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Sample records for catarrhalis acquisition airway

  1. Moraxella catarrhalis sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Gualdi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Moraxella catarrhalis is a Gram-negative aerobic diplococcus, commensal of the oro-pharingeal cavity, actually playing an emerging role in the upper respiratory tract infections together with Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. This study reports the case of a twoyearold child who was admitted into hospital with fever, headache and vomit. The chest radiograph showed signs of basal lung involvementmaking the clinical suspicion of bacterial infectionlikely. From blood culture a Moraxella catarrhalis strain was isolated. In young children M. catarrhalis is known to cause otitis media and sinusitis, but only rarely bacteremia. In this case the child showed a clinical picture of lung infection and consequent sepsis due to M. catarrhalis.

  2. Indirect pathogenicity of Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis in polymicrobial otitis media occurs via interspecies quorum signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbruster, Chelsie E; Hong, Wenzhou; Pang, Bing; Weimer, Kristin E D; Juneau, Richard A; Turner, James; Swords, W Edward

    2010-07-06

    Otitis media (OM) is among the leading diseases of childhood and is caused by opportunists that reside within the nasopharynx, such as Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis. As with most airway infections, it is now clear that OM infections involve multiple organisms. This study addresses the hypothesis that polymicrobial infection alters the course, severity, and/or treatability of OM disease. The results clearly show that coinfection with H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis promotes the increased resistance of biofilms to antibiotics and host clearance. Using H. influenzae mutants with known biofilm defects, these phenotypes were shown to relate to biofilm maturation and autoinducer-2 (AI-2) quorum signaling. In support of the latter mechanism, chemically synthesized AI-2 (dihydroxypentanedione [DPD]) promoted increased M. catarrhalis biofilm formation and resistance to antibiotics. In the chinchilla infection model of OM, polymicrobial infection promoted M. catarrhalis persistence beyond the levels seen in animals infected with M. catarrhalis alone. Notably, no such enhancement of M. catarrhalis persistence was observed in animals infected with M. catarrhalis and a quorum signaling-deficient H. influenzae luxS mutant strain. We thus conclude that H. influenzae promotes M. catarrhalis persistence within polymicrobial biofilms via interspecies quorum signaling. AI-2 may therefore represent an ideal target for disruption of chronic polymicrobial infections. Moreover, these results strongly imply that successful vaccination against the unencapsulated H. influenzae strains that cause airway infections may also significantly impact chronic M. catarrhalis disease by removing a reservoir of the AI-2 signal that promotes M. catarrhalis persistence within biofilm.

  3. Pneumonia Caused by Moraxella Catarrhalis in Haematopoietic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two patients with haematopoietic stem cell transplant who developed pneumonia caused by M. catarrhalis at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre in Riyadh are reported and the literature is reviewed. To our knowledge, these are the first case reports of M. catarrhalis pneumonia in haematopoietic stem cell ...

  4. RNA-Seq-based analysis of the physiologic cold shock-induced changes in Moraxella catarrhalis gene expression.

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    Violeta Spaniol

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Moraxella catarrhalis, a major nasopharyngeal pathogen of the human respiratory tract, is exposed to rapid downshifts of environmental temperature when humans breathe cold air. The prevalence of pharyngeal colonization and respiratory tract infections caused by M. catarrhalis is greatest in winter. We investigated how M. catarrhalis uses the physiologic exposure to cold air to regulate pivotal survival systems that may contribute to M. catarrhalis virulence. RESULTS: In this study we used the RNA-seq techniques to quantitatively catalogue the transcriptome of M. catarrhalis exposed to a 26 °C cold shock or to continuous growth at 37 °C. Validation of RNA-seq data using quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrated the RNA-seq results to be highly reliable. We observed that a 26 °C cold shock induces the expression of genes that in other bacteria have been related to virulence a strong induction was observed for genes involved in high affinity phosphate transport and iron acquisition, indicating that M. catarrhalis makes a better use of both phosphate and iron resources after exposure to cold shock. We detected the induction of genes involved in nitrogen metabolism, as well as several outer membrane proteins, including ompA, m35-like porin and multidrug efflux pump (acrAB indicating that M. catarrhalis remodels its membrane components in response to downshift of temperature. Furthermore, we demonstrate that a 26 °C cold shock enhances the induction of genes encoding the type IV pili that are essential for natural transformation, and increases the genetic competence of M. catarrhalis, which may facilitate the rapid spread and acquisition of novel virulence-associated genes. CONCLUSION: Cold shock at a physiologically relevant temperature of 26 °C induces in M. catarrhalis a complex of adaptive mechanisms that could convey novel pathogenic functions and may contribute to enhanced colonization and virulence.

  5. Residence of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Moraxella catarrhalis within polymicrobial biofilm promotes antibiotic resistance and bacterial persistence in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Antonia C; Pang, Bing; King, Lauren B; Tan, Li; Murrah, Kyle A; Reimche, Jennifer L; Wren, John T; Richardson, Stephen H; Ghandi, Uma; Swords, W Edward

    2014-04-01

    Otitis media (OM) is an extremely common pediatric ailment caused by opportunists that reside within the nasopharynx. Inflammation within the upper airway can promote ascension of these opportunists into the middle ear chamber. OM can be chronic/recurrent in nature, and a wealth of data indicates that in these cases, the bacteria persist within biofilms. Epidemiological data demonstrate that most cases of OM are polymicrobial, which may have significant impact on antibiotic resistance. In this study, we used in vitro biofilm assays and rodent infection models to examine the impact of polymicrobial infection with Moraxella catarrhalis and Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) on biofilm resistance to antibiotic treatment and persistence in vivo. Consistent with prior work, M. catarrhalis conferred beta-lactamase-dependent passive protection from beta-lactam killing to pneumococci within polymicrobial biofilms. Moreover, pneumococci increased resistance of M. catarrhalis to macrolide killing in polymicrobial biofilms. However, pneumococci increased colonization in vivo by M. catarrhalis in a quorum signal-dependent manner. We also found that co-infection with M. catarrhalis affects middle ear ascension of pneumococci in both mice and chinchillas. Therefore, we conclude that residence of M. catarrhalis and pneumococci within the same biofilm community significantly impacts resistance to antibiotic treatment and bacterial persistence in vivo. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Pneumonia Caused by Moraxella Catarrhalis in Haematopoietic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moraxella catarrhalis is a gram negative diplococcus that causes a variety of upper and lower respiratory tract infections. Patients with malignant, hematological disorders treated with intensive cytotoxic chemotherapy, and recipients of various forms of haematopoietic stem cell transplant receiving immunosuppressive ...

  7. acquisition of antigens by airway dendritic cells. do we know enough?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kiama

    These responses are thought to be mediated via dendritic cells, which are located in the basal ... delivery to the DC in the airways. Are the ... feature of inflammatory airway disease, like asthma .... drug delivery and as vectors in delivery of.

  8. Significance of Moraxella catarrhalis as a causative organism of lower respiratory tract infections

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    M.O. Ramadan

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: This study shows that when microbiological and clinical criteria are met, M. catarrhalis when isolated should be considered as a pathogen causing lower respiratory tract infections. M. catarrhalis, lower respiratory tract infections.

  9. Moraxella catarrhalis Synthesizes an Autotransporter That Is an Acid Phosphatase▿

    OpenAIRE

    Hoopman, Todd C.; Wang, Wei; Brautigam, Chad A.; Sedillo, Jennifer L.; Reilly, Thomas J.; Hansen, Eric J.

    2007-01-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis O35E was shown to synthesize a 105-kDa protein that has similarity to both acid phosphatases and autotransporters. The N-terminal portion of the M. catarrhalis acid phosphatase A (MapA) was most similar (the BLAST probability score was 10−10) to bacterial class A nonspecific acid phosphatases. The central region of the MapA protein had similarity to passenger domains of other autotransporter proteins, whereas the C-terminal portion of MapA resembled the translocation dom...

  10. Virulence determinants of Moraxella catarrhalis: distribution and considerations for vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeway, Luke V; Tan, Aimee; Peak, Ian R A; Seib, Kate L

    2017-10-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis is a human-restricted opportunistic bacterial pathogen of the respiratory mucosa. It frequently colonizes the nasopharynx asymptomatically, but is also an important causative agent of otitis media (OM) in children, and plays a significant role in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in adults. As the current treatment options for M. catarrhalis infection in OM and exacerbations of COPD are often ineffective, the development of an efficacious vaccine is warranted. However, no vaccine candidates for M. catarrhalis have progressed to clinical trials, and information regarding the distribution of M. catarrhalis virulence factors and vaccine candidates is inconsistent in the literature. It is largely unknown if virulence is associated with particular strains or subpopulations of M. catarrhalis, or if differences in clinical manifestation can be attributed to the heterogeneous expression of specific M. catarrhalis virulence factors in the circulating population. Further investigation of the distribution of M. catarrhalis virulence factors in the context of carriage and disease is required so that vaccine development may be targeted at relevant antigens that are conserved among disease-causing strains. The challenge of determining which of the proposed M. catarrhalis virulence factors are relevant to human disease is amplified by the lack of a standardized M. catarrhalis typing system to facilitate direct comparisons of worldwide isolates. Here we summarize and evaluate proposed relationships between M. catarrhalis subpopulations and specific virulence factors in the context of colonization and disease, as well as the current methods used to infer these associations.

  11. Regions important for the adhesin activity of Moraxella catarrhalis Hag

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    Lafontaine Eric R

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Moraxella catarrhalis Hag protein, an Oca autotransporter adhesin, has previously been shown to be important for adherence of this respiratory tract pathogen to human middle ear and A549 lung cells. Results The present study demonstrates that adherence of M. catarrhalis isogenic hag mutant strains to the human epithelial cell lines Chang (conjunctival and NCIH292 (lung is reduced by 50–93%. Furthermore, expressing Hag in a heterologous Escherichia coli background substantially increased the adherence of recombinant bacteria to NCIH292 cells and murine type IV collagen. Hag did not, however, increase the attachment of E. coli to Chang cells. These results indicate that Hag directly mediates adherence to NCIH292 lung cells and collagen, but is not sufficient to confer binding to conjunctival monolayers. Several in-frame deletions were engineered within the hag gene of M. catarrhalis strain O35E and the resulting proteins were tested for their ability to mediate binding to NCIH292 monolayers, middle ear cells, and type IV collagen. These experiments revealed that epithelial cell and collagen binding properties are separable, and that residues 385–705 of this ~2,000 amino acid protein are important for adherence to middle ear and NCIH292 cells. The region of O35E-Hag encompassing aa 706 to 1194 was also found to be required for adherence to collagen. In contrast, β-roll repeats present in Hag, which are structural features conserved in several Oca adhesins and responsible for the adhesive properties of Yersinia enterocolitica YadA, are not important for Hag-mediated adherence. Conclusion Hag is a major adherence factor for human cells derived from various anatomical sites relevant to pathogenesis by M. catarrhalis and its structure-function relationships differ from those of other, closely-related autotransporter proteins.

  12. Pathogenic bacteria colonizing the airways in asymptomatic neonates stimulates topical inflammatory mediator release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Følsgaard, Nilofar Vahman; Schjørring, Susanne; Chawes, Bo Lund Krogsgaard

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Bacterial colonization of neonatal airways with the pathogenic bacterial species, Moraxella catarrhalis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae, is associated with later development of childhood asthma. Objectives: To study a possible association between colonization...... with pathogenic bacterial strains and the immune signature of the upper airways in healthy neonates. Methods: A total of 20 cytokines and chemokines were quantified in vivo in the airway mucosal lining fluid of 662 neonates from the Copenhagen Prospective Study of Asthma in Childhood 2010 birth cohort...

  13. Comparative analysis and supragenome modeling of twelve Moraxella catarrhalis clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davie, Jeremiah J; Earl, Josh; de Vries, Stefan P W; Ahmed, Azad; Hu, Fen Z; Bootsma, Hester J; Stol, Kim; Hermans, Peter W M; Wadowsky, Robert M; Ehrlich, Garth D; Hays, John P; Campagnari, Anthony A

    2011-01-26

    M. catarrhalis is a gram-negative, gamma-proteobacterium and an opportunistic human pathogen associated with otitis media (OM) and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). With direct and indirect costs for treating these conditions annually exceeding $33 billion in the United States alone, and nearly ubiquitous resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics among M. catarrhalis clinical isolates, a greater understanding of this pathogen's genome and its variability among isolates is needed. The genomic sequences of ten geographically and phenotypically diverse clinical isolates of M. catarrhalis were determined and analyzed together with two publicly available genomes. These twelve genomes were subjected to detailed comparative and predictive analyses aimed at characterizing the supragenome and understanding the metabolic and pathogenic potential of this species. A total of 2383 gene clusters were identified, of which 1755 are core with the remaining 628 clusters unevenly distributed among the twelve isolates. These findings are consistent with the distributed genome hypothesis (DGH), which posits that the species genome possesses a far greater number of genes than any single isolate. Multiple and pair-wise whole genome alignments highlight limited chromosomal re-arrangement. M. catarrhalis gene content and chromosomal organization data, although supportive of the DGH, show modest overall genic diversity. These findings are in stark contrast with the reported heterogeneity of the species as a whole, as wells as to other bacterial pathogens mediating OM and COPD, providing important insight into M. catarrhalis pathogenesis that will aid in the development of novel therapeutic regimens.

  14. Prevalence and resistance pattern of Moraxella catarrhalis in community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections

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    Shaikh SBU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Safia Bader Uddin Shaikh, Zafar Ahmed, Syed Ali Arsalan, Sana Shafiq Department of Pulmonology, Liaquat National Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan Introduction: Moraxella catarrhalis previously considered as commensal of upper respiratory tract has gained importance as a pathogen responsible for respiratory tract infections. Its beta-lactamase-producing ability draws even more attention toward its varying patterns of resistance. Methods: This was an observational study conducted to evaluate the prevalence and resistance pattern of M. catarrhalis. Patients aged 20–80 years admitted in the Department of Chest Medicine of Liaquat National Hospital from March 2012 to December 2012 were included in the study. Respiratory samples of sputum, tracheal secretions, and bronchoalveolar lavage were included, and their cultures were followed. Results: Out of 110 respiratory samples, 22 showed positive cultures for M. catarrhalis in which 14 were males and eight were females. Ten samples out of 22 showed resistance to clarithromycin, and 13 samples out of 22 displayed resistance to erythromycin, whereas 13 showed resistance to levofloxacin. Hence, 45% of the cultures showed resistance to macrolides so far and 59% showed resistance to quinolones. Conclusion: Our study shows that in our environment, M. catarrhalis may be resistant to macrolides and quinolones; hence, these should not be recommended as an alternative treatment in community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections caused by M. catarrhalis. However, a study of larger sample size should be conducted to determine if the recommendations are required to be changed. Keywords: community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections or pneumonia, M. catarrhalis, antibiotic resistance, gram-negative diplococcic, Pakistan

  15. Mapping of a Protective Epitope of the CopB Outer Membrane Protein of Moraxella catarrhalis

    OpenAIRE

    Aebi, Christoph; Cope, Leslie D.; Latimer, Jo L.; Thomas, Sharon E.; Slaughter, Clive A.; McCracken, George H.; Hansen, Eric J.

    1998-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody (MAb) (MAb 10F3) directed against the CopB outer membrane protein of Moraxella catarrhalis previously was found to enhance pulmonary clearance of M. catarrhalis in an animal model (M. Helminen, I. Maciver, J. L. Latimer, L. D. Cope, G. H. McCracken, Jr., and E. J. Hansen, Infect. Immun. 61:2003–2010, 1993). In the present study, this same MAb was shown to exert complement-dependent bactericidal activity against this pathogen in vitro. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the ...

  16. Comparative analysis and supragenome modeling of twelve Moraxella catarrhalis clinical isolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davie, J.J.; Earl, J.; Vries, S.P. de; Ahmed, A.; Hu, F.Z.; Bootsma, H.J.; Stol, K.; Hermans, P.W.M.; Wadowsky, R.M.; Ehrlich, G.D.; Hays, J.P.; Campagnari, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: M. catarrhalis is a gram-negative, gamma-proteobacterium and an opportunistic human pathogen associated with otitis media (OM) and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). With direct and indirect costs for treating these conditions annually exceeding $33 billion in

  17. Comparative analysis and supragenome modeling of twelve Moraxella catarrhalis clinical isolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Davie (Jeremiah ); J. Earl (Josh); S.P.W. de Vries (Stefan); A. Ahmed (Azad); F.Z. Hu (Fen); H.J. Bootsma (Hester); K. Stol (Kim); P.W.M. Hermans (Peter); R.M. Wadowsky (Robert M.); G.D. Ehrlich (Garth); J.P. Hays (John); A.A. Campagnari (Anthony)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: M. catarrhalis is a gram-negative, gamma-proteobacterium and an opportunistic human pathogen associated with otitis media (OM) and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). With direct and indirect costs for treating these conditions annually exceeding

  18. The effects of laryngeal mask airway passage simulation training on the acquisition of undergraduate clinical skills: a randomised controlled trial

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    Lilford Richard J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective use of the laryngeal mask airway (LMA requires learning proper insertion technique in normal patients undergoing routine surgical procedures. However, there is a move towards simulation training for learning practical clinical skills, such as LMA placement. The evidence linking different amounts of mannequin simulation training to the undergraduate clinical skill of LMA placement in real patients is limited. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness in vivo of two LMA placement simulation courses of different durations. Methods Medical students (n = 126 enrolled in a randomised controlled trial. Seventy-eight of these students completed the trial. The control group (n = 38 received brief mannequin training while the intervention group (n = 40 received additional more intensive mannequin training as part of which they repeated LMA insertion until they were proficient. The anaesthetists supervising LMA placements in real patients rated the participants' performance on assessment forms. Participants completed a self-assessment questionnaire. Results Additional mannequin training was not associated with improved performance (37% of intervention participants received an overall placement rating of > 3/5 on their first patient compared to 48% of the control group, X2 = 0.81, p = 0.37. The agreement between the participants and their instructors in terms of LMA placement success rates was poor to fair. Participants reported that mannequins were poor at mimicking reality. Conclusions The results suggest that the value of extended mannequin simulation training in the case of LMA placement is limited. Educators considering simulation for the training of practical skills should reflect on the extent to which the in vitro simulation mimics the skill required and the degree of difficulty of the procedure.

  19. Comparative analysis and supragenome modeling of twelve Moraxella catarrhalis clinical isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermans Peter WM

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background M. catarrhalis is a gram-negative, gamma-proteobacterium and an opportunistic human pathogen associated with otitis media (OM and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. With direct and indirect costs for treating these conditions annually exceeding $33 billion in the United States alone, and nearly ubiquitous resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics among M. catarrhalis clinical isolates, a greater understanding of this pathogen's genome and its variability among isolates is needed. Results The genomic sequences of ten geographically and phenotypically diverse clinical isolates of M. catarrhalis were determined and analyzed together with two publicly available genomes. These twelve genomes were subjected to detailed comparative and predictive analyses aimed at characterizing the supragenome and understanding the metabolic and pathogenic potential of this species. A total of 2383 gene clusters were identified, of which 1755 are core with the remaining 628 clusters unevenly distributed among the twelve isolates. These findings are consistent with the distributed genome hypothesis (DGH, which posits that the species genome possesses a far greater number of genes than any single isolate. Multiple and pair-wise whole genome alignments highlight limited chromosomal re-arrangement. Conclusions M. catarrhalis gene content and chromosomal organization data, although supportive of the DGH, show modest overall genic diversity. These findings are in stark contrast with the reported heterogeneity of the species as a whole, as wells as to other bacterial pathogens mediating OM and COPD, providing important insight into M. catarrhalis pathogenesis that will aid in the development of novel therapeutic regimens.

  20. Ribotyping of strains of Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis cultured from the nasopharynx and middle ear of children with otitis media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brygge, K; Sørensen, C H; Colding, H

    1998-01-01

    Moraxella (Branhaomella) catarrhalis is frequently present in the nasopharyngeal microflora of small children, especially during episodes of acute otitis media . By means of ribotyping (restriction endonuclease analysis of chromosomal DNA combined with rRNA probing), we studied the genetic...... heterogeneity of 78 cultures of M. catarrhalis obtained from different localities in the nasopharynx of nine young children with secretory otitis media. Using HindIII and PstI as endonucleases, five different ribotypes were recognized, representing at least five different genotypes of M. catarrhalis....... The distribution of these types was found to be almost identical to the distribution among 16 M. catarrhalis strains cultured from middle ear exudates of 16 children with acute otitis media. Ribotype HAPA was found in two-thirds of all the cultures investigated, and 44% of the children harboured more than one...

  1. Children developing asthma by school-age display aberrant immune responses to pathogenic airway bacteria as infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Pedersen, Susanne Brix; Thysen, Anna Hammerich

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is a highly prevalent chronic lung disease that commonly originates in early childhood. Colonisation of neonatal airways with the pathogenic bacterial strains H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis and S. pneumoniae is associated with increased risk of later childhood asthma. We hypothesized that c...... that children developing asthma have an abnormal immune response to pathogenic bacteria in infancy. We aimed to assess the bacterial immune response in asymptomatic infants and the association with later development of asthma by age 7 years.......Asthma is a highly prevalent chronic lung disease that commonly originates in early childhood. Colonisation of neonatal airways with the pathogenic bacterial strains H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis and S. pneumoniae is associated with increased risk of later childhood asthma. We hypothesized...

  2. Prevalence and emerging resistance of Moraxella catarrhalis in lower respiratory tract infections in Karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, F.E.; Ahuja, K.R.; Kumar, H

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of Moraxella catarrhalis in sputum cultures from patients with lower respiratory tract infection and their antimicrobial sensitivity profiles. Methods: The study comprised sputum specimens of 776 patients at various branches of Dr Essa's Diagnostic Lab, Karachi. The specimens were cultured on blood, chocolate, and eosin methylene blue agars between October 2010 and October 2011. The isolates were identified by conventional methods and anti-biograms were determined by the Kirby-Bauer Agar Disc Diffusion Method. Results: Moraxella catarrhalis was isolated from 39 (5.02%) sputa of which 18 (46.15%) belonged to males. The bimodal age prevalence was 238 (30.7%) in age group 20-29 years, and 180 (23.1%) in 70 years and above. Amoxicillin/clavulanate, cefotaxime, and ceftriaxone were most effective (100%). Very high resistance was seen with amikacin (92.3%), cefixime (92.3%), fosfomycin (84.6%), cefuroxime (84.6%), erythromycin and amoxicillin (76.9%), cotrimoxazole (90%) and doxycycline (76.9%). Conclusions: The incidence of Moraxella catarrhalis in sputum encourages routine culture and sensitivity of sputa from patients suffering from lower respiratory tract infection, especially the elderly and immunocompromised, for tailored drug prescription. (author)

  3. Basic airway skills acquisition using the American College of Surgeons/Association for Surgical Education medical student simulation-based surgical skills curriculum: Initial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratore, Sydne; Kim, Michael; Olasky, Jaisa; Campbell, Andre; Acton, Robert

    2017-02-01

    The ACS/ASE Medical Student Simulation-Based Skills Curriculum was developed to standardize medical student training. This study aims to evaluate the feasibility and validity of implementing the basic airway curriculum. This single-center, prospective study of medical students participating in the basic airway module from 12/2014-3/2016 consisted of didactics, small-group practice, and testing in a simulated clinical scenario. Proficiency was determined by a checklist of skills (1-15), global score (1-5), and letter grade (NR-needs review, PS-proficient in simulation scenario, CP-proficient in clinical scenario). A proportion of students completed pre/post-test surveys regarding experience, satisfaction, comfort, and self-perceived proficiency. Over 16 months, 240 students were enrolled with 98% deemed proficient in a simulated or clinical scenario. Pre/post-test surveys (n = 126) indicated improvement in self-perceived proficiency by 99% of learners. All students felt moderately to very comfortable performing basic airway skills and 94% had moderate to considerable satisfaction after completing the module. The ACS/ASE Surgical Skills Curriculum is a feasible and effective way to teach medical students basic airway skills using simulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevalencia de colonización por Moraxella catarrhalis en portadores asintomáticos menores de seis años Prevalence of Moraxella catarrhalis colonization in asymptomatic carriers under six years of age

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    Blanca Leaños-Miranda

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de colonización nasofaríngea por Moraxella catarrhalis en niños menores de seis años. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se realizó una encuesta, de enero a diciembre de 1998, en 604 niños de la ciudad de México, de entre dos meses y cinco años de edad, seleccionados mediante el marco muestral maestro y muestreo por conglomerados. Se tomaron muestras de exudado faríngeo, identificando M. catarrhalis. Se determinó la concentración mínima inhibitoria a diferentes antimicrobianos y detección de beta-lactamasas a través del método iodométrico. Para el análisis se utilizaron frecuencias simples, cálculo de razón de momios, intervalos de confianza al 95% y ji cuadrada de Mantel-Haenzel. Se consideró como estadísticamente significativo un valor de pOBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of upper respiratory tract colonization by Moraxella catarrhalis in children under six years of age. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A survey was conducted between January and December 1998 in Mexico City, among children aged 2 months to 5 years, selected through cluster sampling. Pharyngeal samples were taken for M. catarrhalis identification. The minimal inhibitory concentration to different antibiotics was obtained and beta-lactamases were determined by the iodometric test. Statistical analysis consisted of frequency distributions, odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals, and Mantel-Haenszel chi² . Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. RESULTS: After excluding 37 children, the study population was 604 children from Mexico City; M. catarrhalis was present in 130 pharyngeal specimens (22.9%. Most of the strains were positive for beta-lactamase production (75.4%. Eighty percent of the strains was resistant to penicillin and 70% to ampicillin and amoxicillin. None were resistant to cefotaxime, imipenem, meropenem and erythromycin. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of M. catarrhalis upper respiratory tract colonization is similar to that of

  5. Airway stents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Colleen

    2018-01-01

    Stents and tubes to maintain the patency of the airways are commonly used for malignant obstruction and are occasionally employed in benign disease. Malignant airway obstruction usually results from direct involvement of bronchogenic carcinoma, or by extension of carcinomas occurring in the esophagus or the thyroid. External compression from lymph nodes or metastatic disease from other organs can also cause central airway obstruction. Most malignant airway lesions are surgically inoperable due to advanced disease stage and require multimodality palliation, including stent placement. As with any other medical device, stents have significantly evolved over the last 50 years and deserve an in-depth understanding of their true capabilities and complications. Not every silicone stent is created equal and the same holds for metallic stents. Herein, we present an overview of the topic as well as some of the more practical and controversial issues surrounding airway stents. We also try to dispel the myths surrounding stent removal and their supposed use only in central airways. At the end, we come to the long-held conclusion that stents should not be used as first line treatment of choice, but after ruling out the possibility of curative surgical resection or repair. PMID:29707506

  6. Hereditary and microbiological factors influencing the airway immunological profile of neonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Følsgaard, Nilofar

    2012-01-01

    is well-recognized, with estimated heritability as high as 60% in asthma. Atopic hereditary disease linkage in the offspring seems stronger for maternal than paternal atopic disease. But it is not known how parental atopic disease may affect early immunity in the target organ, the airways. COPSAC has...... mucosa. There was no paternal linkage to the mucosal immune response pattern, suggesting maternal programming of the fetus or neonate is causing an aberrant local airway immune profile in the newborn child. Furthermore our results suggest an association between maternal atopic disease and the expression...... recently reported an association between abnormal bacterial colonization with M. catarrhalis, S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae of the upper airways of neonates and later development of asthma. This led to the hypothesis that the interaction between genetics and this microbiome in very early life may cause...

  7. Antimicrobial activity of innate immune molecules against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teufert Karen

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite its direct connection to the nasopharynx which harbors otitis media pathogens as part of its normal flora, the middle ear cavity is kept free of these bacteria by as yet unknown mechanisms. Respiratory mucosal epithelia, including those of the middle ear and eustachian tube, secrete antimicrobial effectors including lysozyme, lactoferrin and β defensins-1 and -2. To elucidate the role of these innate immune molecules in the normal defense and maintenance of sterility of respiratory mucosa such as that of the middle ear, we assessed their effect on the respiratory pathogens nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi 12, Moraxella catarrhalis 035E, and Streptococcus pneumoniae 3, and 6B. Methods Two assay methods, the radial assay and the liquid broth assay, were employed for testing the antimicrobial activity of the molecules. This was done in order to minimize the possibility that the observed effects were artifacts of any single assay system employed. Also, transmission electron microscopy (TEM was employed to evaluate the effect of antimicrobial innate immune molecules on OM pathogens. For the statistical analysis of the data, Student's t-test was performed. Results Results of the radial diffusion assay showed that β defensin-2 was active against all four OM pathogens tested, while treatment with β defensin-1 appeared to only affect M. catarrhalis. The radial assay results also showed that lysozyme was quite effective against S. pneumoniae 3 and 6B and was partially bacteriostatic/bactericidal against M. catarrhalis. Lysozyme however, appeared not to affect the growth of NTHi. Thus, lysozyme seems to have a more pronounced impact on the growth of the Gram-positive S. pneumoniae as compared to that of Gram-negative pathogens. Lactoferrin on the other hand, enhanced the growth of the bacteria tested. The results of the radial assays were confirmed using liquid broth assays for antimicrobial activity, and showed that

  8. Multicentre in-vitro evaluation of the susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis to ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, co-amoxiclav and sparfloxacin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HoogkampKorstanje, JAA; DirksGo, SIS; Kabel, P; Manson, WL; Stobberingh, EE; Vreede, RW; Davies, BI

    Seven laboratories, including a reference laboratory, tested the susceptibility of Moraxella catarrhalis, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae strains to ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, co-amoxiclav and sparfloxacin with the Etest. A total of 976 strains were collected. The results

  9. Use of the Chinchilla model to evaluate the vaccinogenic potential of the Moraxella catarrhalis filamentous hemagglutinin-like proteins MhaB1 and MhaB2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa L Shaffer

    Full Text Available Moraxella catarrhalis causes significant health problems, including 15-20% of otitis media cases in children and ~10% of respiratory infections in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The lack of an efficacious vaccine, the rapid emergence of antibiotic resistance in clinical isolates, and high carriage rates reported in children are cause for concern. In addition, the effectiveness of conjugate vaccines at reducing the incidence of otitis media caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae suggest that M. catarrhalis infections may become even more prevalent. Hence, M. catarrhalis is an important and emerging cause of infectious disease for which the development of a vaccine is highly desirable. Studying the pathogenesis of M. catarrhalis and the testing of vaccine candidates have both been hindered by the lack of an animal model that mimics human colonization and infection. To address this, we intranasally infected chinchilla with M. catarrhalis to investigate colonization and examine the efficacy of a protein-based vaccine. The data reveal that infected chinchillas produce antibodies against antigens known to be major targets of the immune response in humans, thus establishing immune parallels between chinchillas and humans during M. catarrhalis infection. Our data also demonstrate that a mutant lacking expression of the adherence proteins MhaB1 and MhaB2 is impaired in its ability to colonize the chinchilla nasopharynx, and that immunization with a polypeptide shared by MhaB1 and MhaB2 elicits antibodies interfering with colonization. These findings underscore the importance of adherence proteins in colonization and emphasize the relevance of the chinchilla model to study M. catarrhalis-host interactions.

  10. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... Treatments and Therapies Airway Clearance Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs) There are different ways to clear your airways. ... or caregiver. Older kids and adults can choose ACTs that they can do on their own. Share ...

  11. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... to loosen mucus from airway walls. See how different airway clearance techniques work to help you clear the thick, sticky mucus ... Offer their tips for fitting ACTs into daily life Airway Clearance Techniques | Webcast ... Facebook Twitter ...

  12. Prevalencia de colonización por Moraxella catarrhalis en portadores asintomáticos menores de seis años

    OpenAIRE

    Leaños-Miranda Blanca; Miranda-Novales María Guadalupe; Solórzano-Santos Fortino; Ortiz-Ocampo Laura; Guiscafré-Gallardo Héctor

    2001-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de colonización nasofaríngea por Moraxella catarrhalis en niños menores de seis años. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se realizó una encuesta, de enero a diciembre de 1998, en 604 niños de la ciudad de México, de entre dos meses y cinco años de edad, seleccionados mediante el marco muestral maestro y muestreo por conglomerados. Se tomaron muestras de exudado faríngeo, identificando M. catarrhalis. Se determinó la concentración mínima inhibitoria a diferentes antimicrob...

  13. Potentially pathogenic airway bacteria and neutrophilic inflammation in treatment resistant severe asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Benjamin J; Wiriyachaiporn, Surasa; Grainge, Christopher; Rogers, Geraint B; Kehagia, Valia; Lau, Laurie; Carroll, Mary P; Bruce, Kenneth D; Howarth, Peter H

    2014-01-01

    Molecular microbiological analysis of airway samples in asthma has demonstrated an altered microbiome in comparison to healthy controls. Such changes may have relevance to treatment-resistant severe asthma, particularly those with neutrophilic airway inflammation, as bacteria might be anticipated to activate the innate immune response, a process that is poorly steroid responsive. An understanding of the relationship between airway bacterial presence and dominance in severe asthma may help direct alternative treatment approaches. We aimed to use a culture independent analysis strategy to describe the presence, dominance and abundance of bacterial taxa in induced sputum from treatment resistant severe asthmatics and correlate findings with clinical characteristics and airway inflammatory markers. Induced sputum was obtained from 28 stable treatment-resistant severe asthmatics. The samples were divided for supernatant IL-8 measurement, cytospin preparation for differential cell count and Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) profiling for bacterial community analysis. In 17/28 patients, the dominant species within the airway bacterial community was Moraxella catarrhalis or a member of the Haemophilus or Streptococcus genera. Colonisation with these species was associated with longer asthma disease duration (mean (SD) 31.8 years (16.7) vs 15.6 years (8.0), p = 0.008), worse post-bronchodilator percent predicted FEV1 (68.0% (24.0) vs 85.5% (19.7), p = 0.025) and higher sputum neutrophil differential cell counts (median (IQR) 80% (67-83) vs 43% (29-67), p = 0.001). Total abundance of these organisms significantly and positively correlated with sputum IL-8 concentration and neutrophil count. Airway colonisation with potentially pathogenic micro-organisms in asthma is associated with more severe airways obstruction and neutrophilic airway inflammation. This altered colonisation may have a role in the development of an asthma phenotype that

  14. Effect of inoculum size on the antibiotic susceptibilities of β-lactamase positive isolates of Moraxella catarrhalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vraneš

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that bacteria producing β-lactamases in general show marked inoculum effect in susceptibility testing. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of inoculum size on the susceptibility of β-lactamase positive strains of M. catarrhalis to oral β-lactam and non β-lactam antibiotics. MICs of antibiotics were determined by a twofold microdilution technique with two different inoculum sizes were tested: 5x 105 CFU/ml -standard inoculum and 5 x107 CFU/ml -high inoculum. The highest increase (4-fold was observed with penicillins alone (amoxycillin and ampicillin or combined with inhibitor and ceftibuten, followed by older cephalosporins, erithromycine and chloramphenicol ( 2-fold. Tetracycline did not show a significant increase in MIC when a higher inoculum size was applied. In spite of the increase in MIC with high inoculum all strains were still susceptible to amoxycillin combined with clavulanate. MICs of cephalosporins were also below the resistance breakpoint for most of the strains at the higher inoculum. Based on that, we can conclude that therapeutic implications of the inoculum effect were not significant.These data suggest that high inocula should be used to determine MICs of ampicillin and amoxycillin for M. catarrhalis but that this precaution is unnecessary with the cephalosporins tested or with amoxycillin/clavulanate

  15. Children with asthma by school age display aberrant immune responses to pathogenic airway bacteria as infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Brix, Susanne; Thysen, Anna Hammerich; Birch, Sune; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt; Bisgaard, Hans

    2014-04-01

    Asthma is a highly prevalent chronic lung disease that commonly originates in early childhood. Colonization of neonatal airways with the pathogenic bacterial strains Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae is associated with increased risk of later childhood asthma. We hypothesized that children with asthma have an abnormal immune response to pathogenic bacteria in infancy. We aimed to assess the bacterial immune response in asymptomatic infants and the association with later development of asthma by age 7 years. The Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood birth cohort was followed prospectively, and asthma was diagnosed at age 7 years. The immune response to H influenzae, M catarrhalis, and S pneumoniae was analyzed in 292 infants using PBMCs isolated and stored since the age of 6 months. The immune response was assessed based on the pattern of cytokines produced and T-cell activation. The immune response to pathogenic bacteria was different in infants with asthma by 7 years of age (P = .0007). In particular, prospective asthmatic subjects had aberrant production of IL-5 (P = .008), IL-13 (P = .057), IL-17 (P = .001), and IL-10 (P = .028), whereas there were no differences in T-cell activation or peripheral T-cell composition. Children with asthma by school age exhibited an aberrant immune response to pathogenic bacteria in infancy. We propose that an abnormal immune response to pathogenic bacteria colonizing the airways in early life might lead to chronic airway inflammation and childhood asthma. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. New frontiers in CT imaging of airway disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenier, Philippe A.; Beigelman-Aubry, Catherine; Fetita, Catalin; Preteux, Francoise; Brauner, Michel W.; Lenoir, Stephane

    2002-01-01

    Combining helical volumetric CT acquisition and thin-slice thickness during breath hold provides an accurate assessment of both focal and diffuse airway diseases. With multiple detector rows, compared with single-slice helical CT, multislice CT can cover a greater volume, during a simple breath hold, and with better longitudinal and in-plane spatial resolution and improved temporal resolution. The result in data set allows the generation of superior multiplanar and 3D images of the airways, including those obtained from techniques developed specifically for airway imaging, such as virtual bronchography and virtual bronchoscopy. Complementary CT evaluation at suspended or continuous full expiration is mandatory to detect air trapping that is a key finding for depicting an obstruction on the small airways. Indications for CT evaluation of the airways include: (a) detection of endobronchial lesions in patients with an unexplained hemoptysis; (b) evaluation of extent of tracheobronchial stenosis for planning treatment and follow-up; (c) detection of congenital airway anomalies revealed by hemoptysis or recurrent infection; (d) detection of postinfectious or postoperative airway fistula or dehiscence; and (e) diagnosis and assessment of extent of bronchiectasis and small airway disease. Improvement in image analysis technique and the use of spirometrically control of lung volume acquisition have made possible accurate and reproducible quantitative assessment of airway wall and lumen areas and lung density. This contributes to better insights in physiopathology of obstructive lung disease, particularly in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. (orig.)

  17. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... specialized CF care and a range of treatment options. Airway Clearance Active Cycle of Breathing Technique Airway ... on their own. Share Facebook Twitter Email More options Print Share Facebook Twitter Email Print Permalink All ...

  18. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... Make a Charitable Gift Our Corporate Supporters Workplace Engagement DONATE YOUR PROPERTY eCards for a Cure About ... airway walls. See how different airway clearance techniques work to help you clear the thick, sticky mucus ...

  19. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... today. ANNUAL FUND Become a Corporate Supporter Cause Marketing Make a Charitable Gift Our Corporate Supporters Workplace ... Clearance Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs) There are different ways to clear your airways. Most are easy to ...

  20. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... ACTs involve coughing or huffing . Many of them use percussion (clapping) or vibration to loosen mucus from airway walls. See how different airway clearance techniques work to help you clear the thick, sticky mucus ...

  1. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... Physical Therapy Coughing and Huffing High-Frequency Chest Wall Oscillation Positive Expiratory Pressure Clinical Trials Clinical Trials ... clapping) or vibration to loosen mucus from airway walls. See how different airway clearance techniques work to ...

  2. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... D Structure Consortium CFTR Folding Consortium Epithelial Stem Cell Consortium Mucociliary Clearance Consortium SUCCESS WITH THERAPIES RESEARCH ... clapping) or vibration to loosen mucus from airway walls. See how different airway clearance techniques work to ...

  3. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... a range of treatment options. Airway Clearance Active Cycle of Breathing Technique Airway Clearance Techniques Autogenic Drainage ... LEGACY GIFT Sponsor a Participant CF Climb CF Cycle for Life Great Strides Xtreme Hike Participate In ...

  4. Airway distensibility in Chronic Obstructive Airway Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler Wille, Mathilde Marie; Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Dirksen, Asger

    2013-01-01

    Rationale – Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a combination of chronic bronchitis and emphysema, which both may lead to airway obstruction. Under normal circumstances, airway dimensions vary as a function of inspiration level. We aim to study the influence of COPD and emphysema......-20% (mild), 20%-30% (moderate) or >30% (severe). Spirometry was performed annually and participants were divided into severity groups according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD). Data were analysed in a mixed effects regression model with log(airway lumen diameter...... and emphysema, respectively. Conclusions – Airway distensibility decreases significantly with increasing severity of both GOLD status and emphysema, indicating that in COPD the dynamic change in airway calibre during respiration is compromised. Chronic bronchitis and emphysema appear to be interacting...

  5. Susceptibilities of Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis to ABT-773 compared to their susceptibilities to 11 other agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Credito, K L; Lin, G; Pankuch, G A; Bajaksouzian, S; Jacobs, M R; Appelbaum, P C

    2001-01-01

    The activity of the ketolide ABT-773 against Haemophilus and Moraxella was compared to those of 11 other agents. Against 210 Haemophilus influenzae strains (39.0% beta-lactamase positive), microbroth dilution tests showed that azithromycin and ABT-773 had the lowest MICs (0.5 to 4.0 and 1.0 to 8.0 microg/ml, respectively), followed by clarithromycin and roxithromycin (4.0 to >32.0 microg/ml). Of the beta-lactams, ceftriaxone had the lowest MICs (32.0 microg/ml). Against 50 Moraxella catarrhalis strains, all of the compounds except amoxicillin and cefprozil were active. Time-kill studies against 10 H. influenzae strains showed that ABT-773, at two times the MIC, was bactericidal against 9 of 10 strains, with 99% killing of all strains at the MIC after 24 h; at 12 h, ABT-773 gave 90% killing of all strains at two times the MIC. At 3 and 6 h, killing by ABT-773 was slower, with 99.9% killing of four strains at two times the MIC after 6 h. Similar results were found for azithromycin, with slightly slower killing by erythromycin, clarithromycin, and roxithromycin, especially at earlier times. beta-Lactams were bactericidal against 8 to 10 strains at two times the MIC after 24 h, with slower killing at earlier time periods. Most compounds gave good killing of five M. catarrhalis strains, with beta-lactams killing more rapidly than other drugs. ABT-773 and azithromycin gave the longest postantibiotic effects (PAEs) of the ketolide-macrolide-azalide group tested (4.4 to >8.0 h), followed by clarithromycin, erythromycin, and roxithromycin. beta-Lactam PAEs were similar and shorter than those of the ketolide-macrolide-azalide group for all strains tested.

  6. Antimicrobial resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and group A beta-haemolytic streptococci in 2002-2003. Results of the multinational GRASP Surveillance Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beekmann, Susan E; Heilmann, Kris P; Richter, Sandra S

    2005-01-01

    A multinational surveillance study, GRASP, was conducted between November 2002 and April 2003 with the aim of assessing rates of antimicrobial resistance among 2656 isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, 2486 isolates of group A beta-haemolytic streptococci, 1358 isolates of Haemophilus influenzae...... and 1047 of Moraxella catarrhalis from 20 countries in Europe, eastern Asia and southern Africa. Conspicuous differences between various countries were noted in the S. pneumoniae resistance rates observed for penicillin (0-79.2%) and erythromycin (4-66%), along with other antimicrobials. The percentage...... of MDR strains was above 25% in 8 of the 20 countries studied. Group A streptococcal macrolide resistance rates ranged from 0% to 35% by country, while rates of beta-lactamase production ranged from 0% to 39% for H. influenzae and 80-100% for M. catarrhalis. Antibiotic resistance in S. pneumoniae remains...

  7. Mucosal immunization with the Moraxella catarrhalis porin m35 induces enhanced bacterial clearance from the lung: a possible role for opsonophagocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna eEaston

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Moraxella catarrhalis is a significant cause of respiratory tract infection against which a vaccine is sought. Several outer membrane proteins are currently under investigation as potential vaccine antigens, including the porin M35. We have previously shown that the third external loop of M35 was immunodominant over the remainder of the protein for antibody produced in mice against the refolded recombinant protein. However, as this loop is predicted to fold inside the porin channel we also predicted that it would not be accessible to these antibodies when M35 is expressed on the surface of the bacteria in its native conformation. This study investigated the functional activity of antibodies against M35 and those specific for the loop 3 region of M35 in vitro and in vivo. Antisera from mice immunized with M35 or the loop 3-deletion, M35loop3–, recombinant proteins were not bactericidal but did have enhanced opsonic activity, whereas antibodies raised against the loop 3 peptide were not opsonising indicating that the immunodominant loop 3 of M35 was not accessible to antibody as we had previously predicted. Mucosal immunization with M35, M35 that had an antigenically altered loop 3 (M35(ID78 and M35loop3– enhanced the clearance of M. catarrhalis from the lungs of mice challenged with live M. catarrhalis. The in vivo clearance of bacteria in the mice with the M35-derived protein constructs correlated significantly (p<0.001 with the opsonic activity assessed an in vitro opsonophagocytosis assay. This study has demonstrated that the immunodominat B-cell epitope to loop 3 of the M. catarrhalis outer membrane protein M35 is not associated with immune protection and that M35-specific antibodies are not bactericidal but are opsonising. The opsonising activity correlated with in vivo clearance of the bacteria suggesting that opsonising antibody may be a good correlate of immune protection.

  8. Airway management in neuroanesthesiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Michael

    2012-06-01

    Airway management for neuroanesthesiology brings together some key principles that are shared throughout neuroanesthesiology. This article appropriately targets the cervical spine with associated injury and the challenges surrounding airway management. The primary focus of this article is on the unique airway management obstacles encountered with cervical spine injury or cervical spine surgery, and unique considerations regarding functional neurosurgery are addressed. Furthermore, topics related to difficult airway management for those with rheumatoid arthritis or pituitary surgery are reviewed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Increased Risk of Pneumonia and Bronchiolitis after Bacterial Colonization of the Airways as Neonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, Nadja Hawwa; Chawes, Bo Lk; Bisgaard, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: The frequency of pneumonia and bronchiolitis exhibits considerable variation in otherwise healthy children, and suspected risk factors explain only a minor proportion of the variation. We hypothesized that alterations in the airway microbiome in early life may be associated with suscep......Rationale: The frequency of pneumonia and bronchiolitis exhibits considerable variation in otherwise healthy children, and suspected risk factors explain only a minor proportion of the variation. We hypothesized that alterations in the airway microbiome in early life may be associated...... with susceptibility to pneumonia and bronchiolitis in young children. Objectives: To investigate the relation between neonatal airway colonization and pneumonia and bronchiolitis during the first three years of life. Methods: Participants comprised children of the COPSAC2000 cohort; a prospective birth cohort study...... of 411 children born to asthmatic mothers. Aspirates from the hypopharynx at age four weeks were cultured for S.pneumoniae, H.influenzae, M.catarrhalis, and S.aureus. Clinical information on pneumonia and bronchiolitis within the first three years of life was prospectively collected by the research...

  10. Obstetric airway management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of stomach contents into the lungs during obstetric anesthesia.8 ... Both of the mortalities occurred secondary to solid ... The large number of deaths ... subcategories of patients as a first-line airway device, and are increasingly being ... outline the problems with obstetric airway management, and then focus on a few of the ...

  11. Prevalencia de colonización por Moraxella catarrhalis en portadores asintomáticos menores de seis años

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leaños-Miranda Blanca

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de colonización nasofaríngea por Moraxella catarrhalis en niños menores de seis años. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se realizó una encuesta, de enero a diciembre de 1998, en 604 niños de la ciudad de México, de entre dos meses y cinco años de edad, seleccionados mediante el marco muestral maestro y muestreo por conglomerados. Se tomaron muestras de exudado faríngeo, identificando M. catarrhalis. Se determinó la concentración mínima inhibitoria a diferentes antimicrobianos y detección de beta-lactamasas a través del método iodométrico. Para el análisis se utilizaron frecuencias simples, cálculo de razón de momios, intervalos de confianza al 95% y ji cuadrada de Mantel-Haenzel. Se consideró como estadísticamente significativo un valor de p< 0.05. RESULTADOS: De los 604 niños que se incluyeron de las 16 delegaciones políticas del Distrito Federal, se excluyeron 37; se encontró M. catarrhalis en 130 (22.9%. La mayoría de las cepas fueron productoras de beta-lactamasa (75.4%. La resistencia a penicilina fue de 80% y a ampicilina y amoxicilina de 70%. No se encontró resistencia a cefotaxima, imipenem, meropenem y eritromicina. CONCLUSIONES: La prevalencia de colonización de M. catarrhalis en tracto respiratorio superior es similar a la de otros patógenos respiratorios. Con la información obtenida se requiere investigar la participación de M. catarrhalis como causante de infecciones respiratorias agudas y crónicas en México. El texto completo en inglés de este artículo está disponible en: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html

  12. Airway smooth muscle cells : regulators of airway inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuyderduyn, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    Airways from asthmatic subjects are more responsive to bronchoconstrictive stimuli than airways from healthy subjects. Airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells mediate contraction of the airways by responding to the bronchoconstrictive stimuli, which was thought to be the primary role of ASM cells. In this

  13. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... today. ANNUAL FUND Become a Corporate Supporter Cause Marketing Make a Charitable Gift Our Corporate Supporters Workplace ... for airway clearance. Facebook Twitter Email More Related Content Medications Autogenic Drainage Positive Expiratory Pressure High-Frequency ...

  14. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... a Family Parenting as an Adult With CF Treatments and Therapies People with cystic fibrosis are living ... to specialized CF care and a range of treatment options. Airway Clearance Active Cycle of Breathing Technique ...

  15. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... There are different ways to clear your airways. Most are easy to do. Infants and toddlers will ... best ACT is the one that you are most likely to perform as part of your daily ...

  16. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... a Family Parenting as an Adult With CF Treatments and Therapies People with cystic fibrosis are living longer and ... to specialized CF care and a range of treatment options. Airway Clearance Active Cycle of Breathing Technique ...

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    Full Text Available ... about the needs of people with cystic fibrosis so that they make smart decisions about CF-related ... then move the mucus out of the airways so it can be coughed out. These medications can ...

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    Full Text Available ... in CF Clinical Care Guidelines Cystic Fibrosis-Related Diabetes Clinical Care Guidelines Liver Disease Clinical Care Guidelines Respiratory Care Guidelines CF Airway Clearance Therapies Clinical Care Guidelines Chronic Medications to Maintain Lung ...

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    Full Text Available ... Community in Health Care Reform Milestones in Health Care Reform How Tax Reform Could Impact People With CF The ... Home Life With CF Treatments and Therapies Airway Clearance ...

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    Full Text Available ... Clinician Career Development Awards Clinician Training Awards Mutation Analysis Program Network News Network News: March 2018 Network ... for airway clearance. Facebook Twitter Email More Related Content Medications Autogenic Drainage Positive Expiratory Pressure High-Frequency ...

  1. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... Clinical Care Guidelines Liver Disease Clinical Care Guidelines Respiratory Care Guidelines CF Airway Clearance Therapies Clinical Care ... attack bacteria. Choose What's Best for You Your respiratory therapist or another member of your CF care ...

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    Full Text Available ... Clinician Career Development Awards Clinician Training Awards Mutation Analysis Program Network News Network News: June 2018 Network ... for airway clearance. Facebook Twitter Email More Related Content Medications Autogenic Drainage Positive Expiratory Pressure High-Frequency ...

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    Full Text Available ... toddlers will need help from a parent or caregiver. Older kids and adults can choose ACTs that ... into the smaller airways to attack bacteria. Choose What's Best for You Your respiratory therapist or another ...

  4. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... decisions about your health care. CF Genetics: The Basics CF Mutations Video Series Find Out More About ... of Breathing Technique Airway Clearance Techniques Autogenic Drainage Basics of Lung Care Chest Physical Therapy Coughing and ...

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    Full Text Available ... that help thin and move the mucus, and antibiotics. Bronchodilators should be inhaled before you start ACTs. This medication helps to widen your airways (bronchi) by relaxing the ...

  6. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... people with cystic fibrosis so that they make smart decisions about CF-related research, treatment, and access ... Facebook Twitter YouTube Instagram Email DONATE Breadcrumb Navigation Home Life With CF Treatments and Therapies Airway Clearance ...

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    Full Text Available ... in part to specialized CF care and a range of treatment options. Airway Clearance Active Cycle of ... a cure for CF and supports a broad range of research initiatives to tackle the disease from ...

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    Full Text Available ... Active Cycle of Breathing Technique Airway Clearance Techniques Autogenic Drainage Basics of Lung Care Chest Physical Therapy ... clearance. Facebook Twitter Email More Related Content Medications Autogenic Drainage Positive Expiratory Pressure High-Frequency Chest Wall ...

  9. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... huffing . Many of them use percussion (clapping) or vibration to loosen mucus from airway walls. See how ... What is CF? About Cystic Fibrosis CF Genetics Diagnosis Testing for CF Life With CF Caring for ...

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    Full Text Available ... CFTR Modulator Therapies Mucus Thinners Nebulizer Care at Home Vascular Access Devices PICCs and Ports Partnerships for ... Facebook Twitter YouTube Instagram Email DONATE Breadcrumb Navigation Home Life With CF Treatments and Therapies Airway Clearance ...

  11. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... many challenges, including medical, social, and financial. By learning more about how you can manage your disease every day, you can ultimately help find a ... Cycle of Breathing Technique Airway Clearance Techniques Autogenic ...

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    Full Text Available ... Cycle of Breathing Technique Airway Clearance Techniques Autogenic Drainage Basics of Lung Care Chest Physical Therapy Coughing ... Facebook Twitter Email More Related Content Medications Autogenic Drainage Positive Expiratory Pressure High-Frequency Chest Wall Oscillation ( ...

  13. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infant or child manage their lung health, watch parents of children with CF and a respiratory therapist talk about the different techniques they use for airway ... Positive Expiratory Pressure High-Frequency Chest Wall Oscillation (the Vest) Follow ...

  14. Airway management in trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeron, O; Birenbaum, A; Amour, J

    2009-05-01

    Maintenance of a patent and prevention of aspiration are essential for the management of the trauma patient, that requires experienced physicians in airway control techniques. Difficulties of the airway control in the trauma setting are increased by the vital failures, the risk of aspiration, the potential cervical spine injury, the combative patient, and the obvious risk of difficult tracheal intubation related to specific injury related to the trauma. Endotracheal intubation remains the gold standard in trauma patient airway management and should be performed via the oral route with a rapid sequence induction and a manual in-line stabilization maneuver, to decrease the risks previously mentioned. Different techniques to control the airway in trauma patients are presented: improvement of the laryngoscopic vision, lighted stylet tracheal intubation, retrograde technique for orotracheal intubation, the laryngeal mask and the intubating laryngeal mask airways, the combitube and cricothyroidotomy. Management of the airway in trauma patients requires regular training in these techniques and the knowledge of complementary techniques allowing tracheal intubation or oxygenation to overcome difficult intubation and to prevent major complications as hypoxemia and aspiration.

  15. Bacteria isolated from the airways of paediatric patients with bronchiectasis according to HIV status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charl Verwey

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Knowledge of which bacteria are found in the airways of paediatric patients with bronchiectasis unrelated to cystic fibrosis (CF is important in defining empirical antibiotic guidelines for the treatment of acute infective exacerbations. Objective. To describe the bacteria isolated from the airways of children with non-CF bronchiectasis according to their HIV status. Methods. Records of children with non-CF bronchiectasis who attended the paediatric pulmonology clinic at Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital, Johannesburg, South Africa, from April 2011 to March 2013, or were admitted to the hospital during that period, were reviewed. Data collected included patient demographics, HIV status, and characteristics of the airway samples and types of bacteria isolated. Results. There were 66 patients with non-CF bronchiectasis over the 2-year study period. The median age was 9.1 years (interquartile range 7.2 - 12.1. The majority of patients (78.8% were HIV-infected. A total of 134 samples was collected (median 1.5 per patient, range 1 - 7, of which 81.3% were expectorated or induced sputum samples. Most bacteria were Gram negatives (72.1%. Haemophilus influenzae was the most common bacterium identified (36.0%, followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae (12.6%, Moraxella catarrhalis (11.1% and Staphylococcus aureus (10.6%. There were no differences between HIV-infected and uninfected patients in prevalence or type of pathogens isolated. Conclusion. Bacterial isolates from the airways of children with non-CF bronchiectasis were similar to those in other paediatric populations and were not affected by HIV status.

  16. Airway exploration in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando GÓMEZ-SÁEZ

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: The management of the airways represents a constant challenge in pediatric practice. In the last years, bronchoscopy has become an essential technique in the diagnosis and treatment of various abnormalities of the child's respiratory system. The special characteristics of the pediatric airway and the differentiated pathology it presents give pediatric bronchoscopy its own entity. Pediatric bronchoscopy is a safe technique with many applications, both diagnostic and therapeutic. The use of both types of bronchoscopes (flexible and rigid allows to take advantage of each one of them. Flexible bronchoscopy in pediatrics is a relatively simple and low-risk procedure that provides anatomical and dynamic information on the airways, as well as cytological and microbiological studies. The simplicity and low risk of this technique, in addition to not requiring general anesthesia, allows it to be performed even at the head of the patient, which has led to an increasingly extensive field of indications. The purpose of this article is to provide a review on the timeliness of the pediatric bronchoscopy procedure, especially about its indications. Method: Narrative review. Conclusion: The endoscopic examination of the airway is a cost-effective technique in pediatrics, with little complications and can offer very valuable diagnostic information, as well as perform certain therapeutic procedures. It is recommended that all professionals involved in the management of patients with airway pathology should know their indications, contraindications, complications, as well as their therapeutic applications.

  17. Integrated care pathways for airway diseases (AIRWAYS-ICPs)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousquet, J.; Addis, A.; Adcock, I.; Agache, I.; Agusti, A.; Alonso, A.; Annesi-Maesano, I.; Anto, J. M.; Bachert, C.; Baena-Cagnani, C. E.; Bai, C.; Baigenzhin, A.; Barbara, C.; Barnes, P. J.; Bateman, E. D.; Beck, L.; Bedbrook, A.; Bel, E. H.; Benezet, O.; Bennoor, K. S.; Benson, M.; Bernabeu-Wittel, M.; Bewick, M.; Bindslev-Jensen, C.; Blain, H.; Blasi, F.; Bonini, M.; Bonini, S.; Boulet, L. P.; Bourdin, A.; Bourret, R.; Bousquet, P. J.; Brightling, C. E.; Briggs, A.; Brozek, J.; Buhl, R.; Bush, A.; Caimmi, D.; Calderon, M.; Calverley, P.; Camargos, P. A.; Camuzat, T.; Canonica, G. W.; Carlsen, K. H.; Casale, T. B.; Cazzola, M.; Cepeda Sarabia, A. M.; Cesario, A.; Chen, Y. Z.; Chkhartishvili, E.; Chavannes, N. H.; Chiron, R.; Chuchalin, A.; Chung, K. F.; Cox, L.; Crooks, G.; Crooks, M. G.; Cruz, A. A.; Custovic, A.; Dahl, R.; Dahlen, S. E.; de Blay, F.; Dedeu, T.; Deleanu, D.; Demoly, P.; Devillier, P.; Didier, A.; Dinh-Xuan, A. T.; Djukanovic, R.; Dokic, D.; Douagui, H.; Dubakiene, R.; Eglin, S.; Elliot, F.; Emuzyte, R.; Fabbri, L.; Fink Wagner, A.; Fletcher, M.; Fokkens, W. J.; Fonseca, J.; Franco, A.; Frith, P.; Furber, A.; Gaga, M.; Garcés, J.; Garcia-Aymerich, J.; Gamkrelidze, A.; Gonzales-Diaz, S.; Gouzi, F.; Guzmán, M. A.; Haahtela, T.; Harrison, D.; Hayot, M.; Heaney, L. G.; Heinrich, J.; Hellings, P. W.; Hooper, J.; Humbert, M.; Hyland, M.; Iaccarino, G.; Jakovenko, D.; Jardim, J. R.; Jeandel, C.; Jenkins, C.; Johnston, S. L.; Jonquet, O.; Joos, G.; Jung, K. S.; Kalayci, O.; Karunanithi, S.; Keil, T.; Khaltaev, N.; Kolek, V.; Kowalski, M. L.; Kull, I.; Kuna, P.; Kvedariene, V.; Le, L. T.; Lodrup Carlsen, K. C.; Louis, R.; MacNee, W.; Mair, A.; Majer, I.; Manning, P.; de Manuel Keenoy, E.; Masjedi, M. R.; Melen, E.; Melo-Gomes, E.; Menzies-Gow, A.; Mercier, G.; Mercier, J.; Michel, J. P.; Miculinic, N.; Mihaltan, F.; Milenkovic, B.; Molimard, M.; Momas, I.; Montilla-Santana, A.; Morais-Almeida, M.; Morgan, M.; N'Diaye, M.; Nafti, S.; Nekam, K.; Neou, A.; Nicod, L.; O'Hehir, R.; Ohta, K.; Paggiaro, P.; Palkonen, S.; Palmer, S.; Papadopoulos, N. G.; Papi, A.; Passalacqua, G.; Pavord, I.; Pigearias, B.; Plavec, D.; Postma, D. S.; Price, D.; Rabe, K. F.; Radier Pontal, F.; Redon, J.; Rennard, S.; Roberts, J.; Robine, J. M.; Roca, J.; Roche, N.; Rodenas, F.; Roggeri, A.; Rolland, C.; Rosado-Pinto, J.; Ryan, D.; Samolinski, B.; Sanchez-Borges, M.; Schünemann, H. J.; Sheikh, A.; Shields, M.; Siafakas, N.; Sibille, Y.; Similowski, T.; Small, I.; Sola-Morales, O.; Sooronbaev, T.; Stelmach, R.; Sterk, P. J.; Stiris, T.; Sud, P.; Tellier, V.; To, T.; Todo-Bom, A.; Triggiani, M.; Valenta, R.; Valero, A. L.; Valiulis, A.; Valovirta, E.; van Ganse, E.; Vandenplas, O.; Vasankari, T.; Vestbo, J.; Vezzani, G.; Viegi, G.; Visier, L.; Vogelmeier, C.; Vontetsianos, T.; Wagstaff, R.; Wahn, U.; Wallaert, B.; Whalley, B.; Wickman, M.; Williams, D. M.; Wilson, N.; Yawn, B. P.; Yiallouros, P. K.; Yorgancioglu, A.; Yusuf, O. M.; Zar, H. J.; Zhong, N.; Zidarn, M.; Zuberbier, T.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of Integrated Care Pathways for Airway Diseases (AIRWAYS-ICPs) is to launch a collaboration to develop multi-sectoral care pathways for chronic respiratory diseases in European countries and regions. AIRWAYS-ICPs has strategic relevance to the European Union Health Strategy and will

  18. Integrated care pathways for airway diseases (AIRWAYS-ICPs)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousquet, J.; Addis, A.; Adcock, I.; Agache, I.; Agusti, A.; Alonso, A.; Annesi-Maesano, I.; Anto, J. M.; Bachert, C.; Baena-Cagnani, C. E.; Bai, C.; Baigenzhin, A.; Barbara, C.; Barnes, P. J.; Bateman, E. D.; Beck, L.; Bedbrook, A.; Bel, E. H.; Benezet, O.; Bennoor, K. S.; Benson, M.; Bernabeu-Wittel, M.; Bewick, M.; Bindslev-Jensen, C.; Blain, H.; Blasi, F.; Bonini, M.; Bonini, S.; Boulet, L. P.; Bourdin, A.; Bourret, R.; Bousquet, P. J.; Brightling, C. E.; Briggs, A.; Brozek, J.; Buh, R.; Bush, A.; Caimmi, D.; Calderon, M.; Calverley, P.; Camargos, P. A.; Camuzat, T.; Canonica, G. W.; Carlsen, K. H.; Casale, T. B.; Cazzola, M.; Sarabia, A. M. Cepeda; Cesario, A.; Chen, Y. Z.; Chkhartishvili, E.; Chavannes, N. H.; Chiron, R.; Chuchalin, A.; Chung, K. F.; Cox, L.; Crooks, G.; Crooks, M. G.; Cruz, A. A.; Custovic, A.; Dahl, R.; Dahlen, S. E.; De Blay, F.; Dedeu, T.; Deleanu, D.; Demoly, P.; Devillier, P.; Didier, A.; Dinh-Xuan, A. T.; Djukanovic, R.; Dokic, D.; Douagui, H.; Dubakiene, R.; Eglin, S.; Elliot, F.; Emuzyte, R.; Fabbri, L.; Wagner, A. Fink; Fletcher, M.; Fokkens, W. J.; Fonseca, J.; Franco, A.; Frith, P.; Furber, A.; Gaga, M.; Garces, J.; Garcia-Aymerich, J.; Gamkrelidze, A.; Gonzales-Diaz, S.; Gouzi, F.; Guzman, M. A.; Haahtela, T.; Harrison, D.; Hayot, M.; Heaney, L. G.; Heinrich, J.; Hellings, P. W.; Hooper, J.; Humbert, M.; Hyland, M.; Iaccarino, G.; Jakovenko, D.; Jardim, J. R.; Jeandel, C.; Jenkins, C.; Johnston, S. L.; Jonquet, O.; Joos, G.; Jung, K. S.; Kalayci, O.; Karunanithi, S.; Keil, T.; Khaltaev, N.; Kolek, V.; Kowalski, M. L.; Kull, I.; Kuna, P.; Kvedariene, V.; Le, L. T.; Carlsen, K. C. Lodrup; Louis, R.; MacNee, W.; Mair, A.; Majer, I.; Manning, P.; Keenoy, E. de Manuel; Masjedi, M. R.; Meten, E.; Melo-Gomes, E.; Menzies-Gow, A.; Mercier, G.; Mercier, J.; Michel, J. P.; Miculinic, N.; Mihaltan, F.; Milenkovic, B.; Molimard, M.; Mamas, I.; Montilla-Santana, A.; Morais-Almeida, M.; Morgan, M.; N'Diaye, M.; Nafti, S.; Nekam, K.; Neou, A.; Nicod, L.; O'Hehir, R.; Ohta, K.; Paggiaro, P.; Palkonen, S.; Palmer, S.; Papadopoulos, N. G.; Papi, A.; Passalacqua, G.; Pavord, I.; Pigearias, B.; Plavec, D.; Postma, D. S.; Price, D.; Rabe, K. F.; Pontal, F. Radier; Redon, J.; Rennard, S.; Roberts, J.; Robine, J. M.; Roca, J.; Roche, N.; Rodenas, F.; Roggeri, A.; Rolland, C.; Rosado-Pinto, J.; Ryan, D.; Samolinski, B.; Sanchez-Borges, M.; Schunemann, H. J.; Sheikh, A.; Shields, M.; Siafakas, N.; Sibille, Y.; Similowski, T.; Small, I.; Sola-Morales, O.; Sooronbaev, T.; Stelmach, R.; Sterk, P. J.; Stiris, T.; Sud, P.; Tellier, V.; To, T.; Todo-Bom, A.; Triggiani, M.; Valenta, R.; Valero, A. L.; Valiulis, A.; Valovirta, E.; Van Ganse, E.; Vandenplas, O.; Vasankari, T.; Vestbo, J.; Vezzani, G.; Viegi, G.; Visier, L.; Vogelmeier, C.; Vontetsianos, T.; Wagstaff, R.; Wahn, U.; Wallaert, B.; Whalley, B.; Wickman, M.; Williams, D. M.; Wilson, N.; Yawn, B. P.; Yiallouros, P. K.; Yorgancioglu, A.; Yusuf, O. M.; Zar, H. J.; Zhong, N.; Zidarn, M.; Zuberbier, T.

    The objective of Integrated Care Pathways for Airway Diseases (AIRWAYS-ICPs) is to launch a collaboration to develop multi-sectoral care pathways for chronic respiratory diseases in European countries and regions. AIRWAYS-ICPs has strategic relevance to the European Union Health Strategy and will

  19. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENT Doctor Near You Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) Patient Health Information ... relations staff at newsroom@entnet.org . What Is CPAP? The most common and effective nonsurgical treatment for ...

  20. Equine recurrent airway obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Niedźwiedź

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Equine Recurrent Airway Obstruction (RAO, also known as heaves or broken wind, is one of the most common disease in middle-aged horses. Inflammation of the airway is inducted by organic dust exposure. This disease is characterized by neutrophilic inflammation, bronchospasm, excessive mucus production and pathologic changes in the bronchiolar walls. Clinical signs are resolved in 3-4 weeks after environmental changes. Horses suffering from RAO are susceptible to allergens throughout their lives, therefore they should be properly managed. In therapy the most importanthing is to eliminate dustexposure, administration of corticosteroids and use bronchodilators to improve pulmonary function.

  1. Measurement of lung airways in three dimensions using hyperpolarized helium-3 MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, Eric T; Fain, Sean B; Dai Jionghan; Holmes, James H

    2011-01-01

    Large airway measurement is clinically important in cases of airway disease and trauma. The gold standard is computed tomography (CT), which allows for airway measurement. However, the ionizing radiation dose associated with CT is a major limitation in longitudinal studies and trauma. To avoid ionizing radiation from CT, we present a method for measuring the large airway diameter in humans using hyperpolarized helium-3 (HPHe) MRI in conjunction with a dynamic 3D radial acquisition. An algorithm is introduced which utilizes the significant airway contrast for semi-automated segmentation and skeletonization which is used to derive the airway lumen diameter. The HPHe MRI method was validated with quantitative CT in an excised and desiccated porcine lung (linear regression R 2 = 0.974 and slope = 0.966 over 32 airway segments). The airway lumen diameters were then compared in 24 human subjects (22 asthmatics and 2 normals; linear regression R 2 value of 0.799 and slope = 0.768 over 309 airway segments). The feasibility for airway path analysis to areas of ventilation defect is also demonstrated.

  2. Paediatric airway management: basic aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Knudsen, R J; Rasmussen, L S

    2009-01-01

    Paediatric airway management is a great challenge, especially for anaesthesiologists working in departments with a low number of paediatric surgical procedures. The paediatric airway is substantially different from the adult airway and obstruction leads to rapid desaturation in infants and small...... children. This paper aims at providing the non-paediatric anaesthesiologist with a set of safe and simple principles for basic paediatric airway management. In contrast to adults, most children with difficult airways are recognised before induction of anaesthesia but problems may arise in all children...

  3. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NACFC Carolyn and C Richard Mattingly Leadership in Mental Health Care Award Mary M. Kontos Award NACFC Reflections ... help your infant or child manage their lung health, watch parents of children with CF and a respiratory therapist talk about the different techniques they use for airway clearance. ... Instagram Email Find a Clinical Trial Help us blaze ...

  4. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... how you can help your infant or child manage their lung health, watch parents of children with CF and a respiratory therapist talk about the different techniques they use for airway clearance. Facebook Twitter Email More Related Content Medications Autogenic Drainage ...

  5. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Team Your cystic fibrosis care team includes a group of CF health care professionals who partner with ... Awards and Grants Career Development Awards Research Awards Training Awards CF ... Clearance Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs) There are different ways to clear your ...

  6. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cystic fibrosis. CF CARE CENTER finder We provide funding for and accredit more than 120 care centers ... Community in Health Care Reform Milestones in Health Care Reform How Tax Reform Could Impact People With CF The ... Home Life With CF Treatments and Therapies Airway Clearance ...

  7. Upper airway evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, E.A.; Gefter, W.B.; Schnall, M.; Nordberg, J.; Listerud, J.; Lenkinski, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    The authors are evaluating upper-airway sleep disorders with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and x-ray cine computed tomography (CT). Fixed structural anatomy is visualized with multisection spin-echo MR imaging, the dynamic component with cine CT. Unique aspects of the study are described in this paper

  8. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... programs and policies to improve the lives of people with CF. Help us by raising awareness of CF, participating in a fundraising event, or volunteering ... clear your airways. Most are easy to do. Infants and toddlers will need help from a parent or caregiver. Older kids and adults can choose ACTs that they ...

  9. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Their Families When There's More Than One Person With CF in the Same School Daily Life ... Awards and Grants Career Development Awards Research Awards Training Awards CF ... Clearance Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs) There are different ways to clear your ...

  10. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... infant or child manage their lung health, watch parents of children with CF and a respiratory therapist talk about the different techniques they use for airway ... Positive Expiratory Pressure High-Frequency Chest Wall Oscillation (the Vest) Follow ...

  11. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Offer their tips for fitting ACTs into daily life Airway Clearance Techniques | Webcast To learn more about how you can help your infant or child manage their lung health, watch parents of children with CF and a respiratory therapist ...

  12. Extraglottic airway devices: technology update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma B

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Bimla Sharma, Chand Sahai, Jayashree Sood Department of Anaesthesiology, Pain and Perioperative Medicine, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, New Delhi, India Abstract: Extraglottic airway devices (EADs have revolutionized the field of airway management. The invention of the laryngeal mask airway was a game changer, and since then, there have been several innovations to improve the EADs in design, functionality, safety and construction material. These have ranged from changes in the shape of the mask, number of cuffs and material used, like rubber, polyvinylchloride and latex. Phthalates, which were added to the construction material in order to increase device flexibility, were later omitted when this chemical was found to have serious adverse reproductive outcomes. The various designs brought out by numerous companies manufacturing EADs resulted in the addition of several devices to the airway market. These airway devices were put to use, many of them with inadequate or no evidence base regarding their efficacy and safety. To reduce the possibility of compromising the safety of the patient, the Difficult Airway Society (DAS formed the Airway Device Evaluation Project Team (ADEPT to strengthen the evidence base for airway equipment and vet the new extraglottic devices. A preuse careful analysis of the design and structure may help in better understanding of the functionality of a particular device. In the meantime, the search for the ideal EAD continues. Keywords: extraglottic airway devices, laryngeal mask airway, other extraglottic airway devices, safety, technology update

  13. Biomarkers in Airway Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice M Leung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The inherent limitations of spirometry and clinical history have prompted clinicians and scientists to search for surrogate markers of airway diseases. Although few biomarkers have been widely accepted into the clinical armamentarium, the authors explore three sources of biomarkers that have shown promise as indicators of disease severity and treatment response. In asthma, exhaled nitric oxide measurements can predict steroid responsiveness and sputum eosinophil counts have been used to titrate anti-inflammatory therapies. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, inflammatory plasma biomarkers, such as fibrinogen, club cell secretory protein-16 and surfactant protein D, can denote greater severity and predict the risk of exacerbations. While the multitude of disease phenotypes in respiratory medicine make biomarker development especially challenging, these three may soon play key roles in the diagnosis and management of airway diseases.

  14. Lipids in airway secretions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhaskar, K.R.; DeFeudis O'Sullivan, D.; Opaskar-Hincman, H.; Reid, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    Lipids form a significant portion of airway mucus yet they have not received the same attention that epithelial glycoproteins have. We have analysed, by thin layer chromatography, lipids present in airway mucus under 'normal' and hypersecretory (pathological) conditions.The 'normals' included (1) bronchial lavage obtained from healthy human volunteers and from dogs and (2) secretions produced ''in vitro'' by human (bronchial) and canine (tracheal) explants. Hypersecretory mucus samples included (1) lavage from dogs made bronchitic by exposure to SO 2 , (2) bronchial aspirates from acute and chronic tracheostomy patients, (3) sputum from patients with cystic fibrosis and chronic bronchitis and (4) postmortem secretions from patients who died from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) or from status asthmaticus. Cholesterol was found to be the predominant lipid in 'normal' mucus with lesser amounts of phospholipids. No glycolipids were detected. In the hypersecretory mucus, in addition to neutral and phospholipids, glycolipids were present in appreciable amounts, often the predominant species, suggesting that these may be useful as markers of disease. Radioactive precursors 14 C acetate and 14 C palmitate were incorporated into lipids secreted ''in vitro'' by canine tracheal explants indicating that they are synthesised by the airway. (author)

  15. Anticholinergic treatment in airways diseases.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flynn, Robert A

    2009-10-01

    The prevalence of chronic airways diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma is increasing. They lead to symptoms such as a cough and shortness of breath, partially through bronchoconstriction. Inhaled anticholinergics are one of a number of treatments designed to treat bronchoconstriction in airways disease. Both short-acting and long-acting agents are now available and this review highlights their efficacy and adverse event profile in chronic airways diseases.

  16. The Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) as an alternative to airway ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: To evaluate the possibility of airway management using a laryngeal mask airway (LMA) during dental procedures on mentally retarded (MR) patients and patients with genetic diseases. Design: A prospective pilot study. Setting: University Hospital. Methods: A pilot study was designed to induce general ...

  17. Relationship between airway pathophysiology and airway inflammation in older asthmatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsbjerg, Celeste M; Gibson, Peter G; Pretto, Jeffrey J

    2013-01-01

    -dose ratio (%fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 )/mg saline). Airway closure was assessed during bronchoconstriction percent change in forced vital capacity (FVC)/percent change in FEV1 (i.e. Closing Index). Airway inflammation was assessed by induced sputum and exhaled nitric oxide (eNO). RESULTS...

  18. Incidence of unanticipated difficult airway using an objective airway score versus a standard clinical airway assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Anders Kehlet; Rosenstock, Charlotte Valentin; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2013-01-01

    -specific assessment. Data from patients' pre-operative airway assessment are registered in the Danish Anaesthesia Database. Objective scores for intubation and mask ventilation grade the severity of airway managements. The accuracy of predicting difficult intubation and mask ventilation is measured for each group...... the examination and registration of predictors for difficult mask ventilation with a non-specified clinical airway assessment on prediction of difficult mask ventilation.Method/Design: We cluster-randomized 28 Danish departments of anaesthesia to airway assessment either by the SARI or by usual non...... that registration of the SARI and predictors for difficult mask ventilation are mandatory for the intervention group but invisible to controls....

  19. Rhinosinusitis and the lower airways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellings, Peter W.; Hens, Greet

    2009-01-01

    The interaction between upper and lower airway disease has been recognized for centuries, with recent studies showing a direct link between upper and airway inflammation in allergic patients. The mechanisms underlying the interaction between nasal and bronchial inflammation have primarily been

  20. Anaesthesia and subglottic airway obstruction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-07-14

    Jul 14, 2009 ... Introduction. Surgery on the upper airway remains challenging for both surgeon and ... from her upper airway obstruction rather than asthma.1 She had made a long ... patient was well oxygenated with oxygen saturation above. 95%. .... Difficulties relate to tidal volume measurement, CO2 detection and the.

  1. Relapsing polychondritis and airway involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Armin; Rafeq, Samaan; Boiselle, Phillip; Sung, Arthur; Reddy, Chakravarthy; Michaud, Gaetane; Majid, Adnan; Herth, Felix J F; Trentham, David

    2009-04-01

    To assess the prevalence and characteristics of airway involvement in relapsing polychondritis (RP). Retrospective chart review and data analysis of RP patients seen in the Rheumatology Clinic and the Complex Airway Center at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center from January 2004 through February 2008. RP was diagnosed in 145 patients. Thirty-one patients had airway involvement, a prevalence of 21%. Twenty-two patients were women (70%), and they were between 11 and 61 years of age (median age, 42 years) at the time of first symptoms. Airway symptoms were the first manifestation of disease in 17 patients (54%). Dyspnea was the most common symptom in 20 patients (64%), followed by cough, stridor, and hoarseness. Airway problems included the following: subglottic stenosis (n = 8; 26%); focal and diffuse malacia (n = 15; 48%); and focal stenosis in different areas of the bronchial tree in the rest of the patients. Twelve patients (40%) required and underwent intervention including balloon dilatation, stent placement, tracheotomy, or a combination of the above with good success. The majority of patients experienced improvement in airway symptoms after intervention. One patient died during the follow-up period from the progression of airway disease. The rest of the patients continue to undergo periodic evaluation and intervention. In this largest cohort described in the English language literature, we found symptomatic airway involvement in RP to be common and at times severe. The nature of airway problems is diverse, with tracheomalacia being the most common. Airway intervention is frequently required and in experienced hands results in symptom improvement.

  2. Development and Validation of a Multiplex PCR-Based Assay for the Upper Respiratory Tract Bacterial Pathogens Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Moraxella catarrhalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post; White; Aul; Zavoral; Wadowsky; Zhang; Preston; Ehrlich

    1996-06-01

    Background: Conventional simplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays are limited in that they only provide for the detection of a single infectious agent. Many clinical diseases, however, present in a nonspecific, or syndromic, fashion, thereby necessitating the simultaneous assessment of multiple pathogens. Panel-based molecular diagnostic testing can be accomplished by the development of multiplex PCR-based assays, which can detect, individually or severally, different pathogens that are associated with syndromic illness. As part of a larger program of panel development, an assay that can simultaneously detect Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Moraxella catarrhalis was developed. These organisms were chosen as they are the most common bacterial pathogens associated with both the acute and chronic forms of otitis media; they are also responsible for a high percentage of sinus infections in both children and adults. In addition, H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae are commonly associated with septic meningitits. Methods and Results: Multiple individual PCR-based assays were developed for each of the three target organisms which were then evaluated for sensitivity and specificity. Utilizing the simplex assays that met our designated performance criteria, a matrix style approach was used to develop a duplex H. influenzae-S. pneumoniae assay. The duplex assay was then used as a single component in the development of a triplex assay, wherein the various M. catarrhalis primer-probe sets were tested for compatibility with the existing assay. A single-step PCR protocol, with species-specific primers for each of the three target organisms and a liquid hybridization-gel retardation amplimer detection system, was developed, which amplifies and then discriminates among each of the amplification products according to size. This assay is able to detect all three organisms in a specific manner, either individually or severally. Dilutional experiments

  3. Airway necrosis after salvage esophagectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Norimitsu; Hokamura, Nobukazu; Tachimori, Yuji

    2010-01-01

    Salvage esophagectomy is the sole curative intent treatment for patients with persistent or recurrent locoregional disease after definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for esophageal carcinoma. However, salvage esophagectomy is a very high-risk operation, and airway necrosis is a fatal complication. Between 1997 and 2007, 49 patients with thoracic esophageal cancer underwent salvage esophagectomy after definitive CRT. We retrospectively compared patients with and without airway necrosis, and investigated operative procedures related to airway necrosis. Airway necrosis occurred in five patients (10.2%), of four patients (80%) died during their hospitalization. Airway necrosis seemed to be closely related to operative procedures, such as resection of bronchial artery and cervical and subcarinal lymph node dissection. Bronchogastric fistula following necrosis of gastric conduit occured in 2 patients reconstructed through posterior mediastinal route. Airway necrosis is a highly lethal complication after salvage esophagectomy. It is important in salvage esophagectomy to take airway blood supply into consideration sufficiently and to reconstruct through retrosternal route to prevent bronchogastric fistula. (author)

  4. Airway fibroepithelial polyposis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Labarca

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibroepithelial polyps are benign lesions, frequently found in the skin and genitourinary tract. Airway involvement is rare, and few case reports have been published. Our patient was a 79 y.o. male smoker, who was referred to us with a 3-month history of dry cough. At physical examination, the patient looked well, but a chest CT showed a 6-mm polyp lesion in his trachea. A flexible bronchoscopy confirmed this lesion, and forceps biopsies were performed. Argon plasma coagulation was used to completely resect and treat the lesion. Pathological analysis revealed a fibroepithelial polyp (FP. The aim of this manuscript is to report a case of FP with bronchoscopic management and to review the current literature about this condition.

  5. Airway bacteria measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and culture in patients with stable COPD: relationship with neutrophilic airway inflammation, exacerbation frequency, and lung function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bafadhel M

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mona Bafadhel,1 Koirobi Haldar,2 Bethan Barker,2,3 Hemu Patel,4 Vijay Mistry,2,3 Michael R Barer,2–4 Ian D Pavord,1 Christopher E Brightling2,3 1Respiratory Medicine Unit, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK; 2Department of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, University of Leicester, 3Institute for Lung Health, National Institute for Health Research Respiratory Biomedical Research Unit, Glenfield Hospital, University of Leicester, 4Department of Clinical Microbiology, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester, UK Background: Potentially pathogenic microorganisms can be detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR in sputum from patients with COPD, although how this technique relates to culture and clinical measures of disease is unclear. We used cross-sectional and longitudinal data to test the hypotheses that qPCR is a more sensitive measure of bacterial presence and is associated with neutrophilic airway inflammation and adverse clinical outcomes.Methods: Sputum was collected from 174 stable COPD subjects longitudinally over 12 months. Microbial sampling using culture and qPCR was performed. Spirometry and sputum measures of airway inflammation were assessed.Findings: Sputum was qPCR-positive (>106 copies/mL in 77/152 samples (Haemophilus influenzae [n=52], Moraxella catarrhalis [n=24], Streptococcus pneumoniae [n=19], and Staphylococcus aureus [n=7]. Sputum was culture-positive in 50/174 samples, with 49 out of 50 culture-positive samples having pathogen-specific qPCR bacterial loads >106 copies/mL. Samples that had qPCR copy numbers >106/mL, whether culture-positive or not, had increased sputum neutrophil counts. H. influenzae qPCR copy numbers correlated with sputum neutrophil counts (r=0.37, P<0.001, were repeatable within subjects, and were >106/mL three or more times in 19 patients, eight of whom were repeatedly sputum culture-positive. Persistence, whether

  6. The contribution of airway smooth muscle to airway narrowing and airway hyperresponsiveness in disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J G; Duguet, A; Eidelman, D H

    2000-08-01

    Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), the exaggerated response to constrictor agonists in asthmatic subjects, is incompletely understood. Changes in either the quantity or properties of airway smooth muscle (ASM) are possible explanations for AHR. Morphometric analyses demonstrate structural changes in asthmatic airways, including subepithelial fibrosis, gland hyperplasia/hypertrophy, neovascularization and an increase in ASM mass. Mathematical modelling of airway narrowing suggests that, of all the changes in structure, the increase in ASM mass is the most probable cause of AHR. An increase in ASM mass in the large airways is more closely associated with a greater likelihood of dying from asthma than increases in ASM mass in other locations within the airway tree. ASM contraction is opposed by the elastic recoil of the lungs and airways, which appears to limit the degree of bronchoconstriction in vivo. The cyclical nature of tidal breathing applies stresses to the airway wall that enhance the bronchodilating influence of the lung tissues on the contracting ASM, in all probability by disrupting cross-bridges. However, the increase in ASM mass in asthma may overcome the limitation resulting from the impedances to ASM shortening imposed by the lung parenchyma and airway wall tissues. Additionally, ASM with the capacity to shorten rapidly may achieve shorter lengths and cause a greater degree of bronchoconstriction when stimulated to contract than slower ASM. Changes in ASM properties are induced by the process of sensitization and allergen-exposure such as enhancement of phospholipase C activity and inositol phosphate turnover, and increases in myosin light chain kinase activity. Whether changes in ASM mass or biochemical/biomechanical properties form the basis for asthma remains to be determined.

  7. Stenting of major airway constriction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xiaomei

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the correlated issues in the stenting treatment of major airway constriction. Methods: Nineteen cases of major airway stenting procedure were studied retrospectively. The clinical choice of stents of different advantages or deficiencies were discussed. The importance of intravenous anesthesia supporting, life-parameters monitoring during the procedures and the prevention of complications were analysed. Results: Under intravenous and local anesthesia, 19 Wallstents had been successively placed and relieved 19 cases of major airway constrictions due to malignant or benign diseases (15 of tumors, 3 of tuberculosis, 1 of tracheomalacia). Intravenous anesthesia and life-parameters monitoring had made the procedures more safe and precise. Conclusions: Major airway stenting is an reliable method for relieving tracheobronchial stenosis; and intravenous anesthesia supporting and life-parameters monitoring guarantee the satisfactions of procedures

  8. Airway management and morbid obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Michael S

    2010-01-01

    Morbidly obese patients present with excess fatty tissue externally on the breast, neck, thoracic wall and abdomen and internally in the mouth, pharynx and abdomen. This excess tissue tends to make access (intubation, tracheostomy) to and patency (during sedation or mask ventilation) of the upper...... in morbidly obese patients and should be followed by actions to counteract atelectasis formation. The decision as to weather to use a rapid sequence induction, an awake intubation or a standard induction with hypnotics should depend on the thorough airway examination and comorbidity and should not be based...... solely on whether morbid obesity is present or not. It is important to ensure sufficient depth of anaesthesia before initiating manipulation of the airway because inadequate anaesthesia depth predisposes to aspiration if airway management becomes difficult. The intubating laryngeal mask airway is more...

  9. Data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clout, P.N.

    1982-01-01

    Data acquisition systems are discussed for molecular biology experiments using synchrotron radiation sources. The data acquisition system requirements are considered. The components of the solution are described including hardwired solutions and computer-based solutions. Finally, the considerations for the choice of the computer-based solution are outlined. (U.K.)

  10. Upper airway resistance syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montserrat, J M; Badia, J R

    1999-03-01

    This article reviews the clinical picture, diagnosis and management of the upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS). Presently, there is not enough data on key points like the frequency of UARS and the morbidity associated with this condition. Furthermore, the existence of LIARS as an independent sleep disorder and its relation with snoring and obstructive events is in debate. The diagnosis of UARS is still a controversial issue. The technical limitations of the classic approach to monitor airflow with thermistors and inductance plethysmography, as well as the lack of a precise definition of hypopnea, may have led to a misinterpretation of UARS as an independent diagnosis from the sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome. The diagnosis of this syndrome can be missed using a conventional polysomnographic setting unless appropriate techniques are applied. The use of an esophageal balloon to monitor inspiratory effort is currently the gold standard. However, other sensitive methods such as the use of a pneumotachograph and, more recently, nasal cannula/pressure transducer systems or on-line monitoring of respiratory impedance with the forced oscillation technique may provide other interesting possibilities. Recognition and characterization of this subgroup of patients within sleep breathing disorders is important because they are symptomatic and may benefit from treatment. Management options to treat UARS comprise all those currently available for sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (SAHS). However, the subset of patients classically identified as LIARS that exhibit skeletal craneo-facial abnormalities might possibly obtain further benefit from maxillofacial surgery.

  11. Efficacy of Surgical Airway Plasty for Benign Airway Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukioka, Takuma; Takahama, Makoto; Nakajima, Ryu; Kimura, Michitaka; Inoue, Hidetoshi; Yamamoto, Ryoji

    2016-01-01

    Long-term patency is required during treatment for benign airway stenosis. This study investigated the effectiveness of surgical airway plasty for benign airway stenosis. Clinical courses of 20 patients, who were treated with surgical plasty for their benign airway stenosis, were retrospectively investigated. Causes of stenosis were tracheobronchial tuberculosis in 12 patients, post-intubation stenosis in five patients, malacia in two patients, and others in one patient. 28 interventional pulmonology procedures and 20 surgical plasty were performed. Five patients with post-intubation stenosis and four patients with tuberculous stenosis were treated with tracheoplasty. Eight patients with tuberculous stenosis were treated with bronchoplasty, and two patients with malacia were treated with stabilization of the membranous portion. Anastomotic stenosis was observed in four patients, and one to four additional treatments were required. Performance status, Hugh-Jones classification, and ventilatory functions were improved after surgical plasty. Outcomes were fair in patients with tuberculous stenosis and malacia. However, efficacy of surgical plasty for post-intubation stenosis was not observed. Surgical airway plasty may be an acceptable treatment for tuberculous stenosis. Patients with malacia recover well after surgical plasty. There may be untreated patients with malacia who have the potential to benefit from surgical plasty.

  12. Integrated care pathways for airway diseases (AIRWAYS-ICPs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, J; Addis, A; Adcock, I

    2014-01-01

    The objective of Integrated Care Pathways for Airway Diseases (AIRWAYS-ICPs) is to launch a collaboration to develop multi-sectoral care pathways for chronic respiratory diseases in European countries and regions. AIRWAYS-ICPs has strategic relevance to the European Union Health Strategy...... and will add value to existing public health knowledge by: 1) proposing a common framework of care pathways for chronic respiratory diseases, which will facilitate comparability and trans-national initiatives; 2) informing cost-effective policy development, strengthening in particular those on smoking...... and environmental exposure; 3) aiding risk stratification in chronic disease patients, using a common strategy; 4) having a significant impact on the health of citizens in the short term (reduction of morbidity, improvement of education in children and of work in adults) and in the long-term (healthy ageing); 5...

  13. Management of the difficult airway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, D E; Wiener-Kronish, J P

    1991-09-01

    For clinicians involved in airway management, a plan of action for dealing with the difficult airway or a failed intubation should be developed well in advance of encountering a patient in whom intubation is not routine. When difficulty is anticipated, the equipment necessary for performing a difficult intubation should be immediately available. It also is prudent to have a surgeon skilled in performing a tracheotomy and a criothyroidotomy stand by. The intubation should be attempted in the awake state, preferably using the fiberoptic bronchoscope. The more challenging situation is when the difficult airway is confronted unexpectedly. After the first failed attempt at laryngoscopy, head position should be checked and the patient ventilated with oxygen by mask. A smaller styletted tube and possibly a different laryngoscope blade should be selected for a second attempt at intubation. The fiberoptic bronchoscope and other equipment for difficult intubation should be obtained. A second attempt should then be made. If this is unsuccessful, the patient should be reoxygenated, and assistance including a skilled anesthesiologist and surgeon should be summoned. On a third attempt, traction to the tongue can be applied by an assistant, a tube changer could be used to enter the larynx, or one of the other special techniques previously described can be used. If this third attempt fails, it may be helpful to have a physician more experienced in airway management attempt intubation after oxygen has been administered to the patient. If all attempts are unsuccessful, then invasive techniques to secure the airway will have to be performed.

  14. Increased Nasopharyngeal Density and Concurrent Carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis Are Associated with Pneumonia in Febrile Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chochua, Sopio; D'Acremont, Valérie; Hanke, Christiane; Alfa, David; Shak, Joshua; Kilowoko, Mary; Kyungu, Esther; Kaiser, Laurent; Genton, Blaise; Klugman, Keith P; Vidal, Jorge E

    2016-01-01

    We assessed nasopharyngeal (NP) carriage of five pathogens in febrile children with and without acute respiratory infection (ARI) of the upper (URTI) or lower tract, attending health facilities in Tanzania. NP swabs collected from children (N = 960) aged 2 months to 10 years, and with a temperature ≥38°C, were utilized to quantify bacterial density of S. pneumoniae (Sp), H. influenzae (Hi), M. catarrhalis (Mc), S. aureus (Sa), and N. meningitidis (Nm). We determined associations between presence of individual species, densities, or concurrent carriage of all species combination with respiratory diseases including clinical pneumonia, pneumonia with normal chest radiography (CXR) and endpoint pneumonia. Individual carriage, and NP density, of Sp, Hi, or Mc, but not Sa, or Nm, was significantly associated with febrile ARI and clinical pneumonia when compared to febrile non-ARI episodes. Density was also significantly increased in severe pneumonia when compared to mild URTI (Sp, p<0.002; Hi p<0.001; Mc, p = 0.014). Accordingly, concurrent carriage of Sp+, Hi+, and Mc+, in the absence of Sa- and Nm-, was significantly more prevalent in children with ARI (p = 0.03), or clinical pneumonia (p<0.001) than non-ARI, and in children with clinical pneumonia (p = 0.0007) than URTI. Furthermore, Sp+, Hi+, and Mc+ differentiated children with pneumonia with normal CXR, or endpoint pneumonia, from those with URTI, and non-ARI cases. Concurrent NP carriage of Sp, Hi, and Mc was a predictor of clinical pneumonia and identified children with pneumonia with normal CXR and endpoint pneumonia from those with febrile URTI, or non-ARI episodes.

  15. Increased Nasopharyngeal Density and Concurrent Carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis Are Associated with Pneumonia in Febrile Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sopio Chochua

    Full Text Available We assessed nasopharyngeal (NP carriage of five pathogens in febrile children with and without acute respiratory infection (ARI of the upper (URTI or lower tract, attending health facilities in Tanzania.NP swabs collected from children (N = 960 aged 2 months to 10 years, and with a temperature ≥38°C, were utilized to quantify bacterial density of S. pneumoniae (Sp, H. influenzae (Hi, M. catarrhalis (Mc, S. aureus (Sa, and N. meningitidis (Nm. We determined associations between presence of individual species, densities, or concurrent carriage of all species combination with respiratory diseases including clinical pneumonia, pneumonia with normal chest radiography (CXR and endpoint pneumonia.Individual carriage, and NP density, of Sp, Hi, or Mc, but not Sa, or Nm, was significantly associated with febrile ARI and clinical pneumonia when compared to febrile non-ARI episodes. Density was also significantly increased in severe pneumonia when compared to mild URTI (Sp, p<0.002; Hi p<0.001; Mc, p = 0.014. Accordingly, concurrent carriage of Sp+, Hi+, and Mc+, in the absence of Sa- and Nm-, was significantly more prevalent in children with ARI (p = 0.03, or clinical pneumonia (p<0.001 than non-ARI, and in children with clinical pneumonia (p = 0.0007 than URTI. Furthermore, Sp+, Hi+, and Mc+ differentiated children with pneumonia with normal CXR, or endpoint pneumonia, from those with URTI, and non-ARI cases.Concurrent NP carriage of Sp, Hi, and Mc was a predictor of clinical pneumonia and identified children with pneumonia with normal CXR and endpoint pneumonia from those with febrile URTI, or non-ARI episodes.

  16. Clinical review: Management of difficult airways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeron, Olivier; Amour, Julien; Vivien, Benoît; Aubrun, Frédéric

    2006-01-01

    Difficulties or failure in airway management are still important factors in morbidity and mortality related to anesthesia and intensive care. A patent and secure airway is essential to manage anesthetized or critically ill patients. Oxygenation maintenance during tracheal intubation is the cornerstone of difficult airway management and is always emphasized in guidelines. The occurrence of respiratory adverse events has decreased in claims for injuries due to inadequate airway management mainly at induction of anesthesia. Nevertheless, claim reports emphasize that airway emergencies, tracheal extubation and/or recovery of anesthesia phases are still associated with death or brain damage, indicating that additional educational support and management strategies to improve patient safety are required. The present brief review analyses specific problems of airway management related to difficult tracheal intubation and to difficult mask ventilation prediction. The review will focus on basic airway management including preoxygenation, and on some oxygenation and tracheal intubation techniques that may be performed to solve a difficult airway. PMID:17184555

  17. Clinical review: management of difficult airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeron, Olivier; Amour, Julien; Vivien, Benoît; Aubrun, Frédéric

    2006-01-01

    Difficulties or failure in airway management are still important factors in morbidity and mortality related to anesthesia and intensive care. A patent and secure airway is essential to manage anesthetized or critically ill patients. Oxygenation maintenance during tracheal intubation is the cornerstone of difficult airway management and is always emphasized in guidelines. The occurrence of respiratory adverse events has decreased in claims for injuries due to inadequate airway management mainly at induction of anesthesia. Nevertheless, claim reports emphasize that airway emergencies, tracheal extubation and/or recovery of anesthesia phases are still associated with death or brain damage, indicating that additional educational support and management strategies to improve patient safety are required. The present brief review analyses specific problems of airway management related to difficult tracheal intubation and to difficult mask ventilation prediction. The review will focus on basic airway management including preoxygenation, and on some oxygenation and tracheal intubation techniques that may be performed to solve a difficult airway.

  18. Drug development for airway diseases: looking forward

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holgate, Stephen; Agusti, Alvar; Strieter, Robert M.; Anderson, Gary P.; Fogel, Robert; Bel, Elisabeth; Martin, Thomas R.; Reiss, Theodore F.

    2015-01-01

    Advancing drug development for airway diseases beyond the established mechanisms and symptomatic therapies requires redefining the classifications of airway diseases, considering systemic manifestations, developing new tools and encouraging collaborations

  19. Clinical review: Management of difficult airways

    OpenAIRE

    Langeron, Olivier; Amour, Julien; Vivien, Benoît; Aubrun, Frédéric

    2006-01-01

    Difficulties or failure in airway management are still important factors in morbidity and mortality related to anesthesia and intensive care. A patent and secure airway is essential to manage anesthetized or critically ill patients. Oxygenation maintenance during tracheal intubation is the cornerstone of difficult airway management and is always emphasized in guidelines. The occurrence of respiratory adverse events has decreased in claims for injuries due to inadequate airway management mainl...

  20. Airway management and morbid obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Michael S

    2010-01-01

    Morbidly obese patients present with excess fatty tissue externally on the breast, neck, thoracic wall and abdomen and internally in the mouth, pharynx and abdomen. This excess tissue tends to make access (intubation, tracheostomy) to and patency (during sedation or mask ventilation) of the upper...... airway and the function of the lungs (decreased residual capacity and aggravated ventilation perfusion mismatch) worse than in lean patients. Proper planning and preparation of airway management is essential, including elevation of the patient's upper body, head and neck. Preoxygenation is mandatory...

  1. Vessel-guided airway tree segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; Sporring, Jon; Ashraf, Haseem

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a method for airway tree segmentation that uses a combination of a trained airway appearance model, vessel and airway orientation information, and region growing. We propose a voxel classification approach for the appearance model, which uses a classifier that is trained to di...

  2. Analysis of airways in computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is major cause of death and disability world-wide. It affects lung function through destruction of lung tissue known as emphysema and inflammation of airways, leading to thickened airway walls and narrowed airway lumen. Computed Tomography (CT) imaging...

  3. Multiscale Vessel-guided Airway Tree Segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; Sporring, Jon; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a method for airway tree segmentation that uses a combination of a trained airway appearance model, vessel and airway orientation information, and region growing. The method uses a voxel classification based appearance model, which involves the use of a classifier that is trai...

  4. Functional phenotype of airway myocytes from asthmatic airways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wright, David B.; Trian, Thomas; Siddiqui, Sana; Pascoe, Chris D.; Ojo, Oluwaseun O.; Johnson, Jill R.; Dekkers, Bart G. J.; Dakshinamurti, Shyamala; Bagchi, Rushita; Burgess, Janette K.; Kanabar, Varsha

    In asthma, the airway smooth muscle (ASM) cell plays a central role in disease pathogenesis through cellular changes which may impact on its microenvironment and alter ASM response and function. The answer to the long debated question of what makes a 'healthy' ASM cell become 'asthmatic' still

  5. Prolonged ozone exposure in an allergic airway disease model: Adaptation of airway responsiveness and airway remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Chang-Soo

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Short-term exposure to high concentrations of ozone has been shown to increase airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR. Because the changes in AHR and airway inflammation and structure after chronic ozone exposure need to be determined, the goal of this study was to investigate these effects in a murine model of allergic airway disease. Methods We exposed BALB/c mice to 2 ppm ozone for 4, 8, and 12 weeks. We measured the enhanced pause (Penh to methacholine and performed cell differentials in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. We quantified the levels of IL-4 and IFN-γ in the supernatants of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids using enzyme immunoassays, and examined the airway architecture under light and electron microscopy. Results The groups exposed to ozone for 4, 8, and 12 weeks demonstrated decreased Penh at methacholine concentrations of 12.5, 25, and 50 mg/ml, with a dose-response curve to the right of that for the filtered-air group. Neutrophils and eosinophils increased in the group exposed to ozone for 4 weeks compared to those in the filtered-air group. The ratio of IL-4 to INF-γ increased significantly after exposure to ozone for 8 and 12 weeks compared to the ratio for the filtered-air group. The numbers of goblet cells, myofibroblasts, and smooth muscle cells showed time-dependent increases in lung tissue sections from the groups exposed to ozone for 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Conclusion These findings demonstrate that the increase in AHR associated with the allergic airway does not persist during chronic ozone exposure, indicating that airway remodeling and adaptation following repeated exposure to air pollutants can provide protection against AHR.

  6. Susceptibility to Lower Respiratory Infections in Childhood is Associated with Perturbation of the Cytokine Response to Pathogenic Airway Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissing, Nadja Hawwa; Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt; Chawes, Bo Lund Krogsgaard; Thysen, Anna Hammerich; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Brix, Susanne; Bisgaard, Hans

    2016-05-01

    Neonatal colonization of the airways with respiratory pathogens is associated with increased risk of lower respiratory infections (LRI) in early childhood. Therefore, we hypothesized that children developing LRI have an aberrant immune response to pathogenic bacteria in infancy. The objective was to characterize in vitro the early life systemic immune response to pathogenic bacteria and study the possible association with incidence of LRI during the first 3 years of life. The Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood2000 (COPSAC2000) is a clinical birth cohort study of 411 children born of mothers with asthma. LRI incidence was prospectively captured from 6-monthly planned visits and visits at acute respiratory episodes. The in vitro systemic immune response to Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Streptococcus pneumoniae was characterized by the production of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13 and IL-17 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated at age 6 months from 291 infants. Data were analyzed by Poisson regression against incidence of LRI in infancy. A multivariable model including all cytokine responses from the 3 different bacterial stimulations significantly identified children at risk of LRI (P = 0.006). The immune response pattern associated with LRI was characterized by perturbed production of several cytokines rather than production of one specific cytokine, and was independent of concurrent asthma. TNF-α and IL-5 were key drivers but did not explain the entire variation in LRI susceptibility. Children at risk of future LRI present a perturbed systemic immune response upon exposure to common airway pathogens in early life.

  7. The human airway epithelial basal cell transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil R Hackett

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The human airway epithelium consists of 4 major cell types: ciliated, secretory, columnar and basal cells. During natural turnover and in response to injury, the airway basal cells function as stem/progenitor cells for the other airway cell types. The objective of this study is to better understand human airway epithelial basal cell biology by defining the gene expression signature of this cell population.Bronchial brushing was used to obtain airway epithelium from healthy nonsmokers. Microarrays were used to assess the transcriptome of basal cells purified from the airway epithelium in comparison to the transcriptome of the differentiated airway epithelium. This analysis identified the "human airway basal cell signature" as 1,161 unique genes with >5-fold higher expression level in basal cells compared to differentiated epithelium. The basal cell signature was suppressed when the basal cells differentiated into a ciliated airway epithelium in vitro. The basal cell signature displayed overlap with genes expressed in basal-like cells from other human tissues and with that of murine airway basal cells. Consistent with self-modulation as well as signaling to other airway cell types, the human airway basal cell signature was characterized by genes encoding extracellular matrix components, growth factors and growth factor receptors, including genes related to the EGF and VEGF pathways. Interestingly, while the basal cell signature overlaps that of basal-like cells of other organs, the human airway basal cell signature has features not previously associated with this cell type, including a unique pattern of genes encoding extracellular matrix components, G protein-coupled receptors, neuroactive ligands and receptors, and ion channels.The human airway epithelial basal cell signature identified in the present study provides novel insights into the molecular phenotype and biology of the stem/progenitor cells of the human airway epithelium.

  8. Awake Craniotomy: A New Airway Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasankar, Chitra; Schlichter, Rolf A; Baranov, Dimitry; Kofke, W Andrew

    2016-02-01

    Awake craniotomies have been performed regularly at the University of Pennsylvania since 2004. Varying approaches to airway management are described for this procedure, including intubation with an endotracheal tube and use of a laryngeal mask airway, simple facemask, or nasal cannula. In this case series, we describe the successful use (i.e., no need for endotracheal intubation related to inadequate gas exchange) of bilateral nasopharyngeal airways in 90 patients undergoing awake craniotomies. The use of nasopharyngeal airways can ease the transition between the asleep and awake phases of the craniotomy without the need to stimulate the airway. Our purpose was to describe our experience and report adverse events related to this technique.

  9. Pharyngeal airway changes following mandibular setback surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Ramesh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of dentofacial deformities with jaw osteotomies has an effect on airway anatomy and therefore mandibular setback surgery has the potential to diminish airway size. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of mandibular setback surgery on airway size. 8 consecutive patients were examined prospectively. All patients underwent mandibular setback surgery. Cephalometric analysis was performed preoperatively and 3 months post operatively with particular attention to pharyngeal airway changes. Pharyngeal airway size decreased considerably in all, patients thus predisposing to development of obstructive sleep apnea. Therefore, large anteroposterior discrepancies should be corrected by combined maxillary and mandibular osteotomies.

  10. Plethysmographic evaluation of airway obstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quanjer, Philippus Hermanus

    1971-01-01

    A number of aspects of body plethysmography were investigated in this study: measurement of airway resistance and thoracic gas volume, the relationship of these variables with other parameters of lung mechanics, with indices of alveolar ventilation and with arterial blood gases. Furthermore the

  11. allergy, asthma airway and anaphylaxis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The perioperative preparation of children presenting for surgery aims to identify medical problems that might influence the outcome and to institute management strategies to reduce those risks. Respiratory and airway complications remain the most significant cause of morbidity and mortality in modern paediatric ...

  12. Mergers + acquisitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppszallern, Suzanna

    2002-05-01

    The hospital sector in 2001 led the health care field in mergers and acquisitions. Most deals involved a network augmenting its presence within a specific region or in a market adjacent to its primary service area. Analysts expect M&A activity to increase in 2002.

  13. Airway malacia in children with achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessoffy, Kimberly E; Modaff, Peggy; Pauli, Richard M

    2014-02-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the frequency of airway malacia in infants and young children with achondroplasia, a population well known to be at risk for a variety of respiratory problems. We also wished to evaluate what, if any, contribution airway malacia makes to the complex respiratory issues that may be present in those with achondroplasia. Retrospective chart review of all infants and young children with achondroplasia who were assessed through the Midwest Regional Bone Dysplasia Clinics from 1985 through 2012 (n = 236) was completed. Records of comprehensive clinical examinations, polysomnographic assessments, and airway visualization were reviewed and abstracted using a data collection form. Analyses were completed comparing the group with and those without evidence for airway malacia. Thirteen of 236 patients (5.5%) were found to have airway malacia. Most of those affected had lower airway involvement (9/13). The presence of airway malacia was correlated with an increased occurrence of obstructive sleep apnea as well as need for oxygen supplementation, airway surgeries and tracheostomy placement. Although estimates of the frequency of airway malacia in the general population are limited, its frequency in children with achondroplasia appears to be much higher than any published general population estimate. The presence of airway malacia appears to confound other breathing abnormalities in this population and results in the need for more invasive airway treatments. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Degrees of reality: airway anatomy of high-fidelity human patient simulators and airway trainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schebesta, Karl; Hüpfl, Michael; Rössler, Bernhard; Ringl, Helmut; Müller, Michael P; Kimberger, Oliver

    2012-06-01

    Human patient simulators and airway training manikins are widely used to train airway management skills to medical professionals. Furthermore, these patient simulators are employed as standardized "patients" to evaluate airway devices. However, little is known about how realistic these patient simulators and airway-training manikins really are. This trial aimed to evaluate the upper airway anatomy of four high-fidelity patient simulators and two airway trainers in comparison with actual patients by means of radiographic measurements. The volume of the pharyngeal airspace was the primary outcome parameter. Computed tomography scans of 20 adult trauma patients without head or neck injuries were compared with computed tomography scans of four high-fidelity patient simulators and two airway trainers. By using 14 predefined distances, two cross-sectional areas and three volume parameters of the upper airway, the manikins' similarity to a human patient was assessed. The pharyngeal airspace of all manikins differed significantly from the patients' pharyngeal airspace. The HPS Human Patient Simulator (METI®, Sarasota, FL) was the most realistic high-fidelity patient simulator (6/19 [32%] of all parameters were within the 95% CI of human airway measurements). The airway anatomy of four high-fidelity patient simulators and two airway trainers does not reflect the upper airway anatomy of actual patients. This finding may impact airway training and confound comparative airway device studies.

  15. Protective effects of valproic acid against airway hyperresponsiveness and airway remodeling in a mouse model of allergic airways disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royce, Simon G; Dang, William; Ververis, Katherine; De Sampayo, Nishika; El-Osta, Assam; Tang, Mimi L K; Karagiannis, Tom C

    2011-12-01

    Airway remodeling and airway hyperresponsiveness are major aspects of asthma pathology that are not targeted optimally by existing anti-inflammatory drugs. Histone deacetylase inhibitors have a wide range of effects that may potentially abrogate aspects of remodeling. One such histone deacetylase inhibitor is valproic acid (2-propylvaleric acid). Valproic acid is used clinically as an anti-epileptic drug and is a potent inhibitor of class I histone deacetylases but also inhibits class II histone deacetylases. We used valproic acid as a molecular model of histone deacetylase inhibition in vivo in chronic allergic airways disease mice with airway remodeling and airway hyperresponsiveness. Wild-type Balb/c mice with allergic airways disease were treated with valproic acid or vehicle control. Airway inflammation was assessed by bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cell counts and examination of lung tissue sections. Remodeling was assessed by morphometric analysis of histochemically stained slides and lung function was assessed by invasive plethysmography measurement of airway resistance. Valproic acid treatment did not affect inflammation parameters; however, valproic acid treatment resulted in reduced epithelial thickness as compared to vehicle treated mice (p < 0.01), reduced subepithelial collagen deposition (p < 0.05) and attenuated airway hyperresponsiveness (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01 for the two highest doses of methacholine, respectively). These findings show that treatment with valproic acid can reduce structural airway remodeling changes and hyperresponsiveness, providing further evidence for the potential use of histone deacetylase inhibitors for the treatment of asthma.

  16. Mergers & Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomcenco, Alex

    This dissertation is a legal dogmatic thesis, the goal of which is to describe and analyze the current state of law in Europe in regard to some relevant selected elements related to mergers and acquisitions, and the adviser’s counsel in this regard. Having regard to the topic of the dissertation...... and fiscal neutrality, group-related issues, holding-structure issues, employees, stock exchange listing issues, and corporate nationality....

  17. Airway structure and function in Eisenmenger's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, K O; Johnson, P R; Black, J L; Glanville, A R; Armour, C L

    1998-10-01

    The responsiveness of airways from patients with Eisenmenger's syndrome (n = 5) was compared with that in airways from organ donors (n = 10). Enhanced contractile responses to cholinergic stimulation were found in airways from patients with Eisenmenger's syndrome. The maximal responses to acetylcholine, carbachol, and parasympathetic nerve stimulation in airway tissue from these patients were 221%, 139%, and 152%, respectively, of the maximal responses obtained in donor tissue. Further, relaxation responses to isoproterenol and levocromakalim were absent (n = 2) or markedly impaired (n = 3) in airways from patients with Eisenmenger's syndrome. This attenuated relaxation response was nonspecific in that it was also absent after vasoactive intestinal peptide, sodium nitroprusside, papaverine, and electrical field application. These observations can most likely be explained by a decrease in intrinsic smooth muscle tone, as precontraction of airways revealed relaxation responses that were equivalent to those obtained in donor tissues. Morphometric analysis of tissues used for the functional studies revealed no differences in the airway dimensions (internal perimeter) or airway wall components (e.g., smooth muscle, cartilage) or total area to explain these observations. Although the mechanism for this observed decrease in intrinsic airway smooth muscle tone is not certain, it may be due to alteration in the substructure of the airway wall or, alternatively, may result from the continued release of depressant factors in the vicinity of the smooth muscle which permanently alters smooth muscle responsiveness.

  18. 75 FR 13079 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; MAHAN AIRWAYS; Mahan Airways, Mahan Tower, No. 21, Azadegan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... Regulations and TDO, a United Kingdom court found Mahan Airways in contempt of court on February 1, 2010, for... contempt finding against Mahan Airways in the U.K. litigation, which I understand is still ongoing. I note...

  19. Airway injury during emergency transcutaneous airway access: a comparison at cricothyroid and tracheal sites.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Salah, Nazar

    2009-12-01

    Oxygenation via the cricothyroid membrane (CTM) may be required in emergencies, but inadvertent tracheal cannulation may occur. In this study, we compared airway injury between the tracheal and CTM sites using different techniques for airway access.

  20. Emergency surgical airway management in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenstock, C V; Nørskov, A K; Wetterslev, J

    2016-01-01

    for difficult airway management. RESULTS: In the DAD cohort 27 out of 452 461 patients had an ESA representing an incidence of 0.06 events per thousand (95% CI; 0.04 to 0.08). A total of 12 149/452 461 patients underwent Ear-Nose and Throat (ENT) surgery, giving an ESA incidence among ENT patients of 1.6 events...... of which three failed. Reviewers evaluated airway management as satisfactory in 10/27 patients. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of ESA in the DAD cohort was 0.06 events per thousand. Among ENT patients, the ESA Incidence was 1.6 events per thousand. Airway management was evaluated as satisfactory for 10......BACKGROUND: The emergency surgical airway (ESA) is the final option in difficult airway management. We identified ESA procedures registered in the Danish Anaesthesia Database (DAD) and described the performed airway management. METHODS: We extracted a cohort of 452 461 adult patients undergoing...

  1. Mediators on human airway smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, C; Johnson, P; Anticevich, S; Ammit, A; McKay, K; Hughes, M; Black, J

    1997-01-01

    1. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness in asthma may be due to several abnormalities, but must include alterations in the airway smooth muscle responsiveness and/or volume. 2. Increased responsiveness of airway smooth muscle in vitro can be induced by certain inflammatory cell products and by induction of sensitization (atopy). 3. Increased airway smooth muscle growth can also be induced by inflammatory cell products and atopic serum. 4. Mast cell numbers are increased in the airways of asthmatics and, in our studies, in airway smooth muscle that is sensitized and hyperresponsive. 5. We propose that there is a relationship between mast cells and airway smooth muscle cells which, once an allergic process has been initiated, results in the development of critical features in the lungs in asthma.

  2. Improvised bubble continuous positive airway pressure (BCPAP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improvised bubble continuous positive airway pressure (BCPAP) device at the National Hospital Abuja gives immediate improvement in respiratory rate and oxygenation in neonates with respiratory distress.

  3. Airway contractility and remodeling : Links to asthma symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    West, Adrian R.; Syyong, Harley T.; Siddiqui, Sana; Pascoe, Chris D.; Murphy, Thomas M.; Maarsingh, Harm; Deng, Linhong; Maksym, Geoffrey N.; Bosse, Ynuk

    Respiratory symptoms are largely caused by obstruction of the airways. In asthma, airway narrowing mediated by airway smooth muscle (ASM) contraction contributes significantly to obstruction. The spasmogens produced following exposure to environmental triggers, such as viruses or allergens, are

  4. Nonantibiotic macrolides restore airway macrophage phagocytic function with potential anti-inflammatory effects in chronic lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Sandra; Tran, Hai B; Hamon, Rhys; Roscioli, Eugene; Hodge, Greg; Jersmann, Hubertus; Ween, Miranda; Reynolds, Paul N; Yeung, Arthur; Treiberg, Jennifer; Wilbert, Sibylle

    2017-05-01

    We reported defective efferocytosis associated with cigarette smoking and/or airway inflammation in chronic lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, severe asthma, and childhood bronchiectasis. We also showed defects in phagocytosis of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), a common colonizer of the lower airway in these diseases. These defects could be substantially overcome with low-dose azithromycin; however, chronic use may induce bacterial resistance. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate two novel macrolides-2'-desoxy-9-(S)-erythromycylamine (GS-459755) and azithromycin-based 2'-desoxy molecule (GS-560660)-with significantly diminished antibiotic activity against Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcus pneumonia , Moraxella catarrhalis , and H. influenzae We tested their effects on efferocytosis, phagocytosis of NTHi, cell viability, receptors involved in recognition of apoptotic cells and/or NTHi (flow cytometry), secreted and cleaved intracellular IL-1β (cytometric bead array, immunofluorescence/confocal microscopy), and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) using primary alveolar macrophages and THP-1 macrophages ± 10% cigarette smoke extract. Dose-response experiments showed optimal prophagocytic effects of GS-459755 and GS-560660 at concentrations of 0.5-1 µg/ml compared with our findings with azithromycin. Both macrolides significantly improved phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and NTHi (e.g., increases in efferocytosis and phagocytosis of NTHi: GS-459755, 23 and 22.5%, P = 0.043; GS-560660, 23.5 and 22%, P = 0.043, respectively). Macrophage viability remained >85% following 24 h exposure to either macrolide at concentrations up to 20 µg/ml. Secreted and intracellular-cleaved IL-1β was decreased with both macrolides with no significant changes in recognition molecules c-mer proto-oncogene tyrosine kinase; scavenger receptor class A, member 1; Toll

  5. Native Small Airways Secrete Bicarbonate

    OpenAIRE

    Shamsuddin, A. K. M.; Quinton, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Since the discovery of Cl− impermeability in cystic fibrosis (CF) and the cloning of the responsible channel, CF pathology has been widely attributed to a defect in epithelial Cl− transport. However, loss of bicarbonate (HCO3−) transport also plays a major, possibly more critical role in CF pathogenesis. Even though HCO3− transport is severely affected in the native pancreas, liver, and intestines in CF, we know very little about HCO3− secretion in small airways, the principle site of morbidi...

  6. Automatic airway-artery analysis on lung CT to quantify airway wall thickening and bronchiectasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez-Rovira, Adria; Kuo, Wieying; Petersen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Bronchiectasis and airway wall thickening are commonly assessed in computed tomography (CT) by comparing the airway size with the size of the accompanying artery. Thus, in order to automate the quantification of bronchiectasis and wall thickening following a similar principle......, and pairs airway branches with the accompanying artery, then quantifies airway wall thickening and bronchiectasis by measuring the wall-artery ratio (WAR) and lumen and outer wall airway-artery ratio (AAR). Measurements that do not use the artery size for normalization are also extracted, including wall...... area percentage (WAP), wall thickness ratio (WTR), and airway diameters. Results: The method was thoroughly evaluated using 8000 manual annotations of airway-artery pairs from 24 full-inspiration pediatric CT scans (12 diseased and 12 controls). Limits of agreement between the automatically...

  7. Markers of Airway Remodeling in Bronchopulmonary Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.Ye. Chernyshova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents information about markers of airway remodeling in bronchopulmonary diseases. There is described the influence of matrix metalloproteinases, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase, transforming growth factor, collagen autoantibodies III type, endothelin-1 on the processes of morphological airway reconstruction as smooth muscle hypertrophy, enhanced neovascularization, epithelial cell hyperplasia, collagen deposition, compaction of the basal membrane, observed in bronchial asthma.

  8. Bronchology Treatment Of The Malignant Airway Stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slivka, R. et al

    2007-01-01

    Central airway stenosis is benign or malignant etiology. Multidiscplinary approach is useful in treatment central airway stenosis. In inoperable cases, interventional bronchology is good therapeutic alternative. We can use NdYAG laser, argon plasma coagulation, elektrocautery, cryotherapy, photodynamic therapy and stents for obstruction release. In malignant stenosis, we combine often methods of the interventional bronchology with brachytherapy, chemotherapy and external radiotherapy. (author)

  9. Athletic Trainers' Knowledge Regarding Airway Adjuncts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edler, Jessica R.; Eberman, Lindsey E.; Kahanov, Leamor; Roman, Christopher; Mata, Heather Lynne

    2015-01-01

    Context: Research suggests that knowledge gaps regarding the appropriate use of airway adjuncts exist among various health care practitioners, and that knowledge is especially limited within athletic training. Objective: To determine the relationship between perceived knowledge (PK) and actual knowledge (AK) of airway adjunct use and the…

  10. Trefoil factor-2 reverses airway remodeling changes in allergic airways disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royce, Simon G; Lim, Clarice; Muljadi, Ruth C; Samuel, Chrishan S; Ververis, Katherine; Karagiannis, Tom C; Giraud, Andrew S; Tang, Mimi L K

    2013-01-01

    Trefoil factor 2 (TFF2) is a small peptide with an important role in mucosal repair. TFF2 is up-regulated in asthma, suggesting a role in asthma pathogenesis. Given its known biological role in promoting epithelial repair, TFF2 might be expected to exert a protective function in limiting the progression of airway remodeling in asthma. The contribution of TFF2 to airway remodeling in asthma was investigated by examining the expression of TFF2 in the airway and lung, and evaluating the effects of recombinant TFF2 treatment on established airway remodeling in a murine model of chronic allergic airways disease (AAD). BALB/c mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA) or saline for 9 weeks, whereas mice with established OVA-induced AAD were treated with TFF2 or vehicle control (intranasally for 14 d). Effects on airway remodeling, airway inflammation, and airway hyperresponsiveness were then assessed, whereas TFF2 expression was determined by immunohistochemistry. TFF2 expression was significantly increased in the airways of mice with AAD, compared with expression levels in control mice. TFF2 treatment resulted in reduced epithelial thickening, subepithelial collagen deposition, goblet-cell metaplasia, bronchial epithelium apoptosis, and airway hyperresponsiveness (all P < 0.05, versus vehicle control), but TFF2 treatment did not influence airway inflammation. The increased expression of endogenous TFF2 in response to chronic allergic inflammation is insufficient to prevent the progression of airway inflammation and remodeling in a murine model of chronic AAD. However, exogenous TFF2 treatment is effective in reversing aspects of established airway remodeling. TFF2 has potential as a novel treatment for airway remodeling in asthma.

  11. Difficult Airway Response Team: A Novel Quality Improvement Program for Managing Hospital-Wide Airway Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Lynette J.; Herzer, Kurt R.; Cover, Renee; Pandian, Vinciya; Bhatti, Nasir I.; Berkow, Lauren C.; Haut, Elliott R.; Hillel, Alexander T.; Miller, Christina R.; Feller-Kopman, David J.; Schiavi, Adam J.; Xie, Yanjun J.; Lim, Christine; Holzmueller, Christine; Ahmad, Mueen; Thomas, Pradeep; Flint, Paul W.; Mirski, Marek A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Difficult airway cases can quickly become emergencies, increasing the risk of life-threatening complications or death. Emergency airway management outside the operating room is particularly challenging. Methods We developed a quality improvement program—the Difficult Airway Response Team (DART)—to improve emergency airway management outside the operating room. DART was implemented by a team of anesthesiologists, otolaryngologists, trauma surgeons, emergency medicine physicians, and risk managers in 2005 at The Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland. The DART program had three core components: operations, safety, and education. The operations component focused on developing a multidisciplinary difficult airway response team, standardizing the emergency response process, and deploying difficult airway equipment carts throughout the hospital. The safety component focused on real-time monitoring of DART activations and learning from past DART events to continuously improve system-level performance. This objective entailed monitoring the paging system, reporting difficult airway events and DART activations to a web-based registry, and using in situ simulations to identify and mitigate defects in the emergency airway management process. The educational component included development of a multispecialty difficult airway curriculum encompassing case-based lectures, simulation, and team building/communication to ensure consistency of care. Educational materials were also developed for non-DART staff and patients to inform them about the needs of patients with difficult airways and ensure continuity of care with other providers after discharge. Results Between July 2008 and June 2013, DART managed 360 adult difficult airway events comprising 8% of all code activations. Predisposing patient factors included body mass index > 40, history of head and neck tumor, prior difficult intubation, cervical spine injury, airway edema, airway bleeding, and previous

  12. Difficult airway response team: a novel quality improvement program for managing hospital-wide airway emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Lynette J; Herzer, Kurt R; Cover, Renee; Pandian, Vinciya; Bhatti, Nasir I; Berkow, Lauren C; Haut, Elliott R; Hillel, Alexander T; Miller, Christina R; Feller-Kopman, David J; Schiavi, Adam J; Xie, Yanjun J; Lim, Christine; Holzmueller, Christine; Ahmad, Mueen; Thomas, Pradeep; Flint, Paul W; Mirski, Marek A

    2015-07-01

    Difficult airway cases can quickly become emergencies, increasing the risk of life-threatening complications or death. Emergency airway management outside the operating room is particularly challenging. We developed a quality improvement program-the Difficult Airway Response Team (DART)-to improve emergency airway management outside the operating room. DART was implemented by a team of anesthesiologists, otolaryngologists, trauma surgeons, emergency medicine physicians, and risk managers in 2005 at The Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland. The DART program had 3 core components: operations, safety, and education. The operations component focused on developing a multidisciplinary difficult airway response team, standardizing the emergency response process, and deploying difficult airway equipment carts throughout the hospital. The safety component focused on real-time monitoring of DART activations and learning from past DART events to continuously improve system-level performance. This objective entailed monitoring the paging system, reporting difficult airway events and DART activations to a Web-based registry, and using in situ simulations to identify and mitigate defects in the emergency airway management process. The educational component included development of a multispecialty difficult airway curriculum encompassing case-based lectures, simulation, and team building/communication to ensure consistency of care. Educational materials were also developed for non-DART staff and patients to inform them about the needs of patients with difficult airways and ensure continuity of care with other providers after discharge. Between July 2008 and June 2013, DART managed 360 adult difficult airway events comprising 8% of all code activations. Predisposing patient factors included body mass index >40, history of head and neck tumor, prior difficult intubation, cervical spine injury, airway edema, airway bleeding, and previous or current tracheostomy. Twenty

  13. High-resolution CT of airway reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herold, C.J.; Brown, R.H.; Hirshman, C.A.; Mitzner, W.; Zerhouni, E.A.

    1990-01-01

    Assessment of airway reactivity has generally been limited to experimental nonimaging models. This authors of this paper used high-resolution CT (HRCT) to evaluate airway reactivity and to calculate airway resistance (Raw) compared with lung resistance (RL). Ten anesthetized and ventilated dogs were investigated with HRCT (10 contiguous 2-mm sections through the lower lung lobes) during control state, following aerosol histamine challenge, and following posthistamine hyperinflation. The HRCT scans were digitized, and areas of 10 airways per dog (diameter, 1-10 mm) were measured with a computer edging process. Changes in airway area and Raw (calculated by 1/[area] 2 ) were measured. RL was assessed separately, following the same protocol. Data were analyzed by use of a paired t-test with significance at p < .05

  14. 2017 NAIP Acquisition Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — Planned States for 2017 NAIP acquisition and acquisition status layer (updated daily). Updates to the acquisition seasons may be made during the season to...

  15. Educating the Educator: Teaching Airway Adjunct Techniques in Athletic Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, David C.; Seitz, S. Robert

    2011-01-01

    The 5th edition of the "Athletic Training Education Competencies" ("Competencies") now requires athletic training educators (ATEs) to introduce into the curriculum various types of airway adjuncts including: (1) oropharyngeal airways (OPA), (2) nasopharyngeal airways (NPA), (3) supraglottic airways (SGA), and (4) suction. The addition of these…

  16. Post-extubation airway obstruction. Literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro SÁNCHEZ-TABERNERO

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: airway obstruction after extubation in any surgery is a critical event with low incidence, which may require reintubation or tracheostomy, which often otolaryngologist is required. Objective: To determine the prevalence of BVA and its causes through systematic literature review. Method: Literature review in PubMed, Scopus and Cochrane clinical trials, meta-analysis, reviews and case series and control over airway obstruction after extubation that requires reintubation in adults. Results: 6 studies and one clinical practice guidelines were selected. The most common cause of extubation failure is blocking the airway for various reasons (pharyngeal muscle weakness residual effect -often farmacologycal-, laryngospasm, vocal cord paralysis, edema of upper respiratory tract, cervical postoperative hematoma, foreign bodies or secretions. Most cases of re-intubation occurred within 2 hours after extubation. Conclusions: The most common cause of failure after general anesthesia extubation is blocking the airway generally caused by residual neuromuscular blocking effect. Airway obstruction risk increases in airway and head and neck surgery. Difficult intubation guidlines have improved performance and reduced adverse events and similar strategies must be implemented in extubation. The procedure extubation and reintubation should be documented. Working groups airway must be multidisciplinary and include specialists in otolaryngology.

  17. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholze, Alexandra; Lamwers, Stephanie; Tepel, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is linked to increased cardiovascular risk. This risk can be reduced by nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) treatment. As OSA is associated with an increase of several vasoconstrictive factors, we investigated whether nCPAP influences the digital volume...... pulse wave. We performed digital photoplethysmography during sleep at night in 94 consecutive patients who underwent polysomnography and 29 patients treated with nCPAP. Digital volume pulse waves were obtained independently of an investigator and were quantified using an algorithm for continuous.......01; n = 94) and the arousal index (Spearman correlation, r = 0.21; p CPAP treatment, the AHI was significantly reduced from 27 ± 3 events · h(-1) to 4 ± 2 events · h(-1) (each n = 29; p

  18. Eosinophilic airway inflammation in asthmatic patients is associated with an altered airway microbiome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sverrild, Asger; Kiilerich, Pia; Brejnrod, Asker Daniel

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Asthmatic patients have higher microbiome diversity and an altered composition, with more Proteobacteria and less Bacteroidetes compared with healthy control subjects. Studies comparing airway inflammation and the airway microbiome are sparse, especially in subjects not receiving anti......-inflammatory treatment. OBJECTIVE: We sought to describe the relationship between the airway microbiome and patterns of airway inflammation in steroid-free patients with asthma and healthy control subjects. METHODS: Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was collected from 23 steroid-free nonsmoking patients with asthma and 10...... and AHR to mannitol but not airway neutrophilia. The overall composition of the airway microbiome of asthmatic patients with the lowest levels of eosinophils but not asthmatic patients with the highest levels of eosinophils deviated significantly from that of healthy subjects. Asthmatic patients...

  19. Radioaerosol lung imaging in small airways disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, T; Dorow, P; Felix, R

    1981-06-01

    Aerosol inhalation lung imaging was performed in 35 asymptomatic smokers who have been selected on the basis of abnormal findings in small airways pulmonary function tests. Qualitative (image inspection) and quantitative (aerosol distribution index = ADI) analysis of the radioaerosol lung patterns was accomplished. Compared to healthy subjects as well as to patients with chronic obstructive lung disease significant differences of mean aerosol distribution homogeneity were observed. A characteristic type of abnormal aerosol pattern, indicating peripheral airways obstruction, was found in 71% of the patients with small airways disease.

  20. Extraction of airways from CT (EXACT’09)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; Ginneken, Bram van; Reinhardt, Joseph M.

    2012-01-01

    or not it is a correctly segmented part of the airway tree. Finally, the reference airway trees are constructed by taking the union of all correctly extracted branch segments. Fifteen airway tree extraction algorithms from different research groups are evaluated on a diverse set of 20 chest computed tomography (CT) scans...... of subjects ranging from healthy volunteers to patients with severe pathologies, scanned at different sites, with different CT scanner brands, models, and scanning protocols. Three performance measures covering different aspects of segmentation quality were computed for all participating algorithms. Results...

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging of the pediatric airway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auringer, S.T.; Bisset, G.S. III; Myer, C.M.

    1991-01-01

    Evaluation of the pediatric airway is often complex and may require multiple imaging techniques and invasive procedures. We performed magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the airway in 34 children with clinical evidence of chronic airway obstruction and compared MR findings with those obtained by surgery and/or endoscopy. MR diagnoses included vascular compression in 15 patients, primary tracheomalacic states in 12 patients, and mediastinal masses in 4 patients. Findings were normal for 3 patients. The MR findings were in agreement with the endoscopic findings in 25 to 28 cases and in agreement with the surgical findings in 21 to 21 cases. (orig./GDG)

  2. Syntax acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Stephen; Thornton, Rosalind

    2012-03-01

    Every normal child acquires a language in just a few years. By 3- or 4-years-old, children have effectively become adults in their abilities to produce and understand endlessly many sentences in a variety of conversational contexts. There are two alternative accounts of the course of children's language development. These different perspectives can be traced back to the nature versus nurture debate about how knowledge is acquired in any cognitive domain. One perspective dates back to Plato's dialog 'The Meno'. In this dialog, the protagonist, Socrates, demonstrates to Meno, an aristocrat in Ancient Greece, that a young slave knows more about geometry than he could have learned from experience. By extension, Plato's Problem refers to any gap between experience and knowledge. How children fill in the gap in the case of language continues to be the subject of much controversy in cognitive science. Any model of language acquisition must address three factors, inter alia: 1. The knowledge children accrue; 2. The input children receive (often called the primary linguistic data); 3. The nonlinguistic capacities of children to form and test generalizations based on the input. According to the famous linguist Noam Chomsky, the main task of linguistics is to explain how children bridge the gap-Chomsky calls it a 'chasm'-between what they come to know about language, and what they could have learned from experience, even given optimistic assumptions about their cognitive abilities. Proponents of the alternative 'nurture' approach accuse nativists like Chomsky of overestimating the complexity of what children learn, underestimating the data children have to work with, and manifesting undue pessimism about children's abilities to extract information based on the input. The modern 'nurture' approach is often referred to as the usage-based account. We discuss the usage-based account first, and then the nativist account. After that, we report and discuss the findings of several

  3. Airway resistance at maximum inhalation as a marker of asthma and airway hyperresponsiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Connor George T

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthmatics exhibit reduced airway dilation at maximal inspiration, likely due to structural differences in airway walls and/or functional differences in airway smooth muscle, factors that may also increase airway responsiveness to bronchoconstricting stimuli. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that the minimal airway resistance achievable during a maximal inspiration (Rmin is abnormally elevated in subjects with airway hyperresponsiveness. Methods The Rmin was measured in 34 nonasthmatic and 35 asthmatic subjects using forced oscillations at 8 Hz. Rmin and spirometric indices were measured before and after bronchodilation (albuterol and bronchoconstriction (methacholine. A preliminary study of 84 healthy subjects first established height dependence of baseline Rmin values. Results Asthmatics had a higher baseline Rmin % predicted than nonasthmatic subjects (134 ± 33 vs. 109 ± 19 % predicted, p = 0.0004. Sensitivity-specificity analysis using receiver operating characteristic curves indicated that baseline Rmin was able to identify subjects with airway hyperresponsiveness (PC20 min % predicted, FEV1 % predicted, and FEF25-75 % predicted, respectively. Also, 80% of the subjects with baseline Rmin min > 145% predicted had hyperresponsive airways, regardless of clinical classification as asthmatic or nonasthmatic. Conclusions These findings suggest that baseline Rmin, a measurement that is easier to perform than spirometry, performs as well as or better than standard spirometric indices in distinguishing subjects with airway hyperresponsiveness from those without hyperresponsive airways. The relationship of baseline Rmin to asthma and airway hyperresponsiveness likely reflects a causal relation between conditions that stiffen airway walls and hyperresponsiveness. In conjunction with symptom history, Rmin could provide a clinically useful tool for assessing asthma and monitoring response to treatment.

  4. Critical Airway Team: A Retrospective Study of an Airway Response System in a Pediatric Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterrett, Emily C; Myer, Charles M; Oehler, Jennifer; Das, Bobby; Kerrey, Benjamin T

    2017-12-01

    Objective Study the performance of a pediatric critical airway response team. Study Design Case series with chart review. Setting Freestanding academic children's hospital. Subjects and Methods A structured review of the electronic medical record was conducted for all activations of the critical airway team. Characteristics of the activations and patients are reported using descriptive statistics. Activation of the critical airway team occurred 196 times in 46 months (March 2012 to December 2015); complete data were available for 162 activations (83%). For 49 activations (30%), patients had diagnoses associated with difficult intubation; 45 (28%) had a history of difficult laryngoscopy. Results Activation occurred at least 4 times per month on average (vs 3 per month for hospital-wide codes). The most common reasons for team activation were anticipated difficult intubation (45%) or failed intubation attempt (20%). For 79% of activations, the team performed an airway procedure, most commonly direct laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation. Bronchoscopy was performed in 47% of activations. Surgical airway rescue was attempted 4 times. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation occurred in 41 activations (25%). Twenty-nine patients died during or following team activation (18%), including 10 deaths associated with the critical airway event. Conclusion Critical airway team activation occurred at least once per week on average. Direct laryngoscopy, tracheal intubation, and bronchoscopic procedures were performed frequently; surgical airway rescue was rare. Most patients had existing risk factors for difficult intubation. Given our rate of serious morbidity and mortality, primary prevention of critical airway events will be a focus of future efforts.

  5. Investigation of airways using MDCT for visual and quantitative assessment in COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Yves Brillet

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Pierre-Yves Brillet1, Catalin I Fetita2, Amaury Saragaglia2, Anne-Laure Brun3, Catherine Beigelman-Aubry3, Françoise Prêteux2, Philippe A Grenier31Department of Radiology, Avicenne Hospital, Assistance Publique–Hôpitaux de Paris, Université Léonard de Vinci–Paris Nord, EA 2361, Bobigny, France; 2ARTEMIS Department, Institut National des Télécommunications, Université Paris V, Evry, France; 3Department of Radiology, Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, Assistance Publique–Hôpitaux de Paris, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, FranceAbstract: Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT acquisition during a single breath hold using thin collimation provides high resolution volumetric data set permitting multiplanar and three dimensional reconstruction of the proximal airways. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients, this technique provides an accurate assessment of bronchial wall thickening, tracheobronchial deformation, outpouchings reflecting dilatation of the submucous glands, tracheobronchomalacia, and expiratory air trapping. New software developed to segment adequately the lumen and walls of the airways on MDCT scans allows quantitative assessment of the airway dimensions which has shown to be reliable in clinical practice. This technique can become important in longitudinal studies of the pathogenesis of COPD, and in the assessment of therapeutic interventions.Keywords: COPD – tracheobronchial tree, multidetector CT – airway remodeling, tracheobronchomalacia

  6. Routine airway surveillance in pediatric tracheostomy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergin, Ozgul; Adil, Eelam; Kawai, Kosuke; Watters, Karen; Moritz, Ethan; Rahbar, Reza

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study is to review airway findings in children with tracheostomies who underwent surveillance direct laryngoscopy and bronchoscopy (DLB) to determine the yield of routine airway evaluation in these patients. Retrospective chart review at tertiary referral children's hospital. A retrospective chart review was conducted of all of the children with tracheostomies who underwent DLB after tracheostomy between 1984 and 2015. A total of 303 patients met inclusion criteria. The median time interval between tracheostomy and first follow-up DLB was 12.0 months (IQR 4.8-28.9 months). There was no significant difference in the incidence of airway lesions between patients who underwent endoscopy tracheostomy versus those who had a longer time interval between tracheostomy and DLB (p = 0.16). One hundred sixty seven patients (55.1%) were diagnosed with lesions, with suprastomal granulation (39.9%) being the most common. Symptomatic patients were significantly more likely to have an airway lesion identified (69.9% versus 42.0%; p tracheostomy were significantly more likely to have an airway lesion (p = 0.01). The high incidence of airway lesions noted during surveillance DLB support the utility of routine airway endoscopy in pediatric tracheostomy patients. Symptomatic patients, those with ventilator dependence, or cardiopulmonary or trauma indications for tracheostomy are more likely to have airway lesions and should be monitored closely. The ideal time interval between surveillance endoscopies needs to be examined further. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Impending Airway Compromise due to Cystic Hygroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itai Shavit

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We report on a 3-month-old infant, who arrived in the pediatric emergency department (ED with a cervical cystic hygroma causing an impending compromise of the airway. We recognize that such a lesion can rapidly progress, and the judicious use of imaging in the ED may help to avoid airway compromise and possibly fatal complications. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(4:368–369.

  8. Airways obstruction, coal mining, and disability.

    OpenAIRE

    Lapp, N L; Morgan, W K; Zaldivar, G

    1994-01-01

    It has recently been suggested that the inhalation of coal in the absence of complicated coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) or smoking can lead to disabling airways obstruction. The cause of such obstruction has been variously attributed to emphysema or bronchitis. The frequency of significant airways obstruction in a group of United States coal miners seeking compensation for occupationally induced pulmonary impairment was therefore determined. In a sample of 611 "Black Lung" claimants there...

  9. PLUNC: a multifunctional surfactant of the airways

    OpenAIRE

    Bartlett, Jennifer; Gakhar, Lokesh; Penterman, Jon; Singh, Pradeep; Mallampalli, Rama K.; Porter, Edith; McCray, Paul B.

    2011-01-01

    PLUNC (palate, lung and nasal epithelium clone) protein is an abundant secretory product of epithelia throughout the mammalian conducting airways. Despite its homology with the innate immune defence molecules BPI (bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein) and LBP (lipopolysaccharide-binding protein), it has been difficult to define the functions of PLUNC. Based on its marked hydrophobicity and expression pattern, we hypothesized that PLUNC is an airway surfactant. We found that purified r...

  10. Manual airway labeling has limited reproducibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens; Feragen, Aasa; Thomsen, Laura Hohwü

    Purpose: Quantitative airway assessment is often performed in specific branches to enable comparison of measurements between patients and over time. Little is known on the accuracy in locating these branches. We determined inter- and intra-observer agreement of manual labeling of segmental bronch...... disagreement in expert labeling, possibly reflecting large anatomical heterogeneity and changes with inspiration. Consistent airway measurement cannot be guaranteed based on manual localization....

  11. Link between vitamin D and airway remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berraies A

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Anissa Berraies, Kamel Hamzaoui, Agnes HamzaouiPediatric Respiratory Diseases Department, Abderrahmen Mami Hospital, Ariana, and Research Unit 12SP15 Tunis El Manar University, Tunis, TunisiaAbstract: In the last decade, many epidemiologic studies have investigated the link between vitamin D deficiency and asthma. Most studies have shown that vitamin D deficiency increases the risk of asthma and allergies. Low levels of vitamin D have been associated with asthma severity and loss of control, together with recurrent exacerbations. Remodeling is an early event in asthma described as a consequence of production of mediators and growth factors by inflammatory and resident bronchial cells. Consequently, lung function is altered, with a decrease in forced expiratory volume in one second and exacerbated airway hyperresponsiveness. Subepithelial fibrosis and airway smooth muscle cell hypertrophy are typical features of structural changes in the airways. In animal models, vitamin D deficiency enhances inflammation and bronchial anomalies. In severe asthma of childhood, major remodeling is observed in patients with low vitamin D levels. Conversely, the antifibrotic and antiproliferative effects of vitamin D in smooth muscle cells have been described in several experiments. In this review, we briefly summarize the current knowledge regarding the relationship between vitamin D and asthma, and focus on its effect on airway remodeling and its potential therapeutic impact for asthma.Keywords: vitamin D, asthma, airway remodeling, airway smooth muscle, supplementation

  12. Atopic asthmatic immune phenotypes associated with airway microbiota and airway obstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin A Turturice

    Full Text Available Differences in asthma severity may be related to inflammation in the airways. The lower airway microbiota has been associated with clinical features such as airway obstruction, symptom control, and response to corticosteroids.To assess the relationship between local airway inflammation, severity of disease, and the lower airway microbiota in atopic asthmatics.A cohort of young adult, atopic asthmatics with intermittent or mild/moderate persistent symptoms (n = 13 were assessed via bronchoscopy, lavage, and spirometry. These individuals were compared to age matched non-asthmatic controls (n = 6 and to themselves after six weeks of treatment with fluticasone propionate (FP. Inflammation of the airways was assessed via a cytokine and chemokine panel. Lower airway microbiota composition was determined by metagenomic shotgun sequencing.Unsupervised clustering of cytokines and chemokines prior to treatment with FP identified two asthmatic phenotypes (AP, termed AP1 and AP2, with distinct bronchoalveolar lavage inflammatory profiles. AP2 was associated with more obstruction, compared to AP1. After treatment with FP reduced MIP-1β and TNF-α and increased IL-2 was observed. A module of highly correlated cytokines that include MIP-1β and TNF-α was identified that negatively correlated with pulmonary function. Independently, IL-2 was positively correlated with pulmonary function. The airway microbiome composition correlated with asthmatic phenotypes. AP2, prior to FP treatment, was enriched with Streptococcus pneumoniae. Unique associations between IL-2 or the cytokine module and the microbiota composition of the airways were observed in asthmatics subjects prior to treatment but not after or in controls.The underlying inflammation in atopic asthma is related to the composition of microbiota and is associated with severity of airway obstruction. Treatment with inhaled corticosteroids was associated with changes in the airway inflammatory response to

  13. Airway foreign body in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina GONZÁLEZ-HERRERO

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: The aspiration of a foreign body in children is a frequent emergency in pediatrics, being potentially lethal. Method: Narrative review. Results: This pathology mainly affects children under 5 years of age with a peak of incidence between the first and third years of life. The clinic will depend on the type of foreign body (size, shape, possibility of breaking, organic or not, the age of the child and the location of the object. In our environment, the most frequent is the aspiration of nuts (peanuts and sunflower seeds. After the initial picture, an asymptomatic period tends to occur, which favors delayed diagnosis and leads to possible errors in the diagnosis. Discussion: An adequate clinical history and a high diagnostic suspicion are fundamental to favor an early treatment. The presence of a normal chest X-ray does not exclude the presence of a foreign body in the airway, so a bronchoscopy is indicated if the diagnostic suspicion is high. The treatment of choice is extraction by rigid bronchoscopy, being controversial the use of flexible fibrobronchoscope. Conclusions: Conclusions: The aspiration of a foreign body is a pediatric emergency that requires a diagnosis and early treatment. The highest incidence occurs in children under 3 years and more frequently in men. The most commonly aspirated material in our environment are nuts, mainly located in the bronchial tree. The initial episode may go unnoticed, delaying the diagnosis and may lead to progressive respiratory distress in the child. A detailed clinical history and suspicion of this pathology are essential in children at risk age who present with cough and dyspnea of sudden onset. The existence of a normal chest radiograph should not postpone bronchoscopy when there is high clinical suspicion. The treatment of choice for the extraction of foreign bodies in airways in children is rigid bronchoscopy, being controversial the use of the flexible fibrobronchoscope

  14. Airway, responsiveness and inflammation in adolescent elite swimmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lise; Lund, T.K.; Barnes, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Whereas increased airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and airway inflammation are well documented in adult elite athletes, it remains uncertain whether the same airway changes are present in adolescents involved in elite sport. Objective: To investigate airway responsiveness and airway....... There was no difference in FeNO, cellular composition of sputum, airway reactivity, or prevalence of having AHR to methacholine and/or EVH between swimmers with and without respiratory symptoms. Conclusion: Adolescent elite swimmers do not have significant signs of airway damage after only a few years of intense training...... and competition. This leads us to believe that elite swimmers do not have particularly susceptible airways when they take up competitive swimming when young, but that they develop respiratory symptoms, airway inflammation, and AHR during their swimming careers Udgivelsesdato: 2008/8...

  15. Upper airway morphology in Down Syndrome patients under dexmedetomidine sedation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Subramanyam

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objectives: Children with Down Syndrome are vulnerable to significant upper airway obstruction due to relative macroglossia and dynamic airway collapse. The objective of this study was to compare the upper airway dimensions of children with Down Syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea with normal airway under dexmedetomidine sedation. Methods: IRB approval was obtained. In this retrospective study, clinically indicated dynamic sagittal midline magnetic resonance images of the upper airway were obtained under low (1 mcg/kg/h and high (3 mcg/kg/h dose dexmedetomidine. Airway anteroposterior diameters and sectional areas were measured as minimum and maximum dimensions by two independent observers at soft palate (nasopharyngeal airway and at base of the tongue (retroglossal airway. Results and conclusions: Minimum anteroposterior diameter and minimum sectional area at nasopharynx and retroglossal airway were significantly reduced in Down Syndrome compared to normal airway at both low and high dose dexmedetomidine. However, there were no significant differences between low and high dose dexmedetomidine in both Down Syndrome and normal airway. The mean apnea hypopnea index in Down Syndrome was 16 ± 11. Under dexmedetomidine sedation, children with Down Syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea when compared to normal airway children show significant reductions in airway dimensions most pronounced at the narrowest points in the nasopharyngeal and retroglossal airways.

  16. Mechanical interactions between adjacent airways in the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Baoshun; Bates, Jason H T

    2014-03-15

    The forces of mechanical interdependence between the airways and the parenchyma in the lung are powerful modulators of airways responsiveness. Little is known, however, about the extent to which adjacent airways affect each other's ability to narrow due to distortional forces generated within the intervening parenchyma. We developed a two-dimensional computational model of two airways embedded in parenchyma. The parenchyma itself was modeled in three ways: 1) as a network of hexagonally arranged springs, 2) as a network of triangularly arranged springs, and 3) as an elastic continuum. In all cases, we determined how the narrowing of one airway was affected when the other airway was relaxed vs. when it narrowed to the same extent as the first airway. For the continuum and triangular network models, interactions between airways were negligible unless the airways lay within about two relaxed diameters of each other, but even at this distance the interactions were small. By contrast, the hexagonal spring network model predicted that airway-airway interactions mediated by the parenchyma can be substantial for any degree of airway separation at intermediate values of airway contraction forces. Evidence to date suggests that the parenchyma may be better represented by the continuum model, which suggests that the parenchyma does not mediate significant interactions between narrowing airways.

  17. Upper airway morphology in Down Syndrome patients under dexmedetomidine sedation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanyam, Rajeev; Fleck, Robert; McAuliffe, John; Radhakrishnan, Rupa; Jung, Dorothy; Patino, Mario; Mahmoud, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Children with Down Syndrome are vulnerable to significant upper airway obstruction due to relative macroglossia and dynamic airway collapse. The objective of this study was to compare the upper airway dimensions of children with Down Syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea with normal airway under dexmedetomidine sedation. IRB approval was obtained. In this retrospective study, clinically indicated dynamic sagittal midline magnetic resonance images of the upper airway were obtained under low (1mcg/kg/h) and high (3mcg/kg/h) dose dexmedetomidine. Airway anteroposterior diameters and sectional areas were measured as minimum and maximum dimensions by two independent observers at soft palate (nasopharyngeal airway) and at base of the tongue (retroglossal airway). Minimum anteroposterior diameter and minimum sectional area at nasopharynx and retroglossal airway were significantly reduced in Down Syndrome compared to normal airway at both low and high dose dexmedetomidine. However, there were no significant differences between low and high dose dexmedetomidine in both Down Syndrome and normal airway. The mean apnea hypopnea index in Down Syndrome was 16±11. Under dexmedetomidine sedation, children with Down Syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea when compared to normal airway children show significant reductions in airway dimensions most pronounced at the narrowest points in the nasopharyngeal and retroglossal airways. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. [Upper airway morphology in Down Syndrome patients under dexmedetomidine sedation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanyam, Rajeev; Fleck, Robert; McAuliffe, John; Radhakrishnan, Rupa; Jung, Dorothy; Patino, Mario; Mahmoud, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Children with Down Syndrome are vulnerable to significant upper airway obstruction due to relative macroglossia and dynamic airway collapse. The objective of this study was to compare the upper airway dimensions of children with Down Syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea with normal airway under dexmedetomidine sedation. IRB approval was obtained. In this retrospective study, clinically indicated dynamic sagittal midline magnetic resonance images of the upper airway were obtained under low (1mcg/kg/h) and high (3mcg/kg/h) dose dexmedetomidine. Airway anteroposterior diameters and sectional areas were measured as minimum and maximum dimensions by two independent observers at soft palate (nasopharyngeal airway) and at base of the tongue (retroglossal airway). Minimum anteroposterior diameter and minimum sectional area at nasopharynx and retroglossal airway were significantly reduced in Down Syndrome compared to normal airway at both low and high dose dexmedetomidine. However, there were no significant differences between low and high dose dexmedetomidine in both Down Syndrome and normal airway. The mean apnea hypopnea index in Down Syndrome was 16±11. Under dexmedetomidine sedation, children with Down Syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea when compared to normal airway children show significant reductions in airway dimensions most pronounced at the narrowest points in the nasopharyngeal and retroglossal airways. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Airway Inflammation in Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps and Asthma: The United Airways Concept Further Supported

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkansson, Kåre; Bachert, Claus; Konge, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Background It has been established that patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) often have co-existing asthma. Objective We aimed to test two hypotheses: (i) upper and lower airway inflammation in CRSwNP is uniform in agreement with the united airways concept; and (ii) bro...

  20. SLOWLY ADAPTING SENSORY UNITS HAVE MORE RECEPTORS IN LARGE AIRWAYS THAN IN SMALL AIRWAYS IN RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sensory units of pulmonary slowly adapting receptors (SARs are more active in large airways than in small airways. However, there is no explanation for this phenomenon. Although sensory structures in large airways resemble those in small airways, they are bigger and more complex. Possibly, a larger receptor provides greater surface area for depolarization, and thus has a lower activating threshold and/or a higher sensitivity to stretch, leading to more nerve electrical activities. Recently, a single sensory unit has been reported to contain multiple receptors. Therefore, sensory units in large airways may contain more SARs, which may contribute to high activities. To test this hypothesis, we used a double staining technique to identify sensory receptor sizes. We labeled the sensory structure with Na+/K+-ATPase antibodies and the myelin sheath with myelin basic protein (MBP antibodies. A SAR can be defined as the end formation beyond MBP labeling. Thus, we are able to compare sizes of sensory structures and SARs in large (trachea and bronchi vs small (bronchioles 0.05. However, the sensory structure contains more SARs in large airways than in small airways (9.6±0.6 vs 3.6±0.3; P<0.0001. Thus, our data support the hypothesis that greater numbers of SARs in sensory units of large airways may contribute to higher activities.

  1. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahni, R; Wung, J T

    1998-01-01

    Progress in neonatal intensive care is closely linked to improvements in the management of respiratory failure in small infants. This applies to the care of the preterm infants with immature lungs, and also to treatment of the preterm or full term infants with specific diseases that are associated with respiratory failure. Respiratory distress of the newborn continues to account for significant morbidity in the intensive care unit. The spectrum of disease ranges from mild distress to severe respiratory failure requiring varying degrees of support. The current modalities of ventilatory assistance range from the more benign continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) to conventional mechanical ventilation, and on to high frequency ventilation. It is a reasonable supposition that the type of ventilatory assistance provided to these infants should be graded according to the severity of the disease. However, the principal objective in selecting the mode of respiratory support should be to use a modality which results in minimal volo- or barotrauma to the infant. The following detailed description on CPAP explains its physiological effects, delivery system, indications for use, application, maintenance, and associated complications. The equipment described is simple to use, has a greater cost benefit, and has a more universal application, which is of help to smaller units including those in the developing parts of the world. We have also included our institutional clinical experience of CPAP usage in very low birth weight infants from the periods before and after commercial availability of surfactant in the United States.

  2. Speed in Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meglio, Olimpia; King, David R.; Risberg, Annette

    2017-01-01

    The advantage of speed is often invoked by academics and practitioners as an essential condition during post-acquisition integration, frequently without consideration of the impact earlier decisions have on acquisition speed. In this article, we examine the role speed plays in acquisitions across...... the acquisition process using research organized around characteristics that display complexity with respect to acquisition speed. We incorporate existing research with a process perspective of acquisitions in order to present trade-offs, and consider the influence of both stakeholders and the pre......-deal-completion context on acquisition speed, as well as the organization’s capabilities to facilitating that speed. Observed trade-offs suggest both that acquisition speed often requires longer planning time before an acquisition and that associated decisions require managerial judgement. A framework for improving...

  3. Language Acquisition without an Acquisition Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, William

    2012-01-01

    Most explanatory work on first and second language learning assumes the primacy of the acquisition phenomenon itself, and a good deal of work has been devoted to the search for an "acquisition device" that is specific to humans, and perhaps even to language. I will consider the possibility that this strategy is misguided and that language…

  4. Silibinin attenuates allergic airway inflammation in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yun Ho [Department of Anatomy, Medical School, Institute for Medical Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Guang Yu [Department of Radiology, Yanbian University Hospital, YanJi 133002 (China); Guo, Hui Shu [Centralab, The First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116011 (China); Piao, Hong Mei [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Yanbian University Hospital, YanJi 133000 (China); Li, Liang chang; Li, Guang Zhao [Department of Anatomy and Histology and Embryology, Yanbian University School of Basic Medical Sciences, 977 Gongyuan Road, YanJi 133002, Jilin (China); Lin, Zhen Hua [Department of Pathology, Yanbian University School of Basic Medical Sciences, YanJi 133000 (China); Yan, Guang Hai, E-mail: ghyan@ybu.edu.cn [Department of Anatomy and Histology and Embryology, Yanbian University School of Basic Medical Sciences, 977 Gongyuan Road, YanJi 133002, Jilin (China)

    2012-10-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin diminishes ovalbumin-induced inflammatory reactions in the mouse lung. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin reduces the levels of various cytokines into the lung of allergic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin prevents the development of airway hyperresponsiveness in allergic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin suppresses NF-{kappa}B transcriptional activity. -- Abstract: Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease regulated by coordination of T-helper2 (Th2) type cytokines and inflammatory signal molecules. Silibinin is one of the main flavonoids produced by milk thistle, which is reported to inhibit the inflammatory response by suppressing the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) pathway. Because NF-{kappa}B activation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation, we have investigated the effect of silibinin on a mouse ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma model. Airway hyperresponsiveness, cytokines levels, and eosinophilic infiltration were analyzed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue. Pretreatment of silibinin significantly inhibited airway inflammatory cell recruitment and peribronchiolar inflammation and reduced the production of various cytokines in bronchoalveolar fluid. In addition, silibinin prevented the development of airway hyperresponsiveness and attenuated the OVA challenge-induced NF-{kappa}B activation. These findings indicate that silibinin protects against OVA-induced airway inflammation, at least in part via downregulation of NF-{kappa}B activity. Our data support the utility of silibinin as a potential medicine for the treatment of asthma.

  5. Silibinin attenuates allergic airway inflammation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yun Ho; Jin, Guang Yu; Guo, Hui Shu; Piao, Hong Mei; Li, Liang chang; Li, Guang Zhao; Lin, Zhen Hua; Yan, Guang Hai

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Silibinin diminishes ovalbumin-induced inflammatory reactions in the mouse lung. ► Silibinin reduces the levels of various cytokines into the lung of allergic mice. ► Silibinin prevents the development of airway hyperresponsiveness in allergic mice. ► Silibinin suppresses NF-κB transcriptional activity. -- Abstract: Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease regulated by coordination of T-helper2 (Th2) type cytokines and inflammatory signal molecules. Silibinin is one of the main flavonoids produced by milk thistle, which is reported to inhibit the inflammatory response by suppressing the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway. Because NF-κB activation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation, we have investigated the effect of silibinin on a mouse ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma model. Airway hyperresponsiveness, cytokines levels, and eosinophilic infiltration were analyzed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue. Pretreatment of silibinin significantly inhibited airway inflammatory cell recruitment and peribronchiolar inflammation and reduced the production of various cytokines in bronchoalveolar fluid. In addition, silibinin prevented the development of airway hyperresponsiveness and attenuated the OVA challenge-induced NF-κB activation. These findings indicate that silibinin protects against OVA-induced airway inflammation, at least in part via downregulation of NF-κB activity. Our data support the utility of silibinin as a potential medicine for the treatment of asthma.

  6. Regional aerosol deposition in human upper airways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, D.L.

    1992-11-01

    Laboratory experimental studies were carried out to investigate the factors influencing the deposition of aerosols ranging in size from 1 nm to 10 [mu]m in the human nasal, oral, pharyngeal and laryngeal airways. These experimental studies were performed in replicate upper airway physical models and in human volunteer subjects. New replicate models of the oral passage of an infant, the oral passage of an adult at two openings and the combined nasal and oral airways of an adult were constructed during the period, adding to the existing models of adult, child and infant nasal and oral airways models. Deposition studies in the adult oral and adult nasal models were performed under simulated cyclic flow conditions with 1 nm particles to compare with previously measured constant flow studies. Similar studies with inertial particles (1--10 [mu]m diameter) were performed with the adult nasal model; in both instances, results with cyclic flow were similar to constant flow results using a simple average flow rate based on inspiratory volume and time of inspiration. Human subject studies were performed with particle sizes 5--20 nm for nasal inspiration; preliminary analysis shows good agreement with model studies at several representative flow rates. Nasal inspiratory inertial deposition of 1--4 [mu]m diameter particles was measured in several adults as a function of airway dimensions; dimensional changes of the valve area by decongestion did not produce concomitant deposition changes.

  7. Optical coherence tomography of the newborn airway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, James M; Su, Jianping; Wright, Ryan; Guo, Shuguang; Kim, David C; Barretto, Roberto; Ahuja, Gurpreet; Sepehr, Ali; Perez, Jorge; Sills, Jack H; Chen, Zhongping; Wong, Brian J F

    2008-05-01

    Acquired subglottic stenosis in a newborn is often associated with prolonged endotracheal intubation. This condition is generally diagnosed during operative endoscopy after airway injury has occurred. Unfortunately, endoscopy is unable to characterize the submucosal changes observed in such airway injuries. Other modalities, such as magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, and ultrasound, do not possess the necessary level of resolution to differentiate scar, neocartilage, and edema. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an imaging modality that produces high-resolution, cross-sectional images of living tissue (8 to 20 microm). We examined the ability of this noninvasive technique to characterize the newborn airway in a prospective clinical trial. Twelve newborn patients who required ventilatory support underwent OCT airway imaging. Comparative analysis of intubated and non-intubated states was performed. Imaging of the supraglottis, glottis, subglottis, and trachea was performed in 12 patients, revealing unique tissue characteristics as related to turbidity, signal backscattering, and architecture. Multiple structures were identified, including the vocal folds, cricoid cartilage, tracheal rings, ducts, glands, and vessels. Optical coherence tomography clearly identifies in vivo tissue layers and regional architecture while offering detailed information concerning tissue microstructures. The diagnostic potential of this technology makes OCT a promising modality in the study and surveillance of the neonatal airway.

  8. Calo trigger acquisition system

    CERN Multimedia

    Franchini, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Calo trigger acquisition system - Evolution of the acquisition system from a multiple boards system (upper, orange cables) to a single board one (below, light blue cables) where all the channels are collected in a single board.

  9. Modelling live forensic acquisition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, MM

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the development of a South African model for Live Forensic Acquisition - Liforac. The Liforac model is a comprehensive model that presents a range of aspects related to Live Forensic Acquisition. The model provides forensic...

  10. Playing at Serial Acquisitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.T.J. Smit (Han); T. Moraitis (Thras)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBehavioral biases can result in suboptimal acquisition decisions-with the potential for errors exacerbated in consolidating industries, where consolidators design serial acquisition strategies and fight escalating takeover battles for platform companies that may determine their future

  11. Airway skills training using a human patient simulator

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thesegan Moodley

    2016-04-11

    Apr 11, 2016 ... Airway management problems may be particularly challenging to junior doctors.1 ... They respond to real-time, real-life clinical ... Keywords: human patient simulator, simulation, airway management, psychomotor skills.

  12. Airway Science curriculum demonstration project : summary of initial evaluation findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-01

    The performance, perceptions, and characteristics of Airway Science hires were compared with those of traditional hires. As of May 12, 1987. a total of 197 Airway Science candidates had been selected into FAA occupations. The demographic characterist...

  13. Modular microfluidic system as a model of cystic fibrosis airways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skolimowski, Maciej; Weiss Nielsen, Martin; Abeille, Fabien

    2012-01-01

    A modular microfluidic airways model system that can simulate the changes in oxygen tension in different compartments of the cystic fibrosis (CF) airways was designed, developed, and tested. The fully reconfigurable system composed of modules with different functionalities: multichannel peristalt...

  14. Mergers and Acquisitions

    OpenAIRE

    Frasch, Manfred; Leptin, Maria

    2000-01-01

    Mergers and acquisitions (M&As) are booming a strategy of choice for organizations attempting to maintain a competitive advantage. Previous research on mergers and acquisitions declares that acquirers do not normally benefit from acquisitions. Targets, on the other hand, have a tendency of gaining positive returns in the few days surrounding merger announcements due to several characteristic on the acquisitions deal. The announcement period wealth effect on acquiring firms, however, is as cle...

  15. Predictors of Airway Hyperresponsiveness in Elite Athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toennesen, Louise L; Porsbjerg, Celeste; Pedersen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Elite athletes frequently experience asthma and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). We aimed to investigate predictors of airway pathophysiology in a group of unselected elite summer-sport athletes, training for the summer 2008 Olympic Games, including markers of airway inflammation......, systemic inflammation, and training intensity. METHODS: Fifty-seven Danish elite summer-sport athletes with and without asthma symptoms all gave a blood sample for measurements of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF....... In these subjects, no association was found between the levels of AHR to mannitol and methacholine (r = 0.032, P = 0.91). CONCLUSION: AHR in elite athletes is related to the amount of weekly training and the level of serum TNF-α. No association was found between the level of AHR to mannitol and methacholine...

  16. Increased airway reactivity in a neonatal mouse model of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP)

    OpenAIRE

    Mayer, Catherine A.; Martin, Richard J.; MacFarlane, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a primary form of respiratory support used in the intensive care of preterm infants, but its long-term effects on airway (AW) function are unknown. Methods We developed a neonatal mouse model of CPAP treatment to determine whether it modifies later AW reactivity. Un-anesthetized spontaneously breathing mice were fitted with a mask to deliver CPAP (6cmH2O, 3hrs/day) for 7 consecutive days starting at postnatal day 1. Airway reactivity to...

  17. Impossible Airway Requiring Venovenous Bypass for Tracheostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnathan Gardes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The elective surgical airway is the definitive management for a tracheal stenotic lesion that is not a candidate for tracheal resection, or who has failed multiple-tracheal dilations. This case report details the management of a patient who has failed an elective awake tracheostomy secondary to the inability to be intubated as well as severe scar tissue at the surgical site. A combination of regional anesthesia and venovenous bypass is used to facilitate the surgical airway management of this patient. Cerebral oximetry and a multidisciplinary team approach aid in early detection of an oxygenation issue, as well as the emergent intervention that preserved this patient’s life.

  18. Occupational upper airway disease: how work affects the nose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hox, V.; Steelant, B.; Fokkens, W.; Nemery, B.; Hellings, P. W.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic inflammation of the upper airways is common and can arbitrarily be divided into rhinitis and rhinosinusitis. Infection and allergy represent two well-characterized and most frequently diagnosed etiologies of upper airway inflammation. Persistent upper airway inflammation caused by agents

  19. Alcohol and airways function in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisson, Joseph H

    2007-08-01

    The volatility of alcohol promotes the movement of alcohol from the bronchial circulation across the airway epithelium and into the conducting airways of the lung. The exposure of the airways through this route likely accounts for many of the biologic effects of alcohol on lung airway functions. The effect of alcohol on lung airway functions is dependent on the concentration, duration, and route of exposure. Brief exposure to mild concentrations of alcohol may enhance mucociliary clearance, stimulates bronchodilation, and probably attenuates the airway inflammation and injury observed in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Prolonged and heavy exposure to alcohol impairs mucociliary clearance, may complicate asthma management, and likely worsens outcomes including lung function and mortality in COPD patients. Nonalcohol congeners and alcohol metabolites act as triggers for airway disease exacerbations especially in atopic asthmatics and in Asian populations who have a reduced capacity to metabolize alcohol. Research focused on the mechanisms of alcohol-mediated changes in airway functions has identified specific mechanisms that mediate alcohol effects within the lung airways. These include prominent roles for the second messengers calcium and nitric oxide, regulatory kinases including PKG and PKA, alcohol- and acetaldehyde-metabolizing enzymes such as aldehyde dehydrogenase 2. The role alcohol may play in the pathobiology of airway mucus, bronchial blood flow, airway smooth muscle regulation, and the interaction with other airway exposure agents, such as cigarette smoke, represents opportunities for future investigation.

  20. Smart acquisition EELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sader, Kasim; Schaffer, Bernhard; Vaughan, Gareth; Brydson, Rik; Brown, Andy; Bleloch, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a novel acquisition methodology for the recording of electron energy loss spectra (EELS) using a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM): 'Smart Acquisition'. Smart Acquisition allows the independent control of probe scanning procedures and the simultaneous acquisition of analytical signals such as EELS. The original motivation for this work arose from the need to control the electron dose experienced by beam-sensitive specimens whilst maintaining a sufficiently high signal-to-noise ratio in the EEL signal for the extraction of useful analytical information (such as energy loss near edge spectral features) from relatively undamaged areas. We have developed a flexible acquisition framework which separates beam position data input, beam positioning, and EELS acquisition. In this paper we demonstrate the effectiveness of this technique on beam-sensitive thin films of amorphous aluminium trifluoride. Smart Acquisition has been used to expose lines to the electron beam, followed by analysis of the structures created by line-integrating EELS acquisitions, and the results are compared to those derived from a standard EELS linescan. High angle annular dark-field images show clear reductions in damage for the Smart Acquisition areas compared to the conventional linescan, and the Smart Acquisition low loss EEL spectra are more representative of the undamaged material than those derived using a conventional linescan. Atomically resolved EELS of all four elements of CaNdTiO show the high resolution capabilities of Smart Acquisition.

  1. Smart acquisition EELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sader, Kasim, E-mail: k.sader@leeds.ac.uk [SuperSTEM, J block, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, Cheshire, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Institute for Materials Research, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Schaffer, Bernhard [SuperSTEM, J block, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, Cheshire, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow (United Kingdom); Vaughan, Gareth [Institute for Materials Research, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Brydson, Rik [SuperSTEM, J block, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, Cheshire, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Institute for Materials Research, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Brown, Andy [Institute for Materials Research, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Bleloch, Andrew [SuperSTEM, J block, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, Cheshire, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Department of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    We have developed a novel acquisition methodology for the recording of electron energy loss spectra (EELS) using a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM): 'Smart Acquisition'. Smart Acquisition allows the independent control of probe scanning procedures and the simultaneous acquisition of analytical signals such as EELS. The original motivation for this work arose from the need to control the electron dose experienced by beam-sensitive specimens whilst maintaining a sufficiently high signal-to-noise ratio in the EEL signal for the extraction of useful analytical information (such as energy loss near edge spectral features) from relatively undamaged areas. We have developed a flexible acquisition framework which separates beam position data input, beam positioning, and EELS acquisition. In this paper we demonstrate the effectiveness of this technique on beam-sensitive thin films of amorphous aluminium trifluoride. Smart Acquisition has been used to expose lines to the electron beam, followed by analysis of the structures created by line-integrating EELS acquisitions, and the results are compared to those derived from a standard EELS linescan. High angle annular dark-field images show clear reductions in damage for the Smart Acquisition areas compared to the conventional linescan, and the Smart Acquisition low loss EEL spectra are more representative of the undamaged material than those derived using a conventional linescan. Atomically resolved EELS of all four elements of CaNdTiO show the high resolution capabilities of Smart Acquisition.

  2. Influence of radiation dose and reconstruction algorithm in MDCT assessment of airway wall thickness: A phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez-Cardona, Daniel; Nagle, Scott K.; Li, Ke; Chen, Guang-Hong; Robinson, Terry E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Wall thickness (WT) is an airway feature of great interest for the assessment of morphological changes in the lung parenchyma. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) has recently been used to evaluate airway WT, but the potential risk of radiation-induced carcinogenesis—particularly in younger patients—might limit a wider use of this imaging method in clinical practice. The recent commercial implementation of the statistical model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) algorithm, instead of the conventional filtered back projection (FBP) algorithm, has enabled considerable radiation dose reduction in many other clinical applications of MDCT. The purpose of this work was to study the impact of radiation dose and MBIR in the MDCT assessment of airway WT. Methods: An airway phantom was scanned using a clinical MDCT system (Discovery CT750 HD, GE Healthcare) at 4 kV levels and 5 mAs levels. Both FBP and a commercial implementation of MBIR (Veo TM , GE Healthcare) were used to reconstruct CT images of the airways. For each kV–mAs combination and each reconstruction algorithm, the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the airways was measured, and the WT of each airway was measured and compared with the nominal value; the relative bias and the angular standard deviation in the measured WT were calculated. For each airway and reconstruction algorithm, the overall performance of WT quantification across all of the 20 kV–mAs combinations was quantified by the sum of squares (SSQs) of the difference between the measured and nominal WT values. Finally, the particular kV–mAs combination and reconstruction algorithm that minimized radiation dose while still achieving a reference WT quantification accuracy level was chosen as the optimal acquisition and reconstruction settings. Results: The wall thicknesses of seven airways of different sizes were analyzed in the study. Compared with FBP, MBIR improved the CNR of the airways, particularly at low radiation dose

  3. Influence of radiation dose and reconstruction algorithm in MDCT assessment of airway wall thickness: A phantom study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Cardona, Daniel [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health, 1111 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States); Nagle, Scott K. [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health, 1111 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health, 600 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 (United States); Department of Pediatrics, University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health, 600 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 (United States); Li, Ke; Chen, Guang-Hong, E-mail: gchen7@wisc.edu [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health, 1111 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health, 600 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 (United States); Robinson, Terry E. [Department of Pediatrics, Stanford School of Medicine, 770 Welch Road, Palo Alto, California 94304 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: Wall thickness (WT) is an airway feature of great interest for the assessment of morphological changes in the lung parenchyma. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) has recently been used to evaluate airway WT, but the potential risk of radiation-induced carcinogenesis—particularly in younger patients—might limit a wider use of this imaging method in clinical practice. The recent commercial implementation of the statistical model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) algorithm, instead of the conventional filtered back projection (FBP) algorithm, has enabled considerable radiation dose reduction in many other clinical applications of MDCT. The purpose of this work was to study the impact of radiation dose and MBIR in the MDCT assessment of airway WT. Methods: An airway phantom was scanned using a clinical MDCT system (Discovery CT750 HD, GE Healthcare) at 4 kV levels and 5 mAs levels. Both FBP and a commercial implementation of MBIR (Veo{sup TM}, GE Healthcare) were used to reconstruct CT images of the airways. For each kV–mAs combination and each reconstruction algorithm, the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the airways was measured, and the WT of each airway was measured and compared with the nominal value; the relative bias and the angular standard deviation in the measured WT were calculated. For each airway and reconstruction algorithm, the overall performance of WT quantification across all of the 20 kV–mAs combinations was quantified by the sum of squares (SSQs) of the difference between the measured and nominal WT values. Finally, the particular kV–mAs combination and reconstruction algorithm that minimized radiation dose while still achieving a reference WT quantification accuracy level was chosen as the optimal acquisition and reconstruction settings. Results: The wall thicknesses of seven airways of different sizes were analyzed in the study. Compared with FBP, MBIR improved the CNR of the airways, particularly at low radiation dose

  4. A Zinc Chelator TPEN Attenuates Airway Hyperresponsiveness Airway Inflammation in Mice In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Fukuyama

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: In pulmonary allergic inflammation induced in mice immunized with antigen without alum, zinc chelator inhibits airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness. These findings suggest that zinc may be a therapeutic target of allergic asthma.

  5. The effect of body weight on distal airway function and airway inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Kant, Kim D G; Paredi, Paolo; Meah, Sally; Kalsi, Harpal S; Barnes, Peter J; Usmani, Omar S

    Obesity is a global health problem that adversely influences the respiratory system. We assessed the effects of body mass index (BMI) on distal airway function and airway inflammation. Impulse oscillometry (IOS) as a measure of distal airway function, together with spirometry, were assessed in adults with a range of different BMIs. Airway inflammation was assessed with the fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and participants exhaled at various exhalation flows to determine alveolar and bronchial NO. In total 34 subjects were enrolled in the study; 19 subjects had a normal BMI (18.50-24.99), whilst 15 subjects were overweight (BMI 25.00-29.99), or obese (BMI ≥30). All subjects had normal spirometry. However, IOS measures of airway resistance (R) at 5Hz, 20Hz and frequency dependence (R 5-20 ) were elevated in overweight/obese individuals, compared to subjects with a normal BMI (median (interquartile range)); 5Hz: 0.41 (0.37, 0.45) vs. 0.32 (0.30, 0.37)kPa/l/s; 20Hz: 0.34 (0.30, 0.37) vs. 0.30 (0.26, 0.33)kPa/l/s; R 5-20 : 0.06 (0.04, 0.11) vs. 0.03 (0.01, 0.05)kPa/l/s; plimitation) and FeNO inflammatory measures, did not differ between groups (p>0.05). Being overweight has significant effects on distal and central airway function as determined by IOS, which is not detected by spirometry. Obesity does not influence airway inflammation as measured by FeNO. IOS is a reliable technique to identify airway abnormalities in the presence of normal spirometry in overweight people. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Essential ultrasound techniques of the pediatric airway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stafrace, Samuel; Engelhardt, Thomas; Teoh, Wendy H

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound of the airways is a technique which has been described in a number of recent articles and reviews highlighting the diagnostic possibilities and simple methodology. However, there is a paucity of information focusing specifically on such methods in children where equipment, technique, a...

  7. Water permeability in human airway epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peter Steen; Procida, Kristina; Larsen, Per Leganger

    2005-01-01

    Osmotic water permeability (P(f)) was studied in spheroid-shaped human airway epithelia explants derived from nasal polyps by the use of a new improved tissue collection and isolation procedure. The fluid-filled spheroids were lined with a single cell layer with the ciliated apical cell membrane ...

  8. Outcomes following prehospital airway management in severe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Backgound. Prevention of hypoxia and thus secondary brain injury in traumatic brain injury (TBI) is critical. However there is controversy regarding the role of endotracheal intubation in the prehospital management of TBI. Objective. To describe the outcome of TBI with various airway management methods employed in the ...

  9. Quantitative analysis of airway abnormalities in CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; Nielsen, Mads

    2010-01-01

    A coupled surface graph cut algorithm for airway wall segmentation from Computed Tomography (CT) images is presented. Using cost functions that highlight both inner and outer wall borders, the method combines the search for both borders into one graph cut. The proposed method is evaluated on 173 ...

  10. Improvised bubble continuous positive airway pressure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. EZECHUKWU

    2014-08-15

    Aug 15, 2014 ... Abstract: Background: Prematur- ity accounts for 25% of Neonatal mortality in Nigeria and Respira- tory Distress Syndrome is respon- sible for half of these deaths. Introducing continuous positive airway pressure for the treatment of RDS in Nigeria where health care financing is predominantly out-of-pocket ...

  11. Overview of airway involvement in tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, Arundeep; Bhalla, Ashu Seith; Jana, Manisha; Sharma, Raju

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary tuberculosis is a ubiquitous infection and a re-emerging medical and socioeconomic problem resulting in increasing mortality and morbidity, especially in Asian countries. We aim to review the spectrum of imaging findings in airway involvement in tuberculosis through characteristic radiological images and to assess the role of computed tomography and image-guided interventions in the diagnosis and management of pulmonary tuberculosis.

  12. Insulin induces airway smooth muscle contraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, D.; Gosens, R.; Ris, J. M.; Zaagsma, J.; Meurs, H.; Nelemans, S. A.

    Background and purpose: Recently, the use of inhaled insulin formulations for the treatment of type I and type II diabetes has been approved in Europe and in the United States. For regular use, it is critical that airway function remains unimpaired in response to insulin exposure. Experimental

  13. Neuronal NOS localises to human airway cilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Claire L; Lucas, Jane S; Walker, Woolf T; Owen, Holly; Premadeva, Irnthu; Lackie, Peter M

    2015-01-30

    Airway NO synthase (NOS) isoenzymes are responsible for rapid and localised nitric oxide (NO) production and are expressed in airway epithelium. We sought to determine the localisation of neuronal NOS (nNOS) in airway epithelium due to the paucity of evidence. Sections of healthy human bronchial tissue in glycol methacrylate resin and human nasal polyps in paraffin wax were immunohistochemically labelled and reproducibly demonstrated nNOS immunoreactivity, particularly at the proximal portion of cilia; this immunoreactivity was blocked by a specific nNOS peptide fragment. Healthy human epithelial cells differentiated at an air-liquid interface (ALI) confirmed the presence of all three NOS isoenzymes by immunofluorescence labelling. Only nNOS immunoreactivity was specific to the ciliary axonemeand co-localised with the cilia marker β-tubulin in the proximal part of the ciliary axoneme. We report a novel localisation of nNOS at the proximal portion of cilia in airway epithelium and conclude that its independent and local regulation of NO levels is crucial for normal cilia function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Viruses in cystic fibrosis patients' airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billard, Lisa; Le Berre, Rozenn; Pilorgé, Léa; Payan, Christopher; Héry-Arnaud, Geneviève; Vallet, Sophie

    2017-11-01

    Although bacteria have historically been considered to play a major role in cystic fibrosis (CF) airway damage, a strong impact of respiratory viral infections (RVI) is also now recognized. Emerging evidence confirms that respiratory viruses are associated with deterioration of pulmonary function and exacerbation and facilitation of bacterial colonization in CF patients. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the current knowledge on respiratory viruses in CF airways, to discuss the resulting inflammation and RVI response, to determine how to detect the viruses, and to assess their clinical consequences, prevalence, and interactions with bacteria. The most predominant are Rhinoviruses (RVs), significantly associated with CF exacerbation. Molecular techniques, and especially multiplex PCR, help to diagnose viral infections, and the coming rise of metagenomics will extend knowledge of viral populations in the complex ecosystem of CF airways. Prophylaxis and vaccination are currently available only for Respiratory syncytial and Influenza virus (IV), but antiviral molecules are being tested to improve CF patients' care. All the points raised in this review highlight the importance of taking account of RVIs and their potential impact on the CF airway ecosystem.

  15. CT quantification of central airway in tracheobronchomalacia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Won Hyeong; Jin, Gong Yong; Han, Young Min; Kim, Eun Young [Dept. of Radiology, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    To know which factors help to diagnose tracheobronchomalacia (TBM) using CT quantification of central airway. From April 2013 to July 2014, 19 patients (68.0 ± 15.0 years; 6 male, 13 female) were diagnosed as TBM on CT. As case-matching, 38 normal subjects (65.5 ± 21.5 years; 6 male, 13 female) were selected. All 57 subjects underwent CT with end-inspiration and end-expiration. Airway parameters of trachea and both main bronchus were assessed using software (VIDA diagnostic). Airway parameters of TBM patients and normal subjects were compared using the Student t-test. In expiration, both wall perimeter and wall thickness in TBM patients were significantly smaller than normal subjects (wall perimeter: trachea, 43.97 mm vs. 49.04 mm, p = 0.020; right main bronchus, 33.52 mm vs. 42.69 mm, p < 0.001; left main bronchus, 26.76 mm vs. 31.88 mm, p = 0.012; wall thickness: trachea, 1.89 mm vs. 2.22 mm, p = 0.017; right main bronchus, 1.64 mm vs. 1.83 mm, p = 0.021; left main bronchus, 1.61 mm vs. 1.75 mm, p = 0.016). Wall thinning and decreased perimeter of central airway of expiration by CT quantification would be a new diagnostic indicators in TBM.

  16. PPARγ as a Potential Target to Treat Airway Mucus Hypersecretion in Chronic Airway Inflammatory Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongchun Shen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Airway mucus hypersecretion (AMH is a key pathophysiological feature of chronic airway inflammatory diseases such as bronchial asthma, cystic fibrosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. AMH contributes to the pathogenesis of chronic airway inflammatory diseases, and it is associated with reduced lung function and high rates of hospitalization and mortality. It has been suggested that AMH should be a target in the treatment of chronic airway inflammatory diseases. Recent evidence suggests that a key regulator of airway inflammation, hyperresponsiveness, and remodeling is peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ, a ligand-activated transcription factor that regulates adipocyte differentiation and lipid metabolism. PPARγ is expressed in structural, immune, and inflammatory cells in the lung. PPARγ is involved in mucin production, and PPARγ agonists can inhibit mucin synthesis both in vitro and in vivo. These findings suggest that PPARγ is a novel target in the treatment of AMH and that further work on this transcription factor may lead to new therapies for chronic airway inflammatory diseases.

  17. Small airways disease: time for a revisit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stockley JA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available James A Stockley,1 Brendan G Cooper,1 Robert A Stockley,2 Elizabeth Sapey3 1Department of Lung Function and Sleep, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, University Hospital Birmingham, 3Institute of Inflammation and Ageing, Centre for Translational Inflammation Research, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK Abstract: It is increasingly acknowledged that delays in the diagnosis of chronic inflammatory lung conditions have hampered our understanding of pathogenesis and thus our ability to design efficacious therapies. This is particularly true for COPD, where most patients are diagnosed with moderate-to-severe airflow obstruction and little is known about the inflammatory processes present in early disease. There is great interest in developing screening tests that can identify those most at risk of developing COPD before airflow obstruction has developed for the purpose of research and clinical care. Landmark pathology studies have suggested that damage to the small airways precedes the development of airflow obstruction and emphysema and, thus, presents an opportunity to identify those at risk of COPD. However, despite a number of physiological tests being available to assess small airways function, none have been adopted into routine care in COPD. The reasons that tests of small airways have not been utilized widely include variability in test results and a lack of validated reference ranges from which to compare results for some methodologies. Furthermore, population studies have not consistently demonstrated their ability to diagnose disease. However, the landscape may be changing. As the equipment that delivers tests of small airways become more widely available, reference ranges are emerging and newer methodologies specifically seek to address variability and difficulty in test performance. Moreover, there is evidence that while tests of small airways may not be helpful across the full range of established disease severity

  18. On the relation of nasal cycling with nasal airway dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilmette, R A; Wolff, R K

    1988-12-01

    The size and configuration of the nasal airways of humans change with time as a result of the normal process of congestion/decongestion of the erectile tissue of the nasal mucosa. To determine the extent to which airway areas change in vivo, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to quantitate both the cross-sectional area and perimeter of coronal sections of the entire nasal airway of a human subject. Changes in airway size or patency were indexed to measured changes in unilateral nasal airway resistance determined by posterior rhino manometry. The results of this study in which two MRI scans were performed for presumed left-side patency and two for right-side patency, showed that changes in nasal airway resistance were difficult to ascribe to systematic changes In the sizes of the airways. (author)

  19. On the relation of nasal cycling with nasal airway dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilmette, R.A.; Wolff, R.K.

    1988-01-01

    The size and configuration of the nasal airways of humans change with time as a result of the normal process of congestion/decongestion of the erectile tissue of the nasal mucosa. To determine the extent to which airway areas change in vivo, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to quantitate both the cross-sectional area and perimeter of coronal sections of the entire nasal airway of a human subject. Changes in airway size or patency were indexed to measured changes in unilateral nasal airway resistance determined by posterior rhino manometry. The results of this study in which two MRI scans were performed for presumed left-side patency and two for right-side patency, showed that changes in nasal airway resistance were difficult to ascribe to systematic changes In the sizes of the airways. (author)

  20. The New Perilaryngeal Airway (CobraPLA™)1 Is as Efficient as the Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA™)2, But Provides Better Airway Sealing Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akça, Ozan; Wadhwa, Anupama; Sengupta, Papiya; Durrani, Jaleel; Hanni, Keith; Wenke, Mary; Yücel, Yüksel; Lenhardt, Rainer; Doufas, Anthony G.; Sessler, Daniel I.

    2006-01-01

    The Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) is a frequently-used efficient airway device, yet it sometimes seals poorly, thus reducing the efficacy of positive-pressure ventilation. The Perilaryngeal Airway (CobraPLA) is a novel airway device with a larger pharyngeal cuff (when inflated). We tested the hypothesis that the CobraPLA was superior to LMA with regard to insertion time and airway sealing pressure and comparable to LMA in airway adequacy and recovery characteristics. After midazolam and fentanyl, 81 ASA I-II outpatients having elective surgery were randomized to receive an LMA or CobraPLA. Anesthesia was induced with propofol (2.5 mg/kg, IV), and the airway inserted. We measured 1) insertion time; 2) adequacy of the airway (no leak at 15-cm-H2O peak pressure or tidal volume of 5 ml/kg); 3) airway sealing pressure; 4) number of repositioning attempts; and 5) sealing quality (no leak at tidal volume of 8 ml/kg). At the end of surgery, gastric insufflation, postoperative sore throat, dysphonia, and dysphagia were evaluated. Data were compared with unpaired t-tests, chi-square tests, or Fisher’s Exact tests; P<0.05 was significant. Patient characteristics, insertion times, airway adequacy, number of repositioning attempts, and recovery were similar in each group. Airway sealing pressure was significantly greater with CobraPLA (23±6 cm H2O) than LMA (18±5 cm H2O, P<0.001). The CobraPLA has insertion characteristics similar to LMA, but better airway sealing capabilities. PMID:15281543

  1. The operative cooperation and nursing in performing airway stent placement under DSA guidance for treating airway stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Baojun; Wu Gang; Han Xinwei; Wang Nan; Shi Jin; Si Wenfeng; Wang Kai; Su Ning; Liu Jia; Hai Dandan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the key points of the nursing care for effectively performing airway stent placement under DSA monitoring for airway stenosis. Methods: Corresponding nursing care measures were carried out for 118 patients with airway stenosis who were treated with airway stent placement. Results: The symptom of dyspnea was markedly relieved after stent implantation in all 118 patients with airway stenosis. Conclusion: To strengthen the preoperative psychological nursing and operative posture training, to make close postoperative watch on vital signs, to adopt some prevention measures for possible complications and to give necessary medical advises at the time of discharge are very helpful for patient's recovery after the surgery. (authors)

  2. Covered Bronchial Stent Insertion to Manage Airway Obstruction with Hemoptysis Caused by Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sae Ah; Kim, Do Hyeong [Dankook University College of Medicine, Dankook University Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Jen, Gyeong Sik [Bundang CHA General Hospital, CHA University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    Malignant airway obstruction and hemoptysis are common in lung cancer patients. Recently, airway stent is commonly used to preserve airway in malignant airway obstruction. Hemoptysis can be managed through various methods including conservative treatment, endobronchial tamponade, bronchoscopic intervention, embolization and surgery. In our case studies, we sought to investigate the effectiveness of airway stents for re-opening the airway as well as tamponade effects in four patients with malignant airway obstruction and bleeding caused by tumors or lymph node invasions.

  3. Predominant constitutive CFTR conductance in small airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lytle Christian

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathological hallmarks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are inflammation of the small airways (bronchiolitis and destruction of lung parenchyma (emphysema. These forms of disease arise from chronic prolonged infections, which are usually never present in the normal lung. Despite the fact that primary hygiene and defense of the airways presumably requires a well controlled fluid environment on the surface of the bronchiolar airway, very little is known of the fluid and electrolyte transport properties of airways of less than a few mm diameter. Methods We introduce a novel approach to examine some of these properties in a preparation of minimally traumatized porcine bronchioles of about 1 mm diameter by microperfusing the intact bronchiole. Results In bilateral isotonic NaCl Ringer solutions, the spontaneous transepithelial potential (TEP; lumen to bath of the bronchiole was small (mean ± sem: -3 ± 1 mV; n = 25, but when gluconate replaced luminal Cl-, the bionic Cl- diffusion potentials (-58 ± 3 mV; n = 25 were as large as -90 mV. TEP diffusion potentials from 2:1 NaCl dilution showed that epithelial Cl- permeability was at least 5 times greater than Na+ permeability. The anion selectivity sequence was similar to that of CFTR. The bionic TEP became more electronegative with stimulation by luminal forskolin (5 μM+IBMX (100 μM, ATP (100 μM, or adenosine (100 μM, but not by ionomycin. The TEP was partially inhibited by NPPB (100 μM, GlyH-101* (5–50 μM, and CFTRInh-172* (5 μM. RT-PCR gave identifying products for CFTR, α-, β-, and γ-ENaC and NKCC1. Antibodies to CFTR localized specifically to the epithelial cells lining the lumen of the small airways. Conclusion These results indicate that the small airway of the pig is characterized by a constitutively active Cl- conductance that is most likely due to CFTR.

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging in children: common problems and possible solutions for lung and airways imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciet, Pierluigi; Tiddens, Harm A.W.M. [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Sophia Children' s Hospital, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Pediatric Pulmonology and Allergology, Sophia Children' s Hospital, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Wielopolski, Piotr A. [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Sophia Children' s Hospital, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Wild, Jim M. [University of Sheffield, Academic Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Lee, Edward Y. [Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Departments of Radiology and Medicine, Pulmonary Divisions, Boston, MA (United States); Morana, Giovanni [Ca' Foncello Regional Hospital, Department of Radiology, Treviso (Italy); Lequin, Maarten H. [University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2015-12-15

    Pediatric chest MRI is challenging. High-resolution scans of the lungs and airways are compromised by long imaging times, low lung proton density and motion. Low signal is a problem of normal lung. Lung abnormalities commonly cause increased signal intensities. Among the most important factors for a successful MRI is patient cooperation, so the long acquisition times make patient preparation crucial. Children usually have problems with long breath-holds and with the concept of quiet breathing. Young children are even more challenging because of higher cardiac and respiratory rates giving motion blurring. For these reasons, CT has often been preferred over MRI for chest pediatric imaging. Despite its drawbacks, MRI also has advantages over CT, which justifies its further development and clinical use. The most important advantage is the absence of ionizing radiation, which allows frequent scanning for short- and long-term follow-up studies of chronic diseases. Moreover, MRI allows assessment of functional aspects of the chest, such as lung perfusion and ventilation, or airways and diaphragm mechanics. In this review, we describe the most common MRI acquisition techniques on the verge of clinical translation, their problems and the possible solutions to make chest MRI feasible in children. (orig.)

  5. Randomized crossover comparison of the laryngeal mask airway classic with i-gel laryngeal mask airway in the management of difficult airway in post burn neck contracture patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeevan Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of the study was to compare the performance of i-gel supraglottic airway with cLMA in difficult airway management in post burn neck contracture patients and assess the feasibility of i-gel use for emergency airway management in difficult airway situation with reduced neck movement and limited mouth opening. Methods: Prospective, crossover, randomized controlled trial was performed amongst forty eight post burn neck contracture patients with limited mouth opening and neck movement. i-gel and cLMA were placed in random order in each patient. Primary outcome was overall success rate. Other measurements were time to successful ventilation, airway leak pressure, fiberoptic glottic view, visualization of square wave pattern. Results: Success rate for the i-gel was 91.7% versus 79.2% for the cLMA. i-gel required shorter insertion time (19.3 seconds vs. 23.5 seconds, P=0.000. Airway leak pressure difference was statistically significant (i-gel 21.2 cm H20; cLMA 16.9 cm H 2 0; P=0.00. Fiberoptic view through the i-gel showed there were less epiglottic downfolding and better fiberoptic view of the glottis than cLMA. Overall agreement in insertion outcome for i-gel was 22/24 (91.7% successes and 2/24(8.3% failure and for cLMA, 19/24 (79.16% successes and 5/24 (16.7% failure in the first attempt. Conclusion: The i-gel is cheap, effective airway device which is easier to insert and has better clinical performance in the difficult airway management of the airway in the post burn contracture of the neck. Our study shows that i-gel is feasible for emergency airway management in difficult airway situation with reduced neck movement and limited mouth opening in post burn neck.

  6. Role of airway epithelial barrier dysfunction in pathogenesis of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gon, Yasuhiro; Hashimoto, Shu

    2018-01-01

    Bronchial asthma is characterized by persistent cough, increased sputum, and repeated wheezing. The pathophysiology underlying these symptoms is the hyper-responsiveness of the airway along with chronic airway inflammation. Repeated injury, repair, and regeneration of the airway epithelium following exposure to environmental factors and inflammation results in histological changes and functional abnormalities in the airway mucosal epithelium; such changes are believed to have a significant association with the pathophysiology of asthma. Damage to the barrier functions of the airway epithelium enhances mucosal permeability of foreign substances in the airway epithelium of patients with asthma. Thus, epithelial barrier fragility is closely involved in releasing epithelial cytokines (e.g., TSLP, IL-25, and IL-33) because of the activation of airway epithelial cells, dendritic cells, and innate group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2). Functional abnormalities of the airway epithelial cells along with the activation of dendritic cells, Th2 cells, and ILC2 form a single immunopathological unit that is considered to cause allergic airway inflammation. Here we use the latest published literature to discuss the potential pathological mechanisms regarding the onset and progressive severity of asthma with regard to the disruption of the airway epithelial function. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Acquisition Research Program Homepage

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Includes an image of the main page on this date and compressed file containing additional web pages. Established in 2003, Naval Postgraduate School’s (NPS) Acquisition Research Program provides leadership in innovation, creative problem solving and an ongoing dialogue, contributing to the evolution of Department of Defense acquisition strategies.

  8. Making Acquisition Measurable

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-30

    Corporation. All rights reserved End Users Administrator/ Maintainer (A/M) Subject Matter Expert ( SME ) Trainer/ Instructor Manager, Evaluator, Supervisor... CMMI ) - Acquisition (AQ) © 2011 The MITRE Corporation. All rights reserved 13 CMMI -Development Incremental iterative development (planning & execution...objectives Constructing games highlighting particular aspects of proposed CCOD® acquisition, and conducting exercises with Subject Matter Experts ( SMEs

  9. Are new supraglottic airway devices, tracheal tubes and airway viewing devices cost-effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slinn, Simon J; Froom, Stephen R; Stacey, Mark R W; Gildersleve, Christopher D

    2015-01-01

    Over the past two decades, a plethora of new airway devices has become available to the pediatric anesthetist. While all have the laudable intention of improving patient care and some have proven clinical benefits, these devices are often costly and at times claims of an advantage over current equipment and techniques are marginal. Supraglottic airway devices are used in the majority of pediatric anesthetics delivered in the U.K., and airway-viewing devices provide an alternative for routine intubation as well as an option in the management of the difficult airway. Yet hidden beneath the convenience of the former and the technology of the latter, the impact on basic airway skills with a facemask and the lack of opportunities to fine-tune the core skill of intubation represent an unrecognised and unquantifiable cost. A judgement on this value must be factored into the absolute purchase cost and any potential benefits to the quality of patient care, thus blurring any judgement on cost-effectiveness that we might have. An overall value on cost-effectiveness though not in strict monetary terms can then be ascribed. In this review, we evaluate the role of these devices in the care of the pediatric patient and attempt to balance the advantages they offer against the cost they incur, both financial and environmental, and in any quality improvement they might offer in clinical care. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Computational models of airway branching morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varner, Victor D; Nelson, Celeste M

    2017-07-01

    The bronchial network of the mammalian lung consists of millions of dichotomous branches arranged in a highly complex, space-filling tree. Recent computational models of branching morphogenesis in the lung have helped uncover the biological mechanisms that construct this ramified architecture. In this review, we focus on three different theoretical approaches - geometric modeling, reaction-diffusion modeling, and continuum mechanical modeling - and discuss how, taken together, these models have identified the geometric principles necessary to build an efficient bronchial network, as well as the patterning mechanisms that specify airway geometry in the developing embryo. We emphasize models that are integrated with biological experiments and suggest how recent progress in computational modeling has advanced our understanding of airway branching morphogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Role of apoptosis in airway epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alenzi, F.Q.

    2009-01-01

    Airway epithelial cells may play an important clinical role in the apoptosis of eosinophils. To study recognition pathways, two types of large bronchial airway epithelial cells were used (LAECs and A549). Both resting, and dexamethasone-stimulated epithelial cells, were used in an inhibition assay. Confocal microscopy was used to demonstrate engulfment of apoptotic eosinophils. Apoptotic eosinophils were recognized and phagocytosed by macrophages, and by LAECs. The ability of LAECs to engulf apoptotic eosinophils was enhanced by dexamethasone and interlukin-1 (IL-1beta). Inhibition by monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) prevented the uptake of apoptotic cells by LAECs. This study therefore suggests that LAECs are capable of recognizing and engulfing apoptotic eosinophils, and that this process is enhanced by IL-1 beta and dexamethasone. (author)

  12. Airway basement membrane perimeter in human airways is not a constant; potential implications for airway remodeling in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McParland, Brent E; Paré, Peter D; Johnson, Peter R A; Armour, Carol L; Black, Judith L

    2004-08-01

    Many studies that demonstrate an increase in airway smooth muscle in asthmatic patients rely on the assumption that bronchial internal perimeter (P(i)) or basement membrane perimeter (P(bm)) is a constant, i.e., not affected by fixation pressure or the degree of smooth muscle shortening. Because it is the basement membrane that has been purported to be the indistensible structure, this study examines the assumption that P(bm) is not affected by fixation pressure. P(bm) was determined for the same human airway segment (n = 12) fixed at distending pressures of 0 cmH(2)O and 21 cmH(2)O in the absence of smooth muscle tone. P(bm) for the segment fixed at 0 cmH(2)O was determined morphometrically, and the P(bm) for the same segment, had the segment been fixed at 21 cmH(2)O, was predicted from knowing the luminal volume and length of the airway when distended to 21 cmH(2)O (organ bath-derived P(i)). To ensure an accurate transformation of the organ bath-derived P(i) value to a morphometry-derived P(bm) value, had the segment been fixed at 21 cmH(2)O, the relationship between organ bath-derived P(i) and morphometry-derived P(bm) was determined for five different bronchial segments distended to 21 cmH(2)O and fixed at 21 cmH(2)O (r(2) = 0.99, P < 0.0001). Mean P(bm) for bronchial segments fixed at 0 cmH(2)O was 9.4 +/- 0.4 mm, whereas mean predicted P(bm), had the segments been fixed at 21 cmH(2)O, was 14.1 +/- 0.5 mm (P < 0.0001). This indicates that P(bm) is not a constant when isolated airway segments without smooth muscle tone are fixed distended to 21 cmH(2)O. The implication of these results is that the increase in smooth muscle mass in asthma may have been overestimated in some previous studies. Therefore, further studies are required to examine the potential artifact using whole lungs with and without abolition of airway smooth muscle tone and/or inflation.

  13. Mergers and Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risberg, Annette

    Introduction to the study of mergers and acquisitions. This book provides an understanding of the mergers and acquisitions process, how and why they occur, and also the broader implications for organizations. It presents issues including motives and planning, partner selection, integration......, employee experiences and communication. Mergers and acquisitions remain one of the most common forms of growth, yet they present considerable challenges for the companies and management involved. The effects on stakeholders, including shareholders, managers and employees, must be considered as well...... by editorial commentaries and reflects the important organizational and behavioural aspects which have often been ignored in the past. By providing this in-depth understanding of the mergers and acquisitions process, the reader understands not only how and why mergers and acquisitions occur, but also...

  14. Data Acquisition System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirstea, C.D.; Buda, S.I.; Constantin, F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with a multi parametric acquisition system developed for a four input Analog to Digital Converter working in CAMAC Standard. The acquisition software is built in MS Visual C++ on a standard PC with a USB interface. It has a visual interface which permits Start/Stop of the acquisition, setting the type of acquisition (True/Live time), the time and various menus for primary data acquisition. The spectrum is dynamically visualized with a moving cursor indicating the content and position. The microcontroller PIC16C765 is used for data transfer from ADC to PC; The microcontroller and the software create an embedded system which emulates the CAMAC protocol programming the 4 input ADC for operating modes ('zero suppression', 'addressed' and 'sequential') and handling the data transfers from ADC to its internal memory. From its memory the data is transferred into the PC by the USB interface. The work is in progress. (authors)

  15. Data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirstea, D.C.; Buda, S.I.; Constantin, F.

    2005-01-01

    The topic of this paper deals with a multi parametric acquisition system developed around a four input Analog to Digital Converter working in CAMAC Standard. The acquisition software is built in MS Visual C++ on a standard PC with a USB interface. It has a visual interface which permits Start/Stop of the acquisition, setting the type of acquisition (True/Live time), the time and various menus for primary data acquisition. The spectrum is dynamically visualized with a moving cursor indicating the content and position. The microcontroller PIC16C765 is used for data transfer from ADC to PC; The microcontroller and the software create an embedded system which emulates the CAMAC protocol programming, the 4 input ADC for operating modes ('zero suppression', 'addressed' and 'sequential') and handling the data transfers from ADC to its internal memory. From its memory the data is transferred into the PC by the USB interface. The work is in progress. (authors)

  16. THE BUFFER CAPACITY OF AIRWAY EPITHELIAL SECRETIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusik eKim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The pH of airway epithelial secretions influences bacterial killing and mucus properties and is reduced by acidic pollutants, gastric reflux, and respiratory diseases such as cystic fibrosis (CF. The effect of acute acid loads depends on buffer capacity, however the buffering of airway secretions has not been well characterized. In this work we develop a method for titrating micro-scale (30 µl volumes and use it to study fluid secreted by the human airway epithelial cell line Calu-3, a widely used model for submucosal gland serous cells. Microtitration curves revealed that HCO3- is the major buffer. Peak buffer capacity (β increased from 17 to 28 mM/pH during forskolin stimulation, and was reduced by >50% in fluid secreted by cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR-deficient Calu-3 monolayers, confirming an important role of CFTR in HCO3- secretion. Back-titration with NaOH revealed non-volatile buffer capacity due to proteins synthesized and released by the epithelial cells. Lysozyme and mucin concentrations were too low to buffer Calu-3 fluid significantly, however model titrations of porcine gastric mucins at concentrations near the sol-gel transition suggest that mucins may contribute to the buffer capacity of ASL in vivo. We conclude that CFTR-dependent HCO3- secretion and epithelially-derived proteins are the predominant buffers in Calu-3 secretions.

  17. Development of a realistic human airway model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizal, Frantisek; Elcner, Jakub; Hopke, Philip K; Jedelsky, Jan; Jicha, Miroslav

    2012-03-01

    Numerous models of human lungs with various levels of idealization have been reported in the literature; consequently, results acquired using these models are difficult to compare to in vivo measurements. We have developed a set of model components based on realistic geometries, which permits the analysis of the effects of subsequent model simplification. A realistic digital upper airway geometry except for the lack of an oral cavity has been created which proved suitable both for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and for the fabrication of physical models. Subsequently, an oral cavity was added to the tracheobronchial geometry. The airway geometry including the oral cavity was adjusted to enable fabrication of a semi-realistic model. Five physical models were created based on these three digital geometries. Two optically transparent models, one with and one without the oral cavity, were constructed for flow velocity measurements, two realistic segmented models, one with and one without the oral cavity, were constructed for particle deposition measurements, and a semi-realistic model with glass cylindrical airways was developed for optical measurements of flow velocity and in situ particle size measurements. One-dimensional phase doppler anemometry measurements were made and compared to the CFD calculations for this model and good agreement was obtained.

  18. Lentiviral Vector Gene Transfer to Porcine Airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick L Sinn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated lentiviral vector development and transduction efficiencies in well-differentiated primary cultures of pig airway epithelia (PAE and wild-type pigs in vivo. We noted gene transfer efficiencies similar to that observed for human airway epithelia (HAE. Interestingly, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV-based vectors transduced immortalized pig cells as well as pig primary cells more efficiently than HIV-1–based vectors. PAE express TRIM5α, a well-characterized species-specific lentiviral restriction factor. We contrasted the restrictive properties of porcine TRIM5α against FIV- and HIV-based vectors using gain and loss of function approaches. We observed no effect on HIV-1 or FIV conferred transgene expression in response to porcine TRIM5α overexpression or knockdown. To evaluate the ability of GP64-FIV to transduce porcine airways in vivo, we delivered vector expressing mCherry to the tracheal lobe of the lung and the ethmoid sinus of 4-week-old pigs. One week later, epithelial cells expressing mCherry were readily detected. Our findings indicate that pseudotyped FIV vectors confer similar tropisms in porcine epithelia as observed in human HAE and provide further support for the selection of GP64 as an appropriate envelope pseudotype for future preclinical gene therapy studies in the porcine model of cystic fibrosis (CF.

  19. Microdebrider complications in laryngologic and airway surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Rebecca J; Solowski, Nancy L; Belafsky, Peter C; Courey, Mark C; Merati, Albert L; Rosen, Clark A; Weinberger, Paul M; Postma, Gregory N

    2014-11-01

    There is a paucity of experience in the published literature documenting complications of powered surgical instruments in laryngologic surgery. Our objective was to ascertain the nature of these complications from expert opinion and review of the literature, and to recommend strategies to decrease major complications. Review of the literature and an e-mail survey. A literature review of microdebrider complications in laryngologic surgery was conducted using PubMed and Ovid (1985 to 2013), along with an analysis of a confidential e-mail survey of various surgeons in selected high-volume laryngologic centers. Powered instrumentation is frequently used in the operating room for larynx and airway surgery. The microdebrider can improve efficiency, lower costs, and shorten operative times. However, use of the microdebrider has the potential for serious complications in the larynx and airway. Great care must be taken when utilizing the microdebrider in laryngologic surgery. Significant complications including major vocal fold scar, airway compromise, severe hemorrhage, and unintentional tissue loss have occurred. The microdebrider is a popular and valuable tool for the otolaryngologist. A thorough knowledge of the instrument and its potential complications will improve surgical outcomes and may prevent complications. Awareness of the risks and surgeon experience with use of the microdebrider will allow the surgeon to successfully utilize this device in a safe and effective manner. 5. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  20. Improving the safety of remote site emergency airway management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesuriya, Julian; Brand, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Airway management, particularly in non-theatre settings, is an area of anaesthesia and critical care associated with significant risk of morbidity & mortality, as highlighted during the 4th National Audit Project of the Royal College of Anaesthetists (NAP4). A survey of junior anaesthetists at our hospital highlighted a lack of confidence and perceived lack of safety in emergency airway management, especially in non-theatre settings. We developed and implemented a multifaceted airway package designed to improve the safety of remote site airway management. A Rapid Sequence Induction (RSI) checklist was developed; this was combined with new advanced airway equipment and drugs bags. Additionally, new carbon dioxide detector filters were procured in order to comply with NAP4 monitoring recommendations. The RSI checklists were placed in key locations throughout the hospital and the drugs and advanced airway equipment bags were centralised in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). It was agreed with the senior nursing staff that an appropriately trained ICU nurse would attend all emergency situations with new airway resources upon request. Departmental guidelines were updated to include details of the new resources and the on-call anaesthetist's responsibilities regarding checks and maintenance. Following our intervention trainees reported higher confidence levels regarding remote site emergency airway management. Nine trusts within the Northern Region were surveyed and we found large variations in the provision of remote site airway management resources. Complications in remote site airway management due lack of available appropriate drugs, equipment or trained staff are potentially life threatening and completely avoidable. Utilising the intervention package an anaesthetist would be able to safely plan and prepare for airway management in any setting. They would subsequently have the drugs, equipment, and trained assistance required to manage any difficulties or complications

  1. Development of a Modular, Provider Customized Airway Trainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-25

    data used to evaluate student performance. This transformation was done by the Airway Firmware on an Arduino Leonardo. The Airway Firmware transmitted...USB HID protocol, the Arduino Leonardo was selected. Figure 13: Electronics and Firmware W911NF-13-2-0033 Airway II Final Report...CREST U of MN Nov 2015 Page 12 of 35 The microchip, around which the Arduino Leonardo was built, readily supported USB HID through

  2. Safety and Efficacy of Thoracic External Beam Radiotherapy After Airway Stenting in Malignant Airway Obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochet, Nathalie, E-mail: nrochet@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Hauswald, Henrik; Schmaus, Martina; Hensley, Frank [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Huber, Peter [Department of Radiotherapy, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Eberhardt, Ralf; Herth, Felix J. [Department of Pulmonology and Respiratory Care Medicine, Thoraxklinik at University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Debus, Juergen; Neuhof, Dirk [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: We retrospectively evaluated the outcome and toxicity of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) after airway stents were placed in patients treated for malignant airway obstruction. Methods and Materials: Between 2004 and 2009, we performed airway stenting followed by EBRT in 43 patients for symptomatic primary lung cancer (n = 31) or other thoracic malignancies (n = 12). The median time interval between stent placement and first irradiation was 14 days. A median total dose of 50 Gy was delivered. Sixty-seven percent of the patients had reduced performance status (Karnofsky performance score, {<=}70). Results: EBRT had to be stopped prematurely in 16 patients (37%), at a median total dose of 17 Gy, for various reasons. In this group of patients, the survival was poor, with a median overall survival (OS) of only 21 days. Twenty-seven patients (63%) completed radiotherapy as planned, with a median OS of 8.4 months. Fourteen of 43 patients (33%) developed at least one Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Event of grade 3 to 5. The most common event was a malignant restenosis of the stent leading to asphyxia (n = 7), followed by fistula formation (n = 4), necrosis (n = 3), mediastinitis with abscess (n = 1), secondary nonmalignant airway stenosis (n = 1), and hemoptysis (n = 1). With the exception of one event, all events were associated with a local progression of the tumor. Conclusions: Although the long-term prognosis for patients with malignant airway obstruction is poor, airway stenting combined with EBRT offers a possible therapeutic option, achieving fast relief of acute respiratory distress with an associated antitumor effect, resulting in a potential survival benefit. However, due to local advanced tumor growth, increased rates of adverse events are to be expected, necessitating careful monitoring.

  3. Safety and Efficacy of Thoracic External Beam Radiotherapy After Airway Stenting in Malignant Airway Obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochet, Nathalie; Hauswald, Henrik; Schmaus, Martina; Hensley, Frank; Huber, Peter; Eberhardt, Ralf; Herth, Felix J.; Debus, Juergen; Neuhof, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We retrospectively evaluated the outcome and toxicity of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) after airway stents were placed in patients treated for malignant airway obstruction. Methods and Materials: Between 2004 and 2009, we performed airway stenting followed by EBRT in 43 patients for symptomatic primary lung cancer (n = 31) or other thoracic malignancies (n = 12). The median time interval between stent placement and first irradiation was 14 days. A median total dose of 50 Gy was delivered. Sixty-seven percent of the patients had reduced performance status (Karnofsky performance score, ≤70). Results: EBRT had to be stopped prematurely in 16 patients (37%), at a median total dose of 17 Gy, for various reasons. In this group of patients, the survival was poor, with a median overall survival (OS) of only 21 days. Twenty-seven patients (63%) completed radiotherapy as planned, with a median OS of 8.4 months. Fourteen of 43 patients (33%) developed at least one Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Event of grade 3 to 5. The most common event was a malignant restenosis of the stent leading to asphyxia (n = 7), followed by fistula formation (n = 4), necrosis (n = 3), mediastinitis with abscess (n = 1), secondary nonmalignant airway stenosis (n = 1), and hemoptysis (n = 1). With the exception of one event, all events were associated with a local progression of the tumor. Conclusions: Although the long-term prognosis for patients with malignant airway obstruction is poor, airway stenting combined with EBRT offers a possible therapeutic option, achieving fast relief of acute respiratory distress with an associated antitumor effect, resulting in a potential survival benefit. However, due to local advanced tumor growth, increased rates of adverse events are to be expected, necessitating careful monitoring.

  4. Motorcycle exhaust particles induce airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness in BALB/C mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chen-Chen; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Kang, Jaw-Jou

    2004-06-01

    A number of large studies have reported that environmental pollutants from fossil fuel combustion can cause deleterious effects to the immune system, resulting in an allergic reaction leading to respiratory tract damage. In this study, we investigated the effect of motorcycle exhaust particles (MEP), a major pollutant in the Taiwan urban area, on airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness in laboratory animals. BALB/c mice were instilled intratracheally (i.t.) with 1.2 mg/kg and 12 mg/kg of MEP, which was collected from two-stroke motorcycle engines. The mice were exposed 3 times i.t. with MEP, and various parameters for airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness were sequentially analyzed. We found that MEP would induce airway and pulmonary inflammation characterized by infiltration of eosinophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and inflammatory cell infiltration in lung. In addition, MEP treatment enhanced BALF interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) cytokine levels and serum IgE production. Bronchial response measured by unrestrained plethysmography with methacholine challenge showed that MEP treatment induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in BALB/c mice. The chemical components in MEP were further fractionated with organic solvents, and we found that the benzene-extracted fraction exerts a similar biological effect as seen with MEP, including airway inflammation, increased BALF IL-4, serum IgE production, and induction of AHR. In conclusion, we present evidence showing that the filter-trapped particles emitted from the unleaded-gasoline-fueled two-stroke motorcycle engine may induce proinflammatory and proallergic response profiles in the absence of exposure to allergen.

  5. Effect of airway acidosis and alkalosis on airway vascular smooth muscle responsiveness to albuterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancado, Jose E; Mendes, Eliana S; Arana, Johana; Horvath, Gabor; Monzon, Maria E; Salathe, Matthias; Wanner, Adam

    2015-04-02

    In vitro and animal experiments have shown that the transport and signaling of β2-adrenergic agonists are pH-sensitive. Inhaled albuterol, a hydrophilic β2-adrenergic agonist, is widely used for the treatment of obstructive airway diseases. Acute exacerbations of obstructive airway diseases can be associated with changes in ventilation leading to either respiratory acidosis or alkalosis thereby affecting albuterol responsiveness in the airway. The purpose of this study was to determine if airway pH has an effect on albuterol-induced vasodilation in the airway. Ten healthy volunteers performed the following respiratory maneuvers: quiet breathing, hypocapnic hyperventilation, hypercapnic hyperventilation, and eucapnic hyperventilation (to dissociate the effect of pH from the effect of ventilation). During these breathing maneuvers, exhaled breath condensate (EBC) pH and airway blood flow response to inhaled albuterol (ΔQ̇aw) were assessed. Mean ± SE EBC pH (units) and ΔQ̇aw (μl.min(-1).mL(-1)) were 6.4 ± 0.1 and 16.8 ± 1.9 during quiet breathing, 6.3 ± 0.1 and 14.5 ± 2.4 during eucapnic hyperventilation, 6.6 ± 0.2 and -0.2 ± 1.8 during hypocapnic hyperventilation (p = 0.02 and <0.01 vs. quiet breathing), and 5.9 ± 0.1 and 2.0 ± 1.5 during hypercapnic hyperventilation (p = 0.02 and <0.02 vs quiet breathing). Albuterol responsiveness in the airway as assessed by ΔQ̇aw is pH sensitive. The breathing maneuver associated with decreased and increased EBC pH both resulted in a decreased responsiveness independent of the level of ventilation. These findings suggest an attenuated response to hydrophilic β2-adrenergic agonists during airway disease exacerbations associated with changes in pH. Registered at clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01216748 .

  6. Airway management in a patient with bullous pemphigoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasir, M.; Khan, F.A.

    2013-01-01

    Airway management in patients with pemphigoid lesions has anaesthetic implications. We report a case of a 23 years old female with bullous pemphigoid who presented with laryngeal stenosis and critical airway narrowing. The airway was initially managed with jet ventilation. Anaesthesia was maintained with propofol infusion and ventilation was performed by introducing a size 10 French gauge suction catheter through the stenotic laryngeal orifice. Thirty minutes into anaesthesia, she developed subcutaneous emphysema and decreased air entry on right side of the chest but remained hemodynamically stable. The airway was further managed by tracheostomy. This case report highlights complications that can occur during the anaesthetic management of such cases. (author)

  7. Airway somatosensory deficits and dysphagia in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Michael J; Murphy, Caitlin A; Abrams, Trisha M

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) often experience substantial impairment of swallow control, and are typically unaware of the presence or severity of their impairments suggesting that these individuals may also experience airway sensory deficits. However, the degree to which impaired swallow function in PD may relate to airway sensory deficits has yet to be formally tested. The purpose of this study was to examine whether airway sensory function is associated with swallow impairment in PD. Eighteen PD participants and 18 healthy controls participated in this study and underwent endoscopic assessment of airway somatosensory function, endoscopic assessment of swallow function, and clinical ratings of swallow and disease severity. PD participants exhibited abnormal airway somatosensory function and greater swallow impairment compared with healthy controls. Swallow and sensory deficits in PD were correlated with disease severity. Moreover, PD participants reported similar self-rated swallow function as healthy controls, and swallow deficits were correlated with sensory function suggesting an association between impaired sensory function and poor self-awareness of swallow deficits in PD. These results suggest that control of swallow is influenced by airway somatosensory function, that swallow-related deficits in PD are related to abnormal somatosensation, and that swallow and airway sensory function may degrade as a function of disease severity. Therefore, the basal ganglia and related neural networks may play an important role to integrate airway sensory input for swallow-related motor control. Furthermore, the airway deficits observed in PD suggest a disintegration of swallow-related sensory and motor control.

  8. A hierarchical scheme for geodesic anatomical labeling of airway trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feragen, Aasa; Petersen, Jens; Owen, Megan

    2012-01-01

    We present a fast and robust supervised algorithm for label- ing anatomical airway trees, based on geodesic distances in a geometric tree-space. Possible branch label configurations for a given unlabeled air- way tree are evaluated based on the distances to a training set of labeled airway trees....... In tree-space, the airway tree topology and geometry change continuously, giving a natural way to automatically handle anatomical differences and noise. The algorithm is made efficient using a hierarchical approach, in which labels are assigned from the top down. We only use features of the airway...

  9. Inherent and antigen-induced airway hyperreactivity in NC mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuto Kobayashi

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to clarify the airway physiology of NC mice, the following experiments were carried out. To investigate inherent airway reactivity, we compared tracheal reactivity to various chemical mediators in NC, BALB/c, C57BL/6 and A/J mice in vitro. NC mice showed significantly greater reactivity to acetylcholine than BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice and a reactivity comparable to that of A/J mice, which are known as high responders. Then, airway reactivity to acetylcholine was investigated in those strains in vivo. NC mice again showed comparable airway reactivity to that seen in A/J mice and a significantly greater reactivity than that seen in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. To investigate the effects of airway inflammation on airway reactivity to acetylcholine in vivo, NC and BALB/c mice were sensitized to and challenged with antigen. Sensitization to and challenge with antigen induced accumulation of inflammatory cells, especially eosinophils, in lung and increased airway reactivity in NC and BALB/c mice. These results indicate that NC mice exhibit inherent and antigen-induced airway hyperreactivity. Therefore, NC mice are a suitable strain to use in investigating the mechanisms underlying airway hyperreactivity and such studies will provide beneficial information for understanding the pathophysiology of asthma.

  10. Risk factors for small pharyngeal airway dimensions in preorthodontic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anandarajah, Seerone; Dudhia, Raahib; Sandham, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To analyze which parameters, gathered from standard orthodontic diagnostic material, were most relevant for identifying small pharyngeal airway dimensions in preorthodontic children. Materials and Methods: The sample was composed of 105 cone beam computed tomography scans of healthy......, skeletal maturity and gender significant associations were found between pharyngeal airway dimensions and craniofacial morphology. Airway volume was positively associated with maxillary and mandibular width (P ... and sagittal jaw relationship were the most relevant factors for minimal cross-sectional area (r2 = 0.16). Conclusion: Pharyngeal airway dimensions were significantly associated with age, skeletal maturity, and craniofacial morphology in all three planes. Children with a reduced mandibular width and increased...

  11. Rule-based detection of intrathoracic airway trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonka, M.; Park, W.; Hoffman, E.A.

    1996-01-01

    New sensitive and reliable methods for assessing alterations in regional lung structure and function are critically important for the investigation and treatment of pulmonary diseases. Accurate identification of the airway tree will provide an assessment of airway structure and will provide a means by which multiple volumetric images of the lung at the same lung volume over time can be used to assess regional parenchymal changes. The authors describe a novel rule-based method for the segmentation of airway trees from three-dimensional (3-D) sets of computed tomography (CT) images, and its validation. The presented method takes advantage of a priori anatomical knowledge about pulmonary airway and vascular trees and their interrelationships. The method is based on a combination of 3-D seeded region growing that is used to identify large airways, rule-based two-dimensional (2-D) segmentation of individual CT slices to identify probable locations of smaller diameter airways, and merging of airway regions across the 3-D set of slices resulting in a tree-like airway structure. The method was validated in 40 3-mm-thick CT sections from five data sets of canine lungs scanned via electron beam CT in vivo with lung volume held at a constant pressure. The method's performance was compared with that of the conventional 3-D region growing method. The method substantially outperformed an existing conventional approach to airway tree detection

  12. Assessment of airway lesion in obstructive lung diseases by CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niimi, Akio; Matsumoto, Hisako; Ueda, Tetsuya; Mishima, Michiaki

    2002-01-01

    Airway lesion in obstructive pulmonary diseases, such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), has recently been assessed quantitatively. Especially in asthma, wall thickening of central airways, and its relation to the severity of disease or airflow obstruction has been clarified. Pathophysiologic importance of peripheral airway lesion has also been highlighted by pathologic or physiologic studies. However, direct evaluation of peripheral airway lesion is beyond resolutional limitation of CT. To assess airway trapping, an indirect CT finding of peripheral airway disease, by quantitative and semiquantitative measures and compare them with clinical indices such as pulmonary function, airway responsiveness, or airway inflammation. Patients with stable asthma (n=20) were studied. HRCT at 3 levels of both lungs were scanned. Low attenuation area (LAA)% and mean lung density were quantitatively assessed by an automatic method. Distribution of mosaic pattern was visually scored semiquantitatively. LAA% and mean lung density at full expiratory phase correlated with the degree of airflow obstruction. Mosaic score at full inspiratory phase correlated with the severity of disease and airflow obstruction. Expiratory/inspiratory ratio of mean lung density was also associated with airway responsiveness or residual volume/total lung capacity (RV/TLC). These CT findings may be useful as markers of asthma pathophysiology. (author)

  13. Dilemmas, Confusion, and Misconceptions Related to Small Airways Directed Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavorini, Federico; Pedersen, Søren; Usmani, Omar S.

    2017-01-01

    During the past decade, there has been increasing evidence that the small airways (ie, airways < 2 mm in internal diameter) contribute substantially to the pathophysiologic and clinical expression of asthma and COPD. The increased interest in small airways is, at least in part, a result of innova......During the past decade, there has been increasing evidence that the small airways (ie, airways COPD. The increased interest in small airways is, at least in part, a result...... of innovation in small-particle aerosol formulations that better target the distal lung and also advanced physiologic methods of assessing small airway responses. Increasing the precision of drug deposition may improve targeting of specific diseases or receptor locations, decrease airway drug exposure...... benefit, compared with large-particle aerosol treatment. However, a number of questions remain unanswered about the pragmatic approach relevant for clinicians to consider the role of small airways directed therapy in the day-to-day management of asthma and COPD. We thus have tried to clarify the dilemmas...

  14. Suppression of Th17-polarized airway inflammation by rapamycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joean, Oana; Hueber, Anja; Feller, Felix; Jirmo, Adan Chari; Lochner, Matthias; Dittrich, Anna-Maria; Albrecht, Melanie

    2017-11-10

    Because Th17-polarized airway inflammation correlates with poor control in bronchial asthma and is a feature of numerous other difficult-to-treat inflammatory lung diseases, new therapeutic approaches for this type of airway inflammation are necessary. We assessed different licensed anti-inflammatory agents with known or expected efficacy against Th17-polarization in mouse models of Th17-dependent airway inflammation. Upon intravenous transfer of in vitro derived Th17 cells and intranasal challenge with the corresponding antigen, we established acute and chronic murine models of Th17-polarised airway inflammation. Consecutively, we assessed the efficacy of methylprednisolone, roflumilast, azithromycin, AM80 and rapamycin against acute or chronic Th17-dependent airway inflammation. Quantifiers for Th17-associated inflammation comprised: bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) differential cell counts, allergen-specific cytokine and immunoglobulin secretion, as well as flow cytometric phenotyping of pulmonary inflammatory cells. Only rapamycin proved effective against acute Th17-dependent airway inflammation, accompanied by increased plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) and reduced neutrophils as well as reduced CXCL-1 levels in BAL. Chronic Th17-dependent airway inflammation was unaltered by rapamycin treatment. None of the other agents showed efficacy in our models. Our results demonstrate that Th17-dependent airway inflammation is difficult to treat with known agents. However, we identify rapamycin as an agent with inhibitory potential against acute Th17-polarized airway inflammation.

  15. Indexing mergers and acquisitions

    OpenAIRE

    Gang, Jianhua; Guo, Jie (Michael); Hu, Nan; Li, Xi

    2017-01-01

    We measure the efficiency of mergers and acquisitions by putting forward an index (the ‘M&A Index’) based on stochastic frontier analysis. The M&A Index is calculated for each takeover deal and is standardized between 0 and 1. An acquisition with a higher index encompasses higher efficiency. We find that takeover bids with higher M&A Indices are more likely to succeed. Moreover, the M&A Index shows a strong and positive relation with the acquirers’ post-acquisition stock perfo...

  16. NEUROTROPHIN MEDIATION OF ALLERGIC AIRWAYS RESPONSES TO INHALED DIESEL PARTICLES IN MICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neurotrophins, including nerve growth factor (NGF) partially mediate many features of allergic airways disease including airway hyper-responsiveness. Diesel exhaust particulates (DEP) associated with the combustion of diesel fuel exacerbate many of these allergic airways respons...

  17. Recombinant human DNase in children with airway malacia and lower respiratory tract infection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaard, R.; Jongste, J.C. de; Vaessen-Verberne, A.A.; Hop, W.C.J.; Merkus, P.J.F.M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children with airway malacia often have protracted courses of airway infections, because dynamic airway collapse during coughing results in impaired mucociliary clearance. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the mucolytic drug recombinant human deoxyribonuclease

  18. Reduction of Eosinophils in Small Airways by Inhaled Steroids is Insufficient in Patients with Adult Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Tanaka

    2006-01-01

    Conclusions: It was speculated that inhaled CFC-BDP and DP-FP might deposit mainly in large airways and fail to fully reach small airways, consequently allowing eosinophilic inflammation to continue in small airways.

  19. Avian Influenza Virus Glycoproteins Restrict Virus Replication and Spread through Human Airway Epithelium at Temperatures of the Proximal Airways

    OpenAIRE

    Scull, Margaret A.; Gillim-Ross, Laura; Santos, Celia; Roberts, Kim L.; Bordonali, Elena; Subbarao, Kanta; Barclay, Wendy S.; Pickles, Raymond J.

    2009-01-01

    Transmission of avian influenza viruses from bird to human is a rare event even though avian influenza viruses infect the ciliated epithelium of human airways in vitro and ex vivo. Using an in vitro model of human ciliated airway epithelium (HAE), we demonstrate that while human and avian influenza viruses efficiently infect at temperatures of the human distal airways (37 degrees C), avian, but not human, influenza viruses are restricted for infection at the cooler temperatures of the human p...

  20. Acquisition Workforce Annual Report 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — This is the Federal Acquisition Institute's (FAI's) Annual demographic report on the Federal acquisition workforce, showing trends by occupational series, employment...

  1. Acquisition Workforce Annual Report 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — This is the Federal Acquisition Institute's (FAI's) Annual demographic report on the Federal acquisition workforce, showing trends by occupational series, employment...

  2. Recurrent airway obstructions in a patient with benign tracheal stenosis and a silicone airway stent: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, KB; Robinson, PC

    2008-01-01

    Airway stents (silicone and metal stents) are used to treat patients with benign tracheal stenosis, who are symptomatic and in whom tracheal surgical reconstruction has failed or is not appropriate. However airway stents are often associated with complications such as migration, granuloma formation and mucous hypersecretion, which cause significant morbidity, especially in patients with benign tracheal stenosis and relatively normal life expectancy. We report a patient who had frequent critical airway obstructions over 8 years due to granuloma and mucus hypersecretion in a silicone airway stent. The problem was resolved when the silicone stent was removed and replaced with a covered self expanding metal stent. PMID:18840299

  3. The Acquisition of Particles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    process of language acquisition on the basis of linguistic evidence the child is exposed to. ..... particle verbs are recognized in language processing differs from the way morphologically ..... In Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 11.

  4. High speed data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, P.S.

    1997-07-01

    A general introduction to high speed data acquisition system techniques in modern particle physics experiments is given. Examples are drawn from the SELEX(E78 1) high statistics charmed baryon production and decay experiment now taking data at Fermilab

  5. Sleep apnea is associated with bronchial inflammation and continuous positive airway pressure-induced airway hyperresponsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devouassoux, Gilles; Lévy, Patrick; Rossini, Eliane; Pin, Isabelle; Fior-Gozlan, Michèle; Henry, Mireille; Seigneurin, Daniel; Pépin, Jean-Louis

    2007-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) is associated with systemic and upper airway inflammation. Pharyngeal inflammation has a potential role in upper airway collapse, whereas systemic inflammation relates to cardiovascular morbidity. However, the presence of an inflammatory involvement of lower airway has been poorly investigated. The aim of the study was to demonstrate an inflammatory process at the bronchial level in patients with OSA and to analyze effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) application and humidification on bronchial mucosa. The study was conducted by using sequential induced sputum for cell analysis and IL-8 production, nitric oxide exhalation measurement, and methacholine challenge before and after CPAP. Bronchial neutrophilia and a high IL-8 concentration were observed in untreated OSA compared with controls (75% +/- 20% vs 43% +/- 12%, P Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is associated with bronchial inflammation. Our data demonstrate CPAP effect on the development of AHR, possibly facilitated by the pre-existing inflammation. Both issues should be evaluated during long-term CPAP use. Results showing a spontaneous bronchial inflammation in OSA and the development of a CPAP-related AHR require a long-term follow-up to evaluate consequences on chronic bronchial obstruction.

  6. Airway responses towards allergens - from the airway epithelium to T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papazian, Dick; Hansen, Søren; Würtzen, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    -damaged, healthy epithelium lowers the DCs ability to induce inflammatory T cell responses towards allergens. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on which signals from the airway epithelium, from first contact with inhaled allergens all the way to the ensuing Th2 cell responses...

  7. Allergen-induced changes in airway responsiveness are related to baseline airway responsiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deBruinWeller, MS; Weller, FR; RijssenbeekNouwens, LHM; Jansen, HM; deMonchy, JGR

    In the literature, bronchial allergen challenge is usually reported to result in an increase in histamine-induced airway responsiveness (AR). The present study investigated the relation between baseline AR and allergen-induced changes in AR. The effect of allergen challenge on AR was investigated in

  8. Secreted osteopontin is highly polymerized in human airways and fragmented in asthmatic airway secretions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Arjomandi

    Full Text Available Osteopontin (OPN is a member of the small integrin-binding ligand N-linked glycoprotein (SIBLING family and a cytokine with diverse biologic roles. OPN undergoes extensive post-translational modifications, including polymerization and proteolytic fragmentation, which alters its biologic activity. Recent studies suggest that OPN may contribute to the pathogenesis of asthma.To determine whether secreted OPN (sOPN is polymerized in human airways and whether it is qualitatively different in asthma, we used immunoblotting to examine sOPN in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid samples from 12 healthy and 21 asthmatic subjects (and in sputum samples from 27 healthy and 21 asthmatic subjects. All asthmatic subjects had mild to moderate asthma and abstained from corticosteroids during the study. Furthermore, we examined the relationship between airway sOPN and cellular inflammation.We found that sOPN in BAL fluid and sputum exists in polymeric, monomeric, and cleaved forms, with most of it in polymeric form. Compared to healthy subjects, asthmatic subjects had proportionately less polymeric sOPN and more monomeric and cleaved sOPN. Polymeric sOPN in BAL fluid was associated with increased alveolar macrophage counts in airways in all subjects.These results suggest that sOPN in human airways (1 undergoes extensive post-translational modification by polymerization and proteolytic fragmentation, (2 is more fragmented and less polymerized in subjects with mild to moderate asthma, and (3 may contribute to recruitment or survival of alveolar macrophages.

  9. Experimental absorbable stent permits airway remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kuo-Sheng; Liu, Yun-Hen; Peng, Yi-Jie; Liu, Shih-Jung

    2011-02-01

    Despite metallic and silicone stents being effective in treating various airway lesions, many concerns still remain. A bioresorbable stent that scaffolds the airway lumen and dissolves after the remodeling process is completed has advantages over metallic and silicone stents. We designed and fabricated a new mesh-type bioresorbable stent with a backbone of polycaprolactone (PCL), and evaluated its safety and biocompatibility in a rabbit trachea model. The PCL stent was fabricated by a laboratory-made microinjection molding machine. In vitro mechanical strength of the PCL stents was tested and compared to that of commercial silicone stents. The bioresorbable stents were surgically implanted into the cervical trachea of New Zealand white rabbits (n=6). Animals received bronchoscopic examination at 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks after surgery. Histological examination was completed to evaluate the biocompatibility of the stents. No animals died during the period of study. Distal stent migration was noted in 1 rabbit. In-stent secretion accumulation was found in 2 rabbits. Histological examination showed intact ciliated epithelium and marked leukocyte infiltration in the submucosa of the stented area at 10 and 28 weeks. Stent degradation was minimal, and the mechanical strength was well preserved at the end of 33 weeks. These preliminary findings showed good safety and biocompatibility of the new PCL stent when used in the airway remodeling. PCL could be a promising bioresorbable material for stent design if prolonged degradation time is required. Copyright © 2011 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Regional aerosol deposition in human upper airways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    During the report period significant progress on the quantitative understanding of regional upper airway deposition of airborne particle has been realized. Replicate models of the human upper airways obtained from post-mortem casting of the nasal, oral, pharyngeal, laryngeal and upper tracheal regions and in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the same regions of adults and children have been employed to determine the overall and local deposition characteristics of aerosols in the ultrafine (1--100 μm diameter) and fine (0.8--12 μm diameter) region. Studies have been carried out for both nasal and oral breathing during inspiratory and expiratory flow at constant flow rates representative of rest and states of exercise. The results of these investigations indicate that particles in the size range of ''unattached'' radon progeny (1--3 nm) are deposited in both the nasal and oral passages with high efficiency (60--80%) for both inspiration and expiration, with the nasal deposition being somewhat greater (5--10%) than oral deposition. The effect of flow rate on upper airway deposition for both pathways is not great; data analysis indicates that the deposition for all flow rates from 4--50 liters/minute can be grouped by plotting deposition vs Q- 1/8 , where Q is flow rate, a far weaker dependency than observed for inertial deposition. Diffusional transport is the primary mechanism of deposition, and size dependence can be accounted for by plotting, deposition percent vs D n where D is particle diffusion coefficient and n ranges from 0.5--0.66. 2 refs

  11. Successful management of airway hemangioma with propranolol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendiratta, Vibhu; Varghese, Bincy; Chander, Ram; Parakh, Ankit; Solanki, Ravi S

    2013-06-01

    Airway hemangiomas can be difficult to manage and cause anxiety in both the parents and the treating physician. Propranolol, a nonselective beta-blocker, has recently been used for treating proliferating infantile hemangiomas. We report successful management of a proliferating, large, mixed infantile hemangioma with subglottic extension in an Indian infant using oral propranolol in a dose of 2mg/kg/day without any side effects. Induction of early involution and freedom from the side effects of steroid therapy seem encouraging for using propranolol as a first line treatment modality in the management of troublesome hemangiomas. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  12. Durability of Silicone Airway Stents in the Management of Benign Central Airway Obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karush, Justin M; Seder, Christopher W; Raman, Anish; Chmielewski, Gary W; Liptay, Michael J; Warren, William H; Arndt, Andrew T

    2017-10-01

    The literature is devoid of a comprehensive analysis of silicone airway stenting for benign central airway obstruction (BCAO). With the largest series in the literature to date, we aim to demonstrate the safety profile, pattern of re-intervention, and duration of silicone airway stents. An institutional database was used to identify patients with BCAO who underwent rigid bronchoscopy with dilation and silicone stent placement between 2002 and 2015 at Rush University Medical Center. During the study period, 243 stents were utilized in 63 patients with BCAO. Pure tracheal stenosis was encountered in 71% (45/63), pure tracheomalacia in 11% (7/63), and a hybrid of both in 17% (11/63). Median freedom from re-intervention was 104 (IQR 167) days. Most common indications for re-intervention include mucus accumulation (60%; 131/220), migration (28%; 62/220), and intubation (8%; 18/220). The most common diameters of stent placed were 12 mm (94/220) and 14 mm (96/220). The most common lengths utilized were 30 mm (60/220) and 40 mm (77/220). Duration was not effected by stent size when placed for discrete stenosis. However, 14 mm stents outperformed 12 mm when tracheomalacia was present (157 vs. 37 days; p = 0.005). Patients with a hybrid stenosis fared better when longer stents were used (60 mm stents outlasted 40 mm stents 173 vs. 56 days; p = 0.05). Rigid bronchoscopy with silicone airway stenting is a safe and effective option for the management of benign central airway obstruction. Our results highlight several strategies to improve stent duration.

  13. A 'Good' muscle in a 'Bad' environment: the importance of airway smooth muscle force adaptation to airway hyperresponsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossé, Ynuk; Chapman, David G; Paré, Peter D; King, Gregory G; Salome, Cheryl M

    2011-12-15

    Asthma is characterized by airway inflammation, with a consequent increase in spasmogens, and exaggerated airway narrowing in response to stimuli, termed airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). The nature of any relationship between inflammation and AHR is less clear. Recent ex vivo data has suggested a novel mechanism by which inflammation may lead to AHR, in which increased basal ASM-tone, due to the presence of spasmogens in the airways, may "strengthen" the ASM and ultimately lead to exaggerated airway narrowing. This phenomenon was termed "force adaptation" [Bossé, Y., Chin, L.Y., Paré, P.D., Seow, C.Y., 2009. Adaptation of airway smooth muscle to basal tone: relevance to airway hyperresponsiveness. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 40, 13-18]. However, it is unknown whether the magnitude of the effect of force adaptation ex vivo could contribute to exaggerated airway narrowing in vivo. Our aim was to utilize a computational model of ASM shortening in order to quantify the potential effect of force adaptation on airway narrowing when all other mechanical factors were kept constant. The shortening in the model is dictated by a balance between physiological loads and ASM force-generating capacity at different lengths. The results suggest that the magnitude of the effect of force adaptation on ASM shortening would lead to substantially more airway narrowing during bronchial challenge at any given airway generation. We speculate that the increased basal ASM-tone in asthma, due to the presence of inflammation-derived spasmogens, produces an increase in the force-generating capacity of ASM, predisposing to AHR during subsequent challenge. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Mortality by Level of Emphysema and Airway Wall Thickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Ane; Skorge, Trude Duelien; Bottai, Matteo

    2013-01-01

    There is limited knowledge of the prognostic value of quantitative computed tomography (CT) measures of emphysema and airway wall thickness (AWT) on mortality.......There is limited knowledge of the prognostic value of quantitative computed tomography (CT) measures of emphysema and airway wall thickness (AWT) on mortality....

  15. Ciclesonide improves measures of small airway involvement in asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, J.; Douma, W. R.; ten Hacken, N. H. T.; Vonk, J. M.; Oudkerk, M.; Postma, D. S.

    Ciclesonide is delivered as a small-particle inhaled corticosteroid and improves lung function and airway hyperresponsiveness. The objective of the present study was to assess whether ciclesonide can specifically improve small airway function in asthma. A total of 16 mild-to-moderate asthma patients

  16. A clinical comparison of disposable airway devices | Strydom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cuff pressures were significantly higher in the Ambu™ and LMA Unique™ (p = 0.001). Maximum airway pressure attainable after 5 minutes was significantly higher in the Ambu™ (p = 0.036). Airway trauma as graded by visible blood on the device was low, and similar between groups (p = 0.237). Secretions were negligible ...

  17. Radiation induced changes in the airway - anaesthetic implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radiation induced changes in the airway - anaesthetic implications: case report. Mallika Balakrishnan, Renju Kuriakose, Rachel Cherian Koshy. Abstract. Radiation induces a variety of changes in the airway that can potentially lead to difficult intubation. Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) of the mandible, a severe consequence of ...

  18. Airway status in civilian maxillofacial gunshot Injuries in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The airway was threatened in 20/92 cases at admission; 12/20 cases were treated with oro-or nasotracheal intubation, and 9/12 later had elective tracheostomies; 8/20 needed immediate surgical airways, 5 tracheostomies and 3 cricothyroidotomies (all later converted to tracheostomies). Three of thirty-seven patients with ...

  19. Airway Management Dilemma in a Patient with Maxillofacial Injury ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    He had tracheostomy and repair of the laceration under general anaesthesia. Anaesthesia was induced with intravenous ketamine with the patient in the left lateral position while traction on the tongue using a Magill's forceps ensured patency of the airway. A classical laryngeal mask airway was subsequently inserted to ...

  20. Airway management after maxillectomy with free flap reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickman, Daniel S; Reh, Douglas D; Schneider, Daniel S; Bush, Ben; Rosenthal, Eben L; Wax, Mark K

    2013-08-01

    Maxillectomy defects require complex 3-dimensional reconstructions often best suited to microvascular free tissue transfer. Postoperative airway management during this procedure has little discussion in the literature and is often dictated by surgical dogma. The purpose of this article was to review our experience in order to evaluate the effect of airway management on perioperative outcomes in patients undergoing maxillectomy with free flap reconstruction. A retrospective chart review was performed on patients receiving maxillectomy with microvascular reconstruction at 2 institutions between 1999 and 2011. Patient's airways were managed with or without elective tracheotomy at the surgical team's discretion and different perioperative outcomes were measured. The primary outcome was incidence of airway complication including pneumonia and need for further airway intervention. Secondary outcome was measured as factors leading to perioperative performance of the tracheotomy. Seventy-nine of 143 patients received elective tracheotomy perioperatively. The incidence of airway complication was equivalent between groups (10.1% vs 9.4%; p = .89). Patients with cardiopulmonary comorbidities were more likely to receive perioperative tracheotomy (74.1% vs 50.9%; p = .03) without a difference in airway complications. Other patient cofactors did not have an impact on perioperative tracheotomy or airway complication rate. Elective tracheotomy may safely be avoided in a subset of patients undergoing maxillectomy with microvascular reconstruction. Elective tracheotomy should be considered in patients with cardiopulmonary risk factors. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Airways inflammatory and atopy-related responses in athletes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The prevalence of asthma and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in highly trained endurance athletes is rising. The type of training (i.e. endurance, or speed and power) seems to influence the airway symptoms. High-intensity exercise and training might contribute to the development of asthma or AHR in athletes ...

  2. Perioperative adverse airway events in cleft lip and palate repair ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Airway-related problems account for the majority of anaesthetic morbidity in paediatric anaesthesia, but more so for cleft lip and palate repair. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency, pattern, management and outcome of adverse airway events during the perioperative period in cleft lip and palate ...

  3. In vivo models of human airway epithelium repair and regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Coraux

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite an efficient defence system, the airway surface epithelium, in permanent contact with the external milieu, is frequently injured by inhaled pollutants, microorganisms and viruses. The response of the airway surface epithelium to an acute injury includes a succession of cellular events varying from the loss of the surface epithelium integrity to partial shedding of the epithelium or even to complete denudation of the basement membrane. The epithelium has then to repair and regenerate to restore its functions. The in vivo study of epithelial regeneration in animal models has shown that airway epithelial cells are able to dedifferentiate, spread, migrate over the denuded basement membrane and progressively redifferentiate to reconstitute a functional respiratory epithelium after several weeks. Humanised tracheal xenograft models have been developed in immunodeficient nude and severe combined immunodeficient (SCID mice in order to mimic the natural regeneration process of the human airway epithelium and to analyse the cellular and molecular events involved during the different steps of airway epithelial reconstitution. These models represent very powerful tools for analysing the modulation of the biological functions of the epithelium during its regeneration. They are also very useful for identifying stem/progenitor cells of the human airway epithelium. A better knowledge of the mechanisms involved in airway epithelium regeneration, as well as the characterisation of the epithelial stem and progenitor cells, may pave the way to regenerative therapeutics, allowing the reconstitution of a functional airway epithelium in numerous respiratory diseases, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, cystic fibrosis and bronchiolitis.

  4. Repair of damaged supraglottic airway devices: A novel method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapoor Dheeraj

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Damage of laryngeal mask airway and other supraglottic airway devices has always been a matter of concern. Although manufacturer recommends maximum 40 uses of LMA (and its congeners but damage before 40 uses needs to be evaluated. We hereby, describe a novel method of repair of supraglottic devices when damage occurs at mask inflation line or pilot balloon valve assembly.

  5. Bacteria isolated from the airways of paediatric patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge of which bacteria are found in the airways of paediatric patients with bronchiectasis unrelated to cystic fibrosis. (CF) is important in defining empirical antibiotic guidelines for the treatment of acute infective exacerbations. Objective. To describe the bacteria isolated from the airways of children with non-CF ...

  6. Aerosol deposition in the upper airways of a child

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jongh, Franciscus H.C.; Rinkel, M.J.G.; Hoeijmakers, Hendrik Willem Marie

    2005-01-01

    In a small child, normally only a small amount of inhaled aerosol particles reaches the lungs because the majority deposits in the upper airways. In this study, the upper airways of a 9- month-old child, based on computed tomography (CT) data, are modeled to serve as input for a computational fluid

  7. Endotracheal tube connector defect causing airway obstruction in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    detected during routine visual inspection before their use, while some go unnoticed during such inspection and can lead to partial or complete airway obstruction in intubated patients. We report one case of partial airway obstruction resulting from manufacturing defect in the ET connector. A 3-month-old infant girl weighing 5 ...

  8. Airway skills training using a human patient simulator | Moodley ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of airway management skills using the simulator. Participant satisfaction was much better in the simulator group. The importance of psychomotor reinforcement should be borne in mind when designing simulation courses. Keywords: human patient simulator, simulation, airway management, psychomotor skills ...

  9. 21 CFR 868.1780 - Inspiratory airway pressure meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inspiratory airway pressure meter. 868.1780 Section 868.1780 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... meter. (a) Identification. An inspiratory airway pressure meter is a device used to measure the amount...

  10. Mechanisms of mechanical strain memory in airway smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hak Rim; Hai, Chi-Ming

    2005-10-01

    We evaluated the hypothesis that mechanical deformation of airway smooth muscle induces structural remodeling of airway smooth muscle cells, thereby modulating mechanical performance in subsequent contractions. This hypothesis implied that past experience of mechanical deformation was retained (or "memorized") as structural changes in airway smooth muscle cells, which modulated the cell's subsequent contractile responses. We termed this phenomenon mechanical strain memory. Preshortening has been found to induce attenuation of both force and isotonic shortening velocity in cholinergic receptor-activated airway smooth muscle. Rapid stretching of cholinergic receptor-activated airway smooth muscle from an initial length to a final length resulted in post-stretch force and myosin light chain phosphorylation that correlated significantly with initial length. Thus post-stretch muscle strips appeared to retain memory of the initial length prior to rapid stretch (mechanical strain memory). Cytoskeletal recruitment of actin- and integrin-binding proteins and Erk 1/2 MAPK appeared to be important mechanisms of mechanical strain memory. Sinusoidal length oscillation led to force attenuation during oscillation and in subsequent contractions in intact airway smooth muscle, and p38 MAPK appeared to be an important mechanism. In contrast, application of local mechanical strain to cultured airway smooth muscle cells induced local actin polymerization and cytoskeletal stiffening. It is conceivable that deep inspiration-induced bronchoprotection may be a manifestation of mechanical strain memory such that mechanical deformation from past breathing cycles modulated the mechanical performance of airway smooth muscle in subsequent cycles in a continuous and dynamic manner.

  11. Inflammatory cells and airway defense against Aspergillus fumigatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kauffman, HF; Tomee, JFC

    The authors offer a summary of the attack strategies of A. fumigatus and interactions with the airway defense system. The possible role of proteolytic enzymes from Aspergillus in the inflammatory response of the airways is also discussed. Evidence is given for the in vivo production of these

  12. Epiglottic abscess causing acute airway obstruction in an adult

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasileiadis, I.; Kapetanakis, S.; Vasileiadis, D.; Petousis, A.

    2013-01-01

    Acute epiglottitis is an acute inflammation in the supraglottic region of the oropharynx which is a potentially life-threatening condition leading to rapid upper airway obstruction. An infrequent sequel of acute epiglottitis is the epiglottic abscess. Less than 50 cases have been reported in the international literature and even less are the cases that acute surgical intervention was necessary to secure the airway. We report a young man with sudden onset of odynophagia, dysphonia and dyspnea and rapidly progression of upper airway obstruction. Clinical examination with fiberoptic nasopharyngolaryngoscope in emergency department demonstrated an epiglottic abscess. An urgent tracheostomy was performed in order to secure patient's airway and afterward, the patient underwent direct laryngoscopy and drainage of abscess and intravenous antibiotics were administrated. The diagnosis of epiglottic abscess should be considered in adult patients with odynophagia and dysphonia. Principles of treatment include aggressive airway management, surgical drainage of abscess and intravenous antibiotics. (author)

  13. Airway Obstruction Among Latino Poultry Processing Workers in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    MIRABELLI, MARIA C.; CHATTERJEE, ARJUN B.; MORA, DANA C.; ARCURY, THOMAS A.; BLOCKER, JILL N.; CHEN, HAIYING; GRZYWACZ, JOSEPH G.; MARÍN, ANTONIO J.; SCHULZ, MARK R.; QUANDT, SARA A.

    2015-01-01

    This analysis was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of airway obstruction among Latino poultry processing workers. Data were collected from 279 poultry processing workers and 222 other manual laborers via spirometry and interviewer-administered questionnaires. Participants employed in poultry processing reported the activities they perform at work. Participants with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) or FEV1/forced expiratory volume (FVC) below the lower limits of normal were categorized as having airway obstruction. Airway obstruction was identified in 13% of poultry processing workers and 12% of the comparison population. Among poultry processing workers, the highest prevalence of airway obstruction (21%) occurred among workers deboning chickens (prevalence ratio: 1.75; 95% confidence interval: 0.97, 3.15). These findings identify variations in the prevalence of airway obstruction across categories of work activities. PMID:24965321

  14. Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) of the upper airway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You-Ten, Kong Eric; Siddiqui, Naveed; Teoh, Wendy H

    2018-01-01

    is to provide an overview of the indications for point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) of the upper airway. The use of US to guide and assist clinical airway management has potential benefits for both provider and patient. Ultrasound can be utilized to determine airway size and predict the appropriate diameter...... of single-lumen endotracheal tubes (ETTs), double-lumen ETTs, and tracheostomy tubes. Ultrasonography can differentiate tracheal, esophageal, and endobronchial intubation. Ultrasonography of the neck can accurately localize the cricothyroid membrane for emergency airway access and similarly identify...... tracheal rings for US-guided tracheostomy. In addition, US can identify vocal cord dysfunction and pathology before induction of anesthesia. A rapidly growing body of evidence showing ultrasonography used in conjunction with hands-on management of the airway may benefit patient care. Increasing awareness...

  15. Vessel-guided airway segmentation based on voxel classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; Sporring, Jon; Ashraf, Haseem

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a method for improving airway tree segmentation using vessel orientation information. We use the fact that an airway branch is always accompanied by an artery, with both structures having similar orientations. This work is based on a  voxel classification airway segmentation...... method proposed previously. The probability of a voxel belonging to the airway, from the voxel classification method, is augmented with an orientation similarity measure as a criterion for region growing. The orientation similarity measure of a voxel indicates how similar is the orientation...... of the surroundings of a voxel, estimated based on a tube model, is to that of a neighboring vessel. The proposed method is tested on 20 CT images from different subjects selected randomly from a lung cancer screening study. Length of the airway branches from the results of the proposed method are significantly...

  16. Post-Acquisition IT Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan; Yetton, Philip

    2013-01-01

    The extant research on post-acquisition IT integration analyzes how acquirers realize IT-based value in individual acquisitions. However, serial acquirers make 60% of acquisitions. These acquisitions are not isolated events, but are components in growth-by-acquisition programs. To explain how...... serial acquirers realize IT-based value, we develop three propositions on the sequential effects on post-acquisition IT integration in acquisition programs. Their combined explanation is that serial acquirers must have a growth-by-acquisition strategy that includes the capability to improve...... IT integration capabilities, to sustain high alignment across acquisitions and to maintain a scalable IT infrastructure with a flat or decreasing cost structure. We begin the process of validating the three propositions by investigating a longitudinal case study of a growth-by-acquisition program....

  17. Mucociliary clearance, airway inflammation and nasal symptoms in urban motorcyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza C.S. Brant

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: There is evidence that outdoor workers exposed to high levels of air pollution exhibit airway inflammation and increased airway symptoms. We hypothesized that these workers would experience increased airway symptoms and decreased nasal mucociliary clearance associated with their exposure to air pollution. METHODS: In total, 25 non-smoking commercial motorcyclists, aged 18-44 years, were included in this study. These drivers work 8-12 hours per day, 5 days per week, driving on urban streets. Nasal mucociliary clearance was measured by the saccharine transit test; airway acidification was measured by assessing the pH of exhaled breath condensate; and airway symptoms were measured by the Sino-nasal Outcome Test-20 questionnaire. To assess personal air pollution exposure, the subjects used a passive-diffusion nitrogen dioxide (NO2 concentration-monitoring system during the 14 days before each assessment. The associations between NO2 and the airway outcomes were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test and the Chi-Square test. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01976039. RESULTS: Compared with clearance in healthy adult males, mucociliary clearance was decreased in 32% of the motorcyclists. Additionally, 64% of the motorcyclists had airway acidification and 92% experienced airway symptoms. The median personal NO2 exposure level was 75 mg/m3 for these subjects and a significant association was observed between NO2 and impaired mucociliary clearance (p = 0.036. CONCLUSION: Non-smoking commercial motorcyclists exhibit increased airway symptoms and airway acidification as well as decreased nasal mucociliary clearance, all of which are significantly associated with the amount of exposure to air pollution.

  18. Continuous positive airway pressure therapy: new generations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Garvey, John F

    2010-02-01

    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the treatment of choice for obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS). However, CPAP is not tolerated by all patients with OSAS and alternative modes of pressure delivery have been developed to overcome pressure intolerance, thereby improving patient comfort and adherence. Auto-adjustable positive airway pressure (APAP) devices may be utilised for the long-term management of OSAS and may also assist in the initial diagnosis of OSAS and titration of conventional CPAP therapy. Newer modalities such as C-Flex and A-Flex also show promise as treatment options in the future. However, the evidence supporting the use of these alternative modalities remains scant, in particular with regard to long-term cardiovascular outcomes. In addition, not all APAP devices use the same technological algorithms and data supporting individual APAP devices cannot be extrapolated to support all. Further studies are required to validate the roles of APAP, C-Flex and A-Flex. In the interim, standard CPAP therapy should continue as the mainstay of OSAS management.

  19. Continuous positive airway pressure therapy: new generations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Garvey, John F

    2012-02-01

    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the treatment of choice for obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS). However, CPAP is not tolerated by all patients with OSAS and alternative modes of pressure delivery have been developed to overcome pressure intolerance, thereby improving patient comfort and adherence. Auto-adjustable positive airway pressure (APAP) devices may be utilised for the long-term management of OSAS and may also assist in the initial diagnosis of OSAS and titration of conventional CPAP therapy. Newer modalities such as C-Flex and A-Flex also show promise as treatment options in the future. However, the evidence supporting the use of these alternative modalities remains scant, in particular with regard to long-term cardiovascular outcomes. In addition, not all APAP devices use the same technological algorithms and data supporting individual APAP devices cannot be extrapolated to support all. Further studies are required to validate the roles of APAP, C-Flex and A-Flex. In the interim, standard CPAP therapy should continue as the mainstay of OSAS management.

  20. [Anaesthesia for patients with obstructive airway diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeben, H; Keller, V; Silvanus, M T

    2014-01-01

    Obstructive lung diseases like asthma or chronic obstructive lung diseases have a high prevalence and are one of the four most frequent causes of death. Obstructive lung diseases can be significantly influenced by the choice of anesthetic techniques and anesthetic agents. Basically, the severity of the COPD and the degree of bronchial hyperreactivity will determine the perioperative anesthetic risk. This risk has to be assessed by a thorough preoperative evaluation and will give the rationale on which to decide for the adequate anaesthetic technique. In particular, airway instrumentation can cause severe reflex bronchoconstriction. The use of regional anaesthesia alone or in combination with general anaesthesia can help to avoid airway irritation and leads to reduced postoperative complications. Prophylactic antiobstructive treatment, volatile anesthetics, propofol, opioids, and an adequate choice of muscle relaxants minimize the anesthetic risk, when general anesthesia is required In case, despite all precautions intra-operative bronchospasm occurs, deepening of anaesthesia, repeated administration of beta2-adrenergic agents and parasympatholytics, and a single systemic dose of corticosteroids represent the main treatment options.

  1. Foreign body in children?s airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassol Vitor

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical characteristics and the results of bronchoscopic treatment of children due to foreign body aspiration in a university hospital. METHOD: Time series of children who underwent bronchoscopies for foreign bodies aspirated into the airway between March 1993 and July 2002. Each patient was analyzed for age, sex, initial clinical diagnosis, nature and location of the foreign body, duration of symptoms between aspiration and bronchoscopy, radiological findings, results of bronchoscopic removal, complications of bronchoscopy and presence of foreign bodies in the airways. RESULTS: Thirty-four children, 20 (59% boys, ages ranging from nine months to nine years (median = 23 months. In 32 (94% children the foreign body was removed by rigid bronchoscope, and two resulted in thoracotomy. Foreign bodies were more frequent in children under three years of age (66%. A clinical history of foreign body inhalation was obtained in 27 (80% cases. Most of the foreign bodies removed were organic (65% and more frequently found in the right bronchial tree (59%. Foreign bodies were removed within 24 hours in 18 (53% cases. The most frequent radiographic findings were: unilateral air trapping, atelectasis and radiopac foreign body. Major bronchoscopy complications occurred in seven children (22%, and there were no deaths. CONCLUSIONS: More attention is necessary to the respiratory symptoms of aspirations, mainly in boys at early ages, with clinical history and compatible radiological findings. Most foreign bodies removed were of organic nature. In this case series, therapeutic rigid bronchoscopy was effective with few complications.

  2. Diagnosis of bronchiectasis and airway wall thickening in children with cystic fibrosis: Objective airway-artery quantification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Kuo-Kim (WieYing); M. de Bruijne (Marleen); J. Petersen (Jens); K. Nasserinejad (Kazem); Ozturk, H. (Hadiye); Chen, Y. (Yong); A. Perez-Rovira (Adria); H.A.W.M. Tiddens (Harm)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: To quantify airway and artery (AA)-dimensions in cystic fibrosis (CF) and control patients for objective CT diagnosis of bronchiectasis and airway wall thickness (AWT). Methods: Spirometer-guided inspiratory and expiratory CTs of 11 CF and 12 control patients were collected

  3. Specific immune responses against airway epithelial cells in a transgenic mouse-trachea transplantation model for obliterative airway disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qu, N; de Haan, A; Harmsen, MC; Kroese, FGM; de Leij, LFMH; Prop, J

    2003-01-01

    Background. Immune injury to airway epithelium is suggested to play a central role in the pathogenesis of obliterative bronchiolitis (OB) after clinical lung transplantation. In several studies, a rejection model of murine trachea transplants is used, resulting in obliterative airway disease (OAD)

  4. Acquisition of antigens by airway dendritic cells. Do we know enough?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The respiratory system is endowed with a number of structural and functional barriers that protect it against harmful and innocuous material from taking advantage of its vast surface area to gain access into the organism. These barriers include; 1) the surfactant system 2) a highly efficient mucociliary escalator system 3) a ...

  5. Seismic data acquisition systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolvankar, V.G.; Nadre, V.N.; Rao, D.S.

    1989-01-01

    Details of seismic data acquisition systems developed at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay are reported. The seismic signals acquired belong to different signal bandwidths in the band from 0.02 Hz to 250 Hz. All these acquisition systems are built around a unique technique of recording multichannel data on to a single track of an audio tape and in digital form. Techniques of how these signals in different bands of frequencies were acquired and recorded are described. Method of detecting seismic signals and its performance is also discussed. Seismic signals acquired in different set-ups are illustrated. Time indexing systems for different set-ups and multichannel waveform display systems which form essential part of the data acquisition systems are also discussed. (author). 13 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  6. Airway responsiveness to mannitol in asthma is associated with chymase-positive mast cells and eosinophilic airway inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sverrild, Asger; Bergqvist, Anders; Baines, Katherine J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to inhaled mannitol is associated with indirect markers of mast cell activation and eosinophilic airway inflammation. It is unknown how AHR to mannitol relates to mast cell phenotype, mast cell function and measures of eosinophilic inflammation in airway...... tissue. We compared the number and phenotype of mast cells, mRNA expression of mast cell-associated genes and number of eosinophils in airway tissue of subjects with asthma and healthy controls in relation to AHR to mannitol. METHODS: Airway hyperresponsiveness to inhaled mannitol was measured in 23 non......-smoking, corticosteroid-free asthmatic individuals and 10 healthy controls. Mast cells and eosinophils were identified in mucosal biopsies from all participants. Mast cells were divided into phenotypes based on the presence of chymase. mRNA expression of mast cell-associated genes was measured by real-time PCR. RESULTS...

  7. LEGS data acquisition facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeVine, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    The data acquisition facility for the LEGS medium energy photonuclear beam line is composed of an auxiliary crate controller (ACC) acting as a front-end processor, loosely coupled to a time-sharing host computer based on a UNIX-like environment. The ACC services all real-time demands in the CAMAC crate: it responds to LAMs generated by data acquisition modules, to keyboard commands, and it refreshes the graphics display at frequent intervals. The host processor is needed only for printing histograms and recording event buffers on magnetic tape. The host also provides the environment for software development. The CAMAC crate is interfaced by a VERSAbus CAMAC branch driver

  8. Acquisition IT Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan; Øhrgaard, Christian

    2015-01-01

    of temporary agency workers. Following an analytic induction approach, theoretically grounded in the re-source-based view of the firm, we identify the complimentary and supplementary roles consultants can assume in acquisition IT integration. Through case studies of three acquirers, we investigate how...... the acquirers appropriate the use of agency workers as part of its acquisition strategy. For the investigated acquirers, assigning roles to agency workers is contingent on balancing the needs of knowledge induction and knowledge retention, as well as experience richness and in-depth under-standing. Composition...

  9. Pediatric Trainees Managing a Difficult Airway: Comparison of Laryngeal Mask Airway, Direct, and Video-Assisted Laryngoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Art Ambrosio MD

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective Difficult airway management is a key skill required by all pediatric physicians, yet training on multiple modalities is lacking. The objective of this study was to compare the rate of, and time to, successful advanced infant airway placement with direct laryngoscopy, video-assisted laryngoscopy, and laryngeal mask airway (LMA in a difficult airway simulator. This study is the first to compare the success with 3 methods for difficult airway management among pediatric trainees. Study Design Randomized crossover pilot study. Setting Tertiary academic medical center. Methods Twenty-two pediatric residents, interns, and medical students were tested. Participants were provided 1 training session by faculty using a normal infant manikin. Subjects then performed all 3 of the aforementioned advanced airway modalities in a randomized order on a difficult airway model of a Robin sequence. Success was defined as confirmed endotracheal intubation or correct LMA placement by the testing instructor in ≤120 seconds. Results Direct laryngoscopy demonstrated a significantly higher placement success rate (77.3% than video-assisted laryngoscopy (36.4%, P = .0117 and LMA (31.8%, P = .0039. Video-assisted laryngoscopy required a significantly longer amount of time during successful intubations (84.8 seconds; 95% CI, 59.4-110.1 versus direct laryngoscopy (44.9 seconds; 95% CI, 33.8-55.9 and LMA placement (36.6 seconds; 95% CI, 24.7-48.4. Conclusions Pediatric trainees demonstrated significantly higher success using direct laryngoscopy in a difficult airway simulator model. However, given the potential lifesaving implications of advanced airway adjuncts, including video-assisted laryngoscopy and LMA placement, more extensive training on adjunctive airway management techniques may be useful for trainees.

  10. Successful difficult airway management of a child with Coffin-siris syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Ahmet Selim; Akbas, Sedat; Yalin, Mehmet Ridvan; Ozdemir, Emine; Koylu, Zeynep

    2017-08-01

    Management of airway in patients who have Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS) is often problematic because most of these patients have difficult airway. NTI via C-MAC VL is an useful alternative to direct laryngoscope for orotracheal intubation in airway and anesthetic management in a case of CSS. Alternative airway devices should be readily available.

  11. Successful difficult airway management of a child with Coffin?siris syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Ozkan, Ahmet Selim; Akbas, Sedat; Yalin, Mehmet Ridvan; Ozdemir, Emine; Koylu, Zeynep

    2017-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Management of airway in patients who have Coffin?Siris syndrome (CSS) is often problematic because most of these patients have difficult airway. NTI via C?MAC VL is an useful alternative to direct laryngoscope for orotracheal intubation in airway and anesthetic management in a case of CSS. Alternative airway devices should be readily available.

  12. Airway changes in children with mucopolysaccharidoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, S.L.; Sheu, C.Y.; Lee, Y.J.; Lin, S.P.; Blickman, J.G.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To assess the CT findings of the airway in children with mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS). Material and Methods: The study included 13 patients (9 boys, 4 girls; age range 2-17 years; mean age 9.2 years) with MPS: 6 with Hunter syndrome, 3 with Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome, 2 with Sanfilippo syndrome, 1 with Hurler/Scheie syndrome and 1 with Morquio syndrome. CT of the airways was done in the axial section with 3-mm collimation from the oropharynx at the level of C3 to the base of the lung. The shape of the vocal cords and trachea at the level of T1 was evaluated. The tracheal surface area (TSA) at the level of T1 was measured both in patients and in age-matched subjects. Results: CT showed an abnormality of the vocal cords in 7 of the 13 patients. Six patients had an abnormal shape and 7 had an inhomogeneous density. The abnormalities included elliptical (5 of 6) and star-shaped (1 of 6) cords. Eight of 13 tracheas were also abnormal, either U-shaped (6 of 8) or worm-shaped (2 of 8). The TSA was significantly smaller in patients (79.6±28.9 mm 2 ) than in control subjects (138.1±50.1 mm 2 ). The TSA of those 9 years was 61.4±15.2 mm 2 as compared with 99.9±23.5 mm 2 for the control group. The TSA of patients 11 years was 107.1±25.3 mm 2 as compared with 187.6±32.0 mm 2 for the control group. Conclusion: Significant changes in the shape of the vocal cords and trachea in patients with MPS were found. The most common abnormal configuration of trachea was the U-shape. The TSA was smaller in patients with MPS than in controls. The airway changes may be due to abnormal submucosal storage of substances such as keratan or dermatan sulfate

  13. L-ornithine derived polyamines in cystic fibrosis airways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartmut Grasemann

    Full Text Available Increased arginase activity contributes to airway nitric oxide (NO deficiency in cystic fibrosis (CF. Whether down-stream products of arginase activity contribute to CF lung disease is currently unknown. The objective of this study was to test whether L-ornithine derived polyamines are present in CF airways and contribute to airway pathophysiology. Polyamine concentrations were measured in sputum of patients with CF and in healthy controls, using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The effect of spermine on airway smooth muscle mechanical properties was assessed in bronchial segments of murine airways, using a wire myograph. Sputum polyamine concentrations in stable CF patients were similar to healthy controls for putrescine and spermidine but significantly higher for spermine. Pulmonary exacerbations were associated with an increase in sputum and spermine levels. Treatment for pulmonary exacerbations resulted in decreases in arginase activity, L-ornithine and spermine concentrations in sputum. The changes in sputum spermine with treatment correlated significantly with changes in L-ornithine but not with sputum inflammatory markers. Incubation of mouse bronchi with spermine resulted in an increase in acetylcholine-induced force and significantly reduced nitric oxide-induced bronchial relaxation. The polyamine spermine is increased in CF airways. Spermine contributes to airways obstruction by reducing the NO-mediated smooth muscle relaxation.

  14. The role of anaerobic bacteria in the cystic fibrosis airway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrard, Laura J; Bell, Scott C; Tunney, Michael M

    2016-11-01

    Anaerobic bacteria are not only normal commensals, but are also considered opportunistic pathogens and have been identified as persistent members of the lower airway community in people with cystic fibrosis of all ages and stages of disease. Currently, the role of anaerobic bacteria in cystic fibrosis lower airway disease is not well understood. Therefore, this review describes the recent studies relating to the potential pathophysiological role(s) of anaerobes within the cystic fibrosis lungs. The most frequently identified anaerobic bacteria in the lower airways are common to both cystic fibrosis and healthy lungs. Studies have shown that in cystic fibrosis, the relative abundance of anaerobes fluctuates in the lower airways with reduced lung function and increased inflammation associated with a decreased anaerobic load. However, anaerobes found within the lower airways also produce virulence factors, may cause a host inflammatory response and interact synergistically with recognized pathogens. Anaerobic bacteria are potentially members of the airway microbiota in health but could also contribute to the pathogenesis of lower airway disease in cystic fibrosis via both direct and indirect mechanisms. A personalized treatment strategy that maintains a normal microbial community may be possible in the future.

  15. ACQUISITIONS LIST, MAY 1966.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Education.

    THIS ACQUISITIONS LIST IS A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF MATERIAL ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF EDUCATION. OVER 300 UNANNOTATED REFERENCES ARE PROVIDED FOR DOCUMENTS DATING MAINLY FROM 1960 TO 1966. BOOKS, JOURNALS, REPORT MATERIALS, AND UNPUBLISHED MANUSCRIPTS ARE LISTED UNDER THE FOLLOWING HEADINGS--(1) ACHIEVEMENT, (2) ADOLESCENCE, (3) CHILD DEVELOPMENT, (4)…

  16. MAST data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibaev, S.; Counsell, G.; Cunningham, G.; Manhood, S.J.; Thomas-Davies, N.; Waterhouse, J.

    2006-01-01

    The data acquisition system of the Mega-Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST) presently collects up to 400 MB of data in about 3000 data items per shot, and subsequent fast growth is expected. Since the start of MAST operations (in 1999) the system has changed dramatically. Though we continue to use legacy CAMAC hardware, newer VME, PCI, and PXI based sub-systems collect most of the data now. All legacy software has been redesigned and new software has been developed. Last year a major system improvement was made-replacement of the message distribution system. The new message system provides easy connection of any sub-system independently of its platform and serves as a framework for many new applications. A new data acquisition controller provides full control of common sub-systems, central error logging, and data acquisition alarms for the MAST plant. A number of new sub-systems using Linux and Windows OSs on VME, PCI, and PXI platforms have been developed. A new PXI unit has been designed as a base sub-system accommodating any type of data acquisition and control devices. Several web applications for the real-time MAST monitoring and data presentation have been developed

  17. Data acquisition techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, R.C.

    1976-01-01

    Testing neutron generators and major subassemblies has undergone a transition in the past few years. Digital information is now used for storage and analysis. The key to the change is the availability of a high-speed digitizer system. The status of the Sandia Laboratory data acquisition and handling system as applied to this area is surveyed. 1 figure

  18. Surviving mergers & acquisitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Diane L

    2002-01-01

    Mergers and acquisitions are never easy to implement. The health care landscape is a minefield of failed mergers and uneasy alliances generating great turmoil and pain. But some mergers have been successful, creating health systems that benefit the communities they serve. Five prominent leaders offer their advice on minimizing the difficulties of M&As.

  19. General image acquisition parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teissier, J.M.; Lopez, F.M.; Langevin, J.F.

    1993-01-01

    The general parameters are of primordial importance to achieve image quality in terms of spatial resolution and contrast. They also play a role in the acquisition time for each sequence. We describe them separately, before associating them in a decision tree gathering the various options that are possible for diagnosis

  20. Decentralized Blended Acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    The concept of blending and deblending is reviewed, making use of traditional and dispersed source arrays. The network concept of distributed blended acquisition is introduced. A million-trace robot system is proposed, illustrating that decentralization may bring about a revolution in the way we

  1. MPS Data Acquisition System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiseman, S.E.; Miller, W.J.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of the data acquisition system used with the multiparticle spectrometer facility at Brookhaven. Detailed information is provided on that part of the system which connects the detectors to the data handler; namely, the detector electronics, device controller, and device port optical isolator

  2. [Acquisition of arithmetic knowledge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayol, Michel

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on contemporary research on the number counting and arithmetical competencies that emerge during infancy, the preschool years, and the elementary school. I provide a brief overview of the evolution of children's conceptual knowledge of arithmetic knowledge, the acquisition and use of counting and how they solve simple arithmetic problems (e.g. 4 + 3).

  3. Second Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Barry; Harrington, Michael

    1989-01-01

    A distinction is drawn between representational and processing models of second-language acquisition. The first approach is derived primarily from linguistics, the second from psychology. Both fields, it is argued, need to collaborate more fully, overcoming disciplinary narrowness in order to achieve more fruitful research. (GLR)

  4. Individual canine Airway Response Variability to a Deep Inspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert H. Brown

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In healthy individuals, a DI can reverse (bronchodilation or prevent (bronchoprotection induced airway constriction. For individuals with asthma or COPD, these effects may be attenuated or absent. Previous work showed that the size and duration of a DI affected the subsequent response of the airways. Also, increased airway tone lead to increased airway size variability. The present study examined how a DI affected the temporal variability in individual airway baseline size and after methacholine challenge in dogs using High-Resolution Computed Tomography. Dogs were anesthetized and ventilated, and on 4 separate days, HRCT scans were acquired before and after a DI at baseline and during a continuous intravenous infusion of methacholine (Mch at 3 dose rates (17, 67, and 200 μg/mm. The Coefficient of Variation was used as an index of temporal variability in airway size. We found that at baseline and the lowest dose of Mch, variability decreased immediately and 5 minutes after the DI ( P < 0.0001. In contrast, with higher doses of Mch, the DI caused a variable response. At a rate of 67 μg/min of Mch, the temporal variability increased after 5 minutes, while at a rate of 200 μg/min of Mch, the temporal variability increased immediately after the DI. Increased airway temporal variability has been shown to be associated with asthma. Although the mechanisms underlying this temporal variability are poorly understood, the beneficial effects of a DI to decrease airway temporal variability was eliminated when airway tone was increased. If this effect is absent in asthmatics, this may suggest a possible mechanism for the loss of bronchoprotective and bronchodilatory effects after a DI in asthma.

  5. Airway remodeling and its reversibility in equine asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Lavoie

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite effective therapies for controlling its clinical manifestations, human asthma remains an incurable disease. It is now recognized that inflammation induced structural changes (remodeling of the airways are responsible for the progressive loss of lung function in asthmatic patients. However, the peripheral airways, where most of the remodeling occurs in severe asthmatic patients, cannot be safely sampled in humans, and therefore, little is known of the effects of current therapies at reversing the established asthmatic remodeling, especially those occurring in the peripheral airways. Animal models have been studied to unravel etiological, immunopathological, and genetic attributes leading to asthma. However, experiments in which the disease is artificially induced have been shown to have limited translational potential for humans. To the contrary, horses naturally suffer from an asthma-like condition which shares marked similarities with human asthma making this model unique to investigate the kinetics, reversibility, as well as the physiological consequences of tissue remodeling (Bullone and Lavoie 2015. We reported an increased deposition of smooth muscle, collagen and elastic fibers in the peripheral airways of affected horses, which was correlated with the lung function (Herszberg et al., 2006; Setlakwe et al., 2014. The airway subepithelial collagen depositions were almost completely reversed with 6 to 12 months of treatment with either antigen avoidance or inhaled corticosteroids (ICS administration, and there was a modest (30% on average decrease in airway smooth muscle (Leclere et al., 2011. A recent study also found that ICS combined with long-acting ß2-agonists drugs (LABA and ICS monotherapy similarly induced a 30% decrease of the airway smooth muscle mass at 3 months (Buollone, 2017. However, only ICS/LABA and antigen avoidance decreased airway luminal neutrophilia. The findings indicate the enhance therapeutic effect of ICS

  6. The actin regulator zyxin reinforces airway smooth muscle and accumulates in airways of fatal asthmatics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia R Rosner

    Full Text Available Bronchospasm induced in non-asthmatic human subjects can be easily reversed by a deep inspiration (DI whereas bronchospasm that occurs spontaneously in asthmatic subjects cannot. This physiological effect of a DI has been attributed to the manner in which a DI causes airway smooth muscle (ASM cells to stretch, but underlying molecular mechanisms-and their failure in asthma-remain obscure. Using cells and tissues from wild type and zyxin-/- mice we report responses to a transient stretch of physiologic magnitude and duration. At the level of the cytoskeleton, zyxin facilitated repair at sites of stress fiber fragmentation. At the level of the isolated ASM cell, zyxin facilitated recovery of contractile force. Finally, at the level of the small airway embedded with a precision cut lung slice, zyxin slowed airway dilation. Thus, at each level zyxin stabilized ASM structure and contractile properties at current muscle length. Furthermore, when we examined tissue samples from humans who died as the result of an asthma attack, we found increased accumulation of zyxin compared with non-asthmatics and asthmatics who died of other causes. Together, these data suggest a biophysical role for zyxin in fatal asthma.

  7. Airway management of a difficult airway due to prolonged enlarged goiter using loco-sedative technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Srivastava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate airway management is an essential part of anesthesiologist′s role. Huge goiters can lead to distorted airway and difficulty in endotracheal intubation. In this report, we present a case of a 67-year-old woman with a huge toxic multinodular thyroid swelling, gradually increasing in size for last 20 years, where trachea was successfully intubated. She had a history of deferred surgery in June 2007 due to inability to intubate, despite 5-6 attempts using different laryngoscopes, bougie, and stylet. Patient was re-admitted in December 2011 for the surgery and was successfully intubated this time with help of fiberoptic intubation using loco-sedative technique. Patient was electively kept intubated postoperatively in view of chances of tracheomalacia due to prolonged large goiter. She was extubated successfully on post-op day 2 after demonstration of leak around trachea following tracheal tube cuff deflation. The different techniques of managing the difficult airway in these patients are discussed.

  8. Increased airway reactivity in a neonatal mouse model of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Catherine A.; Martin, Richard J.; MacFarlane, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a primary form of respiratory support used in the intensive care of preterm infants, but its long-term effects on airway (AW) function are unknown. Methods We developed a neonatal mouse model of CPAP treatment to determine whether it modifies later AW reactivity. Un-anesthetized spontaneously breathing mice were fitted with a mask to deliver CPAP (6cmH2O, 3hrs/day) for 7 consecutive days starting at postnatal day 1. Airway reactivity to methacholine was assessed using the in vitro living lung slice preparation. Results One week of CPAP increased AW responsiveness to methacholine in male, but not female mice, compared to untreated control animals. The AW hyper-reactivity of male mice persisted for 2 weeks (at P21) after CPAP treatment ended. 4 days of CPAP, however, did not significantly increase AW reactivity. Females also exhibited AW hyper-reactivity at P21, suggesting a delayed response to early (7 days) CPAP treatment. The effects of 7 days of CPAP on hyper-reactivity to methacholine were unique to smaller AWs whereas larger ones were relatively unaffected. Conclusion These data may be important to our understanding of the potential long-term consequences of neonatal CPAP therapy used in the intensive care of preterm infants. PMID:25950451

  9. Airway Reflux, Cough and Respiratory Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molyneux, Ian D.; Morice, Alyn H.

    2011-01-01

    It is increasingly accepted that the effects of gastro-oesophageal reflux are not limited to the gastrointestinal tract. The adjacent respiratory structures are also at risk from material ejected from the proximal oesophagus as a result of the failure of anatomical and physiological barriers. There is evidence of the influence of reflux on several respiratory and otorhinological conditions and although in many cases the precise mechanism has yet to be elucidated, the association alone opens potential novel avenues of therapy to clinicians struggling to treat patients with apparently intractable respiratory complaints. This review provides a description of the airway reflux syndrome, its effects on the lung and current and future therapeutic options. PMID:23251752

  10. Characterizing adult human nasal airway dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilmette, R.A.; Griffith, W.C.

    1994-01-01

    Respiratory tract models used in calculating radiation dose from exposure to inhaled radioactive aerosols have only recently focused attention on the importance of the nasal airways (NAs). Because the NAs are the first tissues of the respiratory tract available for aerosol deposition in normally nose-breathing people, any deposition of aerosol in this anatomical structure will reduce the amounts available to be deposited in the remainder of the respiratory tract. Thus, uncertainties in estimating the deposition fractions in the NAs will propagate throughout the remainder of the respiratory tract, creating errors in the calculated dose estimates. Additionally, there is evidence that the NAs are also at risk for induction of cancer from exposure to certain occupational aerosols such as wood dust, leather dust, chromium, and nickel. The purpose of this investigation was to conduct an anatomical study to assess the variabilities in NA dimensions

  11. Guidelines and algorithms for managing the difficult airway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ríos, M A; Gaitini, L; Matter, I; Somri, M

    2018-01-01

    The difficult airway constitutes a continuous challenge for anesthesiologists. Guidelines and algorithms are key to preserving patient safety, by recommending specific plans and strategies that address predicted or unexpected difficult airway. However, there are currently no "gold standard" algorithms or universally accepted standards. The aim of this article is to present a synthesis of the recommendations of the main guidelines and difficult airway algorithms. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Reproducibility of airway luminal size in asthma measured by HRCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert H; Henderson, Robert J; Sugar, Elizabeth A; Holbrook, Janet T; Wise, Robert A

    2017-10-01

    Brown RH, Henderson RJ, Sugar EA, Holbrook JT, Wise RA, on behalf of the American Lung Association Airways Clinical Research Centers. Reproducibility of airway luminal size in asthma measured by HRCT. J Appl Physiol 123: 876-883, 2017. First published July 13, 2017; doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00307.2017.-High-resolution CT (HRCT) is a well-established imaging technology used to measure lung and airway morphology in vivo. However, there is a surprising lack of studies examining HRCT reproducibility. The CPAP Trial was a multicenter, randomized, three-parallel-arm, sham-controlled 12-wk clinical trial to assess the use of a nocturnal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) device on airway reactivity to methacholine. The lack of a treatment effect of CPAP on clinical or HRCT measures provided an opportunity for the current analysis. We assessed the reproducibility of HRCT imaging over 12 wk. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated for individual airway segments, individual lung lobes, both lungs, and air trapping. The ICC [95% confidence interval (CI)] for airway luminal size at total lung capacity ranged from 0.95 (0.91, 0.97) to 0.47 (0.27, 0.69). The ICC (95% CI) for airway luminal size at functional residual capacity ranged from 0.91 (0.85, 0.95) to 0.32 (0.11, 0.65). The ICC measurements for airway distensibility index and wall thickness were lower, ranging from poor (0.08) to moderate (0.63) agreement. The ICC for air trapping at functional residual capacity was 0.89 (0.81, 0.94) and varied only modestly by lobe from 0.76 (0.61, 0.87) to 0.95 (0.92, 0.97). In stable well-controlled asthmatic subjects, it is possible to reproducibly image unstimulated airway luminal areas over time, by region, and by size at total lung capacity throughout the lungs. Therefore, any changes in luminal size on repeat CT imaging are more likely due to changes in disease state and less likely due to normal variability. NEW & NOTEWORTHY There is a surprising lack

  13. Inherent and antigen-induced airway hyperreactivity in NC mice

    OpenAIRE

    Tetsuto Kobayashi; Toru Miura; Tomoko Haba; Miyuki Sato; Masao Takei; Isao Serizawa

    1999-01-01

    In order to clarify the airway physiology of NC mice, the following experiments were carried out. To investigate inherent airway reactivity, we compared tracheal reactivity to various chemical mediators in NC, BALB/c, C57BL/6 and A/J mice in vitro. NC mice showed significantly greater reactivity to acetylcholine than BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice and a reactivity comparable to that of A/J mice, which are known as high responders. Then, airway reactivity to acetylcholine was investigated in those st...

  14. Management of airway obstruction and stridor in pediatric patients [digest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchese, Ashley; Langhan, Melissa L; Pade, Kathryn H

    2017-11-22

    Stridor is a result of turbulent air-flow through the trachea from upper airway obstruction, and although in children it is often due to croup, it can also be caused by noninfectious and/or congenital conditions as well as life-threatening etiologies. The history and physical examination guide initial management, which includes reduction of airway inflammation, treatment of bacterial infection, and, less often, imaging, emergent airway stabilization, or surgical management. This issue discusses the most common as well as the life-threatening etiologies of acute and chronic stridor and its management in the emergency department. [Points & Pearls is a digest of Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice].

  15. Airway Management in a Patient with Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, John F; Kurian, Dinesh J; Udani, Andrea G; Greene, Nathaniel H

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of a 3-month-old female with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) undergoing general anesthesia for laparoscopic gastrostomy tube placement with a focus on airway management. WHS is a rare 4p microdeletion syndrome resulting in multiple congenital abnormalities, including craniofacial deformities. Microcephaly, micrognathia, and glossoptosis are common features in WHS patients and risk factors for a pediatric airway that is potentially difficult to intubate. We discuss anesthesia strategies for airway preparation and management in a WHS patient requiring general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation.

  16. Airway Management in a Patient with Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. Gamble

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a 3-month-old female with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS undergoing general anesthesia for laparoscopic gastrostomy tube placement with a focus on airway management. WHS is a rare 4p microdeletion syndrome resulting in multiple congenital abnormalities, including craniofacial deformities. Microcephaly, micrognathia, and glossoptosis are common features in WHS patients and risk factors for a pediatric airway that is potentially difficult to intubate. We discuss anesthesia strategies for airway preparation and management in a WHS patient requiring general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation.

  17. Inhaled antibiotics for lower airway infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quon, Bradley S; Goss, Christopher H; Ramsey, Bonnie W

    2014-03-01

    Inhaled antibiotics have been used to treat chronic airway infections since the 1940s. The earliest experience with inhaled antibiotics involved aerosolizing antibiotics designed for parenteral administration. These formulations caused significant bronchial irritation due to added preservatives and nonphysiologic chemical composition. A major therapeutic advance took place in 1997, when tobramycin designed for inhalation was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) with chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Attracted by the clinical benefits observed in CF and the availability of dry powder antibiotic formulations, there has been a growing interest in the use of inhaled antibiotics in other lower respiratory tract infections, such as non-CF bronchiectasis, ventilator-associated pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, mycobacterial disease, and in the post-lung transplant setting over the past decade. Antibiotics currently marketed for inhalation include nebulized and dry powder forms of tobramycin and colistin and nebulized aztreonam. Although both the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency have approved their use in CF, they have not been approved in other disease areas due to lack of supportive clinical trial evidence. Injectable formulations of gentamicin, tobramycin, amikacin, ceftazidime, and amphotericin are currently nebulized "off-label" to manage non-CF bronchiectasis, drug-resistant nontuberculous mycobacterial infections, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and post-transplant airway infections. Future inhaled antibiotic trials must focus on disease areas outside of CF with sample sizes large enough to evaluate clinically important endpoints such as exacerbations. Extrapolating from CF, the impact of eradicating organisms such as P. aeruginosa in non-CF bronchiectasis should also be evaluated.

  18. Regulated Mucin Secretion from Airway Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Bruce Adler

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Secretory epithelial cells of the proximal airways synthesize and secrete gel-forming polymeric mucins. The secreted mucins adsorb water to form mucus that is propelled by neighboring ciliated cells, providing a mobile barrier which removes inhaled particles and pathogens from the lungs. Several features of the intracellular trafficking of mucins make the airway secretory cell an interesting comparator for the cell biology of regulated exocytosis. Polymeric mucins are exceedingly large molecules (up to 3x10^6 D per monomer whose folding and initial polymerization in the ER requires the protein disulfide isomerase Agr2. In the Golgi, mucins further polymerize to form chains and possibly branched networks comprising more than 20 monomers. The large size of mucin polymers imposes constraints on their packaging into transport vesicles along the secretory pathway. Sugar side chains account for >70% of the mass of mucins, and their attachment to the protein core by O-glycosylation occurs in the Golgi. Mature polymeric mucins are stored in large secretory granules ~1 um in diameter. These are translocated to the apical membrane to be positioned for exocytosis by cooperative interactions among MARCKS, cysteine string protein (CSP, HSP70 and the cytoskeleton. Mucin granules undergo exocytic fusion with the plasma membrane at a low basal rate and a high stimulated rate. Both rates are mediated by a regulated exocytic mechanism as indicated by phenotypes in both basal and stimulated secretion in mice lacking Munc13-2, a sensor of the second messengers calcium and diacylglycerol (DAG. Basal secretion is induced by low levels of activation of P2Y2 purinergic and A3 adenosine receptors by extracellular ATP released in paracrine fashion and its metabolite adenosine. Stimulated secretion is induced by high levels of the same ligands, and possibly by inflammatory mediators as well. Activated receptors are coupled to phospholipase C by Gq, resulting in the

  19. Nrf2 protects against airway disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Hye-Youn; Kleeberger, Steven R.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a ubiquitous master transcription factor that regulates antioxidant response elements (AREs)-mediated expression of antioxidant enzyme and cytoprotective proteins. In the unstressed condition, Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) suppresses cellular Nrf2 in cytoplasm and drives its proteasomal degradation. Nrf2 can be activated by diverse stimuli including oxidants, pro-oxidants, antioxidants, and chemopreventive agents. Nrf2 induces cellular rescue pathways against oxidative injury, abnormal inflammatory and immune responses, apoptosis, and carcinogenesis. Application of Nrf2 germ-line mutant mice has identified an extensive range of protective roles for Nrf2 in experimental models of human disorders in the liver, gastrointestinal tract, airway, kidney, brain, circulation, and immune or nerve system. In the lung, lack of Nrf2 exacerbated toxicity caused by multiple oxidative insults including supplemental respiratory therapy (e.g., hyperoxia, mechanical ventilation), cigarette smoke, allergen, virus, bacterial endotoxin and other inflammatory agents (e.g., carrageenin), environmental pollution (e.g., particles), and a fibrotic agent bleomycin. Microarray analyses and bioinformatic studies elucidated functional AREs and Nrf2-directed genes that are critical components of signaling mechanisms in pulmonary protection by Nrf2. Association of loss of function with promoter polymorphisms in NRF2 or somatic and epigenetic mutations in KEAP1 and NRF2 has been found in cohorts of patients with acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome or lung cancer, which further supports the role for NRF2 in these lung diseases. In the current review, we address the role of Nrf2 in airways based on emerging evidence from experimental oxidative disease models and human studies.

  20. Interventions designed using quality improvement methods reduce the incidence of serious airway events and airway cardiac arrests during pediatric anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaeth, James P; Kreeger, Renee; Varughese, Anna M; Wittkugel, Eric

    2016-02-01

    Although serious complications during pediatric anesthesia are less common than they were 20 years ago, serious airway events continue to occur. Based on Quality Improvement (QI) data from our institution, a QI project was designed to reduce the incidence of serious airway events and airway cardiac arrests. A quality improvement team consisting of members of the Department of Anesthesia was formed and QI data from previous years were analyzed. The QI team developed a Smart Aim, Key Driver Diagram, and specific Interventions that focused on the accessibility of emergency drugs, the use of nondepolarizing muscle relaxants for endotracheal intubation in children 2 years and younger, and the presence of anesthesia providers until emergence from anesthesia in high-risk patients. The percentage of cases where muscle relaxants were utilized in children 2 years and younger for endotracheal intubation and where atropine and succinylcholine were readily available increased at both our base and outpatient facilities. Over the 2.5-year study period, the incidence of serious airway events and airway cardiac arrests was reduced by 44% and 59%, respectively compared to the previous 2-year period. We utilized QI methodology to design and implement a project which led to greater standardization of clinical practice within a large pediatric anesthesia group. Based on an understanding of system issues impacting our clinical practice, we designed and tested interventions that led to a significant reduction in the incidence of serious airway events and airway cardiac arrests. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Diagnosis of bronchiectasis and airway wall thickening in children with cystic fibrosis. Objective airway-artery quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, Wieying; Tiddens, Harm A.W.M.; Bruijne, Marleen de; Petersen, Jens; Nasserinejad, Kazem; Ozturk, Hadiye; Chen, Yong; Perez-Rovira, Adria

    2017-01-01

    To quantify airway and artery (AA)-dimensions in cystic fibrosis (CF) and control patients for objective CT diagnosis of bronchiectasis and airway wall thickness (AWT). Spirometer-guided inspiratory and expiratory CTs of 11 CF and 12 control patients were collected retrospectively. Airway pathways were annotated semi-automatically to reconstruct three-dimensional bronchial trees. All visible AA-pairs were measured perpendicular to the airway axis. Inner, outer and AWT (outer-inner) diameter were divided by the adjacent artery diameter to compute A in A-, A out A- and A WT A-ratios. AA-ratios were predicted using mixed-effects models including disease status, lung volume, gender, height and age as covariates. Demographics did not differ significantly between cohorts. Mean AA-pairs CF: 299 inspiratory; 82 expiratory. Controls: 131 inspiratory; 58 expiratory. All ratios were significantly larger in inspiratory compared to expiratory CTs for both groups (p<0.001). A out A- and A WT A-ratios were larger in CF than in controls, independent of lung volume (p<0.01). Difference of A out A- and A WT A-ratios between patients with CF and controls increased significantly for every following airway generation (p<0.001). Diagnosis of bronchiectasis is highly dependent on lung volume and more reliably diagnosed using outer airway diameter. Difference in bronchiectasis and AWT severity between the two cohorts increased with each airway generation. (orig.)

  2. Clearing the airway by an emergency care provider in the prehospital emergency care

    OpenAIRE

    NOVOTNÁ, Magdalena

    2008-01-01

    Clearing an obstructed airway to facilitate breathing is a critical element of airway management. It is the emergency care provider who administers first aid and he/she has to master the technique of opening the airway as well as the aspiration prevention. The right airway management may avert the life-threatening condition of an injured person. The thesis is focused on the possibilities of clearing the airway by the emergency care provider in the Central Bohemian region. Techniques of openin...

  3. Care of the airways in a patient hospitalized at the ARO, JIP

    OpenAIRE

    Budaiová, Lucie

    2011-01-01

    Diplom thesis called "Caring for the airways of a patient hospitalized in DAR, ICU" cosists of two parts - a theoretical and empirical one. The theoretical part is focused on basic knowledge concerning airways. Also describes the anatomy and physiology of airways, caring of airways - ensuring a patient airways, monitoring of the respiratory system and respiratory physical therapy in adult patients hospitalized at DAR, ICU. Empirical part of thesis describes results of data obtained from the q...

  4. The Difficult Airway Society 'ADEPT' guidance on selecting airway devices: the basis of a strategy for equipment evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, J J; Popat, M T; Cook, T M; Wilkes, A R; Groom, P; Cooke, H; Kapila, A; O'Sullivan, E

    2011-08-01

    Faced with the concern that an increasing number of airway management devices were being introduced into clinical practice with little or no prior evidence of their clinical efficacy or safety, the Difficult Airway Society formed a working party (Airway Device Evaluation Project Team) to establish a process by which the airway management community within the profession could itself lead a process of formal device/equipment evaluation. Although there are several national and international regulations governing which products can come on to the market and be legitimately sold, there has hitherto been no formal professional guidance relating to how products should be selected (i.e. purchased). The Airway Device Evaluation Project Team's first task was to formulate such advice, emphasising evidence-based principles. Team discussions led to a definition of the minimum level of evidence needed to make a pragmatic decision about the purchase or selection of an airway device. The Team concluded that this definition should form the basis of a professional standard, guiding those with responsibility for selecting airway devices. We describe how widespread adoption of this professional standard can act as a driver to create an infrastructure in which the required evidence can be obtained. Essential elements are that: (i) the Difficult Airway Society facilitates a coherent national network of research-active units; and (ii) individual anaesthetists in hospital trusts play a more active role in local purchasing decisions, applying the relevant evidence and communicating their purchasing decisions to the Difficult Airway Society. © 2011 The Authors. Anaesthesia © 2011 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  5. Airway Clearance Devices for Cystic Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The purpose of this evidence-based analysis is to examine the safety and efficacy of airway clearance devices (ACDs) for cystic fibrosis and attempt to differentiate between devices, where possible, on grounds of clinical efficacy, quality of life, safety and/or patient preference. Background Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a common, inherited, life-limiting disease that affects multiple systems of the human body. Respiratory dysfunction is the primary complication and leading cause of death due to CF. CF causes abnormal mucus secretion in the airways, leading to airway obstruction and mucus plugging, which in turn can lead to bacterial infection and further mucous production. Over time, this almost cyclical process contributes to severe airway damage and loss of respiratory function. Removal of airway secretions, termed airway clearance, is thus an integral component of the management of CF. A variety of methods are available for airway clearance, some requiring mechanical devices, others physical manipulation of the body (e.g. physiotherapy). Conventional chest physiotherapy (CCPT), through the assistance of a caregiver, is the current standard of care for achieving airway clearance, particularly in young patients up to the ages of six or seven. CF patients are, however, living much longer now than in decades past. The median age of survival in Canada has risen to 37.0 years for the period of 1998-2002 (5-year window), up from 22.8 years for the 5-year window ending in 1977. The prevalence has also risen accordingly, last recorded as 3,453 in Canada in 2002, up from 1,630 in 1977. With individuals living longer, there is a greater need for independent methods of airway clearance. Airway Clearance Devices There are at least three classes of airway clearance devices: positive expiratory pressure devices (PEP), airway oscillating devices (AOD; either handheld or stationary) and high frequency chest compression (HFCC)/mechanical percussion (MP

  6. Modeling airflow and particle transport/deposition in pulmonary airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinstreuer, Clement; Zhang, Zhe; Li, Zheng

    2008-11-30

    A review of research papers is presented, pertinent to computer modeling of airflow as well as nano- and micron-size particle deposition in pulmonary airway replicas. The key modeling steps are outlined, including construction of suitable airway geometries, mathematical description of the air-particle transport phenomena and computer simulation of micron and nanoparticle depositions. Specifically, diffusion-dominated nanomaterial deposits on airway surfaces much more uniformly than micron particles of the same material. This may imply different toxicity effects. Due to impaction and secondary flows, micron particles tend to accumulate around the carinal ridges and to form "hot spots", i.e., locally high concentrations which may lead to tumor developments. Inhaled particles in the size range of 20nm< or =dp< or =3microm may readily reach the deeper lung region. Concerning inhaled therapeutic particles, optimal parameters for mechanical drug-aerosol targeting of predetermined lung areas can be computed, given representative pulmonary airways.

  7. Airway management of a rare huge-size supraglottic mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou-Zeid, Haitham A.; Al-Ghamdi, Abdel Mohsin A.; Al-Qurain, Abdel-Aziz A.; Mokhazy, Khalid M.

    2006-01-01

    Laser excision of a huge-sized supraglottic mass nearly obstructing the airway passage is a real challenge to anesthesiologists. Upper airway obstruction due to neoplasm in supraglottic region, is traditionally managed by preoperative tracheostomy, however, such a common procedure can potentially have an impact on long-term outcome. A 26-year-old patient presented with dysphagia caused by left cystic vallecular synovial sarcoma. The airway was successfully secured via fiberoptic bronchoscopy, followed by excision of the supraglottic tumor with CO2 laser surgery. Tracheostomy was not required. The patient was discharged from the hospital on the 4th day of surgery. This case, highlights the possibility to secure the airway passage without performing preoperative tracheostomy resulting in good outcome and short hospital stay. (author)

  8. Radiation induced changes in the airway - anaesthetic implications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    CASE REPORT. Southern African Journal of Anaesthesia & Analgesia - May 2004. 19. Radiation ... Summary: Radiation induces a variety of changes in the airway that can potentially lead to difficult intubation. ... Mask holding and ventilation is.

  9. Airway dysfunction in elite swimmers: prevalence, impact, and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lomax M

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Mitch Lomax Department of Sport and Exercise Science, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, UK Abstract: The prevalence of airway dysfunction in elite swimmers is among the highest in elite athletes. The traditional view that swimmers naturally gravitate toward swimming because of preexisting respiratory disorders has been challenged. There is now sufficient evidence that the higher prevalence of bronchial tone disorders in elite swimmers is not the result of a natural selection bias. Rather, the combined effects of repeated chlorine by-product exposure and chronic endurance training can lead to airway dysfunction and atopy. This review will detail the underpinning causes of airway dysfunction observed in elite swimmers. It will also show that airway dysfunction does not prevent success in elite level swimming. Neither does it inhibit lung growth and might be partially reversible when elite swimmers retire from competition. Keywords: exercise, aquatic athletes, bronchoconstriction

  10. Early surfactant therapy and nasal continuous positive airways ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) receiving nasal continuous positive airways ... required FiO2 was allowed to rise above 0.4 before surfactant was administered. ... group received surfactant immediately and the high-threshold group ...

  11. Mechanics of airflow in the human nasal airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorly, D J; Taylor, D J; Schroter, R C

    2008-11-30

    The mechanics of airflow in the human nasal airways is reviewed, drawing on the findings of experimental and computational model studies. Modelling inevitably requires simplifications and assumptions, particularly given the complexity of the nasal airways. The processes entailed in modelling the nasal airways (from defining the model, to its production and, finally, validating the results) is critically examined, both for physical models and for computational simulations. Uncertainty still surrounds the appropriateness of the various assumptions made in modelling, particularly with regard to the nature of flow. New results are presented in which high-speed particle image velocimetry (PIV) and direct numerical simulation are applied to investigate the development of flow instability in the nasal cavity. These illustrate some of the improved capabilities afforded by technological developments for future model studies. The need for further improvements in characterising airway geometry and flow together with promising new methods are briefly discussed.

  12. Human airway xenograft models of epithelial cell regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puchelle Edith

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Regeneration and restoration of the airway epithelium after mechanical, viral or bacterial injury have a determinant role in the evolution of numerous respiratory diseases such as chronic bronchitis, asthma and cystic fibrosis. The study in vivo of epithelial regeneration in animal models has shown that airway epithelial cells are able to dedifferentiate, spread, migrate over the denuded basement membrane and progressively redifferentiate to restore a functional respiratory epithelium after several weeks. Recently, human tracheal xenografts have been developed in immunodeficient severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID and nude mice. In this review we recall that human airway cells implanted in such conditioned host grafts can regenerate a well-differentiated and functional human epithelium; we stress the interest in these humanized mice in assaying candidate progenitor and stem cells of the human airway mucosa.

  13. Radiographic anatomy and pathology of the child's airway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, B.B. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The laryngotracheal airway has been considered the ''bottle-neck'' of the lungs. Any compromise of this already rather small pathway can easily result in a life-threatening situation. Rapid, accurate diagnosis is essential for proper clinical management of a compromised airway. Radiologic studies play a major role in the clinical investigation of patients with serious airway problems. There are notable differences between the anatomy of the upper airway of the adult and that of the young child or infant. In the infant, however, some differences in the radiographic patterns must be kept in mind. In the first 6 months of life, the adenoid shadow is not well defined and is normally absent until 1 month of age. During swallowing there is a lack of air in the pharynx with elevation of the larynx. Air may be seen in the cervical esophagus. All of these physiologic variations must be considered when interpreting radiographs of the neck in the young child

  14. 76 FR 11978 - Proposed Amendment of Federal Airways; Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... Federal airways in Alaska. Due to construction of wind turbines on Fire Island, AK, the Anchorage VOR is... to assign the use of the airspace necessary to ensure the safety of aircraft and the efficient use of...

  15. Surface Airways Observations (SAO) Hourly Data (1965-1981) (CDMP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset consists primarily of U.S. surface airways observations (SAO) data beginning in 1965 and extending through 1981. Note that a few stations have already...

  16. Surface Airways Observations (SAO) Hourly Data 1928-1948 (CDMP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset consists of hourly U.S. surface airways observations (SAO). These observations extend as far back as 1928, from the time when commercial aviation began...

  17. Airway inflammatory and atopy-related responses in athletes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    O3), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), .... training may also cause positive adaptations at the airway ... Patients with mild asthma also had significantly ..... mones with immunosuppressive but neutrophil-priming potentials rise after.

  18. Data acquisition for PLT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, P.A.

    1975-01-01

    DA/PLT, the data acquisition system for the Princeton Large Torus (PLT) fusion research device, consists of a PDP-10 host computer, five satellite PDP-11s connected to the host by a special high-speed interface, miscellaneous other minicomputers and commercially supplied instruments, and much PPPL produced hardware. The software consists of the standard PDP-10 monitor with local modifications and the special systems and applications programs to customize the DA/PLT for the specific job of supporting data acquisition, analysis, display, and archiving, with concurrent off-line analysis, program development, and, in the background, general batch and timesharing. Some details of the over-all architecture are presented, along with a status report of the different PLT experiments being supported

  19. Knowledge Transfers following Acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Jens

    2001-01-01

    Prior relations between the acquiring firm and the target company pave the way for knowledge transfers subsequent to the acquisitions. One major reason is that through the market-based relations the two actors build up mutual trust and simultaneously they learn how to communicate. An empirical...... study of 54 Danish acquisitions taking place abroad from 1994 to 1998 demonstrated that when there was a high level of trust between the acquiring firm and the target firm before the take-over, then medium and strong tie-binding knowledge transfer mechanisms, such as project groups and job rotation......, were used more intensively. Further, the degree of stickiness was significantly lower in the case of prior trust-based relations....

  20. Amplitudes, acquisition and imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloor, Robert

    1998-12-31

    Accurate seismic amplitude information is important for the successful evaluation of many prospects and the importance of such amplitude information is increasing with the advent of time lapse seismic techniques. It is now widely accepted that the proper treatment of amplitudes requires seismic imaging in the form of either time or depth migration. A key factor in seismic imaging is the spatial sampling of the data and its relationship to the imaging algorithms. This presentation demonstrates that acquisition caused spatial sampling irregularity can affect the seismic imaging and perturb amplitudes. Equalization helps to balance the amplitudes, and the dealing strategy improves the imaging further when there are azimuth variations. Equalization and dealiasing can also help with the acquisition irregularities caused by shot and receiver dislocation or missing traces. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Data acquisition instruments: Psychopharmacology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, D.S. III

    1998-01-01

    This report contains the results of a Direct Assistance Project performed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., for Dr. K. O. Jobson. The purpose of the project was to perform preliminary analysis of the data acquisition instruments used in the field of psychiatry, with the goal of identifying commonalities of data and strategies for handling and using the data in the most advantageous fashion. Data acquisition instruments from 12 sources were provided by Dr. Jobson. Several commonalities were identified and a potentially useful data strategy is reported here. Analysis of the information collected for utility in performing diagnoses is recommended. In addition, further work is recommended to refine the commonalities into a directly useful computer systems structure.

  2. First Language Acquisition and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena

    2011-01-01

    "First language acquisition" commonly means the acquisition of a single language in childhood, regardless of the number of languages in a child's natural environment. Language acquisition is variously viewed as predetermined, wondrous, a source of concern, and as developing through formal processes. "First language teaching" concerns schooling in…

  3. Multiprocessor data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haumann, J.R.; Crawford, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    A multiprocessor data acquisition system has been built to replace the single processor systems at the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) at Argonne National Laboratory. The multiprocessor system was needed to accommodate the higher data rates at IPNS brought about by improvements in the source and changes in instrument configurations. This paper describes the hardware configuration of the system and the method of task sharing and compares results to the single processor system

  4. Implementing acquisition strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, G. K.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to address some of the strategies necessary to effect a successful asset or corporate acquisition. Understanding the corporate objective, the full potential of the asset, the specific strategies to be employed, the value of time, and most importantly the interaction of all these are crucial, for missed steps are likely to result in missed opportunities. The amount of factual information that can be obtained and utilized in a timely fashion is the largest single hurdle to the capture of value in the asset or corporate acquisition. Fact, familiarity and experience are key in this context. The importance of the due diligence process prior to title or data transfer cannot be overemphasized. Some of the most important assets acquired in a merger may be the people. To maximize effectiveness, it is essential to merge both existing staff and those that came with the new acquisition as soon as possible. By thinking together as a unit, knowledge and experience can be applied to realize the potential of the asset. Hence team building is one of the challenges, doing it quickly is usually the most effective. Developing new directions for the new enlarged company by combining the strengths of the old and the new creates more value, as well as a more efficient operation. Equally important to maximizing the potential of the new acquisition is the maintenance of the momentum generated by the need to grow that gave the impetus to acquiring new assets in the first place. In brief, the right mix of vision, facts and perceptions, quick enactment of the post-close strategies and keeping the momentum alive, are the principal ingredients of a focused strategy

  5. Internationalize Mergers and Acquisitions

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Lili

    2017-01-01

    As globalization processes, an increasing number of companies use mergers and acquisitions as a tool to achieve company growth in the international business world. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the process of an international M&A and analyze the factors leading to success. The research started with reviewing different academic theory. The important aspects in both pre-M&A phase and post-M&A phase have been studied in depth. Because of the complexity in international...

  6. Bronchoscopic guidance of endovascular stenting limits airway compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahim, Mohammad; Hagood, James; Moore, John; El-Said, Howaida

    2015-04-01

    Bronchial compression as a result of pulmonary artery and aortic arch stenting may cause significant respiratory distress. We set out to limit airway narrowing by endovascular stenting, by using simultaneous flexible bronchoscopy and graduated balloon stent dilatation, or balloon angioplasty to determine maximum safe stent diameter. Between August 2010 and August 2013, patients with suspected airway compression by adjacent vascular structures, underwent CT or a 3D rotational angiogram to evaluate the relationship between the airway and the blood vessels. If these studies showed close proximity of the stenosed vessel and the airway, simultaneous bronchoscopy and graduated stent re-dilation or graduated balloon angioplasty were performed. Five simultaneous bronchoscopy and interventional catheterization procedures were performed in four patients. Median age/weight was 33 (range 9-49) months and 14 (range 7.6-24) kg, respectively. Three had hypoplastic left heart syndrome, and one had coarctation of the aorta (CoA). All had confirmed or suspected left main stem bronchial compression. In three procedures, serial balloon dilatation of a previously placed stent in the CoA was performed and bronchoscopy was used to determine the safest largest diameter. In the other two procedures, balloon testing with simultaneous bronchoscopy was performed to determine the stent size that would limit compression of the adjacent airway. In all cases, simultaneous bronchoscopy allowed selection of an ideal caliber of the stent that optimized vessel diameter while minimizing compression of the adjacent airway. In cases at risk for airway compromise, flexible bronchoscopy is a useful tool to guide endovascular stenting. Maximum safe stent diameter can be determined without risking catastrophic airway compression. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Nasopharyngeal encephalocele: a rare cause of upper airway obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Gokhan; Paksu, Sukru; Asilioglu, Nazik; Kiliç, Mehmet

    2013-04-01

    Nasopharyngeal encephalocele is a rare, benign congenital anomaly. It has the potential to be fatal due to airway obstruction. Here, we report on a 34-day-old infant with pneumonia who underwent mechanical ventilation. An upper airway evaluation was performed due to prolonged intubation, and revealed the presence of a nasopharyngeal encephalocele. The patient tolerated extubation and oral feeding after surgical resection of the lesion. Awareness of the condition can help clinicians arrive at an earlier diagnosis and enhance management.

  8. Pulmonary Stress Induced by Hyperthermia: Role of Airway Sensory Nerves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Myers AC, Kajekar R, Undem BJ. Allergic inflammation-induced neuropeptide production in rapidly adapting afferent nerves in guinea pig airways. Am J...induced neuro- peptide production in rapidly adapting afferent nerves in guinea pig airways. Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell. Mol. Physiol. 282, L775–L781...co-localization of transient receptor po- tential vanilloid (trpv)1 and sensory neuropeptides in the guinea - pig respiratory system. Neuroscience

  9. Fatal Airway Obstruction in a Man With a Cystic Hygroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wygant, Cassandra Maria; Cohle, Stephen D

    2018-05-03

    We describe a 24-year-old man with a cystic hygroma of the left side of the lower neck that led to sudden death. Cystic hygroma (cystic lymphangioma) is a congenital malformation of the lymphatic system. The patient, who had a tracheostomy because of airway obstruction from the cystic hygroma, was found dead with his tracheostomy tube on the floor next to him. Complications of cystic hygroma include infiltration of the neck causing airway obstruction, dysphagia, pain, and obstructive sleep apnea.

  10. Data Acquisition System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watwood, D.; Beatty, J.

    1991-01-01

    The Data Acquisition System (DAS) is comprised of a Hewlett-Packard (HP) model 9816, Series 200 Computer System with the appropriate software to acquire, control, and archive data from a Data Acquisition/Control Unit, models HP3497A and HP3498A. The primary storage medium is an HP9153 16-megabyte hard disc. The data is backed-up on three floppy discs. One floppy disc drive is contained in the HP9153 chassis; the other two comprise an HP9122 dual disc drive. An HP82906A line printer supplies hard copy backup. A block diagram of the hardware setup is shown. The HP3497A/3498A Data Acquisition/Control Units read each input channel and transmit the raw voltage reading to the HP9816 CPU via the HPIB bus. The HP9816 converts this voltage to the appropriate engineering units using the calibration curves for the sensor being read. The HP9816 archives both the raw and processed data along with the time and the readings were taken to hard and floppy discs. The processed values and reading time are printed on the line printer. This system is designed to accommodate several types of sensors; each type is discussed in the following sections

  11. Complexity in language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Alexander; Lappin, Shalom

    2013-01-01

    Learning theory has frequently been applied to language acquisition, but discussion has largely focused on information theoretic problems-in particular on the absence of direct negative evidence. Such arguments typically neglect the probabilistic nature of cognition and learning in general. We argue first that these arguments, and analyses based on them, suffer from a major flaw: they systematically conflate the hypothesis class and the learnable concept class. As a result, they do not allow one to draw significant conclusions about the learner. Second, we claim that the real problem for language learning is the computational complexity of constructing a hypothesis from input data. Studying this problem allows for a more direct approach to the object of study--the language acquisition device-rather than the learnable class of languages, which is epiphenomenal and possibly hard to characterize. The learnability results informed by complexity studies are much more insightful. They strongly suggest that target grammars need to be objective, in the sense that the primitive elements of these grammars are based on objectively definable properties of the language itself. These considerations support the view that language acquisition proceeds primarily through data-driven learning of some form. Copyright © 2013 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  12. MDSplus data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stillerman, J.A.; Fredian, T.W.; Klare, K.; Manduchi, G.

    1997-01-01

    MDSplus, a tree based, distributed data acquisition system, was developed in collaboration with the ZTH Group at Los Alamos National Lab and the RFX Group at CNR in Padua, Italy. It is currently in use at MIT, RFX in Padua, TCV at EPFL in Lausanne, and KBSI in South Korea. MDSplus is made up of a set of X/motif based tools for data acquisition and display, as well as diagnostic configuration and management. It is based on a hierarchical experiment description which completely describes the data acquisition and analysis tasks and contains the results from these operations. These tools were designed to operate in a distributed, client/server environment with multiple concurrent readers and writers to the data store. While usually used over a Local Area Network, these tools can be used over the Internet to provide access for remote diagnosticians and even machine operators. An interface to a relational database is provided for storage and management of processed data. IDL is used as the primary data analysis and visualization tool. IDL is a registered trademark of Research Systems Inc. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  13. Covered Balloon-Expanding Stents in Airway Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, Adnan; Kheir, Fayez; Chung, Jey; Alape, Daniel; Husta, Bryan; Oh, Scott; Folch, Erik

    2017-04-01

    The balloon-expanding stents are widely available but rarely described for use within the tracheobronchial tree. This report describes our experience with these stents in airway stenosis particularly as a lobar salvage therapy. This was a retrospective review of all records in which the balloon-expanding stents were used at a tertiary medical center. Ages, sex, location of stenosis, etiology of stenosis, stent size, duration of stent placement and associated interventions for airway stenosis were recorded. Patient's self-reported respiratory symptoms, dyspnea scale, and radiographic imaging at baseline and after stent placement were also reported. Twenty-one Atrium iCAST stents were inserted in 18 patients with malignant and benign airway disease. The median age was 69.5 years (interquartile range, 53.5 to 74). Most stents (n=20, 95%) were deployed in the lobar airways. There was a significant improvement in the modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scale from median of 3 to 2 (Pstent placement was achieved in 15 patients (83%). No deaths were related to airway stenting complications. Adverse events related to stents included migration (n=2, 9.5%), granulation tissue formation (n=2, 9.5%) and mucus plugging (n=1, 4.8%). Lobar stenting with balloon-expanding metallic stents appears feasible, safe and improves symptoms as well as radiographic atelectasis in patients with lobar airway stenosis in this small case series. Larger studies are needed to confirm this observation and to address long-term safety.

  14. Crisis management during anaesthesia: obstruction of the natural airway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visvanathan, T; Kluger, M T; Webb, R K; Westhorpe, R N

    2005-06-01

    Obstruction of the natural airway, while usually easily recognised and managed, may present simply as desaturation, have an unexpected cause, be very difficult to manage, and have serious consequences for the patient. To examine the role of a previously described core algorithm "COVER ABCD-A SWIFT CHECK", supplemented by a specific sub-algorithm for obstruction of the natural airway, in the management of acute airway obstruction occurring in association with anaesthesia. The potential performance for this structured approach for each of the relevant incidents among the first 4000 reported to the Australian Incident Monitoring Study (AIMS) was compared with the actual management as reported by the anaesthetists involved. There were 62 relevant incidents among the first 4000 reports to the AIMS. It was considered that the correct use of the structured approach would have led to earlier recognition of the problem and/or better management in 11% of cases. Airway management is a fundamental anaesthetic responsibility and skill. Airway obstruction demands a rapid and organised approach to its diagnosis and management and undue delay usually results in desaturation and a potential threat to life. An uncomplicated pre-learned sequence of airway rescue instructions is an essential part of every anaesthetist's clinical practice requirements.

  15. A passive quantitative measurement of airway resistance using depth data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostadabbas, Sarah; Bulach, Christoph; Ku, David N; Anderson, Larry J; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2014-01-01

    The Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is the most common cause of serious lower respiratory tract infections in infants and young children. RSV often causes increased airway resistance, clinically detected as wheezing by chest auscultation. In this disease, expiratory flows are significantly reduced due to the high resistance in patient's airway passages. A quantitative method for measuring resistance can have a great benefit to diagnosis and management of children with RSV infections as well as with other lung diseases. Airway resistance is defined as the lung pressure divided by the airflow. In this paper, we propose a method to quantify resistance through a simple, non-contact measurement of chest volume that can act as a surrogate measure of the lung pressure and volumetric airflow. We used depth data collected by a Microsoft Kinect camera for the measurement of the lung volume over time. In our experimentation, breathing through a number of plastic straws induced different airway resistances. For a standard spirometry test, our volume/flow estimation using Kinect showed strong correlation with the flow data collected by a commercially-available spirometer (five subjects, each performing 20 breathing trials, correlation coefficient = 0.88, with 95% confidence interval). As the number of straws decreased, emulating a higher airway obstruction, our algorithm was sufficient to distinguish between several levels of airway resistance.

  16. Maxillofacial trauma patient: coping with the difficult airway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barak Michal

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Establishing a secure airway in a trauma patient is one of the primary essentials of treatment. Any flaw in airway management may lead to grave morbidity and mortality. Maxillofacial trauma presents a complex problem with regard to the patient's airway. By definition, the injury compromises the patient's airway and it is, therefore, must be protected. In most cases, the patient undergoes surgery for maxillofacial trauma or for other, more severe, life-threatening injuries, and securing the airway is the first step in the introduction of general anaesthesia. In such patients, we anticipate difficult endotracheal intubation and, often, also difficult mask ventilation. In addition, the patient is usually regarded as having a "full stomach" and has not been cleared of a C-spine injury, which may complicate airway management furthermore. The time available to accomplish the task is short and the patient's condition may deteriorate rapidly. Both decision-making and performance are impaired in such circumstances. In this review, we discuss the complexity of the situation and present a treatment approach.

  17. External bioresorbable airway rigidification to treat refractory localized tracheomalacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorostidi, François; Reinhard, Antoine; Monnier, Philippe; Sandu, Kishore

    2016-11-01

    Our study evaluates the efficacy of extraluminal bioresorbable plates to treat refractory localized airway malacia in patients undergoing corrective surgery for complex multilevel laryngotracheal stenosis. Retrospective case series. Secondary malacic airway segments were characterized (severity, site, type) by a dynamic transnasal flexible laryngotracheobronchoscopy before surgery. Extraluminal bioresorbable plates were used to stabilize the malacic segment through a transcervical approach under intraoperative flexible endoscopic guidance. Results were evaluated subjectively and by a postoperative dynamic endoscopy. We report our experience in seven patients (6 children, 1 adult). External tracheal stiffening allowed complete or partial resolution of refractory proximal airway malacia in six of seven complex cases described (result in one case is awaited). It allowed quick decannulation in four of seven patients who experienced multiple previous failures. Decannulation failures were due to recurrence of stenosis. With up to 2 years of follow-up, we report no direct complications related to the presence of extraluminal bioresorbable plates around the airway. Extraluminal biodegradable tracheal stiffening represents a valid therapeutic option in select cases of upper airway malacia. It can be highly useful in cases of complex multilevel airway obstructions. External stiffening needs to be planned on a case-to-case basis according to the type of malacia and must be performed under endoscopic guidance. 4. Laryngoscope, 126:2605-2610, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  18. Specific airway resistance in healthy young Vietnamese and Caucasian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Tuan, Thanh; Nguyen, Ngoc Minh; Demoulin, Bruno; Bonabel, Claude; Nguyen-Thi, Phi Linh; Ioan, Iulia; Schweitzer, Cyril; Nguyen, H T T; Varechova, Silvia; Marchal, Francois

    2015-06-01

    In healthy Vietnamese children the respiratory resistance has been suggested to be similar at 110 cm height but larger at 130 cm when compared with data in Caucasians from the literature, suggesting smaller airways in older Vietnamese children (Vu et al., 2008). The hypothesis tested here is whether the difference in airway resistance remains consistent throughout growth, and if it is larger in adult Vietnamese than in Caucasians. Airway resistance and Functional Residual Capacity were measured in healthy young Caucasian and Vietnamese adults in their respective native country using identical equipment and protocols. Ninety five subjects in Vietnam (60 males) and 101 in France (41 males) were recruited. Airway resistance was significantly larger in Vietnamese than in Caucasians and in females than in males, consistent with difference in body dimensions. Specific airway resistance however was not different by ethnicity or gender. The findings do not support the hypothesis that airway size at adult age - once normalized for lung volume - differs between Vietnamese and Caucasians. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A comparison between the v-gel supraglottic airway device and the cuffed endotracheal tube for airway management in spontaneously breathing cats during isoflurane anaesthesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrom, H.; Krauss, M.W.; Sap, R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE: To compare airway management using the v-gel supraglottic airway device (v-gel SGAD) to that using an endotracheal tube (ETT), with respect to practicability, leakage of volatile anaesthetics and upper airway discomfort in cats. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, randomized clinical

  20. The Tulip GT® airway versus the facemask and Guedel airway: a randomised, controlled, cross-over study by Basic Life Support-trained airway providers in anaesthetised patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, A; Robinson, P N; Hasan, M

    2016-03-01

    We performed a randomised, controlled, cross-over study of lung ventilation by Basic Life Support-trained providers using either the Tulip GT® airway or a facemask with a Guedel airway in 60 anaesthetised patients. Successful ventilation was achieved if the provider produced an end-tidal CO2 > 3.5 kPa and a tidal volume > 250 ml in two of the first three breaths, within 60 sec and within two attempts. Fifty-seven (95%) providers achieved successful ventilation using the Tulip GT compared with 35 (58%) using the facemask (p Basic Life Support-trained airway providers. © 2015 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  1. Summarized institutional experience of paediatric airway surgery†.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoetzenecker, Konrad; Schweiger, Thomas; Schwarz, Stefan; Roesner, Imme; Leonhard, Matthias; Denk-Linnert, Doris-Maria; Schneider-Stickler, Berit; Bigenzahn, Wolfgang; Klepetko, Walter

    2016-04-01

    The management of paediatric airway stenosis is complex, and requires a dedicated team, consisting of thoracic surgeons, phoniatricians, logopaedics, paediatricians and anaesthetists. The majority of paediatric laryngotracheal stenosis is a sequela of prematurity and prolonged post-partal intubation/tracheostomy. Surgical correction is often difficult due to a frequent combination of glottic and subglottic defects. In 2012, the Laryngotracheal Program Vienna was launched. Since then, 18 paediatric patients were surgically treated for (laryngo-)tracheal problems. The median age of our patients was 26 months (range 2-180 months). Laryngotracheal stenosis extending up to the level of the vocal cords was evident in 9 patients. Three children were diagnosed with an isolated subglottic, and four with a short-segment tracheal stenosis or malacia. Two patients had a long-segment congenital malformation together with vascular ring anomalies. Five children were pretreated by rigid endoscopy before surgical correction, 12 of our 18 patients had a tracheostomy, 3 children were intubated at the time of operation. Different techniques of corrections were applied: laryngotracheal reconstruction (n = 4), extended partial cricotracheal resection (n = 4), cricotracheal resection with or without anterior split or dorsal mucosal flap (n = 4), slide tracheoplasty (n = 2), tracheal resection (n = 4). In 8 patients, a rib cartilage interposition was necessary in order to obtain a sufficient lumen enlargement and in 7 of these patients, an LT-Mold was placed to stabilize the reconstruction. We lost 2 patients, who were referred to our institution after failure of multiple preceding interventions, 2 and 3 months after the operation. Twelve patients are currently in an excellent condition, one is in an acceptable condition without a need for an intervention. Two patients required an endoscopic reintervention 18 and 33 months after the operation, 1 child is currently still cannulated

  2. Airway branching morphogenesis in three dimensional culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudjonsson Thorarinn

    2010-11-01

    form branching bronchioalveolar-like structures in 3-D culture. This novel model of human airway morphogenesis can be used to study critical events in human lung development and suggests a supportive role for the endothelium in promoting branching of airway epithelium.

  3. Recurrent airway obstructions in a patient with benign tracheal stenosis and a silicone airway stent: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Sriram, KB; Robinson, PC

    2008-01-01

    Airway stents (silicone and metal stents) are used to treat patients with benign tracheal stenosis, who are symptomatic and in whom tracheal surgical reconstruction has failed or is not appropriate. However airway stents are often associated with complications such as migration, granuloma formation and mucous hypersecretion, which cause significant morbidity, especially in patients with benign tracheal stenosis and relatively normal life expectancy. We report a patient who had frequent critic...

  4. Post analysis simulated correlation of the El-Ganzouri airway difficulty score with difficult airway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corso, Ruggero M; Cattano, Davide; Buccioli, Matteo; Carretta, Elisa; Maitan, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Difficult airway (DA) occurs frequently (5-15%) in clinical practice. The El-Ganzouri Risk Index (EGRI) has a high sensitivity for predicting a difficult intubation (DI). However difficult mask ventilation (DMV) was never included in the EGRI. Since DMV was not included in the EGRI assessment, and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is also correlated with DMV, a study correlating the prediction of DA and OSA (identified by STOP-Bang questionnaire, SB) seemed important. We accessed a database previously collected for a post analysis simulation of the airway difficulty predictivity of the EGRI, associated with normal and difficult airway, particularly DMV. As secondary aim, we measured the correlation between the SB prediction system and DA, compared to the EGRI. A total of 2747 patients were included in the study. The proportion of patients with DI was 14.7% (95% CI 13.4-16) and the proportion of patients with DMV was 3.42% (95% CI 2.7-4.1). The incidence of DMV combined with DI was (2.3%). The optimal cutoff value of EGRI was 3. EGRI registered also an higher ability to predict DMV (AUC=0.76 (95% CI 0.71-0.81)). Adding the SB variables in the logistic model, the AUC increases with the inclusion of "observed apnea" variable (0.83 vs. 0.81, p=0.03). The area under the ROC curve for the patients with DI and DMV was 0.77 (95% CI 0.72-0.83). This study confirms that the incidence of DA is not negligible and suggests the use of the EGRI as simple bedside predictive score to improve patient safety. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. [Post analysis simulated correlation of the El-Ganzouri airway difficulty score with difficult airway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corso, Ruggero M; Cattano, Davide; Buccioli, Matteo; Carretta, Elisa; Maitan, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Difficult airway (DA) occurs frequently (5-15%) in clinical practice. The El-Ganzouri Risk Index (EGRI) has a high sensitivity for predicting a difficult intubation (DI). However difficult mask ventilation (DMV) was never included in the EGRI. Since DMV was not included in the EGRI assessment, and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is also correlated with DMV, a study correlating the prediction of DA and OSA (identified by STOP-Bang questionnaire, SB) seemed important. We accessed a database previously collected for a post analysis simulation of the airway difficulty predictivity of the EGRI, associated with normal and difficult airway, particularly DMV. As secondary aim, we measured the correlation between the SB prediction system and DA, compared to the EGRI. A total of 2747 patients were included in the study. The proportion of patients with DI was 14.7% (95% CI 13.4-16) and the proportion of patients with DMV was 3.42% (95% CI 2.7-4.1). The incidence of DMV combined with DI was (2.3%). The optimal cutoff value of EGRI was 3. EGRI registered also an higher ability to predict DMV (AUC=0.76 (95% CI 0.71-0.81)). Adding the SB variables in the logistic model, the AUC increases with the inclusion of "observed apnea" variable (0.83 vs. 0.81, p=0.03). The area under the ROC curve for the patients with DI and DMV was 0.77 (95% CI 0.72-0.83). This study confirms that the incidence of DA is not negligible and suggests the use of the EGRI as simple bedside predictive score to improve patient safety. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Role of IRE1α/XBP-1 in Cystic Fibrosis Airway Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla M. P. Ribeiro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis (CF pulmonary disease is characterized by chronic airway infection and inflammation. The infectious and inflamed CF airway environment impacts on the innate defense of airway epithelia and airway macrophages. The CF airway milieu induces an adaptation in these cells characterized by increased basal inflammation and a robust inflammatory response to inflammatory mediators. Recent studies have indicated that these responses depend on activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR. This review discusses the contribution of airway epithelia and airway macrophages to CF airway inflammatory responses and specifically highlights the functional importance of the UPR pathway mediated by IRE1/XBP-1 in these processes. These findings suggest that targeting the IRE1/XBP-1 UPR pathway may be a therapeutic strategy for CF airway disease.

  7. Chronic respiratory aeroallergen exposure in mice induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition in the large airways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill R Johnson

    Full Text Available Chronic allergic asthma is characterized by Th2-polarized inflammation and leads to airway remodeling and fibrosis but the mechanisms involved are not clear. To determine whether epithelial-mesenchymal transition contributes to airway remodeling in asthma, we induced allergic airway inflammation in mice by intranasal administration of house dust mite (HDM extract for up to 15 consecutive weeks. We report that respiratory exposure to HDM led to significant airway inflammation and thickening of the smooth muscle layer in the wall of the large airways. Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1 levels increased in mouse airways while epithelial cells lost expression of E-cadherin and occludin and gained expression of the mesenchymal proteins vimentin, alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA and pro-collagen I. We also observed increased expression and nuclear translocation of Snail1, a transcriptional repressor of E-cadherin and a potent inducer of EMT, in the airway epithelial cells of HDM-exposed mice. Furthermore, fate-mapping studies revealed migration of airway epithelial cells into the sub-epithelial regions of the airway wall. These results show the contribution of EMT to airway remodeling in chronic asthma-like inflammation and suggest that Th2-polarized airway inflammation can trigger invasion of epithelial cells into the subepithelial regions of the airway wall where they contribute to fibrosis, demonstrating a previously unknown plasticity of the airway epithelium in allergic airway disease.

  8. Mucociliary transport and upper airway disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Kazuhiko

    2010-01-01

    Mucociliary transport so critical in nasal, paranasal sinus, and middle ear physiology is impaired in chronic sinsusitis and otitis media by factors such as increased mucus viscoelasticity, decreased ciliary area, and primary or secondary ciliary immotility. We reviewed the pathophysiology of primary ciliary dyskinesia, otitis media with effusion, chronic sinusitis, and allergic rhinitis in terms of mucociliary transport. Subjects with primary ciliary dyskinesia may experience recurrent middle ear infection, chronic airway infection, predominantly lower-lobe bronchiectasis, male sterility, or situs inversus. Primary ciliary dyskinesia is sometimes difficult to diagnose in cases without situs inversus. Nasal nitric oxide concentration in such patients decreases, although why is unclear. Mutations may involve dynein arm intermediate chain 1 (DNAI1) or dynein arm heavy chain 5 (DNAH5). Mucociliary clearance decreases more in those with otitis media with effusion than in those without, due in part to increased middle ear effusion viscosity. Prognosis is poor in subjects with viscous effusion, which is difficult to clear from the middle ear via the mucociliary system. An understanding of anatomic paranasal sinus variations is thus extremely important in chronic sinusitis when endoscopic sinus surgery is attempted, although recent advances in computed tomography (CT) have enabled paranasal sinus drainage pathways to be delineated more clearly than ever before. (author)

  9. Liquid Therapy Delivery Models Using Microfluidic Airways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Molly K.; Grotberg, James B.; Waisman, Dan; Filoche, Marcel; Sznitman, Josué

    2013-11-01

    The propagation and break-up of viscous and surfactant-laden liquid plugs in the lungs is an active area of research in view of liquid plug installation in the lungs to treat a host of different pulmonary conditions. This includes Infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome (IRDS) the primary cause of neonatal death and disability. Until present, experimental studies of liquid plugs have generally been restricted to low-viscosity Newtonian fluids along a single bifurcation. However, these fluids reflect poorly the actual liquid medication therapies used to treat pulmonary conditions. The present work attempts to uncover the propagation, rupture and break-up of liquid plugs in the airway tree using microfluidic models spanning three or more generations of the bronchiole tree. Our approach allows the dynamics of plug propagation and break-up to be studied in real-time, in a one-to-one scale in vitro model, as a function of fluid rheology, trailing film dynamics and bronchial tree geometry. Understanding these dynamics are a first and necessary step to deliver more effectively boluses of liquid medication to the lungs while minimizing the injury caused to epithelial cells lining the lungs from the rupture of such liquid plugs.

  10. Palatoglossus coupling in selective upper airway stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiser, Clemens; Edenharter, Günther; Bas, Murat; Wirth, Markus; Hofauer, Benedikt

    2017-10-01

    Selective upper airway stimulation (sUAS) of the hypoglossal nerve is a useful therapy to treat patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Is it known that multiple obstructions can be solved by this stimulation technique, even at the retropalatal region. The aim of this study was to verify the palatoglossus coupling at the soft palate during stimulation. Single-center, prospective clinical trail. Twenty patients who received an sUAS implant from April 2015 to April 2016 were included. A drug-induced sedated endoscopy (DISE) was performed before surgery. Six to 12 months after activation of the system, patients' tongue motions were recorded, an awake transnasal endoscopy was performed with stimulation turned on, and a DISE with stimulation off and on was done. Patients with a bilateral protrusion of the tongue base showed a significantly increased opening at the retropalatal level compared to ipsilateral protrusions. Furthermore, patients with a clear activation of the geniohyoid muscle showed a better reduction in apnea-hypopnea index. A bilateral protrusion of the tongue base during sUAS seems to be accompanied with a better opening of the soft palate. This effect can be explained by the palatoglossal coupling, due to its linkage of the muscles within the soft palate to those of the lateral tongue body. 4 Laryngoscope, 127:E378-E383, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  11. The NUSTAR data acquisition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeher, B.; Toernqvist, H.T. [TU Darmstadt (Germany); GSI (Germany); Agramunt, J. [IFIC, CSIC (Spain); Bendel, M.; Gernhaeuser, R.; Le Bleis, T.; Winkel, M. [TU Muenchen (Germany); Charpy, A.; Heinz, A.; Johansson, H.T. [Chalmers University of Technology (Sweden); Coleman-Smith, P.; Lazarus, I.H.; Pucknell, V.F.E. [STFC Daresbury (United Kingdom); Czermak, A. [IFJ (Poland); Kurz, N.; Nociforo, C.; Pietri, S.; Schaffner, H.; Simon, H. [GSI (Germany); Scheit, H. [TU Darmstadt (Germany); Taieb, J. [CEA (France)

    2015-07-01

    The diversity of upcoming experiments within the NUSTAR collaboration, including experiments in storage rings, reactions at relativistic energies and high-precision spectroscopy, is reflected in the diversity of the required detection systems. A challenging task is to incorporate the different needs of individual detectors within the unified NUSTAR Data AcQuisition (NDAQ). NDAQ takes up this challenge by providing a high degree of availability via continuously running systems, high flexibility via experiment-specific configuration files for data streams and trigger logic, distributed timestamps and trigger information on km distances, all built on the solid basis of the GSI Multi-Branch System. NDAQ ensures interoperability between individual NUSTAR detectors and allows merging of formerly separate data streams according to the needs of all experiments, increasing reliability in NUSTAR data acquisition. An overview of the NDAQ infrastructure and the current progress is presented. The NUSTAR (NUclear STructure, Astrophysics and Reactions) collaboration represents one of the four pillars motivating the construction of the international FAIR facility. The diversity of NUSTAR experiments, including experiments in storage rings, reactions at relativistic energies and high-precision spectroscopy, is reflected in the diversity of the required detection systems. A challenging task is to incorporate the different needs of individual detectors and components under the umbrella of the unified NUSTAR Data AQuisition (NDAQ) infrastructure. NDAQ takes up this challenge by providing a high degree of availability via continuously running systems, high flexibility via experiment-specific configuration files for data streams and trigger logic, and distributed time stamps and trigger information on km distances, all built on the solid basis of the GSI Multi-Branch System (MBS). NDAQ ensures interoperability between individual NUSTAR detectors and allows merging of formerly separate

  12. TCABR data acquisition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagundes, A.N. E-mail: fagundes@if.usp.br; Sa, W.P.; Coelho, P.M.S.A

    2000-08-01

    A brief description of the design of the data acquisition system for the TCABR tokamak is presented. The system comprises the VME standard instrumentation incorporating CAMAC instrumentation through the use of a GPIB interface. All the necessary data for programming different parts of the equipment, as well as the repertoire of actions for the machine control, are stored in a DBMS, with friendly interfaces. Public access software is used, where feasible, in the development of codes. The TCABR distinguished feature is the virtual lack of frontiers in upgrading, either in hardware or software.

  13. Flexible data acquisition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clout, P N; Ridley, P A [Science Research Council, Daresbury (UK). Daresbury Lab.

    1978-06-01

    A data acquisition system has been developed which enables several independent experiments to be controlled by a 24 K word PDP-11 computer. Significant features of the system are the use of CAMAC, a high level language (RTL/2) and a general-purpose operating system executive which assist the rapid implementation of new experiments. This system has been used successfully for EXAFS and photo-electron spectroscopy experiments. It is intended to provide powerful concurrent data analysis and feedback facilities to the experimenter by on-line connection to the central IBM 370/165 computer.

  14. Getting Defense Acquisition Right

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    on top of events and steer them to get where we need to go as efficiently as possible. Program management is not a spectator sport . Frank Frank...I made in the e-mail above and discusses some of the proactive steps a Program Manager can take, ahead of time , to reduce the potential...The Congress will rescind funds that are not obligated in a timely way. This puts pressure on the DoD’s acquisition managers to put money on

  15. The Integrin-blocking Peptide RGDS Inhibits Airway Smooth Muscle Remodeling in a Guinea Pig Model of Allergic Asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, Bart G. J.; Bos, I. Sophie T.; Gosens, Reinoud; Halayko, Andrew J.; Zaagsma, Johan; Meurs, Herman

    2010-01-01

    Rationale: Airway remodeling, including increased airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass and contractility, contributes to airway hyper-responsiveness in asthma. The mechanisms driving these changes are, however, incompletely understood. Recently, an important role for extracellular matrix proteins in

  16. Relationship between loss in parenchymal elastic recoil pressure and maximal airway narrowing in subjects with alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, D.; Schot, R.; Zwinderman, A. H.; Zagers, H.; Dijkman, J. H.; Sterk, P. J.

    1997-01-01

    Airway hyperresponsiveness is characterized by an increase in sensitivity and excessive airway narrowing to inhaled bronchoconstrictor stimuli. There is experimental evidence that maximal airway narrowing is related to lung elasticity in normal and asthmatic subjects. We hypothesized that reduced

  17. Airway pressure release ventilation and biphasic positive airway pressure: a systematic review of definitional criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Louise; Hawkins, Martyn

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the definitional criteria for the pressure-limited and time-cycled modes: airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) and biphasic positive airway pressure (BIPAP) available in the published literature. Systematic review. Medline, PubMed, Cochrane, and CINAHL databases (1982-2006) were searched using the following terms: APRV, BIPAP, Bilevel and lung protective strategy, individually and in combination. Two independent reviewers determined the paper eligibility and abstracted data from 50 studies and 18 discussion articles. Of the 50 studies, 39 (78%) described APRV, and 11 (22%) described BIPAP. Various study designs, populations, or outcome measures were investigated. Compared to BIPAP, APRV was described more frequently as extreme inverse inspiratory:expiratory ratio [18/39 (46%) vs. 0/11 (0%), P = 0.004] and used rarely as a noninverse ratio [2/39 (5%) vs. 3/11 (27%), P = 0.06]. One (9%) BIPAP and eight (21%) APRV studies used mild inverse ratio (>1:1 to branding may further add to confusion. Generic naming of modes and consistent definitional parameters may improve consistency of patient response for a given mode and assist with clinical implementation.

  18. Data-acquisition systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyborski, D.R.; Teh, K.M.

    1995-01-01

    Up to now, DAPHNE, the data-acquisition system developed for ATLAS, was used routinely for experiments at ATLAS and the Dynamitron. More recently, the Division implemented 2 MSU/DAPHNE systems. The MSU/DAPHNE system is a hybrid data-acquisition system which combines the front-end of the Michigan State University (MSU) DA system with the traditional DAPHNE back-end. The MSU front-end is based on commercially available modules. This alleviates the problems encountered with the DAPHNE front-end which is based on custom designed electronics. The first MSU system was obtained for the APEX experiment and was used there successfully. A second MSU front-end, purchased as a backup for the APEX experiment, was installed as a fully-independent second MSU/DAPHNE system with the procurement of a DEC 3000 Alpha host computer, and was used successfully for data-taking in an experiment at ATLAS. Additional hardware for a third system was bought and will be installed. With the availability of 2 MSU/DAPHNE systems in addition to the existing APEX setup, it is planned that the existing DAPHNE front-end will be decommissioned

  19. Continued Data Acquisition Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwellenbach, David [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States)

    2017-11-27

    This task focused on improving techniques for integrating data acquisition of secondary particles correlated in time with detected cosmic-ray muons. Scintillation detectors with Pulse Shape Discrimination (PSD) capability show the most promise as a detector technology based on work in FY13. Typically PSD parameters are determined prior to an experiment and the results are based on these parameters. By saving data in list mode, including the fully digitized waveform, any experiment can effectively be replayed to adjust PSD and other parameters for the best data capture. List mode requires time synchronization of two independent data acquisitions (DAQ) systems: the muon tracker and the particle detector system. Techniques to synchronize these systems were studied. Two basic techniques were identified: real time mode and sequential mode. Real time mode is the preferred system but has proven to be a significant challenge since two FPGA systems with different clocking parameters must be synchronized. Sequential processing is expected to work with virtually any DAQ but requires more post processing to extract the data.

  20. Unsupervised Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Marcken, Carl

    1996-11-01

    This thesis presents a computational theory of unsupervised language acquisition, precisely defining procedures for learning language from ordinary spoken or written utterances, with no explicit help from a teacher. The theory is based heavily on concepts borrowed from machine learning and statistical estimation. In particular, learning takes place by fitting a stochastic, generative model of language to the evidence. Much of the thesis is devoted to explaining conditions that must hold for this general learning strategy to arrive at linguistically desirable grammars. The thesis introduces a variety of technical innovations, among them a common representation for evidence and grammars, and a learning strategy that separates the ``content'' of linguistic parameters from their representation. Algorithms based on it suffer from few of the search problems that have plagued other computational approaches to language acquisition. The theory has been tested on problems of learning vocabularies and grammars from unsegmented text and continuous speech, and mappings between sound and representations of meaning. It performs extremely well on various objective criteria, acquiring knowledge that causes it to assign almost exactly the same structure to utterances as humans do. This work has application to data compression, language modeling, speech recognition, machine translation, information retrieval, and other tasks that rely on either structural or stochastic descriptions of language.

  1. A child with a difficult airway: what do I do next?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Thomas; Weiss, Markus

    2012-06-01

    Difficulties in pediatric airway management are common and continue to result in significant morbidity and mortality. This review reports on current concepts in approaching a child with a difficult airway. Routine airway management in healthy children with normal airways is simple in experienced hands. Mask ventilation (oxygenation) is always possible and tracheal intubation normally simple. However, transient hypoxia is common in these children usually due to unexpected anatomical and functional airway problems or failure to ventilate during rapid sequence induction. Anatomical airway problems (upper airway collapse and adenoid hypertrophy) and functional airway problems (laryngospasm, bronchospasm, insufficient depth of anesthesia and muscle rigidity, gastric hyperinflation, and alveolar collapse) require urgent recognition and treatment algorithms due to insufficient oxygen reserves. Early muscle paralysis and epinephrine administration aids resolution of these functional airway obstructions. Children with an 'impaired' normal (foreign body, allergy, and inflammation) or an expected difficult (scars, tumors, and congenital) airway require careful planning and expertise. Training in the recognition and management of these different situations as well as a suitably equipped anesthesia workstation and trained personnel are essential. The healthy child with an unexpected airway problem requires clear strategies. The 'impaired' normal pediatric airway may be handled by anesthetists experienced with children, whereas the expected difficult pediatric airway requires dedicated pediatric anesthesia specialist care and should only be managed in specialized centers.

  2. Methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase contributes to allergic airway disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth R Eyring

    Full Text Available Environmental exposures strongly influence the development and progression of asthma. We have previously demonstrated that mice exposed to a diet enriched with methyl donors during vulnerable periods of fetal development can enhance the heritable risk of allergic airway disease through epigenetic changes. There is conflicting evidence on the role of folate (one of the primary methyl donors in modifying allergic airway disease.We hypothesized that blocking folate metabolism through the loss of methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (Mthfr activity would reduce the allergic airway disease phenotype through epigenetic mechanisms.Allergic airway disease was induced in C57BL/6 and C57BL/6Mthfr-/- mice through house dust mite (HDM exposure. Airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR were measured between the two groups. Gene expression and methylation profiles were generated for whole lung tissue. Disease and molecular outcomes were evaluated in C57BL/6 and C57BL/6Mthfr-/- mice supplemented with betaine.Loss of Mthfr alters single carbon metabolite levels in the lung and serum including elevated homocysteine and cystathionine and reduced methionine. HDM-treated C57BL/6Mthfr-/- mice demonstrated significantly less airway hyperreactivity (AHR compared to HDM-treated C57BL/6 mice. Furthermore, HDM-treated C57BL/6Mthfr-/- mice compared to HDM-treated C57BL/6 mice have reduced whole lung lavage (WLL cellularity, eosinophilia, and Il-4/Il-5 cytokine concentrations. Betaine supplementation reversed parts of the HDM-induced allergic airway disease that are modified by Mthfr loss. 737 genes are differentially expressed and 146 regions are differentially methylated in lung tissue from HDM-treated C57BL/6Mthfr-/- mice and HDM-treated C57BL/6 mice. Additionally, analysis of methylation/expression relationships identified 503 significant correlations.Collectively, these findings indicate that the loss of folate as a methyl donor is a modifier of

  3. Diagnosis of bronchiectasis and airway wall thickening in children with cystic fibrosis. Objective airway-artery quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuo, Wieying; Tiddens, Harm A.W.M. [Erasmus MC - Sophia Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Pulmonology and Allergology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus MC, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Bruijne, Marleen de [Erasmus MC, Biomedical Imaging Group Rotterdam, Departments of Medical Informatics and Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); University of Copenhagen, Department of Computer Science, Copenhagen (Denmark); Petersen, Jens [University of Copenhagen, Department of Computer Science, Copenhagen (Denmark); Nasserinejad, Kazem [Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, HOVON Data Center, Clinical Trial Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus MC, Department of Biostatistics, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Ozturk, Hadiye [Erasmus MC - Sophia Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Pulmonology and Allergology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Chen, Yong [General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, Department of Radiology, Yinchuan (China); Perez-Rovira, Adria [Erasmus MC - Sophia Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Pulmonology and Allergology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus MC, Biomedical Imaging Group Rotterdam, Departments of Medical Informatics and Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2017-11-15

    To quantify airway and artery (AA)-dimensions in cystic fibrosis (CF) and control patients for objective CT diagnosis of bronchiectasis and airway wall thickness (AWT). Spirometer-guided inspiratory and expiratory CTs of 11 CF and 12 control patients were collected retrospectively. Airway pathways were annotated semi-automatically to reconstruct three-dimensional bronchial trees. All visible AA-pairs were measured perpendicular to the airway axis. Inner, outer and AWT (outer-inner) diameter were divided by the adjacent artery diameter to compute A{sub in}A-, A{sub out}A- and A{sub WT}A-ratios. AA-ratios were predicted using mixed-effects models including disease status, lung volume, gender, height and age as covariates. Demographics did not differ significantly between cohorts. Mean AA-pairs CF: 299 inspiratory; 82 expiratory. Controls: 131 inspiratory; 58 expiratory. All ratios were significantly larger in inspiratory compared to expiratory CTs for both groups (p<0.001). A{sub out}A- and A{sub WT}A-ratios were larger in CF than in controls, independent of lung volume (p<0.01). Difference of A{sub out}A- and A{sub WT}A-ratios between patients with CF and controls increased significantly for every following airway generation (p<0.001). Diagnosis of bronchiectasis is highly dependent on lung volume and more reliably diagnosed using outer airway diameter. Difference in bronchiectasis and AWT severity between the two cohorts increased with each airway generation. (orig.)

  4. Changes in Upper Airway Volume Following Orthognathic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcussen, Lillian; Stokbro, Kasper; Aagaard, Esben; Torkov, Peter; Thygesen, Torben

    2017-01-01

    Reduced volume of the internal skeletal dimensions of the face is 1 of the main causes of obstructive sleep apnea, and attention to patients' airways is necessary when planning orthognathic treatment. This study aims to describe changes in upper airway volume following virtually planned orthognathic surgery.A retrospective pilot study was designed with 30 randomly selected patients (10 men and 20 women, aged 23.1 ± 6.8 years, molar-relations: 15 neutral, 8 distal, and 7 mesial). Cone-beam computed tomography scans were performed before surgery and 1 week following surgery. The authors did total upper airway volume measurements and obtained 1-mm slices at vertical levels in the velo-, oro-, and hypopharynx and at the smallest visible cross-section.Measurements before and after surgery were compared using Student t test.After orthognathic surgery, the minimum cross-sectional area at the vertical level increased from 83 mm ± 33 before surgery to 102 mm ± 36 after surgery (P = 0.019). In patients with neutral and distal occlusions, the minimum cross-sectional slice volume increased in 87% but in only 57% with mesial occlusion.The present findings suggest that orthognathic surgery increases upper airway volume parameters, but a few patients have continued impairment of the airways following orthognathic surgery. Further studies are needed to confirm an individual surgical planning approach that potentially could bring the minimum cross sectional area out of the risk zone.

  5. [Management of malignant and benign airway stenosis by stent implantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyulai, Márton; Slavei, Krisztina; Pénzes, István; Strausz, János

    2006-11-12

    In the last few decades the different bronchoscopic procedures have gained an important role in the treatment of airway stenosis, and the number of implanted airway stents has also greatly increased. Between 1998 and 2004 the authors implanted altogether 108 airway prosthesis in 90 patients at the Institute of Pulmonology of Pest County. 58% of the patients were males, 42% females, the average age was 57.5 years, the average follow-up time was 7 months. On the basis of different etiology the patients were separated into two main groups. In 57% the airway stenosis was caused by malignant illnesses, in these cases stents can be used only with palliative purpose. However, in case of benign lesions they can offer a long-term solution and require an adequate follow-up of the patients. The authors' main aim was to get an overall picture of the interventions they had done by processing the data, with the help of the measurable characteristics that make possible to follow the airways' permeability and its changes. Analysing the results of the respiratory function and blood gas examinations they didn't find a significant difference inspite of the subjective improvement.

  6. Effects of Flavin7 on allergen induced hyperreactivity of airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franova S

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Some studies have suggested that the polyphenolic compounds might reduce the occurrence of asthma symptoms. The aim of our experiments was to evaluate the effects of 21 days of the flavonoid Flavin7 administration on experimentally induced airway inflammation in ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pigs. We assessed tracheal smooth muscle reactivity by an in vitro muscle-strip method; changes in airway resistance by an in vivo plethysmographic method; histological picture of tracheal tissue; and the levels of interleukin 4 (IL-4, and interleukin 5 (IL-5 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF. Histological investigation of tracheal tissue and the concentrations of the inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-5 in BALF were used as indices of airway inflammation. Administration of Flavin7 caused a significant decrease of specific airway resistance after histamine nebulization and a decline in tracheal smooth muscle contraction amplitude in response to bronchoconstricting mediators. Flavin7 minimized the degree of inflammation estimated on the basis of eosinophil calculation and IL-4 and IL-5 concentrations. In conclusion, administration of Flavin7 showed bronchodilating and anti-inflammatory effects on allergen-induced airway inflammation.

  7. Secondhand smoke exposure induces acutely airway acidification and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostikas, Konstantinos; Minas, Markos; Nikolaou, Eftychia; Papaioannou, Andriana I; Liakos, Panagiotis; Gougoura, Sofia; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos I; Dinas, Petros C; Metsios, Giorgos S; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Flouris, Andreas D; Koutedakis, Yiannis

    2013-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that secondhand smoke induces lung function impairment and increases proinflammatory cytokines. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute effects of secondhand smoke on airway acidification and airway oxidative stress in never-smokers. In a randomized controlled cross-over trial, 18 young healthy never-smokers were assessed at baseline and 0, 30, 60, 120, 180 and 240 min after one-hour secondhand smoke exposure at bar/restaurant levels. Exhaled NO and CO measurements, exhaled breath condensate collection (for pH, H(2)O(2) and NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-) measurements) and spirometry were performed at all time-points. Secondhand smoke exposure induced increases in serum cotinine and exhaled CO that persisted until 240 min. Exhaled breath condensate pH decreased immediately after exposure (p secondhand smoke induced airway acidification and increased airway oxidative stress, accompanied by significant impairment of lung function. Despite the reversal in EBC pH and lung function, airway oxidative stress remained increased 4 h after the exposure. Clinical trial registration number (EudraCT): 2009-013545-28. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Relationship between airway colonization, inflammation and exacerbation frequency in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumkaya, Munir; Atis, Sibel; Ozge, Cengiz; Delialioglu, Nuran; Polat, Gurbuz; Kanik, Arzu

    2007-04-01

    To evaluate bacterial colonization and the airway inflammatory response, and its relationship to the frequency of exacerbation in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Quantitative bacteriologic cultures, neutrophil elastase, myeloperoxidase (MPO), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin (IL)-8 were measured in bronchoalveoler lavage (BAL) in 39 patients with stable COPD [19 with frequent exacerbation (> or = 3/year), and 20 with infrequent] and in 18 healthy controls (10 smokers and 8 non-smokers). BAL revealed the microorganisms with potential pathogenicity above the established threshold (> or = 10(3)cfu/ml) in 68.4% of patients with frequent exacerbation, 55% of infrequent exacerbation, 40% of smokers and 12.5% of non-smokers controls (P=0.05). BAL MPO, IL-8 and TNF-alpha levels were found to be significantly higher in COPD as compared to controls (P=0.001). However, only IL-8 level was significantly higher in COPD patients with frequent exacerbation as compared to infrequent (P=0.001). Airway bacterial load correlated with levels of airway inflammation markers in COPD (P<0.05). The bacterial load and airway inflammation contributes to each other in stable COPD. However, there is a link only between interleukine (IL)-8 and frequent exacerbations. Clearly, the relationship between bacterial colonization, airway inflammation and frequent exacerbations is of major importance in understanding of the COPD pathogenesis.

  9. VIRTUAL 3-D MODELLING OF AIRWAYS IN CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Speggiorin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The involvement of the airway is not uncommon in the presence of complex cardiovascular malformations. In these cases, a careful inspection of the relationship between the airway and the vasculature is paramount to plan the surgical procedure. Three-dimentional printing enhanced the visualization of the cardio-vascualr structure. Unfortunately IT does not allow to remove selected anatomy to improve the visualization of the surrounding ones. Computerized modelling (CM of has the potential to fill this gap by allowing a dynamic handling of different anatomies, increasing the exposure of vessels or bronchi to show their relationship.. We started to use this technique to plan the surgical repair in these complex cases where the airway is affected. This technique is routinely used in our Institution as an additional tool in the pre-surgical assessment. We report 4 cases in which the airways were compressed by vascular structures : ascending aorta in 1, left pulmonary artery sling in 1, Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA in 1 and major aorto-pulmonary collateral artery in 1. We believe this technique can enhance the understanding of the causes of airway involvement and facilitate the creation of an appropriate surgical plan.

  10. A novel animal model for hyperdynamic airway collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukada, Hisashi; O'Donnell, Carl R; Garland, Robert; Herth, Felix; Decamp, Malcolm; Ernst, Armin

    2010-12-01

    Tracheobronchomalacia (TBM) is increasingly recognized as a condition associated with significant pulmonary morbidity. However, treatment is invasive and complex, and because there is no appropriate animal model, novel diagnostic and treatment strategies are difficult to evaluate. We endeavored to develop a reliable airway model to simulate hyperdynamic airway collapse in humans. Seven 20-kg male sheep were enrolled in this study. Tracheomalacia was created by submucosal resection of > 50% of the circumference of 10 consecutive cervical tracheal cartilage rings through a midline cervical incision. A silicone stent was placed in the trachea to prevent airway collapse during recovery. Tracheal collapsibility was assessed at protocol-specific time points by bronchoscopy and multidetector CT imaging while temporarily removing the stent. Esophageal pressure and flow data were collected to assess flow limitation during spontaneous breathing. All animals tolerated the surgical procedure well and were stented without complications. One sheep died at 2 weeks because of respiratory failure related to stent migration. In all sheep, near-total forced inspiratory airway collapse was observed up to 3 months postprocedure. Esophageal manometry demonstrated flow limitation associated with large negative pleural pressure swings during rapid spontaneous inhalation. Hyperdynamic airway collapse can reliably be induced with this technique. It may serve as a model for evaluation of novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for TBM.

  11. Collection assessment and acquisitions budgets

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Sul H

    2013-01-01

    This invaluable new book contains timely information about the assessment of academic library collections and the relationship of collection assessment to acquisition budgets. The rising cost of information significantly influences academic libraries'abilities to acquire the necessary materials for students and faculty, and public libraries'abilities to acquire material for their clientele. Collection Assessment and Acquisitions Budgets examines different aspects of the relationship between the assessment of academic library collections and the management of library acquisition budgets. Librar

  12. Upper airway muscles awake and asleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sériès, Frédéric

    2002-06-01

    Upper airway (UA) structures are involved in different respiratory and non-respiratory tasks. The coordination of agonist and antagonist UA dilators is responsible for their mechanical function and their ability to maintain UA patency throughout the respiratory cycle. The activity of these muscles is linked with central respiratory activity but also depends on UA pressure changes and is greatly influenced by sleep. UA muscles are involved in determining UA resistance and stability (i.e. closing pressure), and the effect of sleep on these variables may be accounted for by its effect on tonic and phasic skeletal muscle activities. The mechanical effects of UA dilator contraction also depend on their physiological properties (capacity to generate tension in vitro, activity of the anaerobic enzymatic pathway, histo-chemical characteristics that may differ between subjects who may or may not have sleep-related obstructive breathing disorders). These characteristics may represent an adaptive process to an increased resistive loading of these muscles. The apparent discrepancy between the occurrence of UA closure and an increased capacity to generate tension in sleep apnea patients may be due to a reduction in the effectiveness of UA muscle contraction in these patients; such an increase in tissue stiffness could be accounted for by peri-muscular tissue characteristics. Therefore, understanding of UA muscle physiological characteristics should take into account its capacity for force production and its mechanical coupling with other UA tissues. Important research goals for the future will be to integrate these issues with other physiological features of the disease, such as UA size and dimension, histological characteristics of UA tissues and the effect of sleep on muscle function. Such integration will better inform understanding of the role of pharyngeal UA muscles in the pathophysiology of the sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome.

  13. Wire-guided (Seldinger technique intubation through a face mask in urgent, difficult and grossly distorted airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake M Heier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report two cases of successful urgent intubation using a Seldinger technique for airway management through an anesthesia facemask, while maintaining ventilation in patients with difficult airways and grossly distorted airway anatomy. In both cases, conventional airway management techniques were predicted to be difficult or impossible, and a high likelihood for a surgical airway was present. This technique was chosen as it allows tracheal tube placement through the nares during spontaneous ventilation with the airway stented open and oxygen delivery with either continuous positive airway pressure and/or pressure support ventilation. This unhurried technique may allow intubation when other techniques are unsuitable, while maintaining control of the airway.

  14. Endotracheal intubation in patients with difficult airway: Using laryngeal mask airway with bougie versus video laryngoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesameddin Modir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Airway management is essential for safe anesthesia and endotracheal intubation is the most important procedure by which critically ill patients can be better managed, especially if done quickly and successfully. This study aimed to compare the techniques of intubation through laryngeal mask airway (LMA using a bougie versus video laryngoscopy (VL regarding to intubation success and the quality of intubation indices in patients with difficult airways. This randomized clinical trial was performed on 96 patients aged 16–76 years with Mallampati class 3 or 4 who underwent elective surgery. Once the demographics were recorded, patients were randomly divided into two groups and the first group intubated with VL, and the second group intubated through laryngeal mask using a bougie. Then vital signs, arterial oxygen saturation, the time required for successful intubation, and ease of intubation were recorded. Here t-tests, chi-square, Fisher exact tests, and analysis of variance for repeated measurement were used to analyze the data in SPSS software. The overall success rates of intubation in VL and LMA groups were 46 (96% and 44 (92%, respectively. The mean duration of intubation for the LMA and VL groups was 18.70 ± 6.73 and 14.21 ± 4.14 seconds, respectively (P < 0.001. Moreover, visual analogue scale score for pain in throat was significantly lower in VL group than LMA (1.65 ± 0.76 vs. 1.33 ± 0.52. Moreover, easy intubation in bougie group was 50%, while the easy intubation in VL was 73% (P = 0.023. In addition, incidence of cough was 31% in the LMA with bougie group and 9% in VL group (P = 0.005. The VL technique is an easier method and has a shorter intubation time than LMA using bougie, and causes a lower incidence of coughing, laryngospasm in patients that need intubation. Moreover, cough and discomfort in the throat tend to be less in VL, and the LMA could be used as replacement of VL in hard situations.

  15. The Effects of the Heat and Moisture Exchanger on Humidity, Airway Temperature, and Core Body Temperature

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Delventhal, Mary

    1999-01-01

    Findings from several studies have demonstrated that the use of a heat and moisture exchanger increases airway humidity, which in turn increases mean airway temperature and prevents decreases in core body temperature...

  16. Effects of Pranlukast Hydrate on Airway Hyperresponsiveness in Non-Asthmatic Patients with Japanese Cedar Pollinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironori Sagara

    2009-01-01

    Conclusions: The results indicate that pranlukast hydrate inhibits airway hyperresponsiveness in non-asthmatic patients with Japanese cedar pollinosis. In turn, this suggests that cysteinyl leukotrienes have a role in increased airway responsiveness.

  17. Management of airway foreign body using flexible bronchoscopy: Experience with 80 cases during 2011–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safy Kaddah

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Flexible bronchoscopy is successful in retrieving airway foreign bodies (88.8%. With skilled personnel and perfect equipments, flexible bronchoscopy could be considered as the first choice for the removal of airway foreign body.

  18. Electronic nose breathprints are independent of acute changes in airway caliber in asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazar, Zsofia; Fens, Niki; Van der Maten, Jan; van der Schee, Marc P.; Wagener, Ariane H.; de Nijs, Selma B.; Dijkers, Erica; Sterk, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Molecular profiling of exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOC) by electronic nose technology provides breathprints that discriminate between patients with different inflammatory airway diseases, such as asthma and COPD. However, it is unknown whether this is determined by differences in airway

  19. Electronic Nose Breathprints Are Independent of Acute Changes in Airway Caliber in Asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazar, Z.; Fens, N.; Van der Maten, J.; van der Schee, M.P.; Wagener, A.H.; de Nijs, S.B.; Dijkers, E.; Sterk, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Molecular profiling of exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOC) by electronic nose technology provides breathprints that discriminate between patients with different inflammatory airway diseases, such as asthma and COPD. However, it is unknown whether this is determined by differences in airway

  20. Anatomic and physiopathologic changes affecting the airway of the elderly patient: implications for geriatric-focused airway management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson KN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Kathleen N Johnson,1 Daniel B Botros,1 Leanne Groban,1–4 Yvon F Bryan11Department of Anesthesiology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; 2Section on Molecular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; 3Sticht Center on Aging, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; 4Hypertension and Vascular Research Center, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USAAbstract: There are many anatomical, physiopathological, and cognitive changes that occur in the elderly that affect different components of airway management: intubation, ventilation, oxygenation, and risk of aspiration. Anatomical changes occur in different areas of the airway from the oral cavity to the larynx. Common changes to the airway include tooth decay, oropharyngeal tumors, and significant decreases in neck range of motion. These changes may make intubation challenging by making it difficult to visualize the vocal cords and/or place the endotracheal tube. Also, some of these changes, including but not limited to, atrophy of the muscles around the lips and an edentulous mouth, affect bag mask ventilation due to a difficult face-mask seal. Physiopathologic changes may impact airway management as well. Common pulmonary issues in the elderly (eg, obstructive sleep apnea and COPD increase the risk of an oxygen desaturation event, while gastrointestinal issues (eg, achalasia and gastroesophageal reflux disease increase the risk of aspiration. Finally, cognitive changes (eg, dementia not often seen as related to airway management may affect patient cooperation, especially if an awake intubation is required. Overall, degradation of the airway along with other physiopathologic and cognitive changes makes the elderly population more prone to complications related to airway management. When deciding which airway devices and techniques to use for intubation, the clinician should also consider the

  1. Fiberoptic intubation through laryngeal mask airway for management of difficult airway in a child with Klippel-Feil syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Bhat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ideal airway management modality in pediatric patients with syndromes like Klippel-Feil syndrome is a great challenge and is technically difficult for an anesthesiologist. Half of the patients present with the classic triad of short neck, low hairline, and fusion of cervical vertebra. Numerous associated anomalies like scoliosis or kyphosis, cleft palate, respiratory problems, deafness, genitourinary abnormalities, Sprengel′s deformity (wherein the scapulae ride high on the back, synkinesia, cervical ribs, and congenital heart diseases may further add to the difficulty. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy alone can be technically difficult and patient cooperation also becomes very important, which is difficult in pediatric patients. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy with the aid of supraglottic airway devices is a viable alternative in the management of difficult airway in children. We report a case of Klippel-Feil syndrome in an 18-month-old girl posted for cleft palate surgery. Imaging of spine revealed complete fusion of the cervical vertebrae with hypoplastic C3 and C6 vertebrae and thoracic kyphosis. We successfully managed airway in this patient by fiberoptic intubation through classic laryngeal mask airway (LMA. After intubation, we used second smaller endotracheal tube (ETT to stabilize and elongate the first ETT while removing the LMA.

  2. Management of difficult airway in intratracheal tumor surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal Surendra K

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tracheal malignancies are usual victim of delay in diagnosis by virtue of their symptoms resembling asthma. Sometimes delayed diagnosis may lead to almost total airway obstruction. For difficult airways, not leaving any possibility of manipulation into neck region or endoscopic intervention, femorofemoral cardiopulmonary bypass can be a promising approach. Case Presentation We are presenting a case of tracheal adenoid cystic carcinoma (cylindroma occupying about 90% of the tracheal lumen. It was successfully managed by surgical excision of mass by sternotomy and tracheotomy under femorofemoral cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB. Conclusion Any patient with recurrent respiratory symptoms should be evaluated by radiological and endoscopic means earlier to avoid delay in diagnosis of such conditions. Femorofemoral cardiopulmonary bypass is a relatively safe way of managing certain airway obstructions.

  3. Managing dysphonia in paediatric patients with complex airway conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, S; Setlur, J; Bunting, G; Hartnick, C J

    2015-08-01

    To suggest a phonosurgical management strategy that can be used for children who have previously undergone laryngotracheal reconstruction. This cases series describes three children who presented with complex, multi-level airway stenosis and marked dysphonia. Phonosurgical intervention involved endoscopic and open approaches, and was combined with voice therapy. A phonosurgical reconstruction management algorithm is suggested for evaluating and treating these complex conditions. Pre-operative assessment is critical, and should involve voice analysis and glottal anatomy assessment using office laryngoscopy and stroboscopy. The risks must be weighed up against the benefit of vocal improvement. Surgical intervention should involve combined endoscopic and open approaches. Voice restoration after paediatric airway reconstruction is a complex challenge. Surgical intervention should be conducted in a step-by-step manner to reduce the risk of worsening dysphonia and airway compromise. The risks and benefits must be carefully explored and discussed.

  4. [Severe iatrogenic airway obstruction due to lingual lymphangioma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segado Arenas, A; Flores González, J-C; Rubio Quiñones, F; Quintero Otero, S; Hernández González, A; Pantoja Rosso, S

    2011-09-01

    Lymphangioma of the tongue is a rare and benign tumour involving congenital and cystic abnormalities derived from lymphatic vessels. Treatment modalities include surgery and a large number of different intralesional injections of sclerosing agents. Presently, OK-432 (Picibanil(®)) is the preferred sclerosant and when administered intralesionally will result in inflammation, sclerosis, and cicatricial contraction of the lesion. We report a case of microcystic lymphangioma of the tongue in a 5-year-old boy treated with an intralesional injection of OK-432. In the immediate postoperative period, the patient suffered severe diffuse swelling, progressive upper airway obstruction with inspiratory stridor, and respiratory distress requiring emergency fiberoptic nasotracheal intubation. Although OK-432 injections are found to be safe and effective as a first line of treatment for lymphangiomas, local swelling with potentially life-threatening airway compromise should be anticipated, especially when treating lesions near the upper airway. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Simulation Based Training Improves Airway Management for Helicopter EMS Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhindsa, Harinder S.; Reid, Renee; Murray, David; Lovelady, James; Powell, Katie; Sayles, Jeff; Stevenson, Christopher; Baker, Kathy; Solada, Brian; Carroll, Scott; hide

    2011-01-01

    The use of paralytic medications in the performance of RSI intubation is a high risk intervention used by many HEMS crews. There is no margin for error in RSI intubation as the results can be fatal. Operating room access for airway management training has become more difficult, and is not representative of the environment in which HEMS crews typically function. LifeEvac of Virginia designed and implemented an SST airway management program to provide a realistic, consistent training platform. The dynamic program incorporates standardized scenarios, and real life challenging cases that this and other programs have encountered. SST is done in a variety of settings including the helicopter, back of ambulances, staged car crashes and simulation centers. The result has been the indoctrination of a well defined, consistent approach to every airway management intervention. The SST program facillitates enhancement of technical skills. as well as team dynamics and communication.

  6. Multi-detector CT evaluation in patients suspected of tracheobronchomalacia: Comparison of end-expiratory with dynamic expiratory volumetric acquisitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferretti, Gilbert R. [Department of Radiology (France)], E-mail: gferretti@chu-grenoble.fr; Jankowski, Adrien [Department of Radiology (France)], E-mail: ajankowski@chu-grenoble.fr; Perrin, Marie Amelie [Department of Radiology (France)], E-mail: maperrin@chu-grenoble.fr; Chouri, Nathalie [Department of Respiratory Diseases (France)], E-mail: nchouri@chu-grenoble.fr; Arnol, Nathalie [Sleep Laboratory and EFCR, University Hospital, Grenoble (France); HP2 Laboratory, INSERM ERI 0017 (Hypoxia: Pathophysiology), Joseph Fourier University, Grenoble (France)], E-mail: narnold@chu-grenoble.fr; Aubaud, Laurent [Department of Radiology (France)], E-mail: laubaud@chu-grenoble.fr; Pepin, Jean-Louis [Sleep Laboratory and EFCR, University Hospital, Grenoble (France); HP2 Laboratory, INSERM ERI 0017 (Hypoxia: Pathophysiology), Joseph Fourier University, Grenoble (France)], E-mail: jlpepin@chu-grenoble.fr

    2008-11-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare dynamic expiratory imaging and end-expiratory imaging using multi-detector CT (MDCT) of the central airways in patients suspected of tracheobronchomalacia (TBM). Methods: This study had local ethical committee approval. Seventy patients suspected of TBM were prospectively included. All patients underwent evaluation of central airways by three different low-dose MDCT acquisitions: end inspiration, end expiration, and dynamic expiration. Degree of airway collapse was measured by calculating the percentage change in the area and diameter of the airways between inspiratory and the two expiratory techniques at three levels of the trachea and in the sagittal diameter of the right and left main bronchi. Three threshold levels of percentage reduction in diameter or area (30%, 50%, and 70%) for defining TBM were evaluated. Results: In the entire population, the mean percentage of airway collapse was significantly greater with dynamic expiratory imaging than with the end-expiratory imaging at three different levels: lower thoracic trachea (26% vs. 16.6%, p < 0.009), right (25.2% vs. 14%, p < 0.01) and left main (24.7% vs. 13.3%, p < 0.01) bronchus. Whatever the threshold value for defining TBM, dynamic expiratory imaging always resulted in diagnosing TBM in more patients than end-expiratory imaging. Conclusions: Dynamic expiratory imaging shows a significantly greater degree and a significantly greater extent of airway collapse than standard end-expiratory imaging in patients suspected of TBM. Further evaluation of the clinical relevance of such findings is warranted.

  7. Effect of Class III bone anchor treatment on airway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tung; De Clerck, Hugo; Wilson, Michael; Golden, Brent

    2015-07-01

    To compare airway volumes and minimum cross-section area changes of Class III patients treated with bone-anchored maxillary protraction (BAMP) versus untreated Class III controls. Twenty-eight consecutive skeletal Class III patients between the ages of 10 and 14 years (mean age, 11.9 years) were treated using Class III intermaxillary elastics and bilateral miniplates (two in the infra-zygomatic crests of the maxilla and two in the anterior mandible). The subjects had cone beam computed tomographs (CBCTs) taken before initial loading (T1) and 1 year out (T2). Twenty-eight untreated Class III patients (mean age, 12.4 years) had CBCTs taken and cephalograms generated. The airway volumes and minimum cross-sectional area measurements were performed using Dolphin Imaging 11.7 3D software. The superior border of the airway was defined by a plane that passes through the posterior nasal spine and basion, while the inferior border included the base of the epiglottis to the lower border of C3. From T1 to T2, airway volume from BAMP-treated subjects showed a statistically significant increase (1499.64 mm(3)). The area in the most constricted section of the airway (choke point) increased slightly (15.44 mm(2)). The airway volume of BAMP patients at T2 was 14136.61 mm(3), compared with 14432.98 mm(3) in untreated Class III subjects. Intraexaminer correlation coefficients values and 95% confidence interval values were all greater than .90, showing a high degree of reliability of the measurements. BAMP treatment did not hinder the development of the oropharynx.

  8. Immunomodulation of afferent neurons in guinea-pig isolated airway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccio, M M; Myers, A C; Undem, B J

    1996-03-01

    1. The trachea, larynx and main bronchi with the right vagus nerve and nodose ganglion were isolated from guinea-pigs passively immunized 24 h previously with serum containing anti-ovalbumin antibody. 2. The airways were placed in one compartment of a Perspex chamber for recording of isometric tension while the nodose ganglion and attached vagus nerve were pulled into another compartment. Action potentials arriving from single airway afferent nerve endings were monitored extracellularly using a glass microelectrode positioned near neuronal cell bodies in the ganglion. Mechanosensitivity of the nerve endings was quantified using calibrated von Frey filaments immediately before and after exposure to antigen (10 micrograms ml-1 ovalbumin). 3. Ten endings responded to the force exerted by the lowest filament (0.078 mN) and were not further investigated. In airways from thirteen immunized guinea-pigs, the mechanical sensitivity of A delta afferent fibres (conduction velocity = 4.3 +/- 0.6 m s-1) was enhanced 4.1 +/- 0.9-fold following airway exposure to antigen (P action potential generation except in one instance when the receptive field was located over the smooth muscle. This ending also responded to methacholine suggesting that spatial changes in the receptive field, induced by muscle contraction, were responsible for the activation. 5. The mediators responsible for these effects are unknown, although histamine, prostaglandins, leukotrienes and tachykinins do not appear to be essential. The increase in mechanical responsiveness was not associated with the smooth muscle contraction since leukotriene C4, histamine and tachykinins, which all caused a similar contraction to antigen, did not affect mechanical thresholds. Moreover, the antigen-induced increases in excitability persisted beyond the duration of the smooth muscle contraction. 6. These results demonstrate that antigen-antibody-mediated inflammatory processes may enhance the excitability of vagal afferent

  9. [Regulation of airway stem cell proliferation in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S X; Wu, Q; Sun, X; Li, X; Li, K; Xu, L; Li, Y; Zhang, Q Y; Zhang, Y C; Chen, H Y

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the effect of fibroblasts on regulating airway stem cell proliferation in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Lung cell suspension was prepared from β-actin-GFP mice. Airway stem cells were obtained by fluorescence activated cell sorting and co-cultured with lung fibroblasts. The fibroblasts were treated with TGF-β inhibitor SB43142. The expression of growth factors FGF1/2 and the effect of FGF1/2 on stem cell proliferation were observed. The cloning efficiency of airway stem cells, when co-cultured with normal lung fibroblast cells for 8 days, was (3.5±1.1)%, while the cloning efficiency was reduced to (0.04±0.04)% when co-cultured with lung fibroblasts from idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients. The difference between the 2 groups was statistically significant(P=0.002 5). TGF-β receptor inhibitor SB431542 increased lung fibroblast growth factors FGF1/2 expression.FGF1 mRNA expression was increased to the experimental group 0.005 5 from 0.000 2 in the control group.FGF2 mRNA expression of the amount raised to the experimental group 0.000 15 from 0.000 8 in the control group.FGF1/2 promoted the growth of airway stem cells. After FGF1/2 was co-cultured with normal lung fibroblast cells for 8 days, the cloning efficiency of airway stem cells was (0.3±0.1)%. During the development of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, fibroblast secreted FGF1/2 regulate airway stem cell proliferation.

  10. Effects of airway surface liquid height on the kinetics of extracellular nucleotides in airway epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarante, Tauanne D; da Silva, Jafferson K L; Garcia, Guilherme J M

    2014-12-21

    Experimental techniques aimed at measuring the concentration of signaling molecules in the airway surface liquid (ASL) often require an unrealistically large ASL volume to facilitate sampling. This experimental limitation, prompted by the difficulty of pipetting liquid from a very shallow layer (~15 μm), leads to dilution and the under-prediction of physiologic concentrations of signaling molecules that are vital to the regulation of mucociliary clearance. Here, we use a computational model to describe the effect of liquid height on the kinetics of extracellular nucleotides in the airway surface liquid coating respiratory epithelia. The model consists of a reaction-diffusion equation with boundary conditions that represent the enzymatic reactions occurring on the epithelial surface. The simulations reproduce successfully the kinetics of extracellular ATP following hypotonic challenge for ASL volumes ranging from 25 μl to 500 μl in a 12-mm diameter cell culture. The model reveals that [ATP] and [ADO] reach 1200 nM and 2200 nM at the epithelial surface, respectively, while their volumetric averages remain less than 200 nM at all times in experiments with a large ASL volume (500 μl). These findings imply that activation of P2Y2 and A2B receptors is robust after hypotonic challenge, in contrast to what could be concluded based on experimental measurements of volumetric concentrations in large ASL volumes. Finally, given the central role that ATP and ADO play in regulating mucociliary clearance, we investigated which enzymes, when inhibited, provide the greatest increase in ATP and ADO concentrations. Our findings suggest that inhibition of NTPDase1/highTNAP would cause the greatest increase in [ATP] after hypotonic challenge, while inhibition of the transporter CNT3 would provide the greatest increase in [ADO]. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Two cases of airway obstruction after radiation therapies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Yuki; Hashimoto, Kazuyoshi; Yoshida, Ryu; Shimazu, Yuzou; Hattori, Hisashi; Kan, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    We report two cases of airway obstruction due to several radiotherapies. In the first case, although a “cannot ventilate, cannot intubate” (CVCI) situation arose, we performed cricothyrotomy, thus saving the patient. In the second case, we were able to perform bronchoscopy early to assess her laryngeal edema before nasal intubation and tracheotomy were performed. As a result, a potentially distressing situation for the patient was prevented. We must be careful of airway obstructions that can occur in patients after several radiotherapies. (author)

  12. Airway inflammation in patients affected by obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, F G; Carpagnano, E; Guido, P; Bonsignore, M R; Roberti, A; Aliani, M; Vignola, A M; Spanevello, A

    2004-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) has been shown to be associated to upper airway inflammation. The object of the present study was to establish the presence of bronchial inflammation in OSAS subjects. In 16 subjects affected by OSAS, and in 14 healthy volunteers, airway inflammation was detected by the cellular analysis of the induced sputum. OSAS patients, as compared to control subjects, showed a higher percentage of neutrophils (66.7+/-18.9 vs. 25.8+/-15.6) (Pbronchial inflammation characterized by a significant increase in neutrophils.

  13. Congenital high airway obstruction syndrome (CHAOS) associated with cervical myelomeningocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adin, Mehmet Emin

    2017-10-01

    Congenital high airway obstruction syndrome (CHAOS) is a rare and potentially fatal entity resulting from complete or near complete developmental airway obstruction. Although most reported cases of CHAOS are sporadic, the condition may also be associated with certain syndromes and a variety of cervical masses. Meningocele and myelomeningocele have not yet been reported in association with CHAOS. We describe the typical constellation of sonographic findings in a case of early diagnosis of CHAOS associated with cervical myelomeningocele. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 45:507-510, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Microbial ecology and adaptation in cystic fibrosis airways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Lei; Jelsbak, Lars; Molin, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Chronic infections in the respiratory tracts of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are important to investigate, both from medical and from fundamental ecological points of view. Cystic fibrosis respiratory tracts can be described as natural environments harbouring persisting microbial communities...... constitute the selective forces that drive the evolution of the microbes after they migrate from the outer environment to human airways. Pseudomonas aeruginosa adapts to the new environment through genetic changes and exhibits a special lifestyle in chronic CF airways. Understanding the persistent...... colonization of microbial pathogens in CF patients in the context of ecology and evolution will expand our knowledge of the pathogenesis of chronic infections and improve therapeutic strategies....

  15. Importance of Functional Airway Surgery in Orthognathic Surgery Performed Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Yüce

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Le Fort I osteotomy is usually combined with mandibular ramus procedures (sagittal split in order to correct dentofacial deformities that cause malocclusion. Patients who have dentofacial anomalies involving the maxilla carry a higher risk of difficulty in breathing due to septal deviation and inferior turbinate hypertrophy. If these conditions are ignored preoperatively, severe airway problems may come up after orthognathic surgery. A detailed examination regarding nasal airway should be conducted in such patients, and they should be informed about their condition which may require an additional intervention during or after their main surgery.

  16. Childhood asthma after bacterial colonization of the airway in neonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Hermansen, Mette Northman; Buchvald, Frederik

    2007-01-01

    Pathological features of the airway in young children with severe recurrent wheeze suggest an association between bacterial colonization and the initiating events of early asthma. We conducted a study to investigate a possible association between bacterial colonization of the hypopharynx in asymp......Pathological features of the airway in young children with severe recurrent wheeze suggest an association between bacterial colonization and the initiating events of early asthma. We conducted a study to investigate a possible association between bacterial colonization of the hypopharynx...... in asymptomatic neonates and later development of recurrent wheeze, asthma, and allergy during the first 5 years of life....

  17. Foreign bodies in the lactant airway, Report of a case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arango L, Magnolia

    1999-01-01

    We report the case of a lactant who aspired (popcorn) fragments of popcorn into his airway. Immediately the patient developed respiratory difficulty, he was remitted to a specialized hospital until 72 hours after. In this hospital the fragments of popcorn were removed by bronchoscopic procedure with posterior improvement. The aspiration of foreign bodies into the airway is a frequent accident in the early childhood. The clinical picture may be confounded specially with asthma attacks or simple acute respiratory infections. It is very important to recognize this condition because of the foreign bodies can cause severe complications and sequels, and occasionally the death

  18. Design of the exhale airway stents for emphysema (EASE) trial : an endoscopic procedure for reducing hyperinflation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shah, Pallav L.; Slebos, Dirk-Jan; Cardoso, Paulo F. G.; Cetti, Edward J.; Sybrecht, Gerhard W.; Cooper, Joel D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Airway Bypass is a catheter-based, bronchoscopic procedure in which new passageways are created that bypass the collapsed airways, enabling trapped air to exit the lungs. The Exhale Airway Stents for Emphysema (EASE) Trial was designed to investigate whether Exhale (R) Drug-Eluting

  19. Differential distribution of inflammatory cells in large and small airways in smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battaglia, Salvatore; Mauad, Thais; van Schadewijk, Annemarie M.; Vignola, Antonia M.; Rabe, Klaus F.; Bellia, Vincenzo; Sterk, Peter J.; Hiemstra, Pieter S.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking induces structural changes in the airways, and is considered a major factor in the development of airflow obstruction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, differences in inflammatory cell distribution between large airways (LA) and small airways (SA) have not been

  20. Protective effect of inhaled budesonide against unlimited airway narrowing to methacholine in atopic patients with asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booms, P.; Cheung, D.; Timmers, M. C.; Zwinderman, A. H.; Sterk, P. J.

    1997-01-01

    Patients with asthma who have moderate to severe airway hyperresponsiveness often demonstrate progressive, unlimited airway narrowing in response to inhaled bronchoconstrictor stimuli, which is likely to be due to inflammatory changes within the airway wall. It is unknown whether regular therapy

  1. 76 FR 2800 - Amendment of VOR Federal Airways V-2 and V-21; Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ...-1263; Airspace Docket No. 10-AWP-17] Amendment of VOR Federal Airways V-2 and V-21; Hawaii AGENCY... Omnidirectional Range (VOR) Federal airway legal descriptions in the State of Hawaii. The FAA is taking this... Regulations (14 CFR) part 71 by amending two VOR Federal Airways, V-2 and V-21, located in the State of Hawaii...

  2. Airway Management in Maxillofacial Trauma: A Retrospective Review of 127 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Saraswat

    2008-01-01

    Maxillofacial injuries need special attention since it involves difficult airway due to fracture to facial bones, Further the airway is shared with surgeon and restrictions are imposed during surgery. Issues involved are time of surgery, preoperative airway assessment, type of intubation and way to achieve it, alternative methods available and their complications.

  3. Anaesthetic management of the airway in The Netherlands : a postal survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, PAJ; Stuart, C; Dercksen, B; Eindhoven, GB

    2001-01-01

    Backgound and objective A postal survey was conducted in order to investigate current practice in airway management amongst Dutch anaesthetists and to investigate the role of recent training and the role of an 'Access to the Airway' airway management course. Methods A questionnaire containing 27

  4. Failed obstetric tracheal intubation and postoperative respiratory support with the ProSeal laryngeal mask airway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keller, Christian; Brimacombe, Joseph; Lirk, Philipp; Pühringer, Fritz

    2004-01-01

    The ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (ProSeal LMA) provides a better seal and probably better airway protection than the classic laryngeal mask airway (classic LMA). We report the use of the ProSeal LMA in a 26-yr-old female with HELLP syndrome for failed obstetric intubation and postoperative

  5. Small airways dysfunction and neutrophilic inflammation in bronchial biopsies and BAL in COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lapperre, Thérèse S.; Willems, Luuk N. A.; Timens, Wim; Rabe, Klaus F.; Hiemstra, Pieter S.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Sterk, Peter J.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The single-breath N(2) test (sbN(2)-test) is closely related to small airways pathology in resected lung specimens of smokers. We investigated whether uneven ventilation and airway closure are associated with specific markers of airway inflammation as obtained by bronchial biopsies, BAL,

  6. Small airways dysfunction and neutrophilic inflammation in bronchial biopsies and BAL in COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lapperre, Therese S.; Willems, Luuk N. A.; Timens, Wim; Rabe, Klaus F.; Hiemstra, Pieter S.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Sterk, Peter J.

    Background: The single-breath N-2 test (sbN(2)-test) is closely related to small airways pathology in resected lung specimens of smokers. We investigated whether uneven ventilation and airway closure are associated with specific markers of airway inflammation as obtained by bronchial biopsies, BAIL,

  7. Foreign Acquisition, Wages and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    This paper studies the effect of foreign acquisition on wages and total factor productivity (TFP) in the years following a takeover by using unique detailed firm-level data for Sweden for the period 1993-2002. The paper takes particular account of the potential endogeneity of the acquisition...

  8. Foreign Acquisition, Wages and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of foreign acquisition on wages and total factor productivity (TFP) in the years following a takeover by using unique detailed firm-level data for Sweden for the period 1993-2002. The paper takes particular account of the potential endogeneity of the acquisition...

  9. Developing Acquisition IS Integration Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wynne, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    An under researched, yet critical challenge of Mergers and Acquisitions (M&A), is what to do with the two organisations’ information systems (IS) post-acquisition. Commonly referred to as acquisition IS integration, existing theory suggests that to integrate the information systems successfully......, an acquiring company must leverage two high level capabilities: diagnosis and integration execution. Through a case study, this paper identifies how a novice acquirer develops these capabilities in anticipation of an acquisition by examining its use of learning processes. The study finds the novice acquirer...... applies trial and error, experimental, and vicarious learning processes, while actively avoiding improvisational learning. The results of the study contribute to the acquisition IS integration literature specifically by exploring it from a new perspective: the learning processes used by novice acquirers...

  10. 48 CFR 873.105 - Acquisition planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition planning. 873.105 Section 873.105 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS DEPARTMENT... planning. (a) Acquisition planning is an indispensable component of the total acquisition process. (b) For...

  11. 48 CFR 34.004 - Acquisition strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition strategy. 34... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION General 34.004 Acquisition strategy. The program manager, as specified in agency procedures, shall develop an acquisition strategy tailored to the particular...

  12. 48 CFR 3034.004 - Acquisition strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition strategy. 3034.004 Section 3034.004 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND... Acquisition strategy. See (HSAR) 48 CFR 3009.570 for policy applicable to acquisition strategies that consider...

  13. 48 CFR 434.004 - Acquisition strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition strategy. 434.004 Section 434.004 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION General 434.004 Acquisition strategy. (a) The program...

  14. 48 CFR 234.004 - Acquisition strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition strategy. 234..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION 234.004 Acquisition strategy. (1) See 209.570 for policy applicable to acquisition strategies that consider the use of lead system...

  15. Spi2 gene polymorphism is not associated with recurrent airway obstruction and inflammatory airway disease in thoroughbred horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Correa da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to detect the presence of polymorphisms at exons 1, 2, 3 and 4 of the Spi2 gene, and evaluate a possible association between them and recurrent airway obstruction (RAO or inflammatory airway disease (IAD in thoroughbred horses, through single-strand conformational-polymorphism (SSCP screening. Although polymorphism was not detected in exons 1, 2 and 3, three alleles and six genotypes were identified in exon 4. The frequencies of allele A (0.6388 and genotype AA (0.3888 were higher in horses affected by RAO, although no association was found between polymorphism and horses with either RAO or IAD.

  16. Trigger and data acquisition

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Gaspar, C

    2001-01-01

    Past LEP experiments generate data at 0.5 MByte/s from particle detectors with over a quarter of a million readout channels. The process of reading out the electronic channels, treating them, and storing the date produced by each collision for further analysis by the physicists is called "Data Acquisition". Not all beam crossings produce interesting physics "events", picking the interesting ones is the task of the "Trigger" system. In order to make sure that the data is collected in good conditions the experiment's operation has to be constantly verified. In all, at LEP experiments over 100 000 parameters were monitored, controlled, and synchronized by the "Monotoring and control" system. In the future, LHC experiments will produce as much data in a single day as a LEP detector did in a full year's running with a raw data rate of 10 - 100 MBytes/s and will have to cope with some 800 million proton-proton collisions a second of these collisions only one in 100 million million is interesting for new particle se...

  17. DATA ACQUISITION (DAQ)

    CERN Multimedia

    Gerry Bauer

    The CMS Storage Manager System The tail-end of the CMS Data Acquisition System is the Storage Manger (SM), which collects output from the HLT and stages the data at Cessy for transfer to its ultimate home in the Tier-0 center. A SM system has been used by CMS for several years with the steadily evolving software within the XDAQ framework, but until relatively recently, only with provisional hardware. The SM is well known to much of the collaboration through the ‘MiniDAQ’ system, which served as the central DAQ system in 2007, and lives on in 2008 for dedicated sub-detector commissioning. Since March of 2008 a first phase of the final hardware was commissioned and used in CMS Global Runs. The system originally planned for 2008 aimed at recording ~1MB events at a few hundred Hz. The building blocks to achieve this are based on Nexsan's SATABeast storage array - a device  housing up to 40 disks of 1TB each, and possessing two controllers each capable of almost 200 MB/sec throughput....

  18. IPNS data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worlton, T.G.; Crawford, R.K.; Haumann, J.R.; Daly, R.

    1983-01-01

    The IPNS Data Acquisition System (DAS) was designed to be reliable, flexible, and easy to use. It provides unique methods of acquiring Time-of-Flight neutron scattering data and allows collection, storage, display, and analysis of very large data arrays with a minimum of user input. Data can be collected from normal detectors, linear position-sensitive detectors, and/or area detectors. The data can be corrected for time-delays and can be time-focussed before being binned. Corrections to be made to the data and selection of inputs to be summed are entirely software controlled, as are the time ranges and resolutions for each detector element. Each system can be configured to collect data into millions of channels. Maximum continuous data rates are greater than 2000 counts/sec with full corrections, or 16,000 counts/sec for the simpler binning scheme used with area detectors. Live displays of the data may be made as a function of time, wavevector, wavelength, lattice spacing, or energy. In most cases the complete data analysis can be done on the DAS host computer. The IPNS DAS became operational for four neutron scattering instruments in 1981 and has since been expanded to seven instruments

  19. Videolaryngoscopy versus Fiber-optic Intubation through a Supraglottic Airway in Children with a Difficult Airway: An Analysis from the Multicenter Pediatric Difficult Intubation Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burjek, Nicholas E; Nishisaki, Akira; Fiadjoe, John E; Adams, H Daniel; Peeples, Kenneth N; Raman, Vidya T; Olomu, Patrick N; Kovatsis, Pete G; Jagannathan, Narasimhan; Hunyady, Agnes; Bosenberg, Adrian; Tham, See; Low, Daniel; Hopkins, Paul; Glover, Chris; Olutoye, Olutoyin; Szmuk, Peter; McCloskey, John; Dalesio, Nicholas; Koka, Rahul; Greenberg, Robert; Watkins, Scott; Patel, Vikram; Reynolds, Paul; Matuszczak, Maria; Jain, Ranu; Khalil, Samia; Polaner, David; Zieg, Jennifer; Szolnoki, Judit; Sathyamoorthy, Kumar; Taicher, Brad; Riveros Perez, N Ricardo; Bhattacharya, Solmaletha; Bhalla, Tarun; Stricker, Paul; Lockman, Justin; Galvez, Jorge; Rehman, Mohamed; Von Ungern-Sternberg, Britta; Sommerfield, David; Soneru, Codruta; Chiao, Franklin; Richtsfeld, Martina; Belani, Kumar; Sarmiento, Lina; Mireles, Sam; Bilen Rosas, Guelay; Park, Raymond; Peyton, James

    2017-09-01

    The success rates and related complications of various techniques for intubation in children with difficult airways remain unknown. The primary aim of this study is to compare the success rates of fiber-optic intubation via supraglottic airway to videolaryngoscopy in children with difficult airways. Our secondary aim is to compare the complication rates of these techniques. Observational data were collected from 14 sites after management of difficult pediatric airways. Patient age, intubation technique, success per attempt, use of continuous ventilation, and complications were recorded for each case. First-attempt success and complications were compared in subjects managed with fiber-optic intubation via supraglottic airway and videolaryngoscopy. Fiber-optic intubation via supraglottic airway and videolaryngoscopy had similar first-attempt success rates (67 of 114, 59% vs. 404 of 786, 51%; odds ratio 1.35; 95% CI, 0.91 to 2.00; P = 0.16). In subjects less than 1 yr old, fiber-optic intubation via supraglottic airway was more successful on the first attempt than videolaryngoscopy (19 of 35, 54% vs. 79 of 220, 36%; odds ratio, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.04 to 4.31; P = 0.042). Complication rates were similar in the two groups (20 vs. 13%; P = 0.096). The incidence of hypoxemia was lower when continuous ventilation through the supraglottic airway was used throughout the fiber-optic intubation attempt. In this nonrandomized study, first-attempt success rates were similar for fiber-optic intubation via supraglottic airway and videolaryngoscopy. Fiber-optic intubation via supraglottic airway is associated with higher first-attempt success than videolaryngoscopy in infants with difficult airways. Continuous ventilation through the supraglottic airway during fiber-optic intubation attempts may lower the incidence of hypoxemia.

  20. Successful airway management with King Vision device in a child with Morquio syndrome: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Maritza Guerra

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Morquio syndrome also called type IV mucopolysaccharidosis, is a condition produced by lysosomal deposit. Morquio syndrome have several implications in the airway management because is characterized by C1-C2, instability, short height, cervical spine instability, odontoid hypoplasia, and Pectus carinatum, this, in addition to airway anatomy distortion. Case summary: This is a case report of successful airway management with video laryngoscopy of a child whit anticipated difficult airway whit Morquio syndrome. Conclusion: The video laryngoscopes are a good choice for management of anticipated difficult airway in child patients.

  1. Anesthetic concerns in a huge congenital sublingual swelling obscuring airway access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Presence of intraoral pathology poses a great challenge during management of pediatric airway. We report management of big intraoral cystic swelling physically occupying the entire oral cavity restricting access to airway. Preintubation aspiration of swelling was done to decrease its size and make room for airway manipulation, followed by laryngoscopy and intubation in lateral position. Airway patency is at risk in postoperative period also, in this case, though the swelling decreased in size postoperatively but presence of significant edema required placement of tongue stitch and modified nasopharyngeal airway. Case report highlights simple maneuvers to manage a difficult case.

  2. Diagnosis of bronchiectasis and airway wall thickening in children with cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuo, Wieying; de Bruijne, Marleen; Petersen, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To quantify airway and artery (AA)-dimensions in cystic fibrosis (CF) and control patients for objective CT diagnosis of bronchiectasis and airway wall thickness (AWT). Methods: Spirometer-guided inspiratory and expiratory CTs of 11 CF and 12 control patients were collected retrospect......Objectives: To quantify airway and artery (AA)-dimensions in cystic fibrosis (CF) and control patients for objective CT diagnosis of bronchiectasis and airway wall thickness (AWT). Methods: Spirometer-guided inspiratory and expiratory CTs of 11 CF and 12 control patients were collected...... following airway generation (p

  3. Retrotracheal Extraskeletal Ewing's Sarcoma: Case Report and Discussion on Airway Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Meer, Graeme; Linkhorn, Hannah; Gruber, Maayan; Mahadevan, Murali; Barber, Colin

    2017-03-01

    Extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma is a rare tumor, and the management of airway compromise in case of cervical Ewing's sarcoma has not been established. This report describes the case of a patient with retrotracheal Ewing's sarcoma and discusses a successful approach to airway management. A 12-year-old male presented with a 2-week history of sore throat and sleep-disordered breathing and 48 hours of stridor. Imaging confirmed a retrotracheal soft tissue mass with airway compromise. A planned and controlled approach to his airway management resulted in a secure airway prior to definitive treatment.

  4. Phenotype modulation of airway smooth muscle in asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wright, David B.; Trian, Thomas; Siddiqui, Sana; Pascoe, Chris D.; Johnson, Jill R.; Dekkers, Bart G. J.; Dakshinamurti, Shyamala; Bagchi, Rushita; Burgess, Janette K.; Kanabar, Varsha; Ojo, Oluwaseun O.

    The biological responses of airway smooth muscle (ASM) are diverse, in part due to ASM phenotype plasticity. ASM phenotype plasticity refers to the ability of ASM cells to change the degree of a variety of functions, including contractility, proliferation, migration and secretion of inflammatory

  5. Obstetric airway management | Bishop | Southern African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obstetric airway management continues to provide a challenge to anaesthetists. The incidence of difficult and failed intubations has either remained static, or improved slightly, in specific settings in recent years. Established dogma is being challenged and practice continues to evolve and adapt to new evidence.

  6. Old dilemma : asthma with irreversible airway obstruction or COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fattahi, Fatemeh; Vonk, Judith M.; Bulkmans, Nicole; Fleischeuer, Ruth; Gouw, Annette; Grunberg, Katrien; Mauad, Thais; Popper, Helmut; Felipe-Silva, Aloisio; Vrugt, Bart; Wright, Joanne L.; Yang, Hui-Min; Kocks, Janwillem W. H.; Hylkema, Machteld N.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Timens, Wim; ten Hacken, Nick H. T.

    2015-01-01

    Older asthmatic patients may develop fixed airway obstruction and clinical signs of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We investigated the added value of pathological evaluation of bronchial biopsies to help differentiate asthma from COPD, taking into account smoking, age, and inhaled

  7. Intra‑Operative Airway Management in Patients with Maxillofacial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    None of the patients had tracheostomy either before or during operative management. Conclusion: Laryngoscopic grading and not adequacy of mouth opening predicted difficult intubation in this group of patients in the immediate preoperative period. Despite the distortions in the anatomy of the upper airway that may result ...

  8. Palliative Airway Stenting Performed Under Radiological Guidance and Local Anesthesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Profili, Stefano; Manca, Antonio; Feo, Claudio F.; Padua, Guglielmo; Ortu, Riccardo; Canalis, Giulio C.; Meloni, Giovanni B.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the effectiveness of airway stenting performed exclusively under radiological guidance for the palliation of malignant tracheobronchial strictures. Methods. We report our experience in 16 patients with malignant tracheobronchial stricture treated by insertion of 20 Ultraflex self-expandable metal stents performed under fluoroscopic guidance only. Three patients presented dysphagia grade IV due to esophageal malignant infiltration; they therefore underwent combined airway and esophageal stenting. All the procedures were performed under conscious sedation in the radiological room; average procedure time was around 10 min, but the airway impediment never lasted more than 40 sec. Results. We obtained an overall technical success in 16 cases (100%) and clinical success in 14 patients (88%). All prostheses were successfully placed without procedural complications. Rapid clinical improvement with symptom relief and normalization of respiratory function was obtained in 14 cases. Two patients died within 48 hr from causes unrelated to stent placement. Two cases (13%) of migration were observed; they were successfully treated with another stent. Tumor overgrowth developed in other 2 patients (13%); however, no further treatment was possible because of extensive laryngeal infiltration. Conclusions. Tracheobronchial recanalization with self-expandable metal stents is a safe and effective palliative treatment for malignant strictures. Airway stenting performed exclusively under fluoroscopic view was rapid and well tolerated

  9. Factors associated with airway colonisation and invasion due to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors associated with airway colonisation and invasion due to Klebsiella spp. ... for nosocomial infections which occurred more conunonly with antibiotic-resistant organisms. ... acute community-acquired chest infections, and nosocomial chest infections. Primary acute conununity-acquired pneumonia was unconunon.

  10. [Airway management in a man with ankylosing spondylitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, S; Jamart, V; Borrás, R; Miranda, A

    2007-02-01

    We report a case of difficult airway management in a 41-year-old man with ankylosing spondylitis who was scheduled for total left hip replacement surgery. After several failed attempts to achieve regional anesthesia, we converted to general anesthesia with orotracheal intubation using a fiberoptic bronchoscope. Ankylosing spondylitis leads to fibrosis, ossification, and ankylosis along the spinal column and sacroiliac articulations. Cervical column and atlantooccipital articulation mobility are reduced and in severe cases the cervical vertebrae become fixed in a flexed position. This portion of the spine is also the most susceptible to fracture, particularly in hyperextension, an event that could lead to damage to the cervical spinal cord during maneuvers to manage the airway. Patients with this condition may also have temporomandibular joint involvement, further complicating airway management. We report the case of a patient with ankylosing spondylitis with fixation along the entire spine. The airway was managed by intubation with a fiberoptic bronchoscope. Spontaneous ventilation was maintained during the maneuver, and sedation was achieved with perfusion of remifentanil as the only anesthetic agent following failure of intradural anesthesia.

  11. Management of upper airway edema caused by hereditary angioedema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farkas Henriette

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hereditary angioedema is a rare disorder with a genetic background involving mutations in the genes encoding C1-INH and of factor XII. Its etiology is unknown in a proportion of cases. Recurrent edema formation may involve the subcutis and the submucosa - the latter can produce obstruction in the upper airways and thereby lead to life-threatening asphyxia. This is the reason for the high, 30-to 50-per-cent mortality of undiagnosed or improperly managed cases. Airway obstruction can be prevented through early diagnosis, meaningful patient information, timely recognition of initial symptoms, state-of-the-art emergency therapy, and close monitoring of the patient. Prophylaxis can substantially mitigate the risk of upper airway edema and also improve the patients' quality of life. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any form of upper airway edema should be regarded as a potentially life-threatening condition. None of the currently available prophylactic modalities is capable of preventing UAE with absolute certainty.

  12. Sleep and upper airway obstruction in children with achondroplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zucconi, M; Weber, G; Castronovo, [No Value; FeriniStrambi, L; Russo, F; Chiumello, G; Smirne, S

    Objective: The features of achondroplasia, the most common form of dwarfism, includes short cranial base and midface hypoplasia; both abnormalities increased the risk of upper airway obstruction during sleep, The aim of our study was to evaluate sleep and respiratory function of children with

  13. Boussignac continuous positive airway pressure for weaning with tracheostomy tubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieperink, Willem; Aarts, Leon P. H. J.; Rodgers, Michael G. G.; Delwig, Hans; Nijsten, Maarten W. N.

    2008-01-01

    Background: In patients who are weaned with a tracheostomy tube ( TT), continuous positive airway pressure ( CPAP) is frequently used. Dedicated CPAP systems or ventilators with bulky tubing are usually applied. However, CPAP can also be effective without a ventilator by the disposable Bous-signac

  14. The Laryngeal Mask Airway Supreme™: safety and efficacy during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Laryngeal Mask Airway Supreme™ (LMA Supreme™) is a new single-use polyvinyl chloride supraglottic device that offers gastric access. To date, studies that have tested the LMA Supreme™) for use in laparoscopic surgery have been reported. We present the largest evaluative study that describes the use of ...

  15. Precision medicine in airway diseases: moving to clinical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agustí, Alvar; Bafadhel, Mona; Beasley, Richard; Bel, Elisabeth H.; Faner, Rosa; Gibson, Peter G.; Louis, Renaud; McDonald, Vanessa M.; Sterk, Peter J.; Thomas, Mike; Vogelmeier, Claus; Pavord, Ian D.

    2017-01-01

    On February 21, 2017, a European Respiratory Society research seminar held in Barcelona discussed how to best apply precision medicine to chronic airway diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It is now clear that both are complex and heterogeneous diseases, that often

  16. Treatable traits: toward precision medicine of chronic airway diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agusti, Alvar; Bel, Elisabeth; Thomas, Mike; Vogelmeier, Claus; Brusselle, Guy; Holgate, Stephen; Humbert, Marc; Jones, Paul; Gibson, Peter G.; Vestbo, Jørgen; Beasley, Richard; Pavord, Ian D.

    2016-01-01

    Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are two prevalent chronic airway diseases that have a high personal and social impact. They likely represent a continuum of different diseases that may share biological mechanisms (i.e. endotypes), and present similar clinical, functional,

  17. LATERAL CEPHALOMETRIC RADIOGRAPHY FOR EVALUATION OF UPPER AIRWAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miesje Karmiati Purwanegara

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The influenced of respiration to dentocraniofacial growth and development is still controversial. The accurate radiologic examination is important factor for proper diagnosis. Deviation of upper airway (i.e. nasopharynx, oropharymx and nasal cavity could be evaluated by lateral and anteroposterior cephalometric projection technique. This paper explains several methods to evaluate upper respiratory tract by lateral radiograph.

  18. Numerical Simulation for Mechanism of Airway Narrowing in Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bando, Kiyoshi; Yamashita, Daisuke; Ohba, Kenkichi

    A calculation model is proposed to examine the generation mechanism of the numerous lobes on the inner-wall of the airway in asthmatic patients and to clarify luminal occlusion of the airway inducing breathing difficulties. The basement membrane in the airway wall is modeled as a two-dimensional thin-walled shell having inertia force due to the mass, and the smooth muscle contraction effect is replaced by uniform transmural pressure applied to the basement membrane. A dynamic explicit finite element method is used as a numerical simulation method. To examine the validity of the present model, simulation of an asthma attack is performed. The number of lobes generated in the basement membrane increases when transmural pressure is applied in a shorter time period. When the remodeling of the basement membrane occurs characterized by thickening and hardening, it is demonstrated that the number of lobes decreases and the narrowing of the airway lumen becomes severe. Comparison of the results calculated by the present model with those measured for animal experiments of asthma will be possible.

  19. Successful di cult airway intubation using the Miller laryngoscope ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with the use of a Miller laryngoscope blade (straight blade) and paraglossal technique, achieving Cormack and Lehane views superior to those seen using Macintosh blades.7 As early as 1997,. Henderson8 questioned the role of curved blades for di cult airway intubation and proposed that paraglossal straight blade.

  20. Lack of national consensus in preoperative airway assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Anders Kehlet; Rosenstock, Charlotte Vallentin; Lundstrøm, Lars Hyldborg

    2016-01-01

    : 77.3-99.2%), history of airway management difficulties (85.7%, 95% CI: 65.4-95.0%), ability to prognath (81.0%, 95% CI: 60.0-92.3%) and neck mobility (81.0%, 95% CI: 60.0-92.3%) were the main predictors registered. CONCLUSION: We found considerable inter-departmental variance in the standards...

  1. Management of the Upper Airway in Cystic Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illing, Elisa A.; Woodworth, Bradford A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of Review Upper airway disease engenders significant morbidity for patients with cystic fibrosis and is increasingly recognized as having a much greater role in pulmonary outcomes and quality of life than originally believed. Widespread disparate therapeutic strategies for cystic fibrosis chronic rhinosinusitis underscore the absence of a standardized treatment paradigm. This review outlines the most recent evidence-based trends in the management of upper airway disease in cystic fibrosis. Recent Findings The unified airway theory proposes that the sinuses are a focus of initial bacterial colonization which seeds the lower airway and may play a large role in maintaining lung infections. Mounting evidence suggests more aggressive treatment of the sinuses may confer significant improvement in pulmonary disease and quality of life outcomes in cystic fibrosis patients. However, there is a lack of high-level evidence regarding medical and surgical management of cystic fibrosis chronic rhinosinusitis that makes generalizations difficult. Summary Well designed clinical trials with long-term follow-up concerning medical and surgical interventions for cystic fibrosis sinus disease are required to establish standardized treatment protocols, but increased interest in the sinuses as a bacterial reservoir for pulmonary infections has generated considerable attention. PMID:25250804

  2. Hypertrophic anterior cervical osteophytes causing dysphagia and airway obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Harrison W; Quesnel, Alicia M; Holman, Allison S; Curry, William T; Rho, Michael B

    2009-10-01

    Hyperostosis of anterior cervical vertebral osteophytes can produce otolaryngological symptoms ranging from mild dysphagia, dysphonia, and foreign body sensation to severe food impaction and stridulous dyspnea. Airway compromise necessitating a tracheostomy is very rare. We discuss the case of an elderly man who presented with progressive dysphagia and a large hypopharyngeal mass as his initial manifestations of hypertrophic anterior cervical osteophytes. After a biopsy of the mass, the patient went into airway distress due to bilateral vocal fold fixation by the enlarging mass and consequently required a surgical airway. A combined team approach to the removal of the osteophytes successfully resolved his symptoms. The clinical, diagnostic, radiologic, and therapeutic principles involved in this case are presented and discussed. The recognition of hypertrophic osteophytes as a potential cause of common otolaryngological symptoms in the elderly population is paramount, as these symptoms can rapidly progress and lead to life-threatening airway obstruction. Medical and surgical interventions can be employed for the treatment of hypertrophic anterior cervical osteophytes, and they often result in favorable outcomes.

  3. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure: does bubbling improve gas exchange?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, C J; Lau, R; De Paoli, A; Davis, P G

    2005-07-01

    In a randomised crossover trial, 26 babies, treated with Hudson prong continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) from a bubbling bottle, received vigorous, high amplitude, or slow bubbling for 30 minutes. Pulse oximetry, transcutaneous carbon dioxide, and respiratory rate were recorded. The bubbling rates had no effect on carbon dioxide, oxygenation, or respiratory rate.

  4. Interaction with Epithelial Cells Modifies Airway Macrophage Response to Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    The initial innate immune response to ozone (03) in the lung is orchestrated by structural cells, such as epithelial cells, and resident immune cells, such as airway macrophages (Macs). We developed an epithelial cell-Mac coculture model to investigate how epithelial cell-derived...

  5. Multiple applications of the Boussignac continuous positive airway pressure system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieperink, Willem

    2008-01-01

    Continuous positive airway pressure, (CPAP) is a form of treatment to support patients with dyspnea. For the application of CPAP a mechanical ventilator or complex CPAP apparatus is mostly used. The Boussignac CPAP (BCPAP) system developed by George Boussignac does not need such apparatus. The BCPAP

  6. Difficult airway in a patient with Coffin-Siris syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimaculangan, D; Lokhandwala, B; Wlody, D; Gross, R

    2001-02-01

    We report on a patient with Coffin-Siris syndrome and consider a potential association between this condition and difficult intubation. Although this inherited condition is extremely rare, anesthesiologists should be aware of its existence and prepare for potential airway management problems whenever it is encountered.

  7. Psychomotor skills training in pediatric airway endoscopy simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbour, Noel; Reihsen, Troy; Sweet, Robert M; Sidman, James D

    2011-07-01

    To develop a robust psychomotor skills curriculum to teach pediatric airway foreign body retrieval and to assess the effect of this curriculum on residents' confidence in and ability to perform the complete task in an infant airway mannequin. Instructional course. Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS). Surgical simulation laboratory. A half-day simulation-based course was developed to train otolaryngology residents in bronchoscopic foreign body retrieval. This complex psychomotor skill was deconstructed into subtasks. The following curricular learning objectives were presented and assessed: understanding of tracheobronchial anatomy, ability to adequately visualize the larynx with laryngoscopy, proficiency in rigid bronchoscopy, and familiarity with foreign body instrumentation. Residents were objectively evaluated on their ability to perform the complete task on a simulator before and after the course using an OSATS grading system. Confidence in successfully assembling the instruments and completing the task was assessed at these time periods. Seventeen otolaryngology residents completed the study. Confidence in assembling the instruments and in performing the complete task increased on average by 81% and 43%, respectively (P < .001). Using a 15-point OSATS grading system, the average score for the precourse was 7 and for the postcourse was 11.3 (P < .001). Simulation-based subtask training shows promise as an effective and reproducible method to teach the complex psychomotor task of airway foreign body retrieval. Completion of the curriculum led to a significant improvement in residents' confidence in and ability to perform bronchoscopic foreign body retrieval in an infant airway mannequin.

  8. RAGE: a new frontier in chronic airways disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukkar, Maria B; Ullah, Md Ashik; Gan, Wan Jun; Wark, Peter AB; Chung, Kian Fan; Hughes, J Margaret; Armour, Carol L; Phipps, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are heterogeneous inflammatory disorders of the respiratory tract characterized by airflow obstruction. It is now clear that the environmental factors that drive airway pathology in asthma and COPD, including allergens, viruses, ozone and cigarette smoke, activate innate immune receptors known as pattern-recognition receptors, either directly or indirectly by causing the release of endogenous ligands. Thus, there is now intense research activity focused around understanding the mechanisms by which pattern-recognition receptors sustain the airway inflammatory response, and how these mechanisms might be targeted therapeutically. One pattern-recognition receptor that has recently come to attention in chronic airways disease is the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). RAGE is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell surface receptors that recognizes pathogen- and host-derived endogenous ligands to initiate the immune response to tissue injury, infection and inflammation. Although the role of RAGE in lung physiology and pathophysiology is not well understood, recent genome-wide association studies have linked RAGE gene polymorphisms with airflow obstruction. In addition, accumulating data from animal and clinical investigations reveal increased expression of RAGE and its ligands, together with reduced expression of soluble RAGE, an endogenous inhibitor of RAGE signalling, in chronic airways disease. In this review, we discuss recent studies of the ligand–RAGE axis in asthma and COPD, highlight important areas for future research and discuss how this axis might potentially be harnessed for therapeutic benefit in these conditions. PMID:22506507

  9. Noninvasive methods to measure airway inflammation: future considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magnussen, H.; Holz, O.; Sterk, P. J.; Hargreave, F. E.

    2000-01-01

    This last contribution to the series focuses on open questions regarding: 1) methodological issues; and 2) the potential clinical application of the noninvasive methods such as induced sputum and the analysis of exhaled air for the assessment of airway inflammation. In addition their potential

  10. Sleep and upper airway obstruction in children with achondroplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zucconi, M; Weber, G; Castronovo, [No Value; FeriniStrambi, L; Russo, F; Chiumello, G; Smirne, S

    1996-01-01

    Objective: The features of achondroplasia, the most common form of dwarfism, includes short cranial base and midface hypoplasia; both abnormalities increased the risk of upper airway obstruction during sleep, The aim of our study was to evaluate sleep and respiratory function of children with

  11. Approaching airways in oncology surgery of the head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Rabassa, Sahily Irene; Diaz Mediondo, Miosotis; Diez Sanchez, Yanelys

    2013-01-01

    A descriptive prospective study was conducted in 'Maria Curie' Oncology Teaching Provincial Hospital during the period from January 2010 to December 2010. The sample included 210 patients studied with the purpose of identifying morbimortality of the difficult airway in Oncology Surgery of the head and neck in our institution

  12. Microtubules Enable the Planar Cell Polarity of Airway Cilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladar, Eszter K.; Bayly, Roy D.; Sangoram, Ashvin; Scott, Matthew P.; Axelrod, Jeffrey D.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Airway cilia must be physically oriented along the longitudinal tissue axis for concerted, directional motility that is essential for proper mucociliary clearance. Results We show that Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) signaling specifies directionality and orients respiratory cilia. Within all airway epithelial cells a conserved set of PCP proteins shows interdependent, asymmetric junctional localization; non-autonomous signaling coordinates polarization between cells; and a polarized microtubule (MT) network is likely required for asymmetric PCP protein localization. We find that basal bodies dock after polarity of PCP proteins is established, are polarized nearly simultaneously, and refinement of basal body/cilium orientation continues during airway epithelial development. Unique to mature multiciliated cells, we identify PCP-regulated, planar polarized MTs that originate from basal bodies and interact, via their plus ends, with membrane domains associated with the PCP proteins Frizzled and Dishevelled. Disruption of MTs leads to misoriented cilia. Conclusions A conserved PCP pathway orients airway cilia by communicating polarity information from asymmetric membrane domains at the apical junctions, through MTs, to orient the MT and actin based network of ciliary basal bodies below the apical surface. PMID:23122850

  13. Childhood asthma after bacterial colonization of the airway in neonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H.; Hermansen, M.N.; Buchvald, F.

    2007-01-01

    Pathological features of the airway in young children with severe recurrent wheeze suggest an association between bacterial colonization and the initiating events of early asthma. We conducted a study to investigate a possible association between bacterial colonization of the hypopharynx in asymp...... in asymptomatic neonates and later development of recurrent wheeze, asthma, and allergy during the first 5 years of life....

  14. A mechanism for upper airway stability during slow wave sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSharry, David G; Saboisky, Julian P; Deyoung, Pam; Matteis, Paul; Jordan, Amy S; Trinder, John; Smales, Erik; Hess, Lauren; Guo, Mengshuang; Malhotra, Atul

    2013-04-01

    The severity of obstructive sleep apnea is diminished (sometimes markedly) during slow wave sleep (SWS). We sought to understand why SWS stabilizes the upper airway. Increased single motor unit (SMU) activity of the major upper airway dilating muscle (genioglossus) should improve upper airway stability. Therefore, we hypothesized that genioglossus SMUs would increase their activity during SWS in comparison with Stage N2 sleep. The activity of genioglossus SMUs was studied on both sides of the transition between Stage N2 sleep and SWS. Sleep laboratory. Twenty-nine subjects (age 38 ± 13 yr, 17 males) were studied. SWS. Subjects slept overnight with fine-wire electrodes in their genioglossus muscles and with full polysomnographic and end tidal carbon dioxide monitors. Fifteen inspiratory phasic (IP) and 11 inspiratory tonic (IT) units were identified from seven subjects and these units exhibited significantly increased inspiratory discharge frequencies during SWS compared with Stage N2 sleep. The peak discharge frequency of the inspiratory units (IP and IT) was 22.7 ± 4.1 Hz in SWS versus 20.3 ± 4.5 Hz in Stage N2 (P sleep (82.6 ± 39.5 %TI, P sleep (12.6 ± 3.1 Hz, P = 0.035). There was minimal recruitment or derecruitment of units between SWS and Stage N2 sleep. Increased genioglossus SMU activity likely makes the airway more stable and resistant to collapse throughout the respiratory cycle during SWS.

  15. Acquisition: Acquisition of Targets at the Missile Defense Agency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ugone, Mary L; Meling, John E; James, Harold C; Haynes, Christine L; Heller, Brad M; Pomietto, Kenneth M; Bobbio, Jaime; Chang, Bill; Pugh, Jacqueline

    2005-01-01

    Who Should Read This Report and Why? Missile Defense Agency program managers who are responsible for the acquisition and management of targets used to test the Ballistic Missile Defense System should be interested in this report...

  16. A PAF receptor antagonist inhibits acute airway inflammation and late-phase responses but not chronic airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in a primate model of asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Gundel

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available We have examined the effects of a PAF receptor antagonist, WEB 2170, on several indices of acute and chronic airway inflammation and associated changes in lung function in a primate model of allergic asthma. A single oral administration WEB 2170 provided dose related inhibition of the release of leukotriene C4 (LTC4 and prostaglandin D2 (PGD2 recovered and quantified in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid obtained during the acute phase response to inhaled antigen. In addition, oral WEB 2170 treatment in dual responder primates blocked the acute influx of neutrophils into the airways as well as the associated late-phase airway obstruction occurring 6 h after antigen inhalation. In contrast, a multiple dosing regime with WEB 2170 (once a day for 7 consecutive days failed to reduce the chronic airway inflammation (eosinophilic and associated airway hyperresponsiveness to inhaled methacholine that is characteristic of dual responder monkeys. Thus, we conclude that the generation of PAF following antigen inhalation contributes to the development of lipid mediators, acute airway inflammation and associated late-phase airway obstruction in dual responder primates; however, PAF does not play a significant role in the maintenance of chronic airway inflammation and associated airway hyperresponsiveness in this primate model.

  17. The impact of MRSA infection in the airways of children with cystic fibrosis; a case-control study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cox, D W

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) in patients with Cystic Fibrosis (CF) has risen dramatically over the past 10 years. The clinical significance of MRSA in CF patients remains undetermined. We conducted a review of patients with CF infected with MRSA over a 10 year period at Our Lady\\'s Children\\'s Hospital, Crumlin between 1999 and 2009. We collected data from 24 patients infected with MRSA and 24 control patients without MRSA There was a significant difference between the two groups in the rate of decline in percentage FEV1 two years after MRSA infection (Difference: -17.4, 95% CI: -30.48, -4.31, p = 0.01). A similar trend was seen for FVC% and FEF25-75% predicted. This study suggests that persistent MRSA infection in the airways of children with CF is associated with diminished lung function two years post acquisition, when compared to a matched control cohort without MRSA.

  18. The Acquisition Experiences of Kazoil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minbaeva, Dana; Muratbekova-Touron, Maral

    2016-01-01

    This case describes two diverging post-acquisition experiences of KazOil, an oil drilling company in Kazakhstan, in the years after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. When the company was bought by the Canadian corporation Hydrocarbons Ltd in 1996, exposed to new human resource strategies...... among students that cultural distance is not the main determinant for the success of social integration mechanisms in post-acquisition situations. On the contrary, the relationship between integration instrument and integration success is also governed by contextual factors such as the attractiveness...... of the acquisition target or state of development of HRM in the target country....

  19. Data acquisition techniques using PC

    CERN Document Server

    Austerlitz, Howard

    1991-01-01

    Data Acquisition Techniques Using Personal Computers contains all the information required by a technical professional (engineer, scientist, technician) to implement a PC-based acquisition system. Including both basic tutorial information as well as some advanced topics, this work is suitable as a reference book for engineers or as a supplemental text for engineering students. It gives the reader enough understanding of the topics to implement a data acquisition system based on commercial products. A reader can alternatively learn how to custom build hardware or write his or her own software.

  20. Bootstrapping language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abend, Omri; Kwiatkowski, Tom; Smith, Nathaniel J; Goldwater, Sharon; Steedman, Mark

    2017-07-01

    The semantic bootstrapping hypothesis proposes that children acquire their native language through exposure to sentences of the language paired with structured representations of their meaning, whose component substructures can be associated with words and syntactic structures used to express these concepts. The child's task is then to learn a language-specific grammar and lexicon based on (probably contextually ambiguous, possibly somewhat noisy) pairs of sentences and their meaning representations (logical forms). Starting from these assumptions, we develop a Bayesian probabilistic account of semantically bootstrapped first-language acquisition in the child, based on techniques from computational parsing and interpretation of unrestricted text. Our learner jointly models (a) word learning: the mapping between components of the given sentential meaning and lexical words (or phrases) of the language, and (b) syntax learning: the projection of lexical elements onto sentences by universal construction-free syntactic rules. Using an incremental learning algorithm, we apply the model to a dataset of real syntactically complex child-directed utterances and (pseudo) logical forms, the latter including contextually plausible but irrelevant distractors. Taking the Eve section of the CHILDES corpus as input, the model simulates several well-documented phenomena from the developmental literature. In particular, the model exhibits syntactic bootstrapping effects (in which previously learned constructions facilitate the learning of novel words), sudden jumps in learning without explicit parameter setting, acceleration of word-learning (the "vocabulary spurt"), an initial bias favoring the learning of nouns over verbs, and one-shot learning of words and their meanings. The learner thus demonstrates how statistical learning over structured representations can provide a unified account for these seemingly disparate phenomena. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.