments are transported to the community, it is essential to investigate implementation process and outcomes. The present study assessed whether Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up (ABC), an intervention for high-risk parents that has been shown to be efficacious in randomized clinical trials (RCTs), changed parent behavior in a community-based setting. This study examined data collected from 78 cases by 9 parent coaches in a diverse community setting in Hawaii, and compared data to benchmarks from RCTs. Parent coach fidelity was coded from intervention session video clips, and was also compared with benchmarks. Caregivers participating in ABC were primarily birth parents, and most were referred through Child Protective Services involvement or for reasons of harsh parenting or neglect. Parental behavior was assessed before and after intervention using a semi-structured play task. Increases in parental following the lead and delight, and decreases in parental intrusiveness, were observed; these changes were comparable to effect sizes observed in RCTs. Intent to treat analyses were conducted using behavioral data from videotaped sessions, and suggested that ABC also improved following the lead in parents who subsequently dropped out of treatment. These results support the viability of ABC for enhancing parenting behavior among parents at high risk for maltreatment, and demonstrate that parent coaches in community agencies can successfully implement ABC. PMID:26746112

  19. Salt resistant crop plants

    KAUST Repository

    Roy, Stuart J.

    2014-04-01

    Soil salinity is a major constraint to agriculture. To improve salinity tolerance of crops, various traits can be incorporated, including ion exclusion, osmotic tolerance and tissue tolerance. We review the roles of a range of genes involved in salt tolerance traits. Different tissues and cells are adapted for specific and often diverse function, so it is important to express the genes in specific cell-types and to pyramid a range of traits. Modern biotechnology (marker- assisted selection or genetic engineering) needs to be increasingly used to introduce the correct combination of genes into elite crop cultivars. Importantly, the effects of introduced genes need to be evaluated in the field to determine their effect on salinity tolerance and yield improvement.

  20. IMPORTANCE OF MAIZE CROPPING

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Dhary Yousif EL-JUBOURI

    2012-01-01

    The Corn, wheat and rice together are the main crops. It is a plant that responds well to chemical and organic fertilization and the irrigation. But compliance is sensitive to optimum sowing time and integrated control of weeds, pests and diseases (2). The maize is the most important plant product, from the point of view commercially and is used primarily as fodder. The maize is an important source of vegetable oil and has many applications in industry, the manufacture of diverse items: cosme...

  1. Halophytes As Bioenergy Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rita; Wungrampha, Silas; Singh, Vinay; Pareek, Ashwani; Sharma, Manoj K

    2016-01-01

    Shrinking arable land due to soil salinization and, depleting fresh water resources pose serious worldwide constraints to crop productivity. A vision of using plant feedstock for biofuel production can only be realized if we can identify alternate species that can be grown on saline soils and therefore, would not compete for the resources required for conventional agriculture. Halophytes have remarkable ability to grow under high salinity conditions. They can be irrigated with seawater without compromising their biomass and seed yields making them good alternate candidates as bioenergy crops. Both oil produced from the seeds and the lignocellulosic biomass of halophytes can be utilized for biofuel production. Several researchers across the globe have recognized this potential and assessed several halophytes for their tolerance to salt, seed oil contents and composition of their lignocellulosic biomass. Here, we review current advances and highlight the key species of halophytes analyzed for this purpose. We have critically assessed the challenges and opportunities associated with using halophytes as bioenergy crops.

  2. Halophytes As Bioenergy Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rita; Wungrampha, Silas; Singh, Vinay; Pareek, Ashwani; Sharma, Manoj K.

    2016-01-01

    Shrinking arable land due to soil salinization and, depleting fresh water resources pose serious worldwide constraints to crop productivity. A vision of using plant feedstock for biofuel production can only be realized if we can identify alternate species that can be grown on saline soils and therefore, would not compete for the resources required for conventional agriculture. Halophytes have remarkable ability to grow under high salinity conditions. They can be irrigated with seawater without compromising their biomass and seed yields making them good alternate candidates as bioenergy crops. Both oil produced from the seeds and the lignocellulosic biomass of halophytes can be utilized for biofuel production. Several researchers across the globe have recognized this potential and assessed several halophytes for their tolerance to salt, seed oil contents and composition of their lignocellulosic biomass. Here, we review current advances and highlight the key species of halophytes analyzed for this purpose. We have critically assessed the challenges and opportunities associated with using halophytes as bioenergy crops. PMID:27679645

  3. CROPS : high tech agricultural robots

    OpenAIRE

    Bontsema, J.; Hemming, J.; Pekkeriet, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    In the EU-funded CROPS (Clever Robots for Crops) project high tech robots are developed for site-specific spraying and selective harvesting of fruit and fruit vegetables. The harvesting robots are being designed to harvest high-value crops such as greenhouse vegetables, fruits in orchards and grapes for premium wines. The CROPS robots are also developed for canopy spraying in orchards and for precision target spraying in grape vines to reduce the use of pesticides. A CROPS robot will be able ...

  4. Impacts of crop growth dynamics on soil quality at the regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobin, Anne

    2014-05-01

    Agricultural land use and in particular crop growth dynamics can greatly affect soil quality. Both the amount of soil lost from erosion by water and soil organic matter are key indicators for soil quality. The aim was to develop a modelling framework for quantifying the impacts of crop growth dynamics on soil quality at the regional scale with test case Flanders. A framework for modelling the impacts of crop growth on soil erosion and soil organic matter was developed by coupling the dynamic crop cover model REGCROP (Gobin, 2010) to the PESERA soil erosion model (Kirkby et al., 2009) and to the RothC carbon model (Coleman and Jenkinson, 1999). All three models are process-based, spatially distributed and intended as a regional diagnostic tool. A geo-database was constructed covering 10 years of crop rotation in Flanders using the IACS parcel registration (Integrated Administration and Control System). Crop allometric models were developed from variety trials to calculate crop residues for common crops in Flanders and subsequently derive stable organic matter fluxes to the soil. Results indicate that crop growth dynamics and crop rotations influence soil quality for a very large percentage. soil erosion mainly occurs in the southern part of Flanders, where silty to loamy soils and a hilly topography are responsible for soil loss rates of up to 40 t/ha. Parcels under maize, sugar beet and potatoes are most vulnerable to soil erosion. Crop residues of grain maize and winter wheat followed by catch crops contribute most to the total carbon sequestered in agricultural soils. For the same rotations carbon sequestration is highest on clay soils and lowest on sandy soils. This implies that agricultural policies that impact on agricultural land management influence soil quality for a large percentage. The coupled REGCROP-PESERA-ROTHC model allows for quantifying the impact of seasonal and year-to-year crop growth dynamics on soil quality. When coupled to a multi-annual crop

  5. Mean temperature of the catch (MTC in the Greek Seas based on landings and survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanassios C. Tsikliras

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The mean temperature of the catch (MTC, which is the average inferred temperature preference of the exploited species weighted by their annual catch, is an index that has been used for evaluating the effect of sea warming on marine ecosystems. In the present work, we examined the effect of sea surface temperature on the catch composition of the Greek Seas using the MTC applied on the official catch statistics (landings for the period 1970-2010 (Aegean and Ionian Seas and on experimental bottom trawl survey data for 1997-2014 (southern Aegean Sea. The MTC of the landings for the study period increased from 11.8 οC to 16.2 οC in the Aegean Sea and from 10.0 οC to 14.7 οC in the Ionian Sea. Overall, the rate of MTC increase was 1.01 οC per decade for the Aegean and 1.17 οC per decade for the Ionian Sea and was positively related to sea surface temperature anomalies in both areas. For the survey data, the increase of the MTC of the bottom trawl catch in the southern Aegean Sea was lower (0.51 οC per decade but referred to a shorter time frame and included only demersal species. The change in MTC of official and survey catches indicates that the relative catch proportions of species preferring warmer waters and those preferring colder waters have changed in favour of the former and that this change is linked to sea surface temperature increase, both internally (through the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation or externally (warming trend driven.

  6. Role of catch-up campaigns in improving immunization services in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giridhara R Babu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bellary district of India had highest number of Polio cases in the world during the year 2003. This is mainly because of low level of routine immunization coverage. Successful implementation of supplementary immunization activities interrupted Polio transmission in 2003. It is important to sustain the gains made in polio immunization as well as make attempts to improve the immunization coverage against other vaccine preventable diseases. We wanted to look at the immunization coverage rates before and after the catch up campaigns to strengthen routine immunization services in this high-risk district. Aims: Our objective was to evaluate the impact of catch up campaign through estimation of immunization coverage after conclusion of catch-up campaigns in the district of Bellary. Settings and Design: The evaluation data is from a cross sectional study done in Bellary district, India by following multi stage and systematic random sampling. Materials and Methods: The study was done in three stages; In stage one, the district specific DLHS data was analyzed. In stage two; systemic issues were identified by going through immunization registers, records and identified key reasons for low vaccination coverage. In stage three, immediately after catch up immunization sessions, the coverage rates were captured using simple random sampling, and compared with DLHS data. Statistical Analysis: Data analysis was performed using SPSS Statistics 17.0 (Rel. 11.0.1 2001-SPSS Inc, R 2.11, Microsoft Excel (MS office, Version 2007, Microsoft Corporation, USA. Results: The results demonstrate that the coverage for all antigens improved due to the conduct of catch-up campaigns. Conclusions: This study compares estimates of the age-specific population immunization coverage against BCG, OPV, DPT, TT, and Measles before and after the catch up campaigns. Catch-up sessions help to address systemic issues related to routine immunization, and sustain high immunization

  7. Catch composition and management of daytime purse seine fishery on the Southern Mediterranean Sea Coast, Abu Qir Bay, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. EL-HAWEET

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to obtain precise data on the catch of the purse seine net operating at daytime from sunrise till noon in Abu Qir Bay during 1997 and 1998. Sardine, anchovy, mullet and rabbitfish were recorded as the main target fish groups. Twenty-seven species were recorded as by-catch species. Catch per unit effort was estimated to be 93 kg/day/boat. The percentage of each target species in the catch and its length frequency distribution were presented. The length range of by-catch species and the season of catch were recorded. Daytime purse seine in Abu Qir Bay is an effective method but should regulated by directing the fishing to deeper waters outside the bay rather than the inshore coastal area to conserve many economic species of this important fishery.

  8. The Crop Journal Calls for Papers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    We would like to invite you to submit your latest research accomplishments to The Crop Journal,an international,peer‐reviewed research publication covering all aspects of crop sciences including crop genetics,breeding,agronomy,crop physiology,germplasm resources,grain chemistry,grain storage and processing,crop management practices,crop biotechnology,and biomathematics on a bimonthly basis.

  9. Relationships between tuna catch and variable frequency oceanographic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormaza-González, Franklin Isaac; Mora-Cervetto, Alejandra; María Bermúdez-Martínez, Raquel

    2016-08-01

    Skipjack (Katsuwunus pelamis), yellow fin (Thunnus albacares) and albacore (Thunnus alulunga) tunas landed in the Eastern Pacific Ocean (EPO) countries and Ecuador were correlated to the Indexes Oceanic El Niño (ONI) and Multivariate Enso Index (MEI). The temporal series 1983-2012, and 1977-1999 (warm Pacific Decadal Oscillation, PDO), and 2000-2012 (cold PDO) were analyzed. Linear correlation showed that at least 11 % of the total landings were associated with the MEI, with a slightly negative gradient from cold to warm conditions. When non-linear regression (n = 6), the R2 was higher up to 0.304 (MEI, r = 0.551). The correlation shows high spread from -0.5 to +0.5 for both MEI/ONI; the highest landings occurred at 0.34-0.45; both indexes suggested that at extreme values 1.1 total landings tend to decrease. Landings were associated up to 21.9 % (MEI) in 2000-2012, 1983-1999 rendered lower R2 (conditions. For the non-linear regression (n = 6) a R2 of 0.374 (MEI) and 0.408 (ONI) were registered, for the 2000-2012, a higher R2 was observed in 1983-1999, 0.443 and 0.711 for MEI and ONI respectively, suggesting that is better to analyze split series (1983-1999, 2000-2012) than as a whole (1983-2012), due to noise produced by the transition from hot to cold PDOs. The highest landings were in the range -0.2 to 0.5 for MEI/ONI. The linear regression of skipjack landings in Ecuador gave an R2 of 0.140 (MEI) and 0.066 (ONI) and the non-linear were 0.440 and 0.183 respectively. Total landings in the EPO associated to oceanographic events of high and low frequencies could be used somehow as predictors of the high El Niño o La Niña. There is a clear evidence that tuna fish biomass are at higher levels when the PDO is on cold phase (2000-2030) and vice versa on warm phase (1980-1999). The analysis of the skipjack catch per unit effort (CPUE) on floating aggregating devices (FADs) suggests higher CPUE on FADs (around 20 mt set-1) when oceanographic indexes ONI/MEI are below

  10. A new attractant for monitoring western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis in protected crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Zayed S; Greenfield, Bethany Pj; Ficken, Katherine J; Taylor, James Wd; Wood, Martyn; Butt, Tariq M

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring of pest populations is an essential component of integrated pest management. An early warning system helps growers decide when best to take control measures, or when to alter them, should a control method prove inadequate. Studies have shown that adding chemical attractants to sticky cards can increase trap catch of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, a global pest of agriculture and horticulture, giving more accurate accounts of population size and dynamics, thus leading to more efficient monitoring. We identify a novel semiochemical to the species, (S)-(-)-verbenone, showing that addition of this compound to sticky traps significantly increased F. occidentalis catch in two geographically distinct populations, infesting two unrelated crops of global economic importance. We validate through field trials that (S)-(-)-verbenone is highly attractive to F.occidentalis and can be used with blue sticky traps to enhance trap catch, leading to better estimations of pest population densities. The compound may be used in other control methods against F.occidentalis such as lure and kill, mass trapping and push-pull. PMID:25763301

  11. GEOGLAM Crop Monitor Assessment Tool: Developing Monthly Crop Condition Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaughey, K.; Becker Reshef, I.; Barker, B.; Humber, M. L.; Nordling, J.; Justice, C. O.; Deshayes, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) developed the Global Agricultural Monitoring initiative (GEOGLAM) to improve existing agricultural information through a network of international partnerships, data sharing, and operational research. This presentation will discuss the Crop Monitor component of GEOGLAM, which provides the Agricultural Market Information System (AMIS) with an international, multi-source, and transparent consensus assessment of crop growing conditions, status, and agro-climatic conditions likely to impact global production. This activity covers the four primary crop types (wheat, maize, rice, and soybean) within the main agricultural producing regions of the AMIS countries. These assessments have been produced operationally since September 2013 and are published in the AMIS Market Monitor Bulletin. The Crop Monitor reports provide cartographic and textual summaries of crop conditions as of the 28th of each month, according to crop type. This presentation will focus on the building of international networks, data collection, and data dissemination.

  12. Synthesis of Seafood Catch, Distribution, and Consumption Patterns in the Gulf of Mexico Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steimle and Associates, Inc.

    1999-08-16

    The purpose of this task was to gather and assemble information that will provide a synthesis of seafood catch, distribution and consumption patterns for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) region. This task was part of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored project entitled ''Environmental and Economic Assessment of Discharges from Gulf of Mexico Region Oil and Gas Operations.'' Personal interviews were conducted with a total of 905 recreational fishermen and 218 commercial fishermen (inclusive of shrimpers, crabbers, oystermen and finfishermen) in Louisiana and Texas using survey questionnaires developed for the study. Results of these interviews detail the species and quantities caught, location of catch, mode of fishing, distribution of catch, family consumption patterns and demographics of the fishermen.

  13. Do North Sea cod (Gadus morhua) fisheries maintain high catch rates at low stock size?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindorf, Anna; Andersen, Bo Sølgaard

    2008-01-01

    This study presents all investigation of the relationship between stock size of North Sea cod (Gadus morhua) and catch rates in seven commercial fishing fleets. The shape of the relationship was estimated using a model allowing both density-dependent changes in catchability and bias in the assess......This study presents all investigation of the relationship between stock size of North Sea cod (Gadus morhua) and catch rates in seven commercial fishing fleets. The shape of the relationship was estimated using a model allowing both density-dependent changes in catchability and bias......, the change was insufficient to compensate for the decrease in stock size, and catch rates of all fleets decreased. Two factors that could lead to nonconstant catchability were investigated: (i) the presence of decoupling between stock size and density ill high-density areas and (ii) the presence...

  14. Synthesis of Seafood Catch, Distribution, and Consumption Patterns in the Gulf of Mexico Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this task was to gather and assemble information that will provide a synthesis of seafood catch, distribution and consumption patterns for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) region. This task was part of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored project entitled ''Environmental and Economic Assessment of Discharges from Gulf of Mexico Region Oil and Gas Operations.'' Personal interviews were conducted with a total of 905 recreational fishermen and 218 commercial fishermen (inclusive of shrimpers, crabbers, oystermen and finfishermen) in Louisiana and Texas using survey questionnaires developed for the study. Results of these interviews detail the species and quantities caught, location of catch, mode of fishing, distribution of catch, family consumption patterns and demographics of the fishermen

  15. The influence of catch trials on the consolidation of motor memory in force field adaptation tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne eFocke

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In computational neuroscience it is generally accepted that human motor memory contains neural representations of the physics of the musculoskeletal system and the objects in the environment. These representations are called internal models. Force field studies, in which subjects have to adapt to dynamic perturbations induced by a robotic manipulandum, are an established tool to analyze the characteristics of such internal models. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether catch trials during force field learning could influence the consolidation of motor memory in more complex tasks. Thereby, the force field was more than double the force field of previous studies (35 Ns/m. Moreover, the arm of the subjects was not supported. A total of forty-six subjects participated in this study and performed center-out movements at a robotic manipulandum in two different force fields. Two control groups learned force field A on day 1 and were retested in the same force field on day 3 (AA. Two test groups additionally learned an interfering force field B (=-A on day 2 (ABA. The difference between the two test and control groups, respectively, was the absence (0% or presence (19% of catch trials, in which the force field was turned off suddenly. The results showed consolidation of force field A on day 3 for both control groups. Test groups showed no consolidation of force field A (19% catch trials and even poorer performance on day 3 (0% catch trials. In conclusion, it can be stated that catch trials seem to have a positive effect on the performance on day 3 but do not trigger a consolidation process as shown in previous studies that used a lower force field viscosity with supported arm. These findings indicate that the results of previous studies in which less complex tasks were analyzed, cannot be fully transferred to more complex tasks. Moreover, the effects of catch trials in these situations are insufficiently understood and further research

  16. Cell wall proteomics of crops

    OpenAIRE

    Komatsu, Setsuko; Yanagawa, Yuki

    2013-01-01

    Cell wall proteins play key roles in cell structure and metabolism, cell enlargement, signal transduction, responses to environmental stress, and many other physiological events. Agricultural crops are often used for investigating stress tolerance because cultivars with differing degrees of tolerance are available. Abiotic and biotic stress factors markedly influence the geographical distribution and yields of many crop species. Crop cell wall proteomics is of particular importance for improv...

  17. Crop responses to climatic variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porter, John R.; Semenov, Mikhail A.

    2005-01-01

    production. However, crops can respond nonlinearly to changes in their growing conditions, exhibit threshold responses and are subject to combinations of stress factors that affect their growth, development and yield. Thus, climate variability and changes in the frequency of extreme events are important...... of adaptation possibilities for crops in response to drought and argues that characters that enable better exploration of the soil and slower leaf canopy expansion could lead to crop higher transpiration efficiency....

  18. Using continuation-ratio logits to analyze the variation of the age composition of fish catches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Trine; Gislason, Henrik; Thyregod, Poul

    2000-01-01

    Major sources of information for the estimation of the size of the fish stocks and the rate of their exploitation are samples from which the age composition of catches may be determined However, the age composition in the catches often varies as a result of several factors. Stratification...... of the sampling is desirable, because it leads to better estimates of the age composition, and the corresponding variances and covariances. The analysis is impeded by the fact that the response is ordered categorical. This paper introduces an easily applicable method to analyze such data. The method combines...

  19. Ultrasonic Approach of Rayleigh Pitch-Catch Contact Ultrasound Waves on CFRP Laminated Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    In-Young Yang; Kwang-Hee Im; Uk Heo; David K Hsu; Je-Woong Park; Hak-Joon Kim; Sung-Jin Song

    2008-01-01

    CFRP (carbon fiber reinforced plastics) composite materials have wide applicability because of their inherent design flexibility and improved material properties. However, impacted composite structures have 50%-75% less strength than undamaged structures. In this work, a CFRP composite material was nondestructively characterized in order to ensure product quality and structural integrity of CFRP and one-sided pitch-catch technique was developed to measure impacted-damaged area by using an automated-data acquisition system in an immersion tank. A pitch-catch signal was found to be more sensitive than normal incidence backwall echo of longitudinal wave under defect conditions in the composite.

  20. Effects of noise and by-catch on a Danish harbour porpoise population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob; Sibly, Richard M.; Tougaard, Jakob;

    2014-01-01

    Ships and wind turbines generate noise, which can have a negative impact on marine mammal popu- lations by scaring animals away. Effective modelling of how this affects the populations has to take account of the location and timing of disturbances. Here we construct an individual-based model of har...... on the population. Annual by-catch rates ≥10% lead to monotonously decreasing populations and to extinction, and even the esti- mated by-catch rate from the adjacent area (approximately 4.1%) has a strong impact on the population. This suggests that conservation efforts should be more focused on reducing by...

  1. Comparative performance of annual and perennial energy cropping systems under different management regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehmel, Ute Constanze

    2007-07-18

    management on quality parameters and (iv) environmentally benign crop rotation systems. Differently maturing maize varieties were grown in six different crop rotation systems (continuous maize with and without an undersown grass, maize as a main crop partially preceded by different winter catch crops and followed by winter wheat) and tested at two sites. Additional factors were sowing and/or harvest dates. Maize and cumulative biomass yields of the crop rotation systems were compared. Specific methane yield measurements were carried out to evaluate the energy performance of the tested crops. Quality was assessed either by measurements of the dry matter content or by using the near infrared reflectance spectroscopy for the determination of chemical composition. Results indicate that an environmentally benign crop rotation system requires nearly year-round soil cover to minimize nitrogen leaching. This can be achieved through the cultivation of undersown or catch crops and additional main crops alongside maize, such as winter wheat. Late maturing maize varieties can be cultivated at a site where the maize can build adequate dry matter contents due to a long growth period (late harvest date). The energy generation in terms of methane production was primarily dependent on high biomass yields. It could be further shown that the specific methane yield of maize increased with increasing starch content, digestibility and decreasing fiber content. To conclude, selected site-specific energy crops and crop rotation systems, with suitable crop management, (fertilizer and soil tillage) can produce high quality biomass and the highest net energy return. Lignocellulosic biomass can be optimized for combustion. Wet biomass is an optimal substrate for anaerobic digestion. Profitable energy production is characterized by a high land and energy use efficiency and especially high net energy yields. (orig.)

  2. 605 Salad crops: Root, bulb, and tuber Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root and tuber crops (potato, cassava, sweet potato, and yams) comprise 4 of the 10 major food staples of the world and serve as a major source of energy for the poor of developing nations. Minimal strain placed on agro ecosystems by root and tuber crops highlight their welcomed contribution to the ...

  3. Genetically Modified Crops and Labor Savings in US Crop Production

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, Justin G.; Nelson, Carl H.

    2007-01-01

    In spite of widespread adoption there is mixed evidence as to whether or not adopting Genetically Modified (GM) crops increase farm welfare. One possible reason for widespread adoption is labor savings. Using a treatment effect model we estimate the labor savings associated with adopting a GM crop.

  4. Crop Ontology: Vocabulary For Crop-related Concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matteis, L.; Chibon, P.Y.; Espinosa, H.; Skofic, M.; Finkers, H.J.; Bruskiewich, R.; Hyman, J.M.; Arnoud, E.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. A recurrent issue for data integration is the lack of a common and structured vocabulary used by different parties to describe their data sets. The Crop Ontology (www.cropontology.org) project aims to provide a central place where the crop community can gather to generate such standardized

  5. Unexpectedly high catch-and-release rates in European marine recreational fisheries: implications for science and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferter, Keno; Weltersbach, Marc Simon; Strehlow, Harry Vincent;

    2013-01-01

    Unexpectedly high catch-and-release rates in European marine recreational fisheries: implications for science and management. – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 70: .While catch-and-release (C&R) is a well-known practice in several European freshwater recreational fisheries, studies on the magnitu...

  6. 76 FR 61061 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Sub-ACL (Annual Catch...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... is 38,146 mt and 0 mt of the sub-ACL is set aside for research (75 FR 48874, August 12, 2010). The... Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Sub-ACL (Annual Catch Limit) Harvested for Management... day until January 1, 2012, when the 2012 sub-ACL (annual catch limit) for Area 3 becomes...

  7. Total catch of a red-listed marine species is an order of magnitude higher than official data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiven, Alf Ring; Olsen, Esben Moland; Vølstad, Jon Helge

    2012-01-01

    Accurate information on total catch and effort is essential for successful fisheries management. Officially reported landings, however, may be underestimates of total catch in many fisheries. We investigated the fishery for the nationally red-listed European lobster (Homarus gammarus) in south-eastern Norway. Probability-based strip transect surveys were used to count buoys in the study area in combination with catch per unit effort data obtained independently from volunteer catch diaries, phone interviews, and questionnaires. We estimate that recreational catch accounts for 65% of total catch in the study area. Moreover, our results indicate that only a small proportion (24%) of lobsters landed commercially were sold through the legal market and documented. Total estimated lobster catch was nearly 14 times higher than reported officially. Our study highlights the need for adequate catch monitoring and data collection efforts in coastal areas, presents a clear warning to resource managers that illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fisheries in coastal areas should not be ignored, and shows the potential impact of recreational fisheries. PMID:22363583

  8. Total catch of a red-listed marine species is an order of magnitude higher than official data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alf Ring Kleiven

    Full Text Available Accurate information on total catch and effort is essential for successful fisheries management. Officially reported landings, however, may be underestimates of total catch in many fisheries. We investigated the fishery for the nationally red-listed European lobster (Homarus gammarus in south-eastern Norway. Probability-based strip transect surveys were used to count buoys in the study area in combination with catch per unit effort data obtained independently from volunteer catch diaries, phone interviews, and questionnaires. We estimate that recreational catch accounts for 65% of total catch in the study area. Moreover, our results indicate that only a small proportion (24% of lobsters landed commercially were sold through the legal market and documented. Total estimated lobster catch was nearly 14 times higher than reported officially. Our study highlights the need for adequate catch monitoring and data collection efforts in coastal areas, presents a clear warning to resource managers that illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU fisheries in coastal areas should not be ignored, and shows the potential impact of recreational fisheries.

  9. 78 FR 75843 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Catch Sharing Plan for Guided Sport and Commercial Fisheries in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-12

    ... opening for the sport fishing season. However, implementation of the annual management measures in March... annual allocations and guided sport catch limits are adopted by the Commission as annual management... Part 902 50 CFR Parts 300 and 679 Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Catch Sharing Plan for Guided Sport...

  10. Catch composition of the EU pelagic fleet in Mauritania during the year 2002: results of the Scientific Observer Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, ter R.

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the total catches of the EU pelagic fleet in the Mauritanian Exclusive Economic Zone during the year 2002. Data have been obtained by the 'Scientific Observer Program', which monitors the catch (both landings and discards) of the EU fishery for small pelagics in Mauritania. The

  11. Biosolarization in garlic crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabeiro, Concepcion; Andres, Manuela; Wic, Consuelo

    2014-05-01

    One of the most important limitations of garlic cultivation is the presence of various soil pathogens. Fusarium proliferatum and Sclerotinium cepivorum and nematode Ditilenchus dipsaci cause such problems that prevent the repetition of the crop in the same field for at least 5 -8 years or soil disinfection is necessary. Chemical disinfection treatments have an uncertain future, in the European Union are reviewing their use, due to the effect on the non-pathogenic soil fauna. This situation causes a itinerant cultivation to avoid the limitations imposed by soil diseases, thereby increasing production costs. The Santa Monica Cooperative (Albacete, Spain) requested advice on possible alternative techniques, solarization and biosolarization. For which a trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness on the riverside area of the municipality. This place has recently authorized irrigation, which would allow the repeated cultivation of garlic if the incidence of soil diseases and the consequent soil fatigue could be avoided. Additionally, this work will serve to promote the cultivation of organic garlic. Last, but not least, the biosolarization technique allows to use waste from wineries, oil mills and mushroom crops. (Bello et al. 2003). The essay should serve as demonstrative proof for farmers' cooperative members. The specific objective for this first year is to assess, the effect on the global soil biota, on the final garlic production and quality and the effect of biosolarization to control soil pathogens. The trial is set on a cooperative's plot previously cultivated with corn. 5 treatments were set, defined by different amounts of organic matter applied, 7.5, 5, 2.5 kg m -2, a solarized with no organic matter, and a control without any treatment. The plot has inground sprinkler for full coverage with four sprinkler lines demarcating the five bands of differential treatment, randomly arranged. Organic matter was incorporated the August 14, 2013, then thoroughly

  12. CropSAT

    OpenAIRE

    Söderström, Mats; Stadig, Henrik; Nissen, Knud; Piikki, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Vi utvecklade CropSAT, ett webbaserat system för tillhandahållande av satellitdata över åkermarken där tilldelningsfiler kan laddas ned och användas för styrning av gödselspridare. Systemet testades under 2014 och vidareutvecklades under 2015 inom ramen för Greppa Näringen. Vår slutsats är att satellitdata som omräknats till vegetationsindexkartor kan användas i praktiken för anpassning av kvävegivan inom fält. Det är ett mycket kostnadseffektivt sätt att skapa underlag för bättre kvävehushål...

  13. Irrigation modeling with AquaCrop

    Science.gov (United States)

    AquaCrop is a crop water productivity model developed by the Land and Water Division of UN-FAO. It simulates yield response to water of herbaceous crops, and is suited to address conditions where water is a key limiting factor in crop production. AquaCrop attempts to balance accuracy, simplicity, an...

  14. Genetic Engineering and Crop Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Helen C.; Frost, S.

    1991-01-01

    With a spotlight upon current agricultural difficulties and environmental dilemmas, this paper considers both the extant and potential applications of genetic engineering with respect to crop production. The nonagricultural factors most likely to sway the impact of this emergent technology upon future crop production are illustrated. (JJK)

  15. Crop Protection in Medieval Agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zadoks, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Mediterranean and West European pre-modern agriculture (agriculture before 1600) was by necessity ‘organic agriculture’. Crop protection is part and parcel of this agriculture, with weed control in the forefront. Crop protection is embedded in the medieval agronomy text books but specialised section

  16. Project Catch: A space based solution to combat illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing. Part I: Vessel monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detsis, Emmanouil; Brodsky, Yuval; Knudtson, Peter; Cuba, Manuel; Fuqua, Heidi; Szalai, Bianca

    2012-11-01

    Space assets have a unique opportunity to play a more active role in global resource management. There is a clear need to develop resource management tools in a global framework. Illegal, Unregulated and Unreported (IUU) fishing is placing pressure on the health and size of fishing stocks around the world. Earth observation systems can provide fishery management organizations with cost effective monitoring of large swaths of ocean. Project Catch is a fisheries management project based upon the complimentary, but independent Catch-VMS and Catch-GIS systems. Catch-VMS is a Vessel Monitoring System with increased fidelity over existing offerings. Catch-GIS is a Geographical Information System that combines VMS information with existing Earth Observation data and other data sources to identify Illegal, Unregulated and Unreported (IUU) fishing. Project Catch was undertaken by 19 Masters students from the 2010 class of the International Space University. In this paper, the space-based system architecture of Project Catch is presented and analyzed. The rationale for the creation of the system, as well as the engineering trade-off studies in its creation, are discussed. The Catch-VMS proposal was envisaged in order to address two specific problems: (1) the expansion of illegal fishing to high-latitude regions where existing satellite systems coverage is an issue and (2) the lack of coverage in remote oceanic regions due to reliance on coastal-based monitoring. Catch-VMS utilizes ship-borne transponders and hosted-payload receivers on a Global Navigation Satellite System in order to monitor the position and activity of compliant fishing vessels. Coverage is global and continuous with multiple satellites in view providing positional verification through multilateration techniques. The second part of the paper briefly describes the Catch-GIS system and investigates its cost of implementation.

  17. Characterization of Catch-Up Behavior: Accession of Lecture Capture Videos Following Student Absenteeism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Newton

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of lecture capture in higher education is becoming increasingly widespread, with many instructors now providing digital videos of lecture content that can be used by students as learning resources in a variety of ways, including to catch up on material after a class absence. Despite accumulating research regarding the relationship between lecture capture and attendance, the nature of catch-up behavior following an absence has not been well characterized. This study measured attendance in relation to lecture video accesses to determine whether students catch up after missing a class, and if so, within what timeframe. Overall, it was found that 48% of absences were not associated with a corresponding lecture video access, and that when absences were caught up, the length of time taken to access the video was highly variable, with the time to the next exam being the likely determinant of when the video was viewed. Time taken to access a video was directly associated with deep learning approach score (as measured by the R-SPQ-2F. Males took significantly longer to view a corresponding lecture video after an absence than females, and missed significantly more classes than females. This study confirms that students use lecture capture variably, and that characteristics such as gender and learning approach influence lecture capture behavior including catch-up following an absence, a finding that is not unexpected given the diversity of students in higher education.

  18. 50 CFR 679.32 - Groundfish and halibut CDQ catch monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Groundfish and halibut CDQ catch monitoring. 679.32 Section 679.32 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... § 679.32, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of...

  19. 26 CFR 1.414(v)-1 - Catch-up contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...(v)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(v)-1 Catch-up contributions... applicable employer plan to comply with the universal availability requirement of section 414(v)(4)....

  20. Technology transfer and catch-up; Lessons from the commercial aircraft industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, Harm-Jan; Bruijn, de Erik J.; Heerkens, Hans

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses the technology development and technology transfer strategies in the aircraft manufacturing industry for four industrially developing countries. It is concluded from four case studies that technology catch-up is extremely difficult due to aircraft technology characteristics. Base

  1. Pilot-Testing CATCH Early Childhood: A Preschool-Based Healthy Nutrition and Physical Activity Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shreela; Chuang, Ru-Jye; Hedberg, Ann Marie

    2011-01-01

    Background: The literature on theoretically-based programs targeting healthy nutrition and physical activity in preschools is scarce. Purpose: To pilot test CATCH Early Childhood (CEC), a preschool-based nutrition and physical activity program among children ages three to five in Head Start. Methods: The study was conducted in two Head Start…

  2. A Drosera-bioinspired hydrogel for catching and killing cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shihui; Chen, Niancao; Gaddes, Erin R; Zhang, Xiaolong; Dong, Cheng; Wang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    A variety of bioinspired materials have been successfully synthesized to mimic the sophisticated structures or functions of biological systems. However, it is still challenging to develop materials with multiple functions that can be performed synergistically or sequentially. The purpose of this work was to demonstrate a novel bioinspired hydrogel that can interact with cancer cells, functionally similar to Drosera in catching and killing prey. This hydrogel had two layers with the top one functionalized with oligonucleotide aptamers and the bottom one functionalized with double-stranded DNA. The results show that the top hydrogel layer was able to catch target cells with high efficiency and specificity, and that the bottom hydrogel layer could sequester doxorubicin (Dox) for sustained drug release. Importantly, the released Dox could kill 90% of the cells after 1-h residence of the cells on the hydrogel. After the cell release, this bifunctional hydrogel could be regenerated for continuous cell catching and killing. Therefore, the data presented in this study has successfully demonstrated the potential of developing a material system with the functions of attracting, catching and killing diseased cells (e.g., circulating tumor cells) or even invading microorganisms (e.g., bacteria). PMID:26396063

  3. Affirmative Action in Higher Education in India: Targeting, Catch Up, and Mismatch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisancho, Veronica; Krishna, Kala

    2016-01-01

    Using detailed data on the 2008 graduating class from an elite engineering institution in India, we evaluate the impact of affirmative action policies in higher education focusing on three issues: targeting, catch up, and mismatch. We find that admission preferences effectively target minority students who are poorer than average displaced…

  4. Why are prices in wild catch and aquaculture industries so different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villasante, Sebastián; Rodríguez-González, David; Antelo, Manel; Rivero-Rodríguez, Susana; Lebrancón-Nieto, Joseba

    2013-12-01

    Through a comparative analysis of prices in capture fisheries and aquaculture sectors, the objectives of this paper are a) to investigate three the trends in prices of forage catches to feed the aquaculture species, b) to analyze the amount of fish species need to feed aquaculture species in order to assess the level of efficiency in resource use, and c) to examine the degree of economic concentration either in wild-catch industry and aquaculture sectors. The results show that prices of cultivated species are higher than prices of the same species when harvested from the sea. We explain this fact by the interplay of three forces. First, the amount of wild fish to feed aquaculture species continues to improve over time. Second, the pressure of fishing activities has not been reduced since catches of most forage fishes are declining, which induce higher prices of capture species that feed aquaculture production. Third, the level of seafood market concentration is significantly higher in aquaculture than in wild catches, which generates higher prices in aquaculture.

  5. TRADITIONAL WISDOM WITH THE FOREST DWELLERS OF GUJARAT STATE FOR PLANT BASED FISH CATCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. PARMAR*1, A. R. BADHEKA1 AND B. K. JAIN2

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the traditional wisdom of the forest dwellers on plant based fish catch. Scientific names, local names, family, plant parts used and modes of administration of 17 plant species used as fish toxicants have been discussed in the present paper. The data presented here are outcome of various field excursions made during past twenty months.

  6. Fish catches from Lake Tanganyika mainly reflect changes in fishery practices, not climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarvala, J.; Langenberg, V.T.; Salonen, K.; Chitamwebwa, D.; Coulter, G.W.; Huttula, T.; Kanyaru, R.; Kotilainen, P.; Makasa, S.; Mulimbwa, N.; Molsa, H.

    2006-01-01

    Recently it was claimed that an increase in regional temperature, related to global climate change, has resulted in substantial decline in the pelagic fish catches from Lake Tanganyika, East Africa. Surface temperatures of Tanganyika indeed show warming trends, but evidence for decreased productivit

  7. Solid-phase oligosaccharide synthesis with tris(alkoxy)benzyl amine (BAL) safety-catch anchoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolborg, Jakob Fjord; Jensen, Knud Jørgen

    2000-01-01

    A tris(alkoxy)benzylamine (BAL) handle strategy was developed for safety-catch anchoring of D-glucosamine derivatives in solid-phase synthesis of oligosaccharides; the linkage between the BAL handle and the amine proved stable to conc. TFA and Lewis acids, but after N-acylation the amide could...

  8. Library of biphenyl privileged substructures using a safety-catch linker approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severinsen, Rune; Bourne, Gregory T; Tran, Tran T;

    2008-01-01

    A biphenyl privileged structure library containing three attachment points were synthesized using a catechol-based safety-catch linker strategy. The method requires the attachment of a bromo-acid to the linker, followed by a Pd-catalyzed Suzuki cross-coupling reaction. Further derivatization...

  9. Designing I*CATch: A Multipurpose, Education-Friendly Construction Kit for Physical and Wearable Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngai, Grace; Chan, Stephen C. F.; Leong, Hong Va; Ng, Vincent T. Y.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the design and development of i*CATch, a construction kit for physical and wearable computing that was designed to be scalable, plug-and-play, and to provide support for iterative and exploratory learning. It consists of a standardized construction interface that can be adapted for a wide range of soft textiles or electronic…

  10. To Catch a Thief with a Recognition Test: The Model and Some Empirical Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakover, Sam S.; Cahlon, Baruch

    1989-01-01

    A technique and mathematical model--the "Catch Model"--for identifying a face previously seen are presented. Three experiments, involving a total of 38 American and 30 Israeli college students, supported the model for identification of a target face. Practical implications are discussed. (SLD)

  11. Downstream collecting in ciliary suspension feeders: the catch-up principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Nielsen, Claus; Larsen, Poul Scheel

    2000-01-01

    Based on observations of feeding structures and currents in the polychaete Spirorbis tridentatus, the entoproct Loxosoma pectinaricola and the cycliophore Symbion pandora, which all possess compound cilia, it is hypothesized that their capture mechanism is based on the catch-up principle. Accordi...

  12. 50 CFR 648.53 - Target total allowable catch, DAS allocations, and individual fishing quotas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... allocations, and individual fishing quotas. 648.53 Section 648.53 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION... Target total allowable catch, DAS allocations, and individual fishing quotas. (a) Target total allowable... include the TAC for all scallop vessels fishing in open areas and Sea Scallop Access Areas, but...

  13. Australian Children Catch the Bug: Motivating Young Children to Engage in Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Beryl

    2007-01-01

    Concerned by a report that a number of seven-year-olds in their school were at risk for literacy difficulties, a team of teachers devised a low-budget program to promote reading at school and at home. After researching reading motivation, two of the authors conceived a catch phrase, a mascot, and gimmicks, including all-school activities, to…

  14. 75 FR 9157 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Alaska Region Scale and Catch Weighing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... requirements address performance standards designed to ensure that all catch delivered to the processor is... series of design criteria. Because of the wide variations in factory layout for inshore processors, NMFS... Community Development Quota Program (CDQ) catcher/processors, American Fisheries Act (AFA)...

  15. 75 FR 55305 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Social Impacts of the Implementation of a Catch...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-10

    ... future assessments of fishermen and cover (1) Participation in sectors and the management process, (2... Conservation and Management Act (16 U.S.C. 1801 et seq.). The required information is used to evaluate the... the relative impacts of different management measures. Catch shares are being highly encouraged as...

  16. 75 FR 59057 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations, Cotton Crop Insurance Provisions and Macadamia Nut Crop...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... March 30, 2010 (75 FR 15778-15891). Need for Correction As published, the final regulation contained... Provisions and Macadamia Nut Crop Insurance Provisions; Correction AGENCY: Federal Crop Insurance Corporation... make corrections relating to the insurance of cotton and macadamia nuts that published March 30,...

  17. Muskie Lunacy: does the lunar cycle influence angler catch of muskellunge (Esox masquinongy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R Vinson

    Full Text Available We analyzed angling catch records for 341,959 muskellunge (Esox masquinongy from North America to test for a cyclic lunar influence on the catch. Using periodic regression, we showed that the number caught was strongly related to the 29-day lunar cycle, and the effect was consistent across most fisheries. More muskellunge were caught around the full and new moon than at other times. At night, more muskellunge were caught around the full moon than the new moon. The predicted maximum relative effect was ≈5% overall. Anglers fishing exclusively on the peak lunar day would, on average, catch 5% more muskellunge than anglers fishing on random days. On some lakes and at night, the maximum relative effect was higher. We obtained angler effort data for Wisconsin, Mille Lacs (MN, and Lake Vermilion (MN. For Lake Vermilion there was a significant effect of the lunar cycle on angler effort. We could therefore not conclude that the lunar effect on catch was due to an effect on fish behavior alone. Several factors affected the amount of variation explained by the lunar cycle. The lunar effect was stronger for larger muskellunge (>102 cm than for smaller fish, stronger in midsummer than in June or October, and stronger for fish caught at high latitudes (>48°N than for fish caught further south. There was no difference in the lunar effect between expert and novice muskellunge anglers. We argue that this variation is evidence that the effect of the lunar cycle on catch is mediated by biological factors and is not due solely to angler effort and reflects lunar synchronization in feeding. This effect has been attributed to variation among moon phases in lunar illumination, but our results do not support that hypothesis for angler-caught muskellunge.

  18. Physiological response of some economically important freshwater salmonids to catch-and-release fishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedemeyer, G.A.; Wydoski, R.S.

    2008-01-01

    Catch-and-release fishing regulations are widely used by fishery resource managers to maintain both the quantity and quality of sport fish populations. We evaluated blood chemistry disturbances in wild brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, brown trout Salmo trutta, cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii, and Arctic grayling Thymallus arcticus that had been hooked and played for 1-5 min in waters of the intermountain western United States. A hatchery stock of brown trout was included for comparison. To assess time needed for recovery, additional test groups were played for 5 min and then released into net-pens, where they were held for up to 72 h. The osmoregulatory and metabolic disturbances associated with catch-and-release fishing under the conditions we tested were minimal and judged to be well within normal physiological tolerance limits. In fish that were held for recovery, the blood chemistry alterations that did occur appeared to be related to stress from confinement in the net-pens. Our results confirm the results of previous studies, showing that prerelease air exposure and handling cause more physiological stress than does either hooking per se or playing time. Fishery managers must be aware of the differences in the perceptions, attitudes, and values of different societal groups, some of which feel that catch-and-release fishing should be banned because it is cruel to the animals. On the basis of brain anatomy, it seems highly unlikely that fish experience pain in the same manner as humans experience it, because fish lack a neocortex, the brain structure that enables the sensation of pain in higher vertebrates. However, independent of the neurobiological argument, our results indicate that under conditions similar to those tested, fish subjected to catch and release are neither suffering nor particularly stressed. Improved education programs about the relatively benign physiological effects of catch-and-release fishing as a fishery management practice would

  19. Catch-Up Growth of Children After Renal Transplantation - Labafi-Nejad Hospital (1998-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Otukesh

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children with coronary renal failure had problems with their catch-up growth. The aim of this study was the Assessment of catch-up growth of children after renal transplantation by analyzing the 6 months changes in height deficit and height standard deviation scores (SDS on age, sex, initial height deficit, initial SDS, graft function, renal failure duration and renal transplantation duration. Methods and Materials: Between 22 September 1998 and 2000, 25 pediatric recipients followed up quarterly for height in the Labafi-Nejad hospital. Data on height submitted at each 6-month follow-up were converted into height and SDS. All the results were analyzed by simple and multiple regression and t-test. Results: 68 percents were male and 32 percent were female Mean age at transplantation was 10.39±2.95 SD years. The average duration of renal transplantation was 20.7±8.96 SD months. The aerage of height deficit was 20.7 cm (±10.55 SD and SDS -3.5 (±1.72 SD at the time of renal transplantation. The height deficit was more significant in the patients with tubulopathy. Catch-up growth observed at month 12. That was more obvious in females, in patients with tubulopathy disorders, in preemptives and in all three age groups. Simple and stepwise regression analysis showed that at month 12 only initial height deficit (P<0.05 and at month 24, only sex (P<0.05 were independent predictor of improved height post transplantation. Catch-up growth were seen in more student patients and girls. This may be the result of puberty spurt that occur two years sooner in girls than in boys. Conclusion: In this study we concluded that the renal transplantation alone is not sufficient measure for correction of catch-up growth in renal failure children and because of that the other treatments should come under consideration.

  20. The impact of escaped farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. on catch statistics in Scotland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren M Green

    Full Text Available In Scotland and elsewhere, there are concerns that escaped farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. may impact on wild salmon stocks. Potential detrimental effects could arise through disease spread, competition, or inter-breeding. We investigated whether there is evidence of a direct effect of recorded salmon escape events on wild stocks in Scotland using anglers' counts of caught salmon (classified as wild or farmed and sea trout (Salmo trutta L.. This tests specifically whether documented escape events can be associated with reduced or elevated escapes detected in the catch over a five-year time window, after accounting for overall variation between areas and years. Alternate model frameworks were somewhat inconsistent, however no robust association was found between documented escape events and higher proportion of farm-origin salmon in anglers' catch, nor with overall catch size. A weak positive correlation was found between local escapes and subsequent sea trout catch. This is in the opposite direction to what would be expected if salmon escapes negatively affected wild fish numbers. Our approach specifically investigated documented escape events, contrasting with earlier studies examining potentially wider effects of salmon farming on wild catch size. This approach is more conservative, but alleviates some potential sources of confounding, which are always of concern in observational studies. Successful analysis of anglers' reports of escaped farmed salmon requires high data quality, particularly since reports of farmed salmon are a relatively rare event in the Scottish data. Therefore, as part of our analysis, we reviewed studies of potential sensitivity and specificity of determination of farmed origin. Specificity estimates are generally high in the literature, making an analysis of the form we have performed feasible.

  1. Effects of agricultural management on productivity, soil quality and climate change mitigation - evaluations within the EU Project (FP 7) CATCH-C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Heide; Schlatter, Norman; Haslmayr, Hans-Peter; Baumgarten, Andreas; ten Berge, Hein

    2014-05-01

    Soils are the main basis for the production of food and feed. Furthermore, the production of biomass for energy and material use is becoming increasingly important. Goals for an optimal management of agricultural soils are, on the one hand, the maintenance or improvement of soil quality and, on the other hand, high productivity and climate change mitigation (reduction of GHG emissions and C sequestration). Thus, the EU project CATCH-C aims to evaluate current management practices concerning these three goals based on indicators derived from long-term field experiments of the project partners and from literature data. A maximum of 72 indicators for productivity, soil quality and the potential for carbon storage in the soil and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions were selected by the project partners. As indicators for productivity, crop yields are determined in almost all field trials. The content of soil organic carbon (SOC) is an indicator for chemical, physical and biological soil quality and was analysed in the topsoil in all field trials. Less data exist for SOC contents in the subsoil. An important physical soil quality indicator is the bulk density, however, it is not determined in all field trials of the project partners. Therefore, information on SOC stocks, with relevance to carbon storage and climate change mitigation, is not available in all field experiments. Other physical indicators, such as penetration resistance, runoff coefficient and soil losses are evaluated. Essential biological indicators are microbial biomass and the number and weight of earthworms, which have been tested in several field trials. The evaluation of all these indicators will help to select "best management practices" and to address trade-offs and synergies for all indicators under consideration of major European farm type zones. CATCH-C is funded within the 7th Framework Programme for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration, Theme 2 - Biotechnologies

  2. Genetically modified food crops and public health

    OpenAIRE

    Acosta Orlando; Chaparro Giraldo Alejandro

    2009-01-01

    The progress made in plant biotechnology has provided an opportunity to new food crops being developed having desirable traits for improving crop yield, reducing the use of agrochemicals and adding nutritional properties to staple crops. However, genetically modified (GM) crops have become a subject of intense debate in which opponents argue that GM crops represent a threat to individual freedom, the environment, public health and traditional economies. Despite the advances in food crop agric...

  3. Recycling crop residues for use in recirculating hydroponic crop production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackowiak, C. L.; Garland, J. L.; Sager, J. C.

    1996-01-01

    As part of bioregenerative life support feasibility testing by NASA, crop residues are being used to resupply elemental nutrients to recirculating hydroponic crop production systems. Methods for recovering nutrients from crop residues have evolved from water soaking (leaching) to rapid aerobic bioreactor processing. Leaching residues recovered the majority of elements but it also recovered significant amounts of soluble organics. The high organic content of leachates was detrimental to plant growth. Aerobic bioreactor processing reduced the organic content ten-fold, which reduced or eliminated phytotoxic effects. Wheat and potato production studies were successful using effluents from reactors having with 8- to 1-day retention times. Aerobic bioreactor effluents supplied at least half of the crops elemental mass needs in these studies. Descriptions of leachate and effluent mineral content, biomass productivity, microbial activity, and nutrient budgets for potato and wheat are presented.

  4. Evaluation of the impact of various agricultural practices on nitrate leaching under the root zone of potato and sugar beet using the STICS soil-crop model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jégo, G; Martínez, M; Antigüedad, I; Launay, M; Sanchez-Pérez, J M; Justes, E

    2008-05-15

    The quaternary aquifer of Vitoria-Gasteiz (Basque Country, Northern Spain) is characterised by a shallow water table mainly fed by drainage water, and thus constitutes a vulnerable zone in regards to nitrate pollution. Field studies were performed with a potato crop in 1993 and a sugar beet crop in 2002 to evaluate their impact on nitrate leaching. The overall predictive quality of the STICS soil-crop model was first evaluated using field data and then the model was used to analyze dynamically the impacts of different crop management practices on nitrate leaching. The model was evaluated (i) on soil nitrate concentrations at different depths and (ii) on crop yields. The simulated values proved to be in satisfactory agreement with measured values. Nitrate leaching was more pronounced with the potato crop than with the sugar beet experiment due to i) greater precipitation, ii) lower N uptake of the potato crop due to shallow root depth, and iii) a shorter period of growth. The potato experiment showed that excessive irrigation could significantly increase nitrate leaching by increasing both drainage and nitrate concentrations. The different levels of N-fertilization examined in the sugar beet study had no notable effects on nitrate leaching due to its high N uptake capacity. Complementary virtual experiments were carried out using the STICS model. Our study confirmed that in vulnerable zones agricultural practices must be adjusted, that is to say: 1) N-fertilizer should not be applied in autumn before winter crops; 2) crops with low N uptake capacity (e.g. potatoes) should be avoided or should be preceded and followed by nitrogen catch crops or cover crops; 3) the nitrate concentration of irrigation water should be taken into account in calculation of the N-fertilization rate, and 4) N-fertilization must be precisely adjusted in particular for potato crops.

  5. Rice: The First Crop Genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Scott A

    2016-12-01

    Rice was the first sequenced crop genome, paving the way for the sequencing of additional and more complicated crop genomes. The impact that the genome sequence made on rice genetics and breeding research was immediate, as evidence by citations and DNA marker use. The impact on other crop genomes was evident too, particularly for those within the grass family. As we celebrate 10 years since the completion of the rice genome sequence, we look forward to new empowering tool sets that will further revolutionize research in rice genetics and breeding and result in varieties that will continue to feed a growing population. PMID:27003180

  6. Oil crops: Status and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The worldwide expansion in the production of oil crops, the increase of the production of edible vegetable oils and of oil cake or meal in the past 50 years is presented. It is noted also that the imports of edible oil increased markedly, especially in developing countries. Plant breeding efforts have been the key to the tremendous increase in the production of oil crops. The need to devote more research and development efforts to the wide range of oil crops, to domesticate and develop species which can serve as new sources for existing or new requirements is emphasized. 9 refs, 7 tabs

  7. Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): spatial relationship between trap catch and distance from a source of emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbogast, Richard T; Chini, Shahpar R; McGovern, Jeffrey E

    2005-04-01

    The Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), was selected as a representative stored-product moth to test the validity of contour mapping of trap catch for pest monitoring in warehouses and retail stores. Three experiments, each replicated five times, were conducted in a 3.2 by 9.0-m aluminum shed. Each experiment involved placing pupae at a single release point (source) and recording the numbers of emerging adult males captured after 24, 48, and 72 h in each of four pheromone-baited sticky traps. The experiments differed only with respect to the point of release. Distribution of trap catch reflected the general distribution of moths in the shed; and consecutive contour maps tracked their dispersal from the source. As emergence and dispersal progressed, cumulative trap catch increased throughout the shed, but it remained highest near the source. The observed spatial patterns of trap catch relative to sources of infestation and the inverse relationship of trap catch to distance from a source support the validity of contour mapping as a means of monitoring stored-product moths and locating foci of infestation. The relationship between trap catch and distance from a source of infestation was well described by two-parameter exponential decay, both in P. interpunctella and in the previously studied Lasioderma serricorne (F.). Analysis of data from retail pet stores also showed exponential decline in trap catch of P. interpunctella with distance from centers of infestation.

  8. Effect of crop (wheat) height and crop covered soil moisture on microwave scattering for remote sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Dharmendra; Yamaguchi, Yoshio; Yamada, Hiroyoshi; Singh, K.P.; Saran, S.K.

    2000-01-01

    An outdoor observation has been carried out for response of crop (wheat) height and crop covered soil moisture on microwave by an X- band scatterometer. Penetration of microwave into crop depends upon crop covered soil moisture, moisture content in crop, density of the crop, crop height and frequency of incident wave. When crop is green (wet) and lust i.e. the moisture content in the crop is height, the penetration depth is low. But, when crop is dry (i.e. fruit filling stage), the moistu...

  9. Stretching the truth: length data highlight falsification of Japanese sperm whale catch statistics in the Southern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivashchenko, Yulia V.

    2016-01-01

    Falsification of reports on Japanese catches of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) is known to have occurred at both land whaling stations and in North Pacific factory fleets. Here, we conduct an analysis of pelagic sperm whale catches in the Southern Hemisphere: we compare true Soviet length data from the Yuri Dolgorukiy factory fleet during 1960–1975 to data for the same period reported to the International Whaling Commission (IWC) by Japan. Prior to implementation of the International Observer Scheme (IOS) in 1972, the Soviet fleet killed 5536 females, of which only 153 (2.8%) were at or above the minimum legal length of 11.6 m. During the same period, Japan killed 5799 females and reported that 5686 (98.5%) were of legal size, with 88.5% of the entire length distribution reported as being between 11.6 and 12.0 m. This unrealistic distribution, together with the fact that Japanese fleets were supposedly able to catch 37 times the number of legal-sized females as the Soviet fleet, indicates extensive falsification of catch data by Japan. Further evidence of misreporting is that females >11.5 m dropped to 9.1% of the Japanese catch after 1971, when the IOS made cheating much more difficult. That 99.6% of 10 433 males in the pre-IOS catch were also reported to be of legal size, indicates that illegal catches were not confined to females. We caution that the Japanese sperm whale data in the IWC Catch Database are unreliable and should not be used in population assessments. The ease with which illegal catches were apparently made underscores the past failures of the IWC to effectively regulate whaling. PMID:27703712

  10. Crop rotation modelling - A European model intercomparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kollas, Chris; Kersebaum, Kurt C; Nendel, Claas;

    2015-01-01

    Diversification of crop rotations is considered an option to increase the resilience of European crop production under climate change. So far, however, many crop simulation studies have focused on predicting single crops in separate one-year simulations. Here, we compared the capability of fifteen...... sound representation of crop rotations, further research is required to synthesise existing knowledge of the physiology of intermediate crops and of carry-over effects from the preceding to the following crop, and to implement/improve the modelling of processes that condition these effects....... crop growth simulation models to predict yields in crop rotations at five sites across Europe under minimal calibration. Crop rotations encompassed 301 seasons of ten crop types common to European agriculture and a diverse set of treatments (irrigation, fertilisation, CO2 concentration, soil types...

  11. Plant senescence and crop productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Per L.; Culetic, Andrea; Boschian, Luca;

    2013-01-01

    Senescence is a developmental process which in annual crop plants overlaps with the reproductive phase. Senescence might reduce crop yield when it is induced prematurely under adverse environmental conditions. This review covers the role of senescence for the productivity of crop plants...... plants, the expression of the IPT gene under control of senescence-associated promoters has been the most successful. The promoters employed for senescence-regulated expression contain cis-elements for binding of WRKY transcription factors and factors controlled by abscisic acid. In most crops...... transformed with such constructs the stay-green character has led to increased biomass, but only in few cases to increased seed yield. A coincidence of drought stress resistance and stay-green trait is observed in many transgenic plants....

  12. Shore-angling catches in the Tsitsikamma National Park, 1989-1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hanekom

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Catch card returns completed by visitors and locals angling in the fishing area of the Tsitsikamma National Park between 1991 and 1995, as well as results of scientific fishing in the whole park between 1989 and 1991 were analysed. Species composition, catch per unit effort (cpue and seasonality were determined. Seventy-six percent of the 1 147 catch cards suitable for analysis were submitted by visiting anglers, who caught a total of 1 638 fish weighing approximately 1 522 kg during 4 654 angler-hours. This was almost double the 948 fish, weighing about 611 kg, landed during 1 863 angler-hours by local anglers. A total of 709 fish weighing 774 kg was recorded during the 461 scientific fishing angler- hours. The mean annual cpue of visitors was lower than that of locals (35 @ 1 SE vs. 55 @ 3 SE fish/I 00 angler-hours, while the cpue recorded during the sci- entific fishing throughout the park was 154 fish/100 angler-hours. Species most frequently caught by visitors were Sarpa salpa (22.6 , Amblyrhynchotes honckenii (19.6 and Diplodus sargus capensis (6.7 , while the catches of locals were dominated by S. salpa (36.7 , Boopsoidea inornata (21.8 and Pomatomus saltatrix (10.4 . Outside the open fishing area scientific catches were dominated by D. sargus capensis (20 , Cheimerius nufar (13 , Pachymetopon grande (9 and Dichistius capensis (6 . Fewer than 2.5 of the bony fish caught in the fishing area weighed more than 3 kg. Catch rates of most species varied seasonally, with the overall cpue of both visitors and locals peaking between October and April. The cpue in the fishing area of the park was at least 2.5 times lower than that recorded in the De Hoop Nature Reserve and Terrace Bay in the Skeleton Coast National Park. However, the cpue recorded during scientific fishing throughout the Tsitsikamma National Park compared favourably with that recorded in other protected areas.

  13. Site-adapted optimization of the cultivation of energy crops for biogas plants. Initial results and prospects of the FNR-subsidized multi-partner project; Standortangepasste Optimierung des Anbaus von Energieplanzen fuer Biogasanlagen. Erste Ergebnisse und Perspektiven des von der FNR gefoerderten Verbundprojektes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetter, A.; Goedeke, K.; Nehring, A. [Thueringer Landesanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The use of biomass as renewable energy source is on the increase, driven by the rising price of oil, measures to reduce the emission of carbon dioxide and favorable general political conditions. In addition to wood as heat source, rapeseed and cereal crops as feedstock for power plants of the first generation, mainly so called wet line crops, i.e., silage for biogas generation and fuels of the second generation can gain in importance dramatically. The generation of biogas from liquid manure and renewable primary products has seen a virtual boom after the amendment of the Renewable Energies Act (EEG) in 2004. The technology allowance also introduced at that time is responsible for the present expansion of dry fermentation exclusively based on renewable primary products. The current favorite among feedstock substrates is corn. Cultivation, maintenance, harvest and silage are common practice for this crop, which is rich in biomass. Experience is extensive and the method proven. There is no need for changes of crop rotation, corn cultivation is established. In addition to corn, any type of biomass, except lignified types, can be used for biogas production. This makes the spectrum of potential candidates wide. The choice of crops should be guided by financial and ecological considerations. The latter is of interest in as far as weeds and grasses can be tolerated in the crop stand as long as they have no negative effect on the yields or the technological sequence of substrate preparation and fermentation. In the final instance, the farmer will pick the crop according to the net revenue he can earn from the yield per unit of area, the cost per unit of energy and the way he can fit it into the normal practice of his farm. After the reform of the EU's agrarian policy in 2005, the bonus system improved the financial rating, e.g., of perennial field forage crops, winter catch crops, etc. in comparison with corn. In addition to this, new crops, e.g., Sudan grass, sweet

  14. Chlorophyll Degradation in Horticultural Crops

    OpenAIRE

    Kaewsuksaeng, Samak

    2011-01-01

    One of the symptoms of senescence in harvested horticultural crops is the loss of greenness that comes with the degradation of chlorophyll. With senescence, the chlorophyll-degrading enzyme activities such as chlorophyllase, Mg-dechelatase or Mg-dechelation activity, a new chlorophyll-degrading enzyme, pheophytinase, pheophorbidase and chlorophyll-degrading peroxidase, which are involved in chlorophyll degradation, affected greatly in stored horticultural crops. The chlorophyll derivatives, e...

  15. Crop physiology calibration in CLM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Bilionis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Farming is using more terrestrial ground, as population increases and agriculture is increasingly used for non-nutritional purposes such as biofuel production. This agricultural expansion exerts an increasing impact on the terrestrial carbon cycle. In order to understand the impact of such processes, the Community Land Model (CLM has been augmented with a CLM-Crop extension that simulates the development of three crop types: maize, soybean, and spring wheat. The CLM-Crop model is a complex system that relies on a suite of parametric inputs that govern plant growth under a given atmospheric forcing and available resources. CLM-Crop development used measurements of gross primary productivity and net ecosystem exchange from AmeriFlux sites to choose parameter values that optimize crop productivity in the model. In this paper we calibrate these parameters for one crop type, soybean, in order to provide a faithful projection in terms of both plant development and net carbon exchange. Calibration is performed in a Bayesian framework by developing a scalable and adaptive scheme based on sequential Monte Carlo (SMC.

  16. Effectiveness of catch basins equipped with hoods in retaining gross solids and hydrocarbons in highway runoff, Southeast Expressway, Boston, Massachusetts, 2008-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2011-01-01

    Stormwater mobilizes litter and other debris along the roadway where it is transported to the highway drainage systems. Initial treatment for stormwater runoff typically is provided by catch basins in highway settings. Modification of catch basins to include hoods that cover the catch-basin outlet is intended to enhance catch-basin performance by retaining floatable debris and various hydrophobic organic compounds that tend to float on the water surface within the sump of the catch basin. The effectiveness of six deep-sump off-line catch basins equipped with hoods in reducing the mass of gross solids greater than 0.25 inches in diameter and concentrations of oil and grease (OG) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was examined along the Southeast Expressway, in Boston, Massachusetts. Two deep-sump catch basins were equipped with cast-iron hoods. Three were equipped with molded plastic hoods, known as an Eliminator, and a single catch basin was equipped with a fiberglass anti-siphoning hood, known as a Snout. Samples of gross solids greater than 0.25 inches in diameter, excluding gravel and metallic materials, were routinely collected for a 6-month period from a collection structure mounted at the end of each catch-basin outlet pipe. After about 6 months, all floatable, saturated low-density and high-density solids were removed from each catch basin. In addition to the collection of samples of gross solids, samples of sump water from five catch basins and flow-weighted composite samples of stormwater from the outlet of one catch basin were collected and analyzed for concentrations of OG and TPH. A mass balance approach was used to assess the effectiveness of each catch basin equipped with a hood in retaining gross solids. The effectiveness of the deep-sump catch basins fitted with one of three types of hoods in retaining gross solids ranged from 27 to 52 percent. From 45 to 90 percent of the gross solids collected from the catch-basin sumps were composed of

  17. Development of new concepts for escape windows to minimise cod catches in Norway lobster fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Niels; Frandsen, Rikke; Holst, René;

    2010-01-01

    particularly on moving the window further back, gaining more stability in the codend to avoid loss of Norway lobster through the window, making a relatively narrow section where the window is located, and testing larger mesh sizes in the window. We designed a four panel sorting section—the sorting box......—where a 300 mm window is placed at the top section at about 3–6 m from the codline. Acoustic release technology was used to avoid catch loss during gear retrieval. Sea trials were conducted in the Skagerrak and Kattegat from a commercial trawler. The sorting box yielded a high reduction of the cod catch......Gear selectivity with regard to cod (Gadus morhua) needs to be improved in the Kattegat and Skagerrak Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) fishery. One way to achieve this goal is to improve the selectivity of an escape window (henceforth window) in the gear. Our gear development focused...

  18. A preliminary survey of whale shark Rhincodon typus catch and trade in China: an emerging crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W; Wang, Y; Norman, B

    2012-04-01

    This study gives an account of spatial and temporal distribution of whale shark Rhincodon typus catch events in China on the basis of historical records and information obtained from interviews with fishing industry stakeholders. A total of 186 R. typus were recorded with key harvest areas identified as in Hainan and Zhejiang, and the peak catching seasons were May to June and September to October. Aspects of the R. typus trade are discussed, including products, markets and the process. The results suggest that R. typus is increasingly becoming a targeted resource in China as a consequence of fierce competition for large shark fins and an emerging local market for consumption of all body parts. Current obstacles and potential measures for sustainable exploitation and trade of R. typus are discussed.

  19. Catch-slip bonds can be dispensable for motor force regulation during skeletal muscle contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chenling; Chen, Bin

    2015-07-01

    It is intriguing how multiple molecular motors can perform coordinated and synchronous functions, which is essential in various cellular processes. Recent studies on skeletal muscle might have shed light on this issue, where rather precise motor force regulation was partly attributed to the specific stochastic features of a single attached myosin motor. Though attached motors can randomly detach from actin filaments either through an adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis cycle or through "catch-slip bond" breaking, their respective contribution in motor force regulation has not been clarified. Here, through simulating a mechanical model of sarcomere with a coupled Monte Carlo method and finite element method, we find that the stochastic features of an ATP hydrolysis cycle can be sufficient while those of catch-slip bonds can be dispensable for motor force regulation.

  20. A preliminary survey of whale shark Rhincodon typus catch and trade in China: an emerging crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W; Wang, Y; Norman, B

    2012-04-01

    This study gives an account of spatial and temporal distribution of whale shark Rhincodon typus catch events in China on the basis of historical records and information obtained from interviews with fishing industry stakeholders. A total of 186 R. typus were recorded with key harvest areas identified as in Hainan and Zhejiang, and the peak catching seasons were May to June and September to October. Aspects of the R. typus trade are discussed, including products, markets and the process. The results suggest that R. typus is increasingly becoming a targeted resource in China as a consequence of fierce competition for large shark fins and an emerging local market for consumption of all body parts. Current obstacles and potential measures for sustainable exploitation and trade of R. typus are discussed. PMID:22497400

  1. Alternatives to crop residues for soil amendment

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, J.M.; Unger, P.W.

    1997-01-01

    Metadata only record In semiarid agroecosystems, crop residues can provide important benefits of soil and water conservation, nutrient cycling, and improved subsequent crop yields. However, there are frequently multiple competing uses for residues, including animal forage, fuel, and construction material. This chapter discusses the various uses of crop residues and examines alternative soil amendments when crop residues cannot be left on the soil.

  2. A Robust and Cost-Efficient Design of Lightweight Rockfall Catch Fences for Railways

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Budairi, Hassan; Gao, Zhiwei

    2016-01-01

    Trains and railway infrastructure are subjected to serious potential hazards from detached falling rock(s) in mountain regions worldwide. This can lead to severe damages, casualties and significant delays. In 2011, a rockfall event at Stromeferry bypass in Scotland caused 4 month railway closure that led to a negative impact on local businesses and the repair work cost was £3.2 million. Rock catch fences are widely used in protecting roads, railways and infrastructure from rockfall hazards...

  3. When is it Fuel Efficient for a Heavy Duty Vehicle to Catch Up With a Platoon?

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Kuo-Yun; Mårtensson, Jonas; Johansson, Karl Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Vehicle platooning has in recent years become an important research eld for thevehicle industry. By establishing a platoon of heavy duty vehicles, the fuel consumption can bereduced for the follower vehicles due to the slipstream eect. However, as vehicles are scatteredon the road driving by themselves, coordination amongst the vehicles is required. In this paperwe study the problem of when it is benecial for a heavy duty vehicle to drive faster in orderto catch up and join a platoon. We deri...

  4. Application of the upper lip catch test for airway evaluation in edentulous patients: An observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Zahid Hussain Khan; Shahriar Arbabi; Mir Saeed Yekaninejad; Ramooz Hussain Khan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Application of upper lip catch test (ULCT) for airway evaluation in edentulous patients. Methods: This research is an evaluation of a clinical diagnostic test in edentulous patients prior to operation. Five hundred eighty eight edentulous patients in a referral university hospital, between March 2008 and June 2011 scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia were enrolled. Those unable to open the mouth and those with pharyngo-laryngeal pathology were excluded. ULCT was...

  5. A Drosera-bioinspired hydrogel for catching and killing cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Shihui Li; Niancao Chen; Gaddes, Erin R.; Xiaolong Zhang; Cheng Dong; Yong Wang

    2015-01-01

    A variety of bioinspired materials have been successfully synthesized to mimic the sophisticated structures or functions of biological systems. However, it is still challenging to develop materials with multiple functions that can be performed synergistically or sequentially. The purpose of this work was to demonstrate a novel bioinspired hydrogel that can interact with cancer cells, functionally similar to Drosera in catching and killing prey. This hydrogel had two layers with the top one fu...

  6. Stranding and incidental catch of sea turtles in the coastal Tumbes, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Rosales

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Strandings and incidental catches of four sea turtles species (Chelonia mydas, Lepidochelys olivacea, Dermochelys coriacea and Eretmochelys imbricata were registered in Tumbes Region since August 2007 to August 2009. These registers (52.6% of strandings and 47.4% of incidental catches occurred during all year; most frequently in Punta Picos (50.5%, Canoas (20.0% and Baja de Punta Mero (14.7%. The most registered species were C. mydas (64.2% and L. olivacea (30.5%; their sizes did not present significant differences between areas and climatic seasons. The higher percentage of C. mydas, L. olivacea and D. coriacea were considered sub-adults, including the only specimen of E. imbricata. The incidental catches were made with gillnets of different mesh sizes, but 8 inches mesh was most frequently. A high proportions of specimens were died with signs of drowning (22.2% this was due to the prolonged time of soak time of gillnet (approximately 12 hours. No significant differences in CPUE were found between climatic seasons and no seasonal pattern was evident. Lesions in 14% of stranded specimens were caused possibly by human attacks or by collisions with fishing boats. 77.8% of incidental catch specimens were sacrificed for the commercialization of his meat, and sometimes of his shell, this shows the lack of awareness of conservation. These observations indicate that the coast of Tumbes is an important foraging area and development of sub-adult specimens of sea turtles; so it is recomend to develop monitoring, awareness and critical areas protection programs to foment the conservation of these organisms in the Eastern Pacific.

  7. Big catch, little sharks: Insight into Peruvian small-scale longline fisheries

    OpenAIRE

    Doherty, Philip D; Alfaro-Shigueto, Joanna; David J Hodgson; Mangel, Jeffrey C; Witt, Matthew J; Godley, Brendan J.

    2014-01-01

    Shark take, driven by vast demand for meat and fins, is increasing. We set out to gain insights into the impact of small-scale longline fisheries in Peru. Onboard observers were used to document catch from 145 longline fishing trips (1668 fishing days) originating from Ilo, southern Peru. Fishing effort is divided into two seasons: targeting dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus; December to February) and sharks (March to November). A total of 16,610 sharks were observed caught, with 11,166 identi...

  8. ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF SOUTHEAST EUROPE: CATCHING-UP CONTINUES, BUT ACCESSION PROSPECTS UNCERTAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Hunya

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Southeastern Europe has only a modest deceleration of economic growth in 2005. Thus its catching-up process continues. A deterioration of the already high current account deficit is a major concern. Monetary policy is usually insufficient to deal with the problem and the exchange rate regimes are set mainly to combat inflation. Fiscal tightening is the usual policy response even if the budget deficit is low.

  9. Knowledge Economy Gaps, Policy Syndromes and Catch-up Strategies: Fresh South Korean Lessons to Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Simplice A. Asongu

    2014-01-01

    Africa’s overall knowledge index fell between 2000 and 2009. South Korea’s economic miracle is largely due to a knowledge-based development strategy that holds valuable lessons for African countries in their current pursuit towards knowledge economies. Using updated data (1996-2010), this paper presents fresh South Korean lessons to Africa by assessing the knowledge economy (KE) gaps, deriving policy syndromes and providing catch-up strategies. The 53 African frontier countries are decomposed...

  10. Long-term Trends in Catch Composition from Elasmobranch Derbies in Elkhorn Slough, California

    OpenAIRE

    Carlisle, Aaron

    2007-01-01

    Long-term trends in the elasmobranch assemblage of Elkhorn Slough, Monterey Bay, California, were analyzed by documenting species composition and catch per unit effort (CPUE) from 55 sport fishing derbies that occurred during May, June, and July, from 1951 until 1995. The most abundant species (bat ray, Myliobatis californica; shovelnose guitarfish, Rhinobatos productus; and leopard shark, Triakis semifasciata) were also analyzed for size-weight relationships, trends in size class distributio...

  11. Catching-Up, Crisis and Industrial Upgrading. Evolutionary Aspects of Technological Learning in Korea's Electronics Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ernst, Dieter

    1998-01-01

    This paper addresses a puzzle: How is it possible that a country that has established a broad, export-oriented industrial base at record speed, remains vulnerable to the vicissitudes of international finance and currency markets? I argue that the Korean model that was tremendously successful for catching-up, has now reached its limits. The analysis centers on the co-evolution of industry structure and firm behavior. The focus is on the role of technological learning for the dev...

  12. Diurnal variation in bottom trawl survey catches: does it pay to adjust?

    OpenAIRE

    Hjellvik, Vidar; Godø, Olav Rune; Tjøstheim, Dag

    2001-01-01

    The diurnal bias of bottom trawl survey catches is studied with the purpose of adjusting for it and thereby improving the accuracy of abundance estimates. The correction term is estimated with uncertainty and thus increases the variance of the resulting abundance estimate. To investigate this adequately, we use a stochastic model describing diurnal fluctuations and examine the annual variation of the diurnal amplitude as a function of species and length. The diurnal amplitude is f...

  13. Energetic Basis of Correlation Between Catch-Up Growth, Health Maintenance, and Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Chen; Bolt, Kendra M.; Bergman, Aviv

    2011-01-01

    Catch-up growth, referring to infants with low birth weight reaching or exceeding normal body weight later in life, is negatively correlated to adult health outcome and life span. Life history theories have suggested that there exist trade-offs between early development and later health maintenance, but detailed mechanisms and the currency of the trade-off are unclear. In this paper, we present a general theoretical model for quantitatively elucidating the trade-off between growth rate and he...

  14. Employment Assimilation of Immigrants in the Netherlands: Catching Up and the Irrelevance of Education

    OpenAIRE

    Zorlu, Aslan; Hartog, Joop

    2008-01-01

    Using two Dutch labour force surveys, employment assimilation of immigrants is examined. We observe marked differences between immigrants by source country. Non-western immigrants never reach parity with native Dutch. Even second generation immigrants never fully catch up. Caribbean immigrants, who share a colonial history with the Dutch, assimilate relatively quick compared to other non-western immigrants but they still suffer from high unemployment. The study also documents that the quality...

  15. Incentivising selective fishing under catch quotas: using an FCube modelling approach to evaluate management options for North Sea mixed fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Condie, Harriet M.; Dolder, Paul J.; Catchpole, Thomas L.;

    Reforms of EU Common Fisheries Policy will make fundamental changes to European fisheries management, including a discard ban with catch quotas for regulated species and management to achieve MSY. We evaluate the impact of these changes on revenue of North Sea demersal finfish fleets and fish...... stocks. With no change in behaviour, revenue is reduced by a mean of 31% compared to current management in the first year, but partly recovers by year 3, as fishing mortality is reduced and stocks increase. There are large differences in revenue changes between fleets, varying from -99% to +36...... in revenue create a strong incentive to avoid catching the limiting species, particularly if it is not a primary target. Selectivity changes that avoid 30% cod catch reduced the economic impact for some fleets in moving to catch quotas. Increased flexibility will therefore be important in maintaining...

  16. Trends in trawl and purse seine catch rates in the north-eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. MACHIAS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Data on fishing effort expressed in vessel days at sea and corresponding landing/day for a large number of species have been collected by the Institute of Marine Biological Resources (IMBR since the second half of 1995. Data were collected over a grid of 21 stations throughout the Greek seas. In the present study we analyzed the monthly days at sea as well as catch per day for trawlers and purse seiners from 1996 to 2000, by general linear models and trend analysis. The following vessel size groups per gear were considered: (a trawlers smaller and larger than 20m; (b purse-seiners smaller and larger than 15m. Collected data were also aggregated for five fishing sub-areas: the North Aegean, the Central Aegean, the South Aegean, Cretan waters and the Ionian Sea. Trend analysis of landing/day time series indicated that demersal and pelagic resources are declining in the main fishing grounds. Declining landing/day trends are regarded as indicators of overfishing, especially in the light of the fact that high catch rates are maintained by fishing in ‘hot spots’. The results of the present analysis provide, for the first time, important information on the sustainability of the fisheries in the north-eastern Mediterranean, an area characterized by a complete lack of accurate long-term data on effort and catch per effort

  17. Paper Fish and Policy Conflict: Catch Shares and Ecosystem-Based Management in Maine's Groundfishery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer F. Brewer

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration professes support for ecosystem-based fisheries management, as mandated by Congress in the Fishery Conservation and Management Act, and as endorsed by the Obama Administration's national ocean policy. Nonetheless, driving agency policies, including catch shares and fishing quotas, focus principally on individual species, diverting attention from ecosystem considerations such as habitat, migratory patterns, trophic relationships, fishing gear, and firm-level decision making. Environmental non-governmental organization (ENGO agendas manifest similar inconsistencies. A case study of Maine's groundfishery demonstrates implications of this policy conflict at the local level. There, multigenerational fishing villages have historically pursued diversified and adaptive livelihood strategies, supported by local ecological knowledge. This tradition is increasingly eroded by regulatory constraints, including catch shares. Field observation, interviews, survey data, and archival review reveal that industry-supported, ecosystem-focused proposals have been rejected by the New England Fishery Management Council, despite the apparent failure of single-species approaches to sustain fish populations, fished ecosystems, and fishing-dependent communities. The creation of groundfishery catch share sectors is likely to perpetuate industry consolidation and political entrenchment under more mobile capital, following precedent set by days-at-sea, and making area protections and gear restrictions less likely. Pending marine spatial planning efforts could enhance social–ecological resilience by creating new opportunities for transdisciplinary decision support, and broader public participation and accountability.

  18. Genetic Evidence Highlights Potential Impacts of By-Catch to Cetaceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Martin; Rosenbaum, Howard C.; Wells, Randall S.; Stamper, Andrew; Bordino, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    Incidental entanglement in fishing gear is arguably the most serious threat to many populations of small cetaceans, judging by the alarming number of captured animals. However, other aspects of this threat, such as the potential capture of mother-offspring pairs or reproductive pairs, could be equally or even more significant but have rarely been evaluated. Using a combination of demographic and genetic data we provide evidence that i) Franciscana dolphin pairs that are potentially reproductive and mother-offspring pairs form temporal bonds, and ii) are entangled simultaneously. Our results highlight potential demographic and genetic impacts of by-catch to cetacean populations: the joint entanglement of mother-offspring or reproductive pairs, compared to random individuals, might exacerbate the demographic consequences of by-catch, and the loss of groups of relatives means that significant components of genetic diversity could be lost together. Given the social nature of many odontocetes (toothed cetaceans), we suggest that these potential impacts could be rather general to the group and therefore by-catch could be more detrimental than previously considered. PMID:21179542

  19. CATCH: A Cloud-based Adaptive Data Transfer Service for HPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monti, Henri [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Butt, Ali R [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Modern High Performance Computing (HPC) applications process very large amounts of data. A critical research challenge lies in transporting input data to the HPC center from a number of distributed sources, e.g., scientific experiments and web repositories, etc., and offloading the result data to geographically distributed, intermittently available end-users, often over under-provisioned connections. Such end-user data services are typically performed using point-to-point transfers that are designed for well-endowed sites and are unable to reconcile the center's resource usage and users delivery deadlines, unable to adapt to changing dynamics in the end-to-end data path and are not fault-tolerant. To overcome these inefficiencies, decentralized HPC data services are emerging as viable alternatives. In this paper, we develop and enhance such distributed data services by designing CATCH, a Cloud-based Adaptive data Transfer serviCe for HPC. CATCH leverages a bevy of cloud storage resources to orchestrate a decentralized data transport with fail-over capabilities. Our results demonstrate that CATCH is a feasible approach, and can help improve the data transfer times at the HPC center by as much as 81.1% for typical HPC workloads.

  20. Allosteric role of the large-scale domain opening in biological catch-binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereverzev, Yuriy V.; Prezhdo, Oleg V.; Sokurenko, Evgeni V.

    2009-05-01

    The proposed model demonstrates the allosteric role of the two-domain region of the receptor protein in the increased lifetimes of biological receptor/ligand bonds subjected to an external force. The interaction between the domains is represented by a bounded potential, containing two minima corresponding to the attached and separated conformations of the two protein domains. The dissociative potential with a single minimum describing receptor/ligand binding fluctuates between deep and shallow states, depending on whether the domains are attached or separated. A number of valuable analytic expressions are derived and are used to interpret experimental data for two catch bonds. The P-selectin/P-selectin-glycoprotein-ligand-1 (PSGL-1) bond is controlled by the interface between the epidermal growth factor (EGF) and lectin domains of P-selectin, and the type 1 fimbrial adhesive protein (FimH)/mannose bond is governed by the interface between the lectin and pilin domains of FimH. Catch-binding occurs in these systems when the external force stretches the receptor proteins and increases the interdomain distance. The allosteric effect is supported by independent measurements, in which the domains are kept separated by attachment of another ligand. The proposed model accurately describes the experimentally observed anomalous behavior of the lifetimes of the P-selectin/PSGL-1 and FimH/mannose complexes as a function of applied force and provides valuable insights into the mechanism of catch-binding.

  1. Pink bollworm moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) catches in the Imperial Valley, California from 1989 to 2003

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG-CHI CHU; ERIC T.NATWICK; RAUL LE(O)N L(O)PEZ; JOLENE R.DESSERT; THOMAS J.HENNEBERRY

    2006-01-01

    We examined the patterns of male pink bollworm (PBW),Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders),moth catches in gossyplure-baited traps over a 15-year period from 1989 to 2003 in the Imperial Valley,California,USA. Monitoring was conducted during periods when different pink bollworm areawide control strategies were being used. Numbers of male pink bollworm moths caught in gossyplure-baited traps progressively decreased each year from 1990 to 1994 during short-season cotton production. High numbers of male moths caught in traps from 1995 to 1997 may have been related to moth migrations from the large cotton acreages grown in the Mexicali Valley bordering the Imperial Valley. Transgenic Bollgard(R) (Bt) cotton was planted in 3% of the cotton area in 1996 and thereafter in 80%-94% of the cotton area from 1997 to 2003. Pink bollworm moth trap catches were significantly lower from 1998 to 2003 than catches in 1995 to 1997,except for 1999. The trapping results suggested that Bt cotton had significant input on reduction of pink bollworm populations,confirming results of other investigators and providing additional documentation on the benefits of the Bt cotton culture.

  2. Test Plan for Measuring Ventilation Rates and Combustible Gas Levels in TWRS Active Catch Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NGUYEN, D.M.

    2000-03-01

    The purpose of this data collection activity is to obtain data for a screening of combustible gases in catch tanks that are currently operated by the River Protection Project (RPP). The results will be used to support closure of the flammable gas unreviewed safety question for these facilities. The data collection will be conducted in accordance with the ''Tank Safety Screening Data Quality Objective'' (Dukelow et al. 1995). Combustible gas, ammonia, and organic vapor levels in the headspace of the catch tanks will be field-measured using hand-held instruments. If a combustible gas level measurement in a tank exceeds an established threshold, vapor grab samples (i.e., Hoke and SUMMA) will be collected for laboratory analysis. In addition, ventilation rates of some catch tanks will be determine using the tracer gas injection method to evaluate removal of flammable gas by air flowing through the tanks. This test plan identifies the field tests, sample collection, laboratory analysis, quality assurance, and reporting objectives for this data collection effort. The plan also provides step-by-step direction for field measurement of combustible gas concentrations and determination of ventilation rates.

  3. Test Plan for Measuring Ventilation Rates and Combustible Gas Levels in TWRS Active Catch Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this data collection activity is to obtain data for a screening of combustible gases in catch tanks that are currently operated by the River Protection Project (RPP). The results will be used to support closure of the flammable gas unreviewed safety question for these facilities. The data collection will be conducted in accordance with the ''Tank Safety Screening Data Quality Objective'' (Dukelow et al. 1995). Combustible gas, ammonia, and organic vapor levels in the headspace of the catch tanks will be field-measured using hand-held instruments. If a combustible gas level measurement in a tank exceeds an established threshold, vapor grab samples (i.e., Hoke and SUMMA) will be collected for laboratory analysis. In addition, ventilation rates of some catch tanks will be determine using the tracer gas injection method to evaluate removal of flammable gas by air flowing through the tanks. This test plan identifies the field tests, sample collection, laboratory analysis, quality assurance, and reporting objectives for this data collection effort. The plan also provides step-by-step direction for field measurement of combustible gas concentrations and determination of ventilation rates

  4. Test Plan for Measuring Ventilation Rates and Combustible Gas Levels in TWRS Active Catch Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this data collection activity is to obtain data for a screening of combustible gases in catch tanks that are currently operated by the River Protection Project (RPP). The results will be used to support closure of the flammable gas unreviewed safety question for these facilities. The data collection will be conducted in accordance with the ''Tank Safety Screening Data Quality Objective'' (Dukelow et a1 1995). Combustible gas, ammonia, and organic vapor levels in the headspace of the catch tanks will be field-measured using hand-held instruments. If a combustible gas level measurement in a tank exceeds an established threshold, vapor grab samples will be collected for laboratory analysis. In addition, ventilation rates of some catch tanks will be determined using the tracer gas injection method to evaluate removal of flammable gas by air flowing through the tanks. This test plan identifies the field tests, sample collection, laboratory analysis, quality assurance, and reporting objectives for this data collection effort. The plan also provides step by-step direction for field measurement of combustible gas concentrations and determination of ventilation rates

  5. Test Plan for Measuring Ventilation Rates and Combustible Gas Levels in RPP Active Catch Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this sampling activity is to obtain data to support an initial evaluation of potential hazards due to the presence of combustible gas in catch tanks that are currently operated by the River Protection Project (RPP). Results of the hazard analysis will be used to support closure of the flammable gas unreviewed safety question for these facilities. The data collection will be conducted in accordance with the Tank Safety Screening Data Quality Objective (Dukelow et al. 1995). Combustible gas, ammonia, and organic vapor levels in the headspace of the catch tanks will be field-measured using hand-held instruments. If a combustible gas level measurement in a tank exceeds an established threshold, gas samples will he collected in SUMMA' canisters for more extensive laboratory analysis. In addition, ventilation rates of some catch tanks will be measured to evaluate removal of flammable gas by air flowing through the tanks. This test plan identifies the sample collection, laboratory analysis, quality assurance, and reporting objectives for this data collection effort. The plan also provides the procedures for field measurement of combustible gas concentrations and ventilation rates

  6. Duration of activity of the microbial larvicide VectoLex CG (Bacillus sphaericus) in Illinois catch basins and waste tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, J P; Novak, R J

    1999-09-01

    The duration of activity of a formulation of Bacillus sphaericus, VectoLex CG, for control of Culex species was evaluated in 338 catch basins in Urbana, IL, and compared to Altosid in 346 catch basins in Champaign, IL. The activity of VectoLex in car and truck waste tires was evaluated in a tire dump located in Pembroke Township, IL. In catch basins, 1 g of VectoLex per catch basin gave the same control as one Altosid briquet. Both larvicides were effective against Culex sp. in catch basins for 1 month, and the duration of control with VectoLex lasted 44 days in one catch basin. VectoLex was considerably cheaper to apply than Altosid briquets, at 0.64 cents per catch basin compared to 90.75 cents, respectively. However, the Altosid briquets were judged to be easier to apply from a vehicle than VectoLex granules. VectoLex (22.6 kg) was used to treat approximately 6,000 car and truck tires; some of the tires were in direct sunlight whereas others were shaded. Aedes triseriatus was the dominant species in these tires. Tires treated with VectoLex contained significantly fewer mosquitoes than control tires, and even 65 days after application, control tires were 16.7 times more likely to contain larvae. We conclude that VectoLex was effective when used in Illinois catch basins and tire dumps, and emphasize that it is more appropriate to base tire treatment rates on the total number of tires present than on a kilogram per hectare basis.

  7. On Farm Agronomic and First Environmental Evaluation of Oil Crops for Sustainable Bioenergy Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Spugnoli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Energy crops, and in particular oil crops, could be an important occasion for developing new non food production rows for a new multi-functional agriculture in Italy. In this view, the use of local biomass is a fundamental starting point for the development of a virtuous energy chain that should pursue not only agricultural profitability, but also chain sustainability and that is less dependent on the global market, characterized by instability in terms of biomass availability and price. From this perspective, particular attention must be paid to crop choice on the basis of its rusticity and of its adaptability to local growing conditions and to low input cropping systems. In this context, alike woody and herbaceous biomasses, oil crops such as sunflower and rapeseed should be able to support local agricultural bioenergy chain in Italy. In addition, in a local bioenergy chain, the role of the farmers should not be limited just to grain production; but also grain processing should be performed at farm or consortium level in oilseed extraction plants well proportioned to the cropped surface. In this way, by means of a simple power generator, farmer could thus produce its own thermal and electric energy from the oil, maximizing his profit. This objective could also be achieved through the exploitation of the total biomass, including crop residues and defatted seed meals, that may be considered as fundamental additional economic and/or environmental benefits of the chain. This paper reports some results of three-years on-farm experiments on oil crop chain carried out in the framework of “Bioenergie” project, that was focused to enhance farmers awareness of these criteria and to the feasibility at open field scale of low-input cultivation of rapeseed, sunflower and Brassica carinata in seven Italian regions. In several on-farm experiences, these crops produced more than 800 kg ha-1 of oil with good energy properties. Defatted seed meals could be

  8. On Farm Agronomic and First Environmental Evaluation of Oil Crops for Sustainable Bioenergy Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Lazzeri

    Full Text Available Energy crops, and in particular oil crops, could be an important occasion for developing new non food production rows for a new multi-functional agriculture in Italy. In this view, the use of local biomass is a fundamental starting point for the development of a virtuous energy chain that should pursue not only agricultural profitability, but also chain sustainability and that is less dependent on the global market, characterized by instability in terms of biomass availability and price. From this perspective, particular attention must be paid to crop choice on the basis of its rusticity and of its adaptability to local growing conditions and to low input cropping systems. In this context, alike woody and herbaceous biomasses, oil crops such as sunflower and rapeseed should be able to support local agricultural bioenergy chain in Italy. In addition, in a local bioenergy chain, the role of the farmers should not be limited just to grain production; but also grain processing should be performed at farm or consortium level in oilseed extraction plants well proportioned to the cropped surface. In this way, by means of a simple power generator, farmer could thus produce its own thermal and electric energy from the oil, maximizing his profit. This objective could also be achieved through the exploitation of the total biomass, including crop residues and defatted seed meals, that may be considered as fundamental additional economic and/or environmental benefits of the chain. This paper reports some results of three-years on-farm experiments on oil crop chain carried out in the framework of “Bioenergie” project, that was focused to enhance farmers awareness of these criteria and to the feasibility at open field scale of low-input cultivation of rapeseed, sunflower and Brassica carinata in seven Italian regions. In several on-farm experiences, these crops produced more than 800 kg ha-1 of oil with good energy properties. Defatted seed meals could be

  9. Structural basis for a hand-like site in the calcium sensor CatchER with fast kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ying; Reddish, Florence; Tang, Shen; Zhuo, You; Wang, Yuan-Fang [Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Yang, Jenny J. [Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Weber, Irene T., E-mail: iweber@gsu.edu [Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    High-resolution crystal structures of the designed calcium sensor CatchER revealed snapshots of calcium and gadolinium ions binding within the designed site in agreement with its fast kinetics. Calcium ions, which are important signaling molecules, can be detected in the endoplasmic reticulum by an engineered mutant of green fluorescent protein (GFP) designated CatchER with a fast off-rate. High resolution (1.78–1.20 Å) crystal structures were analyzed for CatchER in the apo form and in complexes with calcium or gadolinium to probe the binding site for metal ions. While CatchER exhibits a 1:1 binding stoichiometry in solution, two positions were observed for each of the metal ions bound within the hand-like site formed by the carboxylate side chains of the mutated residues S147E, S202D, Q204E, F223E and T225E that may be responsible for its fast kinetic properties. Comparison of the structures of CatchER, wild-type GFP and enhanced GFP confirmed that different conformations of Thr203 and Glu222 are associated with the two forms of Tyr66 of the chromophore which are responsible for the absorbance wavelengths of the different proteins. Calcium binding to CatchER may shift the equilibrium for conformational population of the Glu222 side chain and lead to further changes in its optical properties.

  10. The scope and structure of the production and catch of fish in Serbia in the period from 2006. to 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish represents a significant source of animal proteins in the diet of people in a large part of the world. The market in Serbia is supplied from its own production (carp and trout fish ponds and catch from open waters. However, the largest part of the fish on the market is imported. Average area under carp fish ponds from 2006. to 2012. was 8,417 hektars, and under trout fish ponds was 49,900 square meters. Average annual production of carp fish species in this period was 7,228 tons, and of trout was 923 tons. In open waters of Serbia, the catch (from both professional and sport fishing is averagely 3,745 tons of fish. The biggest catch of fish in open waters refers to goldfish, then carp and bream, while lower catch refers to white bighead. The objective of this investigation was to determine the scope and structure of fish catch and production in Serbia from 2006. to 2012. The data on fish catch and production were taken from Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31011

  11. AMMA-CATCH studies in the Sahelian region of West-Africa: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebel, Thierry; Cappelaere, Bernard; Galle, Sylvie; Hanan, Niall; Kergoat, Laurent; Levis, Samuel; Vieux, Baxter; Descroix, Luc; Gosset, Marielle; Mougin, Eric; Peugeot, Christophe; Seguis, Luc

    2009-08-01

    SummaryThe African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) is an international and interdisciplinary experiment designed to investigate the interactions between atmospheric, oceanic and terrestrial systems and their joint controls on tropical monsoon dynamics in West Africa. This special issue reports results from a group of AMMA studies regrouped in the component " Couplage de l'Atmosphère Tropicale et du Cycle Hydrologique" (CATCH). AMMA-CATCH studies focus on measuring and understanding land surface properties and processes in West Africa, the role of terrestrial systems in altering boundary layer dynamics, and thus the potential that surface hydrology and biology, and human land use practices, may directly or indirectly affect monsoon dynamics and rainfall in the region. AMMA-CATCH studies focus on three intensively instrumented mesoscale sites in Mali, Niger and Benin that sample across the 100-1300 mm/annum rainfall gradient of the Sahel, Sudan and North-Guinean bioclimatic zones. Studies report on: (i) surface-boundary layer interactions that may influence atmospheric convergence and convective processes and thus rainfall type, timing and amount; (ii) vegetation dynamics at seasonal to decadal time-scales that may respond to, and alter, atmospheric processes; (iii) surface-atmosphere fluxes of heat, water and carbon dioxide that directly influence the atmosphere; (iv) soil moisture variability in space and time that provide the proximate control on vegetation activity, evapotranspiration and energy balance; and (v) local and mesoscale modeling of hydrology and land surface-atmosphere exchanges to assess their role in the hydrological, atmospheric and rainfall dynamics of West Africa. The AMMA-CATCH research reported in this issue will be extended in future years as measurements and analysis continue and are concluded within the context of both CATCH and the wider AMMA study. This body of research will contribute to an improved understanding of the

  12. Faba bean in cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen Jensen, Erik; Peoples, Mark B.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    The grain legume (pulse) faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is grown world-wide as a protein source for food and feed. At the same time faba bean offers ecosystem services such as renewable inputs of nitrogen (N) into crops and soil via biological N2 fixation, and a diversification of cropping systems. Even...... though the global average grain yield has almost doubled during the past 50 years the total area sown to faba beans has declined by 56% over the same period. The season-to-season fluctuations in grain yield of faba bean and the progressive replacement of traditional farming systems, which utilized...... legumes to provide N to maintain soil N fertility, with industrialized, largely cereal-based systems that are heavily reliant upon fossil fuels (=N fertilizers, heavy mechanization) are some of the explanations for this decline in importance. Past studies of faba bean in cropping systems have tended...

  13. Space Technology for Crop Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    McDonnell Douglas came up with a new method of drying agricultural crops derived from vacuum chamber technology called MIVAC, a compression of microwave vacuum drying system. A distant cousin of the home microwave oven, MIVAC dries by means of electrically- generated microwaves introduced to a crop-containing vacuum chamber. Microwaves remove moisture quickly and the very low pressure atmosphere in the chamber permits effective drying at much lower than customary temperatures. Thus energy demand is doubly reduced by lower heat requirement and by the shorter time electric power is needed.

  14. Compositions comprising lignosulfonates for crop protection and crop improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, L.H.; Kok, C.J.; Krieken, van der W.M.

    2009-01-01

    International patent application number: WO2004067699http://www.wipo.int/patentscope/search/en/WO2004067699 (EN)The invention relates to a composition for protecting an agricultural crop against external threats, such as weeds, pathogens, abiotic and biotic stresses and/or for improving the quality

  15. Connecting Groundwater, Crop Price, and Crop Production Variability in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, A.; Lobell, D. B.; Jain, M.

    2015-12-01

    Farmers in India rely on groundwater resources for irrigation and production of staple crops that provide over half of the calories consumed domestically each year. While this has been a productive strategy in increasing agricultural production and maintaining high yields, groundwater resources are depleting at a quicker rate than natural resources can replace. This issue gains relevance as climate variability concurrently adds to yearly fluctuations in farmer demand for irrigation each year, which can create high risk for farmers that depend on consistent yields, but do not have access to dwindling water resources. This study investigates variability in groundwater levels from 2005 to 2013 in relation to crop prices and production by analyzing district-level datasets made available through India's government. Through this analysis, we show the impact of groundwater variability on price variability, crop yield, and production during these years. By examining this nine-year timescale, we extend our analysis to forthcoming years to demonstrate the increasing importance of groundwater resources in irrigation, and suggest strategies to reduce the impact of groundwater shortages on crop production and prices.

  16. A probabilistic model framework for evaluating year-to-year variation in crop productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokozawa, M.; Iizumi, T.; Tao, F.

    2008-12-01

    Most models describing the relation between crop productivity and weather condition have so far been focused on mean changes of crop yield. For keeping stable food supply against abnormal weather as well as climate change, evaluating the year-to-year variations in crop productivity rather than the mean changes is more essential. We here propose a new framework of probabilistic model based on Bayesian inference and Monte Carlo simulation. As an example, we firstly introduce a model on paddy rice production in Japan. It is called PRYSBI (Process- based Regional rice Yield Simulator with Bayesian Inference; Iizumi et al., 2008). The model structure is the same as that of SIMRIW, which was developed and used widely in Japan. The model includes three sub- models describing phenological development, biomass accumulation and maturing of rice crop. These processes are formulated to include response nature of rice plant to weather condition. This model inherently was developed to predict rice growth and yield at plot paddy scale. We applied it to evaluate the large scale rice production with keeping the same model structure. Alternatively, we assumed the parameters as stochastic variables. In order to let the model catch up actual yield at larger scale, model parameters were determined based on agricultural statistical data of each prefecture of Japan together with weather data averaged over the region. The posterior probability distribution functions (PDFs) of parameters included in the model were obtained using Bayesian inference. The MCMC (Markov Chain Monte Carlo) algorithm was conducted to numerically solve the Bayesian theorem. For evaluating the year-to-year changes in rice growth/yield under this framework, we firstly iterate simulations with set of parameter values sampled from the estimated posterior PDF of each parameter and then take the ensemble mean weighted with the posterior PDFs. We will also present another example for maize productivity in China. The

  17. Higher US crop prices trigger little area expansion so marginal land for biofuel crops is limited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By expanding energy biomass production on marginal lands that are not currently used for crops, food prices increase and indirect climate change effects can be mitigated. Studies of the availability of marginal lands for dedicated bioenergy crops have focused on biophysical land traits, ignoring the human role in decisions to convert marginal land to bioenergy crops. Recent history offers insights about farmer willingness to put non-crop land into crop production. The 2006-09 leap in field crop prices and the attendant 64% gain in typical profitability led to only a 2% increase in crop planted area, mostly in the prairie states. At this rate, a doubling of expected profitability from biomass crops would expand cropland supply by only 3.2%. Yet targets for cellulosic ethanol production in the US Energy Independence and Security Act imply boosting US planted area by 10% or more with perennial biomass crops. Given landowner reluctance to expand crop area with familiar crops in the short run, large scale expansion of the area in dedicated bioenergy crops will likely be difficult and costly to achieve. - Highlights: → Biofuel crops on cropland can displace food crops, reducing food supply and triggering indirect land use. → Growing biofuel crops on non-crop marginal land avoids these problems. → But US farmers expanded cropland by only 2% when crop profitability jumped 64% during 2006-09. → So medium-term availability of marginal lands for biofuel crops is limited and costly.

  18. Herbaceous energy crops: planning for a renewed commitment. [Hay, silage, rapeseed, sugar and starch crops, hydrocarbon crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, B.J.; Cushman, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    In 1984, the US Department of Energy's Biomass Energy Technology Division (BETD) began a new program of research on the production of herbaceous crops for energy. In addition to the new Herbaceous Energy Crops (HEC) Program, ongoing BETD programs involve woody and aquatic energy crops. The goal of the HEC Program is to provide the technology base that will allow industry to develop commercially viable species and systems in order to produce herbaceous biomass for fuels and energy feedstocks. The program will concentrate on crop types that can contribute the most to energy supplies while minimizing the impact of producing energy from crops on food production and the environment. Research in the HEC Program will focus on crops suitable for marginal croplands and on winter crops that can be grown between plantings of conventional crops. 1 table.

  19. Artisanal Green Turtle, Chelonia mydas, fishery of Caribbean Nicaragua: I. Catch rates and trends, 1991-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia J Lagueux

    Full Text Available This is the first assessment of catch rates for the legal, artisanal green turtle, Chelonia mydas, fishery in Caribbean Nicaragua. Data were collected by community members, monitoring up to 14 landing sites from 1991 to 2011. We examined take levels, and temporal and spatial variability in catch rates for the overall fishery, by region, and community using General Additive Mixed Models (GAMMs. More than 171,556 green turtles were killed during the period, with a mean estimated minimum 8,169±2,182 annually. There was a statistically significant decline in catch rates overall. Catch rates peaked in 1997 and 2002, followed by a downward trend, particularly from mid-2008 to the end of the study period. Similar downward trends were evident in both study regions. Community specific catch rate trends also indicated declines with decreases ranging from 21% to 90%. Decrease in catch rates in Nicaragua is cause for concern even though the principal source rookery at Tortuguero, Costa Rica, shows an increase in nesting activity. Explanations for the apparent discrepancy between the increasing trend at Tortuguero and decreasing catch rate trends in Nicaragua include: i an increase in reproductive output, ii insufficient time has passed to observe the impact of the fishery on the rookery due to a time lag, iii changes in other segments of the population have not been detected since only nesting activity is monitored, iv the expansive northern Nicaragua foraging ground may provide a refuge for a sufficient portion of the Tortuguero rookery, and/or v a larger than expected contribution of non-Tortuguero rookeries occurring in Nicaragua turtle fishing areas. Our results highlight the need for close monitoring of rookeries and in-water aggregations in the Caribbean. Where consumptive use still occurs, nations sharing this resource should implement scientifically based limits on exploitation to ensure sustainability and mitigate impacts to regional population

  20. Crop protection in organic agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letourneau, D.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.

    2006-01-01

    The authors describe pests and diseases and their management in organic versus conventional agriculture. Also two case studies are described: 1. Pest and pathogen regulation in organic versus conventional cereal crops in Europe and 2. Pest and pathogen regulation in organic versus conventional tomat

  1. Biodiversity: Building blocks for crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    An increasing global population will require more efficient food production. By year 2025, we will need 20-24% increases in yields of crops to meet the projected increase in food, fiber, and bioenergy demand from the global population. The competition to use limited land and sometimes compromised ...

  2. Economic impact of GM crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Graham; Barfoot, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A key part of any assessment of the global value of crop biotechnology in agriculture is an examination of its economic impact at the farm level. This paper follows earlier annual studies which examined economic impacts on yields, key costs of production, direct farm income and effects, and impacts on the production base of the four main crops of soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. The commercialization of genetically modified (GM) crops has continued to occur at a rapid rate, with important changes in both the overall level of adoption and impact occurring in 2012. This annual updated analysis shows that there have been very significant net economic benefits at the farm level amounting to $18.8 billion in 2012 and $116.6 billion for the 17-year period (in nominal terms). These economic gains have been divided roughly 50% each to farmers in developed and developing countries. GM technology have also made important contributions to increasing global production levels of the four main crops, having added 122 million tonnes and 230 million tonnes respectively, to the global production of soybeans and maize since the introduction of the technology in the mid-1990s. PMID:24637520

  3. Defining and identifying crop landraces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camacho Villa, T.C.; Maxted, N.; Scholten, M.; Ford-Lloyd, B.

    2005-01-01

    Awareness of the need for biodiversity conservation is now universally accepted, but most often recent conservation activities have focused on wild species. Crop species and the diversity between and within them has significant socioeconomic as well as heritage value. The bulk of genetic diversity i

  4. Catching Butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Maisha T.

    2008-01-01

    Playmaking for Girls, founded by Rachel May and directed by Susie Spear Purcell, assembles a diverse ensemble of teaching artists committed to using playwriting and performance to help with incarcerated and formerly incarcerated teen girls to help them "think and thus act for themselves" (Freden, 2001, p. 70). These teaching artists, with the…

  5. Big catch, little sharks: Insight into Peruvian small-scale longline fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Philip D; Alfaro-Shigueto, Joanna; Hodgson, David J; Mangel, Jeffrey C; Witt, Matthew J; Godley, Brendan J

    2014-06-01

    Shark take, driven by vast demand for meat and fins, is increasing. We set out to gain insights into the impact of small-scale longline fisheries in Peru. Onboard observers were used to document catch from 145 longline fishing trips (1668 fishing days) originating from Ilo, southern Peru. Fishing effort is divided into two seasons: targeting dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus; December to February) and sharks (March to November). A total of 16,610 sharks were observed caught, with 11,166 identified to species level. Of these, 70.6% were blue sharks (Prionace glauca), 28.4% short-fin mako sharks (Isurus oxyrinchus), and 1% were other species (including thresher (Alopias vulpinus), hammerhead (Sphyrna zygaena), porbeagle (Lamnus nasus), and other Carcharhinidae species (Carcharhinus brachyurus, Carcharhinus falciformis, Galeorhinus galeus). Mean ± SD catch per unit effort of 33.6 ± 10.9 sharks per 1000 hooks was calculated for the shark season and 1.9 ± 3.1 sharks per 1000 hooks were caught in the dolphinfish season. An average of 83.7% of sharks caught (74.7% blue sharks; 93.3% mako sharks) were deemed sexually immature and under the legal minimum landing size, which for species exhibiting k-selected life history traits can result in susceptibility to over exploitation. As these growing fisheries operate along the entire Peruvian coast and may catch millions of sharks per annum, we conclude that their continued expansion, along with ineffective legislative approaches resulting in removal of immature individuals, has the potential to threaten the sustainability of the fishery, its target species, and ecosystem. There is a need for additional monitoring and research to inform novel management strategies for sharks while maintaining fisher livelihoods. PMID:25360274

  6. Projected Scenarios for Coastal First Nations' Fisheries Catch Potential under Climate Change: Management Challenges and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherdon, Lauren V; Ota, Yoshitaka; Jones, Miranda C; Close, David A; Cheung, William W L

    2016-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated ways in which climate-related shifts in the distributions and relative abundances of marine species are expected to alter the dynamics and catch potential of global fisheries. While these studies assess impacts on large-scale commercial fisheries, few efforts have been made to quantitatively project impacts on small-scale subsistence and commercial fisheries that are economically, socially and culturally important to many coastal communities. This study uses a dynamic bioclimate envelope model to project scenarios of climate-related changes in the relative abundance, distribution and richness of 98 exploited marine fishes and invertebrates of commercial and cultural importance to First Nations in coastal British Columbia, Canada. Declines in abundance are projected for most of the sampled species under both the lower (Representative Concentration Pathway [RCP] 2.6) and higher (RCP 8.5) emission scenarios (-15.0% to -20.8%, respectively), with poleward range shifts occurring at a median rate of 10.3 to 18.0 km decade(-1) by 2050 relative to 2000. While a cumulative decline in catch potential is projected coastwide (-4.5 to -10.7%), estimates suggest a strong positive correlation between the change in relative catch potential and latitude, with First Nations' territories along the northern and central coasts of British Columbia likely to experience less severe declines than those to the south. Furthermore, a strong negative correlation is projected between latitude and the number of species exhibiting declining abundance. These trends are shown to be robust to alternative species distribution models. This study concludes by discussing corresponding management challenges that are likely to be encountered under climate change, and by highlighting the value of joint-management frameworks and traditional fisheries management approaches that could aid in offsetting impacts and developing site-specific mitigation and adaptation strategies derived

  7. Net discharge anomalies drive uncertainty in catch in the world's largest inland fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    The Mekong River is one of the world's largest rivers at more than 4,600 km long and a watershed of nearly 800,000 km2. The Tonle Sap Lake (TSL) in Cambodia is believed to be one of the most productive inland fisheries in the world because of its unique hydrologic regime and large input of nutrient-rich sediment from the Mekong. The TSL is the cornerstone of food security in Cambodia yielding ~ 15% of the estimated 2.6M tonne catch in the Mekong basin and providing key nursery habitat for fishes that constitute the catch in other parts of the basin. The TSL fishery is driven by a flood pulse that occurs during and after the SE Asian Monsoon. The timing, duration and magnitude of the monsoon is thought to be a key driver of primary and secondary (fish) production in the system. All three-timing, duration and magnitude--are likely to be different under future climate and as a result of the proposed and recently constructed dams on tributaries in Vietnam and elsewhere. Here I use spectral methods to characterize the timing and magnitude of the flood pulse. Specifically, I use the Discrete Fast Fourier Transform (DFFT) to estimate the seasonal trend in daily discharge for the past 40 years at the Stung Treng gage. The whitened time series represent departures from the long term trend--anomalies--and hence implicitly capture the timing of unusual events. I hypothesize that 'timing is everything' and hence that anomalies will capture variation in the second moment of the fishery. Using a novel metric--the net annual discharge anomaly--I show that catch is significantly more variable in years with net negative flow anomalies; and quite predictable in years with net positive flow anomalies. These results suggest that changes in timing of monsoon flows alone--due to climate change or dams--can significantly increase the uncertainty in catch of a fishery that is vital for food security in the Mekong basin.

  8. Professor Gerschenkron goes to Brussels. Russian Catch-up Economics and the Common European Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Hedlund

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Ongoing discussions between Russia and the EU on the formation of a Common European Economic Space bring back to mind Alexander Gerschenkron's classic essay on economic backwardness in historical perspective. This paper argues that the institutions that once produced a specific kind of catch-up economics in Czarist Russia still remain largely the same. Unless negotiations between Moscow and Brussels take into consideration such fundamental institutional incompatibility, attempts at harmonization, expressed by Brussels as an attempt tp spread Western values, will be doomed to fail. A cynical conlusion views potential convergence as adaptation by Brussels to traditional Russian institutional patterns of rule evasion, rather than a Westernization of Russia

  9. Catch-Quota Management - an example of result based fisheries management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Eskild; Schou, Mogens; Dalskov, Jørgen

    The European Commission tabled in July 2011 a proposal for a revision of the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP). A central element of the revision is the introduction of a quota management system where all fish caught count against the quotas. The principle of full accountability of the catch...... is a complete change from present management where only the fish landed count against the quotas. The principle of full accountability opens for the introduction of a result based fisheries management strategy, where a fishery is regulated by clearly stated results and the fisher enjoys a maximum of freedom...

  10. A Solow-Swan Model with Technological Overflow and Catch-up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Mingchun; CAI Donghan; CHEN Hua

    2007-01-01

    By introducing the logistic-like technology, the classical Solow-Swan model is extended to inquire the technological overflow and catch-up of the developing economy in this paper.The improved model is described by a two-dimensional dynamical system. It is proved that the model has a unique equilibrium which is a sink and the solution of the equation is globally asymptotically stable. And the classical Solow-Swan model is a special case of the model given here. The economic growth patterns are discussed by phase portrait analysis at the end of this paper.

  11. Foreign Direct Investments in Poland and the Quality Catch-Up of Polish Foreign Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    The concept of unit value is shown to be a useful tool in analysing changes in the price-quality competitiveness of the export of Poland, which, until 1996 has shown signs of a quality "catching-up" for products surviving international competition. However, the quality level of export products...... is still lagging substantial behind that of the EU-countries. The number of products where Poland competes in the export markets is increasing, but the quality level of new products is, in fact, less than that of older surviving products, indicating that Poland is increasingly specialising in price...

  12. Nutritionally Enhanced Food Crops; Progress and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen L. Hefferon

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Great progress has been made over the past decade with respect to the application of biotechnology to generate nutritionally improved food crops. Biofortified staple crops such as rice, maize and wheat harboring essential micronutrients to benefit the world’s poor are under development as well as new varieties of crops which have the ability to combat chronic disease. This review discusses the improvement of the nutritional status of crops to make a positive impact on global human health. Several examples of nutritionally enhanced crops which have been developed using biotechnological approaches will be discussed. These range from biofortified crops to crops with novel abilities to fight disease. The review concludes with a discussion of hurdles faced with respect to public perception, as well as directions of future research and development for nutritionally enhanced food crops.

  13. How can we improve Mediterranean cropping systems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benlhabib, O.; Yazar, A.; Qadir, M.;

    2014-01-01

    dryland Mediterranean cropping systems, and to discuss and recommend sustainable cropping technologies that could be used at the small-scale farm level. Four crop management practices were evaluated: crop rotations, reduced tillage, use of organic manure, and supplemental and deficit irrigation. Among......In the Mediterranean region, crop productivity and food security are closely linked to the adaptation of cropping systems to multiple abiotic stresses. Limited and unpredictable rainfall and low soil fertility have reduced agricultural productivity and environmental sustainability. For this reason...... the tested interventions, incorporation of crop residues coupled with supplementary irrigation showed a significantly positive effect on crop productivity, yield stability and environmental sustainability. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH....

  14. The Crop Journal Calls for Papers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>We would like to invite you to submit your latest research accomplishments to The Crop Journal(ISSN:2095-5421;Online ISSN:2214-5141,CN 10-1112/S),a new bimonthly academic journal co-sponsored by the Crop Science Society of China and the Institute of Crop Science,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences.The Crop Journal is freely available online(Open Access)in ScienceDirect.The Editor-in-Chief of The Crop Journal is Professor Jianmin Wan,PhD,Cheung Kong Scholar,Director of the Institute of Crop Science and Executive Vice President of the Crop Science Society of China,supported by the Editorial Board of 85 international experts from various fields of crop sciences.

  15. Tragedies and Crops: Understanding Natural Selection To Improve Cropping Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anten, Niels P R; Vermeulen, Peter J

    2016-06-01

    Plant communities with traits that would maximize community performance can be invaded by plants that invest extra in acquiring resources at the expense of others, lowering the overall community performance, a so-called tragedy of the commons (TOC). By contrast, maximum community performance is usually the objective in agriculture. We first give an overview of the occurrence of TOCs in plants, and explore the extent to which past crop breeding has led to trait values that go against an unwanted TOC. We then show how linking evolutionary game theory (EGT) with mechanistic knowledge of the physiological processes that drive trait expression and the ecological aspects of biotic interactions in agro-ecosystems might contribute to increasing crop yields and resource-use efficiency. PMID:27012675

  16. Crop diversity prevents serious weed problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melander, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Weed management in organic crop production could benefit from more diversification of today’s cropping systems. However, the potential of diversification needs better documentation and solid suggestions for employment in practise must be identified.......Weed management in organic crop production could benefit from more diversification of today’s cropping systems. However, the potential of diversification needs better documentation and solid suggestions for employment in practise must be identified....

  17. Incentive Design for Introducing Genetically Modified Crops

    OpenAIRE

    Kingwell, Ross S.

    2000-01-01

    The introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops raises several issues. This paper looks at incentives required to reduce problems of illegal and improper use of GM proprietary technology used in growing GM crops. A simple model of producer behaviour describes some key influences of a farmer’s response to GM crops. The model is illustrated using the example of INGARD cotton grown in Australia. The key findings are that legitimate adoption of a GM crop by a farmer depends on their attitude ...

  18. The Crop Journal Calls for Papers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>We would like to invite you to submit your latest research accomplishments to The Crop Journal(ISSN:2095-5421;Online ISSN:2214-5141,CN 10-1112/S),a new bimonthly academic journal co-sponsored by the Crop Science Society of China and the Institute of Crop Science,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences.The Crop Journal is freely available online(Open Access)in ScienceDirect.The Editor-in-Chief of

  19. The Crop Journal Calls for Papers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>We would like to invite you to submit your latest research accomplishments to The Crop Journal(ISSN:2095-5421;Online ISSN:2214-5141,CN 10-1112/S),a new bimonthly academic journal co-sponsored by the Crop Science Society of China and the Institute of Crop Science,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences.The Crop Journal is freely available online(Open Access)in ScienceDirect.The Editor-in-Chief

  20. The Crop Journal Calls for Papers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>We would like to invite you to submit your latest research accomplishments to The Crop Journal(ISSN:2095-5421;Online ISSN:2214-5141,CN 10-1112/S),a new bimonthly academic journal co-sponsored by the Crop Science Society of China and the Institute of Crop Science,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences.The Crop Journal is freely available online(Open Access)in ScienceDirect.

  1. The Crop Journal Calls for Papers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>We would like to invite you to submit your latest research accomplishments to The Crop Journal(ISSN:2095-5421;Online ISSN:2214-5141,CN 10-1112/S),a new bimonthly academic journal co-sponsored by the Crop Science Society of China and the Institute of Crop Science,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences.The Crop Journal is freely available online(Open Access)in ScienceDirect.

  2. Epistatic Association Mapping in Homozygous Crop Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Lü, Hai-Yan; Liu, Xiao-Fen; Wei, Shi-Ping; Zhang, Yuan-Ming

    2011-01-01

    The genetic dissection of complex traits plays a crucial role in crop breeding. However, genetic analysis and crop breeding have heretofore been performed separately. In this study, we designed a new approach that integrates epistatic association analysis in crop cultivars with breeding by design. First, we proposed an epistatic association mapping (EAM) approach in homozygous crop cultivars. The phenotypic values of complex traits, along with molecular marker information, were used to perfor...

  3. Using Rowers’ Perceptions of On-Water Stroke Success to Evaluate Sculling Catch Efficiency Variables via a Boat Instrumentation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah-Kate Millar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: An effective catch in sculling is a critical determinant of boat velocity. This study used rowers’ performance-based judgments to compare three measures of catch slip efficiency. Two questions were addressed: (1 would rower-judged Yes strokes be faster than No strokes? and (2 which method of quantifying catch slip best reflected these judgements? Methods: Eight single scullers performed two 10-min blocks of sub maximal on-water rowing at 20 strokes per minute. Every 30 s, rowers reported either Yes or No about the quality of their stroke at the catch. Results: It was found that Yes strokes identified by rowers had, on average, a moderate effect advantage over No strokes with a standardised effect size of 0.43. In addition, a quicker time to positive acceleration best reflected the change in performance; where the standardised mean difference score of 0.57 for time to positive acceleration was larger than the scores of 0.47 for time to PowerLine force, and 0.35 for time to 30% peak pin force catch slip measures. For all eight rowers, Yes strokes corresponded to time to positive acceleration occurring earlier than No strokes. Conclusion: Rower judgements about successful strokes was linked to achieving a quicker time to positive acceleration, and may be of the most value in achieving a higher average boat velocity.

  4. Crop succession requirements in agricultural production planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Haneveld, W.K.; Stegeman, A.

    2005-01-01

    A method is proposed to write crop succession requirements as linear constraints in an LP-based model for agricultural production planning. Crop succession information is given in the form of a set of inadmissible successions of crops. The decision variables represent the areas where a certain admis

  5. 76 FR 71271 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Fresh Market Tomato (Dollar Plan) Crop Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... Notice related to 7 CFR part 3015, subpart V, published at 48 FR 29115, June 24, 1983. Executive Order... Insurance Regulations; Fresh Market Tomato (Dollar Plan) Crop Provisions AGENCY: Federal Crop Insurance... amend the Common Crop Insurance Regulations, Fresh Market Tomato (Dollar Plan) Crop Provisions....

  6. 77 FR 41709 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Citrus Fruit Crop Insurance Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-16

    .... See the Notice related to 7 CFR part 3015, subpart V, published at 48 FR 29115, June 24, 1983... Federal Crop Insurance Corporation 7 CFR Part 457 RIN 0563-AC39 Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Citrus Fruit Crop Insurance Provisions AGENCY: Federal Crop Insurance Corporation, USDA. ACTION:...

  7. 76 FR 43606 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Onion Crop Insurance Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    .... See the Notice related to 7 CFR part 3015, subpart V, published at 48 FR 29115, June 24, 1983...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Federal Crop Insurance Corporation 7 CFR Part 457 RIN 0563-AC29 Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Onion Crop Insurance Provisions AGENCY: Federal Crop Insurance Corporation,...

  8. 76 FR 71276 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Pecan Revenue Crop Insurance Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    .... See the Notice related to 7 CFR part 3015, subpart V, published at 48 FR 29115, June 24, 1983... Federal Crop Insurance Corporation 7 CFR Part 457 RIN 0563-AC35 Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Pecan Revenue Crop Insurance Provisions AGENCY: Federal Crop Insurance Corporation, USDA. ACTION: Proposed...

  9. 76 FR 75805 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Prune Crop Insurance Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ..., published at 48 FR 29115, June 24, 1983. Executive Order 12988 This proposed rule has been reviewed in... Federal Crop Insurance Corporation 7 CFR Part 457 RIN 0563-AC36 Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Prune Crop Insurance Provisions AGENCY: Federal Crop Insurance Corporation, USDA. ACTION: Proposed...

  10. 77 FR 27658 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Processing Sweet Corn Crop Insurance Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    .... See the Notice related to 7 CFR part 3015, subpart V, published at 48 FR 29115, June 24, 1983...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Federal Crop Insurance Corporation 7 CFR Part 457 RIN 0563-AC37 Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Processing Sweet Corn Crop Insurance Provisions AGENCY: Federal Crop...

  11. Impact of perennial energy crops income variability on the crop selection of risk averse farmers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UK Government policy is for the area of perennial energy crops in the UK to expand significantly. Farmers need to choose these crops in preference to conventional rotations for this to be achievable. This paper looks at the potential level and variability of perennial energy crop incomes and the relation to incomes from conventional arable crops. Assuming energy crop prices are correlated to oil prices the results suggests that incomes from them are not well correlated to conventional arable crop incomes. A farm scale mathematical programming model is then used to attempt to understand the affect on risk averse farmers crop selection. The inclusion of risk reduces the energy crop price required for the selection of these crops. However yields towards the highest of those predicted in the UK are still required to make them an optimal choice, suggesting only a small area of energy crops within the UK would be expected to be chosen to be grown. This must be regarded as a tentative conclusion, primarily due to high sensitivity found to crop yields, resulting in the proposal for further work to apply the model using spatially disaggregated data. - Highlights: ► Energy crop and conventional crop incomes suggested as uncorrelated. ► Diversification effect of energy crops investigated for a risk averse farmer. ► Energy crops indicated as optimal selection only on highest yielding UK sites. ► Large establishment grant rates to substantially alter crop selections.

  12. Ammonia volatilization from crop residues and frozen green manure crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruijter, F. J.; Huijsmans, J. F. M.; Rutgers, B.

    2010-09-01

    Agricultural systems can lose substantial amounts of nitrogen (N). To protect the environment, the European Union (EU) has adopted several directives that set goals to limit N losses. National Emission Ceilings (NEC) are prescribed in the NEC directive for nitrogen oxides and ammonia. Crop residues may contribute to ammonia volatilization, but sufficient information on their contribution to the national ammonia volatilization is lacking. Experiments were carried out with the aim to assess the ammonia volatilization of crop residues left on the soil surface or incorporated into the soil under the conditions met in practice in the Netherlands during late autumn and winter. Ammonia emission from residues of broccoli, leek, sugar beet, cut grass, fodder radish (fresh and frozen) and yellow mustard (frozen) was studied during two winter seasons using volatilization chambers. Residues were either placed on top of soil or mixed with soil. Mixing residues with soil gave insignificant ammonia volatilization, whereas volatilization was 5-16 percent of the N content of residues when placed on top of soil. Ammonia volatilization started after at least 4 days. Total ammonia volatilization was related to C/N-ratio and N concentration of the plant material. After 37 days, cumulative ammonia volatilization was negligible from plant material with N concentration below 2 percent, and was 10 percent of the N content of plant material with 4 percent N. These observations can be explained by decomposition of plant material by micro-organisms. After an initial built up of the microbial population, NH 4+ that is not needed for their own growth is released and can easily emit as NH 3 at the soil surface. The results of the experiments were used to estimate the contribution of crop residues to ammonia volatilization in the Netherlands. Crop residues of arable crops and residues of pasture topping may contribute more than 3 million kg NH 3-N to the national ammonia volatilization of the

  13. Ecology of sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae in a restricted focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Northern Venezuela: II. Species composition in relation to habitat, catching method and hour of catching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dora Feliciangeli

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available The ecology of phlebotomine sandflies in an endemic focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Northern Venezuela (San Esteban, Carabobo State was investigated through a year-term study. Three different habitats: viz. a house, a pridomestic area and a sylvatic area, were covered and the species composition, the abundance and occurrence of each species were analyzed in relation to the habitats, catching methods and hour of catching. L. panamensis, L. gomezi and L. ovallesi are the species which bite man, although almost exclusively at night. All of them hide by day and are common in the sylvatic area. Moreover, L. panamensis and L. gomezi successfully approach the house and seem to settle in the peridomestic area. L. shannoni and L. olmeca bicolor also approach and accidentally bite man. L. trinidadensis, L. atroclavata and L. cayennensis are the common non-antrhopophilic species in the area.Foi realizado um estudo ecológico dos flebótomos em um foco endêmico de leishmaniose cutânea na Venezuela a partir de observações em três ambientes: doméstico, peridoméstico e silvestre, durante o período de um ano. Foram analisadas a composição, a abundância e a ocorrência de cada espécie em relação ao ambiente, ao método e horário de captura. As espécies L. panamensis, L. gomezi e L. ovallesi são as que picam o homem, apesar de quase que exclusivamente durante a noite, escondendo-se durante o dia, e são comumente encontradas em áreas silvestres. Além disso, as espécies L. panamensis e L. gomezi se aproximam das casas e aparentemente se estabelecem na área peridoméstica. As espécies L. shannoni e L. olmeca bicolor também se aproximam das casas e acidentalmente picam o homem. Jás as espécies L. trinidadensis, L. atroclavata e L. cayennensis que geralmente não são antropofílicas, são comuns nesta área.

  14. Adverse weather impacts on arable cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobin, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Damages due to extreme or adverse weather strongly depend on crop type, crop stage, soil conditions and management. The impact is largest during the sensitive periods of the farming calendar, and requires a modelling approach to capture the interactions between the crop, its environment and the occurrence of the meteorological event. The hypothesis is that extreme and adverse weather events can be quantified and subsequently incorporated in current crop models. Since crop development is driven by thermal time and photoperiod, a regional crop model was used to examine the likely frequency, magnitude and impacts of frost, drought, heat stress and waterlogging in relation to the cropping season and crop sensitive stages. Risk profiles and associated return levels were obtained by fitting generalized extreme value distributions to block maxima for air humidity, water balance and temperature variables. The risk profiles were subsequently confronted with yields and yield losses for the major arable crops in Belgium, notably winter wheat, winter barley, winter oilseed rape, sugar beet, potato and maize at the field (farm records) to regional scale (statistics). The average daily vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and reference evapotranspiration (ET0) during the growing season is significantly lower (p Risks of combined heat and moisture deficit stress appear during the summer. These risks are subsequently related to crop damage. The methodology of defining meteorological risks and subsequently relating the risk to the cropping calendar will be demonstrated for major arable crops in Belgium. Physically based crop models assist in understanding the links between adverse weather events, sensitive crop stages and crop damage. Financial support was obtained from Belspo under research contract SD/RI/03A.

  15. Adverse weather impacts on arable cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobin, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Damages due to extreme or adverse weather strongly depend on crop type, crop stage, soil conditions and management. The impact is largest during the sensitive periods of the farming calendar, and requires a modelling approach to capture the interactions between the crop, its environment and the occurrence of the meteorological event. The hypothesis is that extreme and adverse weather events can be quantified and subsequently incorporated in current crop models. Since crop development is driven by thermal time and photoperiod, a regional crop model was used to examine the likely frequency, magnitude and impacts of frost, drought, heat stress and waterlogging in relation to the cropping season and crop sensitive stages. Risk profiles and associated return levels were obtained by fitting generalized extreme value distributions to block maxima for air humidity, water balance and temperature variables. The risk profiles were subsequently confronted with yields and yield losses for the major arable crops in Belgium, notably winter wheat, winter barley, winter oilseed rape, sugar beet, potato and maize at the field (farm records) to regional scale (statistics). The average daily vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and reference evapotranspiration (ET0) during the growing season is significantly lower (p water close their stomata, lose their evaporative cooling potential and ultimately become susceptible to heat stress. Effects of heat stress therefore have to be combined with moisture availability such as the precipitation deficit or the soil water balance. Risks of combined heat and moisture deficit stress appear during the summer. These risks are subsequently related to crop damage. The methodology of defining meteorological risks and subsequently relating the risk to the cropping calendar will be demonstrated for major arable crops in Belgium. Physically based crop models assist in understanding the links between adverse weather events, sensitive crop stages and crop damage

  16. The three viewpoints for raising a child's natural science literacy -Catch, Touch and Watch -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, K.; Matsumoto, I.

    2012-12-01

    There are few opportunities to go out for field study, and the difficulty of letting a child and student get an understanding accompanied with realization, in Primary and Junior high schools of Japan (e.g. JST, 2010; 2011). Performing field study using nature near around school is a good opportunity to force the essence of everything. Moreover, it is very important also on the concept formation of the natural science over the things phenomenon of a child and student. In this presentation, I clarify the appearance of the child who wants to educate from a viewpoint of field study, and observe three viewpoints of "Catch", "Touch", and "Watch" which heightens the education effect in the field (nature). In the presentation of this meeting last year (Yoshida and Matsumoto, 2011), I outlined that three viewpoint of "Catch", "Touch", and "Watch" is important. In response to it, I carried out More-Options arrangement about the "natural science literacy" to the child of each viewpoint this time. For that purpose, teacher effective support is required to educate to a child. That is, the focusing to the details in the inside of a large nature, prepare of teaching materials and teaching tools, and a teacher's own independence study are important.

  17. Should We Promote Catch-Up Growth or Growth Acceleration in Low-Birthweight Infants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Atul

    2015-01-01

    The idea that catch-up growth or growth acceleration has adverse effects on long-term health has generated much debate. This pattern of growth is most commonly seen after birth in infants of low birthweight; a global problem affecting over 20 million newborns a year. Faster postnatal growth may have short-term benefits but increases the long-term risk of aging, obesity and metabolic disease. Consequently, the optimal pattern of postnatal growth is unclear and is likely to differ in different populations. In infants born prematurely, faster postnatal growth improves long-term cognitive function but is associated with later risk factors for cardiovascular disease. So, on balance, the current policy is to promote faster growth by increasing nutrient intake (e.g. using higher-nutrient preterm formulas). Whether the same policy should apply to larger preterm infants is not known. Similarly, in infants from impoverished environments, the short-term benefits of faster postnatal growth may outweigh long-term disadvantages. However, whether similar considerations apply to infants from countries in transition is uncertain. For term infants from developed countries, promoting catch-up growth by nutritional supplementation has few advantages for short- or long-term health. Overall therefore, a 'one size fits all' solution for the optimal pattern of postnatal growth is unlikely. PMID:26111563

  18. The story catches you and you fall down: tragedy, ethnography, and "cultural competence".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Janelle S

    2003-06-01

    Anne Fadiman's The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down: A Hmong Child, Her American Doctors, and the Collision of Two Cultures (Noonday Press, 1997) is widely used in "cultural competence" efforts within U.S. medical school curricula. This article addresses the relationship between theory, narrative form, and teaching through a close critical reading of that book that is informed by theories of tragedy and ethnographies of medicine. I argue that The Spirit Catches You is so influential as ethnography because it is so moving as a story; it is so moving as a story because it works so well as tragedy; and it works so well as tragedy precisely because of the static, reified, essentialist understanding of "culture" from which it proceeds. If professional anthropologists wish our own best work to speak to "apparitions of culture" within medicine and other "cultures of no culture," I suggest that we must find compelling new narrative forms in which to convey more complex understandings of "culture."

  19. Should We Promote Catch-Up Growth or Growth Acceleration in Low-Birthweight Infants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Atul

    2015-01-01

    The idea that catch-up growth or growth acceleration has adverse effects on long-term health has generated much debate. This pattern of growth is most commonly seen after birth in infants of low birthweight; a global problem affecting over 20 million newborns a year. Faster postnatal growth may have short-term benefits but increases the long-term risk of aging, obesity and metabolic disease. Consequently, the optimal pattern of postnatal growth is unclear and is likely to differ in different populations. In infants born prematurely, faster postnatal growth improves long-term cognitive function but is associated with later risk factors for cardiovascular disease. So, on balance, the current policy is to promote faster growth by increasing nutrient intake (e.g. using higher-nutrient preterm formulas). Whether the same policy should apply to larger preterm infants is not known. Similarly, in infants from impoverished environments, the short-term benefits of faster postnatal growth may outweigh long-term disadvantages. However, whether similar considerations apply to infants from countries in transition is uncertain. For term infants from developed countries, promoting catch-up growth by nutritional supplementation has few advantages for short- or long-term health. Overall therefore, a 'one size fits all' solution for the optimal pattern of postnatal growth is unlikely.

  20. Behaviour of fish by-catch in the mouth of a crustacean trawl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queirolo, D; Gaete, E; Montenegro, I; Soriguer, M C; Erzini, K

    2012-06-01

    The behaviour of fish by-catch was recorded and characterized by in situ observations in the mouth of a crustacean trawl using an underwater camera system with artificial light, at depths between 106 and 461 m, along the central coast of Chile. The groups or species studied were rattails (family Macrouridae), Chilean hake Merluccius gayi gayi, sharks (orders Carcharhiniformes and Squaliformes), skates (family Rajidae), flatfishes (genus Hippoglossina) and small benthopelagic and demersal fishes (orders Osmeriformes, Stomiiformes, Gadiformes, Ophidiiformes and Perciformes). The fish behaviour was categorized in terms of (1) position in the water column, (2) initial orientation with respect to the trawl, (3) locomotion and (4) swimming speed with respect to the trawl. Rattails, sharks, skates and flatfishes were passive in response to the trawl and showed similar behavioural patterns, with most fishes observed sitting or touching the bottom with no swimming or other activity. Merluccius gayi gayi was the most active species, displaying a wide combination of behavioural responses when the trawl approached. This species showed several behavioural patterns, mainly characterized by swimming forward at variable speed. A fraction of small bentho-pelagic and demersal fishes also showed an active behaviour but always at lower speed than the trawl. The species-specific differences in behaviour in the mouth of the trawl suggest that improvements at the level of the footrope can be made to reduce by-catch, especially of passive species. PMID:22650431

  1. Functional diversity of catch mitigates negative effects of temperature variability on fisheries yields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dee, Laura E; Miller, Steve J; Peavey, Lindsey E; Bradley, Darcy; Gentry, Rebecca R; Startz, Richard; Gaines, Steven D; Lester, Sarah E

    2016-08-17

    Temperature variation within a year can impact biological processes driving population abundances. The implications for the ecosystem services these populations provide, including food production from marine fisheries, are poorly understood. Whether and how temperature variability impacts fishery yields may depend on the number of harvested species and differences in their responses to varying temperatures. Drawing from previous theoretical and empirical studies, we predict that greater temperature variability within years will reduce yields, but harvesting a larger number of species, especially a more functionally diverse set, will decrease this impact. Using a global marine fisheries dataset, we find that within-year temperature variability reduces yields, but current levels of functional diversity (FD) of targeted species, measured using traits related to species' responses to temperature, largely offset this effect. Globally, high FD of catch could avoid annual losses in yield of 6.8% relative to projections if FD were degraded to the lowest level observed in the data. By contrast, species richness in the catch and in the ecosystem did not provide a similar mitigating effect. This work provides novel empirical evidence that short-term temperature variability can negatively impact the provisioning of ecosystem services, but that FD can buffer these negative impacts. PMID:27534960

  2. Catch up growth in low birth weight infants: striking a healthy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vandana; Singhal, Atul

    2012-06-01

    Catch-up growth in the first few months of life is seen almost ubiquitously in infants born small for their gestational age and conventionally considered highly desirable as it erases the growth deficit. However, recently such growth has been linked to an increased risk of later adiposity, insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease in both low income and high-income countries. In India, a third of all babies are born with a low birth weight, but the optimal growth pattern for such infants is uncertain. As a response to the high rates of infectious morbidities, undernutrition and stunting in children, the current policy is to promote rapid growth in infancy. However, with socio-economic transition and urbanization making the Indian environment more obesogenic, and the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, affecting progressively younger population, the long term adverse programming effect of fast/excessive weight gain in infancy on later body composition and metabolism may outweigh short-term benefits. This review discusses the above issues focusing on the need to strike a healthy balance between the risks and benefits of catch-up growth in Indian infants. PMID:22415299

  3. Catch up growth in low birth weight infants: striking a healthy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vandana; Singhal, Atul

    2012-06-01

    Catch-up growth in the first few months of life is seen almost ubiquitously in infants born small for their gestational age and conventionally considered highly desirable as it erases the growth deficit. However, recently such growth has been linked to an increased risk of later adiposity, insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease in both low income and high-income countries. In India, a third of all babies are born with a low birth weight, but the optimal growth pattern for such infants is uncertain. As a response to the high rates of infectious morbidities, undernutrition and stunting in children, the current policy is to promote rapid growth in infancy. However, with socio-economic transition and urbanization making the Indian environment more obesogenic, and the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, affecting progressively younger population, the long term adverse programming effect of fast/excessive weight gain in infancy on later body composition and metabolism may outweigh short-term benefits. This review discusses the above issues focusing on the need to strike a healthy balance between the risks and benefits of catch-up growth in Indian infants.

  4. Transportation fuels from energy crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatia, V.K.; Kulsrestha, G.N.; Padmaja, K.V.; Kamra, S.; Bhagat, S.D. (Indian Inst. of Petroleum, Dehra Dun (India))

    1993-01-01

    Biomass constituents in the form of energy crops can be used as starting materials in the production of transportation fuels. The potential of biocrudes obtained from laticiferous species belonging to the families of Euphorbiaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Apocynaceae, Moraceae and Convolvulaceae for the production of hydrocarbon fuels has been explored. Results of studies carried out on upgrading these biocrudes by catalytic cracking using a commercial catalyst are presented. (author)

  5. Decomposing global crop yield variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ari, Tamara; Makowski, David

    2014-11-01

    Recent food crises have highlighted the need to better understand the between-year variability of agricultural production. Although increasing future production seems necessary, the globalization of commodity markets suggests that the food system would also benefit from enhanced supplies stability through a reduction in the year-to-year variability. Here, we develop an analytical expression decomposing global crop yield interannual variability into three informative components that quantify how evenly are croplands distributed in the world, the proportion of cultivated areas allocated to regions of above or below average variability and the covariation between yields in distinct world regions. This decomposition is used to identify drivers of interannual yield variations for four major crops (i.e., maize, rice, soybean and wheat) over the period 1961-2012. We show that maize production is fairly spread but marked by one prominent region with high levels of crop yield interannual variability (which encompasses the North American corn belt in the USA, and Canada). In contrast, global rice yields have a small variability because, although spatially concentrated, much of the production is located in regions of below-average variability (i.e., South, Eastern and South Eastern Asia). Because of these contrasted land use allocations, an even cultivated land distribution across regions would reduce global maize yield variance, but increase the variance of global yield rice. Intermediate results are obtained for soybean and wheat for which croplands are mainly located in regions with close-to-average variability. At the scale of large world regions, we find that covariances of regional yields have a negligible contribution to global yield variance. The proposed decomposition could be applied at any spatial and time scales, including the yearly time step. By addressing global crop production stability (or lack thereof) our results contribute to the understanding of a key

  6. Decomposing global crop yield variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent food crises have highlighted the need to better understand the between-year variability of agricultural production. Although increasing future production seems necessary, the globalization of commodity markets suggests that the food system would also benefit from enhanced supplies stability through a reduction in the year-to-year variability. Here, we develop an analytical expression decomposing global crop yield interannual variability into three informative components that quantify how evenly are croplands distributed in the world, the proportion of cultivated areas allocated to regions of above or below average variability and the covariation between yields in distinct world regions. This decomposition is used to identify drivers of interannual yield variations for four major crops (i.e., maize, rice, soybean and wheat) over the period 1961–2012. We show that maize production is fairly spread but marked by one prominent region with high levels of crop yield interannual variability (which encompasses the North American corn belt in the USA, and Canada). In contrast, global rice yields have a small variability because, although spatially concentrated, much of the production is located in regions of below-average variability (i.e., South, Eastern and South Eastern Asia). Because of these contrasted land use allocations, an even cultivated land distribution across regions would reduce global maize yield variance, but increase the variance of global yield rice. Intermediate results are obtained for soybean and wheat for which croplands are mainly located in regions with close-to-average variability. At the scale of large world regions, we find that covariances of regional yields have a negligible contribution to global yield variance. The proposed decomposition could be applied at any spatial and time scales, including the yearly time step. By addressing global crop production stability (or lack thereof) our results contribute to the understanding of a key

  7. Effects of adhesive thickness on the Lamb wave pitch-catch signal using bonded piezoelectric wafer transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M. M.; Huang, H.

    2016-08-01

    This paper investigates the effects of adhesive layer on Lamb wave ultrasound pitch-catch signals that are excited and sensed by piezoelectric wafer transducers bonded on a slender structure. Analytical models were established to simulate the longitudinal and flexural vibrations of the structures separately and parametric studies of the bonding layer properties, i.e. the shear transfer parameter, adhesive thickness, and shear modulus, were performed. The parametric studies indicate that there exists an optimal adhesive layer thickness that generates maximum ultrasound pitch-catch signal for both wave modes. This prediction was subsequently validated by measurements. In addition, an improved match between the measured and simulated pitch-catch signals was achieved by adjusting the adhesive layer parameters.

  8. Spatially explicit estimates of stock sizes, structure and biomass of herring and blue whiting, and catch data of bluefin tuna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huse, G.; MacKenzie, B. R.; Trenkel, V.;

    2015-01-01

    The North Atlantic is a productive marine region which has supported important commercial fisheries for centuries. Many of these fisheries have exploited the pelagic species, including herring, blue whiting and tuna. Here we present data on the distribution of herring and blue whiting based...... on the international ecosystem survey in the Nordic Seas (IESNS), the bottom trawl survey in the Bay of Biscay and Celtic Sea (EVHOE) and the pelagic survey in the Bay of Biscay (PELGAS). We also present catch data on bluefin tuna, which has been depleted for decades but historically used to be a key predator...... on the other pelagic stocks during summer. The results show that there were substantial changes in the herring and blue whiting distribution during the 1990s and early 2000s. The earliest bluefin tuna catches noted were in 1907. The catches in the Norwegian Sea area peaked in the 1950s and there have been very...

  9. MODELING WORLD BIOENERGY CROP POTENTIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Kensuke; Hanasaki, Naota; Kanae, Shinjiro

    Bioenergy is regarded as clean energy due to its characteristics and expected to be a new support of world energy de¬mand, but there are few integrated assessments of the potential of bioenergy considering sustainable land use. We esti¬mated the global bioenergy potential with an integrated global water resources model, the H08. It can simulate the crop yields on global-scale at a spatial resolution of 0.50.5. Seven major crops in the world were considered; namely, maize, sugar beet, sugar cane, soybean, rapeseed, rice, and wheat, of which the first 5 are commonly used to produce biofuel now. Three different land-cover types were chosen as potential area for cultivation of biofuel-producing crop: fallow land, grassland, and portion of forests (excluding areas sensitive for biodiversity such as frontier forest). We attempted to estimate the maximum global bioenergy potential and it was estimated to be 1120EJ. Bioenergy potential depends on land-use limitations for the protection of bio-diversity and security of food. In another condition which assumed more land-use limitations, bioenergy potential was estimated to be 70-233EJ.

  10. Responsive Polymers for Crop Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serban F. Peteu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This review outlines the responsive polymer methods currently in use with their potential application to plant protection and puts forward plant-specific mechanisms as stimuli in newly devised methods for smart release of crop protection agents (CPAs. CPAs include chemicals (fungicides, insecticides, herbicides, biochemicals (antibiotics, RNA-based vaccines for plant viruses, semiochemicals (pheromones, repellents, allomones, microbial pesticides, growth regulators (insect and plant or micronutrients, all with crop protection effects. This appraisal focuses on emerging uses of polymer nano-encapsulated CPAs. Firstly, the most interesting advances in controlled release methods are critically discussed with their advantages and drawbacks. Secondly, several plant-specific stimuli-based smart methods are anticipated for use alongside the polymer nano- or micro-capsules. These new CPA release methods are designed to (i protect plants against infection produced by fungi or bacteria, and (ii apply micro-nutrients when the plants need it the most. Thus, we foresee (i the responsive release of nano- encapsulated bio-insecticides regulated by plant stress enzymes, and (ii the delivery of micro-nutrients synchronized by the nature or intensity of plant root exudates. Such continued advances of nano-scale smart polymer-based CPAs for the protection of crops herald a “small revolution” for the benefit of sustainable agriculture.

  11. SALT TOLERANCE OF CROP PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdia, M. A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Several environmental factors adversely affect plant growth and development and final yield performance of a crop. Drought, salinity, nutrient imbalances (including mineral toxicities and deficiencies and extremes of temperature are among the major environmental constraints to crop productivity worldwide. Development of crop plants with stress tolerance, however, requires, among others, knowledge of the physiological mechanisms and genetic controls of the contributing traits at different plant developmental stages. In the past 2 decades, biotechnology research has provided considerable insights into the mechanism of biotic stress tolerance in plants at the molecular level. Furthermore, different abiotic stress factors may provoke osmotic stress, oxidative stress and protein denaturation in plants, which lead to similar cellular adaptive responses such as accumulation of compatible solutes, induction of stress proteins, and acceleration of reactive oxygen species scavenging systems. Recently, the authores try to improve plant tolerance to salinity injury through either chemical treatments (plant hormones, minerals, amino acids, quaternary ammonium compounds, polyamines and vitamins or biofertilizers treatments (Asymbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria, symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria and mycorrhiza or enhanced a process used naturally by plants to minimise the movement of Na+ to the shoot, using genetic modification to amplify the process, helping plants to do what they already do - but to do it much better."

  12. Method for optimizing harvesting of crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

      In order e.g. to optimize harvesting crops of the kind which may be self dried on a field prior to a harvesting step (116, 118), there is disclosed a method of providing a mobile unit (102) for working (114, 116, 118) the field with crops, equipping the mobile unit (102) with crop biomass...... from moving the mobile unit on the field and the moisture content (109a, 109b), and determining an optimised drying time (104a, 104b) prior to the following harvesting step (116, 118) in response to the spatial crop biomass and crop moisture content characteristics map and in response to a weather...

  13. Method for optimizing harvesting of crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    In order e.g. to optimize harvesting crops of the kind which may be self dried on a field prior to a harvesting step (116, 118), there is disclosed a method of providing a mobile unit (102) for working (114, 116, 118) the field with crops, equipping the mobile unit (102) with crop biomass measuring...... moving the mobile unit on the field and the moisture content (109a, 109b), and determining an optimised drying time (104a, 104b) prior to the following harvesting step (116, 118) in response to the spatial crop biomass and crop moisture content characteristics map and in response to a weather forecast...

  14. Microeconomic aspects of energy crops cultivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The topic of energy crops, namely of those crops designed to produce biomass to transform into ethanol, has been explored, in Italy and abroad, in all its technical and agronomical aspects. The microeconomic aspect, including the evaluation of convenience for the farmer in adopting such crops, is, on the contrary, less well researched. RENAGRI has developed a research methodology able to give information about the level of convenience of two energy crops (Sweet Sorghum and Topinambour) and has applied it to different Italian agricultural situations, in order to verify the existence of conditions favourable to the cultivation of the two crops, or to indicate the necessity of eventual subvention. (author)

  15. Developing Process of Tropical Crop Machinery Standardization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ General Situation Tropical crop machinery is a new special mechanical profession, which began to develop from 1950s to 1960s in China. Because the weather, soil and farm crops varieties in tropical region are greatly different from those in the other regions, most of the traditional farm machinery can't be directly used in tropical region or on the tropical crops. Tropical crop machinery needs a special design and manufacture. So some professional research institutes and education units were set up and some enterprises were built at that time, and the profession of tropical crop machinery was formed.

  16. Relevance of Crop Biology for Environmental Risk Assessment of Genetically Modified Crops in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Akinbo, Olalekan; Hancock, James F.; Makinde, Diran

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about the crop biology of economic crops in Africa is needed for regulators to accurately review dossiers and conduct comprehensive environmental risk assessments (ERAs). This information allows regulators to decide whether biotech crops present a risk to biodiversity, since crossing between domesticated crops and their wild relatives could affect the adaptations of the wild species. The criteria that should be used in the evaluation of African crops for ERA include growth habit, ce...

  17. Climatological sensitivity analysis of crop yield to changes in temperature and precipitation using particle filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokozawa, M.; Sakurai, G.; Iizumi, T.

    2010-12-01

    for maize and soybean is around 19.4°C and 20.4°C, respectively. The sensitivity to precipitation is generally positive for all the regions and crops. In Brazil, the sensitivity to temperature is not clear because variation in temperature is very small. In the southern hemisphere, the sensitivity to precipitation is larger than temperature. Moreover, it is shown that the sensitivities of crops to temperature and precipitation have significantly changed with time. The particle filter enable us to catch up the historical time changes on crop yields in response to environmental changes on country scale and predict the near future.

  18. Assessment of Caspian Seal By-Catch in an Illegal Fishery Using an Interview-Based Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Dmitrieva

    Full Text Available The Caspian seal (Pusa caspica has declined by more than 90% since 1900 and is listed as endangered by IUCN. We made the first quantitative assessment of Caspian seal by-catch mortality in fisheries in the north Caspian Sea by conducting semi-structured interviews in fishing communities along the coasts of Russia (Kalmykia, Dagestan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan. We recorded a documented minimum by-catch of 1,215 seals in the survey sample, for the 2008-2009 fishing season, 93% of which occurred in illegal sturgeon fisheries. Due to the illegal nature of the fishery, accurately quantifying total fishing effort is problematic and the survey sample could reflect less than 10% of poaching activity in the north Caspian Sea. Therefore total annual by-catch may be significantly greater than the minimum documented by the survey. The presence of high by-catch rates was supported independently by evidence of net entanglement from seal carcasses, during a mass stranding on the Kazakh coast in May 2009, where 30 of 312 carcasses were entangled in large mesh sturgeon net remnants. The documented minimum by-catch may account for 5 to 19% of annual pup production. Sturgeon poaching therefore not only represents a serious threat to Caspian sturgeon populations, but may also be having broader impacts on the Caspian Sea ecosystem by contributing to a decline in one of the ecosystem's key predators. This study demonstrates the utility of interview-based approaches in providing rapid assessments of by-catch in illegal small-scale fisheries, which are not amenable to study by other methods.

  19. Assessment of Caspian Seal By-Catch in an Illegal Fishery Using an Interview-Based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrieva, Lilia; Kondakov, Andrey A; Oleynikov, Eugeny; Kydyrmanov, Aidyn; Karamendin, Kobey; Kasimbekov, Yesbol; Baimukanov, Mirgaliy; Wilson, Susan; Goodman, Simon J

    2013-01-01

    The Caspian seal (Pusa caspica) has declined by more than 90% since 1900 and is listed as endangered by IUCN. We made the first quantitative assessment of Caspian seal by-catch mortality in fisheries in the north Caspian Sea by conducting semi-structured interviews in fishing communities along the coasts of Russia (Kalmykia, Dagestan), Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan. We recorded a documented minimum by-catch of 1,215 seals in the survey sample, for the 2008-2009 fishing season, 93% of which occurred in illegal sturgeon fisheries. Due to the illegal nature of the fishery, accurately quantifying total fishing effort is problematic and the survey sample could reflect less than 10% of poaching activity in the north Caspian Sea. Therefore total annual by-catch may be significantly greater than the minimum documented by the survey. The presence of high by-catch rates was supported independently by evidence of net entanglement from seal carcasses, during a mass stranding on the Kazakh coast in May 2009, where 30 of 312 carcasses were entangled in large mesh sturgeon net remnants. The documented minimum by-catch may account for 5 to 19% of annual pup production. Sturgeon poaching therefore not only represents a serious threat to Caspian sturgeon populations, but may also be having broader impacts on the Caspian Sea ecosystem by contributing to a decline in one of the ecosystem's key predators. This study demonstrates the utility of interview-based approaches in providing rapid assessments of by-catch in illegal small-scale fisheries, which are not amenable to study by other methods.

  20. Assessment of Caspian Seal By-Catch in an Illegal Fishery Using an Interview-Based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrieva, Lilia; Kondakov, Andrey A; Oleynikov, Eugeny; Kydyrmanov, Aidyn; Karamendin, Kobey; Kasimbekov, Yesbol; Baimukanov, Mirgaliy; Wilson, Susan; Goodman, Simon J

    2013-01-01

    The Caspian seal (Pusa caspica) has declined by more than 90% since 1900 and is listed as endangered by IUCN. We made the first quantitative assessment of Caspian seal by-catch mortality in fisheries in the north Caspian Sea by conducting semi-structured interviews in fishing communities along the coasts of Russia (Kalmykia, Dagestan), Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan. We recorded a documented minimum by-catch of 1,215 seals in the survey sample, for the 2008-2009 fishing season, 93% of which occurred in illegal sturgeon fisheries. Due to the illegal nature of the fishery, accurately quantifying total fishing effort is problematic and the survey sample could reflect less than 10% of poaching activity in the north Caspian Sea. Therefore total annual by-catch may be significantly greater than the minimum documented by the survey. The presence of high by-catch rates was supported independently by evidence of net entanglement from seal carcasses, during a mass stranding on the Kazakh coast in May 2009, where 30 of 312 carcasses were entangled in large mesh sturgeon net remnants. The documented minimum by-catch may account for 5 to 19% of annual pup production. Sturgeon poaching therefore not only represents a serious threat to Caspian sturgeon populations, but may also be having broader impacts on the Caspian Sea ecosystem by contributing to a decline in one of the ecosystem's key predators. This study demonstrates the utility of interview-based approaches in providing rapid assessments of by-catch in illegal small-scale fisheries, which are not amenable to study by other methods. PMID:23840590

  1. Management implications of the biodiversity and socio-economic impacts of shrimp trawler by-catch in Bahía de Kino, Sonora, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Lorayne; Blinick, Naomi S; Fleishman, Abram B

    2012-01-01

    The shrimp fishery is the most economically important fishery in Mexico. The trawler-based portion of this fishery results in high rates of by-catch. This study quantifies and describes the biodiversity of by-catch associated with trawling in the Bahía de Kino region of Sonora, Mexico. Data were collected from 55 trawls, on six boats, over 14 nights, during November of 2003, 2004, 2006-2009. By-catch rates within trawl samples averaged 85.9% measured by weight. A total of 183 by-catch species were identified during the course of this study, including 97 species of bony fish from 43 families, 19 species of elasmobranchs from 12 families, 66 species of invertebrates from eight phyla, and one species of marine turtle; seven of the documented by-catch species are listed on the IUCN Red List, CITES, or the Mexican NOM-059-ECOL-2010; 35 species documented in the by-catch are also targeted by local artisanal fishers. Some of the species frequently captured as juveniles in the by-catch are economically important to small-scale fishers in the region, and are particularly sensitive to overexploitation due to their life histories. This study highlights the need for further research quantifying the impacts of high levels of by-catch upon small-scale fishing economies in the region and presents strong ecological and economic rationale for by-catch management within the shrimp fishery of the Gulf of California. Site-specific by-catch management plans should be piloted in the Bahía de Kino region to address the growing momentum in national and international fisheries policy regimes toward the reduction of by-catch in shrimp fisheries.

  2. From crop domestication to super-domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, D A; Balázs, E; Heslop-Harrison, J S

    2007-11-01

    Research related to crop domestication has been transformed by technologies and discoveries in the genome sciences as well as information-related sciences that are providing new tools for bioinformatics and systems' biology. Rapid progress in archaeobotany and ethnobotany are also contributing new knowledge to understanding crop domestication. This sense of rapid progress is encapsulated in this Special Issue, which contains 18 papers by scientists in botanical, crop sciences and related disciplines on the topic of crop domestication. One paper focuses on current themes in the genetics of crop domestication across crops, whereas other papers have a crop or geographic focus. One feature of progress in the sciences related to crop domestication is the availability of well-characterized germplasm resources in the global network of genetic resources centres (genebanks). Germplasm in genebanks is providing research materials for understanding domestication as well as for plant breeding. In this review, we highlight current genetic themes related to crop domestication. Impressive progress in this field in recent years is transforming plant breeding into crop engineering to meet the human need for increased crop yield with the minimum environmental impact - we consider this to be 'super-domestication'. While the time scale of domestication of 10 000 years or less is a very short evolutionary time span, the details emerging of what has happened and what is happening provide a window to see where domestication might - and can - advance in the future.

  3. GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD CROPS AND PUBLIC HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acosta Orlando

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The progress made in plant biotechnology has provided an opportunity to new food crops being developed having desirable traits for improving crop yield, reducing the use of agrochemicals and adding nutritional properties to staple crops. However, genetically modified (GM crops have become a subject of intense debate in which opponents argue that GM crops represent a threat to individual freedom, the environment, public health and traditional economies. Despite the advances in food crop agriculture, the current world situation is still characterised by massive hunger and chronic malnutrition, representing a major public health problem. Biofortified GM crops have been considered an important and complementary strategy for delivering naturally-fortified staple foods to malnourished populations. Expert advice and public concern have led to designing strategies for assessing the potential risks involved in cultivating and consuming GM crops. The present critical review was aimed at expressing some conflicting points of view about the potential risks of GM crops for public health. It was concluded that GM food crops are no more risky than those genetically modified by conventional methods and that these GM crops might contribute towards reducing the amount of malnourished people around the world. However, all this needs to be complemented by effective political action aimed at increasing the income of people living below the poverty-line.

  4. The Crop Journal Calls for Papers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>We would like to invite you to submit your latest research accomplishments to The Crop Journal(ISSN:2095-5421;Online ISSN:2214-5141,CN 10-1112/S),a new bimonthly academic journal co-sponsored by the Crop Science Society of China and the Institute of Crop Science,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences.The Crop Journal is freely available online(Open Access) in Science Direct.The Editor-in-Chief of The Crop Journal is Professor Jianmin Wan,PhD,Cheung Kong Scholar,Director of the Institute of Crop Science and Executive Vice President of the Crop Science Society of China,supported by

  5. Characterizing pesticide dissipation in food crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Juraske, R.; Jolliet, O.

    2013-01-01

    Ingestion of residues via consumption of food crops is the predominant exposure route of the general population toward pesticides. However, pesticide dissipation in crops constitutes a main source of uncertainty in estimating residues in harvested crop parts and subsequent human exposure. Neverth......Ingestion of residues via consumption of food crops is the predominant exposure route of the general population toward pesticides. However, pesticide dissipation in crops constitutes a main source of uncertainty in estimating residues in harvested crop parts and subsequent human exposure....... Nevertheless, dissipation is a key mechanism in models assessing pesticide distribution in the cropenvironment and the magnitude of residues in harvest. We provide a consistent framework for characterizing pesticide dissipation in food crops for use in modeling approaches applied in health risk and impact...

  6. The Crop Journal Calls for Papers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>We would like to invite you to submit your latest research accomplishments to The Crop Journal(ISSN:2095-5421;Online ISSN:2214-5141,CN 10-1112/S),a new bimonthly academic journal co-sponsored by the Crop Science Society of China and the Institute of Crop Science,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences.The Crop Journal is freely available online(Open Access)in Science Direct.The Editor-in-Chief of The Crop Journal is Professor Jianmin Wan,Ph D,Cheung Kong Scholar,Director of the Institute of Crop Science and Executive Vice President of the Crop Science Society of China,supported by

  7. Assessment of Caspian Seal By-Catch in an Illegal Fishery Using an Interview-Based Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Lilia Dmitrieva; Andrey A Kondakov; Eugeny Oleynikov; Aidyn Kydyrmanov; Kobey Karamendin; Yesbol Kasimbekov; Mirgaliy Baimukanov; Susan Wilson; Goodman, Simon J.

    2013-01-01

    The Caspian seal (Pusa caspica) has declined by more than 90% since 1900 and is listed as endangered by IUCN. We made the first quantitative assessment of Caspian seal by-catch mortality in fisheries in the north Caspian Sea by conducting semi-structured interviews in fishing communities along the coasts of Russia (Kalmykia, Dagestan), Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan. We recorded a documented minimum by-catch of 1,215 seals in the survey sample, for the 2008-2009 fishing season, 93% of which occu...

  8. Should total landings be used to correct estimated catch in numbers or mean-weight-at-age?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewy, Peter; Lassen, H.

    1997-01-01

    discrepancies some countries correct catch in numbers while others correct mean weight-at-age by a common factor, the ratio between landing and SOP. The paper shows that for three sampling schemes the SOP corrections are statistically incorrect and should not be made since the SOP is an unbiased estimate...... of the total landings. Calculation of the bias of estimated catch in numbers and mean weight-at-age shows that SOP corrections of either of these estimates may increase the bias. Furthermore, for five demersal and one pelagic North Sea species it is shown that SOP discrepancies greater than 2% from...

  9. Catch composition of the Dutch pelagic fleet in the Mauritanian Exclusive Economic Zone during the year 2003: results of the scientific observer program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, ter R.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the total catches of the Dutch pelagic fleet in the Mauritanian Exclusive Economic Zone during the year 2003. Data have been obtained by the 'Scientific Observer Program', which monitors the catch (both landings and discards) of the Dutch fishery for small pelagics in Mauritani

  10. Habitat Mapping Of Blue Shark In The Eastern Mediterranean Sea: Application Of Generalized Additive Models On Commercial Fishery By-Catch

    OpenAIRE

    DAMALAS DIMITRIOS; MEGALOFONOU Persefoni

    2012-01-01

    Blue sharks (Prionace glauca, Linnaeus 1758), are repeatedly caught in the surface drifting longline fisheries throughout the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Based on a dataset derived from the Greek and Cypriot commercial fisheries, targeting swordfish during 1998-2005, we applied an information theoretic generalized additive model approach, modeling separately: (1) the probability of making a catch and (2) the positive catch rates. Analyses suggested... (+++)

  11. Promoting Energy-Balance Behaviors among Ethnically Diverse Adolescents: Overview and Baseline Findings of the Central Texas CATCH Middle School Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Andrew E.; Kelder, Steven H.; Byrd-Williams, Courtney E.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Ranjit, Nalini; Delk, Joanne E.; Hoelscher, Deanna M.

    2013-01-01

    The Central Texas Coordinated Approach To Child Health (CATCH) Middle School Project is a 3.5-year school-based project aimed at promoting physical activity (PA), healthy eating, and obesity prevention among public middle school students in Texas. This article describes the CATCH intervention model and presents baseline findings from spring 2009.…

  12. Will breeding for nitrogen use efficient crops lead to nitrogen use efficient cropping systems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dresbøll, Dorte Bodin; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of improving nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in crops are typically studied through the performance of the individual crop. However, in order to increase yields in a sustainable way, improving NUE of the cropping systems must be the aim. We did a model simulation study to investigate how...... is analyzed for the whole cropping system. The environmental conditions, crop choices and management will all affect the fate of the N left in the soil, and whether this will contribute mainly to leaching loss or be used for production in later crops. As an example, increasing pre-crop fertilization was shown...... to affect the leaching after the following oilseed rape crop with up to 50 kg N ha-1 taken up before it was lost to the environment when pre-crop fertilization as well as root depth penetration rate was high. All in all, the simulations illustrate the concept of NUE as the result of interactions between...

  13. Automatic Earthquake Detection and Location by Waveform coherency in Alentejo (South Portugal) Using CatchPy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodio, S.; Matos, C.; Grigoli, F.; Cesca, S.; Heimann, S.; Rio, I.

    2015-12-01

    Seismic data processing is currently undergoing a step change, benefitting from high-volume datasets and advanced computer power. In the last decade, a permanent seismic network of 30 broadband stations, complemented by dense temporary deployments, covered mainland Portugal. This outstanding regional coverage currently enables the computation of a high-resolution image of the seismicity of Portugal, which contributes to fitting together the pieces of the regional seismo-tectonic puzzle. Although traditional manual inspections are valuable to refine automatic results they are impracticable with the big data volumes now available. When conducted alone they are also less objective since the criteria is defined by the analyst. In this work we present CatchPy, a scanning algorithm to detect earthquakes in continuous datasets. Our main goal is to implement an automatic earthquake detection and location routine in order to have a tool to quickly process large data sets, while at the same time detecting low magnitude earthquakes (i.e. lowering the detection threshold). CatchPY is designed to produce an event database that could be easily located using existing location codes (e.g.: Grigoli et al. 2013, 2014). We use CatchPy to perform automatic detection and location of earthquakes that occurred in Alentejo region (South Portugal), taking advantage of a dense seismic network deployed in the region for two years during the DOCTAR experiment. Results show that our automatic procedure is particularly suitable for small aperture networks. The event detection is performed by continuously computing the short-term-average/long-term-average of two different characteristic functions (CFs). For the P phases we used a CF based on the vertical energy trace while for S phases we used a CF based on the maximum eigenvalue of the instantaneous covariance matrix (Vidale 1991). Seismic event location is performed by waveform coherence analysis, scanning different hypocentral coordinates

  14. Weed management strategies for castor bean crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Guerreiro Fontoura Costa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Castor bean crops are agriculturally relevant due to the quality and versatility of their oil, both for the chemical industry and for biodiesel production. Proper weed management is important for both the cultivation and the yield of castor bean crops; therefore, the intention of the present work is to review pertinent information regarding weed management, including the studies regarding weed interference periods, chemical controls for use in different crop production systems and herbicide selectivity, for castor bean crops. Weed science research for castor bean crops is scarce. One of the main weed management challenges for castor bean crops is the absence of herbicides registered with the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (MALFS. Research for viable herbicides for weed control in castor bean crops should be directed by research and/or rural extension institutions, associations and farmers cooperatives, as well as by manufactures, for the registration of these selective herbicides, which would be primarily used to control eudicotyledons in castor bean crops. New studies involving the integration of weed control methods in castor bean also may increase the efficiency of weed management, for both small farmers using traditional crop methods in the Brazilian Northeast region, as well as for areas with the potential for large scale production, using conservation tillage systems, such as the no-tillage crop production system.

  15. Protein improvement in crop plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are compelling reasons for attempting to increase the quality and quantity of protein available in crop plants through plant breeding, despite the fact that some critics have argued that no worldwide protein shortage exists. What used to be thought of as a 'protein gap' has now come to be considered in terms of protein-calorie malnutrition. This is only right since protein and calorie nutrition are inextricable. t the moment there are still unanswered questions as to the precise protein requirements of humans as a function of age, health and ambient conditions. There are, in addition, some indications that the incidence of Kwashiorkor (protein deficiency disease) is increasing in different parts of the world. At a recent meeting of the Protein Advisory Group of the United Nations System, Dr. Jean Mayer, an eminent human nutritionist of Harvard University, U.S.A., indicated the reasons for concern for the current food situation generally, and the protein food supply in particular. These factors include: - Immoderate continuing human population increases, most pronounced in some poor developing countries. - The highly accelerated consumption of animal foods associated with increasing affluence in the richer countries of the world. The production of such foods as meat demands great expenditures of grain, which is an inefficient mode of obtaining the required calories and protein for human consumption. - The over-exploitation of many of the world's fishery resources resulting in reduced yields, perhaps irreversibly, of some fishes. - Recent price increases in petroleum and fertilizer products which have imposed a major obstacle to increasing crop production. - The apparent alteration of climates in places like Africa, Asia and other parts of the Northern hemisphere which may put significant restrictions on crop production. hey are cogent reasons to be seriously concerned about these matters. (author)

  16. The impacts of conservation agriculture on crop yield in China depend on specific practices, crops and cropping regions

    OpenAIRE

    Chengyan Zheng; Yu Jiang; Changqing Chen; Yanni Sun; Jinfei Feng; Aixing Deng; Zhenwei Song; Weijian Zhang

    2014-01-01

    For smooth and wide application of conservation agriculture (CA), remaining uncertainties about its impacts on crop yield need to be reduced. Based on previous field experiments in China, a meta-analysis was performed to quantify the actual impacts of CA practices (NT: no/reduced-tillage only, CTSR: conventional tillage with straw retention, NTSR: NT with straw retention) on crop yields as compared to conventional tillage without straw retention (CT). Although CA practices increased crop yiel...

  17. Induced mutations for crop improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutation induction has become an established tool in plant breeding to supplement existing germ plasma and to improve cultivars in certain specific traits. Hundreds of improved varieties have been released to farmers for many different crop species, demonstrating the economic value of the technology. Limitations arise mainly from the large mutagenized populations to be screened and from the unsatisfactory selection methods. Both limitations may be eased to some extent by advances in techniques of plant in-vitro culture. (author). Refs, 1 fig., 7 tabs

  18. Irradiation services for crops improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As an effort to pioneer and promote the use of nuclear technology in plant breeding in Malaysia, MINT has developed the procedures, methodology and service for the irradiation of ornamental plants, food and industrial crops. This paper discusses the issues related to the irradiation services for plant samples for the period of 15 years since the service was started. The main issues include the procedures for sample irradiation, statistics for the services that have been provided, problems and the solutions in providing the services. (Author)

  19. Metabolomics of genetically modified crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simó, Carolina; Ibáñez, Clara; Valdés, Alberto; Cifuentes, Alejandro; García-Cañas, Virginia

    2014-10-20

    Metabolomic-based approaches are increasingly applied to analyse genetically modified organisms (GMOs) making it possible to obtain broader and deeper information on the composition of GMOs compared to that obtained from traditional analytical approaches. The combination in metabolomics of advanced analytical methods and bioinformatics tools provides wide chemical compositional data that contributes to corroborate (or not) the substantial equivalence and occurrence of unintended changes resulting from genetic transformation. This review provides insight into recent progress in metabolomics studies on transgenic crops focusing mainly in papers published in the last decade.

  20. Scenario of Entomological Research in Legume Crops in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishnu Prasad Neupane

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This review paper highlights scenario of entomological research in grain legumes in Nepal into headings of the monitoring, survey and surveillance, insect pest management, existing problem and future strategies. A survey study on yield loss assessment of chickpea due to Helicoverpa pod borer under field condition has been recorded up to 75% in the year 1996-1998 at Banke and Bardiya district. While monitored Helicoverpa armigera through pheromone trap, during the 2nd week of March, peak catches of 91 male moths were recorded at Rampur, while it was the maximum (42 male moths during the 3rd week of March. Synthetic pyrethroids, deltamethrin, fenvalerate and cypermethrin used at 0.01% concentration (a.i., were effective in controlling the chickpea pod borer, Helicoverpa armigera Hubner. Genotypes NCH-18, NCH -31, NCH-138 and ICC 3075 WR were found resistant. Ripcord 10%@0.05% was found to be superior and effective chemical insecticides to control stem fly and soybean hairy caterpillar. The late sowing date December, 10 showed significantly higher percentage of chickpea pod borer damage with lower grain yield. Inter crops combinations of Chickpea +wheat (2:1 ratio was found effective against Helicoverpa armigera damage (1.2% followed by chickpea+barley (2.36% and Chickpea+linseed (2:1 ratio (3.7%. Bakaino (Melia azederach L. was identified as the best indigenous pesticides to check the normal growth of hairy caterpillar (Spilarctia casigneta kollar under laboratory condition. Metarhizium anisopliae was found effective for the management of Helicoverpa armigera that caused maximum mortality (94.67%, infection (45.33% within 7.49 days (LT50. Similarly, Beauveria bassiana caused maximum mortality (98.67%, infection (80.00% with the least LT50 value (5 days. Crop sprayed with HaNPV had the lowest pod damage (0.3% and the highest in Racer (2.2%. This review work provided a lot of information to conduct entomological research activity conducted in grain

  1. Average Crop Revenue Election, Crop Insurance, and Supplemental Revenue Assistance: Interactions and Overlap for Illinois and Kansas Farm Program Crops

    OpenAIRE

    Zulauf, Carl R.; Schnitkey, Gary D.; Langemeier, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    Farm-level data from Illinois and Kansas for the 1991–2007 crops are used to examine the interaction and overlap among crop revenue insurance, Supplemental Revenue Assistance (SURE), and Average Crop Revenue Election (ACRE). Compared with 75% Crop Revenue Coverage Insurance (75% CRCP), ACRE provides more payments and has a greater impact on minimum farm revenue for the Illinois farms. In contrast, for the Kansas farms, 75% CRCP has the greater impact. SURE’s relative impact on the Illinoi...

  2. Strategic Entrepreneurship Based Model of Catch-up University in Global Rankings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlov Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper will help answer the question, why only few universities managed to succeed significantly in their global ranking advancement, while most of their competitors fail. For this purpose it will introduce a new strategically entrepreneurial catch-up university framework, based on the combination of the resource based view, dynamic capabilities, strategic entrepreneurship and latecomer organization concepts. The new framework logics explains the advantages of being ambidextrous for ranking oriented universities and pursuing new potentially more favorable opportunities for research development. It will propose that substantial increase in the level of dynamic capabilities of the universities and their resource base accumulation is based on the use of the new combination of financial, human and social capital combined with strategic management of these resources in the process of identification and exploitation of greater opportunities.

  3. An aptamer-functionalized chemomechanically modulated biomolecule catch-and-release system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastri, Ankita; McGregor, Lynn M.; Liu, Ya; Harris, Valerie; Nan, Hanqing; Mujica, Maritza; Vasquez, Yolanda; Bhattacharya, Amitabh; Ma, Yongting; Aizenberg, Michael; Kuksenok, Olga; Balazs, Anna C.; Aizenberg, Joanna; He, Ximin

    2015-05-01

    The efficient extraction of (bio)molecules from fluid mixtures is vital for applications ranging from target characterization in (bio)chemistry to environmental analysis and biomedical diagnostics. Inspired by biological processes that seamlessly synchronize the capture, transport and release of biomolecules, we designed a robust chemomechanical sorting system capable of the concerted catch and release of target biomolecules from a solution mixture. The hybrid system is composed of target-specific, reversible binding sites attached to microscopic fins embedded in a responsive hydrogel that moves the cargo between two chemically distinct environments. To demonstrate the utility of the system, we focus on the effective separation of thrombin by synchronizing the pH-dependent binding strength of a thrombin-specific aptamer with volume changes of the pH-responsive hydrogel in a biphasic microfluidic regime, and show a non-destructive separation that has a quantitative sorting efficiency, as well as the system's stability and amenability to multiple solution recycling.

  4. A portable trap with electric lead catches up to 75% of an invasive fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas S; Miehls, Scott; O'Connor, Lisa M; Bravener, Gale; Barber, Jessica; Thompson, Henry; Tix, John A; Bruning, Tyler

    2016-01-01

    A novel system combining a trap and pulsed direct current electricity was able to catch up to 75% of tagged invasive sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus in free-flowing streams. Non-target mortality was rare and impacts to non-target migration were minimal; likely because pulsed direct current only needed to be activated at night (7 hours of each day). The system was completely portable and the annual cost of the trapping system was low ($4,800 U.S. dollars). Use of the technology is poised to substantially advance integrated control of sea lamprey, which threaten a fishery valued at 7 billion U.S. dollars annually, and help restore sea lamprey populations in Europe where they are native, but imperiled. The system may be broadly applicable to controlling invasive fishes and restoring valued fishes worldwide, thus having far reaching effects on ecosystems and societies. PMID:27341485

  5. Screening Anti-Cancer Drugs against Tubulin using Catch-and-Release Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei Darestani, Reza; Winter, Philip; Kitova, Elena N.; Tuszynski, Jack A.; Klassen, John S.

    2016-05-01

    Tubulin, which is the building block of microtubules, plays an important role in cell division. This critical role makes tubulin an attractive target for the development of chemotherapeutic drugs to treat cancer. Currently, there is no general binding assay for tubulin-drug interactions. The present work describes the application of the catch-and-release electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (CaR-ESI-MS) assay to investigate the binding of colchicinoid drugs to αβ-tubulin dimers extracted from porcine brain. Proof-of-concept experiments using positive (ligands with known affinities) and negative (non-binders) controls were performed to establish the reliability of the assay. The assay was then used to screen a library of seven colchicinoid analogues to test their binding to tubulin and to rank their affinities.

  6. A Kaldorian approach to catch up and structural change in economies with high degree of heterogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmem Aparecida Feijo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper, based on Kaldor’s main contributions, discusses the specificities in the catch up process of developing economies with high degree of structural heterogeneity. The theoretical model developed shows that developing economies, when modernizing the domestic versus external stock of capital, can reduce the technological gap and thus obtain a faster growth rate without producing disequilibrium in the balance of payments in the long run. As income distribution explains the incentive to the introduction of innovations through capital accumulation, the model is well succeed in connecting capital accumulation, income distribution, technological gap and long term external constraint. We conclude that capital accumulation, under certain circumstances, can overcome external constraint if the accumulation effort promotes structural change increasing the importance of sectors more technological-intensive.

  7. A portable trap with electric lead catches up to 75% of an invasive fish species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas S.; Miehls, Scott; O’Connor, Lisa M.; Bravener, Gale; Barber, Jessica; Thompson, Henry; Tix, John A.; Bruning, Tyler

    2016-06-01

    A novel system combining a trap and pulsed direct current electricity was able to catch up to 75% of tagged invasive sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus in free-flowing streams. Non-target mortality was rare and impacts to non-target migration were minimal; likely because pulsed direct current only needed to be activated at night (7 hours of each day). The system was completely portable and the annual cost of the trapping system was low ($4,800 U.S. dollars). Use of the technology is poised to substantially advance integrated control of sea lamprey, which threaten a fishery valued at 7 billion U.S. dollars annually, and help restore sea lamprey populations in Europe where they are native, but imperiled. The system may be broadly applicable to controlling invasive fishes and restoring valued fishes worldwide, thus having far reaching effects on ecosystems and societies.

  8. Theoretical modeling of the catch-slip bond transition in biological adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnerson, Kim; Pereverzev, Yuriy; Prezhdo, Oleg

    2006-05-01

    The mechanism by which leukocytes leave the blood stream and enter inflamed tissue is called extravasation. This process is facilitated by the ability of selectin proteins, produced by the endothelial cells of blood vessels, to form transient bonds with the leukocytes. In the case of P-selectin, the protein bonds with P-selectin glycoprotein ligands (PSGL-1) produced by the leukocyte. Recent atomic force microscopy and flow chamber analyses of the binding of P-selectin to PSGL-1 provide evidence for an unusual biphasic catch-bond/slip-bond behavior in response to the strength of exerted force. This biphasic process is not well-understood. There are several theoretical models for describing this phenomenon. These models use different profiles for potential energy landscapes and how they change under forces. We are exploring these changes using molecular dynamics. We will present a simple theoretical model as well as share some of our early MD results for describing this phenomenon.

  9. A portable trap with electric lead catches up to 75% of an invasive fish species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas S.; Miehls, Scott; O’Connor, Lisa M.; Bravener, Gale; Barber, Jessica; Thompson, Henry; Tix, John A.; Bruning, Tyler

    2016-01-01

    A novel system combining a trap and pulsed direct current electricity was able to catch up to 75% of tagged invasive sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus in free-flowing streams. Non-target mortality was rare and impacts to non-target migration were minimal; likely because pulsed direct current only needed to be activated at night (7 hours of each day). The system was completely portable and the annual cost of the trapping system was low ($4,800 U.S. dollars). Use of the technology is poised to substantially advance integrated control of sea lamprey, which threaten a fishery valued at 7 billion U.S. dollars annually, and help restore sea lamprey populations in Europe where they are native, but imperiled. The system may be broadly applicable to controlling invasive fishes and restoring valued fishes worldwide, thus having far reaching effects on ecosystems and societies. PMID:27341485

  10. A portable trap with electric lead catches up to 75% of an invasive fish species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas; Miehls, Scott M.; O'Connor, Lisa M; Bravener, Gale; Barber, Jessica; Thompson, Henry T.; Tix, John A.; Bruning, Tyler

    2016-01-01

    A novel system combining a trap and pulsed direct current electricity was able to catch up to 75% of tagged invasive sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus in free-flowing streams. Non-target mortality was rare and impacts to non-target migration were minimal; likely because pulsed direct current only needed to be activated at night (7 hours of each day). The system was completely portable and the annual cost of the trapping system was low ($4,800 U.S. dollars). Use of the technology is poised to substantially advance integrated control of sea lamprey, which threaten a fishery valued at 7 billion U.S. dollars annually, and help restore sea lamprey populations in Europe where they are native, but imperiled. The system may be broadly applicable to controlling invasive fishes and restoring valued fishes worldwide, thus having far reaching effects on ecosystems and societies.

  11. Innovation systems in small catching-up economies new perspectives on practice and policy

    CERN Document Server

    Varblane, Urmas; Roolaht, Tõnu

    2012-01-01

    In several parts of the world, countries are undergoing economic, social, and political transitions, enhanced and accelerated by the forces of globalization. These transition economies can serve as laboratories for understanding the innovation process. This volume features original theoretical and empirical research. It offers the first comprehensive view of innovation system development in the context of small catching-up economies. Smallness, path dependency, and latecomer status of such economies create some inherent limitations for their innovation systems, but these special characteristics can offer advantages as well. For example, smallness is often related with increased flexibility and shorter reaction times, while latecomers can benefit from earlier experiences of their more advanced neighbors. Path-dependency highlights the fact that the innovation system development processes are considerably influenced by the past experience of a particular country or region. By incorporating these features into a...

  12. Polish Foreign Trade: The Quality Catch-up and the Influence of Foreign Direct Investments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates how the Polish transition process has expressed itself in export and inward foreign direct investments (FDI), and the relations between export and FDI. Since 1988, the number of Polish products able to compee in export markets has steadily increased. The quality level...... of these products, however, still lags substantially behind and until 1996 there have been no signs of a significnat quality catching-up in polish export structure relative to some dynamic Asian economies and the EU-countires.The quality level of new Polish export products coming into the markeet is, in fact, lower...... than that of older surviving products, indicating that Poland is increasingly specialising in price-sensitive sectors, a process that, to some extent, is supported by inward FDI....

  13. Catch up patterns in newly industrializing countries : an international comparison of manufacturing productivity in Taiwan, 1961-1993

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, Marcel P.

    1998-01-01

    Taiwan has undergone a process of swift industrialization after 1948. Rapid accumulation of physical and human capital enabled Taiwan to exploit new technologies and products, resulting in rapid catch up in labour productivity relative to more advanced economies. Using the industry-of-origin approac

  14. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)(17)-1 - Remuneration for services performed on a boat engaged in catching fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Remuneration for services performed on a boat... Remuneration for services performed on a boat engaged in catching fish. (a) Remuneration for services performed... receive, any cash remuneration, other than remuneration that is described in subparagraph (1) of...

  15. Urinary osteocalcin and serum pro-C-type natriuretic peptide predict linear catch-up growth in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpeläinen, Leena; Ivaska, Kaisa K; Kuiri-Hänninen, Tanja;

    2012-01-01

    Preterm (PT) infants are at risk of growth failure despite advanced early care and nutrition. In addition to poor weight gain, slow postnatal linear growth also is associated with adverse neurological outcome. Markers distinguishing infants at risk for impaired catch-up growth are needed. The aim...

  16. Influence of Packing Size of Magnetic Filter on Efficiency of Catching Impurities with Different Dispersibility and Susceptibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The paper is devoted to investigation of influence of the size of a single filter packing on efficiency of catching impurities with various dispersity and magnetic susceptibility. It is revealed that the time of transferring of the process of cluster forming to stable state depends on packing size. The results can be used to make multilevel packings of magnetic filters.

  17. Effect of bottom type on catch rates of North Sea cod (Gadus morhua) in surveys with commercial fishing vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Kai; Pedersen, Eva Maria; Olesen, Hans Jakob;

    2009-01-01

    Seven surveys with commercial fishing vessels were conducted during a collaborative fishermen-scientist project on the distribution of cod in the north-eastern North Sea between June 2006 and June 2008. A flyshooter, a trawler and a gillnetter participated in this study. In general, catch rates...

  18. River lamprey, Lampetra fluviatilis L., fishery in Latvia – insight into the origin of catch statistics data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abersons Kaspar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Most research to date on the status of the river lamprey, Lampetra fluviatilis L. in Latvia has been done based on catch statistics data. The aim of this study was to explore the present status of the river lamprey fishery in Latvia to improve the understanding of catch statistics data. Currently, river lamprey fishing in Latvia is carried out at 24 fishing grounds located on 17 rivers. The most popular fishing gear is the lamprey fyke net, but lamprey weirs and lamprey trammel nets are also used. The type and design of the fishing gear depends on the parameters of the fishing ground. The catch size is highly variable and is greatly affected by the number of non-resources related circumstances, such as fishing regulations and meteorological factors determining the intensity of lamprey migration during the fishing season and opportunities for fishing during periods of the most intense migration. The fishing effort and the type of fishing gear have also largely changed since the 1960s and 1970s. Therefore, the fluctuation in both the long- and short-term catch data may not correspond to changes in the actual status of the lamprey population.

  19. 77 FR 66746 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Sub-ACL (Annual Catch...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ... research in the 2010-2012 specifications (75 FR 48874, August 12, 2010). However, due to an over-harvest in Area 1A in 2010, the FY 2012 sub-ACL in Area 1A was revised to 24,668 mt on February 24, 2012 (77 FR... Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Sub-ACL (Annual Catch Limit) Harvested for...

  20. 76 FR 61059 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Sub-ACL (Annual Catch...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ...,362 mt and 0 mt of the sub-ACL is set aside for research (75 FR 48874, August 12, 2010). The... Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Sub-ACL (Annual Catch Limit) Harvested for Management... calendar day until January 1, 2012, when the 2012 sub-ACL for Area 1B becomes available, except...

  1. D-Catch instrument : development and psychometric testing of a measurement instrument for nursing documentation in hospitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paans, Wolter; Sermeus, Walter; Nieweg, Roos M. B.; van der Schans, Cees P.

    2010-01-01

    P>Title. D-Catch instrument: development and psychometric testing of a measurement instrument for nursing documentation in hospitals. Aim. This paper is a report of the development and testing of the psychometric properties of an instrument to measure the accuracy of nursing documentation in general

  2. The broiler's last day of life. Influences of feed withdrawal, catching and transport on physiology and losses of broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijdam, Edwin

    2006-01-01

    Before slaughter, broilers are subjected to several preslaughter management events such as feed withdrawal, catching, crating, transport, and lairage. The aim of this study was to gain insight into factors which influence mortality, stress, energy metabolism, and meat quality of the broilers on the

  3. Potential impacts of climate change on the distribution of longline catches of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) in the Tasman sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, James T.; Wilcox, Chris; Matear, Richard J.; Chamberlain, Matthew A.; Hobday, Alistair J.

    2015-03-01

    The spatial distribution of living marine resources in the Tasman Sea is expected to shift due to the impacts of global climate change. Understanding the most likely future locations of valuable pelagic species will inform the sustainable harvest and management of species such as yellowfin tuna (YFT; Thunnus albacares). We estimate future upper ocean structure in the Tasman Sea, using both historical data and dynamically downscaled ocean projections for the 2060s, and apply a catch distribution model to estimate possible changes to the YFT catch in the eastern Australia domestic longline fishery. Both approaches project that locations with concentrated YFT catch in the Tasman Sea will shift poleward in response to likely climate change. By the 2060s, the core fishing areas are projected to have shifted both poleward and offshore of existing high catch areas. Shifts in the distribution and hence availability of this species may require future domestic fishing vessels to modify their fishing behaviors, which in turn may require social and economic adjustments.

  4. Effect of block net use and time of sampling on backpack electrofishing catches in three Kansas reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenebeck, C.W.; Strakosh, T.R.; Guy, C.S.

    2005-01-01

    Using backpack electrofishing in three Kansas reservoirs, we investigated the need for block nets when estimating density (fish/ha) and species diversity and determined whether time of sampling affected catch rates (fish/h) of age-0 largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides and age-0 Lepomis spp. and species diversity. Block nets were used to enclose or buoys were used to mark the boundaries of 149 m2 of reservoir surface area. Species richness, diversity, and density of age-0 largemouth bass and Lepomis spp. did not differ significantly between areas enclosed with block nets and areas marked with buoys, but species richness, diversity, and catch rates differed significantly between day and night sampling. Age-0 largemouth bass and Lepomis spp. catch rates, species richness, and species diversity were all significantly higher during night sampling. Our results indicate that use of block nets may not be necessary to estimate age-0 largemouth bass and Lepomis spp. densities, species richness, or diversity in reservoir littoral areas. We recommend night sampling because of significantly higher catch rates and better representation of the littoral fish assemblage. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  5. The programming effects of nutrition-induced catch-up growth on gut microbiota and metabolic diseases in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jia; Xiao, Xinhua; Zhang, Qian; Yu, Miao; Xu, Jianping; Qi, Cuijuan; Wang, Tong

    2016-04-01

    Substantial evidence indicated that catch-up growth could increase the susceptibility to obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus in adulthood. However, investigations into the "programming" effects of catch-up growth on gut microbiota in the offspring are limited. C57/BL6 mice were fed on either low protein (LP) or normal chow (NC) diet throughout gestation and lactation. Then, the offspring were randomly weaned to either NC or high fat (HF) diet until 32 weeks of age, generating four experimental groups: NC-NC, NC-HF, LP-NC, and LP-HF. Metabolic parameters and gut microbiota were examined in the offspring. It showed that the NC-HF and LP-HF offspring displayed higher body weight (P percentage was negatively associated with blood glucose concentrations of intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (r = -0.886, P = 0.019). In conclusion, catch-up growth predisposes the offspring to gut microbiota perturbation, obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. Our study is novel in showing the "programming" effects of nutrition-induced catch-up growth on gut microbiota and metabolic diseases in later life. PMID:26749443

  6. A novel stiffening factor inducing the stiffest state of holothurian catch connective tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Akira; Tamori, Masaki; Iketani, Tomoaki; Oiwa, Kazuhiro; Motokawa, Tatsuo

    2010-10-15

    The dermis of sea cucumbers is a catch connective tissue or mutable collagenous tissue that shows large changes in stiffness. Extensive studies on the dermis revealed that it can adopt three different states having different mechanical properties that can be reversibly converted. These are the stiff, standard and soft states. The standard state is readily produced when a dermal piece is immersed in the sea water containing Ca²+, whereas the soft state can be produced by removal of Ca²+. A stiffening protein, tensilin, has been isolated from some sea cucumbers (Cucumaria frondosa and Holothuria leucospilota). Although tensilin converts the state of the dermis from soft to standard, it cannot convert from standard to stiff. In this study, we isolated and partially purified a novel stiffening factor from the dermis of Holothuria leucospilota. The factor stiffened the dermis in normal artificial sea water (ASW) but did not stiffen the soft dermis in Ca²+-free ASW. It also stiffened the dermis that had been converted to the standard state in Ca²+-free ASW by the action of tensilin. These results suggest that the factor produces the stiff dermis from the standard state but cannot work as a stiffener on the soft dermis. Its addition to longitudinal muscles of the sea cucumber produced no effects, suggesting that its effect is specific to the catch connective tissue. Its stiffening activity was susceptible to trypsin, meaning that it is a polypeptide, and its molecular mass estimated from gel filtration chromatography was 2.4 kDa. PMID:20889821

  7. Catch, bycatch and discards of the Galapagos Marine Reserve small-scale handline fishery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna S. Zimmerhackel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fisheries bycatch is a significant marine conservation issue as valuable fish are wasted and protected species harmed with potential negative ecological and socio-economic consequences. Even though there are indications that the small-scale handline fishery of the Galapagos Marine Reserve has a low selectivity, information on its bycatch has never been published. We used onboard monitoring and interview data to assess the bycatch of the Galapagos handline fishery by estimating the bycatch ratio, determining species compositions of landings and bycatch, identifying fishers’ reasons for discarding certain individuals, and revealing historical trends in the bycatch ratio. The estimated bycatch ratio as a function of biomass of 0.40 and a diverse species composition of target catch and bycatch confirmed the low selectivity of this fishery. Most individuals were not landed for economic motivations, either because species (77.4% or sizes (17.7% are unmarketable or for regulatory reasons (5.9%. We found that bycatch contributes to growth overfishing of some target species because they are discarded or used as bait before reaching their first maturity. Moreover, over half of interviewees perceived a historical decrease in bycatch ratios that was explained by a diversification of the target catch due to the reduction in abundance of the traditionally most important target species. As some target species show signs of overfishing and to date there are no specific regulations for the finfish fishery species in place, we recommend the implementation of a series of management measures to protect critical life stages of overexploited species and to improve the selectivity of the Galapagos handline fishery.

  8. Assessing most practical and effective protocols to sanitize hands of poultry catching crew members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racicot, M; Kocher, A; Beauchamp, G; Letellier, A; Vaillancourt, J-P

    2013-08-01

    Catching crew members can heavily contaminate their hands with organic material. They can act as mechanical vector and spread diseases between farms. Hand hygiene is an important issue for the industry as a whole and for human health by reducing contamination risks. Many studies, in human medicine, tend to make hand rub a standard for hand hygiene. However, few studies have tested the effectiveness of hand hygiene products on visibly contaminated hands. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of practical hand sanitization protocols: water and soap, degreasing cream and hand wipes, all combined with alcohol-based hand gel. The use of alcohol-based gel alone was also evaluated. For the reduction of coliforms after washing, there was no statistically significant difference between protocols when the initial level of bacterial contamination was low to moderate. When hands were highly contaminated, the alcohol-based gel alone was less effective than the degreasing cream combined with the alcohol-based gel (p=0.002). As for the reduction in total aerobic bacteria counts, there was no difference between protocols when the initial level of bacterial contamination was low. The water, soap and alcohol-based gel protocol was more effective than the scrubbing wipes and alcohol-based gel protocol when hands were moderately (p=0.002) and highly contaminated (p=0.001). All protocols were effective in neutralizing Salmonella on hands. Reducing the level of bacterial contamination on hands before using an alcohol-based gel seems important to ensure effective hand sanitation for highly and moderately contaminated hands. This can be done by using a degreasing cream or water and soap. Based on the survey, catching crew members preferred using warm water and soap compared to a degreasing cream. PMID:23618466

  9. Schema-based learning of adaptable and flexible prey- catching in anurans II. Learning after lesioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbacho, Fernando; Nishikawa, Kiisa C; Weerasuriya, Ananda; Liaw, Jim-Shih; Arbib, Michael A

    2005-12-01

    The previous companion paper describes the initial (seed) schema architecture that gives rise to the observed prey-catching behavior. In this second paper in the series we describe the fundamental adaptive processes required during learning after lesioning. Following bilateral transections of the hypoglossal nerve, anurans lunge toward mealworms with no accompanying tongue or jaw movement. Nevertheless anurans with permanent hypoglossal transections eventually learn to catch their prey by first learning to open their mouth again and then lunging their body further and increasing their head angle. In this paper we present a new learning framework, called schema-based learning (SBL). SBL emphasizes the importance of the current existent structure (schemas), that defines a functioning system, for the incremental and autonomous construction of ever more complex structure to achieve ever more complex levels of functioning. We may rephrase this statement into the language of Schema Theory (Arbib 1992, for a comprehensive review) as the learning of new schemas based on the stock of current schemas. SBL emphasizes a fundamental principle of organization called coherence maximization, that deals with the maximization of congruence between the results of an interaction (external or internal) and the expectations generated for that interaction. A central hypothesis consists of the existence of a hierarchy of predictive internal models (predictive schemas) all over the control center-brain-of the agent. Hence, we will include predictive models in the perceptual, sensorimotor, and motor components of the autonomous agent architecture. We will then show that predictive models are fundamental for structural learning. In particular we will show how a system can learn a new structural component (augment the overall network topology) after being lesioned in order to recover (or even improve) its original functionality. Learning after lesioning is a special case of structural

  10. Catching-up, Regional Disparities and EU Cohesion Policy: The Case of Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorg Lackenbauer

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Central and Eastern European countries (CEECs such as Hungary are not only relatively backward with respect to the ‘old’ EU Member States (EU-15, but they are also witnessing a worrying rise of regional inequalities within their boundaries. With the example of Hungary, we try to identify the factors behind catching-up with the EU-15 in some regions (‘winner regions’ and falling-behind in others (‘loser regions’. By its very definition, EU cohesion policy has to consider both problems (national catching-up vs. the containment of regional disparities very carefully in the enlarged EU. This is a complex issue, as regional policies often seem to face an equity-efficiency trade-off, as will bw shortly shown. On the basis of this analysis, we discuss how EU cohesion policy could contribute to attain higher national growth and, at the same time, contribute to the decrease in regional disparities. We use a theoretical approach that combines an endogenous growth framework with a new economic geography. The model we use shows that – in contrast to the traditionally used transport infrastructure policies – a policy that reduces the cost of innovation or increases the diffusion of innovation is able to reduce regional income inequality and agglomeration, and increase the national growth rate. The regional policies involved could be primary subsidies for research and technological development, investment in human capital or ICT infrastructure. In the final two sections of the paper, we discuss whether these regional policy prescriptions would fall on fertile soil in the light of Hungary's economic reality, and which could be promising EU cohesion policy schemes that would incorporate an innovation-oriented regional policy approach.

  11. Linking Drought Information to Crop Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madadgar, S.; Farahmand, A.; Li, L.; Aghakouchak, A.

    2015-12-01

    Droughts have detrimental impacts on agricultural yields all over the world every year. This study analyzes the relationship between three drought indicators including Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI); Standardized Soil Moisture Index (SSI), Multivariate Standardized Drought Index (MSDI) and the yields of five largest rain-fed crops in Australia (wheat, broad beans, canola, lupins and barley). Variation of the five chosen crop yields is overall in agreement with the three drought indicators SPI, SSI, and MSDI during the analysis period of 1980-2012. This study develops a bivariate copula model to investigate the statistical dependence of drought and crop yield. Copula functions are used to establish the existing connections between climate variables and crop yields during the Millennium drought in Australia. The proposed model estimates the likelihood of crop yields given the observed or predicted drought indicators SPI, SSI or MSDI. The results are also useful to estimate crop yields associated with different thresholds of precipitation or soil moisture.

  12. Huayu capsule enhances limb-catching capability of rats with experimental open traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunyang Zhou; Juan Zhang; Yong Wang; Haibing Qian; Li Gong; Guojun Huang

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is hard to cure the open traumatic brain injury (TBI), especially for the brain functional recovery after brain injury. In this regard, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has a wide prospect.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of Huayu capsule on limb-catching capability of rat models of open TBI,and investigate its possible mechanism.DESIGN: Randomized and controlled study.SETTING: Grade 3 Pharmacological Laboratory of TCM, State Administration of TCM, Chengdu University of TCM.MATERIALS: This study was performed from October 2005 to January 2006. Fifty Sprague-Dawley rats of either gender, aged 3 months old, weighing from 190 to 220 g, were involved in this study. Huayu capsule was made and supplied by the Department of TCM Processing of Chengdu University of TCM, Lot No.050121; Xuefuzhuyu oral liquid was manufactured by Jilin Aodong Yanbian Pharmaceutical Industry Co.,Ltd., Lot No. 050406.METHODS: Open right parietal lobe TBI rat models were made as described in references. The involved rat models were randomized into 5 groups according to gender and body mass: model group, high-, middle-,low-dose Huayu capsule groups and Xuefuzhuyu oral liquid group, with 10 rats in each. Rats in the model group were administrated with distilled water of 5 mL/kg; Rats in the high-, middle- and low-dose Huayu capsule groups were administrated with 1.030, 0.515, 0.258 g/kg raw herbs; Rats in the Xuefuzhuyu oral liquid group were administrated with Xuefuzhuyu oral liquid of 5 mL/kg, intragastrically once a day for 7 days successively for all after recovering consciousness from anesthetization. ① One hour after administration on the 6th day, rats in each group were placed on a 100 cm fine straight iron wire paralleling to the ground and 20 cm above the operational table. The time of the rats keeping on the wire was counted and it indicated the nerve-muscle catching capability. The longer the remained time, the better the nerve-muscle catching capability.② Twenty

  13. Diversifying crops: the Nicaraguan experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyrat, A

    1992-01-01

    Over 1/2 of Nicaragua's population lives in the Pacific Plains where cotton has been grown intensively for 40 years. This single-crop economy has led to massive deforestation, wind and water erosion has affected the soil, and extensive use of pesticides has deposited excessive amounts of DDT in the breast milk of nursing mothers. After the downfall of the Somoza dictatorship the subsequent agrarian reform has been hampered by lack of information and training on sustainable methods of farming. The Pikin Guerrero project is a sustainable development experiment involving 2200 peasant families jointly run by the Nicaraguan Institute for Natural Resources and the Environment (IRENA) and the World Conservation Union (IUCN). The farmers grow corn and beans while exhausting the area's natural resources through forest clearing with the result of spreading erosion of fragile soils. 400 farmers have reshaped their production systems with the help of experts. Annual crops have become more diverse: yucca, 10 varieties of bean, 3 of pineapple, and 4 of corn, plus coffee, mango, bananas, and avocado. Soil conservation practices have been introduced, and farmers have built terraces. The initial pilot project comprised 5000 hectares, it is being expanded to cover another 10,000 hectares. The introduction of family planning to the local people is the next undertaking. PMID:12317702

  14. Short rotation Wood Crops Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, L.L.; Ehrenshaft, A.R.

    1990-08-01

    This report synthesizes the technical progress of research projects in the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program for the year ending September 30, 1989. The primary goal of this research program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division, is the development of a viable technology for producing renewable feedstocks for conversion to biofuels. One of the more significant accomplishments was the documentation that short-rotation woody crops total delivered costs could be $40/Mg or less under optimistic but attainable conditions. By taking advantage of federal subsidies such as those offered under the Conservation Reserve Program, wood energy feedstock costs could be lower. Genetic improvement studies are broadening species performance within geographic regions and under less-than-optimum site conditions. Advances in physiological research are identifying key characteristics of species productivity and response to nutrient applications. Recent developments utilizing biotechnology have achieved success in cell and tissue culture, somaclonal variation, and gene-insertion studies. Productivity gains have been realized with advanced cultural studies of spacing, coppice, and mixed-species trials. 8 figs., 20 tabs.

  15. Connecting Biochemical Photosynthesis Models with Crop Models to Support Crop Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Alex; Song, Youhong; van Oosterom, Erik J.; Hammer, Graeme L.

    2016-01-01

    The next advance in field crop productivity will likely need to come from improving crop use efficiency of resources (e.g., light, water, and nitrogen), aspects of which are closely linked with overall crop photosynthetic efficiency. Progress in genetic manipulation of photosynthesis is confounded by uncertainties of consequences at crop level because of difficulties connecting across scales. Crop growth and development simulation models that integrate across biological levels of organization and use a gene-to-phenotype modeling approach may present a way forward. There has been a long history of development of crop models capable of simulating dynamics of crop physiological attributes. Many crop models incorporate canopy photosynthesis (source) as a key driver for crop growth, while others derive crop growth from the balance between source- and sink-limitations. Modeling leaf photosynthesis has progressed from empirical modeling via light response curves to a more mechanistic basis, having clearer links to the underlying biochemical processes of photosynthesis. Cross-scale modeling that connects models at the biochemical and crop levels and utilizes developments in upscaling leaf-level models to canopy models has the potential to bridge the gap between photosynthetic manipulation at the biochemical level and its consequences on crop productivity. Here we review approaches to this emerging cross-scale modeling framework and reinforce the need for connections across levels of modeling. Further, we propose strategies for connecting biochemical models of photosynthesis into the cross-scale modeling framework to support crop improvement through photosynthetic manipulation.

  16. Genetically Modified Crops and Food Security

    OpenAIRE

    Qaim, Matin; Kouser, Shahzad

    2013-01-01

    The role of genetically modified (GM) crops for food security is the subject of public controversy. GM crops could contribute to food production increases and higher food availability. There may also be impacts on food quality and nutrient composition. Finally, growing GM crops may influence farmers’ income and thus their economic access to food. Smallholder farmers make up a large proportion of the undernourished people worldwide. Our study focuses on this latter aspect and provides the firs...

  17. Saline water irrigation for crop production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinity is one of agriculture's most complex production problems. Excessive salts from irrigation water or high water tables can severely limit crop production. Years of saline water irrigation on poorly drained soils can eventually make economic crop production impossible. About 10% of all land are affected by salinity problems. They occur in every continent in different proportions, more frequently in arid and semi-arid areas. This paper discusses a range of problems related to use of saline water for crop irrigation

  18. Prospects of Feed Crops in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Yahya, Tunku Mahmud Bin Tunku; Sukir, Sarmin Bin

    2005-01-01

    The study was initiated with the objectives of elucidating and analyzing potentials, weaknesses, opportunities, constraints and policy options in the development of feed crop farming with an emphasis on secondary crops in Southeast Asian developing countries. In Malaysia, feed crops currently not much to employment, income generation, import substitution and export promotion because the sub-sector is small. The scope of the study is limited to the dominant non-ruminant sector of the livestock...

  19. Crop association to improve aphid biological control

    OpenAIRE

    Chevalier Mendes Lopes, Thomas; Bosquée, Emilie; Bodson, Bernard; Francis, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    This research focused on the development of sustainable alternative methods to control aphids, giving special emphasis on cultural practices and plant management systems. Increasing the diversity within crops may have several beneficial effects on pest control, creating attractive habitats for indigenous beneficial fauna and simultaneously deterring pests (“push-pull” approach). In this field study, two wheat/pea associations (mixed cropping and strip cropping) where compared to monocultures ...

  20. Energy crops for agriculture - benefits or constraints?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Danish energy production is influenced by the EU agricultural policy and the following Danish implementation. In Denmark the maximum allowed land to set-aside is 21,6 percent of the fields in rotation. The compensation per hectare is approximately 330 EURO. The farmer is allowed to grow energy crops on these fields and still get the compensation for setting aside. The interest for growing short rotation crops as rapeseed or cereals on the set-aside fields is high. Due to very complex administrative procedures it is not possible to grow cereals for energy production on the set-aside fields at the moment. However, the growing of rapeseed is implemented. In 2001 there were grown 81.000 hectare of rapeseed in Denmark. 21.000 ha were grown on set-aside areas as non-food. The crop rotation for rape-seeds and cereals fits with the crop rotation on the other fields, for the farmer it is easy to grow a crop he has tried to grow before, the economy in growing annual rotation crops is known, and the farmer knows there is a market for the product. The interest for growing long rotation crops such as mischantus or willow exists, but the fields actually grown with the products are quite small. There is uncertainty about the market for the products. On the other hand power plants are unwilling to rely on biomass, which is not available today. The farmers are ready to produce energy crops if it is profitable and if certainty about a market exists. The present uncertainty about a market for long rotation crops makes it obvious to choose short rotation crops with a known market. Combination of different environmental objectives might secure a future for the long rotation crops. The idea of combining energy production, ground water production and reducing the greenhouse gas emission is foreseen to be one of the main arguments for energy crops in the future. (ba)

  1. The spatial impact of genetically modified crops

    OpenAIRE

    Munro, Alistair

    2008-01-01

    Although genetically modified (GM) organisms have attracted a great deal of public attention, analysis of their economic impacts has been less common. It is, perhaps, spatial externalities where the divergence between efficient and unregulated outcomes is potentially largest, because the presence of transgenic crops may eliminate or severely reduce the planting of organic varieties and other crops where some consumers have a preference for non-GM crops. This paper constructs a simple model of...

  2. Genetically Modified Crops and Food Security

    OpenAIRE

    Matin Qaim; Shahzad Kouser

    2013-01-01

    The role of genetically modified (GM) crops for food security is the subject of public controversy. GM crops could contribute to food production increases and higher food availability. There may also be impacts on food quality and nutrient composition. Finally, growing GM crops may influence farmers' income and thus their economic access to food. Smallholder farmers make up a large proportion of the undernourished people worldwide. Our study focuses on this latter aspect and provides the firs...

  3. The Economics of Genetically Modified Crops

    OpenAIRE

    Matin Qaim

    2009-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops have been used commercially for more than 10 years. Available impact studies of insect-resistant and herbicide-tolerant crops show that these technologies are beneficial to farmers and consumers, producing large aggregate welfare gains as well as positive effects for the environment and human health. The advantages of future applications could even be much bigger. Given a conducive institutional framework, GM crops can contribute significantly to global food se...

  4. Weed management strategies for castor bean crops

    OpenAIRE

    Augusto Guerreiro Fontoura Costa; Valdinei Sofiatti; Cleber Daniel de Góes Maciel; Juliana Parisotto Poletine; João Igor de Sousa

    2014-01-01

    Castor bean crops are agriculturally relevant due to the quality and versatility of their oil, both for the chemical industry and for biodiesel production. Proper weed management is important for both the cultivation and the yield of castor bean crops; therefore, the intention of the present work is to review pertinent information regarding weed management, including the studies regarding weed interference periods, chemical controls for use in different crop production systems and herbicide s...

  5. Coordination between catch connective tissue and muscles through nerves in the spine joint of the sea urchin Diadema setosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motokawa, Tatsuo; Fuchigami, Yoshiro

    2015-03-01

    Echinoderms have catch connective tissues that change their stiffness as a result of nervous control. The coordination between catch connective tissue and muscles was studied in the spine joint of the sea urchin Diadema setosum. Spine joints are equipped with two kinds of effector: spine muscles and a kind of catch connective tissue, which is called the catch apparatus (CA). The former is responsible for spine movements and the latter for maintenance of spine posture. Diadema show a shadow reaction in which they wave spines when a shadow falls on them, which is a reflex involving the radial nerves. Dynamic mechanical tests were performed on the CA in a joint at which the muscles were severed so as not to interfere with the mechanical measurements. The joint was on a piece of the test that contained other spines and a radial nerve. Darkening of the preparation invoked softening of the CA and spine waving (the shadow reaction). Electrical stimulation of the radial nerve invoked a similar response. These responses were abolished after the nerve pathways from the radial nerve to spines had been cut. A touch applied to the CA stiffened it and the adjacent spines inclined toward the touched CA. A touch to the base of the adjacent spine softened the CA and the spines around the touched spine inclined towards it. The softening of the CA can be interpreted as a response that reduces the resistance of the ligaments to spine movements. Our results clearly show coordination between catch connective tissue and muscles through nerves.

  6. Dynamics of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis and Lysinibacillus sphaericus spores in urban catch basins after simultaneous application against mosquito larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Guidi

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti and Lysinibacillus sphaericus (Lsph are extensively used in mosquito control programs. These biocides are the active ingredients of a commercial larvicide. Quantitative data on the fate of both Bti and Lsph applied together for the control of mosquitoes in urban drainage structures such as catch basins are lacking. We evaluated the dynamics and persistence of Bti and Lsph spores released through their concomitant application in urban catch basins in southern Switzerland. Detection and quantification of spores over time in water and sludge samples from catch basins were carried out using quantitative real-time PCR targeting both cry4A and cry4B toxin genes for Bti and the binA gene for Lsph. After treatment, Bti and Lsph spores attained concentrations of 3.76 (± 0.08 and 4.13 (± 0.09 log ml(-1 in water, then decreased progressively over time, reaching baseline values. For both Bti and Lsph, spore levels in the order of 10(5 g(-1 were observed in the bottom sludge two days after the treatment and remained constant for the whole test period (275 days. Indigenous Lsph strains were isolated from previously untreated catch basins. A selection of those was genotyped using pulsed field gel electrophoresis of SmaI-digested chromosomal DNA, revealing that a subset of isolates were members of the clonal population of strain 2362. No safety issues related to the use of this biopesticide in the environment have been observed during this study, because no significant increase in the number of spores was seen during the long observation period. The isolation of native Lysinibacillus sphaericus strains belonging to the same clonal population as strain 2362 from catch basins never treated with Lsph-based products indicates that the use of a combination of Bti and Lsph for the control of mosquitoes does not introduce non-indigenous microorganisms in this area.

  7. Spatio-temporal declines in Philippine fisheries and its implications to coastal municipal fishers’ catch and income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A Anticamara

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The problem of overexploitation in global fisheries is well-recognized. However, published assessment of fisheries spatio-temporal trends at the national scale is lacking for many high biodiversity developing countries, which is problematic since fisheries management is often implemented at the local or national levels. Here, we present the long-term spatio-temporal trends of Philippine fisheries production based on the landed national fish catch data (1980-2012 and fishers’ interviews. We found that the total Philippine fish catch volume (Metric Tons MT of most capture fisheries throughout the country has either stagnated or declined over the last three decades. The decline is even more prominent when evaluating fisheries trends at the provincial level, suggesting spatial serial depletion of the country’s fisheries. In contrast, the total Philippine fish catch value (US Dollars US$ or Philippine Pesos PHP has continued to increase over time, despite the declining fish catch volume. However, local municipal fishers are experiencing both low fish catch and income, contributing to observable poverty in many coastal communities in the Philippines. The various stakeholders of Philippine fisheries need to recognize the depleted state of Philippine fisheries, and learn from various experiences of collapsed and recovered fisheries from around the world, in order to recover the Philippines’ capture fisheries. Lessons from the literature on collapsed fisheries offer the following options for recovery: (1 regulate or reduce fisheries exploitation and other human activities impacting the fisheries to allow fisheries to rebuild or recover, (2 enforce effective networks of marine reserves, (3 engage fishers, consumers, and other stakeholders in fisheries management, (4 improve fisheries science, monitoring, and management capacities, and (5 provide alternative livelihood, skills, and improved education to fishers and their families.

  8. Specific detection of the Old World screwworm fly, Chrysomya bezziana, in bulk fly trap catches using real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, S; Morgan, J A T; Wlodek, B M; Brown, G W; Urech, R; Green, P E; Lew-Tabor, A E

    2010-09-01

    The Old World screwworm fly (OWS), Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve (Diptera: Calliphoridae), is a myiasis-causing blowfly of major concern for both animals and humans. Surveillance traps are used in several countries for early detection of incursions and to monitor control strategies. Examination of surveillance trap catches is time-consuming and is complicated by the presence of morphologically similar flies that are difficult to differentiate from Ch. bezziana, especially when the condition of specimens is poor. A molecular-based method to confirm or refute the presence of Ch. bezziana in trap catches would greatly simplify monitoring programmes. A species-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was designed to target the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer 1 (rDNA ITS1) of Ch. bezziana. The assay uses both species-specific primers and an OWS-specific Taqman((R)) MGB probe. Specificity was confirmed against morphologically similar and related Chrysomya and Cochliomyia species. An optimal extraction protocol was developed to process trap catches of up to 1000 flies and the assay is sensitive enough to detect one Ch. bezziana in a sample of 1000 non-target species. Blind testing of 29 trap catches from Australia and Malaysia detected Ch. bezziana with 100% accuracy. The probability of detecting OWS in a trap catch of 50 000 flies when the OWS population prevalence is low (one in 1000 flies) is 63.6% for one extraction. For three extractions (3000 flies), the probability of detection increases to 95.5%. The real-time PCR assay, used in conjunction with morphology, will greatly increase screening capabilities in surveillance areas where OWS prevalence is low. PMID:20497318

  9. The impacts of conservation agriculture on crop yield in China depend on specific practices, crops and cropping regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengyan; Zheng; Yu; Jiang; Changqing; Chen; Yanni; Sun; Jinfei; Feng; Aixing; Deng; Zhenwei; Song; Weijian; Zhang

    2014-01-01

    For smooth and wide application of conservation agriculture(CA), remaining uncertainties about its impacts on crop yield need to be reduced. Based on previous field experiments in China, a meta-analysis was performed to quantify the actual impacts of CA practices(NT: no/reduced-tillage only, CTSR: conventional tillage with straw retention, NTSR: NT with straw retention) on crop yields as compared to conventional tillage without straw retention(CT).Although CA practices increased crop yield by 4.6% on average, there were large variations in their impacts. For each CA practice, CTSR and NTSR significantly increased crop yield by 4.9%and 6.3%, respectively, compared to CT. However, no significant effect was found for NT. Among ecological areas, significant positive effects of CA practices were found in areas with an annual precipitation below 600 mm. Similar effects were found in areas with annual mean air temperature above 5 °C. For cropping regions, CA increased crop yield by 6.4% and 5.5%compared to CT in Northwest and South China, respectively, whereas no significant effects were found in the North China and Northeast China regions. Among crops, the positive effects of CA practices were significantly higher in maize(7.5%) and rice(4.1%) than in wheat(2.9%). NT likely decreased wheat yield. Our results indicate that there are great differences in the impacts of CA practices on crop yield, owing to regional variation in climate and crop types. CA will most likely increase maize yield but reduce wheat yield. It is strongly recommended to apply CA with crop straw retention in maize cropping areas and seasons with a warm and dry climate pattern.

  10. The impacts of conservation agriculture on crop yield in China depend on specific practices, crops and cropping regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengyan Zheng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available For smooth and wide application of conservation agriculture (CA, remaining uncertainties about its impacts on crop yield need to be reduced. Based on previous field experiments in China, a meta-analysis was performed to quantify the actual impacts of CA practices (NT: no/reduced-tillage only, CTSR: conventional tillage with straw retention, NTSR: NT with straw retention on crop yields as compared to conventional tillage without straw retention (CT. Although CA practices increased crop yield by 4.6% on average, there were large variations in their impacts. For each CA practice, CTSR and NTSR significantly increased crop yield by 4.9% and 6.3%, respectively, compared to CT. However, no significant effect was found for NT. Among ecological areas, significant positive effects of CA practices were found in areas with an annual precipitation below 600 mm. Similar effects were found in areas with annual mean air temperature above 5 °C. For cropping regions, CA increased crop yield by 6.4% and 5.5% compared to CT in Northwest and South China, respectively, whereas no significant effects were found in the North China and Northeast China regions. Among crops, the positive effects of CA practices were significantly higher in maize (7.5% and rice (4.1% than in wheat (2.9%. NT likely decreased wheat yield. Our results indicate that there are great differences in the impacts of CA practices on crop yield, owing to regional variation in climate and crop types. CA will most likely increase maize yield but reduce wheat yield. It is strongly recommended to apply CA with crop straw retention in maize cropping areas and seasons with a warm and dry climate pattern.

  11. 7 CFR 1219.5 - Crop year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.5 Crop...

  12. Origins of food crops connect countries worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achicanoy, Harold A.; Bjorkman, Anne D.; Navarro-Racines, Carlos; Guarino, Luigi; Flores-Palacios, Ximena; Engels, Johannes M. M.; Wiersema, John H.; Dempewolf, Hannes; Sotelo, Steven; Ramírez-Villegas, Julian; Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P.; Fowler, Cary; Jarvis, Andy; Rieseberg, Loren H.; Struik, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    Research into the origins of food plants has led to the recognition that specific geographical regions around the world have been of particular importance to the development of agricultural crops. Yet the relative contributions of these different regions in the context of current food systems have not been quantified. Here we determine the origins (‘primary regions of diversity’) of the crops comprising the food supplies and agricultural production of countries worldwide. We estimate the degree to which countries use crops from regions of diversity other than their own (‘foreign crops’), and quantify changes in this usage over the past 50 years. Countries are highly interconnected with regard to primary regions of diversity of the crops they cultivate and/or consume. Foreign crops are extensively used in food supplies (68.7% of national food supplies as a global mean are derived from foreign crops) and production systems (69.3% of crops grown are foreign). Foreign crop usage has increased significantly over the past 50 years, including in countries with high indigenous crop diversity. The results provide a novel perspective on the ongoing globalization of food systems worldwide, and bolster evidence for the importance of international collaboration on genetic resource conservation and exchange.

  13. Ammonia emission from crop residues : quantification of ammonia volatilization based on crop residue properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijter, de F.J.; Huijsmans, J.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of available literature data on ammonia volatilization from crop residues. From these data, a relation is derived for the ammonia emission depending on the N-content of crop residue.

  14. Prospects of Feed Crops in Pakistan: The Role of CGPRT Crops

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Abdul Gaffar

    2003-01-01

    This study was conducted under the CGPRT sponsored project on "Prospects of Feed Crops in South Asia-Pakistan (Feed)" to generate information on historical dynamics, future trends of demand and supply for feed crops/products, evaluation of potentials, weaknesses, opportunities and constraints for expanding feed crop farming in Pakistan, proposing possible schemes for trade and development of feed crops among Asian countries and the formulation of policy options to promote sustainable developm...

  15. Mixed cropping systems for biological control of weeds and pests in organic oilseed crops

    OpenAIRE

    Paulsen, Hans Marten; Schochow, Martin; Ulber, B; Kühne, Stefan; Rahmann, Gerold

    2006-01-01

    Agricultural advantages of mixed cropping are gained by biological effects like light competition, offering weed-suppressing capacities or by diversification of plant covers to break development cycles of pests. In a two-year project on mixed cropping with organic oilseed crops these effects were measured. It was found that weeds can be efficiently suppressed in organic linseed (Linum usitatissivum) in crop combinations with wheat (Triticum aestivum) or false flax (Camelina sativa). But linse...

  16. Crop Damage by Primates: Quantifying the Key Parameters of Crop-Raiding Events

    OpenAIRE

    Graham E Wallace; Hill, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Human-wildlife conflict often arises from crop-raiding, and insights regarding which aspects of raiding events determine crop loss are essential when developing and evaluating deterrents. However, because accounts of crop-raiding behaviour are frequently indirect, these parameters are rarely quantified or explicitly linked to crop damage. Using systematic observations of the behaviour of non-human primates on farms in western Uganda, this research identifies number of individuals raiding and ...

  17. Crop protection by seed coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsanfar, S; Modarres-Sanavy, S A M

    2005-01-01

    Providence of sufficient and healthy food for increasing human population clears the importance of notice to increasing crop production in company with environmental loss reduction. Growth and yield of every plant with sexual reproduction, depends on germination & emergence of sown seeds. Seed is a small alive plant that its biological function is protection and nutrition of embryo. Biological, chemical and physiological characteristics of seed, affect on plant performance & its resistance to undesirable environmental conditions, and even on its total yield. So attention to seed and try to increase its performance is so important. One of the factors that cause reduction in germination percentage and seedling establishment, is seed disease. It's possible to control these diseases by treating the seed before planting it. Coating the seed with pesticides, is one of the ways to gain this goal. Seed coating is a technique in which several material as fertilizers, nutritional elements, moisture attractive or repulsive agents, plant growth regulators, rhizobium inocolum, chemical & pesticide etc, add to seed by adhesive agents and cause to increase seed performance and germination. Seed coating, leads to increase benefits in seed industry, because seeds can use all of their genetic vigor. This technique is used for seeds of many garden plants, valuable crops (such as corn, sunflower, canola, alfalfa,...) and some of the grasses. In this technique that was first used in coating cereal seeds in 1930, a thin and permeable layer of pesticide is stuck on seed surface and prevent damage of seedborn pathogens. This layer is melted or splited after absorption of moisture and suitable temperature by seed, and let the radical to exit the seed. In this approach materials are used accurately with seed, evaporation & leakage of pesticide and also adverse effects of some pesticides on seeds are diminished, and these factors cause to increase the accuracy and performance of pesticide

  18. IMPROVEMENT OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CATCHING SEEDS WITH DOSING ELEMENTS OF THE SOWING MACHINE OF A PRECISION DRILL

    OpenAIRE

    Nesmiyan A. Y.; Doljikov V. V.; Cheremisin Y. M.; Asaturyan S. V.

    2015-01-01

    We have special demands to the planting of the tilled crops. Unlike grain crops, the tilled crops are sowed in a line with the certain step, which permits to provide the rational placing of the plants on the feeding areas. Due to this, the necessary conditions were made for their further growth and getting of big crops. For planting of the tilled crops all over the world people apply pneumatic precision drills with vacuum seed-sowing mechanisms and the quality of realization of the operation ...

  19. Energy crops in rotation. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zegada-Lizarazu, Walter; Monti, Andrea [Department of Agroenvironmental Science and Technology, University of Bologna, Viale G. Fanin, 44 - 40127, Bologna (Italy)

    2011-01-15

    The area under energy crops has increased tenfold over the last 10 years, and there is large consensus that the demand for energy crops will further increase rapidly to cover several millions of hectares in the near future. Information about rotational systems and effects of energy crops should be therefore given top priority. Literature is poor and fragmentary on this topic, especially about rotations in which all crops are exclusively dedicated to energy end uses. Well-planned crop rotations, as compared to continuous monoculture systems, can be expected to reduce the dependence on external inputs through promoting nutrient cycling efficiency, effective use of natural resources, especially water, maintenance of the long-term productivity of the land, control of diseases and pests, and consequently increasing crop yields and sustainability of production systems. The result of all these advantages is widely known as crop sequencing effect, which is due to the additional and positive consequences on soil physical-chemical and biological properties arising from specific crops grown in the same field year after year. In this context, the present review discusses the potential of several rotations with energy crops and their possibilities of being included alongside traditional agriculture systems across different agro-climatic zones within the European Union. Possible rotations dedicated exclusively to the production of biomass for bioenergy are also discussed, as rotations including only energy crops could become common around bio-refineries or power plants. Such rotations, however, show some limitations related to the control of diseases and to the narrow range of available species with high production potential that could be included in a rotation of such characteristics. The information on best-known energy crops such as rapeseed (Brassica napus) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) suggests that conventional crops can benefit from the introduction of energy crops in

  20. Comparison of different cover crop mulches and extracts on inhibition of crop and weed growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sturm, Domonic Johannes

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Weed suppression of cover crops is a result of competition for light, space, water and nutrients and the release of allelochemicals in the soil. Two laboratory and greenhouse experiments were conducted to analyse biochemical effects of extracts and mulches of Fagopyrum tataricum (L. Gaertn., Raphanus sativus var. oleiformis Pers. and a cover crop mixture on germination and plant growth of the crop plants maize (Zea mays L. and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris var. altissima Döll. and the weeds Chenopodium album L., Matricaria chamomilla L. and Stellaria media (L. Vill.. In the first experiment, aqueous cover crop extracts were applied on crop and weed seeds in germination assays. Germination rate, mean germination time and root length of crops and weeds were measured. In experiment 2, the influence of cover crop mulch on germination rate and dry weight of the test plants was determined after a period of 21 days. Significant reductions of the root length for all test plants were observed in experiment 1. Additionally, mean germination time was extended for crops and weeds by all cover crops. Germination rate and dry matter of crops and weeds were decreased significantly in experiment 2 compared to the untreated control. Root length, germination rate and mean germination time in germination tests in experiment 1 were found to be correlated with biomass of crops and weeds in experiment 2. This work reveals the important role of biochemical effects on weed suppression by cover crops.

  1. Perennial Grain and Oilseed Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantar, Michael B; Tyl, Catrin E; Dorn, Kevin M; Zhang, Xiaofei; Jungers, Jacob M; Kaser, Joe M; Schendel, Rachel R; Eckberg, James O; Runck, Bryan C; Bunzel, Mirko; Jordan, Nick R; Stupar, Robert M; Marks, M David; Anderson, James A; Johnson, Gregg A; Sheaffer, Craig C; Schoenfuss, Tonya C; Ismail, Baraem; Heimpel, George E; Wyse, Donald L

    2016-04-29

    Historically, agroecosystems have been designed to produce food. Modern societies now demand more from food systems-not only food, fuel, and fiber, but also a variety of ecosystem services. And although today's farming practices are producing unprecedented yields, they are also contributing to ecosystem problems such as soil erosion, greenhouse gas emissions, and water pollution. This review highlights the potential benefits of perennial grains and oilseeds and discusses recent progress in their development. Because of perennials' extended growing season and deep root systems, they may require less fertilizer, help prevent runoff, and be more drought tolerant than annuals. Their production is expected to reduce tillage, which could positively affect biodiversity. End-use possibilities involve food, feed, fuel, and nonfood bioproducts. Fostering multidisciplinary collaborations will be essential for the successful integration of perennials into commercial cropping and food-processing systems. PMID:26789233

  2. 7 CFR 457.157 - Plum crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Plum crop insurance provisions. 457.157 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.157 Plum crop insurance provisions. The Plum Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2001 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  3. 7 CFR 457.116 - Sugarcane crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sugarcane crop insurance provisions. 457.116 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.116 Sugarcane crop insurance provisions. The Sugarcane Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2004 and succeeding crop years are as...

  4. 7 CFR 457.169 - Mint crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... mint crop. Cover crop. A small grain crop seeded into mint acreage to reduce soil erosion and wind... planted for harvest during a previous crop year. Ground cover. Mint plants, including mint foliage and... coverages provided in these Crop Provisions, you may also elect the Winter Coverage Option in...

  5. Danish farmer’s perception of GM-crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Janus; Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Gylling, Morten

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a study of 185 farmer’s perception of GM-crops in Denmark. The respondent’s attitude to GM-crops mainly reflects a conservative view of the adoption of GM-crops. Among farmers only the exciting crops in rotation is seen as their future potential GM-crops. Findings from...

  6. 7 CFR 457.153 - Peach crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Peach crop insurance provisions. 457.153 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.153 Peach crop insurance provisions. The Peach Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2001 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  7. Assessing ecological risks and benefits of genetically modified crops

    OpenAIRE

    Bošković Jelena V.; Isajev Vasilije V.; Prijić Željana S.; Zečević Veselinka M.; Hojka Zdravko M.; Dozet Gordana K.

    2010-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops and biotechnology are providing new opportunities for increasing crop productivity and tackling agriculture problems, such as diseases, pests and weeds, abiotic stress and nutritional limitations of staple food crops. As GM crops are being adopted in various locations with different ecosystems, a scientifically based understanding of the environmental effects of cultivations of GM crops would assist decision makers worldwide ...

  8. 7 CFR 457.158 - Apple crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apple crop insurance provisions. 457.158 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.158 Apple crop insurance provisions. The Apple Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2005 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  9. Strategies for Improving Enterprise Standardization Management of Tropical Crop Machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ There are two categories of tropical crop machinery. One comprises operation machinery that is used for planting, managing and harvesting tropical crops, while the other comprises process machinery for processing tropical crops. Tropical crop machinery is distinguished from other agricultural machinery by the special crops that such machinery cultivates and processes.

  10. Analysis of yield advantage in mixed cropping.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radha Ranganathan,

    1993-01-01

    It has long been recognized that mixed cropping can give yield advantages over sole cropping, but methods that can identify such yield benefits are still being developed. This thesis presents a method that combines physiological and economic principles in the evaluation of yield advantage. A product

  11. Operational seasonal forecasting of crop performance

    OpenAIRE

    Roger C. Stone; Meinke, Holger

    2005-01-01

    Integrated, interdisciplinary crop performance forecasting systems, linked with appropriate decision and discussion support tools, could substantially improve operational decision making in agricultural management. Recent developments in connecting numerical weather prediction models and general circulation models with quantitative crop growth models offer the potential for development of integrated systems that incorporate components of long-term climate change. However, operational seasonal...

  12. Crop Residues: The Rest of the Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    A recent scientific publication stated that to remove CO2 from the atmosphere, the most permanent and rapid solution would be to sink crop residues to the ocean floor where they would be buried in deep ocean sediments. However, mitigating rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations by removing crop residu...

  13. 7 CFR 981.19 - Crop year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crop year. 981.19 Section 981.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.19 Crop...

  14. Mathematical Analysis and Simulation of Crop Micrometeorology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, J.

    1984-01-01

    In crop micrometeorology the transfer of radiation, momentum, heat and mass to or from a crop canopy is studied. Simulation models for these processes do exist but are not easy to handle because of their complexity and the long computing time they need. Moreover, up to now such models can only be ru

  15. Genetically Engineered Crops: Experiences and Prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giller, K.E.

    2016-01-01

    Since their introduction in the mid-1990s, genetically engineered (GE) crops have been the topic of much debate. This report reviews evidence accumulated from experiences on the most widely grown GE crops to date: herbicide-resistant and insect-resistant varieties of maize, soybean, and cotton. Whil

  16. Soil water evaporation and crop residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop residues have value when left in the field and also when removed from the field and sold as a commodity. Reducing soil water evaporation (E) is one of the benefits of leaving crop residues in place. E was measured beneath a corn canopy at the soil suface with nearly full coverage by corn stover...

  17. Agricultural impacts: Mapping future crop geographies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, William R.

    2016-06-01

    Modelled patterns of climate change impacts on sub-Saharan agriculture provide a detailed picture of the space- and timescales of change. They reveal hotspots where crop cultivation may disappear entirely, but also large areas where current or substitute crops will remain viable through this century.

  18. A GIS database for crop modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burrill, A.; Vossen, P.; Diepen, van C.A.

    1995-01-01

    The EC land information system has been combined with meteorological, topographical and crop parameter data, and with historical agricultural statistics, to produce an integrated database suitable as input to a European-level crop growth modelling system. The selection of variables to be included in

  19. Genomics Opportunities, New Crops and New Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter describes use of molecular markers and transgenics in development of new cultivars in a survey obtained from public and private sector breeders. It also reviews traits in Rosaceae crops for which markers are currently available for use in developing new crops. The surprising results a...

  20. Switchgrass a valuable biomass crop for energy

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The demand of renewable energies is growing steadily both from policy and from industry which seeks environmentally friendly feed stocks. The recent policies enacted by the EU, USA and other industrialized countries foresee an increased interest in the cultivation of energy crops; there is clear evidence that switchgrass is one of the most promising biomass crop for energy production and bio-based economy and compounds. Switchgrass: A Valuable Biomass Crop for Energy provides a comprehensive guide to  switchgrass in terms of agricultural practices, potential use and markets, and environmental and social benefits. Considering this potential energy source from its biology, breed and crop physiology to its growth and management to the economical, social and environmental impacts, Switchgrass: A Valuable Biomass Crop for Energy brings together chapters from a range of experts in the field, including a foreword from Kenneth P. Vogel, to collect and present the environmental benefits and characteristics of this a ...

  1. Crop Insurance, Premium Subsidy and Agricultural Output

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jing-feng; LIAO Pu

    2014-01-01

    This paper studied the effects of crop insurance on agricultural output with an economic growth model. Based on Ramsey-Cass-Koopmans (RCK) model, a basic model of agriculture economic growth was developed. Extending the basic model to incorporate uncertainty and insurance mechanism, a risk model and a risk-insurance model were built to study the inlfuences of risk and crop insurance on agricultural output. Compared with the steady states of the three models, the following results are achieved:(i) agricultural output decreases if we introduce uncertainty into the risk-free model;(ii) crop insurance promotes agriculture economic growth if insurance mechanism is introduced into the risk model;(iii) premium subsidy constantly improves agricultural output. Our contribution is that we studied the effects of crop insurance and premium subsidy from the perspective of economic growth in a dynamic framework, and proved the output promotion of crop insurance theoretically.

  2. Companion cropping to manage parasitic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, John A; Hamilton, Mary L; Hooper, Antony M; Khan, Zeyaur R; Midega, Charles A O

    2010-01-01

    Parasitic plants, through a range of infestation strategies, can attack crop plants and thereby require management. Because such problems often occur in resource-poor farming systems, companion cropping to manage parasitic plants is an appropriate approach. Many examples of companion cropping for this purpose have been reported, but the use of cattle forage legumes in the genus Desmodium as intercrops has been shown to be particularly successful in controlling the parasitic witchweeds (Striga spp.) that afflict approximately one quarter of sub-Saharan African cereal production. Through the use of this example, the development of effective companion crops is described, together with developments toward widespread adoption and understanding the underlying mechanisms, both for sustainability and ensuring food security, and also for exploitation beyond the cropping systems described here. PMID:20429664

  3. Embodied crop calories in animal products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Prajal; Lüdeke, Matthias K. B.; Reusser, Dominik E.; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2013-12-01

    Increases in animal products consumption and the associated environmental consequences have been a matter of scientific debate for decades. Consequences of such increases include rises in greenhouse gas emissions, growth of consumptive water use, and perturbation of global nutrients cycles. These consequences vary spatially depending on livestock types, their densities and their production system. In this letter, we investigate the spatial distribution of embodied crop calories in animal products. On a global scale, about 40% of the global crop calories are used as livestock feed (we refer to this ratio as crop balance for livestock) and about 4 kcal of crop products are used to generate 1 kcal of animal products (embodied crop calories of around 4). However, these values vary greatly around the world. In some regions, more than 100% of the crops produced is required to feed livestock requiring national or international trade to meet the deficit in livestock feed. Embodied crop calories vary between less than 1 for 20% of the livestock raising areas worldwide and greater than 10 for another 20% of the regions. Low values of embodied crop calories are related to production systems for ruminants based on fodder and forage, while large values are usually associated with production systems for non-ruminants fed on crop products. Additionally, we project the future feed demand considering three scenarios: (a) population growth, (b) population growth and changes in human dietary patterns and (c) changes in population, dietary patterns and feed conversion efficiency. When considering dietary changes, we project the global feed demand to be almost doubled (1.8-2.3 times) by 2050 compared to 2000, which would force us to produce almost equal or even more crops to raise our livestock than to directly nourish ourselves in the future. Feed demand is expected to increase over proportionally in Africa, South-Eastern Asia and Southern Asia, putting additional stress on these

  4. ESTABLISHING CROP PRODUCTIVITY USING RADARSAT-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. McNairn

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Crop productivity is influenced by a number of management and environmental conditions, and variations in crop growth can occur in-season due to, for example, unfavourable meteorological conditions. Consequently information on crop growth must be temporally frequent in order to adequately characterize crop productivity. Leaf Area Index (LAI is a key indicator of crop productivity and a number of methods have been developed to derive LAI from optical satellite data. Integration of LAI estimates from synthetic aperture radar (SAR sensors would assist in efforts to monitor crop production through the growing season, particularly during periods of persistent cloud cover. Consequently, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada has assessed the capability of RADARSAT-2 data to estimate LAI. The results of a sensitivity analysis revealed that several SAR polarimetric variables were strongly correlated with LAI derived from optical sensors for small grain crops. As the growing season progressed, contributions from volume scattering from the crop canopies increased. This led to the sensitivity of the intensity of linear cross-polarization backscatter, entropy and the Freeman-Durden volume scattering component, to LAI. For wheat and oats, correlations above 0.8 were reported. Following this sensitivity analysis, the Water Cloud Model (WCM was parameterized using LAI, soil moisture and SAR data. A look up table inversion approach to estimate LAI from SAR parameters, using the WCM, was subsequently developed. This inversion approach can be used to derive LAI from sensors like RADARSAT-2 to support the monitoring of crop condition throughout the cropping season.

  5. Water savings of redistributing global crop production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kyle; Seveso, Antonio; Rulli, Maria Cristina; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Human demand for crop production is expected to increase substantially in the coming decades as a result of population growth, richer diets and biofuel use. For food production to keep pace, unprecedented amounts of resources - water, fertilizers, energy - will be required. This has led to calls for 'sustainable intensification' in which yields are increased on existing croplands while seeking to minimize impacts on water and other agricultural resources. Recent studies have quantified aspects of this, showing that there is a large potential to improve crop yields and increase harvest frequencies to better meet human demand. Though promising, both solutions would necessitate large additional inputs of water and fertilizer in order to be achieved under current technologies. However, the question of whether the current distribution of crops is, in fact, the best for realizing maximized production has not been considered to date. To this end, we ask: Is it possible to minimize water demand by simply growing crops where soil and climate conditions are best suited? Here we use maps of agro-ecological suitability - a measure of physical and chemical soil fertility - for 15 major food crops to identify differences between current crop distributions and where they can most suitably be planted. By redistributing crops across currently cultivated lands, we determine what distribution of crops would maintain current calorie production and agricultural value while minimizing the water demand of crop production. In doing this, our study provides a novel tool for policy makers and managers to integrate food security, environmental sustainability, and rural livelihoods by improving the use of freshwater resources without compromising crop calorie production or rural livelihoods.

  6. Embodied crop calories in animal products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increases in animal products consumption and the associated environmental consequences have been a matter of scientific debate for decades. Consequences of such increases include rises in greenhouse gas emissions, growth of consumptive water use, and perturbation of global nutrients cycles. These consequences vary spatially depending on livestock types, their densities and their production system. In this letter, we investigate the spatial distribution of embodied crop calories in animal products. On a global scale, about 40% of the global crop calories are used as livestock feed (we refer to this ratio as crop balance for livestock) and about 4 kcal of crop products are used to generate 1 kcal of animal products (embodied crop calories of around 4). However, these values vary greatly around the world. In some regions, more than 100% of the crops produced is required to feed livestock requiring national or international trade to meet the deficit in livestock feed. Embodied crop calories vary between less than 1 for 20% of the livestock raising areas worldwide and greater than 10 for another 20% of the regions. Low values of embodied crop calories are related to production systems for ruminants based on fodder and forage, while large values are usually associated with production systems for non-ruminants fed on crop products. Additionally, we project the future feed demand considering three scenarios: (a) population growth, (b) population growth and changes in human dietary patterns and (c) changes in population, dietary patterns and feed conversion efficiency. When considering dietary changes, we project the global feed demand to be almost doubled (1.8–2.3 times) by 2050 compared to 2000, which would force us to produce almost equal or even more crops to raise our livestock than to directly nourish ourselves in the future. Feed demand is expected to increase over proportionally in Africa, South-Eastern Asia and Southern Asia, putting additional stress on

  7. Seed fates in crop-wild hybrid sunflower: crop allele and maternal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Brian A; Alexander, Helen M; Emry, Jason D; Mercer, Kristin L

    2015-02-01

    Domestication has resulted in selection upon seed traits found in wild populations, yet crop-wild hybrids retain some aspects of both parental phenotypes. Seed fates of germination, dormancy, and mortality can influence the success of crop allele introgression in crop-wild hybrid zones, especially if crop alleles or crop-imparted seed coverings result in out-of-season germination. We performed a seed burial experiment using crop, wild, and diverse hybrid sunflower (Helianthus annuus) cross types to test how a cross type's maternal parent and nuclear genetic composition might affect its fate under field conditions. We observed higher maladaptive fall germination in the crop- and F1- produced seeds than wild-produced seeds and, due to an interaction with percent crop alleles, fall germination was higher for cross types with more crop-like nuclear genetics. By spring, crop-produced cross types had the highest overwintering mortality, primarily due to higher fall germination. Early spring germination was identical across maternal types, but germination continued for F1-produced seeds. In conclusion, the more wild-like the maternal parent or the less proportion of the cross type's genome contributed by the crop, the greater likelihood a seed will remain ungerminated than die. Wild-like dormancy may facilitate introgression through future recruitment from the soil seed bank. PMID:25685189

  8. Biogas crops grown in energy crop rotations: Linking chemical composition and methane production characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Christiane; Idler, Christine; Heiermann, Monika

    2016-04-01

    Methane production characteristics and chemical composition of 405 silages from 43 different crop species were examined using uniform laboratory methods, with the aim to characterise a wide range of crop feedstocks from energy crop rotations and to identify main parameters that influence biomass quality for biogas production. Methane formation was analysed from chopped and over 90 days ensiled crop biomass in batch anaerobic digestion tests without further pre-treatment. Lignin content of crop biomass was found to be the most significant explanatory variable for specific methane yields while the methane content and methane production rates were mainly affected by the content of nitrogen-free extracts and neutral detergent fibre, respectively. The accumulation of butyric acid and alcohols during the ensiling process had significant impact on specific methane yields and methane contents of crop silages. It is proposed that products of silage fermentation should be considered when evaluating crop silages for biogas production. PMID:26836846

  9. A crescente importância das universidades e institutos públicos de pesquisa no processo de catching-up tecnológico The increasing importance of universities and public research institutions in the catching-up process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Martins Costa Póvoa

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é analisar como as universidades e os institutos públicos de pesquisa podem contribuir para o avanço tecnológico de países em de-senvolvimento e apresentar argumentos que sugerem que a importância desses agentes tem aumentado com os recentes paradigmas tecnológicos e o fortalecimento da proteção à propriedade intelectual no cenário internacional. Para tanto, são discutidas as relações entre ciência e tecnologia e as características presentes nas experiências de catching-up de sucesso.The aim of this paper is to analyze the role of universities and public research institutions in the process of technical catch-up and to discuss how their importance have increased along the last century due to the new technological para-digms and international intellectual property rights rules. The relationship between science and technology is investigated as well as the common characteristics in the success experiences of catching-up.

  10. Pest Management Guide: Horticultural and Forest Crops, 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Chuan; Schultz, Peter B.

    2014-01-01

    This 2014 Virginia Pest Management Guide provides the latest recommendations for regulations and basic information, commercial small fruit, grapes, nursery crops, floral crops, turf, and low-management crops and areas.

  11. Development of a Novel, Oxidatively Activated, Safety-Catch Linker for Solid-Phase Asymmetric Organic Synthesis (SPOS)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN,Jun; Hjalmar Skarphedinsson; Stepehen G.Davies

    2004-01-01

    @@ Solid-phase asymmetric organic synthesis has become a very important synthetic strategy within the organic chemistry community.[1] Critical to success in SPOS is a linking strategy which allows both the substrate to be loaded and the product released efficiently from the polymeric support. A safety catch linker[2] (SCL) is in principle a linking molecule orthogonal to the reaction conditions of the library synthesis, which can be easily activated by a simple chemical transformation to allow efficient cleavage of the products from the polymer under mild conditions. In order to introduce the SuperQuat chiral auxiliaries[3] for SOPS, we report herein design and synthesis of a novel safety catch linker for asymmetric conjugate addition reactions.

  12. A simple, efficient and inexpensive method for malaria parasites' DNA catching from fixed Giemsa-stained blood slides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandarian, Abbas Ali; Moradi, Sara; Abedi, Saeed

    2016-09-01

    As parasitological or microscopic method is the gold standard and the best method for diagnosis of malaria, so fixed Geimsa-stained blood slides in the form of thick and thin blood smears are the most important data collections of malaria, especially historical slides. The parasites are dead but their DNA is valuable for many molecular biologic researches. A simple and efficient method for catching and extraction malaria parasites' DNA with a desired yield from dried and stained blood on slides is the first and major step. Introduction of an applicable, efficient and inexpensive DNA catching method and assessment of its performance in following molecular applications  was the main objective of present study. PMID:27605792

  13. Use Of Poachers’ Catches For Studying Fish Fauna In The Water Bodies Of The Transcarpathian Region (Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didenko Alexander

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We compared techniques used by poachers to capture fishes in the streams and stagnant water bodies of the Tisa River basin in Ukraine, which included: gill nets, lift nets, screen nets, electrofishing devices, spears, concussion, and beach seine. In total, 38 species were observed in poachers’ catches, among which the most abundant were nase (Chondrostoma nasus, Carpathian barbel (Barbus carpathicus, chub (Squalius cephalus, crucian carp (Carassius gibelio, and minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus. The highest diversity of species was observed in gill nets (25 species in rivers and 10 in stagnant waters, lift nets (20 species in rivers and eight in stagnant waters, and electrofishing (19 species. Poachers’ catches can provide information on fish species’ compositions and relative abundance in montane rivers; but there are biases associated with each technique.

  14. Similarities and differences in alcohol trajectories: Testing the catch-up effect among biracial black subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goings, Trenette Clark; Hidalgo, Sebastian J Teran; McGovern, Tricia

    2016-09-01

    Using National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent and Adult Health (Add Health) data, we examine the alcohol-use trajectories of monoracial Black youth and biracial Black-White, Black-Hispanic, and Black-American Indian youth to assess how their trajectories differ from the alcohol-use trajectories of White youth over time. The sample consists of 9421 adolescents and young adults who self-identified as White, Black, Black-American Indian, Black-Hispanic, or Black-White. Study hypotheses are tested using latent growth curve modeling. Results indicate that a catch-up effect exists, but only for Black-American Indians whose alcohol-use rates approach the higher rates of Whites at age 29. Black-American Indians face particularly high risk of problematic drinking over the life course. Additional research is needed to understand causal factors of alcohol-use among biracial individuals particularly Black-American Indians who may be at higher risk for alcohol misuse. PMID:27082263

  15. A new ball launching system with controlled flight parameters for catching experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Avella, A; Cesqui, B; Portone, A; Lacquaniti, F

    2011-03-30

    Systematic investigations of sensorimotor control of interceptive actions in naturalistic conditions, such as catching or hitting a ball moving in three-dimensional space, requires precise control of the projectile flight parameters and of the associated visual stimuli. Such control is challenging when air drag cannot be neglected because the mapping of launch parameters into flight parameters cannot be computed analytically. We designed, calibrated, and experimentally validated an actuated launching apparatus that can control the average spatial position and flight duration of a ball at a given distance from a fixed launch location. The apparatus was constructed by mounting a ball launching machine with adjustable delivery speed on an actuated structure capable of changing the spatial orientation of the launch axis while projecting balls through a hole in a screen hiding the apparatus. The calibration procedure relied on tracking the balls with a motion capture system and on approximating the mapping of launch parameters into flight parameters by means of polynomials functions. Polynomials were also used to estimate the variability of the flight parameters. The coefficients of these polynomials were obtained using the launch and flight parameters of 660 launches with 65 different initial conditions. The relative accuracy and precision of the apparatus were larger than 98% for flight times and larger than 96% for ball heights at a distance of 6m from the screen. Such novel apparatus, by reliably and automatically controlling desired ball flight characteristics without neglecting air drag, allows for a systematic investigation of naturalistic interceptive tasks.

  16. Genetic variation of Leptospira isolated from rats catched in Yogyakarta Indonesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hadi; Sumanta; Tri; Wibawa; Suwarno; Hadisusanto; Anik; Nuryati; Hari; Kusnanto

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To detect genetic variations among pathogenic Leptospira isolated from rats using 16 S r RNA gen as chronometer. Methods: This is an observational study with cross sectional design. Rats saples were taken in Yogyakarta Special Region of Indonesia. Leptospira in the rats was detected by two methods ie. real time PCR(q PCR) by using primers correspond to16 S r RNA gene of Leptospira, and standard PCR by using dif erent set of primer correspond to the 16 S r RNA gene of Leptospira. The standard PCR amplicon then subjected for DNA sequencing. Analysis genetic variation was performed using MEGA 6.2. Software. Results:There were 99 DNA samples from rats included in this study. Detection of Leptospira by using q PCR revealed 25 samples positive for pathogenic Leptospira, while only 6 samples were able to be detected using standard PCR. The new primer set correspond to 16 S r RNA gene was able to detect specii cally pathogenic Leptospira in the rats. Sequencing analysis of 6 PCR amplicons showed that the Leptospira which infect the rats catched in Yogyakarta genetically close related with pathogenic Leptospira which were isolated from human, animal, rodents, and environment. Conclusions: It can be considered that rats are the most important vector and reservoir of Leptospira.

  17. Trade-offs among catch, bycatch, and landed value in the American Samoa longline fishery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jordan T; Bigelow, Keith A

    2014-08-01

    The interspecific preferences of fishes for different depths and habitats suggest fishers could avoid unwanted catches of some species while still effectively targeting other species. In pelagic longline fisheries, albacore (Thunnus alalunga) are often caught in relatively cooler, deeper water (>100 m) than many species of conservation concern (e.g., sea turtles, billfishes, and some sharks) that are caught in shallower water (Carcharhinus falciformis), and 42.6% (n = 150) of oceanic whitetip shark (C. longimanus) were caught on the 3 shallowest hooks. Eleven percent (n = 20,435) of all tuna and 8.5% (n = 10,374) of albacore were caught on the 3 shallowest hooks. Hook elimination reduced landed value by 1.6-9.2%, and redistribution of hooks increased average annual landed value relative to the status quo by 5-11.7%. Based on these scenarios, redistribution of hooks to deeper depths may provide an economically feasible modification to longline gear that could substantially reduce bycatch for a suite of vulnerable species. Our results suggest that this method may be applicable to deep-set pelagic longline fisheries worldwide. PMID:24628499

  18. The range of attraction for light traps catching Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Carsten; Græsbøll, Kaare; Stockmarr, Anders;

    2013-01-01

    Background Culicoides are vectors of e.g. bluetongue virus and Schmallenberg virus in northern Europe. Light trapping is an important tool for detecting the presence and quantifying the abundance of vectors in the field. Until now, few studies have investigated the range of attraction of light tr...... light trap was estimated to be approximately 15.25 meters. The attraction towards light traps is different from the attraction to host animals and thus light trap catches may not represent the vector species and numbers attracted to hosts.......Background Culicoides are vectors of e.g. bluetongue virus and Schmallenberg virus in northern Europe. Light trapping is an important tool for detecting the presence and quantifying the abundance of vectors in the field. Until now, few studies have investigated the range of attraction of light...... traps. Methods Here we test a previously described mathematical model (Model I) and two novel models for the attraction of vectors to light traps (Model II and III). In Model I, Culicoides fly to the nearest trap from within a fixed range of attraction. In Model II Culicoides fly towards areas...

  19. Incidental catch of marine turtles by the artisanal fisheries on Santa Catarina Island, SC, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Hanazaki

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The five species of sea turtles, which inhabit the Brazilian shore, have a wordwide distribution and are threatened with extinction. The south of Brazil is characterized as a feeding and breeding area of at least three of these species. The presence of turtles close to the shore and their incidental catch are occurrences reported by artisan fishermen of the Island of Santa Catarina in this work. The study was based on a questionnaire, applied to fishermen and fishfarmers at selected spots on the island. Scientific and popular names were matched using illustrations. The spots with the highest number of events and captures were close to the islands, rocky coasts and stony grounds, i.e. areas related with the foraging habits of the most abundant species, Chelonia mydas. The place, depth and size of the net are characteristics, which influence the capture. The time the net remains in the water is a factor which is fundamental to the survival of the captured turtles. The flesh of the turtle is used as an occasional feeding resource. Capacitation programs and training applied to the communities involved are recommended.

  20. School-based Programs: Lessons Learned from CATCH, Planet Health, and Not-On-Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele L. Franks, MD

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Establishing healthy habits in youth can help prevent many chronic health problems later in life that are attributable to unhealthy eating, sedentary lifestyle, and overweight. For this reason, many public health professionals are interested in working with school systems to reach children in school settings. However, a lack of familiarity with how schools operate can be a substantial impediment to developing effective partnerships with schools.We describe lessons learned from three successful school health promotion programs that were developed and disseminated through collaborations between public health professionals, academic institutions, and school personnel. The programs include two focused on physical activity and good nutrition for elementary and middle school children — Coordinated Approach to Child Health (CATCH and Planet Health — and one focused on smoking cessation among adolescents — Not-On-Tobacco (N-O-T.Important features of these school health programs include 1 identification of staff and resources required for program implementation and dissemination; 2 involvement of stakeholders (e.g., teachers, students, other school personnel, parents, nonprofit organizations, professional organizations during all phases of program development and dissemination; 3 planning for dissemination of programs early in the development and testing process; and 4 rigorous evaluation of interventions to determine their effectiveness. The authors provide advice based on lessons learned from these programs to those who wish to work with young people in schools.