Catastrophic phase transitions and early warnings in a spatial ecological model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gradual changes in exploitation, nutrient loading, etc produce shifts between alternative stable states (ASS) in ecosystems which, quite often, are not smooth but abrupt or catastrophic. Early warnings of such catastrophic regime shifts are fundamental for designing management protocols for ecosystems. Here we study the spatial version of a popular ecological model, involving a logistically growing single species subject to exploitation, which is known to exhibit ASS. Spatial heterogeneity is introduced by a carrying capacity parameter varying from cell to cell in a regular lattice. Transport of biomass among cells is included in the form of diffusion. We investigate whether different quantities from statistical mechanics—like the variance, the two-point correlation function and the patchiness—may serve as early warnings of catastrophic phase transitions between the ASS. In particular, we find that the patch-size distribution follows a power law when the system is close to the catastrophic transition. We also provide links between spatial and temporal indicators and analyse how the interplay between diffusion and spatial heterogeneity may affect the earliness of each of the observables. We find that possible remedial procedures, which can be followed after these early signals, become more effective as the diffusion becomes lower. Finally, we comment on similarities of and differences between these catastrophic shifts and paradigmatic thermodynamic phase transitions like the liquid–vapour change of state for a fluid like water
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
García-Ramos, J.E., E-mail: enrique.ramos@dfaie.uhu.es [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad de Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Unidad Asociada de la Universidad de Huelva al IEM (CSIC), Madrid (Spain); Arias, J.M., E-mail: ariasc@us.es [Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Sevilla, Apdo 1065, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Unidad Asociada de la Universidad de Sevilla al IEM (CSIC), Madrid (Spain); Dukelsky, J., E-mail: dukelsky@iem.cfmac.csic.es [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain)
2014-09-07
We introduce the basic concepts of catastrophe theory needed to derive analytically the phase diagram of the proton–neutron interacting boson model (IBM-2). Previous studies [1–3] were based on numerical solutions. We here explain the whole IBM-2 phase diagram including the precise order of the phase transitions in terms of the cusp catastrophe.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We introduce the basic concepts of catastrophe theory needed to derive analytically the phase diagram of the proton–neutron interacting boson model (IBM-2). Previous studies [1–3] were based on numerical solutions. We here explain the whole IBM-2 phase diagram including the precise order of the phase transitions in terms of the cusp catastrophe
Catastrophic regime shifts in model ecological communities are true phase transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ecosystems often undergo abrupt regime shifts in response to gradual external changes. These shifts are theoretically understood as a regime switch between alternative stable states of the ecosystem dynamical response to smooth changes in external conditions. Usual models introduce nonlinearities in the macroscopic dynamics of the ecosystem that lead to different stable attractors among which the shift takes place. Here we propose an alternative explanation of catastrophic regime shifts based on a recent model that pictures ecological communities as systems in continuous fluctuation, according to certain transition probabilities, between different micro-states in the phase space of viable communities. We introduce a spontaneous extinction rate that accounts for gradual changes in external conditions, and upon variations on this control parameter the system undergoes a regime shift with similar features to those previously reported. Under our microscopic viewpoint we recover the main results obtained in previous theoretical and empirical work (anomalous variance, hysteresis cycles, trophic cascades). The model predicts a gradual loss of species in trophic levels from bottom to top near the transition. But more importantly, the spectral analysis of the transition probability matrix allows us to rigorously establish that we are observing the fingerprints, in a finite size system, of a true phase transition driven by background extinctions
Catastrophic and Transitional Phase Inversion of Water-in-Oil Emulsion for Heavy and Light Crude Oil
Azhary H. Nour; A.N. Ilia Anisa; Abdurahman H. Nour
2010-01-01
The stability of emulsion plays an important role either for catastrophic or transitional phase inversion to break and inverse emulsion from w/o to o/w or vice versa. The stability of emulsion also depends on the rheology and characteristics of the crude oil. In this study, the characteristics of crude oil were investigated closely before emulsion was prepared to further study in catastrophic and transitional phase inversion. The prepared emulsion, volume fraction (10-90 to 60-40% w/o emulsio...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ecosystems are complex systems which can respond to gradual changes of their conditions by a sudden shift to a contrasting regime or alternative stable state (ASS). Predicting such critical points before they are reached is extremely difficult and providing early warnings is fundamental to design management protocols for ecosystems. Here we study different spatial versions of popular ecological models which are known to exhibit ASS. The spatial heterogeneity is introduced by a local parameter varying from cell to cell in a regular lattice. Transport of biomass among cells occurs by simple diffusion. We investigate whether different quantities from statistical mechanics -like the variance, the two-point correlation function and the patchiness-may serve as early warnings of catastrophic phase transitions between the ASS. In particular, we find that the patch-size distribution follows a power law when the system is close to the catastrophic transition. We also provide links between spatial and temporal indicators and analyze how the interplay between diffusion and spatial heterogeneity may affect the earliness of each of the observables. Finally, we comment on similarities and differences between these catastrophic shifts and paradigmatic thermodynamic phase transitions like the liquid-vapor change of state for a fluid like water.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, we have analyzed the critical behavior of even–even Ru and Pd isotopes between U(5) and SO(6) limits of interacting boson model via Catastrophe Theory in combination with a coherent state formalism to generate energy surfaces. The parameters of the Hamiltonian are determined via least-square fitting to the experimental data for different Ru and Pd isotopes. Our results suggest a second-order phase transition in these isotopic chains and propose the best candidates for E(5) critical symmetry. Also, the analogy between the critical exponents of ground state quantum phase transition and Landau values for the critical exponents of thermodynamic phase transitions are described. (author)
Solé, Ricard V
2011-01-01
Phase transitions--changes between different states of organization in a complex system--have long helped to explain physics concepts, such as why water freezes into a solid or boils to become a gas. How might phase transitions shed light on important problems in biological and ecological complex systems? Exploring the origins and implications of sudden changes in nature and society, Phase Transitions examines different dynamical behaviors in a broad range of complex systems. Using a compelling set of examples, from gene networks and ant colonies to human language and the degradation o
Phase diagram of the two-fluid Lipkin model: A "butterfly" catastrophe
García-Ramos, J. E.; Pérez-Fernández, P.; Arias, J. M.; Freire, E.
2016-03-01
Background: In the past few decades quantum phase transitions have been of great interest in nuclear physics. In this context, two-fluid algebraic models are ideal systems to study how the concept of quantum phase transition evolves when moving into more complex systems, but the number of publications along this line has been scarce up to now. Purpose: We intend to determine the phase diagram of a two-fluid Lipkin model that resembles the nuclear proton-neutron interacting boson model Hamiltonian using both numerical results and analytic tools, i.e., catastrophe theory, and compare the mean-field results with exact diagonalizations for large systems. Method: The mean-field energy surface of a consistent-Q -like two-fluid Lipkin Hamiltonian is studied and compared with exact results coming from a direct diagonalization. The mean-field results are analyzed using the framework of catastrophe theory. Results: The phase diagram of the model is obtained and the order of the different phase-transition lines and surfaces is determined using a catastrophe theory analysis. Conclusions: There are two first-order surfaces in the phase diagram, one separating the spherical and the deformed shapes, while the other separates two different deformed phases. A second-order line, where the later surfaces merge, is found. This line finishes in a transition point with a divergence in the second-order derivative of the energy that corresponds to a tricritical point in the language of the Ginzburg-Landau theory for phase transitions.
Phase diagram of the two-fluid Lipkin model: a butterfly catastrophe
García-Ramos, J E; Arias, J M; Freire, E
2016-01-01
Background: In the last few decades quantum phase transitions have been of great interest in Nuclear Physics. In this context, two-fluid algebraic models are ideal systems to study how the concept of quantum phase transition evolves when moving into more complex systems, but the number of publications along this line has been scarce up to now. Purpose: We intend to determine the phase diagram of a two-fluid Lipkin model, that resembles the nuclear proton-neutron interacting boson model Hamiltonian, using both numerical results and analytic tools, i.e., catastrophe theory, and to compare the mean-field results with exact diagonalizations for large systems. Method: The mean-field energy surface of a consistent-Q-like two-fluid Lipkin Hamiltonian is studied and compared with exact results coming from a direct diagonalization. The mean-field results are analyzed using the framework of catastrophe theory. Results: The phase diagram of the model is obtained and the order of the different phase-transition lines and ...
Early warning signals also precede non-catastrophic transitions
Kefi, S.; Dakos, V.; Scheffer, M.; Nes, E.H. van; Rietkerk, M.
2013-01-01
Ecosystem responses to external changes can surprise us by their abruptness and irreversibility. Models have helped identifying indicators of impending catastrophic shifts, referred to as ‘generic early warning signals’. These indicators are linked to a phenomenon known as ‘critical slowing down’ wh
Cosmological phase transitions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kolb, E.W. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)]|[Chicago Univ., IL (United States)
1993-10-01
If modern ideas about the role of spontaneous symmetry breaking in fundamental physics are correct, then the Universe should have undergone a series of phase transitions early in its history. The study of cosmological phase transitions has become an important aspect of early-Universe cosmology. In this lecture I review some very recent work on three aspects of phase transitions: the electroweak transition, texture, and axions.
Cosmological phase transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
If modern ideas about the role of spontaneous symmetry breaking in fundamental physics are correct, then the Universe should have undergone a series of phase transitions early in its history. The study of cosmological phase transitions has become an important aspect of early-Universe cosmology. In this lecture I review some very recent work on three aspects of phase transitions: the electroweak transition, texture, and axions
A gradient catastrophe mechanism in contexts of the phase change condition
Durmagambetov, A. A.
2016-01-01
The paper describes the mechanism of occurrence of a gradient catastrophe when changing phase. Materials shows that classical methods of estimation theory of functions do not fit the problem of studying the gradient catastrophe. We present material showing that the embedding theorem can not give an opportunity to study the process of a gradient catastrophe. In fact, work justifies pessimism Terence Tao in the insolvency of modern mathematics to solve the problem of the Navier-Stokes equations...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In recent years, quantum phase transitions have attracted the interest of both theorists and experimentalists in condensed matter physics. These transitions, which are accessed at zero temperature by variation of a non-thermal control parameter, can influence the behaviour of electronic systems over a wide range of the phase diagram. Quantum phase transitions occur as a result of competing ground state phases. The cuprate superconductors which can be tuned from a Mott insulating to a d-wave superconducting phase by carrier doping are a paradigmatic example. This review introduces important concepts of phase transitions and discusses the interplay of quantum and classical fluctuations near criticality. The main part of the article is devoted to bulk quantum phase transitions in condensed matter systems. Several classes of transitions will be briefly reviewed, pointing out, e.g., conceptual differences between ordering transitions in metallic and insulating systems. An interesting separate class of transitions is boundary phase transitions where only degrees of freedom of a subsystem become critical; this will be illustrated in a few examples. The article is aimed at bridging the gap between high-level theoretical presentations and research papers specialized in certain classes of materials. It will give an overview on a variety of different quantum transitions, critically discuss open theoretical questions, and frequently make contact with recent experiments in condensed matter physics
Computing quantum phase transitions
Vojta, Thomas
2007-01-01
This article first gives a concise introduction to quantum phase transitions, emphasizing similarities with and differences to classical thermal transitions. After pointing out the computational challenges posed by quantum phase transitions, a number of successful computational approaches is discussed. The focus is on classical and quantum Monte Carlo methods, with the former being based on the quantum-to classical mapping while the latter directly attack the quantum problem. These methods ar...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Petry, W.; Neuhaus, J. [Techn. Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department E13, Munich (Germany)
1996-11-01
Many elements transform from a high temperature bcc phase to a more dense packed temperature phase. The great majority of these transitions are of 1st order, displacive and reconstructive. The lattice potentials which govern these martensitic transitions can be probed by inelastic neutron scattering, thereby answering fundamental questions like : Will the transition be announced by dynamical or static fluctuations? What are the trajectories for the displacements needed for the transformation? Does the vibrational entropy stabilize the high temperature phase? Are the unusual transport properties in these materials related to their ability to transform? (author) 17 figs., 1 tab., 46 refs.
Cosmological phase transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
If the universe stated from conditions of high temperature and density, there should have been a series of phase transitions associated with spontaneous symmetry breaking. The cosmological phase transitions could have observable consequences in the present Universe. Some of the consequences including the formation of topological defects and cosmological inflation are reviewed here. One of the most important tools in building particle physics models is the use of spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB). The proposal that there are underlying symmetries of nature that are not manifest in the vacuum is a crucial link in the unification of forces. Of particular interest for cosmology is the expectation that are the high temperatures of the big bang symmetries broken today will be restored, and that there are phase transitions to the broken state. The possibility that topological defects will be produced in the transition is the subject of this section. The possibility that the Universe will undergo inflation in a phase transition will be the subject of the next section. Before discussing the creation of topological defects in the phase transition, some general aspects of high-temperature restoration of symmetry and the development of the phase transition will be reviewed. 29 references, 1 figure, 1 table
Phase transitions modern applications
Gitterman, Moshe
2014-01-01
This book provides a comprehensive review of the theory of phase transitions and its modern applications, based on the five pillars of the modern theory of phase transitions i.e. the Ising model, mean field, scaling, renormalization group and universality. This expanded second edition includes, along with a description of vortices and high temperature superconductivity, a discussion of phase transitions in chemical reaction and moving systems. The book covers a close connection between phase transitions and small world phenomena as well as scale-free systems such as the stock market and the Internet. Readership: Scientists working in different fields of physics, chemistry, biology and economics as well as teaching material for undergraduate and graduate courses.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
许可; 李未
1999-01-01
Phase transition is an important feature of SAT problem. For random k-SAT model, it is proved that as r（ratio of clauses to variables） increases, the structure of solutions will undergo a sudden change like satisfiability phase transition when r reaches a threshold point (r=rcr). This phenomenon shows that the satisfying truth assignments suddenly shift from being relatively different from each other to being very similar to each other.##属性不符
Early warning signals also precede non-catastrophic transitions
Kefi, S.; Dakos, V.; Scheffer, M.; Nes, van E.H.; Rietkerk, M.
2013-01-01
Synthesis The quickly expanding literature on early warning signals for critical transitions in ecosystems suggests that critical slowing down is a key phenomenon to measure the distance to a tipping point in ecosystems. Such work is broadly misinterpreted as showing that slowing down is specific to
The diamagnetic phase transition in Magnetars
Wang, Zhaojun; Zhu, Chunhua; Wu, Baoshan
2016-01-01
Neutron stars are ideal astrophysical laboratories for testing theories of the de Haas-van Alphen (dHvA) effect and diamagnetic phase transition which is associated with magnetic domain formation. The "magnetic interaction" between delocalized magnetic moments of electrons (the Shoenberg effect), can result in an effect of the diamagnetic phase transition into domains of alternating magnetization (Condon's domains). Associated with the domain formation are prominent magnetic field oscillation and anisotropic magnetic stress which may be large enough to fracture the crust of magnetar with a super-strong field. Even if the fracture is impossible as in "low-field" magnetar, the depinning phase transition of domain wall motion driven by low field rate (mainly due to the Hall effect) in the randomly perturbed crust can result in a catastrophically variation of magnetic field. This intermittent motion, similar to the avalanche process, makes the Hall effect be dissipative. These qualitative consequences about magne...
Transition of cesium in food chains [after Chernobyl catastrophe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An investigation of 25,000 samples of foodstuffs and feedstuffs in Czechoslovakia, contaminated by fall-out cesium after the accident in the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, performed from May 5, 1986 to March 31, 1988, revealed that both the values of cesium transfer-factors in food--animal tissues--milk transitions and the values of biological half-life of cesium are functions of internal and external conditions of contamination. Organism individuality as the main internal condition causes the variance of about +/- 50% of the mean value of the respective transfer-factor. Through the external conditions, mainly the environmental contamination level, type of ingested food and time of ingestion, the mean values of transfer-factors are influenced up to 500%, e.g. to the value of 0.5. But this value converges with growing up contamination of food and environment to the limit of 0.3. The first two to three biological half-lives after the last ingestion of contaminated food are up to ten-times shorter than those at stabilized state
Scaling single-state variable catastrophe functions: an application to two-phase natural circulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper I present transformation laws to scale physical processes governed by polynomial equations. Of particular importance is the class of polynomials which describe catastrophe functions. Many important, stability-related, thermal hydraulic phenomena are described by these catastrophe functions, including flooding, two-phase natural circulation, and critical heat flux. Catastrophe functions can be used to define the boundaries of stable system behavior. If a process evolves such that one of these boundaries are crossed, it will undergo a discontinuity which radically alters its evolution (i.e. morphogenesis). By scaling these catastrophe functions, processes exhibiting discontinuous behavior can be studied in scaled test models rather than experimenting with a full-scale, and typically very expensive, prototype. To illustrate their usefulness, the catastrophe function transformation laws are applied to the practical problem of scaling two-phase fluid natural circulation. In addition, the catastrophe manifold for two-phase fluid natural circulation is developed and evaluated to obtain a criterion for the onset of flow instability. ((orig.))
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An analytic treatment of the one Higgs doublet, electroweak phase transition is given. The phase transition is first order, occurs by the nucleation of thin walled bubbles and completes at a temperature where the order parameter, left-angle φ right-angle T is significantly smaller than it is when the origin becomes absolutely unstable. The rate of anomalous baryon number violation is an exponentially function of left-angle φ right-angle T. In very minimal extensions of the standard model it is quite easy to increase left-angle φ right-angle T so that anomalous baryon number violation is suppressed after completion of the phase transition. Hence baryogenesis at the electroweak phase transition is tenable in minimal of the standard model. In some cases additional phase transitions are possible. For a light Higgs boson, when the top quark mass is sufficiently large, the state where the Higgs field has a vacuum expectation value left-angle φ right-angle = 246 GeV is not the true minimum of the Higgs potential. When this is the case, and when the top quark mass exceeds some critical value, thermal fluctuations in the early universe would have rendered the state left-angle φ right-angle = 246 GeV unstable. The requirement that the state left-angle φ right-angle = 246 GeV is sufficiently long lived constrains the masses of the Higgs boson and the top quark. Finally, we consider whether local phase transitions can be induced by heavy particles which act as seeds for deformations in the scalar field
Chen, Zhi; Yu, Clare C.
2006-03-01
Noise is present in many physical systems and is often viewed as a nuisance. Yet it can also be a probe of microscopic fluctuations. There have been indications recently that the noise in the resistivity increases in the vicinity of the metal-insulator transition. But what are the characteristics of the noise associated with well-understood first and second order phase transitions? It is well known that critical fluctuations are associated with second order phase transitions, but do these fluctuations lead to enhanced noise? We have addressed these questions using Monte Carlo simulations to study the noise in the 2D Ising model which undergoes a second order phase transition, and in the 5-state Potts model which undergoes a first order phase transition. We monitor these systems as the temperature drops below the critical temperature. At each temperature, after equilibration is established, we obtain the time series of quantities characterizing the properties of the system, i.e., the energy and magnetization per site. We apply different methods, such as the noise power spectrum, the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) and the second spectrum of the noise, to analyze the fluctuations in these quantities.
Kopaev, YuV
1992-01-01
Electronic Phase Transitions deals with topics, which are presently at the forefront of scientific research in modern solid-state theory. Anderson localization, which has fundamental implications in many areas of solid-state physics as well as spin glasses, with its influence on quite different research activities such as neural networks, are two examples that are reviewed in this book. The ab initio statistical mechanics of structural phase transitions is another prime example, where the interplay and connection of two unrelated disciplines of solid-state theory - first principle ele
Scaling law characterizing the dynamics of the transition of HIV-1 to error catastrophe
Gupta, Vipul; Dixit, Narendra M.
2015-10-01
Increasing the mutation rate, μ , of viruses above a threshold, {μ }c, has been predicted to trigger a catastrophic loss of viral genetic information and is being explored as a novel intervention strategy. Here, we examine the dynamics of this transition using stochastic simulations mimicking within-host HIV-1 evolution. We find a scaling law governing the characteristic time of the transition: τ ≈ 0.6/≤ft(μ -{μ }c\\right). The law is robust to variations in underlying evolutionary forces and presents guidelines for treatment of HIV-1 infection with mutagens. We estimate that many years of treatment would be required before HIV-1 can suffer an error catastrophe.
Phase Transitions in Neutron Stars
Heiselberg, Henning; Hnorth-Jensen, Morten
1998-01-01
Phase transitions in neutron stars due to formation of quark matter, kaon condensates, etc. are discussed with particular attention to the order of these transitions. Observational consequences of phase transitions in pulsar angular velocities are examined.
Photoinduced phase transitions
Nasu, K
2004-01-01
A new class of insulating solids was recently discovered. Whenirradiated by a few visible photons, these solids give rise to amacroscopic excited domain that has new structural and electronicorders quite different from the starting ground state. This occurrenceis called "photoinduced phase transition", and this multi-authoredbook reviews recent theoretical and experimental studies of this newphenomenon.
Emergence and Phase Transitions
Sikkema, Arnold
2006-05-01
Phase transitions are well defined in physics through concepts such as spontaneous symmetry breaking, order parameter, entropy, and critical exponents. But emergence --- also exhibiting whole-part relations (such as top-down influence), unpredictability, and insensitivity to microscopic detail --- is a loosely-defined concept being used in many disciplines, particularly in psychology, biology, philosophy, as well as in physics[1,2]. I will review the concepts of emergence as used in the various fields and consider the extent to which the methods of phase transitions can clarify the usefulness of the concept of emergence both within the discipline of physics and beyond.1. Robert B. Laughlin, A Different Universe: Reinventing Physics from the Bottom Down (New York: Basic Books, 2005). 2. George F.R. Ellis, ``Physics and the Real World'', Physics Today, vol. 58, no. 7 (July 2005) pp. 49-54.
Understanding quantum phase transitions
Carr, Lincoln
2010-01-01
Quantum phase transitions (QPTs) offer wonderful examples of the radical macroscopic effects inherent in quantum physics: phase changes between different forms of matter driven by quantum rather than thermal fluctuations, typically at very low temperatures. QPTs provide new insight into outstanding problems such as high-temperature superconductivity and display fundamental aspects of quantum theory, such as strong correlations and entanglement. Over the last two decades, our understanding of QPTs has increased tremendously due to a plethora of experimental examples, powerful new numerical meth
Entanglement and quantum phase transitions
Gu, Shi-Jian; Tian, Guang-Shan; Lin, Hai-Qing
2005-01-01
We examine several well known quantum spin models and categorize behavior of pairwise entanglement at quantum phase transitions. A unified picture on the connection between the entanglement and quantum phase transition is given.
Dynamic Phase Transitions in Superconductivity
Ma, Tian; Wang, Shouhong
2007-01-01
In this Letter, the dynamic phase transitions of the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equations are analyzed using a newly developed dynamic transition theory and a new classification scheme of dynamics phase transitions. First, we demonstrate that there are two type of dynamic transitions, jump and continuous, dictated by the sign of a nondimensional parameter R. This parameter is computable, and depends on the material property, the applied field, and the geometry of domain that the sample oc...
Catastrophe and beauty: Ways of Dying, Zakes Mda’s novel of the transition
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. van Wyk
1997-05-01
Full Text Available This article explores Zakes Mda's novel, Ways of Dying (1995, as an example of transitional literature. Ways of Dying (1995 deals with the period between 1990, when negotiations for change in South Africa started, and 1994, when South Africa became a democratic country. The text portrays many recognisable aspects of life in this transitional period, but the focus is mainly on the multiple occurrences of violent death in a society where the State has lost control and legitimacy. The main character, Toloki, a professional mourner, lives through these apocalyptic times. He is, further, seeking an answer to the question of how it happened that the child of his homegirl, Noria, died at the hands of comrades. The text deals imaginatively with aspects such as the resurgence of group psychology that is a common characteristic of transitional periods with its resistance culture of mass meetings, oratory by political leaders and street processions. These are also elements of the carnivalesque. One of the interesting features of the text is its many references to dreams and its use of dream devices in its form. This article will argue that this is an integral part of a literature of a transitional period. Such a period implies the erosion of the reality principle. Reality itself in such a period takes on the features of fantasy; beauty combines with catastrophe and the apocalypse with rebirth.
Magnetic resonance of phase transitions
Owens, Frank J; Farach, Horacio A
1979-01-01
Magnetic Resonance of Phase Transitions shows how the effects of phase transitions are manifested in the magnetic resonance data. The book discusses the basic concepts of structural phase and magnetic resonance; various types of magnetic resonances and their underlying principles; and the radiofrequency methods of nuclear magnetic resonance. The text also describes quadrupole methods; the microwave technique of electron spin resonance; and the Mössbauer effect. Phase transitions in various systems such as fluids, liquid crystals, and crystals, including paramagnets and ferroelectrics, are also
Instability of a stationary uniform filtration flow with phase transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A numerical method is developed for studying the stability of solutions of the problem of water filtration, evaporation, and vapor diffusion in horizontal layers of rock media. A program package based on the numerical method has been successfully used to solve the problem of the existence and catastrophic transformation of a filtration flow with phase transition in a horizontal layer of flow-permeable medium with perturbation of the flat bottom boundary, where the filtration takes place
Non-equilibrium phase transitions
Henkel, Malte; Lübeck, Sven
2009-01-01
This book describes two main classes of non-equilibrium phase-transitions: (a) static and dynamics of transitions into an absorbing state, and (b) dynamical scaling in far-from-equilibrium relaxation behaviour and ageing. The first volume begins with an introductory chapter which recalls the main concepts of phase-transitions, set for the convenience of the reader in an equilibrium context. The extension to non-equilibrium systems is made by using directed percolation as the main paradigm of absorbing phase transitions and in view of the richness of the known results an entire chapter is devoted to it, including a discussion of recent experimental results. Scaling theories and a large set of both numerical and analytical methods for the study of non-equilibrium phase transitions are thoroughly discussed. The techniques used for directed percolation are then extended to other universality classes and many important results on model parameters are provided for easy reference.
Multiobjective Optimization and Phase Transitions
Seoane, Luís F
2015-01-01
Many complex systems obey to optimality conditions that are usually not simple. Conflicting traits often interact making a Multi Objective Optimization (MOO) approach necessary. Recent MOO research on complex systems report about the Pareto front (optimal designs implementing the best trade-off) in a qualitative manner. Meanwhile, research on traditional Simple Objective Optimization (SOO) often finds phase transitions and critical points. We summarize a robust framework that accounts for phase transitions located through SOO techniques and indicates what MOO features resolutely lead to phase transitions. These appear determined by the shape of the Pareto front, which at the same time is deeply related to the thermodynamic Gibbs surface. Indeed, thermodynamics can be written as an MOO from where its phase transitions can be parsimoniously derived; suggesting that the similarities between transitions in MOO-SOO and Statistical Mechanics go beyond mere coincidence.
H. Satz(University of Bielefeld)
2000-01-01
At high temperatures or densities, hadronic matter shows different forms of critical behaviour: colour deconfinement, chiral symmetry restoration, and diquark condensation. I first discuss the conceptual basis of these phenomena and then consider the description of colour deconfinement in terms of symmetry breaking, through colour screening and as percolation transition.
Phase transition in finite systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chomaz, Ph.; Duflot, V. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France); Duflot, V.; Gulminelli, F. [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, LPC-ISMRa, CNRS-IN2P3, 14 - Caen (France)
2000-07-01
The general problem of the definition of a phase transition without employing the thermodynamical limit is addressed. Different necessary conditions are considered and illustrated with examples from different nuclear and general physics phenomenologies. (authors)
Phase transition in finite systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The general problem of the definition of a phase transition without employing the thermodynamical limit is addressed. Different necessary conditions are considered and illustrated with examples from different nuclear and general physics phenomenologies. (authors)
Phenomenology of cosmic phase transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The evolution of the cosmic matter from Planck temperature to the atomic combination temperature is considered from a phenomenological point of view. Particular emphasis is devoted to the sequence of cosmic phase transitions. The inflationary era at the temperature of the order of the grand unification energy scale and the quantum chromodynamic confinement transition are dealt with in detail. (author) 131 refs.; 26 figs
Orange, N B; Oluseyi, H M; Hesterly, K; Patel, M; Champey, P R
2015-01-01
Minimal observational evidence exists for fast transition region (TR) upflows in the presence of cool loops. Observations of such occurrences challenge notions of standard solar atmospheric heating models, as well as their description of bright TR emission. Using the {\\it EUV Imaging Spectrometer} (EIS) onboard {\\it Hinode}, we observe fast upflows ($v_\\lambda$\\,$\\le$\\,$-$10 km s$^{-1}$) over multiple TR temperatures (5.8\\,$\\le$\\,$\\log T$\\,$\\le$ 6.0) at the footpoint sites of a cool loop ($\\log T$\\,$\\le$\\,6.0). Prior to cool loop energizing, asymmetric flows of $+$\\,5 km s$^{-1}$ and $-$\\,60 km s$^{-1}$ are observed at footpoint sites. These flows speeds and patterns occur simultaneously with both magnetic flux cancellation (at site of upflows only) derived from the {\\it Solar Dynamics Observatory}'s (SDOs) { \\it Helioseismic Magnetic Imager}'s (HMI) line-of-sight magnetogram images, and a 30\\% mass in-flux at coronal heights. The incurred non-equilibrium structure of the cool loop leads to a catastrophic coo...
Quantum Phase Transition, Dissipation, and Measurement
Chakravarty, Sudip
2009-01-01
A selected set of topics in quantum phase transition is discussed. It includes dissipative quantum phase transitions, the role of disorder, and the relevance of quantum phase transition to measurement theory in quantum mechanics.
Phase transition in Liouville theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We suggest that the vortices arising in a Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition in Liouville theory correspond to transitions between different genera, producing the ''plumber's nightmare'' and other phases that have been predicted in fluid membrane theory from energetic considerations. This transition has previously been invoked by Cates to explain the degeneration of numerical simulations of Gaussian random surfaces into branched polymers. The difficulty in quantizing Liouville theory for d>1 is conjectured to be due to our insistence on working at a fixed genus
Catastrophic glacial multi-phase mass movements: a special type of glacial hazard
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. A. Petrakov
2008-04-01
Full Text Available Many glacier-related hazards are well typified and studied, but some events stand out from conventional classifications. The Kolka-Karmadon catastrophic event on 20 September 2002 in North Ossetia, North Caucasus, Russia is used as an example of a complex glacier failure exhibiting characteristics such as high mobility, long runout, ultrarapid movement and multiphase behaviour. We consider terminology protocol for glacier hazard classification and then, using the Kolka-Karmadon event and several other examples from around the world, we propose a new term for this family of events. Catastrophic glacier multi-phase mass movement (CGMM is described and further illustrated by eight major events from Russia, Georgia, Peru, Chile, and Canada. CGMM have a combination of specific features: extraordinary velocities and long-distance runout despite low path angle; progressive fluidisation along travel path; superelevation and run-up of the moving mass, air blast wave in the avalanche flow phase; entrainment of available materials in its path, and the repeated nature of the event. CGMM events may affect areas remote from glaciers which were previously considered as safe.
Berry Phases and Quantum Phase Transitions
Hamma, A
2006-01-01
We study the connection between Berry phases and quantum phase transitions of generic quantum many-body systems. Consider sequences of Berry phases associated to sequences of loops in the parameter space whose limit is a point. If the sequence of Berry phases does not converge to zero, then the limit point is a quantum critical point. Quantum critical points are associated to failures of adiabaticity. We discuss the remarkable example of the anisotropic XY spin chain in a transverse magnetic field and detect the XX region of criticality.
Phase transitions in field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
By means of an example for which the effective potential is explicitly calculable (up to the one loop approximation), it is discussed how a phase transition takes place as the temperature is increased and pass from spontaneously broken symmetry to a phase in which the symmetry is restored. (Author)
Incommensurate phase transitions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Currat, R. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)
1996-11-01
We review the characteristic aspects of modulated crystals from the point of view of inelastic neutron scattering. We discuss the phenomenological Landau theory of the normal-to-incommensurate displacive instability and its predictions concerning the fluctuation spectrum of the modulated phase. General results on the form of the normal-mode eigenvectors and on the inelastic scattering channels through which they couple to the probe are established using the superspace approach. We illustrate these results on a simple discrete model symmetry and we review available inelastic neutron scattering data on several displacively modulated compounds. (author) 21 figs., 73 refs.
Phase transition in black holes
Roychowdhury, Dibakar
2014-01-01
The present thesis is devoted towards the study of various aspects of the phase transition phenomena occurring in black holes defined in an Anti-de-Sitter (AdS) space. Based on the fundamental principles of thermodynamics and considering a grand canonical framework we examine various aspects of the phase transition phenomena occurring in AdS black holes. We analytically check that this phase transition between the smaller and larger mass black holes obey Ehrenfest relations defined at the critical point and hence confirm a second order phase transition. This include both the rotating and charged black holes in Einstein gravity. Apart from studying these issues, based on a canonical framework, we also investigate the critical behavior in charged AdS black holes. The scaling laws for these black holes are found to be compatible with the static scaling hypothesis. Finally, based on the usual framework of AdS/CFT duality, we investigate the phase transition phenomena occurring in charged hairy black holes defined...
Phase transition in evolutionary games
Cao, Z J; Cao, Zhen; Hwa, Rudolph C
1995-01-01
The evolution of cooperative behaviour is studied in the deterministic version of the Prisoners' Dilemma on a two-dimensional lattice. The payoff parameter is set at the critical region 1.8 < b < 2.0 , where clusters of cooperators are formed in all spatial sizes. Using the factorial moments developed in particle and nuclear physics for the study of phase transition, the distribution of cooperators is studied as a function of the bin size covering varying numbers of lattice cells. From the scaling behaviour of the moments a scaling exponent is determined and is found to lie in the range where phase transitions are known to take place in physical systems. It is therefore inferred that when the payoff parameter is increased through the critical region the biological system of cooperators undergoes a phase transition to defectors. The universality of the critical behaviour is thus extended to include also this particular model of evolution dynamics.
Phase transitions precipitated by solitosynthesis
Kusenko, A
1997-01-01
Solitosynthesis of Q-balls in the false vacuum can result in a phase transition of a new kind. Formation and subsequent growth of Q-balls via the charge accretion proceeds until the solitons reach a critical charge, at which point it becomes energetically favorable for the Q-ball interior to expand filling space with the true vacuum phase. Solitosynthesis can destabilize a false vacuum even when the tunneling rate is negligible. In models with low-energy supersymmetry, where the Q-balls associated with baryon and lepton number conservation are generically present, solitosynthesis can precipitate transitions between the vacua with different VEV's of squarks and sleptons.
Superunification, phase transitions and cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We survey the main features behind the idea of grand unification, both without and with (local) supersymmetry. We then study the high-temperature phase transitions in the theories so realized, and their relevance to the cosmology of the early universe. In particular, we review the basic ingredients of (super) grand unified models and we give the basic tools needed for the study of their phase transitions. After a short introduction to cosmology, we focus on the interplay between unified particle physics models and cosmology, with particular emphasis on the inflationary universe scenario. In the same perspective, new research directions, in the context of higher-dimensional theories, are also discussed. (author)
Artificiality of multifractal phase transitions
Wolf, Martin; Schmiegel, Jürgen; Greiner, Martin
1999-01-01
A multifractal phase transition is associated to a nonanalyticity in the generalised dimensions. We show that its occurrence is an artifact of the asymptotic scaling behaviour of integral moments and that it is not observed in an analysis based on differential n-point correlation densities.
Phase transitions in finite systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this series of lectures we will first review the general theory of phase transition in the framework of information theory and briefly address some of the well known mean field solutions of three dimensional problems. The theory of phase transitions in finite systems will then be discussed, with a special emphasis to the conceptual problems linked to a thermodynamical description for small, short-lived, open systems as metal clusters and data samples coming from nuclear collisions. The concept of negative heat capacity developed in the early seventies in the context of self-gravitating systems will be reinterpreted in the general framework of convexity anomalies of thermo-statistical potentials. The connection with the distribution of the order parameter will lead us to a definition of first order phase transitions in finite systems based on topology anomalies of the event distribution in the space of observations. Finally a careful study of the thermodynamical limit will provide a bridge with the standard theory of phase transitions and show that in a wide class of physical situations the different statistical ensembles are irreducibly inequivalent. (authors)
Symmetry structure and phase transitions
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Ashok Goyal; Meenu Dahiya; Deepak Chandra
2003-05-01
We study chiral symmetry structure at ﬁnite density and temperature in the presence of external magnetic ﬁeld and gravity, a situation relevant in the early Universe and in the core of compact stars. We then investigate the dynamical evolution of phase transition in the expanding early Universe and possible formation of quark nuggets and their survival.
Phase transitions in finite systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chomaz, Ph. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), DSM-CEA / IN2P3-CNRS, 14 - Caen (France); Gulminelli, F. [Caen Univ., 14 (France). Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire
2002-07-01
In this series of lectures we will first review the general theory of phase transition in the framework of information theory and briefly address some of the well known mean field solutions of three dimensional problems. The theory of phase transitions in finite systems will then be discussed, with a special emphasis to the conceptual problems linked to a thermodynamical description for small, short-lived, open systems as metal clusters and data samples coming from nuclear collisions. The concept of negative heat capacity developed in the early seventies in the context of self-gravitating systems will be reinterpreted in the general framework of convexity anomalies of thermo-statistical potentials. The connection with the distribution of the order parameter will lead us to a definition of first order phase transitions in finite systems based on topology anomalies of the event distribution in the space of observations. Finally a careful study of the thermodynamical limit will provide a bridge with the standard theory of phase transitions and show that in a wide class of physical situations the different statistical ensembles are irreducibly inequivalent. (authors)
Phase transitions in quantum chromodynamics
Meyer-Ortmanns, H
1996-01-01
The current understanding of finite temperature phase transitions in QCD is reviewed. A critical discussion of refined phase transition criteria in numerical lattice simulations and of analytical tools going beyond the mean-field level in effective continuum models for QCD is presented. Theoretical predictions about the order of the transitions are compared with possible experimental manifestations in heavy-ion collisions. Various places in phenomenological descriptions are pointed out, where more reliable data for QCD's equation of state would help in selecting the most realistic scenario among those proposed. Unanswered questions are raised about the relevance of calculations which assume thermodynamic equilibrium. Promising new approaches to implement nonequilibrium aspects in the thermodynamics of heavy-ion collisions are described.
Phase transitions and critical phenomena
Domb, Cyril
2000-01-01
The field of phase transitions and critical phenomena continues to be active in research, producing a steady stream of interesting and fruitful results. It has moved into a central place in condensed matter studies.Statistical physics, and more specifically, the theory of transitions between states of matter, more or less defines what we know about 'everyday' matter and its transformations.The major aim of this serial is to provide review articles that can serve as standard references for research workers in the field, and for graduate students and others wishing to obtain reliable in
Phase Transitions in the Universe
Gleiser, Marcello
1998-01-01
During the past two decades, cosmologists turned to particle physics in order to explore the physics of the very early Universe. The main link between the physics of the smallest and largest structures in the Universe is the idea of spontaneous symmetry breaking, familiar from condensed matter physics. Implementing this mechanism into cosmology leads to the interesting possibility that phase transitions related to the breaking of symmetries in high energy particle physics took place during the early history of the Universe. These cosmological phase transitions may help us understand many of the challenges faced by the standard hot Big Bang model of cosmology, while offering a unique window into the very early Universe and the physics of high energy particle interactions.
'Magnetic' phase transition in silver
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Experimental and theoretical investigations of the magnetic susceptibility near the phase transition into the Condon domain state in silver are presented. We report about the precursor of the Condon instability of an electron gas by using data of the measurement of the magnetic field-dependence of the susceptibility. Experimental results are explained theoretically within the framework of the Lifshitz-Kosevich-Shoenberg theory. A good agreement between the theory and the experiment is obtained when de Haas-van Alphen oscillations are only originated from 'belly' oscillations, and as a result of this, the spherical modelling of the Fermi surface in silver is justified. It is shown that the phase transition into the Condon domain state is the critical point of the liquid-gas type at which the isothermal susceptibility does not diverge but possesses a finite value due to the nonzero demagnetization factor
Electroweak phase transition recent results
Csikor, Ferenc
2000-01-01
Recent results of four-dimensional (4d) lattice simulations on the finite temperature electroweak phase transition (EWPT) are discussed. The phase transition is of first order in the SU(2)-Higgs model below the end point Higgs mass 66.5$\\pm$1.4 GeV. For larger masses a rapid cross-over appears. This result completely agrees with the results of the dimensional reduction approach. Including the full Standard Model (SM) perturbatively the end point is at 72.1$\\pm$1.4 GeV. Combined with recent LEP Higgs mass lower bounds, this excludes any EWPT in the SM. A one-loop calculation of the static potential makes possible a precise comparison of the lattice and perturbative results. Recent 4d lattice studies of the Minimal Supersymmetric SM (MSSM) are also mentioned.
Mechanical stresses upon phase transitions
Pedersen, Tom Peder Leervad
2003-01-01
Mechanical stress studies were carried out on three different groups of functional coatings using a purpose-built system. Functional coatings have become increasingly important in recent years due to their interesting technological applications. In this work three different groups of coatings were studied. Transition metal oxides are used as optical coatings, hard coatings, etc., phase change films find application in optical data storage technology, while optically switchable coatings have b...
Understanding Atmospheric Catastrophes
Chao, Winston C.
2009-01-01
The atmosphere, as in other parts of nature, is full of phenomena that involve rapid transitions from one (quasi-) equilibrium state to another--- i.e. catastrophes. These (quasi-) equilibria are the multiple solutions of the same dynamical system. Unlocking the mystery behind a catastrophe reveals not only the physical mechanism responsible for the transition, but also how the (quasi-) equilibria before and after the transition are maintained. Each catastrophe is different, but they do have some common traits. Understanding these common traits is the first step in studying these catastrophes. In this seminar, three examples chosen based on the speaker's research interest--tropical cyclogenesis, stratospheric sudden warming, and monsoon onset--are given to illustrate how atmospheric catastrophes can be studied.
Phase transitions and critical phenomena
Domb, Cyril
2000-01-01
The field of phase transitions and critical phenomena continues to be active in research, producing a steady stream of interesting and fruitful results. No longer an area of specialist interest, it has acquired a central focus in condensed matter studies. The major aim of this serial is to provide review articles that can serve as standard references for research workers in the field, and for graduate students and others wishing to obtain reliable information on important recent developments.The two review articles in this volume complement each other in a remarkable way. Both deal with what m
Light scattering near phase transitions
Cummins, HZ
1983-01-01
Since the development of the laser in the early 1960's, light scattering has played an increasingly crucial role in the investigation of many types of phase transitions and the published work in this field is now widely dispersed in a large number of books and journals.A comprehensive overview of contemporary theoretical and experimental research in this field is presented here. The reviews are written by authors who have actively contributed to the developments that have taken place in both Eastern and Western countries.
Exposure-driven macroalgal phase shift following catastrophic disturbance on coral reefs
Roff, George; Chollett, Iliana; Doropoulos, Christopher; Golbuu, Yimnang; Steneck, Robert S.; Isechal, Adelle L.; van Woesik, Robert; Mumby, Peter J.
2015-09-01
Environmental conditions play an important role in post-disturbance dynamics of ecosystems by modulating recovery of surviving communities and influencing patterns of succession. Here, we document the effects of wave exposure following a catastrophic disturbance on coral reefs in driving a phase shift to macroalgal dominance. In December 2012, a Category 5 super typhoon (`Typhoon Bopha') passed 50 km to the south of Palau (Micronesia), causing a major loss of reef corals. Immediately post-disturbance, a rapid and extensive phase shift of the macroalgae Liagora sp. (Rhodophyta) was observed at sites exposed to chronic wave exposure. To quantify the influence of biotic and abiotic drivers in modulating the extent of post-disturbance Liagora blooms, we compared benthic substrates and herbivore assemblages at sites surveyed pre- and post-disturbance across a gradient of wave exposure. Relative changes in herbivore biomass and coral cover before and after disturbance did not significantly predict the extent of Liagora cover, indicating that changes in herbivore biomass or reductions in grazing pressure were not directly responsible for driving the Liagora blooms. By contrast, the degree of wave exposure experienced at sites post-disturbance explained >90 % of model variance ( p exposure sites, while most extensive blooms were observed at highly exposed sites. At regional scales, spatial maps of wave exposure accurately predicted the presence of Liagora at impacted sites throughout the Palau archipelago (>150 km distance), highlighting the predictive capacity of wave exposure as an explanatory variable and the deterministic nature of post-disturbance macroalgal blooms. Understanding how physical conditions modulate recovery of ecosystems after disturbance allows insight into post-disturbance dynamics and succession of communities, ultimately allowing management strategies to prioritise restoration efforts in regions that are most effective.
Dynamical constraints on phase transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The numerical solutions of nonlocal and local Boltzmann kinetic equations for the simulation of central heavy ion reactions are parameterized in terms of time dependent thermodynamical variables in the Fermi liquid sense. This allows to discuss dynamical trajectories in phase space. The nonequilibrium state is characterized by non-isobaric, non-isochoric etc conditions, called iso-nothing conditions. Therefore a combination of thermodynamical observables is constructed which allows to locate instabilities and points of possible phase transition in a dynamical sense. We find two different mechanisms of instability, a short time surface - dominated instability and later a spinodal - dominated volume instability. The latter one occurs only if the incident energies are not exceeding much the Fermi energy and might be attributed to spinodal decomposition. Oppositely the fast surface explosion occurs far outside the spinodal and pertains also in the cases where the system develops too fast for suffering the spinodal decomposition and where the system approaches equilibrium outside the spinodal. (author)
Dynamic Phase Transitions in PVT Systems
Ma, Tian
2007-01-01
The main objective of this article are two-fold. First, we introduce some general principles on phase transition dynamics, including a new dynamic transition classification scheme, and a Ginzburg-Landau theory for modeling equilibrium phase transitions. Second, apply the general principles and the recently developed dynamic transition theory to study dynamic phase transitions of PVT systems. In particular, we establish a new time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau model, whose dynamic transition analysis is carried out. It is worth pointing out that the new dynamic transition theory, along with the dynamic classification scheme and new time-dependent Ginzburg Landau models for equilibrium phase transitions can be used in other phase transition problems, including e.g. the ferromagnetism and superfluidity, which will be reported elsewhere. In addition, the analysis for the PVT system in this article leads to a few physical predications, which are otherwise unclear from the physical point of view.
Symmetry and Phase Transitions in Nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Phase transitions in nuclei have received considerable attention in recent years, especially after the discovery that, contrary to expectations, systems at the critical point of a phase transition display a simple structure. In this talk, quantum phase transitions (QPT), i.e. phase transitions that occur as a function of a coupling constant that appears in the quantum Hamiltonian, H, describing the system, will be reviewed and experimental evidence for their occurrence in nuclei will be presented. The phase transitions discussed in the talk will be shape phase transitions. Different shapes have different symmetries, classified by the dynamic symmetries of the Interacting Boson Model, U(5), SU(3) and SO(6). Very recently, the concept of Quantum Phase Transitions has been extended to Excited State Quantum Phase Transitions (ESQPT). This extension will be discussed and some evidence for incipient ESQPT in nuclei will be presented. Systems at the critical point of a phase transition are called 'critical systems'. Approximate analytic formulas for energy spectra and other properties of 'critical nuclei', in particular for nuclei at the critical point of the second order U(5)-SO(6) transition, called E(5), and along the line of first order U(5)-SU(3) transitions, called X(5), will be presented. Experimental evidence for 'critical nuclei' will be also shown. Finally, the microscopic derivation of shape phase transitions in nuclei within the framework of density functional methods will be briefly discussed.(author)
Quark Deconfinement Phase Transition in Neutron Stars
Alaverdyan, G B
2009-01-01
The hadron-quark phase transition in the interior of compact stars is investigated, when the transition proceeds through a mixed phase. The hadronic phase is described in the framework of relativistic mean-field theory, when also the scalar-isovector delta-meson mean-field is taken into account. The changes of the parameters of phase transition caused by the presence of delta-meson field are explored. The results of calculation of structure of the mixed phase (Glendenning construction) are compared with the results of usual first-order phase transition (Maxwell construction).
QCD Phase Transitions, Volume 15
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schaefer, T.; Shuryak, E.
1999-03-20
The title of the workshop, ''The QCD Phase Transitions'', in fact happened to be too narrow for its real contents. It would be more accurate to say that it was devoted to different phases of QCD and QCD-related gauge theories, with strong emphasis on discussion of the underlying non-perturbative mechanisms which manifest themselves as all those phases. Before we go to specifics, let us emphasize one important aspect of the present status of non-perturbative Quantum Field Theory in general. It remains true that its studies do not get attention proportional to the intellectual challenge they deserve, and that the theorists working on it remain very fragmented. The efforts to create Theory of Everything including Quantum Gravity have attracted the lion share of attention and young talent. Nevertheless, in the last few years there was also a tremendous progress and even some shift of attention toward emphasis on the unity of non-perturbative phenomena. For example, we have seen some efforts to connect the lessons from recent progress in Supersymmetric theories with that in QCD, as derived from phenomenology and lattice. Another example is Maldacena conjecture and related development, which connect three things together, string theory, super-gravity and the (N=4) supersymmetric gauge theory. Although the progress mentioned is remarkable by itself, if we would listen to each other more we may have chance to strengthen the field and reach better understanding of the spectacular non-perturbative physics.
Phase Transition Induced Fission in Lipid Vesicles
Leirer, C.; Wunderlich, B.; Myles, V.M.; Schneider, M F
2009-01-01
Abstract In this work we demonstrate how the first order phase transition in giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) can function as a trigger for membrane fission. When driven through their gel-fluid phase transition GUVs exhibit budding or pearl formation. These buds remain connected to the mother vesicle presumably by a small neck. Cooling these vesicles from the fluid phase (T>Tm) through the phase transition into the gel state (T
Cloud regimes as phase transitions
Stechmann, Samuel N.; Hottovy, Scott
2016-06-01
Clouds are repeatedly identified as a leading source of uncertainty in future climate predictions. Of particular importance are stratocumulus clouds, which can appear as either (i) closed cells that reflect solar radiation back to space or (ii) open cells that allow solar radiation to reach the Earth's surface. Here we show that these clouds regimes -- open versus closed cells -- fit the paradigm of a phase transition. In addition, this paradigm characterizes pockets of open cells as the interface between the open- and closed-cell regimes, and it identifies shallow cumulus clouds as a regime of higher variability. This behavior can be understood using an idealized model for the dynamics of atmospheric water as a stochastic diffusion process. With this new conceptual viewpoint, ideas from statistical mechanics could potentially be used for understanding uncertainties related to clouds in the climate system and climate predictions.
Phases and phase transitions in disordered quantum systems
Vojta, Thomas
2013-01-01
These lecture notes give a pedagogical introduction to phase transitions in disordered quantum systems and to the exotic Griffiths phases induced in their vicinity. We first review some fundamental concepts in the physics of phase transitions. We then derive criteria governing under what conditions spatial disorder or randomness can change the properties of a phase transition. After introducing the strong-disorder renormalization group method, we discuss in detail some of the exotic phenomena...
Magnetic Phase Transition in FeRh
Gu, R. Y.; Antropov, V.P.
2005-01-01
Density functional calculations are performed to investigate the phase transition in FeRh alloy. The effective exchange coupling, the critical temperature of magnetic phase transition and the adiabatic spin wave spectrum have been obtained. Different contributions to the free energy of different phases are estimated. It has been found that the antiferro-ferromagnetic transition in FeRh occurs mostly due to the spin wave excitations.
Phase transitions in semidefinite relaxations.
Javanmard, Adel; Montanari, Andrea; Ricci-Tersenghi, Federico
2016-04-19
Statistical inference problems arising within signal processing, data mining, and machine learning naturally give rise to hard combinatorial optimization problems. These problems become intractable when the dimensionality of the data is large, as is often the case for modern datasets. A popular idea is to construct convex relaxations of these combinatorial problems, which can be solved efficiently for large-scale datasets. Semidefinite programming (SDP) relaxations are among the most powerful methods in this family and are surprisingly well suited for a broad range of problems where data take the form of matrices or graphs. It has been observed several times that when the statistical noise is small enough, SDP relaxations correctly detect the underlying combinatorial structures. In this paper we develop asymptotic predictions for several detection thresholds, as well as for the estimation error above these thresholds. We study some classical SDP relaxations for statistical problems motivated by graph synchronization and community detection in networks. We map these optimization problems to statistical mechanics models with vector spins and use nonrigorous techniques from statistical mechanics to characterize the corresponding phase transitions. Our results clarify the effectiveness of SDP relaxations in solving high-dimensional statistical problems. PMID:27001856
Switchable thermal antenna by phase transition
Ben-Abdallah, Philippe; Besbes, Mondher
2013-01-01
We introduce a thermal antenna which can be actively switched by phase transition. The source makes use of periodically patterned vanadium dioxide, a metal-insulator phase transition material which supports a surface phonon-polariton (SPP) in the infrared range in its crystalline phase. Using electrodes properly registred with respect to the pattern, the phase transition of VO2 can be localy triggered within few microseconds and the SPP can be diffracted making the thermal emission highly directionnal. This switchable antenna could find broad applications in the domain of active thermal coatings or in those of infrared spectroscopy and sensing.
Phase-transitions and nuclear clusterization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
After reviewing some basic features of the temperature-governed phase-transitions in macroscopic systems and in atomic nuclei we consider non-thermal phase-transitions of nuclear structure in the example of cluster states. Phenomenological and semimicroscopical algebraic cluster models with identical interactions are applied to binary cluster systems of closed and non-closed shell clusters. Phase-transitions are observed in each case between the rotational (rigid molecule-like) and vibrational (shell-like) cluster states. The phase of this finite quantum system shows a quasi-dynamical symmetry. (author)
Inhomogeneous nucleation in quark hadron phase transition
Shukla, P K; Sen-Gupta, S K; Gleiser, Marcello; Gleiser, Marcelo
2000-01-01
The effect of subcritical hadron bubbles on a first-order quark-hadron phase transition is studied. These subcritical hadron bubbles created due to thermal fluctuations introduce a finite amount of phase mixing (quark phase mixed with hadron phase) even at and above the critical temperature. For sufficiently strong transitions, as is expected to be the case for the quark-hadron transition, we show that the amount of phase mixing at the critical temperature remains much below the percolation threshold. Thus, as the system cools below the critical temperature, the transition proceeds through the nucleation of critical-size hadron bubbles from a metastable quark-gluon phase (QGP) within an inhomogeneous background populated by an equilibrium distribution of subcritical hadron bubbles. The inhomogenity of the medium is incorporated consistently by modelling the subcritical bubbles as Gaussian fluctuations, resulting in a large reduction of the nucleation barrier for the critical bubbles. Using the corrected nucle...
Intersubband-transition-induced phase matching
Almogy, Gilad; Segev, Mordechai; Yariv, Amnon
1994-01-01
We suggest the use of the refractive-index changes associated with the intersubband transitions in quantum wells for phase matching in nonlinear materials. An improvement in the conversion efficiency of mid-IR second-harmonic generation by almost 2 orders of magnitude over non-phase-matched bulk GaAs is predicted. We also show that the linear phase contributions of intersubband transitions used for resonant enhancement of second-harmonic generation must be considered, as they could limit the ...
The Cosmological QCD Phase Transition Revisited
Schettler, Simon; Boeckel, Tillmann; Schaffner-Bielich, Jurgen
2010-01-01
The QCD phase diagram might exhibit a first order phase transition for large baryochemical potentials. We explore the cosmological implications of such a QCD phase transition in the early universe. We propose that the large baryon-asymmetry is diluted by a little inflation where the universe is trapped in a false vacuum state of QCD. The little inflation is stopped by bubble nucleation which leads to primordial production of the seeds of extragalactic magnetic fields, primordial black holes a...
Interplay between chiral and deconfinement phase transitions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mukherjee T.K.
2011-04-01
Full Text Available By using the dressed Polyakov loop or dual chiral condensate as an equivalent order parameter of the deconfinement phase transition, we investigate the relation between the chiral and deconfinement phase transitions at finite temperature and density in the framework of three-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL model. It is found that in the chiral limit, the critical temperature for chiral phase transition coincides with that of the dressed Polyakov loop in the whole (T,µ plane. In the case of explicit chiral symmetry breaking, it is found that the phase transitions are flavor dependent. For each flavor, the transition temperature for chiral restoration $T^{mathcal{X}}_c$ is smaller than that of the dressed Polyakov loop $T^{mathcal{D}}_c$ in the low baryon density region where the transition is a crossover, and, the two critical temperatures coincide in the high baryon density region where the phase transition is of first order. Therefore, there are two critical end points, i.e, $T^{u,d}_{CEP}$ and $T^{s}_{CEP}$ at finite density. We also explain the feature of $T^{mathcal{X}}_c$ = $T^{mathcal{D}}_c$ in the case of 1st and 2nd order phase transitions, and $T^{mathcal{X}}_c$ < $T^{mathcal{D}}_c$ in the case of crossover, and expect this feature is general and can be extended to full QCD theory.
Phase transitions in QCD and string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We develop a unified effective field theory approach to the high-temperature phase transitions in QCD and string theory, incorporating winding modes (time-like Polyakov loops, vortices) as well as low-mass states (pseudoscalar mesons and glueballs, matter and dilaton supermultiplets). Anomalous scale invariance and the Z3 structure of the centre of SU(3) decree a first-order phase transition with simultaneous deconfinement and Polyakov loop condensation in QCD, whereas string vortex condensation is a second-order phase transition breaking a Z2 symmetry. We argue that vortex condensation is accompanied by a dilaton phase transition to a strong coupling regime, and comment on the possible role of soliton degrees of freedom in the high-temperature string phase. (orig.)
Dynamics of weak first order phase transitions
Gleiser, Marcello
1994-01-01
The dynamics of weak vs. strong first order phase transitions is investigated numerically for 2+1 dimensional scalar field models. It is argued that the change from a weak to a strong transition is itself a (second order) phase transition, with the order parameter being the equilibrium fractional population difference between the two phases at the critical temperature, and the control parameter being the coefficient of the cubic coupling in the free-energy density. The critical point is identified, and a power law controlling the relaxation dynamics at this point is obtained. Possible applications are briefly discussed.
Phase transitions in copper(II) orthovanadate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Data on the polymorphs of copper(II) orthovanadate are reported. The Cu3V2O8 phase synthesized in this laboratory exhibits phase transitions between 460deg and 560degC. These phase transitions are identified through detailed DTA and high temperature XRD techniques; it is observed that these structural transitions are rapid and reversible. The crystal structure of Cu3V2O8 is similar to that of Mg3V2O8, Zn3V2O8, Co3V2O8 and Ni3V2O8. (author). 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab
Chiral Magnetic Effect and Chiral Phase Transition
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
FU Wei-Jie; LIU Yu-Xin; WU Yue-Liang
2011-01-01
We study the influence of the chiral phase transition on the chiral magnetic effect.The azimuthal chargeparticle correlations as functions of the temperature are calculated.It is found that there is a pronounced cusp in the correlations as the temperature reaches its critical value for the QCD phase transition.It is predicted that there will be a drastic suppression of the charge-particle correlations as the collision energy in RHIC decreases to below a critical value.We show then the azimuthal charge-particle correlations can be the signal to identify the occurrence of the QCD phase transitions in RHIC energy scan experiments.
Phase transitions in dissipative Josephson chains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The authors of this paper study the zero temperature phase transitions of a chain of Josephson junctions, taking into account the quantum fluctuations due to the charging energy and the effects of an Ohmic dissipation. The authors map the problem onto a generalized coulomb gas model, which then is transformed into a sine-Gordon field theory. Apart from the expected dipole unbinding transition, which describes a transition between globally superconducting and resistive behavior, the authors find a quadrupole unbinding transition at a critical strength of the dissipation. This transition separates two superconducting states characterized by different local properties
Entanglement in quantum catastrophes
Emary, C; Brandes, T; Emary, Clive; Lambert, Neill; Brandes, Tobias
2005-01-01
We classify entanglement singularities for various two-mode bosonic systems in terms of catastrophe theory. Employing an abstract phase-space representation, we obtain exact results in limiting cases for the entropy in cusp, butterfly, and two-dimensional catastrophes. We furthermore use numerical results to extract the scaling of the entropy with the non-linearity parameter, and discuss the role of mixing entropies in more complex systems.
Phase transition phenomenon: A compound measure analysis
Kang, Bo Soo; Park, Chanhi; Ryu, Doojin; Song, Wonho
2015-06-01
This study investigates the well-documented phenomenon of phase transition in financial markets using combined information from both return and volume changes within short time intervals. We suggest a new measure for the phase transition behaviour of markets, calculated as a return distribution conditional on local variance in volume imbalance, and show that this measure successfully captures phase transition behaviour under various conditions. We analyse the intraday trade and quote dataset from the KOSPI 200 index futures, which includes detailed information on the original order size and the type of each initiating investor. We find that among these two competing factors, the submitted order size yields more explanatory power on the phenomenon of market phase transition than the investor type.
Quantum Phase Transitions in Quantum Dots
Rau, I. G.; Amasha, S.; Oreg, Y.; Goldhaber-Gordon, D.
2013-01-01
This review article describes theoretical and experimental advances in using quantum dots as a system for studying impurity quantum phase transitions and the non-Fermi liquid behavior at the quantum critical point.
The Structural Phase Transition in Octaflournaphtalene
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mackenzie, Gordon A.; Arthur, J. W.; Pawley, G. S.
1977-01-01
The phase transition in octafluoronaphthalene has been investigated by Raman scattering and neutron powder diffraction. The weight of the experimental evidence points to a unit cell doubling in the a direction, but with no change in space group symmetry. Lattice dynamics calculations support this...... evidence and indicate that the mechanism of the phase transition may well be the instability of a zone boundary acoustic mode of librational character. The structure of the low-temperature phase has been refined and the Raman spectra of the upper and lower phases are reported....
Phase Transitions, Diffraction Studies and Marginal Dimensionality
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage
1985-01-01
Continuous phase transitions and the associated critical phenomena have been one of the most active areas of research in condensed matter physics for several decades. This short review is only one cut through this huge subject and the author has chosen to emphasize diffraction studies as a basic...... experimental method and illustrate how diffraction experiments have revealed the role of dimensionality in the general classification of phase transitions...
Modelling of phase transitions: do it yourself
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present the basics of a powerful contemporary statistical mechanical technique that can be used by students to explore first-order phase transitions by themselves and for models of their own construction. The technique is a generalization of the well-known Peierls argument and is applicable to various models on a lattice. We illustrate the technique with the help of two simple models that were recently used to simulate phase transitions on surfaces. (paper)
Modelling of phase transitions: do it yourself
Medved', I.; Huckaby, D. A.; Trník, A.; Valovičová, L'
2013-01-01
We present the basics of a powerful contemporary statistical mechanical technique that can be used by students to explore first-order phase transitions by themselves and for models of their own construction. The technique is a generalization of the well-known Peierls argument and is applicable to various models on a lattice. We illustrate the technique with the help of two simple models that were recently used to simulate phase transitions on surfaces.
Thin film dynamics with surfactant phase transition
Köpf, M. H.; Gurevich, S. V.; Friedrich, R.
2009-01-01
A thin liquid film covered with an insoluble surfactant in the vicinity of a first-order phase transition is discussed. Within the lubrication approximation we derive two coupled equations to describe the height profile of the film and the surfactant density. Thermodynamics of the surfactant is incorporated via a Cahn-Hilliard type free-energy functional which can be chosen to describe a transition between two stable phases of different surfactant density. Within this model, a linear stabilit...
Interplay between chiral and deconfinement phase transitions
Xu, Fukun; Chen, Huan; Huang, Mei
2011-01-01
By using the dressed Polyakov loop or dual chiral condensate as an equivalent order parameter of the deconfinement phase transition, we investigate the relation between the chiral and deconfinement phase transitions at finite temperature and density in the framework of three-flavor Nambu--Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model. It is found that in the chiral limit, the critical temperature for chiral phase transition coincides with that of the dressed Polyakov loop in the whole $(T,\\mu)$ plane. In the case of explicit chiral symmetry breaking, it is found that the phase transitions are flavor dependent. For each flavor, the transition temperature for chiral restoration $T_c^{\\chi}$ is smaller than that of the dressed Polyakov loop $T_c^{{\\cal D}}$ in the low baryon density region where the transition is a crossover, and, the two critical temperatures coincide in the high baryon density region where the phase transition is of first order. Therefore, there are two critical end points, i.e, $T_{CEP}^{u,d}$ and $T_{CEP}^{s}$ a...
Phase transitions in two dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Although a two-dimensional solid with long-range translational order cannot existin the thermodynamic limit (N → ∞, V →∞, N/V finite) macroscopic samples of two-dimensional solids can exist. In this work, stability of the phase was determined by the usuar method of equating the pressure and chemical potential of the phases. (A.C.A.S.)
Molecular markers of phase transition in locusts
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ARNOLD DE LOOF; ILSE CLAEYS; GERT SIMONET; PETER VERLEYEN; TIM VANDERSMISSEN; FILIP SAS; JURGEN HUYBRECHTS
2006-01-01
The changes accompanying the transition from the gregarious to the solitary phase state in locusts are so drastic that for a long time these phases were considered as distinct species. It was Boris Uvarov who introduced the concept of polyphenism. Decades of research revealed that phase transition implies changes in morphometry, the color of the cuticle, behavior and several aspects of physiology. In particular, in the recent decade, quite a number of molecular studies have been undertaken to uncover phase-related differences.They resulted in novel insights into the role of corazonin, neuroparsins, some protease inhibitors, phenylacetonitrile and so on. The advent of EST-databases of locusts (e.g. Kang et al., 2004) is a most encouraging novel development in physiological and behavioral locust research. Yet, the answer to the most intriguing question, namely whether or not there is a primordial molecular inducer of phase transition, is probably not within reach in the very near future.
Thermal phase mixing during first order phase transitions
Borrill, J; Borrill, Julian; Gleiser, Marcelo
1995-01-01
The dynamics of first order phase transitions are studied in the context of (3+1)-dimensional scalar field theories. Particular attention is paid to the question of quantifying the strength of the transition, and how `weak' and `strong' transitions have different dynamics. We propose a model with two available low temperature phases separated by an energy barrier so that one of them becomes metastable below the critical temperature T_c. The system is initially prepared in this phase and is coupled to a thermal bath. Investigating the system at its critical temperature, we find that `strong' transitions are characterized by the system remaining localized within its initial phase, while `weak' transitions are characterized by considerable phase mixing. Always at T_c, we argue that the two regimes are themselves separated by a (second order) phase transition, with an order parameter given by the fractional population difference between the two phases and a control parameter given by the strength of the scalar fi...
The deconfinement phase transition in asymmetric matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the phase transition of asymmetric hadronic matter to a quark-gluon plasma within the framework of a simple two-phase model. The analysis is performed in a system with two conserved charges (baryon number and isospin) using the stability conditions on the free energy, the conservation laws and Gibbs' criteria for phase equilibrium. The EOS is obtained in a separate description for the hadronic phase and for the quark-gluon plasma. For the hadrons, a relativistic mean-field model calibrated to the properties of nuclear matter is used, and a bag-model type EOS is used for the quarks and gluons. The model is applied to the deconfinement phase transition that may occur in matter created in ultra-relativistic collisions of heavy ions. Based on the two-dimensional coexistence surface (binodal), various phase separation scenarios and the Maxwell construction through the mixed phase are discussed. In the framework of the two-phase model the phase transition in asymmetric matter is continuous (second-order by Ehrenfest's definition) in contrast to the discontinuous (first-order) transition of symmetric systems. (orig.)
Contemporary Research of Dynamically Induced Phase Transitions
Hull, Lawrence
2015-06-01
Dynamically induced phase transitions in metals, within the present discussion, are those that take place within a time scale characteristic of the shock waves and any reflections or rarefactions involved in the loading structure along with associated plastic flow. Contemporary topics of interest include the influence of loading wave shape, the effect of shear produced by directionality of the loading relative to the sample dimensions and initial velocity field, and the loading duration (kinetic effects, hysteresis) on the appearance and longevity of a transformed phase. These topics often arise while considering the loading of parts of various shapes with high explosives, are typically two or three-dimensional, and are often selected because of the potential of the transformed phase to significantly modify the motion. In this paper, we look at current work on phase transitions in metals influenced by shear reported in the literature, and relate recent work conducted at Los Alamos on iron's epsilon phase transition that indicates a significant response to shear produced by reflected elastic waves. A brief discussion of criteria for the occurrence of stress induced phase transitions is provided. Closing remarks regard certain physical processes, such as fragmentation and jet formation, which may be strongly influenced by phase transitions. Supported by the DoD/DOE Joint Munitions Technology Development Program.
An absorbing phase transition from a structured active particle phase
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lopez, Cristobal [Instituto Mediterraneo de Estudios Avanzados IMEDEA (CSIC-UIB), Campus de la Universidad de las Islas Baleares, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Ramos, Francisco [Departamento de Electromagnetismo y Fisica de la Materia and Instituto de Fisica Teorica y Computacional Carlos I, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Hernandez-GarcIa, Emilio [Instituto Mediterraneo de Estudios Avanzados IMEDEA (CSIC-UIB), Campus de la Universidad de las Islas Baleares, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)
2007-02-14
In this work we study the absorbing state phase transition of a recently introduced model for interacting particles with neighbourhood-dependent reproduction rates. The novelty of the transition is that as soon as the active phase is reached by increasing a control parameter a periodically arranged structure of particle clusters appears. A numerical study in one and two dimensions shows that the system falls into the directed percolation universality class.
Variational analysis of the deconfinement phase transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the deconfining phase transition in 3+1 dimensional pure SU(N) Yang-Mills theory using a gauge invariant variational calculation. We generalize the variational ansatz to mixed states (density matrices) and minimize the free energy. For N ≥ 3 we find a first order phase transition with the transition temperature of Tc ≅450 MeV. Below Tc the Polyakov loop has vanishing expectation value, while above Tc , its average value is nonzero. According to the standard lore this corresponds to the deconfining transition. Within the accuracy of our approximation the entropy of the system in the low temperature phase vanishes. The latent heat is not small but, rather, is of the order of the nonperturbative vacuum energy. (author)
The Structural Phase Transition in Solid DCN
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dietrich, O. W.; Mackenzie, Gordon A.; Pawley, G. S.
1975-01-01
Neutron scattering measurements on deuterated hydrogen cyanide have shown that the structural phase change from a tetragonal to an orthorhombic form at 160K is a first-order transition. A transverse acoustic phonon mode, which has the symmetry of the phase change, was observed at very low energies...
The Structural Phase Transition in Solid DCN
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dietrich, O. W.; Mackenzie, Gordon A.; Pawley, G. S.
1975-01-01
Neutron scattering measurements on deuterated hydrogen cyanide have shown that the structural phase change from a tetragonal to an orthorhombic form at 160K is a first-order transition. A transverse acoustic phonon mode, which has the symmetry of the phase change, was observed at very low energie...
End point of the electroweak phase transition
Csikor, Ferenc; Heitger, J; Aoki, Y; Ukawa, A
1999-01-01
We study the hot electroweak phase transition (EWPT) by 4-dimensional lattice simulations on lattices with symmetric and asymmetric lattice spacings and give the phase diagram. A continuum extrapolation is done. We find first order phase transition for Higgs-boson masses $m_H<66.5 \\pm 1.4$ GeV. Above this end point a rapid cross-over occurs. Our result agrees with that of the dimensional reduction approach. It also indicates that the fermionic sector of the Standard Model (SM) may be included perturbatively. We get for the SM end point $72.4 the SM.
Thermochromic phase transitions in two aromatic tetrachlorocuprates
Mostafa, M. Fareed; Abdel-Kader, M. M.; Arafat, S. S.; Kandeel, E. M.
1991-06-01
Bis(para-toluidinium)2 tetrachlorocuprate and bis(para-chloroanilinium)2 tetrachlorocuprate crystallize in a perovskite-related layer structure. The former crystallizes in an orthorhombic unit cell with a = 6.911 Å, b = 7.052 Å and c = 33.182 Å. It undergoes a thermochromic first order phase transition from a yellow low temperature phase to a dark orange high temperature phase at T = 300 ± 3K with a 10° thermal hysteresis. The latter compound undergoes two thermochromic transitions expressed by the relation. Orange Phase (I) rightleftarrows294 K Yellow Phase (II) rightleftarrows214K Green Phase (III). Both compounds are ferromagnetic at low temperture with exchange interactions J/k = 17.5° and 20° for the two compounds respectively.
Phase transitions in warm, asymmetric nuclear matter
Müller, H; Mueller, Horst; Serot, Brian D
1995-01-01
A relativistic mean-field model of nuclear matter with arbitrary proton fraction is studied at finite temperature. An analysis is performed of the liquid-gas phase transition in a system with two conserved charges (baryon number and isospin) using the stability conditions on the free energy, the conservation laws, and Gibbs' criteria for phase equilibrium. For a binary system with two phases, the coexistence surface (binodal) is two-dimensional. The Maxwell construction through the phase-separation region is discussed, and it is shown that the stable configuration can be determined uniquely at every density. Moreover, because of the greater dimensionality of the binodal surface, the liquid-gas phase transition is continuous (second order by Ehrenfest's definition), rather than discontinuous (first order), as in familiar one-component systems. Using a mean-field equation of state calibrated to the properties of nuclear matter and finite nuclei, various phase-separation scenarios are considered. The model is th...
Phase transitions and entropies for synchronizing oscillators.
Bier, Martin; Lisowski, Bartosz; Gudowska-Nowak, Ewa
2016-01-01
We study a generic model of coupled oscillators. In the model there is competition between phase synchronization and diffusive effects. For a model with a finite number of states we derive how a phase transition occurs when the coupling parameter is varied. The phase transition is characterized by a symmetry breaking and a discontinuity in the first derivative of the order parameter. We quantitatively account for how the synchronized pulse is a low-entropy structure that facilitates the production of more entropy by the system as a whole. For a model with many states we apply a continuum approximation and derive a potential Burgers' equation for a propagating pulse. No phase transition occurs in that case. However, positive entropy production by diffusive effects still exceeds negative entropy production by the shock formation. PMID:26871059
Phase Transition Induced Fission in Lipid Vesicles
Leirer, C; Myles, V M; Schneider, M F
2010-01-01
In this work we demonstrate how the first order phase transition in giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) can function as a trigger for membrane fission. When driven through their gel-fluid phase transition GUVs exhibit budding or pearl formation. These buds remain connected to the mother vesicle presumably by a small neck. Cooling these vesicles from the fluid phase (T>Tm) through the phase transition into the gel state (T
Random fields at a nonequilibrium phase transition.
Barghathi, Hatem; Vojta, Thomas
2012-10-26
We study nonequilibrium phase transitions in the presence of disorder that locally breaks the symmetry between two equivalent macroscopic states. In low-dimensional equilibrium systems, such random-field disorder is known to have dramatic effects: it prevents spontaneous symmetry breaking and completely destroys the phase transition. In contrast, we show that the phase transition of the one-dimensional generalized contact process persists in the presence of random-field disorder. The ultraslow dynamics in the symmetry-broken phase is described by a Sinai walk of the domain walls between two different absorbing states. We discuss the generality and limitations of our theory, and we illustrate our results by large-scale Monte Carlo simulations. PMID:23215170
Phase Transitions in Operational Risk
Kartik Anand; Reimer K\\"uhn
2006-01-01
In this paper we explore the functional correlation approach to operational risk. We consider networks with heterogeneous a-priori conditional and unconditional failure probability. In the limit of sparse connectivity, self-consistent expressions for the dynamical evolution of order parameters are obtained. Under equilibrium conditions, expressions for the stationary states are also obtained. The consequences of the analytical theory developed are analyzed using phase diagrams. We find co-exi...
Phase transitions in warm, asymmetric nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A relativistic mean-field model of nuclear matter with arbitrary proton fraction is studied at finite temperature. An analysis is performed of the liquid-gas phase transition in a system with two conserved charges (baryon number and isospin) using the stability conditions on the free energy, the conservation laws, and Gibbs' criteria for phase equilibrium. For a binary system with two phases, the coexistence surface (binodal) is two dimensional. The Maxwell construction through the phase-separation region is discussed, and it is shown that the stable configuration can be determined uniquely at every density. Moreover, because of the greater dimensionality of the binodal surface, the liquid-gas phase transition is continuous (second order by Ehrenfest's definition), rather than discontinuous (first order), as in familiar one-component systems. Using a mean-field equation of state calibrated to the properties of nuclear matter and finite nuclei, various phase-separation scenarios are considered. The model is then applied to the liquid-gas phase transition that may occur in the warm, dilute matter produced in energetic heavy-ion collisions. In asymmetric matter, instabilities that produce a liquid-gas phase separation arise from fluctuations in the proton concentration (chemical instability), rather than from fluctuations in the baryon density (mechanical instability)
Critical behavior in the electroweak phase transition
Gleiser, Marcello
1993-01-01
We examine the behavior of the standard-model electroweak phase transition in the early Universe. We argue that close to the critical temperature it is possible to estimate the {\\it effective} infrared corrections to the 1-loop potential using well known $\\varepsilon$-expansion results from the theory of critical phenomena in 3 spatial dimensions. The theory with the $\\varepsilon$-corrected potential exhibits much larger fluctuations in the spatial correlations of the order parameter, considerably weakening the strength of the transition.
Quantum phase transitions with dynamical flavors
Bea, Yago; Ramallo, Alfonso V
2016-01-01
We study the properties of a D6-brane probe in the ABJM background with smeared massless dynamical quarks in the Veneziano limit. Working at zero temperature and non-vanishing charge density, we show that the system undergoes a quantum phase transition in which the topology of the brane embedding changes from a black hole to a Minkowski embedding. In the unflavored background the phase transition is of second order and takes place when the charge density vanishes. We determine the corresponding critical exponents and show that the scaling behavior near the quantum critical point has multiplicative logarithmic corrections. In the background with dynamical quarks the phase transition is of first order and occurs at non-zero charge density. In this case we compute the discontinuity of several physical quantities as functions of the number $N_f$ of unquenched quarks of the background.
Non-equilibrium dynamics and phase transitions
Janik, Romuald A; Soltanpanahi, Hesam
2015-01-01
We study the poles of the retarded Green's functions of strongly coupled field theories exhibiting a variety of phase structures from a crossover up to a first order phase transition. These theories are modeled by a dual gravitational description. The poles of the holographic Green's functions appear at the frequencies of the quasinormal modes of the dual black hole background. We establish that near the transition, in all cases considered, the applicability of a hydrodynamic description breaks down already at lower momenta than in the conformal case. We establish the appearance of the spinodal region in the case of the first order phase transition at temperatures for which the speed of sound squared is negative. An estimate of the preferential scale attained by the unstable modes is also given. We additionally observe a novel diffusive regime for sound modes for a range of wavelengths.
Late-time cosmological phase transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is shown that the potential galaxy formation and large-scale structure problems of objects existing at high redshifts (Z approx-gt 5), structures existing on scales of 100M pc as well as velocity flows on such scales, and minimal microwave anisotropies (ΔT/T) approx-lt 10-5 can be solved if the seeds needed to generate structure form in a vacuum phase transition after decoupling. It is argued that the basic physics of such a phase transition is no more exotic than that utilized in the more traditional GUT scale phase transitions, and that, just as in the GUT case, significant random gaussian fluctuations and/or topological defects can form. Scale lengths of ∼100M pc for large-scale structure as well as ∼1 M pc for galaxy formation occur naturally. Possible support for new physics that might be associated with such a late-time transition comes from the preliminary results of the SAGE solar neutrino experiment, implying neutrino flavor mixing with values similar to those required for a late-time transition. It is also noted that a see-saw model for the neutrino masses might also imply a tau neutrino mass that is an ideal hot dark matter candidate. However, in general either hot or cold dark matter can be consistent with a late-time transition. 47 refs., 2 figs
Radiation-induced phase transition of paraffins
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
When irradiated by the 500 kV electron at a dose of about 1.5 x 10-3 C/cm2, normal paraffins exhibit a solid-solid phase transition; a transition from a triclinic form to an orthorhombic one in n-C22H46 and n-C24H50 and from a monoclinic form to an orthorhombic one in n-C28H58, n-C36H74 and n-C44H90. The transition to a phase with high energy (orthorhombic phase) accommodates the radiation-induced stresses. The excess strain energy produced by cross-links in crystals is assumed to be equal to the enthalpy change of the phase transition, and the number of cross-links required to induce the phase transition is estimated at one per volume of about ten molecular chains. To compare with irradiated crystals, mixed crystals are prepared from solutions of binary mixtures of n-C23H48 and n-C24H50 and of n-C24H50 and n-C25H52. When the content of impurities (n-C23H48 or n-C25H52) reaches 10% in molar fraction, the crystal form of mixed crystals changes from the stable triclinic one to the unstable orthorhombic one. Thus, the number of lattice imperfections of mixed lattice is also estimated at one per volume of ten molecules. It is concluded from the above two estimations that the phase transition occurs when the content of lattice imperfections reaches the value of one per ten molecular chains and the value does not depend on the type of imperfections in these paraffins. (author)
Some phase transition studies under shock waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Experimental studies on pressure-induced phase transitions are generally conducted using both static- and shock-loading techniques. Comparison of these results is interesting as the presence of shear and high strain rate under shock compression may alter the mechanism of a transition and also its onset pressure. Recently we have carried out an gas-gun experiments to study phase transitions in GeO2, Ti and Zr. In Ti and Zr, our objective has been to understand the causes of the reported scatter in the pressure of shock induced α -> ω transition (6.0 - 11.9 GPa). Our experiments on Zr show that the initial oxygen content of the sample has a large influence on the transition pressure. For example no α to ω transition is seen up to 11 GPa in Zr samples containing oxygen concentration above 1600 ppm. Unlike that in static experiments, the effect of shear is found to be small up to 9 GPa in inclined impact experiments in Ti. The microscopic nature of the α -> ω transition in Zr has also been examined using selected area electron diffraction measurements
Budyko, Mikhail
1999-05-01
Climate catastrophes, which many times occurred in the geological past, caused the extinction of large or small populations of animals and plants. Changes in the terrestrial and marine biota caused by the catastrophic climate changes undoubtedly resulted in considerable fluctuations in global carbon cycle and atmospheric gas composition. Primarily, carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas contents were affected. The study of these catastrophes allows a conclusion that climate system is very sensitive to relatively small changes in climate-forcing factors (transparency of the atmosphere, changes in large glaciations, etc.). It is important to take this conclusion into account while estimating the possible consequences of now occurring anthropogenic warming caused by the increase in greenhouse gas concentration in the atmosphere.
Queueing phase transition: theory of translation
Romano, M. Carmen; Thiel, Marco; Stansfield, Ian; Grebogi, Celso
2009-01-01
We study the current of particles on a lattice, where to each site a different hopping probability has been associated and the particles can move only in one direction. We show that the queueing of the particles behind a slow site can lead to a first-order phase transition, and derive analytical expressions for the configuration of slow sites for this to happen. We apply this stochastic model to describe the translation of mRNAs. We show that the first-order phase transition, uncovered in thi...
Phase Transition in Loop Quantum Gravity
Mäkelä, Jarmo
2016-01-01
We point out that with a specific counting of states loop quantum gravity implies that black holes perform a phase transition at a certain characteristic temperature $T_C$. In this phase transition the punctures of the spin network on the stretched horizon of the black hole jump, in effect, from the vacuum to the excited states. The characteristic temperature $T_C$ may be regarded as the lowest possible temperature of the hole. From the point of view of a distant observer at rest with respect...
Phase transition in loop quantum gravity
Mäkelä, Jarmo
2016-04-01
We point out that with a specific counting of states loop quantum gravity implies that black holes perform a phase transition at a certain characteristic temperature TC . In this phase transition the punctures of the spin network on the stretched horizon of the black hole jump, in effect, from the vacuum to the excited states. The characteristic temperature TC may be regarded as the lowest possible temperature of the hole. From the point of view of a distant observer at rest with respect to the hole, the characteristic temperature TC corresponds to the Hawking temperature of the hole.
Phase Transition in Loop Quantum Gravity
Mäkelä, Jarmo
2016-01-01
We point out that with a specific counting of states loop quantum gravity implies that black holes perform a phase transition at a certain characteristic temperature $T_C$. In this phase transition the punctures of the spin network on the stretched horizon of the black hole jump, in effect, from the vacuum to the excited states. The characteristic temperature $T_C$ may be regarded as the lowest possible temperature of the hole. From the point of view of a distant observer at rest with respect to the hole the characteristic temperature $T_C$ corresponds to the Hawking temperature of the hole.
Network traffic behaviour near phase transition point
Lawniczak, A. T.; Tang, X.
2006-03-01
We explore packet traffic dynamics in a data network model near phase transition point from free flow to congestion. The model of data network is an abstraction of the Network Layer of the OSI (Open Systems Interconnect) Reference Model of packet switching networks. The Network Layer is responsible for routing packets across the network from their sources to their destinations and for control of congestion in data networks. Using the model we investigate spatio-temporal packets traffic dynamics near the phase transition point for various network connection topologies, and static and adaptive routing algorithms. We present selected simulation results and analyze them.
Dimension changing phase transitions in instanton crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate lattices of instantons and the dimension-changing transitions between them. Our ultimate goal is the 3D→4D transition, which is holographically dual to the phase transition between the baryonic and the quarkyonic phases of cold nuclear matter. However, in this paper (just as in http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP11(2012)047) we focus on lower dimensions — the 1D lattice of instantons in a harmonic potential V∝M22x22+M32x22+M42x42, and the zigzag-shaped lattice as a first stage of the 1D→2D transition. We prove that in the low- and moderate-density regimes, interactions between the instantons are dominated by two-body forces. This drastically simplifies finding the ground state of the instantons’ orientations, so we made a numeric scan of the whole orientation space instead of assuming any particular ansatz. We find that depending on the M2/M3/M4 ratios, the ground state of instanton orientations can follow a wide variety of patterns. For the straight 1D lattices, we found orientations periodically running over elements of a ℤ2, Klein, prismatic, or dihedral subgroup of the SU(2)/ℤ2, as well as irrational but link-periodic patterns. For the zigzag-shaped lattices, we detected 4 distinct orientation phases — the anti-ferromagnet, another abelian phase, and two non-abelian phases. Allowing the zigzag amplitude to vary as a function of increasing compression force, we obtained the phase diagrams for the straight and zigzag-shaped lattices in the (force,M3/M4), (chemical potential,M3/M4), and (density,M3/M4) planes. Some of the transitions between these phases are second-order while others are first-order. Our techniques can be applied to other types of non-abelian crystals
PHASE TRANSITION IN SEQUENCE UNIQUE RECONSTRUCTION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Li XIA; Chan ZHOU
2007-01-01
In this paper,sequence unique reconstruction refers to the property that a sequence is uniquely reconstructable from all its K-tuples.We propose and study the phase transition behavior of the probability P(K)of unique reconstruction with regard to tuple size K in random sequences (iid model).Based on Monte Carlo experiments,artificial proteins generated from iid model exhibit a phase transition when P(K)abruptly jumps from a low value phase(e.g.＜0.1)to a high value phase (e.g.＞0.9).With a generalization to any alphabet,we prove that for a random sequence of length L,as L is large enough,P(K)undergoes a sharp phase transition when P≤0.1015 where p=P(two random letters match).Besides,formulas are derived to estimate the transition points,which may be of practical use in sequencing DNA by hybridization.Concluded from our study,most proteins do not deviate greatly from random sequences in the sense of sequence unique reconstruction,while there are some "stubborn" proteins which only become uniquely reconstructable at a very large K and probably have biological implications.
Endpoint of the hot electroweak phase transition
Csikor, Ferenc; Heitger, J
1999-01-01
We give the nonperturbative phase diagram of the four-dimensional hot electroweak phase transition. The Monte-Carlo analysis is done on lattices with different lattice spacings ($a$). A systematic extrapolation $a \\to 0$ is done. Our results show that the finite temperature SU(2)-Higgs phase transition is of first order for Higgs-boson masses $m_H<66.5 \\pm 1.4$ GeV. At this endpoint the phase transition is of second order, whereas above it only a rapid cross-over can be seen. The full four-dimensional result agrees completely with that of the dimensional reduction approximation. This fact is of particular importance, because it indicates that the fermionic sector of the Standard Model can be included perturbatively. We obtain that the Higgs-boson endpoint mass in the Standard Model is $72.4 \\pm 1.7$ GeV. Taking into account the LEP Higgs-boson mass lower bound excludes any electroweak phase transition in the Standard Model.
Transition to turbulence in pipe flow as a phase transition
Vasudevan, Mukund; Hof, Björn
2015-11-01
In pipe flow, turbulence first arises in the form of localized turbulent patches called puffs. The flow undergoes a transition to sustained turbulence via spatio-temporal intermittency, with puffs splitting, decaying and merging in the background laminar flow. However, the due to mean advection of the puffs and the long timescales involved (~107 advective time units), it is not possible to study the transition in typical laboratory set-ups. So far, it has only been possible to indirectly estimate the critical point for the transition. Here, we exploit the stochastic memoryless nature of the puff decay and splitting processes to construct a pipe flow set-up, that is periodic in a statistical sense. It then becomes possible to study the flow for sufficiently long times and characterize the transition in detail. We present measurements of the turbulent fraction as a function of Reynolds number which in turn allows a direct estimate of the critical point. We present evidence that the transition has features of a phase transition of second order.
Deconfinement phase transition in neutron star matter
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Ang; PENG Guang-Xiong; Lombardo U
2009-01-01
The transition from hadron phase to strange quark phase in dense matter is investigated. Instead of using the conventional bag model in quark sect, we achieve the confinement by a density-dependent quark mass derived from in-medium chiral condensates, with a thermodynamic problem improved. In nuclear slot,we adopt the equation of state from Brueckner-Bethe-Goldstone approach with three-body force. It is found that the mixed phase can occur, for reasonable confinement parameter, near the normal saturation density,and transit to pure quark matter at 4-5 times the saturation, which is quite different from the previous results from other quark models that pure quark phase can not appear at neutron-star densities.
Explore QCD phase transition with thermal photons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This pilot study was to assess the high temperature and zero baryon density region of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) phase diagram with thermal photon emission, where the nature of QCD phase transition is ambiguous. Based on a (3+1)-D ideal hydrodynamical model to describe macroscopically the collision system, thermal photons emitted from Pb+Pb collisions at 2.76 TeV are investigated. The result reveals that photons from heavy ion collisions at high energy and centrality are possible to distinguish the structure of the hot dense matter, in QGP phase or hadronic phase, thus may provide an approach to explore the nature of this finite-temperature QCD transition (that is, first-order, second-order or analytic crossover). (authors)
Statistical physics of non-thermal phase transitions from foundations to applications
Abaimov, Sergey G
2015-01-01
Statistical physics can be used to better understand non-thermal complex systems—phenomena such as stock-market crashes, revolutions in society and in science, fractures in engineered materials and in the Earth’s crust, catastrophes, traffic jams, petroleum clusters, polymerization, self-organized criticality and many others exhibit behaviors resembling those of thermodynamic systems. In particular, many of these systems possess phase transitions identical to critical or spinodal phenomena in statistical physics. The application of the well-developed formalism of statistical physics to non-thermal complex systems may help to predict and prevent such catastrophes as earthquakes, snow-avalanches and landslides, failure of engineering structures, or economical crises. This book addresses the issue step-by-step, from phenomenological analogies between complex systems and statistical physics to more complex aspects, such as correlations, fluctuation-dissipation theorem, susceptibility, the concept of free ener...
Hysteresis in the phase transition of chocolate
Ren, Ruilong; Lu, Qunfeng; Lin, Sihua; Dong, Xiaoyan; Fu, Hao; Wu, Shaoyi; Wu, Minghe; Teng, Baohua
2016-01-01
We designed an experiment to reproduce the hysteresis phenomenon of chocolate appearing in the heating and cooling process, and then established a model to relate the solidification degree to the order parameter. Based on the Landau-Devonshire theory, our model gave a description of the hysteresis phenomenon in chocolate, which lays the foundations for the study of the phase transition behavior of chocolate.
QCD phase transition and primordial density perturbations
Ignatius, J; Schwarz, Dominik J.
2000-01-01
We analyze the effect of primordial density perturbations on the cosmic QCD phase transition. According to our results hadron bubbles nucleate at the cold perturbations. We call this mechanism inhomogeneous nucleation. We find the typical distance between bubble centers to be a few meters. This exceeds the estimates from homogeneous nucleation by two orders of magnitude. The resulting baryon inhomogeneities may affect primordial nucleosynthesis.
Passive Supporters of Terrorism and Phase Transitions
August, Friedrich; Delitzscher, Sascha; Hiller, Gerald; Krueger, Tyll
2010-01-01
We discuss some social contagion processes to describe the formation and spread of radical opinions. The dynamics of opinion spread involves local threshold processes as well as mean field effects. We calculate and observe phase transitions in the dynamical variables resulting in a rapidly increasing number of passive supporters. This strongly indicates that military solutions are inappropriate.
Phase Transition Critical Flavor Number of QCD
Ndili, F. N.
2005-01-01
We present an entirely perturbative QCD determination of the critical phase transition flavor number $N^{cr}_{f}$ of QCD. The results obtained are compared with various determinations of $N^{cr}_{f}$ by non-pertrubative methods, including lattice QCD. The wider physics implication of the existence of the Banks-Zaks regime of QCD with only weakly interacting quarks, is discussed briefly.
The nature of explosive percolation phase transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this Letter, we show that the explosive percolation is a novel continuous phase transition. The order-parameter-distribution histogram at the percolation threshold is studied in Erdős–Rényi networks, scale-free networks, and square lattice. In finite system, two well-defined Gaussian-like peaks coexist, and the valley between the two peaks is suppressed with the system size increasing. This finite-size effect always appears in typical first-order phase transition. However, both of the two peaks shift to zero point in a power law manner, which indicates the explosive percolation is continuous in the thermodynamic limit. The nature of explosive percolation in all the three structures belongs to this novel continuous phase transition. Various scaling exponents concerning the order-parameter-distribution are obtained. -- Highlights: ► The explosive percolation is a novel continuous phase transition. ► The order-parameter-distribution histogram at the percolation threshold is studied. ► Two well-defined peaks coexist, and the valley in between is suppressed. ► However, both of the two peaks shift to zero point in a power law manner. ► Various scaling exponents concerning the order-parameter-distribution are obtained.
Phenomenological models of cosmic phase transitions. 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Classical nucleation theory is applied to follow the thermal history of a homogeneous and isotropic universe during a first-order phase transition. The dependence of possible supercooling and reheating scenarios on the surface tension and growth velocity of bubbles is discussed. (author)
Vol. 3: Statistical Physics and Phase Transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Problems of modern physics and the situation with physical research in Ukraine are considered. Programme of the conference includes scientific and general problems. Its proceedings are published in 6 volumes. The papers presented in this volume refer to statistical physics and phase transition theory
Black Hole Phase Transition in Massive Gravity
Ning, Shou-Li; Liu, Wen-Biao
2016-07-01
In massive gravity, some new phenomena of black hole phase transition are found. There are more than one critical points under appropriate parameter values and the Gibbs free energy near critical points also has some new properties. Moreover, the Maxwell equal area rule is also investigated and the coexistence curve of the black hole is given.
Neutrino Oscillation Induced by Chiral Phase Transition
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
MU Cheng-Fu; SUN Gao-Feng; ZHUANG Peng-Fei
2009-01-01
Electric charge neutrality provides a relationship between chiral dynamics and neutrino propagation in compact stars.Due to the sudden drop of the electron density at the first-order chiral phase transition,the oscillation for low energy neutrinos is significant and can be regarded as a signature of chiral symmetry restoration in the core of compact stars.
On Julia sets concerning phase transitions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
QIAO; Jianyong(乔建永)
2003-01-01
The sets of the points corresponding to the phase transitions of the Potts model on the diamondhierarchical lattice for antiferromagnetic coupling are studied. These sets are the Julia sets of a family ofrational mappings. It is shown that they may be disconnected sets. Furthermore, the topological structures ofthese sets are described completely.
Supersymmetric Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Supersymmetry is introduced in the Coulomb gas, namely the statistical theory for a set of interacting vortices and antivortices. The equivalence of this theory to the supersymmetric Sine-Gordon model is established. Mean-field considerations applied to this supersymmetric Coulomb gas lead to a phase transition of the kind described by Kosterlitz and Thouless. 12 references
Chaos: Butterflies also Generate Phase Transitions
Leplaideur, Renaud
2015-10-01
We exhibit examples of mixing subshifts of finite type and of continuous potentials such that there are phase transitions but the pressure is always strictly convex. More surprisingly, we show that the pressure can be analytic on some interval although there exist several equilibrium states.
Quantum Phase Transitions in Antiferromagnets and Superfluids
Sachdev, Subir
2000-03-01
A general introduction to the non-zero temperature dynamic and transport properties of low-dimensional systems near a quantum phase transition shall be presented. Basic results will be reviewed in the context of experiments on the spin-ladder compounds. Recent large N computations (M. Vojta and S. Sachdev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83), 3916 (1999) on an extended t-J model motivate a global scenario of the quantum phases and transitions in the high temperature superconductors, and connections will be made to numerous experiments. A universal theory (S. Sachdev, C. Buragohain, and M. Vojta, Science, in press M. Vojta, C. Buragohain, and S. Sachdev, cond- mat/9912020) of quantum impurities in spin-gap antiferromagnets near a magnetic ordering transition will be compared quantitatively to experiments on Zn doped Y Ba2 Cu3 O7 (Fong et al.), Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1939 (1999)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kristensen, Thomas Bjørnsten
2012-01-01
The article discusses specific aesthetic strategies for articulating and describing the catastrophic event of 9/11 by focusing on its auditory aspects. This is done through a reading of the American media- and sound artist Stephen Vitiello’s work and novelist Don DeLillo’s Falling Man....
Finite temperature field theory and phase transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
These lectures review phases and phase transitions of the Standard Model, with emphasis on those aspects which are amenable to a first principle study. Model calculations and theoretical idea of practical applicability are discussed as well. Contents: 1. Overview; 2. Field Theory at Finite Temperature and Density; 3. Critical Phenomena; 4. Electroweak Interactions at Finite Temperature; 5. Thermodynamics of Four Fermions models; 6. The Phases of QCD; 7. QCD at Finite Temperature, μB = 0; 8. QCD at Finite Temperature, μB ≠ 0. (author)
Phase transitions in algebraic cluster models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Complete text of publication follows. There has been much interest recently in phase transitions in various nuclear systems. The phases are defined as (local) minima of the potential energy surface (PES) defined in terms of parameters characterizing the nuclear system. Phase transitions occur when some relevant parameter is changed gradually and the system moves from one phase to another one. In the analysis of such systems the key questions are the number of phases and the order of phase transition between them. Algebraic nuclear structure models are especially interesting from the phase transition point of view, because the different phases may be characterized by different symmetries of the system. Much work has been done recently on models based on the interacting boson approximation (IBA). In these studies the potential energy surface is constructed from the algebraic Hamiltonian by its geometric mapping using the coherent state formalism. Inspired by these studies we performed a similar analysis of a family of algebraic cluster models based on the semimicroscopic algebraic cluster model (SACM). This model has two dynamical symmetries: the SU(3) and SO(4) limits are believed to correspond to vibration around a spherical equilibrium shape and static dipole deformation, respectively. The semimicroscopic nature of this model is reflected by the fact that a fully antisymmetrized microscopic model space is combined with a phenomenologic Hamiltonian that describes excitations of the (typically) two-cluster system. The microscopic model space is necessary to take into account the Pauli exclusion principle acting between the nucleons of the closely interacting clusters. In practice this means that the number of excitation quanta in the relative motion of the clusters has to exceed a certain number n0 characterizing the system. This is clearly a novelty with respect to other algebraic models, and it complicates the formalism considerably. We thus introduced as a
Phase transition to QGP matter : confined vs deconfined matter
Maire, Antonin
2015-01-01
Simplified phase diagram of the nuclear phase transition, from the regular hadronic matter to the QGP phase. The sketch is meant to describe the transition foreseen along the temperature axis, at low baryochemical potential, µB.
Phase transitions and large amplitude oscillations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We studied the way how do large amplitude oscillations propagate in a one-dimensional viscous compressible flow governed by the Navier-Stokes equations. The model used a barotropic state law. This allows phase transitions, like in Van der Waals fluid. The oscillations obey to an integro-differential Cauchy problem of a new type. Due to the translational invariance, one consider here the solutions which do not depend on the (slow) space variable. They actually depend on a fast variable, and obey to a differential equation dw/dt = -grad I(W) on an infinite-dimensional manifold, where I denotes the internal energy per unit mass. Stable steady states correspond to local minima of I. It follows that states belonging to the spinodal phase are unstable with respect to large amplitude oscillations. It also gives an evidence for instability of stationary phase transitions when the pressures, although taking equal values in both phases, differ from the Maxwell value. This result was well known in a different context, when the capillarity is taken in account in the model but cannot be obtained in our case by using only a straightforward linearization technique for the Navier-Stokes equations, because of the strongly nonlinear nature of a phase transition. (author). 5 refs, 2 figs
Phase transitions in a lattice population model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We introduce a model for a population on a lattice with diffusion and birth/death according to 2A→3A and A→Φ for a particle A. We find that the model displays a phase transition from an active to an absorbing state which is continuous in 1 + 1 dimensions and of first-order in higher dimensions in agreement with the mean field equation. For the (1 + 1)-dimensional case, we examine the critical exponents and a scaling function for the survival probability and show that it belongs to the universality class of directed percolation. In higher dimensions, we look at the first-order phase transition by plotting a histogram of the population density and use the presence of phase coexistence to find an accurate value for the critical point in 2 + 1 dimensions
The comfortable driving model revisited: traffic phases and phase transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the spatiotemporal patterns resulting from different boundary conditions for a microscopic traffic model and contrast them with empirical results. By evaluating the time series of local measurements, the local traffic states are assigned to the different traffic phases of Kerner’s three-phase traffic theory. For this classification we use the rule-based FOTO-method, which provides ‘hard’ rules for this assignment. Using this approach, our analysis shows that the model is indeed able to reproduce three qualitatively different traffic phases: free flow (F), synchronized traffic (S), and wide moving jams (J). In addition, we investigate the likelihood of transitions between the three traffic phases. We show that a transition from free flow to a wide moving jam often involves an intermediate transition: first from free flow to synchronized flow and then from synchronized flow to a wide moving jam. This is supported by the fact that the so-called F → S transition (from free flow to synchronized traffic) is much more likely than a direct F → J transition. The model under consideration has a functional relationship between traffic flow and traffic density. The fundamental hypothesis of the three-phase traffic theory, however, postulates that the steady states of synchronized flow occupy a two-dimensional region in the flow–density plane. Due to the obvious discrepancy between the model investigated here and the postulate of the three-phase traffic theory, the good agreement that we found could not be expected. For a more detailed analysis, we also studied vehicle dynamics at a microscopic level and provide a comparison of real detector data with simulated data of the identical highway segment. (paper)
A mesoscopic approach on stability and phase transition between different traffic flow states
Qian, Wei-Liang; Lin, Kai; Machado, Romuel F; Hama, Yogiro
2015-01-01
It is understood that congestion in traffic can be interpreted in terms of the instability of the equation of dynamic motion. The evoltuion of a traffic system from an unstable or metastable state to a globally stable state bears a strong resemblance to the phase transition in thermodynamics. In this work, we explore the underlying physics of the traffic system, by examing closely the physical properties and mathematical constraints of the phase transitons therein. By using a mesoscopic approach, one entitles the catastrophe model the same physical content as in the Landau's theory, and uncovers its close connection to the instability and phase transitions. In addition to the one-dimensional configuration space, we generalize our discussion to the higher-dimensional case, where the observed temporal oscillation in traffic flow data is attributed to the curl of a vector field. We exhibit that our model can reproduce main features of the observed fundamental diagram including the inverse-$\\lambda$ shape and the...
The Phase Transition to Eternal Inflation
Creminelli, Paolo; Dubovsky, Sergei; Nicolis, Alberto; Senatore, Leonardo; Zaldarriaga, Matias
2008-01-01
For slow-roll inflation we study the phase transition to the eternal regime. Starting from a finite inflationary volume, we consider the volume of the universe at reheating as order parameter. We show that there exists a critical value for the classical inflaton speed, \\dot\\phi^2/H^4 = 3/(2 \\pi^2), where the probability distribution for the reheating volume undergoes a sharp transition. In particular, for sub-critical inflaton speeds all distribution moments become infinite. We show that at t...
Dynamical phase transitions in quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1936 Niels Bohr: In the atom and in the nucleus we have indeed to do with two extreme cases of mechanical many-body problems for which a procedure of approximation resting on a combination of one-body problems, so effective in the former case, loses any validity in the latter where we, from the very beginning, have to do with essential collective aspects of the interplay between the constituent particles. 1963: Maria Goeppert-Mayer and J. Hans D. Jensen received the Nobel Prize in Physics for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure. State of the art 2011: - The nucleus is an open quantum system described by a non-Hermitian Hamilton operator with complex eigenvalues. The eigenvalues may cross in the complex plane ('exceptional points'), the phases of the eigenfunctions are not rigid in approaching the crossing points and the widths bifurcate. By this, a dynamical phase transition occurs in the many-level system. The dynamical phase transition starts at a critical value of the level density. Hence the properties of he low-lying nuclear states (described well by the shell model) and those of highly excited nuclear states (described by random ensembles) differ fundamentally from one another. The statement of Niels Bohr for compound nucleus states at high level density is not in contradiction to the shell-model description of nuclear (and atomic) states at low level density. Dynamical phase transitions are observed experimentally in different systems, including PT-symmetric ones, by varying one or more parameters
Mechanical analog for a quantum-chromodynamic phase transition
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Salomone, A.; Schechter, J.
1982-07-15
A simple mechanical model involving a pendulum and a spring is shown to give the same phase-transition behavior as that of either the effective chiral Lagrangian for one-flavor QCD or the massive Schwinger model. This model, which also has been studied in catastrophe theory, permits us to get a nice understanding of what at first appears to be a complicated system. We also construct and analyze a mechanical analog model for the two-flavor case. The latter has a similar behavior, in general, but does present some interesting new features. With this experience under our belts we are able to straightforwardly analyze the situation with an arbitrary number of flavors. We also discuss what the zero-flavor (i.e., pure QCD) limit of the effective Lagrangian should look like and give a formula for the ground-state energy as a function of the instanton angle theta. A number of other questions related to the QCD effective Lagrangian are investigated.
Thermalon mediated phase transitions in Gauss-Bonnet gravity
Hennigar, Robie A; Mbarek, Saoussen
2015-01-01
Thermalons can mediate phase transitions between different vacua in higher curvature gravity, potentially changing the asymptotic structure of the spacetime. Treating the cosmological constant as a dynamical parameter, we study these phase transitions in the context of extended thermodynamic phase space. We find that in addition to the AdS to dS phase transitions previously studied, thermal AdS space can undergo a phase transition to an asymptotically flat black hole geometry. In the context of AdS to AdS transitions, we comment on the similarities and differences between thermalon transitions and the Hawking-Page transition.
Phase transition to turbulence in a pipe
Goldenfeld, Nigel
Leo Kadanoff taught us much about phase transitions, turbulence and collective behavior. Here I explore the transition to turbulence in a pipe, showing how a collective mode determines the universality class. Near the transition, turbulent puffs decay either directly or through splitting, with characteristic time-scales that exhibit a super-exponential dependence on Reynolds number. Direct numerical simulations reveal that a collective mode, a so-called zonal flow emerges at large scales, activated by anisotropic turbulent fluctuations, as represented by Reynolds stress. This zonal flow imposes a shear on the turbulent fluctuations that tends to suppress their anisotropy, leading to a Landau theory of predator-prey type, in the directed percolation universality class. Stochastic simulations of this model reproduce the functional form and phenomenology of pipe flow experiments. Talk based on work performed with Hong-Yan Shih and Tsung-Lin Hsieh. This work was partially supported by the National Science Foundation through Grant NSF-DMR-1044901.
Phase Transitions in Models of Bird Flocking
Christodoulidi, H; Bountis, T
2013-01-01
The aim of the present paper is to elucidate the transition from collective to random behavior exhibited by various mathematical models of bird flocking. In particular, we compare Vicsek's model [Viscek et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1226 -- 1229 (1995)] with one based on topological considerations. The latter model is found to exhibit a first order phase transition from flocking to decoherence, as the 'noise parameter' of the problem is increased, whereas Viscek's model gives a second order transition. Refining the topological model in such a way that birds are influenced mostly by the birds in front of them, less by the ones at their sides and not at all by those behind them (because they do not see them), we find a behavior that lies in between the two models. Finally, we propose a novel mechanism for preserving the flock's cohesion, without imposing artificial boundary conditions or attracting forces.
Gravitational Waves from a Dark Phase Transition.
Schwaller, Pedro
2015-10-30
In this work, we show that a large class of models with a composite dark sector undergo a strong first order phase transition in the early Universe, which could lead to a detectable gravitational wave signal. We summarize the basic conditions for a strong first order phase transition for SU(N) dark sectors with n_{f} flavors, calculate the gravitational wave spectrum and show that, depending on the dark confinement scale, it can be detected at eLISA or in pulsar timing array experiments. The gravitational wave signal provides a unique test of the gravitational interactions of a dark sector, and we discuss the complementarity with conventional searches for new dark sectors. The discussion includes the twin Higgs and strongly interacting massive particle models as well as symmetric and asymmetric composite dark matter scenarios. PMID:26565451
Phase transitions: An overview with a view
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gleiser, M. [Dartmouth Coll., Hanover, NH (United States)
1997-10-01
The dynamics of phase transitions plays a crucial role in the so- called interface between high energy particle physics and cosmology. Many of the interesting results generated during the last fifteen years or so rely on simplified assumptions concerning the complex mechanisms typical of nonequilibrium field theories. After reviewing well-known results concerning the dynamics of first and second order phase transitions, I argue that much is yet to be understood, in particular in situations where homogeneous nucleation theory does not apply. I present a method to deal with departures from homogeneous nucleation, and compare its efficacy with numerical simulations. Finally, I discuss the interesting problem of matching numerical simulations of stochastic field theories with continuum models.
Dynamics at a smeared phase transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate the effects of rare regions on the dynamics of Ising magnets with planar defects, i.e., disorder perfectly correlated in two dimensions. In these systems, the magnetic phase transition is smeared because static long-range order can develop on isolated rare regions. We first study an infinite-range model by numerically solving local dynamic mean-field equations. Then we use extremal statistics and scaling arguments to discuss the dynamics beyond mean-field theory. In the tail region of the smeared transition the dynamics is even slower than in a conventional Griffiths phase: the spin autocorrelation function decays like a stretched exponential at intermediate times before approaching the exponentially small equilibrium value following a power law at late times
Dynamics at a smeared phase transition
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fendler, Bernard [Department of Physics, University of Missouri-Rolla, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Sknepnek, Rastko [Department of Physics, University of Missouri-Rolla, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Vojta, Thomas [Department of Physics, University of Missouri-Rolla, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States)
2005-03-18
We investigate the effects of rare regions on the dynamics of Ising magnets with planar defects, i.e., disorder perfectly correlated in two dimensions. In these systems, the magnetic phase transition is smeared because static long-range order can develop on isolated rare regions. We first study an infinite-range model by numerically solving local dynamic mean-field equations. Then we use extremal statistics and scaling arguments to discuss the dynamics beyond mean-field theory. In the tail region of the smeared transition the dynamics is even slower than in a conventional Griffiths phase: the spin autocorrelation function decays like a stretched exponential at intermediate times before approaching the exponentially small equilibrium value following a power law at late times.
Structural phase transitions in monolayer molybdenum dichalcogenides
Choe, Duk-Hyun; Sung, Ha June; Chang, Kee Joo
2015-03-01
The recent discovery of two-dimensional materials such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) has provided opportunities to develop ultimate thin channel devices. In contrast to graphene, the existence of moderate band gap and strong spin-orbit coupling gives rise to exotic electronic properties which vary with layer thickness, lattice structure, and symmetry. TMDs commonly appear in two structures with distinct symmetries, trigonal prismatic 2H and octahedral 1T phases which are semiconducting and metallic, respectively. In this work, we investigate the structural and electronic properties of monolayer molybdenum dichalcogenides (MoX2, where X = S, Se, Te) through first-principles density functional calculations. We find a tendency that the semiconducting 2H phase is more stable than the metallic 1T phase. We show that a spontaneous symmetry breaking of 1T phase leads to various distorted octahedral (1T') phases, thus inducing a metal-to-semiconductor transition. We discuss the effects of carrier doping on the structural stability and the modification of the electronic structure. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) under Grant No. NRF-2005-0093845 and Samsung Science and Technology Foundation under Grant No. SSTFBA1401-08.
Network traffic behaviour near phase transition point
Anna T. Lawniczak; Tang, Xiongwen
2005-01-01
We explore packet traffic dynamics in a data network model near phase transition point from free flow to congestion. The model of data network is an abstraction of the Network Layer of the OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) Reference Model of packet switching networks. The Network Layer is responsible for routing packets across the network from their sources to their destinations and for control of congestion in data networks. Using the model we investigate spatio-temporal packets traffic dyn...
Quantum Phase Transitions in the BKL Universe
D'Odorico, Giulio
2015-01-01
We study quantum corrections to the classical Bianchi I and Bianchi IX universes. The modified dynamics is well-motivated from the asymptotic safety program where the short-distance behavior of gravity is governed by a non-trivial renormalization group fixed point. The correction terms induce a phase transition in the dynamics of the model, changing the classical, chaotic Kasner oscillations into a uniform approach to a point singularity. The resulting implications for the microscopic structure of spacetime are discussed.
Gravitation, phase transitions, and the big bang
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Introduced here is a model of the early universe based on the possibility of a first-order phase transition involving gravity, and arrived at by a consideration of instabilities in the semiclassical theory. The evolution of the system is very different from the standard Friedmann-Robertson-Walker big-bang scenario, indicating the potential importance of semiclassical finite-temperature gravitational effects. Baryosynthesis and monopole production in this scenario are also outlined
Phase transitions in algebraic cluster models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the phase transitions of two algebraic cluster models, which have similar interactions, but differ from each other in their model spaces. The semimicroscopical model incorporates the Pauli exclusion principle, while the phenomenological one does not. The appearance of the quasidynamical SU(3) symmetry is also investigated in the presence of an explicitly symmetry-breaking interaction. Examples of binary cluster configurations with two, one, or zero closed-shell clusters are studied
Unprovability and phase transitions in Ramsey theory
De Smet, Michiel
2011-01-01
The first mathematically interesting, first-order arithmetical example of incompleteness was given in the late seventies and is know as the Paris-Harrington principle. It is a strengthened form of the finite Ramsey theorem which can not be proved, nor refuted in Peano Arithmetic. In this dissertation we investigate several other unprovable statements of Ramseyan nature and determine the threshold functions for the related phase transitions. Chapter 1 sketches out the historical development...
Thermalon mediated phase transitions in Gauss-Bonnet gravity
Hennigar, Robie; Mann, Robert; Mbarek, Saoussen
2015-01-01
Thermalons can mediate phase transitions between different vacua in higher curvature gravity, potentially changing the asymptotic structure of the spacetime. Treating the cosmological constant as a dynamical parameter, we study these phase transitions in the context of extended thermodynamic phase space. We find that in addition to the AdS to dS phase transitions previously studied, thermal AdS space can undergo a phase transition to an asymptotically flat black hole geometry. In the context ...
Application of catastrophe theory to nuclear structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Three two-parameter models, one describing an A-body system (the atomic nucleus) and two describing many-body systems (the van der Waals gas and the ferroelectric (perovskite) system) are compared within the framework of catastrophe theory. It is shown that each has a critical point (second-order phase transition) when the two counteracting forces controlling it are in balance; further, each undergoes a first-order phase transition when one of the forces vanishes (the deforming force for the nucleus, the attractive force for the van der Waals gas, and the dielectric constant for the perovskite). Finally, when both parameters are kept constant, a kind of phase transition may occur at a critical angular momentum, critical pressure, and critical electric field. 3 figures, 1 table
Phase Transitions in Delaunay Potts Models
Adams, Stefan; Eyers, Michael
2016-01-01
We establish phase transitions for certain classes of continuum Delaunay multi-type particle systems (continuum Potts models) with infinite range repulsive interaction between particles of different type. In one class of the Delaunay Potts models studied the repulsive interaction is a triangle (multi-body) interaction whereas in the second class the interaction is between pairs (edges) of the Delaunay graph. The result for the edge model is an extension of finite range results in Bertin et al. (J Stat Phys 114(1-2):79-100, 2004) for the Delaunay graph and in Georgii and Häggström (Commun Math Phys 181:507-528, 1996) for continuum Potts models to an infinite range repulsion decaying with the edge length. This is a proof of an old conjecture of Lebowitz and Lieb. The repulsive triangle interactions have infinite range as well and depend on the underlying geometry and thus are a first step towards studying phase transitions for geometry-dependent multi-body systems. Our approach involves a Delaunay random-cluster representation analogous to the Fortuin-Kasteleyn representation of the Potts model. The phase transitions manifest themselves in the percolation of the corresponding random-cluster model. Our proofs rely on recent studies (Dereudre et al. in Probab Theory Relat Fields 153:643-670, 2012) of Gibbs measures for geometry-dependent interactions.
Topology and phase transitions I. Preliminary results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this first paper, we demonstrate a theorem that establishes a first step toward proving a necessary topological condition for the occurrence of first- or second-order phase transitions: we prove that the topology of certain submanifolds of configuration space must necessarily change at the phase transition point. The theorem applies to smooth, finite-range and confining potentials V bounded below, describing systems confined in finite regions of space with continuously varying coordinates. The relevant configuration space submanifolds are both the level sets {Σv:=VN-1(v)}velementofR of the potential function VN and the configuration space submanifolds enclosed by the Σv defined by {Mv:=VN-1((-∞,v])}velementofR, which are labeled by the potential energy value v, and where N is the number of degrees of freedom. The proof of the theorem proceeds by showing that, under the assumption of diffeomorphicity of the equipotential hypersurfaces {Σv}velementofR, as well as of the {Mv}velementofR, in an arbitrary interval of values for v-bar =v/N, the Helmholtz free energy is uniformly convergent in N to its thermodynamic limit, at least within the class of twice differentiable functions, in the corresponding interval of temperature. This preliminary theorem is essential to prove another theorem-in (paper II)-which makes a stronger statement about the relevance of topology for phase transitions
Phase Transitions in Model Active Systems
Redner, Gabriel S.
The amazing collective behaviors of active systems such as bird flocks, schools of fish, and colonies of microorganisms have long amazed scientists and laypeople alike. Understanding the physics of such systems is challenging due to their far-from-equilibrium dynamics, as well as the extreme diversity in their ingredients, relevant time- and length-scales, and emergent phenomenology. To make progress, one can categorize active systems by the symmetries of their constituent particles, as well as how activity is expressed. In this work, we examine two categories of active systems, and explore their phase behavior in detail. First, we study systems of self-propelled spherical particles moving in two dimensions. Despite the absence of an aligning interaction, this system displays complex emergent dynamics, including phase separation into a dense active solid and dilute gas. Using simulations and analytic modeling, we quantify the phase diagram and separation kinetics. We show that this nonequilibrium phase transition is analogous to an equilibrium vapor-liquid system, with binodal and spinodal curves and a critical point. We also characterize the dense active solid phase, a unique material which exhibits the structural signatures of a crystalline solid near the crystal-hexatic transition point, as well as anomalous dynamics including superdiffusive motion on intermediate timescales. We also explore the role of interparticle attraction in this system. We demonstrate that attraction drastically changes the phase diagram, which contains two distinct phase-separated regions and is reentrant as a function of propulsion speed. We interpret this complex situation with a simple kinetic model, which builds from the observed microdynamics of individual particles to a full description of the macroscopic phase behavior. We also study active nematics, liquid crystals driven out of equilibrium by energy-dissipating active stresses. The equilibrium nematic state is unstable in these
Catastrophe medicine; Medecine de catastrophe
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lebreton, A. [Service Technique de l`Energie Electrique et des Grands Barrages (STEEGB), (France)
1996-12-31
The `Catastrophe Medicine` congress which took place in Amiens (France) in December 5 to 7 1996 was devoted to the assessment and management of risks and hazards in natural and artificial systems. The methods of risk evaluation and prevision were discussed in the context of dams accidents with the analysis of experience feedbacks and lessons gained from the organisation of emergency plans. Three round table conferences were devoted to the importance of psychological aspects during such major crises. (J.S.)
Berry Phases, Quantum Phase Transitions and Chern Numbers
Contreras, H. A.; Reyes-Lega, A. F.
2007-01-01
We study the relation between Chern numbers and Quantum Phase Transitions (QPT) in the XY spin-chain model. By coupling the spin chain to a single spin, it is possible to study topological invariants associated to the coupling Hamiltonian. These invariants contain global information, in addition to the usual one (obtained by integrating the Berry connection around a closed loop). We compute these invariants (Chern numbers) and discuss their relation to QPT. In particular we show that Chern nu...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kublitz, Anja
2013-01-01
Based on fieldwork among Palestinians in Denmark the article investigates the Palestinian temporality of Nakba that is equivalent to a time of security in the sense that it is concerned with existential threats and emergency action. The Arabic term Nakba literally means catastrophe and is in...... Palestinian national discourse used to designate the Arab-Israeli war of 1948, when more than half of the Palestinian population were expelled from their homeland – a reverse national myth about how Palestine failed to come into being. Yet, according to Palestinians in Denmark, the Nakba cannot be relegated...
Phase transitions and dark matter problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The possible relationships between phase transitions in the early universe and dark matter problems are discussed. It is shown that there are at least 3 distinct cosmological dark matter problems 1) halos; 2) galaxy formation and clustering; and 3) Ω = 1, each emphasizing different attributes for the dark matter. At least some of the dark matter must by baryonic but if problems 2 and 3 are real they seem to also require non-baryonic material. However, if seeds are generated at the quark-hadron-chiral symmetry transition then alternatives to the standard scenarios may occur. At present no simple simultaneous solution (neither ''hot'', ''warm'', nor ''cold'') exists for all 3 problems, but non-standard solutions with strings, decaying particles or light not tracing to mass may work. An alternative interpretation of the relationship of the cluster-cluster and galaxy-galaxy correlation functions using renormalized scaling is mentioned. In this interpretation galaxies are more strongly correlated and the cluster-cluster function is not expected to go negative until > or approx. 200 Mpc. Possible phase transition origins for the cluster-cluster renormalized scale are presented as ways to obtain a dimension 1.2 fractal. (orig.)
Zhou, Minchuan; Zhou, Zifan; Shahriar, Selim M.
2016-03-01
When considering the effect of quantum noise (QN) in a phase-insensitive linear amplifier or attenuator, it is customary to use the single-channel Caves model (SC-CM). Although this model is valid in simple situations, such as the presence of a beam splitter, it is not necessarily valid when a system with many degrees of freedom is involved. In order to address this issue, we consider in this paper various atomic transitions corresponding to amplification or attenuation using the master-equation- (ME-) based approach to model the QN and to compare the results with the SC-CM. For a four-level system that consists of a transition producing a broad gain peak and a transition producing an absorption dip, which results in perfect transparency at the center, we observe a catastrophic breakdown of the SC-CM. We also show that for a general two-level atomic system, the SC-CM does not apply, except in the limiting case when only either amplification or attenuation exists. A special case where the two models predict the same result is a Λ-type three-level electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) system in which the QN at zero detuning vanishes while the system is in the dark state. We also study an optically pumped five-level gain EIT system which has a perfect transparency dip superimposed on a gain profile and yields the negative dispersion suitable for use in enhancing the sensitivity-bandwidth product of an interferometric gravitational wave detector. In this case, we find that, for some set of parameters, the QN is vanishingly small at the center of the dip, and the SC-CM agrees closely with the ME model. However, we also find that for some other set of parameters, the SC-SM model disagrees strongly with the ME model. All these cases illustrate a wide range of variations in the degree of disagreement between the predictions of the SC-CM and the ME approaches.
Transitional Bubble in Periodic Flow Phase Shift
Talan, M.; Hourmouziadis, Jean
2004-01-01
One particular characteristic observed in unsteady shear layers is the phase shift relative to the main flow. In attached boundary layers this will have an effect both on the instantaneous skin friction and heat transfer. In separation bubbles the contribution to the drag is dominated by the pressure distribution. However, the most significant effect appears to be the phase shift on the transition process. Unsteady transition behaviour may determine the bursting of the bubble resulting in an un-recoverable full separation. An early analysis of the phase shift was performed by Stokes for the incompressible boundary layer of an oscillating wall and an oscillating main flow. An amplitude overshoot within the shear layer as well as a phase shift were observed that can be attributed to the relatively slow diffusion of viscous stresses compared to the fast change of pressure. Experiments in a low speed facility with the boundary layer of a flat plate were evaluated in respect to phase shift. A pressure distribution similar to that on the suction surface of a turbomachinery aerofoil was superimposed generating a typical transitional separation bubble. A periodically unsteady main flow in the suction type wind tunnel was introduced via a rotating flap downstream of the test section. The experiments covered a range of the three similarity parameters of momentum-loss-thickness Reynolds-number of 92 to 226 and Strouhal-number (reduced frequency) of 0.0001 to 0.0004 at the separation point, and an amplitude range up to 19 %. The free stream turbulence level was less than 1% .Upstream of the separation point the phase shift in the laminar boundary layer does not appear to be affected significantly bay either of the three parameters. The trend perpendicular to the wall is similar to the Stokes analysis. The problem scales well with the wave velocity introduced by Stokes, however, the lag of the main flow near the wall is less than indicated analytically. The separation point
High pressure phase transitions in Europous oxide
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The pressure-volume relationship for EuO was investigated to 630 kilobars at room temperature with a diamond-anvil, high-pressure cell. Volumes were determined by x-ray diffraction; pressures were determined by the ruby R1 fluorescence method. The preferred interpretation involves normal compression behavior for EuO, initially in the B1 (NaCl-type) structure, to about 280 kilobars. Between approx. =280 and approx. =350 kilobars a region of anomalous compressibility in which the volume drops continuously by approximately 2% is observed. A second-order electronic transition is proposed with the 6s band overlapping with the 4f levels, thereby reducing the volume of EuO without changing the structure. This is not a semiconductor-to-metal transition. In reflected light, this transition is correlated with a subtle and continuous change in color from brown-black to a light brown. The collapsed B1 phase (postelectronic transition) is stable between approx. =350 and approx. =400 kilobars. At about 400 kilobars the collapsed B1 structure transforms to the B2 (CsCl-type) structure, with a zero pressure-volume change of approximately 12 +/- 1.5%
Phase transitions in least-effort communications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We critically examine a model that attempts to explain the emergence of power laws (e.g., Zipf's law) in human language. The model is based on the principle of least effort in communications—specifically, the overall effort is balanced between the speaker effort and listener effort, with some trade-off. It has been shown that an information-theoretic interpretation of this principle is sufficiently rich to explain the emergence of Zipf's law in the vicinity of the transition between referentially useless systems (one signal for all referable objects) and indexical reference systems (one signal per object). The phase transition is defined in the space of communication accuracy (information content) expressed in terms of the trade-off parameter. Our study explicitly solves the continuous optimization problem, subsuming a recent, more specific result obtained within a discrete space. The obtained results contrast Zipf's law found by heuristic search (that attained only local minima) in the vicinity of the transition between referentially useless systems and indexical reference systems, with an inverse-factorial (sub-logarithmic) law found at the transition that corresponds to global minima. The inverse-factorial law is observed to be the most representative frequency distribution among optimal solutions
Imprints of cosmic phase transition in inflationary gravitational waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We discuss the effects of cosmic phase transition on the spectrum of primordial gravitational waves generated during inflation. The energy density of the scalar condensation responsible for the phase transition may become sizable at the epoch of phase transition, which significantly affects the evolution of the universe. As a result, the amplitudes of the gravitational waves at high frequency modes are suppressed. Thus the gravitational wave spectrum can be a probe of phase transition in the early universe.
Supersymmetry breaking as a quantum phase transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We explore supersymmetry breaking in the light of a rich fixed-point structure of two-dimensional supersymmetric Wess-Zumino models with one supercharge using the functional renormalization group. We relate the dynamical breaking of supersymmetry to a renormalization group relevant control parameter of the superpotential which is a common relevant direction of all fixed points of the system. Supersymmetry breaking can thus be understood as a quantum phase transition analogous to similar transitions in correlated fermion systems. Supersymmetry gives rise to a new superscaling relation between the critical exponent associated with the control parameter and the anomalous dimension of the field - a scaling relation which is not known in standard spin systems.
Supersymmetry breaking as a quantum phase transition
Gies, Holger; Wipf, Andreas
2009-01-01
We explore supersymmetry breaking in the light of a rich fixed-point structure of two-dimensional supersymmetric Wess-Zumino models with one supercharge using the functional renormalization group (RG). We relate the dynamical breaking of supersymmetry to an RG relevant control parameter of the superpotential which is a common relevant direction of all fixed points of the system. Supersymmetry breaking can thus be understood as a quantum phase transition analogously to similar transitions in correlated fermion systems. Supersymmetry gives rise to a new superscaling relation between the critical exponent associated with the control parameter and the anomalous dimension of the field -- a scaling relation which is not known in standard spin systems.
Locating phase transitions in computationally hard problems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
B Ashok; T K Patra
2010-09-01
We discuss how phase-transitions may be detected in computationally hard problems in the context of anytime algorithms. Treating the computational time, value and utility functions involved in the search results in analogy with quantities in statistical physics, we indicate how the onset of a computationally hard regime can be detected and the transit to higher quality solutions be quantified by an appropriate response function. The existence of a dynamical critical exponent is shown, enabling one to predict the onset of critical slowing down, rather than finding it after the event, in the specific case of a travelling salesman problem (TSP). This can be used as a means of improving efficiency and speed in searches, and avoiding needless computations.
Phase transitions in paradigm shift models.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Huiseung Chae
Full Text Available Two general models for paradigm shifts, deterministic propagation model (DM and stochastic propagation model (SM, are proposed to describe paradigm shifts and the adoption of new technological levels. By defining the order parameter m based on the diversity of ideas, Δ, it is studied when and how the phase transition or the disappearance of a dominant paradigm occurs as a cost C in DM or an innovation probability α in SM increases. In addition, we also investigate how the propagation processes affect the transition nature. From analytical calculations and numerical simulations m is shown to satisfy the scaling relation m=1-f(C/N for DM with the number of agents N. In contrast, m in SM scales as m=1-f(α(aN.
Quantum Phase Transitions in Matrix Product States
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a new general and much simpler scheme to construct various quantum phase transitions (QPTs) in spin chain systems with matrix product ground states. By use of the scheme we take into account one kind of matrix product state (MPS) QPT and provide a concrete model. We also study the properties of the concrete example and show that a kind of QPT appears, accompanied by the appearance of the discontinuity of the parity absent block physical observable, diverging correlation length only for the parity absent block operator, and other properties which are that the fixed point of the transition point is an isolated intermediate-coupling fixed point of renormalization flow and the entanglement entropy of a half-infinite chain is discontinuous
Quantum phase transitions in matrix product states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a new general and much simpler scheme to construct various quantum phase transitions (QPTs) in spin chain systems with matrix product ground states. By use of the scheme we take into account one kind of matrix product state (MPS) QPT and provide a concrete model. We also study the properties of the concrete example and show that a kind of QPT appears, accompanied by the appearance of the discontinuity of the parity absent block physical observable, diverging correlation length only for the parity absent block operator, and other properties which are that the fixed point of the transition point is an isolated intermediate-coupling fixed point of renormalization flow and the entanglement entropy of a half-infinite chain is discontinuous. (authors)
Collective flow and QCD phase transition
Sorge, H
1999-01-01
In the first part I discuss the sensitivity of collective matter expansion in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions to the transition between quark and hadronic matter (physics of the softest point of the Equation of State). A kink in the centrality dependence of elliptic flow has been suggested as a signature for the phase transition in hot QCD matter. Indeed, preliminary data of NA49 presented at this conference show first indications for the predicted kink. In the second part I have a look at the present theories of heavy-ion reactions. These remarks may also be seen as a critical comment to B. Mueller's summary talk (nucl-th/9906029) presented at this conference.
Kuramoto-type phase transition with metronomes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Metronomes placed on the perimeter of a disc-shaped platform, which can freely rotate in a horizontal plane, are used for a simple classroom illustration of the Kuramoto-type phase transition. The rotating platform induces a global coupling between the metronomes, and the strength of this coupling can be varied by tilting the metronomes’ swinging plane relative to the radial direction on the disc. As a function of the tilting angle, a transition from spontaneously synchronized to unsynchronized states is observable. By varying the number of metronomes on the disc, finite-size effects are also exemplified. A realistic theoretical model is introduced and used to reproduce the observed results. Computer simulations of this model allow a detailed investigation of the emerging collective behaviour in this system. (paper)
Diffraction studies of ordered phases and phase transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Two investigations are reported here. First, monolayers of CF4 physisorbed on the (001) face of graphite have been studied by means of X-ray diffraction experiments carried out at the electron storage ring DORIS in Hamburg. The exfoliated graphite substrate UCAR-ZYX was used in order to obtain a large area for adsorption and hence a large sample. Four two-dimensional solid phases of the CF4 films were seen, including a structure which is 2x2 commensurate relative to the substrate. On compression (by variation of coverage or temperature), this phase transforms to a uniaxially compressed structure ('stripe' phase). Further, at higher coverages a hexagonal structure was seen, incommensurate relative to the substrate, and at low temperatures and coverages, a complicated structure emerged, giving three close diffraction peaks in the powder pattern. Data are presented characterizing the meltings and commensurate to incommensurate transitions. Complementary to the synchrotron X-ray data, a presentation of the theory of synchrotron radiation is given. The second investigation was of the ferromagnetic phase transitions in the randomly diluted, dipolar coupled uniaxial ferromagnets LiTbsub(.3)Ysub(.7)F4 and LiHosub(.3)Ysub(.7)F4 by neutron diffraction at the RIS0 DR 3 reactor. (orig.)
Dynamical phase transitions in quantum mechanics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rotter Ingrid
2012-02-01
Full Text Available The nucleus is described as an open many-body quantum system with a non-Hermitian Hamilton operator the eigenvalues of which are complex, in general. The eigenvalues may cross in the complex plane (exceptional points, the phases of the eigenfunctions are not rigid in approaching the crossing points and the widths bifurcate. By varying only one parameter, the eigenvalue trajectories usually avoid crossing and width bifurcation occurs at the critical value of avoided crossing. An analog spectroscopic redistribution takes place for discrete states below the particle decay threshold. By this means, a dynamical phase transition occurs in the many-level system starting at a critical value of the level density. Hence the properties of the low-lying nuclear states (described well by the shell model and those of highly excited nuclear states (described by random ensembles differ fundamentally from one another. The statement of Niels Bohr on the collective features of compound nucleus states at high level density is therefore not in contradiction to the shell-model description of nuclear (and atomic states at low level density. Dynamical phase transitions are observed experimentally in different quantum mechanical systems by varying one or two parameters.
Phases and phase transitions in the algebraic microscopic shell model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Georgieva A. I.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We explore the dynamical symmetries of the shell model number conserving algebra, which define three types of pairing and quadrupole phases, with the aim to obtain the prevailing phase or phase transition for the real nuclear systems in a single shell. This is achieved by establishing a correspondence between each of the pairing bases with the Elliott’s SU(3 basis that describes collective rotation of nuclear systems. This allows for a complete classification of the basis states of different number of particles in all the limiting cases. The probability distribution of the SU(3 basis states within theirs corresponding pairing states is also obtained. The relative strengths of dynamically symmetric quadrupole-quadrupole interaction in respect to the isoscalar, isovector and total pairing interactions define a control parameter, which estimates the importance of each term of the Hamiltonian in the correct reproduction of the experimental data for the considered nuclei.
Is ''metamictization'' of zircon a phase transition?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Metamictization is the transition from the crystalline to an aperiodic or amorphous state due to alpha-decay event damage from constituent radionuclides (238U, 235U, and 232Th) and their daughters. However, this transformation in minerals is part of a larger class of radiation-induced transformations to the amorphous state that has received considerable recent attention as a result of ion- and electron-beam experiments on metals, intermetallics, simple oxides, and complex ceramics and minerals. Diffuse X-ray scattering from single crystals of metamict zircon reveals residual crystallinity even at high fluences (up to 7.2 x 1018 α-decay events/g). The experimental evidence does not suggest that radiation-induced amorphization is a phase transition. The observations are in good agreement with a nonconvergent, heterogeneous model of amorphization in which damage production is a random process of cascade formation and overlap at increasing fluence. Instead of an amorphization transition, the existence of a percolation transition is postulated. At the level of radiation damage near the percolation point, the heterogeneous strain broadening of X-ray diffraction profiles is reduced whereas the particle-size broadening increases. Simultaneously, the macroscopic swelling of the zircon becomes larger than the maximum expansion of the unit-cell parameters. A suitable empirical parameter that characterizes this transition is the flux, Ds, at which the macroscopic expansion is identical to the maximum expansion of the crystallographic unit cell. In zircon, Ds = 3.5·1018 α-decay events/g
Lagrangian phase transitions in nonequilibrium thermodynamic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In previous papers we have introduced a natural nonequilibrium free energy by considering the functional describing the large fluctuations of stationary nonequilibrium states. While in equilibrium this functional is always convex, in nonequilibrium this is not necessarily the case. We show that in nonequilibrium a new type of singularity can appear that is interpreted as a phase transition. In particular, this phenomenon occurs for the one-dimensional boundary driven weakly asymmetric exclusion process when the drift due to the external field is opposite to that due to the external reservoirs and is strong enough. (letter)
Berry phase transition in twisted bilayer graphene
Rode, Johannes C.; Smirnov, Dmitri; Schmidt, Hennrik; Haug, Rolf J.
2016-09-01
The electronic dispersion of a graphene bilayer is highly dependent on rotational mismatch between layers and can be further manipulated by electrical gating. This allows for an unprecedented control over electronic properties and opens up the possibility of flexible band structure engineering. Here we present novel magnetotransport data in a twisted bilayer, crossing the energetic border between decoupled monolayers and coupled bilayer. In addition a transition in Berry phase between π and 2π is observed at intermediate magnetic fields. Analysis of Fermi velocities and gate induced charge carrier densities suggests an important role of strong layer asymmetry for the observed phenomena.
A Note on Holography and Phase Transitions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marc Bellon
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Focusing on the connection between the Landau theory of second-order phase transitions and the holographic approach to critical phenomena, we study diverse field theories in an anti de Sitter black hole background. Through simple analytical approximations, solutions to the equations of motion can be obtained in closed form which give rather good approximations of the results obtained using more involved numerical methods. The agreement we find stems from rather elementary considerations on perturbation of Schrödinger equations.
Deconfining phase transition in lattice QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present the first results obtained from the sixteen-processor version of the parallel supercomputer being built at Columbia. The color-deconfining phase transition has been studied fo pure SU(3) gauge theory on lattices with a spatial volume of 163 sites and temporal sizes of 10, 12, and 14 sites. The values found for the critical coupling are 6.07, 6.26, and 6.36, respectively. These results are in agreement with the perturbative predictions of the renormalization group, suggesting that lattice QCD calculations with the parameter β at least as large as 6.07 may approximate the continuum limit
A model with simultaneous first and second order phase transitions
Messager, Alain; Nachtergaele, Bruno
2005-01-01
We introduce a two dimensional nonlinear XY model with a second order phase transition driven by spin waves, together with a first order phase transition in the bond variables between two bond ordered phases, one with local ferromagnetic order and another with local antiferromagnetic order. We also prove that at the transition temperature the bond-ordered phases coexist with a disordered phase as predicted by Domany, Schick and Swendsen. This last result generalizes the result of Shlosman and...
Phase transitions and structures of methylammonium compounds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The structures of CD3ND3Cl, CD3ND3I, CD3ND3BF4, (CD3ND3)2SnCl6, and CD3ND3SnBr3 crystals were studied with time-of-flight type high-resolution powder diffractometers using spallation pulsed neutron sources. The orientations of the CD3ND3 cations, including the positions of the D atoms, were determined at all the room temperature phases and at the low temperature phases of CD3ND3I and (CD3ND3)2SnCl6. The heat capacity experiments were also performed for both protonated and deuterated analogs of these compounds. From both structural and thermodynamic points of view, it was found that the transitions are mainly associated with the order-disorder change of the orientations of the CD3ND3 cations. (author)
Topological phase transitions in superradiance lattices
Wang, Da-Wei; Yuan, Luqi; Liu, Ren-Bao; Zhu, Shi-Yao
2015-01-01
The discovery of the quantum Hall effect (QHE) reveals a new class of matter phases, topological insulators (TI's), which have been extensively studied in solid-state materials and recently in photonic structures, time-periodic systems and optical lattices of cold atoms. All these topological systems are lattices in real space. Our recent study shows that Scully's timed Dicke states (TDS) can form a superradiance lattice (SL) in momentum space. Here we report the discovery of topological phase transitions in a two-dimensional SL in electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). By periodically modulating the three EIT coupling fields, we can create a Haldane model with in-situ tunable topological properties. The Chern numbers of the energy bands and hence the topological properties of the SL manifest themselves in the contrast between diffraction signals emitted by superradiant TDS. The topological superradiance lattices (TSL) provide a controllable platform for simulating exotic phenomena in condensed matte...
Phase transitions in fluids and biological systems
Sipos, Maksim
metric to 16S rRNA metagenomic studies of 6 vertebrate gastrointestinal microbiomes and find that they assembled through a highly non-neutral process. I then consider a phase transition that may occur in nutrient-poor environments such as ocean surface waters. In these systems, I find that the experimentally observed genome streamlining, specialization and opportunism may well be generic statistical phenomena.
Electronic phase transitions in ultrathin magnetite films
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Magnetite (Fe3O4) shows singular electronic and magnetic properties, resulting from complex electron–electron and electron–phonon interactions that involve the interplay of charge, orbital and spin degrees of freedom. The Verwey transition is a manifestation of these interactions, with a puzzling connection between the low temperature charge ordered state and the dynamic charge fluctuations still present above the transition temperature. Here we explore how these rich physical phenomena are affected by thin film geometries, particularly focusing on the ultimate size limit defined by thicknesses below the minimum bulk unit cell. On one hand, we address the influence of extended defects, such as surfaces or antiphase domains, on the novel features exhibited by thin films. On the other, we try to isolate the effect of the reduced thickness on the electronic and magnetic properties. We will show that a distinct phase diagram and novel charge distributions emerge under reduced dimensions, while holding the local high magnetic moments. Altogether, thin film geometries offer unique possibilities to understand the complex interplay of short- and long-range orders in the Verwey transition. Furthermore, they arise as interesting candidates for the exploitation of the rich physics of magnetite in devices that demand nanoscale geometries, additionally offering novel functionalities based on their distinct properties with respect to the bulk form. (topical review)
Does sex induce a phase transition?
de Oliveira, P. M. C.; Moss de Oliveira, S.; Stauffer, D.; Cebrat, S.; Pękalski, A.
2008-05-01
We discovered a dynamic phase transition induced by sexual reproduction. The dynamics is a pure Darwinian rule applied to diploid bit-strings with both fundamental ingredients to drive Darwin's evolution: (1) random mutations and crossings which act in the sense of increasing the entropy (or diversity); and (2) selection which acts in the opposite sense by limiting the entropy explosion. Selection wins this competition if mutations performed at birth are few enough, and thus the wild genotype dominates the steady-state population. By slowly increasing the average number m of mutations, however, the population suddenly undergoes a mutational degradation precisely at a transition point mc. Above this point, the “bad” alleles (represented by 1-bits) spread over the genetic pool of the population, overcoming the selection pressure. Individuals become selectively alike, and evolution stops. Only below this point, m chromosome” lengths L, through lengthy computer simulations. One important and surprising observation is the L-independence of the transition curves, for large L. They are also independent on the population size. Another is that mc is near unity, i.e. life cannot be stable with much more than one mutation per diploid genome, independent of the chromosome length, in agreement with reality. One possible consequence is that an eventual evolutionary jump towards larger L enabling the storage of more genetic information would demand an improved DNA copying machinery in order to keep the same total number of mutations per offspring.
Nuclear binding near a quantum phase transition
Elhatisari, Serdar; Rokash, Alexander; Alarcón, Jose Manuel; Du, Dechuan; Klein, Nico; Lu, Bing-nan; Meißner, Ulf-G; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann; Lähde, Timo A; Lee, Dean; Rupak, Gautam
2016-01-01
How do protons and neutrons bind to form nuclei? This is the central question of ab initio nuclear structure theory. While the answer may seem as simple as the fact that nuclear forces are attractive, the full story is more complex and interesting. In this work we present numerical evidence from ab initio lattice simulations showing that nature is near a quantum phase transition, a zero-temperature transition driven by quantum fluctuations. Using lattice effective field theory, we perform Monte Carlo simulations for systems with up to twenty nucleons. For even and equal numbers of protons and neutrons, we discover a first-order transition at zero temperature from a Bose-condensed gas of alpha particles (4He nuclei) to a nuclear liquid. Whether one has an alpha-particle gas or nuclear liquid is determined by the strength of the alpha-alpha interactions, and we show that the alpha-alpha interactions depend on the strength and locality of the nucleon-nucleon interactions. The existence of the nearby first-order ...
Gravitational waves from the electroweak phase transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the generation of gravitational waves in the electroweak phase transition. We consider a few extensions of the Standard Model, namely, the addition of scalar singlets, the minimal supersymmetric extension, and the addition of TeV fermions. For each model we consider the complete dynamics of the phase transition. In particular, we estimate the friction force acting on bubble walls, and we take into account the fact that they can propagate either as detonations or as deflagrations preceded by shock fronts, or they can run away. We compute the peak frequency and peak intensity of the gravitational radiation generated by bubble collisions and turbulence. We discuss the detectability by proposed spaceborne detectors. For the models we considered, runaway walls require significant fine tuning of the parameters, and the gravitational wave signal from bubble collisions is generally much weaker than that from turbulence. Although the predicted signal is in most cases rather low for the sensitivity of LISA, models with strongly coupled extra scalars reach this sensitivity for frequencies f ∼ 10−4 Hz, and give intensities as high as h2ΩGW ∼ 10−8
Aspects of the cosmological electroweak phase transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the decay of the metastable symmetric phase in the standard model at finite temperature. For the SU(2)-Higgs model the two wave function correction terms Zφ(φ2,T) and Zχ(φ2,T) of Higgs and Goldstone boson fields are calculated to one-loop order. We find that the derivative expansion of the effective action is reliable for Higgs masses smaller than the W-boson mass. We propose a new procedure to evaluate the decay rate by first integrating out the vector field and the components of the scalar fields with non-zero Matsubara frequencies. The static part of the scalar field is treated in the saddle point approximation. As a by-product we obtain a formula for the decay rate of a homogeneous unstable state. The course of the cosmological electroweak phase transition is evaluated numerically for different Higgs boson masses and non-vanishing magnetic mass of the gauge boson. For Higgs masses above ∼ 60 GeV the latent heat can reheat the system to the critical temperature, which qualitatively changes the nature of the transition. (orig.)
Search for phase transitions changing molecular chirality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Since Pasteur discovered in 1848 that biological molecules possess a rotatory power, the origin of the chiral purity in living organisms has been a constant preoccupation in biology, but the problem is not solved yet. In particular, the appeal to weak interactions, a fundamental physical process which is known to violate parity, has not permitted so far to establish any firm relation between parity nonconservation and the complete dissymmetry between mirror image biological molecules. The main difficulty resides in the weakness of the physical forces, and can be overcome only when some amplification process can be proved to be at work. Recently such a mechanism was proposed, which does not seem to ask for any ad hoc new concept: due to the attractive character of the parity violating force in electro-weak interactions, a phase transition leading eventually to enantiometric purity is predicted. Phase transitions at low temperature have already been detected in biological materials, but no signature concerning the parity aspect was obtained. We undertook this year in Lyon a series of experiments to measure the rotatory power of solutions containing organic dissymmetric molecules, in order to observe if it varies with temperature. Our first measures involved cystine, which possesses a high rotatory power. No variation of this quantity was observed down to .6K. Lower temperatures will be attained in a next step. (author). 4 refs
Phase transitions in high excited nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This work is a study of the mechanism of thermal multifragmentation, which takes place in collisions of light relativistic projectiles with heavy targets. This is a new multibody decay process of very hot nuclei (target spectator) with emission of a number of intermediate mass fragments (IMF, 2 4He and 12C with Au. The main results are the following: - The mean IMF multiplicity () saturates at 2.2 ± 0.2.This fact cannot be rendered by the traditional approach with the intranuclear cascade (INC) followed by Statistical Multifragmentation Models (SMM). Considering the expansion phase between two parts of the calculations, the excitation energies and the residual masses are empirically modified to obtain agreement with the measured IMF- multiplicities. The mean excitation energy is found to be around 500 MeV for the beam energies above 5 GeV. This modified model is denoted as INC + α + SMM where α indicates the preequilibrium processes. - The expansion is driven by the thermal pressure. It is larger for 4He and 12C induced collisions because of higher initial temperature. The kinetic energy spectra of IMF become harder and the expansion flow is visible. The total flow energy of the system is estimated to be around 115 MeV both for the He and the carbon beams. - The analysis of the data reveals very interesting information on the fragment space distribution inside the break-up volume. Heavier IMF are formed predominately in the interior of the fragmenting nucleus possibly due to a density gradient. This conclusion is in contrast to the predictions of the Statistical Multifragmentation Model (SMM). - This study of the multifragmentation using a range of projectiles demonstrates a transition from pure '' thermal decay '' (for p + Au collisions) to disintegration '' completed by '' the onset of a collective flow for the heavier projectiles. Nevertheless, in case of reaction caused by fast protons the decay mechanism should be considered as a thermal multifragmentation
Phase transitions in high density matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
When matter is compressed unlimitedly, different phase states such as superfluid, solid and so on appear phase after phase. We can bring forth the essential feature of the colorful phenomena observed in the high-density matter systems (neutron stars and nuclei e.g.) by studying those transition phenomena theoretically. Some recent topics are presented here to transmit the thrilling sense of the theoretical study activities. How to find equation of sate of asymmetric nuclear matter from radioisotope beam experiments? Do rod-like or plate-like nuclei (pasta nuclei) appear in neutron stars? How will it be if superfluid (color superconductor) exists in neutron stars? Those questions are picked up in the text starting with what the high-density matter is. Then the ambiguous property and attractiveness of the many-body problem are described. Finally it is mentioned that the high-density matter provides, in addition to the many-body problem itself, difficult issues of the finite size effect and nonequilibrium problems when the practical system is considered. (S. Funahashi)
QCD PHASE TRANSITIONS-VOLUME 15.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
SCHAFER,T.
1998-11-04
The title of the workshop, ''The QCD Phase Transitions'', in fact happened to be too narrow for its real contents. It would be more accurate to say that it was devoted to different phases of QCD and QCD-related gauge theories, with strong emphasis on discussion of the underlying non-perturbative mechanisms which manifest themselves as all those phases. Before we go to specifics, let us emphasize one important aspect of the present status of non-perturbative Quantum Field Theory in general. It remains true that its studies do not get attention proportional to the intellectual challenge they deserve, and that the theorists working on it remain very fragmented. The efforts to create Theory of Everything including Quantum Gravity have attracted the lion share of attention and young talent. Nevertheless, in the last few years there was also a tremendous progress and even some shift of attention toward emphasis on the unity of non-perturbative phenomena. For example, we have seen some. efforts to connect the lessons from recent progress in Supersymmetric theories with that in QCD, as derived from phenomenology and lattice. Another example is Maldacena conjecture and related development, which connect three things together, string theory, super-gravity and the (N=4) supersymmetric gauge theory. Although the progress mentioned is remarkable by itself, if we would listen to each other more we may have chance to strengthen the field and reach better understanding of the spectacular non-perturbative physics.
Asher, D. J.; Clube, S. V. M.; Napier, W. M.; Steel, D. I.
We review the theoretical and observational evidence that, on timescales relevant to mankind, the prime collision hazard is posed by temporally correlated impacts (coherent catastrophism, Δt ˜ 10 2-10 4 yr) rather than random ones (stochastic catastrophism, Δt ˜ 10 5-10 8 yr). The mechanism whereby coherent incursions into and through the terrestrial atmosphere occur is described as being the result of giant cometary bodies arriving in orbits with perihelia in the inner solar system. Hierarchical fragmentation of such large (100 km-plus) bodies — due to thermal stresses near perihelion, collisions in the asteroid belt, or passages through the Jovian Roche radius — results in numerous ˜kilometre-sized objects being left in short-period orbits, and appearing in telescopic searches as Apollo-type asteroids. Many more smaller objects, in the 10-100 metre size range and only recently observed, by the Spacewatch team, are expected to be in replenished clusters in particular orbits as a result of continuing disintegrations of large, differentiated, cometary objects. Gravitational perturbations by Jupiter bring these clusters around to have a node at 1 AU in a cyclic fashion, leading to impacts at certain times of year every few years during active periods lasting a few centuries, such periods being separated by intervals of a few millennia. Furthermore, fragmentations within the hierarchy result in significant bombardment commensurabilities ( Δt ˜ 10-10 2 yr) during active periods occurring at random intervals ( Δt ˜ 10 2-10 3 yr). It appears that the Earth has been subject to such impacts since the break-up of such a comet ˜2×10 4 years ago; currently we are not passing through a high-risk epoch, although some phenomena originating in the products of this break-up have been observed in the 20th century. This most recent hierarchical disintegration, associated with four well-known meteor showers and termed the Taurid Complex, is now recognized as resulting
Catastrophe and beauty: Ways of Dying, Zakes Mda’s novel of the transition
J van Wyk
1997-01-01
This article explores Zakes Mda's novel, Ways of Dying (1995), as an example of transitional literature. Ways of Dying (1995) deals with the period between 1990, when negotiations for change in South Africa started, and 1994, when South Africa became a democratic country. The text portrays many recognisable aspects of life in this transitional period, but the focus is mainly on the multiple occurrences of violent death in a society where the State has lost control and legitimacy. The main cha...
Scaling theory of topological phase transitions
Chen, Wei
2016-02-01
Topologically ordered systems are characterized by topological invariants that are often calculated from the momentum space integration of a certain function that represents the curvature of the many-body state. The curvature function may be Berry curvature, Berry connection, or other quantities depending on the system. Akin to stretching a messy string to reveal the number of knots it contains, a scaling procedure is proposed for the curvature function in inversion symmetric systems, from which the topological phase transition can be identified from the flow of the driving energy parameters that control the topology (hopping, chemical potential, etc) under scaling. At an infinitesimal operation, one obtains the renormalization group (RG) equations for the driving energy parameters. A length scale defined from the curvature function near the gap-closing momentum is suggested to characterize the scale invariance at critical points and fixed points, and displays a universal critical behavior in a variety of systems examined.
MAGNETIC FIELDS FROM QCD PHASE TRANSITIONS
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Tevzadze, Alexander G. [Faculty of Exact and Natural Sciences, Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, 1 Chavchavadze Avenue, Tbilisi 0128 (Georgia); Kisslinger, Leonard; Kahniashvili, Tina [McWilliams Center for Cosmology and Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Brandenburg, Axel, E-mail: aleko@tevza.org [Nordita, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University, Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden)
2012-11-01
We study the evolution of QCD phase transition-generated magnetic fields (MFs) in freely decaying MHD turbulence of the expanding universe. We consider an MF generation model that starts from basic non-perturbative QCD theory and predicts stochastic MFs with an amplitude of the order of 0.02 {mu}G and small magnetic helicity. We employ direct numerical simulations to model the MHD turbulence decay and identify two different regimes: a 'weakly helical' turbulence regime, when magnetic helicity increases during decay, and 'fully helical' turbulence, when maximal magnetic helicity is reached and an inverse cascade develops. The results of our analysis show that in the most optimistic scenario the magnetic correlation length in the comoving frame can reach 10 kpc with the amplitude of the effective MF being 0.007 nG. We demonstrate that the considered model of magnetogenesis can provide the seed MF for galaxies and clusters.
Information Dynamics at a Phase Transition
Sowinski, Damian
2016-01-01
We propose a new way of investigating phase transitions in the context of information theory. We use an information-entropic measure of spatial complexity known as configurational entropy (CE) to quantify both the storage and exchange of information in a lattice simulation of a Ginzburg-Landau model with a scalar order parameter coupled to a heat bath. The CE is built from the Fourier spectrum of fluctuations around the mean-field and reaches a minimum at criticality. In particular, we investigate the behavior of CE near and at criticality, exploring the relation between information and the emergence of ordered domains. We show that as the temperature is increased from below, the CE displays three essential scaling regimes at different spatial scales: scale free, turbulent, and critical. Together, they offer an information-entropic characterization of critical behavior where the storage and processing of information is maximized at criticality.
Subset sum phase transitions and data compression
Merhav, Neri
2011-01-01
We propose a rigorous analysis approach for the subset sum problem in the context of lossless data compression, where the phase transition of the subset sum problem is directly related to the passage between ambiguous and non-ambiguous decompression, for a compression scheme that is based on specifying the sequence composition. The proposed analysis lends itself to straightforward extensions in several directions of interest, including non-binary alphabets, incorporation of side information at the decoder (Slepian-Wolf coding), and coding schemes based on multiple subset sums. It is also demonstrated that the proposed technique can be used to analyze the critical behavior in a more involved situation where the sequence composition is not specified by the encoder.
Scaling theory of topological phase transitions.
Chen, Wei
2016-02-10
Topologically ordered systems are characterized by topological invariants that are often calculated from the momentum space integration of a certain function that represents the curvature of the many-body state. The curvature function may be Berry curvature, Berry connection, or other quantities depending on the system. Akin to stretching a messy string to reveal the number of knots it contains, a scaling procedure is proposed for the curvature function in inversion symmetric systems, from which the topological phase transition can be identified from the flow of the driving energy parameters that control the topology (hopping, chemical potential, etc) under scaling. At an infinitesimal operation, one obtains the renormalization group (RG) equations for the driving energy parameters. A length scale defined from the curvature function near the gap-closing momentum is suggested to characterize the scale invariance at critical points and fixed points, and displays a universal critical behavior in a variety of systems examined. PMID:26790004
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Przemysław Czapliński
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The principal notion of the article–a “backward catastrophe”– stands for a catastrophe which occurs unseen until it becomes recognized and which broadens its destructive activity until it has been recognized. This concept in the article has been referred to the Shoah. The main thesis is that the recognition of the actual influence of the Holocaust began in Polish culture in the mid-1980s (largely it started with the film by Claude Lanzmann Shoah and the essay by Jan Błoński Biedni Polacy patrzą na getto [“The Poor Poles Look at the Ghetto”], that is when the question: “What happened to the Jews”, assumes the form: “Did the things that happened to the Jews, also happened to the Poles?”. Cognitive and ethical reorientation leads to the revealing of the hidden consequences of the Holocaust reaching as far as the present day and undermining the foundations of collective identity. In order to understand this situation (and adopt potentially preventive actions Polish society should be recognized as a postcatastrophic one.
Lipman, Peter W.
1988-01-01
Since primitive times, catastrophes due to volcanic activity have been vivid in the mind of man, who knew that his activities in many parts of the world were threatened by lava flows, mudflows, and ash falls. Within the present century, increasingly complex interactions between volcanism and the environment, on scales not previously experienced historically, have been detected or suspected from geologic observations. These include enormous hot pyroclastic flows associated with collapse at source calderas and fed by eruption columns that reached the stratosphere, relations between huge flood basalt eruptions at hotspots and the rifting of continents, devastating laterally-directed volcanic blasts and pyroclastic surges, great volcanic-generated tsunamis, climate modification from volcanic release of ash and sulfur aerosols into the upper atmosphere, modification of ocean circulation by volcanic constructs and attendent climatic implications, global pulsations in intensity of volcanic activity, and perhaps triggering of some intense terrestrial volcanism by planetary impacts. Complex feedback between volcanic activity and additional seemingly unrelated terrestrial processes likely remains unrecognized. Only recently has it become possible to begin to evaluate the degree to which such large-scale volcanic processes may have been important in triggering or modulating the tempo of faunal extinctions and other evolutionary events. In this overview, such processes are examined from the viewpoint of a field volcanologist, rather than as a previous participant in controversies concerning the interrelations between extinctions, impacts, and volcanism.
Phase Transitions in Networks of Memristive Elements
Sheldon, Forrest; di Ventra, Massimiliano
The memory features of memristive elements (resistors with memory), analogous to those found in biological synapses, have spurred the development of neuromorphic systems based on them (see, e.g.,). In turn, this requires a fundamental understanding of the collective dynamics of networks of memristive systems. Here, we study an experimentally-inspired model of disordered memristive networks in the limit of a slowly ramped voltage and show through simulations that these networks undergo a first-order phase transition in the conductivity for sufficiently high values of memory, as quantified by the memristive ON/OFF ratio. We provide also a mean-field theory that reproduces many features of the transition and particularly examine the role of boundary conditions and current- vs. voltage-controlled networks. The dynamics of the mean-field theory suggest a distribution of conductance jumps which may be accessible experimentally. We finally discuss the ability of these networks to support massively-parallel computation. Work supported in part by the Center for Memory and Recording Research at UCSD.
The Deconfinement Phase Transition in the Interior of Neutron Stars
Zhou, Xia
2010-01-01
The decon?nement phase transition which happens in the interior of neutron stars are investigated. Coupled with the spin evolution of the stars, the effect of entropy production and deconfinement heat generation during the deconfinement phase transition in the mixed phase of the neutron stars are discussed. The entropy production of deconfinement phase transition can be act as a signature of phase transition, but less important and does not significantly change the thermal evolution of neutron stars. The deconfinement heat can change the thermal evolution of neutron star distinctly.
Survey of CRISM Transition Phase Observations
Seelos, F. P.; Murchie, S. L.; Choo, T. H.; McGovern, J. A.
2006-12-01
The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) transition phase extends from the end of aerobraking (08/30/06) to the start of the Primary Science Phase (PSP) (11/08/2006). Within this timeframe, the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) will acquire Mars scene observations in association with the deployment of the telescope cover (09/27/06) and during the operational checkout of the full science payload (09/29/06 - 10/05/06). The CRISM cover opening sequence includes scene observations that will be used to verify deployment and to validate the on-orbit instrument wavelength calibration. The limited cover opening observation set consists of: 1. A hyperspectral nadir scan acquired as the cover is deployed (first light) 2. A single targeted (gimbaled) hyperspectral observation in the northern plains 3. A restricted duration nadir multispectral strip The high level objectives for the science payload checkout are to obtain observations in support of in-flight wavelength, radiometric, and geometric instrument calibration, to acquire data that will contribute to the development of a first-order hyperspectral atmospheric correction, and to exercise numerous spacecraft and instrument observing modes and strategies that will be employed during PSP. The science payload checkout also enables a unique collaboration between the Mars Express OMEGA and CRISM teams, with both spectrometers slated to observe common target locations with a minimal time offset for the purpose of instrument cross-calibration. The priority CRISM observations for the payload checkout include: 1. Multispectral nadir and hyperspectral off-nadir targeted observations in support of the cross-calibration experiment with OMEGA 2. Terminator-to-terminator multispectral data acquisition demonstrating the strategy that will be used to construct the global multispectral survey map 3. Terminator-to-terminator atmospheric emission phase function (EPF) data acquisition demonstrating the observation
Towards the nuclear matter - quark matter phase transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The conjectured first order phase transition from cold nuclear to cold quark matter is considered. It is found that non-perturbative effects due to instantons may have a 'smoothing-out' effect on the transition. (author)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2000-01-01
The catastrophe mechanisms of thermal performance characteristics of the firebox gas combustion system were analyzed from the viewpoint of catastrophe theory. The mathematical models of cusp catastrophe were established. The relationship between the thermal performance characteristics and the changing of system control variables was studied. The cusp catastrophe mechanisms of typical performance characteristics, such as kicking and lagging, and those of transition from quenching to igniting were explained. It was illustrated that discontinuity behavior of thermal systems with an "S" motion feature curve and lagging feature may be equivalently classified according to the topology of cusp catastrophe, influenced by two groups of independent control variables.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lopez-Moreno, Enrique; Grether, M; Velazquez, Victor, E-mail: elm@hp.fciencias.unam.mx [Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Cd. Universitaria, Circuito Exterior, 04510 Mexico DF (Mexico)
2011-11-25
A general spin system with a nonaxially symmetric Hamiltonian containing J{sub x}, J{sub z}-linear and J{sub z}-quadratic terms, widely used in many-body fermionic and bosonic systems and in molecular magnetism, is considered for the variations of general parameters describing intensity interaction changes of each of its terms. For this model Hamiltonian, a semiclassical energy surface (ES) is obtained by means of the coherent-state formalism. An analysis of this ES function, based on catastrophe theory, determines the separatrix in the control parameter space of the system Hamiltonian: the loci of singularities representing semiclassical phase transitions. Here we show that distinct regions of qualitatively different spectrum structures, as well as a singular behavior of quantum states, are ruled by this separatrix: here we show that the separatrix not only describes ground-state singularities, which have been associated with quantum phase transitions, but also reveals the structure of the excited spectrum, distinguishing different quantum phases within the parameter space. Finally, we consider magnetic susceptibility and heat capacity of the system at finite temperature, in order to study thermal properties and thermodynamical phase transitions in the perspective of the separatrix of this Hamiltonian system. (paper)
Quantum phase transitions in Bose-Fermi systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Research highlights: → We study quantum phase transitions in a system of N bosons and a single-j fermion. → Classical order parameters and correlation diagrams of quantum levels are determined. → The odd fermion strongly influences the location and nature of the phase transition. → Experimental evidence for the U(5)-SU(3) transition in odd-even nuclei is presented. - Abstract: Quantum phase transitions in a system of N bosons with angular momentum L = 0, 2 (s, d) and a single fermion with angular momentum j are investigated both classically and quantum mechanically. It is shown that the presence of the odd fermion strongly influences the location and nature of the phase transition, especially the critical value of the control parameter at which the phase transition occurs. Experimental evidence for the U(5)-SU(3) (spherical to axially-deformed) transition in odd-even nuclei is presented.
Rare region effects at classical, quantum and nonequilibrium phase transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rare regions, i.e., rare large spatial disorder fluctuations, can dramatically change the properties of a phase transition in a quenched disordered system. In generic classical equilibrium systems, they lead to an essential singularity, the so-called Griffiths singularity, of the free energy in the vicinity of the phase transition. Stronger effects can be observed at zero-temperature quantum phase transitions, at nonequilibrium phase transitions and in systems with correlated disorder. In some cases, rare regions can actually completely destroy the sharp phase transition by smearing. This topical review presents a unifying framework for rare region effects at weakly disordered classical, quantum and nonequilibrium phase transitions based on the effective dimensionality of the rare regions. Explicit examples include disordered classical Ising and Heisenberg models, insulating and metallic random quantum magnets, and the disordered contact process. (topical review)
Rare region effects at classical, quantum and nonequilibrium phase transitions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vojta, Thomas [Department of Physics, University of Missouri-Rolla, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States)
2006-06-02
Rare regions, i.e., rare large spatial disorder fluctuations, can dramatically change the properties of a phase transition in a quenched disordered system. In generic classical equilibrium systems, they lead to an essential singularity, the so-called Griffiths singularity, of the free energy in the vicinity of the phase transition. Stronger effects can be observed at zero-temperature quantum phase transitions, at nonequilibrium phase transitions and in systems with correlated disorder. In some cases, rare regions can actually completely destroy the sharp phase transition by smearing. This topical review presents a unifying framework for rare region effects at weakly disordered classical, quantum and nonequilibrium phase transitions based on the effective dimensionality of the rare regions. Explicit examples include disordered classical Ising and Heisenberg models, insulating and metallic random quantum magnets, and the disordered contact process. (topical review)
Pontine respiratory activity involved in inspiratory/expiratory phase transition
Mörschel, Michael; Dutschmann, Mathias
2009-01-01
Control of the timing of the inspiratory/expiratory (IE) phase transition is a hallmark of respiratory pattern formation. In principle, sensory feedback from pulmonary stretch receptors (Breuer–Hering reflex, BHR) is seen as the major controller for the IE phase transition, while pontine-based control of IE phase transition by both the pontine Kölliker–Fuse nucleus (KF) and parabrachial complex is seen as a secondary or backup mechanism. However, previous studies have shown that the BHR can h...
Gravitational waves from global second order phase transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Global second-order phase transitions are expected to produce scale-invariant gravitational wave spectra. In this manuscript we explore the dynamics of a symmetry-breaking phase transition using lattice simulations. We explicitly calculate the stochastic gravitational wave background produced during the transition and subsequent self-ordering phase. We comment on this signal as it compares to the scale-invariant spectrum produced during inflation
Emergent Geometric Hamiltonian and Insulator-Superfluid Phase Transitions
Zhou, Fei
2005-01-01
I argue that certain bosonic insulator-superfluid phase transitions as an interaction constant varies are driven by emergent geometric properties of insulating states. The {\\em renormalized} chemical potential and distribution of disordered bosons define the geometric aspect of an effective low energy Hamiltonian which I employ to study various resonating states and quantum phase transitions. In a mean field approximation, I also demonstrate that the quantum phase transitions are in the unive...
Quantum phase transition and entanglement in Li atom system
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
By use of the exact diagonalization method, the quantum phase transition and en- tanglement in a 6-Li atom system are studied. It is found that entanglement appears before the quantum phase transition and disappears after it in this exactly solvable quantum system. The present results show that the von Neumann entropy, as a measure of entanglement, may reveal the quantum phase transition in this model.
Primordial Magnetic Fields from Cosmological First Order Phase Transitions
Sigl, Guenter; Olinto, Angela; Jedamzik, Karsten
1996-01-01
We give an improved estimate of primordial magnetic fields generated during cosmological first order phase transitions. We examine the charge distribution at the nucleated bubble wall and its dynamics. We consider instabilities on the bubble walls developing during the phase transition. It is found that damping of these instabilities due to viscosity and heat conductivity caused by particle diffusion can be important in the QCD phase transition, but is probably negligible in the electroweak t...
Phase-separation transitions in asymmetric lipid bilayers
Shimobayashi, Shunsuke F.; Ichikawa, Masatoshi; Taniguchi, Takashi
2015-01-01
Morphological transitions of phase separation associated with the asymmetry of lipid composition were investigated using micrometer-sized vesicles of lipid bilayers made from a lipid mixture. The complete macro-phase-separated morphology undergoes a transition to a micro-phase-separation-like morphology via a lorate morphology as a metastable state. The transition leads to the emergence of monodisperse nanosized domains through repeated domain scission events. Moreover, we have numerically co...
Quantum phase transitions[87.15.By Structure and bonding;
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vojta, Matthias [Institut fuer Theorie der Kondensierten Materie, Universitaet Karlsruhe, Postfach 6980, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)
2003-12-01
In recent years, quantum phase transitions have attracted the interest of both theorists and experimentalists in condensed matter physics. These transitions, which are accessed at zero temperature by variation of a non-thermal control parameter, can influence the behaviour of electronic systems over a wide range of the phase diagram. Quantum phase transitions occur as a result of competing ground state phases. The cuprate superconductors which can be tuned from a Mott insulating to a d-wave superconducting phase by carrier doping are a paradigmatic example. This review introduces important concepts of phase transitions and discusses the interplay of quantum and classical fluctuations near criticality. The main part of the article is devoted to bulk quantum phase transitions in condensed matter systems. Several classes of transitions will be briefly reviewed, pointing out, e.g., conceptual differences between ordering transitions in metallic and insulating systems. An interesting separate class of transitions is boundary phase transitions where only degrees of freedom of a subsystem become critical; this will be illustrated in a few examples. The article is aimed at bridging the gap between high-level theoretical presentations and research papers specialized in certain classes of materials. It will give an overview on a variety of different quantum transitions, critically discuss open theoretical questions, and frequently make contact with recent experiments in condensed matter physics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The problem of catastrophe control is discussed. Catastrophe control aims to withdraw responsible engineering constructions out of the catastrophe. The mathematical framework of catastrophes control systems is constructed. It determines the principles of systems filling by the concrete physical contents and, simultaneously, permits to employ modern control methods for the synthesis of optimal withdrawal strategy for protected objects
Phase transition of holographic entanglement entropy in massive gravity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiao-Xiong Zeng
2016-05-01
Full Text Available The phase structure of holographic entanglement entropy is studied in massive gravity for the quantum systems with finite and infinite volumes, which in the bulk is dual to calculating the minimal surface area for a black hole and black brane respectively. In the entanglement entropy–temperature plane, we find for both the black hole and black brane there is a Van der Waals-like phase transition as the case in thermal entropy–temperature plane. That is, there is a first order phase transition for the small charge and a second order phase transition at the critical charge. For the first order phase transition, the equal area law is checked and for the second order phase transition, the critical exponent of the heat capacity is obtained. All the results show that the phase structure of holographic entanglement entropy is the same as that of thermal entropy regardless of the volume of the spacetime on the boundary.
Phase transition of holographic entanglement entropy in massive gravity
Zeng, Xiao-Xiong; Zhang, Hongbao; Li, Li-Fang
2016-05-01
The phase structure of holographic entanglement entropy is studied in massive gravity for the quantum systems with finite and infinite volumes, which in the bulk is dual to calculating the minimal surface area for a black hole and black brane respectively. In the entanglement entropy-temperature plane, we find for both the black hole and black brane there is a Van der Waals-like phase transition as the case in thermal entropy-temperature plane. That is, there is a first order phase transition for the small charge and a second order phase transition at the critical charge. For the first order phase transition, the equal area law is checked and for the second order phase transition, the critical exponent of the heat capacity is obtained. All the results show that the phase structure of holographic entanglement entropy is the same as that of thermal entropy regardless of the volume of the spacetime on the boundary.
Phase transition of holographic entanglement entropy in massive gravity
Zeng, Xiao-Xiong; Li, Li-Fang
2015-01-01
The phase structure of holographic entanglement entropy is studied in massive gravity for the quantum systems with finite and infinite volumes, which in the bulk is dual to calculate the minimal surface area for a black hole and black brane respectively. In the entanglement entropy$-$temperature plane, we find for both the black hole and black brane there is a Van der Waals-like phase transition as the case in thermal entropy$-$temperature plane. That is, there is a first order phase transition for the small charge and a second order phase transition at the critical charge. For the first order phase transition, the equal area law is checked and for the second order phase transition, the critical exponent of the heat capacity is obtained. All the results show that the phase structure of holographic entanglement entropy is the same as that of thermal entropy regardless of the volume of the spacetime on the boundary.
Nonlinear piezoelectric coefficients of ferroelectrics in the phase transition region
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Iushin, N.K.; Smirnov, S.I.; Turovets, A.G.; Linnik, V.G.; Agishev, B.A.
1987-03-01
Changes in the nonlinear piezoelectric coefficients in ferroelectrics in the phase transition region are investigated experimentally using triglycine sulfate, lead germanate, potassium-lithium tantalate, and cadmium pyroniobate crystals, characterized by phase transitions of the second kind, and also gadolinium and terbium molybdate crystals, characterized by a ferroelectric phase transition of the first kind. In the crystals studied, a significant increase in nonlinear piezoelectric coefficients is observed near the phase transition temperature, which makes these crystals attractive materials for use as the elements of nonlinear acoustoelectronic instruments. 9 references.
Excited state quantum phase transitions in many-body systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Phenomena analogous to ground state quantum phase transitions have recently been noted to occur among states throughout the excitation spectra of certain many-body models. These excited state phase transitions are manifested as simultaneous singularities in the eigenvalue spectrum (including the gap or level density), order parameters, and wave function properties. In this article, the characteristics of excited state quantum phase transitions are investigated. The finite-size scaling behavior is determined at the mean-field level. It is found that excited state quantum phase transitions are universal to two-level bosonic and fermionic models with pairing interactions
Raman study of thermochromic phase transition in tungsten trioxide nanowires
Lu, Dong Yu; Chen, Jian; Chen, Huan Jun; Gong, Li; Deng, Shao Zhi; Xu, Ning Sheng; Liu, Yu Long
2007-01-01
Tungsten trioxide (WO3) nanowires were synthesized by thermal evaporation of tungsten powder in two steps: tungsten suboxide (WO3-x) nanowires were synthesized, and then oxidized in O2 ambient and transformed into WO3 nanowires. Raman spectroscopy was applied to study the thermochromic phase transition of one-dimensional WO3 nanowires. From the temperature dependence of the characteristic mode at 33cm-1 in WO3, the phase transition temperature was determined. It was found that the phase transition of WO3 nanowires was reversible and the phase transition temperatures were even lower than that of WO3 nanopowder.
Mesoscale modeling of phase transition dynamics of thermoresponsive polymers
Li, Zhen; Li, Xuejin; Karniadakis, George Em
2015-01-01
We present a non-isothermal mesoscopic model for investigation of the phase transition dynamics of thermoresponsive polymers. Since this model conserves energy in the simulations, it is able to correctly capture not only the transient behavior of polymer precipitation from solvent, but also the energy variation associated with the phase transition process. Simulations provide dynamic details of the thermally induced phase transition and confirm two different mechanisms dominating the phase transition dynamics. A shift of endothermic peak with concentration is observed and the underlying mechanism is explored.
Pressure induced phase transitions in ceramic compounds containing tetragonal zirconia
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sparks, R.G.; Pfeiffer, G.; Paesler, M.A.
1988-12-01
Stabilized tetragonal zirconia compounds exhibit a transformation toughening process in which stress applied to the material induces a crystallographic phase transition. The phase transition is accompanied by a volume expansion in the stressed region thereby dissipating stress and increasing the fracture strength of the material. The hydrostatic component of the stress required to induce the phase transition can be investigated by the use of a high pressure technique in combination with Micro-Raman spectroscopy. The intensity of Raman lines characteristic for the crystallographic phases can be used to calculate the amount of material that has undergone the transition as a function of pressure. It was found that pressures on the order of 2-5 kBar were sufficient to produce an almost complete transition from the original tetragonal to the less dense monoclinic phase; while a further increase in pressure caused a gradual reversal of the transition back to the original tetragonal structure.
Phase transitions in a vortex gas
Shah, P A
1994-01-01
It has been shown recently that the motion of solitons at couplings around a critical coupling can be reduced to the dynamics of particles (the zeros of the Higgs field) on a curved manifold with potential. The curvature gives a velocity dependent force, and the magnitude of the potential is proportional to the distance from a critical coupling. In this paper we apply this approximation to determining the equation of state of a gas of vortices in the Abelian Higgs model. We derive a virial expansion using certain known integrals of the metric, and the second virial coefficient is calculated, determining the behaviour of the gas at low densities. A formula for determining higher order coefficients is given. At low densities and temperatures T \\gg \\l the equation of state is of the Van der Waals form (P+b\\frac{N^{2}}{A^{2}})(A-aN) = NT with a=4\\pi and b=-4.89\\pi\\l where \\l is a measure of the distance from critical coupling. It is found that there is no phase transition in a low density type-II gas, but there i...
Swarms, Phase Transitions, and Collective Intelligence
Millonas, M M
1993-01-01
A spacially extended model of the collective behavior of a large number of locally acting organisms is proposed in which organisms move probabilistically between local cells in space, but with weights dependent on local morphogenetic substances, or morphogens. The morphogens are in turn are effected by the passage of an organism. The evolution of the morphogens, and the corresponding flow of the organisms constitutes the collective behavior of the group. Such models have various types of phase transitions and self-organizing properties controlled both by the level of the noise, and other parameters. The model is then applied to the specific case of ants moving on a lattice. The local behavior of the ants is inspired by the actual behavior observed in the laboratory, and analytic results for the collective behavior are compared to the corresponding laboratory results. It is hoped that the present model might serve as a paradigmatic example of a complex cooperative system in nature. In particular swarm models c...
ATLAS Transition Region Upgrade at Phase-1
Song, H; The ATLAS collaboration
2014-01-01
This report presents the L1 Muon trigger transition region (1.0<|ƞ|<1.3) upgrade of ATLAS Detector at phase-1. The high fake trigger rate in the Endcap region 1.0<|ƞ|<2.4 would become a serious problem for the ATLAS L1 Muon trigger system at high luminosity. For the region 1.3<|ƞ|<2.4, covered by the Small Wheel, ATLAS is enhancing the present muon trigger by adding local fake rejection and track angle measurement capabilities. To reduce the rate in the remaining ƞ interval it has been proposed a similar enhancement by adding at the edge of the inner barrel a structure of 3-layers RPCs of a new generation. These RPCs will be based on a thinner gas gap and electrodes with respect to the ATLAS standards, a new high performance Front End, integrating fast TDC capabilities, and a new low profile and light mechanical structure allowing the installation in the tiny space available.This design effectively suppresses fake triggers by making the coincidence with both end-cap and interaction point...
Phase transitions in models of human cooperation
Perc, Matjaž
2016-08-01
If only the fittest survive, why should one cooperate? Why should one sacrifice personal benefits for the common good? Recent research indicates that a comprehensive answer to such questions requires that we look beyond the individual and focus on the collective behavior that emerges as a result of the interactions among individuals, groups, and societies. Although undoubtedly driven also by culture and cognition, human cooperation is just as well an emergent, collective phenomenon in a complex system. Nonequilibrium statistical physics, in particular the collective behavior of interacting particles near phase transitions, has already been recognized as very valuable for understanding counterintuitive evolutionary outcomes. However, unlike pairwise interactions among particles that typically govern solid-state physics systems, interactions among humans often involve group interactions, and they also involve a larger number of possible states even for the most simplified description of reality. Here we briefly review research done in the realm of the public goods game, and we outline future research directions with an emphasis on merging the most recent advances in the social sciences with methods of nonequilibrium statistical physics. By having a firm theoretical grip on human cooperation, we can hope to engineer better social systems and develop more efficient policies for a sustainable and better future.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We identify the mechanism behind a rapid entropy drop in the metastable (ML) polymer liquid and clarify the significance of the Kauzmann paradox. We also establish a thermodynamic basis for an apparent critical mode-coupling transition between supercooled (SCL) and ML polymer liquids, and for the ideal glass transition but only in ML. The latter need not ever form an equilibrium phase. The crystal can have higher entropy than ML or SCL polymer liquids
The Wilson Flow and the finite temperature phase transition
Wandelt, Michèle; Knechtli, Francesco; Günther, Michael
2016-01-01
We consider the determination of the finite temperature phase transition in the Yang--Mills SU(3) gauge theory. We compute the difference of the spatial and temporal energy density at a physical Wilson flow time. This difference is zero in the confined phase and becomes non zero in the deconfined phase. We locate the phase transition by using a new technique based on an exponential smoothing spline. This method is an alternative to the determination of the phase transition based on the Polyak...
The Wilson Flow and the finite temperature phase transition
Wandelt, Michèle; Günther, Michael
2016-01-01
We consider the determination of the finite temperature phase transition in the Yang--Mills SU(3) gauge theory. We compute the difference of the spatial and temporal energy density at a physical Wilson flow time. This difference is zero in the confined phase and becomes non zero in the deconfined phase. We locate the phase transition by using a new technique based on an exponential smoothing spline. This method is an alternative to the determination of the phase transition based on the Polyakov loop susceptibility and can also be used with dynamical fermions.
Highly birefringent crystal for Raman transitions with phase modulators
Arias, Nieves; Abediyeh, Vahide; Hamzeloui, Saeed; Jeronimo-Moreno, Yasser; Gomez, Eduardo
2016-05-01
We present a system to excite Raman transitions with minimum phase noise. The system uses a phase modulator to generate the phase locked beams required for the transition. We use a long calcite crystal to filter out one of the sidebands, avoiding the cancellation that appears at high detunings for phase modulation. The measured phase noise is limited by the quality of the microwave synthesizer. We use the calcite crystal a second time to produce a co-propagating Raman pair with perpendicular polarizations to drive velocity insensitive Raman transitions. Support from CONACYT and Fundacion Marcos Moshinsky.
Van der Waals phase transition in the framework of holography
Zeng, Xiao-Xiong
2015-01-01
Phase structure of the quintessence Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m-AdS black hole is probed with the nonlocal observables such as holographic entanglement entropy and two point correlation function. Our result shows that, as the case of the thermal entropy, both the observables exhibit the similar Van der Waals-like phase transition. To reinforce the conclusion, we further check the equal area law for the first order phase transition and critical exponent of the heat capacity for the second order phase transition. We also discuss the effect of the state parameter on the phase structure of the nonlocal observables.
Cosmological Consequences of QCD Phase Transition(s) in Early Universe
Tawfik, A
2008-01-01
We discuss the cosmological consequences of QCD phase transition(s) on the early universe. We argue that our recent knowledge about the transport properties of quark-gluon plasma (QGP) should throw additional lights on the actual time evolution of our universe. Understanding the nature of QCD phase transition(s), which can be studied in lattice gauge theory and verified in heavy ion experiments, provides an explanation for cosmological phenomenon stem from early universe.
Unconventional phase transitions in a constrained single polymer chain
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Klushin, L I [Department of Physics, American University of Beirut, PO Box 11-0236, Beirut 1107 2020 (Lebanon); Skvortsov, A M, E-mail: leo@aub.edu.lb, E-mail: astarling@yandex.ru [Chemical-Pharmaceutical Academy, Prof. Popova 14, 197022 St Petersburg (Russian Federation)
2011-11-25
Phase transitions were recognized among the most fascinating phenomena in physics. Exactly solved models are especially important in the theory of phase transitions. A number of exactly solved models of phase transitions in a single polymer chain are discussed in this review. These are three models demonstrating the second order phase transitions with some unusual features: two-dimensional model of {beta}-structure formation, the model of coil-globule transition and adsorption of a polymer chain grafted on the solid surface. We also discuss models with first order phase transitions in a single macromolecule which admit not only exact analytical solutions for the partition function with explicit finite-size effects but also the non-equilibrium free energy as a function of the order parameter (Landau function) in closed analytical form. One of them is a model of mechanical desorption of a macromolecule, which demonstrates an unusual first order phase transition with phase coexistence within a single chain. Features of first and second order transitions become mixed here due to phase coexistence which is not accompanied by additional interfacial free energy. Apart from that, there exist several single-chain models belonging to the same class (adsorption of a polymer chain tethered near the solid surface or liquid-liquid interface, and escape transition upon compressing a polymer between small pistons) that represent examples of a highly unconventional first order phase transition with several inter-related unusual features: no simultaneous phase coexistence, and hence no phase boundary, non-concave thermodynamic potential and non-equivalence of conjugate ensembles. An analysis of complex zeros of partition functions upon approaching the thermodynamic limit is presented for models with and without phase coexistence. (topical review)
A unified approach of catastrophic events
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Nikolopoulos
2004-01-01
Full Text Available Although there is an accumulated charge of theoretical, computational, and numerical work, like catastrophe theory, bifurcation theory, stochastic and deterministic chaos theory, there is an important feeling that these matters do not completely cover the physics of real catastrophic events. Recent studies have suggested that a large variety of complex processes, including earthquakes, heartbeats, and neuronal dynamics, exhibits statistical similarities. Here we are studying in terms of complexity and non linear techniques whether isomorphic signatures emerged indicating the transition from the normal state to the both geological and biological shocks. In the last 15 years, the study of Complex Systems has emerged as a recognized field in its own right, although a good definition of what a complex system is, actually is eluded. A basic reason for our interest in complexity is the striking similarity in behaviour close to irreversible phase transitions among systems that are otherwise quite different in nature. It is by now recognized that the pre-seismic electromagnetic time-series contain valuable information about the earthquake preparation process, which cannot be extracted without the use of important computational power, probably in connection with computer Algebra techniques. This paper presents an analysis, the aim of which is to indicate the approach of the global instability in the pre-focal area. Non-linear characteristics are studied by applying two techniques, namely the Correlation Dimension Estimation and the Approximate Entropy. These two non-linear techniques present coherent conclusions, and could cooperate with an independent fractal spectral analysis to provide a detection concerning the emergence of the nucleation phase of the impending catastrophic event. In the context of similar mathematical background, it would be interesting to augment this description of pre-seismic electromagnetic anomalies in order to cover biological
77 FR 63410 - SBIR/STTR Phase I to Phase II Transition Benchmarks
2012-10-16
... ADMINISTRATION SBIR/STTR Phase I to Phase II Transition Benchmarks AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration... Phase I to Phase II Transition Benchmarks. SUMMARY: The Small Business Administration (SBA) is..., Office of Innovation, Small Business Administration, 409 Third Street SW., Washington, DC...
On the theory of phase transitions in polypeptides
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yakubovich, Alexander V.; Solov'yov, Ilia; Solov'yov, Andrey V.;
2008-01-01
We suggest a theoretical method based on the statistical mechanics for treating the alpha-helix <-> random coil transition in polypeptides. This process is considered as a first-order-like phase transition. The developed theory is free of model parameters and is based solely on fundamental physical...... principles. We apply the developed formalism for the description of thermodynamical properties of alanine polypeptides of different length. We analyze the essential thermodynamical properties of the system such as heat capacity, phase transition temperature and latent heat of the phase transition...
Liquid-Gas Phase Transition in Nuclear Equation of State
Lee, S J
1997-01-01
A canonical ensemble model is used to describe a caloric curve of nuclear liquid-gas phase transition. Allowing a discontinuity in the freeze out density from one spinodal density to another for a given initial temperature, the nuclear liquid-gas phase transition can be described as first order. Averaging over various freeze out densities of all the possible initial temperatures for a given total reaction energy, the first order characteristics of liquid-gas phase transition is smeared out to a smooth transition. Two experiments, one at low beam energy and one at high beam energy show different caloric behaviors and are discussed.
Multipartite entanglement characterization of a quantum phase transition
Costantini, G.; Facchi, P.; G. Florio; Pascazio, S.
2006-01-01
A probability density characterization of multipartite entanglement is tested on the one-dimensional quantum Ising model in a transverse field. The average and second moment of the probability distribution are numerically shown to be good indicators of the quantum phase transition. We comment on multipartite entanglement generation at a quantum phase transition.
On the nature of phase transition in solid electrolytes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An attempt is made to precisely measure the solid electrolyte RbAg4I5 conductivity in the vicinity of the phase transition at 208 deg K. Polycrystalline samples obtained by common technique have been used as well as single RbAg4I5 crystals grown from the acetone solution of AgI and RbI. The dependence of conductivity on inverse temperature is given for different samples. The phase transition of the single crystals is accompanied by a jump (approximately 12%) of conductivity. This transfer is reversible, since no hysteresis is found in the +-0.3 deg K vicinity of the phase transition temperature. Polycrystalline samples display no pronounces jump of conductivity, but the conductivity curve has two bends, i.e. the phase transition is ''diffused''. The activation energy before the transition differs from that after the transition
Pressure-induced phase transitions and metallization in VO2
Bai, Ligang; Li, Quan; Corr, Serena A.; Meng, Yue; Park, Changyong; Sinogeikin, Stanislav V.; Ko, Changhyun; Wu, Junqiao; Shen, Guoyin
2015-03-01
We report the results of pressure-induced phase transitions and metallization in VO2 based on synchrotron x-ray diffraction, electrical resistivity, and Raman spectroscopy. Our isothermal compression experiments at room temperature and 383 K show that the room temperature monoclinic phase (M 1 ,P 21/c ) and the high-temperature rutile phase (R ,P 42/m n m ) of VO2 undergo phase transitions to a distorted M 1 monoclinic phase (M 1' ,P 21/c ) above 13.0 GPa and to an orthorhombic phase (CaCl2-like, P n n m ) above 13.7 GPa, respectively. Upon further compression, both high-pressure phases transform into a new phase (phase X ) above 34.3 and 38.3 GPa at room temperature and 383 K, respectively. The room temperature M 1 -M 1' phase transition structurally resembles the R -CaCl2 phase transition at 383 K, suggesting a second-order displacive type of transition. Contrary to previous studies, our electrical resistivity results, Raman measurements, as well as ab initio calculations indicate that the new phase X , rather than the M 1' phase, is responsible for the metallization under pressure. The metallization mechanism is discussed based on the proposed crystal structure.
Phase transitions and domain structures in multiferroics
Vlahos, Eftihia
2011-12-01
Thin film ferroelectrics and multiferroics are two important classes of materials interesting both from a scientific and a technological prospective. The volatility of lead and bismuth as well as environmental issues regarding the toxicity of lead are two disadvantages of the most commonly used ferroelectric random access memory (FeRAM) materials such as Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 and SrBi2Ta2O9. Therefore lead-free thin film ferroelectrics are promising substitutes as long as (a) they can be grown on technologically important substrates such as silicon, and (b) their T c and Pr become comparable to that of well established ferroelectrics. On the other hand, the development of functional room temperature ferroelectric ferromagnetic multiferroics could lead to very interesting phenomena such as control of magnetism with electric fields and control of electrical polarization with magnetic fields. This thesis focuses on the understanding of material structure-property relations using nonlinear optical spectroscopy. Nonlinear spectroscopy is an excellent tool for probing the onset of ferroelectricity, and domain dynamics in strained ferroelectrics and multiferroics. Second harmonic generation was used to detect ferroelectricity and the antiferrodistortive phase transition in thin film SrTiO3. Incipient ferroelectric CaTiO3 has been shown to become ferroelectric when strained with a combination of SHG and dielectric measurements. The tensorial nature of the induced nonlinear polarization allows for probing of the BaTiO3 and SrTiO3 polarization contributions in nanoscale BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices. In addition, nonlinear optics was used to demonstrate ferroelectricity in multiferroic EuTiO3. Finally, confocal SHG and Raman microscopy were utilized to visualize polar domains in incipient ferroelectric and ferroelastic CaTiO3.
High pressure phase transitions for CdSe
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Bo Kong; Ti-Xian Zeng; Zhu-Wen Zhou; De-Liang Chen; Xiao-Wei Sun
2014-05-01
The structure and pressure-induced phase transitions for CdSe are investigated using first-principles calculations. The pressure-induced phase transition sequence WZ/ZB $\\to$ Rs $\\to$ $\\to$ CsCl for CdSe is drawn reasonably for the fist time, the corresponding transition pressures are 3.8, 29 and 107 GPa, respectively and the intermediate states between the structure and the CsCl structure should exist.
Sudden stratospheric warmings as catastrophes
Chao, W. C.
1985-01-01
The sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) process is qualitatively studied using a conceptual and numerical approach guided by catastrophe theory. A simple example of a catastrophe taken from nonlinear dynamics is given, and results from previous modelling studies of SSW are interpreted in light of catastrophe theory. Properties of this theory such as hysteresis, cusp, and triggering essential to SSW are numerically demonstrated using the truncated quasi-geostrophic beta-plane model of Holton and Mass (1976). A qualitative explanation of the transition from the steady regime to the vacillation regime is given for the Holton and Mass model in terms of the topographically induced barotropic Rossby wave instability. Some implications for the simulation and prediction of SSW are discussed.
Phase transition of Bose—Einstein condensate under decoherence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The effect of decoherence on the phase transition of a Bose—Einstein condensate in a symmetric double-well potential is determined by the mean atom number difference. It still has two phases, the tunneling phase and the self-trapping phase, even under decoherence. The density matrix and the operator fidelity also show very different behaviors in the two phases. This suggests that operator fidelity can be used to characterize the phase transition of this Bose—Einstein condensate model, even under decoherence. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)
Pressure-induced phase transitions and metallization in VO2
Bai, Ligang; Li, Quan; Corr, Serena A; Meng, Yue; Park, Changyong; Sinogeikin, Stanislav V.; Ko, Changhyun; Wu, Junqiao; Shen, Guoyin
2015-01-01
We report the results of pressure-induced phase transitions and metallization in VO2 based on synchrotron x-ray diffraction, electrical resistivity, and Raman spectroscopy. Our isothermal compression experiments at room temperature and 383 K show that the room temperature monoclinic phase (M1,P21/c) and the high-temperature rutile phase (R,P42/mnm) of VO2 undergo phase transitions to a distorted M1 monoclinic phase (M1′,P21/c) above 13.0 GPa and to an orthorhombic phase (CaCl2-like, Pnnm) abo...
Diamagnetic phase transitions in two-dimensional conductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bakaleinikov, L.A., E-mail: bakal.ammp@mail.ioffe.ru [A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Department of Mathematics and Physics, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Haifa, Campus Oranim, Tivon 36006 (Israel); Gordon, A. [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Haifa, Campus Oranim, Tivon 36006 (Israel)
2014-11-15
A theory describing the susceptibility amplitude and the magnetic induction bifurcation near the dHvA driven diamagnetic phase transitions in quasi two-dimensional (2D) organic conductors of the (ET){sub 2}X with X=Cu(NCS){sub 2},KHg(SCN){sub 4},I{sub 3},AuBr{sub 2},IBr{sub 2}, etc. is presented. We show that there is a drastic increase in the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the susceptibility amplitude on approaching the diamagnetic phase transition point. Near the phase transition point the temperature and magnetic field dependences are fitted by the ones typical of the mean-field phase transition theory. These dependences confirm the long-range character of the magnetic interactions among the conduction electrons leading to diamagnetic phase transitions. We demonstrate that the magnetic induction splitting of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and muon spin-rotation spectroscopy (μSR) lines due to two Condon domains decreases tending to zero on approaching the diamagnetic phase transition. This decrease is fitted by the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the susceptibility characteristic of the mean-field theory of phase transitions. Performing new susceptibility, NMR and μSR experiments will enable to detect diamagnetic phase transitions and Condon domains in quasi 2D metals. - Highlights: • A theory of diamagnetic phase transitions (DPTs) is presented in 2D organic conductors. • The behaviour of the susceptibility amplitude and the induction splitting is shown near the DPT. • The calculated quantities are described by the mean-field theory of phase transitions.
Phase transition and PTCR effect in erbium doped BT ceramics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: ► Erbium influence the dielectric response BaTiO3 ceramics. ► Features of the phase transition are not explained by phenomenological models. ► Relaxation parameters do not show influence on ferroelectric–paraelectric phase transition. ► Dielectric anomaly on BET phase transition is associated with the PTCR effect. - Abstract: In this work the dielectric behaviour and main features of the phase transition of BaTiO3 and Ba0.99Er0.01TiO3 ceramics were carefully investigated. The temperature and frequency dependences of the dielectric properties of erbium doped BaTiO3 ceramics were measured in the 25–225 °C and 100 Hz to 10 MHz ranges, respectively. From this study, a dielectric anomaly in the ferroelectric–paraelectric phase transition of the Ba0.99Er0.01TiO3 ceramic was observed. The features of the samples phase transition were analysed by using Curie–Weiss, Santos–Eiras’ and order parameter local phenomenological models. In the BaTiO3 system, all models showed a normal phase transition, while was not possible to establish the character of the phase transition in the Ba0.99Er0.01TiO3 system. The relaxation parameters of conductive processes for the study ferroelectric materials, analysed in the time domain, did not show any influence on the ferroelectric–paraelectric phase transition. Finally, it was demonstrated that the anomaly observed on the phase transition of the erbium doped BaTiO3 ceramics is associated with the processes that results in the PTCR effect.
Phase transition and PTCR effect in erbium doped BT ceramics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leyet, Y. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad de Oriente, C.P. 90500 Santiago de Cuba (Cuba); Instituto Federal de Educacao Ciencia e Tecnologia (IFAM), Av. 7 de Setembro 1975, Centro, Manaus 69020-120, AM (Brazil); Pena, R.; Zulueta, Y. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad de Oriente, C.P. 90500 Santiago de Cuba (Cuba); Guerrero, F. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad de Oriente, C.P. 90500 Santiago de Cuba (Cuba); CESI, Universidade do Estado do Amazonas, Ave Mario Andreaza, Amazonas (Brazil); Anglada-Rivera, J. [CESI, Universidade do Estado do Amazonas, Ave Mario Andreaza, Amazonas (Brazil); Romaguera, Y. [INESC TEC, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Perez de la Cruz, J., E-mail: jcruz@inescporto.pt [INESC TEC, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal)
2012-06-25
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Erbium influence the dielectric response BaTiO{sub 3} ceramics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Features of the phase transition are not explained by phenomenological models. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Relaxation parameters do not show influence on ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dielectric anomaly on BET phase transition is associated with the PTCR effect. - Abstract: In this work the dielectric behaviour and main features of the phase transition of BaTiO{sub 3} and Ba{sub 0.99}Er{sub 0.01}TiO{sub 3} ceramics were carefully investigated. The temperature and frequency dependences of the dielectric properties of erbium doped BaTiO{sub 3} ceramics were measured in the 25-225 Degree-Sign C and 100 Hz to 10 MHz ranges, respectively. From this study, a dielectric anomaly in the ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition of the Ba{sub 0.99}Er{sub 0.01}TiO{sub 3} ceramic was observed. The features of the samples phase transition were analysed by using Curie-Weiss, Santos-Eiras' and order parameter local phenomenological models. In the BaTiO{sub 3} system, all models showed a normal phase transition, while was not possible to establish the character of the phase transition in the Ba{sub 0.99}Er{sub 0.01}TiO{sub 3} system. The relaxation parameters of conductive processes for the study ferroelectric materials, analysed in the time domain, did not show any influence on the ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition. Finally, it was demonstrated that the anomaly observed on the phase transition of the erbium doped BaTiO{sub 3} ceramics is associated with the processes that results in the PTCR effect.
Symmetry origin of the phase transitions and phase separation in manganites at low doping
Wang, ZD; Zhong, F
1999-01-01
We analyze the symmetry changes of paramagnetic to A-type antiferromagnetic and to ferromagnetic phase transitions in undoped and moderately doped LaMnO 3, respectively. We show that in orthorhombic-distorted perovskite manganites the phase separation at low doping is associated with the noncollinear nature of the magnetic orders permitted by symmetry. A simple model for the competition between the two phase transitions is put forward within the framework of the Landau theory of phase transit...
Magnetic study of phase transitions in magnetite
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Švindrych, Z.; Janů, Zdeněk; Hadač, J.
Praha : MATFYZPRESS, 2007, s. 42-46. ISBN 978-80-7378-025-8. [WDS´07 (Week of Doktoral Students). Praha (CZ), 05.06.2007-08.06.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : metal-insulator transitions and other electronic transitions * spin glasses and other random magnets * dynamic properties Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism
Quantum phase transitions of topological insulators without gap closing.
Rachel, Stephan
2016-10-12
We consider two-dimensional Chern insulators and time-reversal invariant topological insulators and discuss the effect of perturbations breaking either particle-number conservation or time-reversal symmetry. The appearance of trivial mass terms is expected to cause quantum phase transitions into trivial phases when such a perturbation overweighs the topological term. These phase transitions are usually associated with a bulk-gap closing. In contrast, the chiral Chern insulator is unaffected by particle-number breaking perturbations. Moreover, the [Formula: see text] topological insulator undergoes phase transitions into topologically trivial phases without bulk-gap closing in the presence of any of such perturbations. In certain cases, these phase transitions can be circumvented and the protection restored by another U(1) symmetry, e.g. due to spin conservation. These findings are discussed in the context of interacting topological insulators. PMID:27530509
Quantum phase transition in field-induced ordering phases of anisotropic Haldane systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Being motivated by the novel phase transition found in the Haldane compound, Ni(C5H14N2)2N3(PF6), we have investigated the field-induced quantum phase transitions in the anisotropic S=1 Haldane system by means of the density matrix renormalization group method. With increasing magnetic fields, in addition to the Haldane to ordered phase transition, the spin-reorientation transition between the ordered phases is predicted to occur in the case where the magnetic field is inclined from the principal axes of the anisotropy. Physical consequences of this transition are discussed in connection with the experimental result
Phase Transitions In M-Theory And F-Theory
Witten, Edward
1996-01-01
Phase transitions are studied in $M$-theory and $F$-theory. In $M$-theory compactification to five dimensions on a Calabi-Yau, there are topology-changing transitions similar to those seen in conformal field theory, but the non-geometrical phases known in conformal field theory are absent. At boundaries of moduli space where such phases might have been expected, the moduli space ends, by a conventional or unconventional physical mechanism. The unconventional mechanisms, which roughly involve ...
Ferroelectric phase transition in monoclinic TlS
Kashida, S.; Nakamura, K.; Katayama, S.
1992-04-01
The dielectric property of newly found monoclinic thallium monosulfide (TlS) has been investigated in the temperature range from 285 to 380 K. The dielectric constants show anomalous increases at 3186 and 341.1 K suggesting the occurrence of successive phase transitions. A study of the polarization hysteresis loop shows that this compound is ferroelectric in the room temperature phase. The nature of the phase transitions is probed by calorimetric and X-ray measurements.
Phase transition in the assignment problem for random matrices
Esteve, J. G.; Falceto, F.
2005-12-01
We report an analytic and numerical study of a phase transition in a P problem (the assignment problem) that separates two phases whose representatives are the simple matching problem (an easy P problem) and the traveling-salesman problem (a NP-complete problem). Like other phase transitions found in combinatoric problems (K-satisfiability, number partitioning) this can help to understand the nature of the difficulties in solving NP problems an to find more accurate algorithms for them.
Micellar structures in lyotropic liquid crystals and phase transitions
Saupe, A.; Xu, S. Y.; Plumley, Sulakshana; Zhu, Y. K.; Photinos, P.
1991-05-01
The formation of micellar nematics is discussed with emphasis on the transitions between nematic phases and nematic-smectic transitions. Phase diagrams for MTAB/l-decanol/D,O systems show a direct transition between uniaxial nematics. Electrical conductivity and birefringence measurements on a mixture of sodium decylsulfate. 1-decanol, D,O demonstrate, on the other hand, the existence of a biaxial nemantic range that separates the Uniaxial nematics. On a mixture of cesium perflouroctanoate and H 2O the electrical conductivity and rotational viscosity are used to discuss the relevant features of nematic-lamellar-smectic transitions. The formation of elongated ribbon-like micelles at the nematic-smectic transition is suggested. Transitions between different nematic phases in the MTAB system may be connected with a structural change from long micelles with a fairly circular cross section to similar micelles with a more elliptical cross section.
Different scenarios of topological phase transitions in homogeneous neutron matter
Pankratov, S S; Zverev, M V
2012-01-01
We study different scenarios of topological phase transitions in the vicinity of \\pi^0 condensation point in neutron matter. The transitions occur between the Fermi liquid state and a topologically different one with two sheets of the Fermi surface. Two possibilities of a rearrangement of quasiparticle degrees of freedom are shown: the first order topological phase transition and the second order one. The order of the phase transition is found to be strongly dependent on the value of the critical wave vector of the soft \\pi^0 mode. The thermodynamics of the system is also studied. It is shown that the topology of the quasiparticle momentum distribution is mainly determined by the neutron matter density, while the temperature T is essential in a narrow density region. A simple explanation of the first order topological phase transition at T=0 is given.
Primordial Magnetic Fields from Cosmological First Order Phase Transitions
Sigl, G; Jedamzik, K; Sigl, Guenter; Olinto, Angela; Jedamzik, Karsten
1996-01-01
We give an improved estimate of primordial magnetic fields generated during cosmological first order phase transitions. We examine the charge distribution at the nucleated bubble wall and its dynamics. We consider instabilities on the bubble walls developing during the phase transition. It is found that damping of these instabilities due to viscosity and heat conductivity caused by particle diffusion can be important in the QCD phase transition, but is probably negligible in the electroweak transition. We show how such instabilities together with the surface charge densities on bubble walls excite magnetic fields within a certain range of wavelengths. We discuss how these magnetic seed fields may be amplified by MHD effects in the turbulent fluid. The strength and spectrum of the primordial magnetic field at the present time for the cases where this mechanism was operative during the electroweak or the QCD phase transition are estimated. On a 10 Mpc comoving scale, field strengths of the order 10**(-29) G for...
The Electroweak Phase Transition in the Inert Doublet Model
Blinov, Nikita; Stefaniak, Tim
2015-01-01
We study the strength of a first-order electroweak phase transition in the Inert Doublet Model (IDM), where particle dark matter (DM) is comprised of the lightest neutral inert Higgs boson. We improve over previous studies in the description and treatment of the finite-temperature effective potential and of the electroweak phase transition. We focus on a set of benchmark models inspired by the key mechanisms in the IDM leading to a viable dark matter particle candidate, and illustrate how to enhance the strength of the electroweak phase transition by adjusting the masses of the yet undiscovered IDM Higgs states. We argue that across a variety of DM masses, obtaining a strong enough first-order phase transition is a generic possibility in the IDM. We find that due to direct dark matter searches and collider constraints, a sufficiently strong transition and a thermal relic density matching the universal DM abundance is possible only in the Higgs funnel regime.
The electroweak phase transition in the Inert Doublet Model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blinov, Nikita [Department of Physics, University of California Santa Cruz,1156 High St, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics,1156 High St, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Theory Department, TRIUMF,4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 2A3 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia,Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Profumo, Stefano; Stefaniak, Tim [Department of Physics, University of California Santa Cruz,1156 High St, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics,1156 High St, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)
2015-07-21
We study the strength of a first-order electroweak phase transition in the Inert Doublet Model (IDM), where particle dark matter (DM) is comprised of the lightest neutral inert Higgs boson. We improve over previous studies in the description and treatment of the finite-temperature effective potential and of the electroweak phase transition. We focus on a set of benchmark models inspired by the key mechanisms in the IDM leading to a viable dark matter particle candidate, and illustrate how to enhance the strength of the electroweak phase transition by adjusting the masses of the yet undiscovered IDM Higgs states. We argue that across a variety of DM masses, obtaining a strong enough first-order phase transition is a generic possibility in the IDM. We find that due to direct dark matter searches and collider constraints, a sufficiently strong transition and a thermal relic density matching the universal DM abundance is possible only in the Higgs funnel regime.
Dynamics of Phase Transitions by Hysteresis Methods I
Berg, B A; Meyer-Ortmanns, H; Velytsky, A; Berg, Bernd A.; Heller, Urs M.; Meyer-Ortmanns, Hildegard; Velytsky, Alexander
2004-01-01
In studies of the QCD deconfining phase transition or crossover by means of heavy ion experiments, one ought to be concerned about non-equilibrium effects due to heating and cooling of the system. Motivated by this, we look at hysteresis methods to study the dynamics of phase transitions. Our systems are temperature driven through the phase transition using updating procedures in the Glauber universality class. Hysteresis calculations are presented for a number of observables, including the (internal) energy, properties of Fortuin-Kasteleyn clusters and structure functions. We test the methods for 2d Potts models, which provide a rich collection of phase transitions with a number of rigorously known properties. Comparing with equilibrium configurations we find a scenario where the dynamics of the transition leads to a spinodal decomposition which dominates the statistical properties of the configurations. One may expect an enhancement of low energy gluon production due to spinodal decomposition of the Polyako...
Chern-Simons diffusion rate across different phase transitions
Rougemont, Romulo; Finazzo, Stefano Ivo
2016-05-01
We investigate how the dimensionless ratio given by the Chern-Simons diffusion rate ΓCS divided by the product of the entropy density s and temperature T behaves across different kinds of phase transitions in the class of bottom-up nonconformal Einstein-dilaton holographic models originally proposed by Gubser and Nellore. By tuning the dilaton potential, one is able to holographically mimic a first order, a second order, or a crossover transition. In a first order phase transition, ΓCS/s T jumps at the critical temperature (as previously found in the holographic literature), while in a second order phase transition it develops an infinite slope. On the other hand, in a crossover, ΓCS/s T behaves smoothly, although displaying a fast variation around the pseudo-critical temperature. In all the cases, ΓCS/s T increases with decreasing T . The behavior of the Chern-Simons diffusion rate across different phase transitions is expected to play a relevant role for the chiral magnetic effect around the QCD critical end point, which is a second order phase transition point connecting a crossover band to a line of first order phase transition. Our findings in the present work add to the literature the first predictions for the Chern-Simons diffusion rate across second order and crossover transitions in strongly coupled nonconformal, non-Abelian gauge theories.
Ferrofluid nucleus phase transitions in an external uniform magnetic field
Tanygin, B. M.; Shulyma, S. I.; Kovalenko, V. F.; Petrychuk, M.V.
2015-01-01
The phase transition between a massive dense phase and a diluted superparamagnetic phase has been studied by means of a direct molecular dynamics simulation. The equilibrium structures of the ferrofluid aggregate nucleus are obtained for different values of a temperature and an external magnetic field magnitude. An approximate match of experiment and simulation has been shown for the ferrofluid phase diagram coordinates "field-temperature". The provided phase coexistence curve has an opposite...
Deviatoric stress-induced phase transitions in diamantane
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang, Fan; Lin, Yu [Geological and Environmental Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Dahl, Jeremy E. P.; Carlson, Robert M. K. [Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Science, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Mao, Wendy L. [Geological and Environmental Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Science, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Photon Science, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)
2014-10-21
The high-pressure behavior of diamantane was investigated using angle-dispersive synchrotron x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy in diamond anvil cells. Our experiments revealed that the structural transitions in diamantane were extremely sensitive to deviatoric stress. Under non-hydrostatic conditions, diamantane underwent a cubic (space group Pa3) to a monoclinic phase transition at below 0.15 GPa, the lowest pressure we were able to measure. Upon further compression to 3.5 GPa, this monoclinic phase transformed into another high-pressure monoclinic phase which persisted to 32 GPa, the highest pressure studied in our experiments. However, under more hydrostatic conditions using silicone oil as a pressure medium, the transition pressure to the first high-pressure monoclinic phase was elevated to 7–10 GPa, which coincided with the hydrostatic limit of silicone oil. In another experiment using helium as a pressure medium, no phase transitions were observed to the highest pressure we reached (13 GPa). In addition, large hysteresis and sluggish transition kinetics were observed upon decompression. Over the pressure range where phase transitions were confirmed by XRD, only continuous changes in the Raman spectra were observed. This suggests that these phase transitions are associated with unit cell distortions and modifications in molecular packing rather than the formation of new carbon-carbon bonds under pressure.
High-pressure phase transitions - Examples of classical predictability
Celebonovic, Vladan
1992-09-01
The applicability of the Savic and Kasanin (1962-1967) classical theory of dense matter to laboratory experiments requiring estimates of high-pressure phase transitions was examined by determining phase transition pressures for a set of 19 chemical substances (including elements, hydrocarbons, metal oxides, and salts) for which experimental data were available. A comparison between experimental and transition points and those predicted by the Savic-Kasanin theory showed that the theory can be used for estimating values of transition pressures. The results also support conclusions obtained in previous astronomical applications of the Savic-Kasanin theory.
Photothermoelectric (PTE) Versus Photopyroelectric (PPE) Detection of Phase Transitions
Dadarlat, D.; Guilmeau, E.; Hadj Sahraoui, A.; Tudoran, C.; Surducan, V.; Bourgès, C.; Lemoine, P.
2016-05-01
The photopyroelectric (PPE) technique is one of the photothermal (PT) methods mostly used for phase transitions investigations. In this paper, we want to compare the PPE results with those obtained using another, recently developed PT method [the photothermoelectric (PTE) calorimetry] for the same purpose of detecting phase transitions. The well-known ferro-paraelectric phase transition of TGS, taking place at a convenient temperature (about 49 {}^{circ }hbox {C}), has been selected for demonstration. A comparison of the two PPE and PTE methods, both in the back detection configuration (in the special case of optically opaque sample and thermally thick regime for both sensors and sample) shows that they are equally suitable for phase transitions detection. Performing a proper calibration, the amplitude and phase of the signals can be used in order to obtain the critical behaviour of all sample's static and dynamic thermal parameters.
Phase-separation transitions in asymmetric lipid bilayers
Shimobayashi, Shunsuke F; Taniguchi, Takashi
2015-01-01
Morphological transitions of phase separation associated with the asymmetry of lipid composition were investigated using micrometer-sized vesicles of lipid bilayers made from a lipid mixture. The complete macro-phase-separated morphology undergoes a transition to a micro-phase-separation-like morphology via a lorate morphology as a metastable state. The transition leads to the emergence of monodisperse nanosized domains through repeated domain scission events. Moreover, we have numerically confirmed the transitions using the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau model describing phase separation and the bending elastic membrane, which is quantitatively consistent with experimental results by fixing one free parameter. Our findings suggest that the local spontaneous curvature due to the asymmetric composition plays an essential role in the thermodynamic stabilization of micro-phase separation in lipid bilayers.
Phase transition of pure zirconia under irradiation: A textbook example
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
One of the most important goals in ceramic and materials science is to be able to design materials with specific properties. Irradiation seems to be a powerful tool for the design of advanced ceramics because of its ability to modify over different scales the microstructure of solids. Nowadays, it is clearly proved that irradiation induces order-disorder phase transitions in metallic alloys and in some ceramics. In this paper, we show that a displacive phase transition can also be induced by irradiation. Based on many experimental facts, a microscopic model is proposed to explain the displacive phase transition observed in this material after irradiation. Defects, produced in the oxygen sublattice, induce important strain fields on a nanometric scale. This strain field can be handled as a secondary order parameter within the Landau theory approach, leading to a decrease of the phase transition temperature and thus quenching the high temperature tetragonal phase
Nillni, Yael I.; Rohan, Kelly J.; Zvolensky, Michael J.
2012-01-01
The current study examined the interactive effects of anxiety sensitivity (AS; fear of anxiety and anxiety-related sensations) and menstrual cycle phase (premenstrual phase vs. follicular phase) on panic-relevant responding (i.e., cognitive and physical panic symptoms, subjective anxiety, and skin conductance level). Women completed a baseline session and underwent a 3-minute 10% CO2-enriched air biological challenge paradigm during her premenstrual and follicular menstrual cycle phases. Part...
Weakly First Order Cosmological Phase Transitions and Fermion Production
Gleiser, Marcello; Gleiser, Marcelo; Trodden, Mark
2001-01-01
We study weakly first order cosmological phase transitions in finite temperature field theories. Focusing on the standard electroweak theory and its minimal supersymmetric extension, we identify the regimes of Higgs masses for which the phase transition in these models proceeds by significant phase mixing and the coarsening of the subsequent domain network. This dynamics is distinct from that for strongly first order transitions, which proceed by the nucleation and propagation of critical bubbles. We describe how electroweak baryogenesis might take place in these models, explaining how our new picture can relax the sphaleron washout bound of traditional scenarios.
Phase transition of quantum-corrected Schwarzschild black hole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the thermodynamic phase transition of a quantum-corrected Schwarzschild black hole. The modified metric affects the critical temperature which is slightly less than the conventional one. The space without black holes is not the hot flat space but the hot curved space due to vacuum fluctuations so that there appears a type of Gross-Perry-Yaffe phase transition even for the very small size of black hole, which is impossible for the thermodynamics of the conventional Schwarzschild black hole. We discuss physical consequences of the new phase transition in this framework.
On the chiral phase transition in the linear sigma model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Cornwall- Jackiw-Tomboulis (CJT) effective action for composite operators at finite temperature is used to investigate the chiral phase transition within the framework of the linear sigma model as the low-energy effective model of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). A new renormalization prescription for the CJT effective action in the Hartree-Fock (HF) approximation is proposed. A numerical study, which incorporates both thermal and quantum effect, shows that in this approximation the phase transition is of first order. However, taking into account the higher-loop diagrams contribution the order of phase transition is unchanged. (author)
Theory of Coupled Phase Transitions: Phase Separation and Variation of Order Parameter
Zhong, Fan
1998-01-01
A simplified Ginzburg-Landau theory is presented to study generally a coupling of a first-order phase transition (FOPT) to a second-order phase transition (SOPT). We show analytically that, due to the coupling between the two phase transitions, the SOPT may exhibit a FOPT-like phase separation in which an ordered phase is separated from a disordered one. This phase separation results in a distinct behavior in the variation of the order parameter of the SOPT, namely, it is primarily the propor...
Safety performance of traffic phases and phase transitions in three phase traffic theory.
Xu, Chengcheng; Liu, Pan; Wang, Wei; Li, Zhibin
2015-12-01
Crash risk prediction models were developed to link safety to various phases and phase transitions defined by the three phase traffic theory. Results of the Bayesian conditional logit analysis showed that different traffic states differed distinctly with respect to safety performance. The random-parameter logit approach was utilized to account for the heterogeneity caused by unobserved factors. The Bayesian inference approach based on the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method was used for the estimation of the random-parameter logit model. The proposed approach increased the prediction performance of the crash risk models as compared with the conventional logit model. The three phase traffic theory can help us better understand the mechanism of crash occurrences in various traffic states. The contributing factors to crash likelihood can be well explained by the mechanism of phase transitions. We further discovered that the free flow state can be divided into two sub-phases on the basis of safety performance, including a true free flow state in which the interactions between vehicles are minor, and a platooned traffic state in which bunched vehicles travel in successions. The results of this study suggest that a safety perspective can be added to the three phase traffic theory. The results also suggest that the heterogeneity between different traffic states should be considered when estimating the risks of crash occurrences on freeways. PMID:26367463
Pontine respiratory activity involved in inspiratory/expiratory phase transition
Mörschel, Michael; Dutschmann, Mathias
2009-01-01
Control of the timing of the inspiratory/expiratory (IE) phase transition is a hallmark of respiratory pattern formation. In principle, sensory feedback from pulmonary stretch receptors (Breuer–Hering reflex, BHR) is seen as the major controller for the IE phase transition, while pontine-based control of IE phase transition by both the pontine Kölliker–Fuse nucleus (KF) and parabrachial complex is seen as a secondary or backup mechanism. However, previous studies have shown that the BHR can habituate in vivo. Thus, habituation reduces sensory feedback, so the role of the pons, and specifically the KF, for IE phase transition may increase dramatically. Pontine-mediated control of the IE phase transition is not completely understood. In the present review, we discuss existing models for ponto-medullary interaction that may be involved in the control of inspiratory duration and IE transition. We also present intracellular recordings of pontine respiratory units derived from an in situ intra-arterially perfused brainstem preparation of rats. With the absence of lung inflation, this preparation generates a normal respiratory pattern and many of the recorded pontine units demonstrated phasic respiratory-related activity. The analysis of changes in membrane potentials of pontine respiratory neurons has allowed us to propose a number of pontine-medullary interactions not considered before. The involvement of these putative interactions in pontine-mediated control of IE phase transitions is discussed. PMID:19651653
Effect of dimensionality on vapor-liquid phase transition
Singh, Sudhir Kumar
2014-04-01
Dimensionality play significant role on `phase transitions'. Fluids in macroscopic confinement (bulk or 3-Dimensional, 3D) do not show significant changes in their phase transition properties with extent of confinement, since the number of molecules away from the surrounding surfaces is astronomically higher than the number of molecules in close proximity of the confining surfaces. In microscopic confinement (quasi 3D to quasi-2D), however, the number of molecules away from the close proximity of the surface is not as high as is the case with macroscopic (3D) confinement. Hence, under the same thermodynamic conditions `phase transition' properties at microscopic confinement may not remain the same as the macroscopic or 3D values. Phase transitions at extremely small scale become very sensitive to the dimensions as well as the surface characteristics of the system. In this work our investigations reveal the effect of dimensionality on the phase transition from 3D to quasi-2D to 2D behavior. We have used grand canonical transition matrix Monte Carlo simulation to understand the vapor-liquid phase transitions from 3D to quasi-2D behavior. Such studies can be helpful in understanding and controlling the fluid film behaviour confined between solid surfaces of few molecular diameters, for example, in lubrication applications.
A strictly hyperbolic equilibrium phase transition model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Allaire, G [Ecole Polytech, CNRS, CMAP, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Faccanoni, G; Kokh, S. [CEA Saclay, DEN, DANS, DM2S, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France)
2007-01-15
This Note is concerned with the strict hyperbolicity of the compressible Euler equations equipped with an equation of state that describes the thermodynamical equilibrium between the liquid phase and the vapor phase of a fluid. The proof is valid for a very wide class of fluids. The argument only relies on smoothness assumptions and on the classical thermodynamical stability assumptions, that requires a definite negative Hessian matrix for each phase entropy as a function of the specific volume and internal energy. (authors)
Discontinuous structural phase transition of liquid metal and alloys (2)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The diameter (df) of diffusion fluid cluster before and after phase transition has been calculated in terms of the paper ''Discontinuous structural phase transition of liquid metal and alloy (1)'' Physics Letters. A 326 (2004) 429-435, to verify quantitatively the discontinuity of structural phase transition; the phenomena of thermal contraction and thermal expansion during the phase transition, together with the evolution model of discontinuous structural phase transition are also discussed in this Letter to explore further the nature of structural transition; In addition, based on the viscosity experimental result mentioned in paper [Y. Waseda, The Structure of Non-Crystalline Materials--Liquids and Amorphous Solids, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1980], we present an approach to draw an embryo of the liquid-liquid (L-L) phase diagram for binary alloys above liquidus in the paper, expecting to guide metallurgy process so as to improve the properties of alloys. The idea that controls amorphous structure and its properties by means of the L-L phase diagram for alloys and by the rapid cooling technique to form the amorphous alloy has been brought forward in the end
Phase transitions in K-doped MoO2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
K0.05MoO2 has been studied by x-ray and neutron diffractometry, electrical resistivity, magnetization, heat capacity, and thermal expansion measurements. The compound displays two phase transitions, a first-order phase transition near room temperature and a second-order transition near 54 K. Below the transition at 54 K, a weak magnetic anomaly is observed and the electrical resistivity is well described by a power-law temperature dependence with exponent near 0.5. The phase transitions in the K-doped MoO2 compound have been discussed for the first time using neutron diffraction, high resolution thermal expansion, and heat capacity measurements as a function of temperature.
Successive phase transitions in the orthovanadate TmVO3
Sarkar, Tapati; Ivanov, Sergey A.; Bazuev, G. V.; Nordblad, Per; Mathieu, Roland
2015-09-01
Synthesis and crystal structure, magnetization and heat capacity measurements of phase pure polycrystalline TmVO3 are reported. TmVO3 was stabilized in the orthorhombic structure by thermal treatment of the precursor TmVO4 in a reducing atmosphere. Magnetization and heat capacity measurements reveal the presence of several successive structural and magnetic phase transitions in this compound. At T = 108 K, the sample undergoes a transition from a paramagnetic state to an antiferromagnetic state, followed by a second transition at 78 K which is related to spin and orbital reorientation. The heat capacity measurements reveal the presence of a third transition in the paramagnetic state (at T = 175 K), which corresponds to a structural phase transition and orbital ordering. At low temperatures (~15 K) and weak fields, there is an anomaly in the magnetization, which may be associated with antiferromagnetic short range ordering of the Tm3+ ions.
Successive phase transitions in the orthovanadate TmVO3
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Synthesis and crystal structure, magnetization and heat capacity measurements of phase pure polycrystalline TmVO3 are reported. TmVO3 was stabilized in the orthorhombic structure by thermal treatment of the precursor TmVO4 in a reducing atmosphere. Magnetization and heat capacity measurements reveal the presence of several successive structural and magnetic phase transitions in this compound. At T = 108 K, the sample undergoes a transition from a paramagnetic state to an antiferromagnetic state, followed by a second transition at 78 K which is related to spin and orbital reorientation. The heat capacity measurements reveal the presence of a third transition in the paramagnetic state (at T = 175 K), which corresponds to a structural phase transition and orbital ordering. At low temperatures (∼15 K) and weak fields, there is an anomaly in the magnetization, which may be associated with antiferromagnetic short range ordering of the Tm3+ ions. (paper)
Phase transition in extended thermodynamic phase space and charged Horava-Lifshitz black holes
Poshteh, Mohammad Bagher Jahani; Riazi, Nematollah
2016-01-01
For charged black holes in Horava-Lifshitz gravity, it is shown that a second order phase transition takes place in extended phase space. We study the behavior of specific heat and free energy at the point of transition in canonical and grand canonical ensembles and show that the black hole falls into a state which is locally and globally stable. We relate the second order nature of phase transition to the fact that the phase transition occurs at a sharp temperature and not over a temperature...
Phase Transition in Hierarchy Model of Bonabeau
Stauffer, Dietrich
The model of Bonabeau explains the emergence of social hierarchies from the memory of fights in an initially egalitarian society. Introducing a feedback from the social inequality into the probability to win a fight, we find a sharp transition between an egalitarian society at low population density and a hierarchical society at high population density.
Zero temperature phase transitions in quantum Heisenberg ferromagnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The purpose of this work is to understand the zero temperature phases and the phase transitions of Heisenberg spin systems which can have an extensive, spontaneous magnetic moment, this entails a study of quantum transitions with an order parameter which is also a non-abelian conserved charge. To this end, we introduce and study a new class of lattice models of quantum rotors. We compute their mean-field phase diagrams and present continuum, quantum field-theoretic descriptions of their low energy properties in different regimes. We argue that, in spatial dimension d=1, the phase transitions in itinerant Fermi systems are in the same universality class as the corresponding transitions in certain rotor models. We discuss implications of our results for itinerant fermions systems in higher d and for other physical systems. Copyright copyright 1996 Academic Press, Inc
Statistical Physics and Dynamical Systems: Models of Phase Transitions
Patwardhan, Ajay
2007-01-01
This paper explores the connection between dynamical system properties and statistical physics of ensembles of such systems. Simple models are used to give novel phase transitions; particularly for finite N particle systems with many physically interesting examples.
Gravitational waves from a very strong electroweak phase transition
Leitao, Leonardo
2015-01-01
We investigate the production of a stochastic background of gravitational waves in the electroweak phase transition. We consider a few extensions of the Standard Model which can give very strongly first-order phase transitions. We concentrate on the possibility that the phase transition fronts either propagate as detonations or run away. We compute the bubble wall velocity taking into account the friction and hydrodynamics due to the presence of the plasma, and we track the development of the phase transition up to the percolation time. We calculate the contribution to the gravitational wave spectrum from bubble collisions, magnetohydrodynamic turbulence, and sound waves. For the kinds of models we consider we find parameter regions for which the gravitational waves are potentially observable at the planned space-based interferometer eLISA. The sound waves are generally the strongest source. Since this mechanism is diminished in the presence of runaway walls, the models with the best prospects of detection at...
Lifshitz transitions in magnetic phases of the periodic Anderson model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate the reconstruction of a Fermi surface, which is called a Lifshitz transition, in magnetically ordered phases of the periodic Anderson model on a square lattice with a finite Coulomb interaction between f electrons. We apply the variational Monte Carlo method to the model by using the Gutzwiller wavefunctions for the paramagnetic, antiferromagnetic, ferromagnetic, and charge-density-wave states. We find that an antiferromagnetic phase is realized around half-filling and a ferromagnetic phase is realized when the system is far away from half-filling. In both magnetic phases, Lifshitz transitions take place. By analyzing the electronic states, we conclude that the Lifshitz transitions to large ordered-moment states can be regarded as itinerant-localized transitions of the f electrons. (author)
Foundations of Statistical Mechanics and Theory of Phase Transition
Belokolos, E D
1997-01-01
A new formulation of statistical mechanics is put forward according to which a random variable characterizing a macroscopic body is postulated to be infinitely divisible. It leads to a parametric representation of partition function of an arbitrary macroscopic body, a possibility to describe a macroscopic body under excitation by a gas of some elementary quasiparticles etc. A phase transition is defined as such a state of a macroscopic body that its random variable is stable in sense of Lévy. From this definition it follows by deduction all general properties of phase transitions: existence of the renormalization semigroup, the singularity classification for thermodynamic functions, the phase transition universality and universality classes. On this basis we has also built a 2-parameter scaling theory of phase transitions, a thermodynamic function for the Ising model etc.
Dynamical symmetries and causality in non-equilibrium phase transitions
Henkel, Malte
2015-01-01
Dynamical symmetries are of considerable importance in elucidating the complex behaviour of strongly interacting systems with many degrees of freedom. Paradigmatic examples are cooperative phenomena as they arise in phase transitions, where conformal invariance has led to enormous progress in equilibrium phase transitions, especially in two dimensions. Non-equilibrium phase transitions can arise in much larger portions of the parameter space than equilibrium phase transitions. The state of the art of recent attempts to generalise conformal invariance to a new generic symmetry, taking into account the different scaling behaviour of space and time, will be reviewed. Particular attention will be given to the causality properties as they follow for co-variant $n$-point functions. These are important for the physical identification of n-point functions as responses or correlators.
Phase transition in Potts model with invisible states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study phase transition in the ferromagnetic Potts model with invisible states that are added as redundant states by mean-field calculation and Monte Carlo simulation. Invisible states affect the entropy and free energy, although they do not contribute to the internal energy. A second-order phase transition takes place at finite temperature in the standard q-state ferromagnetic Potts model on two-dimensional lattice for q=2,3, and 4. However, our present model on two-dimensional lattice undergoes a first-order phase transition with spontaneous q-fold symmetry breaking (q=2,3, and 4) due to entropy effect of invisible states. The model is fundamental for the analysis of a first-order phase transition with spontaneous discrete symmetry breaking. (author)
Strange quark matter:Business as usual or phase transition?
Torrieri, Giorgio
2011-01-01
We give an overview of some results presented at the Strange Quark Matter 2011 conference in Krakow, and interpret them in light of the search of the search for a QCD deconfinement phase transition in heavy ion collisions
d-Dimensional exactly solvable model for structural phase transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The approximating Hamiltonian method is used to prove the exact solvability of a lattice type gphi4 model with the interacting constant g=lambda/N. The thermodynamical properties of the phase transition in this model is studied as well
Dynamical Symmetries and Causality in Non-Equilibrium Phase Transitions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Malte Henkel
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Dynamical symmetries are of considerable importance in elucidating the complex behaviour of strongly interacting systems with many degrees of freedom. Paradigmatic examples are cooperative phenomena as they arise in phase transitions, where conformal invariance has led to enormous progress in equilibrium phase transitions, especially in two dimensions. Non-equilibrium phase transitions can arise in much larger portions of the parameter space than equilibrium phase transitions. The state of the art of recent attempts to generalise conformal invariance to a new generic symmetry, taking into account the different scaling behaviour of space and time, will be reviewed. Particular attention will be given to the causality properties as they follow for co-variant n-point functions. These are important for the physical identification of n-point functions as responses or correlators.
Integrability and Quantum Phase Transitions in Interacting Boson Models
Dukelsky, J; García-Ramos, J E; Pittel, S
2003-01-01
The exact solution of the boson pairing hamiltonian given by Richardson in the sixties is used to study the phenomena of level crossings and quantum phase transitions in the integrable regions of the sd and sdg interacting boson models.
Entanglement and quantum phase transition in the extended Hubbard model
Gu, Shi-Jian; Deng, Shu-Sa; Li, You-Quan; Lin, Hai-Qing
2004-01-01
We study quantum entanglement in one-dimensional correlated fermionic system. Our results show, for the first time, that entanglement can be used to identify quantum phase transitions in fermionic systems.
Thermodynamic properties and phase transitions in CO2 molecular clusters
Etters, R. D.; Flurchick, K.; Pan, R. P.; Chandrasekharan, V.
1981-01-01
The thermodynamic properties of (CO2)N molecular aggregates of size N between 2 and 13 have been investigated. These crystallites exhibit well defined orientational order-disorder rotational transitions accompanied by a structural transition into a plastic crystallite phase. In addition, they exhibit melting and disassociation transitions. It is shown that the interpretation of experimental data, based upon dimer properties, depends crucially on these results. Equilibrium structures and orientations are also given.
Research for the energy turnaround. Phase transitions actively shape. Contributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Annual Conference 2014 of the Renewable Energy Research Association was held in Berlin on 6 and 7 November 2014. This book documents the contributions of the conference on research for the energy turnaround, phase transitions actively shape. After an introduction and two contributions to the political framework, the contributions to the economic phases of the energy transition, the phase of the current turn, the phases of social energy revolution, the stages of heat turnaround (Waermewende), and the stages of the mobility turn deal with the stages of development of the energy system. Finally, the Research Association Renewable Energy is briefly presented.
Phase Transition and Absence Of Ghosts in Rigid QED
Awada, Moustafa; Zoller, David
1994-01-01
Ordinary QED formulated in the Feynman's space-time picture is equivalent to a one dimensional field theory. In the large N limit there is no phase transition in such a theory. In this letter, we show a phase transition does exist in a generalization of QED characterized by the addition of the curvature of the world line (rigidity) to the Feynman's space-time action. The large distance scale of the disordered phase essentially coincides with ordinary QED, while the ordered phase is strongly c...
Phase Transitions in a Forest-Fire Model
Clar, Siegfried; Schenk, Klaus; Schwabl, Franz
1997-01-01
We investigate a forest-fire model with the density of empty sites as control parameter. The model exhibits three phases, separated by one first-order phase transition and one 'mixed' phase transition which shows critical behavior on only one side and hysteresis. The critical behavior is found to be that of the self-organized critical forest-fire model [B. Drossel and F. Schwabl, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1629 (1992)], whereas in the adjacent phase one finds the spiral waves of the Bak et al. fore...
Probing phase transitions of vortex matter by Josephson plasma resonance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Josephson plasma resonance is the most powerful means to study the vortex state in high-Tc superconductors. In this paper we report the detailed and quantitative study of the interlayer quantum phase coherence in the vortex liquid, Bragg glass and vortex glass phases of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ by the Josephson plasma resonance. We also provide a quantitative discussion on the nature of the phase transitions among these vortex phases. (author)
Phase transition in L-alaninium oxalate by photoacoustics
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
M Sivabarathy; S Natarajan; S K Ramakrishnan; K Ramachandran
2004-10-01
Phase transition in L-alaninium oxalate is studied by using TG, DTA and photoacoustic spectroscopy. A sharp transition at 378 K by photoacoustics is observed whereas at the same temperature the endothermic energy change observed by TG and DTA is not very sharp. This is discussed in detail with reference to the other known data for the organic crystals.
Change in Order of Phase Transitions on Fractal Lattices
Windus, Alastair L; Jensen, Henrik Jeldtoft
2008-01-01
We re-examine a population model which exhibits a continuous absorbing phase transition which belongs to directed percolation in 1+1 dimensions and a first order transition in 2+1 dimensions and above. Studying the model on fractal lattices, we examine at what fractal dimension 1
Phase transition of bismuth telluride thin films grown by MBE
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fülöp, Attila; Song, Yuxin; Charpentier, Sophie;
2014-01-01
A previously unreported phase transition between Bi2Te3 and Bi4Te3 in bismuth telluride grown by molecular beam epitaxy is recorded via XRD, AFM, and SIMS observations. This transition is found to be related to the Te/Bi beam equivalent pressure (BEP) ratio. BEP ratios below 17 favor the formatio...
The QCD phase transitions: From mechanism to observables
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shuryak, E.V.
1997-09-22
This paper contains viewgraphs on quantum chromodynamic phase transformations during heavy ion collisions. Some topics briefly described are: finite T transitions of I molecule pairs; finite density transitions of diquarks polymers; and the softtest point of the equation of state as a source of discontinuous behavior as a function of collision energy or centrality.
Formation of Black Holes in First Order Phase Transitions
Khlopov, M. Yu.; R. V. Konoplich(Physics Dept.New York University, N.Y., USA); Rubin, S. G.; Sakharov, A. S.
1998-01-01
A new mechanism of black hole formation in a first order phase transition is proposed. In vacuum bubble collisions the interaction of bubble walls leads to the formation of nontrivial vacuum configuration. The consequent collapse of this vacuum configuration induces the black hole formation with high probability. Observational constraints on the spectrum of primordial black holes allow to obtain new nontrivial restrictions on parameters of inflation models with first order phase transitions.
Phase transitions a brief account with modern applications
Gitterman, Moshe
2004-01-01
This book presents a short, fairly simple course on the basic theoryof phase transitions and its modern applications. In physics, theseapplications include such modern developments as Bose- Einsteincondensation of atoms, high temperature superconductivity, andvortices in superconductors, while in other fields they include smallworld phenomena and scale-free systems (such as stock markets and theInternet). The advantage of treating all these topics together lies inshowing their connection with one another and with the general theoryof phase transitions.
An Analysis of Phase Transition in NK Landscapes
Culberson, J.; Gao, Y.
2011-01-01
In this paper, we analyze the decision version of the NK landscape model from the perspective of threshold phenomena and phase transitions under two random distributions, the uniform probability model and the fixed ratio model. For the uniform probability model, we prove that the phase transition is easy in the sense that there is a polynomial algorithm that can solve a random instance of the problem with the probability asymptotic to 1 as the problem size tends to infinity. For the fixed rat...
Euclidean dynamical symmetry in nuclear shape phase transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Euclidean dynamical symmetry hidden in the critical region of nuclear shape phase transitions is revealed by a novel algebraic F(5) description. With a nonlinear projection, it is shown that the dynamics in the critical region of the spherical–axial deformed and the spherical–γ-soft shape phase transitions can indeed be manifested by this description, which thus provides a unified symmetry-based interpretation of the critical phenomena in the region.
Effect of disorder on first-order phase transitions
Bellafard, Arash
2015-01-01
Disorder is an inevitable part of any condensed matter system and therefore its study has always been of great importance. The effect of quenched randomness on a system that exhibits a continuous phase transition in the absence of any impurity has been studied in the past and the results are relatively well understood. However, the effect of quenched randomness on \\emph{first-order} phase transitions is still not well understood. In this dissertation, we study the effect of quenched bond-rand...
Signatures of QCD Phase Transition in a Newborn Compact Star
Wong, K. -W.; Chu, M. -C.
2003-01-01
We study the scenario that a new born strange quark star cools to the Quantum ChromoDynamics (QCD) phase transition temperature and converts to a neutron star, and we calculate the evolution of temperature and luminosity of the compact star. We argue that the conversion energy released can be of the order $10^{53}$ erg. We also propose that a second neutrino burst will be emitted at the completion of this phase transition.
Phase Transition of Bi2WO6 below 300 K
Yoneda, Yasuhiro; Takeda, Hiroaki; Tsurumi, Takaaki
We report the high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction study of ferroelectric Bi2WO6 at low temperatures, and a new phase transition was found around 200 K. The mechanism of this phase transition was examined by atomic pair-distribution function (PDF) method. We found a deviation between the local and average structures owing to the different coherent lengths between the Bi2WO6 and WO6 layers.
Signatures of QCD Phase Transition in a Newborn Compact Star
Wong, K W
2004-01-01
We study the scenario that a new born strange quark star cools to the QCD phase transition temperature and converts to a neutron star, and we calculate the evolution of temperature and luminosity of the compact star. We argue that the conversion energy released can account for the energy source of Gamma Ray Bursts. We also propose that a second neutrino burst will be emitted at the completion of this phase transition.
Limit formulas for metric measure invariants and phase transition property
Ozawa, Ryunosuke; Shioya, Takashi
2014-01-01
We generalize the observable diameter and the separation distance for metric measure spaces to those for pyramids, and prove some limit formulas for these invariants for a convergent sequence of pyramids. We obtain various applications of our limit formulas as follows. We have a criterion of the phase transition property for a sequence of metric measure spaces or pyramids, and find some examples of symmetric spaces of noncompact type with the phase transition property. We also give a simple p...
Fluid-phase transitions in light water and heavy water
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Phase transitions are important phenomena in water-cooled nuclear-fission reactors. In this study, liquid-vapour phase transitions and critical-point behaviour are considered. Special attention is given to the van der Waals model, asymptotic critical scaling, thermodynamic potentials and steam properties. Models and data are shown for light water and heavy water. The relevance to advanced Generation III reactors and proposed Generation IV reactors is assessed. (author)
Effect of point defects and disorder on structural phase transitions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Toulouse, J.
1997-06-01
Since the beginning in 1986, the object of this project has been Structural Phase Transitions (SPT) in real as opposed to ideal materials. The first stage of the study has been centered around the role of Point Defects in SPT`s. Our intent was to use the previous knowledge we had acquired in the study of point defects in non-transforming insulators and apply it to the study of point defects in insulators undergoing phase transitions. In non-transforming insulators, point defects, in low concentrations, marginally affect the bulk properties of the host. It is nevertheless possible by resonance or relaxation methods to study the point defects themselves via their local motion. In transforming solids, however, close to a phase transition, atomic motions become correlated over very large distances; there, even point defects far removed from one another can undergo correlated motions which may strongly affect the transition behavior of the host. Near a structural transition, the elastic properties win be most strongly affected so as to either raise or decrease the transition temperature, prevent the transition from taking place altogether, or simply modify its nature and the microstructure or domain structure of the resulting phase. One of the well known practical examples is calcium-stabilized zirconia in which the high temperature cubic phase is stabilized at room temperature with greatly improved mechanical properties.
Phase transitions of a polymer threading a membrane coupled to coil-globule transitions
Matsuyama, Akihiko
2004-01-01
We theoretically study phase transitions of a polymer threading through a pore imbedded in a membrane. We focus on the coupling between a partition of the polymer segments through the membrane and a coil-globule transition of the single polymer chain. Based on the Flory model for collapse transitions of a polymer chain, we calculate the fraction of polymer segments and the expansion factor of a polymer coil on each side of the membrane. We predict a first-order phase transition of a polymer t...
Phase Transition in Unrestricted Random SAT
Schuh, Bernd R
2012-01-01
For random CNF formulae with m clauses, n variables and an unrestricted number of literals per clause the transition from high to low satisfiability can be determined exactly for large n. The critical density m/n turns out to be strongly n-dependent, ccr = ln(2)/(1-p)^^n, where pn is the mean number of positive literals per clause.This is in contrast to restricted random SAT problems (random K-SAT), where the critical ratio m/n is a constant. All transition lines are calculated by the second moment method applied to the number of solutions N of a formula. In contrast to random K-SAT, the method does not fail for the unrestricted model, because long range interactions between solutions are not cut off by disorder.
Phase transition in extended thermodynamic phase space and charged Horava-Lifshitz black holes
Poshteh, Mohammad Bagher Jahani
2016-01-01
For charged black holes in Horava-Lifshitz gravity, it is shown that a second order phase transition takes place in extended phase space. We study the behavior of specific heat and free energy at the point of transition in canonical and grand canonical ensembles and show that the black hole falls into a state which is locally and globally stable. We relate the second order nature of phase transition to the fact that the phase transition occurs at a sharp temperature and not over a temperature interval. By taking cosmological constant as thermodynamic pressure for charged black holes, we extend Ehrenfest's equations. We obtain nine equations and show that, all of them are satisfied at the point in which the specific heat diverges. We also apply geometrothermodynamics to extended phase space and show that the scalar curvature of Quevedo metric diverges at the point at which the second order phase transition takes place.
A Quantum Phase Transition in the Cosmic Ray Energy Distribution
Widom, A; Srivastava, Y
2015-01-01
We here argue that the "knee" of the cosmic ray energy distribution at $E_c \\sim 1$ PeV represents a second order phase transition of cosmic proportions. The discontinuity of the heat capacity per cosmic ray particle is given by $\\Delta c=0.450196\\ k_B$. However the idea of a deeper critical point singularity cannot be ruled out by present accuracy in neither theory nor experiment. The quantum phase transition consists of cosmic rays dominated by bosons for the low temperature phase E E_c$. The low temperature phase arises from those nuclei described by the usual and conventional collective boson models of nuclear physics. The high temperature phase is dominated by protons. The transition energy $E_c$ may be estimated in terms of the photo-disintegration of nuclei.
Phase Transitions in Antibody Solutions: from Pharmaceuticals to Human Disease
Wang, Ying; Lomakin, Aleksey; Benedek, George; Dana Farber Cancer Institute Collaboration; Amgen Inc. Collaboration
2014-03-01
Antibodies are very important proteins. Natural antibodies play essential role in the immune system of human body. Pharmaceutical antibodies are used as drugs. Antibodies are also indispensable tools in biomedical research and diagnostics. Recently, a number of observations of phase transitions of pharmaceutical antibodies have been reported. These phase transitions are undesirable from the perspective of colloid stability of drug solutions in processing and storage, but can be used for protein purification, X-ray crystallography, and improving pharmokinetics of drugs. Phase transitions of antibodies can also take place in human body, particularly in multiple myeloma patients who overproduce monoclonal antibodies. These antibodies, in some cases, crystallize at body temperature and cause severe complications called cryoglobulinemia. I will present the results of our current studies on phase transitions of both pharmaceutical antibodies and cryoglobulinemia-associated antibodies. These studies have shown that different antibodies have different propensity to undergo phase transitions, but their phase behavior has universal features which are remarkably different from those of spherical proteins. I will discuss how studies of phase behavior can be useful in assessing colloid stability of pharmaceutical antibodies and in early diagnostics of cryoglobulinemia, as well as general implications of the fact that some antibodies can precipitate at physiological conditions.
Density Functional Theory for Phase-Ordering Transitions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wu, Jianzhong [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States)
2016-03-30
Colloids display astonishing structural and dynamic properties that can be dramatically altered by modest changes in the solution condition or an external field. This complex behavior stems from a subtle balance of colloidal forces and intriguing mesoscopic and macroscopic phase transitions that are sensitive to the processing conditions and the dispersing environment. Whereas the knowledge on the microscopic structure and phase behavior of colloidal systems at equilibrium is now well-advanced, quantitative predictions of the dynamic properties and the kinetics of phase-ordering transitions in colloids are not always realized. Many important mesoscopic and off-equilibrium colloidal states remain poorly understood. The proposed research aims to develop a new, unifying approach to describe colloidal dynamics and the kinetics of phase-ordering transitions based on accomplishments from previous work for the equilibrium properties of both uniform and inhomogeneous systems and on novel concepts from the state-of-the-art dynamic density functional theory. In addition to theoretical developments, computational research is designed to address a number of fundamental questions on phase-ordering transitions in colloids, in particular those pertinent to a competition of the dynamic pathways leading to various mesoscopic structures, off-equilibrium states, and crystalline phases. By providing a generic theoretical framework to describe equilibrium, metastable as well as non-ergodic phase transitions concurrent with the colloidal self-assembly processes, accomplishments from this work will have major impacts on both fundamental research and technological applications.
Effects of phase transition induced density fluctuations on pulsar dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bagchi, Partha, E-mail: partha@iopb.res.in [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Das, Arpan, E-mail: arpan@iopb.res.in [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Layek, Biswanath, E-mail: layek@pilani.bits-pilani.ac.in [Department of Physics, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani - 333031 (India); Srivastava, Ajit M., E-mail: ajit@iopb.res.in [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India)
2015-07-30
We show that density fluctuations during phase transitions in pulsar cores may have non-trivial effects on pulsar timings, and may also possibly account for glitches and anti-glitches. These density fluctuations invariably lead to non-zero off-diagonal components of the moment of inertia, leading to transient wobbling of star. Thus, accurate measurements of pulsar timing and intensity modulations (from wobbling) may be used to identify the specific pattern of density fluctuations, hence the particular phase transition, occurring inside the pulsar core. Changes in quadrupole moment from rapidly evolving density fluctuations during the transition, with very short time scales, may provide a new source for gravitational waves.
Antiferromagnetic phase transition and spin correlations in NiO
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chatterji, Tapan; McIntyre, G.J.; Lindgård, Per-Anker
2009-01-01
We have investigated the antiferromagnetic (AF) phase transition and spin correlations in NiO by high-temperature neutron diffraction below and above TN. We show that AF phase transition is a continuous second-order transition within our experimental resolution. The spin correlations manifested by...... process. We determined the critical exponents =0.328±0.002 and =0.64±0.03 and the Néel temperature TN=530±1 K. These critical exponents suggest that NiO should be regarded as a 3dXY system...
Classicality of the order parameter during a phase transition
Lombardo, F C; Monteoliva, D; Lombardo, Fernando C.; Mazzitelli, Francisco D.; Monteoliva, Diana
2000-01-01
We analize the quantum to classical transition of the order parameter insecond order phase transitions. We consider several toy models in nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. We study the dynamical evolution of a wavepacket initially peaked around a local maximum of the potential usingvariational approximations and also exact numerical results. The influence ofthe environment on the evolution of the density matrix and the Wigner functionis analized in great detail. We also discuss the relevance of our results tothe analysis of phase transitions in field theory. In particular, we argue thatprevious results about classicality of the order parameter in O(N) models maybe consequences of the large $N$ approximation.
Gravitational waves from cosmological first order phase transitions
Hindmarsh, Mark; Rummukainen, Kari; Weir, David
2015-01-01
First order phase transitions in the early Universe generate gravitational waves, which may be observable in future space-based gravitational wave observatiories, e.g. the European eLISA satellite constellation. The gravitational waves provide an unprecedented direct view of the Universe at the time of their creation. We study the generation of the gravitational waves during a first order phase transition using large-scale simulations of a model consisting of relativistic fluid and an order parameter field. We observe that the dominant source of gravitational waves is the sound generated by the transition, resulting in considerably stronger radiation than earlier calculations have indicated.
Exotic phase transitions of k-cores in clustered networks
Bhat, Uttam; Hébert-Dufresne, Laurent
2016-01-01
The giant $k$-core --- maximal connected subgraph of a network where each node has at least $k$ neighbors --- is important in the study of phase transitions and in applications of network theory. Unlike Erd\\H{o}s-R\\'enyi graphs and other random networks where $k$-cores emerge discontinuously for $k\\ge 3$, we show that transitive linking (or triadic closure) leads to 3-cores emerging through single or double phase transitions of both discontinuous and continuous nature. We also develop a $k$-core calculation that includes clustering and provides insights into how high-level connectivity emerges.
How generic scale invariance influences quantum and classical phase transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This review discusses a paradigm that has become of increasing importance in the theory of quantum phase transitions, namely, the coupling of the order-parameter fluctuations to other soft modes and the resulting impossibility of constructing a simple Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson theory in terms of the order parameter only. The soft modes in question are manifestations of generic scale invariance, i.e., the appearance of long-range order in whole regions in the phase diagram. The concept of generic scale invariance and its influence on critical behavior is explained using various examples, both classical and quantum mechanical. The peculiarities of quantum phase transitions are discussed, with emphasis on the fact that they are more susceptible to the effects of generic scale invariance than their classical counterparts. Explicit examples include the quantum ferromagnetic transition in metals, with or without quenched disorder; the metal-superconductor transition at zero temperature; and the quantum antiferromagnetic transition. Analogies with classical phase transitions in liquid crystals and classical fluids are pointed out, and a unifying conceptual framework is developed for all transitions that are influenced by generic scale invariance
Pairing Phase Transitions of Matter under Rotation
Jiang, Yin
2016-01-01
The phases and properties of matter under global rotation have attracted much interest recently. In this paper we investigate the pairing phenomena in a system of fermions under the presence of rotation. We find that there is a generic suppression effect on pairing states with zero angular momentum. We demonstrate this effect with the chiral condensation and the color superconductivity in hot dense QCD matter as explicit examples. In the case of chiral condensation, a new phase diagram in the temperature-rotation parameter space is found, with a nontrivial critical point.
On the phase transition nature in compressible Ising models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The phase transition phenomenon is analysed in a compressible ferromagnetic Ising model at null field, through the mean-field approximation. The model studied is d-dimensional under the magnetic point of view and one-dimensional under the elastic point of view. This is achieved keeping the compressive interactions among the ions and rejecting annealing forces completely. The exchange parameter J is linear and the elastic potential quadratic in relation to the microscopic shifts of the lattice. In the one-dimensional case, this model shows no phase transition. In the two-dimensional case, the role of the Si spin of the i-the ion is crucial: a) for spin 1/2 the transitions are of second order; b) for spin 1, desides the second order transitions there is a three-critical point and a first-order transitions line. (L.C.)
Exploring percolative landscapes: Infinite cascades of geometric phase transitions
Timonin, P. N.; Chitov, Gennady Y.
2016-01-01
The evolution of many kinetic processes in 1+1 (space-time) dimensions results in 2 D directed percolative landscapes. The active phases of these models possess numerous hidden geometric orders characterized by various types of large-scale and/or coarse-grained percolative backbones that we define. For the patterns originated in the classical directed percolation (DP) and contact process we show from the Monte Carlo simulation data that these percolative backbones emerge at specific critical points as a result of continuous phase transitions. These geometric transitions belong to the DP universality class and their nonlocal order parameters are the capacities of corresponding backbones. The multitude of conceivable percolative backbones implies the existence of infinite cascades of such geometric transitions in the kinetic processes considered. We present simple arguments to support the conjecture that such cascades of transitions are a generic feature of percolation as well as of many other transitions with nonlocal order parameters.
Spin-current probe for phase transition in an insulator.
Qiu, Zhiyong; Li, Jia; Hou, Dazhi; Arenholz, Elke; N'Diaye, Alpha T; Tan, Ali; Uchida, Ken-Ichi; Sato, Koji; Okamoto, Satoshi; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav; Qiu, Z Q; Saitoh, Eiji
2016-01-01
Spin fluctuation and transition have always been one of the central topics of magnetism and condensed matter science. Experimentally, the spin fluctuation is found transcribed onto scattering intensity in the neutron-scattering process, which is represented by dynamical magnetic susceptibility and maximized at phase transitions. Importantly, a neutron carries spin without electric charge, and therefore it can bring spin into a sample without being disturbed by electric energy. However, large facilities such as a nuclear reactor are necessary. Here we show that spin pumping, frequently used in nanoscale spintronic devices, provides a desktop microprobe for spin transition; spin current is a flux of spin without an electric charge and its transport reflects spin excitation. We demonstrate detection of antiferromagnetic transition in ultra-thin CoO films via frequency-dependent spin-current transmission measurements, which provides a versatile probe for phase transition in an electric manner in minute devices. PMID:27573443
Doped vanadium oxides phase transitions vapors influence
N.Y. Shishkin; A.A. Komarov; D.V. Kosov; V.A. Cherkasov; Bashkirov, L. A.; Bardi, U; Y.K. Gunko
2005-01-01
The methods of vanadium dioxide synthesis were developed. The ﬁrst one is based on the decomposition of vanadyl oxalate VOC2O4 obtained by the dissolution of vanadium oxide (V) in ethanedioic acid solution with consequent heating. The second one uses the magnetron sputtering of metallic vanadium with its consequent soft oxidation. Investigations of the transition temperature in vanadium dioxide inﬂuence by the material doping and adding MoO3, Bi2O3, SnO2, NiO, CuO, Co3O4 as well as by the pre...
Domain-wall formation in late-time phase transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate domain-wall formation in late-time phase transitions. We find that, as in the invisible-axion--domain-wall phenomenon, thermal effects alone are insufficient to drive different regions of the Universe to different parts of the disconnected vacuum manifold. This suggests that domain walls do not form unless either there is some supplemental (but perhaps not unreasonable) dynamics to localize the scalar field responsible for the phase transition to the low-temperature maximum (to an extraordinary precision) before the onset of the phase transition, or there is some nonthermal mechanism to produce large fluctuations in the scalar field. The fact that domain-wall production is not a robust prediction of late-time transitions may suggest future directions in model building
The Physics of Phase Transitions Concepts and Applications
Papon, Pierre; Meijer, Paul H.E
2006-01-01
The physics of phase transitions is an important area at the crossroads of several fields that play central roles in materials sciences. In this second edition, new developments had been included which came up in the states of matter physics, in particular in the domain of nanomaterials and atomic Bose-Einstein condensates where progress is accelerating. The presentation of several chapters had been improved by bringing better information on some phase transition mechanisms and by illustrating them with new application examples. This work deals with all classes of phase transitions in fluids and solids. It contains chapters on evaporation, melting, solidification, magnetic transitions, critical phenomena, superconductivity, etc., and is intended for graduate students in physics and engineering; for scientists it will serve both as an introduction and an overview. End-of-chapter problems and complete answers are included.
Chiral and Deconfining Phase Transitions from Holographic QCD Study
Fang, Zhen; Li, Danning
2015-01-01
A first attempt to accommodate the chiral and deconfining phase transitions of QCD in the bottom-up holographic framework is given. We constrain the relation between dilaton field $\\phi$ and metric warp factor $A_e$ and get several reasonable models in the Einstein-Dilaton system. Using the potential reconstruction approach, we solve the corresponding gravity background. Then we fit the background-related parameters by comparing the equation of state with the two-flavor lattice QCD results. After that we study the temperature dependent behavior of Polyakov loop and chiral condensate under those background solutions. We find that the results are in good agreement with the two-flavor lattice results. All the studies about the equation of state, the Polyakov loop and the chiral condensate signal crossover behavior of the phase transitions, which is consistent with the current understanding on the QCD phase transitions with physical quark mass. Furthermore, the extracted transition temperatures are comparable wit...
Structural phase transitions and topological defects in ion Coulomb crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We use laser-cooled ion Coulomb crystals in the well-controlled environment of a harmonic radiofrequency ion trap to investigate phase transitions and defect formation. Topological defects in ion Coulomb crystals (kinks) have been recently proposed for studies of nonlinear physics with solitons and as carriers of quantum information. Defects form when a symmetry breaking phase transition is crossed nonadiabatically. For a second order phase transition, the Kibble–Zurek mechanism predicts that the formation of these defects follows a power law scaling in the rate of the transition. We demonstrate a scaling of defect density and describe kink dynamics and stability. We further discuss the implementation of mass defects and electric fields as first steps toward controlled kink preparation and manipulation
Ab initio theory of helix <-> coil phase transition
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yakubovich, Alexander V.; Solov'yov, Ilia; Solov'yov, Andrey V.;
2008-01-01
In this paper, we suggest a theoretical method based on the statistical mechanics for treating the alpha-helix <-> random coil transition in alanine polypeptides. We consider this process as a first-order phase transition and develop a theory which is free of model parameters and is based solely on...... fundamental physical principles. It describes essential thermodynamical properties of the system such as heat capacity, the phase transition temperature and others from the analysis of the polypeptide potential energy surface calculated as a function of two dihedral angles, responsible for the polypeptide...... twisting. The suggested theory is general and with some modification can be applied for the description of phase transitions in other complex molecular systems (e.g. proteins, DNA, nanotubes, atomic clusters, fullerenes)....
Pressure-induced reversible phase transition in thiourea dioxide crystal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The effect of high pressure on the crystal structure of thiourea dioxide has been investigated by Raman spectroscopy and angle-dispersive X-ray diffraction (ADXRD) in a diamond anvil cell up to 10.3 GPa. The marked changes in the Raman spectra at 3.7 GPa strongly indicated a structural phase transition associated with the distortions of hydrogen bonding. There were no further changes up to the maximum pressure of 10.3 GPa and the observed transition was completely reversible when the system was brought back to ambient pressure. This transition was further confirmed by the changes of ADXRD spectra. The high-pressure phase was indexed and refined to an orthorhombic structure with a possible space group Pbam. The results from the first-principles calculations suggested that this phase transition was mainly related to the changes of hydrogen-bonded networks in thiourea dioxide
Structural phase transitions and topological defects in ion Coulomb crystals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Partner, Heather L. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Nigmatullin, Ramil [Institute of Quantum Physics, Albert-Einstein Allee-11, Ulm University, 89069 Ulm (Germany); Burgermeister, Tobias; Keller, Jonas; Pyka, Karsten [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Plenio, Martin B. [Center for Integrated Quantum Science and Technology, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, Ulm University, 89069 Ulm (Germany); Institute for Theoretical Physics, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, Ulm University, 89069 Ulm (Germany); Retzker, Alex [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904, Givat Ram (Israel); Zurek, Wojciech H. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Campo, Adolfo del [Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts Boston, Boston, MA 02125 (United States); Mehlstäubler, Tanja E., E-mail: tanja.mehlstaeubler@ptb.de [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany)
2015-03-01
We use laser-cooled ion Coulomb crystals in the well-controlled environment of a harmonic radiofrequency ion trap to investigate phase transitions and defect formation. Topological defects in ion Coulomb crystals (kinks) have been recently proposed for studies of nonlinear physics with solitons and as carriers of quantum information. Defects form when a symmetry breaking phase transition is crossed nonadiabatically. For a second order phase transition, the Kibble–Zurek mechanism predicts that the formation of these defects follows a power law scaling in the rate of the transition. We demonstrate a scaling of defect density and describe kink dynamics and stability. We further discuss the implementation of mass defects and electric fields as first steps toward controlled kink preparation and manipulation.
Structural phase transitions and topological defects in ion Coulomb crystals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Partner, Heather L. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany); Nigmatullin, Ramil [Institute of Quantum Physics, Ulm Univ., Ulm (Germany); Burgermeister, Tobias [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany); Keller, Jonas [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany); Pyka, Karsten [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany); Plenio, Martin B. [Center for Integrated Quantum Science and Technology, Ulm Univ., Ulm, (Germany):Institute for Theoretical Physics, Ulm Univ.,Ulm, (Germany); Retzker, Alex [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Givat Ram (Israel); Zurek, Wojciech Hubert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); del Campo, Adolfo [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Mehlstaubler, Tanja E. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany)
2014-11-19
We use laser-cooled ion Coulomb crystals in the well-controlled environment of a harmonic radiofrequency ion trap to investigate phase transitions and defect formation. Topological defects in ion Coulomb crystals (kinks) have been recently proposed for studies of nonlinear physics with solitons and as carriers of quantum information. Defects form when a symmetry breaking phase transition is crossed non-adiabatically. For a second order phase transition, the Kibble-Zurek mechanism predicts that the formation of these defects follows a power law scaling in the rate of the transition. We demonstrate a scaling of defect density and describe kink dynamics and stability. We further discuss the implementation of mass defects and electric fields as first steps toward controlled kink preparation and manipulation.
Pressure-induced reversible phase transition in thiourea dioxide crystal
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Qinglei; Yan, Tingting; Zhu, Hongyang; Cui, Qiliang; Zou, Bo, E-mail: kaiwang@jlu.edu.cn, E-mail: zoubo@jlu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Wang, Kai, E-mail: kaiwang@jlu.edu.cn, E-mail: zoubo@jlu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)
2015-06-28
The effect of high pressure on the crystal structure of thiourea dioxide has been investigated by Raman spectroscopy and angle-dispersive X-ray diffraction (ADXRD) in a diamond anvil cell up to 10.3 GPa. The marked changes in the Raman spectra at 3.7 GPa strongly indicated a structural phase transition associated with the distortions of hydrogen bonding. There were no further changes up to the maximum pressure of 10.3 GPa and the observed transition was completely reversible when the system was brought back to ambient pressure. This transition was further confirmed by the changes of ADXRD spectra. The high-pressure phase was indexed and refined to an orthorhombic structure with a possible space group Pbam. The results from the first-principles calculations suggested that this phase transition was mainly related to the changes of hydrogen-bonded networks in thiourea dioxide.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Low-temperature specific-heat measurements on YbRh2Si2 at the second order antiferromagnetic (AF) phase transition reveal a sharp peak at TN=72 mK. The corresponding critical exponent α turns out to be α=0.38, which differs significantly from that obtained within the framework of the fluctuation theory of second order phase transitions based on the scale invariance, where α≅0.1. We show that under the application of magnetic field the curve of the second order AF phase transitions passes into a curve of the first order ones at the tricritical point leading to a violation of the critical universality of the fluctuation theory. This change of the phase transition is generated by the fermion condensation quantum phase transition. Near the tricritical point the Landau theory of second order phase transitions is applicable and gives α≅1/2. We demonstrate that this value of α is in good agreement with the specific-heat measurements.
Commensurate-incommensurate phase transition in the deformed crystal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Using simple orthorhombic microscopic model the commensurate-incommensurate phase transition has been studied. Coupling of the order parameter with spontaneous strain may lead to process which uses the ferroelastic domain walls to introduce the discommensurations to the incommensurate phase. (author). 4 refs, 1 fig
Kinetics of silica-phase transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In addition to the stable silica polymorph quartz, several metastable silica phases are present in Yucca Mountain. The conversion of these phases to quartz is accompanied by volume reduction and a decrease in the aqueous silica activity, which may destabilize clinoptilolite and mordenite. The primary reaction sequence for the silica phases is from opal or glass to disordered opal-CT, followed by ordering of the opal-CT and finally by the crystallization of quartz. The ordering of opal-CT takes place in the solid state, whereas the conversion of opal-CT takes place through dissolution-reprecipitation involving the aqueous phase. It is proposed that the rate of conversion of opal-CT to quartz is controlled by diffusion of defects out of a disordered surface layer formed on the crystallizing quartz. The reaction rates are observed to be dependent on temperature, pressure, degree of supersaturation, and pH. Rate equations selected from the literature appear to be consistent with observations at Yucca Mountain
Phase transitions of pyrolite mantle composition in the lower mantle
Ono, S.
2006-12-01
Knowledge of the phase relations of lower mantle materials is essential for evaluating seismic observations and their geodynamic implications. Several interesting phase transitions in pure compositions have been reported by previous studies. It is also important to investigate the phase transitions in natural compositions. Here, using an in situ X-ray measurement combined with a laser-heated diamond anvil cell, a phase relationship in pyrolite composition sample was investigated in order to determine the stability of phases in the lower mantle. The phase change from an orthorhombic Mg-perovskite to a CaIrO3-type postperovskite bearing assemblage in the pyrolitic mantle composition was also observed at 125 GPa, which corresponds to the same mantle depth as the seismic discontinuity. The phase boundary between the orthorhombic Mg-perovskite and CaIrO3-type bearing assemblage was determined to be P (GPa) = 124 + 0.008 x (T - 2500) (K) [1]. The bulk modulus of CaIrO3-type postperovskite in pure MgSiO3 was also measured using gold [2] and NaCl [3] as pressure calibrant. There is a possibility that the CaIrO3-type postperovskite phase contributes to the high electrical conductivity at the base of the lower mantle [4]. The phase transition of Ca-perovskite from tetragonal (or orthorhombic [5]) to cubic was confirmed in the pyrolite mantle composition [6,7]. The distortion of Ca-perovskite increases as pressure increases at 300 K. The temperature from tetragonal to cubic structure transition, therefore, appears to increase with increasing pressure. However, cubic structure is likely to be stable at high temperatures corresponding to the mantle geotherm [6]. Recently, the high-spin to low-spin transition in (Mg,Fe)O was observed [8]. We investigated the phase transition of pure FeO. Although the rhombohedral phase remains stable up to 140 GPa corresponding to the CMB, a discontinuous volume change without any structural changes was observed at 90 GPa. Our observation in
Ferrofluid nucleus phase transitions in an external uniform magnetic field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
B. M. Tanygin; S. I. Shulyma; V. F. Kovalenko; M. V. Petrychuk
2015-01-01
The phase transition between a massive dense phase and a diluted superparamagnetic phase has been studied by means of a direct molecular dynamics simulation. The equilibrium structures of the ferrofluid aggregate nucleus are obtained for different values of a temperature and an external magnetic field magnitude. An approximate match of experiment and simulation has been shown for the ferrofluid phase diagram coordinates “field–temperature”. The provided phase coexistence curve has an opposite trend comparing to some of known theoretical results. This contradiction has been discussed. For given experimental parameters, it has been concluded that the present results describe more precisely the transition from linear chains to a dense globes phase. The theoretical concepts which provide the opposite binodal curve dependency trend match other experimental conditions:a diluted ferrofluid, a high particle coating rate, a high temperature, and/or a less particles coupling constant value.
A third-order phase transition in random tilings
Colomo, F
2013-01-01
We consider the domino tilings of an Aztec diamond with a cut-off corner of macroscopic square shape and given size, and address the bulk properties of tilings as the size is varied. We observe that the free energy exhibits a third-order phase transition when the cut-off square, increasing in size, reaches the arctic ellipse---the phase separation curve of the original (unmodified) Aztec diamond. We obtain this result by studying the thermodynamic limit of certain nonlocal correlation function of the underlying six-vertex model with domain wall boundary conditions, the so-called emptiness formation probability (EFP). We consider EFP in two different representations: as a tau-function for Toda chains and as a random matrix model integral. The latter has a discrete measure and a linear potential with hard walls; the observed phase transition shares properties with both Gross-Witten-Wadia and Douglas-Kazakov phase transitions.
Holographic metal/superconductor phase transitions with dark matter sector
Peng, Yan
2015-01-01
In this paper, we investigate the holographic phase transitions with dark matter sector in the AdS black hole background away from the probe limit. We firstly detect the formation of the scalar hair by examining the behaviors of the superconducting solutions and the effective mass of the scalar field. Then we study the condensation of the scalar operator with respect to the Hawking temperature T. As a further step, we disclose the properties of the phase transitions from the holographic topological entanglement entropy of the system. The holographic topological entanglement entropy is proved to be very useful in characterizing the difference between various phases. At last, we also derive the qualitative properties through the analytical methods. In summary, we find that the model parameters can provide rich physics in the general holographic metal/superconductor phase transitions.
Where does the hot electroweak phase transition end?
Csikor, Ferenc; Heitger, J
1999-01-01
We give the nonperturbative phase diagram of the four-dimensional hot electroweak phase transition. A systematic extrapolation $a \\to 0$ is done. Our results show that the finite temperature SU(2)-Higgs phase transition is of first order for Higgs-boson masses $m_H<66.5 \\pm 1.4$ GeV. The full four-dimensional result agrees completely with that of the dimensional reduction approximation. This fact is of particular importance, because it indicates that the fermionic sector of the Standard Model (SM) can be included perturbatively. We obtain that the Higgs-boson endpoint mass in the SM is $72.4 any electroweak phase transition in the SM.
Uniqueness transition in noisy phase retrieval
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Previous criteria for the feasibility of reconstructing phase information from intensity measurements, both in x-ray crystallography and more recently in coherent x-ray imaging, have been based on the Maxwell constraint counting principle. We propose a new criterion, based on Shannon's mutual information, that is better suited for noisy data or contrast that has strong priors not well modeled by continuous variables. A natural application is magnetic domain imaging, where the criterion for uniqueness in the reconstruction takes the form that the number of photons, per pixel of contrast in the image, exceeds a certain minimum. Through detailed studies of a simple model, we develop an analogy between reconstruction uniqueness and the phases of a spin glass.
Diffusive phase transitions in ferroelectrics and antiferroelectrics
Prosandeev, S. A.; Raevski, I. P.; Waghmare, U. V.
2003-01-01
In this paper, we present a microscopic model for heterogeneous ferroelectric and an order parameter for relaxor phase. We write a Landau theory based on this model and its application to ferroelectric PbFe$_{1/2}$Ta$_{1/2}$O$_3$ (PFT) and antiferroelectric NaNbO$_3$:Gd. We later discuss the coupling between soft mode and domain walls, soft mode and quasi-local vibration and resulting susceptibility function.
Dynamical phase transitions in spin models and automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Some of the models and methods developed in the study of the dynamics of spin models and automata are described. Special attention is given to the distance method which consists of comparing the time evolution of two configurations. The method is used to obtain the phase boundary between a frozen and a chaotic phase in the case of deterministic models. For stochastic systems the method is used to obtain dynamical phase transitions
Magnetic Field Driven Quantum Phase Transitions in Josephson Arrays
Paramanandam, J.; Bell, M. T.; Ioffe, L. B.; Gershenson, M. E.
2011-01-01
We have studied the magnetic-field-driven quantum phase transitions in Josephson junction arrays with a large coordination number. The characteristic energies were extracted in both the superconducting and insulating phases by integrating the current-voltage characteristics over a voltage range 2eV\\leqk_B T. For the arrays with a relatively strong Josephson coupling, we observed duality between the energies in the superconducting and insulating phases. The arrays with a weaker Josephson coupl...
The Origins of Phase Transitions in Small Systems
Muelken, Oliver; Stamerjohanns, Heinrich; Borrmann, Peter
2001-01-01
The identification and classification of phases in small systems, e.g. nuclei, social and financial networks, clusters, and biological systems, where the traditional definitions of phase transitions are not applicable, is important to obtain a deeper understanding of the phenomena observed in such systems. Within a simple statistical model we investigate the validity and applicability of different classification schemes for phase transtions in small systems. We show that the whole complex tem...
Phase transition in the globalization of trade
Serrano, M A
2006-01-01
Globalization processes interweave economic structures at a worldwide scale, trade playing a central role as one of the elemental channels of interaction among countries. Despite the significance of such phenomena, measuring economic globalization still remains an open problem. More quantitative treatments could improve the understanding of globalization at the same time that help a formal basis for comparative economic history. In this letter, we investigate the time evolution of the statistical properties of bilateral trade imbalances between countries in the trade system. We measure their cumulative probability distribution at different moments in time to discover a sudden transition circa 1960 from a regime where the distribution was always represented by a steady characteristic function to a new state where the distribution dilates as time goes on. This suggests that the rule that was governing the statistical behavior of bilateral trade imbalances until the 60's abruptly changed to a new form persistent...
Structural phase transitions in multipole traps
Marciante, Mathieu; Calisti, Annette; Knoop, Martina
2012-01-01
A small number of laser-cooled ions trapped in a linear radiofrequency multipole trap forms a hollow tube structure. We have studied, by means of molecular dynamics simulations, the structural transition from a double ring to a single ring of ions. We show that the single-ring configuration has the advantage to inhibit the thermal transfer from the rf-excited radial components of the motion to the axial component, allowing to reach the Doppler limit temperature along the direction of the trap axis. Once cooled in this particular configuration, the ions experience an angular dependency of the confinement if the local adiabaticity parameter exceeds the empirical limit. Bunching of the ion structures can then be observed and an analytic expression is proposed to take into account for this behaviour.
Phase transition properties of a cylindrical ferroelectric nanowire
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Wang Ying; Yang Xiong
2013-11-01
Based on the transverse Ising model (TIM) and using the mean-field theory, we investigate the phase transition properties of a cylindrical ferroelectric nanowire. Two different kinds of phase diagrams are constructed. We discuss systematically the effects of exchange interactions and the transverse field parameters on the phase diagrams. Moreover, the cross-over features of the parameters from the ferroelectric dominant phase diagram to the paraelectric dominant phase diagram are determined for the ferroelectric nanowire. In addition, the polarizations of the surface shell and the core are illustrated in detail by modifying the TIM parameters.
High-Pressure Phase Transition in Cyclo-octane
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GAO Ling-Ling; ZOU Guang-Tian; JIANG Sheng; LIU Dan; HAO Jian; JIN Yun-Xia; WANG Feng; WANG Qiu-Shi; LIU Jing; CUI Qi-Liang
2008-01-01
Structural behaviour of cyclo-octane under high pressure is studied by using a synchrotron x-ray source in a diamond anvil cell (DAC) up to 40.2 GPa at room temperature. The cyclo-octane firstly solidifies to the triclinic phase at 0.87 GPa. With the increasing pressure, the phase of cyclo-octane changes to the tetragonal phase at about 6.0 GPa and then transforms to amorphous phase above 18.2 GPa, which is kept till to 40.2 GPa. All the phase transitions of cyclo-octane are irreversible.
Phase transitions in the assembly of multivalent signalling proteins
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Pilong; Banjade, Sudeep; Cheng, Hui-Chun; Kim, Soyeon; Chen, Baoyu; Guo, Liang; Llaguno, Marc; Hollingsworth, Javoris V.; King, David S.; Banani, Salman F.; Russo, Paul S.; Jiang, Qiu-Xing; Nixon, B. Tracy; Rosen, Michael K. (IIT); (UCB); (LSU); (UTSMC); (Penn)
2013-04-08
Cells are organized on length scales ranging from angstrom to micrometers. However, the mechanisms by which angstrom-scale molecular properties are translated to micrometer-scale macroscopic properties are not well understood. Here we show that interactions between diverse synthetic, multivalent macromolecules (including multi-domain proteins and RNA) produce sharp liquid-liquid-demixing phase separations, generating micrometer-sized liquid droplets in aqueous solution. This macroscopic transition corresponds to a molecular transition between small complexes and large, dynamic supramolecular polymers. The concentrations needed for phase transition are directly related to the valency of the interacting species. In the case of the actin-regulatory protein called neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP) interacting with its established biological partners NCK and phosphorylated nephrin1, the phase transition corresponds to a sharp increase in activity towards an actin nucleation factor, the Arp2/3 complex. The transition is governed by the degree of phosphorylation of nephrin, explaining how this property of the system can be controlled to regulatory effect by kinases. The widespread occurrence of multivalent systems suggests that phase transitions may be used to spatially organize and biochemically regulate information throughout biology.
The significance of water phase transition in the hydrothermal mineralization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Water is the main composition of the geo-fluid in the hydrothermal mineralization. The phase transition of water is also the key factor to understand the processes of hydrothermal mineralization, as well as the reactions among various substances and the geological evolutions. The paper, takes the iso-pressure heat capacity (Cp) for example of physicochemical properties, has studies the changing regularity of Cp according to temperature and pressure in the crust with the method from National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and showed that the phase transition of water can cause the sharp variations of the physicochemical properties of water and is one of the essential factors to hydrothermal mineralization. From the study the paper has also revealed the interior coupling relations between the phase transitions of water and fracture or magma activities. Furthermore, the article suggests that the corresponding relations between fracture epoch and metallogenic epoch can be created by the aid of the water phase transitions and concludes the phase transition of water is the important factor to control the hydrothermal mineralization. (authors)
New insight into the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition
Gerber, Urs; Rejón-Barrera, Fernando G
2014-01-01
We investigate the 2d XY model by using the constraint angle action, which belongs to the class of topological lattice actions. These actions violate important features usually demanded for a lattice action, such as the correct classical continuum limit and the applicability of perturbation theory. Nevertheless, they still lead to the same universal quantum continuum limit and show excellent scaling behavior. By using the constraint angle action we gain new insight into the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition of the 2d XY model. This phase transition is of special interest since it is one of the few examples of a phase transition beyond second order. It is of infinite order and therefore an essential phase transition. In particular, we observe an excellent scaling behavior of the helicity modulus, which characterizes this phase transition. We also observe that the mechanism of (un)binding vortex--anti-vortex pairs follows the usual pattern, although free vortices do not require any energy in the ...
THE NEXT GENERATION TRANSIT SURVEY PROTOTYPING PHASE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. McCormac
2014-01-01
Full Text Available El Next Generation Transit Survey (NGTS es un nuevo sondeo d e exoplanetas transitantes de campo amplio que tiene como objetivo descubrir exoplanetas del tama ̃no d e Neptuno y super-Tierras entorno a estrellas brillantes ( V < 13 cercanas. NGTS consiste de un arreglo de 12 telescopios o perados rob ́oticamente observando en la banda de 600 − 900 nm. NGTS sondear ́a m ́as de cinco veces el n ́umero de estre llas, con V < 13, que Kepler y por lo tanto proveer ́a los objetivos m ́as brillantes para s er caracterizados con instrumentaci ́on existente y futura (VLT, E-ELT y JWST. En 2009/10 un prototipo del NGTS f ue probado en La Palma, comprobando que un sistema as ́ı puede alcanzar nuestros objetivos de fot ometr ́ıa estelar esencialmente limitada s ́olo por el ruido blanco. Los resultados son resumidos aqu ́ı. NGTS se al imenta de la experiencia del proyecto SuperWASP, que, por muchos a ̃nos, ha liderado la detecci ́on terrestre d e exoplanetas transitantes.
Non-equilibrium phase transitions in a liquid crystal.
Dan, K; Roy, M; Datta, A
2015-09-01
The present manuscript describes kinetic behaviour of the glass transition and non-equilibrium features of the "Nematic-Isotropic" (N-I) phase transition of a well known liquid crystalline material N-(4-methoxybenzylidene)-4-butylaniline from the effects of heating rate and initial temperature on the transitions, through differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared and fluorescence spectroscopy. Around the vicinity of the glass transition temperature (Tg), while only a change in the baseline of the ΔCp vs T curve is observed for heating rate (β) > 5 K min(-1), consistent with a glass transition, a clear peak for β ≤ 5 K min(-1) and the rapid reduction in the ΔCp value from the former to the latter rate correspond to an order-disorder transition and a transition from ergodic to non-ergodic behaviour. The ln β vs 1000/T curve for the glass transition shows convex Arrhenius behaviour that can be explained very well by a purely entropic activation barrier [Dan et al., Eur. Phys. Lett. 108, 36007 (2014)]. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicates sudden freezing of the out-of-plane distortion vibrations of the benzene rings around the glass transition temperature and a considerable red shift indicating enhanced coplanarity of the benzene rings and, consequently, enhancement in the molecular ordering compared to room temperature. We further provide a direct experimental evidence of the non-equilibrium nature of the N-I transition through the dependence of this transition temperature (TNI) and associated enthalpy change (ΔH) on the initial temperature (at fixed β-values) for the DSC scans. A plausible qualitative explanation based on Mesquita's extension of Landau-deGennes theory [O. N. de Mesquita, Braz. J. Phys. 28, 257 (1998)] has been put forward. The change in the molecular ordering from nematic to isotropic phase has been investigated through fluorescence anisotropy measurements where the order parameter, quantified by the
Phase transitions in the distribution of inelastically colliding inertial particles
Belan, Sergey; Falkovich, Gregory
2015-01-01
It was recently suggested that the sign of particle drift in inhomogeneous temperature or turbulence depends on the particle inertia: weakly inertial particles localize near minima of temperature or turbulence intensity (effects known as thermophoresis and turbophoresis), while strongly inertial particles fly away from minima in an unbounded space. The problem of a particle near minima of turbulence intensity is related to that of two particles in a random flow, so that the localization-delocalization transition in the former corresponds to the path-coalescence transition in the latter. The transition is signaled by the sign change of the Lyapunov exponent that characterizes the mean rate of particle approach to the minimum (which could be wall or another particle). Here we solve analytically this problem for inelastic collisions and derive the phase diagram for the transition in the inertia-inelasticity plane. An important feature of the phase diagram is the region of inelastic collapse: if the restitution c...
Mechanical instability of gels at the phase transition
Tanaka, Toyoichi; Sun, Shao-Tang; Hirokawa, Yoshitsugu; Katayama, Seiji; Kucera, John; Hirose, Yoshiharu; Amiya, Takayuki
1987-02-01
Polymer gels, consisting of a cross-linked polymer network immersed in liquid, undergo a volume phase transition: when external conditions such as temperature or solvent composition change, a gel reversibly swells or shrinks, but does so discontinuously1-5. The volume change at the transition can be as large as a factor of one thousand2, and the phenomenon occurs in all gels6,7. The equilibrium aspects of the phase transition have been extensively studied, but its kinetics have not yet been fully explored. In particular, the appearance of patterns on the originally smooth surface of a gel during the transition makes the kinetic process difficult to understand. Here we elucidate the physical basis underlying the formation and evolution of the pattern.
How tetraquarks can generate a second chiral phase transition
Pisarski, Robert D
2016-01-01
We consider how tetraquarks can affect the chiral phase transition in theories like QCD, with light quarks coupled to three colors. For two flavors the tetraquark field is an isosinglet, and its effect is minimal. For three flavors, however, the tetraquark field transforms in the same representation of the chiral symmetry group as the usual chiral order parameter, and so for very light quarks there may be two chiral phase transitions, which are both of first order. In QCD, results from the lattice indicate that any transition from the tetraquark condensate is a smooth crossover. In the plane of temperature and quark chemical potential, though, a crossover line for the tetraquark condensate is naturally related to the transition line for color superconductivity. For four flavors we suggest that a triquark field, antisymmetric in both flavor and color, combine to form hexaquarks.
Microrheology close to an equilibrium phase transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate the microstructural and microrheological response to a tracer particle of a two-dimensional colloidal suspension under thermodynamic conditions close to a liquid-gas phase boundary. On the liquid side of the binodal, increasing the velocity of the (repulsive) tracer leads to the development of a pronounced cavitation bubble, within which the concentration of colloidal particles is strongly depleted. The tendency of the liquid to cavitate is characterized by a dimensionless “colloidal cavitation” number. On the gas side of the binodal, a pulled (attractive) tracer leaves behind it an extended trail of colloidal liquid, arising from downstream advection of a wetting layer on its surface. For both situations the velocity dependent friction is calculated
Localized charged states and phase separation near second order phase transition
Kabanov, V. V.; Mamin, R. F.; Shaposhnikova, T. S.
2008-01-01
Localized charged states and phase segregation are described in the framework of the phenomenological Ginzburg-Landau theory of phase transitions. The Coulomb interactions determines the charge distribution and the characteristic length of the phase separated states. The phase separation with charge segregation becomes possible because of the large dielectric constant and the small density of extra charge in the range of charge localization. The phase diagram is calculated and the energy gain...
Yusa, Hitoshi; Tsuchiya, Taku; Akaogi, Masaki; Kojitani, Hiroshi; Yamazaki, Daisuke; Hirao, Naohisa; Ohishi, Yasuo; Kikegawa, Takumi
2014-11-01
The postperovskite phase of ZnGeO3 was confirmed by laser heating experiments of the perovskite phase under 110-130 GPa at high temperature. Ab initio calculations indicated that the phase transition occurs at 133 GPa at 0 K. This postperovskite transition pressure is significantly higher than those reported for other germanates, such as MnGeO3 and MgGeO3. The comparative crystal chemistry of the perovskite-to-postperovskite transition suggests that a relatively elongated b-axis in the low-pressure range resulted in the delay in the transition to the postperovskite phase. Similar to most GdFeO3-type perovskites that transform to the CaIrO3-type postperovskite phase, ZnGeO3 perovskite eventually transformed to the CaIrO3-type postperovskite phase at a critical rotational angle of the GeO6 octahedron. The formation of the postperovskite structure at a very low critical rotational angle for MnGeO3 suggests that relatively large divalent cations likely break down the corner-sharing GeO6 frameworks without a large rotation of GeO6 to form the postperovskite phase. PMID:25310272
High pressure phase transition in Pr-monopnictides
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Raypuria, Gajendra Singh, E-mail: sosfizix@gmail.com, E-mail: gsraypuria@gmail.com; Gupta, Dinesh Chandra [Condensed Matter Theory Group, School of Studies in Physics, Jiwaji University, Gwalior - 474011 (India); Department of Physics, Govt. K.R.G. P.G. Autonomous College, Gwalior - 474001 (India)
2015-06-24
The Praseodymium-monopnictides compounds have been found to undergo transition from their initial NaCl-type structure to high pressure body centered tetragonal (BCT) structure (distorted CsCl-type P4/mmm) using CTIP model. The calculated values of cohesive energy, lattice constant, phase transition pressure, relative volume collapse agree well with the available measured data and better than those computed by earlier workers.
Theory of the nodal nematic quantum phase transition in superconductors
Kim, Eun-Ah; Oreto, Paul; Fradkin, Eduardo; Sachdev, Subir; Lawler, Michael J; Kivelson, Steven A.
2007-01-01
We study the character of an Ising nematic quantum phase transition deep inside a \\(d\\)-wave superconducting state with nodal quasiparticles in a two-dimensional tetragonal crystal. We find that, within a \\(1∕N\\) expansion, the transition is continuous. To leading order in \\(1∕N\\), quantum fluctuations enhance the dispersion anisotropy of the nodal excitations and cause strong scattering, which critically broadens the quasiparticle (qp) peaks in the spectral function, except in a narrow wedge...
Collective Motion and Phase Transitions of Symmetric Camphor Boats
Heisler, Eric; Suematsu, Nobuhiko J.; Awazu, Akinori; Nishimori, Hiraku
2012-07-01
The motion of several self-propelled boats in a narrow channel displays spontaneous pattern formation and kinetic phase transitions. In contrast with previous studies on self-propelled particles, this model does not require stochastic fluctuations and it is experimentally accessible. By varying the viscosity in the system, it is possible to form either a stationary state, correlated or uncorrelated oscillations, or unidirectional flow. Here, we describe and analyze these self organized patterns and their transitions.
Intrinsic noise-induced phase transitions: beyond the noise interpretation
Carrillo, O.; Ibanes, M.; Garcia-Ojalvo, J.; Casademunt, J.; Sancho, J.M.
2003-01-01
We discuss intrinsic noise effects in stochastic multiplicative-noise partial differential equations, which are qualitatively independent of the noise interpretation (Ito vs. Stratonovich), in particular in the context of noise-induced ordering phase transitions. We study a model which, contrary to all cases known so far, exhibits such ordering transitions when the noise is interpreted not only according to Stratonovich, but also to Ito. The main feature of this model is the absence of a line...
Analytic approach to the motion of cosmological phase transition fronts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We consider the motion of planar phase-transition fronts in first-order phase transitions of the Universe. We find the steady state wall velocity as a function of a friction coefficient and thermodynamical parameters, taking into account the different hydrodynamic modes of propagation. We obtain analytical approximations for the velocity by using the thin wall approximation and the bag equation of state. We compare our results to those of numerical calculations and discuss the range of validity of the approximations. We analyze the structure of the stationary solutions. Multiple solutions may exist for a given set of parameters, even after discarding non-physical ones. We discuss which of these will be realized in the phase transition as the stationary wall velocity. Finally, we discuss on the saturation of the friction at ultra-relativistic velocities and the existence of runaway solutions.
Non-equilibrium physics at a holographic chiral phase transition
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Evans, Nick; Kim, Keun-young [Southampton Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics China, Beijing (China); Kalaydzhyan, Tigran; Kirsch, Ingo [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2010-11-15
The D3/D7 system holographically describes an N=2 gauge theory which spontaneously breaks a chiral symmetry by the formation of a quark condensate in the presence of a magnetic field. At finite temperature it displays a first order phase transition. We study out of equilibrium dynamics associated with this transition by placing probe D7 branes in a geometry describing a boost-invariant expanding or contracting plasma. We use an adiabatic approximation to track the evolution of the quark condensate in a heated system and reproduce the phase structure expected from equilibrium dynamics. We then study solutions of the full partial differential equation that describes the evolution of out of equilibrium configurations to provide a complete description of the phase transition including describing aspects of bubble formation. (orig.)
Chirality Quantum Phase Transition in Noncommutative Dirac Oscillator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The charged Dirac oscillator on a noncommutative plane coupling to a uniform perpendicular magnetic held is studied in this paper. We map the noncommutative plane to a commutative one by means of Bopp shift and study this problem on the commutative plane. We find that this model can be mapped onto a quantum optics model which contains Anti—Jaynes—Cummings (AJC) or Jaynes—Cummings (JC) interactions when a dimensionless parameter ζ (which is the function of the intensity of the magnetic held) takes values in different regimes. Furthermore, this model behaves as experiencing a chirality quantum phase transition when the dimensionless parameter ζ approaches the critical point. Several evidences of the chirality quantum phase transition are presented. We also study the non-relativistic limit of this model and find that a similar chirality quantum phase transition takes place in its non-relativistic limit. (physics of elementary particles and fields)
Canonical Entropy and Phase Transition of Rotating Black Hole
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHAO Ren; WU Yue-Qin; ZHANG Li-Chun
2008-01-01
Recently, the Hawking radiation of a black hole has been studied using the tunnel effect method. The radiation spectrum of a black hole is derived. By discussing the correction to spectrum of the rotating black hole, we obtain the canonical entropy. The derived canonical entropy is equal to the sum of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy and correction term. The correction term near the critical point is different from the one near others. This difference plays an important role in studying the phase transition of the black hole. The black hole thermal capacity diverges at the critical point. However, the canonical entropy is not a complex number at this point. Thus we think that the phase transition created by this critical point is the second order phase transition. The discussed black hole is a five-dimensional Kerr-AdS black hole. We provide a basis for discussing thermodynamic properties of a higher-dimensional rotating black hole.
Fluctuation of Voids in Hadronization at Phase Transition
Hwa, R C; Hwa, Rudolph C.; Zhang, Qing-hui
2000-01-01
Starting from the recognition that hadrons are not produced smoothly at phase transition, the fluctuation of spatial patterns is investigated by finding a measure of the voids that exhibits scaling behavior. The Ising model is used to simulate a cross-over in quark-hadron phase transition. A threshold in hadron density is used to define a void. The dependence of the scaling exponents on that threshold is found to provide useful information on some properties of the hadronization process. The complication in heavy-ion collision introduces the possibility of configuration mixing, which can also be studied in this approach. Numerical criteria on the scaling exponents have been found that can be used to discriminate phase-transition processes from other hadronization processes having nothing to do with critical phenomena.
Photonic quantum-corral ring laser A fermionic phase transition
Kwon, O D; Kim, J Y; Bae, J; Kim, M J; Ahn, J C; Kwon, O H
2002-01-01
Extensive Bose-Einstein condensation research activities have recently led to studies of fermionic atoms and optical confinements. Here we present a case of micro-optical fermionic electron phase transition. Optically confined ordering and phase transitions of a fermionic cloud in dynamic steady state are associated with Rayleigh emissions from photonic quantum ring manifold which are generated by nature without any ring lithography. The whispering gallery modes, produced in a semiconductor Rayleigh-Fabry-Perot toroidal cavity at room temperature, exhibit novel properties of ultralow thresholds open to nano-ampere regime, thermal stabilities from square-root-T-dependent spectral shift, and angularly varying intermode spacings. The photonic quantum ring phenomena are associated with a photonic field-driven phase transition of quantum-well-to-quantum-wire and hence the photonic (non-de Broglie) quantum corral effect on the Rayleigh cavity-confined carriers in dynamic steady state. Based upon the intra-cavity fe...
Gravitational Radiation from First-Order Phase Transitions
Child, Hillary L
2012-01-01
It is believed that first order phase transitions at or around the GUT scale will produce high-frequency gravitational radiation. This radiation is a consequence of the collisions and coalescence of multiple bubbles during the transition. We employ high-resolution lattice simulations to numerically evolve a system of bubbles, track the anisotropic stress during the process and evolve the metric perturbations associated with gravitational radiation. Although the radiation produced during the bubble collisions has previously been estimated, we find that the coalescence phase that greatly enhances this radiation even in the absence of turbulence. We comment on how these simulations scale and propose that the same enhancement should be found at the Electroweak scale; this modification should make direct detection of a first-order electroweak phase transition easier.
Lifshitz scaling effects on holographic paramagnetism/ferromagneism phase transition
Zhang, Cheng-Yuan; Jin, Yong-Yi; Chai, Yun-Tian; Hu, Mu-Hong; Zhang, Zhuo
2016-01-01
In the probe limit, we investigate holographic paramagnetism-ferromagnetism phase transition in the four-dimensional (4D) and five-dimensional(5D) Lifshitz black holes by means of numerical and semi-analytical methods, which is realized by introducing a massive 2-form field coupled to the Maxwell field. We find that the Lifshitz dynamical exponent $z$ contributes evidently to magnetic moment and hysteresis loop of single magnetic domain quantitatively not qualitatively. Concretely, in the case without external magnetic field, the spontaneous magnetization and ferromagnetic phase transition happen when the temperature gets low enough, and the critical exponent for the magnetic moment is always $1/2$, which is in agreement with the result from mean field theory. And the increasing $z$ enhances the phase transition and increases the DC resistivity which behaves as the colossal magnetic resistance effect in some materials. Furthermore, in the presence of the external magnetic field, the magnetic susceptibility sa...
Phase transitions of black holes in massive gravity
Fernando, Sharmanthie
2016-01-01
In this paper we have studied thermodynamics of a black hole in massive gravity in the canonical ensemble. The massive gravity theory in consideration here has a massive graviton due to Lorentz symmetry breaking. The black hole studied here has a scalar charge due to the massive graviton and is asymptotically anti-de Sitter. We have computed various thermodynamical quantities such as temperature, specific heat and free energy. Both the local and global stability of the black hole are studied by observing the behavior of the specific heat and the free energy. We have observed that there is a first order phase transition between small and large black hole for a certain range of the scalar charge. This phase transition is similar to the liquid/gas phase transition at constant temperature for a Van der Waals fluid. The coexistence curves for the small and large black hole branches are also discussed in detail.
Phase transitions of black holes in massive gravity
Fernando, Sharmanthie
2016-05-01
In this paper, we have studied thermodynamics of a black hole in massive gravity in the canonical ensemble. The massive gravity theory in consideration here has a massive graviton due to Lorentz symmetry breaking. The black hole studied here has a scalar charge due to the massive graviton and is asymptotically anti-de Sitter (AdS). We have computed various thermodynamical quantities such as temperature, specific heat and free energy. Both the local and global stability of the black hole are studied by observing the behavior of the specific heat and the free energy. We have observed that there is a first-order phase transition between small (SBH) and large black hole (LBH) for a certain range of the scalar charge. This phase transition is similar to the liquid/gas phase transition at constant temperature for a van der Waals fluid. The coexistence curves for the SBH and LBH branches are also discussed in detail.
Non-equilibrium physics at a holographic chiral phase transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The D3/D7 system holographically describes an N=2 gauge theory which spontaneously breaks a chiral symmetry by the formation of a quark condensate in the presence of a magnetic field. At finite temperature it displays a first order phase transition. We study out of equilibrium dynamics associated with this transition by placing probe D7 branes in a geometry describing a boost-invariant expanding or contracting plasma. We use an adiabatic approximation to track the evolution of the quark condensate in a heated system and reproduce the phase structure expected from equilibrium dynamics. We then study solutions of the full partial differential equation that describes the evolution of out of equilibrium configurations to provide a complete description of the phase transition including describing aspects of bubble formation. (orig.)
Magnetic phase transition in strongly disordered Cr3Fe alloys
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This thesis focuses on investigating a possible phase transition from ferromagnetism to paramagnetism in Cr3Fe-alloys. An ensemble of high-purity samples of the alloys Cr75Fe25 and Cr70Fe30 was prepared: a) polycrystals for comparision with recent experiments, b) single crystals to eliminate any microstructural influence on the magnetic behaviour and c) ion-beam sputtered films of sub-μm-thickness. Detailed microstructural and chemical analyses were performed. Two distinct and independent high-precision magnetometric measurement methods (SQUID-magnetometry and ac-susceptibility) were used to characterize magnetic properties and investigate the following aspects: the influence of chemical short-range order and mesoscopic chemical concentration gradients on magnetic properties, the existence of long-range ferromagnetic order and a second order phase transition from ferromagnetism to paramagnetism, and possibly, the character of the phase transition by determining the critical magnetic properties (effective critical exponents). (orig.)
Benford's law detects quantum phase transitions similarly as earthquakes
Sen(De, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal
2011-09-01
A century ago, it was predicted that the first significant digit appearing in a data would be nonuniformly distributed, with the number one appearing with the highest frequency. This law goes by the name of Benford's law. It holds for data ranging from infectious-disease cases to national greenhouse gas emissions. Quantum phase transitions are cooperative phenomena where qualitative changes occur in many-body systems at zero temperature. We show that the century-old Benford's law can detect quantum phase transitions, much like it detects earthquakes. Therefore, being certainly of very different physical origins, seismic activity and quantum cooperative phenomena may be detected by similar methods. The result has immediate implications in precise measurements in experiments in general, and for realizable quantum computers in particular. It shows that estimation of the first significant digit of measured physical observables is enough to detect the presence of quantum phase transitions in macroscopic systems.
Zpif's law in the liquid gas phase transition of nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zpif's law in the field of linguistics is tested in the nuclear disassembly within the framework of isospin dependent lattice gas model. It is found that the average cluster charge (or mass) of rank n in the charge (or mass) list shows exactly inversely to its rank, i.e., there exists Zpif's law, at the phase transition temperature. This novel criterion shall be helpful to search the nuclear liquid gas phase transition experimentally and theoretically. In addition, the finite size scaling of the effective phase transition temperature at which the Zpif's law appears is studied for several systems with different mass and the critical exponents of ν and β are tentatively extracted. (orig.)
A MATLAB GUI to study Ising model phase transition
Thornton, Curtislee; Datta, Trinanjan
We have created a MATLAB based graphical user interface (GUI) that simulates the single spin flip Metropolis Monte Carlo algorithm. The GUI has the capability to study temperature and external magnetic field dependence of magnetization, susceptibility, and equilibration behavior of the nearest-neighbor square lattice Ising model. Since the Ising model is a canonical system to study phase transition, the GUI can be used both for teaching and research purposes. The presence of a Monte Carlo code in a GUI format allows easy visualization of the simulation in real time and provides an attractive way to teach the concept of thermal phase transition and critical phenomena. We will also discuss the GUI implementation to study phase transition in a classical spin ice model on the pyrochlore lattice.
Gravitational radiation generated by cosmological phase transition magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study gravitational waves generated by the cosmological magnetic fields induced via bubble collisions during the electroweak (EW) and QCD phase transitions. The magnetic field generation mechanisms considered here are based on the use of the fundamental EW minimal supersymmetric and QCD Lagrangians. The gravitational waves spectrum is computed using a magnetohydrodynamic turbulence model. We find that the gravitational wave spectrum amplitude generated by the EW phase transition peaks at a frequency of approximately 1-2 mHz, and is of the order of 10-20-10-21; thus this signal is possibly detectable by the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). The gravitational waves generated during the QCD phase transition, however, are outside the LISA sensitivity bands.
Luminescence detection of phase transitions in crystals and nanoparticle inclusions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Townsend, P. D. [Science and Technology, University of Sussex, Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Yang, B. [Physics Department, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Wang, Y. [School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China)]. e-mail: p.d.townsend@sussex.ac.uk
2008-11-15
Luminescence measurements are extremely sensitive to variations in structural environment and thus have the potential to probe distortions of fluorescence sites. Changes can be monitored via luminescence efficiency, emission spectra or excited state lifetimes and these factors are influenced by the local neighbourhood around the emission site, and therefore by structure, composition, pressure and temperature. A rarely exploited approach for condensed matter has been to use the changes in luminescence responses during heating or cooling of a material to provide a rapid survey to detect the presence of phase transitions. One can often differentiate between bulk and surface effects by contrasting results from radioluminescence for bulk responses, and cathodoluminescence or photoluminescence for surface effects. One expects that discontinuous changes in optical parameters occur during temperature changes through phase transitions of insulating materials. In practice, optical signals also exist from surface states of fullerenes and high temperature superconductors etc which identify the presence of structural or superconducting transitions. Numerous examples are cited which match standard documented transitions. Interestingly many examples show the host signals are strongly sensitive to impurity phase transitions from inclusions such as nanoparticles of water, N{sub 2}, O{sub 2} or CO{sub 2}. Recent luminescence data reveal many examples of new transitions, hysteresis and irreversible changes. The signals equally respond to relaxations of a structure and surprisingly indicate that in some materials, such as SrTiO{sub 3} or ZnO, ion implantation of the surface triggers relaxations and phase changes throughout the bulk of the material. Luminescence routes to detect phase transitions are powerful tools but have a tiny literature and so the subject is ideal for rapid exploitation and development. (Author)
A Solvable Model for Nuclear Shape Phase Transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
There has been considerable interest recently in phase transitions that occur between some well-defined nuclear shapes, e.g. the spherical vibrator, the axially deformed rotor and the γ-unstable rotor, which are assigned to the U(5), SU(3) and 0(6) symmetries. These shape phase transitions occur through critical points of the IBM phase diagram and correspond to rapid structural changes. The first transition of this type describes transition form the spherical to the γ-unstable phase and has been associated with an E(5) symmetry. Later further critical point symmetries e.g. X(5) and Y(5) have also been proposed for transitions between other nuclear shape phases. In another application the chain of even Ru isotopes was considered from A 98 to 112 [2]. The parameters were extracted from a fit to the low-lying energy spectrum of each nucleus and were used to plot the corresponding potential. It was found that up to A =102 the potential is essentially an harmonic oscillator, while at A =104 a rather flat potential was seen, in accordance with the expected phase transition and E(5) symmetry there. With increasing A then the minimum got increasingly deeper and moved away from β = 0. We discuss the possibility of generalizing the formalism in two ways: first by including dependence on the 7 variable allowing for the approximate description of nuclei close to the X(5) symmetry, and second, including higher-lying energy levels in the quasi-exactly solvable formalism
Chern-Simons diffusion rate across different phase transitions
Rougemont, Romulo
2016-01-01
We investigate how the dimensionless ratio given by the Chern-Simons diffusion rate $\\Gamma_{\\textrm{CS}}$ divided by the product of the entropy density $s$ and temperature $T$ behaves across different kinds of phase transitions in the class of bottom-up non-conformal Einstein-dilaton holographic models originally proposed by Gubser and Nellore. By tuning the dilaton potential, one is able to holographically mimic a first order, a second order, or a crossover transition. In a first order phase transition, $\\Gamma_{\\textrm{CS}}/sT$ jumps at the critical temperature (as previously found in the holographic literature), while in a second order phase transition it develops an infinite slope. On the other hand, in a crossover, $\\Gamma_{\\textrm{CS}}/sT$ behaves smoothly, although displaying a fast variation around the pseudo-critical temperature. Furthermore, we also find that $\\Gamma_{\\textrm{CS}}/sT$ increases by orders of magnitude below the critical temperature in a second order phase transition and in a crossov...
Studies of phase transitions in the aripiprazole solid dosage form.
Łaszcz, Marta; Witkowska, Anna
2016-01-01
Studies of the phase transitions in an active substance contained in a solid dosage form are very complicated but essential, especially if an active substance is classified as a BCS Class IV drug. The purpose of this work was the development of sensitive methods for the detection of the phase transitions in the aripiprazole tablets containing initially its form III. Aripiprazole exhibits polymorphism and pseudopolymorphism. Powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry methods were developed for the detection of the polymorphic transition between forms III and I as well as the phase transition of form III into aripiprazole monohydrate in tablets. The study involved the initial 10 mg and 30 mg tablets, as well as those stored in Al/Al blisters, a triplex blister pack and HDPE bottles (with and without desiccant) under accelerated and long term conditions. The polymorphic transition was not observed in the initial and stored tablets but it was visible on the DSC curve of the Abilify(®) 10 mg reference tablets. The formation of the monohydrate was observed in the diffractograms and Raman spectra in the tablets stored under accelerated conditions. The monohydrate phase was not detected in the tablets stored in the Al/Al blisters under long term conditions. The results showed that the Al/Al blisters can be recommended as the packaging of the aripiprazole tablets containing form III. PMID:26397209
The quark-hadron phase transition and primordial nucleosynthesis
Hogan, Craig J.
1987-01-01
After presenting the current view of the processes taking place during the cosmological transition from 'quark soup' to normal hadron matter, attention is given to what happens to cosmological nucleosynthesis in the presence of small-scale baryon inhomogeneities. The QCD phase transition is among the plausible sources of this inhomogeneity. It is concluded that the formation of primordial 'quark nuggets' and other cold exotica requires very low entropy regions at the outset, and that even the more modest nonlinearities perturbing nucleosynthesis probably require some ingredient in addition to a quiescent, mildly supercooled transition.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kublitz, Anja
2016-01-01
as camps. Based on fieldwork among Palestinians in the Danish camps, this article explores why my interlocutors describe their current lives as a catastrophe. Al-Nakba literally means the catastrophe and, in Palestinian national discourse, it is used to designate the event of 1948, when the Palestinians...
Stress Induced Phase Transition of Iron-Rhodium Alloys
Takahashi, M; Oshima, R.
1995-01-01
Stress-induced phase transitions(B2-L10, B2-fcc) on an FeRh alloy were investigated with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy(TEM). An Fe-50.5at%Rh alloy was rolled to 80µm thickness, and annealed at 1370K for 173ks. Annealed sample sheets were cold rolled at various rolling rates, and changes of the sample alloy on the phase state were investigated with XRD. The L10 phase appeared in the early stage of cold work. With heavy work appearance of the fcc phase and consequ...
Pressure Induced Phase Transition in TiB
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李凤英; 陈良辰; 王莉君; 顾惠成; 王汝菊; 车荣钲; 沈中毅
2001-01-01
In situ high pressure x-ray diffraction and electrical resistance experiments on TiB have been carried out by using a diamond anvil cell device. The results revealed that the sample undergoes a first-order phase transition at pressures of 3.5 - 5.0 Gpa and 4.0 - 5.5 Gpa for the x-ray diffraction and electrical resistance experiments, respectively. The parameters of the state equation are calculated before and after the phase transition and compared with the values calculated by Mohn et al. [J. Phys. C: Solid State Phys. 21(1988)2829] using the augmented spherical wave method.
The liquid to vapor phase transition in excited nuclei
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Elliott, J.B.; Moretto, L.G.; Phair, L.; Wozniak, G.J.; Beaulieu, L.; Breuer, H.; Korteling, R.G.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Lefort, T.; Pienkowski, L.; Ruangma, A.; Viola, V.E.; Yennello, S.J.
2001-05-08
For many years it has been speculated that excited nuclei would undergo a liquid to vapor phase transition. For even longer, it has been known that clusterization in a vapor carries direct information on the liquid-vapor equilibrium according to Fisher's droplet model. Now the thermal component of the 8 GeV/c pion + 197 Au multifragmentation data of the ISiS Collaboration is shown to follow the scaling predicted by Fisher's model, thus providing the strongest evidence yet of the liquid to vapor phase transition.
Phase Transition in a Healthy Human Heart Rate
Kiyono, Ken; Struzik, Zbigniew R.; Aoyagi, Naoko; Togo, Fumiharu; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu
2005-07-01
A healthy human heart rate displays complex fluctuations which share characteristics of physical systems in a critical state. We demonstrate that the human heart rate in healthy individuals undergoes a dramatic breakdown of criticality characteristics, reminiscent of continuous second order phase transitions. By studying the germane determinants, we show that the hallmark of criticality—highly correlated fluctuations—is observed only during usual daily activity, and a breakdown of these characteristics occurs in prolonged, strenuous exercise and sleep. This finding is the first reported discovery of the dynamical phase transition phenomenon in a biological control system and will be a key to understanding the heart rate control system in health and disease.
Phase transition from hadronic matter to quark matter
Wang, P.; Thomas, A W; Williams, A. G.
2006-01-01
We study the phase transition from nuclear matter to quark matter within the SU(3) quark mean field model and NJL model. The SU(3) quark mean field model is used to give the equation of state for nuclear matter, while the equation of state for color superconducting quark matter is calculated within the NJL model. It is found that at low temperature, the phase transition from nuclear to color superconducting quark matter will take place when the density is of order 2.5$\\rho_0$ - 5$\\rho_0$. At ...
A general holographic metal/superconductor phase transition model
Peng, Yan
2014-01-01
We study the scalar condensation of a general holographic superconductor model in AdS black hole background away from the probe limit. We find the model parameters together with the scalar mass and backreaction can determine the order of phase transitions completely. In addition, we observe two types of discontinuities of the scalar operator in the case of first order phase transitions. We analyze in detail the effects of the scalar mass and backreaction on the formation of discontinuities and arrive at an approximate relation between the threshold model parameters. Furthermore, we obtain superconductor solutions corresponding to higher energy states and examine the stability of these superconductor solutions.
Nontopological solitons as nucleation sites for cosmological phase transitions
Metaxas, D.
2001-04-01
I consider quantum field theories that admit charged nontopological solitons of the Q-ball type, and use the fact that in a first-order cosmological phase transition, below the critical temperature, there is a value of the soliton charge above which the soliton becomes unstable and expands, converting space to the true vacuum, much like a critical bubble in the case of ordinary tunneling. Using a simple model for the production rate of Q-balls through charge accretion during a random walk out of equilibrium, I calculate the probability for the formation of critical charge solitons and estimate the amount of supercooling needed for the phase transition to be completed.
Thermodynamics, Phase Transition and Quasinormal modes with Weyl corrections
Mahapatra, Subhash
2016-01-01
We study charged black holes in D dimensional AdS space, in the presence of four derivative Weyl correction. We obtain the black hole solution perturbatively up to first as well as second order in the Weyl coupling, and show that first law of black hole thermodynamics is satisfied in all dimensions. We study its thermodynamic phase transition and then calculate the quasinormal frequencies of the massless scalar field perturbation. We find that, here too, the quasinormal frequencies capture the essence of black hole phase transition. Few subtleties near the second order critical point are discussed.
Thermodynamics, phase transition and quasinormal modes with Weyl corrections
Mahapatra, Subhash
2016-04-01
We study charged black holes in D dimensional AdS space, in the presence of four derivative Weyl correction. We obtain the black hole solution perturbatively up to first as well as second order in the Weyl coupling, and show that first law of black hole thermodynamics is satisfied in all dimensions. We study its thermodynamic phase transition and then calculate the quasinormal frequencies of the massless scalar field perturbation. We find that, here too, the quasinormal frequencies capture the essence of black hole phase transition. Few subtleties near the second order critical point are discussed.
Hadronic multiplicity distribution and dynamical fluctuations under QGP phase transitions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨纯斌; 鄢文标; 蔡勖
1999-01-01
Hadronic multiplicity distributions in small bins are studied within the Ginzburg-Landau description for quark-hadron phase transitions. Direct comparison of the distributions with Poisson ones （with the same averages） is made in the light of dynamical factors dq for the distributions and ratios Dq≡dq/d1. Scaling behavior between Dq’ s is found, which can be used to detect the formation of quark-gluon plasma. The same method can be used in the analysis of other processes without phase transition.
Electronic nematic phase transition in the presence of anisotropy
Yamase, Hiroyuki
2014-01-01
We study the phase diagram of electronic nematic instability in the presence of xy anisotropy. While a second order transition cannot occur in this case, mean-field theory predicts that a first order transition occurs near van Hove filling and its phase boundary forms a wing structure, which we term a Griffiths wing, referring to his original work of He3-He4 mixtures. When crossing the wing, the anisotropy of the electronic system exhibits a discontinuous change, leading to a meta-nematic tra...
Cold dark matter and the cosmic phase transition
Sinha, Bikash
2016-01-01
It is entirely plausible that during the primordial quark- hadron phase transition in the universe, microseconds after the Big Bang, supercooling takes place, accompanied by miniinflation. With µ/T ∼ 1 (µ is chemical potential), leading to a first order phase transition from quarks to hadrons; there will be relics in the form of quark nuggets, and, that they consist of Strange Quark Matter. The possibility that these SQM nuggets may well be the candidates of cold dark matter is critically examined. A cursory comparison with the neutron star is presented at the end.
Entropy change and phase transitions in an expanding Universe
Iqbal, N.; Masood, T.; Demir, N.
2015-12-01
The work compiles a correlated study of a gravitational quasi equilibrium thermodynamic approach for establishing and signifying a unique behavior of the cosmological entropy and phase transitions in an expanding Universe. On the basis of prescribed boundary conditions for the cluster temperature a relation for the intra-cluster medium (ICM) of galaxy clusters has been derived. A more productive and signifying approach of the correlation functions used for galaxy clustering phenomena shows a unique behavior of the entropy change where a phenomenon known as the gravitational phase transition occurs. This unique behavior occurs with a symmetry breaking from mild clustering to low clustering and from mild clustering to high clustering which differs from a normal symmetry breaking in material sciences. We also derive results for the specific latent heat associated with the phase transitions of 3.20 T_c and 0.55 T_c for the mildly clustered phase to the low clustered phase and from the mildly clustered phase to the highly clustered phase, respectively.
The problem of phase transitions in statistical mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The first part of this review deals with the single-phase approach to the statistical theory of phase transitions. This approach is based on the assumption that a first-order phase transition is due to the loss of stability of the parent phase. We demonstrate that it is practically impossible to find the coordinates of the transition points using this criterion in the framework of the global Gibbs theory which describes the state of the entire macroscopic system. On the basis of the Ornstein-Zernike equation we formulate a local approach that analyzes the state of matter inside the correlation sphere of radius Rc ∼ 10 A. This approach is proved to be as rigorous as the Gibbs theory. In the context of the local approach we formulate a criterion that allows finding the transition points without calculating the chemical potential and the pressure of the second conjugate phase. In the second part of the review we consider second-order phase transitions (critical phenomena). The Kadanoff-Wilson theory of critical phenomena is analyzed, based on the global Gibbs approach. Again we use the Ornstein-Zernike equation to formulate a local theory of critical phenomena. With regard to experimentally established quantities this theory yields precisely the same results as the Kadanoff-Wilson theory; secondly, the local approach allows the prediction of many previously unknown details of critical phenomena, and thirdly, the local approach paves the way for constructing a unified theory of liquids that will describe the behavior of matter not only in the regular domain of the phase diagram, but also at the critical point and in its vicinity. (reviews of topical problems)
The electroweak phase transition in models with gauge singlets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ahriche, A.
2007-04-18
A strong first order phase transition is needed for generating the baryon asymmetry; and also to save it during the electroweak phase transition (EWPT). However this condition is not fulfilled within the Standard Model (SM), but in its extensions. It is widely believed that the existence of singlet scalars in some Standard Model extensions can easily make the EWPT strongly first order. In this work, we will examine the strength of the EWPT in the simplest extension of the SM with a real gauge singlet using the sphaleron energy at the critical temperature. We find that the phase transition is stronger by adding a singlet; and also that the criterion for a strong phase transition {omega}(T{sub c})/T{sub c} >or similar 1, where {omega} = (v{sup 2} + (x - x{sub 0}){sup 2}){sup (}1)/(2) and x(x{sub 0}) is the singlet vacuum expectation value in the broken (symmetric) phase, is not valid for models containing singlets, even though often used in the literature. The usual condition v{sub c}/T{sub c} >or similar 1 is more meaningful, and it is satisfied for the major part of the parameter space for physically allowed Higgs masses. Then it is convenient to study the EWPT in models with singlets that couple only to the Higgs doublets, by replacing the singlets by their vevs. (orig.)
Quantum Phase Transitions of Antiferromagnets and the Cuprate Superconductors
Sachdev, Subir
I begin with a proposed global phase diagram of the cuprate superconductors as a function of carrier concentration, magnetic field, and temperature, and highlight its connection to numerous recent experiments. The phase diagram is then used as a point of departure for a pedagogical review of various quantum phases and phase transitions of insulators, superconductors, and metals. The bond operator method is used to describe the transition of dimerized antiferromagnetic insulators between magnetically ordered states and spin-gap states. The Schwinger boson method is applied to frustrated square lattice antiferromagnets: phase diagrams containing collinear and spirally ordered magnetic states, Z_2 spin liquids, and valence bond solids are presented, and described by an effective gauge theory of spinons. Insights from these theories of insulators are then applied to a variety of symmetry breaking transitions in d-wave superconductors. The latter systems also contain fermionic quasiparticles with a massless Dirac spectrum, and their influence on the order parameter fluctuations and quantum criticality is carefully discussed. I conclude with an introduction to strong coupling problems associated with symmetry breaking transitions in two-dimensional metals, where the order parameter fluctuations couple to a gapless line of fermionic excitations along the Fermi surface.
Zipf's law emerges asymptotically during phase transitions in communicative systems
Khomtchouk, Bohdan B
2016-01-01
Zipf's law predicts a power-law relationship between word rank and frequency in language communication systems, and is widely reported in texts yet remains enigmatic as to its origins. Computer simulations have shown that language communication systems emerge at an abrupt phase transition in the fidelity of mappings between symbols and objects. Since the phase transition approximates the Heaviside or step function, we show that Zipfian scaling emerges asymptotically at high rank based on the Laplace transform which yields $(1/r)(1-e^{-r})$, where $r$ denotes rank. We thereby demonstrate that Zipf's law gradually emerges from the moment of phase transition in communicative systems. We show that this power-law scaling behavior explains the emergence of natural languages at phase transitions. We find that the emergence of Zipf's law during language communication suggests that the use of rare words in a lexicon (i.e., high $r$) is critical for the construction of an effective communicative system at the phase tra...
The electroweak phase transition in models with gauge singlets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A strong first order phase transition is needed for generating the baryon asymmetry; and also to save it during the electroweak phase transition (EWPT). However this condition is not fulfilled within the Standard Model (SM), but in its extensions. It is widely believed that the existence of singlet scalars in some Standard Model extensions can easily make the EWPT strongly first order. In this work, we will examine the strength of the EWPT in the simplest extension of the SM with a real gauge singlet using the sphaleron energy at the critical temperature. We find that the phase transition is stronger by adding a singlet; and also that the criterion for a strong phase transition Ω(Tc)/Tc >or similar 1, where Ω = (v2 + (x - x0)2)(1)/(2) and x(x0) is the singlet vacuum expectation value in the broken (symmetric) phase, is not valid for models containing singlets, even though often used in the literature. The usual condition vc/Tc >or similar 1 is more meaningful, and it is satisfied for the major part of the parameter space for physically allowed Higgs masses. Then it is convenient to study the EWPT in models with singlets that couple only to the Higgs doublets, by replacing the singlets by their vevs. (orig.)
The Noise-Sensitivity Phase Transition in Compressed Sensing
Donoho, David L; Montanari, Andrea
2010-01-01
Consider the noisy underdetermined system of linear equations: y=Ax0 + z0, with n x N measurement matrix A, n \\rhoMSE(\\delta). The phase boundary \\rho = \\rhoMSE(\\delta) is identical to the previously-known phase transition curve for equivalence of l1 - l0 minimization in the k-sparse noiseless case. Hence a single phase boundary describes the fundamental phase transitions both for the noiseless and noisy cases. Extensive computational experiments validate the predictions of this formalism, including the exis tence of game theoretical structures underlying it. Underlying our formalism is the AMP algorithm introduced earlier by the authors. Other papers by the authors detail expressions for the formal MSE of AMP and its close connection to l1-penalized reconstruction. Here we derive the minimax formal MSE of AMP and then read out results for l1-penalized reconstruction.
Nuclear phase transition studied with AMD-MF
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sugawa, Y.; Horiuchi, H. [Department of Physics, Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan)
1999-08-01
Liquid-gas phase transition of finite nucleus is studied by means of microscopic reaction theory, AMD-MF. Thermodynamic variables such as temperature and pressure and their relationship to the excitation energy of the system are obtained by calculating the time evolution of hot system in a potential well. We see clearly the existence of three regions in the calculated caloric curve; namely liquid-dominant, plateau and gas regions. The transition of the system from liquid-dominant phase to gas-phase begins with the cracking of hot liquid nucleus and disintegration into fragments. Property of plateau region strongly depends on the pressure of the system at equilibrium. Gas phase is well reproduced by van der Waals equation. (author)
Weight-decay induced phase transitions in multilayer neural networks
Ahr, M.; Biehl, M.; Schlösser, E.
1999-07-01
We investigate layered neural networks with differentiable activation function and student vectors without normalization constraint by means of equilibrium statistical physics. We consider the learning of perfectly realizable rules and find that the length of student vectors becomes infinite, unless a proper weight decay term is added to the energy. Then, the system undergoes a first-order phase transition between states with very long student vectors and states where the lengths are comparable to those of the teacher vectors. Additionally, in both configurations there is a phase transition between a specialized and an unspecialized phase. An anti-specialized phase with long student vectors exists in networks with a small number of hidden units.
Roberge-Weiss phase transitions and extended Z3 symmetry
Kouno, H.; Sakai, Y.; Kashiwa, K; Matsuzaki, M.; Yahiro, M.
2008-01-01
Using the Polyakov extended Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (PNJL) model with imaginary chemical potential, the relation between the Roberge-Weiss (RW) phase transition and the extended Z3 symmetry is studied. At low temperature, there is approximate continuous symmetry under the phase transformation of the Polyakov loop with the shift of the imaginary chemical potential. Due to this continuous symmetry, the Polyakov loop can oscillate smoothly as the imaginary chemical potential increases. At high temper...
Nonequilibrium Critical Phenomena and Phase Transitions into Absorbing States
Hinrichsen, Haye
2000-01-01
This review addresses recent developments in nonequilibrium statistical physics. Focusing on phase transitions from fluctuating phases into absorbing states, the universality class of directed percolation is investigated in detail. The survey gives a general introduction to various lattice models of directed percolation and studies their scaling properties, field-theoretic aspects, numerical techniques, as well as possible experimental realizations. In addition, several examples of absorbing-...
The average action for scalar fields near phase transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We compute the average action for fields in two, three and four dimensions, including the effects of wave function renormalization. A study of the one loop evolution equations for the scale dependence of the average action gives a unified picture of the qualitatively different behaviour in various dimensions for discrete as well as abelian and nonabelian continuous symmetry. The different phases and the phase transitions can be infered from the evolution equation. (orig.)
Recent progress of nuclear liquid gas phase transition
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
MA Yu-Gang; SHEN Wen-Qing
2004-01-01
Recent progress on nuclear liquid gas phase transition (LGPT) has been reviewed, especially for the signals of LGPT in heavy ion collisions. These signals include the power-law charge distribution, cluster emission rate, nuclear Zipf law, bimodality, the largest fluctuation of the fragments, △ -scaling, caloric curve, phase coexistence diagram, critical temperature, critical exponent analysis, negative specific heat capacity and spinodal instability etc. The systematic works of the authors on experimental and theoretical LGPT are also introduced.
Optically induced phase transition of excitons in coupled quantum dots
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chen Zi-Dong
2008-01-01
The weak classical light excitations in many semiconductor quantum dots have been chosen as important solidstate quantum systems for processing quantum information and implementing quantum computing. For strong classical light we predict theoretically a novel phase transition as a function of magnitude of this classical light from the deformed to the normal phases in resonance case, and the essential features of criticality such as the scaling behaviour, critical exponent and universality are also present in this paper.
Synchronization of oscillators: an ideal introduction to phase transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The spontaneous synchronization of phase-coupled, non-identical oscillators is explored numerically via the famous Kuramoto model. The conditions for synchronization are examined as a function of the coupling network. I argue that such a numerical exploration provides a feasible way to introduce the topic of phase transitions early in the physics curriculum. Furthermore, this approach can be used to familiarize undergraduate students with the notions of emergence and universality
Electrostatically Driven Granular Media: Phase Transitions and Coarsening
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We report the experimental and theoretical study of electrostatically driven granular material. We show that the charged granular medium undergoes a hysteretic phase transition from the immobile condensed state (granular solid) to a fluidized dilated state (granular gas) with a changing applied electric field. In addition we observe a spontaneous precipitation of dense clusters from the gas phase and subsequent coarsening--coagulation of these clusters. Molecular dynamics simulations show qualitative agreement with experimental results. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society
Electrostatically-Driven Granular Media: Phase Transitions and Coarsening
Aranson, I. S.; Blair, D.; Kalatsky, V. A.; Crabtree, G.W.; Kwok, W. -K.; Vinokur, V. M.; Welp, U.
1999-01-01
We report the experimental and theoretical study of electrostatically driven granular material. We show that the charged granular medium undergoes a hysteretic first order phase transition from the immobile condensed state (granular solid) to a fluidized dilated state (granular gas) with a changing applied electric field. In addition we observe a spontaneous precipitation of dense clusters from the gas phase and subsequent coarsening - coagulation of these clusters. Molecular dynamics simulat...
Chiral Phase Transition at Finite Isospin Density in Linear Sigma Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SHU Song; LI Jia-Rong
2005-01-01
Using the linear sigma model, we have introduced the pion isospin chemical potential. The chiral phase transition is studied at finite temperatures and finite isospin densities. We have studied the μ - T phase diagram for the chiral phase transition and found the transition cannot happen below a certain low temperature because of the BoseEinstein condensation in this system. Above that temperature, the chiral phase transition is studied by the isotherms of pressure versus density. We indicate that the transition, in the chiral limit, is a first-order transition from a low-density phase to a high-density phase like a gas-liquid phase transition.
The QCD phase transition. From the microscopic mechanism to signals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This talk consists of two very different parts: the first one deals with non-perturbative QCD and physics of the chiral restoration, the second with rather low-key (and still unfinished) work aiming at obtaining EOS and other properties of hot/dense hadronic matter from data on heavy ion collisions. The microscopic mechanism for chiral restoration phase transition is a transition from randomly placed tunneling events (instantons) at low T to a set of strongly correlated tunneling-anti-tunneling events (known as instanton-anti-instanton molecules) at high T. Many features of the transition can be explained in this simple picture, especially the critical line and its dependence on quark masses. This scenario predicts qualitative change of the basic quark-quark interactions around the phase transition line, with some states (such as pion-sigma ones) probably surviving event at T > Tc. In the second half of the talk experimental data on collective flow in heavy ion collision are discussed its hydro-based description and relation to equation of state (EOS). A distinct feature of the QCD phase transition region is high degree of 'softness', (small ratio pressure/energy density). (author)
VIJ, JAGDISH; Song, Jang-Kun; Fukuda, Atsuo
2008-01-01
PUBLISHED We have constructed the phase diagrams for a binary-mixture system of antiferroelectric and ferroelectric liquid-crystalline materials in both thick and thin cells. In the phase diagrams the boundary between the smectic-C* and smectic-CA * phases runs almost parallel to the temperature axis below from ca. 70 ?C down to at least ?25 ?C. The SmC*-SmCA * phase transition for a thin cell shows a large supercooling, and a gradual transition occurs near the boundary. ...
Shock and Recovery of Polytetrafluoroethylene Above and Below the Phase II to Phase III Transition
Brown, Eric N.; Rae, Philip J.; Trujillo, Carl P.; Dattelbaum, Dana M.; Gray, George T.; Bourne, Neil K.
2006-07-01
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a semi-crystalline polymer exhibiting complicated pressure and temperature dependent phases. High strain rate applications in aerospace, defense, and automotive industries have lead to interest in the shock response of PTFE and resulting changes in the polymer structure. Experimental studies on pressure-induced phase transitions using shock-loading techniques and the resulting changes in crystalline structure are presented. Gas launcher experiments were performed on pedigreed PTFE 7C momentum trapped assemblies with impact pressures from 0.4 to 0.85 GPa to investigate the material response above and below the phase II to phase III crystalline transition. [LAUR-05-5945
Experimental and theoretical study of phase transitions under ball milling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The aim of this work was to determine how phase transition s under ball-milling depend on the milling conditions and to find out if one can rationalize such transitions with the theory of driven alloys. We have chosen two phase transitions: the order-disorder transition in Fe Al and the precipitation-dissolution NiGe. In the case of Fe Al we have found that the steady-state long range order parameter achieved under ball milling intensity; moreover the same degree of order is achieved starting from an ordered alloy or a disordered solid solution. On the way to fully disordered state the degree of order either decreases monotonically or goes through a short lived transient state. This behaviour is reminiscent of a first order transition while the equilibrium transition is second order. All the above features are well reproduced by a simple model of driven alloys, which was originally build for alloys under irradiation. The stationary degree of order results of two competitive atomic jump mechanisms: the forced displacements induced by the shearing of the grains, and the thermally activated jumps caused by vacancies migrations. Finally we have performed atomistic simulations with a Monte Carlo kinetic algorithm, which revealed the role of the fluctuations in the intensity of the forcing. Moreover we have shown that specific atomistic mechanisms are active in a dilute NiGe solid solution which might lead to ball milling induced precipitation in under-saturated solid solution. (author)
On the strength of first order phase transitions
Gleiser, Marcello
1994-01-01
Electroweak baryogenesis may solve one of the most fundamental questions we can ask about the universe, that of the origin of matter. It has become clear in the past few years that it also poses a multi-faceted challenge. In order to compute the tiny primordial baryonic excess, we probably must invoke physics beyond the standard model (an exciting prospect for most people), we must push perturbation theory to its ``limits'' (or beyond), and we must deal with nonequilibrium aspects of the phase transition. In this talk, I focus mainly on the latter issue, that of nonequilibrium aspects of first order transitions. In particular, I discuss the elusive question of ``weakness''. What does it mean to have a weak first order transition, and how can we distinguish between weak and strong? I argue that weak and strong transitions have very different dynamics; while strong transitions proceed by the usual bubble nucleation mechanism, weak transitions are characterized by a mixing of phases as the system reaches the cri...
Is there a sharp phase transition for deterministic cellular automata?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Previous work has suggested that there is a kind of phase transition between deterministic automata exhibiting periodic behavior and those exhibiting chaotic behavior. However, unlike the usual phase transitions of physics, this transition takes place over a range of values of the parameter rather than at a specific value. The present paper asks whether the transition can be made sharp, either by taking the limit of an infinitely large rule table, or by changing the parameter in terms of which the space of automata is explored. We find strong evidence that, for the class of automata we consider, the transition does become sharp in the limit of an infinite number of symbols, the size of the neighborhood being held fixed. Our work also suggests an alternative parameter in terms of which it is likely that the transition will become fairly sharp even if one does not increase the number of symbols. In the course of our analysis, we find that mean field theory, which is our main tool, gives surprisingly good predictions of the statistical properties of the class of automata we consider. 18 refs., 6 figs
Quantum phase transitions in spin-1 compass chains
Liu, Guang-Hua; Kong, Long-Juan; You, Wen-Long
2015-11-01
The ground-state phase diagram and quantum phase transitions (QPTs) in a spin-1 compass chain are investigated by the infinite time-evolving block decimation (iTEBD) method. Various phases are discerned by energy densities, spin correlations and entanglement entropy. A generalized string correlator is found to be capable of describing the nonlocal string order in the disordered phase. Furthermore, in the noncritical disordered phase, the spin-spin correlations are found to decay exponentially. Except for a multicritical point ( J 1 = 0, J 2 = 0), the QPTs are determined to have second-order characters. In addition, the central charges on these critical phase boundaries are determined to be c = 1 / 2, therefore these QPTs belong to the Ising universality class.
Liquid-Liquid Phase Transition and Glass Transition in a Monoatomic Model System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nicolas Giovambattista
2010-12-01
Full Text Available We review our recent study on the polyamorphism of the liquid and glass states in a monatomic system, a two-scale spherical-symmetric Jagla model with both attractive and repulsive interactions. This potential with a parametrization for which crystallization can be avoided and both the glass transition and the liquid-liquid phase transition are clearly separated, displays water-like anomalies as well as polyamorphism in both liquid and glassy states, providing a unique opportunity to study the interplay between the liquid-liquid phase transition and the glass transition. Our study on a simple model may be useful in understanding recent studies of polyamorphism in metallic glasses.
Fatigue and phase transition in an oscillating plate
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Bosia, S.; Eleuteri, M.; Kopfová, J.; Krejčí, Pavel
2014-01-01
Roč. 435, February (2014), s. 1-3. ISSN 0921-4526 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP201/10/2315 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : fatigue * hysteresis * phase transitions Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.319, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921452613006042
An improved effective potential for electroweak phase transitions
Balakrishnan, J; Janaki Balakrishnan; Ian G Moss
1994-01-01
It is shown that improved potentials and corrected mass terms can be introduced by using a quadratic source term in the path integral construction for the effective action. The advantage of doing things this way is that we avoid ever having to deal with complex propagators in the loop expansion. The resulting effective action for electroweak phase transitions is similar to the usual results.
Nonlinear clustering during the BEC dark matter phase transition
de Freitas, Rodolfo C.; Velten, Hermano
2015-12-01
Spherical collapse of the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) dark matter model is studied in the Thomas-Fermi approximation. The evolution of the overdensity of the collapsed region and its expansion rate are calculated for two scenarios. We consider the case of a sharp phase transition (which happens when the critical temperature is reached) from the normal dark matter state to the condensate one and the case of a smooth first order phase transition where there is a continuous conversion of "normal" dark matter to the BEC phase. We present numerical results for the physics of the collapse for a wide range of the model's space parameter, i.e. the mass of the scalar particle m_{χ } and the scattering length l_s. We show the dependence of the transition redshift on m_{χ } and l_s. Since small scales collapse earlier and eventually before the BEC phase transition, the evolution of collapsing halos in this limit is indeed the same in both the CDM and the BEC models. Differences are expected to appear only on the largest astrophysical scales. However, we argue that the BEC model is almost indistinguishable from the usual dark matter scenario concerning the evolution of nonlinear perturbations above typical clusters scales, i.e., ≳ 10^{14}M_{⊙}. This provides an analytical confirmation for recent results from cosmological numerical simulations (Schive et al., Nat Phys 10:496, 2014).
Self-Organized Criticality in Quark-Hadron Phase Transition
Hwa, Rudolph C.; Pan, Jicai
1995-01-01
The problem of clusters growth in quark-hadron phase transition in heavy-ion collision is investigated by cellular automata. The system is found to exhibit self-organized criticality with the distribution of cluster sizes having universal scaling behavior.
Structure and phase transitions in guanidinium halogenobismuthates(III)
Bator, G.; Zeegers-Huyskens, Th; Jakubas, R.; Zaleski, J.
2001-08-01
Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dilatometric and dielectric measurements have been used to study the phase transitions in [C(NH 2) 3] 3BiBr 6. The [C(NH 2) 3] 3BiBr 6 crystal undergoes four phase transitions: at 419, 429, 475 and 495 K (on heating). The high-temperature phase transition is clearly of first-order type and its high entropy effect allows classifying it as of the order-disorder type. X-ray diffraction studies showed that [C(NH 2) 3] 3BiBr 6 crystallises in monoclinic, centrosymmetric space group, C2/ c. The anionic sublattice is composed of isolated BiBr 63- octahedra. The infrared between 100 and 350 K and Raman spectra at room temperature in the frequency range related to the internal vibrations of guanidinium cations were studied for [C(NH 2) 3] 3BiBr 6, [C(NH 2) 3] 3Bi 2Br 9, [C(NH 2) 3] 3BiCl 6xCl 2 and C(NH 2) 3Cl to analyse the dynamical state of cations. At room temperature, the cations in the studied guanidinium halogenobismuthates(III) are almost rigid, so the mechanism of high-temperature phase transitions is probably connected with the release of rotation of the cations.
Role of multistability in the transition to chaotic phase synchronization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Postnov, D.E.; Vadivasova, T.E.; Sosnovtseva, Olga; Balanov, A.G.; Anishchenko, V.S.; Mosekilde, Erik
1999-01-01
nonsynchronous behavior is determined by the loss of stability for the most stable synchronous mode. It is shown that the appearance of hyperchaos and the transition from lag synchronization to phase synchronization are related to the merging of chaotic attractors from different families. Numerical examples...
Mécanique statistique et transitions de phase.
Héritier, Michel
2006-01-01
0 - Page de titre1 - Mécanique statistique élémentaire2 - Modèle d'Ising à une dimension et à deux dimensions3 - Transitions de phase - Généralités - Modéle de L andau4 - Approximations de champ moyen5 - Phénomènes critiques6 - Appendice
Thermodynamics and phase transitions in the Overhauser model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Duffield, N.G.; Pule, J.V.
1989-01-01
The authors analyze the thermodynamics of the Overhauser model and demonstrate rigorously the existence of a phase transition. This is achieved by extending techniques previously developed to treat the BCS model in the quasi-spin formulation. Additionally, they compare the thermodynamics of the quasi-spin and full-trace BCS models. The results are identical up to a temperature rescaling.
Thermodynamics and phase transitions in the Overhauser model
Duffield, N. G.; Pulé, J. V.
1989-01-01
We analyze the thermodynamics of the Overhauser model and demonstrate rigorously the existence of a phase transition. This is achieved by extending techniques previously developed to treat the BCS model in the quasi-spin formulation. Additionally, we compare the thermodynamics of the quasi-spin and full-trace BCS models. The results are identical up to a temperature rescaling.
CHAOS : BUTTERFLIES ALSO GENERATE PHASE TRANSITIONS AND PARALLEL UNIVERSES
Leplaideur, Renaud
2013-01-01
We exhibit examples of mixing subshifts of finite type and potentials such that there are phase transitions but the pressure is always strictly convex. More surprisingly, we show that the pressure can be analytic on some interval although there exist several equilibrium states.
Liquid-solid phase transitions in a deformable container
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Krejčí, Pavel; Rocca, E.; Sprekels, J.
1. Berlin: Springer, 2010 - (Albers, B.), s. 285-300 ISBN 978-3-642-11444-1 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : phase transition * energy balance * equilibrium state Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-642-11445-8_22
Heat capacity and phase transition of Zircaloy-4
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heat capacity from 300 K to 1100 K and enthalpy change of the phase transition of Zircaloy-4 between 1080 K and 1270 K were measured with a triple-cell-type differential scanning calorimeter and a twin-type drop calorimeter. Heat capacities measured with these two apparatuses were in good agreement with each other, and they were several % less than the other literature values. They were also in good agreement with the values calculated by assuming the additivity of the contributions of the elements and the values of pure zirconium. On the phase transition, two peaks were observed in the temperature range from 1080 K to 1270 K. The first peak was assigned to a eutectic temperature of the Zr-Fe system or the Zr-Cr system, and the second peak was considered to come from the α-β phase transition of Zr affected by Sn and O. The enthalpy change of the α-β phase transition (ΔHtr) was determined to be 4.12±0.35 kJ mol-1, which was in good agreement with literature values for pure Zr. (orig.)
Ultrafast Hot Electron Induced Phase Transitions in Vanadium Dioxide
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Haglund R. F.
2013-03-01
Full Text Available The Au/Cr/VO2/Si system was investigated in pump–probe experiments. Hot-electrons generated in the Au were found to penetrate into the underlying VO2 and couple with its lattice inducing a semiconductor-to-metal phase transition in ~2 picoseconds.
Multiply Degenerate Exceptional Points and Quantum Phase Transitions
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Borisov, D.; Růžička, František; Znojil, Miloslav
2015-01-01
Roč. 54, č. 12 (2015), s. 4293-4305. ISSN 0020-7748 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : quantum mechanics * Cryptohermitian observbles * spectra and pseudospectra * real exceptional points * phase transitions Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.184, year: 2014
Employment, Production and Consumption model: Patterns of phase transitions
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Lavička, H.; Lin, L.; Novotný, Jan
2010-01-01
Roč. 389, č. 8 (2010), s. 1708-1720. ISSN 0378-4371 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : EPC * Agent based model * Phase transition Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.521, year: 2010
Fatigue and phase transition in an oscillating plate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We propose a temperature-dependent model for fatigue accumulation in an oscillating elasto-plastic plate accounting also for phase transition. The main modeling hypothesis is that the fatigue rate is proportional to the dissipation rate. We show thermodynamic consistency of the model and discuss a possible choice of the evolution equation for the fatigue parameter m
Measuring phase transition temperature of fragmented C60
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A molecular thermometer based on the momentum distributions of the ionic fragments has been founded. The excitation temperature of fragmented C60 was determined using the novel thermometer. The results provide a clear evidence that a first-order phase transition in the hot C60 is occurring at the temperature around 6050K ± 250K.
Cooling compact stars and phase transitions in dense QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sedrakian, Armen [J.W. Goethe University, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)
2016-03-15
We report new simulations of cooling of compact stars containing quark cores and updated fits to the Cas A fast cooling data. Our model is built on the assumption that the transient behaviour of the star in Cas A is due to a phase transition within the dense QCD matter in the core of the star. Specifically, the fast cooling is attributed to an enhancement in the neutrino emission triggered by a transition from a fully gapped, two-flavor, red-green color-superconducting quark condensate to a superconducting crystalline or an alternative gapless, color-superconducting phase. The blue-colored condensate is modeled as a Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS)-type color superconductor with spin-one pairing order parameter. We study the sensitivity of the fits to the phase transition temperature, the pairing gap of blue quarks and the timescale characterizing the phase transition (the latter modelled in terms of a width parameter). Relative variations in these parameter around their best-fit values larger than 10{sup -3} spoil the fit to the data. We confirm the previous finding that the cooling curves show significant variations as a function of compact star mass, which allows one to account for dispersion in the data on the surface temperatures of thermally emitting neutron stars. (orig.)
Unified rotational dynamics of molecular crystals with orientational phase transition
Michel, K.H.; Raedt, H. De
1976-01-01
A unified theory for the rotational dynamics of molecular crystals with orientational phase transitions is given. As basic secular variables one takes symmetry adapted functions, which describe the molecular orientations, and the angular momenta of the molecules. Using Mori’s projection operator tec
Nonlinear clustering during the BEC dark matter phase transition
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Freitas, Rodolfo C. de, E-mail: rodolfo.camargo@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Av. Fernando Ferrari, Goiabeiras, Vitória (Brazil); Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Espírito Santo, Avenida Vitória 1729, Jucutuquara, Vitória (Brazil); Velten, Hermano, E-mail: velten@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Av. Fernando Ferrari, Goiabeiras, Vitória (Brazil); UMR 7332, CPT, Aix Marseille Université, 13288, Marseille (France)
2015-12-16
Spherical collapse of the Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) dark matter model is studied in the Thomas–Fermi approximation. The evolution of the overdensity of the collapsed region and its expansion rate are calculated for two scenarios. We consider the case of a sharp phase transition (which happens when the critical temperature is reached) from the normal dark matter state to the condensate one and the case of a smooth first order phase transition where there is a continuous conversion of “normal” dark matter to the BEC phase. We present numerical results for the physics of the collapse for a wide range of the model’s space parameter, i.e. the mass of the scalar particle m{sub χ} and the scattering length l{sub s}. We show the dependence of the transition redshift on m{sub χ} and l{sub s}. Since small scales collapse earlier and eventually before the BEC phase transition, the evolution of collapsing halos in this limit is indeed the same in both the CDM and the BEC models. Differences are expected to appear only on the largest astrophysical scales. However, we argue that the BEC model is almost indistinguishable from the usual dark matter scenario concerning the evolution of nonlinear perturbations above typical clusters scales, i.e., ≳10{sup 14}M{sub ⊙}. This provides an analytical confirmation for recent results from cosmological numerical simulations (Schive et al., Nat Phys 10:496, 2014)
Nonlinear clustering during the BEC dark matter phase transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spherical collapse of the Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) dark matter model is studied in the Thomas–Fermi approximation. The evolution of the overdensity of the collapsed region and its expansion rate are calculated for two scenarios. We consider the case of a sharp phase transition (which happens when the critical temperature is reached) from the normal dark matter state to the condensate one and the case of a smooth first order phase transition where there is a continuous conversion of “normal” dark matter to the BEC phase. We present numerical results for the physics of the collapse for a wide range of the model’s space parameter, i.e. the mass of the scalar particle mχ and the scattering length ls. We show the dependence of the transition redshift on mχ and ls. Since small scales collapse earlier and eventually before the BEC phase transition, the evolution of collapsing halos in this limit is indeed the same in both the CDM and the BEC models. Differences are expected to appear only on the largest astrophysical scales. However, we argue that the BEC model is almost indistinguishable from the usual dark matter scenario concerning the evolution of nonlinear perturbations above typical clusters scales, i.e., ≳1014M⊙. This provides an analytical confirmation for recent results from cosmological numerical simulations (Schive et al., Nat Phys 10:496, 2014)
Nonlinear clustering during the BEC dark matter phase transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spherical collapse of the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) dark matter model is studied in the Thomas-Fermi approximation. The evolution of the overdensity of the collapsed region and its expansion rate are calculated for two scenarios. We consider the case of a sharp phase transition (which happens when the critical temperature is reached) from the normal dark matter state to the condensate one and the case of a smooth first order phase transition where there is a continuous conversion of ''normal'' dark matter to the BEC phase. We present numerical results for the physics of the collapse for a wide range of the model's space parameter, i.e. the mass of the scalar particle mχ and the scattering length ls. We show the dependence of the transition redshift on mχ and ls. Since small scales collapse earlier and eventually before the BEC phase transition, the evolution of collapsing halos in this limit is indeed the same in both the CDM and the BEC models. Differences are expected to appear only on the largest astrophysical scales. However, we argue that the BEC model is almost indistinguishable from the usual dark matter scenario concerning the evolution of nonlinear perturbations above typical clusters scales, i.e., >or similar 1014Msun. This provides an analytical confirmation for recent results from cosmological numerical simulations (Schive et al., Nat Phys 10:496, 2014). (orig.)
Effects of phase transition induced density fluctuations on pulsar dynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Partha Bagchi
2015-07-01
Full Text Available We show that density fluctuations during phase transitions in pulsar cores may have non-trivial effects on pulsar timings, and may also possibly account for glitches and anti-glitches. These density fluctuations invariably lead to non-zero off-diagonal components of the moment of inertia, leading to transient wobbling of star. Thus, accurate measurements of pulsar timing and intensity modulations (from wobbling may be used to identify the specific pattern of density fluctuations, hence the particular phase transition, occurring inside the pulsar core. Changes in quadrupole moment from rapidly evolving density fluctuations during the transition, with very short time scales, may provide a new source for gravitational waves.
UNIVERSALITY OF PHASE TRANSITION DYNAMICS: TOPOLOGICAL DEFECTS FROM SYMMETRY BREAKING
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zurek, Wojciech H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Del Campo, Adolfo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2014-02-13
In the course of a non-equilibrium continuous phase transition, the dynamics ceases to be adiabatic in the vicinity of the critical point as a result of the critical slowing down (the divergence of the relaxation time in the neighborhood of the critical point). This enforces a local choice of the broken symmetry and can lead to the formation of topological defects. The Kibble-Zurek mechanism (KZM) was developed to describe the associated nonequilibrium dynamics and to estimate the density of defects as a function of the quench rate through the transition. During recent years, several new experiments investigating formation of defects in phase transitions induced by a quench both in classical and quantum mechanical systems were carried out. At the same time, some established results were called into question. We review and analyze the Kibble-Zurek mechanism focusing in particular on this surge of activity, and suggest possible directions for further progress.
Phase transitions on random lattices: how random is topological disorder?
Barghathi, Hatem; Vojta, Thomas
2014-09-19
We study the effects of topological (connectivity) disorder on phase transitions. We identify a broad class of random lattices whose disorder fluctuations decay much faster with increasing length scale than those of generic random systems, yielding a wandering exponent of ω=(d-1)/(2d) in d dimensions. The stability of clean critical points is thus governed by the criterion (d+1)ν>2 rather than the usual Harris criterion dν>2, making topological disorder less relevant than generic randomness. The Imry-Ma criterion is also modified, allowing first-order transitions to survive in all dimensions d>1. These results explain a host of puzzling violations of the original criteria for equilibrium and nonequilibrium phase transitions on random lattices. We discuss applications, and we illustrate our theory by computer simulations of random Voronoi and other lattices. PMID:25279615
Transition from boiling to two-phase forced convection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The paper presents a method for the prediction of the boundary points of the transition region between fully developed boiling and two-phase forced convection. It is shown that the concept for the determination of the onset of fully developed boiling can also be applied for the calculation of the point where the heat transfer is effected again by the forced convection. Similarly, the criterion for the onset of nucleate boiling can be used for the definition of the point where boiling is completely suppressed and pure two-phase forced convection starts. To calculate the heat transfer coefficient for the transition region, an equation is proposed that applies the boundary points and a relaxation function ensuring the smooth transition of the heat transfer coefficient at the boundaries
Defect Formation in First Order Phase Transitions with Damping
Ferrera, A
1998-01-01
Within the context of first order phase transitions in the early universe, we study the influence of a coupling between the (global U(1)) scalar driving the transition and the rest of the matter content of the theory. The effect of the coupling on the scalar is simulated by introducing a damping term in its equations of motion, as suggested by recent results in the electroweak phase transition. After a preceeding paper, in which we studied the influence that this coupling has in the dynamics of bubble collisions and topological defect formation, we proceed in this paper to quantify the impact of this new effects on the probability of defect creation per nucleating bubble.
Supersymmetric phase transition in Josephson-tunnel-junction arrays
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Foda, O.
1988-08-31
The fully frustrated XY model in two dimensions exhibits a vortex-unbinding as well as an Ising transition. If the Ising transition overlaps with the critical line that ends on the vortex transition: T/sub I/less than or equal toT/sub V/, then the model is equivalent, at the overlap temperature, to a free massless field theory of 1 boson and 1 Majorana fermion, which is a superconformal field theory, of central charge c=3/2. The model is experimentally realized in terms of an array of Josephson-tunnel junctions in a transverse magnetic field. The experiment reveals a phase transition consistent with T/sub I/=T/sub V/. Thus, at the critical temperature, the array provides a physical realization of a supersymmetric quantum field theory.
A supersymmetric phase transition in Josephson-tunnel-junction arrays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The fully frustrated XY model in two dimensions exhibits a vortex-unbinding as well as an Ising transition. If the Ising transition overlaps with the critical line that ends on the vortex transition: TI≤TV, then the model is equivalent, at the overlap temperature, to a free massless field theory of 1 boson and 1 Majorana fermion, which is a superconformal field theory, of central charge c=3/2. The model is experimentally realized in terms of an array of Josephson-tunnel junctions in a transverse magnetic field. The experiment reveals a phase transition consistent with TI=TV. Thus, at the critical temperature, the array provides a physical realization of a supersymmetric quantum field theory. (orig.)
Crossing The Phase Transition In Strong Focusing Proton synchrotrons
Sørensen, A
1975-01-01
Two effects are observed when a intensity bunch crosses the phase transition: bunch-length oscillations are excited, and there is also a sudden increase of the longitudinal emittance. These effects may for some accelerators be an intensity limitation as important as the transverse space-charge limit at injection. The bunch-length oscillations are caused by longitudinal space-charge forces and their nature is well understood. The emittance increase is less well understood, the most important mechanism is probably a negative-mass instability which develops right after transition, but also other mechanisms play a certain role. Various cures exist to counteract these mechanisms; the most successful one is the so-called gamma /sub transition/-jump, where the transition energy is rapidly reduced by pulsing a suitable set of quadrupoles. The various mechanisms and cures are first discussed in qualitative terms, then the theory is developed, and the state of today's knowledge is discussed. (63 refs).
Phase transitions in Na2TeO4 ceramics
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
N K Singh; R N P Choudhary
2000-08-01
Polycrystalline samples of NaTeO4 were prepared by conventional solid-state reaction technique at low temperature (600°C). X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) technique was used to check the formation of single phase NaTeO4 compound with cell parameters = 10.602(1) Å; = 70.622(1) Å and = 8.506(1) Å in orthorhombic crystal system. Detailed studies of dielectric constant () (and loss tangent (tan ) as a function of frequency (400 Hz–10 kHz) and temperature (– 120°C–260°C) show that the compound has two phase transitions in the ferroelectric phase.
Phase transition of holographic entanglement entropy in massive gravity
Xiao-Xiong Zeng; Hongbao Zhang; Li-Fang Li
2016-01-01
The phase structure of holographic entanglement entropy is studied in massive gravity for the quantum systems with finite and infinite volumes, which in the bulk is dual to calculate the minimal surface area for a black hole and black brane respectively. In the entanglement entropy$-$temperature plane, we find for both the black hole and black brane there is a Van der Waals-like phase transition as the case in thermal entropy$-$temperature plane. That is, there is a first order phase transiti...
Phase Transition Analysis Based Quality Prediction for Multi-phase Batch Processes
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
赵露平; 赵春晖; 高福荣
2012-01-01
Batch processes are usually involved with multiple phases in the time domain and many researches on process monitoring as well as quality prediction have been done using phase information. However, few of them consider phase transitions, though they exit widely in batch processes and have non-ignorable impacts on product qualities. In the present work, a phase-based partial least squares (PLS) method utilizing transition information is proposed to give both online and offline quality predictions. First, batch processes are divided into several phases using regression parameters other than prior process knowledge. Then both steady phases and transitions which have great influences on qualities are identified as critical-to-quality phases using statistical methods. Finally, based on the analysis of different characteristics of transitions and steady phases, an integrated algorithm is developed for quality prediction. The application to an injection molding process shows the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in comparison with the traditional MPLS method and the phase-based PLS method.
Origin of the phase transition in lithiated molybdenum disulfide
Cheng, Yingchun
2014-11-25
Phase transitions and phase engineering in two-dimensional MoS2 are important for applications in electronics and energy storage. By in situ transmission electron microscopy, we find that H-MoS2 transforms to T-LiMoS2 at the early stages of lithiation followed by the formation of Mo and Li2S phases. The transition from H-MoS2 to T-LiMoS2 is explained in terms of electron doping and electron - phonon coupling at the conduction band minima. Both are essential for the development of two-dimensional semiconductor-metal contacts based on MoS2 and the usage of MoS2 as anode material in Li ion batteries. (Figure Presented).
Supercooling across first-order phase transitions in vortex matter
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
P Chaddah; S B Roy
2000-06-01
Hysteresis in cycling through ﬁrst-order phase transitions in vortex matter, akin to the well-studied phenomenon of supercooling of water, has been discussed in literature. Hysteresis can be seen while varying either temperature or magnetic ﬁeld (and thus the density of vortices). Our recent work on phase transitions with two control variables shows that the observable region of metastability of the supercooled phase would depend on the path followed in - space, and will be larger when is lowered at constant compared to the case when is lowered at constant . We discuss the effect of isothermal ﬁeld variations on metastable supercooled states produced by ﬁeld-cooling. This path dependence is not a priori applicable to metastability caused by reduced diffusivity or hindered kinetics.
Characterization of quantum phase transition using holographic entanglement entropy
Ling, Yi; Liu, Peng; Wu, Jian-Pin
2016-06-01
The entanglement exhibits extremal or singular behavior near quantum critical points (QCPs) in many condensed matter models. These intriguing phenomena, however, still call for a widely accepted understanding. In this paper we study this issue in holographic framework. We investigate the connection between the holographic entanglement entropy (HEE) and the quantum phase transition (QPT) in a lattice-deformed Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton theory. Novel backgrounds exhibiting metal-insulator transitions (MIT) have been constructed in which both metallic phase and insulating phase have vanishing entropy density in zero temperature limit. We find that the first order derivative of HEE with respect to lattice parameters exhibits extremal behavior near QCPs. We propose that it would be a universal feature that HEE or its derivatives with respect to system parameters can characterize QPT in a generic holographic system. Our work opens a window for understanding the relation between entanglement and the QPT from a holographic perspective.
Structural Phase Transitions by Design in Monolayer Alloys.
Duerloo, Karel-Alexander N; Reed, Evan J
2016-01-26
Two-dimensional monolayer materials are a highly anomalous class of materials under vigorous exploration. Mo- and W-dichalcogenides are especially unusual two-dimensional materials because they exhibit at least three different monolayer crystal structures with strongly differing electronic properties. This intriguing yet poorly understood feature, which is not present in graphene, may support monolayer phase engineering, phase change memory and other applications. However, knowledge of the relevant phase boundaries and how to engineer them is lacking. Here we show using alloy models and state-of-the-art density functional theory calculations that alloyed MoTe2-WTe2 monolayers support structural phase transitions, with phase transition temperatures tunable over a large range from 0 to 933 K. We map temperature-composition phase diagrams of alloys between pure MoTe2 and pure WTe2, and benchmark our methods to analogous experiments on bulk materials. Our results suggest applications for two-dimensional materials as phase change materials that may provide scale, flexibility, and energy consumption advantages. PMID:26647117
Mesoscopic aspects of phase transitions in a solvent extraction system.
Ellis, Ross J; Audras, Matthieu; Antonio, Mark R
2012-11-01
In liquid-liquid extraction, organic phase splitting arises when high concentrations of polar solutes (acids/metal ions) are extracted. Herein, we investigate the mesoscopic roots that underpin phase splitting in alkane phases containing mixed amphiphiles, of contemporary interest in solvent extraction separation systems, by extracting various oxoacids. The oxoacids exhibited individual macroscopic (extractive and physical) behaviors, inducing phase splitting into heavy and light domains under markedly different conditions. Using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) data analyzed using the generalized indirect Fourier transform (GIFT) method, we showed that, in all cases, acid extraction drove the self-assembly of reverse micelles into rods. These grew with increased acid extraction until reaching a critical length of 20 nm, at which point interactions produced interconnected cylinders or lamellar sheets that prelude phase splitting into heavy and light domains. In all cases, the heavy phase contained the same surfactant ratio-TBP (tri-n-butyl phosphate) and CMPO (octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide)-even though the concentrations of acid, water, and amphiphiles were markedly different. The remarkable similarities in structure and amphiphile stoichiometries underpinning phase splitting across the macroscopically different acid extraction series allude to the mesoscopic roots of organic phase behavior in solvent extraction. Our studies show that the structures underpinning phase splitting in solvent extraction systems are more complex than previously thought and are reminiscent of phase transitions in soft matter. PMID:23062174
Liquid plasmonics: manipulating surface plasmon polaritons via phase transitions.
Vivekchand, S R C; Engel, Clifford J; Lubin, Steven M; Blaber, Martin G; Zhou, Wei; Suh, Jae Yong; Schatz, George C; Odom, Teri W
2012-08-01
This paper reports the manipulation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) in a liquid plasmonic metal by changing its physical phase. Dynamic properties were controlled by solid-to-liquid phase transitions in 1D Ga gratings that were fabricated using a simple molding process. Solid and liquid phases were found to exhibit different plasmonic properties, where light coupled to SPPs more efficiently in the liquid phase. We exploited the supercooling characteristics of Ga to access plasmonic properties associated with the liquid phase over a wider temperature range (up to 30 °C below the melting point of bulk Ga). Ab initio density functional theory-molecular dynamic calculations showed that the broadening of the solid-state electronic band structure was responsible for the superior plasmonic properties of the liquid metal. PMID:22823536
Comparing two tetraalkylammonium ionic liquids. II. Phase transitions
Lima, Thamires A.; Paschoal, Vitor H.; Faria, Luiz F. O.; Ribeiro, Mauro C. C.; Ferreira, Fabio F.; Costa, Fanny N.; Giles, Carlos
2016-06-01
Phase transitions of the ionic liquids n-butyl-trimethylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, [N1114][NTf2], and methyl-tributylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, [N1444][NTf2], were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, and Raman spectroscopy. XRD and Raman spectra were obtained as a function of temperature at atmospheric pressure, and also under high pressure at room temperature using a diamond anvil cell (DAC). [N1444][NTf2] experiences glass transition at low temperature, whereas [N1114][NTf2] crystallizes or not depending on the cooling rate. Both the ionic liquids exhibit glass transition under high pressure. XRD and low-frequency Raman spectra provide a consistent physical picture of structural ordering-disordering accompanying the thermal events of crystallization, glass transition, cold crystallization, pre-melting, and melting. Raman spectra in the high-frequency range of some specific cation and anion normal modes reveal conformational changes of the molecular structures along phase transitions.
Phase transitions in rare earth tellurides under pressure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Using first-principles calculations we have studied the valence and structural transitions of the rare earth monotellurides RTe (R = Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm and Yb) under pressure. The self-interaction corrected local spin-density approximation is used to establish the ground state valence configuration as a function of volume for the RTe in both the NaCl (B1) and CsCl (B2) structures. We find that in ambient conditions all the RTe are stabilized in the B1 structure. A trivalent (R3+) rare earth ground state is predicted for the majority of the RTe, with the exception of SmTe, EuTe, DyTe, TmTe and YbTe, where the fully localized divalent (R2+) rare earth configuration is found to be energetically most favourable. Under pressure, the trivalent RTe undergo structural transitions to the B2 structure without associated valence transition. The divalent RTe on the other hand are characterized by a competition between the structural and electronic degrees of freedom, and it is the degree of f-electron delocalization that determines the sequence of phase transitions. In EuTe and YbTe, where respectively the half-filled and filled shells result in a very stable divalent configuration, we find that it is the structural B1 → B2 transition that occurs first, followed by the R2+ → R3+ valence transition at even higher pressures. In SmTe, DyTe and TmTe, the electronic transition occurs prior to the structural transition. With the exception of YbTe, the calculated transition pressures are found to be in good agreement with experiment. (paper)