Sample records for catalyzed selective methanolysis

  1. Heterogeneous base-catalyzed methanolysis of vegetable oils: State of art

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    Miladinović Marija R.


    Full Text Available Today, homogeneous base-catalyzed methanolysis is most frequently used method for industrial biodiesel production. High requirements for the quality of feedstocks and the problems related to a huge amount of wastewaters have led to the development of novel biodiesel production technologies. Among them, the most important is heterogeneous base-catalyzed methanolysis, which has been intensively investigated in the last decade in order to develop new catalytic systems, to optimize the reaction conditions and to recycle catalysts. These studies are a base for developing continuous biodiesel production on industrial scale in near future. The present work summarizes up-to-date studies on biodiesel production by heterogeneous base-catalyzed methanolysis. The main goals were to point out the application of different base compounds as catalysts, the methods of catalyst preparation, impregnation on carriers and recycling as well as the possibilities to improve existing base-catalyzed biodiesel production processes and to develop novel ones.

  2. Empirical modeling the ultrasound-assisted base-catalyzed sunflower oil methanolysis kinetics

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    Avramović Jelena M.


    Full Text Available The ultrasound-assisted sunflower oil methanolysis catalyzed by KOH was studied to define a simple empirical kinetic model useful for reactor design without complex computation. It was assumed that the neutralization of free fatty acids and the saponification reaction were negligible. The methanolysis process rate was observed to be controlled by the mass transfer limitation in the initial heterogeneous regime and by the chemical reaction in the later pseudo-homogeneous regime. The model involving the irreversible second-order kinetics was established and used for simulation of the triacylglycerol conversion and the fatty acid methyl esters formation in the latter regime. A good agreement between the proposed model and the experimental data in the chemically controlled regime was found.

  3. Production of sunflower oil methyl esters by optimized alkali-catalyzed methanolysis

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    Rashid, Umer; Anwar, Farooq; Ashraf, Samia [Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan); Moser, Bryan R. [United States Department of Agriculture, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Peoria, IL 61604 (United States); Agricultural Research Service, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Peoria, IL 61604 (United States)


    We report the optimization of sunflower oil methyl esters (SOME/biodiesel) production via alkaline catalyzed transesterification of crude sunflower oil and subsequent physical and chemical characterization. The optimum conditions elucidated for the methanolysis of sunflower oil were found to be: methanol/sunflower oil molar ratio, 6:1; reaction temperature, 60 C; and NaOH catalyst concentration, 1.00% (w/w). An optimum SOME yield of 97.1% was achieved. SOME were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). A number of fuel properties of SOME as measured according to accepted methods were found to satisfy nearly all prescribed ASTM D 6751 specifications, where applicable. The results of the present study indicated that SOME could be a potential alternative to other common biodiesels and petrodiesel. (author)

  4. A DFT investigation of methanolysis and hydrolysis of triacetin

    CERN Document Server

    Limpanuparb, Taweetham; Tantirungrotechai, Yuthana; 10.1016/j.theochem.2010.05.022


    The thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of the methanolysis and hydrolysis reactions of glycerol triacetate or triacetin, a model triacylglycerol compound, were investigated by using Density Functional Theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/6-31++G(d,p) level of calculation. Twelve elementary steps of triacetin methanolysis were studied under acid-catalyzed and base-catalyzed conditions. The mechanism of acid-catalyzed methanolysis reaction which has not been reported yet for any esters was proposed. The effects of substitution, methanolysis/hydrolysis position, solvent and face of nucleophilic attack on the free energy of reaction and activation energy were examined. The prediction confirmed the facile position at the middle position of glycerol observed by NMR techniques. The calculated activation energy and the trends of those factors agree with existing experimental observations in biodiesel production.

  5. Methanolysis of used frying oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomasevic, A.V. [Institute for Plant Protection and Environment, PO Box 33-79, Teodora Drajzera 9, 11040 Belgrade (Serbia); Siler-Marinkovic, S.S. [Department of Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, PO Box 484, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia)


    The result of the investigation on methyl esters obtained on the basis of heated refined sunflower oil and used frying oils are given in the paper. Transesterification reaction conditions that affect yield and purity of the product esters including oil quality, molar ratio of methanol to vegetable oil, type and concentration of alkaline catalyst, temperature and reaction time were examined. The methanolysis of different oils at 25 C with 0.5-1.5% potassium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide were studied. The effect of molar ratio 4.5:1, 6:1 and 9:1 on ester yield and its quality were investigated. With 1% potassium hydroxide, temperature at 25 C, molar ratio 6:1 and 30 min, all investigated oils were sufficiently transesterified and could be used as fuel in diesel engines.

  6. Platinum-Catalyzed Selective Tin-Carbon Bond Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoonen, Sander Hendrikus Lambertus


    In conclusion, two improved methods for the selective synthesis of monoorganotin trihalides were developed. The platinum-catalyzed Kocheshkov redistribution reaction of dialkyltin dichlorides with tin tetrachloride is the most interesting. Contrary to the other two methods described (the direct

  7. Quinone-Catalyzed Selective Oxidation of Organic Molecules. (United States)

    Wendlandt, Alison E; Stahl, Shannon S


    Quinones are common stoichiometric reagents in organic chemistry. Para-quinones with high reduction potentials, such as DDQ and chloranil, are widely used and typically promote hydride abstraction. In recent years, many catalytic applications of these methods have been achieved by using transition metals, electrochemistry, or O2 to regenerate the oxidized quinone in situ. Complementary studies have led to the development of a different class of quinones that resemble the ortho-quinone cofactors in copper amine oxidases and mediate the efficient and selective aerobic and/or electrochemical dehydrogenation of amines. The latter reactions typically proceed by electrophilic transamination and/or addition-elimination reaction mechanisms, rather than hydride abstraction pathways. The collective observations show that the quinone structure has a significant influence on the reaction mechanism and has important implications for the development of new quinone reagents and quinone-catalyzed transformations. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Continuous catalyst-free methanolysis and ethanolysis of soybean oil under supercritical alcohol/water mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieitez, Ignacio; Grompone, Maria A.; Jachmanian, Ivan [Laboratorio de Grasas y Aceites, Departamento de Alimentos, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo 11800 (Uruguay); da Silva, Camila; Alckmin, Isabella; Borges, Gustavo R.; Corazza, Fernanda C.; Oliveira, J. Vladimir [Department of Food Engineering, URI-Campus de Erechim, Erechim 99700-000 (Brazil)


    This work investigates and compares the reaction performance of soybean oil transesterification under supercritical methanol and ethanol, in a continuous catalyst-free process, as a cleaner alternative to conventional chemically catalyzed process. Reactions were performed in a tubular reactor, at 20 MPa, with oil to alcohol ratio of 1:40, varying the temperature in the range from 250 C to 350 C, and at two levels of water concentrations, 0 and 10 wt%. Although both processes proceeded with a relatively high reaction rate, conversion achieved by methanolysis was higher than that obtained by ethanolysis. Water positively affected both process: higher ester content and triacylglycerols depletion occurred when 10 wt% water was used compared with anhydrous conditions. Temperature increase favored the conversion of soybean oil to the corresponding methyl or ethyl esters, although temperatures above 300 C increased the fatty acid degradation degree, a phenomenon responsible for the low ester contents obtained at the highest temperatures and lowest flow rates studied. (author)

  9. Palladium-catalyzed selective acyloxylation using sodium perborate as oxidant. (United States)

    Pilarski, Lukasz T; Janson, Pär G; Szabó, Kálmán J


    Sodium perborate (SPB), a principal component of washing powders, was employed as an inexpensive and eco-friendly oxidant in the palladium-catalyzed C-H acyloxylation of alkenes in excellent regio- and stereochemistry. The reactions used anhydrides as acyloxy sources. The method applies to both terminal and internal alkenes, and even benzylic C-H oxidation.

  10. Modified multi-wall carbon nanotubes as metal free catalyst for application in H2 production from methanolysis of NaBH4 (United States)

    Sahiner, Nurettin


    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) are modified by acid treatments to obtain MWCNT-COOHs and used as metal free catalyst directly in H2 generation from the methanolysis of sodium borohydride (NaBH4). The chemically modified MWCNT-COOHs are characterized with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and zeta potential measurements. The H2 generation reactions are proceeded at different reaction conditions to determine the optimum reaction parameters such as the concentration of NaBH4 and temperature, the reusability of catalyst, and the regeneration of catalyst. The MWCNT-COOHs are found to be very effective catalyst in comparison to the metal nanoparticle catalyzed H2 generation reactions from the methanolysis of NaBH4. Thus, hydrogen generation rate (HGR) is calculated as 8766 ± 477 mL H2 g-1 min-1 for 500 mM NaBH4 in 20 mL methanol in presence of 50 mg MWCNT-COOH. Furthermore, the activation energy (Ea) for the methanolysis of NaBH4 in presence of MWCNT-COOHs is computed as 20.1 ± 1.4 kJ mol-1, comparable with most of the reported metal nanoparticle based catalyst in the literature.

  11. Copper-catalyzed selective hydroamination reactions of alkynes


    Shi, Shi-Liang; Buchwald, Stephen L.


    The development of selective reactions that utilize easily available and abundant precursors for the efficient synthesis of amines is a longstanding goal of chemical research. Despite the centrality of amines in a number of important research areas, including medicinal chemistry, total synthesis and materials science, a general, selective, and step-efficient synthesis of amines is still needed. In this work we describe a set of mild catalytic conditions utilizing a single copper-based catalys...

  12. Methanolysis of Carica papaya Seed Oil for Production of Biodiesel

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    Foluso O. Agunbiade


    Full Text Available The future of fossil fuel sources of energy has necessitated the need to search for renewable alternatives. Thus, Carica papaya seed oil (CPSO was employed as feedstock for the production of biodiesel by methanolysis. The seed was obtained locally, dried, and extracted with n-hexane. The CPSO was analyzed for specific gravity, viscosity, iodine value, and saponification value, among others using standard methods. The oil was transesterified by two-stage catalysis with oil to methanol mole ratio of 1 : 9. The biodiesel produced was subjected to standard fuel tests. The seed has an oil yield of 31.2% which is commercially viable. The kinematic viscosity of the oil at 313 K was 27.4 mm2s−1 while that of Carica papaya oil methylester (CPOME was reduced to 3.57 mm2s−1 and the specific gravity was 0.84 comparable with other seed-oil biodiesels and number 2 diesel. Other oil properties were compared favourably with seed oils already documented for biodiesel synthesis. CPOME’s cloud and pour points were 275 K and 274 K, respectively, and relatively higher than other biodiesels and number 2 diesel. CPOME exhibits moderate corrosion of copper strip. The methanolysis improved the fuel properties of the CPOME similar to other biodiesels. CPSO therefore exhibits a potential for biodiesel production.

  13. Rationalizing Ring-Size Selectivity in Intramolecular Pd-Catalyzed Allylations of Resonance-Stabilized Carbanions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norrby, Per-Ola; Mader, Mary M.; Vitale, Maxime


    Computational methods were applied to the Pd-catalyzed intramolecular allylations of resonance-stabilized carbanions obtained from amide and ketone substrates, with the aim of rationalizing the endo- vs. exo-selectivity in the cyclizations. In addition, ester substrates were prepared and subjected...... to the Pd-catalyzed cyclization conditions, and were found to form lactones via exo attack. DFT calculations using BP86/LACVP*+level of theory with a CH2Cl2 solvation correction reproduce the relative transition state energies. The preference for exo-cyclization of the nitrogen-containing starting material...

  14. Copper-catalyzed selective hydroamination reactions of alkynes (United States)

    Shi, Shi-Liang; Buchwald, Stephen L.


    The development of selective reactions that utilize easily available and abundant precursors for the efficient synthesis of amines is a longstanding goal of chemical research. Despite the centrality of amines in a number of important research areas, including medicinal chemistry, total synthesis and materials science, a general, selective, and step-efficient synthesis of amines is still needed. In this work we describe a set of mild catalytic conditions utilizing a single copper-based catalyst that enables the direct preparation of three distinct and important amine classes (enamines, α-chiral branched alkylamines, and linear alkylamines) from readily available alkyne starting materials with high levels of chemo-, regio-, and stereoselectivity. This methodology was applied to the asymmetric synthesis of rivastigmine and the formal synthesis of several other pharmaceutical agents, including duloxetine, atomoxetine, fluoxetine, and tolterodine. PMID:25515888

  15. Selectivity control in Pt-catalyzed cinnamaldehyde hydrogenation (United States)

    Durndell, Lee J.; Parlett, Christopher M. A.; Hondow, Nicole S.; Isaacs, Mark A.; Wilson, Karen; Lee, Adam F.


    Chemoselectivity is a cornerstone of catalysis, permitting the targeted modification of specific functional groups within complex starting materials. Here we elucidate key structural and electronic factors controlling the liquid phase hydrogenation of cinnamaldehyde and related benzylic aldehydes over Pt nanoparticles. Mechanistic insight from kinetic mapping reveals cinnamaldehyde hydrogenation is structure-insensitive over metallic platinum, proceeding with a common Turnover Frequency independent of precursor, particle size or support architecture. In contrast, selectivity to the desired cinnamyl alcohol product is highly structure sensitive, with large nanoparticles and high hydrogen pressures favoring C = O over C = C hydrogenation, attributed to molecular surface crowding and suppression of sterically-demanding adsorption modes. In situ vibrational spectroscopies highlight the role of support polarity in enhancing C = O hydrogenation (through cinnamaldehyde reorientation), a general phenomenon extending to alkyl-substituted benzaldehydes. Tuning nanoparticle size and support polarity affords a flexible means to control the chemoselective hydrogenation of aromatic aldehydes.

  16. Magnetic Mesoporous Palladium Catalyzed Selective Hydrogenation of Sunflower Oil. (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Tian, Fei; Yu, Jingjing; Bi, Yanlan


    In this paper, a novel magnetic mesoporous Pd catalyst is used to catalyse selective hydrogenation of sunflower oil at a mild temperature of 50°C. Effects of reaction temperature, stirring speed, time, catalyst loading and hydrogen pressure on the reaction activity, trans fatty acid (TFA) and stearic acid formation were studied. Under the condition of 3.2 mg Pd/100 g oil, 50°C, 1300 rpm stirring speed and 19.0 atm of H2, the lowest amount of TFA generated during the reaction (IV = 80) was 14.9 ± 0.4% while 11.4 ± 0.4% of stearic acid was produced. And this magnetic Pd-catalyst can be reused easily for at least six times without significant catalyst deactivation, the amount of TFA almost remained unchanged. Moreover, this Pd-catalyst shows a good magnetic separation, which provides a potential method for the facile oil modification.

  17. The intriguing modeling of cis–trans selectivity in ruthenium-catalyzed olefin metathesis

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    Luigi Cavallo


    Full Text Available In this study we have investigated computationally the origin of the cis–trans selectivity in the Ru-catalyzed cross metathesis (CM of a prototype monosubstituted olefin, i.e., propene. Our calculations suggest that the origin of the preferential formation of trans-olefins is in the product release step, which prevents the initially formed cis-olefin from escaping the metal, and returns it to the reaction pool until the trans-olefin is formed.

  18. Selective Palladium(II)-Catalyzed Carbonylation of Methylene β-C-H Bonds in Aliphatic Amines. (United States)

    Cabrera-Pardo, Jaime R; Trowbridge, Aaron; Nappi, Manuel; Ozaki, Kyohei; Gaunt, Matthew J


    Palladium(II)-catalyzed C-H carbonylation reactions of methylene C-H bonds in secondary aliphatic amines lead to the formation of trans-disubstituted β-lactams in excellent yields and selectivities. The generality of the C-H carbonylation process is aided by the action of xantphos-based ligands and is important in securing good yields for the β-lactam products. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Plasma Functionalized Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes for Immobilization of Candida antarctica Lipase B: Production of Biodiesel from Methanolysis of Rapeseed Oil. (United States)

    Rastian, Zahra; Khodadadi, Abbas Ali; Guo, Zheng; Vahabzadeh, Farzaneh; Mortazavi, Yadollah


    Surface modification of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) through functionalization could improve the characteristics of these nanomaterials as support for enzymes. Carboxylation of MWCNTs (MWCNT-COOH) has been carried out in this study using the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma reactor through humidified air. The chemical method was also used for further functionalization of the MWCNT-COOH through which the amidation of the surfaces with either butylamine (MWCNT-BA) or octadecylamine (MWCNT-OA) was performed. By immobilization of Candida antarctica B lipase (CALB) on these nanoparticles, performance of the immobilized enzyme in catalyzing methanolysis of rapeseed oil was evaluated. The CALB loading on the MWCNT-BA and MWCNT-COOH was 20 mg protein/g, while the value for MWCNT-OA was 11 mg protein/g. The yield of biodiesel was determined as percentage of mass of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) produced per initial mass of the oil, and the yield value for the two of these three supports namely, MWCNT-COOH and MWCNT-BA used for the CALB immobilization was similar at about 92 %, while 86 % was the yield for the reaction catalyzed by the lipase immobilized on MWCNT-OA. Thermal stability of the immobilized CALB and the catalytic ability of the enzyme in the repeated batch experiments have also been determined.

  20. Synthesis of (-)-Piperitylmagnolol Featuring ortho-Selective Deiodination and Pd-Catalyzed Allylation. (United States)

    Ikoma, Atsushi; Ogawa, Narihito; Kondo, Daiki; Kawada, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Yuichi


    A 1,4-addition strategy using an enone and a copper reagent was studied for the synthesis of (-)-piperitylmagnolol. A MOM-protected biphenol copper reagent was added to BF3·OEt2-activated 4-isopropylcyclohexenone, whereas 1,4-addition of protected monophenol reagents possessing an allyl group was found to be unsuccessful. The allyl group was later attached to the p-,p'-diiodo-biphenol ring by Pd-catalyzed coupling with allylborate. The aforementioned iodide was synthesized using a new method for ortho-selective deiodination of o-,p-diiodophenols.

  1. Selective Palladium(II)-Catalyzed Carbonylation of Methylene β-C-H Bonds in Aliphatic Amines.


    Cabrera-Pardo, Jaime R; Trowbridge, Aaron; Nappi, Manuel; Ozaki, Kyohei; Gaunt, Matthew James


    Pd(II)-catalyzed C–H carbonylation of methylene C–H bonds in secondary aliphatic amines leads to the formation trans-disubstituted β-lactams in excellent yields and selectivities. The generality of the C–H carbonylation process is aided by the action of xantphos-based ligands and is important in securing good yields of the β-lactam products. EPSRC (EP/100548X/1), ERC (ERC-STG-259711), Royal Society (Wolfson Award), Marie Curie Foundation and Herchel Smith Foundation.

  2. Analyzing site selectivity in Rh2(esp)2-catalyzed intermolecular C-H amination reactions. (United States)

    Bess, Elizabeth N; DeLuca, Ryan J; Tindall, Daniel J; Oderinde, Martins S; Roizen, Jennifer L; Du Bois, J; Sigman, Matthew S


    Predicting site selectivity in C-H bond oxidation reactions involving heteroatom transfer is challenged by the small energetic differences between disparate bond types and the subtle interplay of steric and electronic effects that influence reactivity. Herein, the factors governing selective Rh2(esp)2-catalyzed C-H amination of isoamylbenzene derivatives are investigated, where modification to both the nitrogen source, a sulfamate ester, and substrate are shown to impact isomeric product ratios. Linear regression mathematical modeling is used to define a relationship that equates both IR stretching parameters and Hammett σ(+) values to the differential free energy of benzylic versus tertiary C-H amination. This model has informed the development of a novel sulfamate ester, which affords the highest benzylic-to-tertiary site selectivity (9.5:1) observed for this system.

  3. Environmentally benign methanolysis of polycarbonate to recover bisphenol A and dimethyl carbonate in ionic liquids. (United States)

    Liu, Fusheng; Li, Zhuo; Yu, Shitao; Cui, Xiao; Ge, Xiaoping


    An environmentally friendly strategy for methanolysis of polycarbonate (PC) to recover bisphenol A (BPA) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) was developed in which PC could be methanolyzed in an ionic liquid without any acid or base catalyst under moderate conditions. The effects of ionic liquid kinds, temperature, time, and methanol dosage on methanolysis results of PC were examined. It was showed that the methanolysis conversion of PC was almost 100% and the yields of both BPA and DMC were over 95% in presence of ionic liquid 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim][Cl]) and under the conditions of m(PC):m(CH(3)OH):m([Bmim][Cl])=2:3:2, reaction temperature 105 degrees C and time 2.5h. After easily separated from the product, the ionic liquid could be reused 8 times without obvious decrease in the conversion of PC and yields of BPA and DMC.

  4. Theoretical prediction of selectivity in kinetic resolution of secondary alcohols catalyzed by chiral DMAP derivatives. (United States)

    Larionov, Evgeny; Mahesh, Mohan; Spivey, Alan C; Wei, Yin; Zipse, Hendrik


    The mechanism of esterification of the secondary alcohol 1-(1-naphthyl)ethanol 9 by isobutyric anhydride catalyzed by 4-pyrrolidinopyridine (PPY, 11) and a series of single enantiomer atropisomeric 4-dialkylaminopyridines 8a-g has been studied computationally at the B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p)//B3LYP/6-31G(d) level. Comparison of the levels of enantioselectivity predicted computationally with the results obtained experimentally allowed the method to be validated. The value of the approach is demonstrated by the successful prediction that a structural modification of an aryl group within the catalyst from phenyl to 3,5-dimethylphenyl would lead to improved levels of selectivity in this type of kinetic resolution (KR) reaction, as was subsequently verified following synthesis and evaluation of this catalyst (8d). Experimentally, the selectivity of this type of KR is found to exhibit a significant deuterium isotope effect (for 9 vs d(1)-9).

  5. Selective Oxidation of 1,2-Propanediol to Carboxylic Acids Catalyzed by Copper Nanoparticles. (United States)

    Xue, Wuping; Yin, Hengbo; Lu, Zhipeng; Wang, Aili; Liu, Shuxin; Shen, Lingqin


    Copper nanoparticles with different particle sizes were prepared by a wet chemical reduction method in the presence of organic modifiers, such as citric acid (CA), hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide, Tween-80 (Tween), and polyethylene glycol 6000. Selective oxidation of sustainable 1,2-propanediol with O2 to high-valued lactic, formic, and acetic acids catalyzed by the copper nanoparticles in an alkaline medium was investigated. The small-sized CuCA nanoparticles with the average particle size of 15.2 nm favored the formation of acetic and formic acids while the CuTween nanoparticles with the average particle size of 26.9 nm were beneficial to the formation of lactic acid. The size effect of copper nanoparticles on the catalytic oxidation of 1,2-propanediol to the carboxylic acids was obvious.

  6. Selective Coke Combustion by Oxygen Pulsing During Mo/ZSM‐5‐Catalyzed Methane Dehydroaromatization (United States)

    Coumans, Ferdy J. A. G.; Uslamin, Evgeny; Kapteijn, Freek


    Abstract Non‐oxidative methane dehydroaromatization is a promising reaction to directly convert natural gas into aromatic hydrocarbons and hydrogen. Commercialization of this technology is hampered by rapid catalyst deactivation because of coking. A novel approach is presented involving selective oxidation of coke during methane dehydroaromatization at 700 °C. Periodic pulsing of oxygen into the methane feed results in substantially higher cumulative product yield with synthesis gas; a H2/CO ratio close to two is the main side‐product of coke combustion. Using 13C isotope labeling of methane it is demonstrated that oxygen predominantly reacts with molybdenum carbide species. The resulting molybdenum oxides catalyze coke oxidation. Less than one‐fifth of the available oxygen reacts with gaseous methane. Combined with periodic regeneration at 550 °C, this strategy is a significant step forward, towards a process for converting methane into liquid hydrocarbons. PMID:27791321

  7. The Synthesis and Methanolysis of Benzyl Tosylates: An Advanced Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment. (United States)

    Garst, Michael E.; Gribble, Gordon W.


    Describes a series of experiments (requiring six hours/week for six to eight weeks) involving the synthesis and methanolysis of substituted benzyl tosylates. The experiments provide students with experiences in kinetic data manipulation and an introduction and firm basis for structure-activity relationships and solvent effects in organic…

  8. Catalyst-controlled reverse selectivity in C-C bond formation : NHC-Cu-catalyzed alpha-selective allylic alkylation with organolithium reagents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pizzolato, Stefano F.; Giannerini, Massimo; Bos, Pieter H.; Fananas-Mastral, Martin; Feringa, Ben L.


    An efficient and highly alpha-selective copper-catalyzed allylic alkylation of allylic halides with organolithium reagents is presented. The use of N-heterocyclic carbenes as ligands is key to reverse the common gamma-selectivity of this transformation and gives rise to the corresponding linear

  9. Catalyst-controlled reverse selectivity in C-C bond formation: NHC-Cu-catalyzed α-selective allylic alkylation with organolithium reagents. (United States)

    Pizzolato, Stefano F; Giannerini, Massimo; Bos, Pieter H; Fañanás-Mastral, Martín; Feringa, Ben L


    An efficient and highly α-selective copper-catalyzed allylic alkylation of allylic halides with organolithium reagents is presented. The use of N-heterocyclic carbenes as ligands is key to reverse the common γ-selectivity of this transformation and gives rise to the corresponding linear products with high levels of regioselectivity.

  10. Enantioselective N-heterocyclic carbene-catalyzed synthesis of saccharine-derived dihydropyridinones with cis-selectivity. (United States)

    Liang, Zhi-Qin; Wang, Dong-Ling; Zhang, Chun-Lin; Ye, Song


    The enantioselective N-heterocyclic carbene-catalyzed [2 + 4] cyclocondensation of α-chloroaldehydes and saccharine-derived 1-azadienes was developed, giving the corresponding saccharine-derived dihydropyridinones in good yields with exclusive cis-selectivities and excellent enantioselectivities.

  11. Co-catalyzed radical cycloaddition of [60]fullerene with active dibromides: selective synthesis of carbocycle-fused fullerene monoadducts. (United States)

    Lu, Shirong; Si, Weili; Bao, Ming; Yamamoto, Yoshinori; Jin, Tienan


    An efficient and highly selective Co-catalyzed radical cycloaddition of [60]fullerene with active dibromides for the synthesis of three-, five-, six-, and seven-membered carbocycle-fused fullerene monoadducts has been reported. The controlled experiments unambiguously disclosed that the reaction proceeds through the formation of a fullerene monoradical as a key intermediate.

  12. Z-Selective Olefin Metathesis Processes Catalyzed by a Molybdenum Hexaisopropylterphenoxide Monopyrrolide Complex (United States)

    Flook, Margaret M.; Jiang, Annie J.; Schrock, Richard R.; Müller, Peter; Hoveyda, Amir H.


    The molybdenum-based monoaryloxide monopyrrolide (MAP) species, Mo(NAd)(CHCMe2Ph)(C4H4N)(HIPTO) (2a), which contains “small” imido (Ad = 1-adamantyl) and “large” aryloxide (HIPTO = O-2,6(2,4,6-i-Pr3C6H2)C6H3) ligands, catalyzes Z-selective metathesis reactions as a consequence of intermediate metallacyclobutane species not being able to have a (anti) substituent pointing toward the HIPTO group. ROMP of dicarbomethoxynorbornadiene (DCMNBD) with 2% 2a in toluene leads to >99% cis and >99% syndiotactic poly(DCMNBD), while ROMP of cyclooctene and 1,5-cyclooctadiene (300 equiv)with initiator 2a leads to poly(cyclooctene) and poly(cyclooctadiene) that have cis contents of >99%; all are previously unknown microstructures. Z-selectivity is also observed in the metathesis of cis-4-octene and cis-3-hexene by initiator 2a to give cis-3-heptene. PMID:19462947

  13. Selective Coke Combustion by Oxygen Pulsing During Mo/ZSM-5-Catalyzed Methane Dehydroaromatization. (United States)

    Kosinov, Nikolay; Coumans, Ferdy J A G; Uslamin, Evgeny; Kapteijn, Freek; Hensen, Emiel J M


    Non-oxidative methane dehydroaromatization is a promising reaction to directly convert natural gas into aromatic hydrocarbons and hydrogen. Commercialization of this technology is hampered by rapid catalyst deactivation because of coking. A novel approach is presented involving selective oxidation of coke during methane dehydroaromatization at 700 °C. Periodic pulsing of oxygen into the methane feed results in substantially higher cumulative product yield with synthesis gas; a H2 /CO ratio close to two is the main side-product of coke combustion. Using 13 C isotope labeling of methane it is demonstrated that oxygen predominantly reacts with molybdenum carbide species. The resulting molybdenum oxides catalyze coke oxidation. Less than one-fifth of the available oxygen reacts with gaseous methane. Combined with periodic regeneration at 550 °C, this strategy is a significant step forward, towards a process for converting methane into liquid hydrocarbons. © 2016 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  14. Palladium-Catalyzed, ortho-Selective C-H Halogenation of Benzyl Nitriles, Aryl Weinreb Amides, and Anilides. (United States)

    Das, Riki; Kapur, Manmohan


    A palladium-catalyzed, ortho-selective C-H halogenation methodology is reported herein. The highlight of the work is the highly selective C(sp(2))-H functionalization of benzyl nitriles in the presence of activated C(sp(3))-H bond, which results in good yields of the halogenated products with excellent regioselectivity. Along with benzyl nitriles, aryl Weinreb amides and anilides have been evaluated for the transformation using aprotic conditions. Mechanistic studies yield interesting aspects with respect to the pathway of the reaction and the directing group abilities.

  15. Syntheses of Calix[4]Pyrroles by Amberlyst-15 Catalyzed Cyclocondensations of Pyrrole with Selected Ketones

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    Tanuja Bisht


    Full Text Available A facile and efficient protocol is reported for the synthesis of calix[4]pyrrolesand N-confused calix[4]pyrroles in moderate to excellent yields by reaction of dialkyl orcycloalkyl ketones with pyrrole catalyzed by reusable AmberlystTM-15 under eco-friendlyconditions.

  16. Selective Metal-Free Hydrosilylation of CO2 Catalyzed by Triphenylborane in Highly Polar, Aprotic Solvents. (United States)

    Mukherjee, Debabrata; Sauer, Daniel F; Zanardi, Alessandro; Okuda, Jun


    Triphenylborane (BPh3 ) in highly polar, aprotic solvents catalyzes hydrosilylation of CO2 effectively under mild conditions to provide silyl formates with high chemoselectivity (>95 %) and without over-reduction. This system also promotes reductive hydrosilylation of tertiary amides as well as dehydrogenative coupling of silane with alcohols. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Highly selective formation of imines catalyzed by silver nanoparticles supported on alumina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mielby, Jerrik Jørgen; Poreddy, Raju; Engelbrekt, Christian


    The oxidative dehydrogenation of alcohols to aldehydes catalyzed by Ag nanoparticles supported on Al2O3 was studied. The catalyst promoted the direct formation of imines by tandem oxidative dehydrogenation and condensation of alcohols and amines. The reactions were performed under mild conditions...

  18. Pd-catalyzed Z-selective semihydrogenation of alkynes: determining the type of active species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drost, R.M.; Rosar, V.; Marta, S.D.; Lutz, M.; Demitri, N.; Milani, B.; de Bruin, B.; Elsevier, C.J.


    A protocol was developed to distinguish between well-defined molecular and nanoparticle-based catalysts for the Pd-catalyzed semihydrogenation reaction of alkynes to Z-alkenes. The protocol applies quantitative partial poisoning and dynamic light scattering methods, which allow the institution of

  19. Pd-Catalyzed Z-Selective Semihydrogenation of Alkynes : Determining the Type of Active Species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drost, Ruben M.; Rosar, Vera; Marta, Silvia Dalla; Lutz, Martin; Demitri, Nicola; Milani, Barbara; De Bruin, Bas; Elsevier, Cornelis J.


    A protocol was developed to distinguish between well-defined molecular and nanoparticle-based catalysts for the Pd-catalyzed semihydrogenation reaction of alkynes to Z-alkenes. The protocol applies quantitative partial poisoning and dynamic light scattering methods, which allow the institution of

  20. Gold(III)-catalyzed three-component coupling reaction (TCC) selective toward furans. (United States)

    Li, Jian; Liu, Li; Ding, Dong; Sun, Jiangtao; Ji, Yangxuan; Dong, Jialing


    An efficient three-component coupling reaction toward a variety of furan derivatives has been developed. This cascade transformation proceeds via the gold-catalyzed coupling reaction of phenylglyoxal derivatives, secondary amines, and terminal alkynes, under the reaction conditions, that undergoes cyclization into the furan core.

  1. Mechanism and Selectivity of Cinchona Alkaloid Catalyzed [1,3]-Shifts of Allylic Trichloroacetimidates (United States)

    Çelebi-Ölçüm, Nihan; Aviyente, Viktorya; Houk, K. N.


    Density Functional Theory calculations were used to investigate the [3,3]- and [1,3]-shifts of O-allylic trichloroacetimidates in the presence of cinchona alkaloids. Thermal [1,3]- and [3,3]-rearrangements proceed through concerted pseudopericyclic transition states to give the corresponding rearranged products. [1,3]-rearrangement is catalyzed via a double SN2' mechanism in which syn addition of the nucleophile is exclusively preferred in both steps. The catalyzed mechanism is favored by a 6.3 kcal/mol free energy difference compared to the alternative [3,3]-rearrangement pathway. The fast-reacting enantiomer is predicted to be determined by the availability of the H-bonding interaction between the catalyst and the substrate. PMID:19689147

  2. Mechanisms and Origins of Selectivities of the Lewis Acid-Catalyzed Diels-Alder Reactions between Arylallenes and Acrylates. (United States)

    Yu, Peiyuan; Li, Wei; Houk, K N


    The mechanisms of recently reported Lewis acid-catalyzed Diels-Alder reactions of arylallenes and acrylates were studied using density functional theory calculations. A stepwise mechanism involving short-lived zwitterion intermediates is established. The reaction is endo-selective in the presence of Lewis acid catalyst. The [2 + 2] cycloaddition is not observed because of the greater charge separation in the first step of the [2 + 2] cycloaddition. The origins of chirality transfer in the Diels-Alder reaction using chiral arylallenes are uncovered, and the absolute stereochemistry of the product is predicted.

  3. Dual response surface-optimized process for feruloylated diacylglycerols by selective lipase-catalyzed transesterification in solvent free system. (United States)

    Zheng, Yan; Wu, Xiao-Mei; Branford-White, Christopher; Quan, Jing; Zhu, Li-Min


    Feruloylated diacylglycerol (FDAG) was synthesized using a selective lipase-catalyzed the transesterification between ethyl ferulate and triolein. To optimize the reaction conversion and purity of FDAG, dual response surface was applied to determine the effects of five-level-five-factors and their reciprocal interactions on product synthesis. A total of 32 individual experiments were performed to study reaction temperature, reaction time, substrate molar ratio, enzyme loading, and water activity. The highest reaction conversion and selectivity towards FDAG were 73.9% and 92.3%, respectively, at 55 degrees C, reaction time 5.3 day, enzyme loading 30.4 mg/ml, water activity 0.08, and a substrate molar ratio of 3.7. Moreover, predicted values showed good validation with the experimental values when experiments corresponding to selected points on the contour plots were carried out.

  4. An unusual endo-selective C-H hydroarylationof norbornene by the Rh(I)-catalyzed reactionof benzamides. (United States)

    Shibata, Kaname; Natsui, Satoko; Tobisu, Mamoru; Fukumoto, Yoshiya; Chatani, Naoto


    Hydroarylation is an environmentally attractive strategy which incorporates all of the atoms contained in the substrates into the desired products. Almost all the hydroarylations of norbornene reported to date involve an exo-selective reaction. Here we show the endo-selective hydroarylation of norbornene in the Rh(I)-catalyzed reaction of aromatic amides. The addition of sterically bulky carboxylic acids enhances the endo-selectivity of the reaction. The results of deuterium-labeling experiments show that both the ortho-carbon and the ortho-hydrogen atoms of aromatic amides were attached to the same carbon atom of the norbornane skeleton in the hydroarylation product. These results clearly suggest that hydrometalation or carbometalation, which are commonly accepted mechanisms for the catalytic hydroarylation of C-H bonds, are not involved as the key step in the present reaction, and suggest that the reaction involves a rhodium carbene complex generated from norbornene as the key intermediate.

  5. Selective conversion of polyenes to monoenes by RuCl(3) -catalyzed transfer hydrogenation: the case of cashew nutshell liquid. (United States)

    Perdriau, Sébastien; Harder, Sjoerd; Heeres, Hero J; de Vries, Johannes G


    Cardanol, a constituent of cashew nutshell liquid (CNSL), was subjected to transfer hydrogenation catalyzed by RuCl(3) using isopropanol as a reductant. The side chain of cardanol, which is a mixture of a triene, a diene, and a monoene, was selectively reduced to the monoene. Surprisingly, it is the C8-C9 double bond that is retained with high selectivity. A similar transfer hydrogenation of linoleic acid derivatives succeeded only if the substrate contained an aromatic ring, such as a benzyl ester. TEM and a negative mercury test showed that the catalyst was homogeneous. By using ESI-MS, ruthenium complexes were identified that contained one, two, or even three molecules of substrate, most likely as allyl complexes. The interaction between ruthenium and the aromatic ring determines selectivity in the hydrogenation reaction. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Application of selectively acylated glycosides for the alpha-galactosidase-catalyzed synthesis of disaccharides. (United States)

    Simerská, P; Kuzma, M; Pisvejcová, A; Weignerová, L; Macková, M; Riva, S; Kren, V


    4-Nitrophenyl alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->3)-6-O-acetyl-alpha-D-galactopyranoside was prepared in a transglycosylation reaction catalyzed by alpha-D-galactosidase from Talaromyces flavus using 4-nitrophenyl alpha-D-galactopyranoside as a glycosyl donor and 4-nitrophenyl 6-O-acetyl-alpha-D-galactopyranoside as an acceptor. 4-Nitrophenyl 6-O-acetyl-alpha-D-galactopyranoside and 4-nitrophenyl 6-O-acetyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside were prepared in a regioselective enzymic transesterification in pyridine-acetone catalyzed by the lipase PS from Burkholderia cepacia. A series of water-miscible organic solvents (acetone, acetonitrile, dimethylformamide, dimethyl sulfoxide, 1,4-dioxane, 2-methoxyethanol, pyridine, 2-methylpropan-2-ol, tetrahydrofuran, propargyl alcohol) were used as co-solvents in this enzymic reaction. Their influence on the activity and stability of the alpha-galactosidase from T. flavus was established. 2-Methylpropan-2-ol and acetone (increasing the solubility of the modified substrate acceptors and displaying the minimum impairment of the activity and stability of the enzyme) were used as co-solvents in transglycosylation reactions.

  7. Cobalt-catalyzed hydroalkylation of [60]fullerene with active alkyl bromides: selective synthesis of monoalkylated fullerenes. (United States)

    Lu, Shirong; Jin, Tienan; Bao, Ming; Yamamoto, Yoshinori


    The Co-catalyzed hydroalkylation of C(60) with reactive alkyl bromides 1 (RBr) in the presence of Mn reductant and H(2)O at ambient temperature gave the monoalkylated C(60) (2) in good to high yields. The use of CoLn/Mn/H(2)O under Ar atmosphere is crucial for the success of the present transformation. The reaction most probably proceeds through the Co(0 or I) complex-promoted generation of a radical (R(•)) followed by addition to C(60). This hydroalkylation method was applied to the synthesis of zinc porphyrin attached C(60) (2l), dendrimer attached C(60) (2m), and fullerene dimer (2n), which were not easily available through the previously known methods.

  8. Water co-catalyzed selective dehydrogenation of methanol to formaldehyde and hydrogen (United States)

    Shan, Junjun; Lucci, Felicia R.; Liu, Jilei; El-Soda, Mostafa; Marcinkowski, Matthew D.; Allard, Lawrence F.; Sykes, E. Charles H.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria


    The non-oxidative dehydrogenation of methanol to formaldehyde is considered a promising method to produce formaldehyde and clean hydrogen gas. Although Cu-based catalysts have an excellent catalytic activity in the oxidative dehydrogenation of methanol, metallic Cu is commonly believed to be unreactive for the dehydrogenation of methanol in the absence of oxygen adatoms or oxidized copper. Herein we show that metallic Cu can catalyze the dehydrogenation of methanol in the absence of oxygen adatoms by using water as a co-catalyst both under realistic reaction conditions using silica-supported PtCu nanoparticles in a flow reactor system at temperatures below 250 °C, and in ultra-high vacuum using model PtCu(111) catalysts. Adding small amounts of isolated Pt atoms into the Cu surface to form PtCu single atom alloys (SAAs) greatly enhances the dehydrogenation activity of Cu. Under the same reaction conditions, the yields of formaldehyde from PtCu SAA nanoparticles are more than one order of magnitude higher than on the Cu nanoparticles, indicating a significant promotional effect of individual, isolated Pt atoms. Moreover, this study also shows the unexpected role of water in the activation of methanol. Water, a catalyst for methanol dehydrogenation at low temperatures, becomes a reactant in the methanol steam reforming reactions only at higher temperatures over the same metal catalyst.

  9. E- and Z-Selective Transfer Semihydrogenation of Alkynes Catalyzed by Standard Ruthenium Olefin Metathesis Catalysts. (United States)

    Kusy, Rafał; Grela, Karol


    Selective transfer semihydrogenation of alkynes to yield alkenes was achieved with commercial first and second generation Hoveyda-Grubbs catalysts and formic acid as a hydrogen donor. This catalytic system is distinguished by its selectivity and compatibility with many functional groups (halogens, cyano, nitro, sulfide, alkenes). The metathetic activity of the ruthenium catalysts may be utilized in tandem sequences of olefin metathesis plus alkyne reduction.

  10. C8-Selective Acylation of Quinoline N-Oxides with α-Oxocarboxylic Acids via Palladium-Catalyzed Regioselective C-H Bond Activation. (United States)

    Chen, Xiaopei; Cui, Xiuling; Wu, Yangjie


    A facile and efficient protocol for palladium-catalyzed C8-selective acylation of quinoline N-oxides with α-oxocarboxylic acids has been developed. In this approach, N-oxide was utilized as a stepping stone for the remote C-H functionalization. The reactions proceeded efficiently under mild reaction conditions with excellent regioselectivity and broad functional group tolerance.

  11. Lipase-catalyzed production of biodiesel fuel from vegetable oils contained in waste activated bleaching earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizarro, Ana V. Lara; Park, Enoch Y. [Shizuoka Univ., Dept. of Applied Biological Chemistry, Shizuoka (Japan)


    Waste bleaching earths from crude vegetable oil refining process contain approximately 40% of its weight as oil. Low valued oils are potential substrates for biodiesel fuel production. Vegetable oils from waste bleaching earth samples were organic-solvent extracted and identified as soybean, palm and rapeseed oil. Methanolysis was efficiently catalyzed by Rhizopus oryzae lipase in the presence of high water content, and by a single addition of methanol. R. oryzae lipase was not inactivated by methanol in concentrations lower than 4 milli-equivalents and 75% water content. Optimum conditions for methanolysis of extracted oils were 75% water content (by weight of substrate), an oil/methanol molar ratio of I:4, and 67 IU/g of substrate with agitation at 175 rpm for 96 h at 35 deg C. The highest conversion yield reached 55% (w/w) with palm oil after 96 h of reaction. Adverse viscosity conditions might have influenced methanolysis of extracted soybean and rapeseed oil in spite of high water or methanol concentrations. (Author)

  12. "Nanorust"-catalyzed benign oxidation of amines for selective synthesis of nitriles. (United States)

    Jagadeesh, Rajenahally V; Junge, Henrik; Beller, Matthias


    Organic nitriles constitute key precursors and central intermediates in organic synthesis. In addition, nitriles represent a versatile motif found in numerous medicinally and biologically important compounds. Generally, these nitriles are synthesized by traditional cyanation procedures using toxic cyanides. Herein, we report the selective and environmentally benign oxidative conversion of primary amines for the synthesis of structurally diverse aromatic, aliphatic and heterocyclic nitriles using a reusable "nanorust" (nanoscale Fe2 O3 )-based catalysts applying molecular oxygen. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. D. A. Facchini


    Full Text Available The application of lipases in various fields has been notably increased in the last few decades and qualitative/quantitative improvements need to be done. However, many methodologies of screening are described in order to find a good lipase producer and statistical optimization is a necessary tool to improve lipase production. In this work, an isolation of filamentous fungi lipase producers and a transesterification capacity screening was evaluated. Four fungi were chosen to the transesterification reaction assays and the best fungus selected was submitted to a submerged fermentation. Parameters of the culture medium were optimized using response surface methodology. Selected liquid medium was SR at 30 °C, 72 h, 100 rpm. Corn oil was the best carbon source and together with Tween 80 increased two-fold the lipase activity. After the experimental design, the new medium optimized were 3.5-fold higher than the original liquid medium and was composed by 0.5% corn oil, 0.012% MgSO4.7H2O, 0.015% KH2PO4, 0.05% NH4H2PO4. Hence, the lipase produced proved its transesterification capacity and can be used for biodiesel production.

  14. Selective Photooxidation of a Mustard-Gas Simulant Catalyzed by a Porphyrinic Metal-Organic Framework. (United States)

    Liu, Yangyang; Howarth, Ashlee J; Hupp, Joseph T; Farha, Omar K


    The photooxidation of a mustard-gas simulant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), is studied using a porphyrin-based metal-organic framework (MOF) catalyst. At room temperature and neutral pH value, singlet oxygen is generated by PCN-222/MOF-545 using an inexpensive and commercially available light-emitting diode. The singlet oxygen produced by PCN-222/MOF-545 selectively oxidizes CEES to the comparatively nontoxic product 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfoxide (CEESO) without formation of the highly toxic sulfone product. In comparison to current methods, which utilize hydrogen peroxide as an oxidizing agent, this is a more realistic, convenient, and effective method for mustard-gas detoxification. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Cobaltoporphyrin-Catalyzed CO 2 /Epoxide Copolymerization: Selectivity Control by Molecular Design

    KAUST Repository

    Anderson, Carly E.


    A series of cobalt(III) chloride porphyrin complexes of the general formula 5,10,15,20-tetra(p-alkoxy)phenylporphyrin cobalt chloride (4b-e) and the related 5,10,15,20-tetra(p-nitro)phenylporphyrin cobalt chloride (4f) are presented and their reactivity toward propylene oxide (PO)/CO 2 coupling/copolymerization is explored. While the nitro-substituted complex (4f), in conjunction with an onium salt, shows moderate activity toward cyclization, the 4b-e/onium systems show superior copolymerization activity in comparison to tetraphenylporphyrin Co(III) chloride (4a) with high selectivity and conversion to poly(propylene carbonate) (PPC). A comprehensive copolymerization behavior study of the alkoxy-substituted porphyrin complexes 4b-e in terms of reaction temperature and CO 2 pressure is presented. Complexes bearing longer alkoxy-substituents demonstrate the highest polymerization activity and molecular weights, however all substituted catalyst systems display a reduced tolerance to increased temperature with respect to PPC formation. Studies of the resulting polymer microstructures show excellent head-to-tail epoxide incorporation and near perfectly alternating poly(carbonate) character at lower polymerization temperatures. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  16. Selective Photocatalytic Disinfection by Coupling StrepMiniSog to the Antibody Catalyzed Water Oxidation Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M Wurtzler

    Full Text Available For several decades reactive oxygen species have been applied to water quality engineering and efficient disinfection strategies; however, these methods are limited by disinfection byproduct and catalyst-derived toxicity concerns which could be improved by selectively targeting contaminants of interest. Here we present a targeted photocatalytic system based on the fusion protein StrepMiniSOG that uses light within the visible spectrum to produce reactive oxygen species at a greater efficiency than current photosensitizers, allowing for shorter irradiation times from a fully biodegradable photocatalyst. The StrepMiniSOG photodisinfection system is unable to cross cell membranes and like other consumed proteins, can be degraded by endogenous digestive enzymes in the human gut, thereby reducing the consumption risks typically associated with other disinfection agents. We demonstrate specific, multi-log removal of Listeria monocytogenes from a mixed population of bacteria, establishing the StrepMiniSOG disinfection system as a valuable tool for targeted pathogen removal, while maintaining existing microbial biodiversity.

  17. Selective liquid phase oxidation of benzyl alcohol catalyzed by copper aluminate nanostructures (United States)

    Ragupathi, C.; Judith Vijaya, J.; Thinesh Kumar, R.; John Kennedy, L.


    In this paper, a simple and economic route for the preparation of CuAl2O4 is proposed. The method was developed with the objective of obtaining a material with greater surface area, when compared to the spinel prepared by conventional combustion method (CCM). The catalytic properties of CuAl2O4 spinel prepared by CCM are compared with the one prepared microwave combustion method (MCM). Nano-sized CuAl2O4 were synthesized by both CCM and MCM using Opuntia dillenii haw as the plant extract, and were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM), N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms, and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). Oxidation to their corresponding carbonyl compounds, high selectivity, and inexpensive precursors make this catalytic system a useful oxidation method for benzyl alcohol. The XRD results confirmed the formation of a cubic CuAl2O4. The formation of CuAl2O4 nanorices and nanorods structures were confirmed by HR-SEM. Through MCM method, CuAl2O4 (sample B) with a high specific surface area of was obtained. The band gap values of the (2.30 and 2.35 eV) for the obtained oxides are due to the nanometric dimensions of the nanostructures. The effect of the solvent, temperature, and oxidant on the oxidation of benzyl alcohol is reported.

  18. Comparative study of the methanolysis and ethanolysis of maize oils using alkaline catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, U.; Ibrahim, M.; Ali, S.; Adil, M.; Hina, S.; Bukhari, I. H.; Yunus, R.


    With an increasing population and economic development, fuel from renewable resources needs to be widely explored in order to fulfill the future energy demand. In the present study, bio diesel from maize oil using transesterification reactions with methanol and ethanol was evaluated in the presence of NaOCH{sub 3}, KOCH{sub 3}, NaOCH{sub 2}CH{sub 3}, KOCH{sub 2}CH{sub 3}, NaOH and KOH as catalysts. The influence of reaction variables such as the alcohol to oil molar ratio (3:1-15:1), catalyst concentration (0.25-1.50%) and reaction time (20-120 min) to achieve the maximum yield was determined at fixed reaction temperatures. The optimized variables in the case of methanolysis were 6:1 methanol to oil molar ratio (mol/ mol), 0.75% sodium methoxide concentration (wt%) and 90 min reaction time at 65 degree centigrade, which produced a yield of 97.1% methyl esters. A 9:1 ethanol to oil molar ratio (mol/mol), 1.00% sodium ethoxide concentration (wt%) and 120 min reaction time at 75 degree centigrade were found to produce the maximum ethyl ester yield of up to 85%. The methanolysis of maize oil was depicted more rapidly as compared to the ethanolysis of maize oil. Gas chromatography of the produced bio diesel from maize oil showed high levels of linoleic acid (up to 50.89%) followed by oleic acid (up to 36.00%), palmitic acid (up to 9.98%), oleic acid (up to 1.80%) and linolenic acid (up to 0.98%). The obtained fatty acid esters were further analyzed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to ensure the completion of transesterification. The fuel properties of the produced bio diesels i.e. kinematic viscosity, cetane number, oxidative stability, pour point, cloud point, cold filter plugging point, ash content, flash point, acid value, sulfur content, higher heating value, density, methanol content, free glycerol and bound glycerol were determined. The analyses were performed using the FTIR method and the results were compared to the bio diesel standards ASTM and

  19. Experimental-Computational Synergy for Selective Pd(II)-Catalyzed C-H Activation of Aryl and Alkyl Groups. (United States)

    Yang, Yun-Fang; Hong, Xin; Yu, Jin-Quan; Houk, K N


    C-H activation and functionalization are on the forefront of modern synthetic chemistry. Imagine if any C-H bond of a molecule could be converted to a C-X bond, where X is the target functionality-this would alter the synthetic blueprints for complex target molecules since it would provide novel disconnections in retrosynthetic analysis. Collaborations between many experimental and computational groups have led to rapid developments of new C-H functionalization methods. Our groups represent an example of this; we were brought together as part of the NSF-supported Center for Selective C-H Functionalization. Many examples of experimental-computational synergy for selective Pd(II)-catalyzed C-H activation of aryl and alkyl groups are described in this Account. We describe computations by the Houk group made in response to experimental stimuli by the Yu group. The first section discusses the experimental and computational investigations of oxazoline-directed stereoselective Pd(II)-catalyzed C(sp(3))-H bond activation that occurs through the concerted metalation-deprotonation (CMD) pathway involving a monomeric Pd(II) complex. The second section involves two types of bidentate ligands, mono-N-protected amino acid (MPAA) and acetyl-protected aminoethyl quinoline (APAQ) ligands that promote the C-H activation reactions with the ligand as the internal base. In the MPAA-assisted remote C-H bond activation, the basic dianionic amidate ligand participates in the deprotonation of a specific C-H bond. This mechanism accounts for the improved reactivity and selectivity in C-H activation reactions with MPAA ligands. The chiral APAQ ligands enable asymmetric palladium insertion into prochiral C-H bonds on a single methylene carbon center. The dianionic amidate of the APAQ ligand acts as an intramolecular base to deprotonate the methylene C-H asymmetrically and facilitate chiral Pd-C bond formation. The origins of the dramatic differences of five-membered (relatively inactive) and

  20. Experimental and mechanistic analysis of the palladium-catalyzed oxidative C8-selective C-H homocoupling of quinoline N-oxides. (United States)

    Stephens, David E; Lakey-Beitia, Johant; Chavez, Gabriel; Ilie, Carla; Arman, Hadi D; Larionov, Oleg V


    A novel site-selective palladium-catalyzed oxidative C8-H homocoupling reaction of quinoline N-oxides has been developed. The reaction affords substituted 8,8'-biquinolyl N,N'-dioxides that can be readily converted to a variety of functionalized 8,8'-biquinolyls. Mechanistic studies point to the crucial role of the oxidant and a non-innocent behavior of acetic acid as a solvent.

  1. Selection of magnetization catalyzation and readout methods for modified Look-Locker inversion recovery: a T1 mapping primer. (United States)

    Cameron, Donnie; Higgins, David M; Stehning, Christian; Kouwenhoven, Marc; Bouhrara, Mustapha; Frenneaux, Michael P; Dawson, Dana K; Redpath, Thomas W


    The purpose of this work was to evaluate different magnetization preparation and readout sequences for modified Look-Locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) toward improved T1 mapping in the heart. Elements investigated include: catalyzation sequences to prepare the magnetization before readout, alternate k-space trajectories, a spoiled gradient recalled echo readout, and a 5b(3b)3b MOLLI sampling scheme ('b' denoting beats). Conventional 3b(3b)3b(3b)5b MOLLI with a linear k-space trajectory was compared to four variants in simulations, in vitro and in vivo (at 3T). Variants were centric conventional MOLLI, centric-paired conventional MOLLI, linear 5b(3b)3b MOLLI and spoiled gradient recalled echo MOLLI. Each of these was applied with three magnetization catalyzation methods, and T1 measurement accuracy and precision were evaluated in simulations via a Monte Carlo algorithm, in a set of calibrated phantoms, and in ten healthy volunteers. Contrast-to-noise, heart rate dependence and B1+ dependence were also evaluated. A linear k-space trajectory was superior in vitro to centric and centric-paired trajectories. Of the catalyzation methods, preparation of transverse magnetization only-using a linearly increasing flip angle catalyzation-improved MOLLI T1 measurement accuracy, precision, and map quality versus methods that include catalyzation of the longitudinal magnetization. The 5b(3b)3b MOLLI scheme offered comparable native T1 measurement accuracy and precision to conventional MOLLI, despite its shortened acquisition. MOLLI T1 measurement accuracy, precision, and map quality depend on the method of catalyzation of magnetization prior to image acquisition, as well as on the readout method and MOLLI sampling scheme used. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Nickel-Catalyzed Site-Selective C-H Bond Difluoroalkylation of 8-Aminoquinolines on the C5-Position. (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Li, Pinhua; Wang, Min; Wang, Lei


    A simple and efficient protocol for nickel-catalyzed regioselective C-H bond difluoroalkylation of 8-aminoquinoline scaffolds with functionalized difluoromethyl bromides was developed. The reaction has broad substrate scope and provides a facile and useful access to the corresponding C5-functionalized difluoromethylated quinolines in good to excellent yields.

  3. Soybean oil methanolysis over scallop shell-derived CaO prepared via methanol-assisted dry nano-grinding


    Panjaitan, Frisda R.; Yamanaka, Shinya; Kuga, Yoshikazu


    Calcium oxides with a specific surface area between 4.5 m2g-1 and 62.5 m2g-1 were obtained by calcination of scallop shells, following by methanol-assisted dry nano-grinding. Three distinct phases are formed on the surface of these catalysts during nano-grinding: calcium methoxide, calcium hydroxide, and calcium oxide. The effects of specific surface area and active surface phase composition on the catalytic activity of calcium oxide during methanolysis of soybean oil were investigated. The p...

  4. Palladium-Catalyzed C8-Selective C-H Arylation of Quinoline N-Oxides: Insights into the Electronic, Steric and Solvation Effects on the Site-Selectivity by Mechanistic and DFT Computational Studies. (United States)

    Stephens, David E; Lakey-Beitia, Johant; Atesin, Abdurrahman C; Ateşin, Tülay A; Chavez, Gabriel; Arman, Hadi D; Larionov, Oleg V


    We report herein a palladium-catalyzed C-H arylation of quinoline N-oxides that proceeds with high selectivity in favor of the C8-isomer. This site-selectivity is unusual for palladium, since all of the hitherto described methods of palladium-catalyzed C-H functionalization of quinoline N-oxides are highly C2-selective. The reaction exhibits a broad synthetic scope with respect to quinoline N-oxides and iodoarenes and can be significantly accelerated to sub-hour reaction times under microwave irradiation. The C8-arylation method can be carried out on gram scale and has excellent functional group tolerance. Mechanistic and Density Functional Theory (DFT) computational studies provide evidence for the cyclopalladation pathway and describe key parameters influencing the site-selectivity.

  5. Carboxylate Anions Accelerate Pyrrolidinopyridine (PPy)-Catalyzed Acylation: Catalytic Site-Selective Acylation of a Carbohydrate by in Situ Counteranion Exchange. (United States)

    Yanagi, Masanori; Imayoshi, Ayumi; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Furuta, Takumi; Kawabata, Takeo


    Acylpyridinium ions have been known as catalytically active species in acylation reactions catalyzed by 4-dimethylaminopyridine and its analogues. Acylpyridinium carboxylates were found to be 800-1300 times more reactive than the corresponding acylpyridinium chlorides. A catalytic cycle was developed, in which acylpyridinium carboxylates were generated by in situ counteranion exchange from the acylpyridinium chlorides. A catalyst loading as low as 0.01 mol % and catalyst turnover number of up to 6700 were achieved for site-selective acylation of a carbohydrate.

  6. Comparative study of the methanolysis and ethanolysis of Maize oil using alkaline catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid, U.


    Full Text Available With an increasing population and economic development, fuel from renewable resources needs to be widely explored in order to fulfill the future energy demand. In the present study, biodiesel from maize oil using transesterification reactions with methanol and ethanol was evaluated in the presence of NaOCH3, KOCH3, NaOCH2CH3, KOCH2CH3, NaOH and KOH as catalysts. The influence of reaction variables such as the alcohol to oil molar ratio (3:1-15:1, catalyst concentration (0.25-1.50% and reaction time (20-120 min to achieve the maximum yield was determined at fixed reaction temperatures. The optimized variables in the case of methanolysis were 6:1 methanol to oil molar ratio (mol/ mol, 0.75% sodium methoxide concentration (wt% and 90 min reaction time at 65°C, which produced a yield of 97.1% methyl esters. A 9:1 ethanol to oil molar ratio (mol/mol, 1.00% sodium ethoxide concentration (wt% and 120 min reaction time at 75°C were found to produce the maximum ethyl ester yield of up to 85%. The methanolysis of maize oil was depicted more rapidly as compared to the ethanolysis of maize oil. Gas chromatography of the produced biodiesel from maize oil showed high levels of linoleic acid (up to 50.89% followed by oleic acid (up to 36.00%, palmitic acid (up to 9.98%, oleic acid (up to 1.80% and linolenic acid (up to 0.98%. The obtained fatty acid esters were further analyzed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR to ensure the completion of transesterification. The fuel properties of the produced biodiesels i.e. kinematic viscosity, cetane number, oxidative stability, pour point, cloud point, cold filter plugging point, ash content, flash point, acid value, sulfur content, higher heating value, density, methanol content, free glycerol and bound glycerol were determined. The analyses were performed using the FTIR method and the results were compared to the biodiesel

  7. Study on membrane reactors for biodiesel production by phase behaviors of canola oil methanolysis in batch reactors. (United States)

    Cheng, Li-Hua; Yen, Shih-Yang; Su, Li-Sheng; Chen, Junghui


    In comparison with the general stirring batch reactor, the membrane reactor has been reported to have higher molar ratios of methanol to oil but ultralow catalyst concentration in the biodiesel production. In this research, the methanolysis of canola oil is conducted in a stirring batch reactor in the presence of NaOH as a catalyst. Based on the investigation of the effects of operating conditions, including methanol to oil molar ration, catalyst concentrations and temperatures, the time course of the reaction path for the reactant composition in the ternary phase diagram of oil-FAME-MeOH offers an effective way to understand the operation of membrane reactors in the biodiesel production. The results show that increasing the residence time of the whole reactant system within the two-phase zone is good for the separation operation through the membranes. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Propane Dehydrogenation Catalyzed by ZSM-5 Zeolites. A Mechanistic Study Based on the Selective Energy Transfer (SET Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragnar Larsson


    Full Text Available Experimentally determined activation energies of propane dehydrogenation catalyzed by ZSM-5 zeolites have been used to test the SET theory. The basis of this theory is that the catalyst system transfers vibrational energy via a resonance process to a specific vibration mode of the reacting molecule. Being excited up to a certain number of vibrational quanta the molecule is brought to reaction. By analyzing the above-mentioned activation energies we found the wave number of this “specific mode” to be 1065 cm−1. This is very close to the rocking vibration of propane (1053 cm−1. We suggest that the propane molecule reacts when excited so that the CH3 group has been forced towards a flat structure with a carbon atom hybridization that is more sp2 than sp3. Consequently there is no way for three H-atoms to bind to the carbon and one of them must leave. This is the starting point of the reaction. The isokinetic temperature of the system was found as Tiso = 727 ± 4 K. From the SET formula for Tiso when both energy-donating (ω and energy-accepting (ν vibrations have the same frequency, viz., Tiso = Nhcν/2R, we obtain ν = ω = 1011 ± 6 cm−1. This agrees rather well with the CH3 rocking mode (1053 cm−1 and also with asymmetric “TO4” stretching vibrations of the zeolite structure (ω.

  9. Propane dehydrogenation catalyzed by ZSM-5 zeolites. A mechanistic study based on the selective energy transfer (SET) theory. (United States)

    Larsson, Ragnar


    Experimentally determined activation energies of propane dehydrogenation catalyzed by ZSM-5 zeolites have been used to test the SET theory. The basis of this theory is that the catalyst system transfers vibrational energy via a resonance process to a specific vibration mode of the reacting molecule. Being excited up to a certain number of vibrational quanta the molecule is brought to reaction. By analyzing the above-mentioned activation energies we found the wave number of this "specific mode" to be 1065 cm-1. This is very close to the rocking vibration of propane (1053 cm-1). We suggest that the propane molecule reacts when excited so that the CH3 group has been forced towards a flat structure with a carbon atom hybridization that is more sp2 than sp3. Consequently there is no way for three H-atoms to bind to the carbon and one of them must leave. This is the starting point of the reaction. The isokinetic temperature of the system was found as Tiso = 727 ± 4 K. From the SET formula for Tiso when both energy-donating (ω) and energy-accepting (ν) vibrations have the same frequency, viz., Tiso = Nhcν/2R, we obtain ν = ω = 1011 ± 6 cm-1. This agrees rather well with the CH3 rocking mode (1053 cm-1) and also with asymmetric "TO4" stretching vibrations of the zeolite structure (ω).

  10. Enantioselective Rhodium-Catalyzed [2+2+2] Cycloadditions of Terminal Alkynes and Alkenyl Isocyanates: Mechanistic Insights Lead to a Unified Model that Rationalizes Product Selectivity (United States)

    Dalton, Derek M.; Oberg, Kevin M.; Yu, Robert T.; Lee, Ernest E.; Perreault, Stéphane; Oinen, Mark Emil; Pease, Melissa L.; Malik, Guillaume; Rovis, Tomislav


    This manuscript describes the development and scope of the asymmetric rhodium-catalyzed [2+2+2] cycloaddition of terminal alkynes and alkenyl isocyanates leading to the formation of indolizidine and quinolizidine scaffolds. The use of phosphoramidite ligands proved crucial for avoiding competitive terminal alkyne dimerization. Both aliphatic and aromatic terminal alkynes participate well, with product selectivity a function of both the steric and electronic character of the alkyne. Manipulation of the phosphoramidite ligand leads to tuning of enantio- and product selectivity, with a complete turnover in product selectivity seen with aliphatic alkynes when moving from Taddol-based to biphenol-based phosphoramidites. Terminal and 1,1-disubstituted olefins are tolerated with nearly equal efficacy. Examination of a series of competition experiments in combination with analysis of reaction outcome shed considerable light on the operative catalytic cycle. Through a detailed study of a series of X-ray structures of rhodium(cod)chloride/phosphoramidite complexes, we have formulated a mechanistic hypothesis that rationalizes the observed product selectivity. PMID:19817441

  11. Recent Advances in the Selective Oxidation of Alkyl C-H Bonds Catalyzed by Iron Coordination Complexes. (United States)

    Canta, Mercè; Rodríguez, Mònica; Costas, Miquel


    Selective and stereoretentive oxidation of alkyl C-H bonds has been described over the last decade by employing biologically inspired iron coordination complexes as catalysts and hydrogen peroxide as oxidant. Examples of catalyst dependent C-H site selectivity have started to appear. The current paper describes an account of these findings.

  12. In tandem or alone: a remarkably selective transfer hydrogenation of alkenes catalyzed by ruthenium olefin metathesis catalysts. (United States)

    Zieliński, Grzegorz Krzysztof; Samojłowicz, Cezary; Wdowik, Tomasz; Grela, Karol


    A system for transfer hydrogenation of alkenes, composed of a ruthenium metathesis catalyst and HCOOH, is presented. This operationally simple system can be formed directly after a metathesis reaction to effect hydrogenation of the metathesis product in a single-pot. These hydrogenation conditions are applicable to a wide range of alkenes and offer remarkable selectivity.

  13. Solvent-Free Selective Oxidation of Toluene with O2 Catalyzed by Metal Cation Modified LDHs and Mixed Oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Wang


    Full Text Available A series of metal cation modified layered-double hydroxides (LDHs and mixed oxides were prepared and used to be the selective oxidation of toluene with O2. The results revealed that the modified LDHs exhibited much higher catalytic performance than their parent LDH and the modified mixed oxides. Moreover, the metal cations were also found to play important roles in the catalytic performance and stabilities of modified catalysts. Under the optimal reaction conditions, the highest toluene conversion reached 8.7% with 97.5% of the selectivity to benzyldehyde; moreover, the catalytic performance remained after nine catalytic runs. In addition, the reaction probably involved a free-radical mechanism.

  14. Sulfoxidation mechanisms catalyzed by cytochrome P450 and horseradish peroxidase models: spin selection induced by the ligand. (United States)

    Kumar, Devesh; de Visser, Sam P; Sharma, Pankaz K; Hirao, Hajime; Shaik, Sason


    The sulfoxidation of dimethyl sulfide (DMS), by two different heme-type enzyme models (without the protein), namely, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and cytochrome P450 (P450), was studied using density functional theory. The models differ from each other by the axial ligand of the iron, which is imidazole in the case of HRP and thiolate in the case of P450. The computational results reveal a concerted oxygen atom transfer to sulfur, with spin-state selection dependent upon the identity of the proximal ligand. In the case of thiolate, the mechanism prefers the high-spin quartet pathway; whereas in the case of imidazole, the mechanism involves two-state reactivity (TSR), with competing quartet and doublet spin states. Furthermore, with thiolate the high-spin transition state, (4)TS(P450), has an upright conformation with a large Fe-O-S(DMS) angle of 147 degrees , whereas the low-spin species, (2)TS(P450), has a small angle and its Fe-O moiety makes an O-N(Por) bond with one of the nitrogen atoms of the porphine macrocycle. By contrast, when the proximal ligand is imidazole, both transition states possess a bent Fe-O bond and an O-N(Por) bond. These spin-state selection patterns obey simple orbital-selection rules, which are manifestations of the electronic nature of the ligand, i.e., the electron-releasing effect of the thiolate vis-a-vis the electron-withdrawal effect of imidazole. Other possible reactivity expressions of the spin-selection patterns are discussed [Dowers, T. S., Rock, D. A., Rock, D. A., Jones, J. P. (2004) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 8868-8869]. Theory shows that intrinsically, HRP should be as reactive as P450 toward sulfoxidation.

  15. Selective oxidation of sulfides to sulfoxides using 30% hydrogen peroxide catalyzed with a recoverable silica-based tungstate interphase catalyst. (United States)

    Karimi, Babak; Ghoreishi-Nezhad, Maryam; Clark, James H


    Various types of aromatic and aliphatic sulfides are selectively oxidized to sulfoxides and sulfones in good to excellent yields using 30% H2O2 in the presence of catalytic amounts of a novel recoverable silica-based tungstate interphase catalyst at room temperature. The catalyst can be recovered and reused for at least eight reaction cycles under the described reaction conditions without considerable loss of reactivity. [reaction: see text

  16. Selective hydrogenation of 2-methyl-3-butyn-2-ol catalyzed by embedded polymer-protected PdZn nanoparticles (United States)

    Okhlopkova, Lyudmila B.; Matus, Ekaterina V.; Prosvirin, Igor P.; Kerzhentsev, Michail A.; Ismagilov, Zinfer R.


    PdZn/TiO2 catalysts were synthesized by sol-gel method using a template Pluronic F127. PdZn nanoparticles with the size ranging from 1.7 to 2 nm were prepared by ethylene glycol reduction of ZnCl2 and Pd(CH3COO)2 in the presence of stabilizer and introduced into the matrix by addition into TiO2 sol, followed by different activation procedures. The structure, particles size, and chemical composition of nanoparticles and catalysts were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The prepared catalysts have been tested in the selective hydrogenation of 2-methyl-3-butyn-2-ol, and the results have been compared with catalysts prepared by conventional impregnation. The results indicate that bimetallic PdZn nanoparticles-based catalysts show higher selectivity than corresponding monometallic Pd/TiO2. Embedded on titania, bimetallic nanoparticles stabilized with polyvinylpyrrolidone exhibit good activity (1.1-1.8 mol MBY/mol Pd/s-1) and high selectivity to 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (81.5-88.9 % at 95 % conversion). The influence of the nature of the stabilizer, the stabilizer/metal molar ratio, and activation conditions on the catalytic behavior of the samples was analyzed. It is shown that the particle size does not significantly affect the catalytic properties in the range of 4.4-6.5 nm. The nature and amount of stabilizer seem to be crucial to prepare efficient catalyst.

  17. Negative Ion Mode Electrospray Tandem Mass Spectrometry of Hydroxy-Terminated Polydimethylsiloxanes Formed upon in situ Methanolysis. (United States)

    Fouquet, Thierry; Charles, Laurence; Sato, Hiroaki


    Ethoxy-, methoxy- and hydroxy-terminated polydimethylsiloxanes (PDMS) are formed as the result of the methanolysis of diethoxy-ended PDMS during its infusion in electrospray ionization. The negative ion mode permits only hydroxy-ended products to be detected, and isomeric interference is avoided in single stage and tandem mass spectrometry. The routes for the fragmentation of (ethyl, hydroxy)-, (methyl, hydroxy)- and (hydro, hydroxy)-ended PDMS upon collision activated dissociation (CAD) were explored in the negative ion mode using either formate or acetate anion adduction. Symmetrical (hydro, hydroxy)-ended PDMS decomposed to product ions carrying one of the hydroxy terminations through the abstraction of an acidic hydrogen and depolymerization (expulsion of cyclic neutral species) regardless of the adducted anion. Asymmetric (ethyl, hydroxy)-ended (resp. (methyl, hydroxy)-ended) PDMS yielded both ethoxy-ended (resp. methoxy-ended) fragment ions through the abstraction of the only acidic hydrogens and linear product ions carrying both terminations still interacted with the anion. The production of information-rich ethoxy-ended (resp. methoxy-ended) fragment ions was limited by formate but favored when acetate (higher proton affinity) was used in a CAD fingerprint complementary to the positive ion mode.

  18. Comonomer-induced stereo-selectivity enhancement in a c2 -symmetric metallocene-catalyzed propylene polymerization. (United States)

    Ma, Lin; Dong, Jin-Yong


    Propylene polymerization is carried out with a C 2 -symmetric metallocene catalyst of rac-Et(Ind)2 ZrCl2 /MAO at 40 °C in the presence of a cyclo-triene of trans,trans,cis-1,5,9-cyclododecatriene ((E,E,Z)-CDT). Comonomer incorporations are rather low (propylene -isotacticity (>7% in [mmmm]). (E,E,Z)-CDT is speculated to coordinate to the metal center forming comonomer-complexed active sites in charge of the entire polymerization reaction with decreased activity however increased propylene -enantiomorphic selectivity. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Selective liquid-phase oxidation of alcohols catalyzed by a silver-based catalyst promoted by the presence of ceria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Matthias Josef; Hansen, Thomas Willum; Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk


    A number of silver catalysts supported on SiO2, Al2O3, Celite, CeO2, kaolin, MgO, and activated carbon were screened for their catalytic activity in the selective liquid-phase oxidation of benzyl alcohol using a special screening approach. For this purpose 5–6 catalyst samples were mixed and tested...... by in situ XAS experiments. Oxygen species incorporated in the silver lattice appear to be important for the catalytic oxidation of the alcohol for which a preliminary mechanism is presented. The application of the catalyst was extended to the oxidation of a wide range of primary and secondary alcohols...

  20. Selective Oxidation of Glycerol with 3% H2O2 Catalyzed by LDH-Hosted Cr(III Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gongde Wu


    Full Text Available A series of layered double hydroxides (LDHs –hosted sulphonato-salen Cr(III complexes were prepared and characterized by various physico-chemical measurements, such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscope (TEM, scanning electron microscope (SEM and elemental analysis. Additionally, their catalytic performances were investigated in the selective oxidation of glycerol (GLY using 3% H2O2 as an oxidant. It was found that all the LDH-hosted Cr(III complexes exhibited significantly enhanced catalytic performance compared to the homogeneous Cr(III complex. Additionally, it was worth mentioning that the metal composition of LDH plates played an important role in the catalytic performances of LDH-hosted Cr(III complex catalysts. Under the optimal reaction conditions, the highest GLY conversion reached 85.5% with 59.3% of the selectivity to 1,3-dihydroxyacetone (DHA. In addition, the catalytic activity remained after being recycled five times.

  1. Identification of Active Phase for Selective Oxidation of Benzyl Alcohol with Molecular Oxygen Catalyzed by Copper-Manganese Oxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roushown Ali


    Full Text Available Catalytic activity of copper-manganese mixed oxide nanoparticles (Cu/Mn = 1 : 2 prepared by coprecipitation method has been studied for selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol using molecular oxygen as an oxidizing agent. The copper-manganese (CuMn2 oxide catalyst exhibited high specific activity of 15.04 mmolg−1 h−1 in oxidation of benzyl alcohol in toluene as solvent. A 100% conversion of the benzyl alcohol was achieved with >99% selectivity to benzaldehyde within a short reaction period at 102°C. It was found that the catalytic performance is dependent on calcination temperature, and best activity was obtained for the catalyst calcined at 300°C. The high catalytic performance of the catalyst can be attributed to the formation of active MnO2 phase or absence of less active Mn2O3 phase in the mixed CuMn2 oxide. The catalyst has been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Brunauer Emmett-Teller (BET surface area measurement, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopies.

  2. Greener Selective Cycloalkane Oxidations with Hydrogen Peroxide Catalyzed by Copper-5-(4-pyridyltetrazolate Metal-Organic Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luísa Martins


    Full Text Available Microwave assisted synthesis of the Cu(I compound [Cu(µ4-4-ptz]n [1, 4-ptz = 5-(4-pyridyltetrazolate] has been performed by employing a relatively easy method and within a shorter period of time compared to its sister compounds. The syntheses of the Cu(II compounds [Cu3(µ3-4-ptz4(µ2-N32(DMF2]n∙(DMF2n (2 and [Cu(µ2-4-ptz2(H2O2]n (3 using a similar method were reported previously by us. MOFs 1-3 revealed high catalytic activity toward oxidation of cyclic alkanes (cyclopentane, -hexane and -octane with aqueous hydrogen peroxide, under very mild conditions (at room temperature, without any added solvent or additive. The most efficient system (2/H2O2 showed, for the oxidation of cyclohexane, a turnover number (TON of 396 (TOF of 40 h−1, with an overall product yield (cyclohexanol and cyclohexanone of 40% relative to the substrate. Moreover, the heterogeneous catalytic systems 1–3 allowed an easy catalyst recovery and reuse, at least for four consecutive cycles, maintaining ca. 90% of the initial high activity and concomitant high selectivity.

  3. Selective dehydration of bio-ethanol to ethylene catalyzed by lanthanum-phosphorous-modified HZSM-5: influence of the fusel. (United States)

    Hu, Yaochi; Zhan, Nina; Dou, Chang; Huang, He; Han, Yuwang; Yu, Dinghua; Hu, Yi


    Bio-ethanol dehydration to ethylene is an attractive alternative to oil-based ethylene. The influence of fusel, main byproducts in the fermentation process of bio-ethanol production, on the bio-ethanol dehydration should not be ignored. We studied the catalytic dehydration of bio-ethanol to ethylene over parent and modified HZSM-5 at 250°C, with weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) equal to 2.0/h. The influences of a series of fusel, such as isopropanol, isobutanol and isopentanol, on the ethanol dehydration over the catalysts were investigated. The 0.5%La-2%PHZSM-5 catalyst exhibited higher ethanol conversion (100%), ethylene selectivity (99%), and especially enhanced stability (more than 70 h) than the parent and other modified HZSM-5. We demonstrated that the introduction of lanthanum and phosphorous to HZSM-5 could weaken the negative influence of fusel on the formation of ethylene. The physicochemical properties of the catalysts were characterized by ammonia temperature-programmed desorption (NH(3)-TPD), nitrogen adsorption and thermogravimetry (TG)/differential thermogravimetry (DTG)/differential thermal analysis (DTA) (TG/DTG/DTA) techniques. The results indicated that the introduction of lanthanum and phosphorous to HZSM-5 could inhibit the formation of coking during the ethanol dehydration to ethylene in the presence of fusel. The development of an efficient catalyst is one of the key technologies for the industrialization of bio-ethylene.

  4. Translesion synthesis past guanine(C8)-thymine(N3) intrastrand cross-links catalyzed by selected A- and Y-family polymerases. (United States)

    Lee, Young-Ae; Lee, Yuan-Cho; Geacintov, Nicholas E; Shafirovich, Vladimir


    Oxidatively generated guanine radicals in DNA can undergo various nucleophilic reactions including the formation of C8-guanine cross-links with adjacent or nearby N3-thymines in DNA in the presence of O2. These G[8-3]T lesions have been identified in the DNA of human cells exposed to oxidative stress, and are most likely genotoxic if not removed by cellular defence mechanisms. The abilities of several representative polymerases to bypass the G[8-3]T lesions in two different sequence contexts, G*T* and G*CT*, were assessed in vitro. The polymerase BF (bacillus fragment) from Bacillus stearothermophilus, the Y-family archaeal polymerases Dpo4 from Sulfolobus sulfataricus P2, and human DNA pol κ and pol η were selected for the study. The A-family polymerase BF was strongly blocked, while relatively weak translesion synthesis was observed in the case of Y-family polymerases Dpo4 and pol κ. Primer extension catalyzed by pol η was also partially stalled at various positions at or near the G[8-3]T cross-linked bases, but a significant and distributive primer extension was observed beyond the sites of the lesions with the efficiency being consistently greater in the case of G*CT* than in the case of G*T* lesions. The results obtained with pol η are compared with translesion synthesis past other intrastrand cross-linked lesions with previously published results of others that include the isomeric G[8-5m]T lesions generated by ionizing radiation, the cis-syn cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer and the 6-4 photoproduct generated by UV irradiation, and the Pt-G*G* lesions derived from the reactions of the chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin with DNA.

  5. Copper-catalyzed decarboxylative C-P cross-coupling of alkynyl acids with H-phosphine oxides: a facile and selective synthesis of (E)-1-alkenylphosphine oxides. (United States)

    Hu, Gaobo; Gao, Yuxing; Zhao, Yufen


    A novel and efficient copper-catalyzed decarboxylative cross-coupling of alkynyl acids for the stereoselective synthesis of E-alkenylphosphine oxides has been developed. In the presence of 10 mol % of CuCl without added ligand, base, and additive, various alkynyl acids reacted with H-phosphine oxides to afford E-alkenylphosphine oxides with operational simplicity, broad substrate scope, and the stereoselectivity for E-isomers.

  6. Biodiesel production from Nannochloropsis gaditana lipids through transesterification catalyzed by Rhizopus oryzae lipase. (United States)

    Navarro López, Elvira; Robles Medina, Alfonso; González Moreno, Pedro Antonio; Esteban Cerdán, Luis; Martín Valverde, Lorena; Molina Grima, Emilio


    Biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters, FAMEs) was produced from saponifiable lipids (SLs) extracted from wet Nannochloropsis gaditana biomass using methanolysis catalyzed by Rhizopus oryzae intracellular lipase. SLs were firstly extracted with ethanol to obtain 31 wt% pure SLs. But this low SL purity also gave a low biodiesel conversion (58%). This conversion increased up to 80% using SLs purified by crystallization in acetone (95 wt% purity). Polar lipids play an important role in decreasing the reaction velocity - using SLs extracted with hexane, which have lower polar lipid content (37.4% versus 49.0% using ethanol), we obtained higher reaction velocities and less FAME conversion decrease when the same lipase batch was reused. 83% of SLs were transformed to biodiesel using a 70 wt% lipase/SL ratio, 11:1 methanol/SL molar ratio, 10 mL t-butanol/g SLs after 72 h. The FAME conversion decreased to 71% after catalyzing three reactions with the same lipase batch. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Catalyzing RE Project Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Kate; Elgqvist, Emma; Walker, Andy; Cutler, Dylan; Olis, Dan; DiOrio, Nick; Simpkins, Travis


    This poster details how screenings done with REopt - NREL's software modeling platform for energy systems integration and optimization - are helping to catalyze the development of hundreds of megawatts of renewable energy.

  8. Transition-metal catalyzed synthesis of Ketoprofen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramminger Carolina


    Full Text Available Transition metal-catalyzed reactions including carbonylations, hydrovinylations and hydrogenations have been applied in the synthesis of alpha-(3-benzoylphenylpropanoic acid (Ketoprofen. 3-Vinylbenzophenone was obtained from 3-bromobenzophenone by a Pd-catalyzed Heck coupling reaction. Pd-catalyzed carbonylation of this olefin gave the isopropyl alpha-(3-benzoylphenyl propionate in high yield (95% and with high regioselectivity (>99.5%. Ketoprofen was obtained in 90% yield by hydrolysis of the isopropyl ester. It was also obtained in two steps from 3-vinylbenzophenone by a Ni-catalyzed hydrovinylation selectively affording 3-(3'-benzoylphenyl-1-butene, followed by an oxidation. 3-Ethynylbenzophenone was obtained from 3-bromobenzophenone by Pd-catalyzed coupling reaction. By means of a Pd-catalyzed carbonylation, this alkyne was converted regioselectively (97% into methyl alpha-(3-benzoylphenyl acrylate (93% yield. Hydrolysis of the ester afforded the alpha-(3-benzoylphenylacrylic acid. Asymmetric hydrogenation of this acid to give (S-ketoprofen in 95% optical yield was achieved using a chiral Ru-(S-BINAP catalyst.

  9. CYP94A1, a plant cytochrome P450-catalyzing fatty acid omega-hydroxylase, is selectively induced by chemical stress in Vicia sativa seedlings. (United States)

    Benveniste, Irène; Bronner, Roberte; Wang, Yong; Compagnon, Vincent; Michler, Pierre; Schreiber, Lukas; Salaün, Jean-Pierre; Durst, Francis; Pinot, Franck


    CYP94A1 is a cytochrome P450 (P450) catalyzing fatty acid (FA) omega-hydroxylation in Vicia sativa seedlings. To study the physiological role of this FA monooxygenase, we report here on its regulation at the transcriptional level (Northern blot). Transcripts of CYP94A1, as those of two other P450-dependent FA hydroxylases (CYP94A2 and CYP94A3) from V. sativa, are barely detectable during the early development of the seedlings. CYP94A1 transcripts, in contrast to those of the two other isoforms, are rapidly (less than 20 min) and strongly (more than 100 times) enhanced after treatment by clofibrate, an hypolipidemic drug in animals and an antiauxin (p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid) in plants, by auxins (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and indole-3-acetic acid), by an inactive auxin analog (2,3-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), and also by salicylic acid. All these compounds activate CYP94A1 transcription only at high concentrations (50-500 microM range). In parallel, these high levels of clofibrate and auxins modify seedling growth and development. Therefore, the expression of CYP94A1 under these conditions and the concomitant morphological and cytological modifications would suggest the implication of this P450 in a process of plant defense against chemical injury.

  10. Selective Oxidation of Glycerol to Glyceric Acid in Base-Free Aqueous Solution at Room Temperature Catalyzed by Platinum Supported on Carbon Activated with Potassium Hydroxide

    KAUST Repository

    Tan, Hua


    Pt supported on KOH-activated mesoporous carbon (K-AMC) was used to catalyze glycerol oxidation under base-free conditions at room temperature. To study the relationship between the carbon surface chemistry and the catalytic performance of the K-AMC-based Pt catalysts, different levels of surface oxygen functional groups (SOFGs) on the AMC supports were induced by thermal treatment at different temperatures under inert or H2 gas. A strong effect of the surface chemistry was observed on AMC-supported Pt catalysts for glycerol oxidation. The presence of carboxylic acid groups impedes the adsorption of glycerol, which leads to the reduction of catalytic activity, whereas the presence of high-desorption-temperature SOFGs, such as phenol, ether, and carbonyl/quinone groups, provide hydrophilicity to the carbon surface that improves the adsorption of glycerol molecules on Pt metal surface, which is beneficial for the catalytic activity. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Rhodium Catalyzed Decarbonylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia Suárez, Eduardo José; Kahr, Klara; Riisager, Anders


    Rhodium catalyzed decarbonylation has developed significantly over the last 50 years and resulted in a wide range of reported catalyst systems and reaction protocols. Besides experimental data, literature also includes mechanistic studies incorporating Hammett methods, analysis of kinetic isotope...... effects as well as computational studies of model systems, which give an indication of the scope of the process. In this chapter, fundamental applications of Rh-catalyzed decarbonylation reactions are surveyed and discussed, including cross-coupling reactions, tandem reactions, and alternative...

  12. Solvent selection and optimization of α-chymotrypsin-catalyzed synthesis of N-Ac-Phe-Tyr-NH2 using mixture design and response surface methodology. (United States)

    Hu, Shih-Hao; Kuo, Chia-Hung; Chang, Chieh-Ming J; Liu, Yung-Chuan; Chiang, Wen-Dee; Shieh, Chwen-Jen


    A peptide, N-Ac-Phe-Tyr-NH(2) , with angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor activity was synthesized by an α-chymotrypsin-catalyzed condensation reaction of N-acetyl phenylalanine ethyl ester (N-Ac-Phe-OEt) and tyrosinamide (Tyr-NH(2) ). Three kinds of solvents: a Tris-HCl buffer (80 mM, pH 9.0), dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), and acetonitrile were employed in this study. The optimum reaction solvent component was determined by simplex centroid mixture design. The synthesis efficiency was enhanced in an organic-aqueous solvent (Tris-HCl buffer: DMSO: acetonitrile = 2:1:1) in which 73.55% of the yield of N-Ac-Phe-Tyr-NH(2) could be achieved. Furthermore, the effect of reaction parameters on the yield was evaluated by response surface methodology (RSM) using a central composite rotatable design (CCRD). Based on a ridge max analysis, the optimum condition for this peptide synthesis included a reaction time of 7.4 min, a reaction temperature of 28.1°C, an enzyme activity of 98.9 U, and a substrate molar ratio (Phe:Tyr) of 1:2.8. The predicted and the actual (experimental) yields were 87.6 and 85.5%, respectively. The experimental design and RSM performed well in the optimization of synthesis of N-Ac-Phe-Tyr-NH(2) , so it is expected to be an effective method for obtaining a good yield of enzymatic peptide. © 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2012. Copyright © 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  13. Muon catalyzed fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, K. [Advanced Meson Science Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Nagamine, K. [Muon Science Laboratory, IMSS-KEK, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Matsuzaki, T. [Advanced Meson Science Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Kawamura, N. [Muon Science Laboratory, IMSS-KEK, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)


    The latest progress of muon catalyzed fusion study at the RIKEN-RAL muon facility (and partly at TRIUMF) is reported. The topics covered are magnetic field effect, muon transfer to {sup 3}He in solid D/T and ortho-para effect in dd{mu} formation.

  14. Extraction of microalgal lipids and the influence of polar lipids on biodiesel production by lipase-catalyzed transesterification. (United States)

    Navarro López, Elvira; Robles Medina, Alfonso; González Moreno, Pedro Antonio; Esteban Cerdán, Luis; Molina Grima, Emilio


    In order to obtain microalgal saponifiable lipids (SLs) fractions containing different polar lipid (glycolipids and phospholipids) contents, SLs were extracted from wet Nannochloropsis gaditana microalgal biomass using seven extraction systems, and the polar lipid contents of some fractions were reduced by low temperature acetone crystallization. We observed that the polar lipid content in the extracted lipids depended on the polarity of the first solvent used in the extraction system. Lipid fractions with polar lipid contents between 75.1% and 15.3% were obtained. Some of these fractions were transformed into fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs, biodiesel) by methanolysis, catalyzed by the lipases Novozym 435 and Rhizopus oryzae in tert-butanol medium. We observed that the reaction velocity was higher the lower the polar lipid content, and that the final FAME conversions achieved after using the same lipase batch to catalyze consecutive reactions decreased in relation to an increase in the polar lipid content. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of the Interunit Bonds of Lignin Oligomers Released by Acid-Catalyzed Selective Solvolysis of Cryptomeria japonica and Eucalyptus globulus Woods via Thioacidolysis and 2D-NMR. (United States)

    Saito, Kaori; Kaiho, Atsushi; Sakai, Ryo; Nishimura, Hiroshi; Okada, Hitomi; Watanabe, Takashi


    Acid-catalyzed degradation of lignin in toluene containing methanol selectively yields C6-C2 lignin monomers and releases lignin oligomers, a potential raw feedstock for epoxy resins. We herein characterize the structures of the lignin oligomers by focusing on the changes in the interunit linkage types during solvolysis. The oligomeric lignin products were analyzed via thioacidolysis and 2D-HSQC-NMR. The results show that lignin oligomers ranging from monomers to tetramers are released through considerable cleavage of the β-O-4 linkages. The lignin oligomers from Cryptomeria japonica (softwood) mainly comprise β-5, β-1, and tetrahydrofuran β-β linkages, whereas Eucalyptus globulus (hardwood) yields oligomers rich in β-1 and syringaresinol β-β linkages. Both wood samples exhibit selective release of β-β dimers and a relative decrease in 5-5 and 4-O-5 bonds during solvolysis. The method presented for the separation of lignin oligomers without β-O-4 linkages and with linkages unique to each wood species will be useful for the production of lignin-based materials.

  16. Biocatalytic methanolysis activities of cross-linked protein-coated microcrystalline lipase toward esterification/transesterification of relevant palm products. (United States)

    Raita, Marisa; Laosiripojana, Navadol; Champreda, Verawat


    Biocatalysis by immobilized lipase is an efficient alternative process for conversion of crude vegetable oil with high free fatty acid content to biodiesel, which is the limit of the conventional alkaline-catalyzed reaction. In this study, influences of solid-state organic and inorganic buffer core matrices with different pKa on catalytic performance of cross-linked protein coated microcrystalline biocatalysts prepared from Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase (CL-PCMC-LIP) toward esterification of palmitic acid (PA), transesterification of refined palm oil (RPO), and co-ester/transesterification of crude palm oil (CPO) to fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was studied. Glycine, CAPSO (3-(cyclohexylamino)-2-hydroxy-1-propanesulfonic acid), and TAPS ([(2-hydroxy-1,1-bis(hydroxymethyl)ethyl)amino]-1-propanesulfonic acid) were shown to be potent core matrices for these reactions. The optimal reaction contained 4:1 [methanol]/[fatty acid] molar equivalence ratio with 20% (w/w) CL-PCMC-LIP on glycine in the presence of tert-butanol as a co-solvent. Deactivation effect of glycerol on the biocatalyst reactive surface was shown by FTIR, which could be alleviated by increasing co-solvent content. The maximal FAME yields from PA, RPO, and CPO reached 97.6, 94.9, and 95.5%, respectively on a molar basis under the optimum conditions after incubation at 50°C for 6h. The biocatalyst retained >80% activity after recycling in five consecutive batches. The work demonstrates the potential of CL-PCMC-LIP on one-step conversion of inexpensive crude fatty acid-rich feedstock to biodiesel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. An efficient and highly selective ortho-tert-butylation of p-cresol with methyl tert-butyl ether catalyzed by sulfonated ionic liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alamdari Reza Fareghi


    Full Text Available A novel series of sulfonic acid-functionalized ionic liquids (SFILs was found to act as efficient catalysts for ortho-tert-butylation of p-cresol with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE as the tert-butylating agent without an added solvent. The mono o-tert-butylated product was obtained in up to 80.4% isolated yield and 95.2% selectivity under such green conditions. No O-tert-butylated byproducts were formed.

  18. Regio- and stereo-selective polymerization of 1,3-butadiene catalyzed by phosphorus–nitrogen PN3-pincer cobalt(ii) complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Gong, Dirong


    A new family of cobalt complexes (CoCl2-H, CoCl2-Me, CoCl2-iPr, CoBr2-H, CoBr2-Me, CoBr2-iPr, CoI2-H, CoI2-Me, and CoI2-iPr) supported by a PN3 ligand (6-(N,N′-di-t-butylphosphino)-2-pyrazol-yl-aminopyridine) have been prepared and fully characterized by FT-IR, elemental analysis, and X-ray analysis. The X-ray analysis reveals a trigonal bipyramidal conformation in the solid state for all representative complexes, CoCl2-H, CoBr2-H, CoBr2-iPr and CoI2-Me. The cobalt center is chelated by the PN3 ligand through the pyridinyl nitrogen, the pyrazol nitrogen and the phosphorus donor, with a long Co-P bond distance indicating a labile character. On activation with AlEt2Cl, Al2Et3Cl3, MAO, [Ph3C]+[B(C6F5)4]-/AliBu3 or AliBu3, cis-1,4 selective butadiene polymerization was achieved with up to 98.6% selectivity. The polymerization results show that the cis-1,4 selectivity is influenced by the steric hindrance, increasing with the bulkiness of the substituent groups (CoX2-iPr > CoX2-Me > CoX2-H) at the 3,5-positions of the pyrazole moiety, together with a slight decrease in activity. The activity changes in the order CoCl2L ≈ CoBr2L > CoI2L (for the same ligand L) when MAO is used as the activator, while the high level of cis-1,4 selectivity is maintained. It is possible to switch the selectivity from cis-1,4 to syndiotactic-1,2 by adding PPh3 © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  19. Catalyzing alignment processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Erik Hagelskjær; Jørgensen, Ulrik


    This paper describes how environmental management systems (EMS) spur the circulation of processes that support the constitution of environmental issues as specific environ¬mental objects and objectives. EMS catalyzes alignmentprocesses that produce coherence among the different elements involved...... time and in combination with other social processes establish more aligned and standardized environmental performance between countries. However, examples of the introduction of environmental management suggests that EMS’ only plays a minor role in developing the actual environmental objectives...

  20. Mechanochemical synthesis of CaO•ZnO.K2CO3 catalyst: Characterization and activity for methanolysis of sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesić Željka


    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to prepare CaO.ZnO catalyst which contain small amount of K2CO3 and analyze its activity for biodiesel synthesis. Catalyst was prepared using the following procedure: CaO and ZnO (molar ratio of 1:2, water and K2CO3 (in various amounts were mechanochemically treated and after milling heated at 700 oC in air atmosphere for obtaining mixed CaO•ZnO/xK2CO3 oxides (x = 0, 1, 2 and 4; mole of K2CO3 per 10 mole of CaO. All the samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, inductively coupled plasma (ICP, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS, particle size laser diffraction (PSLD distribution, solubility measurement of Ca, Zn and K ions in methanol as well as by determination of their alkalinity (Hammett indicator method. Prepared CaO•ZnO/xK2CO3 composite powders were tested as catalysts for methanolysis of sunflower oil at 70ºC using molar ratio of sunflower oil to methanol of 1:10 and with 2 mas% of catalyst based on oil weight. The presence of K2CO3 in prepared samples was found to increase the activity of catalyst, and that such effect is caused by homogeneous-heterogeneous catalysis of biodiesel synthesis. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 45001

  1. Substituted tridentate pyrazolyl ligands for chromium and nickel-catalyzed ethylene oligomerization reactions: effect of auxiliary ligand on activity and selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Lucilene L. de; Campedelli, Roberta R.; Bergamo, Adao L.; Santos, Ana H.D.P dos; Casagrande, Osvaldo L., E-mail: osvaldo.casagrande@ufrgs.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Lab. de Catalise Molecular


    Two new chromium(III) complexes [CrCl{sub 3}(L)] based on tridentate ligands (1a, L = bis[2-(3-phenyl-1-pyrazolyl)ethyl)]amine; 2a, L bis[2-(3-methyl-5-phenyl-l-pyrazolyl)ethyl]sulfide) have been prepared and characterized by elemental analysis. Upon activation with methylaluminoxane (MAO), these pre-catalysts showed high turnover frequencies for ethylene oligomerization under optimized conditions (TOFs = 22.9-36.4 x 103 mol C{sub 2}H{sub 4} (mol Cr{sup III}){sup -1} h{sup -1}, [Cr] = 10.0 mumol, 80 deg C, 20 bar ethylene, MAO: Cr = 300, oligomerization time = 20 min), producing alpha-olefins in the range C{sub 4}-C{sub 14+} with high selectively (67.71-73.47%). The catalytic performances are substantially affected by the ligand environment, especially the substituents at the 3- and 5-positions of the pyrazolyl rings. In parallel, the use of nickel complexes such as NiCl{sub 2}{l_brace}bis[2-(3,5-dimethyl-1-pyrazolyl)methyl]benzylamine{r_brace} (3) and NiCl{sub 2}{l_brace}bis[2-(3,5-dimethyl-1-pyrazolyl)ethyl)]ether{r_brace} (5) in oligomerization reactions carried out in the presence of triphenylphosphine (PPh{sub 3}) afforded highly active catalytic systems with turnover frequencies (TOFs) varying from 36.4 to 154.2 x 10{sup 3} mol C{sub 2}H{sub 4} (mol Ni{sup II}){sup -1} h{sup -1}. The presence of this auxiliary ligand has a strong impact on the selectivity towards the production of a-olefins, decreasing substantially the amount of 1-butene with a concomitant increase of the 2-butene fractions. Attempts to crystallize the nickel complex 3 afforded the tetrametallic [{l_brace} (L)(mu{sub 3}-Cl)NiCl{r_brace}{sub 4}] (4, L 1-anilinomethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazole) which was characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis. (author)

  2. The synthesis of mono- and diacetyl-9H-fluorenes. Reactivity and selectivity in the Lewis acid catalyzed Friedel-Crafts acetylation of 9H-fluorene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Titinchi, Salam J.J.; Kamounah, Fadhil S.; Abbo, Hanna S.


    Friedel-Crafts acetylation of 9H-fluorene is an effective route for the preparation of mono- and diacetyl-9H-fluorenes. Using acetylchloride as the reagent and aluminum chloride as the Lewis acid catalyst the effect of the solvent polarity, the temperature, the reaction time and the mode...... of addition (Perrier or Bouveault) on the reactivity-selectivity pattern was investigated. The results showed that monoacetylation of 9H-fluorene in chloroalkanes and nitromethane gives mixtures of 2-acetyl- and 4-acetyl-9H-fluorene with the former dominating. In addition to these two isomers, 2,7-diacetyl-9H......-fluorene was obtained in 5-11 % yield when carbon disulfide was used as the solvent. Acetylation of 9H-fluorene in dichloroethane and carbon disulfide, using an excess of acetyl chloride and aluminum chloride at reflux temperature, gives 2,7-diacetyl-9H-fluorene exclusively in high yields (> 97%). Attempts to carry out...

  3. The synthesis of mono- and diacetyl-9H-fluorenes. Reactivity and selectivity in the Lewis acid catalyzed Friedel-Crafts acetylation of 9H-fluorene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Titinchi, Salam J. J.; Kamounah, Fadhil S.; Abbo, Hanna S.


    Friedel-Crafts acetylation of 9H-fluorene is an effective route for the preparation of mono- and diacetyl-9H-fluorenes. Using acetylchloride as the reagent and aluminum chloride as the Lewis acid catalyst the effect of the solvent polarity, the temperature, the reaction time and the mode...... of addition (Perrier or Bouveault) on the reactivity-selectivity pattern was investigated. The results showed that monoacetylation of 9H-fluorene in chloroalkanes and nitromethane gives mixtures of 2-acetyl-9H-fluorene and 4-acetyl-9H-fluorene with the former dominating. In addition to these two isomers, 2......,7-diacetyl-9H-fluorene was obtained in 5-11 % yield when carbon disulfide was used as the solvent. Acetylation of 9H-fluorene in dichloroethane and carbon disulfide, using an excess of acetyl chloride and aluminum chloride at reflux temperature, gives 2,7-diacetyl-9H-fluorene exclusively in high yields (> 97...

  4. Selective Oxidation of Cyclohexene, Toluene and Ethyl Benzene Catalyzed by Bis-(L-tyrosinatocopper(II, Immersed in a Magnetite-Infused Silica Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massomeh Ghorbanloo


    Full Text Available Bis-(L-tyrosinatocopper(II was reacted with 3-(chloropropyl-trimethoxysilane functionalized silica that has infused magnetite to yield a magnetically separable catalyst in which the copper carboxylate is covalently linked to the silica matrix through the silane linkage. The immobilized catalyst has been characterized by spectroscopic studies (such as FT-IR, EPR, Magnetic Measurement, SEM and chemical analyses. The immobilized catalytic system functions as an efficient heterogeneous catalyst for oxidation of cyclohexene, toluene and ethyl benzene in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (as an oxidant and sodium bicarbonate (a co-catalyst. The reaction conditions have been optimized for solvent, temperature and amount of oxidant and catalyst. Comparison of the encapsulated catalyst with the corresponding homogeneous catalyst showed that the heterogeneous catalyst had higher activity and selectivity than the homogeneous catalyst. The immobilized catalyst could be readily recovered from the reaction mixture by using a simple magnet, and  reused up to five times without any loss of activity.

  5. Catalyzed Ceramic Burner Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Amy S., Dr.


    Catalyzed combustion offers the advantages of increased fuel efficiency, decreased emissions (both NOx and CO), and an expanded operating range. These performance improvements are related to the ability of the catalyst to stabilize a flame at or within the burner media and to combust fuel at much lower temperatures. This technology has a diverse set of applications in industrial and commercial heating, including boilers for the paper, food and chemical industries. However, wide spread adoption of catalyzed combustion has been limited by the high cost of precious metals needed for the catalyst materials. The primary objective of this project was the development of an innovative catalyzed burner media for commercial and small industrial boiler applications that drastically reduce the unit cost of the catalyzed media without sacrificing the benefits associated with catalyzed combustion. The scope of this program was to identify both the optimum substrate material as well as the best performing catalyst construction to meet or exceed industry standards for durability, cost, energy efficiency, and emissions. It was anticipated that commercial implementation of this technology would result in significant energy savings and reduced emissions. Based on demonstrated achievements, there is a potential to reduce NOx emissions by 40,000 TPY and natural gas consumption by 8.9 TBtu in industries that heavily utilize natural gas for process heating. These industries include food manufacturing, polymer processing, and pulp and paper manufacturing. Initial evaluation of commercial solutions and upcoming EPA regulations suggests that small to midsized boilers in industrial and commercial markets could possibly see the greatest benefit from this technology. While out of scope for the current program, an extension of this technology could also be applied to catalytic oxidation for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Considerable progress has been made over the course of the grant

  6. Heterogeneously-Catalyzed Conversion of Carbohydrates (United States)

    Vigier, Karine De Oliveira; Jérôme, François

    Polyfunctionality of carbohydrates and their low solubility in conventional organic solvents make rather complex their conversion to higher value added chemicals. Therefore, innovative processes are now strongly needed in order to increase the selectivity of these reactions. Here, we report an overview of the different heterogeneously-catalyzed processes described in the literature. In particular, hydrolysis, dehydration, oxidation, esterification, and etherification of carbohydrates are presented. We shall discuss the main structural parameters that need to be controlled and that permit the conversion of carbohydrates to bioproducts with good selectivity. The conversion of monosaccharides and disaccharides over solid catalysts, as well as recent advances in the heterogeneously-catalyzed conversion of cellulose, will be presented.

  7. Micro/milliflow processing with selective catalyst microwave heating in the Cu-catalyzed Ullmann etherification reaction: a μ(2)-process. (United States)

    Benaskar, Faysal; Patil, Narendra G; Rebrov, Evgeny V; Ben-Abdelmoumen, Alladin; Meuldijk, Jan; Hulshof, Lumbertus A; Hessel, Volker; Schouten, Jaap C


    A μ(2)-process in the Ullmann-type C-O coupling of potassium phenolate and 4-chloropyridine was successfully performed in a combined microwave (MW) and microflow process. Selective MW absorption in a micro-fixed-bed reactor (μ-FBR) by using a supported Cu nanocatalyst resulted in an increased activity compared to an oil-bath heated process. Yields of up to 80 % were attained by using a multisegmented μ-FBR without significant catalyst deactivation. The μ-FBR was packed with beads coated with Cu/TiO(2) and CuZn/TiO(2) catalysts. Temperature measurements along axial positions of the reactor were performed by using a fiber-optic probe in the catalyst bed. The simultaneous application of MW power and temperature sensors resulted in an isothermal reactor at 20 W. Initially, only solvent was used to adjust the MW field density in the cavity and optimize the power utility. Subsequently, the reaction mixture was added to ensure the maximum MW power transfer by adjusting the waveguide stub tuners to steady-state operations as a result of the changed reaction mixture composition and, therefore, the dielectric properties. Finally, the beneficial influence of the Cu/TiO(2)- and CuZn/TiO(2)-coated glass beads (200 μm) on the MW absorption as a result of the additional absorbing effect of the metallic Cu nanoparticles was optimized in a fine-tuning step. For the catalyst synthesis, various sol-gel, deposition, and impregnation methods provided Cu catalyst loadings of around 1 wt %. The addition of Zn to the Cu nanocatalyst revealed an increased catalyst activity owing to the presence of stable Cu(0). Multilaminar mixing was necessary because of the large difference in fluid viscosities. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first extended experimental survey of the decisive parameters to combine microprocess and single-mode MW technology following the concepts of "novel process windows" for organic syntheses. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGa

  8. Heterogeneously Catalyzed Oxidation Reactions Using Molecular Oxygen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Matthias Josef

    with a carboxylic acid resulting in TONs of up to 2000. In the absence of the carboxylic acid, ceria inhibited the reaction exhibiting radical scavenger properties. Contrary to p-xylene, neither ethylbenzene nor cumene conversion was promoted by ceria even in the presence of a carboxylic acid. Substantial leaching......Heterogeneously catalyzed selective oxidation reactions have attracted a lot of attention in recent time. The first part of the present thesis provides an overview over heterogeneous copper and silver catalysts for selective oxidations in the liquid phase and compared the performance and catalytic...... that both copper and silver can function as complementary catalyst materials to gold showing different catalytic properties and being more suitable for hydrocarbon oxidation reactions. Potential opportunities for future research were outlined. In an experimental study, the potential of silver as a catalyst...

  9. Iodine-Catalyzed Polysaccharide Esterification (United States)

    A review is provided of the recent reports to use iodine-catalyzed esterification reaction to produce esters from polysaccharides. The process entails reaction of the polysaccharide with an acid anhydride in the presence of a catalytic level of iodine, and in the absence of additional solvents. T...

  10. Manganese Catalyzed C–H Halogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wei; Groves, John T.


    The remarkable aliphatic C–H hydroxylations catalyzed by the heme-containing enzyme, cytochrome P450, have attracted sustained attention for more than four decades. The effectiveness of P450 enzymes as highly selective biocatalysts for a wide range of oxygenation reactions of complex substrates has driven chemists to develop synthetic metalloporphyrin model compounds that mimic P450 reactivity. Among various known metalloporphyrins, manganese derivatives have received considerable attention since they have been shown to be versatile and powerful mediators for alkane hydroxylation and olefin epoxidation. Mechanistic studies have shown that the key intermediates of the manganese porphyrin-catalyzed oxygenation reactions include oxo- and dioxomanganese(V) species that transfer an oxygen atom to the substrate through a hydrogen abstraction/oxygen recombination pathway known as the oxygen rebound mechanism. Application of manganese porphyrins has been largely restricted to catalysis of oxygenation reactions until recently, however, due to ultrafast oxygen transfer rates. In this Account, we discuss recently developed carbon–halogen bond formation, including fluorination reactions catalyzed by manganese porphyrins and related salen species. We found that biphasic sodium hypochlorite/manganese porphyrin systems can efficiently and selectively convert even unactivated aliphatic C–H bonds to C–Cl bonds. An understanding of this novel reactivity derived from results obtained for the oxidation of the mechanistically diagnostic substrate and radical clock, norcarane. Significantly, the oxygen rebound rate in Mn-mediated hydroxylation is highly correlated with the nature of the trans-axial ligands bound to the manganese center (L–MnV$=$O). Based on the ability of fluoride ion to decelerate the oxygen rebound step, we envisaged that a relatively long-lived substrate radical could be trapped by a Mn–F fluorine source, effecting carbon–fluorine bond

  11. Oxovanadium(v)-catalyzed oxidative biaryl synthesis from organoborate under O2. (United States)

    Mizuno, Hidenori; Sakurai, Hidehiro; Amaya, Toru; Hirao, Toshikazu


    Oxidative ligand coupling of organoborates was catalyzed by VO(OEt)Cl(2) under oxygen atmosphere, which provides a versatile method for the selective synthesis of symmetrical or unsymmetrical biaryls.

  12. [Thymidylate synthase-catalyzed reaction mechanism]. (United States)

    Rode, Wojciech; Jarmuńa, Adam


    Thymidylate synthase ThyA (EC;-encoded by the Tyms gene), having been for 60 years a molecular target in chemotherapy, catalyses the dUMP pyrimidine ring C(5) methylation reaction, encompassing a transfer of one-carbon group (the methylene one, thus at the formaldehyde oxidation level) from 6R-N5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate, coupled with a reduction of this group to the methyl one, with concomitant generation of 7,8-dihydrofolate and thymidylate. New facts are presented, concerning (i) molecular mechanism of the catalyzed reaction, including the substrate selectivity mechanism, (ii) mechanism of inhibition by a particular inhibitor, N4-hydroxy-dCMP, (iii) structural properties of the enzyme, (iv) cellular localization, (v) potential posttranslational modifications of the enzyme protein and their influence on the catalytic properties and (vi) non-catalytic activities of the enzyme.

  13. Thermodynamics of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions Database (United States)

    SRD 74 Thermodynamics of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions Database (Web, free access)   The Thermodynamics of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions Database contains thermodynamic data on enzyme-catalyzed reactions that have been recently published in the Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data (JPCRD). For each reaction the following information is provided: the reference for the data, the reaction studied, the name of the enzyme used and its Enzyme Commission number, the method of measurement, the data and an evaluation thereof.

  14. Polyoxometalate catalyzed ozonation of chemical pulps in organic solvent media


    Shatalov, Anatoly A.; Pereira, Helena


    Polyoxometalate (POM) catalyzed ozonation of chemical pulps in organic solvent media was found to be particularly effective and selective environmentally benign bleaching approach providing a way for substantial increase in pulp brightness, viscosity and degree of delignification in comparison with other ozone-based bleaching techniques. A series of tested low-boiling polar aprotic and protic organic solvents showed awell-defined capacity for ozonation improvement in the presence ...

  15. One-pot gold-catalyzed synthesis of 3-silylethynyl indoles from unprotected o-alkynylanilines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Waser


    Full Text Available The Au(III-catalyzed cyclization of 2-alkynylanilines was combined in a one-pot procedure with the Au(I-catalyzed C3-selective direct alkynylation of indoles using the benziodoxolone reagent TIPS-EBX to give a mild, easy and straightforward entry to 2-substituted-3-alkynylindoles. The reaction can be applied to unprotected anilines, was tolerant to functional groups and easy to carry out (RT, and requires neither an inert atmosphere nor special solvents.

  16. Controlled enzyme catalyzed heteropolysaccharide degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Louise Enggaard

    of the progress of enzymatic hydrolysis of different xylan substrates was developed. The method relies on dividing the HPSEC elution profiles into fixed time intervals and utilizing the linear refractive index response (area under the curve) of defined standard compounds. In order to obtain optimal high......-performance size exclusion chromatography profiles, the method was designed using 0.1 M CH3COONa in both the mobile phase and as the sample solution. This was based on the systematic evaluation of the influence of the mobile phase, including the type, ionic strength and pH, on the refractive index detector...... response. A time study of the enzyme catalyzed hydrolysis of birchwood xylan and wheat bran by BsX was used as an example to demonstrate the workability of the new HPSEC method for obtaining progress curves describing the evolution in the product profile during enzyme catalysis. Flaxseed mucilage (FM) has...

  17. Gold-catalyzed naphthalene functionalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Rivilla


    Full Text Available The complexes IPrMCl (IPr = 1,3-bis(diisopropylphenylimidazol-2-ylidene, M = Cu, 1a; M = Au, 1b, in the presence of one equiv of NaBAr'4 (Ar' = 3,5-bis(trifluoromethylphenyl, catalyze the transfer of carbene groups: C(RCO2Et (R = H, Me from N2C(RCO2Et to afford products that depend on the nature of the metal center. The copper-based catalyst yields exclusively a cycloheptatriene derivative from the Buchner reaction, whereas the gold analog affords a mixture of products derived either from the formal insertion of the carbene unit into the aromatic C–H bond or from its addition to a double bond. In addition, no byproducts derived from carbene coupling were observed.

  18. Can laccases catalyze bond cleavage in lignin?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Line; Sitarz, Anna Katarzyna; Kalyani, Dayanand


    these enzymes may help degrading lignin, using oxygen as the oxidant. Laccases can catalyze polymerization of lignin, but the question is whether and how laccases can directly catalyze modification of lignin via catalytic bond cleavage. Via a thorough review of the available literature and detailed...... illustrations of the putative laccase catalyzed reactions, including the possible reactions of the reactive radical intermediates taking place after the initial oxidation of the phenol-hydroxyl groups, we show that i) Laccase activity is able to catalyze bond cleavage in low molecular weight phenolic lignin...... model compounds; ii) For laccases to catalyze inter-unit bond cleavage in lignin substrates, the presence of a mediator system is required. Clearly, the higher the redox potential of the laccase enzyme, the broader the range of substrates, including o- and p-diphenols, aminophenols, methoxy...

  19. Copper-Catalyzed Inter/Intramolecular N-Alkenylation of Benzimidazoles via Tandem Processes Involving Selectively Mild Iodination of sp3 C-H Bond at α-Position of Ester. (United States)

    Lai, Ting-Ting; Xie, Dan; Zhou, Cheng-He; Cai, Gui-Xin


    Inter/intramolecular approaches to sp2 C-N bond formation of N-alkenyl benzimidazoles have been accomplished in the presence of an iodide anion associated with a copper catalyst. Both intermolecular and intramolecular reactions included tandem processes, in which selective iodination of sp3 C-H bond at the α-position of ester under mild conditions was demonstrated for the first time. Tandem reactions involving sp3 C-H activation via α-iodo ester intermediate under copper catalysis efficiently provided more than 20 novel azole compounds, and free radicals were not involved in this transformation.

  20. Study of selective oxidation of methane catalyzed by solid superacid in unique reaction field; Tokushu hannoba no kotai chokyosan wo mochiiru methane no sentaku sanka hanno ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misonoo, M.; Tatsumi, T.; Mizuno, T.; Inumaru, T. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)


    Selective oxidation of lower alkanes by use of heteropolymeric compounds is studied. Alkanes are activated on Cs2.5H0.5PW12O40 serving as catalyst, and their activity and selectivity improve when the catalyst is developed into a dual function catalyst in which Cs and Pt are combined. A success is reported of the synthesis of a heteropolymeric acid in which two molecules of the coordination element wolfram are replaced with a transition metal of the first period, on which acid the oxidation of cyclohexane is enhanced. Cs2.5Ni0.08H1.34PVMo11O40 as a metal/heteropolymeric acid dual function catalyst enables the direct oxidation (9% recovered at 340{degree}C) of isobutane into a methacrylic acid, which is attributed to the harmonious coordination of the oxidizing work of the catalyst and acidity. It is possible to oxidize propane into the acrylic acid, but not ethane into the acetic acid. In the case of Pd/Cs2.5H1.5PVMo11O40, the formic acid, methanol, etc., are produced upon addition of hydrogen to the system. This reaction in the hydrogen/oxygen system is supposed to take place via activated oxygen seeds as in the case of oxidation by hydrogen peroxide. 10 refs.

  1. Vanadium-catalyzed deoxydehydration of glycols. (United States)

    Chapman, Garry; Nicholas, Kenneth M


    A survey of several metavandate (VO3(-)) and chelated dioxovanadium derivatives shows that tetrabutylammonium dioxovanadium(V)dipicolinate most effectively catalyzes the deoxydehydration (DODH) of glycols to olefins in moderate to excellent yields with triphenylphosphine or sodium sulfite as reductants.

  2. Biodiesel production by enzyme-catalyzed transesterification


    Stamenković Olivera S.; Lazić Miodrag L.; Veljković Vlada B.; Skala Dejan U.


    The principles and kinetics of biodiesel production from vegetable oils using lipase-catalyzed transesterification are reviewed. The most important operating factors affecting the reaction and the yield of alkyl esters, such as: the type and form of lipase, the type of alcohol, the presence of organic solvents, the content of water in the oil, temperature and the presence of glycerol are discussed. In order to estimate the prospects of lipase-catalyzed transesterification for industrial appli...

  3. Conservation Kickstart- Catalyzing Conservation Initiatives Worldwide (United States)

    Treinish, G.


    Adventurers and Scientists for Conservation (ASC) is a nonprofit organization that collects environmental data to catalyze conservation initiatives worldwide. Adventure athletes have the skills and motivation to reach the most remote corners of the world. ASC utilizes those skills to provide the scientific community with data while providing the outdoor community with purpose beyond the personal high of reaching a summit or rowing across an ocean. We carefully select projects, choosing partnerships that will maximize the impact of ASC volunteers. Each project must have a clear path to a tangible conservation outcome and demonstrate a clear need for our brand of volunteers. We partner with government agencies, universities, and independant reseachers to kickstart data collection efforts around the world. Last year, through a partnership with the Olympic National Forest, 20 volunteers from the Seattle area set up and monitored camera traps in an effort to survey for costal Pacific marten. Our work led to the species' listing as "critically imperiled" with NatureServe. A partnership with the inaugural Great Pacific Race, engaging trans-Pacific rowing teams, searched for microplastics in the Pacific Ocean as part of our ongoing microplastics campaign. In a multi-year partnership with the American Prairie Reserve (APR), ASC volunteer crews live and work on the Reserve collecting wildlife data year round. The data we obtain directly informs the Reserve's wildlife management decisions. On this project, our crews have safely and effectively navigated temperature extremes from -30 degrees to 100+ degrees while traveling in a remote location. We are currently scouting projects in the Okavango Delta of Botswana and the rainforest of Suriname where we will be able to cover large amounts of area in a short periord of time. ASC is at the crossroads of the adventure and coservation science communities. Our approach of answering specific questions by using highly skilled and

  4. Promotion of selective pathways in isomerizing functionalization of plant oils by rigid framework substituents

    KAUST Repository

    Christl, Josefine T.


    The 1,2-(CH2P(1-adamantyl)2)2C6H4 (dadpx) coordinated palladium complex [(dadpx)Pd(OTf)2] (1) is a catalyst precursor for the isomerizing methoxycarbonylation of the internal double bond of methyl oleate, with an unprecedented selectivity (96%) for the linear diester 1,19-dimethyl nonadecanedioate. Rapid formation of the catalytically active solvent-coordinated hydride species [(dadpx)PdH(MeOH)]+ (3-MeOH) is evidenced by NMR spectroscopy, and further isolation and X-ray crystal structure analysis of [(dadpx)PdH(PPh3)]+ (3-PPh3). DFT calculations of key steps of the catalytic cycle unravel methanolysis as the decisive step for enhanced selectivity and the influence of the rigid adamantyl framework on this step by destabilization of transition states of unselective pathways.

  5. Palladium-catalyzed anti-Markovnikov oxidation of terminal alkenes. (United States)

    Dong, Jia Jia; Browne, Wesley R; Feringa, Ben L


    The palladium-catalyzed oxidation of alkenes, the Wacker-Tsuji reaction, is undoubtedly a classic in organic synthesis and provides reliable access to methyl ketones from terminal alkenes under mild reaction conditions. Methods that switch the selectivity of the reaction to provide the aldehyde product are desirable because of the access they provide to a valuable functional group, however such methods are elusive. Herein we survey both the methods which have been developed recently in achieving such selectivity and discuss common features and mechanistic insight which offers promise in achieving the goal of a general method for anti-Markovnikov-selective olefin oxidations. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Gold-catalyzed cyclization reactions of allenol and alkynol derivatives. (United States)

    Alcaide, Benito; Almendros, Pedro


    Although gold is chemically inert as a bulk metal, the landmark discovery that gold nanoparticles can be effective catalysts has opened up new and exciting research opportunities in the field. In recent years, there has been growth in the number of reactions catalyzed by gold complexes [gold(I) and gold(III)], usually as homogeneous catalysts, because they are soft Lewis acids. In addition, alkynes and allenes have interesting reactivities and selectivities, notably their ability to produce complex structures in very few steps. In this Account, we describe our work in gold catalysis with a focus on the formation of C-C and C-O bonds using allenes and alkynes as starting materials. Of these, oxa- and carbo-cyclizations are perhaps the best known and most frequently studied. We have divided those contributions into sections arranged according to the nature of the starting material (allene versus alkyne). Gold-catalyzed carbocyclizations in allenyl C2-linked indoles, allenyl-β-lactams, and allenyl sugars follow different mechanistic pathways. The cyclization of indole-tethered allenols results in the efficient synthesis of carbazole derivatives, for example. However, the compound produced from gold-catalyzed 9-endo carbocyclization of (aryloxy)allenyl-tethered 2-azetidinones is in noticeable contrast to the 5-exo hydroalkylation product that results from allenyl sugars. We have illustrated the unusual preference for the 4-exo-dig cyclization in allene chemistry, as well as the rare β-hydride elimination reaction, in gold catalysis from readily available α-allenols. We have also observed in γ-allenols that a (methoxymethyl)oxy protecting group not only masks a hydroxyl functionality but also exerts directing effects as a controlling unit in a gold-catalyzed regioselectivity reversal. Our recent work has also led to a combined experimental and computational study on regioselective gold-catalyzed synthetic routes to 1,3-oxazinan-2-ones (kinetically controlled

  7. Palladium-Catalyzed Anti-Markovnikov Oxidation of Allylic Amides to Protected beta-Amino Aldehydes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, Jiajia; Harvey, Emma C.; Fananas-Mastral, Martin; Browne, Wesley R.; Feringa, Bernard


    A general method for the preparation of N-protected beta-amino aldehydes from allylic amines or linear allylic alcohols is described. Here the Pd(II)-catalyzed oxidation of N-protected allylic amines with benzoquinone is achieved in tBuOH under ambient conditions with excellent selectivity toward

  8. Synthesis of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) by acid catalyzed dehydration of glucose-fructose mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Asbjørn Toftgaard; Ringborg, Rolf Hoffmeyer; Grotkjær, Thomas


    allowing the use of the cheapest available source of fructose: high fructose corn syrup. The dehydration was catalyzed by hydrochloric acid and conducted in acetone-water mixtures, which ensured good selectivity towards HMF and eliminated precipitation of polymer by-products (insoluble humins). Through...

  9. Ag-catalyzed InAs nanowires grown on transferable graphite flakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer-Holdt, Jakob; Kanne, Thomas; Sestoft, Joachim E.


    on exfoliated graphite flakes by molecular beam epitaxy. Ag catalyzes the InAs nanowire growth selectively on the graphite flakes and not on the underlying InAs substrates. This allows for easy transfer of the flexible graphite flakes with as-grown nanowire ensembles to arbitrary substrates by a micro-needle...

  10. Cobalt-Catalyzed Bis-alkynylation of Amides via Double C-H Bond Activation. (United States)

    Landge, Vinod G; Jaiswal, Garima; Balaraman, Ekambaram


    The first example of cobalt-catalyzed selective bis-alkynylation of amides via double C-H bond activation with the directing assistance of a removable bidentate auxiliary is reported. The developed alkynylation strategy is simple, efficient, and tolerant of various functional groups including ether, amine, halides, and heterocyclic motifs. The reaction can be scaled up under mild conditions.

  11. Efficient copper-catalyzed benzylic amidation with anhydrous chloramine-T. (United States)

    Bhuyan, Ranjana; Nicholas, Kenneth M


    Benzylic hydrocarbons are selectively converted to the corresponding sulfonamides by the [Cu(CH(3)CN)(4)]PF(6)-catalyzed reaction with anhydrous TolSO(2)NNaCl (chloramine-T). Under the same conditions, representative ethers are also alpha-amidated; olefins produce allyl sulfonamides, aziridines, and/or beta-chloro sulfonamides.

  12. Biodiesel production by enzyme-catalyzed transesterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamenković Olivera S.


    Full Text Available The principles and kinetics of biodiesel production from vegetable oils using lipase-catalyzed transesterification are reviewed. The most important operating factors affecting the reaction and the yield of alkyl esters, such as: the type and form of lipase, the type of alcohol, the presence of organic solvents, the content of water in the oil, temperature and the presence of glycerol are discussed. In order to estimate the prospects of lipase-catalyzed transesterification for industrial application, the factors which influence the kinetics of chemically-catalysed transesterification are also considered. The advantages of lipase-catalyzed transesterification compared to the chemically-catalysed reaction, are pointed out. The cost of down-processing and ecological problems are significantly reduced by applying lipases. It was also emphasized that lipase-catalysed transesterification should be greatly improved in order to make it commercially applicable. The further optimization of lipase-catalyzed transesterification should include studies on the development of new reactor systems with immobilized biocatalysts and the addition of alcohol in several portions, and the use of extra cellular lipases tolerant to organic solvents, intracellular lipases (i.e. whole microbial cells and genetically-modified microorganisms ("intelligent" yeasts.

  13. Zeolite 5A Catalyzed Etherification of Diphenylmethanol (United States)

    Cooke, Jason; Henderson, Eric J.; Lightbody, Owen C.


    An experiment for the synthetic undergraduate laboratory is described in which zeolite 5A catalyzes the room temperature dehydration of diphenylmethanol, (C[subscript 6]H[subscript 5])[subscript 2]CHOH, producing 1,1,1',1'-tetraphenyldimethyl ether, (C[subscript 6]H[subscript 5])[subscript 2]CHOCH(C[subscript 6]H[subscript 5])[subscript 2]. The…

  14. Enyne Metathesis Catalyzed by Ruthenium Carbene Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Carina Storm; Madsen, Robert


    Enyne metathesis combines an alkene and an alkyne into a 1,3-diene. The first enyne metathesis reaction catalyzed by a ruthenium carbene complex was reported in 1994. This review covers the advances in this transformation during the last eight years with particular emphasis on methodology...

  15. Mechanochemical ruthenium-catalyzed olefin metathesis. (United States)

    Do, Jean-Louis; Mottillo, Cristina; Tan, Davin; Štrukil, Vjekoslav; Friščić, Tomislav


    We describe the development of a mechanochemical approach for Ru-catalyzed olefin metathesis, including cross-metathesis and ring-closing metathesis. The method uses commercially available catalysts to achieve high-yielding, rapid, room-temperature metathesis of solid or liquid olefins on a multigram scale using either no or only a catalytic amount of a liquid.

  16. Enzyme-Catalyzed Transetherification of Alkoxysilanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter G. Taylor


    Full Text Available We report the first evidence of an enzyme-catalyzed transetherification of model alkoxysilanes. During an extensive enzymatic screening in the search for new biocatalysts for silicon-oxygen bond formation, we found that certain enzymes promoted the transetherification of alkoxysilanes when tert-butanol or 1-octanol were used as the reaction solvents.

  17. Dual chemistry catalyzed by human acireductone dioxygenase. (United States)

    Deshpande, Aditi R; Pochapsky, Thomas C; Petsko, Gregory A; Ringe, Dagmar


    Acireductone dioxygenase (ARD) from the methionine salvage pathway of Klebsiella oxytoca is the only known naturally occurring metalloenzyme that catalyzes different reactions in vivo based solely on the identity of the divalent transition metal ion (Fe2+ or Ni2+) bound in the active site. The iron-containing isozyme catalyzes the cleavage of substrate 1,2-dihydroxy-3-keto-5-(thiomethyl)pent-1-ene (acireductone) by O2 to formate and the ketoacid precursor of methionine, whereas the nickel-containing isozyme uses the same substrates to catalyze an off-pathway shunt to form methylthiopropionate, carbon monoxide and formate. This dual chemistry was recently demonstrated in vitro by ARD from Mus musculus (MmARD), providing the first example of a mammalian ARD exhibiting metal-dependent catalysis. We now show that human ARD (HsARD) is also capable of metal-dependent dual chemistry. Recombinant HsARD was expressed and purified to obtain a homogeneous enzyme with a single transition metal ion bound. As with MmARD, the Fe2+-bound HsARD shows the highest activity and catalyzes on-pathway chemistry, whereas Ni2+, Co2+ or Mn2+ forms catalyze off-pathway chemistry. The thermal stability of the HsARD isozymes is a function of the metal ion identity, with Ni2+-bound HsARD being the most stable followed by Co2+ and Fe2+, and Mn2+-bound HsARD being the least stable. As with the bacterial ARD, solution NMR data suggest that HsARD isozymes can have significant structural differences depending upon the metal ion bound. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  18. Nickel-catalyzed carbocyanation of alkynes


    Nakao, Yoshiaki; Hiyama, Tamejiro


    Nickel-catalyzed carbocyanation reaction of alkynes is described. Alkynes undergo aryl- and allylcyanation reaction in the presence of nickel-phosphine catalysts to give a wide range of substituted acrylonitriles in highly stereo-, regio-, and chemoselective manners. Lewis acid cocatalysts, such as AlMe3, AlMe2Cl, and BPh3, are found to promote the arylcyanation significantly. The cooperative catalysis of nickel and Lewis acid also allows the carbocyanation reaction using alkenyl and alkyl cy...

  19. Manganese-Catalyzed Upgrading of Ethanol into 1-Butanol. (United States)

    Fu, Shaomin; Shao, Zhihui; Wang, Yujie; Liu, Qiang


    Biomass-derived ethanol is an important renewable feedstock. Its conversion into high-quality biofuels is a promising route to replace fossil resources. Herein, an efficient manganese-catalyzed Guerbet-type condensation reaction of ethanol to form 1-butanol was explored. This is the first example of upgrading ethanol into higher alcohols using a homogeneous non-noble-metal catalyst. This process proceeded selectively in the presence of a well-defined manganese pincer complex at the parts per million (ppm) level. The developed reaction represents a sustainable synthesis of 1-butanol with excellent turnover number (>110 000) and turnover frequency (>3000 h(-1)). Moreover, mechanistic studies including control experiments, NMR spectroscopy, and X-ray crystallography identified the essential role of the "N-H moiety" of the manganese catalysts and the major reaction intermediates related to the catalytic cycle.

  20. Imidazole catalyzes chlorination by unreactive primary chloramines. (United States)

    Roemeling, Margo D; Williams, Jared; Beckman, Joseph S; Hurst, James K


    Hypochlorous acid and simple chloramines (RNHCl) are stable biologically derived chlorinating agents. In general, the chlorination potential of HOCl is much greater than that of RNHCl, allowing it to oxidize or chlorinate a much wider variety of reaction partners. However, in this study we demonstrate by kinetic analysis that the reactivity of RNHCl can be dramatically promoted by imidazole and histidyl model compounds via intermediary formation of the corresponding imidazole chloramines. Two biologically relevant reactions were investigated--loss of imidazole-catalyzed chlorinating capacity and phenolic ring chlorination using fluorescein and the tyrosine analog, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (HPA). HOCl reacted stoichiometrically with imidazole, N-acetylhistidine (NAH), or imidazoleacetic acid to generate the corresponding imidazole chloramines which subsequently decomposed. Chloramine (NH2Cl) also underwent a markedly accelerated loss in chlorinating capacity when NAH was present, although in this case N-α-acetylhistidine chloramine (NAHCl) did not accumulate, indicating that the catalytic intermediate must be highly reactive. Mixing HOCl with 1-methylimidazole (MeIm) led to very rapid loss in chlorinating capacity via formation of a highly reactive chlorinium ion (MeImCl(+)) intermediate; this behavior suggests that the reactive forms of the analogous imidazole chloramines are their conjugate acids, e.g., the imidazolechlorinium ion (HImCl(+)). HOCl-generated imidazole chloramine (ImCl) reacted rapidly with fluorescein in a specific acid-catalyzed second-order reaction to give 3'-monochloro and 3',5'-dichloro products. Equilibrium constants for the transchlorination reactions HOCl + HIm = H2O + ImCl and NH2Cl + HIm = NH3 + ImCl were estimated from the dependence of the rate constants on [HIm]/[HOCl] and literature data. Acid catalysis again suggests that the actual chlorinating agent is HImCl(+); consistent with this interpretation, MeIm markedly catalyzed

  1. Titanium catalyzed silicon nanowires and nanoplatelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A. U. Usman


    Full Text Available Silicon nanowires, nanoplatelets, and other morphologies resulted from silicon growth catalyzed by thin titanium layers. The nanowires have diameters down to 5 nm and lengths to tens of micrometers. The two-dimensional platelets, in some instances with filigreed, snow flake-like shapes, had thicknesses down to the 10 nm scale and spans to several micrometers. These platelets grew in a narrow temperature range around 900 celsius, apparently representing a new silicon crystallite morphology at this length scale. We surmise that the platelets grow with a faceted dendritic mechanism known for larger crystals nucleated by titanium silicide catalyst islands.

  2. Chiral Diamine-catalyzed Asymmetric Aldol Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hui; XU Da-zhen; WU Lu-lu; WANG Yong-mei


    A highly efficient catalytic system composed of a simple and commercially available chiral primary diamine (1R,2R)-cyclohexane-1,2-diamine(6) and trifluoroacetic acid(TFA) was employed for asymmetric Aldol reaction in i-PrOH at room temperature.A loading of 10%(molar fraction) catalyst 6 with TFA as a cocatalyst could catalyze the Aldol reactions of various ketones or aldehydes with a series of aromatic aldehydes,furnishing Aldol products in moderate to high yields(up to >99%) with enantioselectivities of up to >99% and diastereoselectivities of up to 99:1.

  3. Copper-catalyzed asymmetric oxidation of sulfides. (United States)

    O'Mahony, Graham E; Ford, Alan; Maguire, Anita R


    Copper-catalyzed asymmetric sulfoxidation of aryl benzyl and aryl alkyl sulfides, using aqueous hydrogen peroxide as the oxidant, has been investigated. A relationship between the steric effects of the sulfide substituents and the enantioselectivity of the oxidation has been observed, with up to 93% ee for 2-naphthylmethyl phenyl sulfoxide, in modest yield in this instance (up to 30%). The influence of variation of solvent and ligand structure was examined, and the optimized conditions were then used to oxidize a number of aryl alkyl and aryl benzyl sulfides, producing sulfoxides in excellent yields in most cases (up to 92%), and good enantiopurities in certain cases (up to 84% ee).

  4. Pd-Catalyzed regioselective C-H halogenation of quinazolinones and benzoxazinones. (United States)

    Dabiri, Minoo; Farajinia Lehi, Noushin; Kazemi Movahed, Siyavash; Khavasi, Hamid Reza


    A Pd-catalyzed ortho-selective halogenation of benzoxazinone and quinazolinone scaffolds has been described employing N-halosuccinimide as both a halogen source and an oxidant reagent via C-H bond activation. This transformation shows high chemo- and regioselectivities and demonstrates a broad range of benzoxazinone and quinazolinone substrates with different functional groups and has been scaled up to the gram level.

  5. Rhodium-Catalyzed Cyanation of C(sp(2))-H Bond of Alkenes. (United States)

    Chaitanya, Manthena; Anbarasan, Pazhamalai


    Efficient and selective rhodium-catalyzed cyanation of chelation-assisted C-H bonds of alkenes has been accomplished using environmentally benign N-cyano-N-phenyl-p-methylbenzenesulfonamide (NCTS) as a cyanating reagent. The developed methodology tolerates various functional groups and allows the synthesis of diverse substituted acrylonitriles in good to excellent yields. Furthermore, the potential of the methodology was demonstrated through the formal synthesis of chlorpheniramine-based antagonist.

  6. Biginelli Reaction Catalyzed by Copper Nanoparticles (United States)

    Dewan, Manika; Kumar, Ajeet; Saxena, Amit; De, Arnab; Mozumdar, Subho


    We recently reported a novel synthesis of copper nanoparticles from copper sulphate utilizing the charge-compensatory effect of ionic liquid [bmim]BF4 and ethylene glycol. The nanoparticles were characterized and found to be stable for one year. Here we hypothesize that the stabilized nanoparticles should be able to catalyze one-pot multicomponent organic reactions. We show that the nanoparticles catalyzed Biginelli reaction at room temperature to give the product 3,4-dihydopyrimidinone (>90% yield in ∼15 minutes) from aldehydes, β-diketoester (ethylacetoacetate) and urea (or thiourea). ). Remarkably, such high yields and rapid kinetics was found to be independent of the electronic density on the reactant aryl-aldehyde. This was probably because even the surface-active particles reacted faster in the presence of ionic liquid as compared to conventional methods. The heterocyclic dihydropyrimidinones (DHPMs) and their derivatives are widely used in natural and synthetic organic chemistry due to their wide spectrum of biological and therapeutic properties (resulting from their antibacterial, antiviral, antitumor and anti-inflammatory activities. Our method has an easy work-up procedure and the nanoparticles could be recycled with minimal loss of efficiency. PMID:22912792

  7. Rhodium(III)-catalyzed C-H activation/annulation with vinyl esters as an acetylene equivalent. (United States)

    Webb, Nicola J; Marsden, Stephen P; Raw, Steven A


    The behavior of electron-rich alkenes in rhodium-catalyzed C-H activation/annulation reactions is investigated. Vinyl acetate emerges as a convenient acetylene equivalent, facilitating the synthesis of sixteen 3,4-unsubstituted isoquinolones, as well as select heteroaryl-fused pyridones. The complementary regiochemical preferences of enol ethers versus enol esters/enamides is discussed.

  8. The Pd-catalyzed semihydrogenation of alkynes to Z-alkenes: Catalyst systems and the type of active species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drost, R.M.


    In this thesis studies have been performed on the Pd-catalyzed Z-selective semihydrogenation of alkynes. In Chapter one a general introduction is given. In Chapter two a new NHC-based, easy-to-use catalyst system is developed. The performance of the system is evaluated for a range of alkynes. In

  9. Semisynthetic derivatives of sesquiterpene lactones by palladium-catalyzed arylation of the alpha-methylene-gamma-lactone substructure. (United States)

    Han, Changho; Barrios, Francis J; Riofski, Mark V; Colby, David A


    The palladium-catalyzed arylation of different alpha-methylene-gamma-lactone-containing sesquiterpene lactones was shown to produce E-olefin coupling products selectively in moderate to excellent yields. Biological evaluation of these semisynthetic sesquiterpene lactone derivatives in HeLa cells showed interesting antiproliferative profiles and provided initial structure-activity data.

  10. Indium triiodide catalyzed reductive functionalization of amides via the single-stage treatment of hydrosilanes and organosilicon nucleophiles. (United States)

    Inamoto, Yoshihiro; Kaga, Yuta; Nishimoto, Yoshihiro; Yasuda, Makoto; Baba, Akio


    The indium triiodide catalyzed single-stage cascade reaction of N-sulfonyl amides with hydrosilanes and two types of organosilicon nucleophiles such as silyl cyanide and silyl enolates selectively promoted deoxygenative functionalization to give α-cyanoamines and β-aminocarbonyl compounds, respectively.

  11. Pd-catalyzed synthesis of aryl amines via oxidative aromatization of cyclic ketones and amines with molecular oxygen. (United States)

    Girard, Simon A; Hu, Xiong; Knauber, Thomas; Zhou, Feng; Simon, Marc-Olivier; Deng, Guo-Jun; Li, Chao-Jun


    Pd-catalyzed intermolecular aerobic dehydrogenative aromatizations have been developed for the arylation of amines with nonaromatic ketones. Under optimized reaction conditions, primary and secondary amines are selectively arylated in good yields with cyclohexanones and 2-cyclohexen-1-ones in the presence of a Pd-catalyst under an atmosphere of molecular oxygen.

  12. Parameterization of Acyclic Diaminocarbene Ligands Applied to a Gold(I)-Catalyzed Enantioselective Tandem Rearrangement/Cyclization. (United States)

    Niemeyer, Zachary L; Pindi, Suresh; Khrakovsky, Dimitri A; Kuzniewski, Christian N; Hong, Cynthia M; Joyce, Leo A; Sigman, Matthew S; Toste, F Dean


    Computed descriptors for acyclic diaminocarbene ligands are developed in the context of a gold catalyzed enantioselective tandem [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement-[2+2]-cyclization. Surrogate structures enable the rapid identification of parameters that reveal mechanistic characteristics. The observed selectivity trends are validated in a robust multivariate analysis facilitating the development of a highly enantioselective process.

  13. Palladium-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling of Silyl Electrophiles with Alkylzinc Halides: A Silyl-Negishi Reaction. (United States)

    Cinderella, Andrew P; Vulovic, Bojan; Watson, Donald A


    We report the first example of a silyl-Negishi reaction between secondary zinc organometallics and silicon electrophiles. This palladium-catalyzed process provides direct access to alkyl silanes. The delicate balance of steric and electronic parameters of the employed DrewPhos ligand is paramount to suppressing isomerization and promoting efficient and selective cross-coupling.

  14. Hydroformylation of methyl oleate catalyzed by rhodium complexes; Hidroformilacao do oleato de metila catalisada por complexos de rodio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Ana Nery Furlan [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Sao Mateus, ES (Brazil). Centro Universitario Norte do Espirito Santo. Dept. de Ciencias Naturais; Rosa, Ricardo Gomes da; Gregorio, Jose Ribeiro, E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica


    In this work, we describe the hydroformylation of methyl oleate catalyzed by several rhodium complexes. Parameters including total pressure, phosphorous/rhodium and CO/H{sub 2} ratio, temperature and phosphorous ligands were scanned. Total conversion of the starting double bonds was achieved while maintaining excellent selectivity in aldehydes. (author)

  15. Kinetics and mechanism of uncatalyzed and ruthenium(III)-catalyzed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The effect of ionic strength on both uncatalyzed and catalyzed reactions was studied by varying the. NaClO4 concentration. The rate of uncatalyzed reaction was found to increase with increasing ionic strength, whereas the rate of catalyzed reaction decreases with the increase of ionic strength. Thus, the plot of ln kU.

  16. Toward Efficient Palladium-Catalyzed Allylic C-H Alkylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Fristrup, Peter


    Recent breakthroughs have proved that direct palladium (II)-catalyzed allylic C-H alkylation can be achieved. This new procedure shows that the inherent requirement for a leaving group in the Tsuji-Trost palladium-catalyzed allylic alkylation can be lifted. These initial reports hold great promise...

  17. Representing Rate Equations for Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions (United States)

    Ault, Addison


    Rate equations for enzyme-catalyzed reactions are derived and presented in a way that makes it easier for the nonspecialist to see how the rate of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction depends upon kinetic constants and concentrations. This is done with distribution equations that show how the rate of the reaction depends upon the relative quantities of…

  18. Ammonia and hydrazine. Transition-metal-catalyzed hydroamination and metal-free catalyzed functionalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertrand, Guy [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)


    The efficient and selective preparation of organic molecules is critical for mankind. For the future, it is of paramount importance to find catalysts able to transform abundant and cheap feedstocks into useful compounds. Acyclic and heterocyclic nitrogen-containing derivatives are common components of naturally occurring compounds, agrochemicals, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals; they are also useful intermediates in a number of industrial processes. One of the most widely used synthetic strategies, allowing the formation of an N-C bond, is the addition of an N-H bond across a carbon-carbon multiple bond, the so-called hydroamination reaction. This chemical transformation fulfills the principle of “green chemistry” since it ideally occurs with 100% atom economy. Various catalysts have been found to promote this reaction, although many limitations remain; one of the most prominent is the lack of methods that permit the use of NH3 and NH2NH2 as the amine partners. In fact, ammonia and hydrazine have rarely succumbed to homogeneous catalytic transformations. Considering the low cost and abundance of ammonia (136 million metric tons produced in 2011) and hydrazine, catalysts able to improve the reactivity and selectivity of the NH3- and NH2NH2-hydroamination reaction, and more broadly speaking the functionalization of these chemicals, are highly desirable. In the last funded period, we discovered the first homogeneous catalysts able to promote the hydroamination of alkynes and allenes with ammonia and the parent hydrazine. The key feature of our catalytic systems is that the formation of catalytically inactive Werner complexes is reversible, in marked contrast to most of the known ammonia and hydrazine transition metal complexes. This is due to the peculiar electronic properties of our neutral ancillary ligands, especially their strong donating capabilities. However, our catalysts currently require

  19. Lipase-catalyzed production of lysophospholipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mnasri Taha


    Full Text Available Lysophospholipids, such as lysophosphatidic acid or lysophosphatidylcholine, are important bioactive lipids, involved in various normal and pathological cellular processes. They also have industrial and pharmaceutical uses such as emulsifiers or components of drug delivery systems. Lipases, which natural substrates are long chain triacylglycerols, are important biocatalysts for organic synthesis mainly due to their broad substrate specificity and their ability to display high catalytic activity in organic media. This paper describes the various lipase-catalyzed reactions implemented for the production of lysophospholipids. They include hydrolysis or alcoholysis of phospholipids and acylation of the glycerophosphoryl moiety. Special emphasis is made on our work dealing with the production of lysophospholipids rich in dososahexaenoic acid, an important dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid via the hydrolysis of phospholipids extracted from the microalga Isochrysis galbana.

  20. Catalyzed modified clean fractionation of switchgrass. (United States)

    Cybulska, Iwona; Brudecki, Grzegorz P; Hankerson, Brett R; Julson, James L; Lei, Hanwu


    Switchgrass was used as a lignocellulosic feedstock for second generation ethanol production, after pretreatment using sulfuric acid-catalyzed modified clean fractionation based on NREL's (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) original procedure. Optimization of temperature, catalyst concentration and solvent composition was performed using Response Surface Methodology, and 59.03 ± 7.01% lignin recovery, 84.85 ± 1.34% glucose, and 44.11 ± 3.44% aqueous fraction xylose yields were obtained at 140.00 °C, 0.46% w/w catalyst concentration, 36.71% w/w ethyl acetate concentration, and 25.00% w/w ethanol concentration. The cellulose fraction did not inhibit the fermentation performance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and resulted in an ethanol yield of 89.60 ± 2.1%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Rh-Catalyzed, Regioselective, C-H Bond Functionalization: Access to Quinoline-Branched Amines and Dimers. (United States)

    Reddy, M Damoder; Fronczek, Frank R; Watkins, E Blake


    Rh-catalyzed, chelation-induced, C-5 regioselective C-H functionalization of 8-amidoquinolines with a range of N-Boc aminals is reported for the first time. The addition of in situ generated imines to C(sp2)-H bonds afforded branched amines in good to excellent yields. Moreover, this transformation features good functional group compatibility, broad substrate scope, and mild reaction conditions and is suitable for gram-scale synthesis. In addition, an unprecedented, chelation-induced, site-selective, remote dimerization of quinolines led to the formation of dimer frameworks in moderate yields under Rh-catalyzed conditions.

  2. Highly enantioselective synthesis of γ-, δ-, and ε-chiral 1-alkanols via Zr-catalyzed asymmetric carboalumination of alkenes (ZACA)-Cu- or Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling. (United States)

    Xu, Shiqing; Oda, Akimichi; Kamada, Hirofumi; Negishi, Ei-ichi


    Despite recent advances of asymmetric synthesis, the preparation of enantiomerically pure (≥99% ee) compounds remains a challenge in modern organic chemistry. We report here a strategy for a highly enantioselective (≥99% ee) and catalytic synthesis of various γ- and more-remotely chiral alcohols from terminal alkenes via Zr-catalyzed asymmetric carboalumination of alkenes (ZACA reaction)-Cu- or Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling. ZACA-in situ oxidation of tert-butyldimethylsilyl (TBS)-protected ω-alkene-1-ols produced both (R)- and (S)-α,ω-dioxyfunctional intermediates (3) in 80-88% ee, which were readily purified to the ≥99% ee level by lipase-catalyzed acetylation through exploitation of their high selectivity factors. These α,ω-dioxyfunctional intermediates serve as versatile synthons for the construction of various chiral compounds. Their subsequent Cu-catalyzed cross-coupling with various alkyl (primary, secondary, tertiary, cyclic) Grignard reagents and Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling with aryl and alkenyl halides proceeded smoothly with essentially complete retention of stereochemical configuration to produce a wide variety of γ-, δ-, and ε-chiral 1-alkanols of ≥99% ee. The MαNP ester analysis has been applied to the determination of the enantiomeric purities of δ- and ε-chiral primary alkanols, which sheds light on the relatively undeveloped area of determination of enantiomeric purity and/or absolute configuration of remotely chiral primary alcohols.

  3. Applications of Palladium-Catalyzed C–N Cross-Coupling Reactions (United States)


    Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions that form C–N bonds have become useful methods to synthesize anilines and aniline derivatives, an important class of compounds throughout chemical research. A key factor in the widespread adoption of these methods has been the continued development of reliable and versatile catalysts that function under operationally simple, user-friendly conditions. This review provides an overview of Pd-catalyzed N-arylation reactions found in both basic and applied chemical research from 2008 to the present. Selected examples of C–N cross-coupling reactions between nine classes of nitrogen-based coupling partners and (pseudo)aryl halides are described for the synthesis of heterocycles, medicinally relevant compounds, natural products, organic materials, and catalysts. PMID:27689804

  4. Palladium(0)-Catalyzed Benzylic C(sp(3))-H Functionalization for the Concise Synthesis of Heterocycles and Its Applications. (United States)

    Tsukano, Chihiro


    C-H functionalization reactions involve the activation of otherwise unreactive C-H bonds, and represent atom economical methods for the direct transformation of simple substrates to complex molecules. While transition metal-catalyzed C(sp(2))-H functionalization reactions are regularly used in synthesis, C(sp(3))-H functionalization is rarely applied to the synthesis of complex natural products because of the difficulties associated with controlling selectivity. With this in mind, we focused on the development of new palladium (Pd)(0)-catalyzed C(sp(3))-H functionalization reactions for the synthesis of complex molecules, resulting in several new methods capable of solving these problems. We initially developed a concise synthetic method for the facile construction of oxindoles and spirooxindoles via a Pd-catalyzed benzylic C(sp(3))-H functionalization reaction. This method was subsequently extended to the synthesis of various heterocycles, including 2-arylindoles, benzocarbazole, indolocarbazole, indoloquinazolinone, and indoloquinazolinedione, as well as the total synthesis of several pyrrolophenanthridine alkaloids without the need for any protecting groups. This method was also successfully applied to the synthesis of the right-hand fragment of benzohopane from tetrahydro-2H-fluorene, which was constructed by a Pd-catalyzed benzylic C(sp(3))-H functionalization. In this review, we provide a detailed discussion of our most recent investigations pertaining to Pd(0)-catalyzed benzylic C(sp(3))-H functionalization.

  5. Mutagenicity screening of reaction products from the enzyme-catalyzed oxidation of phenolic pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massey, I.J.; Aitken, M.D.; Ball, L.M.; Heck, P.E. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Dept. of Environmental Sciences and Engineering)


    Phenol-oxidizing enzymes such as peroxidases, laccases, and mushroom polyphenol oxidase are capable of catalyzing the oxidation of a wide range of phenolic pollutants. Although the use of these enzymes in waste-treatment applications has been proposed by a number of investigators, little information exists on the toxicological characteristics of the oxidation products. The enzymes chloroperoxidase, horseradish peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, and mushroom polyphenol oxidase were used in this study to catalyze the oxidation of phenol, several mono-substituted phenols, and pentachlorophenol. Seventeen reaction mixtures representing selected combinations of enzyme and parent phenol were subjected to mutagenicity screening using the Ames Salmonella typhimurium plate incorporation assay; five selected mixtures were also incubated with the S9 microsomal preparation to detect the possible presence of promutagens. The majority of reaction mixtures tested were not directly mutagenic, and none of those tested with S9 gave a positive response. Such lack of mutagenicity of enzymatic oxidation products provides encouragement for establishing the feasibility of enzyme-catalyzed oxidation as a waste-treatment process. The only positive responses were obtained with reaction products from the lignin peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation of 2-nitrophenol and 4-nitrophenol. Clear positive responses were observed when strain TA100 was incubated with 2-nitrophenol reaction-product mixtures, and when strain TA98 was incubated with the 4-nitrophenol reaction mixture. Additionally, 2,4-dinitrophenol was identified as a reaction product from 4-nitrophenol, and preliminary evidence indicates that both 2,4- and 2,6-dinitrophenol are produced from the oxidation of 2-nitrophenol. Possible mechanism by which these nitration reactions occur are discussed.

  6. Mechanisms of bacterially catalyzed reductive dehalogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picardal, Flynn William [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)


    Nine bacteria were tested for the ability to dehalogenate tetrachloromethane (CT), tetrachloroethene (PCE), and 1, 1, 1-trichloroethane (TCA) under anaerobic conditions. Three bacteria were able to reductively dehalogenate CT. Dehalogenation ability was not readily linked to a common metabolism or changes in culture redox potential. None of the bacteria tested were able to dehalogenate PCE or TCA. One of the bacteria capable of dehalogenating CT, Shewanella putrefaciens, was chosen as a model organism to study mechanisms of bacterially catalyzed reductive dehalogenation. The effect of a variety of alternate electron acceptors on CT dehalogenation ability by S. putrefaciens was determined. oxygen and nitrogen oxides were inhibitory but Fe (III), trimethylamine oxide, and fumarate were not. A model of the electron transport chain of S. putrefaciens was developed to explain inhibition patterns. A period of microaerobic growth prior to CT exposure increased the ability of S. putrefaciens to dehalogenate CT. A microaerobic growth period also increased cytochrome concentrations. A relationship between cytochrome content and dehalogenation ability was developed from studies in which cytochrome concentrations in S. putrefaciens were manipulated by changing growth conditions. Stoichiometry studies using 14C-CT suggested that CT was first reduced to form a trichloromethyl radical. Reduction of the radical to produce chloroform and reaction of the radical with cellular biochemicals explained observed product distributions. Carbon dioxide or other fully dehalogenated products were not found.

  7. Recent advances in osmium-catalyzed hydrogenation and dehydrogenation reactions. (United States)

    Chelucci, Giorgio; Baldino, Salvatore; Baratta, Walter


    CONSPECTUS: A current issue in metal-catalyzed reactions is the search for highly efficient transition-metal complexes affording high productivity and selectivity in a variety of processes. Moreover, there is also a great interest in multitasking catalysts that are able to efficiently promote different organic transformations by careful switching of the reaction parameters, such as temperature, solvent, and cocatalyst. In this context, osmium complexes have shown the ability to catalyze efficiently different types of reactions involving hydrogen, proving at the same time high thermal stability and simple synthesis. In the catalytic reduction of C═X (X = O, N) bonds by both hydrogenation (HY) and transfer hydrogenation (TH) reactions, the most interest has been focused on homogeneous systems based on rhodium, iridium, and in particular ruthenium catalysts, which have proved to catalyze chemo- and stereoselective hydrogenations with remarkable efficiency. By contrast, osmium catalysts have received much less attention because they are considered less active on account of their slower ligand exchange kinetics. Thus, this area remained almost neglected until recent studies refuted these prejudices. The aim of this Account is to highlight the impressive developments achieved over the past few years by our and other groups on the design of new classes of osmium complexes and their applications in homogeneous catalytic reactions involving the hydrogenation of carbon-oxygen and carbon-nitrogen bonds by both HY and TH reactions as well as in alcohol deydrogenation (DHY) reactions. The work described in this Account demonstrates that osmium complexes are emerging as powerful catalysts for asymmetric and non-asymmetric syntheses, showing a remarkably high catalytic activity in HY and TH reactions of ketones, aldehydes, imines, and esters as well in DHY reactions of alcohols. Thus, for instance, the introduction of ligands with an NH function, possibly in combination with a

  8. Enzyme catalyzed reactions: from experiment to computational mechanism reconstruction. (United States)

    Srividhya, Jeyaraman; Mourão, Márcio A; Crampin, Edmund J; Schnell, Santiago


    The traditional experimental practice in enzyme kinetics involves the measurement of substrate or product concentrations as a function of time. Advances in computing have produced novel approaches for modeling enzyme catalyzed reactions from time course data. One example of such an approach is the selection of appropriate chemical reactions that best fit the data. A common limitation of this approach resides in the number of chemical species considered. The number of possible chemical reactions grows exponentially with the number of chemical species, which makes difficult to select reactions that uniquely describe the data and diminishes the efficiency of the methods. In addition, a method's performance is also dependent on several quantitative and qualitative properties of the time course data, of which we know very little. This information is important to experimentalists as it could allow them to setup their experiments in ways that optimize the network reconstruction. We have previously described a method for inferring reaction mechanisms and kinetic rate parameters from time course data. Here, we address the limitations in the number of chemical reactions by allowing the introduction of information about chemical interactions. We also address the unknown properties of the input data by determining experimental data properties that maximize our method's performance. We investigate the following properties: initial substrate-enzyme concentration ratios; initial substrate-enzyme concentration variation ranges; number of data points; number of different experiments (time courses); and noise. We test the method using data generated in silico from the Michaelis-Menten and the Hartley-Kilby reaction mechanisms. Our results demonstrate the importance of experimental design for time course assays that has not been considered in experimental protocols. These considerations can have far reaching implications for the computational mechanism reconstruction process

  9. Zinc catalyzed Guanylation reaction of Amines with Carbodiimides ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    016-1096-y. Zinc catalyzed Guanylation reaction of Amines with Carbodiimides/. Isocyanate leading to Guanidines/Urea derivatives formation. JAYEETA BHATTACHARJEE, MITALI SACHDEVA, INDRANI BANERJEE and. TARUN K PANDA.

  10. Aerobic Oxidation of Alcohols to Carbonyl Compounds Catalyzed by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    hydroxyphthalimide (NHPI) com- bined with cobalt porphyrin intercalated heterogeneous hybrid catalyst (CoTPP-Zn2Al-LDH) has been devel- oped. The results showed that this catalytic system can effectively catalyze the oxidation of alcohols to the.

  11. Hydrolysis of Toxic Natural Glucosides Catalyzed by Cyclodextrin Dicyanohydrins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Jeannette; Nielsen, Erik Holm; Bols, Mikael


    The hydrolysis of toxic 7-hydroxycoumarin glucosides and other aryl and alkyl glucosides, catalyzed by modified a- and ß-cyclodextrin dicyanohydrins, was investigated using different UV, redox, or HPAEC detection assays. The catalyzed reactions all followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics, and an impre......The hydrolysis of toxic 7-hydroxycoumarin glucosides and other aryl and alkyl glucosides, catalyzed by modified a- and ß-cyclodextrin dicyanohydrins, was investigated using different UV, redox, or HPAEC detection assays. The catalyzed reactions all followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics...... degree of catalysis was also found for the toxic hydroxycoumarin esculin. A novel synthesized diaminomethyl ß-cyclodextrin showed a weak catalysis of p-nitrophenyl ß-D-glucopyranoside hydrolysis....

  12. Copper-Catalyzed Alkylation of Benzoxazoles with Secondary Alkyl Halides


    Ren P; Salihu I; Scopelliti R.; Hu XL


    Copper catalyzed direct alkylation of benzoxazoles using nonactivated secondary alkyl halides has been developed. The best catalyst is a new copper(I) complex (1) and the reactions are promoted by bis[2 (NN dimethylamino)ethyl] ether.

  13. Dirhodium-catalyzed C-H arene amination using hydroxylamines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paudyal, Mahesh P; Adebesin, Adeniyi Michael; Burt, Scott R; Ess, Daniel H; Ma, Zhiwei; Kürti, László; Falck, John R


    .... Here, we present a mild dirhodium-catalyzed C-H amination for conversion of structurally diverse monocyclic and fused aromatics to the corresponding primary and N-alkyl arylamines using NH2/NH(alkyl)-O-(sulfonyl...

  14. Aerobic Oxidation of Alcohols to Carbonyl Compounds Catalyzed by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    NHPI) combined with cobalt porphyrin intercalated heterogeneous hybrid catalyst (CoTPP-Zn2Al-LDH) has been developed. The results showed that this catalytic system can effectively catalyze the oxidation of alcohols to thecorresponding ...

  15. Oxidations catalyzed by phenylacetone monooxygenase from Thermobifida fusca

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalo, Gonzalo de; Torres Pazmino, Daniel; Ottolina, Gianluca; Fraaije, Marco W.; Carrea, Giacomo


    Several organic sulfides, ketones and other organic systems have been tested as substrates in oxidation reactions catalyzed by the recently discovered phenylacetone monooxygenase from Thermobifida fusca. The biocatalytic properties of this Baeyer–Villiger monooxygenase have been studied, revealing

  16. Nickel-catalyzed direct synthesis of dialkoxymethane ethers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    catalyzed direct synthesis of dialkoxymethane ethers. MURUGAN SUBARAMANIAN ABHIJIT BERA BHAGAVATULA L V PRASAD EKAMBARAM BALARAMAN. RAPID COMMUNICATION Volume 129 Issue 8 August 2017 pp 1153-1159 ...

  17. Ni-catalyzed reductive addition of alkyl halides to isocyanides. (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Dai, Yijing; Tong, Weiqi; Gong, Hegui


    This paper highlights Ni-catalyzed reductive trapping of secondary and tertiary alkyl radicals with both electron-rich and electron-deficient aryl isocyanides using zinc as the terminal reductant, affording 6-alkylated phenanthridine in good yields. The employment of carbene ligands necessitates the alkyl radical process, and represents the first utility in the Ni-catalyzed reductive conditions for the generation of unactivated alkyl radicals from the halide precursors.

  18. Hemoglobin and Red Blood Cells Catalyze Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization


    Silva Tilana B.; Spulber Mariana; Kocik Marzena K.; Seidi Farzad; Charan Himanshu; Rother Martin; Sigg Severin J.; Renggli Kasper; Kali Gergely; Bruns Nico


    Hemoglobin (Hb) is a promiscuous protein that not only transports oxygen but also catalyzes several biotransformations. A novel in vitro catalytic activity of Hb is described. Bovine Hb and human erythrocytes were found to display ATRPase activity i.e. they catalyzed the polymerization of vinyl monomers under conditions typical for atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). N isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate (PEGA) and poly(ethylene glycol) methyl eth...

  19. Iron-Catalyzed C-O Bond Activation: Opportunity for Sustainable Catalysis. (United States)

    Bisz, Elwira; Szostak, Michal


    Oxygen-based electrophiles have emerged as some of the most valuable cross-coupling partners in organic synthesis due to several major strategic and environmental benefits, such as abundance and potential to avoid toxic halide waste. In this context, iron-catalyzed C-O activation/cross-coupling holds particular promise to achieve sustainable catalytic protocols due to its natural abundance, inherent low toxicity, and excellent economic and ecological profile. Recently, tremendous progress has been achieved in the development of new methods for functional-group-tolerant iron-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions by selective C-O cleavage. These methods establish highly attractive alternatives to traditional cross-coupling reactions by using halides as electrophilic partners. In particular, new easily accessible oxygen-based electrophiles have emerged as substrates in iron-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions, which significantly broaden the scope of this catalysis platform. New mechanistic manifolds involving iron catalysis have been established; thus opening up vistas for the development of a wide range of unprecedented reactions. The synthetic potential of this sustainable mode of reactivity has been highlighted by the development of new strategies in the construction of complex motifs, including in target synthesis. The most recent advances in sustainable iron-catalyzed cross-coupling of C-O-based electrophiles are reviewed, with a focus on both mechanistic aspects and synthetic utility. It should be noted that this catalytic manifold provides access to motifs that are often not easily available by other methods, such as the assembly of stereodefined dienes or C(sp 2 )-C(sp 3 ) cross-couplings, thus emphasizing the synthetic importance of this mode of reactivity. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of aryl boronic acids with aryl halides in water. (United States)

    Wang, Shaoyan; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Hu, Zhizhi; Wang, Yue; Lei, Peng; Chi, Haijun


    An efficient Suzuki cross-coupling reaction using a variety of aryl halides in neat water was developed. The Pd-catalyzed reaction between aryl bromides or chlorides and phenyl boronic acids was compatible with various functional groups and affords biphenyls in good to excellent yields without requirement of organic cosolvents. The air stability and solubility in water of the palladium-phosphinous acid complexes were considered to facilitate operation of the coupling reaction and product isolation. The reaction conditions including Pd catalyst selection, temperature, base and catalyst recoverability were also investigated.

  1. The mechanism of the phosphine-free palladium-catalyzed hydroarylation of alkynes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlquist, Mårten Sten Gösta; Fabrizi, G.; Cacchi, S.


    The mechanism of the Pd-catalyzed hydroarylation and hydrovinylation reaction of alkynes has been studied by a combination of experimental and theoretical methods (B3LYP), with an emphasis on the phosphine-free version. The regioselectivity of the hydroarylation and hydrovinylation shows unexpected...... differences, which could be attributed mainly to the higher steric demand of the cyclohexenyl group as compared to the phenyl group. Hydroarylation of alpha,beta-acetylenic carbonyl substrates yields a very unusual anti-Michael selectivity, which is shown to result from reaction of the nonconjugated double...

  2. Nickel-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling of Organolithium Reagents with (Hetero)Aryl Electrophiles. (United States)

    Heijnen, Dorus; Gualtierotti, Jean-Baptiste; Hornillos, Valentín; Feringa, Ben L


    Nickel-catalyzed selective cross-coupling of aromatic electrophiles (bromides, chlorides, fluorides and methyl ethers) with organolithium reagents is presented. The use of a commercially available nickel N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complex allows the reaction with a variety of (hetero)aryllithium compounds, including those prepared via metal-halogen exchange or direct metallation, whereas a commercially available electron-rich nickel-bisphosphine complex smoothly converts alkyllithium species into the corresponding coupled product. These reactions proceed rapidly (1 h) under mild conditions (room temperature) while avoiding the undesired formation of reduced or homocoupled products. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Process Technology for Immobilized LipaseProcess Technology for Immobilized Lipase-catalyzed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Yuan

    , most applications remain in the production of high-value fine chemicals, primarily because of the expense of introducing new technology. In particular lipasecatalyzed synthesis has already achieved efficient operations for high-value products and more interesting now is to establish opportunities......-catalyzed transesterification is that it is multi-phasic system. The by-product glycerol can potentially impose inhibitory effects on immobilized lipases and likewise the un-dissolved ethanol can inhibit the lipase. The options for addressing these issues can be used as the basis for selecting the biocatalyst and the reactor...

  4. Cooperative Metal–Ligand Catalyzed Intramolecular Hydroamination and Hydroalkoxylation of Allenes Using a Stable Iron Catalyst

    KAUST Repository

    El-Sepelgy, Osama


    A new iron-catalyzed chemoselective intramolecular hydroamination and hydroalkoxylation of the readily available α-allenic amines and alcohols to valuable unsaturated 5-membered heterocycles, 2,3-dihydropyrrole and 2,3-dihydrofuran, is reported. Effective selectivity control is achieved by a metal–ligand cooperative activation of the substrates. The mild reaction conditions and the use of low amounts of an air and moisture stable iron catalyst allow for the hydrofunctionalization of a wide range of allenes bearing different functional groups in good yields in the absence of base or any sensitive additives.

  5. Photoassisted Oxidation of Sulfides Catalyzed by Artificial Metalloenzymes Using Water as an Oxygen Source †

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Herrero


    Full Text Available The Mn(TpCPP-Xln10A artificial metalloenzyme, obtained by non-covalent insertion of Mn(III-meso-tetrakis(p-carboxyphenylporphyrin [Mn(TpCPP, 1-Mn] into xylanase 10A from Streptomyces lividans (Xln10A as a host protein, was found able to catalyze the selective photo-induced oxidation of organic substrates in the presence of [RuII(bpy3]2+ as a photosensitizer and [CoIII(NH35Cl]2+ as a sacrificial electron acceptor, using water as oxygen atom source.

  6. Phosphonium Salts as Pseudohalides: Regioselective Nickel-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling of Complex Pyridines and Diazines. (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan; McNally, Andrew


    Heterobiaryls are important pharmacophores that are challenging to prepare by traditional cross-coupling methods. An alternative approach is presented where pyridines and diazines are converted into heteroaryl phosphonium salts and coupled with aryl boronic acids. Nickel catalysts are unique for selective heteroaryl transfer, and the reaction has a broad substrate scope that includes complex pharmaceuticals. Phosphonium ions also display orthogonal reactivity in cross-couplings compared to halides, enabling chemoselective palladium- and nickel-catalyzed coupling sequences. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Gold-catalyzed direct alkynylation of tryptophan in peptides using TIPS-EBX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergely L. Tolnai


    Full Text Available The selective functionalization of peptides containing only natural amino acids is important for the modification of biomolecules. In particular, the installation of an alkyne as a useful handle for bioconjugation is highly attractive, but the use of a carbon linker is usually required. Herein, we report the gold-catalyzed direct alkynylation of tryptophan in peptides using the hypervalent iodine reagent TIPS-EBX (1-[(triisopropylsilylethynyl]-1,2-benziodoxol-3(1H-one. The reaction proceeded in 50–78% yield under mild conditions and could be applied to peptides containing other nucleophilic and aromatic amino acids, such as serine, phenylalanine or tyrosine.

  8. Cobalt carbonyl-catalyzed carbonylation of functionalized aziridines to versatile β-lactam building blocks. (United States)

    Piens, Nicola; Van Hecke, Kristof; Vogt, Dieter; D'hooghe, Matthias


    The Co2(CO)8-catalyzed carbonylation of different classes of non-activated aziridines with diverse substitution patterns was investigated. Special attention was devoted to selectivity issues and reaction optimization. This study resulted in the regio- and stereospecific synthesis of 24 novel β-lactam target structures in high yields on a multigram scale. The synthetic potential of the newly obtained azetidin-2-ones was illustrated via ring-expansion, ring-closure, and/or side chain-functionalization protocols to provide a straightforward entry to novel pyrrolidines, C-fused bi- and tricyclic β-lactams and monocyclic carbapenem analogs.

  9. The effect of synthetic antioxidants on the oxidative stability of biodiesel

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Focke, WW


    Full Text Available Biodiesels were prepared using base catalyzed methanolysis of sunflower, soybean and canola oils. Rancimat oxidative stability measurements showed that the induction period (IP) for neat canola biodiesel conformed to EN 14214, the European...

  10. Support Effects in the Gold-Catalyzed Preferential Oxidation of CO

    KAUST Repository

    Ivanova, S.


    The study of support effects on the gold-catalyzed preferential oxidation of carbon monoxide in the presence of hydrogen (PROX reaction) is possible only with careful control of the gold particle size, which is facilitated by the application of the direct anionic exchange method. Catalytic evaluation of thermally stable gold nanoparticles, with an average size of around 3 nm on a variety of supports (alumina, titania, zirconia, or ceria), clearly shows that the influence of the support on the CO oxidation rate is of primary importance under CO+O 2 conditions and that this influence becomes secondary in the presence of hydrogen. The impact of the support surface structure on the oxidation rates, catalyst selectivity, and catalyst activation/deactivation is investigated in terms of oxygen vacancies, oxygen mobility, OH groups, and surface area on the oxidation rates, catalyst selectivity and catalyst activation/deactivation. It allows the identification of key morphological and structural features of the support to ensure high activity and selectivity in the gold-catalyzed PROX reaction. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Catalyzed precipitation in Al-Cu-Si (United States)

    Mitlin, D.; Morris, J. W.; Radmilovic, V.


    The work reported here concerns the effect of Si on the precipitation of θ' phase (metastable Al2Cu) during the isothermal aging of Al-2Cu-1 Si (wt pct). The binary alloys Al-2Cu and Al-1 Si were studied for comparison. Only two precipitate phases were detected: essentially pure Si in Al-1 Si and Al-2Cu-1 Si, and θ' (metastable Al2Cu) in Al-2Cu and Al-2Cu-1Si. On aging the ternary alloy at 225 °C, Si precipitates first and catalyzes the θ' phase. The precipitates in the ternary alloy are smaller, are more densely distributed, have lower aspect ratios, and coarsen more slowly than those in the binary Al-2Cu aged at the same temperature. While the shapes of individual θ' precipitates in binary Al-2Cu are strongly affected by the kinetic problem of nucleating growth ledges, which produces a significant scatter in the aspect ratio for samples of given thickness, the overall evolution of particle shape with size follows the predictions of the Khachaturyan-Hairapetyan (KH) thermoelastic theory, which reduces to κ= L/d ∞ √ L at large sizes. The KH theory provides an estimate for the interfacial tension of the broad Al- θ' interface of 85 to 96 mJ/m2, which is near the values for other low-energy interfaces in Al, such as the twin boundary energy (100 mJ/m2) and the antiphase boundary energy in δ' Al3Li (70 mJ/m2). Si and θ' precipitates in Al-2Cu-1 Si have a strong elastic interaction because of their compensating strain fields. This elastic interaction promotes the nucleation of θ' precipitates on Si, decreases the expected aspect ratio of θ', and inhibits coarsening. Finally, Si precipitation in ternary Al-2Cu-1 Si differs from that in binary Al-1 Si in that the Si precipitates are coarser, more equiaxed, and more extensively twinned. These changes appear to be effects of Cu, which increases the solubility of Si in Al and adsorbs on the Si-Al interface, promoting twinning by a “step-poisoning” effect at the interface.

  12. The mechanism for iron-catalyzed alkene isomerization in solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawyer, Karma R.; Glascoe, Elizabeth A.; Cahoon, James F.; Schlegel, Jacob P.; Harris, Charles B.


    Here we report nano- through microsecond time-resolved IR experiments of iron-catalyzed alkene isomerization in room-temperature solution. We have monitored the photochemistry of a model system, Fe(CO){sub 4}({eta}{sup 2}-1-hexene), in neat 1-hexene solution. UV-photolysis of the starting material leads to the dissociation of a single CO to form Fe(CO){sub 3}({eta}{sup 2}-1-hexene), in a singlet spin state. This CO loss complex shows a dramatic selectivity to form an allyl hydride, HFe(CO){sub 3}({eta}{sup 3}-C{sub 6}H{sub 11}), via an internal C-H bond-cleavage reaction in 5-25 ns. We find no evidence for the coordination of an alkene molecule from the bath to the CO loss complex, but do observe coordination to the allyl hydride, indicating that it is the key intermediate in the isomerization mechanism. Coordination of the alkene ligand to the allyl hydride leads to the formation of the bis-alkene isomers, Fe(CO){sub 3}({eta}{sup 2}-1-hexene)({eta}{sup 2}-2-hexene) and Fe(CO){sub 3}({eta}{sup 2}-1-hexene){sub 2}. Because of the thermodynamic stability of Fe(CO){sub 3}({eta}{sup 2}-1-hexene)({eta}{sup 2}-2-hexene) over Fe(CO){sub 3}({eta}{sup 2}-1-hexene){sub 2} (ca. 12 kcal/mol), nearly 100% of the alkene population will be 2-alkene. The results presented herein provide the first direct evidence for this mechanism in solution and suggest modifications to the currently accepted mechanism.

  13. A review on biodiesel production using catalyzed transesterification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, Dennis Y.C.; Wu, Xuan; Leung, M.K.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China)


    Biodiesel is a low-emissions diesel substitute fuel made from renewable resources and waste lipid. The most common way to produce biodiesel is through transesterification, especially alkali-catalyzed transesterification. When the raw materials (oils or fats) have a high percentage of free fatty acids or water, the alkali catalyst will react with the free fatty acids to form soaps. The water can hydrolyze the triglycerides into diglycerides and form more free fatty acids. Both of the above reactions are undesirable and reduce the yield of the biodiesel product. In this situation, the acidic materials should be pre-treated to inhibit the saponification reaction. This paper reviews the different approaches of reducing free fatty acids in the raw oil and refinement of crude biodiesel that are adopted in the industry. The main factors affecting the yield of biodiesel, i.e. alcohol quantity, reaction time, reaction temperature and catalyst concentration, are discussed. This paper also described other new processes of biodiesel production. For instance, the Biox co-solvent process converts triglycerides to esters through the selection of inert co-solvents that generates a one-phase oil-rich system. The non-catalytic supercritical methanol process is advantageous in terms of shorter reaction time and lesser purification steps but requires high temperature and pressure. For the in situ biodiesel process, the oilseeds are treated directly with methanol in which the catalyst has been preciously dissolved at ambient temperatures and pressure to perform the transesterification of oils in the oilseeds. This process, however, cannot handle waste cooking oils and animal fats. (author)

  14. Sequential Functionalization of Alkynes and Alkenes Catalyzed by Gold(I) and Palladium(II) N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Gómez-Herrera, Alberto


    The iodination of terminal alkynes for the synthesis of 1-iodoalkynes using N-iodosuccinimide in the presence of a AuI-NHC (NHC=N-heterocyclic carbene) catalyst is reported. A series of aromatic alkynes was transformed successfully into the corresponding 1-iodoalkynes in good to excellent yields under mild reaction conditions. The further use of these compounds as organic building blocks and the advantageous choice of metal-NHC complexes as catalysts for alkyne functionalization were further demonstrated by performing selective AuI-catalyzed hydrofluorination to yield (Z)-2-fluoro-1-iodoalkenes, followed by a Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling with aryl boronic acids catalyzed by a PdII-NHC complex to access trisubstituted (Z)-fluoroalkenes. All methodologies can be performed sequentially with only minor variations in the optimized individual reaction conditions, maintaining high efficiency and selectivity in all cases, which therefore, provides straightforward access to valuable fluorinated alkenes from commercially available terminal alkynes.

  15. Copper-catalyzed azide alkyne cycloaddition polymer networks (United States)

    Alzahrani, Abeer Ahmed

    The click reaction concept, introduced in 2001, has since spurred the rapid development and reexamination of efficient, high yield reactions which proceed rapidly under mild conditions. Prior to the discovery of facile copper catalysis in 2002, the thermally activated azide-alkyne or Huisgen cycloaddition reaction was largely ignored following its discovery in large part due to its slow kinetics, requirement for elevated temperature and limited selectivity. Now, arguably, the most prolific and capable of the click reactions, the copper-catalyzed azide alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction is extremely efficient and affords exquisite control of the reaction. The orthogonally and chemoselectivity of this reaction enable its wide utility across varied scientific fields. Despite numerous inherent advantages and widespread use for small molecule synthesis and solution-based polymer chemistry, it has only recently and rarely been utilized to form polymer networks. This work focuses on the synthesis, mechanisms, and unique attributes of the CuAAC reaction for the fabrication of functional polymer networks. The photo-reduction of a series of copper(II)/amine complexes via ligand metal charge transfer was examined to determine their relative efficiency and selectivity in catalyzing the CuAAC reaction. The aliphatic amine ligands were used as an electron transfer species to reduce Cu(II) upon irradiation with 365 nm light while also functioning as an accelerating agent and as protecting ligands for the Cu(I) that was formed. Among the aliphatic amines studied, tertiary amines such as triethylamine (TEA), tetramethyldiamine (TMDA), N,N,N',N",N"-pentamethyldiethylenetriamine (PMDTA), and hexamethylenetetramine (HMTETA) were found to be the most effective. The reaction kinetics were accelerated by increasing the PMDETA : Cu(II) ratio with a ratio of ligand to Cu(II) of 4:1 yielding the maximum conversion in the shortest time. The sequential and orthogonal nature of the photo

  16. Metanoliza suncokretovog ulja katalizovana negašenim krečom


    Miladinović, Marija


    The synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) from sunflower oil by the quicklime-catalyzed methanolysis reaction was investigated. The catalyst was obtained by calcination of quicklime which was characterized as a mesoporous material with higher basicity and specific area than uncalcinated quicklime. In order to investigate the influence of the methanol-to-oil molar ratio and the catalyst amount on the reaction rate and the FAME yield, sunflower oil methanolysis catalyzed b...

  17. Diastereoselective Synthesis of Symmetrical and Unsymmetrical Tetrahydropyridines Catalyzed by Bi(III) Immobilized on Triazine Dendrimer Stabilized Magnetic Nanoparticles. (United States)

    Asadi, Beheshteh; Landarani-Isfahani, Amir; Mohammadpoor-Baltork, Iraj; Tangestaninejad, Shahram; Moghadam, Majid; Mirkhani, Valiollah; Amiri Rudbari, Hadi


    Unsymmetrical 1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine-3-carboxylates were obtained for the first time from a five-component Fe 3 O 4 @TDSN-Bi(III)-catalyzed reaction of aryl aldehydes, aryl amines, and ethyl acetoacetate. This magnetically separable catalyst enabled the selective incorporation of two different aryl amines or two different aryl aldehydes into the product, and provided excellent yields, short reaction times, mild reaction conditions, satisfactory catalyst recyclability, and low catalyst loading.

  18. Nickel-Catalyzed C sp2 –C sp3 Cross-Coupling via C–O Bond Activation

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Lin


    A new and efficient nickel-catalyzed alkylation of CAr-O electrophiles with B-alkyl-9-BBNs is described. The transformation is characterized by its functional group tolerance and provides a practical and versatile access to various Csp2-Csp3 bonds through Csp2-O substitution, without the restriction of β-hydride elimination. Moreover, the advantage of the newly developed method was demonstrated in a selective and sequential C-O bond activation process. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  19. Direct access to β-oxodiazo compounds by copper(II)-catalyzed oxidative rearrangement of stabilized vinyl diazo derivatives. (United States)

    Barluenga, José; Lonzi, Giacomo; Riesgo, Lorena; Tomás, Miguel; López, Luis A


    The copper(II)-catalyzed reaction of alkenyldiazo compounds with iodosylbenzene leading to β-oxodiazo derivatives is reported. This process occurs via an unprecedented 1,2-shift of the diazoacetate function. A selection of the synthetic applications of a representative member of this new class of functionalized diazo derivatives in the regioselective synthesis of substituted 1,4-dicarbonyl compounds is also reported.

  20. A copper-catalyzed reaction of oximes with diisopropyl azodicarboxylate: an alternative method for the synthesis of oxime carbonates. (United States)

    Usman, Muhammad; Ren, Zhi-Hui; Wang, Yao-Yu; Guan, Zheng-Hui


    A new Cu-catalyzed efficient protocol is described for the transformation of oximes to the corresponding carbonate derivatives. Diisopropyl azodicarboxylate acted as a selective new precursor for the synthesis of oxime carbonates in high yields. The O-H bond cleavage and O-C bond formation occur in the presence of a copper catalyst providing a synthetically useful process, which tolerates a wide range of functional groups.

  1. Sulfonated graphenes catalyzed synthesis of expanded porphyrins ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A newer synthesis of sulfonic acid functionalized graphenes have been developed, which have been characterized, examined as heterogeneous solid acid carbocatalyst in the synthesis of selected expanded porphyrins in different reaction conditions. This environment-friendly catalyst avoids the use of toxic catalysts and ...

  2. Sulfonated graphenes catalyzed synthesis of expanded porphyrins ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A newer synthesis of sulfonic acid functionalized graphenes have been developed, which have been characterized, examined as heterogeneous solid acid carbocatalyst in the synthesis of selected expanded porphyrins in different reaction conditions. This environment-friendly catalyst avoids the use of toxic ...

  3. Acetylation and oxygenation transformations catalyzed by silica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 40 %, and 60 % by weight) as active solid acid catalysts were performed under mild reaction conditions with moderate to good yields and with 100 % selectivity. It is found that the supported H3PW12O40 was in general 1.4-2.3 times more efficient than the unsupported catalyst in the acetylation and oxygenation reactions.

  4. Palladium-Catalyzed Modification of Unprotected Nucleosides, Nucleotides, and Oligonucleotides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin H. Shaughnessy


    Full Text Available Synthetic modification of nucleoside structures provides access to molecules of interest as pharmaceuticals, biochemical probes, and models to study diseases. Covalent modification of the purine and pyrimidine bases is an important strategy for the synthesis of these adducts. Palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling is a powerful method to attach groups to the base heterocycles through the formation of new carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom bonds. In this review, approaches to palladium-catalyzed modification of unprotected nucleosides, nucleotides, and oligonucleotides are reviewed. Polar reaction media, such as water or polar aprotic solvents, allow reactions to be performed directly on the hydrophilic nucleosides and nucleotides without the need to use protecting groups. Homogeneous aqueous-phase coupling reactions catalyzed by palladium complexes of water-soluble ligands provide a general approach to the synthesis of modified nucleosides, nucleotides, and oligonucleotides.

  5. Trm9-Catalyzed tRNA Modifications Regulate Global Protein Expression by Codon-Biased Translation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Deng


    Full Text Available Post-transcriptional modifications of transfer RNAs (tRNAs have long been recognized to play crucial roles in regulating the rate and fidelity of translation. However, the extent to which they determine global protein production remains poorly understood. Here we use quantitative proteomics to show a direct link between wobble uridine 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl (mcm5 and 5-methoxy-carbonyl-methyl-2-thio (mcm5s2 modifications catalyzed by tRNA methyltransferase 9 (Trm9 in tRNAArg(UCU and tRNAGlu(UUC and selective translation of proteins from genes enriched with their cognate codons. Controlling for bias in protein expression and alternations in mRNA expression, we find that loss of Trm9 selectively impairs expression of proteins from genes enriched with AGA and GAA codons under both normal and stress conditions. Moreover, we show that AGA and GAA codons occur with high frequency in clusters along the transcripts, which may play a role in modulating translation. Consistent with these results, proteins subject to enhanced ribosome pausing in yeast lacking mcm5U and mcm5s2U are more likely to be down-regulated and contain a larger number of AGA/GAA clusters. Together, these results suggest that Trm9-catalyzed tRNA modifications play a significant role in regulating protein expression within the cell.

  6. Mechanism of Rhodium-Catalyzed C-H Functionalization: Advances in Theoretical Investigation. (United States)

    Qi, Xiaotian; Li, Yingzi; Bai, Ruopeng; Lan, Yu


    -complex assisted metathesis (σ-CAM) are discussed. Subsequent transformation of the C-Rh bond, for example, via insertion of CO, olefin, alkyne, carbene, or nitrene, constructs new C-C or C-heteroatom bonds. For the regeneration of the active catalyst, reductive elimination of a high-valent rhodium complex and protonation of the C-Rh bond are emphasized as potential mechanism candidates. In addition to detailing the reaction pathway, the regioselectivity and diastereoselectivity of rhodium-catalyzed C-H functionalization reactions are also commented upon in this Account. The origin of the selectivity is clarified through theoretical analysis. Furthermore, we summarize and compare the changes in the oxidation state of rhodium along the complete reaction pathway. The work described in this Account demonstrates that rhodium catalysis might proceed via Rh(I)/Rh(III), Rh(II)/Rh(IV), Rh(III)/Rh(V), or non-redox-Rh(III) catalytic cycles.

  7. Graphene oxide catalyzed cis-trans isomerization of azobenzene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongha Shin


    Full Text Available We report the fast cis-trans isomerization of an amine-substituted azobenzene catalyzed by graphene oxide (GO, where the amine functionality facilitates the charge transfer from azobenzene to graphene oxide in contrast to non-substituted azobenzene. This catalytic effect was not observed in stilbene analogues, which strongly supports the existence of different isomerization pathways between azobenzene and stilbene. The graphene oxide catalyzed isomerization is expected to be useful as a new photoisomerization based sensing platform complementary to GO-based fluorescence quenching methods.

  8. New Palladium-Catalyzed Approaches to Heterocycles and Carbocycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Qinhua [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    The tert-butylimines of o-(1-alkynyl)benzaldehydes and analogous pyridinecarbaldehydes have been cyclized under very mild reaction conditions in the presence of I2, ICl, PhSeCl, PhSCl and p-O2NC6H4SCl to give the corresponding halogen-, selenium- and sulfur-containing disubstituted isoquinolines and naphthyridines, respectively. Monosubstituted isoquinolines and naphthyridines have been synthesized by the metal-catalyzed ring closure of these same iminoalkynes. This methodology accommodates a variety of iminoalkynes and affords the anticipated heterocycles in moderate to excellent yields. The Pd(II)-catalyzed cyclization of 2-(1-alkynyl)arylaldimines in the presence of various alkenes provides an efficient way to synthesize a variety of 4-(1-alkenyl)-3-arylisoquinolines in moderate to excellent yields. The introduction of an ortho-methoxy group on the arylaldimine promotes the Pd-catalyzed cyclization and stabilizes the resulting Pd(II) intermediate, improving the yields of the isoquinoline products. Highly substituted naphthalenes have been synthesized by the palladium-catalyzed annulation of a variety of internal alkynes, in which two new carbon-carbon bonds are formed in a single step under relatively mild reaction conditions. This method has also been used to synthesize carbazoles, although a higher reaction temperature is necessary. The process involves arylpalladation of the alkyne, followed by intramolecular Heck olefination and double bond isomerization. This method accommodates a variety of functional groups and affords the anticipated highly substituted naphthalenes and carbazoles in good to excellent yields. Novel palladium migratiodarylation methodology for the synthesis of complex fused polycycles has been developed, in which one or more sequential Pd-catalyzed intramolecular migration processes involving C-H activation are employed. The chemistry works best with electron-rich aromatics, which is in agreement

  9. Cyclodextrin-Catalyzed Organic Synthesis: Reactions, Mechanisms, and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Cai Bai


    Full Text Available Cyclodextrins are well-known macrocyclic oligosaccharides that consist of α-(1,4 linked glucose units and have been widely used as artificial enzymes, chiral separators, chemical sensors, and drug excipients, owing to their hydrophobic and chiral interiors. Due to their remarkable inclusion capabilities with small organic molecules, more recent interests focus on organic reactions catalyzed by cyclodextrins. This contribution outlines the current progress in cyclodextrin-catalyzed organic reactions. Particular emphases are given to the organic reaction mechanisms and their applications. In the end, the future directions of research in this field are proposed.

  10. Recent advances in copper-catalyzed asymmetric coupling reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengtao Zhou


    Full Text Available Copper-catalyzed (or -mediated asymmetric coupling reactions have received significant attention over the past few years. Especially the coupling reactions of aryl or alkyl halides with nucleophiles became a very powerful tool for the formation of C–C, C–N, C–O and other carbon–heteroatom bonds as well as for the construction of heteroatom-containing ring systems. This review summarizes the recent progress in copper-catalyzed asymmetric coupling reactions for the formation of C–C and carbon–heteroatom bonds.

  11. Microbial-Catalyzed Biotransformation of Multifunctional Triterpenoids Derived from Phytonutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Adnan Ali Shah


    Full Text Available Microbial-catalyzed biotransformations have considerable potential for the generation of an enormous variety of structurally diversified organic compounds, especially natural products with complex structures like triterpenoids. They offer efficient and economical ways to produce semi-synthetic analogues and novel lead molecules. Microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi could catalyze chemo-, regio- and stereospecific hydroxylations of diverse triterpenoid substrates that are extremely difficult to produce by chemical routes. During recent years, considerable research has been performed on the microbial transformation of bioactive triterpenoids, in order to obtain biologically active molecules with diverse structures features. This article reviews the microbial modifications of tetranortriterpenoids, tetracyclic triterpenoids and pentacyclic triterpenoids.

  12. Mechanochemical Iridium(III)-Catalyzed C-H Bond Amidation of Benzamides with Sulfonyl Azides under Solvent-Free Conditions in a Ball Mill. (United States)

    Hermann, Gary N; Becker, Peter; Bolm, Carsten


    Mechanochemical conditions have been applied to an iridium(III)-catalyzed C-H bond amidation process for the first time. In the absence of solvent, the mechanochemical activation enables the formation of an iridium species that catalyzes the ortho-selective amidation of benzamides with sulfonyl azides as the nitrogen source. As the reaction proceeds in the absence of organic solvents without external heating and yields the desired products in excellent yields within short reaction times, this method constitutes a powerful, fast, and environmentally benign alternative to the common solvent-based standard approaches. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Supercritical carbon dioxide as solvent and temporary protecting group for rhodium-catalyzed hydroaminomethylation. (United States)

    Wittmann, K; Wisniewski, W; Mynott, R; Leitner, W; Kranemann, C L; Rische, L T; Eilbracht, P; Kluwer, S; Ernsting, J M; Elsevier, C J


    Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) acts simultaneously as solvent and temporary protecting group during homogeneously rhodium-catalyzed hydroaminomethylation of ethyl methallylic amine. Cyclic amines are formed as the major products in scCO,, whereas the cyclic amide is formed preferentially in conventional solvents. Multinuclear high-pressure NMR spectroscopy revealed that this selectivity switch is mainly due to reversible formation of the carbamic acid in the solvent CO2, which reduces the tendency for intramolecular ring closure at the Rh-acyl intermediate. These results substantiate the general concept of using scCO2 as a protective medium for amines in homogeneous catalysis and demonstrate for the first time its application for selectivity control.

  14. The Palladium-Catalyzed Aerobic Kinetic Resolution of Secondary Alcohols: Reaction Development, Scope, and Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ebner, Davidâ C.


    The first palladium-catalyzed enantioselective oxidation of secondary alcohols has been developed, utilizing the readily available diamine (-)-sparteine as a chiral ligand and molecular oxygen as the stoichiometric oxidant. Mechanistic insights regarding the role of the base and hydrogen-bond donors have resulted in several improvements to the original system. Namely, addition of cesium carbonate and tert-butyl alcohol greatly enhances reaction rates, promoting rapid resolutions. The use of chloroform as solvent allows the use of ambient air as the terminal oxidant at 23 degrees C, resulting in enhanced catalyst selectivity. These improved reaction conditions have permitted the successful kinetic resolution of benzylic, allylic, and cyclopropyl secondary alcohols to high enantiomeric excess with good-to-excellent selectivity factors. This catalyst system has also been applied to the desymmetrization of meso-diols, providing high yields of enantioenriched hydroxyketones.

  15. A Superacid-Catalyzed Synthesis of Porous Membranes Based on Triazine Frameworks for CO2 Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, X; Tian, CC; Mahurin, SM; Chai, SH; Wang, CM; Brown, S; Veith, GM; Luo, HM; Liu, HL; Dai, S


    A general strategy for the synthesis of porous, fluorescent, triazine-framework-based membranes with intrinsic porosity through an aromatic nitrile trimerization reaction is presented. The essence of this strategy lies in the use of a superacid to catalyze the cross-linking reaction efficiently at a low temperature, allowing porous polymer membrane architectures to be facilely derived. With fiinctionalized triazine units, the membrane exhibits an increased selectivity for membrane separation of CO2 over N-2. The good ideal CO2/N-2 selectivity of 29 +/- 2 was achieved with a CO2 permeability of 518 +/- 25 barrer. Through this general synthesis protocol, a new class of porous polymer membranes with tunable functionalities and porosities can be derived, significantly expanding the currently limited library of polymers with intrinsic microporosity for synthesizing functional membranes in separation, catalysis, and energy storage/conversion.

  16. A superacid-catalyzed synthesis of porous membranes based on triazine frameworks for CO2 separation. (United States)

    Zhu, Xiang; Tian, Chengcheng; Mahurin, Shannon M; Chai, Song-Hai; Wang, Congmin; Brown, Suree; Veith, Gabriel M; Luo, Huimin; Liu, Honglai; Dai, Sheng


    A general strategy for the synthesis of porous, fluorescent, triazine-framework-based membranes with intrinsic porosity through an aromatic nitrile trimerization reaction is presented. The essence of this strategy lies in the use of a superacid to catalyze the cross-linking reaction efficiently at a low temperature, allowing porous polymer membrane architectures to be facilely derived. With functionalized triazine units, the membrane exhibits an increased selectivity for membrane separation of CO(2) over N(2). The good ideal CO(2)/N(2) selectivity of 29 ± 2 was achieved with a CO(2) permeability of 518 ± 25 barrer. Through this general synthesis protocol, a new class of porous polymer membranes with tunable functionalities and porosities can be derived, significantly expanding the currently limited library of polymers with intrinsic microporosity for synthesizing functional membranes in separation, catalysis, and energy storage/conversion.

  17. Silver and gold nanocluster catalyzed reduction of methylene blue ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Arsenic can be determined in parts-per-million (ppm) level by absorbance measurement. This method is based on the quantitative colour bleaching of the dye, methylene blue by arsine catalyzed by nanoparticles in micellar medium. The arsine has been generated in situ from sodium arsenate by NaBH4 reduction.

  18. Silver and gold nanocluster catalyzed reduction of methylene blue ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    nanoparticles in micellar medium. The arsine has been generated in situ from sodium arsenate ... trolled use of arsenic containing pesticides, paints and pigments etc. Keeping an eye on this grave situation of ... levels using micelle catalyzed reaction (Pal et al 1998). The participation of silver or gold nanoparticle as catalyst.

  19. The 2010 Chemistry Nobel Prize: Pd (0)-Catalyzed Organic Synthesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 2. The 2010 Chemistry Nobel Prize: Pd(O)-Catalyzed Organic Synthesis. Gopalpur Nagendrappa Y C Sunil Kumar. General Article Volume 16 Issue 2 February 2011 pp 152-164 ...

  20. Bioepoxidation of isosafrol catalyzed by radish and turnip peroxidases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peroxidases (PODs) from radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and turnip (Brassica napus L.) were extracted and precipitated with ammonium sulfate using a simple, low cost and quick method. The activities of all steps performed by the vegetable PODs were measured via guaiacol assay. The epoxidation of isosafrol, catalyzed by ...

  1. Transfer hydrogenation reactions catalyzed by chiral half-sandwich ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    oxidoreductases catalyze transfer hydrogenation of car- ... ruthenium(II) complexes containing (S)-N-substituted- ... 2. Experimental. 2.1 Materials and methods. All reactions and manipulations were routinely per- formed under a nitrogen atmosphere using standard. Schlenk techniques in oven-dried glassware. L-Proline,.

  2. Development of a Lewis Base Catalyzed Selenocyclization Reaction (United States)

    Collins, William


    The concept of Lewis base activation of selenium Lewis acids has been effectively reduced to practice in the Lewis base catalyzed selenofunctionalization of unactivated olefins. In this reaction, the weakly acidic species, "N"-phenylselenyl succinimide, is cooperatively activated by the addition of a "soft" Lewis base donor (phosphine sulfides,…

  3. CU(II): catalyzed hydrazine reduction of ferric nitrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karraker, D.G.


    A method is described for producing ferrous nitrate solutions by the cupric ion-catalyzed reduction of ferric nitrate with hydrazine. The reaction is complete in about 1.5 hours at 40/sup 0/C. Hydrazoic acid is also produced in substantial quantities as a reaction byproduct.

  4. Lipase-Catalyzed Modification of Canola Oil with Caprylic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yingyao; Luan, Xia; Xu, Xuebing

    Lipase-catalyzed acidolysis of canola oil with caprylic acid was performed to produce structured lipids. Six commercial lipases from different sources were screened for their ability to incorporate the caprylic acid into the canola oil. The positional distribution of FA on the glycerol backbone...

  5. Platinum-catalyzed hydroformylation of terminal and internal octenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duren, R.; van der Vlugt, J.I.; Kooijman, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/091208610; Spek, A.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/156517566; Vogt, D.


    A brief historic overview of Pt/Sn-catalyzed hydroformylation as well as recent advances in the hydroformylation of internal alkenes is provided. This serves as background for the results obtained with the [Pt(Sixantphos)Cl2] system, for which the molecular structure and the spectroscopic data are

  6. Asymmetric gold-catalyzed lactonizations in water at room temperature** (United States)

    Handa, Sachin; Lippincott, Daniel J.; Slack, Eric D.; Aue, Donald H.


    Asymmetric gold-catalyzed hydrocarboxylations are reported that show broad substrate scope. The hydrophobic effect associated with in situ-formed aqueous nanomicelles leads to good-to-excellent ee’s of product lactones. In-flask product isolation, along with recycling of the catalyst and reaction medium, combine to arrive at an especially environmentally friendly process. PMID:25124085

  7. Catalyzing new product adoption at the base of the pyramid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marinakis, Yorgos; Walsh, Steven Thomas; Harms, Rainer


    One of the more perplexing of the entrepreneurial issues at the Base of the Pyramid (BoP) is how to catalyze new product adoption by BoP consumers. Because S-shaped adoption dynamics are the result of cultural transmission bias, the question can be rephrased as, how can an entrepreneur overcome

  8. Manganese-Catalyzed Aerobic Heterocoupling of Aryl Grignard Reagents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghaleshahi, Hajar Golshahi; Antonacci, Giuseppe; Madsen, Robert


    An improved protocol has been developed for the MnCl2-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of two arylmagnesium bromides under dioxygen. The reaction was achieved by using the Grignard reagents in a 2:1 ratio and 20 % of MnCl2. Very good yields of the heterocoupling product were obtained when the li...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sodium selenate efficiently catalyzes the three-component Biginelli reaction of an aldehyde, a,β-keto ester and urea or thiourea under solvent-free conditions to afford the corresponding 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-ones or –thiones in excellent yields. KEY WORDS: Dihydropyrimidinones, Sodium selenate, Biginelli reaction, ...

  10. Base catalyzed transesterification of sunflower oil biodiesel | Ahmad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electric oil expeller was used for the extraction of crude oil. Base catalyzed transesterifiction process is applied for optimum yield (80%) of biodiesel. Fuel properties of sunflower oil biodiesel were compared with American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). Engine efficiency of biodiesel with reference to power, ...

  11. Comparison of lipase-catalyzed synthesis of cyclopentadecanolide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 26, 2011 ... hydroxy-pentadecanate is not. It was reported that, ultra- sonic technology had been widely used in bioreaction system and had achieved ideal results (Du et al., ..... Enantioselective synthesis of silicon- containing(R)-ketone cyanhydrin catalyzed by(R)-oxynitrilase from plum in an aqueous/organic biphasic ...

  12. Transition-Metal-Catalyzed Carbonylation of Methyl Acetate. (United States)

    Polichnowski, S. W.


    Presents a study of the rhodium-catalyzed, ioding-promoted carbonylation of methyl acetate. This study provides an interesting contrast between the carbonylation of methyl acetate and the carbonylation of methanol when similar rhodium/iodine catalyst systems are used. (JN)

  13. Recent developments in gold-catalyzed cycloaddition reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando López


    Full Text Available In the last years there have been extraordinary advances in the development of gold-catalyzed cycloaddition processes. In this review we will summarize some of the most remarkable examples, and present the mechanistic rational underlying the transformations.

  14. DNA strand exchange catalyzed by molecular crowding in PEG solutions

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Bobo


    DNA strand exchange is catalyzed by molecular crowding and hydrophobic interactions in concentrated aqueous solutions of polyethylene glycol, a discovery of relevance for understanding the function of recombination enzymes and with potential applications to DNA nanotechnology. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  15. Amylase catalyzed synthesis of glycosyl acrylates and their polymerization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloosterman, Wouter M.J.; Jovanovic, Danijela; Brouwer, Sander; Loos, Katja


    The enzymatic synthesis of novel (di)saccharide acrylates from starch and 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and 4-hydroxybutyl acrylate (2-HEA, 2-HEMA and 4-HBA) catalyzed by various commercially available amylase preparations is demonstrated. Both liquefaction and

  16. Treatment of hydrocarbon contamination under flow through conditions by using magnetite catalyzed chemical oxidation. (United States)

    Usman, M; Faure, P; Lorgeoux, C; Ruby, C; Hanna, K


    Soil pollution by hydrocarbons (aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons) is a major environmental issue. Various treatments have been used to remove them from contaminated soils. In our previous studies, the ability of magnetite has been successfully explored to catalyze chemical oxidation for hydrocarbon remediation in batch slurry system. In the present laboratory study, column experiments were performed to evaluate the efficiency of magnetite catalyzed Fenton-like (FL) and activated persulfate (AP) oxidation for hydrocarbon degradation. Flow-through column experiments are intended to provide a better representation of field conditions. Organic extracts isolated from three different soils (an oil-contaminated soil from petrochemical industrial site and two soils polluted by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) originating from coking plant sites) were spiked on sand. After solvent evaporation, spiked sand was packed in column and was subjected to oxidation using magnetite as catalyst. Oxidant solution was injected at a flow rate of 0.1 mL min(-1) under water-saturated conditions. Organic analyses were performed by GC-mass spectrometry, GC-flame ionization detector, and micro-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Significant abatement of both types of hydrocarbons (60-70 %) was achieved after chemical oxidation (FL and AP) of organic extracts. No significant by-products were formed during oxidation experiment, underscoring the complete degradation of hydrocarbons. No selective degradation was observed for FL with almost similar efficiency towards all hydrocarbons. However, AP showed less reactivity towards higher molecular weight PAHs and aromatic oxygenated compounds. Results of this study demonstrated that magnetite-catalyzed chemical oxidation can effectively degrade both aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons (enhanced available contaminants) under flow-through conditions.

  17. Tandem one-pot synthesis of polysubstituted NH-pyrroles involving the palladium-catalyzed intramolecular oxidative amination of the zinc bromide complex of β-enamino esters. (United States)

    Kim, Ju Hyun; Choi, Suh Young; Bouffard, Jean; Lee, Sang-gi


    The Pd-catalyzed oxidative olefin amination of the zinc bromide complex intermediate, formed by the sequential reaction of nitriles with a Reformatsky reagent and 1-alkynes, affords pyrrole derivatives in good to excellent yields. This tandem protocol provides a simple, efficient, and atom- and pot-economical way to quickly build polysubstituted NH-pyrroles starting from readily available reagents in a regiocontrolled manner with a broad substrate scope and high functional group tolerance. In contrast, the Pd-catalyzed oxidative olefin amination of an isolated α-vinyl-β-enamino ester did not proceed effectively, but the reaction efficiency can be restored by addition of n-BuZnBr or Zn(OAc)2, indicating the crucial role of the zinc complex in this transformation. The synthetic utility of this protocol is exemplified by the rapid synthesis of pyrrolophenanthrenes and pyranopyrrolones through selective Pd- and Cu-catalyzed C-C and C-O bond-forming reactions.

  18. Method for predicting enzyme-catalyzed reactions (United States)

    Hlavacek, William S.; Unkefer, Clifford J.; Mu, Fangping; Unkefer, Pat J.


    The reactivity of given metabolites is assessed using selected empirical atomic properties in the potential reaction center. Metabolic reactions are represented as biotransformation rules. These rules are generalized from the patterns in reactions. These patterns are not unique to reactants but are widely distributed among metabolites. Using a metabolite database, potential substructures are identified in the metabolites for a given biotransformation. These substructures are divided into reactants or non-reactants, depending on whether they participate in the biotransformation or not. Each potential substructure is then modeled using descriptors of the topological and electronic properties of atoms in the potential reaction center; molecular properties can also be used. A Support Vector Machine (SVM) or classifier is trained to classify a potential reactant as a true or false reactant using these properties.

  19. Palladium(II-catalyzed Heck reaction of aryl halides and arylboronic acids with olefins under mild conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanveer Mahamadali Shaikh


    Full Text Available A series of general and selective Pd(II-catalyzed Heck reactions were investigated under mild reaction conditions. The first protocol has been developed employing an imidazole-based secondary phosphine oxide (SPO ligated palladium complex (6 as a precatalyst. The catalytic coupling of aryl halides and olefins led to the formation of the corresponding coupled products in excellent yields. A variety of substrates, both electron-rich and electron-poor olefins, were converted smoothly to the targeted products in high yields. Compared with the existing approaches employing SPO–Pd complexes in a Heck reaction, the current strategy features mild reaction conditions and broad substrate scope. Furthermore, we described the coupling of arylboronic acids with olefins, which were catalyzed by Pd(OAc2 and employed N-bromosuccinimide as an additive under ambient conditions. The resulted biaryls have been obtained in moderate to good yields.

  20. Iron-Catalyzed Reaction of Urea with Alcohols and Amines: A Safe Alternative for the Synthesis of Primary Carbamates. (United States)

    Peña-López, Miguel; Neumann, Helfried; Beller, Matthias


    A general study of the iron-catalyzed reaction of urea with nucleophiles is here presented. The carbamoylation of alcohols allows for the synthesis of N-unsubstituted (primary) carbamates, including present drugs (Felbamate and Meprobamate), without the necessity to apply phosgene and related derivatives. Using amines as nucleophiles gave rise to the respective mono- and disubstituted ureas via selective transamidation reaction. These atom-economical transformations provide a direct and selective access to valuable compounds from cheap and readily available urea using a simple Lewis-acidic iron(II) catalyst. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Origins of Enantioselectivity during Allylic Substitution Reactions Catalyzed by Metallacyclic Iridium Complexes (United States)

    Madrahimov, Sherzod T.; Hartwig, John F.


    In depth mechanistic studies of iridium catalyzed regioselective and enantioselective allylic substitution reactions are presented. A series of cyclometallated allyliridium complexes that are kinetically and chemically competent to be intermediates in the allylic substitution reactions was prepared and characterized by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopies and solid state structural analysis. The rates of epimerization of the less thermodynamically stable diastereomeric allyliridium complexes to the thermodynamically more stable allyliridium stereoisomers were measured. The rates of nucleophilic attack by aniline and by N-methylaniline on the isolated allyliridium complexes were also measured. Attack on the thermodynamically less stable allyliridium complex was found to be orders of magnitude faster than attack on the thermodynamically more stable complex, yet the major enantiomer of the catalytic reaction is formed from the more stable diastereomer. Comparison of the rates of nucleophilic attack to the rates of epimerization of the diastereomeric allyliridium complexes containing a weakly-coordinating counterion showed that nucleophilic attack on the less stable allyliridium species is much faster than conversion of the less stable isomer to the more stable isomer. These observations imply that Curtin-Hammett conditions are not met during iridium catalyzed allylic substitution reactions by η3-η1-η3 interconversion. Rather, these data imply that when these conditions exist for this reaction, they are created by reversible oxidative addition and the high selectivity of this oxidative addition step to form the more stable diastereomeric allyl complex leads to the high enantioselectivity. The stereochemical outcome of the individual steps of allylic substitution was assessed by reaction of deuterium-labeled substrates. The reaction was shown to occur by oxidative addition with inversion of configuration, followed by an outer sphere nucleophilic attack that leads to a second

  2. HLA-DM Focuses on Conformational Flexibility Around P1 Pocket to Catalyze Peptide Exchange. (United States)

    Yin, Liusong; Stern, Lawrence J


    Peptides presented by major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) molecules to CD4+ T cells play a central role in the initiation of adaptive immunity. This antigen presentation process is characterized by the proteolytic cleavage of foreign and self proteins, and loading of the resultant peptides onto MHCII molecules. Loading and exchange of antigenic peptides is catalyzed by a non-classical MHCII molecule, HLA-DM. The impact of HLA-DM on epitope selection has been appreciated for a long time. However, the molecular mechanism by which HLA-DM mediates peptide exchange remains elusive. Here, we review recent efforts in elucidating how HLA-DM works, highlighted by two recently solved co-structures of HLA-DM bound to HLA-DO (a natural inhibitor of HLA-DM), or to HLA-DR1 (a common MHCII). In light of these efforts, a model for HLA-DM action in which HLA-DM utilizes conformational flexibility around the P1 pocket of the MHCII-peptide complex to catalyze peptide exchange is proposed.

  3. Remote C−H Activation of Quinolines through Copper-Catalyzed Radical Cross-Coupling

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Jun


    Achieving site selectivity in carbon-hydrogen (C-H) functionalization reactions is a formidable challenge in organic chemistry. Herein, we report a novel approach to activating remote C-H bonds at the C5 position of 8-aminoquinoline through copper-catalyzed sulfonylation under mild conditions. Our strategy shows high conversion efficiency, a broad substrate scope, and good toleration with different functional groups. Furthermore, our mechanistic investigations suggest that a single-electron-transfer process plays a vital role in generating sulfonyl radicals and subsequently initiating C-S cross-coupling. Importantly, our copper-catalyzed remote functionalization protocol can be expanded for the construction of a variety of chemical bonds, including C-O, C-Br, C-N, C-C, and C-I. These findings provide a fundamental insight into the activation of remote C-H bonds, while offering new possibilities for rational design of drug molecules and optoelectronic materials requiring specific modification of functional groups. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Palladium-Catalyzed Anti-Markovnikov Oxidation of Allylic Amides to Protected β-Amino Aldehydes. (United States)

    Dong, Jia Jia; Harvey, Emma C; Fañanás-Mastral, Martín; Browne, Wesley R; Feringa, Ben L


    A general method for the preparation of N-protected β-amino aldehydes from allylic amines or linear allylic alcohols is described. Here the Pd(II)-catalyzed oxidation of N-protected allylic amines with benzoquinone is achieved in tBuOH under ambient conditions with excellent selectivity toward the anti-Markovnikov aldehyde products and full retention of configuration at the allylic carbon. The method shows a wide substrate scope and is tolerant of a range of protecting groups. Furthermore, β-amino aldehydes can be obtained directly from protected allylic alcohols via palladium-catalyzed autotandem reactions, and the application of this method to the synthesis of β-peptide aldehydes is described. From a mechanistic perspective, we demonstrate that tBuOH acts as a nucleophile in the reaction and that the initially formed tert-butyl ether undergoes spontaneous loss of isobutene to yield the aldehyde product. Furthermore, tBuOH can be used stoichiometrically, thereby broadening the solvent scope of the reaction. Primary and secondary alcohols do not undergo elimination, allowing the isolation of acetals, which subsequently can be hydrolyzed to their corresponding aldehyde products.

  5. Stereochemical aspects of the glutathione S-transferase-catalyzed conjugations of alkyl halides. (United States)

    Ridgewell, R E; Abdel-Monem, M M


    (R,S)-2-iodooctane and (R,S)-2-bromooctane were found to be substrates for the glutathione S-transferases from rat liver. The conjugation reactions of the enantiomeric 2-halooctanes and glutathione were found to proceed with inversion of configuration at the chiral carbon of the substrate. Selective titration of the free cysteine residues of the glutathione S-transferases provided no observable effect on the stereochemical course of these conjugation reactions. No evidence for substrate stereoselectivity was observed. The diastereomeric S-(2-octyl)glutathiones were produced in approximately equal amounts from racemic 2-halooctane substrates. With S-(+)-2-iodooctane as the electrophilic substrate, a biphasic double reciprocal plot of glutathione concentration vs. initial velocity of product formation was observed suggesting complex kinetics. The S-2-octylglutathione diastereomers were found to be potent inhibitors of the glutathione S-transferase-catalyzed conjugation of 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene. These results provide support for a single displacement mechanism for the conjugation of 2-halooctanes and glutathione catalyzed by the glutathione S-transferases with product inhibition at low glutathione concentrations.

  6. Preparation of Biodiesel by Methanolysis of Crude Moringa Oleifera Oil (United States)

    Biodiesel was prepared from the unconventional crude oil of Moringa oleifera by transesterification with methanol and alkali catalyst. Moringa oleifera oil is reported for the first time as potential feedstock for biodiesel. Moringa oleifera oil contains a high amount of oleic acid (>70%) with sat...

  7. Kinetics of phycocyanobilin cleavage from C-phycocyanin by methanolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malwade, Chandrakant Ramkrishna; Roda Serrat, Maria Cinta; Christensen, Knud Villy


    Phycocyanobilin (PCB) is an important linear tetrapyrrolic molecule for food as well as pharmaceutical industry. It is obtained from blue-green algae, where it is attached covalently to phycobiliproteins (C-PC and APC) present in the light harvesting complexes. In this work, cleavage of PCB from...

  8. Mechanism of Intramolecular Rhodium- and Palladium-Catalyzed Alkene Alkoxyfunctionalizations

    KAUST Repository

    Vummaleti, Sai V. C.


    Density functional theory calculations have been used to investigate the reaction mechanism for the [Rh]-catalyzed intramolecular alkoxyacylation ([Rh] = [RhI(dppp)+] (dppp, 1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane) and [Pd]/BPh3 dual catalytic system assisted intramolecular alkoxycyanation ([Pd] = Pd-Xantphos) using acylated and cyanated 2-allylphenol derivatives as substrates, respectively. Our results substantially confirm the proposed mechanism for both [Rh]- and [Pd]/ BPh3-mediated alkoxyfunctionalizations, offering a detailed geometrical and energetical understanding of all the elementary steps. Furthermore, for the [Rh]-mediated alkoxyacylation, our observations support the hypothesis that the quinoline group of the substrate is crucial to stabilize the acyl metal complex and prevent further decarbonylation. For [Pd]/BPh3-catalyzed alkoxycyanation, our findings clarify how the Lewis acid BPh3 cocatalyst accelerates the only slow step of the reaction, corresponding to the oxidative addition of the cyanate O-CN bond to the Pd center. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  9. DNA Self-assembly Catalyzed by Artificial Agents. (United States)

    Shi, Chao; Wang, Yifan; Zhang, Menghua; Ma, Cuiping


    Nucleic acids have been shown to be versatile molecules and engineered to produce various nanostructures. However, the poor rate of these uncatalyzed nucleic acid reactions has restricted the development and applications. Herein, we reported a novel finding that DNA self-assembly could be nonenzymatically catalyzed by artificial agents with an increasing dissociation rate constant K2. The catalytic role of several artificial agents in DNA self-assembly was verified by real-time fluorescent detection or agarose gel electrophoresis. We found that 20% PEG 200 could significantly catalyze DNA self-assembly and increase the reaction efficiency, such as linear hybridization chain reaction (HCR) and exponential hairpin assembly (EHA). Therefore, we foresee that a fast and efficient DNA self-assembly in structural DNA nanotechnology will be desirable.

  10. Mild and efficient cyanuric chloride catalyzed Pictet–Spengler reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Sharma


    Full Text Available A practical, mild and efficient protocol for the Pictet–Spengler reaction catalyzed by cyanuric chloride (trichloro-1,3,5-triazine, TCT is described. The 6-endo cyclization of tryptophan/tryptamine and modified Pictet–Spengler substrates with both electron-withdrawing and electron-donating aldehydes was carried out by using a catalytic amount of TCT (10 mol % in DMSO under a nitrogen atmosphere. TCT catalyzed the Pictet–Spengler reaction involving electron-donating aldehydes in excellent yield. Thus, it has a distinct advantage over the existing methodologies where electron-donating aldehydes failed to undergo 6-endo cyclization. Our methodology provided broad substrate scope and diversity. This is indeed the first report of the use of TCT as a catalyst for the Pictet–Spengler reaction.

  11. Copper-Catalyzed Alkoxycarbonylation of Alkanes with Alcohols. (United States)

    Li, Yahui; Wang, Changsheng; Zhu, Fengxiang; Wang, Zechao; Dixneuf, Pierre H; Wu, Xiao-Feng


    Esters are important chemicals widely used in various areas, and alkoxycarbonylation represents one of the most powerful tools for their synthesis. In this communication, a new copper-catalyzed carbonylative procedure for the synthesis of aliphatic esters from cycloalkanes and alcohols was developed. Through direct activation of the Csp3 -H bond of alkanes and with alcohols as the nucleophiles, the desired esters were prepared in moderate-to-good yields. Paraformaldehyde could also be applied for in situ alcohol generation by radical trapping, and moderate yields of the corresponding esters could be produced. Notably, this is the first report on copper-catalyzed alkoxycarbonylation of alkanes. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Hydroperoxide-dependent sulfoxidation catalyzed by soybean microsomes. (United States)

    Blee, E; Durst, F


    The sulfoxidation of methiocarb, an aromatic-alkyl sulfide pesticide, catalyzed by soybean microsomes was found to be strongly stimulated in the presence of cumene and linoleic acid hydroperoxides. We have shown that this S-oxidation, which does not require cofactors such as NAD(P)H, is an hydroperoxide-dependent reaction: 18O2-labeling experiments demonstrated that the oxygen atom incorporated into the sulfoxide originated from hydroperoxides rather than from molecular oxygen. In the absence of exogenous hydroperoxides, soybean microsomes catalyzed methiocarb sulfoxide formation at a basal rate dependent on their endogenous hydroperoxides, especially those derived from free fatty acids. The nature of the sulfoxidase is discussed. Our results seem to rule out the participation of cytochrome P-450 in this oxidation, whereas the studied sulfoxidase presents some similarities to plant peroxygenase.

  13. Transition Metal Catalyzed Synthesis of Carboxylic Acids, Imines, and Biaryls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santilli, Carola; Madsen, Robert

    Dehydrogenative synthesis of carboxylic acids catalyzed by a ruthenium N- heterocycliccarbene complex. A new methodology for the synthesis of carboxylic acids from primary alcohols and hydroxide has been developed. The reaction is catalyzed by the ruthenium N-heterocycliccarbene complex [RuCl2(Ii......Pr)(p-cymene)] where dihydrogen is generated as the only by-product (Scheme i). The dehydrogenative reaction is performed in toluene, which allows for a simple isolation of the products by precipitation followed by extraction. Various substituted benzyl alcohols smoothly undergo the transformation. The fast conversion...... to the carboxylic acids can be explained by the involvement of a competing Cannizzaro reaction. The scope of the dehydrogenation was further extended to linear and branched saturated aliphatic alcohols, although longer reaction times are necessary to ensure complete substrate conversions. The kinetic isotope effect...

  14. Identification of the enzymes catalyzing metabolism of methoxyflurane. (United States)

    Waskell, L; Canova-Davis, E; Philpot, R; Parandoush, Z; Chiang, J Y


    The hepatic microsomal metabolism of methoxyflurane in rabbits is markedly stimulated by treatment with phenobarbital. However, the increased rate of metabolism cannot be completely accounted for by the activity of the purified phenobarbital-inducible cytochrome P-450 isozyme 2, even in the presence of cytochrome b5. The discovery of a second hepatic phenobarbital-inducible cytochrome P-450, isozyme 5, led us to undertake experiments to determine in hepatic and pulmonary preparations the portion of microsomal metabolism of methoxyflurane catalyzed by cytochrome P-450 isozymes 2 and 5. We report herein that isozyme 2 accounts for 25% and 29%, respectively, of the O-demethylation of methoxyflurane in hepatic microsomes from untreated and phenobarbital-treated rabbits, and for 25% of the methoxyflurane metabolism in pulmonary microsomes. Results for isozyme 5 indicate that it catalyzes 19% and 27% of methoxyflurane metabolism in control and phenobarbital-induced liver, and 47% of O-demethylation in the lung. In summary, we demonstrate that methoxyflurane O-demethylation in lung, phenobarbital-induced liver, and control liver microsomes is catalyzed by cytochrome P-450 isozymes 2 and 5. Results with purified cytochrome P-450 isozyme 5 are consistent with those obtained using microsomal preparations. Furthermore, metabolism of methoxyflurane by purified isozyme 5 is markedly stimulated by cytochrome b5. A role for cytochrome b5 in cytochrome P-450 isozyme 5-catalyzed metabolism of methoxyflurane was also demonstrated in microsomes. Antibody to isozyme 5 was unable to inhibit methoxyflurane metabolism in the presence of maximally inhibiting concentrations of cytochrome b5 antibody.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Lipase-Catalyzed Kinetic Resolution of Aryltrimethylsilyl Chiral Alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro H. Andrade


    Full Text Available Lipase-catalyzed kinetic resolution of aryltrimethylsilyl chiral alcohols through a transesterification reaction was studied. The optimal conditions found for the kinetic resolution of m- and p-aryltrimethylsilyl chiral alcohols, led to excellent results, high conversions (c = 50%, high enantiomeric ratios (E > 200 and enantiomeric excesses for the remaining (S-alcohol and (R-acetylated product (>99%. However, kinetic resolution of o-aryltrimethylsilyl chiral alcohols did not occur under the same conditions applied to the other isomers.

  16. Medium effect on cyclohexene hydrocarbomethoxylation catalyzed by ruthenium (III) chloride


    Sevostyanova N.; Batashev S.


    This paper presents influence of some solvents on cyclohexene hydrocarbomethoxylation catalyzed by ruthenium(III) chloride. The objective of the work was contained in the determination of medium influence on the reaction rate and yield of product — methyl cyclohexanecarboxylate. The kinetic method was used as the main method of investigation. The gas–liquid chromatography method was used to analyze the reaction mass. Influence of methanol, toluene, acetone and water on the hydrocarmothoxy...

  17. Synthesis of Graphite Encapsulated Metal Nanoparticles and Metal Catalyzed Nanotubes (United States)

    vanderWal, R. L.; Dravid, V. P.


    This work focuses on the growth and inception of graphite encapsulated metal nanoparticles and metal catalyzed nanotubes using combustion chemistry. Deciphering the inception and growth mechanism(s) for these unique nanostructures is essential for purposeful synthesis. Detailed knowledge of these mechanism(s) may yield insights into alternative synthesis pathways or provide data on unfavorable conditions. Production of these materials is highly desirable given many promising technological applications.

  18. Gold-catalyzed cyclization of allenyl acetal derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhananjayan Vasu


    Full Text Available The gold-catalyzed transformation of allenyl acetals into 5-alkylidenecyclopent-2-en-1-ones is described. The outcome of our deuterium labeling experiments supports a 1,4-hydride shift of the resulting allyl cationic intermediates because a complete deuterium transfer is observed. We tested the reaction on various acetal substrates bearing a propargyl acetate, giving 4-methoxy-5-alkylidenecyclopent-2-en-1-ones 4 via a degradation of the acetate group at the allyl cation intermediate.

  19. Vanadium haloperoxidase-catalyzed bromination and cyclization of terpenes. (United States)

    Carter-Franklin, Jayme N; Parrish, Jon D; Tschirret-Guth, Richard A; Little, R Daniel; Butler, Alison


    Marine red algae (Rhodophyta) are a rich source of bioactive halogenated natural products, including cyclic terpenes. The biogenesis of certain cyclic halogenated marine natural products is thought to involve marine haloperoxidase enzymes. Evidence is presented that vanadium bromoperoxidase (V-BrPO) isolated and cloned from marine red algae that produce halogenated compounds (e.g., Plocamium cartilagineum, Laurencia pacifica, Corallina officinalis) can catalyze the bromination and cyclization of terpenes and terpene analogues. The V-BrPO-catalyzed reaction with the monoterpene nerol in the presence of bromide ion and hydrogen peroxide produces a monobromo eight-membered cyclic ether similar to laurencin, a brominated C15 acetogenin, from Laurencia glandulifera, along with noncyclic bromohydrin, epoxide, and dibromoproducts; however, reaction of aqueous bromine with nerol produced only noncyclic bromohydrin, epoxide, and dibromoproducts. The V-BrPO-catalyzed reaction with geraniol in the presence of bromide ion and hydrogen peroxide produces two singly brominated six-membered cyclic products, analogous to the ring structures of alpha and beta snyderols, brominated sesquiterpenes from Laurencia, spp., along with noncyclic bromohydrin, epoxide, and dibromoproducts; again, reaction of geraniol with aqueous bromine produces only noncyclic bromohydrin, epoxide, and dibromoproducts. Thus, V-BrPO can direct the electrophilic bromination and cyclization of terpenes.

  20. Aluminum-catalyzed silicon nanowires: Growth methods, properties, and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hainey, Mel F.; Redwing, Joan M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)


    Metal-mediated vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth is a promising approach for the fabrication of silicon nanowires, although residual metal incorporation into the nanowires during growth can adversely impact electronic properties particularly when metals such as gold and copper are utilized. Aluminum, which acts as a shallow acceptor in silicon, is therefore of significant interest for the growth of p-type silicon nanowires but has presented challenges due to its propensity for oxidation. This paper summarizes the key aspects of aluminum-catalyzed nanowire growth along with wire properties and device results. In the first section, aluminum-catalyzed nanowire growth is discussed with a specific emphasis on methods to mitigate aluminum oxide formation. Next, the influence of growth parameters such as growth temperature, precursor partial pressure, and hydrogen partial pressure on nanowire morphology is discussed, followed by a brief review of the growth of templated and patterned arrays of nanowires. Aluminum incorporation into the nanowires is then discussed in detail, including measurements of the aluminum concentration within wires using atom probe tomography and assessment of electrical properties by four point resistance measurements. Finally, the use of aluminum-catalyzed VLS growth for device fabrication is reviewed including results on single-wire radial p-n junction solar cells and planar solar cells fabricated with nanowire/nanopyramid texturing.

  1. Aluminum-catalyzed silicon nanowires: Growth methods, properties, and applications (United States)

    Hainey, Mel F.; Redwing, Joan M.


    Metal-mediated vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth is a promising approach for the fabrication of silicon nanowires, although residual metal incorporation into the nanowires during growth can adversely impact electronic properties particularly when metals such as gold and copper are utilized. Aluminum, which acts as a shallow acceptor in silicon, is therefore of significant interest for the growth of p-type silicon nanowires but has presented challenges due to its propensity for oxidation. This paper summarizes the key aspects of aluminum-catalyzed nanowire growth along with wire properties and device results. In the first section, aluminum-catalyzed nanowire growth is discussed with a specific emphasis on methods to mitigate aluminum oxide formation. Next, the influence of growth parameters such as growth temperature, precursor partial pressure, and hydrogen partial pressure on nanowire morphology is discussed, followed by a brief review of the growth of templated and patterned arrays of nanowires. Aluminum incorporation into the nanowires is then discussed in detail, including measurements of the aluminum concentration within wires using atom probe tomography and assessment of electrical properties by four point resistance measurements. Finally, the use of aluminum-catalyzed VLS growth for device fabrication is reviewed including results on single-wire radial p-n junction solar cells and planar solar cells fabricated with nanowire/nanopyramid texturing.

  2. Asymmetric Stetter reactions catalyzed by thiamine diphosphate-dependent enzymes. (United States)

    Kasparyan, Elena; Richter, Michael; Dresen, Carola; Walter, Lydia S; Fuchs, Georg; Leeper, Finian J; Wacker, Tobias; Andrade, Susana L A; Kolter, Geraldine; Pohl, Martina; Müller, Michael


    The intermolecular asymmetric Stetter reaction is an almost unexplored transformation for biocatalysts. Previously reported thiamine diphosphate (ThDP)-dependent PigD from Serratia marcescens is the first enzyme identified to catalyze the Stetter reaction of α,β-unsaturated ketones (Michael acceptor substrates) and α-keto acids. PigD is involved in the biosynthesis of the potent cytotoxic agent prodigiosin. Here, we describe the investigation of two new ThDP-dependent enzymes, SeAAS from Saccharopolyspora erythraea and HapD from Hahella chejuensis. Both show a high degree of homology to the amino acid sequence of PigD (39 and 51 %, respectively). The new enzymes were heterologously overproduced in Escherichia coli, and the yield of soluble protein was enhanced by co-expression of the chaperone genes groEL/ES. SeAAS and HapD catalyze intermolecular Stetter reactions in vitro with high enantioselectivity. The enzymes possess a characteristic substrate range with respect to Michael acceptor substrates. This provides support for a new type of ThDP-dependent enzymatic activity, which is abundant in various species and not restricted to prodigiosin biosynthesis in different strains. Moreover, PigD, SeAAS, and HapD are also able to catalyze asymmetric carbon-carbon bond formation reactions of aldehydes and α-keto acids, resulting in 2-hydroxy ketones.

  3. Modification of oligo-Ricinoleic Acid and Its Derivatives with 10-Undecenoic Acid via Lipase-Catalyzed Esterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Claudia Montiel


    Full Text Available Lipases were employed under solvent-free conditions to conjugate oligo-ricinoleic acid derivatives with 10-undecenoic acid, to incorporate a reactive terminal double bond into the resultant product. First, undecenoic acid was covalently attached to oligo-ricinoleic acid using immobilized Candida antarctica lipase (CAL at a 30% yield. Thirty percent conversion also occurred for CAL-catalyzed esterification between undecenoic acid and biocatalytically-prepared polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR, with attachment of undecenoic acid occurring primarily at free hydroxyls of the polyglycerol moiety. The synthesis of oligo-ricinoleyl-, undecenoyl- structured triacylglycerols comprised two steps. The first step, the 1,3-selective lipase-catalyzed interesterification of castor oil with undecenoic acid, occurred successfully. The second step, the CAL-catalyzed reaction between ricinoleyl-, undecenoyl structured TAG and ricinoleic acid, yielded approximately 10% of the desired structured triacylglycerols (TAG; however, a significant portion of the ricinoleic acid underwent self-polymerization as a side-reaction. The employment of gel permeation chromatography, normal phase HPLC, NMR, and acid value measurements was effective for characterizing the reaction pathways and products that formed.

  4. Chemoselective, Enzymatic C-H Bond Amination Catalyzed by a Cytochrome P450 Containing an Ir(Me)-PIX Cofactor. (United States)

    Dydio, Paweł; Key, Hanna M; Hayashi, Hiroki; Clark, Douglas S; Hartwig, John F


    Cytochrome P450 enzymes have been engineered to catalyze abiological C-H bond amination reactions, but the yields of these reactions have been limited by low chemoselectivity for the amination of C-H bonds over competing reduction of the azide substrate to a sulfonamide. Here we report that P450s derived from a thermophilic organism and containing an iridium porphyrin cofactor (Ir(Me)-PIX) in place of the heme catalyze enantioselective intramolecular C-H bond amination reactions of sulfonyl azides. These reactions occur with chemoselectivity for insertion of the nitrene units into C-H bonds over reduction of the azides to the sulfonamides that is higher and with substrate scope that is broader than those of enzymes containing iron porphyrins. The products from C-H amination are formed in up to 98% yield and ∼300 TON. In one case, the enantiomeric excess reaches 95:5 er, and the reactions can occur with divergent site selectivity. The chemoselectivity for C-H bond amination is greater than 20:1 in all cases. Variants of the Ir(Me)-PIX CYP119 displaying these properties were identified rapidly by evaluating CYP119 mutants containing Ir(Me)-PIX in cell lysates, rather than as purified enzymes. This study sets the stage to discover suitable enzymes to catalyze challenging C-H amination reactions.

  5. Lipase-Catalyzed Kinetic Resolution of Novel Antifungal N-Substituted Benzimidazole Derivatives. (United States)

    Łukowska-Chojnacka, Edyta; Staniszewska, Monika; Bondaryk, Małgorzata; Maurin, Jan K; Bretner, Maria


    A series of new N-substituted benzimidazole derivatives was synthesized and their antifungal activity against Candida albicans was evaluated. The chemical step included synthesis of appropriate ketones containing benzimidazole ring, reduction of ketones to the racemic alcohols, and acetylation of alcohols to the esters. All benzimidazole derivatives were obtained with satisfactory yields and in relatively short times. All synthesized compounds exhibit significant antifungal activity against Candida albicans 900028 ATCC (% cell inhibition at 0.25 μg concentration > 98%). Additionally, racemic mixtures of alcohols were separated by lipase-catalyzed kinetic resolution. In the enzymatic step a transesterification reaction was applied and the influence of a lipase type and solvent on the enantioselectivity of the reaction was studied. The most selective enzymes were Novozyme SP 435 and lipase Amano AK from Pseudomonas fluorescens (E > 100). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Effects of divalent cations on bovine testicular hyaluronidase catalyzed transglycosylation of chondroitin sulfates. (United States)

    Kakizaki, Ikuko; Nukatsuka, Isoshi; Takagaki, Keiichi; Majima, Mitsuo; Iwafune, Mito; Suto, Shinichiro; Endo, Masahiko


    Glycosaminoglycans were prepared as salts of different divalent cations and tested as donors in bovine testicular hyaluronidase catalyzed transglycosylation reactions. All of the metal cations examined had similar binding efficiency of divalent cations to hyaluronan. However, cations bound with different efficiencies to chondroitin sulfate species and the differences were marked in the case of chondroitin 6-sulfate; the numbers of cations bound per disaccharide unit were estimated to be 0.075 for Mn, 1.231 for Ba, 0.144 for Zn, and 0.395 for Cu. While barium salt of chondroitin sulfates enhanced transglycosylation, the zinc salt of chondroitin sulfates inhibited transglycosylation. Therefore, by selecting the proper divalent cation salt of chondroitin sulfates as a donor in the transglycosylation reaction it is possible to improve the yields of the products. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Improvement of silicon nanowire solar cells made by metal catalyzed electroless etching and nano imprint lithography (United States)

    Chen, Junyi; Subramani, Thiyagu; Jevasuwan, Wipakorn; Fukata, Naoki


    Silicon nanowires were fabricated by metal catalyzed electroless etching (MCEE) and nano imprint lithography (NIL), then a shell p-type layer was grown by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques. To reduce back surface recombination and also to activate the dopant, we used two techniques, back surface field (BSF) treatment and rapid thermal annealing (RTA), to improve device performance. In this study, we investigated BSF and RTA treatments in silicon nanowire solar cells, and improved the device performance and efficiency from 4.1 to 7.4% (MCEE device) and from 1.1 to 6.6% (NIL device) after introducing BSF and RTA treatments. Moreover, to achieve better metal contact without sacrificing the reflectance after the shell formation, the selective-area etching method was investigated. Finally, after combining all processes, silicon nanowire solar cells fabricated via the MCEE process exhibited 8.7% efficiency.

  8. Molecular-scale perspective of water-catalyzed methanol dehydrogenation to formaldehyde. (United States)

    Boucher, Matthew B; Marcinkowski, Matthew D; Liriano, Melissa L; Murphy, Colin J; Lewis, Emily A; Jewell, April D; Mattera, Michael F G; Kyriakou, Georgios; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria; Sykes, E Charles H


    Methanol steam reforming is a promising reaction for on-demand hydrogen production. Copper catalysts have excellent activity and selectivity for methanol conversion to hydrogen and carbon dioxide. This product balance is dictated by the formation and weak binding of formaldehyde, the key reaction intermediate. It is widely accepted that oxygen adatoms or oxidized copper are required to activate methanol. However, we show herein by studying a well-defined metallic copper surface that water alone is capable of catalyzing the conversion of methanol to formaldehyde. Our results indicate that six or more water molecules act in concert to deprotonate methanol to methoxy. Isolated palladium atoms in the copper surface further promote this reaction. This work reveals an unexpected role of water, which is typically considered a bystander in this key chemical transformation.

  9. Keratin Protein-Catalyzed Nitroaldol (Henry) Reaction and Comparison with Other Biopolymers. (United States)

    Häring, Marleen; Pettignano, Asja; Quignard, Françoise; Tanchoux, Nathalie; Díaz Díaz, David


    Here we describe a preliminary investigation on the ability of natural keratin to catalyze the nitroaldol (Henry) reaction between aldehydes and nitroalkanes. Both aromatic and heteroaromatic aldehydes bearing strong or moderate electron-withdrawing groups were converted into the corresponding β-nitroalcohol products in both DMSO and in water in the presence of tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB) as a phase transfer catalyst. Negligible background reactions (i.e., negative control experiment in the absence of keratin protein) were observed in these solvent systems. Aromatic aldehydes bearing electron-donating groups and aliphatic aldehydes showed poor or no conversion, respectively. In general, the reactions in water/TBAB required twice the amount of time than in DMSO to achieve similar conversions. Moreover, comparison of the kinetics of the keratin-mediated nitroaldol (Henry) reaction with other biopolymers revealed slower rates for the former and the possibility of fine-tuning the kinetics by appropriate selection of the biopolymer and solvent.

  10. Keratin Protein-Catalyzed Nitroaldol (Henry Reaction and Comparison with Other Biopolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleen Häring


    Full Text Available Here we describe a preliminary investigation on the ability of natural keratin to catalyze the nitroaldol (Henry reaction between aldehydes and nitroalkanes. Both aromatic and heteroaromatic aldehydes bearing strong or moderate electron-withdrawing groups were converted into the corresponding β-nitroalcohol products in both DMSO and in water in the presence of tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB as a phase transfer catalyst. Negligible background reactions (i.e., negative control experiment in the absence of keratin protein were observed in these solvent systems. Aromatic aldehydes bearing electron-donating groups and aliphatic aldehydes showed poor or no conversion, respectively. In general, the reactions in water/TBAB required twice the amount of time than in DMSO to achieve similar conversions. Moreover, comparison of the kinetics of the keratin-mediated nitroaldol (Henry reaction with other biopolymers revealed slower rates for the former and the possibility of fine-tuning the kinetics by appropriate selection of the biopolymer and solvent.

  11. Mechanism of the reaction catalyzed by mandelate racemase. 3. Asymmetry in reactions catalyzed by the H297N mutant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landro, J.A.; Kallarakal, A.T.; Ransom, S.C.; Gerlt, J.A.; Kozarich, J.W. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States)); Neidhart, D.J. (Abbott Labs., Abbott Park, IL (United States)); Kenyon, G.L. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (United States))


    Two preceding papers suggest that the active site of mandelate racemase (MR) contains two distinct general acid/base catalysts: Lys 166, which abstracts the {alpha}-proton from (s)-mandelate, and His 297, which abstracts the {alpha}-proton from (R)-mandelate. In this paper the authors report on the properties of the mutant of MR in which His 297 has been converted to asparagine by site-directed mutagenesis (H297N). The structure of H297N, solved by molecular replacement at 2.2-{angstrom} resolution, reveals that no conformational alterations accompany the substitution. As expected, h297N has no detectable MR activity. However, H297N catalyzes the stereospecific elimination of bromide ion from racemic {rho}-(bromomethyl) mandelate to give {rho}-(methyl)-benzoylformate in 45% yield at a rate equal to that measured for wild-type enzyme. The pD dependence of the rate of the exchange reaction catalyzed by H297N reveals a pK{sub a} of 6.4 in D{sub 2}O which is assigned to Lys 166. These observations provide persuasive evidence that the reaction catalyzed by MR does, in fact, proceed via a two-base mechanism in which Lys 166 abstracts the {alpha}-proton from (S)-mandelate and His 297 abstracts the {alpha}-proton from (R)-mandelate. These studies demonstrate the power of site-directed mutagenesis in providing otherwise inaccessible detail about the mechanism of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction.

  12. CAL-B-Catalyzed deacylation of benzylic acetates: Effect of amines addition. Comparison of several approaches. (United States)

    Merabet-Khelassi, Mounia; Zaidi, Amna; Aribi-Zouioueche, Louisa


    Herein, we report an efficient enantioselective cleavage of the acyl-moity of some secondary benzylic acetate derivatives catalyzed by lipase B from Candida antarctica (CAL-B) in the presence of triethylamine, as additive, in non aqueous media. The influence of the hydrophobicity of two solvent, the basicity of three amines and the amount of CAL-B were studied in the presence/absence of molecular sieves 4Å. The best results in term of selectivity are achieved using the triethylamine as basic additive and in that case, the reactivity is only best at low conversion. To establish the effect of the parallel and/or competitive hydrolysis and its impact on the reactivity and selectivity of the enzymatic resolution, the kinetic profiles of three CAL-B-deacylation approaches of phenylethylacetate have been compared, using different nucleophiles in competition with the internal water mediated by: Na2CO3, EtOH and by using the Et3N as additive. Furthermore, a comparison between these deacylations with the acylation of 1-phenylethanol with isopropenylacetate, has been made. The appropriate modulation of some crucial parameters allows an optimal conversion and a high selectivity depending on the acetate structure and the introduced base. In the majority of cases, the (R)-alcohols are obtained with ee>99% and selectivities E>200 under mild conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Acid-Catalyzed Preparation of Biodiesel from Waste Vegetable Oil: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory (United States)

    Bladt, Don; Murray, Steve; Gitch, Brittany; Trout, Haylee; Liberko, Charles


    This undergraduate organic laboratory exercise involves the sulfuric acid-catalyzed conversion of waste vegetable oil into biodiesel. The acid-catalyzed method, although inherently slower than the base-catalyzed methods, does not suffer from the loss of product or the creation of emulsion producing soap that plagues the base-catalyzed methods when…

  14. Efficient and selective α-bromination of carbonyl compounds with N-bromosuccinimide under microwave

    KAUST Repository

    Guan, Xiao-Yu


    A highly efficient method for the synthesis of α-halocarbonyl compounds has been achieved via selective monobromination of aromatic and aliphatic carbonyl compounds with N-bromosuccinimide catalyzed by p-toluenesulfonic acid under microwave irradiation within 30 min.

  15. Development and industrial application of catalyzer for low-temperature hydrogenation hydrolysis of Claus tail gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honggang Chang


    Full Text Available With the implementation of more strict national environmental protection laws, energy conservation, emission reduction and clean production will present higher requirements for sulfur recovery tail gas processing techniques and catalyzers. As for Claus tail gas, conventional hydrogenation catalyzers are gradually being replaced by low-temperature hydrogenation catalyzers. This paper concentrates on the development of technologies for low-temperature hydrogenation hydrolysis catalyzers, preparation of such catalyzers and their industrial application. In view of the specific features of SO2 hydrogenation and organic sulfur hydrolysis during low-temperature hydrogenation, a new technical process involving joint application of hydrogenation catalyzers and hydrolysis catalyzers was proposed. In addition, low-temperature hydrogenation catalyzers and low-temperature hydrolysis catalyzers suitable for low-temperature conditions were developed. Joint application of these two kinds of catalyzers may reduce the inlet temperatures in the conventional hydrogenation reactors from 280 °C to 220 °C, at the same time, hydrogenation conversion rates of SO2 can be enhanced to over 99%. To further accelerate the hydrolysis rate of organic sulfur, the catalyzers for hydrolysis of low-temperature organic sulfur were developed. In lab tests, the volume ratio of the total sulfur content in tail gas can be as low as 131 × 10−6 when these two kinds of catalyzers were used in a proportion of 5:5 in volumes. Industrial application of these catalyzers was implemented in 17 sulfur recovery tail gas processing facilities of 15 companies. As a result, Sinopec Jinling Petrochemical Company had outstanding application performances with a tail gas discharging rate lower than 77.9 mg/m3 and a total sulfur recovery of 99.97%.

  16. In situ transmission electron microscopy analyses of thermally annealed self catalyzed GaAs nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambrosini, S.; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal; Booth, Tim


    Self catalyzed GaAs nanowires grown on Si-treated GaAs substrates were studied with a transmission electron microscope before and after annealing at 600◦C. At room temperature the nanowires have a zincblende structure and are locally characterized by a high density of rotational twins and stackin...... faults. Selected area diffraction patterns and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy images show that nanowires undergo structural modifications upon annealing, suggesting a decrease of defect density following the thermal treatment....

  17. Efficient hydrogen liberation from formic acid catalyzed by a well-defined iron pincer complex under mild conditions. (United States)

    Zell, Thomas; Butschke, Burkhard; Ben-David, Yehoshoa; Milstein, David


    Hydrogen liberation: An attractive approach to reversible hydrogen storage applications is based on the decomposition of formic acid. The efficient and selective hydrogen liberation from formic acid is catalyzed by an iron pincer complex in the presence of trialkylamine. Turnover frequencies up to 836 h⁻¹ and turnover numbers up to 100,000 were achieved at 40 °C. A mechanism including well-defined intermediates is suggested on the basis of experimental and computational data. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Selective copper catalysed aromatic N-arylation in water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engel-Andreasen, Jens; Shimpukade, Bharat; Ulven, Trond.


    4,7-Dipyrrolidinyl-1,10-phenanthroline (DPPhen) was identified as an efficient ligand for copper catalyzed selective arom. N-arylation in water. N-Arylation of indoles, imidazoles and purines proceeds with moderate to excellent yields and complete selectivity over aliph. amines. Aq. medium...

  19. Energy harvesting by implantable abiotically catalyzed glucose fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerzenmacher, S.; von Stetten, F. [Laboratory for MEMS Applications, Department of Microsystems Engineering (IMTEK), University of Freiburg, Georges-Koehler-Allee 106, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany); Ducree, J. [HSG-IMIT, Wilhelm-Schickard-Str. 10, D-78052 Villingen-Schwenningen (Germany); Zengerle, R. [Laboratory for MEMS Applications, Department of Microsystems Engineering (IMTEK), University of Freiburg, Georges-Koehler-Allee 106, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany); HSG-IMIT, Wilhelm-Schickard-Str. 10, D-78052 Villingen-Schwenningen (Germany)


    Implantable glucose fuel cells are a promising approach to realize an autonomous energy supply for medical implants that solely relies on the electrochemical reaction of oxygen and glucose. Key advantage over conventional batteries is the abundant availability of both reactants in body fluids, rendering the need for regular replacement or external recharging mechanisms obsolete. Implantable glucose fuel cells, based on abiotic catalysts such as noble metals and activated carbon, have already been developed as power supply for cardiac pacemakers in the late-1960s. Whereas, in vitro and preliminary in vivo studies demonstrated their long-term stability, the performance of these fuel cells is limited to the {mu}W-range. Consequently, no further developments have been reported since high-capacity lithium iodine batteries for cardiac pacemakers became available in the mid-1970s. In recent years research has been focused on enzymatically catalyzed glucose fuel cells. They offer higher power densities than their abiotically catalyzed counterparts, but the limited enzyme stability impedes long-term application. In this context, the trend towards increasingly energy-efficient low power MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical systems) implants has revived the interest in abiotic catalysts as a long-term stable alternative. This review covers the state-of-the-art in implantable abiotically catalyzed glucose fuel cells and their development since the 1960s. Different embodiment concepts are presented and the historical achievements of academic and industrial research groups are critically reviewed. Special regard is given to the applicability of the concept as sustainable micro-power generator for implantable devices. (author)

  20. A SABATH Methyltransferase from the moss Physcomitrella patens catalyzes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Nan [ORNL; Ferrer, Jean-Luc [Universite Joseph Fourier, France; Moon, Hong S [Department of Plant Sciences, University of Tennessee; Kapteyn, Jeremy [Institute of Biological Chemistry, Washington State University; Zhuang, Xiaofeng [Department of Plant Sciences, University of Tennessee; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu [Laboratory of Evolutionary Biology, National Institute for Biology, 38 Nishigounaka; Stewart, Neal C. [Department of Plant Sciences, University of Tennessee; Gang, David R. [Institute of Biological Chemistry, Washington State University; Chen, Feng [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)


    Known SABATH methyltransferases, all of which were identified from seed plants, catalyze methylation of either the carboxyl group of a variety of low molecular weight metabolites or the nitrogen moiety of precursors of caffeine. In this study, the SABATH family from the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens was identified and characterized. Four SABATH-like sequences (PpSABATH1, PpSABATH2, PpSABATH3, and PpSABATH4) were identified from the P. patens genome. Only PpSABATH1 and PpSABATH2 showed expression in the leafy gametophyte of P. patens. Full-length cDNAs of PpSABATH1 and PpSABATH2 were cloned and expressed in soluble form in Escherichia coli. Recombinant PpSABATH1 and PpSABATH2 were tested for methyltransferase activity with a total of 75 compounds. While showing no activity with carboxylic acids or nitrogen-containing compounds, PpSABATH1 displayed methyltransferase activity with a number of thiols. PpSABATH2 did not show activity with any of the compounds tested. Among the thiols analyzed, PpSABATH1 showed the highest level of activity with thiobenzoic acid with an apparent Km value of 95.5 lM, which is comparable to those of known SABATHs. Using thiobenzoic acid as substrate, GC MS analysis indicated that the methylation catalyzed by PpSABATH1 is on the sulfur atom. The mechanism for S-methylation of thiols catalyzed by PpSABATH1 was partially revealed by homology-based structural modeling. The expression of PpSABATH1 was induced by the treatment of thiobenzoic acid. Further transgenic studies showed that tobacco plants overexpressing PpSABATH1 exhibited enhanced tolerance to thiobenzoic acid, suggesting that PpSABATH1 have a role in the detoxification of xenobiotic thiols.

  1. Palladium-Catalyzed Directed Halogenation of Bipyridine N-Oxides. (United States)

    Zucker, Sina P; Wossidlo, Friedrich; Weber, Manuela; Lentz, Dieter; Tzschucke, C Christoph


    The palladium-catalyzed directed C-H halogenation of bipyridine N-oxides was investigated. Using NCS or NBS (N-chloro- or N-bromosuccinimide) and 5 mol % Pd(OAc)2 in chlorobenzene (0.10 molar) at 110 °C, pyridine-directed functionalization took place and 3-chloro- or 3-bromobipyridine N-oxides were obtained in high yields. The reaction is sensitive to steric hindrance by 4- and 6'-substituents. Only in the latter case, where coordination of palladium by the pyridine is hindered, 3'-halogenation directed by the N-oxide function was observed. The halogenated products were deoxygenated by PCl3 or PBr3.

  2. Zinc oxide catalyzed growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Fenglei, E-mail: [Nanomaterials and Chemistry Key Laboratory, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou 325027 (China); Zhang Lijie; Huang Shaoming [Nanomaterials and Chemistry Key Laboratory, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou 325027 (China)


    We demonstrate that zinc oxide can catalyze the growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with high efficiency by a chemical vapor deposition process. The zinc oxide nanocatalysts, prepared using a diblock copolymer templating method and characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), were uniformly spaced over a large deposition area with an average diameter of 1.7 nm and narrow size distribution. Dense and uniform SWNTs films with high quality were obtained by using a zinc oxide catalyst, as characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, AFM, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM).

  3. Polyoxometalates as mediators in the laccase catalyzed delignification


    Balakshin, M. Yu.; Evtuguin, D. V.; Neto, C. Pascoal; Paulo, Artur Cavaco


    The polyoxometalate (POM)-laccase catalytic system was applied for the first time to aerobic delignification of kraft pulps at moderate (40-60 degreesC) temperatures. Laccase was found to readily catalyze the re-oxidation of different kinds of polyoxometalates, including those, which cannot be re-oxidized by dioxygen even at high temperatures (PMo11V1, SiW11V1. etc.). This allows a sequence of catalytic redox cycles similar to that in the laccase-mediator system (LMS) where electrons are tran...

  4. Ketone-catalyzed photochemical C(sp3)-H chlorination. (United States)

    Han, Lei; Xia, Jibao; You, Lin; Chen, Chuo


    Photoexcited arylketones catalyze the direct chlorination of C(sp3)-H groups by N-chlorosuccinimide. Acetophenone is the most effective catalyst for functionalization of unactivated C-H groups while benzophenone provides better yields for benzylic C-H functionalization. Activation of both acetophenone and benzophenone can be achieved by irradiation with a household compact fluorescent lamp. This light-dependent reaction provides a better control of the reaction as compared to the traditional chlorination methods that proceed through a free radical chain propagation mechanism.

  5. Iodine - catalyzed prins cyclization of aliphatic and aromatic ketones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishore, K.R.; Reddy, K.; Silva Junior, Luiz F., E-mail: [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IQ/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Fundamental


    Iodine-catalyzed Prins cyclization of homoallylic alcohols and ketones was investigated. Anhydrous conditions and inert atmosphere are not required in this metal-free protocol. The reaction of 2-(3,4-dihydronaphthalene-1-yl)propan-1-ol with six aliphatic symmetric ketones gave the desired products in 67-77% yield. Cyclization was performed with four aliphatic unsymmetric ketones, leading to corresponding pyrans in 66-76% yield. Prins cyclization was also accomplished with four aromatic ketones in 37-66% yield. Finally, Prins cyclization of the monoterpene isopulegol and acetone was successfully achieved. (author)

  6. Asymmetric Propargylation of Ketones using Allenylboronates Catalyzed by Chiral Biphenols (United States)

    Barnett, David S.; Schaus, Scott E.


    Chiral biphenols catalyze the enantioselective asymmetric propargylation of ketones using allenylboronates. The reaction uses 10 mol % of 3,3′-Br2-BINOL as the catalyst and allenyldioxoborolane as the nucleophile, in the absence of solvent, and under microwave irradiation to afford the homopropargylic alcohol. The reaction products are obtained in good yields (60 – 98%) and high enantiomeric ratios (3:1 – 99:1). Diastereoselective propargylations using chiral racemic allenylboronates result in good diastereoselectivities (dr > 86:14) and enantioselectivities (er > 92:8) under the catalytic conditions. PMID:21732609

  7. Comparing Ru and Fe-catalyzed olefin metathesis

    KAUST Repository

    Poater, Albert


    Density functional theory calculations have been used to explore the potential of Fe-based complexes with an N-heterocyclic carbene ligand, as olefin metathesis catalysts. Apart from a less endothermic reaction energy profile, a small reduction in the predicted upper energy barriers (≈ 2 kcal mol -1) is calculated in the Fe catalyzed profile with respect to the Ru catalysed profile. Overall, this study indicates that Fe-based catalysts have the potential to be very effective olefin metathesis catalysts. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  8. Zeolite-catalyzed isomerization of tetroses in aqueous medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shunmugavel, Saravanamurugan; Riisager, Anders


    in water. Hence, the results demonstrate water to be a preferred solvent compared to lower alcohols for zeolite-catalyzed tetrose isomerization, which is opposite to what previously have been found for analogous pentose and hexose isomerization. A reuse study revealed further that H-USY(6) could be applied...... in at least five reaction runs with essentially unchanged activity and without significant aluminium leaching from the catalyst. The use of benign reaction conditions and an industrially pertinent solid catalyst in combination with water establishes a new, green tetrose isomerization protocol...

  9. Deoxyribonucleoside kinases: two enzyme families catalyze the same reaction. (United States)

    Sandrini, Michael P B; Piskur, Jure


    Mammals have four deoxyribonucleoside kinases, the cytoplasmic (TK1) and mitochondrial (TK2) thymidine kinases, and the deoxycytidine (dCK) and deoxyguanosine (dGK) kinases, which salvage the precursors for nucleic acids synthesis. In addition to the native deoxyribonucleoside substrates, the kinases can phosphorylate and thereby activate a variety of anti-cancer and antiviral prodrugs. Recently, the crystal structure of human TK1 has been solved and has revealed that enzymes with fundamentally different origins and folds catalyze similar, crucial cellular reactions.

  10. Ruthenium-Catalyzed Dehydrogenative Decarbonylation of Primary Alcohols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazziotta, Andrea; Madsen, Robert


    Dehydrogenative decarbonylation of a primary alcohol involves the release of both dihydrogen and carbon monoxide to afford the one-carbon shorter product. The transformation has now been achieved with a ruthenium-catalyzed protocol by using the complex Ru(COD)Cl2 and the hindered monodentate ligand...... P(o-tolyl)3 in refluxing p-cymene. The reaction can be applied to both benzylic and long chain linear aliphatic alcohols. The intermediate aldehyde can be observed during the transformation, which is therefore believed to proceed through two separate catalytic cycles involving first dehydrogenation...... of the alcohol and then decarbonylation of the resulting aldehyde....

  11. Synthesis of Dihydrobenzofurans via Palladium-Catalyzed Heteroannulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozhkov, Roman Vladimirovich [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    Palladium-catalyzed heteroannulation of 1,3-dienes with 3-iodo-2-alkenols, and 2-iodo-2-alkenols, as well as their amino analogs, affords the corresponding cyclic ethers and amines respectively. The presence of a β-hydrogen in the vinylic halide results in β-hydride elimination giving the corresponding alkyne. The presence of a bulky group in the α-position of the vinylic halide results in failure or reduced amounts of annulation products. A chloride source, pyridine base and electron-rich phosphine are essential for this reaction.

  12. Reactivity of bromoselenophenes in palladium-catalyzed direct arylations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymen Skhiri


    Full Text Available The reactivity of 2-bromo- and 2,5-dibromoselenophenes in Pd-catalyzed direct heteroarylation was investigated. From 2-bromoselenophene, only the most reactive heteroarenes could be employed to prepare 2-heteroarylated selenophenes; whereas, 2,5-dibromoselenophene generally gave 2,5-di(heteroarylated selenophenes in high yields using both thiazole and thiophene derivatives. Moreover, sequential catalytic C2 heteroarylation, bromination, catalytic C5 arylation reactions allowed the synthesis of unsymmetrical 2,5-di(heteroarylated selenophene derivatives in three steps from selenophene.

  13. Palladium-Catalyzed alpha-Arylation of Tetramic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Morten; Dorwald, F. Z.; Peschke, B.


    A mild, racemization-free, palladium-Catalyzed alpha-arylation of tetramic acids (2,4-pyrrolidinediones) has been developed. Various amino acid-derived tetramic acids were cleanly arylated by treatment with 2 mol % of Pd(OAc)(2), 4 mol % of a sterically demanding biaryl phosphine, 2.3 equiv of K2...... no effect on their reactivity: both electron-rich and electron-poor aryl chlorides and bromides or triflates led to good yields. Ortho-substituted aryl halides and heteroaryl halides, however, did not undergo the title reaction....

  14. FBH1 Catalyzes Regression of Stalled Replication Forks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugger, Kasper; Mistrik, Martin; Neelsen, Kai J


    DNA replication fork perturbation is a major challenge to the maintenance of genome integrity. It has been suggested that processing of stalled forks might involve fork regression, in which the fork reverses and the two nascent DNA strands anneal. Here, we show that FBH1 catalyzes regression...... of a model replication fork in vitro and promotes fork regression in vivo in response to replication perturbation. Cells respond to fork stalling by activating checkpoint responses requiring signaling through stress-activated protein kinases. Importantly, we show that FBH1, through its helicase activity...... a model whereby FBH1 promotes early checkpoint signaling by remodeling of stalled DNA replication forks....

  15. Muon-catalyzed fusion in deuterium at 3 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knowles, P.E.; Beer, G.A.; Mason, G.R.; Porcelli, T.A. [Victoria Univ., BC (Canada); Bailey, J.M. [EA Technology, Capenhurst (United Kingdom); Beveridge, J.L.; Marshall, G.M.; Mulhauser, F.; Olin, A. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). TRIUMF Facility; Fujiwara, M.C. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Huber, T.M. [Gustavus Adolphus Coll., St. Peter, MN (United States); Jacot-Guillarmod, R. [Fribourg Univ. (Switzerland); Kammel, P. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Kim, S.K. [Jeonbuk National Univ. (Korea, Republic of); Kunselman, A.R. [Wyoming Univ., Laramie, WY (United States); Martoff, C.J. [Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Petitjean, C. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Zmeskal, J. [Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna (Austria)


    Muon-catalyzed fusion in deuterium has traditionally been studied in gaseous and liquid targets. The TRIUMF solid hydrogen layer target system has been used to study the fusion reaction rates in the solid phase at a target temperature of 3 K. Both branches of the cycle were observed; neutrons by a liquid organic scintillator, and protons by a silicon detector located inside the target system. The effective molecular formation rate from the upper hyperfine state and the spin exchange rate have been measured, and information on the branching ratio parameters has been extracted. (orig.). 21 refs.

  16. Catalyzed CO.sub.2-transport membrane on high surface area inorganic support (United States)

    Liu, Wei


    Disclosed are membranes and methods for making the same, which membranes provide improved permeability, stability, and cost-effective manufacturability, for separating CO.sub.2 from gas streams such as flue gas streams. High CO.sub.2 permeation flux is achieved by immobilizing an ultra-thin, optionally catalyzed fluid layer onto a meso-porous modification layer on a thin, porous inorganic substrate such as a porous metallic substrate. The CO.sub.2-selective liquid fluid blocks non-selective pores, and allows for selective absorption of CO.sub.2 from gas mixtures such as flue gas mixtures and subsequent transport to the permeation side of the membrane. Carbon dioxide permeance levels are in the order of 1.0.times.10.sup.-6 mol/(m.sup.2sPa) or better. Methods for making such membranes allow commercial scale membrane manufacturing at highly cost-effective rates when compared to conventional commercial-scale CO.sub.2 separation processes and equipment for the same and such membranes are operable on an industrial use scale.

  17. Deoxyribozymes that catalyze photochemistry: cofactor-dependent and -independent photorepair of thymine dimers. (United States)

    Sen, Dipankar; Chinnapen, Daniel J F


    Experimental strategies involving in vitro selection, designed to test the validity of the "RNA World Hypothesis", have demonstrated a significantly broader catalytic range for RNA (and, nucleic acids in general) than found in naturally occurring ribozymes. We wished to explore whether photochemical reactions could be catalyzed by nucleic acid enzymes. In vitro selection experiments were carried out to obtain "photolyase" deoxyribozymes, capable of photoreversing thymine cyclobutane dimers in the presence of a cofactor, serotonin. During in vitro selection from a thymine-dimer containing random DNA library, irradiated with light >300 nm, two pools of catalytic nucleic molecules emerged--one that required serotonin for activity, and another pool that, surprisingly, did not. Characterization of the serotonin-independent clones indicated the optimal wavelength for its repair activity (approximately 1,400-fold) to be approximately 300 nm, notably red-shifted from the absorption maximum of the DNA itself. The folded enzyme may contain a G-quadruplex (whose spectra have red-shifted tails relative to duplex absorbance), and our hypothesis has the folded enzyme as an antenna for the efficient channelling of light or electrons to the thymine dimer, much in the manner of protein photolyases.

  18. A Zinc Catalyzed C(sp(3) )-C(sp(2) ) Suzuki-Miyaura Cross-Coupling Reaction Mediated by Aryl-Zincates. (United States)

    Procter, Richard J; Dunsford, Jay J; Rushworth, Philip J; Hulcoop, David G; Layfield, Richard A; Ingleson, Michael J


    The Suzuki-Miyaura (SM) reaction is one of the most important methods for C-C bond formation in chemical synthesis. In this communication, we show for the first time that the low toxicity, inexpensive element zinc is able to catalyze SM reactions. The cross-coupling of benzyl bromides with aryl borates is catalyzed by ZnBr2 , in a process that is free from added ligand, and is compatible with a range of functionalized benzyl bromides and arylboronic acid pinacol esters. Initial mechanistic investigations indicate that the selective in situ formation of triaryl zincates is crucial to promote selective cross-coupling reactivity, which is facilitated by employing an arylborate of optimal nucleophilicity. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Fe(II)/Fe(III)-Catalyzed Intramolecular Didehydro-Diels-Alder Reaction of Styrene-ynes. (United States)

    Mun, Hyeon Jin; Seong, Eun Young; Ahn, Kwang-Hyun; Kang, Eun Joo


    The intramolecular didehydro-Diels-Alder reaction of styrene-ynes was catalyzed by Fe(II) and Fe(III) to produce various naphthalene derivatives under microwave heating conditions. Mechanistic calculations found that the Fe(II) catalyst activates the styrenyl diene in an inverse-electron-demand Diels-Alder reaction, and the consecutive dehydrogenation reaction can be promoted by either Fe(II)-catalyzed direct dehydrogenation or an Fe(III)-catalyzed rearomatization/dehydrogenation pathway.

  20. Transition state for the NSD2-catalyzed methylation of histone H3 lysine 36. (United States)

    Poulin, Myles B; Schneck, Jessica L; Matico, Rosalie E; McDevitt, Patrick J; Huddleston, Michael J; Hou, Wangfang; Johnson, Neil W; Thrall, Sara H; Meek, Thomas D; Schramm, Vern L


    Nuclear receptor SET domain containing protein 2 (NSD2) catalyzes the methylation of histone H3 lysine 36 (H3K36). It is a determinant in Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome and is overexpressed in human multiple myeloma. Despite the relevance of NSD2 to cancer, there are no potent, selective inhibitors of this enzyme reported. Here, a combination of kinetic isotope effect measurements and quantum chemical modeling was used to provide subangstrom details of the transition state structure for NSD2 enzymatic activity. Kinetic isotope effects were measured for the methylation of isolated HeLa cell nucleosomes by NSD2. NSD2 preferentially catalyzes the dimethylation of H3K36 along with a reduced preference for H3K36 monomethylation. Primary Me-(14)C and (36)S and secondary Me-(3)H3, Me-(2)H3, 5'-(14)C, and 5'-(3)H2 kinetic isotope effects were measured for the methylation of H3K36 using specifically labeled S-adenosyl-l-methionine. The intrinsic kinetic isotope effects were used as boundary constraints for quantum mechanical calculations for the NSD2 transition state. The experimental and calculated kinetic isotope effects are consistent with an SN2 chemical mechanism with methyl transfer as the first irreversible chemical step in the reaction mechanism. The transition state is a late, asymmetric nucleophilic displacement with bond separation from the leaving group at (2.53 Å) and bond making to the attacking nucleophile (2.10 Å) advanced at the transition state. The transition state structure can be represented in a molecular electrostatic potential map to guide the design of inhibitors that mimic the transition state geometry and charge.

  1. The spatial dynamics of fibrin clot dissolution catalyzed by erythrocyte-bound vs. free fibrinolytics. (United States)

    Gersh, K C; Zaitsev, S; Muzykantov, V; Cines, D B; Weisel, J W


    Coupling fibrinolytic plasminogen activators to red blood cells (RBCs) has been proposed as an effective, yet safe method of thromboprophylaxis, because of increased circulation lifetime and reduced propensity to induce hemorrhage by selectivity for nascent thrombi rather than pre-formed hemostatic clots. We used confocal microscopy of fluorescently labeled fibrin and erythrocytes in plasma-derived clots to study the spatial dynamics of lysis catalyzed by RBC-coupled vs. free plasminogen activators (RBC-PA vs. PA). Clot lysis catalyzed by free PA progressed gradually and uniformly. In contrast, distinct holes formed surrounding RBC-PA while the rest of the clot remained intact until these holes enlarged sufficiently to merge, causing sudden clot dissolution. Compared with naïve RBCs within clots lysed by free PA, RBC-PA moved faster inside the fibrin network prior to clot dissolution, providing a potential mechanism for spatial propagation of RBC-PA induced lysis. We also showed the focal nature of fibrinolysis by RBC-PA as dense loading of PA onto RBCs initiates more efficient lysis than equal amounts of PA spread sparsely over more RBCs. In an in vitro model of clots exposed to buffer flow, incorporated RBC-PA increased permeability and formed channels eventually triggering clot dissolution, whereas clots containing free PA remained intact. Clot lysis by RBC-PA begins focally, has a longer lag phase when measured by residual mass than homogeneous lysis by PA, is propagated by RBC-PA motility and provides more effective clot reperfusion than free PA, making RBC-PA attractive for short-term thromboprophylaxis.

  2. Experimental and Computational Study of an Unexpected Iron-Catalyzed Carboetherification by Cooperative Metal and Ligand Substrate Interaction and Proton Shuttling

    KAUST Repository

    El-Sepelgy, Osama


    An iron-catalyzed cycloisomerization of allenols to deoxygenated pyranose glycals has been developed. Combined experimental and computational studies show that the iron complex exhibits a dual catalytic role in that the non-innocent cyclopentadienone ligand acts as proton shuttle by initial hydrogen abstraction from the alcohol and by facilitating protonation and deprotonation events in the isomerization and demetalation steps. Molecular orbital analysis provides insight into the unexpected and selective formation of the 3,4-dihydro-2H-pyran.

  3. Fuel Property, Emission Test, and Operability Results from a Fleet of Class 6 Vehicles Operating on Gas-to-Liquid Fuel and Catalyzed Diesel Particle Filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alleman, T. L.; Eudy, L.; Miyasato, M.; Oshinuga, A.; Allison, S.; Corcoran, T.; Chatterjee, S.; Jacobs, T.; Cherrillo, R. A.; Clark, R.; Virrels, I.; Nine, R.; Wayne, S.; Lansing, R.


    A fleet of six 2001 International Class 6 trucks operating in southern California was selected for an operability and emissions study using gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuel and catalyzed diesel particle filters (CDPF). Three vehicles were fueled with CARB specification diesel fuel and no emission control devices (current technology), and three vehicles were fueled with GTL fuel and retrofit with Johnson Matthey's CCRT diesel particulate filter. No engine modifications were made.

  4. Synthesis of chromones via palladium-catalyzed ligand-free cyclocarbonylation of o-iodophenols with terminal acetylenes in phosphonium salt ionic liquids. (United States)

    Yang, Qian; Alper, Howard


    The highly efficient and selective palladium-catalyzed ligand-free cyclocarbonylation reaction of o-iodophenols with terminal acetylenes and CO in the phosphonium salt ionic liquid, C(14)H(29)(C(6)H(13))(3)P(+)Br(-), affords diversified chromones in good to excellent yields under atmospheric CO pressure. The ionic liquid, as the reaction medium, enhances the efficiency of the cyclocarbonylation reaction.

  5. Organizational innovation: a comprehensive model for catalyzing organizational development and change in a rapidly changing world

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steiber, Annika; Alänge, Sverker


    ..., especially the processes through which organizational innovations are created, diffused, and sustained. There is thus a need for a more comprehensive understanding of mechanisms catalyzing organizational development...

  6. Solid oxide fuel cell with internal reforming, catalyzed interconnect for use therewith, and methods (United States)

    Liu, Di-Jia; Guan, Jie; Minh, Nguyen


    A catalyzed interconnect for an SOFC electrically connects an anode and an anodic current collector and comprises a metallic substrate, which provides space between the anode and anodic current collector for fuel gas flow over at least a portion of the anode, and a catalytic coating on the metallic substrate comprising a catalyst for catalyzing hydrocarbon fuel in the fuel gas to hydrogen rich reformate. An SOFC including the catalyzed anodic inter-connect, a method for operating an SOFC, and a method for making a catalyzed anodic interconnect are also disclosed.

  7. Electrochemical reduction of oxygen catalyzed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cournet, Amandine [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, LU49, Adhesion bacterienne et formation de biofilms, 35 chemin des Maraichers, 31062 Toulouse Cedex 09 (France)] [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique CNRS UMR5503, 4 allee Emile Monso, BP 84234, 31432 Toulouse Cedex 04 (France); Berge, Mathieu; Roques, Christine [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, LU49, Adhesion bacterienne et formation de biofilms, 35 chemin des Maraichers, 31062 Toulouse Cedex 09 (France); Bergel, Alain [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique CNRS UMR5503, 4 allee Emile Monso, BP 84234, 31432 Toulouse Cedex 04 (France); Delia, Marie-Line, E-mail: marieline.delia@ensiacet.f [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique CNRS UMR5503, 4 allee Emile Monso, BP 84234, 31432 Toulouse Cedex 04 (France)


    Pseudomonas aeruginosa has already been shown to catalyze oxidation processes in the anode compartment of a microbial fuel cell. The present study focuses on the reverse capacity of the bacterium, i.e. reduction catalysis. Here we show that P. aeruginosa is able to catalyze the electrochemical reduction of oxygen. The use of cyclic voltammetry showed that, for a given range of potential values, the current generated in the presence of bacteria could reach up to four times the current obtained without bacteria. The adhesion of bacteria to the working electrode was necessary for the catalysis to be observed but was not sufficient. The electron transfer between the working electrode and the bacteria did not involve mediator metabolites like phenazines. The transfer was by direct contact. The catalysis required a certain contact duration between electrodes and live bacteria but after this delay, the metabolic activity of cells was no longer necessary. Membrane-bound proteins, like catalase, may be involved. Various strains of P. aeruginosa, including clinical isolates, were tested and all of them, even catalase-defective mutants, presented the same catalytic property. P. aeruginosa offers a new model for the analysis of reduction catalysis and the protocol designed here may provide a basis for developing an interesting tool in the field of bacterial adhesion.

  8. Catalyzed Synthesis of Zinc Clays by Prebiotic Central Metabolites. (United States)

    Zhou, Ruixin; Basu, Kaustuv; Hartman, Hyman; Matocha, Christopher J; Sears, S Kelly; Vali, Hojatollah; Guzman, Marcelo I


    How primordial metabolic networks such as the reverse tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) cycle and clay mineral catalysts coevolved remains a mystery in the puzzle to understand the origin of life. While prebiotic reactions from the rTCA cycle were accomplished via photochemistry on semiconductor minerals, the synthesis of clays was demonstrated at low temperature and ambient pressure catalyzed by oxalate. Herein, the crystallization of clay minerals is catalyzed by succinate, an example of a photoproduced intermediate from central metabolism. The experiments connect the synthesis of sauconite, a model for clay minerals, to prebiotic photochemistry. We report the temperature, pH, and concentration dependence on succinate for the synthesis of sauconite identifying new mechanisms of clay formation in surface environments of rocky planets. The work demonstrates that seeding induces nucleation at low temperatures accelerating the crystallization process. Cryogenic and conventional transmission electron microscopies, X-ray diffraction, diffuse reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, and measurements of total surface area are used to build a three-dimensional representation of the clay. These results suggest the coevolution of clay minerals and early metabolites in our planet could have been facilitated by sunlight photochemistry, which played a significant role in the complex interplay between rocks and life over geological time.

  9. Ozonation of Indigo Carmine Catalyzed with Fe-Pillared Clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Bernal


    Full Text Available The ozonation catalyzed by iron-pillared clays was studied. The degradation of dye indigo carmine (IC was elected as test reaction. Fe-pillared clays were synthesized by employing hydrolyzed FeCl3 solutions and bentonite. The pillared structure was verified by XRD and by XPS the oxidation state of iron in the synthesized material was established to be +2. By atomic absorption the weight percentage of iron was determined to be 16. The reaction was conducted in a laboratory scale up-flow bubble column reactor. From the studied variables the best results were obtained with a particle size of 60 microns, pH=3, ozone flow of 0.045 L/min, and catalyst concentration of 100 mg/L. IC was completely degraded and degradation rate was found to be double when using Fe-PILCS than with ozone alone. DQO reduction was also significantly higher with catalyzed than with noncatalyzed ozonation.

  10. Renalase does not catalyze the oxidation of catecholamines. (United States)

    Beaupre, Brett A; Hoag, Matthew R; Moran, Graham R


    It is widely accepted that the function of human renalase is to oxidize catecholamines in blood. However, this belief is based on experiments that did not account for slow, facile catecholamine autoxidation reactions. Recent evidence has shown that renalase has substrates with which it reacts rapidly. The reaction catalyzed defines renalase as an oxidase, one that harvests two electrons from either 2-dihydroNAD(P) or 6-dihydroNAD(P) to form β-NAD(P)(+) and hydrogen peroxide. The apparent metabolic purpose of such a reaction is to avoid inhibition of primary dehydrogenase enzymes by these β-NAD(P)H isomers. This article demonstrates that renalase does not catalyze the oxidation of neurotransmitter catecholamines. Using high-performance liquid chromatography we show that there is no evidence of consumption of epinephrine by renalase. Using time-dependent spectrophotometry we show that the renalase FAD cofactor spectrum is unresponsive to added catecholamines, that adrenochromes are not observed to accumulate in the presence of renalase and that the kinetics of single turnover reactions with 6-dihydroNAD are unaltered by the addition of catecholamines. Lastly we show using an oxygen electrode assay that plasma renalase activity is below the level of detection and only when exogenous renalase and 6-dihydroNAD are added can dioxygen be observed to be consumed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Hydrolysis of Selected Tropical Plant Wastes Catalyzed by a Magnetic Carbonaceous Acid with Microwave (United States)

    Su, Tong-Chao; Fang, Zhen; Zhang, Fan; Luo, Jia; Li, Xing-Kang


    In this study, magnetic carbonaceous acids were synthesized by pyrolysis of the homogeneous mixtures of glucose and magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles, and subsequent sulfonation. The synthesis conditions were optimized to obtain a catalyst with both high acid density (0.75 mmol g-1) and strong magnetism [magnetic saturation, Ms = 19.5 Am2 kg-1]. The screened catalyst (C-SO3H/Fe3O4) was used to hydrolyze ball-milled cellulose in a microwave reactor with total reducing sugar (TRS) yield of 25.3% under the best conditions at 190 °C for 3.5 h. It was cycled for at least seven times with high catalyst recovery rate (92.8%), acid density (0.63 mmol g-1) and magnetism (Ms = 12.9 Am2 kg-1), as well as high TRS yield (20.1%) from the hydrolysis of ball-milled cellulose. The catalyst was further successfully tested for the hydrolysis of tropical biomass with high TRS and glucose yields of 79.8% and 58.3% for bagasse, 47.2% and 35.6% for Jatropha hulls, as well as 54.4% and 35.8% for Plukenetia hulls.

  12. An efficient selective reduction of nitroarenes catalyzed by reusable silver-adsorbed waste nanocomposite

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Giri, S


    Full Text Available Silver nanocomposites (AgNCs) were produced by adsorption onto an electron-rich polypyrrole-mercaptoacetic acid (PPy-MAA) composite, known to be a highly efficient adsorbent for the removal of Ag+ ions from aqueous media in the remediation of metal...

  13. Selective side-chain oxidation of alkyl aromatic compounds catalyzed by cerium modified silver catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Matthias Josef; Schimmoeller, Bjoern; Hansen, Thomas Willum


    an elevated pressure was required. Carboxylic acids, such as benzoic acid or p-toluic acid, additionally increased the reaction rate while CeO2 could act both as a promoter and an inhibitor depending on the substrate and the reaction conditions. Silver catalysts were prepared both by standard impregnation...

  14. Mild and selective vanadium-catalyzed oxidation of benzylic, allylic, and propargylic alcohols using air (United States)

    Hanson, Susan Kloek; Silks, Louis A; Wu, Ruilian


    The invention concerns processes for oxidizing an alcohol to produce a carbonyl compound. The processes comprise contacting the alcohol with (i) a gaseous mixture comprising oxygen; and (ii) an amine compound in the presence of a catalyst, having the formula: ##STR00001## where each of R.sup.1-R.sup.12 are independently H, alkyl, aryl, CF.sub.3, halogen, OR.sup.13, SO.sub.3R.sup.14, C(O)R.sup.15, CONR.sup.16R.sup.17 or CO.sub.2R.sup.18; each of R.sup.13-R.sup.18 is independently alkyl or aryl; and Z is alkl or aryl.

  15. Enhancement of Activity and Selectivity in Acid-Catalyzed Reactions by Dealuminated Hierarchical Zeolites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sazama, Petr; Sobalík, Zdeněk; Dědeček, Jiří; Jakubec, Ivo; Parvulescu, V. I.; Bastl, Zdeněk; Rathouský, Jiří; Jirglová, Hana


    Roč. 52, č. 7 (2013), s. 2038-2041 ISSN 1433-7851 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP106/11/0624; GA MPO FR-TI3/316 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:61388980 Keywords : alkylation * cracking * dealumination Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry; CA - Inorganic Chemistry (UACH-T) Impact factor: 11.336, year: 2013

  16. Amide-Catalyzed Phase-Selective Crystallization Reduces Defect Density in Wide-Bandgap Perovskites. (United States)

    Kim, Junghwan; Saidaminov, Makhsud I; Tan, Hairen; Zhao, Yicheng; Kim, Younghoon; Choi, Jongmin; Jo, Jea Woong; Fan, James; Quintero-Bermudez, Rafael; Yang, Zhenyu; Quan, Li Na; Wei, Mingyang; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Sargent, Edward H


    Wide-bandgap (WBG) formamidinium-cesium (FA-Cs) lead iodide-bromide mixed perovskites are promising materials for front cells well-matched with crystalline silicon to form tandem solar cells. They offer avenues to augment the performance of widely deployed commercial solar cells. However, phase instability, high open-circuit voltage (V oc ) deficit, and large hysteresis limit this otherwise promising technology. Here, by controlling the crystallization of FA-Cs WBG perovskite with the aid of a formamide cosolvent, light-induced phase segregation and hysteresis in perovskite solar cells are suppressed. The highly polar solvent additive formamide induces direct formation of the black perovskite phase, bypassing the yellow phases, thereby reducing the density of defects in films. As a result, the optimized WBG perovskite solar cells (PSCs) (E g ≈ 1.75 eV) exhibit a high V oc of 1.23 V, reduced hysteresis, and a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 17.8%. A PCE of 15.2% on 1.1 cm 2 solar cells, the highest among the reported efficiencies for large-area PSCs having this bandgap is also demonstrated. These perovskites show excellent phase stability and thermal stability, as well as long-term air stability. They maintain ≈95% of their initial PCE after 1300 h of storage in dry air without encapsulation. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Application of selectively acylated glycosides for the α-galactosidase-catalyzed synthesis of disaccharides

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simerská, P; Kuzma, M; Pišvejcová, A; Weignerová, L; Macková, M; Riva, S; Křen, V


    .... A series of water-miscible organic solvents (acetone, acetonitrile, dimethylformamide, dimethyl sulfoxide, 1,4-dioxane, 2-methoxyethanol, pyridine, 2-methylpropan-2-ol, tetrahydrofuran, propargyl alcohol...

  18. Application of selectively acylated glycosides for the [alpha]-galactosidase-catalyzed synthesis of disaccharides

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    P Simerská; M Kuzma; A Pisvejcová; L Weignerová; M Macková; S Riva; V Kren


    .... A series of water-miscible organic solvents (acetone, acetonitrile, dimethylformamide, dimethyl sulfoxide, 1,4-dioxane, 2-methoxyethanol, pyridine, 2-methylpropan-2-ol, tetrahydrofuran, propargyl alcohol...

  19. Electronic selectivity tuning in titanium(III)-catalyzed acetylene cross-dimerization reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oshovsky, G.V.; Hessen, B.; Reek, J.N.H.; de Bruin, B.


    The reactivity of open-shell titanium(III) complexes in organometallic catalysis is associated with many open questions, in particular regarding the electronic structure of catalytic intermediates and transition states. The unpaired electron density in principle allows for radical-type reactivity,

  20. Electronic Selectivity Tuning in Titanium(III)-Catalyzed Acetylene Cross-Dimerization Reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oshovsky, Gennady V.; Hessen, Bart; Reek, Joost N. H.; de Bruin, Bas


    The reactivity of open-shell titanium(III) complexes in organometallic catalysis is associated with many open questions, in particular regarding the electronic structure of catalytic intermediates and transition states. The unpaired electron density in principle allows for radical-type reactivity,

  1. Inversion of product selectivity in an enzyme-inspired metallosupramolecular tweezer catalyzed epoxidation reaction. (United States)

    Ulmann, Pirmin A; Braunschweig, Adam B; Lee, One-Sun; Wiester, Michael J; Schatz, George C; Mirkin, Chad A


    This study describes a heteroligated, hemilabile Pt(II)-P,S tweezer coordination complex that combines a chiral Jacobsen-Katsuki Mn(III)-salen epoxidation catalyst with an amidopyridine receptor, which leads to an inversion of the major epoxide product compared to catalysts without a recognition group.

  2. Inversion of product selectivity in an enzyme-inspired metallosupramolecular tweezer catalyzed epoxidation reaction†


    Ulmann, Pirmin A.; Braunschweig, Adam B.; Lee, One-Sun; Wiester, Michael J.; Schatz, George C.; Mirkin, Chad A.


    This study describes a heteroligated, hemilabile PtII–P,S tweezer coordination complex that combines a chiral Jacobsen–Katsuki MnIII-salen epoxidation catalyst with an amidopyridine receptor, which leads to an inversion of the major epoxide product compared to catalysts without a recognition group.

  3. Highly selective palladium–benzothiazole carbene-catalyzed allylation of active methylene compounds under neutral conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Monopoli


    Full Text Available The Pd–benzothiazol-2-ylidene complex I was found to be a chemoselective catalyst for the Tsuji–Trost allylation of active methylene compounds carried out under neutral conditions and using carbonates as allylating agents. The proposed protocol consists in a simplified procedure adopting an in situ prepared catalyst from Pd2dba3 and 3-methylbenzothiazolium salt V as precursors. A comparison of the performance of benzothiazole carbene with phosphanes and an analogous imidazolium carbene ligand is also proposed.

  4. Silver(I)-Catalyzed Tandem Sigamatropic Rearrangement/1,3-H Shift/6π Aza-electrocyclization of N-Propargylic Hydrazones: A Mild Synthetic Route to 1,6-Dihydropyridazines. (United States)

    Ding, Zong-Cang; Ju, Lu-Chuan; Yang, Ying; An, Xiao-Ming; Zhou, Yun-Bing; Li, Ren-Hao; Tang, Hai-Tao; Ding, Cheng-Ke; Zhan, Zhuang-Ping


    A highly efficient AgOTf catalyzed [3,3] sigmatropic rearrangement/1,3-H shift/6π aza-electrocyclization cascade reaction of N-propargylic hydrazones has been developed. This method provides a new mild synthetic route to various polysubstituted 1,6-dihydropyridazines including the 3-CF3-substituted ones with high selectivity.

  5. Time-dependent kinetic complexities in cholinesterase-catalyzed reactions. (United States)

    Masson, P


    Cholinesterases (ChEs) display a hysteretic behavior with certain substrates and inhibitors. Kinetic cooperativity in hysteresis of ChE-catalyzed reactions is characterized by a lag or burst phase in the approach to steady state. With some substrates damped oscillations are shown to superimpose on hysteretic lags. These time dependent peculiarities are observed for both butyrylcholinesterase and acetylcholinesterase from different sources. Hysteresis in ChE-catalyzed reactions can be interpreted in terms of slow transitions between two enzyme conformers E and E'. Substrate can bind to E and/or E', both Michaelian complexes ES and Ε'S can be catalytically competent, or only one of them can make products. The formal reaction pathway depends on both the chemical structure of the substrate and the type of enzyme. In particular, damped oscillations develop when substrate exists in different, slowly interconvertible, conformational, and/or micellar forms, of which only the minor form is capable of binding and reacting with the enzyme. Biphasic pseudo-first-order progressive inhibition of ChEs by certain carbamates and organophosphates also fits with a slow equilibrium between two reactive enzyme forms. Hysteresis can be modulated by medium parameters (pH, chaotropic and kosmotropic salts, organic solvents, temperature, osmotic pressure, and hydrostatic pressure). These studies showed that water structure plays a role in hysteretic behavior of ChEs. Attempts to provide a molecular mechanism for ChE hysteresis from mutagenesis studies or crystallographic studies failed so far. In fact, several lines of evidence suggest that hysteresis is controlled by the conformation of His438, a key residue in the catalytic triad of cholinesterases. Induction time may depend on the probability of His438 to adopt the operative conformation in the catalytic triad. The functional significance of ChE hysteresis is puzzling. However, the accepted view that proteins are in equilibrium between

  6. Potential plant oil feedstock for lipase-catalyzed biodiesel production in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winayanuwattikun, Pakorn; Kaewpiboon, Chutima; Piriyakananon, Kingkaew; Tantong, Supalak; Thakernkarnkit, Weerasak; Yongvanich, Tikamporn [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Biofuel Production by Biocatalyst Research Unit, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Chulalaksananukul, Warawut [Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Biofuel Production by Biocatalyst Research Unit, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)


    Twenty-seven types of plants found to contain more than 25% of oil (w/w) were selectively examined from 44 species. Saponification number (SN), iodine value (IV), cetane number (CN) and viscosity ({eta}) of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) of oils were empirically determined, and they varied from 182 to 262, 3.60 to 142.70, 39.32 to 65.80 and 2.29 to 3.95, respectively. Fatty acid compositions, IV, CN and {eta} were used to predict the quality of FAMEs for use as biodiesel. FAMEs of plant oils of 15 species were found to be most suitable for use as biodiesel by meeting the major specification of biodiesel standards of Thailand, USA and European Standard Organization. The oils from these 15 species were further investigated for the conversion efficiency of biodiesel in lipase-catalyzed transesterification reaction with Novozyme 435 and Lipozyme RM IM. Oils of four species, palm (Elaeis guineensis), physic nut (Jatropha curcas), papaya (Carica papaya) and rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum), can be highly converted to biodiesel by transesterification using Novozyme 435- or Lipozyme RM IM-immobilized lipase as catalyst. Therefore, these selected plants would be economically considered as the feedstock for biodiesel production by biocatalyst. (author)

  7. Palladium-Catalyzed Transannular C–H Functionalization of Alicyclic Amines (United States)

    Saper, Noam I.; Sanford, Melanie S.


    The discovery of pharmaceutical candidates is a resource-intensive enterprise that frequently requires the parallel synthesis of hundreds or even thousands of molecules. Carbon-hydrogen bonds are present in almost all pharmaceutical agents. As such, the development of selective, rapid, and efficient methods for converting carbon-hydrogen bonds into new chemical entities has the potential to dramatically streamline pharmaceutical development1,2,3,4. Saturated nitrogen-containing heterocycles (alicyclic amines) feature prominently in pharmaceuticals, including treatments for depression (paroxetine, amitifadine), diabetes (gliclazide), leukemia (alvocidib), schizophrenia (risperidone, belaperidone), and nicotine addiction (cytisine and varenicline)5. However, existing methods for the C–H functionalization of saturated nitrogen heterocycles, particularly at sites remote to nitrogen, remain extremely limited 6,7. Here we report a new approach to selectively manipulate the carbon–hydrogen bonds of alicyclic amines at sites remote to nitrogen. Our reaction leverages the boat conformation of the substrates to achieve the palladium-catalyzed amine-directed conversion of C–H bonds to C–C bonds on various alicyclic amine scaffolds. This approach is applied to the synthesis of novel derivatives of several bioactive molecules, including the top-selling smoking cessation drug varenicline (Chantix®). We anticipate that this method should prove broadly useful in medicinal chemistry. PMID:26886789

  8. Immobilization of Chiral Ferrocenyl Ligands on Silica Gel and their Testing in Pd-catalyzed Allylic Substitution and Rh-catalyzed Hydrogenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan J. Macquarrie


    Full Text Available Five different silica gels containing two chiral ferrocenyl ligands were prepared by various synthetic routes and tested in an enantioselective Pd(0-catalyzed allylic substitution and Rh-catalyzed hydrogenation. All the prepared anchored ligands were characterized by porosimetry data, DRIFTS spectra, thermal data and AAS. The aim of the work was to compare the influence of the carrier, surface properties and immobilization strategy on the performance of the catalyst.

  9. Kinetic study on the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of cellulose to levulinic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girisuta, B.; Janssen, L. P. B. M.; Heeres, H. J.


    A variety of interesting bulk chemicals is accessible by the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of cellulose. An interesting example is levulinic acid, a versatile precursor for fuel additives, polymers, and resins. A detailed kinetic study on the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of cellulose to levulinic acid is

  10. Towards a methanol economy: Zeolite catalyzed production of synthetic fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mentzel, Uffe Vie

    The main focus of this thesis is zeolite catalyzed conversion of oxygenates to hydrocarbon fuels and chemicals. Furthermore, conversion of ethane to higher hydrocarbons has also been studied. After a brief introduction to the concept of “the methanol economy” in the first chapter, the second...... chapter is a literature study of Mobil’s “methanol to hydrocarbons” (MTH) process, giving an overview of the history of the process, the nature of the employed catalysts, and the reaction mechanism. In the third chapter, a series of experiments concerning co conversion of ethane and methanol over...... a commercial H-ZSM-5 zeolite impregnated with gallium and/or molybdenum is described. The object was to investigate if the presence of methanol in the feed could enhance the conversion of ethane, but in all cases the opposite is observed; the presence of methanol actually suppresses the conversion of ethane...

  11. Multistep enzyme catalyzed reactions for unnatural amino acids. (United States)

    D'Arrigo, Paola; Tessaro, Davide


    The use of unnatural amino acids, particularly synthetic α-amino acids, for modern drug discovery research requires the availability of enantiomerically pure isomers. Starting from a racemate, one single enantiomer can be obtained using a deracemization process. The two more common strategies of deracemization are those obtained by stereoinversion and by dynamic kinetic resolution. Both techniques will be here described using as a substrate the D,L-3-(2-naphthyl)-alanine, a non-natural amino acid: the first one employing a multi-enzymatic redox system, the second one combining an hydrolytic enzyme together with a base-catalyzed substrate racemization. In both cases, the final product, L-3-(2-naphthyl)alanine, is recovered with good yield and excellent enantiomeric excess.

  12. WILDCAT: a catalyzed D-D tokamak reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, K. Jr.; Baker, C.C.; Brooks, J.N.


    WILDCAT is a conceptual design of a catalyzed D-D, tokamak, commercial, fusion reactor. WILDCAT utilizes the beneficial features of no tritium breeding, while not extrapolating unnecessarily from existing D-T designs. The reactor is larger and has higher magnetic fields and plasma pressures than typical D-T devices. It is more costly, but eliminates problems associated with tritium breeding and has tritium inventories and throughputs approximately two orders of magnitude less than typical D-T reactors. There are both a steady-state version with Alfven-wave current drive and a pulsed version. Extensive comparison with D-T devices has been made, and cost and safety analyses have been included. All of the major reactor systems have been worked out to a level of detail appropriate to a complete, conceptual design.

  13. Cobalt catalyzed hydroesterification of a wide range of olefins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Rensburg, H.; Hanton, M.; Tooze, R.P.; Foster, D.F. [Sasol Technology UK, St Andrews (United Kingdom)


    Petrochemical raw materials are an essential raw material for the production of detergents with a substantial portion of synthetic fatty alcohols being produced via hydroformylation of oil or coal derived olefins. Carbonylation processes other than hydroformylation have to date not been commercially employed for the production of fatty esters or alcohols. In this document we highlight the opportunities of converting olefins to esters using cobalt catalyzed alkoxycarbonylation. This process is highly versatile and applicable to a wide range of olefins, linear or branched, alpha or internal in combination with virtually any chain length primary or secondary alcohol allowing the synthesis of a diverse array of compounds such as ester ethoxylated surfactants, methyl branched detergents, lubricants and alkyl propanoates. Furthermore, alkoxycarbonylation of a broad olefin/paraffin hydrocarbon range could be used to produce the corresponding broad cut detergent alcohols. (orig.)

  14. Mg-catalyzed autoclave synthesis of aligned silicon carbide nanostructures. (United States)

    Xi, Guangcheng; Liu, Yankuan; Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Xiaoqing; Qian, Yitai


    In this article, a novel magnesium-catalyzed co-reduction route was developed for the large-scale synthesis of aligned beta-SiC one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures at relative lower temperature (600 degrees C). By carefully controlling the reagent concentrations, we could synthesize beta-SiC rodlike and needlelike nanostructures. The possible growth mechanism of the as-synthesized beta-SiC 1D nanostructures has been investigated. The structure and morphology of the as-synthesized beta-SiC nanostructures are characterized using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared absorption, and scanning and transmission electron microscopes. Raman and photoluminescence properties are also investigated at room temperature. The as-synthesized beta-SiC nanostructures exhibit strong shape-dependent field emission properties. Corresponding to their shapes, the as-synthesized nanorods and nanoneedles display the turn-on fields of 12, 8.4, and 1.8 V/microm, respectively.

  15. Specific miRNA Stabilization by Gld2-Catalyzed Monoadenylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea D’Ambrogio


    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small, noncoding RNAs that inhibit translation and promote mRNA decay. The levels of mature miRNAs are the result of different rates of transcription, processing, and turnover. The noncanonical polymerase Gld2 has been implicated in the stabilization of miR-122, possibly through catalyzing 3′ monoadenylation; however, there is little evidence that this relationship is one of cause and effect. Here, we biochemically characterize Gld2’s involvement in miRNA monoadenylation and its effect on miRNA stability. We find that Gld2 directly monoadenylates and stabilizes specific miRNA populations in human fibroblasts and that sensitivity to monoadenylation-induced stability depends on nucleotides in the miRNA 3′ end. These results establish a mechanism of miRNA stability and resulting posttranscriptional gene regulation.

  16. Rhenium-catalyzed deoxydehydration of diols and polyols. (United States)

    Dethlefsen, Johannes R; Fristrup, Peter


    The substitution of platform chemicals of fossil origin by biomass-derived analogues requires the development of chemical transformations capable of reducing the very high oxygen content of biomass. One such reaction, which has received increasing attention within the past five years, is the rhenium-catalyzed deoxydehydration (DODH) of a vicinal diol into an alkene; this is a model system for abundant polyols like glycerol and sugar alcohols. The present contribution includes a review of early investigations of stoichiometric reactions involving rhenium, diols, and alkenes followed by a discussion of the various catalytic systems that have been developed with emphasis on the nature of the reductant, the substrate scope, and mechanistic investigations. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Calcium-catalyzed pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass components. (United States)

    Case, Paige A; Truong, Chi; Wheeler, M Clayton; DeSisto, William J


    The present study examines the effect of calcium pretreatment on pyrolysis of individual lignocellulosic compounds. Previous work has demonstrated that the incorporation of calcium compounds with the feedstock prior to pyrolysis has a significant effect on the oxygen content and stability of the resulting oil. The aim of this work was to further explore the chemistry of calcium-catalyzed pyrolysis. Bench-scale pyrolysis of biomass constituents, including lignin, cellulose and xylan is performed and compared to the oils produced from pyrolysis of the same components after calcium pretreatment. The resulting oils were analyzed by quantitative GC-MS and SEC. These analyses, together with data collected from previous work provide evidence which was used to develop proposed reaction pathways for pyrolysis of calcium-pretreatment biomass. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Lactam hydrolysis catalyzed by mononuclear metallo-ß-bactamases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Lars; Antony, J; Ryde, U


    Two central steps in the hydrolysis of lactam antibiotics catalyzed by mononuclear metallo-beta-lactamases, formation of the tetrahedral intermediate and its breakdown by proton transfer, are studied for model systems using the density functional B3LYP method. Metallo-beta-lactamases have two metal...... coordinating to the zinc ion. Potential proton shuttles from the second (unoccupied) metal-binding site (water, Asp, or Cys) are included in some calculations. The calculated reaction barrier for formation of the tetrahedral intermediate is 13 kcal/mol, close to what is observed experimentally for the rate......-limiting step. The barrier for the breakdown of the intermediate is low, 0-10 kcal/mol, if it is assisted by a water molecule or by a Cys or Asp model. Thus, the results indicate that proton transfer is not rate-limiting, and that any of the residues from the second metal site may function as proton shuttle...

  19. Manganese-Catalyzed Aerobic Heterocoupling of Aryl Grignard Reagents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghaleshahi, Hajar Golshahi; Antonacci, Giuseppe; Madsen, Robert


    An improved protocol has been developed for the MnCl2-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of two arylmagnesium bromides under dioxygen. The reaction was achieved by using the Grignard reagents in a 2:1 ratio and 20 % of MnCl2. Very good yields of the heterocoupling product were obtained when...... the limiting Grignard reagent underwent little homocoupling under the reaction conditions. Arylmagnesium bromides that contain p-methoxy, p-(dimethylamino), p-fluoro, and p-chloro substituents were shown to afford high product yields in the cross-coupling reactions with a variety of substituted aryl Grignard...... reagents. Heterocyclic Grignard reagents, on the other hand, were less effective substrates for this transformation because of the rapid homocoupling of these reagents under the reaction conditions....

  20. FBH1 Catalyzes Regression of Stalled Replication Forks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper Fugger


    Full Text Available DNA replication fork perturbation is a major challenge to the maintenance of genome integrity. It has been suggested that processing of stalled forks might involve fork regression, in which the fork reverses and the two nascent DNA strands anneal. Here, we show that FBH1 catalyzes regression of a model replication fork in vitro and promotes fork regression in vivo in response to replication perturbation. Cells respond to fork stalling by activating checkpoint responses requiring signaling through stress-activated protein kinases. Importantly, we show that FBH1, through its helicase activity, is required for early phosphorylation of ATM substrates such as CHK2 and CtIP as well as hyperphosphorylation of RPA. These phosphorylations occur prior to apparent DNA double-strand break formation. Furthermore, FBH1-dependent signaling promotes checkpoint control and preserves genome integrity. We propose a model whereby FBH1 promotes early checkpoint signaling by remodeling of stalled DNA replication forks.

  1. Enantioselective aldol reactions catalyzed by chiral phosphine oxides. (United States)

    Kotani, Shunsuke; Sugiura, Masaharu; Nakajima, Makoto


    The development of enantioselective aldol reactions catalyzed by chiral phosphine oxides is described. The aldol reactions presented herein do not require the prior preparation of the masked enol ethers from carbonyl compounds as aldol donors. The reactions proceed through a trichlorosilyl enol ether intermediate, formed in situ from carbonyl compounds, which then acts as the aldol donor. Phosphine oxides activate the trichlorosilyl enol ethers to afford the aldol adducts with high stereoselectivities. This procedure was used to realize a directed cross-aldol reaction between ketones and two types of double aldol reactions (a reaction at one/two α position(s) of a carbonyl group) with high diastereo- and enantioselectivities. Copyright © 2013 The Chemical Society of Japan and Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Urea- and Thiourea-Catalyzed Aminolysis of Carbonates. (United States)

    Blain, Marine; Yau, Honman; Jean-Gérard, Ludivine; Auvergne, Rémi; Benazet, Dominique; Schreiner, Peter R; Caillol, Sylvain; Andrioletti, Bruno


    The aminolysis of (poly)carbonates by (poly)amines provides access to non-isocyanate polyurethanes (NIPUs) that are toxic-reagent-free analogues of polyurethanes (PUs). Owing to their low reactivity, the ring opening of cyclic carbonates requires the use of a catalyst. Herein, we report that the more available and cheaper ureas could advantageously be used for catalyzing the formation of NIPUs at the expense of the thiourea analogues. In addition, we demonstrate a medium-range pKa of the (thio)urea and an unqeual substitution pattern is critical for controlling the efficiency of the carbonate opening. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Vanadium bromoperoxidase-catalyzed biosynthesis of halogenated marine natural products. (United States)

    Carter-Franklin, Jayme N; Butler, Alison


    Marine red algae (Rhodophyta) are a rich source of bioactive halogenated natural products. The biogenesis of the cyclic halogenated terpene marine natural products, in particular, has attracted sustained interest in part because terpenes are the biogenic precursors of many bioactive metabolites. The first enzymatic asymmetric bromination and cyclization of a terpene, producing marine natural products isolated from red algae, is reported. Vanadium bromoperoxidase (V-BrPO) isolated from marine red algae (species of Laurencia, Plocamium, Corallina) catalyzes the bromination of the sesquiterpene (E)-(+)-nerolidol producing alpha-, beta-, and gamma-snyderol and (+)-3beta-bromo-8-epicaparrapi oxide. alpha-Snyderol, beta-snyderol, and (+)-3beta-bromo-8-epicaparrapi oxide have been isolated from Laurencia obtusa, and each have also been isolated from other species of marine red algae. gamma-Snyderol is a proposed intermediate in other bicyclo natural products. Single diastereomers of beta-snyderol, gamma-snyderol, and mixed diastereomers of (+)-3beta-bromo-8-epicaparrapi oxide (de = 20-25%) are produced in the enzyme reaction, whereas two diastereomers of these compounds are formed in the synthesis with 2,4,4,6-tetrabromocyclohexa-2,5-dienone (TBCO). V-BrPO likely functions by catalyzing the two-electron oxidation of bromide ion by hydrogen peroxide producing a bromonium ion or equivalent in the active site that brominates one face of the terminal olefin of nerolidol. These results establish V-BrPO's role in the biosynthesis of brominated cyclic sesquiterpene structures from marine red algae for the first time.

  4. Hemoglobin and red blood cells catalyze atom transfer radical polymerization. (United States)

    Silva, Tilana B; Spulber, Mariana; Kocik, Marzena K; Seidi, Farzad; Charan, Himanshu; Rother, Martin; Sigg, Severin J; Renggli, Kasper; Kali, Gergely; Bruns, Nico


    Hemoglobin (Hb) is a promiscuous protein that not only transports oxygen, but also catalyzes several biotransformations. A novel in vitro catalytic activity of Hb is described. Bovine Hb and human erythrocytes were found to display ATRPase activity, i.e., they catalyzed the polymerization of vinyl monomers under conditions typical for atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm), poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate (PEGA), and poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA) were polymerized using organobromine initiators and the reducing agent ascorbic acid in acidic aqueous solution. In order to avoid chain transfer from polymer radicals to Hb's cysteine residues, the accessible cysteines were blocked by a reaction with a maleimide. The formation of polymers with bromine chain ends, relatively low polydispersity indices (PDI), first order kinetics and an increase in the molecular weight of poly(PEGA) and poly(PEGMA) upon conversion indicate that control of the polymerization by Hb occurred via reversible atom transfer between the protein and the growing polymer chain. For poly(PEGA) and poly(PEGMA), the reactions proceeded with a good to moderate degree of control. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) gel electrophoresis, circular dichroism spectroscopy, and time-resolved ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy revealed that the protein was stable during polymerization, and only underwent minor conformational changes. As Hb and erythrocytes are readily available, environmentally friendly, and nontoxic, their ATRPase activity is a useful tool for synthetic polymer chemistry. Moreover, this novel activity enhances the understanding of Hb's redox chemistry in the presence of organobromine compounds.

  5. Gold-Catalyzed Cyclizations of Alkynol-Based Compounds: Synthesis of Natural Products and Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Almendros


    Full Text Available The last decade has witnessed dramatic growth in the number of reactions catalyzed by gold complexes because of their powerful soft Lewis acid nature. In particular, the gold-catalyzed activation of propargylic compounds has progressively emerged in recent years. Some of these gold-catalyzed reactions in alkynes have been optimized and show significant utility in organic synthesis. Thus, apart from significant methodology work, in the meantime gold-catalyzed cyclizations in alkynol derivatives have become an efficient tool in total synthesis. However, there is a lack of specific review articles covering the joined importance of both gold salts and alkynol-based compounds for the synthesis of natural products and derivatives. The aim of this Review is to survey the chemistry of alkynol derivatives under gold-catalyzed cyclization conditions and its utility in total synthesis, concentrating on the advances that have been made in the last decade, and in particular in the last quinquennium.

  6. The effects of zeolite and silica gel on synthesis of amylisobutyrate catalyzed by lipase from Candida rugosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojaković Sanja B.


    Full Text Available Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of esters has been widely investigated due to numerous advantages in comparison with the conventional chemical process catalyzed with concentrated acids since use of chemical catalysts leads to several problems. The most important disadvantages are corrosion of equipment, hazards of handling of the corrosive acids that are not reused, loss of conversion, yield and selectivity. The activity of water in reaction mixture seems to be one of the crucial factors affecting yield of enzymatic synthesis, since the excess of water promotes hydrolysis of the ester. Therefore, a significant part of related studies was focused on attempts to increase the yield of esters by efficient control of water activity. In our experimental work an attempt was made to regulate the activity of water by addition of water adsorbents in reaction mixture for synthesis of amyl isobutyrate. Two adsorbents were used: silica gel and molecular sieves (zeolites. The use of water adsorbents was optimized with respect to timing of adsorbent addition and pretreatment of adsorbent. The pretreatment of adsorbent with substrate did not increase the yield of ester. It was found that the timing of adsorbent addition is crucial factor. The addition in early phases of reaction leads to the decrease in ester yield compared to reaction without adsorbents. On the other hand, when the adsorbent was added in the late stage of reaction it exhibited beneficial influence on the yield of ester. The increase of yield was higher with silica gel (10% than with molecular sieves (3.5%. These discrepancies can be ascribed to higher water adsorbing capacity of silica gel in systems with higher water content. Superior behavior of silica gel in ester synthesis in conjunction with simple process of regeneration recommends the use of this adsorbent for increasing the yield of lipase-catalyzed ester synthesis.

  7. A theoretically-guided optimization of a new family of modular P,S-ligands for iridium-catalyzed hydrogenation of minimally functionalized olefins. (United States)

    Margalef, Jèssica; Caldentey, Xisco; Karlsson, Erik A; Coll, Mercè; Mazuela, Javier; Pàmies, Oscar; Diéguez, Montserrat; Pericàs, Miquel A


    A library of modular iridium complexes derived from thioether-phosphite/phosphinite ligands has been evaluated in the asymmetric iridium-catalyzed hydrogenation of minimally functionalized olefins. The modular ligand design has been shown to be crucial in finding highly selective catalysts for each substrate. A DFT study of the transition state responsible for the enantiocontrol in the Ir-catalyzed hydrogenation is also described and used for further optimization of the crucial stereodefining moieties. Excellent enantioselectivities (enantiomeric excess (ee) values up to 99 %) have been obtained for a range of substrates, including E- and Z-trisubstituted and disubstituted olefins, α,β-unsaturated enones, tri- and disubstituted alkenylboronic esters, and olefins with trifluoromethyl substituents. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Gold-nanoparticle-catalyzed synthesis of propargylamines: the traditional A3-multicomponent reaction performed as a two-step flow process. (United States)

    Abahmane, Lahbib; Köhler, J Michael; Gross, G Alexander


    The alkyne, aldehyde, amine A(3)-coupling reaction, a traditional multicomponent reaction (MCR), has been investigated as a two-step flow process. The implicated aminoalkylation reaction of phenylacetylene with appropriate aldimine intermediates was catalyzed by gold nanoparticles impregnated on alumina. The aldimine formation was catalyzed by Montmorillonite K10 beforehand. The performance of the process has been investigated with respect to different reaction regimes. Usually, the A(3)-multicomponent reaction is performed as a "one-pot" process. Diversity-oriented syntheses using MCRs often have the shortcoming that only low selectivity and low yields are achieved. We have used a flow-chemistry approach to perform the A(3)-MCR in a sequential manner. In this way, the reaction performance was significantly enhanced in terms of shortened reaction time, and the desired propargylamines were obtained in high yields. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Lanthanide (III)-catalyzed enantioselective Diels-Alder reactions. Stereoselective synthesis of both enantiomers by using a single chiral source and a choice of achiral ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Shu; Ishitani, Haruro (Science Univ. of Tokyo (Japan))


    In this paper, we disclose a conceptually different approach to obtaining both enantiomers; choice of enatiofacial selectivity by use of the enatiomerically same chiral source and different achiral ligands. Both enantiomers of the Diels-Alder adducts between e-acyl-1,3-oxazolidin-2-ones and cyclopentadiene were prepared by chiral lanthanides(III)-catalyzed reactions using the same chiral source, (R)-(+)-binaphthol. It is noted that the chiral catalysts with reverse enantiofacial selectivities could be prepared by using the same chiral source and a choice of achiral ligands. 14 refs., 3 tabs.

  10. Blending “Hard” and “Soft” Science: the “Follow-the-Technology” Approach to Catalyzing and Evaluating Technology Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boru Douthwaite


    Full Text Available The types of technology change catalyzed by research interventions in integrated natural resource management (INRM are likely to require much more social negotiation and adaptation than are changes related to plant breeding, the dominant discipline within the system of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR. Conceptual models for developing and delivering high-yielding varieties have proven inadequate for delivering natural resource management (NRM technologies that are adopted in farmers' fields. Successful INRM requires tools and approaches that can blend the technical with the social, so that people from different disciplines and social backgrounds can effectively work and communicate with each other. This paper develops the "follow-the-technology" (FTT approach to catalyzing, managing, and evaluating rural technology change as a framework that both "hard" and "soft" scientists can work with. To deal with complexity, INRM needs ways of working that are adaptive and flexible. The FTT approach uses technology as the entry point into a complex situation to determine what is important. In this way, it narrows the research arena to achievable boundaries. The methodology can also be used to catalyze technology change, both within and outside agriculture. The FTT approach can make it possible to channel the innovative potential of local people that is necessary in INRM to "scale up" from the pilot site to the landscape. The FTT approach is built on an analogy between technology change and Darwinian evolution, specifically between "learning selection" and natural selection. In learning selection, stakeholders experiment with a new technology and carry out the evolutionary roles of novelty generation, selection, and promulgation. The motivation to participate is a "plausible promise" made by the R&D team to solve a real farming problem. Case studies are presented from a spectrum of technologies to show that repeated

  11. Developing ligands for palladium(II)-catalyzed C-H functionalization: intimate dialogue between ligand and substrate. (United States)

    Engle, Keary M; Yu, Jin-Quan


    Homogeneous transition-metal-catalyzed reactions are indispensable to all facets of modern chemical synthesis. It is thus difficult to imagine that for much of the early 20th century, the reactivity and selectivity of all known homogeneous metal catalysts paled in comparison to their heterogeneous and biological counterparts. In the intervening decades, advances in ligand design bridged this divide, such that today some of the most demanding bond-forming events are mediated by ligand-supported homogeneous metal species. While ligand design has propelled many areas of homogeneous catalysis, in the field of Pd(II)-catalyzed C-H functionalization, suitable ligand scaffolds are lacking, which has hampered the development of broadly practical transformations based on C-H functionalization logic. In this Perspective, we offer an account of our research employing three ligand scaffolds, mono-N-protected amino acids, 2,6-disubstituted pyridines, and 2,2'-bipyridines, to address challenges posed by several synthetically versatile substrate classes. Drawing on this work, we discuss principles of ligand design, such as the need to match a ligand to a particular substrate class, and how ligand traits such as tunability and modularity can be advantageous in reaction discovery.

  12. Kinetic and thermodynamic study of the reaction catalyzed by glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin del Campo, Julia S. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados - Unidad Merida, Carretera antigua a Progreso Km. 6, A.P. 73 Cordemex, 97310, Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); Patino, Rodrigo, E-mail: [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados - Unidad Merida, Carretera antigua a Progreso Km. 6, A.P. 73 Cordemex, 97310, Merida, Yucatan (Mexico)


    Research highlights: {yields} The reaction catalyzed by one enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway was studied. {yields} A spectrophotometric method is proposed for kinetic and thermodynamic analysis. {yields} The pH and the temperature influences are reported on physical chemical properties. {yields} Relative concentrations of substrates are also important in the catalytic process. - Abstract: The enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD, EC from Leuconostoc mesenteroides has a dual coenzyme specificity with oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD{sub ox}) and oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate as electron acceptors. The G6PD coenzyme selection is determined by the metabolic cellular prevailing conditions. In this study a kinetic and thermodynamic analysis is presented for the reaction catalyzed by G6PD from L. mesenteroides with NAD{sub ox} as coenzyme in phosphate buffer. For this work, an in situ spectrophotometric technique was employed based on the detection of one product of the reaction. Substrate and coenzyme concentrations as well as temperature and pH effects were evaluated. The apparent equilibrium constant, the Michaelis constant, and the turnover number were determined as a function of each experimental condition. The standard transformed Gibbs energy of reaction was determined from equilibrium constants at different initial conditions. For the product 6-phospho-D-glucono-1,5-lactone, a value of the standard Gibbs energy of formation is proposed, {Delta}{sub f}G{sup o} = -1784 {+-} 5 kJ mol{sup -1}.

  13. Developing Ligands for Palladium(II)-Catalyzed C–H Functionalization: Intimate Dialogue between Ligand and Substrate (United States)

    Engle, Keary M.; Yu, Jin-Quan


    Homogeneous transition metal–catalyzed reactions are indispensable to all facets of modern chemical synthesis. It is thus difficult to imagine that for much of the early 20th century, the reactivity and selectivity of all known homogeneous metal catalysts paled in comparison to their heterogeneous and biological counterparts. In the intervening decades, advances in ligand design bridged this divide, such that today some of the most demanding bond-forming events are mediated by ligand-supported homogeneous metal species. While ligand design has propelled many areas of homogeneous catalysis, in the field of Pd(II)-catalyzed C–H functionalization, suitable ligand scaffolds are lacking, which has hampered the development of broadly practical transformations based on C–H functionalization logic. In this review, we offer an account of our research employing three ligand scaffolds, mono-N-protected amino acids, 2,6-disubstituted pyridines, and 2,2′-bipyridines, to address challenges posed by several synthetically versatile substrate classes. Drawing on this work, we discuss principles of ligand design, such as the need to match a ligand to a particular substrate class, and how ligand traits such as tunability and modularity can be advantageous in reaction discovery. PMID:23565982

  14. Emissions of PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and PAHs from a modern diesel engine equipped with catalyzed emission control systems. (United States)

    Laroo, Christopher A; Schenk, Charles R; Sanchez, L James; McDonald, Joseph


    Exhaust emissions of 17 2,3,7,8-substituted chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/furan (CDD/F) congeners, tetra-octa CDD/F homologues, 12 2005 WHO chlorinated biphenyls (CB) congeners, mono-nona CB homologues, and 19 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from a model year 2008 Cummins ISB engine were investigated. Testing included configurations composed of different combinations of aftertreatment including a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), catalyzed diesel particulate filter (CDPF), copper zeolite urea selective catalytic reduction (SCR), iron zeolite SCR, and ammonia slip catalyst. Results were compared to a baseline engine out configuration. Testing included the use of fuel that contained the maximum expected chlorine (Cl) concentration of U.S. highway diesel fuel and a Cl level 1.5 orders of magnitude above. Results indicate there is no risk for an increase in polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/furan and polychlorinated biphenyl emissions from modern diesel engines with catalyzed aftertreatment when compared to engine out emissions for configurations tested in this program. These results, along with PAH results, compare well with similar results from modern diesel engines in the literature. The results further indicate that polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/furan emissions from modern diesel engines both with and without aftertreatment are below historical values reported in the literature as well as the current inventory value.

  15. Rh(I)-Catalyzed Direct Arylation of Pyridines and Quinolines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, Ashley; Lewis, Jared; Bergman, Robert; Ellman, Jonathan


    The pyridine and quinoline nuclei are privileged scaffolds that occupy a central role in many medicinally relevant compounds. Consequently, methods for their expeditious functionalization are of immediate interest. However, despite the immense importance of transition-metal catalyzed cross-coupling for the functionalization of aromatic scaffolds, general solutions for coupling 2-pyridyl organometallics with aryl halides have only recently been presented. Direct arylation at the ortho position of pyridine would constitute an even more efficient approach because it eliminates the need for the stoichiometric preparation and isolation of 2-pyridyl organometallics. Progress towards this goal has been achieved by activation of the pyridine nucleus for arylation via conversion to the corresponding pyridine N-oxide or N-iminopyridinium ylide. However, this approach necessitates two additional steps: activation of the pyridine or quinoline starting material, and then unmasking the arylated product. The use of pyridines directly would clearly represent the ideal situation both in terms of cost and simplicity. We now wish to document our efforts in this vein, culminating in an operationally simple Rh(I)-catalyzed direct arylation of pyridines and quinolines. We recently developed an electron-rich Rh(I) system for catalytic alkylation at the ortho position of pyridines and quinolines with alkenes. Therefore, we initially focused our attention on the use of similarly electron-rich Rh(I) catalysts for the proposed direct arylation. After screening an array of electron-rich phosphine ligands and Rh(I) salts, only marginal yields (<20%) of the desired product were obtained. Much more efficient was an electron-poor Rh(I) system with [RhCl(CO){sub 2}]{sub 2} as precatalyst (Table 1). For the direct arylation of picoline with 3,5-dimethyl-bromobenzene, addition of P(OiPr){sub 3} afforded a promising 40% yield of the cross coupled product 1a (entry 1). The exclusion of phosphite

  16. Flame Synthesis Used to Create Metal-Catalyzed Carbon Nanotubes (United States)

    VanderWal, Randy L.


    Metal-catalyzed carbon nanotubes are highly ordered carbon structures of nanoscale dimensions. They may be thought of as hollow cylinders whose walls are formed by single atomic layers of graphite. Such cylinders may be composed of many nested, concentric atomic layers of carbon or only a single layer, the latter forming a single-walled carbon nanotube. This article reports unique results using a flame for their synthesis. Only recently were carbon nanotubes discovered within an arc discharge and recognized as fullerene derivatives. Today metal-catalyzed carbon nanotubes are of great interest for many reasons. They can be used as supports for the metal catalysts like those found in catalytic converters. Open-ended nanotubes are highly desirable because they can be filled by other elements, metals or gases, for battery and fuel cell applications. Because of their highly crystalline structure, they are significantly stronger than the commercial carbon fibers that are currently available (10 times as strong as steel but possessing one-sixth of the weight). This property makes them highly desirable for strengthening polymer and ceramic composite materials. Current methods of synthesizing carbon nanotubes include thermal pyrolysis of organometallics, laser ablation of metal targets within hydrocarbon atmospheres at high temperatures, and arc discharges. Each of these methods is costly, and it is unclear if they can be scaled for the commercial synthesis of carbon nanotubes. In contrast, flame synthesis is an economical means of bulk synthesis of a variety of aerosol materials such as carbon black. Flame synthesis of carbon nanotubes could potentially realize an economy of scale that would enable their use in common structural materials such as car-body panels. The top figure is a transmission electron micrograph of a multiwalled carbon nanotube. The image shows a cross section of the atomic structure of the nanotube. The dark lines are individual atomic layer planes of

  17. Bonding by Hydroxide-Catalyzed Hydration and Dehydration (United States)

    Gwo, Dz-Hung


    A simple, inexpensive method for bonding solid objects exploits hydroxide-catalyzed hydration and dehydration to form silicate-like networks in thin surface and interfacial layers between the objects. The method can be practiced at room temperature or over a wide range of temperatures. The method was developed especially to enable the formation of precise, reliable bonds between precise optical components. The bonds thus formed exhibit the precision and transparency of bonds formed by the conventional optical-contact method and the strength and reliability of high-temperature frit bonds. The method also lends itself to numerous non-optical applications in which there are requirements for precise bonds and/or requirements for bonds, whether precise or imprecise, that can reliably withstand severe environmental conditions. Categories of such non-optical applications include forming composite materials, coating substrates, forming laminate structures, and preparing objects of defined geometry and composition. The method is applicable to materials that either (1) can form silicate-like networks in the sense that they have silicate-like molecular structures that are extensible into silicate-like networks or (2) can be chemically linked to silicate-like networks by means of hydroxide-catalyzed hydration and dehydration. When hydrated, a material of either type features surface hydroxyl (-OH) groups. In this method, a silicate-like network that bonds two substrates can be formed either by a bonding material alone or by the bonding material together with material from either or both of the substrates. Typically, an aqueous hydroxide bonding solution is dispensed and allowed to flow between the mating surfaces by capillary action. If the surface figures of the substrates do not match precisely, bonding could be improved by including a filling material in the bonding solution. Preferably, the filling material should include at least one ingredient that can be hydrated to

  18. Lipase-Catalyzed Transesterification of Rapeseed Oil for Biodiesel Production with tert-Butanol (United States)

    Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Park, Don-Hee

    Biodiesel is a fatty acid alkyl ester that can be derived from any vegetable oil or animal fat via the process of transesterification. It is a renewable, biodegradable, and nontoxic fuel. In this paper, we have evaluated the efficacy of a transesterification process for rapeseed oil with methanol in the presence of an enzyme and tert-butanol, which is added to ameliorate the negative effects associated with excess methanol. The application of Novozym 435 was determined to catalyze the transesterification process, and a conversion of 76.1% was achieved under selected conditions (reaction temperature 40 °C, methanol/oil molar ratio 3:1, 5% (w/w) Novozym 435 based on the oil weight, water content 1% (w/w), and reaction time of 24h). It has also been determined that rapeseed oil can be converted to fatty acid methyl ester using this system, and the results of this study contribute to the body of basic data relevant to the development of continuous enzymatic processes.

  19. Cu-catalyzed multicomponent polymerization to synthesize a library of poly(N-sulfonylamidines). (United States)

    Lee, In-Hwan; Kim, Hyunseok; Choi, Tae-Lim


    We report a versatile Cu-catalyzed multicomponent polymerization (MCP) technique that enables the synthesis of high-molecular-weight, defect-free poly(N-sulfonylamidines) from monomers of diynes, sulfonyl azides, and diamines. Through a series of optimizations, we discovered that the addition of excess triethylamine and the use of N,N'-dimethylformamide as a solvent are key factors to ensure efficient MCP. Formation of cyclic polyamidines was a side reaction during polymerization, but it was readily controlled by using diynes or diamines with long or rigid moieties. In addition, this polymerization is highly selective for three-component reactions over click reactions. The combination of the above factors enables the synthesis of high-molecular-weight polymers, which was challenging in previous MCPs. All three kinds of monomers (diynes, sulfonyl azides, and diamines) are readily accessible and stable under the reaction conditions, with various monomers undergoing successful polymerization regardless of their steric and electronic properties. Thus, we synthesized various high-molecular-weight, defect-free polyamidines from a broad range of monomers while overcoming the limitations of previous MCPs, such as low conversion and defects in the polymer structures.

  20. Artificial Neural Network Analysis of Immobilized Lipase Catalyzed Synthesis of Biodiesel from Rapeseed Soapstock (United States)

    Ying, Yanjie; Shao, Ping; Jiang, Shaotong; Sun, Peilong

    Refined vegetable oils are the predominant feedstocks for the production of biodiesel. However, their relatively high costs render the resulting fuels unable to compete with petroleum-derived fuel. Artificial neural network (ANN) analysis of immobilized Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) on chitosan catalyzed preparation of biodiesel from rapeseed soapstock with methanol was carried out. Methanol substrate molar ratio, enzyme amount, water content and reaction temperature were four important parameters employed. Back-Propagation algorithm with momentous factor was adopted to train the neural network. The momentous factor and learning rate were selected as 0.95 and 0.8. ANN analysis showed good correspondence between experimental and predicted values. The coefficient of determination (R2) between experimental and predicted values was 99.20%. Biodiesel conversion of 75.4% was obtained when optimum conditions of immobilized lipase catalysed for biodiesel production were methanol substrate molar ratio of 4.4:1, enzyme amount of 11.6%, water content of 4% and reaction temperature of 45°. Methyl ester content was above 95% after short path distillation process. Biodiesel conversion was increased markedly by neural network analysis.

  1. New pseudohalide ligands in Ru-catalyzed olefin metathesis : a robust, air-activated iminopyrrolato catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drouin, S.D.; Foucault, H.M.; Yap, G.P.A.; Fogg, D.E. [Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry, Center for Catalysis Research and Innovation


    This study demonstrated the feasibility of using iminopyrrolatos as a new pseudohalide ligand in Ru-catalyzed olefin metathesis, particularly in terms of stereo control and anchoring. Ring-closing metathesis (RCM) and cross-metathesis reactions hold promise for pharmaceutical synthesis, as well as green chemistry initiatives to transform seed oils into olefin feedstocks. The advent of robust, functional-group tolerant ruthenium (Ru) catalysts has expanded the deployment of olefin metathesis methodologies by the organic community. Despite recent advances in metathesis activity, major issues remain to be addressed, particularly the problem of short catalyst lifetimes which increase catalyst loading requirements, as well as heavy metal contamination of the organic products. This study revealed that chelation does not prevent isomerization of aryloxide ligands that form larger, seven-membered chelate rings. Complex 5 proved to be a robust olefin metathesis catalyst, effecting RCM of the benchmark substrate diethyl diallylmalonate at 70 degrees C in air, in nondistilled and nondegassed solvent. The reaction revealed complete selectivity for RCM over intermolecular acyclic diene metathesis processes, even in the absence of a solvent. It was shown that RuCl(NN')(Pcy{sub 3})(CHPh) (5) is activated via loss of phosphine. As a result, the catalyst achieves maximum activity in the presence of air, providing a good experimental protocol for metathesis chemistry.

  2. Kinetics of Maleic Acid and Aluminum Chloride Catalyzed Dehydration and Degradation of Glucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ximing; Hewetson, Barron B.; Mosier, Nathan S.


    We report the positive effect of maleic acid, a dicarboxylic acid, on the selectivity of hexose dehydration to 5-hydroxymethyfurfural (HMF) and subsequent hydrolysis to levulinic and formic acids. We also describe the kinetic analysis of a Lewis acid (AlCl3) alone and in combination with HCl or maleic acid to catalyze the isomerization of glucose to fructose, dehydration of fructose to HMF, hydration of HMF to levulinic and formic acids, and degradation of these compounds to humins. The results show that AlCl3 significantly enhances the rate of glucose conversion to HMF and levulinic acid in the presence of both maleic acid and HCl. In addition, the degradation of HMF to humins, rather than levulinic and formic acids, is reduced by 50% in the presence of maleic acid and AlCl3 compared to HCl combined with AlCl3. The results suggest different reaction mechanisms for the dehydration of glucose and rehydration of HMF between maleic acid and HCl.

  3. Norcoclaurine Synthase: Mechanism of an Enantioselective Pictet-Spengler Catalyzing Enzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Macone


    Full Text Available The use of bifunctional catalysts in organic synthesis finds inspiration in the selectivity of enzymatic catalysis which arises from the specific interactions between basic and acidic amino acid residues and the substrate itself in order to stabilize developing charges in the transition state. Many enzymes act as bifunctional catalysts using amino acid residues at the active site as Lewis acids and Lewis bases to modify the substrate as required for the given transformation. They bear a clear advantage over non-biological methods for their ability to tackle problems related to the synthesis of enantiopure compounds as chiral building blocks for drugs and agrochemicals. Moreover, enzymatic synthesis may offer the advantage of a clean and green synthetic process in the absence of organic solvents and metal catalysts. In this work the reaction mechanism of norcoclaurine synthase is described. This enzyme catalyzes the Pictet-Spengler condensation of dopamine with 4-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (4-HPAA to yield the benzylisoquinoline alkaloids central precursor, (S-norcoclaurine. Kinetic and crystallographic data suggest that the reaction mechanism occurs according to a typical bifunctional catalytic process.

  4. Chelated ruthenium catalysts for Z-selective olefin metathesis. (United States)

    Endo, Koji; Grubbs, Robert H


    We report the development of ruthenium-based metathesis catalysts with chelating N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands that catalyze highly Z-selective olefin metathesis. A very simple and convenient procedure for the synthesis of such catalysts has been developed. Intramolecular C-H bond activation of the NHC ligand, promoted by anion ligand substitution, forms the appropriate chelate for stereocontrolled olefin metathesis.

  5. Triglyceride selectivity of immobilized Thermomyces lanuginosa lipase in interesterification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønne, Torben Harald; Pedersen, Lars S.; Xu, Xuebing


    The triglyceride (fatty acid) selectivity of an immobilized lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosa (Lipozyme TL IM) was investigated in lipase-catalyzed interesterification reactions between two mono-acid TG in n-hexane. Tristearin (tri-C18:0) was used as a reference in a series of TG with saturated ...

  6. Synthesis of Pyridobenzazepines Using a One-Pot Rh/Pd-Catalyzed Process. (United States)

    Lam, Heather; Tsoung, Jennifer; Lautens, Mark


    In recent years, our group has been developing multicatalytic reactions for the synthesis of biologically relevant heterocyclic compounds. An efficient dual-metal catalyzed reaction of electron-deficient o-chlorovinylpyridines with o-aminophenylboronic esters to access pyridobenzazepines is described. Combining a RhI-catalyzed arylation followed by a Pd0-catalyzed C-N coupling, in a one-pot procedure, provides a simplified method to access heterocycles without workup and purification after each step. The substrate scope encompasses a variety of N-H and N-alkylated pyridobenzazepine variants with yields up to 93%.

  7. Kinetics of Platinum-Catalyzed Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide (United States)

    Vetter, Tiffany A.; Colombo, D. Philip, Jr.


    CIBA Vision Corporation markets a contact lens cleaning system that consists of an AOSEPT disinfectant solution and an AOSEPT lens cup. The disinfectant is a buffered 3.0% m/v hydrogen peroxide solution and the cup includes a platinum-coated AOSEPT disc. The hydrogen peroxide disinfects by killing bacteria, fungi, and viruses found on the contact lenses. Because the concentration of hydrogen peroxide needed to disinfect is irritating to eyes, the hydrogen peroxide needs to be neutralized, or decomposed, before the contact lenses can be used again. A general chemistry experiment is described where the kinetics of the catalyzed decomposition of the hydrogen peroxide are studied by measuring the amount of oxygen generated as a function of time. The order of the reaction with respect to the hydrogen peroxide, the rate constant, and the energy of activation are determined. The integrated rate law is used to determine the time required to decompose the hydrogen peroxide to a concentration that is safe for eyes.

  8. Catalyzed steam gasification of biomass. Phase II. Final research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooverman, R.H.


    The Wright-Malta gasification process is characterized by low-temperature, catalyzed steam gasification in a pressurized rotary kiln. Fresh biomass moves slowly and continuously through the kiln, where it is gradually heated to around 1200/sup 0/F in an atmosphere of 300 psi steam. During its traverse, pyrolysis and reaction of steam with the nascent char convert nearly all of the organic solids to the gaseous phase. The volatile pyrolysis products pass through the kiln co-currently with the solids and are similarly cracked and steam-reformed within the kiln to fixed gases. Heat for the gasification process is provided by sensible heat recovered from the product gas and the wood decomposition exotherm, making the process inherently very energy-efficient. This report summarizes the work done during the experimental, laboratory-scale phase of development of the W-M biomass gasification process. Two bench-scale experimental gasifiers were constructed and tested: the ''minikiln'', a batch-feed, rotating autoclave; and the ''biogasser'', a stationary, continuous-feed, tubular reactor with zone heating and auger transport. Studies were carried out in these reactors to determine the extent of conversion of biomass solids to gas, and the makeup of the product gas, over a wide range of process conditions. The process variables that were investigated included reactor pressure and temperature, catalyst type and concentration, moisture content and type of biomass feed.

  9. Clay-catalyzed reactions of coagulant polymers during water chlorination (United States)

    Lee, J.-F.; Liao, P.-M.; Lee, C.-K.; Chao, H.-P.; Peng, C.-L.; Chiou, C.T.


    The influence of suspended clay/solid particles on organic-coagulant reactions during water chlorination was investigated by analyses of total product formation potential (TPFP) and disinfection by-product (DBP) distribution as a function of exchanged clay cation, coagulant organic polymer, and reaction time. Montmorillonite clays appeared to act as a catalytic center where the reaction between adsorbed polymer and disinfectant (chlorine) was mediated closely by the exchanged clay cation. The transition-metal cations in clays catalyzed more effectively than other cations the reactions between a coagulant polymer and chlorine, forming a large number of volatile DBPs. The relative catalytic effects of clays/solids followed the order Ti-Mont > Fe-Mont > Cu-Mont > Mn-Mont > Ca-Mont > Na-Mont > quartz > talc. The effects of coagulant polymers on TPFP follow the order nonionic polymer > anionic polymer > cationic polymer. The catalytic role of the clay cation was further confirmed by the observed inhibition in DBP formation when strong chelating agents (o-phenanthroline and ethylenediamine) were added to the clay suspension. Moreover, in the presence of clays, total DBPs increased appreciably when either the reaction time or the amount of the added clay or coagulant polymer increased. For volatile DBPs, the formation of halogenated methanes was usually time-dependent, with chloroform and dichloromethane showing the greatest dependence. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cu-catalyzed enantioselective allylic alkylation with organolithium reagents. (United States)

    Hornillos, Valentín; Guduguntla, Sureshbabu; Fañanás-Mastral, Martín; Pérez, Manuel; Bos, Pieter H; Rudolph, Alena; Harutyunyan, Syuzanna R; Feringa, Ben L


    This protocol describes a method for the catalytic enantioselective synthesis of tertiary and quaternary carbon stereogenic centers, which are widely present in pharmaceutical and natural products. The method is based on the direct reaction between organolithium compounds, which are cheap, readily available and broadly used in chemical synthesis, and allylic electrophiles, using chiral copper catalysts. The methodology involves the asymmetric allylic alkylation (AAA) of allyl bromides, chlorides and ethers with organolithium compounds using catalyst systems based on Cu-Taniaphos and Cu-phosphoramidites. The protocol contains a complete description of the reaction setup, a method based on 1 H-NMR, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and chiral HPLC for assaying the regioselectivity and enantioselectivity of the product, and isolation, purification and characterization procedures. Six Cu-catalyzed AAA reactions between different organolithium reagents and allylic systems are detailed in the text as representative examples of these procedures. These reactions proceed within 1-10 h, depending on the nature of the allylic substrate (bromide, chloride, or ether and disubstituted or trisubstituted) or the chiral ligand used (Taniaphos or phosphoramidite). However, the entire protocol, including workup and purification, generally requires an additional 4-7 h to complete.

  11. Iodine-Catalyzed Prins Cyclization of Homoallylic Alcohols and Aldehydes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz F. Silva


    Full Text Available The iodine-catalyzed Prins cyclization of homoallylic alcohols and aldehydes was investigated under metal-free conditions and without additives. Anhydrous conditions and inert atmosphere are not required. The reaction of 2-(3,4-dihydronaphthalen-1-ylpropan-1-ol and 21 aldehydes (aliphatic and aromatic in CH2Cl2 in the presence of 5 mol % of iodine gave 1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-2H-benzo[f]isochromenes in 54%–86% yield. Under similar conditions, the Prins cyclization of six alcohols containing an endocyclic double bond (primary, secondary, or tertiary led to dihydropyrans in 52%–91% yield. The acyclic homoallylic alcohols gave 4-iodo-tetrahydropyran in 29%–41% yield in the presence of 50 mol % of iodine. This type of substrate is the main limitation of the methodology. The relative configuration of the products was assigned by NMR and X-ray analysis. The mechanism and the ratio of the products are discussed, based on DFT calculations.

  12. Cyanation of arenes via iridium-catalyzed borylation. (United States)

    Liskey, Carl W; Liao, Xuebin; Hartwig, John F


    We report a method to conduct one-pot meta cyanation of arenes by iridium-catalyzed C-H borylation and copper-mediated cyanation of the resulting arylboronate esters. This process relies on a method to conduct the cyanation of arylboronic esters, and conditions for this new transformation are reported. Conditions for the copper-mediated cyanation of arylboronic acids are also reported. By the resulting sequence of borylation and cyanation, 1,3-disubstituted and 1,2,3-trisubstituted arenes and heteroarenes containing halide, ketone, ester, amide, and protected alcohol functionalities are converted to the corresponding meta-substituted aryl nitriles. The utility of this methodology is demonstrated through the conversion of a protected 2,6-disubstituted phenol to 4-cyano-2,6-dimethylphenol, which is an intermediate in the synthesis of the pharmaceutical etravirine. The utility of the method is further demonstrated by the conversion of 3-chloro-5-methylbenzonitrile, produced through the one-pot C-H borylation and cyanation sequence, to the corresponding 3,5-disubstituted aldehydes, ketones, amides, carboxylic acids, tetrazoles, and benzylamines.

  13. Base-catalyzed depolymerization of lignin : separation of monomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigneault, A. [Sherbrooke Univ., PQ (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Johnson, D.K. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States); Chornet, E. [Sherbrooke Univ., PQ (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)


    Biofuels produced from residual lignocellulosic biomass range from ethanol to biodiesel. The use of lignin for the production of alternate biofuels and green chemicals has been studied with particular emphasis on the structure of lignin and its oxyaromatic nature. In an effort to fractionate lignocellulosic biomass and valorize specific constitutive fractions, the authors developed a strategy for the separation of 12 added value monomers produced during the hydrolytic base catalyzed depolymerization (BCD) of a Steam Exploded Aspen Lignin. The separation strategy was similar to vanillin purification to obtain pure monomers, but combining more steps after the lignin depolymerization such as acidification, batch liquid-liquid-extraction (LLE), followed by vacuum distillation, liquid chromatography (LC) and crystallization. The purpose was to develop basic data for an industrial size process flow diagram, and to evaluate both the monomer losses during the separation and the energy requirements. Experimentally testing of LLE, vacuum distillation and flash LC in the laboratory showed that batch vacuum distillation produced up to 4 fractions. Process simulation revealed that a series of 4 vacuum distillation columns could produce 5 distinct monomer streams, of which 3 require further chromatography and crystallization operations for purification. 22 refs., 4 tabs., 8 figs.

  14. Broadening the scope of glycosyltransferase-catalyzed sugar nucleotide synthesis. (United States)

    Gantt, Richard W; Peltier-Pain, Pauline; Singh, Shanteri; Zhou, Maoquan; Thorson, Jon S


    We described the integration of the general reversibility of glycosyltransferase-catalyzed reactions, artificial glycosyl donors, and a high throughput colorimetric screen to enable the engineering of glycosyltransferases for combinatorial sugar nucleotide synthesis. The best engineered catalyst from this study, the OleD Loki variant, contained the mutations P67T/I112P/T113M/S132F/A242I compared with the OleD wild-type sequence. Evaluated against the parental sequence OleD TDP16 variant used for screening, the OleD Loki variant displayed maximum improvements in k(cat)/K(m) of >400-fold and >15-fold for formation of NDP-glucoses and UDP-sugars, respectively. This OleD Loki variant also demonstrated efficient turnover with five variant NDP acceptors and six variant 2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl glycoside donors to produce 30 distinct NDP-sugars. This study highlights a convenient strategy to rapidly optimize glycosyltransferase catalysts for the synthesis of complex sugar nucleotides and the practical synthesis of a unique set of sugar nucleotides.

  15. Production of Chemoenzymatic Catalyzed Monoepoxide Biolubricant: Optimization and Physicochemical Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jumat Salimon


    Full Text Available Linoleic acid (LA is converted to per-carboxylic acid catalyzed by an immobilized lipase from Candida antarctica (Novozym 435. This per-carboxylic acid is only intermediate and epoxidized itself in good yields and almost without consecutive reactions. Monoepoxide linoleic acid 9(12-10(13-monoepoxy 12(9-octadecanoic acid (MEOA was optimized using D-optimal design. At optimum conditions, higher yield% (82.14 and medium oxirane oxygen content (OOC (4.91% of MEOA were predicted at 15 μL of H2O2, 120 mg of Novozym 435, and 7 h of reaction time. In order to develop better-quality biolubricants, pour point (PP, flash point (FP, viscosity index (VI, and oxidative stability (OT were determined for LA and MEOA. The results showed that MEOA exhibited good low-temperature behavior with PP of −41°C. FP of MEOA increased to 128°C comparing with 115°C of LA. In a similar fashion, VI for LA was 224 generally several hundred centistokes (cSt more viscous than MEOA 130.8. The ability of a substance to resist oxidative degradation is another important property for biolubricants. Therefore, LA and MEOA were screened to measure their OT which was observed at 189 and 168°C, respectively.

  16. Thinking Differently: Catalyzing Innovation in Healthcare and Beyond. (United States)

    Samet, Kenneth A; Smith, Mark S


    Convenience, value, access, and choice have become the new expectations of consumers seeking care. Incorporating these imperatives and navigating an expanded competitive landscape are necessary for the success of healthcare organizations-today and in the future-and require thinking differently than in the past.Innovation must be a central strategy for clinical and business operations to be successful. However, the currently popular concept of innovation is at risk of losing its power and meaning unless deliberate and focused action is taken to define it, adopt it, embrace it, and embed it in an organization's culture. This article details MedStar Health's blueprint for establishing the MedStar Institute for Innovation (MI2), which involved recognizing the sharpened need for innovation, creating a single specific entity to catalyze innovation across the healthcare organization and community, discovering the untapped innovation energy already residing in its employee base, and moving nimbly into the white space of possibility.Drawing on MedStar's experience with MI2, we offer suggestions in the following areas for implementing an innovation institute in a large healthcare system:We offer healthcare and business leaders a playbook for identifying and unleashing innovation in their organizations, at a time when innovation is at an increased risk of being misunderstood or misdirected but remains absolutely necessary for healthcare systems and organizations to flourish in the future.

  17. Muon catalyzed fusion in 3-K solid deuterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knowles, P.E.; Beer, G.A.; Mason, G.R.; Porcelli, T.A. [Department of Physics, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, V8W2Y2 (CANADA); Adamczak, A. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342, Krakow (Poland); Bailey, J.M. [Chester Technology, 15 Farbaily Close, Chester CH47QH (England); Beveridge, J.L.; Marshall, G.M.; Olin, A. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T2A3 (CANADA); Fujiwara, M.C. [Department of Physics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver British Columbia, V6T2A6 (CANADA); Huber, T.M. [Department of Physics, Gustavus Adolphus College, St. Peter, Minnesota 56082 (United States); Jacot-Guillarmod, R.; Mulhauser, F. [Institut de Physique, Universite de Fribourg, CH-1700 Fribourg (Switzerland); Kammel, P.; Zmeskal, J. [Institute for Medium Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Kim, S.K. [Department of Physics, Jeonbuk National University, Jeonju City 560-756, South (Korea); Kunselman, A.R. [Department of Physics, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming 82071 (United States); Martoff, C.J. [Department of Physics, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122 (United States); Petitjean, C. [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland)


    Muon catalyzed fusion in deuterium traditionally has been studied in gaseous and liquid targets. The TRIUMF solid-hydrogen-layer target system has been used to study the fusion reaction rates in the solid phase of D{sub 2} at a target temperature of 3 K. Products of two distinct branches of the reaction were observed: neutrons by a liquid organic scintillator and protons by a silicon detector located inside the target system. The effective molecular formation rate from the upper hyperfine state of {mu}d and the hyperfine transition rate have been measured: {tilde {lambda}}{sub (3)/(2)}=2.71(7){sub stat}(32){sub syst}{mu}s{sup {minus}1} and {tilde {lambda}}{sub (3)/(2)(1)/(2)}=34.2(8){sub stat}(1){sub syst}{mu}s{sup {minus}1}. The molecular formation rate is consistent with other recent measurements, but not with the theory for isolated molecules. The discrepancy may be due to incomplete thermalization, an effect that was investigated by Monte Carlo calculations. Information on branching ratio parameters for the s and p wave d+d nuclear interaction has been extracted. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  18. A review on production of biodiesel using catalyzed transesterification (United States)

    Dash, Santosh Kumar; Lingfa, Pradip


    Biodiesel is arguably an important fuel for compression ignition engine as far as sustainability and environmental issues are concerned. It can be produced from both edible and non-edible vegetable oils and animal fats. Owing to higher viscosity, the utilization of crude vegetable oil is not advisable as it results engine failure. For reducing the viscosity and improving the other fuel characteristics comparable to that of diesel fuel, different approaches have been developed. However, transesterification process is very reliable, less costly and easy method compared to other methods. Due to more free fatty acids content in most of the non-edible vegetable oils, a pretreatment is employed to convert the acids to ester, then transesterified with suitable alcohol. Primarily yield of biodiesel depends upon the molar ratio of oil/alcohol, reaction temperature, reaction time, amount of catalyst, type of catalyst, stirring speed. Both homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts are used for synthesis purposes. Heterogeneous catalysts are less costly, environmental benign and can be derived from natural resources. Enzymatic catalysts are more environmental benign than heterogeneous catalysts but are costly, which hinders its widespread research and utilization. This article reviews the results of prominent works and researches in the field of production of biodiesel via catalyzed transesterification process.

  19. Trifluoroacetic anhydride-catalyzed nitration of toluene as an approach to the specific analysis of nitrate by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Smythe, G A; Matanovic, G; Yi, D; Duncan, M W


    The nitration of aromatic compounds by electrophilic substitution is often utilized in analyses of nitrate concentrations in physiological samples by gas chromatographic methods. Problems associated with the use of concentrated sulfuric acid, which is normally used to catalyze this reaction, led us to investigate an alternative method. We describe here a facile GC/MS assay for nitrate in plasma or urine samples which takes advantage of the ability of trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA) to catalyze the nitration of aromatics. Toluene, utilized as both reaction solvent and electrophile, was shown to react with nitrate in the presence of TFAA to quantitatively produce the three nitrotoluene isomers (ratio o-:m:p-, approx 57:3:40). Following the incorporation of 15N-labeled nitrate as internal standard, nitrotoluene was quantified using GC/MS by analysis of the selected the ion pairs m/z 120 and 121 (M+ -OH) for the o-isomer or m/z 137 and 138 (molecular ion, M+) for the p-isomer. The limit of detection for nitrate after TFAA-catalyzed conversion to nitrotoluene was less than 100 fmol on column (s/n; 40:1). The TFAA-based GC/MS assay was compared with that utilizing the usual catalyst, concentrated sulfuric acid. With the exception of samples containing nitroarginine analogues, good correlation was found for urine or plasma samples analyzed using either a standard sulfuric acid-catalyzed method or the TFAA-catalyzed procedure. Nitroarginine analogues, which can be present in samples following their use as nitric oxide synthase inhibitors, did not decompose under the conditions of the TFAA-catalyzed assay and, hence, do not give rise to significant interference with nitrate analysis in this procedure. In contrast, catalytic sulfuric acid caused nitroarginine analogues to decompose (essentially quantitatively) and cause spuriously high nitrate levels in samples. The use of TFAA as a catalyst for the nitration of toluene enables a facile and sensitive GC/MS analysis for

  20. Growth and Raman spectroscopy studies of gold-free catalyzed semiconductor nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zardo, Ilaria


    The present Ph.D. thesis proposes two aims: the search for catalysts alternative to gold for the growth of silicon nanowires and the investigation of the structural properties of the gold-free catalyzed Si, Ge, and GaAs nanowires. The successful growth of gold free catalyzed silicon nanowires was obtained using Ga and In as catalyst. Hydrogen plasma conditions were needed during the growth process. We proposed a growth mechanism where the role of the hydrogen plasma is taken into account. The influence of the growth conditions on nanowire growth morphology and structural properties was investigated in detail. The TEM studies showed the occurrence of different kind of twin defects depending on the nanowire growth direction. The intersection of twins in different spatial directions in <111>-oriented nanowires or the periodicity of highly dense twins in <112>-oriented nanowires leads to the formation of hexagonal domains embedded in the diamond silicon structure. A simple crystallographic model which illustrates the formation of the hexagonal phase was proposed. The presence of the hexagonal domains embedded in the diamond silicon structure was investigated also by means of Raman spectroscopy. The measured frequencies of the E2g and A1g modes were found to be in agreement with frequencies expected from phonon dispersion folding. An estimation of the percentage of hexagonal structure with respect to the cubic structure was given. The relative percentage of the two structures was found to change with growth temperature. Spatially resolved Raman scattering experiments were also realized on single Si nanowires. The lattice dynamics of gold-free catalyzed Ge and GaAs nanowires was studied by means of Raman spectroscopy. We performed spatially resolved Raman spectroscopy experiments on single crystalline- amorphous core-shell Ge nanowires. The correlation with TEM studies on nanowires grown under the same conditions and with AFM measurements realized of the same nanowires

  1. A two-component monooxygenase catalyzes both the hydroxylation of p-nirophenol and the oxidative release of nitrite from 4-nitrocatechol in Bacillus sphaericus JS905

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadiyala, V.; Spain, J.C. [Air Force Research Lab., Tyndall AFB, FL (United States)


    Bacteria that metabolize p-nitrophenol (PNP) oxidize the substrate to 3-ketoadipic acid via either hydroquinone or 1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene (THB); however, initial steps in the pathway for PNP biodegradation via THB are unclear. The product of initial hydroxylation of PNP could be either 4-nitrocatechol or 4-nitroresorcinol. Here the authors describe the complete pathway for aerobic PNP degradation by Bacillus sphaericus JS905 that was isolated by selective enrichment from an agricultural soil in India. Washed cells of PNP-grown JS905 released nitrite in stoichiometric amounts from PNP and 4-nitrocatechol. Experiments with extracts obtained from PNP-grown cells revealed that the initial reaction is a hydroxylation of PNP to yield 4-nitrocatechol. 4-nitrocatechol is subsequently oxidized to THB with the concomitant removal of the nitro group as nitrite. The enzyme that catalyzed the two sequential monooxygenations of PNP was partially purified and separated into two components by anion-exchange chromatography and size exclusion chromatography. Both components were required for NADH-dependent oxidative release of nitrite from PNP or 4-nitrocatechol. One of the components was identified as a reductase based on its ability to catalyze the NAD(P)H-dependent reduction of 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol and nitroblue tetrazolium. Nitrite release from either PNP or 4-nitrocatechol was inhibited by the flavoprotein inhibitor methimazole. Their results indicate that the two monooxygenations of PNP to THB are catalyzed by a single two-component enzyme system comprising a flavoprotein reductase and an oxygenase.

  2. Nb effect in the nickel oxide-catalyzed low-temperature oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Haibo


    A method for the preparation of NiO and Nb-NiO nanocomposites is developed, based on the slow oxidation of a nickel-rich Nb-Ni gel obtained in citric acid. The resulting materials have higher surface areas than those obtained by the classical evaporation method from nickel nitrate and ammonium niobium oxalate. These consist in NiO nanocrystallites (7-13 nm) associated, at Nb contents >3 at.%., with an amorphous thin layer (1-2 nm) of a niobium-rich mixed oxide with a structure similar to that of NiNb 2O 6. Unlike bulk nickel oxides, the activity of these nanooxides for low-temperature ethane oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) has been related to their redox properties. In addition to limiting the size of NiO crystallites, the presence of the Nb-rich phase also inhibits NiO reducibility. At Nb content >5 at.%, Nb-NiO composites are thus less active for ethane ODH but more selective, indicating that the Nb-rich phase probably covers part of the unselective, non-stoichiometric, active oxygen species of NiO. This geometric effect is supported by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy observations. The close interaction between NiO and the thin Nb-rich mixed oxide layer, combined with possible restructuration of the nanocomposite under ODH conditions, leads to significant catalyst deactivation at high Nb loadings. Hence, the most efficient ODH catalysts obtained by this method are those containing 3-4 at.% Nb, which combine high activity, selectivity, and stability. The impact of the preparation method on the structural and catalytic properties of Nb-NiO nanocomposites suggests that further improvement in NiO-catalyzed ethane ODH can be expected upon optimization of the catalyst. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Environmental life-cycle comparisons of two polychlorinated biphenyl remediation technologies: incineration and base catalyzed decomposition. (United States)

    Hu, Xintao; Zhu, Jianxin; Ding, Qiong


    Remediation action is critical for the management of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contaminated sites. Dozens of remediation technologies developed internationally could be divided in two general categories incineration and non-incineration. In this paper, life cycle assessment (LCA) was carried out to study the environmental impacts of these two kinds of remediation technologies in selected PCB contaminated sites, where Infrared High Temperature Incineration (IHTI) and Base Catalyzed Decomposition (BCD) were selected as representatives of incineration and non-incineration. A combined midpoint/damage approach was adopted by using SimaPro 7.2 and IMPACTA2002+ to assess the human toxicity, ecotoxicity, climate change impact, and resource consumption from the five subsystems of IHTI and BCD technologies, respectively. It was found that the major environmental impacts through the whole lifecycle arose from energy consumption in both IHTI and BCD processes. For IHTI, primary and secondary combustion subsystem contributes more than 50% of midpoint impacts concerning with carcinogens, respiratory inorganics, respiratory organics, terrestrial ecotoxity, terrestrial acidification/eutrophication and global warming. In BCD process, the rotary kiln reactor subsystem presents the highest contribution to almost all the midpoint impacts including global warming, non-renewable energy, non-carcinogens, terrestrial ecotoxity and respiratory inorganics. In the view of midpoint impacts, the characterization values for global warming from IHTI and BCD were about 432.35 and 38.5 kg CO(2)-eq per ton PCB-containing soils, respectively. LCA results showed that the single score of BCD environmental impact was 1468.97 Pt while IHTI's score is 2785.15 Pt, which indicates BCD potentially has a lower environmental impact than IHTI technology in the PCB contaminated soil remediation process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Polycyclization Enabled by Relay Catalysis: One-Pot Manganese-Catalyzed C-H Allylation and Silver-Catalyzed Povarov Reaction. (United States)

    Chen, Shi-Yong; Li, Qingjiang; Liu, Xu-Ge; Wu, Jia-Qiang; Zhang, Shang-Shi; Wang, Honggen


    In this study, a Mn I /Ag I -based relay catalysis process is described for the one-pot synthesis of polycyclic products by a formal [3+2] and [4+2] cycloaddition reaction cascade. A manganese(I) complex catalyzed the first example of directed C-H allylation with allenes, setting the stage for an in situ Povarov cyclization catalyzed by silver(I). The reaction proceeds with high bond-forming efficiency (three C-C bonds), broad substrate scope, high regio- and stereoselectivity, and 100 % atom economy. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Total Synthesis of Enantiopure (+)-γ -Lycorane Using Highly Efficient Pd-Catalyzed Asymmetric Allylic Alkylation (United States)

    Chapsal, Bruno D.; Ojima, Iwao


    Highly efficient short total synthesis of γ -lycorane (>99% ee, 41% overall yield) was achieved by using the asymmetric allylic alkylation in the key step catalyzed by palladium complexes with novel chiral biphenol-based monodentate phosphoramidite ligands. PMID:16562900

  6. Total Synthesis of Enantiopure (+)-γ -Lycorane Using Highly Efficient Pd-Catalyzed Asymmetric Allylic Alkylation


    Chapsal, Bruno D.; OJIMA, IWAO


    Highly efficient short total synthesis of γ -lycorane (>99% ee, 41% overall yield) was achieved by using the asymmetric allylic alkylation in the key step catalyzed by palladium complexes with novel chiral biphenol-based monodentate phosphoramidite ligands.

  7. on the elementary steps of acid zeolite catalyzed amination of light alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veefkind, V.A.; Lercher, J.A.


    Potential elementary reaction steps in solid acid catalyzed amination of light alcohols are critically compared using hydrogen mordenite as (model) catalyst and the open mechanistic questions have been addressed. Transient kinetic experiments combined with in situ infrared spectroscopy and isotopic

  8. Triflic acid catalyzed oxidative lactonization and diacetoxylation of alkenes using peroxyacids as oxidants. (United States)

    Kang, Yan-Biao; Gade, Lutz H


    A clean and efficient diacetoxylation reaction of alkenes catalyzed by triflic acid using commercially available peroxyacids as the oxidants has been developed. This method was also applied in oxidative lactonizations of unsaturated carboxylic acids in good to high yields.

  9. Vanadium-Catalyzed Enantioselective Desymmetrization of meso-Secondary Allylic Alcohols and Homoallylic Alcohols


    Li, Zhi; Zhang, Wei; Hisashi Yamamoto, H.


    Vanadium-catalyzed epoxidation has extended substrate scope. In addition to various bis-allylic alcohols, bis-homoallylic alcohols can also be desymmetrized using our Vanadium-Bis-hydroxamic acid complexes.

  10. Structural basis for Diels-Alder ribozyme-catalyzed carbon-carbon bond formation (United States)

    Serganov, Alexander; Keiper, Sonja; Malinina, Lucy; Tereshko, Valentina; Skripkin, Eugene; Höbartner, Claudia; Polonskaia, Anna; Phan, Anh Tuân; Wombacher, Richard; Micura, Ronald; Dauter, Zbigniew; Jäschke, Andres; Patel, Dinshaw J


    The majority of structural efforts addressing RNA’s catalytic function have focused on natural ribozymes, which catalyze phosphodiester transfer reactions. By contrast, little is known about how RNA catalyzes other types of chemical reactions. We report here the crystal structures of a ribozyme that catalyzes enantioselective carbon-carbon bond formation by the Diels-Alder reaction in the unbound state and in complex with a reaction product. The RNA adopts a λ-shaped nested pseudoknot architecture whose preformed hydrophobic pocket is precisely complementary in shape to the reaction product. RNA folding and product binding are dictated by extensive stacking and hydrogen bonding, whereas stereoselection is governed by the shape of the catalytic pocket. Catalysis is apparently achieved by a combination of proximity, complementarity and electronic effects. We observe structural parallels in the independently evolved catalytic pocket architectures for ribozyme- and antibody-catalyzed Diels-Alder carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions. PMID:15723077

  11. Organizational innovation: verifying a comprehensive model for catalyzing organizational development and change

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steiber, Annika; Alänge, Sverker


    .... Previous research has identified a need for a more comprehensive framework that will aid in better understanding of the mechanisms catalyzing organizational development and change. Steiber and Alänge (Triple Helix 2(9):1–25, 2015...

  12. Sulfenamide catalyzed oxidation of alcohols to the corresponding carbonyl compounds with anhydrous chloramine-T. (United States)

    Kitagawa, Hideo; Mukaiyama, Teruaki


    N-tert-Butylbenzenesulfenamide (1) catalyzed oxidation of various alcohols with stoichiometric amount of anhydrous chloramines-T (2) proceeded smoothly at room temperature to afford the corresponding carbonyl compounds in good yields.

  13. Pd-Catalyzed C-H Bond Functionalization on the Indole and Pyrrole Nucleus (United States)

    Beck, Elizabeth M.; Gaunt, Matthew J.

    This review details recent developments in the Pd-catalyzed C-H bond arylation and alkenylation of indoles and pyrroles, aromatic heterocycles that are frequently displayed in natural products and medicinal agents.

  14. (NHC)Cu-Catalyzed Mild C-H Amidation of (Hetero)arenes with Deprotectable Carbamates: Scope and Mechanistic Studies. (United States)

    Xie, Weilong; Yoon, Jung Hee; Chang, Sukbok


    Primary arylamines are an important unit broadly found in synthetic, biological, and materials science. Herein we describe the development of a (NHC)Cu system that mediates a direct C-H amidation of (hetero)arenes by using N-chlorocarbamates or their sodio derivatives as the practical amino sources. A facile stoichiometric reaction of reactive copper-aryl intermediates with the amidating reagent led us to isolate key copper arylcarbamate species with the formation of a C-N bond. The use of (t)BuONa base made this transformation catalytic under mild conditions. The present (NHC)Cu-catalyzed C-H amidation works efficiently and selectively on a large scale over a range of arenes including polyfluorobenzenes, azoles, and quinoline N-oxides. Deprotection of the newly installed carbamate groups such as Boc and Cbz was readily performed to afford the corresponding primary arylamines.

  15. Aerobic Oxidation of 4-Alkyl-N,N-dimethylbenzylamines Catalyzed by N-Hydroxyphthalimide: Protonation-Driven Control over Regioselectivity. (United States)

    Bietti, Massimo; Lanzalunga, Osvaldo; Lapi, Andrea; Martin, Teo; Mazzonna, Marco; Polin, Mariangela; Salamone, Michela


    A change in regioselectivity has been observed in the hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) reactions from 4-alkyl-N,N-dimethylbenzylamines (alkyl = ethyl, isopropyl, and benzyl) to the phthalimide N-oxyl radical (PINO) by effect of protonation. This result can be rationalized on the basis of an acid-induced deactivation of the C-H bonds α to nitrogen toward HAT to PINO as evidenced by the 10(4)-10(7)-fold decrease in the HAT rate constants in acetonitrile following addition of 0.1 M HClO4. This acid-induced change in regioselectivity has been successfully applied for selective functionalization of the less activated benzylic C-H bonds para to the CH2N(CH3)2 group in the aerobic oxidation of 4-alkyl-N,N-dimethylbenzylamines catalyzed by N-hydroxyphthalimide in acetic acid.

  16. A new model for catalyzing translational science: the early stage investigator mentored research scholar program in HIV vaccines. (United States)

    Adamson, Blythe J S; Fuchs, Jonathan D; Sopher, Carrie J; Flood, Danna M; Johnson, R Paul; Haynes, Barton F; Kublin, James G


    Engagement of early stage investigators (ESIs) in the search for a safe and effective vaccine is critical to the success of this highly challenging endeavor. In the wake of disappointing results from a large-scale efficacy trial, the HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN) and Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology (CHAVI) developed a novel mentored research program focused on the translation of findings from nonhuman primate studies to human trials of experimental vaccines. From 2008 to 2011, 14 ESI Scholars were selected from 42 complete applications. Post program surveys and tracked outcomes suggest that the combination of flexible funding, transdisciplinary mentorship, and structured training and networking promoted the scientific contributions and career development of promising ESIs. Embedding a multicomponent research program within collaborative clinical trial networks and research consortia is a promising strategy to attract and retain early career investigators and catalyze important translational science. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Solid-phase synthesis of peptide thioureas and thiazole-containing macrocycles through ru-catalyzed ring-closing metathesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohrt, A. Emil; Nielsen, Thomas E.


    between two alkene moieties, said thiazole core was conveniently embedded in peptide macrocycles via Ru-catalyzed ring-closing metathesis reactions. Various 15-17 membered macrocycles were easily accessible in all diastereomeric forms using this methodology. The developed "build/couple/pair" strategy......N-Terminally modified α-thiourea peptides can selectively be synthesized on solid support under mild reaction conditions using N,N′-di-Boc-thiourea and Mukaiyama's reagent (2-chloro-1-methyl-pyridinium iodide). This N-terminal modification applies to the 20 proteinogenic amino acid residues...... on three commonly used resins for solid-phase synthesis. Complementary methods for the synthesis of α-guanidino peptides have also been developed. The thiourea products underwent quantitative reactions with α-halo ketones to form thiazoles in excellent purities and yields. When strategically installed...

  18. Enantioconvergent synthesis by sequential asymmetric Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons and palladium-catalyzed allylic substitution reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Torben Møller; Hansen, E. Louise; Kane, John


    A new method for enantioconvergent synthesis has been developed. The strategy relies on the combination of an asymmetric Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons (HWE) reaction and a palladium-catalyzed allylic substitution. Different $alpha@-oxygen-substituted, racemic aldehydes were initially transformed...... by asymmetric HWE reactions into mixtures of two major $alpha@,$beta@-unsaturated esters, possessing opposite configurations at their allylic stereocenters as well as opposite alkene geometry. Subsequently, these isomeric mixtures of alkenes could be subjected to palladium-catalyzed allylic substitution...

  19. Synthesis of highly substituted pyrroles via a multimetal-catalyzed rearrangement-condensation-cyclization domino approach. (United States)

    Binder, Jörg T; Kirsch, Stefan F


    [reaction: see text] In a convenient one-pot process, easily accessed propargyl vinyl ethers and aromatic amines are effectively converted into tetra- and pentasubstituted 5-methylpyrroles which can further be transformed into 5-formylpyrroles via IBX-mediated oxidation. The cascade reaction proceeds through a silver(I)-catalyzed propargyl-Claisen rearrangement, an amine condensation, and a gold(I)-catalyzed 5-exo-dig heterocyclization.

  20. Mo-catalyzed asymmetric olefin metathesis in target-oriented synthesis: Enantioselective synthesis of (+)-africanol (United States)

    Weatherhead, Gabriel S.; Cortez, G. A.; Schrock, Richard R.; Hoveyda, Amir H.


    Catalytic asymmetric ring-opening metathesis (AROM) provides an efficient method for the synthesis of a variety of optically enriched small organic molecules that cannot be easily prepared by alternative methods. The development of Mo-catalyzed AROM transformations that occur in tandem with ring-closing metathesis are described. The utility of the Mo-catalyzed AROM/ring-closing metathesis is demonstrated through an enantioselective approach to the synthesis of (+)-africanol. PMID:15056762

  1. Degradation of acid red 14 by silver ion-catalyzed peroxydisulfate oxidation in an aqueous solution


    RASOULIFARD, Mohammad Hossein; MOHAMMADI, Seied Mohammad Mahdi DOUST


    Silver ion (Ag1+)-catalyzed peroxydisulfate was studied for the degradation of acid red 14 (AR-14) in an aqueous medium. The effect of different parameters, such as temperature, peroxydisulfate concentration, and dye and Ag1+ concentrations, were investigated. Application of Ag1+-catalyzed peroxydisulfate, as an advanced oxidation process, introduces an effectual method for wastewater treatment. An accelerated reaction using S2O82- to destroy dyes can be achieved via chemical activat...

  2. Hydrogen generation from aqueous acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of sodium borohydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Jae [Clean Fuels and Catalysis Program, The EMS Energy Institute, and Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Shin, Kyoung-Jin; Kim, Hyun-Jong; Han, M.K. [Surface technology team, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology (KITECH), Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hansung; Shul, Yong-Gun [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Kyeong Taek [Cheil Industries Co. LTD, 437-711 (Korea, Republic of)


    In this study, the hydrogen feed from both Ru-catalyzed and organic acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of NaBH{sub 4} was studied in terms of hydrogen generation rate and integrated PEMFC performance. Hydrogen feed generated from the conventional Ru-catalyzed hydrolysis of NaBH{sub 4} caused a drastic loss of PEMFC performance. It was found that the presence of sodium ion in hydrogen feed was a main factor that increased the interfacial resistance of fuel cell and, consequently, reduced the performance. Acid-catalyzed hydrolysis with powder form of NaBH{sub 4} was adopted in order to minimize the detrimental effect of sodium ion. The hydrogen feed from acid-catalyzed hydrolysis was quite dry so that even water vapor, the carrier of sodium ion, was not detected after condensation of hydrogen feed. It was confirmed by the several experiments that the hydrogen release rate can be controlled by varying the injection rate and concentration of aqueous acid. Various organic acids were employed in the production of hydrogen and found that acidity, acid type and chemical structure are also important factors on hydrolysis of NaBH{sub 4}. The performance from the integrated acid-catalyzed hydrogen generation system with PEMFC was quite stable and no significant loss was observed contrary to that from the integrated Ru-catalyzed hydrogen generation system-PEMFC test. This result also clarified that the detrimental effect of sodium ion could be removed by minimizing the water vapor in this manner. Based on the experiment of acid-catalyzed hydrolysis, a small-scale hydrogen-generating device was designed and fabricated, from which hydrogen release was controlled by the acid concentration and injection rate of aqueous acid solution. (author)

  3. Nickel-Catalyzed C–O Bond-Cleaving Alkylation of Esters: Direct Replacement of the Ester Moiety by Functionalized Alkyl Chains

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Xiangqian


    Two efficient protocols for the nickel-catalyzed aryl–alkyl cross-coupling reactions using esters as coupling components have been established. The methods enable the selective oxidative addition of nickel to acyl C–O and aryl C–O bonds and allow the aryl–alkyl cross-coupling via decarbonylative bond cleavage or through cleavage of a C–O bond with high efficiency and good functional group compatibility. The protocols allow the streamlined, unconventional utilization of widespread ester groups and their precursors, carboxylic acids and phenols, in synthetic organic chemistry.

  4. Pd-catalyzed ethylene methoxycarbonylation with Brønsted acid ionic liquids as promoter and phase-separable reaction media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Suarez, Eduardo J.; Khokarale, Santosh Govind; Nguyen van Buu, Olivier


    .g. methanesulfonic acid or sulfuric acid, resulting in high catalytic activity and selectivity towards methyl propionate. In addition, the BAILs yielded a biphasic system with the product and provided stability to palladium intermediates avoiding the undesirable formation of palladium black after reaction......Brønsted acid ionic liquids (BAILs) were prepared and applied as combined acid promoters and reaction media in Pd–phosphine catalyzed methoxycarbonylation of ethylene to produce methyl propionate. The BAILs served as alternatives to common mineral acids required for the reaction, e...

  5. Nickel-Catalyzed Alkoxy-Alkyl Interconversion with Alkylborane Reagents through C−O Bond Activation of Aryl and Enol Ethers

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Lin


    A nickel-catalyzed alkylation of polycyclic aromatic methyl ethers as well as methyl enol ethers with B-alkyl 9-BBN and trialkylborane reagents that involves the cleavage of stable C(sp2)−OMe bonds is described. The transformation has a wide substrate scope and good chemoselectivity profile while proceeding under mild reaction conditions; it provides a versatile way to form C(sp2)−C(sp3) bonds that does not suffer from β-hydride elimination. Furthermore, a selective and sequential alkylation process by cleavage of inert C−O bonds is presented to demonstrate the advantage of this method.

  6. Ruthenium-Catalyzed Ammonia Borane Dehydrogenation: Mechanism and Utility. (United States)

    Zhang, Xingyue; Kam, Lisa; Trerise, Ryan; Williams, Travis J


    One of the greatest challenges in using H2 as a fuel source is finding a safe, efficient, and inexpensive method for its storage. Ammonia borane (AB) is a solid hydrogen storage material that has garnered attention for its high hydrogen weight density (19.6 wt %) and ease of handling and transport. Hydrogen release from ammonia borane is mediated by either hydrolysis, thus giving borate products that are difficult to rereduce, or direct dehydrogenation. Catalytic AB dehydrogenation has thus been a popular topic in recent years, motivated both by applications in hydrogen storage and main group synthetic chemistry. This Account is a complete description of work from our laboratory in ruthenium-catalyzed ammonia borane dehydrogenation over the last 6 years, beginning with the Shvo catalyst and resulting ultimately in the development of optimized, leading catalysts for efficient hydrogen release. We have studied AB dehydrogenation with Shvo's catalyst extensively and generated a detailed understanding of the role that borazine, a dehydrogenation product, plays in the reaction: it is a poison for both Shvo's catalyst and PEM fuel cells. Through independent syntheses of Shvo derivatives, we found a protective mechanism wherein catalyst deactivation by borazine is prevented by coordination of a ligand that might otherwise be a catalytic poison. These studies showed how a bidentate N-N ligand can transform the Shvo into a more reactive species for AB dehydrogenation that minimizes accumulation of borazine. Simultaneously, we designed novel ruthenium catalysts that contain a Lewis acidic boron to replace the Shvo -OH proton, thus offering more flexibility to optimize hydrogen release and take on more general problems in hydride abstraction. Our scorpionate-ligated ruthenium species (12) is a best-of-class catalyst for homogeneous dehydrogenation of ammonia borane in terms of its extent of hydrogen release (4.6 wt %), air tolerance, and reusability. Moreover, a synthetically

  7. C-H Bond Oxidation Catalyzed by an Imine-Based Iron Complex: A Mechanistic Insight. (United States)

    Olivo, Giorgio; Nardi, Martina; Vìdal, Diego; Barbieri, Alessia; Lapi, Andrea; Gómez, Laura; Lanzalunga, Osvaldo; Costas, Miquel; Di Stefano, Stefano


    A family of imine-based nonheme iron(II) complexes (LX)2Fe(OTf)2 has been prepared, characterized, and employed as C-H oxidation catalysts. Ligands LX (X = 1, 2, 3, and 4) stand for tridentate imine ligands resulting from spontaneous condensation of 2-pycolyl-amine and 4-substituted-2-picolyl aldehydes. Fast and quantitative formation of the complex occurs just upon mixing aldehyde, amine, and Fe(OTf)2 in a 2:2:1 ratio in acetonitrile solution. The solid-state structures of (L1)2Fe(OTf)(ClO4) and (L3)2Fe(OTf)2 are reported, showing a low-spin octahedral iron center, with the ligands arranged in a meridional fashion. (1)H NMR analyses indicate that the solid-state structure and spin state is retained in solution. These analyses also show the presence of an amine-imine tautomeric equilibrium. (LX)2Fe(OTf)2 efficiently catalyze the oxidation of alkyl C-H bonds employing H2O2 as a terminal oxidant. Manipulation of the electronic properties of the imine ligand has only a minor impact on efficiency and selectivity of the oxidative process. A mechanistic study is presented, providing evidence that C-H oxidations are metal-based. Reactions occur with stereoretention at the hydroxylated carbon and selectively at tertiary over secondary C-H bonds. Isotopic labeling analyses show that H2O2 is the dominant origin of the oxygen atoms inserted in the oxygenated product. Experimental evidence is provided that reactions involve initial oxidation of the complexes to the ferric state, and it is proposed that a ligand arm dissociates to enable hydrogen peroxide binding and activation. Selectivity patterns and isotopic labeling studies strongly suggest that activation of hydrogen peroxide occurs by heterolytic O-O cleavage, without the assistance of a cis-binding water or alkyl carboxylic acid. The sum of these observations provides sound evidence that controlled activation of H2O2 at (LX)2Fe(OTf)2 differs from that occurring in biomimetic iron catalysts described to date.

  8. Continuous Production of Lipase-Catalyzed Biodiesel in a Packed-Bed Reactor: Optimization and Enzyme Reuse Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Ching Chen


    Full Text Available An optimal continuous production of biodiesel by methanolysis of soybean oil in a packed-bed reactor was developed using immobilized lipase (Novozym 435 as a catalyst in a tert-butanol solvent system. Response surface methodology (RSM and Box-Behnken design were employed to evaluate the effects of reaction temperature, flow rate, and substrate molar ratio on the molar conversion of biodiesel. The results showed that flow rate and temperature have significant effects on the percentage of molar conversion. On the basis of ridge max analysis, the optimum conditions were as follows: flow rate 0.1 mL/min, temperature 52.1∘C, and substrate molar ratio 1 : 4. The predicted and experimental values of molar conversion were 83.31±2.07% and 82.81±.98%, respectively. Furthermore, the continuous process over 30 days showed no appreciable decrease in the molar conversion. The paper demonstrates the applicability of using immobilized lipase and a packed-bed reactor for continuous biodiesel synthesis.

  9. Continuous production of lipase-catalyzed biodiesel in a packed-bed reactor: optimization and enzyme reuse study. (United States)

    Chen, Hsiao-Ching; Ju, Hen-Yi; Wu, Tsung-Ta; Liu, Yung-Chuan; Lee, Chih-Chen; Chang, Cheng; Chung, Yi-Lin; Shieh, Chwen-Jen


    An optimal continuous production of biodiesel by methanolysis of soybean oil in a packed-bed reactor was developed using immobilized lipase (Novozym 435) as a catalyst in a tert-butanol solvent system. Response surface methodology (RSM) and Box-Behnken design were employed to evaluate the effects of reaction temperature, flow rate, and substrate molar ratio on the molar conversion of biodiesel. The results showed that flow rate and temperature have significant effects on the percentage of molar conversion. On the basis of ridge max analysis, the optimum conditions were as follows: flow rate 0.1 mL/min, temperature 52.1°C, and substrate molar ratio 1 : 4. The predicted and experimental values of molar conversion were 83.31 ± 2.07% and 82.81 ± .98%, respectively. Furthermore, the continuous process over 30 days showed no appreciable decrease in the molar conversion. The paper demonstrates the applicability of using immobilized lipase and a packed-bed reactor for continuous biodiesel synthesis.

  10. Continuous Production of Lipase-Catalyzed Biodiesel in a Packed-Bed Reactor: Optimization and Enzyme Reuse Study (United States)

    Chen, Hsiao-Ching; Ju, Hen-Yi; Wu, Tsung-Ta; Liu, Yung-Chuan; Lee, Chih-Chen; Chang, Cheng; Chung, Yi-Lin; Shieh, Chwen-Jen


    An optimal continuous production of biodiesel by methanolysis of soybean oil in a packed-bed reactor was developed using immobilized lipase (Novozym 435) as a catalyst in a tert-butanol solvent system. Response surface methodology (RSM) and Box-Behnken design were employed to evaluate the effects of reaction temperature, flow rate, and substrate molar ratio on the molar conversion of biodiesel. The results showed that flow rate and temperature have significant effects on the percentage of molar conversion. On the basis of ridge max analysis, the optimum conditions were as follows: flow rate 0.1 mL/min, temperature 52.1°C, and substrate molar ratio 1 : 4. The predicted and experimental values of molar conversion were 83.31 ± 2.07% and 82.81 ± .98%, respectively. Furthermore, the continuous process over 30 days showed no appreciable decrease in the molar conversion. The paper demonstrates the applicability of using immobilized lipase and a packed-bed reactor for continuous biodiesel synthesis. PMID:20936129

  11. Ultrasound assisted acid catalyzed lactose hydrolysis: Understanding into effect of operating parameters and scale up studies. (United States)

    Gajendragadkar, Chinmay N; Gogate, Parag R


    The current work deals with the value addition of lactose by transforming into hydrolyzed lactose syrup containing glucose and galactose in major proportion using the novel approach of ultrasound assisted acid catalyzed lactose hydrolysis. The hydrolysis of lactose was performed in ultrasonic bath (33kHz) at 50% duty cycle at different temperatures as 65°C and 70°C and two different hydrochloric acid (HCl) concentrations as 2.5N and 3N. It was observed that acid concentration, temperature and ultrasonic treatment were the major factors in deciding the time required to achieve ∼90% hydrolysis. The ultrasonic assisted approach resulted in reduction in the reaction time and the extent of intensification was established to be dependent on the temperature, acid concentration and time of ultrasonic exposure. It was observed that the maximum process intensification obtained by introduction of ultrasound in the lactose hydrolysis process performed at 70°C and 3N HCl was reduction in the required time for ∼90% hydrolysis from 4h (without the presence of ultrasound) to 3h. The scale-up study was also performed using an ultrasonic bath with longitudinal horn (36kHz as operating frequency) at 50% duty cycle, optimized temperature of 70°C and acid concentration of 3N. It was observed that the reaction was faster in the presence of ultrasound and stirring by axial impeller at rpm of 225±25. The time required to complete ∼90% of hydrolysis remained almost the same as observed for small scale study on ultrasonic bath (33kHz) at 50% duty cycle. The use of recovered lactose from whey samples instead of pure lactose did not result in any significant changes in the progress of hydrolysis, confirming the efficacy of the selected approach. Overall, the work has presented a novel ultrasound assisted approach for intensified lactose hydrolysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Unnatural selection in chemical systems (United States)

    Orgel, Leslie E.


    The theory of evolution through natural selection was proposed by Darwin and Wallace to explain how the characteristics of populations of animals change with time. An examination of their assumptions shows that the theory has much broader application than they originally envisaged. We now know that in appropriate environments RNA molecules or computer viruses, for example, can evolve. The adventure with which we are concerned is the quest for chemical systems that undergo processes analogous to Darwinian selection in the test tube. The search is not restricted to systems that are closely related to nucleic acids, although most of the available experimental evidence concerns such systems. A population of molecules satisfies all the requirements of the theory is there are different kinds of molecules in the population and if each individual molecule can direct the formation of copies of itself, then a population of molecules will adapt to a varying environment by changing its composition so as to maintain as high as possible a rate of replication. Sol Spiegelman is the inventor of 'unnatural selection'. He showed clearly that populations of RNA molecules evolve when replicated repeatedly by Q beta RNA polymerase under a chosen set of adverse reaction conditions. In the systems that he studied, the initial population was fairly homogeneous and much of the variation was created during the course of the experiment by mutation, that is, error of replication. The term 'unnatural selection' will be used loosely to describe evolution of nucleic acids or other replicatable polymers in vitro. The term 'Natural Selection' will be reserved for the evolution of living organisms and their viruses. Natural Section usually involves the coevolution of nucleic acids and proteins, while 'unnatural selection', as practiced so far, allows replicating nucleic acids to evolve but hold constant the enzymes that catalyze replication. It is widely believed that biology based on DNA, RNA, and

  13. Mechanistic Comparison Between Pd-Catalyzed Ligand Directed C-H Chlorination and C-H Acetoxylation (United States)

    Stowers, Kara J.; Sanford, Melanie S.


    This communication describes detailed investigations of the mechanism of the Pd-catalyzed C-H chlorination and acetoxylation of 2-ortho-tolylpyridine. Under the conditions examined, both reactions proceed via rate limiting cyclopalladation. However, substrate and catalyst order as well as Hammett data indicate that the intimate mechanism of cyclopalladation differs significantly between PdCl2-catalyzed chlorination and Pd(OAc)2-catalyzed acetoxylation. PMID:19754074

  14. Gold-catalyzed oxidation of substituted phenols by hydrogen peroxide

    KAUST Repository

    Cheneviere, Yohan


    Gold nanoparticles deposited on inorganic supports are efficient catalysts for the oxidation of various substituted phenols (2,6-di-tert-butyl phenol and 2,3,6-trimethyl phenol) with aqueous hydrogen peroxide. By contrast to more conventional catalysts such as Ti-containing mesoporous silicas, which convert phenols to the corresponding benzoquinones, gold nanoparticles are very selective to biaryl compounds (3,3′,5,5′-tetra-tert-butyl diphenoquinone and 2,2′,3,3′,5,5′-hexamethyl-4,4′- biphenol, respectively). Products yields and selectivities depend on the solvent used, the best results being obtained in methanol with yields >98%. Au offers the possibility to completely change the selectivity in the oxidation of substituted phenols and opens interesting perspectives in the clean synthesis of biaryl compounds for pharmaceutical applications. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Regioselective Alcoholysis of Silychristin Acetates Catalyzed by Lipases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Vavříková


    Full Text Available A panel of lipases was screened for the selective acetylation and alcoholysis of silychristin and silychristin peracetate, respectively. Acetylation at primary alcoholic group (C-22 of silychristin was accomplished by lipase PS (Pseudomonas cepacia immobilized on diatomite using vinyl acetate as an acetyl donor, whereas selective deacetylation of 22-O-acetyl silychristin was accomplished by Novozym 435 in methyl tert-butyl ether/ n-butanol. Both of these reactions occurred without diastereomeric discrimination of silychristin A and B. Both of these enzymes were found to be capable to regioselective deacetylation of hexaacetyl silychristin to afford penta-, tetra- and tri-acetyl derivatives, which could be obtained as pure synthons for further selective modifications of the parent molecule.

  16. Catalyzing Implementation of Evidence-Based Interventions in Safety Net Settings: A Clinical-Community Partnership in South Los Angeles. (United States)

    Payán, Denise D; Sloane, David C; Illum, Jacqueline; Vargas, Roberto B; Lee, Donzella; Galloway-Gilliam, Lark; Lewis, LaVonna B


    This study is a process evaluation of a clinical-community partnership that implemented evidence-based interventions in clinical safety net settings. Adoption and implementation of evidence-based interventions in these settings can help reduce health disparities by improving the quality of clinical preventive services in health care settings with underserved populations. A clinical-community partnership model is a possible avenue to catalyze adoption and implementation of interventions amid organizational barriers to change. Three Federally Qualified Health Centers in South Los Angeles participated in a partnership led by a local community-based organization (CBO) to implement hypertension interventions. Qualitative research methods were used to evaluate intervention selection and implementation processes between January 2014 and June 2015. Data collection tools included a key participant interview guide, health care provider interview guide, and protocol for taking meeting minutes. This case study demonstrates how a CBO acted as an external facilitator and employed a collaborative partnership model to catalyze implementation of evidence-based interventions in safety net settings. The study phases observed included initiation, planning, and implementation. Three emergent categories of organizational facilitators and barriers were identified (personnel capacity, professional development capacity, and technological capacity). Key participants and health care providers expressed a high level of satisfaction with the collaborative and the interventions, respectively. The CBO's role as a facilitator and catalyst is a replicable model to promote intervention adoption and implementation in safety net settings. Key lessons learned are provided for researchers and practitioners interested in partnering with Federally Qualified Health Centers to implement health promotion interventions.

  17. Theoretical study on the N-demethylation mechanism of theobromine catalyzed by P450 isoenzyme 1A2. (United States)

    Tao, Jing; Kang, Yuan; Xue, Zhiyu; Wang, Yongting; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Qiu; Chen, Zeqin; Xue, Ying


    Theobromine, a widely consumed pharmacological active substance, can cause undesirable muscle stiffness, nausea and anorexia in high doses ingestion. The main N-demethylation metabolic mechanism of theobromine catalyzed by P450 isoenzyme 1A2 (CYP1A2) has been explored in this work using the unrestricted hybrid density functional method UB3LYP in conjunction with the LACVP(Fe)/6-31G (H, C, N, O, S, Cl) basis set. Single-point calculations including empirical dispersion corrections were carried out at the higher 6-311++G** basis set. Two N-demethylation pathways were characterized, i.e., 3-N and 7-N demethylations, which involve the initial N-methyl hydroxylation to form carbinolamines and the subsequent carbinolamines decomposition to yield monomethylxanthines and formaldehydes. Our results have shown that the rate-limiting N-methyl hydroxylation occurs via a hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) mechanism, which proceeds in a spin-selective mechanism (SSM) in the gas phase. The carbinolamines generated are prone to decomposition via the contiguous heteroatom-assisted proton-transfer. Strikingly, 3-N demethylation is more favorable than 7-N demethylation due to its lower free energy barrier and 7-methylxanthine therefore is the optimum product reported for the demethylation of theobromine catalyzed by CYP1A2, which are in good agreement with the experimental observation. This work has first revealed the detail N-demethylation mechanisms of theobromine at the theoretical level. It can offer more significant information for the metabolism of purine alkaloid. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of deuterium labeling method based on the heterogeneous platinum group metal-catalyzed C-H activation. (United States)

    Sajiki, Hironao


    Deuterium (D) labeled compounds are utilized in various scientific fields such as mechanistic elucidation of reactions, preparation of new functional materials, tracers for microanalysis, deuterium labeled heavy drugs and so on. Although the H-D exchange reaction is a straightforward method to produce deuterated organic compounds, many precedent methods require expensive deuterium gas and/or harsh reaction conditions. A part of our leading research agendas is intended to the development of novel and functional heterogeneous platinum-group catalysts and the reclamation of unknown functionalities of existing heterogeneous platinum-group catalysts. During the course of the study, benzylic positions of substrates were site-selectively deuterated under mild and palladium-on-carbon (Pd/C)-catalyzed hydrogenation conditions in heavy water (D2O). Heat conditions promoted the H-D exchange reactivity and facilitated the H-D exchange reaction at not only the benzylic sites but also inactive C-H bonds and heterocyclic nuclei. It is noteworthy that platinum-on-carbon (Pt/C) indicated a quite high affinity toward aromatic nuclei, and the H-D exchange reaction was strongly enhanced by the use of Pt/C as a catalyst under milder conditions. The mixed use of Pd/C and Pt/C was found to be more efficient in the H-D exchange reaction compared to the independent use of Pd/C or Pt/C. Furthermore, simple alkanes could also be efficiently deuterated under rhodium-on-carbon (Rh/C)-catalyzed conditions. The use of ruthenium-on-carbon (Ru/C) enabled the regiospecific and efficient deuterium incorporation at α-positions of alcohols and results were applied as a regio- and stereoselective multi-deuteration method of sugar derivatives.

  19. Computational Elucidation of Selectivities and Mechanisms Performed by Organometallic and Bioinorganic Catalysts (United States)

    Grandner, Jessica Marie

    Computational methods were used to determine the mechanisms and selectivities of organometallic-catalyzed reactions. The first half of the dissertation focuses on the study of metathesis catalysts in collaboration with the Grubbs group at CalTech. Chapter 1 describes the studies of the decomposition modes of several ruthenium-based metathesis catalysts. These studies were performed to better understand the decomposition of such catalysts in order to prevent decomposition (Chapter 1.2) or utilize decomposed catalysts for alternative reactions (Chapter 1.1). Chapter 2.1 describes the computational investigation of the origins of stereoretentive metathesis with ruthenium-based metathesis catalysts. These findings were then used to computationally design E-selective metathesis catalysts (Chapter 2.2). While the first half of the dissertation was centered around ruthenium catalysts, the second half of the dissertation pertains to iron-catalyzed reaction, in particular, iron-catalyzed reactions by P450 enzymes. The elements of Chapter 3 concentrate on the stereo- and chemo-selectivity of P450-catalyzed C-H hydroxylations. By combining multiple computational methods, the inherent activity of the iron-oxo catalyst and the influence of the active site on such reactions were illuminated. These discoveries allow for the engineering of new substrates and mutant enzymes for tailored C-H hydroxylation. While the mechanism of C-H hydroxylations catalyzed by P450 enzymes has been well studied, there are several P450-catalyzed transformations for which the mechanism is unknown. The components of Chapter 4 describe the use of computations to determine the mechanisms of complex, multi-step reactions catalyzed by P450s. The determination of these mechanisms elucidates how these enzymes react with various functional groups and substrate architectures and allows for a better understanding of how drug-like compounds may be broken down by human P450s.

  20. Copper-catalyzed synthesis of mixed alkyl aryl phosphonates. (United States)

    Fañanás-Mastral, Martín; Feringa, Ben L


    Copper-catalysis allows the direct oxygen-arylation of dialkyl phosphonates with diaryliodonium salts. This novel methodology proceeds with a wide range of phosphonates and phosphoramidates under mild conditions and gives straightforward access to valuable mixed alkyl aryl phosphonates in very good yields and near perfect selectivity.

  1. Carbon dioxide reduction to methane and coupling with acetylene to form propylene catalyzed by remodeled nitrogenase. (United States)

    Yang, Zhi-Yong; Moure, Vivian R; Dean, Dennis R; Seefeldt, Lance C


    A doubly substituted form of the nitrogenase MoFe protein (α-70(Val)(→Ala), α-195(His→Gln)) has the capacity to catalyze the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) to yield methane (CH(4)). Under optimized conditions, 1 nmol of the substituted MoFe protein catalyzes the formation of 21 nmol of CH(4) within 20 min. The catalytic rate depends on the partial pressure of CO(2) (or concentration of HCO(3)(-)) and the electron flux through nitrogenase. The doubly substituted MoFe protein also has the capacity to catalyze the unprecedented formation of propylene (H(2)C = CH-CH(3)) through the reductive coupling of CO(2) and acetylene (HC≡CH). In light of these observations, we suggest that an emerging understanding of the mechanistic features of nitrogenase could be relevant to the design of synthetic catalysts for CO(2) sequestration and formation of olefins.

  2. Carbon dioxide reduction to methane and coupling with acetylene to form propylene catalyzed by remodeled nitrogenase (United States)

    Yang, Zhi-Yong; Moure, Vivian R.; Dean, Dennis R.; Seefeldt, Lance C.


    A doubly substituted form of the nitrogenase MoFe protein (α-70Val→Ala, α-195His→Gln) has the capacity to catalyze the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) to yield methane (CH4). Under optimized conditions, 1 nmol of the substituted MoFe protein catalyzes the formation of 21 nmol of CH4 within 20 min. The catalytic rate depends on the partial pressure of CO2 (or concentration of HCO3−) and the electron flux through nitrogenase. The doubly substituted MoFe protein also has the capacity to catalyze the unprecedented formation of propylene (H2C = CH-CH3) through the reductive coupling of CO2 and acetylene (HC≡CH). In light of these observations, we suggest that an emerging understanding of the mechanistic features of nitrogenase could be relevant to the design of synthetic catalysts for CO2 sequestration and formation of olefins. PMID:23150564

  3. Enantioselective [3+3] atroposelective annulation catalyzed by N-heterocyclic carbenes

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Changgui


    Axially chiral molecules are among the most valuable substrates in organic synthesis. They are typically used as chiral ligands or catalysts in asymmetric reactions. Recent progress for the construction of these chiral molecules is mainly focused on the transition-metal-catalyzed transformations. Here, we report the enantioselective NHC-catalyzed (NHC: N-heterocyclic carbenes) atroposelective annulation of cyclic 1,3-diones with ynals. In the presence of NHC precatalyst, base, Lewis acid and oxidant, a catalytic C–C bond formation occurs, providing axially chiral α-pyrone−aryls in moderate to good yields and with high enantioselectivities. Control experiments indicated that alkynyl acyl azoliums, acting as active intermediates, are employed to atroposelectively assemble chiral biaryls and such a methodology may be creatively applied to other useful NHC-catalyzed asymmetric transformations.

  4. Catalyzing Transdisciplinarity: A Systems Ethnography of Cancer-Obesity Comorbidity and Risk Coincidence. (United States)

    Graham, S Scott; Harley, Amy; Kessler, Molly M; Roberts, Laura; DeVasto, Dannielle; Card, Daniel J; Neuner, Joan M; Kim, Sang-Yeon


    Effectively addressing wicked health problems, that is, those arising from complex multifactorial biological and socio-economic causes, requires transdisciplinary action. However, a significant body of research points toward substantial difficulties in cultivating transdisciplinary collaboration. Accordingly, this article presents the results of a study that adapts Systems Ethnography and Qualitative Modeling (SEQM) in response to wicked health problems. SEQM protocols were designed to catalyze transdisciplinary responses to national defense concerns. We adapted these protocols to address cancer-obesity comorbidity and risk coincidence. In so doing, we conducted participant-observations and interviews with a diverse range of health care providers, community health educators, and health advocacy professionals who target either cancer or obesity. We then convened a transdisciplinary conference designed to catalyze a coordinated response. The findings offer productive insights into effective ways of catalyzing transdisciplinarity in addressing wicked health problems action and demonstrate the promise of SEQM for continued use in health care contexts.

  5. DFT study of the molybdenum-catalyzed deoxydehydration of vicinal diols. (United States)

    Lupp, Daniel; Christensen, Niels Johan; Dethlefsen, Johannes R; Fristrup, Peter


    The mechanism of the molybdenum-catalyzed deoxydehydration (DODH) of vicinal diols has been investigated using density functional theory. The proposed catalytic cycle involves condensation of the diol with an Mo(VI) oxo complex, oxidative cleavage of the diol resulting in an Mo(IV) complex, and extrusion of the alkene. We have compared the proposed pathway with several alternatives, and the results have been corroborated by comparison with the molybdenum-catalyzed sulfoxide reduction recently published by Sanz et al. and with experimental observations for the DODH itself. Improved understanding of the mechanism should expedite future optimization of molybdenum-catalyzed biomass transformations. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. DFT Study of the Molybdenum-Catalyzed Deoxydehydration of Vicinal Diols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lupp, Daniel; Christensen, Niels Johan; Dethlefsen, Johannes Rytter


    The mechanism of the molybdenum-catalyzed deoxydehydration (DODH) of vicinal diols has been investigated using density functional theory. The proposed catalytic cycle involves condensation of the diol with an MoVI oxo complex, oxidative cleavage of the diol resulting in an MoIV complex, and extru......The mechanism of the molybdenum-catalyzed deoxydehydration (DODH) of vicinal diols has been investigated using density functional theory. The proposed catalytic cycle involves condensation of the diol with an MoVI oxo complex, oxidative cleavage of the diol resulting in an MoIV complex......, and extrusion of the alkene. We have compared the proposed pathway with several alternatives, and the results have been corroborated by comparison with the molybdenum- catalyzed sulfoxide reduction recently published by Sanz et al. and with experimental observations for the DODH itself. Improved understanding...

  7. Using simple donors to drive the equilibria of glycosyltransferase-catalyzed reactions. (United States)

    Gantt, Richard W; Peltier-Pain, Pauline; Cournoyer, William J; Thorson, Jon S


    We report that simple glycoside donors can drastically shift the equilibria of glycosyltransferase-catalyzed reactions, transforming NDP-sugar formation from an endothermic to an exothermic process. To demonstrate the utility of this thermodynamic adaptability, we highlight the glycosyltransferase-catalyzed synthesis of 22 sugar nucleotides from simple aromatic sugar donors, as well as the corresponding in situ formation of sugar nucleotides as a driving force in the context of glycosyltransferase-catalyzed reactions for small-molecule glycodiversification. These simple aromatic donors also enabled a general colorimetric assay for glycosyltransfer, applicable to drug discovery, protein engineering and other fundamental sugar nucleotide-dependent investigations. This study directly challenges the general notion that NDP-sugars are 'high-energy' sugar donors when taken out of their traditional biological context.

  8. The Manganese-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling Reaction and the Influence of Trace Metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santilli, Carola; Beigbaghlou, Somayyeh Sarvi; Ahlburg, Andreas


    radical as an intermediate leading to the proposal of an SRN1 pathway for the coupling. The mechanistic information gave rise to suspicion about two previously published cross-coupling reactions catalyzed by manganese(II) salts. As a result, the coupling between aryl halides and organostannanes as well......The substrate scope of the MnCl2-catalyzed cross-coupling between aryl halides and Grignard reagents has been extended to several methyl-substituted aryl iodides by performing the reaction at elevated temperature in a microwave oven. A radical clock experiment revealed the presence of an aryl...... as between aryl halides and amines were revisited. Both reactions were found impossible to reproduce without the addition of small amounts of palladium or copper and are therefore not believed to be catalyzed by manganese....

  9. Biofuel-Promoted Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxin/furan Formation in an Iron-Catalyzed Diesel Particle Filter. (United States)

    Heeb, Norbert V; Rey, Maria Dolores; Zennegg, Markus; Haag, Regula; Wichser, Adrian; Schmid, Peter; Seiler, Cornelia; Honegger, Peter; Zeyer, Kerstin; Mohn, Joachim; Bürki, Samuel; Zimmerli, Yan; Czerwinski, Jan; Mayer, Andreas


    Iron-catalyzed diesel particle filters (DPFs) are widely used for particle abatement. Active catalyst particles, so-called fuel-borne catalysts (FBCs), are formed in situ, in the engine, when combusting precursors, which were premixed with the fuel. The obtained iron oxide particles catalyze soot oxidation in filters. Iron-catalyzed DPFs are considered as safe with respect to their potential to form polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs). We reported that a bimetallic potassium/iron FBC supported an intense PCDD/F formation in a DPF. Here, we discuss the impact of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) biofuel on PCDD/F emissions. The iron-catalyzed DPF indeed supported a PCDD/F formation with biofuel but remained inactive with petroleum-derived diesel fuel. PCDD/F emissions (I-TEQ) increased 23-fold when comparing biofuel and diesel data. Emissions of 2,3,7,8-TCDD, the most toxic congener [toxicity equivalence factor (TEF) = 1.0], increased 90-fold, and those of 2,3,7,8-TCDF (TEF = 0.1) increased 170-fold. Congener patterns also changed, indicating a preferential formation of tetra- and penta-chlorodibenzofurans. Thus, an inactive iron-catalyzed DPF becomes active, supporting a PCDD/F formation, when operated with biofuel containing impurities of potassium. Alkali metals are inherent constituents of biofuels. According to the current European Union (EU) legislation, levels of 5 μg/g are accepted. We conclude that risks for a secondary PCDD/F formation in iron-catalyzed DPFs increase when combusting potassium-containing biofuels.

  10. Nanosized carbon black combined with Ni2O3 as "universal" catalysts for synergistically catalyzing carbonization of polyolefin wastes to synthesize carbon nanotubes and application for supercapacitors. (United States)

    Wen, Xin; Chen, Xuecheng; Tian, Nana; Gong, Jiang; Liu, Jie; Rümmeli, Mark H; Chu, Paul K; Mijiwska, Ewa; Tang, Tao


    The catalytic carbonization of polyolefin materials to synthesize carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is a promising strategy for the processing and recycling of plastic wastes, but this approach is generally limited due to the selectivity of catalysts and the difficulties in separating the polyolefin mixture. In this study, the influence of nanosized carbon black (CB) and Ni2O3 as a novel combined catalyst system on catalyzing carbonization of polypropylene (PP), polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS) and their blends was investigated. We showed that this combination was efficient to promote the carbonization of these polymers to produce CNTs with high yields and of good quality. Catalytic pyrolysis and model carbonization experiments indicated that the carbonization mechanism was attributed to the synergistic effect of the combined catalysts rendered by CB and Ni2O3: CB catalyzed the degradation of PP, PE, and PS to selectively produce more aromatic compounds, which were subsequently dehydrogenated and reassembled into CNTs via the catalytic action of CB together with Ni particles. Moreover, the performance of the synthesized CNTs as the electrode of supercapacitor was investigated. The supercapacitor displayed a high specific capacitance as compared to supercapacitors using commercial CNTs and CB. This difference was attributed to the relatively larger specific surface areas of our synthetic CNTs and their more oxygen-containing groups.

  11. Synthesis of Fluoroalkoxy Substituted Arylboronic Esters by Iridium-Catalyzed Aromatic C–H Borylation

    KAUST Repository

    Batool, Farhat


    The preparation of fluoroalkoxy arylboronic esters by iridium-catalyzed aromatic C–H borylation is described. The fluoroalkoxy groups employed include trifluoromethoxy, difluoromethoxy, 1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethoxy, and 2,2-difluoro-1,3-benzodioxole. The borylation reactions were carried out neat without the use of a glovebox or Schlenk line. The regioselectivities available through the iridium-catalyzed C–H borylation are complementary to those obtained by the electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions of fluoroalkoxy arenes. Fluoroalkoxy arylboronic esters can serve as versatile building blocks.

  12. FeCl3 -Catalyzed Ring-Closing Carbonyl-Olefin Metathesis. (United States)

    Ma, Lina; Li, Wenjuan; Xi, Hui; Bai, Xiaohui; Ma, Enlu; Yan, Xiaoyu; Li, Zhiping


    Exploiting catalytic carbonyl-olefin metathesis is an ongoing challenge in organic synthesis. Reported herein is an FeCl3 -catalyzed ring-closing carbonyl-olefin metathesis. The protocol allows access to a range of carbo-/heterocyclic alkenes with good efficiency and excellent trans diastereoselectivity. The methodology presents one of the rare examples of catalytic ring-closing carbonyl-olefin metathesis. This process is proposed to take place by FeCl3 -catalyzed oxetane formation followed by retro-ring-opening to deliver metathesis products. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Palladium(0)-catalyzed single and double isonitrile insertion: a facile synthesis of benzofurans, indoles, and isatins. (United States)

    Senadi, Gopal Chandru; Hu, Wan-Ping; Boominathan, Siva Senthil Kumar; Wang, Jeh-Jeng


    A palladium(0)-catalyzed cascade process consisting of isonitrile insertion and α-Csp(3)-H cross-coupling can be achieved for the synthesis of benzofurans and indoles. The construction of isatins by a Pd-catalyzed cascade reaction incorporating double isonitrile insertion, amination, and hydrolysis has also been achieved. The key features of this work include diverse heterocycle synthesis, phosphine-ligand-free reaction conditions, a one-pot procedure, simple and commercially available starting materials, broad functional-group compatibility, and moderate to good reaction yields. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Kinetics of enzyme-catalyzed cross-linking of feruloylated arabinan from sugar beet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abang Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz; Arnous, Anis; Holck, Jesper


    the kinetics of HRP catalyzed cross-linking of FA esterified to α-(1,5)-linked arabinans are affected by the length of the arabinan chains carrying the feruloyl substitutions. The kinetics of the HRP-catalyzed cross-linking of four sets of arabinan samples from sugar beet pulp, having different molecular...... weights and hence different degrees of polymerization, were monitored by the disappearance of FA absorbance at 316 nm. MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS analysis confirmed that the sugar beet arabinans were feruloyl-substituted, and HPLC analysis verified that the amounts of diFAs increased when FA levels decreased...

  15. Silver-Catalyzed Dehydrogenative Synthesis of Carboxylic Acids from Primary Alcohols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghalehshahi, Hajar Golshadi; Madsen, Robert


    A simple silver-catalyzed protocol has been developed for the acceptorless dehydrogenation of primary alcohols into carboxylic acids and hydrogen gas. The procedure uses 2.5 % Ag2 CO3 and 2.5-3 equiv of KOH in refluxing mesitylene to afford the potassium carboxylate which is then converted...... into the acid with HCl. The reaction can be applied to a variety of benzylic and aliphatic primary alcohols with alkyl and ether substituents, and in some cases halide, olefin, and ester functionalities are also compatible with the reaction conditions. The dehydrogenation is believed to be catalyzed by silver...

  16. Enzyme catalysis in organic solvents: influence of water content, solvent composition and temperature on Candida rugosa lipase catalyzed transesterification. (United States)

    Herbst, Daniela; Peper, Stephanie; Niemeyer, Bernd


    In the present study the influence of water content, solvent composition and reaction temperature on the transesterification of 1-phenylpropan-2-ol catalyzed by Candida rugosa lipase was examined. Reactions were carried out in different mixtures of hexane and tetrahydrofurane. The studies showed that an increasing water content of the organic solvent results in an increasing enzyme activity and a decreasing enantiomeric excess. Furthermore, a significant influence of the solvent hydrophilicity both on the enzyme activity and on the enantiomeric excess was found. An increase in solvent hydrophilicity leads to a decrease of enzyme activity and an increase of the enantiomeric excess. This indicates that the enzyme becomes more selective with decreasing flexibility. Similar effects were found by variation of the reaction temperature. Taken together, the decrease in conversion and the increase in selectivity with increasing solvent hydrophilicity are induced by the different water contents on the enzyme surface and not by the solvent itself. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of melamine modified urea formaldehyde resins based o nstrong acidic pH catalyzed urea formaldehyde polymer (United States)

    Chung-Yun Hse


    To upgrade the performance of urea-formaldehyde (UF) resin bonded particleboards, melamine modified urea-formaldehyde (MUF) resins based on strong acidic pH catalyzed UF polymers were investigated. The study was conducted in a series of two experiments: 1) formulation of MUF resins based on a UF polymer catalyzed with strong acidic pH and 2) determination of the...

  18. Suitable ligands for homogeneous ruthenium-catalyzed hydrogenolysis of esters


    Engelen, Marcel Chr. van; Teunissen, Herman T.; Vries, Johannes G. de; Elsevier, Cornelis J.


    Effective hydrogenolysis of dimethyl oxalate to ethylene glycol has been obtained using a catalyst prepared in situ from Ru(acac)3 with the facially coordinating tridentate phosphine ligand CH3C(CH2PPh2)3. This catalyst enabled full and selective conversion in 16 h at [S]/[Ru] = 500 at 80–100 bar hydrogen pressure at 120 °C. This catalyst is far more active than any known homogeneous catalyst able to hydrogenate dimethyl oxalate to ethylene glycol. Several mono-, di- and tridentate P- and N-l...

  19. A Palladium-Catalyzed Vinylcyclopropane (3 + 2) Cycloaddition Approach to the Melodinus Alkaloids

    KAUST Repository

    Goldberg, Alexander F. G.


    A palladium-catalyzed (3+2) cycloaddition of a vinylcyclopropane and a β-nitrostyrene is employed to rapidly assemble the cyclopentane core of the Melodinus alkaloids. The ABCD ring system of the natural product family is prepared in six steps from commercially available materials.

  20. xanthen-11-ones by ZnO Nanoparticles Catalyzed Three Co

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    tetrahydrobenzo[a]xanthen-11-ones by ZnO Nanoparticles. Catalyzed Three Component Coupling Reaction of. Aldehydes, 2-Naphthol and Dimedone. Javad Safaei-Ghomi and Mohammad Ali Ghasemzadeh. Department of Chemistry, Qom Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qom, Iran. Received 11 September 2013, revised ...

  1. A simple model for chiral amplification in the aminoalcohol-catalyzed reaction of aldehydes with dialkylzinc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A simple explanation is offered for the recently discovered chiral amplification in the alkylation reaction of benzaldehyde by means of dialkylzinc, catalyzed by (dimethylaminoisoborneol. The model presentd is similar to, yet somewhat simpler than, the model put forward by Noyori et al.

  2. Palladium-Catalyzed Enantioselective Addition of Two Distinct Nucleophiles across Alkenes Capable of Quinone Methide Formation


    Jensen, Katrina H.; Pathak, Tejas P.; Zhang, Yang; Sigman, Matthew S.


    A sequential intramolecular-intermolecular enantioselective alkene difunctionalization reaction has been developed which is thought to proceed through Pd-catalyzed quinone methide formation. The synthesis of new chiral heterocyclic compounds with adjacent chiral centers is achieved in enantiomeric ratios up to 99:1 and diastereomeric ratios up to 10:1.

  3. Zn(OTf)2 catalyzed indolylation and pyrrolylation of isatins: Efficient ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Zn(OTf)2 catalyzed indolylation and pyrrolylation of isatins: Efficient synthesis and biochemical assay of 3,3- di(heteroaryl)oxindoles. C PRAVEEN a. , S NARENDIRAN b. , P DHEENKUMAR a,c and P T PERUMAL a,. * a. Organic Chemistry Division, Central Leather Research Institute (CSIR), Adyar, Chennai. 600020 ...

  4. Nickel-Catalyzed Synthesis of Primary Aryl and Heteroaryl Amines via C–O Bond Cleavage

    KAUST Repository

    Yue, Huifeng


    A nickel-catalyzed protocol for the conversion of aryl and heteroaryl alcohol derivatives to primary and secondary aromatic amines via C(sp2)-O bond cleavage is described. The new amination protocol can be applied to a range of substrates bearing diverse functional groups and uses readily available benzophenone imines as an effective nitrogen source.

  5. Synthesis of 2-substituted tetraphenylenes via transition-metal-catalyzed derivatization of tetraphenylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shulei Pan


    Full Text Available A new strategy for the synthesis of 2-substituted tetraphenylenes through a transition-metal-catalyzed derivatization has been developed. Three types of functionalities, including OAc, X (Cl, Br, I and carbonyl, were introduced onto tetraphenylene, which allows the easy access to a variety of monosubstituted tetraphenylenes. These reactions could accelerate research on the properties and application of tetraphenylene derivatives.

  6. Monooxygenation of small hydrocarbons catalyzed by bacterial cytochrome p450s. (United States)

    Shoji, Osami; Watanabe, Yoshihito


    Cytochrome P450s (P450s) catalyze the NAD(P)H/O2-dependent monooxygenation of less reactive organic molecules under mild conditions. The catalytic activity of bacterial P450s is very high compared with P450s isolated from animals and plants, and the substrate specificity of bacterial P450s is also very high. Accordingly, their catalytic activities toward nonnative substrates are generally low especially toward small hydrocarbons. However, mutagenesis approaches have been very successful for engineering bacterial P450s for the hydroxylation of small hydrocarbons. On the other hand, "decoy" molecules, whose structures are very similar to natural substrates, can be used to trick the substrate recognition of bacterial P450s, allowing the P450s to catalyze oxidation reactions of nonnative substrates without any substitution of amino acid residues in the presence of decoy molecules. Thus, the hydroxylation of small hydrocarbons such as ethane, propane, butane and benzene can be catalyzed by P450BM3, a long-alkyl-chain hydroxylase, using substrate misrecognition of P450s induced by decoy molecules. Furthermore, a number of H2O2-dependent bacterial P450s can catalyze the peroxygenation of a variety of nonnative substrates through a simple substrate-misrecognition trick, in which catalytic activities and enantioselectivity are dependent on the structure of decoy molecules.

  7. Mechanistic investigation of the gold-catalyzed aerobic oxidation of alcohols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Peter; Johansen, Louise Bahn; Christensen, Claus Hviid


    The mechanism for the gold-catalyzed aerobic oxidation of alcohols was studied using a series of para-substituted benzyl alcohols (Hammett methodology). The competition experiments clearly show that the rate-determining step of the reaction involves the generation of a partial positive charge in ...

  8. HClO4-SiO2 catalyzed per-O-acetylation of carbohydrates. (United States)

    Misra, Anup Kumar; Tiwari, Pallavi; Madhusudan, Soni Kamlesh


    An efficient per-O-acetylation of carbohydrates catalyzed by HClO4-SiO2 is reported using a stoichiometric quantity of acetic anhydride avoiding the use of pyridine and excess acetic anhydride under solvent-free conditions.

  9. Alloying Au surface with Pd reduces the intrinsic activity in catalyzing CO oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Qian, Kun


    © 2016. Various Au-Pd/SiO2 catalysts with a fixed Au loading but different Au:Pd molar ratios were prepared via deposition-precipitation method followed by H2 reduction. The structures were characterized and the catalytic activities in CO oxidation were evaluated. The formation of Au-Pd alloy particles was identified. The Au-Pd alloy particles exhibit enhanced dispersions on SiO2 than Au particles. Charge transfer from Pd to Au within Au-Pd alloy particles. Isolated Pd atoms dominate the surface of Au-Pd alloy particles with large Au:Pd molar ratios while contiguous Pd atoms dominate the surface of Au-Pd alloy particles with small Au:Pd molar ratios. Few synergetic effect of Au-Pd alloy occurs on catalyzing CO oxidation under employed reaction conditions. Alloying Au with Pd reduces the intrinsic activity in catalyzing CO oxidation, and contiguous Pd atoms on the Au-Pd alloy particles are capable of catalyzing CO oxidation while isolated Pd atoms are not. These results advance the fundamental understandings of Au-Pd alloy surfaces in catalyzing CO oxidation.

  10. Modeling of mass transfer in combination with a homogeneously catalyzed reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, J.A.A.; Versteeg, G. F.

    The mass transfer rates of a gaseous reactant into a liquid where the reactions are catalyzed by homogeneous catalysts have been evaluated by the numerical solution of the diffusion-reaction equations according to Higbie's penetration theory. The concentration profiles as well as enhancement factors

  11. Manganese-Catalyzed C−H Functionalizations: Hydroarylations and Alkenylations Involving an Unexpected Heteroaryl Shift

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Chengming


    A manganese-catalyzed regio- and stereoselective hydroarylation of allenes is reported. The C−H functionalization method provides access to various alkenylated indoles in excellent yields. Moreover, a hydroarylation/cyclization cascade involving an unexpected C−N bond cleavage and aryl shift has been developed, which provides a new synthetic approach to substituted pyrroloindolones.

  12. Nickel-Catalyzed Decarbonylative Silylation, Borylation, and Amination of Arylamides via a Deamidative Reaction Pathway

    KAUST Repository

    Rueping, Magnus


    A nickel-catalyzed decarbonylative silylation, borylation, and amination of amides has been developed. This new methodology allows the direct interconversion of amides to arylsilanes, arylboronates, and arylamines and enables a facile route for carbon–heteroatom bond formations in a straightforward and mild fashion.

  13. Preparation of fluorinated biaryls through direct palladium-catalyzed coupling of polyfluoroarenes with aryltrifluoroborates

    KAUST Repository

    Fang, Xin


    The direct palladium-catalyzed coupling of polyfluoroarenes with aryltrifluoroborates gave the desired products of fluorinated biaryls in good to excellent yields. A diverse set of important functional groups including methoxy, aldehyde, ester, nitro and halide can be well tolerated in the protocol. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Lipase/Ruthenium-Catalyzed Dynamic Kinetic Resolution of β-Hydroxyalkyl ferrocene Derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Han Ki; Ahn, Yang Soo [Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)


    An efficient dynamic kinetic resolution of racemic β-hydroxyalkyl ferrocene and 1,1'-bis(β-hydroxyalkyl)- ferrocene derivatives was achieved using lipase/ruthenium-catalyzed transesterification in the presence of an acyl donor. The racemic β-hydroxyalkyl ferrocene derivatives were successfully transformed to the corresponding chiral acetates of high optical purities in high yields.

  15. Atomistic Model for the Polyamide Formation from beta-Lactam Catalyzed by Candida antarctica Lipase B

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baum, Iris; Elsaesser, Brigitta; Schwab, Leendert W.; Loos, Katja; Fels, Gregor; Elsässer, Brigitta

    Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) is an established biocatalyst for a variety of transesterification, amidation, and polymerization. reactions. In contrast to polyesters, poly amides are not yet generally accessible via enzymatic polymerization. In this regard, an enzyme-catalyzed ring-opening

  16. Optimization of H2SO4-catalyzed hydrothermal pretreatment of rapeseed straw for bioconversion to ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xuebin, Lu; Zhang, Y.; Angelidaki, Irini


    A central composite design of response surface method was used to optimize H2SO4-catalyzed hydrothermal pretreatment of rapeseed straw, in respect to acid concentration (0.5-2%), treatment time (5-20 min) and solid content (10-20%) at 180 degrees C. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation were also...

  17. Biphenol-based phosphoramidite ligands for the enantioselective copper-catalyzed conjugate addition of diethylzinc. (United States)

    Alexakis, Alexandre; Polet, Damien; Rosset, Stéphane; March, Sébastien


    Phosphoramidite ligands, based on ortho-substituted biphenols and a chiral amine, induce high enantioselectivities (ee's up to 99%) in the copper-catalyzed conjugate addition of dialkylzinc reagents to a variety of Michael acceptors. Particularly, the best reported ee's were obtained for acyclic nitroolefins. Copyright 2004 American Chemical Society

  18. Amino acid based phosphoramidite ligands for the rhodium-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breuil, P.A.R.; Reek, J.N.H.


    Two sets of amino acid based phosphoramidite ligands with either a BINOL backbone (S-b-1a-e and Rb-1a) or a flexible biphenol backbone (2a-c and 2f) were synthesized and evaluated in the rhodium-catalyzed hydrogenation of different functionalized alkenes: dimethyl itaconate (3), methyl

  19. Palladium(II)/Brønsted Acid-Catalyzed Enantioselective Oxidative Carbocyclization–Borylation of Enallenes** (United States)

    Jiang, Tuo; Bartholomeyzik, Teresa; Mazuela, Javier; Willersinn, Jochen; Bäckvall, Jan-E


    An enantioselective oxidative carbocyclization–borylation of enallenes that is catalyzed by palladium(II) and a Brønsted acid was developed. Biphenol-type chiral phosphoric acids were superior co-catalysts for inducing the enantioselective cyclization. A number of chiral borylated carbocycles were synthesized in high enantiomeric excess. PMID:25808996

  20. GSTP1-1 stereospecifically catalyzes glutathione conjugation of ethacrynic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iersel, M.L.P.S. van; Lipzig, M.M.H. van; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Vervoort, J.; Bladeren, P.J. van


    Using 1H NMR two diastereoisomers of the ethacrynic acid glutathione conjugate (EASG) as well as ethacrynic acid (EA) could be distinguished and quantified individually. Chemically prepared EASG consists of equal amounts of both diastereoisomers. GSTP1-1 stereospecifically catalyzes formation of one

  1. Specifically Grafting Hematin on MPTS-Coated Carbon Nanotubes for Catalyzing the Oxidation of Aniline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunkun Zheng


    Full Text Available Catalysts supported on nanomaterials have been widely investigated for the treatment of hazardous materials. This work has developed a novel method for grafting hematin on nanomaterials for catalyzing the oxidation of aniline in order to remove aniline from wastewater. Magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes (M-MWCNTs were coated with a layer formed through the hydrolysis and condensation of 3-mercaptopropyltriethoxysilane (MPTS. Hematin was specifically grafted on the MPTS-coated M-MWCNTs through thiol-alkene reaction. Hematin-MPTS-M-MWCNTs were used to catalyze the oxidation of aniline, and a high efficiency has been obtained. Consecutive use of the conjugate of hematin-MPTS-M-MWCNTs has been investigated, and the activity has been retained to a significant extent after five reaction/cleaning cycles. The result demonstrates that hematin-MPTS-M-MWCNTs are efficient for catalyzing the oxidation of aniline. The methodology for the specific grafting of hematin is of general utility, it is an easy-to-operate method and can be extended to other supports. Potentially, hematin-MPTS-based conjugates have a widespread application in catalyzing the removal of aniline from wastewater.

  2. Enzyme-Catalyzed Synthesis of Saccharide Acrylate Monomers from Nonedible Biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloosterman, Wouter M. J.; Brouwer, Sander; Loos, Katja

    Various cellulase preparations were found to catalyze the transglycosidation between cotton linters and 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate. The conversion and enzyme activity were found to be optimal in reaction mixtures that contained 5 vol% of the acrylate. The structures of the products were revealed by

  3. Kinetic Parameters for the Noncatalyzed and Enzyme-Catalyzed Mutarotation of Glucose Using a Blood Glucometer (United States)

    Hardee, John R.; Delgado, Bryan; Jones, Wray


    The kinetic parameters for the conversion of alpha-D-glucose to beta-D-glucose were measured using a blood glucometer. The reaction order, rate constant, and Arrhenius activation energy are reported for the noncatalyzed reaction and turnover number and Michaelis constant are reported for the reaction catalyzed by porcine kidney mutarotase. The…

  4. Homocoupling of benzyl halides catalyzed by POCOP-nickel pincer complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Tao


    Two types of POCOP-nickel(II) pincer complexes were prepared by mixing POCOP pincer ligands and NiX 2 in toluene at reflux. The resulting nickel complexes efficiently catalyze the homocoupling reactions of benzyl halides in the presence of zinc. The coupled products were obtained in excellent to quantitative yields. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Palladium(II) Acetate Catalyzed Reductive Heck Reaction of Enones; A Practical Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mannathan, Subramaniyan; Raoufmoghaddam, Saeed; Reek, Joost N. H.; de Vries, Johannes G.; Minnaard, Adriaan J.


    A surprisingly practical Pd(OAc)(2) or Pd(TFA)(2)-catalyzed reductive Heck reaction between aryl iodides and alpha,beta-unsaturated ketones is described using N,N-diisopropylethylamine (DIPEA, Hunigs base) as the reductant. In general, 1 mol% of Pd(OAc)(2) is sufficient to afford good yields using

  6. Practical and General Palladium-Catalyzed Synthesis of Ketones from Internal Olefins

    KAUST Repository

    Morandi, Bill


    Make it simple! A convenient and general palladium-catalyzed oxidation of internal olefins to ketones is reported. The transformation occurs at room temperature and shows wide substrate scope. Applications to the oxidation of seed-oil derivatives and a bioactive natural product (see scheme) are described, as well as intriguing mechanistic features.

  7. Gold-catalyzed heterocyclizations in alkynyl- and allenyl-β-lactams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Almendros


    Full Text Available New gold-catalyzed methods using the β-lactam scaffold have been recently developed for the synthesis of different sized heterocycles. This overview focuses on heterocyclization reactions of allenic and alkynic β-lactams which rely on the activation of the allene and alkyne component. The mechanism as well as the regio- and stereoselectivity of the cyclizations are also discussed.

  8. Rh(III-catalyzed directed C–H bond amidation of ferrocenes with isocyanates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Takebayashi


    Full Text Available [RhCp*(OAc2(H2O] [Cp* = pentamethylcyclopentadienyl] catalyzed the C–H bond amidation of ferrocenes possessing directing groups with isocyanates in the presence of 2 equiv/Rh of HBF4·OEt2. A variety of disubstituted ferrocenes were prepared in high yields, or excellent diastereoselectivities.

  9. Metallocene-catalyzed alkene polymerization and the observation of Zr-allyls


    Landis, Clark R.; Christianson, Matthew D.


    Single-site polymerization catalysts enable exquisite control over alkene polymerization reactions to produce new materials with unique properties. Knowledge of catalyst speciation and fundamental kinetics are essential for full mechanistic understanding of zirconocene-catalyzed alkene polymerization. Currently the effect of activators on fundamental polymerization steps is not understood. Progress in understanding activator effects requires determination of fundamental kinetics for zirconoce...

  10. Enantioselective Evans-Tishchenko Reduction of b-Hydroxyketone Catalyzed by Lithium Binaphtholate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Nakajima


    Full Text Available Lithium diphenylbinaphtholate catalyzed the enantioselective Evans-Tishchenko reduction of achiral b-hydroxyketones to afford monoacyl-protected 1,3-diols with high stereoselectivities. In the reaction of racemic b-hydroxyketones, kinetic optical resolution occurred in a highly stereoselective manner.

  11. Mechanism of Cytochrome P450 17A1-Catalyzed Hydroxylase and Lyase Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonomo, Silvia; Jorgensen, Flemming Steen; Olsen, Lars


    Cytochrome P450 17A1 (CYP17A1) catalyzes C17 hydroxylation of pregnenolone and progesterone and the subsequent C17–C20 bond cleavage (lyase reaction) to form androgen precursors. Compound I (Cpd I) and peroxo anion (POA) are the heme-reactive species underlying the two reactions. We have...

  12. Efficient TCT-catalyzed Synthesis of 1,5-Benzodiazepine Derivatives under Mild Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Fa Yao


    Full Text Available 2,4,6-Trichloro-1,3,5-triazine (TCT efficiently catalyzed the condensation reactions between 1,2-diamines and various enolizable ketones to afford 1,5-benzodiazepines in good to excellent yields. Simple and mild reaction conditions, the use of a cheap catalyst and easy workup and isolation are notable features of this method.

  13. Laccase catalyzed grafting of-N-OH type mediators to lignin via radical-radical coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Line; Punt, A. M.; Kabel, M. A.


    by laccases from Trametes versicolor and Pleurotus ostreatus by quantitative analysis of the reaction outcome by pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectroscopy. The two laccases were equally efficient in catalyzing grafting, but only-N-OH type mediators grafted. HPI (N-hydroxyacetanilide) grafted 7-10 times...

  14. Cu(I)-catalyzed efficient synthesis of 2′-Triazolo-nucleoside conjugates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathur, D.; Rana, N.; Olsen, Carl Erik


    A small library of thirty-two 2′-triazolyl uridine and 2′-triazolyl-5-methyluridine has been synthesized by Cu(I)-catalyzed condensation of 2′-azido-2′-deoxyuridine and 2′-azido-2′-deoxy-5-methyluridine with different alkynes and aryl propargyl ethers in almost quantitative yields. Triazolo...

  15. Enantioselective BINOL-phosphoric acid catalyzed Pictet-Spengler reactions of N-benzyltryptamine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sewgobind, N.V.; Wanner, M.J.; Ingemann, S.; de Gelder, R.; van Maarseveen, J.H.; Hiemstra, H.


    Optically active tetrahydro-beta-carbolines were synthesized via an (R)-BINOL-phosphoric acid-catalyzed asynunetric Pictet-Spengler reaction of N-benzyltryptamine with a series of aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes. The tetrahydro-beta-carbolines were obtained in yields ranging from 77% to 97% and

  16. The Isomerization of (-)-Menthone to (+)-Isomenthone Catalyzed by an Ion-Exchange Resin (United States)

    Ginzburg, Aurora L.; Baca, Nicholas A.; Hampton, Philip D.


    A traditional organic chemistry laboratory experiment involves the acid-catalyzed isomerization of (-)-menthone to (+)-isomenthone. This experiment generates large quantities of organic and aqueous waste, and only allows the final ratio of isomers to be determined. A "green" modification has been developed that replaces the mineral acid…

  17. Laccase catalyzed grafting of-N-OH type mediators to lignin via radical-radical coupling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munk, L.; Punt, A.M.; Kabel, M.A.; Meyer, A.S.


    Lignin is an underexploited resource in biomass refining. Laccases (EC catalyze oxidation of phenolic hydroxyls using O2 as electron acceptor and may facilitate lignin modification in the presence of mediators. This study assessed the reactivity of four different synthetic mediators by

  18. Palladium(II) acetate catalyzed reductive Heck reaction of enones: a practical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mannathan, S.; Raoufmoghaddam, S.; Reek, J.N.H.; de Vries, J.G.; Minnaard, A.J.


    A surprisingly practical Pd(OAc)​2 or Pd(TFA)​2-​catalyzed reductive Heck reaction between aryl iodides and α,​β-​unsatd. ketones is described using N,​N-​diisopropylethylamine (DIPEA, Huenigs base) as the reductant. In general, 1 mol % of Pd(OAc)​2 is sufficient to afford good yields using

  19. Palladium(0)/NHC-Catalyzed Reductive Heck Reaction of Enones : A Detailed Mechanistic Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raoufmoghaddam, Saeed; Mannathan, Subramaniyan; Minnaard, Adriaan J; de Vries, Johannes G; Reek, Joost N H


    We have studied the mechanism of the palladium-catalyzed reductive Heck reaction of para-substituted enones with 4-iodoanisole by using N,N-diisopropylethylamine (DIPEA) as the reductant. Kinetic studies and in situ spectroscopic analysis have provided a detailed insight into the reaction. Progress

  20. Palladium(0)​/NHC-​catalyzed reductive Heck reaction of enones: a detailed mechanistic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raoufmoghaddam, S.; Mannathan, S.; Minnaard, A.J.; de Vries, J.G.; Reek, J.N.H.


    We have studied the mechanism of the palladium-​catalyzed reductive Heck reaction of para-​substituted enones with 4-​iodoanisole by using N,​N-​diisopropylethylamine (DIPEA) as the reductant. Kinetic studies and in situ spectroscopic anal. have provided a detailed insight into the reaction.

  1. Cobalt-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling of α-Bromo Amides with Grignard Reagents. (United States)

    Barde, E; Guérinot, A; Cossy, J


    A cobalt-catalyzed cross-coupling between α-bromo amides and Grignard reagents is disclosed. The reaction is general and allows access to a large variety of α-aryl and β,γ-unsaturated amides. Some mechanistic investigations have been undertaken to determine the nature of the intermediate species.

  2. Palladium-Catalyzed Polyfluorophenylation of Porphyrins with Bis(polyfluorophenylzinc Reagents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshikatsu Takanami


    Full Text Available A facile and efficient method for the synthesis of pentafluorophenyl- and related polyfluorophenyl-substituted porphyrins has been achieved via palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of brominated porphyrins with bis(polyfluorophenylzinc reagents. The reaction is applicable to a variety of free-base bromoporphyrins, their metal complexes, and a number of bis(polyfluorophenylzinc reagents.

  3. Palladium-Catalyzed Enantioselective Three-Component Synthesis of α-Substituted Amines. (United States)

    Beisel, Tamara; Manolikakes, Georg


    The first general palladium-catalyzed, enantioselective three-component synthesis of α-arylamines starting from sulfonamides, aldehydes, and arylboronic acids has been developed. These reactions generate a wide array of α-arylamines with high yields and enantioselectivities. Notably, this process is tolerant to air and moisture, providing an operationally simple approach for the synthesis of chiral α-arylamines.

  4. Highly enantioselective synthesis of chiral cyclic allylic amines via Rh-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation. (United States)

    Zhou, Ming; Liu, Tang-Lin; Cao, Min; Xue, Zejian; Lv, Hui; Zhang, Xumu


    Highly regioselective and enantioselective asymmetric hydrogenation of cyclic dienamides catalyzed by an Rh-DuanPhos complex has been developed, which provides a readily accessible method for the synthesis of chiral cyclic allylic amines in excellent enantioselectivities (up to 99% ee). The products are valuable chiral building blocks and could be easily transformed to multisubstituted cyclohexane derivatives.

  5. The Lewis-acid-catalyzed synthesis of hyperbranched poly(glycerol-diacid)s in toluene (United States)

    The first examples of monomeric glycerol-derived hyperbranched polyesters produced in a non-polar solvent system are reported here. The polymers were made by the Lewis acid (dibutyltin(IV)oxide)-catalyzed polycondensation of glycerol with either succinic acid (n (aliphatic chain length)=2), glutari...

  6. Large acceleration of a-chymotrypsin-catalyzed dipeptide formation by 18-crown-6 in organic solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Unen, D.J.; Engbersen, Johannes F.J.; Reinhoudt, David


    The effects of 18-crown-6 on the synthesis of peptides catalyzed by α-chymotrypsin are reported. Lyophilization of the enzyme in the presence of 50 equivalents of 18-crown-6 results in a 425-fold enhanced activity when the reaction between the 2-chloroethylester of N-acetyl-L-phenylalanine and

  7. Synthesis of polysubstituted pyrazoles by a platinum-catalyzed sigmatropic rearrangement/cyclization cascade. (United States)

    Wen, Jia-Jie; Tang, Hai-Tao; Xiong, Kai; Ding, Zong-Cang; Zhan, Zhuang-Ping


    A highly efficient Pt-catalyzed [3,3] sigmatropic rearrangement/cyclization cascade of N-propargylhydrazones is reported. The process provides expedient access to a variety of highly functionalized pyrazoles. The substrate has good substituted group compatibility, and the bioactive 3-CF3 pyrazoles could be synthesized easily with this method.

  8. Synthetic Studies and Mechanistic Insight in Nickel-Catalyzed [4+2+1] Cycloadditions (United States)

    Ni, Yike


    A new nickel-catalyzed procedure for the [4+2+1] cycloaddition of (trimethylsilyl)diazomethane with alkynes tethered to dienes has been developed. A broad range of unsaturated substrates participates in the sequence, and stereoselectivities are generally excellent. Stereochemical studies provided evidence for a mechanism that involves the [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement of divinylcyclopropanes. PMID:16492045

  9. Palladium-catalyzed carbonylative sonogashira coupling of aryl bromides using near stoichiometric carbon monoxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Karoline T.; Laursen, Simon R.; Lindhardt, Anders T.


    A general procedure for the palladium-catalyzed carbonylative Sonogashira coupling of aryl bromides is reported, using near stoichiometric amounts of carbon monoxide. The method allows a broad substrate scope in moderate to excellent yields. The formed alkynone motive serves as a platform...

  10. Enzyme-catalyzed nucleophilic ring opening of Epoxides for the preparation of enantiopure tertiary alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Majeric Elenkov, Maja; Hoeffken, H. Wolfgang; Tang, Lixia; Hauer, Bernhard; Janssen, Dick B.


    The halohydrin dehalogenase from Agrobacterium radiobacter AD1 (HheC) catalyzes nucleophilic ring opening of epoxides with cyanide and azide. In the case of 2,2-disubstituted epoxides, this reaction proceeds with excellent enantioselectivity (E values up to > 200), which gives, by kinetic

  11. Enzyme-Catalyzed Nucleophilic Ring Opening of Epoxides for the Preparation of Enantiopure Tertiary Alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Majeric Elenkov, Maja; Hoeffken, H. Wolfgang; Tang, Lixia; Hauer, Bernhard; Janssen, Dick B.


    The halohydrin dehalogenase from Agrobacterium radiobacter AD1 (HheC) catalyzes nucleophilic ring opening of epoxides with cyanide and azide. In the case of 2,2-disubstituted epoxides, this reaction proceeds with excellent enantioselectivity (E values up to >200), which gives, by kinetic resolution,

  12. Monitoring lipase-catalyzed butterfat interesterification with rapesee oil by Fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Hong; Mu, Huiling; Xu, Xuebing


    This work demonstrates the application of FT-NIR spectroscopy to monitor the enzymatic interesterification process for butterfat modification. The reactions were catalyzed by Lipozyme TL IM at 70 C for the blend of butterfat/rapeseed oil (70/30, w/w) in a packed-bed reactor. The blend and intere...

  13. Copper-catalyzed trifluoromethylation of arylsulfinate salts using an electrophilic trifluoromethylation reagent

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Xiaoxi


    A copper-catalyzed method for the trifluoromethylation of arylsulfinates with Togni\\'s reagent has been developed, affording aryltrifluoromethylsulfones in moderate to good yields. A wide range of functional groups in arylsulfinates are compatible with the reaction conditions. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A new manganese-mediated, cobalt-catalyzed three-component synthesis of (diarylmethylsulfonamides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Pignon


    Full Text Available The synthesis of (diarylmethylsulfonamides and related compounds by a new manganese-mediated, cobalt-catalyzed three-component reaction between sulfonamides, carbonyl compounds and organic bromides is described. This organometallic Mannich-like process allows the formation of the coupling products within minutes at room temperature. A possible mechanism, emphasizing the crucial role of manganese is proposed.

  15. Enantioselective Michael Addition of Malonates to Chalcone Derivatives Catalyzed by Dipeptide-derived Multifunctional Phosphonium Salts. (United States)

    Cao, Dongdong; Fang, Guosheng; Zhang, Jiaxing; Wang, Hongyu; Zheng, Changwu; Zhao, Gang


    Highly enantioselective Michael addition of malonates to enones catalyzed by dipeptide-derived multifunctional phosphonium salts has been developed. The newly established catalytic system was characterized with its wide substrate scope featured with aliphatic aldehyde-derived enones and substituted malonates. The gram scale-up synthesis of adducts can also be successfully achieved under optimal conditions with both excellent yield and enantioselectivity.

  16. Visible-Light Photoredox-Catalyzed Coupling Reaction of Azoles with α-Carbamoyl Sulfides. (United States)

    Jarrige, Lucie; Levitre, Guillaume; Masson, Géraldine


    A simple, straightforward strategy for the synthesis of N-substituted azoles is reported that involves a visible-light photoredox-catalyzed coupling reaction of azoles with α-carbamoyl sulfides. A variety of heterocyclic units, including pyrazoles, benzopyrazoles, benzoimidazoles, and purines, can be efficiently incorporated under mild reaction conditions in respectable yields.

  17. Memory effects in palladium-catalyzed allylic Alkylations of 2-cyclohexen-1-yl acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensen, Nina; Fristrup, Peter; Tanner, David Ackland


    The objective of this work was to characterize the enantiospecificity of the allylic alkylation of enantioenriched 2-cyclohexen-1-yl acetate with the enolate ion of dimethyl malonate catalyzed by unsymmetrical palladium catalysts. The precatalysts employed were (eta(3)-allyl)PdLCl, where L...

  18. Room-temperature base-free copper-catalyzed trifluoromethylation of organotrifluoroborates to trifluoromethylarenes

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Yuanyuan


    An efficient room temperature copper-catalyzed trifluoromethylation of organotrifluoroborates under the base free condition using an electrophilic trifluoromethylating reagent is demonstrated. The corresponding trifluoromethylarenes were obtained in good to excellent yields and the reaction tolerates a wide range of functional groups. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Synthesis of trifluoromethylated acetylenes via copper-catalyzed trifluoromethylation of alkynyltrifluoroborates

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Huidong


    A new method for the synthesis of trifluoromethylated acetylenes is developed which involves the copper-catalyzed trifluoromethylation of alkynyltrifluoroborates with an electrophilic trifluoromethylating reagent. This method offers significant advantages such as efficiency and mild and base-free reaction conditions. A plausible mechanism is proposed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Copper-catalyzed enantioselective conjugate addition of organometallic reagents to acyclic dienones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sebesta, Radovan; Pizzuti, M. Gabriella; Minnaard, Adriaan J.; Feringa, Ben L.; Šebesta, Radovan

    The enantioselective, copper/phosphoramidite-catalyzed 1,4-addition of dialkylzinc reagents to acyclic dienones is described. The products of this reaction, obtained with enantioselectivities of up to 95%, can be further functionalized by a second conjugate addition, or employed in an enolate