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Sample records for catalytic subunit htert

  1. Immunogenicity of the hTERT540-548 peptide in cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenandy, L.; Sorensen, R.B.; Sengelov, L.

    2008-01-01

    Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), the catalytic subunit of telomerase, is an attractive target antigen for cancer immunotherapy due to its expression in the vast majority of human tumors. The first immunogenic peptide described from hTERT was the HLA-A2-restricted peptide hTERT540...... (ILAKFLHWL). However, much discrepancy exists about the processing and presentation of this epitope on the surface of neoplastic cells. Originally, it was described that specific CTL can be generated in vitro and that such cells are able to kill a range of hTERT(+) tumor cell lines and primary tumors...... in a peptide-specific, HLA-A2-restricted fashion. Furthermore, it was described that vaccination of cancer patients with hTERT540 introduced functional antitumor CD8(+) Tcells in patients. More recently, it was described that most patients with cancer have circulating hTERT540-specific CD8(+) T lymphocytes...

  2. Assembly of catalytic subunits of aspartate transcarbamoylase from Escherichia coli

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    Burns, D.L.; Schachman, H.K.

    1980-10-01

    Although extensive studies have been conducted on the assembly of the allosteric enzyme, aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase) from isolate, intact catalytic (C) and regulatory (R) subunits, there has been little research on the formation of these subunits from individual catalytic (c) and regulatory (r) polypeptide chains. Such studies would be useful for evaluating the strengths of the interchain bonding domains within the subunits just as earlier experiments provided valuable data regarding interactions between the subunits in ATCase. The intact enzyme comprising two C trimers and three R dimers is designated as C/sub 2/R/sub 3/ or c/sub 6/r/sub 6/.

  3. HPV16 E7 protein and hTERT proteins defective for telomere maintenance cooperate to immortalize human keratinocytes.

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    Jonathan Miller

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that wild-type human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT protein can functionally replace the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16 E6 protein, which cooperates with the viral E7 protein in the immortalization of primary keratinocytes. In the current study, we made the surprising finding that catalytically inactive hTERT (hTERT-D868A, elongation-defective hTERT (hTERT-HA, and telomere recruitment-defective hTERT (hTERT N+T also cooperate with E7 in mediating bypass of the senescence blockade and effecting cell immortalization. This suggests that hTERT has activities independent of its telomere maintenance functions that mediate transit across this restriction point. Since hTERT has been shown to have a role in gene activation, we performed microarray studies and discovered that E6, hTERT and mutant hTERT proteins altered the expression of highly overlapping sets of cellular genes. Most important, the E6 and hTERT proteins induced mRNA and protein levels of Bmi1, the core subunit of the Polycomb Group (PcG complex 1. We show further that Bmi1 substitutes for E6 or hTERT in cell immortalization. Finally, tissue array studies demonstrated that expression of Bmi1 increased with the severity of cervical dysplasia, suggesting a potential role in the progression of cervical cancer. Together, these data demonstrate that hTERT has extra-telomeric activities that facilitate cell immortalization and that its induction of Bmi1 is one potential mechanism for mediating this activity.

  4. [Penicillin acylase from Escherichia coli: catalytically active subunits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabakov, V E; Kliachko, N L; Levashov, A V

    1995-05-01

    Gel filtration under denaturing conditions was used to isolate the alpha- and beta-subunits of penicillin acylase (PA). Refolded subunits were obtained through removing urea by dialysis. Both renatured subunits were catalytically active during hydrolysis of phenylacetic acid p-nitroanilide; this activity decreased after addition of a serine-specific inhibitor--phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride. The subunits were also active in reversed micelles of Aerosol OT (AOT) in octane, the optimum hydration degree being 11.9 and 17.5 for the light (alpha) and heavy (beta) subunits, respectively. The positions of the maxima were consistent with both theoretically calculated optimum hydration degrees and the earlier reported profile of enzymatic activity for native PA in reversed micelles.

  5. Establishment of immortal normal and ataxia telangiectasia fibroblast cell lines by introduction of the hTERT gene

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    Nakamura, Hideaki; Fukami, Hiroko; Hayashi, Yuko; Kiyono, Tohru; Ishizaki, Kanji [Aichi Cancer Center, Nagoya (Japan). Research Inst.; Nakatsugawa, Shigekazu; Hamaguchi, Michinari [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-06-01

    To establish immortal human cells, we introduced the human catalytic subunit of telomerase (hTERT) gene into skin fibroblast cells obtained from normal and ataxia telangiectasia (AT) individuals of Japanese origin. After hTERT introduction, these cells continue to grow beyond a population doubling number of 200 while maintaining their original radiosensitivity. Inductions of p53, phosphorylation of Serl5 in p53, and induction of p21 by X-ray irradiation in immortal cells derived from normal individual were not affected by the hTERT introduction. Both normal and AT immortal cells exhibited an apparent inhibition of growth as original primary cells when they reached confluence. Karyotype analysis has revealed that they are in a diploid range. These results suggest that cells immortalized by hTERT introduction retain their original characteristics except for immortalization, and that they may be useful for analyzing various effects of radiation on human cells. (author)

  6. Bisphenol A from dental polycarbonate crown upregulates the expression of hTERT.

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    Takahashi, Akiko; Higashino, Fumihiro; Aoyagi, Mariko; Kyo, Satoru; Nakata, Takashi; Noda, Mamoru; Shindoh, Masanobu; Kohgo, Takao; Sano, Hidehiko

    2004-10-15

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that possess estrogen-like biologic activity. Many dental materials have been reported to release BPA. However, there are few reports available on the release of BPA from dental polycarbonates. The purpose of this study was to investigate the release of BPA from dental polycarbonate crowns and to evaluate the estrogenic activity of BPA. Polycarbonate crowns were immersed in five solvents (water, ethanol, n-hepthane, acetic acid, and acetonitrile) at 37 or 65 degrees C for 24 h. The elution from the material was analyzed by high-performance liquid-chromatography (HPLC) and mass-spectrometry (MS) analysis. BPA release was detected corresponding to the degradation of dental polycarbonates under the some storage conditions (ethanol, acetic acid, and acetonitrile). A previous report proved that estrogen increased human telomerase catalytic subunit (hTERT) mRNA, whereas the effect of EDCs on the hTERT promoter has never been reported. The estrogenic activity of BPA was analyzed by luciferase assay with the use of the hTERT promoter. This assay revealed that BPA was a positive regulator of hTERT transcription. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that BPA increased the expression level of hTERT mRNA in MCF7 cells. Herein, it is demonstrated that hTERT is a new target of BPA.

  7. Silencing of the hTERT gene by shRNA inhibits colon cancer SW480 cell growth in vitro and in vivo.

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    Ai-Qun Liu

    Full Text Available Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT is the key enzyme responsible for synthesizing and maintaining the telomeres on the ends of chromosomes, and it is essential for cell proliferation. This has made hTERT a focus of oncology research and an attractive target for anticancer drug development. In this study, we designed a small interfering RNA (siRNA targeting the catalytic subunit of hTERT and tested its effects on the growth of telomerase-positive human colon carcinoma SW480 cells in vitro, as well as on the tumorigenicity of these cells in nude mice. Transient and stable transfection of hTERT siRNA into colon cancer SW480 cells suppressed hTERT expression, reduced telomerase activity and inhibited cell growth and proliferation. Knocking down hTERT expression in SW480 tumors xenografted into nude mice significantly slowed tumor growth and promoted tumor cell apoptosis. Our results suggest that hTERT is involved in carcinogenesis of human colon carcinoma, and they highlight the therapeutic potential of a hTERT knock-down approach.

  8. Immunohistochemical detection of hTERT in urothelial lesions: a potential adjunct to urine cytology

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    Khalbuss Walid

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urine cytology has a critical role in evaluation for bladder carcinoma. Due to the low sensitivity of this technique, ancillary modalities such as the detection of markers of malignancy by immunochemistry are desirable. Promising factors in this context are components of the human telomerase enzyme complex. Telomerase repairs and extend telomeres, which when eroded beyond a critical limit trigger a senescence checkpoint. Accordingly, while absent in normal somatic cells, telomerase activity has been detected in the great majority of malignant tumor specimens tested, and so has potential value for the recognition of malignant cells in clinical specimens. Methods In this study, we investigated whether the immunohistochemical detection of the catalytic subunit of telomerase (hTERT can aid cytology in the diagnosis of bladder lesions. Findings from the retrospective evaluation of over 100 cell blocks, including urine sediments from confirmed malignant and benign conditions, were compared with routine urine cytology data. Results The presence of hTERT protein was indicative of the transformation of urothelia to a malignant phenotype. Nucleolar hTERT was expressed in 27 (93% of 29 samples obtained from patients with confirmed primary bladder cancer. Conversely, hTERT was detectable in only 3 (0.8% of 39 samples from benign conditions. The hTERT assay showed higher diagnostic sensitivity (84.8% than published urine cytology data (~65% for confirmed bladder carcinoma, however, the hTERT assay was less specific than cytology (65.2% vs. ~95% respectively. Conclusion As a highly sensitive marker, immunohistochemical hTERT detection in urine sediments represents a reliable adjunct to cytology in the accurate diagnosis of urothelial neoplasms.

  9. Declined hTERT expression of peripheral blood CD4(+) T cells in oral lichen planus correlated with clinical parameter.

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    Zhang, Jing; Wei, Ming-Hui; Lu, Rui; Du, Ge-Fei; Zhou, Gang

    2016-08-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic, T-cell-mediated inflammatory autoimmune disease. Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), a catalytic subunit bearing the enzymatic activity of telomerase, may have a unique function in regulating the activation, proliferation, and function of T lymphocytes. The goal of this study was to investigate the expression of hTERT in CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells from patients with OLP and its correlation with clinical parameter. The disease severity of OLP was assessed by RAE (reticular, atrophic, erosive) scoring system. Expressions of hTERT in CD4(+) T cells and CD8(+) T cells isolated from peripheral blood of patients with OLP were detected by real-time PCR, and their correlations with clinical features were analyzed. hTERT mRNA levels in CD4(+) T cells of OLP were significantly lower than that of controls, while the levels in CD8(+) T cells showed no statistical difference. The expression of hTERT in CD4(+) T cells and CD8(+) T cells was neither associated with disease severity nor gender. CD4(+) T cells of OLP patients with the age ≤50 had markedly decreased hTERT levels compared with controls, but CD8(+) T cells did not. A divergent hTERT pattern between CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells was implicated in OLP. Decreased hTERT in CD4(+) T cells might be responsible for the immune dysfunction in OLP. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Sulforaphane causes epigenetic repression of hTERT expression in human breast cancer cell lines.

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    Syed M Meeran

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sulforaphane (SFN, an isothiocyanate found in cruciferous vegetables, is a common dietary component that has histone deacetylase inhibition activity and exciting potential in cancer prevention. The mechanisms by which SFN imparts its chemopreventive properties are of considerable interest and little is known of its preventive potential for breast cancer. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that SFN significantly inhibits the viability and proliferation of breast cancer cells in vitro while it has negligible effects on normal breast cells. Inhibition of telomerase has received considerable attention because of its high expression in cancer cells and extremely low level of expression in normal cells. SFN treatment dose- and time-dependently inhibited human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT, the catalytic regulatory subunit of telomerase, in both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs, especially DNMT1 and DNMT3a, were also decreased in SFN-treated breast cancer cells suggesting that SFN may repress hTERT by impacting epigenetic pathways. Down-regulation of DNMTs in response to SFN induced site-specific CpG demethylation occurring primarily in the first exon of the hTERT gene thereby facilitating CTCF binding associated with hTERT repression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP analysis of the hTERT promoter revealed that SFN increased the level of active chromatin markers acetyl-H3, acetyl-H3K9 and acetyl-H4, whereas the trimethyl-H3K9 and trimethyl-H3K27 inactive chromatin markers were decreased in a dose-dependent manner. SFN-induced hyperacetylation facilitated the binding of many hTERT repressor proteins such as MAD1 and CTCF to the hTERT regulatory region. Depletion of CTCF using siRNA reduced the SFN-induced down-regulation of hTERT mRNA transcription in these breast cancer cells. In addition, down-regulation of hTERT expression facilitated the induction of cellular apoptosis in human breast

  11. trt-1 is the Caenorhabditis elegans catalytic subunit of telomerase.

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    Bettina Meier

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Mutants of trt-1, the Caenorhabditis elegans telomerase reverse transcriptase, reproduce normally for several generations but eventually become sterile as a consequence of telomere erosion and end-to-end chromosome fusions. Telomere erosion and uncapping do not cause an increase in apoptosis in the germlines of trt-1 mutants. Instead, late-generation trt-1 mutants display chromosome segregation defects that are likely to be the direct cause of sterility. trt-1 functions in the same telomere replication pathway as mrt-2, a component of the Rad9/Rad1/Hus1 (9-1-1 proliferating cell nuclear antigen-like sliding clamp. Thus, the 9-1-1 complex may be required for telomerase to act at chromosome ends in C. elegans. Although telomere erosion limits replicative life span in human somatic cells, neither trt-1 nor telomere shortening affects postmitotic aging in C. elegans. These findings illustrate effects of telomere dysfunction in C. elegans mutants lacking the catalytic subunit of telomerase, trt-1.

  12. Role of regulatory subunits and protein kinase inhibitor (PKI) in determining nuclear localization and activity of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A.

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    Wiley, J C; Wailes, L A; Idzerda, R L; McKnight, G S

    1999-03-05

    Regulation of protein kinase A by subcellular localization may be critical to target catalytic subunits to specific substrates. We employed epitope-tagged catalytic subunit to correlate subcellular localization and gene-inducing activity in the presence of regulatory subunit or protein kinase inhibitor (PKI). Transiently expressed catalytic subunit distributed throughout the cell and induced gene expression. Co-expression of regulatory subunit or PKI blocked gene induction and prevented nuclear accumulation. A mutant PKI lacking the nuclear export signal blocked gene induction but not nuclear accumulation, demonstrating that nuclear export is not essential to inhibit gene induction. When the catalytic subunit was targeted to the nucleus with a nuclear localization signal, it was not sequestered in the cytoplasm by regulatory subunit, although its activity was completely inhibited. PKI redistributed the nuclear catalytic subunit to the cytoplasm and blocked gene induction, demonstrating that the nuclear export signal of PKI can override a strong nuclear localization signal. With increasing PKI, the export process appeared to saturate, resulting in the return of catalytic subunit to the nucleus. These results demonstrate that both the regulatory subunit and PKI are able to completely inhibit the gene-inducing activity of the catalytic subunit even when the catalytic subunit is forced to concentrate in the nuclear compartment.

  13. Multiple roles of Rev3, the catalytic subunit of polzeta in maintaining genome stability in vertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Sonoda (Eiichiro); S. Takeda (Shiunichi); T. Okada (Takashi); G.Y. Zhao (Guang); S. Tateishi (Satoshi); K. Araki (Kasumi); M. Yamaizumi (Masaru); T. Yagi (Takashi); N.S. Verkaik (Nicole); D.C. van Gent (Dik); M. Takata (Minoru)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractTranslesion DNA synthesis (TLS) and homologous DNA recombination (HR) are two major postreplicational repair (PRR) pathways. The REV3 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes the catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase zeta, which is involved in mutagenic TLS. To

  14. Investigation of hTERT gene expression levels in two cell lines infected by high-risk human papilloma virus

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    Maryam Akhtari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human papilloma virus (HPV is one of the most important factors in cervical cancer. Viral sequences are integrated into the host cell genome. In mild cases the virus causes skin damages, in severe cases it leads to cancer. Like many other cancers, telomerase gene expression was increased in cervical cancer. This enzyme is a reverse transcriptase that contains two common subunits: i catalytic protein called human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT and, ii RNA sequence called hTR. hTERT expression is hardly found in any somatic tissues. Detection of high telomerase activity in human cells, lead to tumor genesis. So hTERT can be used as a diagnostic tool in cancer detection. Methods: This experimental study was carried out from May 2013 to April 2014 in Nanobiotechnology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences in Tehran, Iran. Caski and Hela cancer cell lines were used which contain HPV16 and HPV18 respectively. Cell lines were cultured and total RNA was extracted. Following normalization agent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GADPH, hTERT expression level was determining by real-time PCR method. For each sample, the expression level of hTERT and GAPDH were quantified as copy numbers (per reaction using the standard curve. Finally, hTERT levels in Hela and Caski cell lines were compared quantitatively by t-test using GraphPad statistic software version 5 (San Diego, CA, USA. Results: According to the charts real-time PCR, hTERT gene expression in Hela and Caski cancer cell lines is significantly different (t=0.0319. Conclusion: All results confirm that hTERT expression levels in Hela and Caski cell lines are significantly different and the level of hTERT expression in the Caski cell line was slightly higher than that of Hela cell line. The significant difference between hTERT mRNA expression levels reported here could be used as a tumor marker for HPV16 and HPV18 in cervical cancer.

  15. Quantification of hTERT Splice Variants in Melanoma by SYBR Green Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction Indicates a Negative Regulatory Role for the β Deletion Variant

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    Lisa F. Lincz

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Telomerase activity is primarily determined by transcriptional regulation of the catalytic subunit, human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT. Several mRNA splice variants for hTERT have been identified, but it is not clear if telomerase activity is determined by the absolute or relative levels of full-length (functional and variant hTERT transcripts. We have developed an SYBR green-based reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay for the enumeration of the four common hTERT mRNA variants and correlated these with telomerase activity and telomere length in 24 human melanoma cell lines. All except five of the lines expressed four hTERT transcripts, with an overall significant level of co-occurrence between absolute mRNA levels of full-length α+/β+ hTERT and the three splice variants α-/β+, α+/β-, and α-/β-. On average, α+/β+ made up the majority (48.1% of transcripts, followed by α+/β- (44.6%, α-/β- (4.4%, and α-/β+ (2.9%. Telomerase activity ranged from 1 to 247 relative telomerase activity and correlated most strongly with the absolute amount of α+/β+ (R = 0.791, P = .000004 and the relative amount of α+/β- (R = -0.465, P = .022. This study shows that telomerase activity in melanoma cells is best determined by the absolute expression of full-length hTERT mRNA and indicates a role for the hTERT β deletion variant in the negative regulation of enzyme activity.

  16. First inactive conformation of CK2 alpha, the catalytic subunit of protein kinase CK2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaf, Jennifer; Issinger, Olaf-Georg; Niefind, Karsten

    2009-01-01

    The Ser/Thr kinase casein kinase 2 (CK2) is a heterotetrameric enzyme composed of two catalytic chains (CK2alpha, catalytic subunit of CK2) attached to a dimer of two noncatalytic subunits (CK2beta, noncatalytic subunit of CK2). CK2alpha belongs to the superfamily of eukaryotic protein kinases...... and Tyr50, the space required by the triphospho moiety. We discuss some factors that may support or disfavor this inactive conformation, among them coordination of small molecules at a remote cavity at the CK2alpha/CK2beta interaction region and binding of a CK2beta dimer. The latter stabilizes...... of catalytic key elements. For CK2alpha, however, no strict physiological control of activity is known. Accordingly, CK2alpha was found so far exclusively in the characteristic conformation of active EPKs, which is, in this case, additionally stabilized by a unique intramolecular contact between the N...

  17. Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT Q169 is essential for telomerase function in vitro and in vivo.

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    Haley D M Wyatt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Telomerase is a reverse transcriptase that maintains the telomeres of linear chromosomes and preserves genomic integrity. The core components are a catalytic protein subunit, the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT, and an RNA subunit, the telomerase RNA (TR. Telomerase is unique in its ability to catalyze processive DNA synthesis, which is facilitated by telomere-specific DNA-binding domains in TERT called anchor sites. A conserved glutamine residue in the TERT N-terminus is important for anchor site interactions in lower eukaryotes. The significance of this residue in higher eukaryotes, however, has not been investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To understand the significance of this residue in higher eukaryotes, we performed site-directed mutagenesis on human TERT (hTERT Q169 to create neutral (Q169A, conservative (Q169N, and non-conservative (Q169D mutant proteins. We show that these mutations severely compromise telomerase activity in vitro and in vivo. The functional defects are not due to abrogated interactions with hTR or telomeric ssDNA. However, substitution of hTERT Q169 dramatically impaired the ability of telomerase to incorporate nucleotides at the second position of the template. Furthermore, Q169 mutagenesis altered the relative strength of hTERT-telomeric ssDNA interactions, which identifies Q169 as a novel residue in hTERT required for optimal primer binding. Proteolysis experiments indicate that Q169 substitution alters the protease-sensitivity of the hTERT N-terminus, indicating that a conformational change in this region of hTERT is likely critical for catalytic function. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We provide the first detailed evidence regarding the biochemical and cellular roles of an evolutionarily-conserved Gln residue in higher eukaryotes. Collectively, our results indicate that Q169 is needed to maintain the hTERT N-terminus in a conformation that is necessary for optimal enzyme

  18. Expression, purification and crystallization of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase CK2 from Zea mays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, B; Niefind, K; Pinna, L A

    1998-01-01

    The catalytic (alpha) subunit of protein kinase CK2 (CK2alpha) was originally cloned and overexpressed in the Escherichia coli strain pT7-7/BL21(DE3). The protein has been purified to homogeneity and crystallized. The crystals belong to the monoclinic space group C2, they have unit-cell parameter...

  19. Substrate recognition of the catalytic α-subunit of glucosidase II from Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

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    Okuyama, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Masashi; Matsuo, Ichiro; Iwamoto, Shogo; Serizawa, Ryo; Tanuma, Masanari; Ma, Min; Klahan, Patcharapa; Kumagai, Yuya; Tagami, Takayoshi; Kimura, Atsuo

    2017-08-01

    The recombinant catalytic α-subunit of N-glycan processing glucosidase II from Schizosaccharomyces pombe (SpGIIα) was produced in Escherichia coli. The recombinant SpGIIα exhibited quite low stability, with a reduction in activity to glucosidases. The enzyme hydrolyzed not only α-(1→3)- but also α-(1→2)-, α-(1→4)-, and α-(1→6)-glucosidic linkages, and p-nitrophenyl α-glucoside. SpGIIα displayed most catalytic properties of glucosidase II. Hydrolytic activity of the terminal α-glucosidic residue of Glc2Man3-Dansyl was faster than that of Glc1Man3-Dansyl. This catalytic α-subunit also removed terminal glucose residues from native N-glycans (Glc2Man9GlcNAc2 and Glc1Man9GlcNAc2) although the activity was low.

  20. Specific Mutations in Mammalian P4-ATPase ATP8A2 Catalytic Subunit Entail Differential Glycosylation of the Accessory CDC50A Subunit

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    Vestergaard, Anna L.; Mikkelsen, Stine A.; Coleman, Jonathan A.

    2015-01-01

    P4-ATPases, or flippases, translocate phospholipids between the two leaflets of eukaryotic biological membranes. They are essential to the physiologically crucial phospholipid asymmetry and involved in severe diseases, but their molecular structure and mechanism are still unresolved. Here, we sho...... that in an extensive mutational alanine screening of the mammalian flippase ATP8A2 catalytic subunit, five mutations stand out by leading to reduced glycosylation of the accessory subunit CDC50A. These mutations may disturb the interaction between the subunits....

  1. Functional Diversification of Maize RNA Polymerase IV and V Subtypes via Alternative Catalytic Subunits

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    Jeremy R. Haag

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Unlike nuclear multisubunit RNA polymerases I, II, and III, whose subunit compositions are conserved throughout eukaryotes, plant RNA polymerases IV and V are nonessential, Pol II-related enzymes whose subunit compositions are still evolving. Whereas Arabidopsis Pols IV and V differ from Pol II in four or five of their 12 subunits, respectively, and differ from one another in three subunits, proteomic analyses show that maize Pols IV and V differ from Pol II in six subunits but differ from each other only in their largest subunits. Use of alternative catalytic second subunits, which are nonredundant for development and paramutation, yields at least two subtypes of Pol IV and three subtypes of Pol V in maize. Pol IV/Pol V associations with MOP1, RMR1, AGO121, Zm_DRD1/CHR127, SHH2a, and SHH2b extend parallels between paramutation in maize and the RNA-directed DNA methylation pathway in Arabidopsis.

  2. New NCI-N87-derived human gastric epithelial line after human telomerase catalytic subunit over-expression

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    Saraiva-Pava, Kathy; Navabi, Nazanin; Skoog, Emma C; Lindén, Sara K; Oleastro, Mónica; Roxo-Rosa, Mónica

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To establish a cellular model correctly mimicking the gastric epithelium to overcome the limitation in the study of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. METHODS: Aiming to overcome this limitation, clones of the heterogenic cancer-derived NCI-N87 cell line were isolated, by stably-transducing it with the human telomerase reverse-transcriptase (hTERT) catalytic subunit gene. The clones were first characterized regarding their cell growth pattern and phenotype. For that we measured the clones’ adherence properties, expression of cell-cell junctions’ markers (ZO-1 and E-cadherin) and ability to generate a sustained transepithelial electrical resistance. The gastric properties of the clones, concerning expression of mucins, zymogens and glycan contents, were then evaluated by haematoxylin and eosin staining, Periodic acid Schiff (PAS) and PAS/Alcian Blue-staining, immunocytochemistry and Western blot. In addition, we assessed the usefulness of the hTERT-expressing gastric cell line for H. pylori research, by performing co-culture assays and measuring the IL-8 secretion, by ELISA, upon infection with two H. pylori strains differing in virulence. RESULTS: Compared with the parental cell line, the most promising NCI-hTERT-derived clones (CL5 and CL6) were composed of cells with homogenous phenotype, presented higher relative telomerase activities, better adhesion properties, ability to be maintained in culture for longer periods after confluency, and were more efficient in PAS-reactive mucins secretion. Both clones were shown to produce high amounts of MUC1, MUC2 and MUC13. NCI-hTERT-CL5 mucins were shown to be decorated with blood group H type 2 (BG-H), Lewis-x (Lex), Ley and Lea and, in a less extent, with BG-A antigens, but the former two antigens were not detected in the NCI-hTERT-CL6. None of the clones exhibited detectable levels of MUC6 nor sialylated Lex and Lea glycans. Entailing good gastric properties, both NCI-hTERT-clones were found to produce

  3. Bufalin Induces Mitochondria-Dependent Apoptosis in Pancreatic and Oral Cancer Cells by Downregulating hTERT Expression via Activation of the JNK/p38 Pathway

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    Xin Tian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bufalin, a digoxin-like active component of the traditional Chinese medicine Chan Su, exhibits potent antitumor activities in many human cancers. Bufalin induces mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in cancer cells, but the detailed molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. hTERT, the catalytic subunit of telomerase, protects against mitochondrial damage by binding to mitochondrial DNA and reducing mitochondrial ROS production. In the present study, we investigated the effects of bufalin on the cell viability, ROS production, DNA damage, and apoptosis of CAPAN-2 human pancreatic and CAL-27 human oral cancer cells. Bufalin reduced CAPAN-2 and CAL-27 cell viability with IC50 values of 159.2 nM and 122.6 nM, respectively. The reduced cell viability was accompanied by increased ROS production, DNA damage, and apoptosis and decreased expression of hTERT. hTERT silencing in CAPAN-2 and CAL-27 cells by siRNA resulted in increased caspase-9/-3 cleavage and DNA damage and decreased cell viability. Collectively, these data suggest that bufalin downregulates hTERT to induce mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in CAPAN-2 and CAL-27 cells. Moreover, bufalin increased the phosphorylation of JNK and p38-MAPK in CAPAN-2 and CAL-27 cells, and blocking the JNK/p38-MAPK pathway using the JNK inhibitor SP600125 or the p38-MAPK inhibitor SB203580 reversed bufalin-induced hTERT downregulation. Thus, the JNK/p38 pathway is involved in bufalin-induced hTERT downregulation and subsequent induction of apoptosis by the mitochondrial pathway.

  4. Catalytic activity of refolded penicillin acylase subunits in aqueous solution and aerosol ot reversed micelles in octane.

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    Kabakov, V E; Klyachko, N L; Levashov, A V

    1994-08-01

    Refolded alpha and beta subunits of penicillin acylase were produced by gel-filtration under denaturing conditions followed by removal of urea through dialysis. Preparations of both renatured subunits hidrolysed specific substrate--phenylacetic acid p-nitroanilide in buffer and in the system of Aerosol OT reversed micelles, the alpha subunit being most catalytically active at Wo = 11.9, while the beta subunit--at Wo = 17.5. There was a good correlation between the position of the found maxima, the theoretically calculated optimal hydration degrees as well as the earlier reported profile of enzymatic activity for native enzyme in reversed micelles.

  5. Subunit composition of the glycyl radical enzyme p-hydroxyphenylacetate decarboxylase. A small subunit, HpdC, is essential for catalytic activity.

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    Andrei, Paula I; Pierik, Antonio J; Zauner, Stefan; Andrei-Selmer, Luminita C; Selmer, Thorsten

    2004-06-01

    p-Hydroxyphenylacetate decarboxylase from Clostridium difficile catalyses the decarboxylation of p-hydroxyphenylacetate to yield the cytotoxic compound p-cresol. The three genes encoding two subunits of the glycyl-radical enzyme and the activating enzyme have been cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant enzymes were used to reconstitute a catalytically functional system in vitro. In contrast with the decarboxylase purified from C. difficile, which was an almost inactive homo-dimeric protein (beta(2)), the recombinant enzyme was a hetero-octameric (beta(4)gamma(4)), catalytically competent complex, which was activated using endogenous activating enzyme from C. difficile or recombinant activating enzyme to a specific activity of 7 U.mg(-1). Preliminary results suggest that phosphorylation of the small subunit is responsible for the change of the oligomeric state. These data point to an essential function of the small subunit of the decarboxylase and may indicate unique regulatory properties of the system.

  6. Structure of the Human Protein Kinase CK2 Catalytic Subunit CK2α′ and Interaction Thermodynamics with the Regulatory Subunit CK2β

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bischoff, Nils; Olsen, Birgitte Brinkmann; Raaf, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Protein kinase CK2 (formerly "casein kinase 2") is composed of a central dimer of noncatalytic subunits (CK2β) binding two catalytic subunits. In humans, there are two isoforms of the catalytic subunit (and an additional splicing variant), one of which (CK2α) is well characterized. To supplement...... of CK2α' for CK2β is about 12 times lower than that of CK2α and is less driven by enthalpy. This result fits the observation that the β4/β5 loop, a key element of the CK2α/CK2β interface, adopts an open conformation in CK2α', while in CK2α, it opens only after assembly with CK2β. The open β4/β5 loop...

  7. An Alternate Splicing Variant of the Human Telomerase Catalytic Subunit Inhibits Telomerase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Yi

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Telomerase, a cellular reverse transcriptase, adds telomeric repeats to chromosome ends. In normal human somatic cells, telomerase is repressed and telomeres progressively shorten, leading to proliferative senescence. Introduction of the telomerase (hTERT cDNA is sufficient to produce telomerase activity and immortalize normal human cells, suggesting that the repression of telomerase activity is transcriptional. The telomerase transcript has been shown to have at least six alternate splicing sites (four insertion sites and two deletion sites, and variants containing both or either of the deletion sites are present during development and in a panel of cancer cell lines we surveyed. One deletion (β site and all four insertions cause premature translation terminations, whereas the other deletion (α site is 36 by and lies within reverse transcriptase (RT motif A, suggesting that this deletion variant may be a candidate as a dominant-negative inhibitor of telomerase. We have cloned three alternately spliced hTERT variants that contain the α,β or both α and,β deletion sites. These alternate splicing variants along with empty vector and wild-type hTERT were introduced into normal human fibroblasts and several telomerase-positive immortal and tumor cell lines. Expression of the α site deletion variant (hTERT α− construct was confirmed by Western blotting. We found that none of the three alternate splicing variants reconstitutes telomerase activity in fibroblasts. However, hTERT α− inhibits telomerase activities in telomerase-positive cells, causes telomere shortening and eventually cell death. This alternately spliced dominant-negative variant may be important in understanding telomerase regulation during development, differentiation and in cancer progression.

  8. Low-density crystal packing of human protein kinase CK2 catalytic subunit in complex with resorufin or other ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klopffleisch, Karsten; Niefind, Karsten; Issinger, Olaf-Georg

    2012-01-01

    A low-resolution structure of the catalytic subunit CK2α of human protein kinase CK2 (formerly known as casein kinase 2) in complex with the ATP-competitive inhibitor resorufin is presented. The structure supplements previous human CK2α structures in which the interdomain hinge/helix αD region...

  9. Crystal structure of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase CK2 from Zea mays at 2.1 A resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niefind, K; Guerra, B; Pinna, L A

    1998-01-01

    CK2alpha is the catalytic subunit of protein kinase CK2, an acidophilic and constitutively active eukaryotic Ser/Thr kinase involved in cell proliferation. A crystal structure, at 2.1 A resolution, of recombinant maize CK2alpha (rmCK2alpha) in the presence of ATP and Mg2+, shows the enzyme in an ...

  10. Crystal structure of the catalytic domain of the initiation factor 2B epsilon subunit from saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Thomas; Pavitt, Graham D.; Andersen, Gregers Rom

    Crystal Structure of Catalytic Domain of the Initiation Factor 2B Epsilon Subunit from Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Thomas Boesen1, Graham Pavitt2, and Gregers Rom Andersen1* 1Department of Molecular Biology, University of Aarhus, Gustav Wieds Vej 10C, DK-8000 Århus C, Denmark 2Department...... Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been determined to 2.3 Å resolution by the multiple wavelength anomalous dispersion technique using selenomethionine substituted protein. The structure consists of two four helix bundles. The N-terminal four helix bundle contain the catalytic part of the domain, whereas the C...... of Biomolecular Sciences, UMIST, PO Box 88, Manchester, M60 1QD UK *To whom correspondence should be addressed: grand@imsb.au.dk, Tel: (+45) 8942 5024. Fax: (+45) 8612 3178 Abstract The crystal structure of the C-terminal catalytic domain of the initiation factor 2B epsilon subunit, residues 544-704, from...

  11. hTERT protein expression is independent of clinicopathological parameters and c-Myc protein expression in human breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meligonis G

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein enzyme that synthesises telomeres after cell division and maintains chromosomal length and stability thus leading to cellular immortalisation. The hTERT (human telomerase reverse transcriptase subunit seems to be the rate-limiting determinant of telomerase and knowledge of factors controlling hTERT transcription may be useful in therapeutic strategies. The hTERT promoter contains binding sites for c-Myc and there is some experimental and in vitro evidence that c-Myc may increase hTERT expression. We previously reported no correlation between c-Myc mRNA expression and hTERT mRNA or telomerase activity in human breast cancer. This study aims to examine the correlation between hTERT expression as determined by immunohistochemistry and c-Myc expression, lymph node status, and tumour size and grade in human breast cancer. Materials and methods The immunohistochemical expression of hTERT and c-Myc was investigated in 38 malignant breast tumours. The expression of hTERT was then correlated with the lymph node status, c-Myc expression and other clinicopathological parameters of the tumours. Results hTERT expression was positive in 27 (71% of the 38 tumours. 15 (79% of 19 node positive tumours were hTERT positive compared with 11 (63% of 19 node negative tumours. The expression was higher in node positive tumours but this failed to reach statistical significance (p = 0.388. There was no significant association with tumour size, tumour grade or c-Myc expression. However, hTERT expression correlated positively with patients' age (correlation coefficient = 0.415, p = 0.0097. Conclusion hTERT protein expression is independent of lymph node status, tumour size and grade and c-Myc protein expression in human breast cancer

  12. Telomerase activity, telomere length and hTERT DNA methylation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from monozygotic twins with discordant smoking habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, Francesca; Siniscalchi, Ester; Andreoli, Cristina; Allione, Alessandra; Fiorito, Giovanni; Medda, Emanuela; Guarrera, Simonetta; Matullo, Giuseppe; Crebelli, Riccardo

    2017-10-01

    Increased telomerase expression has been implicated in the pathogenesis of lung cancer and, since the primary cause of lung cancer is smoking, an association between telomerase reactivation and tobacco smoke has been proposed. In this work an investigation has been performed to assess the relationship between tobacco smoke exposure and telomerase activity (TA) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy smokers. The methylation status of the catalytic subunit of telomerase hTERT was concurrently investigated to assess the possible association between epigenetic modifications of hTERT and TA. Besides, the association between smoke and telomere length (TL) has been evaluated. Healthy monozygotic twins with discordant smoking habits were selected as study population to minimize inter-individual differences because of demographic characteristics and genetic heterogeneity. Statistically significant higher values of TA and TL were observed in smokers compared to nonsmoker co-twins. The multivariate analysis of data showed, besides smoking habits (P = 0.02), an influence of gender (P = 0.006) and BMI (P = 0.001) on TA and a borderline effect of gender (P = 0.05) on TL. DNA methylation analysis, focused on 100 CpG sites mapping in hTERT, highlighted nine CpG sites differentially methylated in smokers. When co-twins were contrasted, selecting as variables the intra-twin difference in TA and hTERT DNA methylation, a statistically significant inverse correlation (P = 0.003) was observed between TA and DNA methylation at the cg05521538 site. In conclusion, these results indicate an association of tobacco smoke with TA and TL and suggest a possible association between smoke-induced epigenetic effects and TA in healthy smokers. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 58:551-559, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Knockdown of hTERT and Treatment with BIBR1532 Inhibit Cell Proliferation and Invasion in Endometrial Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Weimin; Lv, Nenan; Wysham, Weiya Z.; Roque, Dario R.; Zhang, Tongqing; Jiao, Simeng; Song, Dan; Chen, Jiao; Bae-Jump, Victoria L.; Zhou, Chunxiao

    2015-01-01

    Telomerase activity and expression of the catalytic protein hTERT are associated with cell proliferation and advanced stage in endometrial cancer. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of inhibition of hTERT by siRNA and BIBR1532 on cell growth, apoptosis and invasion in endometrial cancer cells. Knockdown of hTERT or treatment of the cells with BIBR1532 decreased telomerase activity, inhibited cell proliferation, induced apoptosis, and reduced cell invasion in Ishikawa and ECC-1 cells. Ei...

  14. Two conserved oligosaccharyltransferase catalytic subunits required for N-glycosylation exist in Spartina alterniflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Luyi; Zhu, Xin; Chen, Jinmei; Yang, Deyue; Zhou, Changfang; Hong, Zhi

    2015-12-01

    Asparagine (N)-linked glycosylation is one of the most crucial post-translational modifications, which is catalyzed in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by the oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) in eukaryotic cells. Biochemical and genetic assay leads to the identification of the nine subunits (Ost 1-6, Stt3, Swp1 and Wbp1) of the yeast OST and in which Stt3p is proposed playing a central and conserved role in N-glycosylation. Two STT3 isoform genes, STT3A and STT3B, exist in the plant and mammal genomes. OST with different catalytic STT3 isoforms has different enzymatic properties in mammals. The mutation of STT3A in Arabidopsis thaliana causes a salt hypersensitive phenotype the inhibited root growth and swollen root tips suggesting protein N-glycosylation is indispensable for plant growth and development. Spartina alterniflora is widely used for shoreline protection and tidal marsh restoration due to the strong salt tolerance although the exact molecular mechanism is little known. To explore the possible biological roles of N-glycosylation in plant adaptive resistance to salinity stress, we cloned the STT3 genes from S. alterniflora and heterogenously expressed them in Arabidopsis mutant to observe the functional conservation. SaSTT3A and SaSTT3B genes were cloned from Spartina alterniflora. SaSTT3A genomic sequences spanned over 23 exons and 22 introns, while SaSTT3B had 6 exons and 5 introns. The gene structures of both genes were conserved among the analyzed plant species. Subcellular localization and transmembrane structure prediction revealed that these two genes had 13 and 11 transmembrane helices respectively. The functional complementation in which the cDNA of SaSTT3A and SaSTT3B driven by CaMV 35S promoter completely or partially rescued Arabidopsis stt3a-2 mutant salt-sensitive phenotype, indicating STT3A functions conservatively between glycophyte and halophyte and N-glycosylation might be involved in plant resistance to salinity. Two STT3

  15. Crystal structure of a C-terminal deletion mutant of human protein kinase CK2 catalytic subunit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ermakova, Inessa; Boldyreff, Brigitte; Issinger, Olaf-Georg

    2003-01-01

    Protein kinase CK2 (formerly called: casein kinase 2) is a heterotetrameric enzyme composed of two separate catalytic chains (CK2alpha) and a stable dimer of two non-catalytic subunits (CK2beta). CK2alpha is a highly conserved member of the superfamily of eukaryotic protein kinases. The crystal...... main regions of conformational plasticity and regulatory importance in eukaryotic protein kinases, in active conformations stabilized by extensive contacts to the N-terminal segment. This arrangement is in accordance with the constitutive activity of the enzyme. By structural superimposition of human...... CK2alpha in isolated form and embedded in the human CK2 holoenzyme the loop connecting the strands beta4 and beta5 and the ATP-binding loop were identified as elements of structural variability. This structural comparison suggests that the ATP-binding loop may be the key region by which the non...

  16. Protein kinase CK2: evidence for a protein kinase CK2beta subunit fraction, devoid of the catalytic CK2alpha subunit, in mouse brain and testicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, B; Siemer, S; Boldyreff, B

    1999-01-01

    The highest CK2 activity was found in mouse testicles and brain, followed by spleen, liver, lung, kidney and heart. The activity values were directly correlated with the protein expression level of the CK2 subunits alpha (catalytic) and beta (regulatory). The alpha' subunit was only detected...... signals were observed for lung, liver and testicles. In the case of CK2beta mRNA the highest signals were found for testicles, kidney, brain and liver. The amount of CK2beta mRNA in testicles was estimated to be about 6-fold higher than in brain. The strongest CK2beta signals in the Western blot were...... found for testicles and brain. The amount of CK2beta protein in brain in comparison to the other organs (except testicles) was estimated to be ca. 2-3-fold higher whereas the ratio of CK2beta between testicles and brain was estimated to be 3-4-fold. Results from the immunoprecipitation experiments...

  17. Exercise induced upregulation of glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit and glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit gene expression in Thoroughbred horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Woong Park

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study was performed to reveal the molecular structure and expression patterns of horse glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC and glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GCLM genes whose products form glutamate cysteine ligase, which were identified as differentially expressed genes in the previous study. Methods We performed bioinformatics analyses, and gene expression assay with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR for horse GCLC and GCLM genes in muscle and blood leukocytes of Thoroughbred horses Results Expression of GCLC showed the same pattern in both blood and muscle tissues after exercise. Expression of GCLC increased in the muscle and blood of Thoroughbreds, suggesting a tissue-specific regulatory mechanism for the expression of GCLC. In addition, expression of the GCLM gene increased after exercise in both the blood and muscle of Thoroughbreds. Conclusion We established the expression patterns of GCLC and GCLM in the skeletal muscle and blood of Thoroughbred horses in response to exercise. Further study is now warranted to uncover the functional importance of these genes in exercise and recovery in racehorses.

  18. Regions conferring isoform-specific function in the catalytic subunit of the Na,K-pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressley, Thomas A; Duran, Marie-Josee; Pierre, Sandrine V

    2005-09-01

    The Na,K-pump (i.e., Na,K-ATPase) is critical for maintaining the ionic gradients across the plasma membranes of animal cells. Its component subunits are expressed in multiple forms, but the physiological relevance of this subunit diversity remains unknown. The primary contributor to overall catalysis, the alpha subunit, exists in four isoforms. There are observed kinetic differences among these isoforms, but their subtlety makes them an unlikely basis for physiological significance. Instead, recent work suggests that the major functional distinction among the isoforms is their interaction with regulatory proteins. Moreover, the isoform-specific effects of modulatory agents such as protein kinase C seem to originate within two regions of structural divergence: the amino terminus and eleven residues near the center of the alpha subunit, the isoform-specific region.

  19. The catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase induces expression of genes containing cAMP-responsive enhancer elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riabowol, K T; Fink, J S; Gilman, M Z; Walsh, D A; Goodman, R H; Feramisco, J R

    1988-11-03

    Transcriptional regulation of eukaryotic genes by cyclic AMP requires a cAMP-dependent protein kinase (A kinase). Two hypotheses have been proposed to explain how the holoenzyme of the A kinase induces transcription. The regulatory subunits of the A kinase, which bind cAMP and DNA, and have amino-acid homology with the Escherichia coli catabolite activator protein could directly stimulate gene expression. Alternatively, phosphorylation by the catalytic subunits could induce transcription by activating proteins involved in gene transcription. To distinguish between these models, we microinjected purified preparations of the catalytic and regulatory subunits of A kinase into tissue culture cells and monitored expression of a stably integrated fusion gene containing a cAMP-responsive human promoter fused to a bacterial reporter gene, or of the endogenous c-fos gene. The catalytic subunit stimulated expression of these genes, whereas the regulatory subunit did not. These results indicate that the catalytic subunit of A kinase is sufficient to induce expression of two cAMP-responsive genes, without increasing levels of cAMP.

  20. Structural Characterization of the Catalytic γ and Regulatory β Subunits of Phosphorylase Kinase in the Context of the Hexadecameric Enzyme Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmer, Mary Ashley; Nadeau, Owen W; Artigues, Antonio; Carlson, Gerald M

    2017-11-03

    In the tightly regulated glycogenolysis cascade, the breakdown of glycogen to glucose-1-phosphate, phosphorylase kinase (PhK) plays a key role in the regulating the activity of glycogen phosphorylase. PhK is a 1.3 MDa hexadecamer, with four copies each of four different subunits (α, β, γ and δ), making the study of its structure challenging. Using hydrogen-deuterium exchange, we have analyzed the regulatory β subunit and the catalytic γ subunit in the context of the intact non-activated PhK complex, to study the structure of these subunits and identify regions of surface exposure. Our data suggest that within the non-activated complex the γ subunit assumes an activated conformation and are consistent with a previous docking model of the β subunit within the cryoelectron microscopy envelope of PhK. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  1. Crystal structure of catalytic domain of the initiation factor 2B epsilon subunit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Thomas; Mohammad, Sarah S.; Pavitt, Graham D.

    , UMIST, PO Box 88, Manchester, M60 1QD, UK Eukaryotic initiation factor 2B (eIF2B) is the exchange factor of initiation factor 2 (eIF2) and catalyses the reaction where GDP bound to eIF2 is exchanged for GTP, a crucial step in translation. The crystal structure of the C-terminal catalytic domain of the e...

  2. Identification of the protein kinase A regulatory RIalpha-catalytic subunit interface by amide H/2H exchange and protein docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Ganesh S; Law, Dennis; Mandell, Jeffrey G; Snead, Aaron N; Tsigelny, Igor; Taylor, Susan S; Ten Eyck, Lynn F; Komives, Elizabeth A

    2003-11-11

    An important goal after structural genomics is to build up the structures of higher-order protein-protein complexes from structures of the individual subunits. Often structures of higher order complexes are difficult to obtain by crystallography. We have used an alternative approach in which the structures of the individual catalytic (C) subunit and RIalpha regulatory (R) subunit of PKA were first subjected to computational docking, and the top 100,000 solutions were subsequently filtered based on amide hydrogen/deuterium (H/2H) exchange interface protection data. The resulting set of filtered solutions forms an ensemble of structures in which, besides the inhibitor peptide binding site, a flat interface between the C-terminal lobe of the C-subunit and the A- and B-helices of RIalpha is uniquely identified. This holoenzyme structure satisfies all previous experimental data on the complex and allows prediction of new contacts between the two subunits.

  3. Human intestinal maltase-glucoamylase: crystal structure of the N-terminal catalytic subunit and basis of inhibition and substrate specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human maltase-glucoamylase (MGAM) is one of the two enzymes responsible for catalyzing the last glucose-releasing step in starch digestion. MGAM is anchored to the small-intestinal brush-border epithelial cells and contains two homologous glycosyl hydrolase family 31 catalytic subunits: an N-termina...

  4. The catalytic subunit of human protein kinase CK2 structurally deviates from its maize homologue in complex with the nucleotide competitive inhibitor emodin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaf, Jennifer; Klopffleisch, Karsten; Issinger, Olaf-Georg

    2008-01-01

    The Ser/Thr kinase CK2 (former name: casein kinase 2) is a heterotetrameric enzyme composed of two catalytic chains (CK2alpha) attached to a dimer of noncatalytic subunits. Together with the cyclin-dependent kinases and the mitogen-activated protein kinases, CK2alpha belongs to the CMGC family of...

  5. Structure of a catalytic dimer of the α- and β-subunits of the F-ATPase from Paracoccus denitrificans at 2.3 Å resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales-Ríos, Edgar; Montgomery, Martin G. [The Medical Research Council Mitochondrial Biology Unit, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 0XY (United Kingdom); Leslie, Andrew G. W. [The Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Francis Crick Avenue, Cambridge CB2 0QH (United Kingdom); García-Trejo, José J. [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City (Mexico); Walker, John E., E-mail: walker@mrc-mbu.cam.ac.uk [The Medical Research Council Mitochondrial Biology Unit, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 0XY (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-23

    The structure of the αβ heterodimer of the F-ATPase from the α-proteobacterium P. denitrificans has been determined at 2.3 Å resolution. It corresponds to the ‘open’ or ‘empty’ catalytic interface found in other F-ATPases. The structures of F-ATPases have predominantly been determined from mitochondrial enzymes, and those of the enzymes in eubacteria have been less studied. Paracoccus denitrificans is a member of the α-proteobacteria and is related to the extinct protomitochondrion that became engulfed by the ancestor of eukaryotic cells. The P. denitrificans F-ATPase is an example of a eubacterial F-ATPase that can carry out ATP synthesis only, whereas many others can catalyse both the synthesis and the hydrolysis of ATP. Inhibition of the ATP hydrolytic activity of the P. denitrificans F-ATPase involves the ζ inhibitor protein, an α-helical protein that binds to the catalytic F{sub 1} domain of the enzyme. This domain is a complex of three α-subunits and three β-subunits, and one copy of each of the γ-, δ- and ∊-subunits. Attempts to crystallize the F{sub 1}–ζ inhibitor complex yielded crystals of a subcomplex of the catalytic domain containing the α- and β-subunits only. Its structure was determined to 2.3 Å resolution and consists of a heterodimer of one α-subunit and one β-subunit. It has no bound nucleotides, and it corresponds to the ‘open’ or ‘empty’ catalytic interface found in other F-ATPases. The main significance of this structure is that it aids in the determination of the structure of the intact membrane-bound F-ATPase, which has been crystallized.

  6. Basic residues in the 74-83 and 191-198 segments of protein kinase CK2 catalytic subunit are implicated in negative but not in positive regulation by the beta-subunit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarno, S; Vaglio, P; Marin, O

    1997-01-01

    by the beta-subunit many fold more than that of alpha wild type, while extrastimulation by beta mutant D55L56E57A, observable with alpha wild type, is abolished with these mutants. These data support the conclusion that down regulation by the acidic residues clustered in the N-terminal moiety of beta......Protein kinase CK2 is a ubiquitous pleiotropic serine/threonine protein kinase whose holoenzyme is comprised of two catalytic (alpha and/or alpha') and two non-catalytic, beta-subunits. The beta-subunit possesses antagonist functions that can be physically dissected by generating synthetic...... fragments encompassing its N-terminal and C-terminal domains. Here we show that by mutating basic residues in the 74-77 and in the 191-198 regions of the alpha-subunit, the negative regulation by the beta-subunit and by its N-terminal synthetic fragment CK2beta-(1-77), which is observable using calmodulin...

  7. Enzyme activity effects of N-terminal His-tag attached to catalytic sub-unit of phosphoinositide-3-kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, James M J; Lee, Woo-Jeong; Shepherd, Peter R; Buchanan, Christina M

    2013-11-05

    NTT (N-terminal tags) on the catalytic (p110) sub-unit of PI 3-K (phosphoinositol 3-kinase) have previously been shown to increase cell signalling and oncogenic transformation. Here we test the impact of an NT (N-terminal) His-tag on in vitro lipid and protein kinase activity of all class-1 PI 3-K isoforms and two representative oncogenic mutant forms (E545K and H1047R), in order to elucidate the mechanisms behind this elevated signalling and transformation observed in vivo. Our results show that an NT His-tag has no impact on lipid kinase activity as measured by enzyme titration, kinetics and inhibitor susceptibility. Conversely, the NT His-tag did result in a differential effect on protein kinase activity, further potentiating the elevated protein kinase activity of both the helical domain and catalytic domain oncogenic mutants with relation to p110 phosphorylation. All other isoforms also showed elevated p110 phosphorylation (although not statistically significant). We conclude that the previously reported increase in cell signalling and oncogenic-like transformation in response to p110 NTT is not mediated via an increase in the lipid kinase activity of PI 3-K, but may be mediated by increased p110 autophosphorylation and/or other, as yet unidentified, intracellular protein/protein interactions. We further observe that tagged recombinant protein is suitable for use in in vitro lipid kinase screens to identify PI 3-K inhibitors; however, we recommend that in vivo (including intracellular) experiments and investigations into the protein kinase activity of PI 3-K should be conducted with untagged constructs.

  8. Amide H/2H exchange reveals communication between the cAMP and catalytic subunit-binding sites in the R(I)alpha subunit of protein kinase A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Ganesh S; Hughes, Carrie A; Jones, John M; Taylor, Susan S; Komives, Elizabeth A

    2002-10-18

    The changes in backbone hydrogen/deuterium (H/2H) exchange in the regulatory subunit (R(I)alpha(94-244)) of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) were probed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The three naturally occurring states of the regulatory subunit were studied: (1) free R(I)alpha(94-244), which likely represents newly synthesized protein, (2) R(I)alpha(94-244) bound to the catalytic (C) subunit, or holoenzyme, and (3) R(I)alpha(94-244) bound to cAMP. Protection from amide exchange upon C-subunit binding was observed for the helical subdomain, including the A-helix and B-helix, pointing to regions adjacent to those shown to be important by mutagenesis. In addition, C-subunit binding caused changes in observed amide exchange in the distal cAMP-binding pocket. Conversely, cAMP binding caused protection in the cAMP-binding pocket and increased exchange in the helical subdomain. These results suggest that the mutually exclusive binding of either cAMP or C-subunit is controlled by binding at one site transmitting long distance changes to the other site.

  9. An Ethnic-Specific Polymorphism in the Catalytic Subunit of Glutamate-Cysteine Ligase Impairs the Production of Glutathione Intermediates In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Truc M.; Willis, Alecia S.; Barr, Frederick E.; Cunningham, Gary R.; Canter, Jeffrey A.; Owens, Sarah E.; Apple, Rachel K.; Ayodo, George; Reich, David; Summar, Marshall L.

    2010-01-01

    Glutathione plays a crucial role in free radical scavenging, oxidative injury, and cellular homeostasis. Previously, we identified a non-synonymous polymorphism (P462S) in the gene encoding the catalytic subunit of glutamate cysteine ligase (GCLC), the rate-limiting enzyme in glutathione biosynthesis. This polymorphism is present only in individuals of African descent. Presently, we report that this ethnic-specific polymorphism (462S) encodes an enzyme with significantly decreased in vitro ac...

  10. Recombinant botulinum neurotoxin Hc subunit (BoNT Hc) and catalytically inactive Clostridium botulinum holoproteins (ciBoNT HPs) as vaccine candidates for the prevention of botulism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-03

    Recombinant botulinum neurotoxin Hc subunit (BoNT Hc) and catalytically inactive Clostridium 1 botulinum holoproteins (ciBoNT HPs) as vaccine...hundreds of years, the disease was 47 recognized as a public health concern in the United States after 32 people died in 5 outbreaks 48 associated with...ripe olives in 1919 and 1920 [3]. These incidents emphasized the need for 49 effective treatments, such as antitoxins and vaccines, to counteract

  11. Phosphorylation of the protein kinase A catalytic subunit is induced by cyclic AMP deficiency and physiological stresses in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McInnis, Brittney; Mitchell, Jessica [Department of Biological Sciences, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Marcus, Stevan, E-mail: smarcus@bama.ua.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States)

    2010-09-03

    Research highlights: {yields} cAMP deficiency induces phosphorylation of PKA catalytic subunit (Pka1) in S. pombe. {yields} Pka1 phosphorylation is further induced by physiological stresses. {yields} Pka1 phosphorylation is not induced in cells lacking the PKA regulatory subunit. {yields} Results suggest that cAMP-independent Pka1 phosphorylation is stimulatory in nature. -- Abstract: In the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is not essential for viability under normal culturing conditions, making this organism attractive for investigating mechanisms of PKA regulation. Here we show that S. pombe cells carrying a deletion in the adenylate cyclase gene, cyr1, express markedly higher levels of the PKA catalytic subunit, Pka1, than wild type cells. Significantly, in cyr1{Delta} cells, but not wild type cells, a substantial proportion of Pka1 protein is hyperphosphorylated. Pka1 hyperphosphorylation is strongly induced in cyr1{Delta} cells, and to varying degrees in wild type cells, by both glucose starvation and stationary phase stresses, which are associated with reduced cAMP-dependent PKA activity, and by KCl stress, the cellular adaptation to which is dependent on PKA activity. Interestingly, hyperphosphorylation of Pka1 was not detected in either cyr1{sup +} or cyr1{Delta} S. pombe strains carrying a deletion in the PKA regulatory subunit gene, cgs1, under any of the tested conditions. Our results demonstrate the existence of a cAMP-independent mechanism of PKA catalytic subunit phosphorylation, which we propose could serve as a mechanism for inducing or maintaining specific PKA functions under conditions in which its cAMP-dependent activity is downregulated.

  12. Functional analysis of Gossypium hirsutum cellulose synthase catalytic subunit 4 promoter in transgenic Arabidopsis and cotton tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Jin; Murai, Norimoto; Fang, David D; Triplett, Barbara A

    2011-02-01

    Gossypium hirsutum cellulose synthase catalytic subunit 4 (GhCesA4) plays an important role in cellulose biosynthesis during cotton fiber development. The transcript levels of GhCesA4 are significantly up-regulated as secondary cell wall cellulose is produced in developing cotton fibers. To understand the molecular mechanisms involved in transcriptional regulation of GhCesA4, β-glucuronidase (GUS) activity regulated by a GhCesA4 promoter (-2574/+56) or progressively deleted promoters were determined in both cotton tissues and transgenic Arabidopsis. The spatial regulation of GhCesA4 expression was similar between cotton tissues and transgenic Arabidopsis. GUS activity regulated by the GhCesA4 promoter (-2574/+56) was found in trichomes and root vascular tissues in both cotton and transgenic Arabidopsis. The -2574/-1824 region was responsible for up-regulation of GhCesA4 expression in trichomes and root vascular tissues in transgenic Arabidopsis. The -1824/-1355 region negatively regulated GhCesA4 expression in most Arabidopsis vascular tissues. For vascular expression in stems and leaves, the -898/-693 region was required. The -693/-320 region of the GhCesA4 promoter was necessary for basal expression of GhCesA4 in cotton roots as well as Arabidopsis roots. Exogenous phytohormonal treatments on transgenic Arabidopsis revealed that phytohormones may be involved in the differential regulation of GhCesA4 during cotton fiber development. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. Identification of DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs as a novel target of bisphenol A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Ito

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA forms the backbone of plastics and epoxy resins used to produce packaging for various foods and beverages. BPA is also an estrogenic disruptor, interacting with human estrogen receptors (ER and other related nuclear receptors. Nevertheless, the effects of BPA on human health remain unclear. The present study identified DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs as a novel BPA-binding protein. DNA-PKcs, in association with the Ku heterodimer (Ku70/80, is a critical enzyme involved in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks. Low levels of DNA-PK activity are previously reported to be associated with an increased risk of certain types of cancer. Although the Kd for the interaction between BPA and a drug-binding mutant of DNA-PKcs was comparatively low (137 nM, high doses of BPA were required before cellular effects were observed (100-300 μM. The results of an in vitro kinase assay showed that BPA inhibited DNA-PK kinase activity in a concentration-dependent manner. In M059K cells, BPA inhibited the phosphorylation of DNA-PKcs at Ser2056 and H2AX at Ser139 in response to ionizing radiation (IR-irradiation. BPA also disrupted DNA-PKcs binding to Ku70/80 and increased the radiosensitivity of M059K cells, but not M059J cells (which are DNA-PKcs-deficient. Taken together, these results provide new evidence of the effects of BPA on DNA repair in mammalian cells, which are mediated via inhibition of DNA-PK activity. This study may warrant the consideration of the possible carcinogenic effects of high doses of BPA, which are mediated through its action on DNA-PK.

  14. Polymorphism in glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC) is associated with sulfamethoxazole-induced hypersensitivity in HIV/AIDS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Danxin; Curtis, Amanda; Papp, Audrey C; Koletar, Susan L; Para, Michael F

    2012-07-23

    Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) is a commonly used antibiotic for prevention of infectious diseases associated with HIV/AIDS and immune-compromised states. SMX-induced hypersensitivity is an idiosyncratic cutaneous drug reaction with genetic components. Here, we tested association of candidate genes involved in SMX bioactivation and antioxidant defense with SMX-induced hypersensitivity. Seventy seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 14 candidate genes were genotyped and assessed for association with SMX-induced hypersensitivity, in a cohort of 171 HIV/AIDS patients. SNP rs761142 T > G, in glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC), was significantly associated with SMX-induced hypersensitivity, with an adjusted p value of 0.045. This result was replicated in a second cohort of 249 patients (p = 0.025). In the combined cohort, heterozygous and homozygous carriers of the minor G allele were at increased risk of developing hypersensitivity (GT vs TT, odds ratio = 2.2, 95% CL 1.4-3.7, p = 0.0014; GG vs TT, odds ratio = 3.3, 95% CL 1.6 - 6.8, p = 0.0010). Each minor allele copy increased risk of developing hypersensitivity 1.9 fold (95% CL 1.4 - 2.6, p = 0.00012). Moreover, in 91 human livers and 84 B-lymphocytes samples, SNP rs761142 homozygous G allele carriers expressed significantly less GCLC mRNA than homozygous TT carriers (p hypersensitivity in HIV/AIDS patients. Catalyzing a critical step in glutathione biosynthesis, GCLC may play a broad role in idiosyncratic drug reactions.

  15. The Over-expression of the β2 Catalytic Subunit of the Proteasome Decreases Homologous Recombination and Impairs DNA Double-Strand Break Repair in Human Cells

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    Anita Collavoli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available By a human cDNA library screening, we have previously identified two sequences coding two different catalytic subunits of the proteasome which increase homologous recombination (HR when overexpressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we investigated the effect of proteasome on spontaneous HR and DNA repair in human cells. To determine if the proteasome has a role in the occurrence of spontaneous HR in human cells, we overexpressed the β2 subunit of the proteasome in HeLa cells and determined the effect on intrachromosomal HR. Results showed that the overexpression of β2 subunit decreased HR in human cells without altering the cell proteasome activity and the Rad51p level. Moreover, exposure to MG132 that inhibits the proteasome activity reduced HR in human cells. We also found that the expression of the β2 subunit increases the sensitivity to the camptothecin that induces DNA double-strand break (DSB. This suggests that the β2 subunit has an active role in HR and DSB repair but does not alter the intracellular level of the Rad51p.

  16. Evolutionary connection between the catalytic subunits of DNA-dependent RNA polymerases and eukaryotic RNA-dependent RNA polymerases and the origin of RNA polymerases

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    Aravind L

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The eukaryotic RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDRP is involved in the amplification of regulatory microRNAs during post-transcriptional gene silencing. This enzyme is highly conserved in most eukaryotes but is missing in archaea and bacteria. No evolutionary relationship between RDRP and other polymerases has been reported so far, hence the origin of this eukaryote-specific polymerase remains a mystery. Results Using extensive sequence profile searches, we identified bacteriophage homologs of the eukaryotic RDRP. The comparison of the eukaryotic RDRP and their homologs from bacteriophages led to the delineation of the conserved portion of these enzymes, which is predicted to harbor the catalytic site. Further, detailed sequence comparison, aided by examination of the crystal structure of the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (DDRP, showed that the RDRP and the β' subunit of DDRP (and its orthologs in archaea and eukaryotes contain a conserved double-psi β-barrel (DPBB domain. This DPBB domain contains the signature motif DbDGD (b is a bulky residue, which is conserved in all RDRPs and DDRPs and contributes to catalysis via a coordinated divalent cation. Apart from the DPBB domain, no similarity was detected between RDRP and DDRP, which leaves open two scenarios for the origin of RDRP: i RDRP evolved at the onset of the evolution of eukaryotes via a duplication of the DDRP β' subunit followed by dramatic divergence that obliterated the sequence similarity outside the core catalytic domain and ii the primordial RDRP, which consisted primarily of the DPBB domain, evolved from a common ancestor with the DDRP at a very early stage of evolution, during the RNA world era. The latter hypothesis implies that RDRP had been subsequently eliminated from cellular life forms and might have been reintroduced into the eukaryotic genomes through a bacteriophage. Sequence and structure analysis of the DDRP led to further insights into the

  17. Functional intersection of ATM and DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit in coding end joining during V(D)J recombination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Baeck-Seung; Gapud, Eric J; Zhang, Shichuan

    2013-01-01

    V(D)J recombination is initiated by the RAG endonuclease, which introduces DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) at the border between two recombining gene segments, generating two hairpin-sealed coding ends and two blunt signal ends. ATM and DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA......-PKcs. Mutation of these threonine residues to alanine (DNA-PKcs(3A)) renders DNA-PKcs dependent on its intrinsic kinase activity during coding end joining, at a step downstream of opening hairpin-sealed coding ends. Thus, DNA-PKcs has critical functions in coding end joining beyond promoting Artemis endonuclease...

  18. Catalytic

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    S.A. Hanafi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A series of dealuminated Y-zeolites impregnated by 0.5 wt% Pt catalysts promoted by different amounts of Ni, Pd or Cr (0.3 and 0.6 wt% were prepared and characterized as hydrocracking catalysts. The physicochemical and structural characterization of the solid catalysts were investigated and reported through N2 physisorption, XRD, TGA-DSC, FT-IR and TEM techniques. Solid catalysts surface acidities were investigated through FT-IR spectroscopy aided by pyridine adsorption. The solid catalytic activities were evaluated through hydroconversion of n-hexane and n-heptane employing micro-catalytic pulse technique directly connected to a gas chromatograph analyzer. The thermal stability of the solids was also investigated up to 800 °C. Crystallinity studies using the XRD technique of all modified samples proved analogous to the parent Y-zeolite, exhibiting nearly an amorphous and microcrystalline character of the second metal oxides. Disclosure of bimetallic catalysts crystalline characterization, through XRD, was not viable. The nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms for all samples concluded type I adsorption isotherms, without any hysteresis loop, indicating that the entire pore system is composed of micropores. TEM micrographs of the solid catalysts demonstrate well-dispersed Pt, Ni and Cr nanoparticles having sizes of 2–4 nm and 7–8 nm, respectively. The catalytic activity results indicate that the bimetallic (0.5Pt–0.3Cr/D18H–Y catalyst is the most active towards n-hexane and n-heptane isomerization while (0.5Pt–0.6Ni/D18H–Y catalyst can be designed as most suitable as a cracking catalyst.

  19. Important 2'-hydroxyl groups in model substrates for M1 RNA, the catalytic RNA subunit of RNase P from Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perreault, J P; Altman, S

    1992-07-20

    The role of 2'-hydroxyl groups in a model substrate for RNase P from Escherichia coli was studied using mixed DNA/RNA derivatives of such a substrate. The presence of the 2'-hydroxyl groups of nucleotides at positions -1 and -2 in the leader sequence and at position 1, as well as at the first C in the 3'-terminal CCA sequence, are important but not absolutely essential for efficient cleavage of the substrate by RNase P or its catalytic RNA subunit, M1 RNA. The 2'-hydroxyl groups in the substrate that are important for efficient cleavage also participate in the binding of Mg2+. An all-DNA external guide sequence (EGS) can efficiently render a potential substrate, derived from the model substrate, susceptible to cleavage by the enzyme or its catalytic RNA subunit. Furthermore, both DNA and RNA EGSs turn over during the reaction with RNase P in vitro. The identity of the nucleotide at position 1 in the substrate, the adjacent Mg(2+)-binding site in the leader sequence, and the junction of the single and double-stranded regions are the important elements in the recognition of model substrates, as well as in the identification of the sites of cleavage in those model substrates.

  20. The KdpC subunit of the Escherichia coli K+-transporting KdpB P-type ATPase acts as a catalytic chaperone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irzik, Kristina; Pfrötzschner, Juliane; Goss, Tatjana; Ahnert, Franziska; Haupt, Melina; Greie, Jörg-Christian

    2011-09-01

    In Bacteria and Archaea, high-affinity potassium uptake is mediated by the ATP-driven KdpFABC complex. On the basis of the biochemical properties of the ATP-hydrolyzing subunit KdpB, the transport complex is classified as type IA P-type ATPase. However, the KdpA subunit, which promotes K(+) transport, clearly resembles a potassium channel, such that the KdpFABC complex represents a chimera of ion pumps and ion channels. In the present study, we demonstrate that the blending of these two groups of transporters in KdpFABC also entails a nucleotide-binding mechanism in which the KdpC subunit acts as a catalytic chaperone. This mechanism is found neither in P-type ATPases nor in ion channels, although parallels are found in ABC transporters. In the latter, the ATP nucleotide is coordinated by the LSGGQ signature motif via double hydrogen bonds at a conserved glutamine residue, which is also present in KdpC. High-affinity nucleotide binding to the KdpFABC complex was dependent on the presence of this conserved glutamine residue in KdpC. In addition, both ATP binding to KdpC and ATP hydrolysis activity of KdpFABC were sensitive to the accessibility, presence or absence of the hydroxyl groups at the ribose moiety of the nucleotide. Furthermore, the KdpC subunit was shown to interact with the nucleotide-binding loop of KdpB in an ATP-dependent manner around the ATP-binding pocket, thereby increasing the ATP-binding affinity by the formation of a transient KdpB/KdpC/ATP ternary complex. © 2011 The Authors Journal compilation © 2011 FEBS.

  1. Modular endolysin of Burkholderia AP3 phage has the largest lysozyme-like catalytic subunit discovered to date and no catalytic aspartate residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewska, Barbara; Źrubek, Karol; Espaillat, Akbar; Wiśniewska, Magdalena; Rembacz, Krzysztof P; Cava, Felipe; Dubin, Grzegorz; Drulis-Kawa, Zuzanna

    2017-11-06

    Endolysins are peptidoglycan-degrading enzymes utilized by bacteriophages to release the progeny from bacterial cells. The lytic properties of phage endolysins make them potential antibacterial agents for medical and industrial applications. Here, we present a comprehensive characterization of phage AP3 modular endolysin (AP3gp15) containing cell wall binding domain and an enzymatic domain (DUF3380 by BLASTP), both widespread and conservative. Our structural analysis demonstrates the low similarity of an enzymatic domain to known lysozymes and an unusual catalytic centre characterized by only a single glutamic acid residue and no aspartic acid. Thus, our findings suggest distinguishing a novel class of muralytic enzymes having the activity and catalytic centre organization of DUF3380. The lack of amino acid sequence homology between AP3gp15 and other known muralytic enzymes may reflect the evolutionary convergence of analogous glycosidases. Moreover, the broad antibacterial spectrum, lack of cytotoxic effect on human cells and the stability characteristics of AP3 endolysin advocate for its future application development.

  2. Knockdown of glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic subunit by siRNA causes the gold nanoparticles-induced cytotoxicity in lung cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Liu

    Full Text Available Gold nanoparticles (GNPs have shown promising medical applications in cancer treatment involved in the regulation of intracellular redox balance. Previously, we have reported that GNPs can trigger apoptosis and necrosis in human lung cancer cells (A549 when L-buthionine-sulfoximine (BSO was used to decrease the expression of intracellular glutathione (GSH. Herein, we investigated the cytotoxicity of GNPs toward lung cancer cells under the glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC was silenced by siRNA. Our results showed that GNPs cause apoptosis and necrosis in cells transfected with GCLC siRNA by elevating intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS. These findings demonstrated that the regulation of glutathione synthesis by GCLC siRNA in A549 cells can initiate the gold nanoparticles-induced cytotoxicity.

  3. Cloning and sequence analysis of a full-length cDNA of SmPP1cb encoding turbot protein phosphatase 1 beta catalytic subunit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Fei; Guo, Huarong; Wang, Jian

    2008-02-01

    Reversible protein phosphorylation, catalyzed by protein kinases and phosphatases, is an important and versatile mechanism by which eukaryotic cells regulate almost all the signaling processes. Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) is the first and well-characterized member of the protein serine/threonine phosphatase family. In the present study, a full-length cDNA encoding the beta isoform of the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 1(PP1cb), was for the first time isolated and sequenced from the skin tissue of flatfish turbot Scophthalmus maximus, designated SmPP1cb, by the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technique. The cDNA sequence of SmPP1cb we obtained contains a 984 bp open reading frame (ORF), flanked by a complete 39 bp 5' untranslated region and 462 bp 3' untranslated region. The ORF encodes a putative 327 amino acid protein, and the N-terminal section of this protein is highly acidic, Met-Ala-Glu-Gly-Glu-Leu-Asp-Val-Asp, a common feature for PP1 catalytic subunit but absent in protein phosphatase 2B (PP2B). And its calculated molecular mass is 37 193 Da and pI 5.8. Sequence analysis indicated that, SmPP1cb is extremely conserved in both amino acid and nucleotide acid levels compared with the PP1cb of other vertebrates and invertebrates, and its Kozak motif contained in the 5'UTR around ATG start codon is GXXAXXGXX ATGG, which is different from mammalian in two positions A-6 and G-3, indicating the possibility of different initiation of translation in turbot, and also the 3'UTR of SmPP1cb is highly diverse in the sequence similarity and length compared with other animals, especially zebrafish. The cloning and sequencing of SmPP1cb gene lays a good foundation for the future work on the biological functions of PP1 in the flatfish turbot.

  4. Glucocorticoids curtail stimuli-induced CREB phosphorylation in TRH neurons through interaction of the glucocorticoid receptor with the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo-Rivera, Israim; Cote-Vélez, Antonieta; Uribe, Rosa-María; Charli, Jean-Louis; Joseph-Bravo, Patricia

    2017-03-01

    Corticosterone prevents cold-induced stimulation of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (Trh) expression in rats, and the stimulatory effect of dibutyryl cyclic-adenosine monophosphate (dB-cAMP) on Trh transcription in hypothalamic cultures. We searched for the mechanism of this interference. Immunohistochemical analyses of phosphorylated cAMP-response element binding protein (pCREB) were performed in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of Wistar rats, and in cell cultures of 17-day old rat hypothalami, or neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Cultures were incubated 1h with dB-cAMP, dexamethasone and both drugs combined; their nuclear extracts were used for chromatin immunoprecipitation; cytosolic or nuclear extracts for coimmunoprecipitation analyses of catalytic subunit of protein kinase A (PKAc) and of glucocorticoid receptor (GR); their subcellular distribution was analyzed by immunocytochemistry. Cold exposure increased pCREB in TRH neurons of rats PVN, effect blunted by corticosterone previous injection. Dexamethasone interfered with forskolin increase in nuclear pCREB and its binding to Trh promoter; antibodies against histone deacetylase-3 precipitated chromatin from nuclear extracts of hypothalamic cells treated with tri-iodothyronine but not with dB-cAMP + dexamethasone, discarding chromatin compaction as responsible mechanism. Co-immunoprecipitation analyses of cytosolic or nuclear extracts showed protein:protein interactions between activated GR and PKAc. Immunocytochemical analyses of hypothalamic or SH-SY5Y cells revealed diminished nuclear translocation of PKAc and GR in cells incubated with forskolin + dexamethasone, compared to either forskolin or dexamethasone alone. Glucocorticoids and cAMP exert mutual inhibition of Trh transcription through interaction of activated glucocorticoid receptor with protein kinase A catalytic subunit, reducing their nuclear translocation, limiting cAMP-response element binding protein phosphorylation and its binding to Trh promoter.

  5. An improved model for the hTERT promoter quadruplex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan B Chaires

    Full Text Available Mutations occur at four specific sites in the hTERT promoter in >75% of glioblastomas and melanomas, but the mechanism by which the mutations affect gene expression remains unexplained. We report biophysical computational studies that show that the hTERT promoter sequence forms a novel G-quadruplex structure consisting of three contiguous, stacked parallel quadruplexes. The reported hTERT mutations map to the central quadruplex within this structure, and lead to an alteration of its hydrodynamic properties and stability.

  6. A Common Cancer Risk-Associated Allele in the hTERT Locus Encodes a Dominant Negative Inhibitor of Telomerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killedar, Anagha; Stutz, Michael D; Sobinoff, Alexander P; Tomlinson, Christopher G; Bryan, Tracy M; Beesley, Jonathan; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Reddel, Roger R; Pickett, Hilda A

    2015-06-01

    The TERT-CLPTM1L region of chromosome 5p15.33 is a multi-cancer susceptibility locus that encodes the reverse transcriptase subunit, hTERT, of the telomerase enzyme. Numerous cancer-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including rs10069690, have been identified within the hTERT gene. The minor allele (A) at rs10069690 creates an additional splice donor site in intron 4 of hTERT, and is associated with an elevated risk of multiple cancers including breast and ovarian carcinomas. We previously demonstrated that the presence of this allele resulted in co-production of full length (FL)-hTERT and an alternatively spliced, INS1b, transcript. INS1b does not encode the reverse transcriptase domain required for telomerase enzyme activity, but we show here that INS1b protein retains its ability to bind to the telomerase RNA subunit, hTR. We also show that INS1b expression results in decreased telomerase activity, telomere shortening, and an increased telomere-specific DNA damage response (DDR). We employed antisense oligonucleotides to manipulate endogenous transcript expression in favor of INS1b, which resulted in a decrease in telomerase activity. These data provide the first detailed mechanistic insights into a cancer risk-associated SNP in the hTERT locus, which causes cell type-specific expression of INS1b transcript from the presence of an additional alternative splice site created in intron 4 by the risk allele. We predict that INS1b expression levels cause subtle inadequacies in telomerase-mediated telomere maintenance, resulting in an increased risk of genetic instability and therefore of tumorigenesis.

  7. A Common Cancer Risk-Associated Allele in the hTERT Locus Encodes a Dominant Negative Inhibitor of Telomerase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anagha Killedar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The TERT-CLPTM1L region of chromosome 5p15.33 is a multi-cancer susceptibility locus that encodes the reverse transcriptase subunit, hTERT, of the telomerase enzyme. Numerous cancer-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, including rs10069690, have been identified within the hTERT gene. The minor allele (A at rs10069690 creates an additional splice donor site in intron 4 of hTERT, and is associated with an elevated risk of multiple cancers including breast and ovarian carcinomas. We previously demonstrated that the presence of this allele resulted in co-production of full length (FL-hTERT and an alternatively spliced, INS1b, transcript. INS1b does not encode the reverse transcriptase domain required for telomerase enzyme activity, but we show here that INS1b protein retains its ability to bind to the telomerase RNA subunit, hTR. We also show that INS1b expression results in decreased telomerase activity, telomere shortening, and an increased telomere-specific DNA damage response (DDR. We employed antisense oligonucleotides to manipulate endogenous transcript expression in favor of INS1b, which resulted in a decrease in telomerase activity. These data provide the first detailed mechanistic insights into a cancer risk-associated SNP in the hTERT locus, which causes cell type-specific expression of INS1b transcript from the presence of an additional alternative splice site created in intron 4 by the risk allele. We predict that INS1b expression levels cause subtle inadequacies in telomerase-mediated telomere maintenance, resulting in an increased risk of genetic instability and therefore of tumorigenesis.

  8. Molecular Mechanism of hTERT Function in Mitochondria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-20

    Molecular mechanism of hTERT function in mitochondria (x) Material has been given an OPSEC review and it has been determined to be non sensitive and...transcriptase (hTERT) is localized to mitochondria , as well as the nucleus, but details about its biology and function in the organelle remain largely...demonstrate the canonical nuclear RNA [human telomerase RNA (hTR)] is not present in human mitochondria and not required for the mitochondrial

  9. Mapping the Hydrogen Bond Networks in the Catalytic Subunit of Protein Kinase A Using H/D Fractionation Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Geoffrey C; Srivastava, Atul K; Kim, Jonggul; Taylor, Susan S; Veglia, Gianluigi

    2015-07-07

    Protein kinase A is a prototypical phosphoryl transferase, sharing its catalytic core (PKA-C) with the entire kinase family. PKA-C substrate recognition, active site organization, and product release depend on the enzyme's conformational transitions from the open to the closed state, which regulate its allosteric cooperativity. Here, we used equilibrium nuclear magnetic resonance hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) fractionation factors (φ) to probe the changes in the strength of hydrogen bonds within the kinase upon binding the nucleotide and a pseudosubstrate peptide (PKI5-24). We found that the φ values decrease upon binding both ligands, suggesting that the overall hydrogen bond networks in both the small and large lobes of PKA-C become stronger. However, we observed several important exceptions, with residues displaying higher φ values upon ligand binding. Notably, the changes in φ values are not localized near the ligand binding pockets; rather, they are radiated throughout the entire enzyme. We conclude that, upon ligand and pseudosubstrate binding, the hydrogen bond networks undergo extensive reorganization, revealing that the open-to-closed transitions require global rearrangements of the internal forces that stabilize the enzyme's fold.

  10. Observed correlation between the expression levels of catalytic subunit, Cβ2, of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase and prostate cancer aggressiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Line Victoria; Ramberg, Håkon; Zhao, Sen; Grytli, Helene Hartvedt; Sveen, Anita; Berge, Viktor; Skotheim, Rolf I; Taskén, Kristin Austlid; Skålhegg, Bjørn Steen

    2017-03-01

    Today overtreatment of indolent prostate cancers and undertreatment of aggressive prostate cancer are a major concern for patients, their families, and the health care system. New biomarkers distinguishing indolent and aggressive prostate cancer are needed to improve precision medicine. In prostate cancer, protein kinase A (PKA) is known to activate the androgen receptor and published data indicate that PKA subunits can act as predictive markers for response to radiation and chemotherapy. We have previously shown that the catalytic subunit, Cβ2, of PKA is up-regulated in prostate cancer and we would in this study investigate the potential of Cβ2 to become a prognostic biomarker in prostate cancer. Data were sampled from a total of 241 patients from 3 independent cohorts. We measured and compared Cβ2 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in prostate tumor and nontumor samples (n = 22), and exon levels in a cohort of 50 tumor samples, as well as acquiring mRNA data from the publicly available database The cancer genome atlas (n = 169). Cβ2 mRNA was up-regulated in prostate cancer in all 3 cohorts, measured by 3 different methods. Furthermore, the relative Cβ2 mRNA expression levels were lower in prostate cancer samples with Gleason score 8 to 10 compared with samples with Gleason score<8 (P = 0.004). Finally, low expression of Cβ2 mRNA in prostate cancer biopsies correlated with poor survival (hazard ratio = 0.20; 95% CI: 0.048-0.86; P = 0.031), adjusted for risk group and age. We suggest that Cβ2 mRNA expression may be used as a biomarker together with established prognostic markers to more precisely predict aggressiveness in patients diagnosed with prostate cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Association between the PPP3CC gene, coding for the calcineurin gamma catalytic subunit, and bipolar disorder

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    Bellivier Frank

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calcineurin is a neuron-enriched phosphatase that regulates synaptic plasticity and neuronal adaptation. Activation of calcineurin, overall, antagonizes the effects of the cyclic AMP activated protein/kinase A. Thus, kinase/phosphatase dynamic balance seems to be critical for transition to long-term cellular responses in neurons, and disruption of this equilibrium should induce behavioral impairments in animal models. Genetic animal models, as well as post-mortem studies in humans have implicated calcineurin dependent calcium and cyclic AMP regulated phosphorylation/dephosphorylation in both affective responses and psychosis. Recently, genetic association between schizophrenia and genetic variation of the human calcineurin A gamma subunit gene (PPP3CC has been reported. Methods Based on the assumption of the common underlying genetic factor in schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder (BPAD, we performed association analysis of CC33 and CCS3 polymorphisms of the PPP3CC gene reported to be associated with schizophrenia in a French sample of 115 BPAD patients and 97 healthy controls. Results Carrying 'CT' or 'TT' genotypes of the PPP3CC-CC33 polymorphism increased risk to develop BPAD comparing to carry 'CC' genotype (OR = 1.8 [1.01–3.0]; p = 0.05. For the PPP3CC-CCS3 polymorphism, 'AG' or 'GG' carriers have an increased risk to develop BPAD than 'AA' carriers (OR = 2.8 [1.5–5.2]. The CC33 and CCS3 polymorphisms were observed in significant linkage disequilibrium (D' = 0.91, r2 = 0.72. Haplotype frequencies were significantly different in BPAD patients than in controls (p = 0.03, with a significant over-transmission of the 'TG' haplotype in BPAD patients (p = 0.001. Conclusion: We suggest that the PPP3CC gene might be a susceptibility gene for BPAD, in accordance with current neurobiological hypotheses that implicate dysregulation of signal-transduction pathways, such as those regulated by calcineurin, in the etiology of

  12. EARLY IN SHORT DAYS 7 (ESD7) encodes the catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase epsilon and is required for flowering repression through a mechanism involving epigenetic gene silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Olmo, Iván; López-González, Leticia; Martín-Trillo, Maria M; Martínez-Zapater, José M; Piñeiro, Manuel; Jarillo, Jose A

    2010-02-01

    We have characterized a mutation affecting the Arabidopsis EARLY IN SHORT DAYS 7 (ESD7) gene encoding the catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase epsilon (epsilon), AtPOL2a. The esd7-1 mutation causes early flowering independently of photoperiod, shortened inflorescence internodes and altered leaf and root development. esd7-1 is a hypomorphic allele whereas knockout alleles displayed an embryo-lethal phenotype. The esd7 early flowering phenotype requires functional FT and SOC1 proteins and might also be related to the misregulation of AG and AG-like gene expression found in esd7. Genes involved in the modulation of chromatin structural dynamics, such as LHP1/TFL2 and EBS, which negatively regulate FT expression, were found to interact genetically with ESD7. In fact a molecular interaction between the carboxy terminus of ESD7 and TFL2 was demonstrated in vitro. Besides, fas2 mutations suppressed the esd7 early flowering phenotype and ICU2 was found to interact with ESD7. Discrete regions of the chromatin of FT and AG loci were enriched in activating epigenetic marks in the esd7-1 mutant. We concluded that ESD7 might be participating in processes involved in chromatin-mediated cellular memory.

  13. An ethnic-specific polymorphism in the catalytic subunit of glutamate-cysteine ligase impairs the production of glutathione intermediates in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Truc M; Willis, Alecia S; Barr, Frederick E; Cunningham, Gary R; Canter, Jeffrey A; Owens, Sarah E; Apple, Rachel K; Ayodo, George; Reich, David; Summar, Marshall L

    2010-09-01

    Glutathione plays a crucial role in free radical scavenging, oxidative injury, and cellular homeostasis. Previously, we identified a non-synonymous polymorphism (P462S) in the gene encoding the catalytic subunit of glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCLC), the rate-limiting enzyme in glutathione biosynthesis. This polymorphism is present only in individuals of African descent. Presently, we report that this ethnic-specific polymorphism (462S) encodes an enzyme with significantly decreased in vitro activity when expressed by either a bacterial or mammalian cell expression system. In addition, overexpression of the 462P wild-type GCLC enzyme results in higher intracellular glutathione concentrations than overexpression of the 462S isoform. We also demonstrate that apoptotically stimulated mammalian cells overexpressing the 462S enzyme have increased caspase activation and increased DNA laddering compared to cells overexpressing the wild-type 462P enzyme. Finally, we genotyped several African and African-descent populations and demonstrate that the 462S polymorphism is in Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium, with no individuals homozygous for the 462S polymorphism identified. These findings describe a glutathione production pathway polymorphism present in individuals of African descent with significantly decreased in vitro activity.

  14. Protein Phosphatase 2A Catalytic Subunit α Plays a MyD88-Dependent, Central Role in the Gene-Specific Regulation of Endotoxin Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Xie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available MyD88, the intracellular adaptor of most TLRs, mediates either proinflammatory or immunosuppressive signaling that contributes to chronic inflammation-associated diseases. Although gene-specific chromatin modifications regulate inflammation, the role of MyD88 signaling in establishing such epigenetic landscapes under different inflammatory states remains elusive. Using quantitative proteomics to enumerate the inflammation-phenotypic constituents of the MyD88 interactome, we found that in endotoxin-tolerant macrophages, protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit α (PP2Ac enhances its association with MyD88 and is constitutively activated. Knockdown of PP2Ac prevents suppression of proinflammatory genes and resistance to apoptosis. Through site-specific dephosphorylation, constitutively active PP2Ac disrupts the signal-promoting TLR4-MyD88 complex and broadly suppresses the activities of multiple proinflammatory/proapoptotic pathways as well, shifting proinflammatory MyD88 signaling to a prosurvival mode. Constitutively active PP2Ac translocated with MyD88 into the nuclei of tolerant macrophages establishes the immunosuppressive pattern of chromatin modifications and represses chromatin remodeling to selectively silence proinflammatory genes, coordinating the MyD88-dependent inflammation control at both signaling and epigenetic levels under endotoxin-tolerant conditions.

  15. Mapping of the glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit gene (GLCLC) to human chromosome 6p12 and mouse chromosome 9D-E and of the regulatory subunit gene (GLCLR) to human chromosome 1p21-p22 and mouse chromosome 3H1-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, K.; Disteche, C.M.; Reid, L.L. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-10

    Glutamate-cysteine ligase (EC 6.3.2.2, GLCL), formerly called {gamma}-glutamylcysteine synthetase (GCS), is the rate-limiting enzyme in the de novo synthesis of the antioxidant tripeptide glutathione. GLCL consists of a heavy subunit, which possesses catalytic activity and is the site of glutathione feedback inhibition, and a light subunit, which has a regulatory function. Glutathione is ubiquitous in mammalian tissues and performs a variety of functions, including protection from reactive oxygen species through antioxidant properties; detoxification of xenobiotics, organic peroxides, and heavy metals; and maintenance of sulfhydryl groups of other molecules. Increased intracellular levels of glutathione have also been found in tumor cells resistant to chemotherapeutic agents. Increased expression of GLCL in melphalan-resistant myeloma and prostate carcinoma cells and cisplatinum-resistant ovarian carcinoma cells suggests that this enzyme may be involved in glutathione-associated drug resistance. Moreover, GLCL has been shown to be induced by phenolic antioxidants and heavy metals. Recently, Mulcahy and Gipp have shown that the GLCL catalytic subunit gene (GLCLC) contains a putative antioxidant regulatory element, which may explain the responsiveness of this gene to agents that induce oxidative stress. To further our understanding of GLCL, which is linked to such a wide variety of metabolic and physiological functions through its role in glutathione synthesis, we have mapped both the catalytic and regulatory subunit genes (GLCLC and GLCLR) to human and mouse chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). 16 refs., 1 fig.

  16. TSA-induced DNMT1 down-regulation represses hTERT expression via recruiting CTCF into demethylated core promoter region of hTERT in HCT116.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jee-Hye; Min, Na Young; Park, Jina; Kim, Jin Hong; Park, Soo Hyun; Ko, Young Jong; Kang, Yoonsung; Moon, Young Joon; Rhee, Sangmyung; Ham, Seung Wook; Park, Ae Ja; Lee, Kwang-Ho

    2010-01-01

    Trichostatin A (TSA), an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, is a well-known antitumor agent that effectively and selectively induces tumor growth arrest and apoptosis. Recently, it was reported that hTERT is one of the primary targets for TSA-induced apoptosis in cancer cells but the mechanism of which has not yet been elucidated. In the present study, to better understand the epigenetic regulation mechanism responsible for the repression of hTERT by TSA, we examined expression of hTERT in the HCT116 colon cancer cell line after treatment with TSA and performed site-specific CpG methylation analysis of the hTERT promoter. We found that TSA-induced the demethylation of site-specific CpGs on the promoter of hTERT, which was caused by down-regulation of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1). Among the demethylated region, the 31st-33rd CpGs contained a binding site for CTCF, an inhibitor of hTERT transcription. ChIP analysis revealed that TSA-induced demethylation of the 31st-33rd CpGs promoted CTCF binding on hTERT promoter, leading to repression of hTERT. Taken together, down-regulation of DNMT1 by TSA caused demethylation of a CTCF binding site on the hTERT promoter, the result of which was repression of hTERT via recruitment of CTCF to the promoter. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A Novel Phosphoregulatory Switch Controls the Activity and Function of the Major Catalytic Subunit of Protein Kinase A in Aspergillus fumigatus

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    E. Keats Shwab

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Invasive aspergillosis (IA, caused by the filamentous fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus, is a major cause of death among immunocompromised patients. The cyclic AMP/protein kinase A (PKA signaling pathway is essential for hyphal growth and virulence of A. fumigatus, but the mechanism of regulation of PKA remains largely unknown. Here, we discovered a novel mechanism for the regulation of PKA activity in A. fumigatus via phosphorylation of key residues within the major catalytic subunit, PkaC1. Phosphopeptide enrichment and tandem mass spectrometry revealed the phosphorylation of PkaC1 at four sites (S175, T331, T333, and T337 with implications for important and diverse roles in the regulation of A. fumigatus PKA. While the phosphorylation at one of the residues (T333 is conserved in other species, the identification of three other residues represents previously unknown PKA phosphoregulation in A. fumigatus. Site-directed mutagenesis of the phosphorylated residues to mimic or prevent phosphorylation revealed dramatic effects on kinase activity, growth, conidiation, cell wall stress response, and virulence in both invertebrate and murine infection models. Three-dimensional structural modeling of A. fumigatus PkaC1 substantiated the positive or negative regulatory roles for specific residues. Suppression of PKA activity also led to downregulation of PkaC1 protein levels in an apparent novel negative-feedback mechanism. Taken together, we propose a model in which PkaC1 phosphorylation both positively and negatively modulates its activity. These findings pave the way for future discovery of fungus-specific aspects of this key signaling network.

  18. Endostatin sensitizes p53-deficient non-small-cell lung cancer to genotoxic chemotherapy by targeting DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Lin; Lu, Xin-An; Liu, Guanghua; Wang, Shan; Xu, Min; Tian, Yang; Zhang, Shaosen; Fu, Yan; Luo, Yongzhang

    2017-10-01

    Endostatin was discovered as an endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor with broad-spectrum antitumour activities. Although clinical efficacy was observed when endostatin was combined with standard chemotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), as well as other cancer types, the specific mechanisms underlying the benefit of endostatin are not completely understood. Extensive investigations suggest that endostatin is a multifunctional protein possessing more than anti-angiogenic activity. Here, we found that endostatin exerts a direct chemosensitizing effect on p53-deficient tumour cells. Concomitant treatment with endostatin and genotoxic drugs resulted in therapeutic synergy in both cellular and animal models of p53-deficient NSCLC. Mechanistically, endostatin specifically interacts with DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) in tumour cells and suppresses its DNA repair activity. Using isogenic NSCLC cells with different p53 statuses, we discovered that p53-deficient tumour cells show chemoresistance to genotoxic drugs, creating a synthetic dependence on DNA-PKcs-mediated DNA repair. In this setting, endostatin exerted inhibitory effects on DNA-PKcs activity, leading to accumulation of DNA lesions and promotion of the therapeutic effect of genotoxic chemotherapy. In contrast, p53-proficient tumour cells were more sensitive to genotoxic drugs so that DNA-PKcs could be cleaved by drug-activated caspase-3, making DNA-PKcs inhibition less effective during this ongoing apoptotic process. Therefore, our data demonstrate a novel mechanism for endostatin as a DNA-PKcs suppressor, and indicate that combination therapy of endostatin with genotoxic drugs could be a promising treatment strategy for cancer patients with p53-deficient tumours. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs)-SIN1 association mediates ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced Akt Ser-473 phosphorylation and skin cell survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Ying; Ji, Chao; Yang, Bo; Yang, Zhi; Gu, Hua; Lu, Chun-Cheng; Wang, Rong; Su, Zhong-Lan; Chen, Bin; Sun, Wei-Ling; Xia, Ji-Ping; Bi, Zhi-Gang; He, Li

    2013-12-24

    The exposure of skin keratinocytes to Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation leads to Akt phosphorylation at Ser-473, which is important for the carcinogenic effects of excessive sun exposure. The present study investigated the underlying mechanism of Akt Ser-473 phosphorylation by UVB radiation. We found that DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 2 (mTORC2) were both required for UVB-induced Akt Ser-473 phosphorylation in keratinocytes. Inhibition of DNA-PKcs activity via its inhibitor NU7026, a dominant-negative kinase-dead mutation, RNA interference (RNAi) or gene depletion led to the attenuation of UVB-induced Akt Ser-473 phosphorylation. Meanwhile, siRNA silencing or gene depletion of SIN1, a key component of mTORC2, abolished Akt Ser-473 phosphorylation by UVB. Significantly, we discovered that DNA-PKcs was associated with SIN1 in cytosol upon UVB radiation, and this complexation appeared required for Akt Ser-473 phosphorylation. Meanwhile, this DNA-PKcs-SIN1 complexation by UVB was dependent on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation, and was disrupted by an EGFR inhibitor (AG1478) or by EGFR depletion. UVB-induced complexation between DNA-PKcs and mTORC2 components was also abolished by NU7026 and DNA-PKcs mutation. Finally, we found that both DNA-PKcs and SIN1 were associated with apoptosis resistance of UVB radiation, and inhibition of them by NU7026 or genetic depletion significantly enhanced UVB-induced cell death and apoptosis. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that DNA-PKcs-mTORC2 association is required for UVB-induced Akt Ser-473 phosphorylation and cell survival, and might be important for tumor cell transformation.

  20. Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) and protein phosphatase 6 (PP6) regulate DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) phosphorylation in mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Pauline; Ye, Ruiqiong; Trinkle-Mulcahy, Laura; Neal, Jessica A; De Wever, Veerle; Morrice, Nick A; Meek, Katheryn; Lees-Miller, Susan P

    2014-06-25

    The protein kinase activity of the DNA-PKcs (DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit) and its autophosphorylation are critical for DBS (DNA double-strand break) repair via NHEJ (non-homologous end-joining). Recent studies have shown that depletion or inactivation of DNA-PKcs kinase activity also results in mitotic defects. DNA-PKcs is autophosphorylated on Ser2056, Thr2647 and Thr2609 in mitosis and phosphorylated DNA-PKcs localize to centrosomes, mitotic spindles and the midbody. DNA-PKcs also interacts with PP6 (protein phosphatase 6), and PP6 has been shown to dephosphorylate Aurora A kinase in mitosis. Here we report that DNA-PKcs is phosphorylated on Ser3205 and Thr3950 in mitosis. Phosphorylation of Thr3950 is DNA-PK-dependent, whereas phosphorylation of Ser3205 requires PLK1 (polo-like kinase 1). Moreover, PLK1 phosphorylates DNA-PKcs on Ser3205 in vitro and interacts with DNA-PKcs in mitosis. In addition, PP6 dephosphorylates DNA-PKcs at Ser3205 in mitosis and after IR (ionizing radiation). DNA-PKcs also phosphorylates Chk2 on Thr68 in mitosis and both phosphorylation of Chk2 and autophosphorylation of DNA-PKcs in mitosis occur in the apparent absence of Ku and DNA damage. Our findings provide mechanistic insight into the roles of DNA-PKcs and PP6 in mitosis and suggest that DNA-PKcs' role in mitosis may be mechanistically distinct from its well-established role in NHEJ.

  1. O-GlcNAcylation of protein kinase A catalytic subunits enhances its activity: a mechanism linked to learning and memory deficits in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shutao; Jin, Nana; Gu, Jianlan; Shi, Jianhua; Sun, Jianming; Chu, Dandan; Zhang, Liang; Dai, Chun-Ling; Gu, Jin-Hua; Gong, Cheng-Xin; Iqbal, Khalid; Liu, Fei

    2016-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized clinically by memory loss and cognitive decline. Protein kinase A (PKA)-CREB signaling plays a critical role in learning and memory. It is known that glucose uptake and O-GlcNAcylation are reduced in AD brain. In this study, we found that PKA catalytic subunits (PKAcs) were posttranslationally modified by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc). O-GlcNAcylation regulated the subcellular location of PKAcα and PKAcβ and enhanced their kinase activity. Upregulation of O-GlcNAcylation in metabolically active rat brain slices by O-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-d-glucopyranosylidenamino) N-phenylcarbamate (PUGNAc), an inhibitor of N-acetylglucosaminidase, increased the phosphorylation of tau at the PKA site, Ser214, but not at the non-PKA site, Thr205. In contrast, in rat and mouse brains, downregulation of O-GlcNAcylation caused decreases in the phosphorylation of CREB at Ser133 and of tau at Ser214, but not at Thr205. Reduction in O-GlcNAcylation through intracerebroventricular injection of 6-diazo-5-oxo-l-norleucine (DON), the inhibitor of glutamine fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase, suppressed PKA-CREB signaling and impaired learning and memory in mice. These results indicate that in addition to cAMP and phosphorylation, O-GlcNAcylation is a novel mechanism that regulates PKA-CREB signaling. Downregulation of O-GlcNAcylation suppresses PKA-CREB signaling and consequently causes learning and memory deficits in AD. © 2016 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. DNA requirements for interaction of the C-terminal region of Ku80 with the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Sarvan Kumar; Lees-Miller, Susan P

    2017-09-01

    Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is the major pathway for the repair of ionizing radiation induced DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) in human cells. Critical to NHEJ is the DNA-dependent interaction of the Ku70/80 heterodimer with the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) to form the DNA-PK holoenzyme. However, precisely how Ku recruits DNA-PKcs to DSBs ends to enhance its kinase activity has remained enigmatic, with contradictory findings reported in the literature. Here we address the role of the Ku80 C-terminal region (CTR) in the DNA-dependent interaction of Ku70/80 with DNA-PKcs using purified components and defined DNA structures. Our results show that the Ku80 CTR is required for interaction with DNA-PKcs on short segments of blunt ended 25bp dsDNA or 25bp dsDNA with a 15-base poly dA single stranded (ss) DNA extension, but this requirement is less stringent on longer dsDNA molecules (35bp blunt ended dsDNA) or 25bp duplex DNA with either a 15-base poly dT or poly dC ssDNA extension. Moreover, the DNA-PKcs-Ku complex preferentially forms on 25 bp DNA with a poly-pyrimidine ssDNA extension.Our work clarifies the role of the Ku80 CTR and dsDNA ends on the interaction of DNA-PKcs with Ku and provides key information to guide assembly and biology of NHEJ complexes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Adaptation of HepG2 cells to a steady-state reduction in the content of protein phosphatase 6 (PP6) catalytic subunit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boylan, Joan M. [Department of Pediatrics, Brown University and Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, RI (United States); Salomon, Arthur R. [Department of Molecular Biology, Cell Biology and Biochemistry, Brown University, Providence, RI (United States); Department of Chemistry, Brown University, Providence, RI (United States); Tantravahi, Umadevi [Division of Genetics, Department of Pathology, Brown University and Women and Infants Hospital, Providence, RI (United States); Gruppuso, Philip A., E-mail: philip_gruppuso@brown.edu [Department of Pediatrics, Brown University and Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, RI (United States); Department of Molecular Biology, Cell Biology and Biochemistry, Brown University, Providence, RI (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Protein phosphatase 6 (PP6) is a ubiquitous Ser/Thr phosphatase involved in an array of cellular processes. To assess the potential of PP6 as a therapeutic target in liver disorders, we attenuated expression of the PP6 catalytic subunit in HepG2 cells using lentiviral-transduced shRNA. Two PP6 knock-down (PP6KD) cell lines (90% reduction of PP6-C protein content) were studied in depth. Both proliferated at a rate similar to control cells. However, flow cytometry indicated G2/M cell cycle arrest that was accounted for by a shift of the cells from a diploid to tetraploid state. PP6KD cells did not show an increase in apoptosis, nor did they exhibit reduced viability in the presence of bleomycin or taxol. Gene expression analysis by microarray showed attenuated anti-inflammatory signaling. Genes associated with DNA replication were downregulated. Mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomic analysis yielded 80 phosphopeptides representing 56 proteins that were significantly affected by a stable reduction in PP6-C. Proteins involved in DNA replication, DNA damage repair and pre-mRNA splicing were overrepresented among these. PP6KD cells showed intact mTOR signaling. Our studies demonstrated involvement of PP6 in a diverse set of biological pathways and an adaptive response that may limit the effectiveness of targeting PP6 in liver disorders. - Highlights: • Lentiviral-transduced shRNA was used to generate a stable knockdown of PP6 in HepG2 cells. • Cells adapted to reduced PP6; cell proliferation was unaffected, and cell survival was normal. • However, PP6 knockdown was associated with a transition to a tetraploid state. • Genomic profiling showed downregulated anti-inflammatory signaling and DNA replication. • Phosphoproteomic profiling showed changes in proteins associated with DNA replication and repair.

  4. The isoform-specific region of the Na,K-ATPase catalytic subunit: role in enzyme kinetics and regulation by protein kinase C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Marie-Josée; Pierre, Sandrine V; Carr, Deborah L; Pressley, Thomas A

    2004-12-28

    Comparisons of the primary structures of the Na,K-ATPase alpha-isoforms reveal the existence of regions of structural divergence, suggesting that they are involved in unique functions. One of these regions is the isoform-specific region (ISR), located near the ATP binding site in the major cytoplasmic loop. To evaluate its importance, we constructed mutants of the rodent wild-type alpha1 and alpha3 isoforms in which the ISR was replaced with irrelevant sequences, i.e., the analogous region from the rat gastric H,K-ATPase catalytic subunit or a region from the human c-myc oncogene. Opossum kidney (OK) cells were transfected with wild-type rat alpha1, alpha3, or their corresponding chimeras and selected in ouabain. Introduction of either mutant produced ouabain-resistant colonies, consistent with functional expression of the chimeric protein and indicating that the ISR is not essential for overall Na,K-ATPase function. The introduced chimeras were then characterized enzymatically by measuring the relative rate of K(+) and Li(+) deocclusions. Results showed that exchanges of both alpha1 and alpha3 ISRs significantly modified the sensitivity for the enzyme to either K(+) or Li(+). Subsequent treatment of the cells with phorbol esters revealed an altered Na,K-ATPase transport in response to protein kinase C activation for the alpha1 chimeras. No changes were observed for the alpha3 isoform, suggesting that it is not sensitive to PKC regulation. These results demonstrated that the ISR plays an important role in ion deocclusion and in the response to PKC (only for the alpha1 isoform).

  5. Crystal structure of a polyhistidine-tagged recombinant catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase complexed with the peptide inhibitor PKI(5-24) and adenosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana, N; Cox, S; Shaltiel, S; Taylor, S S; Xuong, N

    1997-04-15

    The crystal structure of the hexahistidine-tagged mouse recombinant catalytic subunit (H6-rC) of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (cAPK), complexed with a 20-residue peptide inhibitor from the heat-stable protein kinase inhibitor PKI(5-24) and adenosine, was determined at 2.2 A resolution. Novel crystallization conditions were required to grow the ternary complex crystals. The structure was refined to a final crystallographic R-factor of 18.2% with good stereochemical parameters. The "active" enzyme adopts a "closed" conformation as found in rC:PKI(5-24) [Knighton et al. (1991a,b) Science 253, 407-414, 414-420] and packs in a similar manner with the peptide providing a major contact surface. This structure clearly defines the subsites of the unique nucleotide binding site found in the protein kinase family. The adenosine occupies a mostly hydrophobic pocket at the base of the cleft between the two lobes and is completely buried. The missing triphosphate moiety of ATP is filled with a water molecule (Wtr 415) which replaces the gamma-phosphate of ATP. The glycine-rich loop between beta1 and beta2 helps to anchor the phosphates while the ribose ring is buried beneath beta-strand 2. Another ordered water molecule (Wtr 375) is pentacoordinated with polar atoms from adenosine, Leu 49 in beta-strand 1, Glu 127 in the linker strand between the two lobes, Tyr 330, and a third water molecule, Wtr 359. The conserved nucleotide fold can be defined as a lid comprised of beta-strand 1, the glycine-rich loop, and beta-strand 2. The adenine ring is buried beneath beta-strand 1 and the linker strand (120-127) that joins the small and large lobes. The C-terminal tail containing Tyr 330, a segment that lies outside the conserved core, covers this fold and anchors it in a closed conformation. The main-chain atoms of the flexible glycine-rich loop (residues 50-55) in the ATP binding domain have a mean B-factor of 41.4 A2. This loop is quite mobile, in striking contrast to the other

  6. Overexpression of PP2A-C5 that encodes the catalytic subunit 5 of protein phosphatase 2A in Arabidopsis confers better root and shoot development under salt conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Rongbin; Zhu, Yinfeng; Wei, Jia; Chen, Jian; Shi, Huazhong; Shen, Guoxin; Zhang, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is an enzyme consisting of three subunits: a scaffolding A subunit, a regulatory B subunit and a catalytic C subunit. PP2As were shown to play diverse roles in eukaryotes. In this study, the function of the Arabidopsis PP2A-C5 gene that encodes the catalytic subunit 5 of PP2A was studied using both loss-of-function and gain-of-function analyses. Loss-of-function mutant pp2a-c5-1 displayed more impaired growth during root and shoot development, whereas overexpression of PP2A-C5 conferred better root and shoot growth under different salt treatments, indicating that PP2A-C5 plays an important role in plant growth under salt conditions. Double knockout mutants of pp2a-c5-1 and salt overly sensitive (sos) mutants sos1-1, sos2-2 or sos3-1 showed additive sensitivity to NaCl, indicating that PP2A-C5 functions in a pathway different from the SOS signalling pathway. Using yeast two-hybrid analysis, four vacuolar membrane chloride channel (CLC) proteins, AtCLCa, AtCLCb, AtCLCc and AtCLCg, were found to interact with PP2A-C5. Moreover, overexpression of AtCLCc leads to increased salt tolerance and Cl- accumulation in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. These data indicate that PP2A-C5-mediated better growth under salt conditions might involve up-regulation of CLC activities on vacuolar membranes and that PP2A-C5 could be used for improving salt tolerance in crops. © 2016 The Authors Plant, Cell & Environment Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) expression in borderline ovarian tumors: an immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantbirojn, Patou; Triratanachat, Surang; Trivijitsilp, Prasert; Niruthisard, Somchai

    2009-03-01

    To investigate the expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) in epithelial borderline ovarian tumor (BOT) by immunohistochemistry with correlation to clinicopathologic variables. Paraffin-embedded tissue sections of 62 borderline ovarian tumors (47 mucinous, 14 serous, and 1 clear cell) and 12 epthelial ovarian carcinomas were immunostained with antibodies to hTERT. The intensity and quantity of the immunostaining was determined and analyzed with clinicopathological characteristics. hTERT expression was detected in 48.4% of BOT and all cases of epithelial ovarian carcinoma. In immunoreactive BOT 50% of cases were scored as high expression. Serous BOT had the highest rate of hTERT expression. There was no significant statistical difference of hTERT immunoreactivity between histologic types of BOT. No hTERT immunoreactivity was observed in the benign parts of the same slides of each immunoreactive case. hTERT immunoreactivity was positively correlated with FIGO stage (p = 0.04), but not with other variables. The mean follow-up time of BOT cases was 81.63 months and no recurrence or death was noted. hTERT expression was found in half of BOT and all of epithelial ovarian carcinoma. High hTERT expression was associated with FIGO stage.

  8. Expression and biological-clinical significance of hTR, hTERT and CKS2 in washing fluids of patients with bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talesa Vincenzo N

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background at present, pathogenesis of bladder cancer (BC has not been fully elucidated. Aim of this study is to investigate the role of human telomerase RNA (hTR, human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT and CDC28 protein kinase regulatory subunit 2 (CKS2 in bladder carcinogenesis and their possible clinical significance; Methods the transcript levels of hTR, hTERT and CKS2 were quantified by Real time reverse transcriptase chain reaction in exfoliated cells from bladder washings of 36 patients with BC and 58 controls. The statistical significance of differences between BC bearing patients and control groups, in the general as well as in the stratified analysis (superficial or invasive BC, was assessed by Student's t test. Non parametric Receiver Operating Characteristics analysis (ROC was performed to ascertain the accuracy of study variables to discriminate between BC and controls. The clinical value of concomitant examination of hTR, hTERT and CKS2 was evaluated by logistic regression analysis; Results a significant decrease in hTR and a significant increase in hTERT or CKS2 gene expression were found between BC bearing patients and controls, as well as in the subgroups analysis. The area under the curve (AUC indicated an average discrimination power for the three genes, both in the general and subgroups analysis, when singularly considered. The ability to significantly discriminate between superficial and invasive BC was observed only for hTR transcript levels. A combined model including hTR and CKS2 was the best one in BC diagnosis; Conclusions our results, obtained from a sample set particularly rich of exfoliated cells, provide further molecular evidence on the involvement of hTR, hTERT and CKS2 gene expression in BC carcinogenesis. In particular, while hTERT and CKS2 gene expression seems to have a major involvement in the early stages of the disease, hTR gene expression, seems to be more involved in progression. In

  9. Receptor Ck-dependent signaling regulates hTERT gene transcription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varma Neelam

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Available evidence suggests that the regulation of telomerase activity primarily depends on the transcriptional control of the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT gene. Although several activators and repressors of hTERT gene transcription have been identified, the exact mechanism by which hTERT transcription is repressed in normal cells and activated in cancer cells remains largely unknown. In an attempt to identify possible novel mechanisms involved in the regulation of hTERT transcription, the present study examined the role of Receptor Ck, a cell surface receptor specific for cholesterol, in the transcription of hTERT gene in normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Results Activated Receptor Ck was found to down-regulate hTERT mRNA expression by repressing the transcription of c-myc gene. Receptor Ck-dependent signaling was also found to down-regulate the mRNA expression of the gene coding for the ligand inducible transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ. The ligand activation of PPARγ resulted in the down-regulation of c-myc and hTERT mRNA expression. By using specific activator and inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC, it was demonstrated that Receptor Ck dependent down-regulation of hTERT gene transcription involved inhibition of PKC. In addition, 25-hydroxycholesterol was found to contribute to the transcriptional regulation of hTERT gene. Conclusion Taken together, the findings of this study present evidence for a molecular link between cholesterol-activated Receptor Ck and hTERT transcription, and provide new insights into the regulation of hTERT expression in normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

  10. HupW Protease Specifically Required for Processing of the Catalytic Subunit of the Uptake Hydrogenase in the Cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. Strain PCC 7120

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Pia; Devine, Ellenor; Stensjö, Karin

    2012-01-01

    The maturation process of [NiFe] hydrogenases includes a proteolytic cleavage of the large subunit. We constructed a mutant of Nostoc strain PCC 7120 in which hupW, encoding a putative hydrogenase-specific protease, is inactivated. Our results indicate that the protein product of hupW selectively cleaves the uptake hydrogenase in this cyanobacterium. PMID:22020512

  11. hTERT promoter activity and CpG methylation in HPV-induced carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wilde, J.; Kooter, J.M.; Overmeer, R.M.; Kramer, D.; Meijer, C.J.L.M.; Snijders, P.J.F.; Steenbergen, R.D.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Activation of telomerase resulting from deregulated hTERT expression is a key event during high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV)-induced cervical carcinogenesis. In the present study we examined hTERT promoter activity and its relation to DNA methylation as one of the potential

  12. hTERT promoter activity and CpG methylation in HPV-induced carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snijders Peter JF

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Activation of telomerase resulting from deregulated hTERT expression is a key event during high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV-induced cervical carcinogenesis. In the present study we examined hTERT promoter activity and its relation to DNA methylation as one of the potential mechanisms underlying deregulated hTERT transcription in hrHPV-transformed cells. Methods Using luciferase reporter assays we analyzed hTERT promoter activity in primary keratinocytes, HPV16- and HPV18-immortalized keratinocyte cell lines and cervical cancer cell lines. In the same cells as well as cervical specimens we determined hTERT methylation by bisulfite sequencing analysis of the region spanning -442 to +566 (relative to the ATG and quantitative methylation specific PCR (qMSP analysis of two regions flanking the hTERT core promoter. Results We found that in most telomerase positive cells increased hTERT core promoter activity coincided with increased hTERT mRNA expression. On the other hand basal hTERT promoter activity was also detected in telomerase negative cells with no or strongly reduced hTERT mRNA expression levels. In both telomerase positive and negative cells regulatory sequences flanking both ends of the core promoter markedly repressed exogenous promoter activity. By extensive bisulfite sequencing a strong increase in CpG methylation was detected in hTERT positive cells compared to cells with no or strongly reduced hTERT expression. Subsequent qMSP analysis of a larger set of cervical tissue specimens revealed methylation of both regions analyzed in 100% of cervical carcinomas and 38% of the high-grade precursor lesions, compared to 9% of low grade precursor lesions and 5% of normal controls. Conclusions Methylation of transcriptionally repressive sequences in the hTERT promoter and proximal exonic sequences is correlated to deregulated hTERT transcription in HPV-immortalized cells and cervical cancer cells. The detection of DNA

  13. The intrabody targeting of hTERT attenuates the immortality of cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiangying; Yang, Nan; Cai, Jianguo; Yang, Guimei; Liang, Shenghua; Ren, Daming

    2010-01-01

    hTERT (human telomerase reverse transcriptase) plays a key role in the process of cell immortalization. Overexpression of hTERT has been implicated in 85% of malignant tumors and offers a specific target for cancer therapy. In this paper, we describe an effective approach using a single-chain variable fragment (scFv) intrabody derived from monoclonal hybridoma directed against hTERT to attenuate the immortalization of human uterine cervix and hepatoma cells. The scFv we constructed had a high affinity to hTERT, and specifically neutralized over 70% of telomere synthesis activity, thereby inhibiting the viability and proliferation of the cancer cells. Our results indicate that this anti-hTERT intrabody is a promising tool to target hTERT and intervene in the immortalization process of cancer cells.

  14. CDC5L Promotes hTERT Expression and Colorectal Tumor Growth

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    Jia Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide because the survival rate remains low. Cell division cycle 5-like (CDC5L is highly expressed in some cancer cells, but the mechanism requires clarification. Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT plays important roles in CRC. Methods: This study aimed to identify a link between CDC5L and hTERT and to determine their effects on the signaling pathways, migration and prognosis of CRC cells. We first treated LoVo cells with biotin-labeled hTERT and identified CDC5L. Then, pulldown and ChIP assays were used to verify whether CDC5L was a promoter of hTERT. The roles of CDC5L and hTERT in cell growth and migration were studied using siRNA in vivo and in vitro. 130 human CRC specimens were analyzed using immunohistochemistry. Western blot and wound scratch analyses were used to determine the signaling pathway for CDC5L-mediated activation of CRC growth and migration. Results: We identified CDC5L as a new hTERT promoter-binding protein. Clinically, CDC5L and hTERT expression levels were key factors in the prognosis of CRC patients. CDC5L knockdown inhibited tumor growth by down-regulating hTERT expression, and CDC5L was shown to be a transcriptional activator of hTERT in a luciferase reporter assay. Conclusion: Altogether, the above results demonstrated that CDC5L was positively correlated with hTERT as a key promoter of CRC cells. To some extent, our findings suggest that CDC5L may serve as a novel therapeutic target for human colorectal cancer.

  15. MiR-661 inhibits glioma cell proliferation, migration and invasion by targeting hTERT

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    Li, Zhen, E-mail: lizhen7111@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Shengjing Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, 110004 (China); Liu, Yun-hui; Diao, Hong-yu [Department of Neurosurgery, Shengjing Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, 110004 (China); Ma, Jun [Department of Neurobiology, College of Basic Medicine, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, 110001 (China); Yao, Yi-long [Department of Neurosurgery, Shengjing Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, 110004 (China)

    2015-12-25

    In this study, we analyzed the functional role of miR-661 in glioma cell proliferation, migration and invasion. We found that overexpression of miR-661 obviously suppressed the proliferation, migration and invasion of glioma cells. MiRNA target prediction algorithms implied that hTERT is a candidate target gene for miR-661. A fluorescent reporter assay confirmed that miR-661 could lead to hTERT gene silencing by recognizing and specifically binding to the predicted site of the hTERT mRNA 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) specifically. Furthermore, hTERT knockdown significantly decreased the growth and viability of glioma cells. These results indicate that miR-661 can inhibit glioma cell proliferation, migration and invasion by targeting hTERT. - Highlights: • MiR-661 was downregulated in glioma tissues and functional as a tumor suppressor. • MiR-661 modulates cell proliferation, invasion and migration of glioma cells. • MiR-661 directly target hTERT in glioma cells. • MiR-661 inhibits glioma cell tumorgenesis by targeting hTERT.

  16. Down-regulation of hTERT and Cyclin D1 transcription via PI3K/Akt and TGF-β pathways in MCF-7 Cancer cells with PX-866 and Raloxifene

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    Peek, Gregory W. [Department of Biology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Tollefsbol, Trygve O., E-mail: trygve@uab.edu [Department of Biology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Comprehensive Center for Healthy Aging, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Comprehensive Diabetes Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Nutrition Obesity Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) is the catalytic and limiting component of telomerase and also a transcription factor. It is critical to the integrity of the ends of linear chromosomes and to the regulation, extent and rate of cell cycle progression in multicellular eukaryotes. The level of hTERT expression is essential to a wide range of bodily functions and to avoidance of disease conditions, such as cancer, that are mediated in part by aberrant level and regulation of cell cycle proliferation. Value of a gene in regulation depends on its ability to both receive input from multiple sources and transmit signals to multiple effectors. The expression of hTERT and the progression of the cell cycle have been shown to be regulated by an extensive network of gene products and signaling pathways, including the PI3K/Akt and TGF-β pathways. The PI3K inhibitor PX-866 and the competitive estrogen receptor ligand raloxifene have been shown to modify progression of those pathways and, in combination, to decrease proliferation of estrogen receptor positive (ER+) MCF-7 breast cancer cells. We found that combinations of modulators of those pathways decreased not only hTERT transcription but also transcription of additional essential cell cycle regulators such as Cyclin D1. By evaluating known expression profile signatures for TGF-β pathway diversions, we confirmed additional genes such as heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB EGF) by which those pathways and their perturbations may also modify cell cycle progression. - Highlights: • PX-866 and raloxifene affect the PI3K/Akt and TGF-β pathways. • PX-866 and raloxifene down-regulate genes up-regulated in cancer. • PX-866 and raloxifene decrease transcription of hTERT and Cyclin D1. • Pathological transcription signatures can identify new defense mechanisms.

  17. Cysteine residues 244 and 458–459 within the catalytic subunit of Na,K-ATPase control the enzyme's hydrolytic and signaling function under hypoxic conditions

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    Irina Yu. Petrushanko

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Our previous findings suggested that reversible thiol modifications of cysteine residues within the actuator (AD and nucleotide binding domain (NBD of the Na,K-ATPase may represent a powerful regulatory mechanism conveying redox- and oxygen-sensitivity of this multifunctional enzyme. S-glutathionylation of Cys244 in the AD and Cys 454-458-459 in the NBD inhibited the enzyme and protected cysteines’ thiol groups from irreversible oxidation under hypoxic conditions. In this study mutagenesis approach was used to assess the role these cysteines play in regulation of the Na,K-ATPase hydrolytic and signaling functions. Several constructs of mouse α1 subunit of the Na,K-ATPase were produced in which Cys244, Cys 454-458-459 or Cys 244-454-458-459 were replaced by alanine. These constructs were expressed in human HEK293 cells. Non-transfected cells and those expressing murine α1 subunit were exposed to hypoxia or treated with oxidized glutathione (GSSG. Both conditions induced inhibition of the wild type Na,K-ATPase. Enzymes containing mutated mouse α1 lacking Cys244 or all four cysteines (Cys 244-454-458-459 were insensitive to hypoxia. Inhibitory effect of GSSG was observed for wild type murine Na,K-ATPase, but was less pronounced in Cys454-458-459Ala mutant and completely absent in the Cys244Ala and Cys 244-454-458-459Ala mutants. In cells, expressing wild type enzyme, ouabain induced activation of Src and Erk kinases under normoxic conditions, whereas under hypoxic conditions this effect was inversed. Cys454-458-459Ala substitution abolished Src kinase activation in response to ouabain treatment, uncoupled Src from Erk signaling, and interfered with O2-sensitivity of Na,K-ATPase signaling function. Moreover, modeling predicted that S-glutathionylation of Cys 458 and 459 should prevent inhibitory binding of Src to NBD. Our data indicate for the first time that cysteine residues within the AD and NBD influence hydrolytic as well as receptor

  18. Cysteine residues 244 and 458-459 within the catalytic subunit of Na,K-ATPase control the enzyme's hydrolytic and signaling function under hypoxic conditions.

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    Petrushanko, Irina Yu; Mitkevich, Vladimir A; Lakunina, Valentina A; Anashkina, Anastasia A; Spirin, Pavel V; Rubtsov, Peter M; Prassolov, Vladimir S; Bogdanov, Nikolay B; Hänggi, Pascal; Fuller, William; Makarov, Alexander A; Bogdanova, Anna

    2017-10-01

    Our previous findings suggested that reversible thiol modifications of cysteine residues within the actuator (AD) and nucleotide binding domain (NBD) of the Na,K-ATPase may represent a powerful regulatory mechanism conveying redox- and oxygen-sensitivity of this multifunctional enzyme. S-glutathionylation of Cys244 in the AD and Cys 454-458-459 in the NBD inhibited the enzyme and protected cysteines' thiol groups from irreversible oxidation under hypoxic conditions. In this study mutagenesis approach was used to assess the role these cysteines play in regulation of the Na,K-ATPase hydrolytic and signaling functions. Several constructs of mouse α1 subunit of the Na,K-ATPase were produced in which Cys244, Cys 454-458-459 or Cys 244-454-458-459 were replaced by alanine. These constructs were expressed in human HEK293 cells. Non-transfected cells and those expressing murine α1 subunit were exposed to hypoxia or treated with oxidized glutathione (GSSG). Both conditions induced inhibition of the wild type Na,K-ATPase. Enzymes containing mutated mouse α1 lacking Cys244 or all four cysteines (Cys 244-454-458-459) were insensitive to hypoxia. Inhibitory effect of GSSG was observed for wild type murine Na,K-ATPase, but was less pronounced in Cys454-458-459Ala mutant and completely absent in the Cys244Ala and Cys 244-454-458-459Ala mutants. In cells, expressing wild type enzyme, ouabain induced activation of Src and Erk kinases under normoxic conditions, whereas under hypoxic conditions this effect was inversed. Cys454-458-459Ala substitution abolished Src kinase activation in response to ouabain treatment, uncoupled Src from Erk signaling, and interfered with O2-sensitivity of Na,K-ATPase signaling function. Moreover, modeling predicted that S-glutathionylation of Cys 458 and 459 should prevent inhibitory binding of Src to NBD. Our data indicate for the first time that cysteine residues within the AD and NBD influence hydrolytic as well as receptor function of the Na

  19. Proteome alteration induced by hTERT transfection of human fibroblast cells

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    Riou Jean-François

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Telomerase confers cellular immortality by elongating telomeres, thereby circumventing the Hayflick limit. Extended-life-span cells have been generated by transfection with the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT gene. hTERT transfected cell lines may be of outstanding interest to monitor the effect of drugs targeting the telomerase activity. The incidence of hTERT gene transfection at the proteome level is a prerequisite to that purpose. The effect of the transfection has been studied on the proteome of human fibroblast (WI38. Cytosolic and nuclear fractions of WI38 cells, empty vector transfected WI38 (WI38-HPV and hTERT WI38 cells were submitted to a 2D-DIGE (Two-Dimensional Differential In-Gel Electrophoresis analysis. Only spots that had a similar abundance in WI38 and WI38-HPV, but were differentially expressed in WI38 hTERT were selected for MS identification. This method directly points to the proteins linked with the hTERT expression. Number of false positive differentially expressed proteins has been excluded by using control WI38-HPV cells. The proteome alteration induced by hTERT WI38 transfection should be taken into account in subsequent use of the cell line for anti-telomerase drugs evaluation. Results 2D-DIGE experiment shows that 57 spots out of 2246 are significantly differentially expressed in the cytosolic fraction due to hTERT transfection, and 38 were confidently identified. In the nuclear fraction, 44 spots out of 2172 were selected in the differential proteome analysis, and 14 were identified. The results show that, in addition to elongating telomeres, hTERT gene transfection has other physiological roles, among which an enhanced ER capacity and a potent cell protection against apoptosis. Conclusion We show that the methodology reduces the complexity of the proteome analysis and highlights proteins implicated in other processes than telomere elongation. hTERT induced proteome changes suggest

  20. Functional and gene expression analysis of hTERT overexpressed endothelial cells

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    Haruna Takano

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Haruna Takano1, Satoshi Murasawa1,2, Takayuki Asahara1,2,31Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Kobe, Japan; 2RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, Kobe 650-0047, Japan; 3Tokai University of School of Medicine, Tokai, JapanAbstract: Telomerase dysfunction contributes to cellular senescence. Recent advances indicate the importance of senescence in maintaining vascular cell function in vitro. Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT overexpression is thought to lead to resistance to apoptosis and oxidative stress. However, the mechanism in endothelial lineage cells is unclear. We tried to generate an immortal endothelial cell line from human umbilical vein endothelial cells using a no-virus system and examine the functional mechanisms of hTERT overexpressed endothelial cell senescence in vitro. High levels of hTERT genes and endothelial cell-specific markers were expressed during long-term culture. Also, angiogenic responses were observed in hTERT overexpressed endothelial cell. These cells showed a delay in senescence and appeared more resistant to stressed conditions. PI3K/Akt-related gene levels were enhanced in hTERT overexpressed endothelial cells. An up-regulated PI3K/Akt pathway caused by hTERT overexpression might contribute to anti-apoptosis and survival effects in endothelial lineage cells.Keywords: endothelial, telomerase, senescence, oxidative stress, anti-apoptosis, PI3K/Akt pathway

  1. Increased expression of the PI3K catalytic subunit p110δ underlies elevated S6 phosphorylation and protein synthesis in an individual with autism from a multiplex family.

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    Poopal, Ashwini C; Schroeder, Lindsay M; Horn, Paul S; Bassell, Gary J; Gross, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Dysfunctions in the PI3K/mTOR pathway have gained a lot of attention in autism research. This was initially based on the discovery of several monogenic autism spectrum disorders with mutations or defects in PI3K/mTOR signaling components. Recent genetic studies corroborate that defective PI3K/mTOR signaling might be a shared pathomechanism in autism disorders of so far unknown etiology, but functional molecular analyses in human cells are rare. The goals of this study were to perform a functional screen of cell lines from patients with idiopathic autism for defects in PI3K/mTOR signaling, to test if further functional analyses are suitable to detect underlying molecular mechanisms, and to evaluate this approach as a biomarker tool to identify therapeutic targets. We performed phospho-S6- and S6-specific ELISA experiments on 21 lymphoblastoid cell lines from the AGRE collection and on 37 lymphoblastoid cell lines from the Simons Simplex Collection and their healthy siblings. Cell lines from one individual with increased S6 phosphorylation and his multiplex family were analyzed in further detail to identify upstream defects in PI3K signaling associated with autism diagnosis. We detected significantly increased S6 phosphorylation in 3 of the 21 lymphoblastoid cell lines from AGRE compared to a healthy control and in 1 of the 37 lymphoblastoid cell lines from the Simons Simplex Collection compared to the healthy sibling. Further analysis of cells from one individual with elevated S6 phosphorylation showed increased expression of the PI3K catalytic subunit p110δ, which was also observed in lymphoblastoid cells from other autistic siblings but not unaffected members in his multiplex family. The p110δ-selective inhibitor IC87114 reduced elevated S6 phosphorylation and protein synthesis in this cell line. Our results suggest that functional analysis of PI3K/mTOR signaling is a biomarker tool to identify disease-associated molecular defects that could serve as therapeutic

  2. Structural Hypervariability of the Two Human Protein Kinase CK2 Catalytic Subunit Paralogs Revealed by Complex Structures with a Flavonol- and a Thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine-Based Inhibitor

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    Karsten Niefind

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein kinase CK2 is associated with a number of human diseases, among them cancer, and is therefore a target for inhibitor development in industry and academia. Six crystal structures of either CK2α, the catalytic subunit of human protein kinase CK2, or its paralog CK2α′ in complex with two ATP-competitive inhibitors—based on either a flavonol or a thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine framework—are presented. The structures show examples for extreme structural deformations of the ATP-binding loop and its neighbourhood and of the hinge/helix αD region, i.e., of two zones of the broader ATP site environment. Thus, they supplement our picture of the conformational space available for CK2α and CK2α′. Further, they document the potential of synthetic ligands to trap unusual conformations of the enzymes and allow to envision a new generation of inhibitors that stabilize such conformations.

  3. Silencing expression of the catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase by small interfering RNA sensitizes human cells for radiation-induced chromosome damage, cell killing, and mutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yuanlin; Zhang, Qinming; Nagasawa, Hatsumi; Okayasu, Ryuichi; Liber, Howard L.; Bedford, Joel S.

    2002-01-01

    Targeted gene silencing in mammalian cells by RNA interference (RNAi) using small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) was recently described by Elbashir et al. (S. M. Elbashir et al., Nature (Lond.), 411: 494-498, 2001). We have used this methodology in several human cell strains to reduce expression of the Prkdc (DNA-PKcs) gene coding for the catalytic subunit of the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs) that is involved in the nonhomologous end joining of DNA double-strand breaks. We have also demonstrated a radiosensitization for several phenotypic endpoints of radiation damage. In low-passage normal human fibroblasts, siRNA knock-down of DNA-PKcs resulted in a reduced capacity for restitution of radiation-induced interphase chromosome breaks as measured by premature chromosome condensation, an increased yield of acentric chromosome fragments at the first postirradiation mitosis, and an increased radiosensitivity for cell killing. For three strains of related human lymphoblasts, DNA-PKcs-targeted siRNA transfection resulted in little or no increase in radiosensitivity with respect to cell killing, a 1.5-fold decrease in induced mutant yield in TK6- and p53-null NH32 cells, but about a 2-fold increase in induced mutant yield in p53-mutant WTK1 cells at both the hypoxanthine quanine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) and the thymidine kinase loci.

  4. PTEN and hTERT gene expression and the correlation with human hepatocellular carcinoma.

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    Zhou, Xu; Zhu, Huaqiang; Lu, Jun

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between tumor suppressor gene phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) expression levels and telomerase activity that mainly depends on telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and paracancerous tissues. Immunohistochemistry and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to detect the expression of PTEN and hTERT in 58 cases with HCC and the corresponding paracancerous tissues. The correlation between PTEN and hTERT was analyzed. The PTEN mRNA and protein expression was significantly lower in HCC, as compared with the paracancerous tissues (Pexpression pattern (Pprotein and mRNA levels demonstrated a significantly negative correlation with one another (Pexpression indicates that hTERT activation and upregulation may be conferred by the loss of PTEN gene expression in HCC. The combined detection of PTEN and hTERT may provide critical clinical evidence for the diagnosis and biological behavior of HCC. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  5. Catalytic applications of keto-stabilised phosphorus ylides based on a macrocyclic scaffold: calixarenes with one or two pendant Ni(P,O)-subunits as ethylene oligomerisation and polymerisation catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Pierre; Sémeril, David; Jeunesse, Catherine; Matt, Dominique; Lutz, Pierre J; Louis, Rémy; Neuburger, Markus

    2006-08-14

    Four calix[4]arenes containing either one or two ylidic -C(O)CH=PPh3 moieties anchored at p-phenolic carbon atoms were prepared starting from cone-25,27-dipropoxycalix[4]arene (1): 1,3-alternate-5,17-bis(2-triphenylphosphoranylideneacetyl)-25,26,27,28-tetrapropoxycalix[4]arene (12), 1,3-alternate-5-(2-triphenylphosphoranylideneacetyl)-25,26,27,28-tetrapropoxycalix[4]arene (13), cone-5-(2-triphenylphosphoranylideneacetyl)-25,27-dihydroxy-26,28-dipropoxycalix[4]arene (14), cone-5,17-bis(2-triphenylphosphoranylideneacetyl)-25,27-dihydroxy-26,28-dipropoxycalix[4]arene (15). All the ylides were shown to be suitable for the preparation of SHOP-type complexes, i.e. of molecules containing [NiPh{Ph2PCH=C(O)R}(PPh3)] subunits (R = calixarene fragment). The monometallic complexes, namely those obtained from the monophosphorus ylides 13 and 14, proved to be efficient ethylene oligomerisation or polymerisation catalysts. At 80 degrees C, they displayed significantly better activities than the prototype [NiPh{Ph(2)PCH=C(O)Ph}(PPh3)], hence reflecting the beneficial role of the bulky calixarene substituent. The systems derived from the two ylides 12 and 15, both containing two convergent ylidic moieties, resulted in lower activities, the proximity of the two catalytic centres facilitating an intramolecular deactivation pathway during the period of catalyst activation. For the first time, the solid-state structure of a complex containing two "NiPh(P,O)(PPh3)" units as well as that of a SHOP-type complex having two linked phosphorus units were determined.

  6. Frequency of mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor gene (MET) and the catalytic subunit of phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PIK3CA) copy number elevation and correlation with outcome in patients with early stage breast cancer.

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    Gonzalez-Angulo, Ana M; Chen, Huiqin; Karuturi, Meghan S; Chavez-MacGregor, Mariana; Tsavachidis, Spyrus; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Do, Kim-Anh; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N; Thompson, Patricia A; Mills, Gordon B; Bondy, Melissa L; Blumenschein, George R

    2013-01-01

    The current study was conducted to determine the frequency and association between recurrence-free survival (RFS) and MET and catalytic subunit of phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PIK3CA) copy number elevations in patients with early stage breast cancer. Tumor DNA was extracted from 971 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded early breast cancers for molecular inversion probes arrays. Data were segmented using the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-FASST2 segmentation algorithm. Copy number gains were called when the copy number of each segment was greater than 2.3 or 1.7, respectively. RFS was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox proportional hazards models were fit to determine independent associations between copy number and RFS. Of the 971 tumors studied, 82 (8.44%) and 134 (13.8%) had an elevation of the MET or PIK3CA copy number, respectively, and 25.6% of tumors with a MET copy number elevation had a PIK3CA copy number elevation. Patients with either a MET or PI3KCA high copy number tended to have poorer prognostic features (larger tumor size, higher tumor grade, and hormone receptor negativity). Both MET and PIK3CA high copy numbers were more likely to occur in patients with triple receptor-negative disease (P = .019 and P number and MET normal/low copy number, respectively (P = .06) and 73.1%, and 82.3% for PIK3CA high copy number and PIK3CA normal/low copy number, respectively (P = .15). A high copy number for either gene was not found to be an independent predictor of RFS. A high copy number of MET or PIK3CA was found to be associated with poorer prognostic features and triple receptor-negative disease. Coamplification was frequent. Patients with tumors with high MET copy numbers tended to have a worse RFS. Copyright © 2012 American Cancer Society.

  7. [Targeting hTERT gene influenced the viability on hMSCs by small hairpin RNA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jie; Tao, Ze-Zhang; Xiao, Bo-Kui; Duan, Hong-Gang; Chen, Shi-ming

    2006-09-01

    To observe the effect of shRNA by targeting human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) mRNA in the human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) lines and explore the safety of RNAi by targeting hTERT mRNA in clinical application. According to the strategy of RNAi, which determined the specific base sequences to design shRNA plasmid. Plasmid shRNA1 involved in fluorescein gene and homologous to hTERT were designed. control shRNA2-a random sequences heterogeneous to mankind's gene were also constructed. METAFECTENE was used as the transfection reagent. The experiment was divided into 4 groups: A (shRNA1), B (shRNA2), C (metafectene) and D (normal culture medium ). At 24h, fluorescence expression was detected by confocal microscopy after administration of plasmid. At 24h, 48h and 72h cells viability were determined using the MTT assay. At 48h, the morphological change were examined by HE stain. At 48h, hTERT mRNA were detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and the telomerase activity of hMSCs were examined by PCR ELISA. Many cells gave out green fluorescent after treated by shRNA1 and shRNA2. It was observed that the viability of hMSCs hadn't change after treatment with different methods within 72h (P > 0.05). Cells, morphology and density had not change after treated by different factor. All cells didn't express hTERT mRNA and the telomere activity of hMSCs was negative. The results suggest that shRNA plasmid directed against hTERT can not influence the viability on hMSCs. The treatment with RNA interference may be a safety strategy for gene therapy in vivo.

  8. Study of hTERT and Histone 3 Mutations in Medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana-Pereira, Marta; Almeida, Gisele Caravina; Stavale, João Norberto; Malheiro, Susana; Clara, Carlos; Lobo, Patrícia; Pimentel, José; Reis, Rui Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Hotspot activating mutations of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) promoter region were recently described in several tumor types. These mutations lead to enhanced expression of telomerase, being responsible for telomere maintenance and allowing continuous cell division. Additionally, there are alternative telomere maintenance mechanisms, associated with histone H3 mutations, responsible for disrupting the histone code and affecting the regulation of transcription. Here, we investigated the clinical relevance of these mechanistically related molecules in medulloblastoma. Sixty-nine medulloblastomas, formalin fixed and paraffin embedded, from a cohort of patients aged 1.5-70 years, were used to investigate the hotspot mutations of the hTERT promoter region, i.e. H3F3A and HIST1H3B, using Sanger sequencing. We successfully sequenced hTERT in all 69 medulloblastoma samples and identified a total of 19 mutated cases (27.5%). c.-124:G>A and c.-146:G>A mutations were detected, respectively, in 16 and 3 samples. Similar to previous reports, hTERT mutations were more frequent in older patients (p < 0.0001), being found only in 5 patients <20 years of age. In addition, hTERT-mutated tumors were more frequently recurrent (p = 0.026) and hTERT mutations were significantly enriched in tumors located in the right cerebellar hemisphere (p = 0.039). No mutations were found on the H3F3A or HIST1H3B genes. hTERT promoter mutations are frequent in medulloblastoma and are associated with older patients, prone to recurrence and located in the right cerebellar hemisphere. On the other hand, histone 3 mutations do not seem to be present in medulloblastoma. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Bufalin Inhibits hTERT Expression and Colorectal Cancer Cell Growth by Targeting CPSF4

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    Ningning Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Bufalin can induce apoptosis in certain human cancer cell lines, but bufalin has not yet been thoroughly evaluated in colorectal cancer cells. Cleavage and polyadenylation specific factor 4 (CPSF4 and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT play important roles in colorectal cancer growth. The aim of this study was to investigate the roles and interactions of bufalin, CPSF4 and hTERT and the effects of bufalin in human colorectal cancer. Methods: We treated LoVo and SW620 cells with bufalin to investigate the effect of bufalin on proliferation, apoptosis and migration. We verified the relationship between CPSF4 and hTERT using pulldown assays, luciferase reporter assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assays. Results: Bufalin inhibited the proliferation and migration of and induced apoptosis in LoVo and SW620 cells. We identified CPSF4 as an hTERT promoter-binding protein in colorectal cancer cells. Conclusion: Our study identified bufalin as a potential small molecule inhibitor for cancer therapy.

  10. Epigenetic suppression of human telomerase (hTERT) is mediated by the metastasis suppressor NME2 in a G-quadruplex-dependent fashion.

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    Saha, Dhurjhoti; Singh, Ankita; Hussain, Tabish; Srivastava, Vivek; Sengupta, Suman; Kar, Anirban; Dhapola, Parashar; Dhople, Vishnu; Ummanni, Ramesh; Chowdhury, Shantanu

    2017-09-15

    Transcriptional activation of the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene, which remains repressed in adult somatic cells, is critical during tumorigenesis. Several transcription factors and the epigenetic state of the hTERT promoter are known to be important for tight control of hTERT in normal tissues, but the molecular mechanisms leading to hTERT reactivation in cancer are not well-understood. Surprisingly, here we found occupancy of the metastasis suppressor non-metastatic 2 (NME2) within the hTERT core promoter in HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells and HCT116 colon cancer cells and NME2-mediated transcriptional repression of hTERT in these cells. We also report that loss of NME2 results in up-regulated hTERT expression. Mechanistically, additional results indicated that the RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST)-lysine-specific histone demethylase 1 (LSD1) co-repressor complex associates with the hTERT promoter in an NME2-dependent way and that this assembly is required for maintaining repressive chromatin at the hTERT promoter. Interestingly, a G-quadruplex motif at the hTERT promoter was essential for occupancy of NME2 and the REST repressor complex on the hTERT promoter. In light of this mechanistic insight, we studied the effects of G-quadruplex-binding ligands on hTERT expression and observed that several of these ligands repressed hTERT expression. Together, our results support a mechanism of hTERT epigenetic control involving a G-quadruplex promoter motif, which potentially can be targeted by tailored small molecules. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. MicroRNA-21 regulates hTERT via PTEN in hypertrophic scar fibroblasts.

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    Hua-Yu Zhu

    Full Text Available As an important oncogenic miRNA, microRNA-21 (miR-21 is associated with various malignant diseases. However, the precise biological function of miR-21 and its molecular mechanism in hypertrophic scar fibroblast cells has not been fully elucidated.Quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR analysis revealed significant upregulation of miR-21 in hypertrophic scar fibroblast cells compared with that in normal skin fibroblast cells. The effects of miR-21 were then assessed in MTT and apoptosis assays through in vitro transfection with a miR-21 mimic or inhibitor. Next, PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome ten was identified as a target gene of miR-21 in hypertrophic scar fibroblast cells. Furthermore, Western-blot and qRT-PCR analyses revealed that miR-21 increased the expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT via the PTEN/PI3K/AKT pathway. Introduction of PTEN cDNA led to a remarkable depletion of hTERT and PI3K/AKT at the protein level as well as inhibition of miR-21-induced proliferation. In addition, Western-blot and qRT-PCR analyses confirmed that hTERT was the downstream target of PTEN. Finally, miR-21 and PTEN RNA expression levels in hypertrophic scar tissue samples were examined. Immunohistochemistry assays revealed an inverse correlation between PTEN and hTERT levels in high miR-21 RNA expressing-hypertrophic scar tissues.These data indicate that miR-21 regulates hTERT expression via the PTEN/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway by directly targeting PTEN, therefore controlling hypertrophic scar fibroblast cell growth. MiR-21 may be a potential novel molecular target for the treatment of hypertrophic scarring.

  12. Effects of hTERT immortalization on osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells

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    Ikbale El-Ayachi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available These data relate to the differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSC and DPSC immortalized by constitutively expressing human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT through both osteogenic and adipogenic lineages (i.e. to make bone producing and fat producing cells from these dental pulp stem cells. The data augment another study to characterize immortalized DPSC for the study of neurogenetic “Characterization of neurons from immortalized dental pulp stem cells for the study of neurogenetic disorders” [1]. Two copies of one typical control cell line (technical replicates were used in this study. The data represent the differentiation of primary DPSC into osteoblast cells approximately 60% more effectively than hTERT immortalized DPSC. Conversely, both primary and immortalized DPSC are poorly differentiated into adipocytes. The mRNA expression levels for both early and late adipogenic and osteogenic gene markers are shown.

  13. Triptolide inhibits transcription of hTERT through down-regulation of transcription factor specificity protein 1 in primary effusion lymphoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Cong; Wang, Jingchao [Department of Pathogen Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China); Guo, Wei [Department of Pathology and Physiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China); Wang, Huan; Wang, Chao; Liu, Yu [Department of Pathogen Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China); Sun, Xiaoping, E-mail: xsun6@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pathogen Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China); State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430072 (China)

    2016-01-01

    Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a rare and aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), a key component responsible for the regulation of telomerase activity, plays important roles in cellular immortalization and cancer development. Triptolide purified from Tripterygium extracts displays a broad-spectrum bioactivity profile, including immunosuppressive, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor. In this study, it is investigated whether triptolide reduces hTERT expression and suppresses its activity in PEL cells. The mRNA and protein levels of hTERT were examined by real time-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The activity of hTERT promoter was determined by Dual luciferase reporter assay. Our results demonstrated that triptolide decreased expression of hTERT at both mRNA and protein levels. Further gene sequence analysis indicated that the activity of hTERT promoter was suppressed by triptolide. Triptolide also reduced the half-time of hTERT. Additionally, triptolide inhibited the expression of transcription factor specificity protein 1(Sp1) in PEL cells. Furthermore, knock-down of Sp1 by using specific shRNAs resulted in down-regulation of hTERT transcription and protein expression levels. Inhibition of Sp1 by specific shRNAs enhanced triptolide-induced cell growth inhibition and apoptosis. Collectively, our results demonstrate that the inhibitory effect of triptolide on hTERT transcription is possibly mediated by inhibition of transcription factor Sp1 in PEL cells. - Highlights: • Triptolide reduces expression of hTERT by decreasing its transcription level. • Triptolide reduces promoter activity and stability of hTERT. • Triptolide down-regulates expression of Sp1. • Special Sp1 shRNAs inhibit transcription and protein expression of hTERT. • Triptolide and Sp1 shRNA2 induce cell proliferation inhibition and apoptosis.

  14. MDS shows a higher expression of hTERT and alternative splice variants in unactivated T-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wen; Wu, Lei; Sun, Houfang; Ren, Xiubao; Epling-Burnette, Pearlie K; Yang, Lili

    2016-11-01

    Telomere instability and telomerase reactivation are believed to play an important role in the development of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Abnormal enzymatic activity of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), and its alternative splice variants have been reported to account for deregulated telomerase function in many cancers. In this study, we aim to compare the differences in expression of hTERT and hTERT splice variants, as well as telomere length and telomerase activity in unstimulated T-cells between MDS subgroups and healthy controls. Telomere length in MDS cases was significantly shorter than controls (n = 20, pMDS using World Health Organization classification (WHO subgroups versus control: RARS, p= 0.009; RCMD, p=0.0002; RAEB1/2, p=0.004, respectively) and the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS subgroups: Low+Int-1, pMDS patients (n=20) had significantly higher telomerase activity (p=0.002), higher total hTERT mRNA levels (p=0.001) and hTERT α+β- splice variant expression (pMDS (r=0.58, p=0.007). This data is in sharp contrast to data published previously by our group showing a reduction in telomerase and hTERT mRNA in MDS T-cells after activation. In conclusion, this study provides additional insight into hTERT transcript patterns and activity in peripheral T-cells of MDS patients. Additional studies are necessary to better understand the role of this pathway in MDS development and progression.

  15. Structure of protein kinase CK2: dimerization of the human beta-subunit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldyreff, B; Mietens, U; Issinger, O G

    1996-01-01

    Protein kinase CK2 has been shown to be elevated in all so far investigated solid tumors and its catalytic subunit has been shown to serve as an oncogene product. CK2 is a heterotetrameric serine-threonine kinase composed of two catalytic (alpha and/or alpha') and two regulatory beta-subunits. Us...

  16. Methylation of the hTERT promoter: a novel cancer biomarker for leptomeningeal metastasis detection in cerebrospinal fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougel, Stéphanie; Lhermitte, Benoit; Gallagher, Gabrielle; de Flaugergues, Jeanne-Chantal; Janzer, Robert C; Benhattar, Jean

    2013-04-15

    The diagnosis of leptomeningeal metastases is usually confirmed by the finding of malignant cells by cytologic examination in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). More sensitive and specific cancer biomarkers may improve the detection of tumor cells in the CSF. Promoter methylation of the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene characterizes most cancer cells. The aim of this study was to develop a sensitive method to detect hTERT methylation and to explore its use as a cancer biomarker in CSF. In 77 CSF specimens from 67 patients, hTERT promoter methylation was evaluated using real-time methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting (MS-HRM) and real-time TaqMan PCR and MS-HRM in a single-tube assay. Real-time MS-HRM assay was able to detect down to 1% hTERT-methylated DNA in a background of unmethylated DNA. PCR products were obtained from 90% (69/77) of CSF samples. No false positive hTERT was detected in the 21 non-neoplastic control cases, given to the method a specificity of 100%. The sensitivity of the real-time MS-HRM compared with the cytologic gold standard analysis was of 92% (11/12). Twenty-six CSFs from 22 patients with an hTERT-methylated primary tumor showed cytologic results suspicious for malignancy; in 17 (65%) of them, a diagnosis of leptomeningeal metastases could be confirmed by the hTERT methylation test. The hTERT real-time MS-HRM approach is fast, specific, sensitive, and could therefore become a valuable tool for diagnosis of leptomeningeal metastases as an adjunct to the traditional examination of CSF.

  17. The mRNA expression of hTERT in human breast carcinomas correlates with VEGF expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirkpatrick Katharine L

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein enzyme that synthesises telomeres after cell division and maintains chromosomal stability leading to cellular immortalisation. hTERT (human telomerase reverse transcriptase is the rate-limiting determinant of telomerase reactivation. Telomerase has been associated with negative prognostic indicators in some studies. The present study aims to detect any correlation between hTERT and the negative prognostic indicators VEGF and PCNA by quantitatively measuring the mRNA expression of these genes in human breast cancer and in adjacent non-cancerous tissue (ANCT. Materials and methods RNA was extracted from 38 breast carcinomas and 40 ANCT. hTERT and VEGF165, VEGF189 and PCNA mRNA expressions were estimated by reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR and Taqman methodology. Results The level of expression of VEGF-165 and PCNA was significantly higher in carcinoma tissue than ANCT (p = 0.02. The ratio of VEGF165/189 expression was significantly higher in breast carcinoma than ANCT (p = 0.025. hTERT mRNA expression correlated with VEGF-189 mRNA (p = 0.008 and VEGF165 (p = 0.07. Conclusions hTERT mRNA expression is associated with the expression of the VEGF189 and 165 isoforms. This could explain the poorer prognosis reported in breast tumours expressing high levels of hTERT. The relative expression of the VEGF isoforms is significantly different in breast tumour to ANCT, and this may be important in breast carcinogenesis.

  18. Amplification of hTERT and hTERC genes in leukemic cells with high expression and activity of telomerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Tomasz; Januszkiewicz, Danuta; Zawada, Mariola; Pernak, Monika; Lewandowski, Krzysztof; Rembowska, Jolanta; Nowicka, Karina; Mankowski, Przemyslaw; Nowak, Jerzy

    2006-08-01

    Reactivation of telomerase plays an important role in carcinogenesis. Malignant cells almost always possess high activity and expression of telomerase. The aim of this study was to see whether there is any relationship between telomerase activity and expression and hTERT and hTERC gene amplification in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and non-lymphoblastic leukemia (ANLL) cells. In addition telomere length was tested in leukemic cells at the time of diagnosis and during remission. Expression of the three components of telomerase (hTERT, hTERC and TP1) as well as telomerase activity was found both in ALL and ANLL cells. Telomerase activity was diminished in patients in remission. The leukemic cells showed considerable heterogeneity of terminal restriction fragments, that is telomere length. ALL cells showed a variable pattern of telomere length in contrast to ANLL cells which produced a predominantly short telomere pattern. Telomere length in the lymphocytes of leukemia patients was shorter in remission as compared to the time of diagnosis. FISH analysis revealed amplification of hTERT and hTERC genes in ALL and ANLL cells. Quantitative analysis showed that leukemic cells possess higher number of hTERT and hTERC copies than the normal PBL. Our results suggest that the activation of telomerase in leukemic cells is connected with amplification of hTERT and hTERC genes. The high expression and activity of telomerase found in leukemic cells may be partially explained by amplified hTERT and hTERC genes. Amplification of the telomerase genes seems to be a common event in carcinogenesis and may play a role in telomerase reactivation leading to cell immortalization.

  19. Association Between hTERT rs2736100 Polymorphism and Sensitivity to Anti-cancer Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie eKim

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The rs2736100 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP is located in the intron 2 of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT gene. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS have consistently supported the strong association between this SNP and risk for multiple cancers. Given the important role of the hTERT gene and this SNP in cancer biology, we hypothesize that rs2736100 may also confer susceptibility to anti-cancer drug sensitivity. In this study we aim to investigate the correlation between the rs2736100 genotype and the responsiveness to anti-cancer agents in the NCI-60 cancer cell panel. Methods and Materials: The hTERT rs2736100 was genotyped in the NCI-60 cancer cell lines. The relative telomere length of each cell line was quantified using real-time PCR. The genotype was then correlated with publically available drug sensitivity data of two agents with telomerase-inhibition activity: Geldanamycin (HSP90 inhibitor and RHPS4/BRACO19 (G-quadruplex stabilizer as well as additional 110 commonly used agents with established mechanism of action. The association between rs2736100 and mutation status of TP53 gene was also tested.Results: The C allele of the SNP was significantly correlated with increased sensitivity to RHPS4/BRACO19 with an additive effect (r=-0.35, p=0.009 but not with Geldanamycin. The same allele was also significantly associated with sensitivity to antimitotic agents compared to other agents (p=0.003. The highest correlation was observed between the SNP and paclitaxel (r=-0.36, p=0.005. The telomere length was neither associated with rs2736100 nor with sensitivity to anti-cancer agents. The C allele of rs2736100 was significantly associated with increased mutation rate in TP53 gene (p=0.004.Conclusion: Our data suggested that the cancer risk allele of hTERT rs2736100 polymorphism may also affect the cancer cell response to both TERT inhibitor and anti-mitotic agents, which might be attributed to the elevated

  20. Synthetic Bax-Anti Bcl2 combination module actuated by super artificial hTERT promoter selectively inhibits malignant phenotypes of bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Liu, Yuchen; Zhang, Tianbiao; Wu, Hanwei; Lin, Muqi; Wang, Chaoliang; Zhan, Yonghao; Zhou, Qing; Qiao, Baoping; Sun, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Qiaoxia; Guo, Xiaoqiang; Zhao, Guoping; Zhang, Weixing; Huang, Weiren

    2016-01-08

    The synthetic biology technology which enhances the specificity and efficacy of treatment is a novel try in biomedical therapy during recent years. A high frequency of somatic mutations was shown in the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) promoter in bladder cancer, indicating that a mutational hTERT promoter might be a tumor-specific element for bladder cancer therapy. In our study, we aimed to construct a synthetic combination module driven by a super artificial hTERT promoter and to investigate its influence on the malignant phenotypes of bladder cancer. The dual luciferase assay system was used to verify the driven efficiency and tumor-specificity of the artificial hTERT promoter and to confirm the relationship between ETS-1 and the driven efficiency of the artificial hTERT promoter. CCK-8 assay and MTT assay were used to test the effects of the Bax-Anti Bcl2 combination module driven by the artificial hTERT promoter on cell proliferation. Simultaneously, the cell apoptosis was detected by the caspase 3ELISA assay and the flow cytometry analysis after transfection. The results of CCK-8 assay and MTT assay were analyzed by ANOVA. The independent samples t-test was used to analyze other data. We demonstrated that the artificial hTERT promoter had a higher driven efficiency which might be regulated by transcription factor ETS-1 in bladder cancer cells, compared with wild-type hTERT promoter. Meanwhile, the artificial hTERT promoter showed a strong tumor-specific effect. The cell proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction were observed in artificial hTERT promoter- Bax-Anti Bcl2 combination module -transfected bladder cancer 5637 and T24 cells, but not in the module -transfected normal human fibroblasts. This module offers us a useful synthetic biology platform to inhibit the malignant phenotypes of bladder cancer in a more specific and effective way.

  1. Identification of human telomerase assembly inhibitors enabled by a novel method to produce hTERT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellermann, Guillaume; Kaiser, Markus; Dingli, Florent; Lahuna, Olivier; Naud-Martin, Delphine; Mahuteau-Betzer, Florence; Loew, Damarys; Ségal-Bendirdjian, Evelyne; Teulade-Fichou, Marie-Paule; Bombard, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Telomerase is the enzyme that maintains the length of telomeres. It is minimally constituted of two components: a core reverse transcriptase protein (hTERT) and an RNA (hTR). Despite its significance as an almost universal cancer target, the understanding of the structure of telomerase and the optimization of specific inhibitors have been hampered by the limited amount of enzyme available. Here, we present a breakthrough method to produce unprecedented amounts of recombinant hTERT and to reconstitute human telomerase with purified components. This system provides a decisive tool to identify regulators of the assembly of this ribonucleoprotein complex. It also enables the large-scale screening of small-molecules capable to interfere with telomerase assembly. Indeed, it has allowed us to identify a compound that inhibits telomerase activity when added prior to the assembly of the enzyme, while it has no effect on an already assembled telomerase. Therefore, the novel system presented here may accelerate the understanding of human telomerase assembly and facilitate the discovery of potent and mechanistically unique inhibitors. PMID:25958399

  2. Role of the beta subunit of casein kinase-2 on the stability and specificity of the recombinant reconstituted holoenzyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meggio, F; Boldyreff, B; Marin, O

    1992-01-01

    Recombinant human alpha subunit from casein kinase-2 (CK-2) was subjected, either alone or in combination with recombinant human beta subunit, to high temperature, tryptic digestion and urea treatment. In all three cases, it was shown that the presence of the beta subunit could drastically reduce...... the loss of kinase activity, strongly suggesting a protective function for the beta subunit. Assaying different peptides for specificity toward the recombinant alpha subunit and the recombinant reconstituted enzyme, showed that the presence of the beta subunit could modify the specificity of the catalytic...... alpha subunit. Therefore, a dual function for the beta subunit is proposed which confers both specificity and stability to the catalytic alpha subunit within the CK-2 holoenzyme complex. The peptide DLEPDEELEDNPNQSDL, reproducing the highly acidic amino acid 55-71 segment of the human beta subunit...

  3. Identification of Proteins Essential for Telomere Elongation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Banik, Soma

    2003-01-01

    .... One of the most consistent changes to occur n breast cancer is cellular immortalization through the upregulation of hTERT, which encodes the catalytic subunit of the telomerase ribonucleoprotein holoenzyme...

  4. Repression of hTERT transcription by the introduction of chromosome 3 into human oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishio, Sachiyo [Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Biopathological Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, 86 Nishi-cho, Yonago, Tottori, 683-8503 (Japan); Department of Biomedical Science, Institute of Regenerative Medicine and Biofunction, Graduate School of Medical Science, Tottori University, Yonago, Tottori, 683-8503 (Japan); Ohira, Takahito; Sunamura, Naohiro [Department of Biomedical Science, Institute of Regenerative Medicine and Biofunction, Graduate School of Medical Science, Tottori University, Yonago, Tottori, 683-8503 (Japan); Oshimura, Mitsuo [Chromosome Engineering Research Center, Tottori University, Yonago, Tottori, 683-8503 (Japan); Ryoke, Kazuo [Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Biopathological Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, 86 Nishi-cho, Yonago, Tottori, 683-8503 (Japan); Kugoh, Hiroyuki, E-mail: kugoh@med.tottori-u.ac.jp [Department of Biomedical Science, Institute of Regenerative Medicine and Biofunction, Graduate School of Medical Science, Tottori University, Yonago, Tottori, 683-8503 (Japan); Chromosome Engineering Research Center, Tottori University, Yonago, Tottori, 683-8503 (Japan)

    2015-10-30

    Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein enzyme that maintains telomere length. Telomerase activity is primarily attributed to the expression of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT). It has been reported that introduction of an intact human chromosome 3 into the human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line HSC3 suppresses the tumorigenicity of these cells. However, the mechanisms that regulate tumorigenicity have not been elucidated. To determine whether this reduction in tumorigenicity was accompanied by a reduction in telomerase activity, we investigated the transcriptional activation of TERT in HSC3 microcell hybrid clones with an introduced human chromosome 3 (HSC3#3). HSC#3 cells showed inhibition of hTERT transcription compared to that of the parental HSC3 cells. Furthermore, cell fusion experiments showed that hybrids of HSC3 cells and cells of the RCC23 renal carcinoma cell line, which also exhibits suppression of TERT transcription by the introduction of human chromosome 3, also displayed suppressed TERT transcription. These results suggested that human chromosome 3 may carry functionally distinct, additional TERT repressor genes. - Highlights: • hTERT mRNA expression level decreased in the chromosome 3 introduced HSC3 clones. • hTERT mRNA expression level was tend to suppressed in HSC3 and RCC23 hybrid cells. • We provide evidence that human chromosome 3 carries at least two distinct hTERT regulatory factors.

  5. Telomerase in (pre)neoplastic cervical disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisman, GBA; De Jong, S; Meersma, GJ; Helder, MN; Hollema, H; de Vries, EGE; Keith, WN; van der Zee, AGJ

    2000-01-01

    This study was performed to determine upregulation of the human telomerase RNA component (hTR) and mRNA of the catalytic subunit of telomerase (hTERT) in (pre)malignant cervical lesions, to analyze possible intralesional heterogeneity of hTR expression, and to relate hTR and hTERT mRNA levels to

  6. A new fluorescence/PET probe for targeting intracellular human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) using Tat peptide-conjugated IgM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Kyung oh [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Biomedical Sciences, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Tumor Microenvironment Global Core Research Center, Seoul National University (Korea, Republic of); Youn, Hyewon, E-mail: hwyoun@snu.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Tumor Microenvironment Global Core Research Center, Seoul National University (Korea, Republic of); Cancer Imaging Center, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung Hoo [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young-Hwa [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Biomedical Sciences, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Keon Wook [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Chung, June-Key, E-mail: jkchung@snu.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Biomedical Sciences, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Tumor Microenvironment Global Core Research Center, Seoul National University (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-26

    Despite an increasing need for methods to visualize intracellular proteins in vivo, the majority of antibody-based imaging methods available can only detect membrane proteins. The human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) is an intracellular target of great interest because of its high expression in several types of cancer. In this study, we developed a new probe for hTERT using the Tat peptide. An hTERT antibody (IgG or IgM) was conjugated with the Tat peptide, a fluorescence dye and {sup 64}Cu. HT29 (hTERT+) and U2OS (hTERT−) were used to visualize the intracellular hTERT. The hTERT was detected by RT-PCR and western blot. Fluorescence signals for hTERT were obtained by confocal microscopy, live cell imaging, and analyzed by Tissue-FAXS. In nude mice, tumors were visualized using the fluorescence imaging devices Maestro™ and PETBOX. In RT-PCR and western blot, the expression of hTERT was detected in HT29 cells, but not in U2OS cells. Fluorescence signals were clearly observed in HT29 cells and in U2OS cells after 1 h of treatment, but signals were only detected in HT29 cells after 24 h. Confocal microscopy showed that 9.65% of U2OS and 78.54% of HT29 cells had positive hTERT signals. 3D animation images showed that the probe could target intranuclear hTERT in the nucleus. In mice models, fluorescence and PET imaging showed that hTERT in HT29 tumors could be efficiently visualized. In summary, we developed a new method to visualize intracellular and intranuclear proteins both in vitro and in vivo. - Highlights: • We developed new probes for imaging hTERT using Tat-conjugated IgM antibodies labeled with a fluorescent dye and radioisotope. • This probes could be used to overcome limitation of conventional antibody imaging system in live cell imaging. • This system could be applicable to monitor intracellular and intranuclear proteins in vitro and in vivo.

  7. AB141. Synthetic Bax-Anti Bcl 2 combination module actuated by super artificial hTERT promoter selectively inhibits malignant phenotypes of bladder cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Tianbiao; Zhang, Weixing

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to construct a synthetic combination module driven by a super artificial hTERT promoter and to investigate its influence on the malignant phenotypes of bladder cancer. Methods The dual luciferase assay system was used to verify the driven efficiency and tumor-specificity of the artificial hTERT promoter and to confirm the relationship between ETS-1 and the driven efficiency of the artificial hTERT promoter. CCK-8 assay and MTT assay were used to test the effects of the Bax-...

  8. Inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis by oleanane triterpenoid (CDDO-Me) in pancreatic cancer cells is associated with the suppression of hTERT gene expression and its telomerase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deeb, Dorrah; Gao, Xiaohua; Liu, Yongbo [Department of Surgery, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Kim, Sahn-Ho [Department of Urology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Pindolia, Kirit R. [Department of Medical Genetics, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Arbab, Ali S. [Department of Radiology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Gautam, Subhash C., E-mail: sgautam1@hfhs.org [Department of Surgery, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CDDO-Me inhibits hTERT gene expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CDDO-Me inhibits hTERT protein expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CDDO-Me inhibits hTERT telomerase activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CDDO-Me inhibits hTERT regulatory proteins. -- Abstract: Methyl-2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oate (CDDO-Me) is a multifunctional oleanane synthetic triterpenoid with potent anti-inflammatory and antitumorigenic properties. The mechanisms of the antisurvival and apoptosis-inducing activities of CDDO-Me and related derivatives of oleanolic acid have been defined; however, to date, no study has been carried out on the effect of CDDOs on human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene or telomerase activity. Here we report for the first time that inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis by CDDO-Me in pancreatic cancer cell lines is associated with the inhibition of hTERT gene expression, hTERT telomerase activity and a number of proteins that regulate hTERT expression and activity. Furthermore, abrogation or overexpression of hTERT protein altered the susceptibility of tumor cells to CDDO-Me. These findings suggest that telomerase (hTERT) is a relevant target of CDDO-Me in pancreatic cancer cells.

  9. Combined introduction of Bmi-1 and hTERT immortalizes human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells with low risk of transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatrai, Peter, E-mail: peter.tatrai@biomembrane.hu [Institute of Enzymology, Research Center for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Karolina ut 29, H-1113 Budapest (Hungary); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Egyetem ter 1, H-4032 Debrecen (Hungary); Szepesi, Aron, E-mail: aron.szepesi@biomembrane.hu [Creative Cell Ltd., Puskas Tivadar utca 13, H-1119 Budapest (Hungary); Matula, Zsolt, E-mail: matula.zsolt@gmail.com [Creative Cell Ltd., Puskas Tivadar utca 13, H-1119 Budapest (Hungary); Szigeti, Anna, E-mail: anna.szigeti@biomembrane.hu [Creative Cell Ltd., Puskas Tivadar utca 13, H-1119 Budapest (Hungary); Buchan, Gyoengyi, E-mail: buchan@med.unideb.hu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Egyetem ter 1, H-4032 Debrecen (Hungary); Madi, Andras, E-mail: madi@med.unideb.hu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Egyetem ter 1, H-4032 Debrecen (Hungary); Stem Cell, Apoptosis and Genomics Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, University of Debrecen, Egyetem ter 1, H-4032 Debrecen (Hungary); Uher, Ferenc, E-mail: uher@biomembrane.hu [Stem Cell Laboratory, Hungarian National Blood Transfusion Service, Dioszegi ut 64, H-1113 Budapest (Hungary); and others

    2012-05-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We immortalized human adipose stromal cells (ASCs) with hTERT, Bmi-1, and SV40T. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer hTERT-only ASCs are prone to transformation, while Bmi-only ASCs become senescent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SV40T introduced along with hTERT abrogates proliferation control and multipotency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer hTERT combined with Bmi-1 yields stable phenotype up to 140 population doublings. -- Abstract: Adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASCs) are increasingly being studied for their usefulness in regenerative medicine. However, limited life span and donor-dependent variation of primary cells such as ASCs present major hurdles to controlled and reproducible experiments. We therefore aimed to establish immortalized ASC cell lines that provide steady supply of homogeneous cells for in vitro work while retain essential features of primary cells. To this end, combinations of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), murine Bmi-1, and SV40 large T antigen (SV40T) were introduced by lentiviral transduction into ASCs. The resulting cell lines ASC{sup hTERT}, ASC{sup Bmi-1}, ASC{sup Bmi-1+hTERT} and ASC{sup SV40T+hTERT} were tested for transgene expression, telomerase activity, surface immunomarkers, proliferation, osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation, karyotype, tumorigenicity, and cellular senescence. All cell lines have maintained expression of characteristic surface immunomarkers, and none was tumorigenic. However, ASC{sup Bmi-1} had limited replicative potential, while the rapidly proliferating ASC{sup SV40T+hTERT} acquired chromosomal aberrations, departed from MSC phenotype, and lost differentiation capacity. ASC{sup hTERT} and ASC{sup hTERT+Bmi-1}, on the other hand, preserved all essential MSC features and did not senesce after 100 population doublings. Notably, a subpopulation of ASC{sup hTERT} also acquired aberrant karyotype and showed signs of transformation after long-term culture

  10. hTERT inhibition triggers Epstein-Barr virus lytic cycle and apoptosis in immortalized and transformed B cells: a basis for new therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giunco, Silvia; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Keppel, Sonia; Celeghin, Andrea; Indraccolo, Stefano; Dal Col, Jessica; Mastorci, Katy; De Rossi, Anita

    2013-04-15

    Induction of viral lytic cycle, which induces death of host cells, may constitute a useful adjunct to current therapeutic regimens for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-driven malignancies. Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), essential for the oncogenic process, may modulate the switch from latent to lytic infection. The possible therapeutic role of hTERT inhibition combined with antiviral drugs was investigated. EBV-negative BL41 and convertant EBV-positive BL41/B95.8 Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines and lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) were infected with retroviral vector encoding short hairpin RNA (shRNA) anti-hTERT and cultured with or without the prodrug ganciclovir. The effects on EBV lytic replication, cell proliferation, and apoptosis were characterized. hTERT silencing by shRNA induced the expression of BZLF1, EA-D, and gp350 EBV lytic proteins and triggered a complete lytic cycle. This effect was associated with downregulation of BATF, a negative regulator of BZLF1 transcription. hTERT silencing also resulted in antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects. In particular, hTERT inhibition induced an accumulation of cells in the S-phase, an effect likely due to the dephosphorylation of 4E-BP1, an AKT1-dependent substrate, which results in a decreased availability of proteins needed for cell-cycle progression. Besides inducing cell death through activation of complete EBV lytic replication, hTERT inhibition triggered AKT1/FOXO3/NOXA-dependent apoptosis in EBV-positive and -negative Burkitt's lymphoma cells. Finally, ganciclovir enhanced the apoptotic effect induced by hTERT inhibition in EBV-positive Burkitt's lymphomas and LCLs. These results suggest that combination of antiviral drugs with strategies able to inhibit hTERT expression may result in therapeutically relevant effects in patients with EBV-related malignancies.

  11. Catalytic converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liber, B.

    1991-08-22

    A catalytic converter is provided which is economical to manufacture and is not readily poisoned by contaminants in a gas stream such as would be encountered in the operation of an internal combustion engine, whereby an improved life expectancy of the unit can be achieved. The converter of the invention comprises a sintered porous body including molybdenum or a molybdenum-containing compound or a molybdenum complex. A method of forming a catlytic converter unit comprises forming a slurry including molybdenum or a molybdenum compound, forming the slurry into a sintered body member, and hardening or curing the same to form a self-sustaining body member. A method for treating an exhaust gas using the above catalytic converter is also disclosed. A preferred embodiment for an internal combustion engine is described. Examples of different catalytic compositions are included. 13 figs.

  12. Sensitive Tumorigenic Potential Evaluation of Adult Human Multipotent Neural Cells Immortalized by hTERT Gene Transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kee Hang; Nam, Hyun; Jeong, Da Eun; Kim, Sung Soo; Song, Hye Jin; Pyeon, Hee Jang; Kang, Kyeongjin; Hong, Seung-Cheol; Nam, Do-Hyun; Joo, Kyeung Min

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells and therapeutic genes are emerging as a new therapeutic approach to treat various neurodegenerative diseases with few effective treatment options. However, potential formation of tumors by stem cells has hampered their clinical application. Moreover, adequate preclinical platforms to precisely test tumorigenic potential of stem cells are controversial. In this study, we compared the sensitivity of various animal models for in vivo stem cell tumorigenicity testing to identify the most sensitive platform. Then, tumorigenic potential of adult human multipotent neural cells (ahMNCs) immortalized by the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene was examined as a stem cell model with therapeutic genes. When human glioblastoma (GBM) cells were injected into adult (4-6-week-old) Balb/c-nu, adult NOD/SCID, adult NOG, or neonate (1-2-week-old) NOG mice, the neonate NOG mice showed significantly faster tumorigenesis than that of the other groups regardless of intracranial or subcutaneous injection route. Two kinds of ahMNCs (682TL and 779TL) were primary cultured from surgical samples of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Although the ahMNCs were immortalized by lentiviral hTERT gene delivery (hTERT-682TL and hTERT-779TL), they did not form any detectable masses, even in the most sensitive neonate NOG mouse platform. Moreover, the hTERT-ahMNCs had no gross chromosomal abnormalities on a karyotype analysis. Taken together, our data suggest that neonate NOG mice could be a sensitive animal platform to test tumorigenic potential of stem cell therapeutics and that ahMNCs could be a genetically stable stem cell source with little tumorigenic activity to develop regenerative treatments for neurodegenerative diseases.

  13. Immunohistochemical expression of p53, p16 and hTERT in oral squamous cell carcinoma and potentially malignant disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Correa Abrahao

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Oral carcinogenesis is a multi-step process. One possible step is the development of potentially malignant disorders known as leukoplakia and erytroplakia. The objective of this study was to use immunohistochemistry to analyze the patterns of expression of the cell-cycle regulatory proteins p53 and p16INK4a in potentially malignant disorders (PMD of the oral mucosa (with varying degrees of dysplasia and in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC to correlate them with the expression of telomerase (hTERT. Fifteen PMD and 30 OSCC tissue samples were analyzed. Additionally, 5 cases of oral epithelial hyperplasia (OEH were added to analyze clinically altered mucosa presenting as histological hyperplasia without dysplasia. p53 positivity was observed in 93.3% of PMD, in 63.3% of OSCC and in 80% of OEH. Although there was no correlation between p53 expression and the grade of dysplasia, all cases with severe dysplasia presented p53 suprabasal immunoexpression. p16INK4a expression was observed in 26.7% of PMD, in 43.3% of OSCC and in 2 cases of OEH. The p16INK4a expression in OEH, PMD and OSCC was unable to differentiate non-dysplastic from dysplastic oral epithelium. hTERT positivity was observed in all samples of OEH and PMD and in 90% of OSCC. The high hTERT immunoexpression in all three lesions indicates that telomerase is present in clinically altered oral mucosa but does not differentiate hyperplastic from dysplastic oral epithelium. In PMD of the oral mucosa, the p53 immunoexpression changes according to the degree of dysplasia by mechanisms independent of p16INK4a and hTERT.

  14. Age-related Changes in DNA Methylation Status of hTERT Gene Promoter of Oral Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephane Flaviane de Oliveira Bezerra

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of aging on the DNA methylation status of two genes involved in tumorigenesis (telomerase gene hTERT and DNA repair gene- MLH1 and one in metabolism (methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene- MTHFR in oral epithelial cells. DNA methylation analysis was performed by Methylation Sensitive Restriction Enzymes (MSRE of healthy oral epithelial cells of child (6-10 years, n=21, young (20-25 years, n=19 and elderly (over 60 years, n=25. The results for the hTERT gene showed significant variation in the methylation frequency at CpG dinucleotides among the groups (p=0.0001, with the methylated condition more frequently in children and young people. In relation to MLH1 and MTHFR, no differences were observed among the groups and the unmethylated condition were present in most individuals (p>0.05. Thus, it was concluded that aging of oral epithelial cells was associated with hypomethylation of the hTERT gene promoter and this could be a promising marker for screening a set of age-related alterations.

  15. Functional role of SETD2, BAP1, PARP-3 and PBRM1 candidate genes on the regulation of hTERT gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linne, Hannah; Yasaei, Hemad; Marriott, Alison; Harvey, Amanda; Mokbel, Kefah; Newbold, Robert; Roberts, Terry

    2017-09-22

    Narrowing the search for the critical hTERT repressor sequence(s) has identified three regions on chromosome 3p (3p12-p21.1, 3p21.2 and 3p21.3-p22). However, the precise location and identity of the sequence(s) responsible for hTERT transcriptional repression remains elusive. In order to identify critical hTERT repressor sequences located within human chromosome 3p12-p22, we investigated hTERT transcriptional activity within 21NT microcell hybrid clones containing chromosome 3 fragments. Mapping of chromosome 3 structure in a single hTERT-repressed 21NT-#3fragment hybrid clone, revealed a 490kb region of deletion localised to 3p21.3 and encompassing the histone H3, lysine 36 (H3K36) trimethyltransferase enzyme SETD2; a putative tumour suppressor gene in breast cancer. Three additional genes, BAP1, PARP-3 and PBRM1, were also selected for further investigation based on their location within the 3p21.1-p21.3 region, together with their documented role in the epigenetic regulation of target gene expression or hTERT regulation. All four genes (SETD2, BAP1, PARP-3 and PBRM1) were found to be expressed at low levels in 21NT. Gene copy number variation (CNV) analysis of SETD2, BAP1, PARP-3 and PBRM1 within a panel of nine breast cancer cell lines demonstrated single copy number loss of all candidate genes within five (56%) cell lines (including 21NT cells). Stable, forced overexpression of BAP1, but not PARP2, SETD2 or PBRM1, within 21NT cells was associated with a significant reduction in hTERT expression levels relative to wild-type controls. We propose that at least two sequences exist on human chromosome 3p, that function to regulate hTERT transcription within human breast cancer cells.

  16. Catalytic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ming; Zhang, Xiang

    2018-01-23

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to catalytic devices. In one aspect, a device includes a substrate, an electrically insulating layer disposed on the substrate, a layer of material disposed on the electrically insulating layer, and a catalyst disposed on the layer of material. The substrate comprises an electrically conductive material. The substrate and the layer of material are electrically coupled to one another and configured to have a voltage applied across them.

  17. The N137 and P140 amino acids in the p51 and the P95 amino acid in the p66 subunit of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase are instrumental to maintain catalytic activity and to design new classes of anti-HIV-1 drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auwerx, Joeri; Van Nieuwenhove, Joke; Rodríguez-Barrios, Fátima; de Castro, Sonia; Velázquez, Sonsoles; Ceccherini-Silberstein, Francesca; De Clercq, Erik; Camarasa, María-José; Perno, Carlo-Federico; Gago, Federico; Balzarini, Jan

    2005-04-25

    Amino acids N137 and P140 in the p51 subunit of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) are part of the beta7-beta8-loop that contributes to the formation of the base of the non-nucleoside RT inhibitor (NNRTI)-binding pocket and makes up a substantial part of the dimerization interface. Amino acid P95 in p66 also markedly contributes to the dimerization binding energy. Nine RT mutants at amino acid 137 were constructed bearing the mutations Y, K, T, D, A, Q, S, H or E. The prolines at amino acid positions 95 and 140 were replaced by alanine in separate enzymes. We found that all mutant RT enzymes showed a dramatically decreased RNA-dependent DNA polymerase activity. None of the mutant RT enzymes showed marked resistance against any of the clinically used NNRTIs but they surprisingly lost significant sensitivity for NRTIs such as ddGTP. The denaturation analyses of the mutant RTs by urea are suggestive for a relevant role of N137 in the stability of the RT heterodimer and support the view that the beta7-beta8 loop in p51 is a hot spot for RT dimerization and instrumental for efficient polymerase catalytic activity. Consequently, N137 and P140 in p51 and P95 in p66 should be attractive targets in the design of new structural classes of RT inhibitors aimed at compromising the optimal interaction of the beta7-beta8 loop in p51 at the p66/p51 dimerization interface.

  18. Inhibition of UBE2D3 expression attenuates radiosensitivity of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells by increasing hTERT expression and activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbo Wang

    Full Text Available The known functions of telomerase in tumor cells include replenishing telomeric DNA and maintaining cell immortality. We have previously shown the existence of a negative correlation between human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT and radiosensitivity in tumor cells. Here we set out to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying regulation by telomerase of radiosensitivity in MCF-7 cells. Toward this aim, yeast two-hybrid (Y2H screening of a human laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma radioresistant (Hep2R cDNA library was first performed to search for potential hTERT interacting proteins. We identified ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2D3 (UBE2D3 as a principle hTERT-interacting protein and validated this association biochemically. ShRNA-mediated inhibition of UBE2D3 expression attenuated MCF-7 radiosensitivity, and induced the accumulation of hTERT and cyclin D1 in these cells. Moreover, down-regulation of UBE2D3 increased hTERT activity and cell proliferation, accelerating G1 to S phase transition in MCF-7 cells. Collectively these findings suggest that UBE2D3 participates in the process of hTERT-mediated radiosensitivity in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells by regulating hTERT and cyclin D1.

  19. TCEAL7 Inhibition of c-Myc Activity in Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres Regulates hTERT Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Lafferty-Whyte

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Replicative senescence forms a major barrier to tumor progression. Cancer cells bypass this by using one of the two known telomere maintenance mechanisms: telomerase or the recombination-based alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT mechanism. The molecular details of ALT are currently poorly understood. We have previously shown that telomerase is actively repressed through complex networks of kinase, gene expression, and chromatin regulation. In this study, we aimed to gain further understanding of the role of kinases in the regulation of telomerase expression in ALT cells. Using a whole human kinome small interfering RNA (siRNA screen, we highlighted 106 kinases whose expression is linked to human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT promoter activity. Network modeling of transcriptional regulation implicated c-Myc as a key regulator of the 106 kinase hits. Given our previous observations of lower c-Myc activity in ALT cells, we further explored its potential to regulate telomerase expression in ALT. We found increased c-Myc binding at the hTERT promoter in telomerase-positive compared with ALT cells, although no expression differences in c-Myc, Mad, or Max were observed between ALT and telomerase-positive cells that could explain decreased c-Myc activity in ALT. Instead, we found increased expression of the c-Myc competitive inhibitor TCEAL7 in ALT cells and tumors and that alteration of TCEAL7 expression levels in ALT and telomerase-positive cells affects hTERT expression. Lower c-Myc activity in ALT may therefore be obtained through TCEAL7 regulation. Thus, TCEAL7 may present an interesting novel target for cancer therapy, which warrants further investigation.

  20. The structure of the protein phosphatase 2A PR65/A subunit reveals the conformation of its 15 tandemly repeated HEAT motifs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groves, M R; Hanlon, N; Turowski, P; Hemmings, B A; Barford, D

    1999-01-01

    The PR65/A subunit of protein phosphatase 2A serves as a scaffolding molecule to coordinate the assembly of the catalytic subunit and a variable regulatory B subunit, generating functionally diverse heterotrimers. Mutations of the beta isoform of PR65 are associated with lung and colon tumors. The

  1. MR molecular imaging of tumours using ferritin heavy chain reporter gene expression mediated by the hTERT promoter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yan [Third Military Medical University, Department of Radiology, XinQiao Hospital, ChongQing (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of ChengDu Medical College, Department of Radiology, ChengDu (China); Gong, Ming-fu; Yang, Hua; Zhang, Song; Wang, Guang-xian; Su, Tong-sheng; Wen, Li; Zhang, Dong [Third Military Medical University, Department of Radiology, XinQiao Hospital, ChongQing (China)

    2016-11-15

    Using the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) promoter and the modified ferritin heavy chain (Fth) reporter gene, reporter gene expression for MRI was examined in telomerase positive and negative tumour cells and xenografts. Activity of the reporter gene expression vector Lenti-hTERT-Fth1-3FLAG-Puro was compared to constitutive CMV-driven expression and to the untransfected parental control in five tumour cell lines: A549, SKOV3, 293T, U2OS and HPDLF. In vitro, transfected cells were evaluated for FLAG-tagged protein expression, iron accumulation and transverse relaxation. In vivo, tumours transduced by lentiviral vector injection were imaged using T2*WI. Changes in tumour signal intensity were validated by histology. Only telomerase positive tumour cells expressed FLAG-tagged Fth and displayed an increase in R2* above the parental control, with a corresponding change in T2*WI. In addition, only telomerase positive tumours, transduced by injection of the reporter gene expression construct, exhibited a change in signal intensity on T2*WI. Tumour histology verified the expression of FLAG-tagged Fth and iron accumulation in telomerase positive tissue. Reporter gene expression for MRI, using the Fth reporter and the hTERT promoter, may be a useful strategy for the non-invasive diagnosis of many types of cancer. (orig.)

  2. High expression of hTERT and stemness genes in BORIS/CTCFL positive cells isolated from embryonic cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Alberti

    Full Text Available BORIS/CTCFL is a member of cancer testis antigen family normally expressed in germ cells. In tumors, it is aberrantly expressed although its functions are not completely well-defined. To better understand the functions of BORIS in cancer, we selected the embryonic cancer cells as a model. Using a molecular beacon, which specifically targets BORIS mRNA, we demonstrated that BORIS positive cells are a small subpopulation of tumor cells (3-5% of total. The BORIS-positive cells isolated using BORIS-molecular beacon, expressed higher telomerase hTERT, stem cell (NANOG, OCT4, SOX2 and cancer stem cell marker genes (CD44 and ALDH1 compared to the BORIS-negative tumor cells. In order to define the functional role of BORIS, stable BORIS-depleted embryonic cancer cells were generated. BORIS silencing strongly down-regulated the expression of hTERT, stem cell and cancer stem cell marker genes. Moreover, the BORIS knockdown increased cellular senescence in embryonic cancer cells, revealing a putative role of BORIS in the senescence biological program. Our data indicate an association of BORIS expressing cells subpopulation with the expression of stemness genes, highlighting the critical role played by BORIS in embryonic neoplastic disease.

  3. The crystal structure of the complex of Zea mays alpha subunit with a fragment of human beta subunit provides the clue to the architecture of protein kinase CK2 holoenzyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battistutta, R; Sarno, S; De Moliner, E

    2000-01-01

    The crystal structure of a complex between the catalytic alpha subunit of Zea mays CK2 and a 23-mer peptide corresponding the C-terminal sequence 181-203 of the human CK2 regulatory beta subunit has been determined at 3.16-A resolution. The complex, composed of two alpha chains and two peptides...

  4. A Cooperative Escherichia coli Aspartate Transcarbamoylase without Regulatory Subunits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, K.; Kantrowitz, E

    2010-01-01

    Here we report the isolation, kinetic characterization, and X-ray structure determination of a cooperative Escherichia coli aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase) without regulatory subunits. The native ATCase holoenzyme consists of six catalytic chains organized as two trimers bridged noncovalently by six regulatory chains organized as three dimers, c{sub 6}r{sub 6}. Dissociation of the native holoenzyme produces catalytically active trimers, c{sub 3}, and nucleotide-binding regulatory dimers, r{sub 2}. By introducing specific disulfide bonds linking the catalytic chains from the upper trimer site specifically to their corresponding chains in the lower trimer prior to dissociation, a new catalytic unit, c{sub 6}, was isolated consisting of two catalytic trimers linked by disulfide bonds. Not only does the c{sub 6} species display enhanced enzymatic activity compared to the wild-type enzyme, but the disulfide bonds also impart homotropic cooperativity, never observed in the wild-type c3. The c{sub 6} ATCase was crystallized in the presence of phosphate and its X-ray structure determined to 2.10 {angstrom} resolution. The structure of c{sub 6} ATCase liganded with phosphate exists in a nearly identical conformation as other R-state structures with similar values calculated for the vertical separation and planar angles. The disulfide bonds linking upper and lower catalytic trimers predispose the active site into a more active conformation by locking the 240s loop into the position characteristic of the high-affinity R state. Furthermore, the elimination of the structural constraints imposed by the regulatory subunits within the holoenzyme provides increased flexibility to the c{sub 6} enzyme, enhancing its activity over the wild-type holoenzyme (c{sub 6}r{sub 6}) and c{sub 3}. The covalent linkage between upper and lower catalytic trimers restores homotropic cooperativity so that a binding event at one or so active sites stimulates binding at the other sites. Reduction

  5. Relationship between the expression of hTERT and EYA4 mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells with the progressive stages of carcinogenesis of the esophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Qing

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To establish a relationship between esophageal squamous cell diseases and the expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT and Eyes absent 4 (EYA4 mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Methods Subjects were 50 patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC, 50 with dysplasia (ESCD, 50 with basal cell hyperplasia (BCH and 50 controls. All subjects were residents of Feicheng County, Shandong Province, China , diagnosed by histopathology. Expression of hTERT and EYA4 mRNA in peripheral blood was determined by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Results The hTERT and EYA4 mRNA positive expression increased according to disease severity. At the cut-off value of ≥ 0.2, the positive expression rates of EYA4 were 14% for controls, 20.0% for BCH, 26% for ESCD and 52% for ESCC, respectively. At the cut-off value of ≥ 0.8, the positive expression rates of hTERT in the four groups were 24%, 30.0%, 52% and 80%, respectively. Using a positive value of 0.47 for EYA4, the testing sensitivities in the ESCD and ESCC groups were 4% and 16%, respectively, and the testing specificity increased to 100%. Using a positive value of 1.0 for hTERT, the testing sensitivities in the ESCD and ESCC groups were 48% and 60%, respectively, and the testing specificity increased to 72%. The testing sensitivities in the predicting ESCD and ESCC in the discriminant model including EYA4 and hTERT and the five traditional risk factors (sex, age, smoking, alcohol drinking, and family history of esophageal cancer were 70% and 80%, and testing specificities were 76% and 88% respectively. However, the testing sensitivities and specificities in the predicting ESCD and ESCC in the model only including the above five traditional risk factors were lower than that in the former case. Conclusion EYA4 and hTERT mRNA expression increased with the severity of esophageal pathological changes and may be useful

  6. Use of the comet-FISH assay to compare DNA damage and repair in p53 and hTERT genes following ionizing radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Declan J McKenna

    Full Text Available The alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay can be combined with fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH methodology in order to investigate the localisation of specific gene domains within an individual cell. The number and position of the fluorescent signal(s provides information about the relative damage and subsequent repair that is occurring in the targeted gene domain(s. In this study, we have optimised the comet-FISH assay to detect and compare DNA damage and repair in the p53 and hTERT gene regions of bladder cancer cell-lines RT4 and RT112, normal fibroblasts and Cockayne Syndrome (CS fibroblasts following γ-radiation. Cells were exposed to 5Gy γ-radiation and repair followed for up to 60 minutes. At each repair time-point, the number and location of p53 and hTERT hybridisation spots was recorded in addition to standard comet measurements. In bladder cancer cell-lines and normal fibroblasts, the p53 gene region was found to be rapidly repaired relative to the hTERT gene region and the overall genome, a phenomenon that appeared to be independent of hTERT transcriptional activity. However, in the CS fibroblasts, which are defective in transcription coupled repair (TCR, this rapid repair of the p53 gene region was not observed when compared to both the hTERT gene region and the overall genome, proving the assay can detect variations in DNA repair in the same gene. In conclusion, we propose that the comet-FISH assay is a sensitive and rapid method for detecting differences in DNA damage and repair between different gene regions in individual cells in response to radiation. We suggest this increases its potential for measuring radiosensitivity in cells and may therefore have value in a clinical setting.

  7. Use of the Comet-FISH Assay to Compare DNA Damage and Repair in p53 and hTERT Genes following Ionizing Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Declan J.; Doherty, Bernadette A.; Downes, C. Stephen; McKeown, Stephanie R.; McKelvey-Martin, Valerie J.

    2012-01-01

    The alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay can be combined with fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) methodology in order to investigate the localisation of specific gene domains within an individual cell. The number and position of the fluorescent signal(s) provides information about the relative damage and subsequent repair that is occurring in the targeted gene domain(s). In this study, we have optimised the comet-FISH assay to detect and compare DNA damage and repair in the p53 and hTERT gene regions of bladder cancer cell-lines RT4 and RT112, normal fibroblasts and Cockayne Syndrome (CS) fibroblasts following γ-radiation. Cells were exposed to 5Gy γ-radiation and repair followed for up to 60 minutes. At each repair time-point, the number and location of p53 and hTERT hybridisation spots was recorded in addition to standard comet measurements. In bladder cancer cell-lines and normal fibroblasts, the p53 gene region was found to be rapidly repaired relative to the hTERT gene region and the overall genome, a phenomenon that appeared to be independent of hTERT transcriptional activity. However, in the CS fibroblasts, which are defective in transcription coupled repair (TCR), this rapid repair of the p53 gene region was not observed when compared to both the hTERT gene region and the overall genome, proving the assay can detect variations in DNA repair in the same gene. In conclusion, we propose that the comet-FISH assay is a sensitive and rapid method for detecting differences in DNA damage and repair between different gene regions in individual cells in response to radiation. We suggest this increases its potential for measuring radiosensitivity in cells and may therefore have value in a clinical setting. PMID:23145163

  8. [Transcriptional targeting gene therapy of double suicide gene driven by hTERT promoter in hepatic carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wen-zhe; Yang, Jian-yong; Chen, Wei; Huang, Yong-hui; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Ying-qiang; Li, Jia-ping

    2011-11-22

    To examine the selective killing effects of pEGFP-C1-mediated double suicide gene system driven by the hTERT promoter (hTERT-CDglyTK) on hepatic carcinoma cells. The hTERT promoter and gene fragments SV40, yCD and TKgly were amplified by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and then inserted into pEGFP-C1. And the constructs of pEGFP-hTERT-CD, pEGFP-hTERT-TK and pEGFP-hTERT-CDglyTK were transfected to SMMC 7721 or HL7702 respectively. The transfection effects were observed and the cellular expressions of suicide genes detected by RT-PCR (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction), QPCR (quantitative polymerase chain reaction) and Western blot. The transfected cells were treated with 5-fluorocytosine and ganciclovir at different concentrations and the cell-killing and bystander effects evaluated by the method of MTT (3-(4,5)-dimethyl thiadiazole (-z-y1)-3,5-di-phenytetrazoliumromide). The activity of cell telomerase was detected by the method of TRAP-argentation and the apoptotic rates analyzed by flow cytometry. All results of double and single gene systems were analyzed. The fragments of enzyme digestion corresponded to the expectations. RT-PCR, QPCR and Western blot demonstrated the expressions of CD, TK and CDglyTK. pEGFP-hTERT-CD, pEGFP-hTERT-TK and pEGFP-hTERT-CDglyTK showed the similar transfection efficiencies in SMMC7721 (74.5%, 76.3%, 76.9%). More sensitive to the prodrugs (P = 0.020, P = 0.015), higher apoptotic rates (P = 0.023, P = 0.017) and bystander effects (P = 0.012, P = 0.001)and lower telomerase activities (P = 0.045, P = 0.038) were observed in double gene system versus those in single gene system. However, the transfection and growth of HL7702 cell could not be infected by this double suicide gene. The plasmid of CDglyTK fusion gene system driven by hTERT promoter has been successfully constructed. It has demonstrated highly specific killing effects on hepatic carcinoma cells.

  9. miR-1182 inhibits growth and mediates the chemosensitivity of bladder cancer by targeting hTERT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jun [Department of Urology, Huadong Hospital Affiliated to Fudan University, 221 Yan An Road(w), Shanghai 200040 (China); Dai, Wenbin, E-mail: daiwenbin271@163.com [Department of Urology, Huadong Hospital Affiliated to Fudan University, 221 Yan An Road(w), Shanghai 200040 (China); Song, Jianming [School of Medicine, Oregon Health & Science University, No.3181 S.W. Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland 97239-3098, OR (United States)

    2016-02-05

    microRNAs (miRNAs) have been demonstrated to contribute to tumor progression and metastasis and proposed to be key regulators of diverse biological processes. In this study, we report that miR-1182 is deregulated in bladder cancer tissues and cell lines. To characterize the role of miR-1182 in bladder cancer cells, we performed functional assays. The overexpression of miR-1182 significantly inhibits bladder cancer cell proliferation, colony formation, and invasion. Moreover, its up-regulation induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis and mediated chemosensitivity to cisplatin in bladder cancer. Furthermore, a luciferase reporter assay and a rescue experiment indicated that miR-1182 directly targets hTERT by binding its 3′UTR. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that miR-1182 acts as a tumor suppressor and may be a potential biomarker for bladder cancer diagnosis and treatment.

  10. [Inhibitory effect of interference hTERT and TRF2 gene on the growth of breast cancer MCF-7 cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-kun; Liu, Lan; Shui, Qin-lin; Yu, Hong; Zeng, Yong-qiu; Zhao, Jiao

    2010-02-01

    To explore the effect of combined gene therapy with interference hTERT and TRF2 gene on the treatment of breast cancer. Recombinant adenovirus rAd-hTERT and rAd-TRF2 expressing siRNA-hTERT and siRNA-TRF2 was constructed, and the vectors were transfected into MCF-7 cells. Than the expressions of hTERT and TRF2 proteins were detected by Western blot, the inhibition of MCF-7 cell proliferation by MTT colorimetry, and the changes of MCF-7 cell cycle by flow cytometry and the colony forming ability of MCF-7 cells by clone form test. At 48 h after transfection, the relative expression amounts of hTERT protein of the PBS control group, rAd-blank group, rAd-HK control group, rAd-hTERT group, rAd-TRF2 group and rAd-hTERT and rAd-TRF2 group were 1.00, 0.94 +/- 0.02, 0.95 +/- 0.04, 0.18 +/- 0.04, 0.95 +/- 0.01 and 0.18 +/- 0.04, respectively. The relative expression amounts of TRF2 protein were 1.00, 1.01 +/- 0.08, 0.96 +/- 0.02, 0.95 +/- 0.08, 0.22 +/- 0.01 and 0.26 +/- 0.02, respectively. After transfection of rAd-hTERT or rAd-TRF2 into MCF-7 cells separately, the inhibition rate of cell proliferation was only 54.6% and 48.4%, there was 8.9% +/- 1.2% or 9.2% +/- 2.3% of MCF-7 cells into M phase, 66.4% +/- 1.5% or 64.6% +/- 1.9% of MCF-7 cells was arrested at G(0)/G(1) phase, and the cell colony forming ability was decreased significantly (cell colony number from 100 in PBS control group down to 41.3 +/- 5.1 and 43.7 +/- 6.4). But after transfection by rAd-hTERT and rAd-TRF2 simultaneously, the inhibition rate of cell proliferation was about 82.1%, and M phase cells was significantly reduced to 4.4% +/- 1.2%. Large numbers of cells were arrested at G(0)/G(1) phase (81.4% +/- 1.3%), and the cell colony forming ability was more significantly decreased (cell colony number there were only 29.2 +/- 3.9). More effective effect of tumor gene therapy can be achieved by combination of interference hTERT and TRF2 genes as compared with interference by either of the single gene alone.

  11. Structure of the Catalytic Trimer of Methanococcus jannaschii Aspartate Transcarbamoylase in an Orthorhombic Crystal Form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitali,J.; Colaneri, M.

    2008-01-01

    Crystals of the catalytic subunit of Methanococcus jannaschii aspartate transcarbamoylase in an orthorhombic crystal form contain four crystallographically independent trimers which associate in pairs to form stable staggered complexes that are similar to each other and to a previously determined monoclinic C2 form. Each subunit has a sulfate in the central channel. The catalytic subunits in these complexes show flexibility, with the elbow angles of the monomers differing by up to 7.4 between crystal forms. Moreover, there is also flexibility in the relative orientation of the trimers around their threefold axis in the complexes, with a difference of 4 between crystal forms.

  12. PT-1 selectively activates AMPK-γ1 complexes in mouse skeletal muscle, but activates all three γ subunit complexes in cultured human cells by inhibiting the respiratory chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Elbenhardt; Ross, Fiona A; Kleinert, Maximilian

    2015-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) occurs as heterotrimeric complexes in which a catalytic subunit (α1/α2) is bound to one of two b subunits (β1/β2) and one of three γ subunits (γ1/γ2/γ3). The ability to selectively activate specific isoforms would be a useful research tool, and a promising...

  13. A gene expression signature classifying telomerase and ALT immortalization reveals an hTERT regulatory network and suggests a mesenchymal stem cell origin for ALT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lafferty-Whyte, K; Cairney, C J; Will, M B

    2009-01-01

    Telomere length is maintained by two known mechanisms, the activation of telomerase or alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT). The molecular mechanisms regulating the ALT phenotype are poorly understood and it is unknown how the decision of which pathway to activate is made at the cellular...... level. We have shown earlier that active repression of telomerase gene expression by chromatin remodelling of the promoters is one mechanism of regulation; however, other genes and signalling networks are likely to be required to regulate telomerase and maintain the ALT phenotype. Using gene expression...... this signature revealed a regulatory signalling network consistent with a model of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) repression in ALT cell lines and liposarcomas. This network expands on our existing knowledge of hTERT regulation and provides a platform to understand differential regulation of h...

  14. Functional role of the noncatalytic subunit of complement C5 convertase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, N; Pangburn, M K

    2000-02-01

    The C5 convertase is a serine protease that consists of two subunits: a catalytic subunit which is bound in a Mg2+-dependent complex to a noncatalytic subunit. To understand the functional role of the noncatalytic subunit, we have determined the C5-cleaving properties of the cobra venom factor-dependent C5 convertase (CVF, Bb) made with CVF purified from the venom of Naja naja (CVFn) and Naja haje (CVFh) and compared them to those for two C3b-dependent C5 convertases (ZymC3b,Bb and C3b,Bb). A comparison of the kinetic parameters indicated that although the four C5 convertases (CVFn,Bb, ZymC3b,Bb, CVFh,Bb, and C3b,Bb) had similar catalytic rate constants (kcat = 0.004-0.012 s-1) they differed 700-fold in their affinity for the substrate as indicated by the Km values (CVFn,Bb = 0.036 microM, ZymC3b,Bb = 1.24 microM, CVFh,Bb = 14.0 microM, and C3b,Bb = 24 microM). Analysis of binding interactions between C5 and the noncatalytic subunits (CVFh or C3b, or CVFn) using the BIAcore, revealed dissociation binding constants (Kd) that were similar to the Km values of the respective enzymes. The kinetic and binding data demonstrate that the binding site for C5 resides in the noncatalytic subunit of the enzyme, the affinity for the substrate is solely determined by the noncatalytic subunit and the catalytic efficiency of the enzyme appears not to be influenced by the nature of this subunit.

  15. Rich catalytic injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veninger, Albert [Coventry, CT

    2008-12-30

    A gas turbine engine includes a compressor, a rich catalytic injector, a combustor, and a turbine. The rich catalytic injector includes a rich catalytic device, a mixing zone, and an injection assembly. The injection assembly provides an interface between the mixing zone and the combustor. The injection assembly can inject diffusion fuel into the combustor, provides flame aerodynamic stabilization in the combustor, and may include an ignition device.

  16. Antisense oligonucleotide against hTERT (Cantide inhibits tumor growth in an orthotopic primary hepatic lymphoma mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human xenograft models, resulting from orthotopic transplantation (implantation into the anatomically correct site of histologically intact tissue into animals, are important for investigating local tumor growth, vascular and lymphatic invasion at the primary tumor site and metastasis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used surgical orthotopic transplantation to establish a nude mouse model of primary hepatic lymphoma (PHL, HLBL-0102. We performed orthotopic transfer of the HLBL-0102 tumor for 42 generations and characterized the tumor cells. The maintenance of PHL characteristics were supported by immunohistochemical and cytogenetic analysis. We also report the antitumor effect of Cantide, an antisense phosphorothioate oligonucleotide against hTERT, on the growth of HLBL-0102 tumors. We showed a significant, dose-dependent inhibition of tumor weight and serum LDH activity in the orthotopically transplanted animals by Cantide. Importantly, survival was prolonged in Cantide-treated HLBL-0102 tumor-bearing mice when compared to mock-treated mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study provided the basis for the development of a clinical trial protocol to treat PHL.

  17. Visualization of subunit interactions and ternary complexes of protein phosphatase 2A in mammalian cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Ting Mo

    Full Text Available Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A is a ubiquitous phospho-serine/threonine phosphatase that controls many diverse cellular functions. The predominant form of PP2A is a heterotrimeric holoenzyme consisting of a scaffolding A subunit, a variable regulatory B subunit, and a catalytic C subunit. The C subunit also associates with other interacting partners, such as α4, to form non-canonical PP2A complexes. We report visualization of PP2A complexes in mammalian cells. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC analysis of PP2A subunit interactions demonstrates that the B subunit plays a key role in directing the subcellular localization of PP2A, and confirms that the A subunit functions as a scaffold in recruiting the B and C subunits to form a heterotrimeric holoenzyme. BiFC analysis also reveals that α4 promotes formation of the AC core dimer. Furthermore, we demonstrate visualization of specific ABC holoenzymes in cells by combining BiFC and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (BiFC-FRET. Our studies not only provide direct imaging data to support previous biochemical observations on PP2A complexes, but also offer a promising approach for studying the spatiotemporal distribution of individual PP2A complexes in cells.

  18. In Vitro Assessment of the Expression and T Cell Immunogenicity of the Tumor-Associated Antigens BORIS, MUC1, hTERT, MAGE-A3 and Sp17 in Uterine Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke Vanderstraeten

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: While immunotherapy moved to the forefront of treatment of various cancers, it remains underexplored for uterine cancer. This might be due to the small patient population with advanced endometrial carcinoma and uterine sarcoma. Data about immunotherapeutic targets are scarce in endometrial carcinoma and lacking in uterine sarcoma. Methods: Expression of five tumor-associated antigens (TAA (BORIS, MUC1, hTERT, MAGE-A3 and Sp17 was validated in uterine tumor samples by immunohistochemistry (IHC and/or quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. TAA immunogenicity was analyzed by determining spontaneous T cell responses towards overlapping peptide pools covering the whole TAA in patient blood. Results: At mRNA level, MAGE-A3 and Sp17 were overexpressed in a minority of patients and BORIS was moderately overexpressed (26% in endometrial carcinoma and 62% in uterine sarcoma. hTERT was overexpressed in the vast majority of tumors. On protein level, MUC1 was upregulated in primary, recurrent and metastatic EMCAR and in metastatic US tumors. hTERT protein was highly expressed in both normal and malignant tissue. Spontaneous TAA-specific T cell responses were detected in a minority of patients, except for hTERT to which T cell responses occurred more frequently. Conclusions: These data point to MUC1 and hTERT as most suitable targets based on expression levels and T cell immunogenicity for use in immunotherapeutic regimens.

  19. holE, the gene coding for the theta subunit of DNA polymerase III of Escherichia coli: characterization of a holE mutant and comparison with a dnaQ (epsilon-subunit) mutant.

    OpenAIRE

    Slater, S C; Lifsics, M R; O'Donnell, M; Maurer, R

    1994-01-01

    DNA polymerase III holoenzyme is a multiprotein complex responsible for the bulk of chromosomal replication in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. The catalytic core of the holoenzyme is an alpha epsilon theta heterotrimer that incorporates both a polymerase subunit (alpha; dnaE) and a proofreading subunit (epsilon; dnaQ). The role of theta is unknown. Here, we describe a null mutation of holE, the gene for theta. A strain carrying this mutation was fully viable and displayed no muta...

  20. Novel Mitochondrial Complex II Isolated from Trypanosoma cruzi Is Composed of 12 Peptides Including a Heterodimeric Ip Subunit*S⃞

    OpenAIRE

    Morales, Jorge; Mogi, Tatsushi; Mineki, Shigeru; Takashima, Eizo; Mineki, Reiko; Hirawake, Hiroko; Sakamoto, Kimitoshi; Ōmura, Satoshi; Kita, Kiyoshi

    2009-01-01

    Mitochondrial respiratory enzymes play a central role in energy production in aerobic organisms. They differentiated from the α-proteobacteria-derived ancestors by adding noncatalytic subunits. An exception is Complex II (succinate: ubiquinone reductase), which is composed of four α-proteobacteria-derived catalytic subunits (SDH1-SDH4). Complex II often plays a pivotal role in adaptation of parasites in host organisms and would be a potential target for new drugs. We p...

  1. ε subunit of Bacillus subtilis F1-ATPase relieves MgADP inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junya Mizumoto

    Full Text Available MgADP inhibition, which is considered as a part of the regulatory system of ATP synthase, is a well-known process common to all F1-ATPases, a soluble component of ATP synthase. The entrapment of inhibitory MgADP at catalytic sites terminates catalysis. Regulation by the ε subunit is a common mechanism among F1-ATPases from bacteria and plants. The relationship between these two forms of regulatory mechanisms is obscure because it is difficult to distinguish which is active at a particular moment. Here, using F1-ATPase from Bacillus subtilis (BF1, which is strongly affected by MgADP inhibition, we can distinguish MgADP inhibition from regulation by the ε subunit. The ε subunit did not inhibit but activated BF1. We conclude that the ε subunit relieves BF1 from MgADP inhibition.

  2. L-carnitine Effectively Induces hTERT Gene Expression of Human Adipose Tissue-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Obtained from the Aged Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahzadi, Raheleh; Mesbah-Namin, Seyed Alireza; Zarghami, Nosratollah; Fathi, Ezzatollah

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are attractive candidates for cell therapy and regenerative medicine due to their multipotency and ready availability, but their application can be complicated by the factors such as age of the donors and senescence-associated growth arrest during culture conditions. The latter most likely reflects the fact that aging of hMSCs is associated with a rise in intracellular reactive oxygen species, loss of telomerase activity, decrease in human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) expression and finally eroded telomere ends. Over-expression of telomerase in hMSCs leads to telomere elongation and may help to maintain replicative life–span of these cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate of the effect of L-carnitine (LC) as an antioxidant on the telomerase gene expression and telomere length in aged adipose tissue-derived hMSCs. Methods For this purpose, cells were isolated from healthy aged volunteers and their viabilities were assessed by MTT assay. Quantitative gene expression of hTERT and absolute telomere length measurement were also performed by real-time PCR in the absence and presence of different doses of LC (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mM). Results The results indicated that LC could significantly increase the hTERT gene expression and telomere length, especially in dose of 0.2 mM of LC and in 48 h treatment for the aged adipose tissue-derived hMSCs samples. Conclusion It seems that LC would be a good candidate to improve the lifespan of the aged adipose tissue-derived hMSCs due to over-expression of telomerase and lengthening of the telomeres. PMID:27426092

  3. Effects of octreotide and insulin on colon cancer cellular proliferation and correlation with hTERT activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayiomamitis, Georgios D; Notas, George; Zaravinos, Apostolos; Drygiannakis, Ioannis; Georgiadou, Maria; Sfakianaki, Ourania; Mastrodimou, Niki; Thermos, Kyriaki; Kouroumalis, Elias

    2014-01-01

    Peptide hormone somatostatin and its receptors have a wide range of physiological functions and play a role in the treatment of numerous human diseases, including colorectal cancer. Octreotide, a synthetic somatostatin-analog peptide, inhibits growth of colonic cancer cells primarily by binding to G-protein coupled receptors and elicits cellular responses through second-messenger systems. Insulin also initiates mitogenic signals in certain cell types. The objective of the present study was to explore the effects of octreotide with or without insulin treatment, on Caco-2 and HT-29 human colon-cancer cell proliferation and to correlate their effects with the activation of telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT). The involvement of protein tyrosine phosphatases in the regulation of the anti-proliferative effect of octreotide was also evaluated. Sodium orthovanadate was used to reverse the anti- proliferative effect of octreotide. Telomerase activity was determined for each time point under octreotide and/or insulin treatment. Elevated expression of sst1, sst2 and sst5 was confirmed in both cell lines by RT-PCR. Immunocytochemistry detected sst1, sst2A, sst2B, sst3, sst4 and sst5 protein expression in the membranes of both cell lines. Octreotide inhibited the proliferation of Caco-2 and HT-29 cells in a time and dose-dependent manner. Insulin exerted proliferative effects in Caco-2 cells and octreotide reversed its effect in both cell lines. Sodium orthovanadate suppressed the anti-proliferative effect of octreotide both in Caco-2 and HT-29 cells. Telomerase activity was significantly reduced when Caco-2 cells were exposed to octreotide, under serum-free cultured medium. On the other hand, telomerase attenuation after octreotide treatment could not counteract the actions of insulin on both cells. Our data indicate that the use of octreotide could provide a possible therapeutic approach to the management of certain patients who suffer from colon cancer.

  4. Effects of octreotide and insulin on colon cancer cellular proliferation and correlation with hTERT activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayiomamitis, Georgios D.; Notas, George; Zaravinos, Apostolos; Drygiannakis, Ioannis; Georgiadou, Maria; Sfakianaki, Ourania; Mastrodimou, Niki; Thermos, Kyriaki; Kouroumalis, Elias

    2014-01-01

    Peptide hormone somatostatin and its receptors have a wide range of physiological functions and play a role in the treatment of numerous human diseases, including colorectal cancer. Octreotide, a synthetic somatostatin-analog peptide, inhibits growth of colonic cancer cells primarily by binding to G-protein coupled receptors and elicits cellular responses through second-messenger systems. Insulin also initiates mitogenic signals in certain cell types. The objective of the present study was to explore the effects of octreotide with or without insulin treatment, on Caco-2 and HT-29 human colon-cancer cell proliferation and to correlate their effects with the activation of telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT). The involvement of protein tyrosine phosphatases in the regulation of the anti-proliferative effect of octreotide was also evaluated. Sodium orthovanadate was used to reverse the anti- proliferative effect of octreotide. Telomerase activity was determined for each time point under octreotide and/or insulin treatment. Elevated expression of sst1, sst2 and sst5 was confirmed in both cell lines by RT-PCR. Immunocytochemistry detected sst1, sst2A, sst2B, sst3, sst4 and sst5 protein expression in the membranes of both cell lines. Octreotide inhibited the proliferation of Caco-2 and HT-29 cells in a time and dose-dependent manner. Insulin exerted proliferative effects in Caco-2 cells and octreotide reversed its effect in both cell lines. Sodium orthovanadate suppressed the anti-proliferative effect of octreotide both in Caco-2 and HT-29 cells. Telomerase activity was significantly reduced when Caco-2 cells were exposed to octreotide, under serum-free cultured medium. On the other hand, telomerase attenuation after octreotide treatment could not counteract the actions of insulin on both cells. Our data indicate that the use of octreotide could provide a possible therapeutic approach to the management of certain patients who suffer from colon cancer. PMID:25594044

  5. Structure of the ATP Synthase Catalytic Complex (F1) from Escherichia coli in an Autoinhibited conformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G Cingolani; T Duncan

    2011-12-31

    ATP synthase is a membrane-bound rotary motor enzyme that is critical for cellular energy metabolism in all kingdoms of life. Despite conservation of its basic structure and function, autoinhibition by one of its rotary stalk subunits occurs in bacteria and chloroplasts but not in mitochondria. The crystal structure of the ATP synthase catalytic complex (F{sub 1}) from Escherichia coli described here reveals the structural basis for this inhibition. The C-terminal domain of subunit {var_epsilon} adopts a heretofore unknown, highly extended conformation that inserts deeply into the central cavity of the enzyme and engages both rotor and stator subunits in extensive contacts that are incompatible with functional rotation. As a result, the three catalytic subunits are stabilized in a set of conformations and rotational positions distinct from previous F{sub 1} structures.

  6. Catalytic asymmetric fluorinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbio, Carla; Gouverneur, Véronique

    2006-06-07

    The appearance of structurally diverse fluorinating reagents displaying a large spectrum of reactivity has been critical to the development of the catalytic asymmetric fluorination processes known to date. In this article, we discuss how this area of research emerged and which strategies have allowed for the successful development of both nucleophilic and electrophilic catalytic enantioselective fluorinations. We also present the fundamental understanding of catalytic activity and enantioselectivity for the most efficient processes and highlight the first synthetic application with the preparation of a complex fluorinated target.

  7. β-Elemene inhibits the proliferation of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma by regulating long noncoding RNA-mediated inhibition of hTERT expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhaoyang; Wu, Hongjin; Li, Ying; Hou, Qiang; Wang, Yan; Li, Shuang; Xia, Bing; Wu, Shixiu

    2015-06-01

    The study aimed to clarify the relationship between β-elemene, a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) in esophageal carcinoma ECA-109 cells. The proliferation of ECA-109 cells was measured using a CCK-8 kit and flow cytometry. PCR microarray and real-time RT-PCR were designed to determine lncRNA expression in ECA-109 cells before and after treatment with β-elemene. Western blot was used to detect the hTERT level after the differentially expressed lncRNAs in ECA-109 cells were interfered with small interfering RNA (siRNA). On treatment with β-elemene, the proliferation of ECA-109 cells was notably inhibited, and about 85% of the lncRNAs showed higher expression levels in ECA-109 cells than in those untreated cells, from which, CDKN2B-AS1 was screened out. A specific siRNA (si-CDKN2B-AS1) that targets the β-elemene-mediated lncRNA CDKN2B-AS1 was designed, synthesized, and applied to treat ECA-109 cells. Its interference efficiency reached as high as 89.6%. When ECA-109 cells were transfected with the siRNA, the hTERT level was increased by 84.7%. The CCK-8 assay showed that the proliferation of ECA-109 cells treated with β-elemene was significantly promoted after siRNA transfection (Pgroup (negative control), the proliferation index value of ECA-109 cells in the si-CDKN2B-AS1 treatment group was notably increased (25.7 vs. 51.7%) and the TERT protein level was increased by 67.25% after the cells were treated with si-CDKN2B-AS1. The chemotherapeutic drug β-elemene suppressed the proliferation of esophageal carcinoma ECA-109 cells by regulating the inhibition of hTERT expression by lncRNA CDKN2B-AS1.

  8. Catalytic distillation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1982-06-22

    A method is described for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C[sub 4] feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

  9. Catalytic distillation structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1984-04-17

    Catalytic distillation structure is described for use in reaction distillation columns, and provides reaction sites and distillation structure consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and is present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consists of at least 10 volume % open space. 10 figs.

  10. In Search of Small Molecule Inhibitors Targeting the Flexible CK2 Subunit Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Bestgen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Protein kinase CK2 is a tetrameric holoenzyme composed of two catalytic (α and/or α’ subunits and two regulatory (β subunits. Crystallographic data paired with fluorescence imaging techniques have suggested that the formation of the CK2 holoenzyme complex within cells is a dynamic process. Although the monomeric CK2α subunit is endowed with a constitutive catalytic activity, many of the plethora of CK2 substrates are exclusively phosphorylated by the CK2 holoenzyme. This means that the spatial and high affinity interaction between CK2α and CK2β subunits is critically important and that its disruption may provide a powerful and selective way to block the phosphorylation of substrates requiring the presence of CK2β. In search of compounds inhibiting this critical protein–protein interaction, we previously designed an active cyclic peptide (Pc derived from the CK2β carboxy-terminal domain that can efficiently antagonize the CK2 subunit interaction. To understand the functional significance of this interaction, we generated cell-permeable versions of Pc, exploring its molecular mechanisms of action and the perturbations of the signaling pathways that it induces in intact cells. The identification of small molecules inhibitors of this critical interaction may represent the first-choice approach to manipulate CK2 in an unconventional way.

  11. The testis-specific Cα2 subunit of PKA is kinetically indistinguishable from the common Cα1 subunit of PKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herberg Friedrich W

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The two variants of the α-form of the catalytic (C subunit of protein kinase A (PKA, designated Cα1 and Cα2, are encoded by the PRKACA gene. Whereas Cα1 is ubiquitous, Cα2 expression is restricted to the sperm cell. Cα1 and Cα2 are encoded with different N-terminal domains. In Cα1 but not Cα2 the N-terminal end introduces three sites for posttranslational modifications which include myristylation at Gly1, Asp-specific deamidation at Asn2 and autophosphorylation at Ser10. Previous reports have implicated specific biological features correlating with these modifications on Cα1. Since Cα2 is not modified in the same way as Cα1 we tested if they have distinct biochemical activities that may be reflected in different biological properties. Results We show that Cα2 interacts with the two major forms of the regulatory subunit (R of PKA, RI and RII, to form cAMP-sensitive PKAI and PKAII holoenzymes both in vitro and in vivo as is also the case with Cα1. Moreover, using Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR, we show that the interaction patterns of the physiological inhibitors RI, RII and PKI were comparable for Cα2 and Cα1. This is also the case for their potency to inhibit catalytic activities of Cα2 and Cα1. Conclusion We conclude that the regulatory complexes formed with either Cα1 or Cα2, respectively, are indistinguishable.

  12. Artemisinin Represses Telomerase Subunits and Induces Apoptosis in HPV-39 Infected Human Cervical Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Anushree; Chatterji, Urmi

    2015-09-01

    Artemisinin, a plant-derived antimalarial drug with relatively low toxicity on normal cells in humans, has selective anticancer activities in various types of cancers, both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, we have investigated the anticancer effects of artemisinin in human cervical cancer cells, with special emphasis on its role in inducing apoptosis and repressing cell proliferation by inhibiting the telomerase subunits, ERα which is essential for maintenance of the cervix, and downstream components like VEGF, which is known to activate angiogenesis. Effects of artemisinin on apoptosis of ME-180 cells were measured by flow cytometry, DAPI, and annexin V staining. Expression of genes and proteins related to cell proliferation and apoptosis was quantified both at the transcriptional and translational levels by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and western blot analysis, respectively. Our findings demonstrated that artemisinin significantly downregulated the expression of ERα and its downstream component, VEGF. Antiproliferative activity was also supported by decreased telomerase activity and reduced expression of hTR and hTERT subunits. Additionally, artemisinin reduced the expression of the HPV-39 viral E6 and E7 components. Artemisinin-induced apoptosis was confirmed by FACS, nuclear chromatin condensation, annexin V staining. Increased expression of p53 with concomitant decrease in expression of the p53 inhibitor Mdm2 further supported that artemisinin-induced apoptosis was p53-dependent. The results clearly indicate that artemisinin induces antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects in HPV-39-infected ME-180 cells, and warrants further trial as an effective anticancer drug. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The potential of identification of a malignancy-associated biomarker in breast cancer diagnosis and research: hTERT gene DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Shahla; El-Gabry, Ehab; Zhang, Chuhua; Wang, Zhiqianq

    2016-08-01

    DNA hypermethylation has been documented to be prominent at a CpG island rich region about 600 bp upstream the transcription start site of the hTERT gene using qualitative methylation specific PCR on DNA isolated from tumor cell lines. In order to assess the potential significance of this biomarker in breast cancer research and diagnosis, we explored if such findings are reproducible on surgically resected fresh breast tumor cells. Using quantitative pyrosequencing technology, we investigated and present methylation status of four CpG islands of this region in a cohort of 77 invasive breast carcinomas using normal breast tissue as controls. Globally, a significant hypermethylation in tumor cells was observed in the four CpG islands as a sum, in comparison to methylation of the normal breast tissue. Individually, certain CpG islands displayed methylation greater than 50% in about 3/4 of the 77 breast cancers, but in none of the normal breast tissue. Our results highlight the value of DNA hypermethylation in the -600 bp region of the hTERT gene as a potential marker for breast cancer diagnosis. We believe that integration of this novel, malignancy-associated molecular testing with morphology is of significant value in the accurate interpretation of small tumor sample size obtained via fine needle aspiration biopsy, ductal lavage, and nipple fluid aspirates both in clinical practice and in breast cancer research. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:670-675. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A graphene-based smart catalytic system with superior catalytic performances and temperature responsive catalytic behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Junjie; Lv, Weipeng; Zhang, Guanghui; Li, Yang; Zhang, Guoliang; Zhang, Fengbao; Fan, Xiaobin

    2013-07-21

    We have successfully developed a unique graphene-based smart catalytic system which consists of the graphene supported Au-Pt bimetallic nanocatalyst with a well-defined core-shell structure and a dextran-based temperature-responsive polymer. The unique catalytic system possesses excellent catalytic performances and the catalytic activities could be readily switched on or off at different temperature windows.

  15. [Super catalytic antibodies (antigenase) capable of destroying H. pylori urease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taizo, Uda; Hifumi, Emi; Okamura, Yoshiko

    2006-02-01

    Antigenase has an ability to decompose the antigen peptide or protein. We have produced some monoclonal antibodies(HpU mAbs series) for H. pylori urease. Out of them, the light chain of HpU-9 mAb possesses a catalytic triad composed of Asp, Ser and His, which acts as a catalytic site against the antigen, based on the structural analysis of molecular modeling. HpU-9-L belongs to the germline cs1 which inherently encodes the catalytic triads in the sequence, indicating that HpU-9-L must be an antigenase. As expected, HpU-9-L showed the specific degradation against the beta-subunit of the urease. The heavy chain of HpU-2 also exhibited the specific degradation of the urease. These antigenases will be used for the medicinal application.

  16. Characterization of fimbrial subunits from Bordetella species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooi, F.R.; Heide, H.G.J. van der; Avest, A.R. ter; Welinder, K.G.; Livey, I.; Zeijst, B.A.M. van der; Gaastra, W.

    Using antisera raised against serotype 2 and 3 fimbrial subunits from Bordetella pertussis, serologically related polypeptides were detected in Bordetella bronchiseptica, Bordetella parapertussis and Bordetella avium strains. The two B. pertussis fimbrial subunits, and three of the serologically

  17. Subunit mass analysis for monitoring antibody oxidation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sokolowska, Izabela; Mo, Jingjie; Dong, Jia; Lewis, Michael J; Hu, Ping

    2017-01-01

    ... (light chain, Fd' and single chain Fc). These subunits were analyzed by reversed phase-ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with an online quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer and the levels of oxidation on each subunit...

  18. The beta subunit of casein kinase II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldyreff, B; Piontek, K; Schmidt-Spaniol, I

    1991-01-01

    cDNAs encoding the beta subunit of pig and mouse CKII were isolated. The porcine cDNA was expressed as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli and used for the production of anti-CKII-beta subunit specific antibodies.......cDNAs encoding the beta subunit of pig and mouse CKII were isolated. The porcine cDNA was expressed as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli and used for the production of anti-CKII-beta subunit specific antibodies....

  19. Detection of human telomerase reverse transcriptase messenger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Detection of Telomerase enzyme in exfoliated urinary cells is a potentially good molecular diagnostic marker in bladder cancer, since the catalytic subunit of this enzyme (hTERT) proved to be essential for cellular immortality and oncogenesis. Subjects and Methods: The study comprised 39 patients (36 with urothelial

  20. Telomerase in relation to clinicopathologic prognostic factors and survival in cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisman, GBA; Knol, AJ; Helder, MN; Krans, M; de Vries, EGE; Hollema, H; de Jong, S; van der Zee, AGJ

    2001-01-01

    We investigated, in cervical cancer, the relation between telomerase activity, telomerase RNA (hTR) and mRNA of the catalytic subunit of telomerase, hTERT, with "classic" clinicopathological factors as well as survival. Frozen specimens were obtained from 107 consecutive patients with cervical

  1. Nanocarbons for Catalytic Desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qingqing; Lin, Yangming; Heumann, Saskia; Su, Dangsheng

    2017-08-24

    Nanocarbon catalysts are green and sustainable alternatives to metal-based catalysts for numerous catalytic transformations. The application of nanocarbons for environmental catalysis is an emerging research discipline and has undergone rapid development in recent years. In this focus review, we provide a critical analysis of state-of-the-art nanocarbon catalysts for three different catalytic desulfurization processes. In particular, we focus on the advantages and limitations as well as the reaction mechanisms of the nanocarbon catalysts at the molecular level. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Mechanisms of the scaffold subunit in facilitating protein phosphatase 2A methylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitali Stanevich

    Full Text Available The function of the biologically essential protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A relies on formation of diverse heterotrimeric holoenzymes, which involves stable association between PP2A scaffold (A and catalytic (C or PP2Ac subunits and binding of variable regulatory subunits. Holoenzyme assembly is highly regulated by carboxyl methylation of PP2Ac-tail; methylation of PP2Ac and association of the A and C subunits are coupled to activation of PP2Ac. Here we showed that PP2A-specific methyltransferase, LCMT-1, exhibits a higher activity toward the core enzyme (A-C heterodimer than free PP2Ac, and the A-subunit facilitates PP2A methylation via three distinct mechanisms: 1 stabilization of a proper protein fold and an active conformation of PP2Ac; 2 limiting the space of PP2Ac-tail movement for enhanced entry into the LCMT-1 active site; and 3 weak electrostatic interactions between LCMT-1 and the N-terminal HEAT repeats of the A-subunit. Our results revealed a new function and novel mechanisms of the A-subunit in PP2A methylation, and coherent control of PP2A activity, methylation, and holoenzyme assembly.

  3. CATALYTIC KINETIC SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the property that in 0.12 M sulfuric acid medium titanium(IV) catalyzes the discoloring reaction of DBS-arsenazo oxidized by potassium bromate, a new catalytic kinetic spectrophotometric method for the determination of trace titanium (IV) was developed. The linear range of the determination of titanium is

  4. CATALYTIC KINETIC SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Research Center for Nanotechnology, Changchun University of Science and Technology,. Changchun 130022 ... Although catalytic kinetic spectrophotometry has been used in the determination of copper, the selectivity ... In this paper CPApA was used as the chromogenic agent, H2O2 as the oxidant, Cu(II) as the catalyst.

  5. Dynamic telomerase gene suppression via network effects of GSK3 inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan E Bilsland

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Telomerase controls telomere homeostasis and cell immortality and is a promising anti-cancer target, but few small molecule telomerase inhibitors have been developed. Reactivated transcription of the catalytic subunit hTERT in cancer cells controls telomerase expression. Better understanding of upstream pathways is critical for effective anti-telomerase therapeutics and may reveal new targets to inhibit hTERT expression.In a focused promoter screen, several GSK3 inhibitors suppressed hTERT reporter activity. GSK3 inhibition using 6-bromoindirubin-3'-oxime suppressed hTERT expression, telomerase activity and telomere length in several cancer cell lines and growth and hTERT expression in ovarian cancer xenografts. Microarray analysis, network modelling and oligonucleotide binding assays suggested that multiple transcription factors were affected. Extensive remodelling involving Sp1, STAT3, c-Myc, NFkappaB, and p53 occurred at the endogenous hTERT promoter. RNAi screening of the hTERT promoter revealed multiple kinase genes which affect the hTERT promoter, potentially acting through these factors. Prolonged inhibitor treatments caused dynamic expression both of hTERT and of c-Jun, p53, STAT3, AR and c-Myc.Our results indicate that GSK3 activates hTERT expression in cancer cells and contributes to telomere length homeostasis. GSK3 inhibition is a clinical strategy for several chronic diseases. These results imply that it may also be useful in cancer therapy. However, the complex network effects we show here have implications for either setting.

  6. Stoichiometry of δ subunit containing GABAA receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, B; Mortensen, M; Smart, T G

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Although the stoichiometry of the major synaptic αβγ subunit-containing GABAA receptors has consensus support for 2α:2β:1γ, a clear view of the stoichiometry of extrasynaptic receptors containing δ subunits has remained elusive. Here we examine the subunit stoichiometry of recombinant α4β3δ receptors using a reporter mutation and a functional electrophysiological approach. Experimental Approach Using site-directed mutagenesis, we inserted a highly characterized 9′ serine to leucine mutation into the second transmembrane (M2) region of α4, β3 and δ subunits that increases receptor sensitivity to GABA. Whole-cell, GABA-activated currents were recorded from HEK-293 cells co-expressing different combinations of wild-type (WT) and/or mutant α4(L297S), β3(L284S) and δ(L288S) subunits. Key Results Recombinant receptors containing one or more mutant subunits showed increased GABA sensitivity relative to WT receptors by approximately fourfold, independent of the subunit class (α, β or δ) carrying the mutation. GABA dose–response curves of cells co-expressing WT subunits with their respective L9′S mutants exhibited multiple components, with the number of discernible components enabling a subunit stoichiometry of 2α, 2β and 1δ to be deduced for α4β3δ receptors. Varying the cDNA transfection ratio by 10-fold had no significant effect on the number of incorporated δ subunits. Conclusions and Implications Subunit stoichiometry is an important determinant of GABAA receptor function and pharmacology, and δ subunit-containing receptors are important mediators of tonic inhibition in several brain regions. Here we demonstrate a preferred subunit stoichiometry for α4β3δ receptors of 2α, 2β and 1δ. PMID:24206220

  7. Structural and biochemical characterization of human PR70 in isolation and in complex with the scaffolding subunit of protein phosphatase 2A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Dovega

    Full Text Available Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A is a major Ser/Thr phosphatase involved in the regulation of various cellular processes. PP2A assembles into diverse trimeric holoenzymes, which consist of a scaffolding (A subunit, a catalytic (C subunit and various regulatory (B subunits. Here we report a 2.0 Å crystal structure of the free B''/PR70 subunit and a SAXS model of an A/PR70 complex. The crystal structure of B''/PR70 reveals a two domain elongated structure with two Ca2+ binding EF-hands. Furthermore, we have characterized the interaction of both binding partner and their calcium dependency using biophysical techniques. Ca2+ biophysical studies with Circular Dichroism showed that the two EF-hands display different affinities to Ca2+. In the absence of the catalytic C-subunit, the scaffolding A-subunit remains highly mobile and flexible even in the presence of the B''/PR70 subunit as judged by SAXS. Isothermal Titration Calorimetry studies and SAXS data support that PR70 and the A-subunit have high affinity to each other. This study provides additional knowledge about the structural basis for the function of B'' containing holoenzymes.

  8. Evaluation of Telomerase (hTert), Ki67 and p16ink4a expressions in low and high-grade cervical intraepithelial lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulart, Ana Paula Szezepaniak; Gonçalves, Manoel Afonso Guimarães; DA-Silva, Vinicius Duval

    2017-01-01

    to study the association between the histological grading of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN I, CIN II and CIN III) and the immunohistochemical expression for p16ink4a, hTert and Ki67, as well as to evaluate the relationship of these markers with the risk of recurrence after surgical treatment. we studied a historical cohort of 94 women with intraepithelial lesions CIN I (low grade), CIN II and CIN III (high grades) submitted to conization or electrosurgical excision of the transformation zone. We evaluated all surgical specimens for immunohistochemical expression of p16ink4a, hTert and Ki67. the mean age was 38.2 years; p16ink4a was absent in most CIN I cases. In patients with CIN II or I/II (association of low and high-grade lesions), we observed p16ink4a ≤10%. In patients with CIN III, we found a higher expression frequency of p16ink4a >50%. In CIN I, the majority had Ki67≤10% and low frequency of Ki67>50%. In the CIN III category, there were fewer patients with Ki67≤10%, and Ki67 was absent in most patients of CIN II and III groups. There was no association between hTert expression and histologic grade. There were no statistically significant differences between the expression of the markers in patients with and without recurrence. there was a statistically significant association of p16ink4a and Ki67 with histological grade. The markers' expression, as for disease recurrence, was not statistically significant in the period evaluated. estudar a associação entre a graduação histológica das neoplasias intraepiteliais cervicais (NIC I, NIC II e NIC III) e a expressão imuno-histoquímica para p16ink4a, hTert e Ki67, assim como, avaliar a relação destes marcadores com o risco de recorrência após tratamento cirúrgico. estudo de coorte histórica de 94 mulheres portadoras de lesões intraepiteliais NIC I (baixo grau), NIC II e NIC III (altos graus), submetidas à conização ou à excisão eletrocirúrgica da zona de transformação. Todas as

  9. Subunit heterogeneity in the lima bean lectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D D; Etzler, M E; Goldstein, I J

    1982-08-10

    Three forms of lectin (components I, II, and III) from lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus) have been purified on an affinity support containing the synthetic type A blood group trisaccharide alpha-D-GalNAc-(1 leads to 3)-[alpha-L-Fuc-(1 leads to 2)]-beta-D-Gal-(1 leads to). Conversion of components I and II to component III has been achieved by reduction in 10(-2) M dithiothreitol. Isoelectric focusing of lima bean lectin in the presence of 8 M urea and beta-mercaptoethanol revealed charge heterogeneity of the lectin subunits. Three major subunit classes of apparent pI 7.05, 6.65, and 6.45, designated alpha, beta, and alpha', respectively, were identified; they occur in a relative abundance of 2:5:3. Green lima beans harvested before maturity lacked the alpha' subunit (pI 6.45) which appears to accumulate during seed maturation. The three subunits are glycoproteins of identical size and immunochemical reactivity. Identical NH2-terminal sequences were found for the three subunits. Amino acid analysis and tryptic peptide mapping indicated that the observed charge heterogeneity is probably due to differences in the primary structure of the subunits. Studies of subunit composition of charge isolectins provided evidence of nonrandom subunit assembly. A model is proposed involving pairing of a pI 6.65 subunit with either a pI 7.06 or 6.45 subunit to form dimeric units. Possible roles for subunit heterogeneity and ordered subunit assembly in determining the metal and sugar binding properties of lima bean lectin are discussed.

  10. Characterisation of the tryptophan synthase alpha subunit in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gierl Alfons

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In bacteria, such as Salmonella typhimurium, tryptophan is synthesized from indole-3-glycerole phosphate (IGP by a tryptophan synthase αββα heterotetramer. Plants have evolved multiple α (TSA and β (TSB homologs, which have probably diverged in biological function and their ability of subunit interaction. There is some evidence for a tryptophan synthase (TS complex in Arabidopsis. On the other hand maize (Zea mays expresses the TSA-homologs BX1 and IGL that efficiently cleave IGP, independent of interaction with TSB. Results In order to clarify, how tryptophan is synthesized in maize, two TSA homologs, hitherto uncharacterized ZmTSA and ZmTSAlike, were functionally analyzed. ZmTSA is localized in plastids, the major site of tryptophan biosynthesis in plants. It catalyzes the tryptophan synthase α-reaction (cleavage of IGP, and forms a tryptophan synthase complex with ZmTSB1 in vitro. The catalytic efficiency of the α-reaction is strongly enhanced upon complex formation. A 160 kD tryptophan synthase complex was partially purified from maize leaves and ZmTSA was identified as native α-subunit of this complex by mass spectrometry. ZmTSAlike, for which no in vitro activity was detected, is localized in the cytosol. ZmTSAlike, BX1, and IGL were not detectable in the native tryptophan synthase complex in leaves. Conclusion It was demonstrated in vivo and in vitro that maize forms a tryptophan synthase complex and ZmTSA functions as α-subunit in this complex.

  11. Structural analysis of the α subunit of Na(+)/K(+) ATPase genes in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabet, Rahma; Rouault, J-D; Ayadi, Habib; Leignel, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    The Na(+)/K(+) ATPase is a ubiquitous pump coordinating the transport of Na(+) and K(+) across the membrane of cells and its role is fundamental to cellular functions. It is heteromer in eukaryotes including two or three subunits (α, β and γ which is specific to the vertebrates). The catalytic functions of the enzyme have been attributed to the α subunit. Several complete α protein sequences are available, but only few gene structures were characterized. We identified the genomic sequences coding the α-subunit of the Na(+)/K(+) ATPase, from the whole-genome shotgun contigs (WGS), NCBI Genomes (chromosome), Genomic Survey Sequences (GSS) and High Throughput Genomic Sequences (HTGS) databases across distinct phyla. One copy of the α subunit gene was found in Annelida, Arthropoda, Cnidaria, Echinodermata, Hemichordata, Mollusca, Placozoa, Porifera, Platyhelminthes, Urochordata, but the nematodes seem to possess 2 to 4 copies. The number of introns varied from 0 (Platyhelminthes) to 26 (Porifera); and their localization and length are also highly variable. Molecular phylogenies (Maximum Likelihood and Maximum Parsimony methods) showed some clusters constituted by (Chordata/(Echinodermata/Hemichordata)) or (Plathelminthes/(Annelida/Mollusca)) and a basal position for Porifera. These structural analyses increase our knowledge about the evolutionary events of the α subunit genes in the invertebrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Structural insights into methyltransferase KsgA function in 30S ribosomal subunit biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehringer, Daniel; O'Farrell, Heather C; Rife, Jason P; Ban, Nenad

    2012-03-23

    The assembly of the ribosomal subunits is facilitated by ribosome biogenesis factors. The universally conserved methyltransferase KsgA modifies two adjacent adenosine residues in the 3'-terminal helix 45 of the 16 S ribosomal RNA (rRNA). KsgA recognizes its substrate adenosine residues only in the context of a near mature 30S subunit and is required for the efficient processing of the rRNA termini during ribosome biogenesis. Here, we present the cryo-EM structure of KsgA bound to a nonmethylated 30S ribosomal subunit. The structure reveals that KsgA binds to the 30S platform with the catalytic N-terminal domain interacting with substrate adenosine residues in helix 45 and the C-terminal domain making extensive contacts to helix 27 and helix 24. KsgA excludes the penultimate rRNA helix 44 from adopting its position in the mature 30S subunit, blocking the formation of the decoding site and subunit joining. We suggest that the activation of methyltransferase activity and subsequent dissociation of KsgA control conformational changes in helix 44 required for final rRNA processing and translation initiation.

  13. Structural Insights into Methyltransferase KsgA Function in 30S Ribosomal Subunit Biogenesis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehringer, Daniel; O'Farrell, Heather C.; Rife, Jason P.; Ban, Nenad

    2012-01-01

    The assembly of the ribosomal subunits is facilitated by ribosome biogenesis factors. The universally conserved methyltransferase KsgA modifies two adjacent adenosine residues in the 3′-terminal helix 45 of the 16 S ribosomal RNA (rRNA). KsgA recognizes its substrate adenosine residues only in the context of a near mature 30S subunit and is required for the efficient processing of the rRNA termini during ribosome biogenesis. Here, we present the cryo-EM structure of KsgA bound to a nonmethylated 30S ribosomal subunit. The structure reveals that KsgA binds to the 30S platform with the catalytic N-terminal domain interacting with substrate adenosine residues in helix 45 and the C-terminal domain making extensive contacts to helix 27 and helix 24. KsgA excludes the penultimate rRNA helix 44 from adopting its position in the mature 30S subunit, blocking the formation of the decoding site and subunit joining. We suggest that the activation of methyltransferase activity and subsequent dissociation of KsgA control conformational changes in helix 44 required for final rRNA processing and translation initiation. PMID:22308031

  14. Role of the Rubisco Small Subunit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spreitzer, Robert Joseph [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    2016-11-05

    Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of CO2 fixation in photosynthesis. However, it is a slow enzyme, and O2 competes with CO2 at the active site. Oxygenation initiates the photorespiratory pathway, which also results in the loss of CO2. If carboxylation could be increased or oxygenation decreased, an increase in net CO2 fixation would be realized. Because Rubisco provides the primary means by which carbon enters all life on earth, there is much interest in engineering Rubisco to increase the production of food and renewable energy. Rubisco is located in the chloroplasts of plants, and it is comprised of two subunits. Much is known about the chloroplast-gene-encoded large subunit (rbcL gene), which contains the active site, but much less is known about the role of the nuclear-gene-encoded small subunit in Rubisco function (rbcS gene). Both subunits are coded by multiple genes in plants, which makes genetic engineering difficult. In the eukaryotic, green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, it has been possible to eliminate all the Rubisco genes. These Rubisco-less mutants can be maintained by providing acetate as an alternative carbon source. In this project, focus has been placed on determining whether the small subunit might be a better genetic-engineering target for improving Rubisco. Analysis of a variable-loop structure (βA-βB loop) of the small subunit by genetic selection, directed mutagenesis, and construction of chimeras has shown that the small subunit can influence CO2/O2 specificity. X-ray crystal structures of engineered chimeric-loop enzymes have indicated that additional residues and regions of the small subunit may also contribute to Rubisco function. Structural dynamics of the small-subunit carboxyl terminus was also investigated. Alanine-scanning mutagenesis of the most-conserved small-subunit residues has identified a

  15. YC-1 BINDING TO THE BETA SUBUNIT OF SOLUBLE GUANYLYL CYCLASE OVERCOMES ALLOSTERIC INHIBITION BY THE ALPHA SUBUNIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, Rahul; Fritz, Bradley G.; The, Juliana; Issaian, Aaron; Weichsel, Andrzej; David, Cynthia L.; Campbell, Eric; Hausrath, Andrew C.; Rassouli-Taylor, Leida; Garcin, Elsa D.; Gage, Matthew J.; Montfort, William R.

    2014-01-01

    Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) is a heterodimeric heme protein and the primary nitric oxide receptor. NO binding stimulates cyclase activity, leading to regulation of cardiovascular physiology and making sGC an attractive target for drug discovery. YC-1 and related compounds stimulate sGC both independently and synergistically with NO and CO binding; however, where the compounds bind and how they work remains unknown. Using linked-equilibria binding measurements, surface plasmon resonance, and domain truncations in Manduca sexta and bovine sGC, we demonstrate that YC-1 binds near or directly to the heme-containing domain of the beta subunit. In the absence of CO, YC-1 binds with Kd = 9–21 μM, depending on construct. In the presence of CO, these values decrease to 0.6–1.1 μM. Pfizer compound 25 bound ~10-fold weaker than YC-1 in the absence of CO whereas compound BAY 41–2272 bound particularly tightly in the presence of CO (Kd = 30–90 nM). Additionally, we found that CO binding is much weaker to heterodimeric sGC proteins (Kd = 50–100 μM) than to the isolated heme domain (Kd = 0.2 μM for Manduca beta H-NOX/PAS). YC-1 greatly enhanced CO binding to heterodimeric sGC, as expected (Kd = ~1 μM). These data indicate the alpha subunit induces a heme pocket conformation with lower affinity for CO and NO. YC-1 family compounds bind near the heme domain, overcoming the alpha subunit effect and inducing a heme pocket conformation with high affinity. We propose this high-affinity conformation is required for the full-length protein to achieve high catalytic activity. PMID:24328155

  16. 28 CFR 51.6 - Political subunits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Political subunits. 51.6 Section 51.6 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR THE ADMINISTRATION OF SECTION 5 OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965, AS AMENDED General Provisions § 51.6 Political subunits. All political...

  17. Catalytic reforming methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadd, Andrew R; Schwank, Johannes

    2013-05-14

    A catalytic reforming method is disclosed herein. The method includes sequentially supplying a plurality of feedstocks of variable compositions to a reformer. The method further includes adding a respective predetermined co-reactant to each of the plurality of feedstocks to obtain a substantially constant output from the reformer for the plurality of feedstocks. The respective predetermined co-reactant is based on a C/H/O atomic composition for a respective one of the plurality of feedstocks and a predetermined C/H/O atomic composition for the substantially constant output.

  18. Highly Active, Nonprecious Electrocatalyst Comprising Borophene Subunits for the Hydrogen Evolution Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanli; Yu, Guangtao; Chen, Wei; Liu, Yipu; Li, Guo-Dong; Zhu, Pinwen; Tao, Qiang; Li, Qiuju; Liu, Jingwei; Shen, Xiaopeng; Li, Hui; Huang, Xuri; Wang, Dejun; Asefa, Tewodros; Zou, Xiaoxin

    2017-09-13

    Developing nonprecious hydrogen evolution electrocatalysts that can work well at large current densities (e.g., at 1000 mA/cm2: a value that is relevant for practical, large-scale applications) is of great importance for realizing a viable water-splitting technology. Herein we present a combined theoretical and experimental study that leads to the identification of α-phase molybdenum diboride (α-MoB2) comprising borophene subunits as a noble metal-free, superefficient electrocatalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Our theoretical finding indicates, unlike the surfaces of Pt- and MoS2-based catalysts, those of α-MoB2 can maintain high catalytic activity for HER even at very high hydrogen coverage and attain a high density of efficient catalytic active sites. Experiments confirm α-MoB2 can deliver large current densities in the order of 1000 mA/cm2, and also has excellent catalytic stability during HER. The theoretical and experimental results show α-MoB2's catalytic activity, especially at large current densities, is due to its high conductivity, large density of efficient catalytic active sites and good mass transport property.

  19. Urinary catalytic iron in obesity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thethi, Tina K; Parsha, Kaushik; Rajapurkar, Mohan; Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata; Shah, Sudhir; Yau, C Lillian; Japa, Shanker; Fonseca, Vivian

    2011-01-01

    ...), hypertension, and chronic kidney disease. Catalytic iron, which has been associated with these chronic diseases, may be one of the links between obesity and these multifactorial diverse disorders...

  20. [The effects on expressions of p53 and PCNA by inhibition of hTERT with siRNA in transplantable model of human laryngeal squamous carcinoma in nude mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Junxu; Zhou, Xuhong; Tao, Zezhang; Xiao, Bokui; Chen, Shiming; Liu, Dan

    2006-03-01

    To investigate the expressions of p53 and PCNA by inhibition of hTERT with siRNA in xenografted laryngeal squamous carcinoma in nude mice. pshRNA involved fluorescein gene was synthesized according to the sequence of hTERT cDNA. The xenografted tumor in nude mice was established by using human laryngeal squamous carcinoma cell line (Hep-2). pshRNA packaged by METAFECTENE was transfected into the transplantation tumors. The volumes of the subcutaneous tumor were determined. Fluorescence expression in the tumors was detected by confocal microscopy. The expressions of p53 and PCNA were detected using immunohistochemistry. The subcutaneous tumors appeared in all the nude mice after transplantation five days later. The diameter of subcutaneous tumors become 5-7 mm after transplantation. Many green fluorescent cells were observed by confocal microscopy after transfection of pshRNA and blank plasmid. The growth of laryngeal squamous carcinoma in nude mice was significantly decreased as compared with the control group. The proliferation activity was inhibited by 76.50%. The expressions of p53 was upregulated and the expression of PCNA was downregulated. The transfection of pshRNA could significantly induce inhibitory effects on growth of laryngeal squamous carcinoma in nude mice and the expression of PCNA could be effectively downregulated. The inhibition of telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) mRNA could upregulate the expression of p53 and promote the apoptosis of carcinoma cells as well as inhibit the proliferation of laryngeal squamous carcinoma cells.

  1. Novel Catalytic Membrane Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart Nemser, PhD

    2010-10-01

    There are many industrial catalytic organic reversible reactions with amines or alcohols that have water as one of the products. Many of these reactions are homogeneously catalyzed. In all cases removal of water facilitates the reaction and produces more of the desired chemical product. By shifting the reaction to right we produce more chemical product with little or no additional capital investment. Many of these reactions can also relate to bioprocesses. Given the large number of water-organic compound separations achievable and the ability of the Compact Membrane Systems, Inc. (CMS) perfluoro membranes to withstand these harsh operating conditions, this is an ideal demonstration system for the water-of-reaction removal using a membrane reactor. Enhanced reaction synthesis is consistent with the DOE objective to lower the energy intensity of U.S. industry 25% by 2017 in accord with the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and to improve the United States manufacturing competitiveness. The objective of this program is to develop the platform technology for enhancing homogeneous catalytic chemical syntheses.

  2. Reconstitution of normal and hyperactivated forms of casein kinase-2 by variably mutated beta-subunits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldyreff, B; Meggio, F; Pinna, L A

    1993-01-01

    for their ability to functionally replace the wild type beta-subunit. All substitutions and the deletions delta 1-4, delta 194-215, and delta 209-215 are compatible with effective binding of the catalytic alpha-subunit, as judged by sucrose density gradient analysis, stimulation of catalytic activity...... an altered sedimentation coefficient. The holoenzymes reconstituted with substituted mutants beta A 55,57, beta A55-57, and, to a lesser extent, beta A 59-61, beta A63,64, and beta A5,6 display a basal activity which is higher (up to 4-fold) than that of the wild type holoenzyme.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250......Twenty-one mutants of the noncatalytic beta-subunit of human casein kinase-2 have been created, expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified to homogeneity. They are either modified at the autophosphorylation site (mutants beta delta 1-4 and beta A 5,6) or bear variable deletions in their C...

  3. Organization of Subunits in the Membrane Domain of the Bovine F-ATPase Revealed by Covalent Cross-linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jennifer; Ding, ShuJing; Walpole, Thomas B; Holding, Andrew N; Montgomery, Martin G; Fearnley, Ian M; Walker, John E

    2015-05-22

    The F-ATPase in bovine mitochondria is a membrane-bound complex of about 30 subunits of 18 different kinds. Currently, ∼85% of its structure is known. The enzyme has a membrane extrinsic catalytic domain, and a membrane intrinsic domain where the turning of the enzyme's rotor is generated from the transmembrane proton-motive force. The domains are linked by central and peripheral stalks. The central stalk and a hydrophobic ring of c-subunits in the membrane domain constitute the enzyme's rotor. The external surface of the catalytic domain and membrane subunit a are linked by the peripheral stalk, holding them static relative to the rotor. The membrane domain contains six additional subunits named ATP8, e, f, g, DAPIT (diabetes-associated protein in insulin-sensitive tissues), and 6.8PL (6.8-kDa proteolipid), each with a single predicted transmembrane α-helix, but their orientation and topography are unknown. Mutations in ATP8 uncouple the enzyme and interfere with its assembly, but its roles and the roles of the other five subunits are largely unknown. We have reacted accessible amino groups in the enzyme with bifunctional cross-linking agents and identified the linked residues. Cross-links involving the supernumerary subunits, where the structures are not known, show that the C terminus of ATP8 extends ∼70 Å from the membrane into the peripheral stalk and that the N termini of the other supernumerary subunits are on the same side of the membrane, probably in the mitochondrial matrix. These experiments contribute significantly toward building up a complete structural picture of the F-ATPase. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Subunit mass analysis for monitoring antibody oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolowska, Izabela; Mo, Jingjie; Dong, Jia; Lewis, Michael J; Hu, Ping

    2017-04-01

    Methionine oxidation is a common posttranslational modification (PTM) of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Oxidation can reduce the in-vivo half-life, efficacy and stability of the product. Peptide mapping is commonly used to monitor the levels of oxidation, but this is a relatively time-consuming method. A high-throughput, automated subunit mass analysis method was developed to monitor antibody methionine oxidation. In this method, samples were treated with IdeS, EndoS and dithiothreitol to generate three individual IgG subunits (light chain, Fd' and single chain Fc). These subunits were analyzed by reversed phase-ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with an online quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer and the levels of oxidation on each subunit were quantitated based on the deconvoluted mass spectra using the UNIFI software. The oxidation results obtained by subunit mass analysis correlated well with the results obtained by peptide mapping. Method qualification demonstrated that this subunit method had excellent repeatability and intermediate precision. In addition, UNIFI software used in this application allows automated data acquisition and processing, which makes this method suitable for high-throughput process monitoring and product characterization. Finally, subunit mass analysis revealed the different patterns of Fc methionine oxidation induced by chemical and photo stress, which makes it attractive for investigating the root cause of oxidation.

  5. Generation in vivo of peptide-specific cytotoxic T cells and presence of regulatory T cells during vaccination with hTERT (class I and II peptide-pulsed DCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satthaporn Sukchai

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Optimal techniques for DC generation for immunotherapy in cancer are yet to be established. Study aims were to evaluate: (i DC activation/maturation milieu (TNF-α +/- IFN-α and its effects on CD8+ hTERT-specific T cell responses to class I epitopes (p540 or p865, (ii CD8+ hTERT-specific T cell responses elicited by vaccination with class I alone or both class I and II epitope (p766 and p672-pulsed DCs, prepared without IFN-α, (iii association between circulating T regulatory cells (Tregs and clinical responses. Methods Autologous DCs were generated from 10 patients (HLA-0201 with advanced cancer by culturing CD14+ blood monocytes in the presence of GM-CSF and IL-4 supplemented with TNF-α [DCT] or TNF-α and IFN-α [DCTI]. The capacity of the DCs to induce functional CD8+ T cell responses to hTERT HLA-0201 restricted nonapeptides was assessed by MHC tetramer binding and peptide-specific cytotoxicity. Each DC preparation (DCT or DCTI was pulsed with only one type of hTERT peptide (p540 or p865 and both preparations were injected into separate lymph node draining regions every 2–3 weeks. This vaccination design enabled comparison of efficacy between DCT and DCTI in generating hTERT peptide specific CD8+ T cells and comparison of class I hTERT peptide (p540 or p865-loaded DCT with or without class II cognate help (p766 and p672 in 6 patients. T regulatory cells were evaluated in 8 patients. Results (i DCTIs and DCTs, pulsed with hTERT peptides, were comparable (p = 0.45, t-test in inducing peptide-specific CD8+ T cell responses. (ii Class II cognate help, significantly enhanced (p (iii Clinical responders had significantly lower (p Conclusion Addition of IFN-α to ex vivo monocyte-derived DCs, did not significantly enhance peptide-specific T cell responses in vivo, compared with TNF-α alone. Class II cognate help significantly augments peptide-specific T cell responses. Clinically favourable responses were seen in patients

  6. Engineering reactors for catalytic reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Extensive studies have been conducted to establish sound basis for design and engineering of reactors for practising such catalytic reactions and for realizing improvements in reactor performance. In this article, application of recent (and not so recent) developments in engineering reactors for catalytic reactions is ...

  7. Evolution of random catalytic networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, S.M. [Santa Fe Inst., NM (United States); Reidys, C.M. [Santa Fe Inst., NM (United States)]|[Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-06-01

    In this paper the authors investigate the evolution of populations of sequences on a random catalytic network. Sequences are mapped into structures, between which are catalytic interactions that determine their instantaneous fitness. The catalytic network is constructed as a random directed graph. They prove that at certain parameter values, the probability of some relevant subgraphs of this graph, for example cycles without outgoing edges, is maximized. Populations evolving under point mutations realize a comparatively small induced subgraph of the complete catalytic network. They present results which show that populations reliably discover and persist on directed cycles in the catalytic graph, though these may be lost because of stochastic effects, and study the effect of population size on this behavior.

  8. Catalytic Combustion of Gasified Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusar, Henrik

    2003-09-01

    This thesis concerns catalytic combustion for gas turbine application using a low heating-value (LHV) gas, derived from gasified waste. The main research in catalytic combustion focuses on methane as fuel, but an increasing interest is directed towards catalytic combustion of LHV fuels. This thesis shows that it is possible to catalytically combust a LHV gas and to oxidize fuel-bound nitrogen (NH{sub 3}) directly into N{sub 2} without forming NO{sub x} The first part of the thesis gives a background to the system. It defines waste, shortly describes gasification and more thoroughly catalytic combustion. The second part of the present thesis, paper I, concerns the development and testing of potential catalysts for catalytic combustion of LHV gases. The objective of this work was to investigate the possibility to use a stable metal oxide instead of noble metals as ignition catalyst and at the same time reduce the formation of NO{sub x} In paper II pilot-scale tests were carried out to prove the potential of catalytic combustion using real gasified waste and to compare with the results obtained in laboratory scale using a synthetic gas simulating gasified waste. In paper III, selective catalytic oxidation for decreasing the NO{sub x} formation from fuel-bound nitrogen was examined using two different approaches: fuel-lean and fuel-rich conditions. Finally, the last part of the thesis deals with deactivation of catalysts. The various deactivation processes which may affect high-temperature catalytic combustion are reviewed in paper IV. In paper V the poisoning effect of low amounts of sulfur was studied; various metal oxides as well as supported palladium and platinum catalysts were used as catalysts for combustion of a synthetic gas. In conclusion, with the results obtained in this thesis it would be possible to compose a working catalytic system for gas turbine application using a LHV gas.

  9. UDP-galactose 4-epimerase from Escherichia coli: existence of a catalytic monomer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayar, S; Bhattacharyya, D

    1997-06-16

    UDP-galactose 4-epimerase from Escherichia coli is a homodimer of molecular mass 39 kDa/subunit and requires NAD as a co-factor. X-ray crystallographic studies indicate two pyridine nucleotide co-factor-binding sites of the dimeric molecule situated in a symmetry-oriented manner. Size-exclusion HPLC of an equilibrium intermediate at 3 M urea suggests a monomeric holoenzyme structure that is catalytically active. Ultracentrifugal studies of the native enzyme in a 5-20% sucrose gradient at low protein concentration also indicate existence of a catalytic monomer. The monomer resembles the dimeric protein in stability and most of its physico-chemical properties.

  10. Risk capital allocation with autonomous subunits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Smilgins, Aleksandrs

    2016-01-01

    the sum of the risks of the individual subunits. The question is how to allocate the risk capital of the group among the subunits in a fair way. In this paper we propose to use the Lorenz set as an allocation method. We show that the Lorenz set is operational and coherent. Moreover, we propose three......Risk capital allocation problems have been widely discussed in the academic literature. We consider a set of independent subunits collaborating in order to reduce risk: that is, when subunit portfolios are merged a diversification benefit arises and the risk of the group as a whole is smaller than...... fairness tests related directly to the problem of risk capital allocation and show that the Lorenz set satisfies all three tests in contrast to other well-known coherent methods. Finally, we discuss how to deal with non-uniqueness of the Lorenz set....

  11. Synthetic Tet-inducible small hairpin RNAs targeting hTERT or Bcl-2 inhibit malignant phenotypes of bladder cancer T24 and 5637 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Junhao; Liu, Yuchen; Zhan, Yonghao; Zhuang, Chengle; Liu, Li; Fu, Xing; Xu, Wen; Li, Jianfa; Chen, Mingwei; Cai, Zhiming; Huang, Weiren

    2016-03-01

    Small hairpin RNA (shRNA) can inhibit the malignant phenotypes of tumor cell through ribonucleic acid interference (RNAi). However, it is hardly to be regulated and it may induce few phenotypic changes. Here, we build a type of tetracycline (Tet)-inducible vectors which can achieve regulatable expression of shRNA in a time-dependent manner by using synthetic biology approach. In order to prove the effectiveness of this device, we chose hTERT and Bcl-2 as target genes and test the utility of the device on 5637 and T24 cell lines. The experiments show that the Tet-inducible small hairpin RNA can effectively suppress their target genes and generate anti-cancer effects on both 5637 and T24 cell lines. The device we build not only can inhibit proliferation but also can induce apoptosis and suppress migration of the bladder cancer cell lines 5637 and T24. The Tet-inducible small hairpin RNAs may provide a novel strategy for the treatment of human bladder cancer in the future.

  12. Role of small subunit in mediating assembly of red-type form I Rubisco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Jidnyasa; Mueller-Cajar, Oliver; Tsai, Yi-Chin C; Hartl, F Ulrich; Hayer-Hartl, Manajit

    2015-01-09

    Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) is the key enzyme involved in photosynthetic carbon fixation, converting atmospheric CO2 to organic compounds. Form I Rubisco is a cylindrical complex composed of eight large (RbcL) subunits that are capped by four small subunits (RbcS) at the top and four at the bottom. Form I Rubiscos are phylogenetically divided into green- and red-type. Some red-type enzymes have catalytically superior properties. Thus, understanding their folding and assembly is of considerable biotechnological interest. Folding of the green-type RbcL subunits in cyanobacteria is mediated by the GroEL/ES chaperonin system, and assembly to holoenzyme requires specialized chaperones such as RbcX and RAF1. Here, we show that the red-type RbcL subunits in the proteobacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides also fold with GroEL/ES. However, assembly proceeds in a chaperone-independent manner. We find that the C-terminal β-hairpin extension of red-type RbcS, which is absent in green-type RbcS, is critical for efficient assembly. The β-hairpins of four RbcS subunits form an eight-stranded β-barrel that protrudes into the central solvent channel of the RbcL core complex. The two β-barrels stabilize the complex through multiple interactions with the RbcL subunits. A chimeric green-type RbcS carrying the C-terminal β-hairpin renders the assembly of a cyanobacterial Rubisco independent of RbcX. Our results may facilitate the engineering of crop plants with improved growth properties expressing red-type Rubisco. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Role of Small Subunit in Mediating Assembly of Red-type Form I Rubisco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Jidnyasa; Mueller-Cajar, Oliver; Tsai, Yi-Chin C.; Hartl, F. Ulrich; Hayer-Hartl, Manajit

    2015-01-01

    Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) is the key enzyme involved in photosynthetic carbon fixation, converting atmospheric CO2 to organic compounds. Form I Rubisco is a cylindrical complex composed of eight large (RbcL) subunits that are capped by four small subunits (RbcS) at the top and four at the bottom. Form I Rubiscos are phylogenetically divided into green- and red-type. Some red-type enzymes have catalytically superior properties. Thus, understanding their folding and assembly is of considerable biotechnological interest. Folding of the green-type RbcL subunits in cyanobacteria is mediated by the GroEL/ES chaperonin system, and assembly to holoenzyme requires specialized chaperones such as RbcX and RAF1. Here, we show that the red-type RbcL subunits in the proteobacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides also fold with GroEL/ES. However, assembly proceeds in a chaperone-independent manner. We find that the C-terminal β-hairpin extension of red-type RbcS, which is absent in green-type RbcS, is critical for efficient assembly. The β-hairpins of four RbcS subunits form an eight-stranded β-barrel that protrudes into the central solvent channel of the RbcL core complex. The two β-barrels stabilize the complex through multiple interactions with the RbcL subunits. A chimeric green-type RbcS carrying the C-terminal β-hairpin renders the assembly of a cyanobacterial Rubisco independent of RbcX. Our results may facilitate the engineering of crop plants with improved growth properties expressing red-type Rubisco. PMID:25371207

  14. Specific degradation of H. pylori urease by a catalytic antibody light chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hifumi, Emi; Hatiuchi, Kenji; Okuda, Takuro; Nishizono, Akira; Okamura, Yoshiko; Uda, Taizo

    2005-09-01

    Catalytic antibodies capable of digesting crucial proteins of pathogenic bacteria have long been sought for potential therapeutic use. Helicobacter pylori urease plays a crucial role for the survival of this bacterium in the highly acidic conditions of human stomach. The HpU-9 monoclonal antibody (mAb) raised against H. pylori urease recognized the alpha-subunit of the urease, but only slightly recognized the beta-subunit. However, when isolated both the light and the heavy chains of this antibody were mostly bound to the beta-subunit. The cleavage reaction catalyzed by HpU-9 light chain (HpU-9-L) followed the Michaelis-Menten equation with a K(m) of 1.6 x 10(-5) m and a k(cat) of 0.11 min(-1), suggesting that the cleavage reaction was enzymatic. In a cleavage test using H. pylori urease, HpU-9-L efficiently cleaved the beta-subunit but not the alpha-subunit, indicating that the degradation by HpU-9-L had a specificity. The cleaved peptide bonds in the beta-subunit were L121-A122, E124-G125, S229-A230, Y241-D242, and M262-A263. BSA was hardly cleaved by HpU-9-L, again indicating the digestion by HpU-9-L was specific. In summary, we succeeded in the preparation of a catalytic antibody light chain capable of specifically digesting the beta-subunit of H. pylori urease.

  15. A Mutation in the Catalytic Subunit of the Glycosylphosphatidylinositol Transamidase Disrupts Growth, Fertility, and Stomata Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundy, Mark G R; Kosentka, Pawel Z; Willet, Alaina H; Zhang, Liang; Miller, Emily; Shpak, Elena D

    2016-06-01

    GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) are essential for plant growth and development; knockout mutations in enzymes responsible for anchor biosynthesis or attachment are gametophyte or embryo lethal. In a genetic screen targeted to identify genes regulating stomata formation, we discovered a missense mutation in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) homolog of GPI8/PIG-K, a Cys protease that transfers an assembled GPI anchor to proteins. The Arabidopsis genome has a single copy of AtGPI8, and the atgpi8-1 mutation reduces the efficiency of this enzyme, leading to reduced accumulation of GPI-anchored proteins. While the atgpi8-1 mutation strongly disrupts plant growth, it is not lethal. Phenotypic analysis of atgpi8-1 mutants suggests that GPI-APs are important for root and shoot growth, stomata formation, apical dominance, transition to flowering, and male gametophyte viability. In addition, atgpi8-1 mutants accumulate higher levels of callose and have reduced plasmodesmata permeability. Genetic interactions of atgpi8-1 with mutations in ERECTA family (ERf) genes suggest the existence of a GPI-AP in a branch of the ERf signaling pathway that regulates stomata formation. Activation of the ERf signal transduction cascade by constitutively active YODA rescues stomata clustering in atgpi8-1, indicating that a GPI-AP functions upstream of the MAP kinase cascade. TOO MANY MOUTHS (TMM) is a receptor-like protein that is able to form heterodimers with ERfs. Our analysis demonstrates that tmm-1 is epistatic to atgpi8-1, indicating that either TMM is a GPI-AP or there is another GPI-AP regulating stomata development whose function is dependent upon TMM. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Glucose-6-Phosphatase Catalytic Subunit 3 (G6PC3 Deficiency Associated With Autoinflammatory Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoop Mistry

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available G6PC3 deficiency typically causes severe congenital neutropenia, associated with susceptibility to infections, cardiac and urogenital abnormalities. However, here we describe two boys of Pakistani origin who were found to have G6PC3 deficiency due to c.130 C>T mutation, but who have clinical phenotypes that are typical for a systemic autoinflammatory syndrome. The index case presented with combination of unexplained fevers, severe mucosal ulcers, abdominal symptoms, and inflammatory arthritis. He eventually fully responded to anti-TNF therapy. In this study, we show that compared with healthy controls, neutrophils and monocytes from patients have reduced glycolytic reserve. Considering that healthy myeloid cells have been shown to switch their metabolic pathways to glycolysis in response to inflammatory cues, we studied what impact this might have on production of the inflammatory cytokines. We have demonstrated that patients’ monocytes, in response to lipopolysaccharide, show significantly increased production of IL-1β and IL-18, which is NLRP3 inflammasome dependent. Furthermore, additional whole blood assays have also shown an enhanced production of IL-6 and TNF from the patients’ cells. These cases provide further proof that autoinflammatory complications are also seen within the spectrum of primary immune deficiencies, and resulting from a wider dysregulation of the immune responses.

  17. Catalytic production of biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theilgaard Madsen, A.

    2011-07-01

    The focus of this thesis is the catalytic production of diesel from biomass, especially emphasising catalytic conversion of waste vegetable oils and fats. In chapter 1 an introduction to biofuels and a review on different catalytic methods for diesel production from biomass is given. Two of these methods have been used industrially for a number of years already, namely the transesterification (and esterification) of oils and fats with methanol to form fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), and the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of fats and oils to form straight-chain alkanes. Other possible routes to diesel include upgrading and deoxygenation of pyrolysis oils or aqueous sludge wastes, condensations and reductions of sugars in aqueous phase (aqueous-phase reforming, APR) for monofunctional hydrocarbons, and gasification of any type of biomass followed by Fischer-Tropsch-synthesis for alkane biofuels. These methods have not yet been industrialised, but may be more promising due to the larger abundance of their potential feedstocks, especially waste feedstocks. Chapter 2 deals with formation of FAME from waste fats and oils. A range of acidic catalysts were tested in a model fat mixture of methanol, lauric acid and trioctanoin. Sulphonic acid-functionalised ionic liquids showed extremely fast convertion of lauric acid to methyl laurate, and trioctanoate was converted to methyl octanoate within 24 h. A catalyst based on a sulphonated carbon-matrix made by pyrolysing (or carbonising) carbohydrates, so-called sulphonated pyrolysed sucrose (SPS), was optimised further. No systematic dependency on pyrolysis and sulphonation conditions could be obtained, however, with respect to esterification activity, but high activity was obtained in the model fat mixture. SPS impregnated on opel-cell Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and microporous SiO{sub 2} (ISPS) was much less active in the esterification than the original SPS powder due to low loading and thereby low number of strongly acidic sites on the

  18. Evidence for a novel thioredoxin-like catalytic property of gonadotropic hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boniface, J J; Reichert, L E

    1990-01-05

    It has been proposed that dithiol-disulfide interchange and oxidation-reduction reactions may play a role in hormone-induced receptor activation. Inspection of the sequences of the gonadotropic hormones revealed a homologous tetrapeptide (Cys-Gly-Pro-Cys) between the beta subunit of lutropin (LH) and the active site of thioredoxin (TD). The beta subunit of follitropin (FSH) has a similar sequence (Cys-Gly-Lys-Cys). Thioredoxin is a ubiquitous protein serving as an electron donor for ribonucleotide reductase, but it also exhibits disulfide isomerase activity. The catalytic activity of TD was assayed by its ability to reactivate reduced and denatured ribonuclease. In this assay, the purified ovine FSH and bovine LH preparations tested were approximately 60 and approximately 300 times, respectively, as active as TD on a molar basis. This heretofore unsuspected catalytic property of FSH and LH may be important in understanding their mechanism of receptor activation and signal transduction.

  19. Keratinocyte-associated protein 2 is a bona fide subunit of the mammalian oligosaccharyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roboti, Peristera; High, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) complex catalyses the N-glycosylation of polypeptides entering the endoplasmic reticulum, a process essential for the productive folding and trafficking of many secretory and membrane proteins. In eukaryotes, the OST typically comprises a homologous catalytic STT3 subunit complexed with several additional components that are usually conserved, and that often function to modulate N-glycosylation efficiency. By these criteria, the status of keratinocyte-associated protein 2 (KCP2) was unclear: it was found to co-purify with the canine OST suggesting it is part of the complex but, unlike most other subunits, no potential homologues are apparent in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study we have characterised human KCP2 and show that the predominant species results from an alternative initiation of translation to form an integral membrane protein with three transmembrane spans. KCP2 localises to the endoplasmic reticulum, consistent with a role in protein biosynthesis, and has a functional KKxx retrieval signal at its cytosolic C-terminus. Native gel analysis suggests that the majority of KCP2 assembles into a distinct ~500 kDa complex that also contains several bona fide OST subunits, most notably the catalytic STT3A isoform. Co-immunoprecipitation studies confirmed a robust and specific physical interaction between KCP2 and STT3A, and revealed weaker associations with both STT3B and OST48. Taken together, these data strongly support the proposal that KCP2 is a newly identified subunit of the N-glycosylation machinery present in a subset of eukaryotes.

  20. Catalytic cracking with deasphalted oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaton, W.I.; Taylor, J.L.; Peck, L.B.; Mosby, J.F.

    1990-07-10

    This patent describes a catalytic cracking process. It comprises: hydrotreating resid; thereafter deasphalting the hydrotreated resid to produce substantially deasphalted oil; catalytically cracking the hydrotreated oil in a catalytic cracking unit in the presence of a cracking catalyst to produce upgraded oil leaving coked catalyst; and regenerating the coked catalyst in the presence of a combustion-supporting gas comprising excess molecular oxygen in an amount greater than the stoichiometric amount required for substantially completely combusting the coke on the catalyst to carbon dioxide.

  1. Catalytic cracking of lignites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, M.; Nowak, S.; Naegler, T.; Zimmermann, J. [Hochschule Merseburg (Germany); Welscher, J.; Schwieger, W. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ. (Germany); Hahn, T. [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    A most important factor for the chemical industry is the availability of cheap raw materials. As the oil price of crude oil is rising alternative feedstocks like coal are coming into focus. This work, the catalytic cracking of lignite is part of the alliance ibi (innovative Braunkohlenintegration) to use lignite as a raw material to produce chemicals. With this new one step process without an input of external hydrogen, mostly propylene, butenes and aromatics and char are formed. The product yield depends on manifold process parameters. The use of acid catalysts (zeolites like MFI) shows the highest amount of the desired products. Hydrogen rich lignites with a molar H/C ratio of > 1 are to be favoured. Due to primary cracking and secondary reactions the ratio between catalyst and lignite, temperature and residence time are the most important parameter to control the product distribution. Experiments at 500 C in a discontinuous rotary kiln reactor show yields up to 32 wt-% of hydrocarbons per lignite (maf - moisture and ash free) and 43 wt-% char, which can be gasified. Particularly, the yields of propylene and butenes as main products can be enhanced four times to about 8 wt-% by the use of catalysts while the tar yield decreases. In order to develop this innovative process catalyst systems fixed on beads were developed for an easy separation and regeneration of the used catalyst from the formed char. (orig.)

  2. Analysis of DNA methylation status of the promoter of human telomerase reverse transcriptase in gastric carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenghui; Xu, Jinheng; Geng, Xin; Zhang, Weiming

    2010-01-01

    Telomerase is expressed in normal somatic cells and reactivated in majority of tumor cells. Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), a catalytic subunit of telomerase, is a rate-limiting factor of telomerase activity. Evidence has shown that gastric cancer is the result of genetics and epignomics. DNA methylation is one of the most important research fields in epigenomics. It is one of the mechanisms resulting in gene silencing in carcinogenesis. Genomic DNAs were extracted from normal gastric mucosa, precancerous lesions and gastric cancer samples and were modified by sodium bisulfite. The modified genomic DNAs were amplified by PCR with primers that did not contain CpG sites. Each PCR product was sequenced. By matching the sequencing results and the original sequence, the status of each sample was obtained. PCR was carried out to identify hTERT expression. The promoter of hTERT in gastric cancer was more methylated than in the precancerous lesions and normal gastric mucosa (pmaker in early diagnosis of gastric cancer. During gastric carcinogenesis, expression of hTERT was increased. This may suggest that methylation of hTERT may influence expression of hTERT. 2010 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Human telomerase reverse transcriptase regulation by DNA methylation, transcription factor binding and alternative splicing (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avin, Brittany A; Umbricht, Christopher B; Zeiger, Martha A

    2016-12-01

    The catalytic subunit of telomerase, human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), plays an essential role in telomere maintenance to oppose cellular senescence and, is highly regulated in normal and cancerous cells. Regulation of hTERT occurs through multiple avenues, including a unique pattern of CpG promoter methylation and alternative splicing. Promoter methylation affects the binding of transcription factors, resulting in changes in expression of the gene. In addition to expression level changes, changes in promoter binding can affect alternative splicing in a cotranscriptional manner. The alternative splicing of hTERT results in either the full length transcript which can form the active telomerase complex with hTR, or numerous inactive isoforms. Both regulation strategies are exploited in cancer to activate telomerase, however, the exact mechanism is unknown. Therefore, unraveling the link between promoter methylation status and alternative splicing for hTERT could expose yet another level of hTERT regulation. In an attempt to provide insight into the cellular control of active telomerase in cancer, this review will discuss our current perspective on CpG methylation of the hTERT promoter region, summarize the different forms of alternatively spliced variants, and examine examples of transcription factor binding that affects splicing.

  4. Diversity in genomic organisation, developmental regulation and distribution of the murine PR72/B" subunits of protein phosphatase 2A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janssens Veerle

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A is a serine/threonine-specific phosphatase displaying vital functions in growth and development through its role in various signalling pathways. PP2A holoenzymes comprise a core dimer composed of a catalytic C and a structural A subunit, which can associate with a variable B-type subunit. The importance of the B-type subunits for PP2A regulation cannot be overestimated as they determine holoenzyme localisation, activity and substrate specificity. Three B-type subunit families have been identified: PR55/B, PR61/B' and PR72/B", of which the latter is currently the least characterised. Results We deduced the sequences and genomic organisation of the different murine PR72/B" isoforms: three genes encode nine isoforms, five of which are abundantly expressed and give rise to genuine PP2A subunits. Thereby, one novel subunit was identified. Using Northern blotting, we examined the tissue-specific and developmental expression of these subunits. All subunits are highly expressed in heart, suggesting an important cardiac function. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed a striated expression pattern of PR72 and PR130 in heart and skeletal muscle, but not in bladder smooth muscle. The subcellular localisation and cell cycle regulatory ability of several PR72/B" isoforms were determined, demonstrating differences as well as similarities. Conclusion In contrast to PR55/B and PR61/B', the PR72/B" family seems evolutionary more divergent, as only two of the murine genes have a human orthologue. We have integrated these results in a more consistent nomenclature of both human and murine PR72/B" genes and their transcripts/proteins. Our results provide a platform for the future generation of PR72/B" knockout mice.

  5. Suppressor mutations identify amino acids in PAA-1/PR65 that facilitate regulatory RSA-1/B″ subunit targeting of PP2A to centrosomes in C. elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen I. Lange

    2012-11-01

    Protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation is a key mechanism for the spatial and temporal regulation of many essential developmental processes and is especially prominent during mitosis. The multi-subunit protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A enzyme plays an important, yet poorly characterized role in dephosphorylating proteins during mitosis. PP2As are heterotrimeric complexes comprising a catalytic, structural, and regulatory subunit. Regulatory subunits are mutually exclusive and determine subcellular localization and substrate specificity of PP2A. At least 3 different classes of regulatory subunits exist (termed B, B′, B″ but there is no obvious similarity in primary sequence between these classes. Therefore, it is not known how these diverse regulatory subunits interact with the same holoenzyme to facilitate specific PP2A functions in vivo. The B″ family of regulatory subunits is the least understood because these proteins lack conserved structural domains. RSA-1 (regulator of spindle assembly is a regulatory B″ subunit required for mitotic spindle assembly in Caenorhabditis elegans. In order to address how B″ subunits interact with the PP2A core enzyme, we focused on a conditional allele, rsa-1(or598ts, and determined that this mutation specifically disrupts the protein interaction between RSA-1 and the PP2A structural subunit, PAA-1. Through genetic screening, we identified a putative interface on the PAA-1 structural subunit that interacts with a defined region of RSA-1/B″. In the context of previously published results, these data propose a mechanism of how different PP2A B-regulatory subunit families can bind the same holoenzyme in a mutually exclusive manner, to perform specific tasks in vivo.

  6. Suppressor mutations identify amino acids in PAA-1/PR65 that facilitate regulatory RSA-1/B″ subunit targeting of PP2A to centrosomes in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Karen I; Heinrichs, Jeffrey; Cheung, Karen; Srayko, Martin

    2013-01-15

    Protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation is a key mechanism for the spatial and temporal regulation of many essential developmental processes and is especially prominent during mitosis. The multi-subunit protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) enzyme plays an important, yet poorly characterized role in dephosphorylating proteins during mitosis. PP2As are heterotrimeric complexes comprising a catalytic, structural, and regulatory subunit. Regulatory subunits are mutually exclusive and determine subcellular localization and substrate specificity of PP2A. At least 3 different classes of regulatory subunits exist (termed B, B', B″) but there is no obvious similarity in primary sequence between these classes. Therefore, it is not known how these diverse regulatory subunits interact with the same holoenzyme to facilitate specific PP2A functions in vivo. The B″ family of regulatory subunits is the least understood because these proteins lack conserved structural domains. RSA-1 (regulator of spindle assembly) is a regulatory B″ subunit required for mitotic spindle assembly in Caenorhabditis elegans. In order to address how B″ subunits interact with the PP2A core enzyme, we focused on a conditional allele, rsa-1(or598ts), and determined that this mutation specifically disrupts the protein interaction between RSA-1 and the PP2A structural subunit, PAA-1. Through genetic screening, we identified a putative interface on the PAA-1 structural subunit that interacts with a defined region of RSA-1/B″. In the context of previously published results, these data propose a mechanism of how different PP2A B-regulatory subunit families can bind the same holoenzyme in a mutually exclusive manner, to perform specific tasks in vivo.

  7. Catalytic pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Sa, Jacinto

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reports on the latest developments of biomass catalytic pyrolysis for the production of fuels. The primary focus is on the role of catalysts in the process, namely, their influence in the liquefaction of lignocellulosic biomass.

  8. Engineering reactors for catalytic reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chemical Engineering and Process Development Division, CSIR - National Chemical Laboratory,. Pune 411 008, India ... Abstract. Catalytic reactions are ubiquitous in chemical and allied industries. ... strategies and recent advances in process intensification/ multifunctional reactors are discussed to illustrate the approach.

  9. Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Theodore Dickerson; Juan Soria

    2013-01-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis is a promising thermochemical conversion route for lignocellulosic biomass that produces chemicals and fuels compatible with current, petrochemical infrastructure. Catalytic modifications to pyrolysis bio-oils are geared towards the elimination and substitution of oxygen and oxygen-containing functionalities in addition to increasing the hydrogen to carbon ratio of the final products. Recent progress has focused on both hydrodeoxygenation and hydrogenation of bio-oil using...

  10. Fuel-Rich Catalytic Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabbs, Theodore A.; Olson, Sandra L.

    1987-01-01

    Two-stage combustion system reduces particulate emissions. Program on catalytic oxidation of iso-octane demonstrates feasibility of two-stage combustion system for reducing particulate emissions. With fuel-rich (fuel/air equivalence ratios of 4.8 to 7.8) catalytic-combustion preburner as first stage, combustion process free of soot at reactor-outlet temperatures of 1,200 K or less.

  11. Monoclonal antibodies specific for the different subunits of asymmetric acetylcholinesterase from chick muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsim, K W; Randall, W R; Barnard, E A

    1988-07-01

    The asymmetric (20S) acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC 3.1.1.7) from 1-day-old chick muscle, purified on a column on which was immobilised a monoclonal antibody (mAb) to chick brain AChE, was used to immunise mice. Eight mAbs against the muscle enzyme were hence isolated and characterised. Five antibodies (4A8, 1C1, 10B7, 7G8, and 8H11) recognise a 110-kilodalton (kDa) subunit with AChE catalytic activity, one antibody (7D11) recognises a 72-kDa subunit with pseudocholinesterase or butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE, EC 3.1.1.8) catalytic activity, and two antibodies (6B6 and 7D7) react with the 58-kDa collagenous tail unit. Those three polypeptides can be recognised together in the 20S enzyme used, which is a hybrid AChE/BuChE oligomer. Antibodies 6B6 and 7D7 are specific for asymmetric AChE. Four of the mAbs recognising the 110-kDa subunit were reactive with it in immunoblots. Sucrose density gradient analysis of the antibody-enzyme complexes showed that the anti-110-kDa subunit mAbs cross-link multiple 20S AChE molecules to form large aggregates. In contrast, there is only a 2-3S increase in the sedimentation constant with the mAbs specific for the 72-kDa or for the 58-kDa subunit, suggesting that those subunits are more inaccessible in the structure to intermolecular cross-linking. The 4A8, 10B7, 7D11, and 7D7 mAbs showed cross-reactivity to the corresponding enzyme from quail muscle; however, none of the eight mAbs reacted with either enzyme type from mammalian muscle or from Torpedo electric organ. All eight antibodies showed immunocytochemical localisation of the AChE form at the neuromuscular junctions of chicken twitch muscles.

  12. Catalytic organometallic anticancer complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougan, Sarah J.; Habtemariam, Abraha; McHale, Sarah E.; Parsons, Simon; Sadler, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    Organometallic complexes offer chemistry that is not accessible to purely organic molecules and, hence, potentially new mechanisms of drug action. We show here that the presence of both an iodido ligand and a σ-donor/π-acceptor phenylazopyridine ligand confers remarkable inertness toward ligand substitution on the half-sandwich “piano-stool” ruthenium arene complexes [(η6-arene)Ru(azpy)I]+ (where arene = p-cymene or biphenyl, and azpy = N,N-dimethylphenyl- or hydroxyphenyl-azopyridine) in aqueous solution. Surprisingly, despite this inertness, these complexes are highly cytotoxic to human ovarian A2780 and human lung A549 cancer cells. Fluorescence-trapping experiments in A549 cells suggest that the cytotoxicity arises from an increase in reactive oxygen species. Redox activity of these azopyridine RuII complexes was confirmed by electrochemical measurements. The first one-electron reduction step (half-wave potential −0.2 to −0.4 V) is assignable to reduction of the azo group of the ligand. In contrast, the unbound azopyridine ligands are not readily reduced. Intriguingly the ruthenium complex acted as a catalyst in reactions with the tripeptide glutathione (γ-l-Glu-l-Cys-Gly), a strong reducing agent present in cells at millimolar concentrations; millimolar amounts of glutathione were oxidized to glutathione disulfide in the presence of micromolar ruthenium concentrations. A redox cycle involving glutathione attack on the azo bond of coordinated azopyridine is proposed. Such ligand-based redox reactions provide new concepts for the design of catalytic drugs. PMID:18687892

  13. Interaction between CK2α and CK2β, the subunits of protein kinase CK2: thermodynamic contributions of key residues on the CK2α surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaf, Jennifer; Bischoff, Nils; Klopffleisch, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    The protein Ser/Thr kinase CK2 (former name: casein kinase II) exists predominantly as a heterotetrameric holoenzyme composed of two catalytic subunits (CK2α) bound to a dimer of noncatalytic subunits (CK2β). We undertook a study to further understand how these subunits interact to form...... the tetramer. To this end, we used recombinant, C-terminal truncated forms of human CK2 subunits that are able to form the holoenzyme. We analyzed the interaction thermodynamics between the binding of CK2α and CK2β as well as the impact of changes in temperature, pH, and the ionization enthalpy of the buffer...... using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). With structure-guided alanine scanning mutagenesis we truncated individual side chains in the hydrophobic amino acid cluster located within the CK2α interface to identify experimentally the amino acids that dominate affinity. The ITC results indicate...

  14. Berberine Targets AP-2/hTERT, NF-κB/COX-2, HIF-1α/VEGF and Cytochrome-c/Caspase Signaling to Suppress Human Cancer Cell Growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingyi Fu

    Full Text Available Berberine (BBR, an isoquinoline derivative alkaloid isolated from Chinese herbs, has a long history of uses for the treatment of multiple diseases, including cancers. However, the precise mechanisms of actions of BBR in human lung cancer cells remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which BBR inhibits cell growth in human non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC cells. Treatment with BBR promoted cell morphology change, inhibited cell migration, proliferation and colony formation, and induced cell apoptosis. Further molecular mechanism study showed that BBR simultaneously targeted multiple cell signaling pathways to inhibit NSCLC cell growth. Treatment with BBR inhibited AP-2α and AP-2β expression and abrogated their binding on hTERT promoters, thereby inhibiting hTERT expression. Knockdown of AP-2α and AP-2β by siRNA considerably augmented the BBR-mediated inhibition of cell growth. BBR also suppressed the nuclear translocation of p50/p65 NF-κB proteins and their binding to COX-2 promoter, causing inhibition of COX-2. BBR also downregulated HIF-1α and VEGF expression and inhibited Akt and ERK phosphorylation. Knockdown of HIF-1α by siRNA considerably augmented the BBR-mediated inhibition of cell growth. Moreover, BBR treatment triggered cytochrome-c release from mitochondrial inter-membrane space into cytosol, promoted cleavage of caspase and PARP, and affected expression of BAX and Bcl-2, thereby activating apoptotic pathway. Taken together, these results demonstrated that BBR inhibited NSCLC cell growth by simultaneously targeting AP-2/hTERT, NF-κB/COX-2, HIF-1α/VEGF, PI3K/AKT, Raf/MEK/ERK and cytochrome-c/caspase signaling pathways. Our findings provide new insights into understanding the anticancer mechanisms of BBR in human lung cancer therapy.

  15. Establishment of an immortalized human extravillous trophoblast cell line by retroviral infection of E6/E7/hTERT and its transcriptional profile during hypoxia and reoxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omi, Hiroko; Okamoto, Aikou; Nikaido, Takashi; Urashima, Mitsuyoshi; Kawaguchi, Rie; Umehara, Nagayoshi; Sugiura, Kentaro; Saito, Misato; Kiyono, Tohru; Tanaka, Tadao

    2009-02-01

    Investigation into the function of human trophoblasts has been largely restricted by a lack of suitable cell models. We aimed to produce normal human trophoblast cell lines with a long lifespan and to provide an ideal in vitro cell model. Primary human trophoblast cells were derived from a placenta that had undergone elective abortion at the 7th week of gestation. The cells were immortalized by infection with retroviral expression vectors containing the type 16 human papillomaviruses E6 and E7 in combination with human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT). Characterization of the cell line was performed by immunocytochemistry using a panel of antibodies, Western blotting, real-time RT-PCR, an invasion assay, gelatin zymography, karyotype analysis and a nude mouse assay. Gene expression profiles under hypoxia (1% O2, 1 h) and subsequent reoxygenation (20% O2, 6 h) were analyzed using cDNA microarray. Immunocytochemistry revealed an extravillous trophoblastic phenotype by positive staining for hCGbeta, cytokeratin 7, HLA-G and CD9. A transwell insert invasion assay showed the invasiveness of this cell line and gelatin zymography detected the secretion of MMP-2 and MMP-9. Karyotype analysis exhibited an almost normal chromosomal number which ranged from 46 to 48 and the cells showed no tumorigenecity in a nude mouse assay. Forty-three genes showing reversible up- or down-regulation during hypoxia were detected using an oligonucleotide array. This newly immortalized cell line, HChEpC1b, is a useful model for the study of extravillous trophoblast function.

  16. Phase I/IIa clinical trial of a novel hTERT peptide vaccine in men with metastatic hormone-naive prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilleby, Wolfgang; Gaudernack, Gustav; Brunsvig, Paal F; Vlatkovic, Ljiljana; Schulz, Melanie; Mills, Kate; Hole, Knut Håkon; Inderberg, Else Marit

    2017-07-01

    In newly diagnosed metastatic hormone-naive prostate cancer (mPC), telomerase-based immunotherapy with the novel hTERT peptide vaccine UV1 can induce immune responses with potential clinical benefit. This phase I dose escalation study of UV1 evaluated safety, immune response, effects on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, and preliminary clinical outcome. Twenty-two patients with newly diagnosed metastatic hormone-naïve PC (mPC) were enrolled; all had started androgen deprivation therapy and had no visceral metastases. Bone metastases were present in 17 (77%) patients and 16 (73%) patients had affected lymph nodes. Three dose levels of UV1 were given as intradermal injections combined with GM-CSF (Leukine®). Twenty-one patients in the intention-to-treat population (95%) received conformal radiotherapy. Adverse events reported were predominantly grade 1, most frequently injection site pruritus (86.4%). Serious adverse events considered possibly related to UV1 and/or GM-CSF included anaphylactic reaction in two patients and thrombocytopenia in one patient. Immune responses against UV1 peptides were confirmed in 18/21 evaluable patients (85.7%), PSA declined to prostatic gland. At the end of the nine-month reporting period for the study, 17 patients had clinically stable disease. Treatment with UV1 and GM-CSF gave few adverse events and induced specific immune responses in a large proportion of patients unselected for HLA type. The intermediate dose of 0.3 mg UV1 resulted in the highest proportion of, and most rapid UV1-specific immune responses with an acceptable safety profile. These results warrant further clinical studies in mPC.

  17. Architecture of initiation-competent 12-subunit RNA polymerase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armache, Karim-Jean; Kettenberger, Hubert; Cramer, Patrick

    2003-06-10

    RNA polymerase (Pol) II consists of a 10-polypeptide catalytic core and the two-subunit Rpb4/7 complex that is required for transcription initiation. Previous structures of the Pol II core revealed a "clamp," which binds the DNA template strand via three "switch regions," and a flexible "linker" to the C-terminal repeat domain (CTD). Here we derived a model of the complete Pol II by fitting structures of the core and Rpb4/7 to a 4.2-A crystallographic electron density map. Rpb4/7 protrudes from the polymerase "upstream face," on which initiation factors assemble for promoter DNA loading. Rpb7 forms a wedge between the clamp and the linker, restricting the clamp to a closed position. The wedge allosterically prevents entry of the promoter DNA duplex into the active center cleft and induces in two switch regions a conformation poised for template-strand binding. Interaction of Rpb4/7 with the linker explains Rpb4-mediated recruitment of the CTD phosphatase to the CTD during Pol II recycling. The core-Rpb7 interaction and some functions of Rpb4/7 are apparently conserved in all eukaryotic and archaeal RNA polymerases but not in the bacterial enzyme.

  18. Optimized subunit vaccine protects against experimental leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertholet, Sylvie; Goto, Yasuyuki; Carter, Lauren; Bhatia, Ajay; Howard, Randall F; Carter, Darrick; Coler, Rhea N; Vedvick, Thomas S; Reed, Steven G

    2009-11-23

    Development of a protective subunit vaccine against Leishmania spp. depends on antigens and adjuvants that induce appropriate immune responses. We evaluated a second generation polyprotein antigen (Leish-110f) in different adjuvant formulations for immunogenicity and protective efficacy against Leishmania spp. challenges. Vaccine-induced protection was associated with antibody and T cell responses to Leish-110f. CD4 T cells were the source of IFN-gamma, TNF, and IL-2 double- and triple-positive populations. This study establishes the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the improved Leish-110f subunit vaccine antigen adjuvanted with natural (MPL-SE) or synthetic (EM005) Toll-like receptor 4 agonists.

  19. Antagonistic regulation of flowering time through distinct regulatory subunits of protein phosphatase 2A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Heidari

    Full Text Available Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A consists of three types of subunits: a catalytic (C, a scaffolding (A, and a regulatory (B subunit. In Arabidopsis thaliana and other organisms the regulatory B subunits are divided into at least three non-related groups, B55, B' and B″. Flowering time in plants mutated in B55 or B' genes were investigated in this work. The PP2A-b55α and PP2A-b55β (knockout lines showed earlier flowering than WT, whereas a PP2A-b'γ (knockdown line showed late flowering. Average advancements of flowering in PP2A-b55 mutants were 3.4 days in continuous light, 6.6 days in 12 h days, and 8.2 days in 8 h days. Average delays in the PP2A-b'γ mutant line were 7.1 days in 16 h days and 4.7 days in 8 h days. Expression of marker genes of genetically distinct flowering pathways (CO, FLC, MYB33, SPL3, and the floral integrator (FT, SOC1 were tested in WT, pp2a mutants, and two known flowering time mutants elf6 and edm2. The results are compatible with B55 acting at and/or downstream of the floral integrator, in a non-identified pathway. B' γ was involved in repression of FLC, the main flowering repressor gene. For B'γ the results are consistent with the subunit being a component in the major autonomous flowering pathway. In conclusion PP2A is both a positive and negative regulator of flowering time, depending on the type of regulatory subunit involved.

  20. Association of human telomerase reverse transcriptase gene polymorphisms, serum levels, and telomere length with renal cell carcinoma risk and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Martino, Michela; Taus, Christopher; Lucca, Ilaria; Hofbauer, Sebastian L; Haitel, Andrea; Shariat, Shahrokh F; Klatte, Tobias

    2016-10-01

    Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) is the catalytic subunit of the human telomerase and plays a key role in telomere restitution and gene regulation. Evidence suggests that hTERT is linked with the risk and progression of several malignancies, but there are no comprehensive data in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). In this case-control study, we assessed seven polymorphic hTERT gene variants (MNS16A, rs2736100, rs2736098, rs7726159, rs2853677, rs13172201, and rs10069690), hTERT serum levels, and the telomere length of 663 individuals, including 243 with clear cell RCC and 420 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. The SL and SS genotypes of MNS16A were associated with a decreased risk for RCC on the multivariable logistic regression analysis (SL-OR 0.72, SS-OR 0.37, P < 0.001). The GG genotype of rs2736098 was associated with a decreased risk for RCC compared with AA (OR 0.18, P < 0.001). Both telomere length and hTERT serum levels increased with every G allele in rs2736098 (P = 0.008). Pretherapeutic hTERT serum levels were higher in patients with advanced tumor stages (P = 0.037) and distant metastases (P = 0.006). Rs2736100, rs7726159, rs2853677, rs13172201, and rs10069690 were not linked with RCC risk, and none of the polymorphisms was associated with RCC pathology. In conclusion, the polymorphic number of tandem repeats in hTERT (MNS16A) and rs2736098 may be linked with the risk for RCC. Rs2736098 may have an important role in telomere length restitution and serum hTERT levels may represent a novel biomarker for RCC. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The hTERTα Splice Variant is a Dominant Negative Inhibitor of Telomerase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorel M. Colgin

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The telomerase catalytic subunit (hTERT is an essential component of the holoenzyme complex that adds telomeric repeats to the ends of human chromosomes. Maintenance of telomeres by telomerase or another mechanism is required for cell immortalization, and loss of telomeric DNA has been proposed as a trigger for cellular senescence. Available evidence suggests that regulation of telomerase activity primarily depends on transcriptional control of hTERT. However, several human tissues as well as some normal cell strains have been shown to express low levels of hTERT mRNA even though they lack telomerase activity. We have previously identified six splice variants of hTERT, including a “deletion” variant (hTERTα that is missing conserved residues from the catalytic core of the protein. Several of the deletion variants have been detected in normal and developing human tissues. We now show that hTERTα inhibits endogenous telomerase activity, which results in telomere shortening and chromosome end-to-end fusions. Telomerase inhibition induced a senescence-like state in HT1080 cells and apoptosis in a jejunal fibroblast cell line. These results suggest a possible role for hTERT splice variants in the regulation of telomerase activity.

  2. Structure of the Cmr2 Subunit of the CRISPR-Cas RNA Silencing Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cocozaki, Alexis I.; Ramia, Nancy F.; Shao, Yaming; Hale, Caryn R.; Terns, Rebecca M.; Terns, Michael P.; Li, Hong (FSU); (Georgia)

    2012-08-10

    Cmr2 is the largest and an essential subunit of a CRISPR RNA-Cas protein complex (the Cmr complex) that cleaves foreign RNA to protect prokaryotes from invading genetic elements. Cmr2 is thought to be the catalytic subunit of the effector complex because of its N-terminal HD nuclease domain. Here, however, we report that the HD domain of Cmr2 is not required for cleavage by the complex in vitro. The 2.3 {angstrom} crystal structure of Pyrococcus furiosus Cmr2 (lacking the HD domain) reveals two adenylyl cyclase-like and two {alpha}-helical domains. The adenylyl cyclase-like domains are arranged as in homodimeric adenylyl cyclases and bind ADP and divalent metals. However, mutagenesis studies show that the metal- and ADP-coordinating residues of Cmr2 are also not critical for cleavage by the complex. Our findings suggest that another component provides the catalytic function and that the essential role by Cmr2 does not require the identified ADP- or metal-binding or HD domains in vitro.

  3. Catalytic bioreactors and methods of using same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worden, Robert Mark; Liu, Yangmu Chloe

    2017-07-25

    Various embodiments provide a bioreactor for producing a bioproduct comprising one or more catalytically active zones located in a housing and adapted to keep two incompatible gaseous reactants separated when in a gas phase, wherein each of the one or more catalytically active zones may comprise a catalytic component retainer and a catalytic component retained within and/or thereon. Each of the catalytically active zones may additionally or alternatively comprise a liquid medium located on either side of the catalytic component retainer. Catalytic component may include a microbial cell culture located within and/or on the catalytic component retainer, a suspended catalytic component suspended in the liquid medium, or a combination thereof. Methods of using various embodiments of the bioreactor to produce a bioproduct, such as isobutanol, are also provided.

  4. Catalytic distillation extends its reach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rock, K.; McGuirk, T. [Catalytic Distillation Technologies, Houston, TX (United States); Gildert, G.R. [Catalytic Distillation Technologies, Pasadena, TX (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Since the early 1980s, catalytic distillation processes have been selected by more than a hundred operators for various applications. Since such a unit performs both reaction and distillation simultaneously, a combined column can replace a separate, fixed-bed reactor and distillation column, thereby eliminating equipment and reducing capital costs. And, compared to the conventional approach, catalytic distillation may also improve other factors, such as reactant conversion, selectivity, mass transfer, operating pressure, oligomer formation and catalyst fouling. The constant washing of the catalyst by liquid flowing down the column and the distillation of high-boiling foulants results in extended catalyst life. Four selective hydrogenation applications of catalytic distillation are discussed: Butadiene selective hydrogenation combined within an MTBE unit; Pentadiene selective hydrogenation; C{sub 4} acetylene conversion; and Benzene saturation.

  5. Catalytic activity of Au nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Britt Hvolbæk; Janssens, Ton V.W.; Clausen, Bjerne

    2007-01-01

    Au is usually viewed as an inert metal, but surprisingly it has been found that Au nanoparticles less than 3–5 nm in diameter are catalytically active for several chemical reactions. We discuss the origin of this effect, focusing on the way in which the chemical activity of Au may change with par......Au is usually viewed as an inert metal, but surprisingly it has been found that Au nanoparticles less than 3–5 nm in diameter are catalytically active for several chemical reactions. We discuss the origin of this effect, focusing on the way in which the chemical activity of Au may change...... with particle size. We find that the fraction of low-coordinated Au atoms scales approximately with the catalytic activity, suggesting that atoms on the corners and edges of Au nanoparticles are the active sites. This effect is explained using density functional calculations....

  6. Catalytic Decoupling of Quantum Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majenz, Christian; Berta, Mario; Dupuis, Frédéric

    2017-01-01

    The decoupling technique is a fundamental tool in quantum information theory with applications ranging from quantum thermodynamics to quantum many body physics to the study of black hole radiation. In this work we introduce the notion of catalytic decoupling, that is, decoupling in the presence...... of an uncorrelated ancilla system. This removes a restriction on the standard notion of decoupling, which becomes important for structureless resources, and yields a tight characterization in terms of the max-mutual information. Catalytic decoupling naturally unifies various tasks like the erasure of correlations...

  7. OST4 is a subunit of the mammalian oligosaccharyltransferase required for efficient N-glycosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumax-Vorzet, Audrey; Roboti, Peristera; High, Stephen

    2013-06-15

    The eukaryotic oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) is a membrane-embedded protein complex that catalyses the N-glycosylation of nascent polypeptides in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), a highly conserved biosynthetic process that enriches protein structure and function. All OSTs contain a homologue of the catalytic STT3 subunit, although in many cases this is assembled with several additional components that influence function. In S. cerevisiae, one such component is Ost4p, an extremely small membrane protein that appears to stabilise interactions between subunits of assembled OST complexes. OST4 has been identified as a putative human homologue, but to date neither its relationship to the OST complex, nor its role in protein N-glycosylation, have been directly addressed. Here, we establish that OST4 is assembled into native OST complexes containing either the catalytic STT3A or STT3B isoforms. Co-immunoprecipitation studies suggest that OST4 associates with both STT3 isoforms and with ribophorin I, an accessory subunit of mammalian OSTs. These presumptive interactions are perturbed by a single amino acid change in the transmembrane region of OST4. Using siRNA knockdowns and native gel analysis, we show that OST4 plays an important role in maintaining the stability of native OST complexes. Hence, upon OST4 depletion well-defined OST complexes are partially destabilised and a novel ribophorin I-containing subcomplex can be detected. Strikingly, cells depleted of either OST4 or STT3A show a remarkably similar defect in the N-glycosylation of endogenous prosaposin. We conclude that OST4 most likely promotes co-translational N-glycosylation by stabilising STT3A-containing OST isoforms.

  8. Apo- and Cellopentaose-bound Structures of the Bacterial Cellulose Synthase Subunit BcsZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazur, Olga; Zimmer, Jochen (UV)

    2012-10-25

    Cellulose, a very abundant extracellular polysaccharide, is synthesized in a finely tuned process that involves the activity of glycosyl-transferases and hydrolases. The cellulose microfibril consists of bundles of linear {beta}-1,4-glucan chains that are synthesized inside the cell; however, the mechanism by which these polymers traverse the cell membrane is currently unknown. In Gram-negative bacteria, the cellulose synthase complex forms a trans-envelope complex consisting of at least four subunits. Although three of these subunits account for the synthesis and translocation of the polysaccharide, the fourth subunit, BcsZ, is a periplasmic protein with endo-{beta}-1,4-glucanase activity. BcsZ belongs to family eight of glycosyl-hydrolases, and its activity is required for optimal synthesis and membrane translocation of cellulose. In this study we report two crystal structures of BcsZ from Escherichia coli. One structure shows the wild-type enzyme in its apo form, and the second structure is for a catalytically inactive mutant of BcsZ in complex with the substrate cellopentaose. The structures demonstrate that BcsZ adopts an ({alpha}/{alpha}){sub 6}-barrel fold and that it binds four glucan moieties of cellopentaose via highly conserved residues exclusively on the nonreducing side of its catalytic center. Thus, the BcsZ-cellopentaose structure most likely represents a posthydrolysis state in which the newly formed nonreducing end has already left the substrate binding pocket while the enzyme remains attached to the truncated polysaccharide chain. We further show that BcsZ efficiently degrades {beta}-1,4-glucans in in vitro cellulase assays with carboxymethyl-cellulose as substrate.

  9. The effect of polylysine on casein-kinase-2 activity is influenced by both the structure of the protein/peptide substrates and the subunit composition of the enzyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meggio, F; Boldyreff, B; Marin, O

    1992-01-01

    phosphorylated by either CK2 holoenzyme or the recombinant alpha subunit with 5.8-fold and 2.8-fold stimulation by polylysine, respectively. The recombinant beta subunit of CK2 is itself a good exogenous substrate for the enzyme, its phosphorylation, however, is inhibited rather than enhanced by polylysine......, moreover, is variably accounted for by changes in Vmax and/or Km, depending on the structure of the peptide substrate. Maximum stimulation with all protein/peptide substrates tested requires the presence of the beta subunit, since the recombinant alpha subunit is much less responsive than CK2 holoenzyme......The mechanism by which polybasic peptides stimulate the activity of casein kinase 2 (CK2) has been studied by comparing the effect of polylysine on the phosphorylation of a variety of protein and peptide substrates by the native CK2 holoenzyme and by its recombinant catalytic alpha subunit, either...

  10. The masked cysteine residues in methylmalonyl-CoA mutase from Propionibacterium shermanii are essential for catalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, I

    1996-09-30

    Two masked cysteine residues have been reported in methylmalonyl-CoA mutase from Propionibacterium shermanii, Cys-535 in the alpha-subunit and Cys-517 in the beta-subunit, which are revealed only after reduction of the denatured enzyme with dithiothreitol. It has been postulated that these residues are involved in disulphide linkages to unknown thiols of low M(r). These two masked cysteine residues have been changed to an alanine, individually. Both the mutants, C535alphaA and C517betaA, were inactive. This shows that both these residues are essential for catalytic activity.

  11. Comprehensive Characterization of AMP-activated Protein Kinase Catalytic Domain by Top-down Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Deyang; Peng, Ying; Ayaz-Guner, Serife; Gregorich, Zachery R.; Ge, Ying

    2015-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is essential in regulating energy metabolism in all eukaryotic cells. It is a heterotrimeric protein complex composed of a catalytic subunit (α) and two regulatory subunits (β and γ. C-terminal truncation of AMPKα at residue 312 yielded a protein that is active upon phosphorylation of Thr172 in the absence of β and γ subunits, which is refered to as the AMPK catalytic domain and commonly used to substitute for the AMPK heterotrimeric complex in in vitro kinase assays. However, a comprehensive characterization of the AMPK catalytic domain is lacking. Herein, we expressed a His-tagged human AMPK catalytic domin (denoted as AMPKΔ) in E. coli, comprehensively characterized AMPKΔ in its basal state and after in vitro phosphorylation using top-down mass spectrometry (MS), and assessed how phosphorylation of AMPKΔ affects its activity. Unexpectedly, we found that bacterially-expressed AMPKΔ was basally phosphorylated and localized the phosphorylation site to the His-tag. We found that AMPKΔ has noticeable basal activity and was capable of phosphorylating itself and its substrates without activating phosphorylation at Thr172. Moreover, our data suggested that Thr172 is the only site phosphorylated by its upstream kinase, liver kinase B1, and that this phosphorylation dramatically increases the kinase activity of AMPKΔ. Importantly, we demonstrated that top-down MS in conjunction with in vitro phosphorylation assay is a powerful approach for monitoring phosphorylation reaction and determining sequential order of phosphorylation events in kinase-substrate systems. PMID:26489410

  12. Sequential combination therapy with flavopiridol and autocatalytic caspase-3 driven by amplified hTERT promoter synergistically suppresses human ovarian carcinoma growth in vitro and in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yue; Xin, Xing; Zhai, Xingyue; Xia, Zhijun; Shen, Keng

    2014-12-21

    Induction of cell apoptosis and regulation of cell cycle are very attractive for treatments of tumors including ovarian carcinoma. Flavopiridol is a potent small molecular cyclin-dependent kinase(cdk) inhibitor, but its antitumor efficacy is not satisfied yet. Caspase-3 play a major role in the transduction of apoptotic signals and the execution of apoptosis in mammalian cells. We have successfully constructed the recombinant adenovirues AdHTVP2G5-rev-casp3 containing autocatalytic caspase-3 (rev-caspase-3) driven by amplified hTERT promoter system (TSTA-hTERTp). In this study, we applied it with flavopiridol to investigate their antitumor effect on ovarian cancer in vitro and in vivo. Cell viabilities were determined using Cell Counting Kit 8 and flow cytometry. RT-PCR and immunoblotting assays were used to detect cellular apoptotic activities. Tumor growth and survival of mice bearing tumors were studied. Flavopiridol or AdHTVP2G5-rev-casp3 at low dosage alone was mildly cytotoxic in vitro with a viability rate of 86.5 ± 4.7% for 300 nM flavopiridol and 88.9 ± 5.4% for AdHTVP2G5-rev-casp3 (MOI 20). By contrast, significant synergism of their sequential combination was observed, and the treatment of AdHTVP2G5-rev-casp3 (MOI 20) infection for 72 h, followed by flavopiridol (300 nM) for 48 h, can result in the most synergistic cell death, with cell survival rate and apoptotic rate of 11.6% and 69.7%, respectively. The sequential combination showed synergistic tumor suppression rate of 77.8%, which was significantly higher than that of AdHTVP2G5-rev-casp3 (33.6%) or flavopiridol (40.1%) alone. The mean survival of mice treated with the combination was 286 ± 8 d, which was synergistically longer than that of mice treated with AdHTVP2G5-rev-casp3 (141 ± 14d), flavopiridol (134 ± 10 d) or controls (106 ± 11 d) (P flavopiridol result in significant synergistic cell killing effects, significant tumor growth suppression and extended

  13. Structural Comparison, Substrate Specificity, and Inhibitor Binding of AGPase Small Subunit from Monocot and Dicot: Present Insight and Future Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishore Sarma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase is the first rate limiting enzyme of starch biosynthesis pathway and has been exploited as the target for greater starch yield in several plants. The structure-function analysis and substrate binding specificity of AGPase have provided enormous potential for understanding the role of specific amino acid or motifs responsible for allosteric regulation and catalytic mechanisms, which facilitate the engineering of AGPases. We report the three-dimensional structure, substrate, and inhibitor binding specificity of AGPase small subunit from different monocot and dicot crop plants. Both monocot and dicot subunits were found to exploit similar interactions with the substrate and inhibitor molecule as in the case of their closest homologue potato tuber AGPase small subunit. Comparative sequence and structural analysis followed by molecular docking and electrostatic surface potential analysis reveal that rearrangements of secondary structure elements, substrate, and inhibitor binding residues are strongly conserved and follow common folding pattern and orientation within monocot and dicot displaying a similar mode of allosteric regulation and catalytic mechanism. The results from this study along with site-directed mutagenesis complemented by molecular dynamics simulation will shed more light on increasing the starch content of crop plants to ensure the food security worldwide.

  14. A dynamic model of membrane-bound phospholipase Cβ2 activation by Gβγ subunits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Daniel S; Golebiewska, Urszula; Stolzenberg, Sebastian; Scarlata, Suzanne F; Weinstein, Harel

    2011-09-01

    Phospholipase C (PLC) β2, a well studied member of the family of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the membrane lipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP₂) into secondary messengers, can be activated by the Gβγ subunits of heterotrimeric G-proteins in a manner that depends on the presence and composition of the associated phospholipid membrane surface. The N-terminal pleckstrin homology (PH) domain of PLCβ2 mediates both the response to Gβγ and membrane binding, but how these interactions are coupled to yield an activated catalytic core remains unknown. Here we propose a mechanism based on molecular models of truncated PLCβ2 in its activated form complexed with Gβγ and in the catalytically inactive/membrane-bound form, obtained with the application of protein-protein docking algorithms and coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations. These models were probed experimentally, and the inferences were confirmed by results from a combination of molecular biology and fluorescence assays. Results from the dynamic simulations of the molecular models and their interactions with various lipid bilayers identify the determinants of PLCβ2-PH domain specificity for Gβγ and lipid membranes and suggest a mechanism for the previously reported dependence of Gβγ activation on the associated membrane composition. Together, these findings explain the roles of the different activators in terms of their effect on the orientations of the PH and catalytic core domains relative to the lipid membranes.

  15. A Dynamic Model of Membrane-Bound Phospholipase Cβ2 Activation by Gβγ Subunits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Daniel S.; Golebiewska, Urszula; Stolzenberg, Sebastian; Weinstein, Harel

    2011-01-01

    Phospholipase C (PLC) β2, a well studied member of the family of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the membrane lipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) into secondary messengers, can be activated by the Gβγ subunits of heterotrimeric G-proteins in a manner that depends on the presence and composition of the associated phospholipid membrane surface. The N-terminal pleckstrin homology (PH) domain of PLCβ2 mediates both the response to Gβγ and membrane binding, but how these interactions are coupled to yield an activated catalytic core remains unknown. Here we propose a mechanism based on molecular models of truncated PLCβ2 in its activated form complexed with Gβγ and in the catalytically inactive/membrane-bound form, obtained with the application of protein-protein docking algorithms and coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations. These models were probed experimentally, and the inferences were confirmed by results from a combination of molecular biology and fluorescence assays. Results from the dynamic simulations of the molecular models and their interactions with various lipid bilayers identify the determinants of PLCβ2-PH domain specificity for Gβγ and lipid membranes and suggest a mechanism for the previously reported dependence of Gβγ activation on the associated membrane composition. Together, these findings explain the roles of the different activators in terms of their effect on the orientations of the PH and catalytic core domains relative to the lipid membranes. PMID:21693623

  16. Catalytic carboxyester hydrolysis by diaminodiphenols

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Two diaminodiphenols, 1 and 2, have been examined as catalysts for the hydrolysis of 4- nitrophenyl acetate (NA) and 4-nitrophenylphosphate (NP) in aqueous-acetonitrile (25% acetonitrile v/v) media at 35ºC, I = 1·0 mol dm–3. The compound 1 enhances the hydrolysis rate of NA more than 105 times. Its catalytic efficiency ...

  17. Cleft Lip Repair: The Hybrid Subunit Method

    OpenAIRE

    Tollefson, TT

    2016-01-01

    Copyright © 2016 by Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc. The unilateral cleft lip repair is one of the most rewarding and challenging of plastic surgery procedures. Surgeons have introduced a variety of straight line, geometric, and rotation-advancement designs, while in practice the majority of North American surgeons have been using hybrids of the rotation-advancement techniques. The anatomic subunit approach was introduced in 2005 by Fisher and has gained popularity, with early adopters of the ...

  18. Fluorescent fusion proteins of soluble guanylyl cyclase indicate proximity of the heme nitric oxide domain and catalytic domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Haase

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To examine the structural organisation of heterodimeric soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET was measured between fluorescent proteins fused to the amino- and carboxy-terminal ends of the sGC beta1 and alpha subunits. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cyan fluorescent protein (CFP was used as FRET donor and yellow fluorescent protein (YFP as FRET acceptor. After generation of recombinant baculovirus, fluorescent-tagged sGC subunits were co-expressed in Sf9 cells. Fluorescent variants of sGC were analyzed in vitro in cytosolic fractions by sensitized emission FRET. Co-expression of the amino-terminally tagged alpha subunits with the carboxy-terminally tagged beta1 subunit resulted in an enzyme complex that showed a FRET efficiency of 10% similar to fluorescent proteins separated by a helix of only 48 amino acids. Because these findings indicated that the amino-terminus of the alpha subunits is close to the carboxy-terminus of the beta1 subunit we constructed fusion proteins where both subunits are connected by a fluorescent protein. The resulting constructs were not only fluorescent, they also showed preserved enzyme activity and regulation by NO. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Based on the ability of an amino-terminal fragment of the beta1 subunit to inhibit activity of an heterodimer consisting only of the catalytic domains (alphacatbetacat, Winger and Marletta (Biochemistry 2005, 44:4083-90 have proposed a direct interaction of the amino-terminal region of beta1 with the catalytic domains. In support of such a concept of "trans" regulation of sGC activity by the H-NOX domains our results indicate that the domains within sGC are organized in a way that allows for direct interaction of the amino-terminal regulatory domains with the carboxy-terminal catalytic region. In addition, we constructed "fluorescent-conjoined" sGC's by fusion of the alpha amino-terminus to the beta1 carboxy-terminus leading to a

  19. allelic variation of hmw glutenin subunits of ethiopian bread wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    journal

    reduced subunits of glutenin proteins bands are separated: the high molecular weight (HMW) and low molecular weight (LMW) subunits (Payne et al.,1980; Jackson et al., 1983). The HMW glutenin subunits (GS) of wheat protein are quantitatively minor, but functionally an important group of gluten proteins in the process of ...

  20. Structural Basis for Catalytic Activation of a Serine Recombinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keenholtz, Ross A.; Rowland, Sally-J.; Boocock, Martin R.; Stark, W. Marshall; Rice, Phoebe A. (Glasgow); (UC)

    2014-10-02

    Sin resolvase is a site-specific serine recombinase that is normally controlled by a complex regulatory mechanism. A single mutation, Q115R, allows the enzyme to bypass the entire regulatory apparatus, such that no accessory proteins or DNA sites are required. Here, we present a 1.86 {angstrom} crystal structure of the Sin Q115R catalytic domain, in a tetrameric arrangement stabilized by an interaction between Arg115 residues on neighboring subunits. The subunits have undergone significant conformational changes from the inactive dimeric state previously reported. The structure provides a new high-resolution view of a serine recombinase active site that is apparently fully assembled, suggesting roles for the conserved active site residues. The structure also suggests how the dimer-tetramer transition is coupled to assembly of the active site. The tetramer is captured in a different rotational substate than that seen in previous hyperactive serine recombinase structures, and unbroken crossover site DNA can be readily modeled into its active sites.

  1. Crosstalk between the subunits of the homodimeric enzyme triosephosphate isomerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zomosa-Signoret, Viviana; Aguirre-López, Beatriz; Hernández-Alcántara, Gloria; Pérez-Montfort, Ruy; de Gómez-Puyou, Marietta Tuena; Gómez-Puyou, Armando

    2007-04-01

    Homodimeric triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) from Trypanosoma cruzi (TcTIM) and T. brucei (TbTIM) are markedly similar in amino acid sequence and three-dimensional structure. In their dimer interfaces, each monomer has a Cys15 that is surrounded by loop3 of the adjoining subunit. Perturbation of Cys15 by methylmethane thiosulfonate (MMTS) induces abolition of catalysis and structural changes. In the two TIMs, the structural arrangements of their Cys15 are almost identical. Nevertheless, the susceptibility of TcTIM to MMTS is nearly 100-fold higher than in TbTIM. To ascertain the extent to which the characteristics of the interface Cys depend on the dynamics of its own monomer or on those of the adjacent monomer, we studied MMTS action on mutants of TcTIM that had the interface residues of TbTIM, and hybrids that have only one interfacial Cys15 (C15ATcTIM-wild type TbTIM). We found that the solvent exposure of the interfacial Cys depends predominantly on the characteristics of the adjoining monomer. The maximal inhibition of activity induced by perturbation of the sole interface Cys in the C15ATcTIM-TbTIM hybrid is around 60%. Hybrids formed with C15ATcTIM monomers and catalytically inert TbTIM monomers (E168DTbTIM) were also studied. Their activity drops by nearly 50% when the only interfacial Cys is perturbed. These results in conjunction with those on C15ATcTIM-wild type TbTIM hybrid indicate that about half of the activity of each monomer depends on the integrity of each of the two Cys15-loop3 portions of the interface. This could be another reason of why TIM is an obligatory dimer. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. P. berghei telomerase subunit TERT is essential for parasite survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka A Religa

    Full Text Available Telomeres define the ends of chromosomes protecting eukaryotic cells from chromosome instability and eventual cell death. The complex regulation of telomeres involves various proteins including telomerase, which is a specialized ribonucleoprotein responsible for telomere maintenance. Telomeres of chromosomes of malaria parasites are kept at a constant length during blood stage proliferation. The 7-bp telomere repeat sequence is universal across different Plasmodium species (GGGTTT/CA, though the average telomere length varies. The catalytic subunit of telomerase, telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT, is present in all sequenced Plasmodium species and is approximately three times larger than other eukaryotic TERTs. The Plasmodium RNA component of TERT has recently been identified in silico. A strategy to delete the gene encoding TERT via double cross-over (DXO homologous recombination was undertaken to study the telomerase function in P. berghei. Expression of both TERT and the RNA component (TR in P. berghei blood stages was analysed by Western blotting and Northern analysis. Average telomere length was measured in several Plasmodium species using Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF analysis. TERT and TR were detected in blood stages and an average telomere length of ∼ 950 bp established. Deletion of the tert gene was performed using standard transfection methodologies and we show the presence of tert- mutants in the transfected parasite populations. Cloning of tert- mutants has been attempted multiple times without success. Thorough analysis of the transfected parasite populations and the parasite obtained from extensive parasite cloning from these populations provide evidence for a so called delayed death phenotype as observed in different organisms lacking TERT. The findings indicate that TERT is essential for P. berghei cell survival. The study extends our current knowledge on telomere biology in malaria parasites and validates further

  3. The non-catalytic domains of Drosophila katanin regulate its abundance and microtubule-disassembly activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle D Grode

    Full Text Available Microtubule severing is a biochemical reaction that generates an internal break in a microtubule and regulation of microtubule severing is critical for cellular processes such as ciliogenesis, morphogenesis, and meiosis and mitosis. Katanin is a conserved heterodimeric ATPase that severs and disassembles microtubules, but the molecular determinants for regulation of microtubule severing by katanin remain poorly defined. Here we show that the non-catalytic domains of Drosophila katanin regulate its abundance and activity in living cells. Our data indicate that the microtubule-interacting and trafficking (MIT domain and adjacent linker region of the Drosophila katanin catalytic subunit Kat60 cooperate to regulate microtubule severing in two distinct ways. First, the MIT domain and linker region of Kat60 decrease its abundance by enhancing its proteasome-dependent degradation. The Drosophila katanin regulatory subunit Kat80, which is required to stabilize Kat60 in cells, conversely reduces the proteasome-dependent degradation of Kat60. Second, the MIT domain and linker region of Kat60 augment its microtubule-disassembly activity by enhancing its association with microtubules. On the basis of our data, we propose that the non-catalytic domains of Drosophila katanin serve as the principal sites of integration of regulatory inputs, thereby controlling its ability to sever and disassemble microtubules.

  4. Cloning and characterization of TaPP2AbB"-α, a member of the PP2A regulatory subunit in wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Liu

    Full Text Available Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A, a major Serine/Threonine protein phosphatase, consists of three subunits; a highly conserved structural subunit A, a catalytic subunit C, and a highly variable regulatory subunit B which determines the substrate specificity. Although the functional mechanism of PP2A in signaling transduction in Arabidopsis is known, their physiological roles in wheat remain to be characterized. In this study, we identified a novel regulatory subunit B, TaPP2AbB"-α, in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. Subcellular localization indicated that TaPP2AbB"-α is located in the cell membrane, cytoplasm and nucleus. It interacts with both TaPP2Aa and TaPP2Ac. Expression pattern analyses revealed that TaPP2AbB"-α is strongly expressed in roots, and responds to NaCl, polyethylene glycol (PEG, cold and abscisic acid (ABA stresses at the transcription level. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing TaPP2AbB"-α developed more lateral roots, especially when treated with mannitol or NaCl. These results suggest that TaPP2AbB"-α, in conjunction with the other two PP2A subunits, is involved in multi-stress response, and positively regulates lateral root development under osmotic stress.

  5. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulatory subunit 1 and phosphatase and tensin homolog as therapeutic targets in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirican, Ebubekir; Akkiprik, Mustafa

    2017-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among women in Turkey and worldwide. It is considered a heterogeneous disease and has different subtypes. Moreover, breast cancer has different molecular characteristics, behaviors, and responses to treatment. Advances in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms implicated in breast cancer progression have led to the identification of many potential therapeutic gene targets, such as Breast Cancer 1/2, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha, and tumor protein 53. The aim of this review is to summarize the roles of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulatory subunit 1 (alpha) (alias p85α) and phosphatase and tensin homolog in breast cancer progression and the molecular mechanisms involved. Phosphatase and tensin homolog is a tumor suppressor gene and protein. Phosphatase and tensin homolog antagonizes the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT signaling pathway that plays a key role in cell growth, differentiation, and survival. Loss of phosphatase and tensin homolog expression, detected in about 20%-30% of cases, is known to be one of the most common tumor changes leading to phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway activation in breast cancer. Instead, the regulatory subunit p85α is a significant component of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway, and it has been proposed that a reduction in p85α protein would lead to decreased negative regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and hyperactivation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulatory subunit 1 protein has also been reported to be a positive regulator of phosphatase and tensin homolog via the stabilization of this protein. A functional genetic alteration of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulatory subunit 1 that results in reduced p85α protein expression and increased insulin receptor substrate 1 binding would lead to enhanced phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling and hence cancer development

  6. Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore Dickerson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic pyrolysis is a promising thermochemical conversion route for lignocellulosic biomass that produces chemicals and fuels compatible with current, petrochemical infrastructure. Catalytic modifications to pyrolysis bio-oils are geared towards the elimination and substitution of oxygen and oxygen-containing functionalities in addition to increasing the hydrogen to carbon ratio of the final products. Recent progress has focused on both hydrodeoxygenation and hydrogenation of bio-oil using a variety of metal catalysts and the production of aromatics from bio-oil using cracking zeolites. Research is currently focused on developing multi-functional catalysts used in situ that benefit from the advantages of both hydrodeoxygenation and zeolite cracking. Development of robust, highly selective catalysts will help achieve the goal of producing drop-in fuels and petrochemical commodities from wood and other lignocellulosic biomass streams. The current paper will examine these developments by means of a review of existing literature.

  7. Catalytic combustion of residual fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulzan, D. L.; Tacina, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    A noble metal catalytic reactor was tested using two grades of petroleum derived residual fuels at specified inlet air temperatures, pressures, and reference velocities. Combustion efficiencies greater than 99.5 percent were obtained. Steady state operation of the catalytic reactor required inlet air temperatures of at least 800 K. At lower inlet air temperatures, upstream burning in the premixing zone occurred which was probably caused by fuel deposition and accumulation on the premixing zone walls. Increasing the inlet air temperature prevented this occurrence. Both residual fuels contained about 0.5 percent nitrogen by weight. NO sub x emissions ranged from 50 to 110 ppm by volume at 15 percent excess O2. Conversion of fuel-bound nitrogen to NO sub x ranged from 25 to 50 percent.

  8. Catalytic electrochemistry of xanthine dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalimuthu, Palraj; Leimkühler, Silke; Bernhardt, Paul V

    2012-09-27

    We report the mediated electrocatalytic voltammetry of the molybdoenzyme xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) from Rhodobacter capsulatus at a thiol-modified Au electrode. The 2-electron acceptor N-methylphenazinium methanesulfonate (phenazine methosulfate, PMS) is an effective artificial electron transfer partner for XDH instead of its native electron acceptor NAD(+). XDH catalyzes the oxidative hydroxylation of hypoxanthine to xanthine and xanthine to uric acid. Cyclic voltammetry was used to generate the active (oxidized) form of the mediator. Simulation of the catalytic voltammetry across a broad range of substrate and PMS concentrations at different sweep rates was achieved with the program DigiSim to yield a set of consistent rate and equilibrium constants that describe the catalytic system. This provides the first example of the mediated electrochemistry of a xanthine dehydrogenase (or oxidase) that is uncomplicated by interference from product oxidation. A remarkable two-step, sequential oxidation of hypoxanthine to uric acid via xanthine by XDH is observed.

  9. Mice lacking the Cβ subunit of PKA are resistant to angiotensin II-induced cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enns, Linda C; Bible, Kenneth L; Emond, Mary J; Ladiges, Warren C

    2010-11-16

    PKA is a ubiquitous, multi-subunit cellular kinase that regulates a number of different physiological responses in response to cAMP, including metabolism, cell division, and cardiac function. Numerous studies have implicated altered PKA signaling in cardiac dysfunction. Recently, it has been shown that mice lacking the catalytic β subunit of PKA (PKA Cβ) are protected from age-related problems such as weight gain and enlarged livers, and we hypothesized that these mice might also be resistant to cardiomyopathy. Angiotensin II (ang II) induced hypertension in both PKA Cβ null mice and their WT littermates. However, PKA Cβ null mice were resistant to a number of ang II-induced, cardiopathological effects observed in the WT mice, including hypertrophy, decreased diastolic performance, and enlarged left atria. The Cβ subunit of PKA plays an important role in angiotensin-induced cardiac dysfunction. The Cβ null mouse highlights the potential of the PKA Cβ subunit as a pharmaceutical target for hypertrophic cardiac disease.

  10. Liposome-Based Adjuvants for Subunit Vaccines: Formulation Strategies for Subunit Antigens and Immunostimulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Signe Tandrup; Foged, Camilla; Korsholm, Karen Smith

    2016-01-01

    The development of subunit vaccines has become very attractive in recent years due to their superior safety profiles as compared to traditional vaccines based on live attenuated or whole inactivated pathogens, and there is an unmet medical need for improved vaccines and vaccines against pathogens...... for which no effective vaccines exist. The subunit vaccine technology exploits pathogen subunits as antigens, e.g., recombinant proteins or synthetic peptides, allowing for highly specific immune responses against the pathogens. However, such antigens are usually not sufficiently immunogenic to induce...... been licensed for use in human vaccines, and they mainly stimulate humoral immunity. Thus, there is an unmet demand for the development of safe and efficient adjuvant systems that can also stimulate cell-mediated immunity (CMI). Adjuvants constitute a heterogeneous group of compounds, which can broadly...

  11. Shared active site architecture between archaeal PolD and multi-subunit RNA polymerases revealed by X-ray crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauguet, Ludovic; Raia, Pierre; Henneke, Ghislaine; Delarue, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Archaeal replicative DNA polymerase D (PolD) constitute an atypical class of DNA polymerases made of a proofreading exonuclease subunit (DP1) and a larger polymerase catalytic subunit (DP2), both with unknown structures. We have determined the crystal structures of Pyrococcus abyssi DP1 and DP2 at 2.5 and 2.2 Å resolution, respectively, revealing a catalytic core strikingly different from all other known DNA polymerases (DNAPs). Rather, the PolD DP2 catalytic core has the same ‘double-psi β-barrel' architecture seen in the RNA polymerase (RNAP) superfamily, which includes multi-subunit transcriptases of all domains of life, homodimeric RNA-silencing pathway RNAPs and atypical viral RNAPs. This finding bridges together, in non-viral world, DNA transcription and DNA replication within the same protein superfamily. This study documents further the complex evolutionary history of the DNA replication apparatus in different domains of life and proposes a classification of all extant DNAPs. PMID:27548043

  12. Direct short-term cytotoxic effects of BIBR 1532 on acute promyelocytic leukemia cells through induction of p21 coupled with downregulation of c-Myc and hTERT transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashash, D; Ghaffari, S H; Zaker, F; Hezave, K; Kazerani, M; Ghavamzadeh, A; Alimoghaddam, K; Mosavi, S A; Gharehbaghian, A; Vossough, P

    2012-01-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is characterized by specific t(15;17), distinct morphologic picture, and clinical coagulopathy that contribute to the morbidity and mortality of the disease. This study aims to investigate the effects of antitelomerase compound BIBR1532 on APL cells (NB4). BIBR 1532 exerts a direct short-term growth suppressive effect in a concentration-dependent manner probably through downregulation of c-Myc and hTERT expression. Our results also suggest that induction of p21 and subsequent disturbance of Bax/Bcl-2 balanced ratio as well as decreased telomerase activity may be rational mechanisms for the potent/direct short-term cytotoxicity of high doses of BIBR1532 against NB4 cells.

  13. Stoichiometry of δ subunit containing GABA(A) receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, B; Mortensen, M; Smart, T G

    2014-02-01

    Although the stoichiometry of the major synaptic αβγ subunit-containing GABAA receptors has consensus support for 2α:2β:1γ, a clear view of the stoichiometry of extrasynaptic receptors containing δ subunits has remained elusive. Here we examine the subunit stoichiometry of recombinant α4β3δ receptors using a reporter mutation and a functional electrophysiological approach. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we inserted a highly characterized 9' serine to leucine mutation into the second transmembrane (M2) region of α4, β3 and δ subunits that increases receptor sensitivity to GABA. Whole-cell, GABA-activated currents were recorded from HEK-293 cells co-expressing different combinations of wild-type (WT) and/or mutant α4(L297S), β3(L284S) and δ(L288S) subunits. Recombinant receptors containing one or more mutant subunits showed increased GABA sensitivity relative to WT receptors by approximately fourfold, independent of the subunit class (α, β or δ) carrying the mutation. GABA dose-response curves of cells co-expressing WT subunits with their respective L9'S mutants exhibited multiple components, with the number of discernible components enabling a subunit stoichiometry of 2α, 2β and 1δ to be deduced for α4β3δ receptors. Varying the cDNA transfection ratio by 10-fold had no significant effect on the number of incorporated δ subunits. Subunit stoichiometry is an important determinant of GABAA receptor function and pharmacology, and δ subunit-containing receptors are important mediators of tonic inhibition in several brain regions. Here we demonstrate a preferred subunit stoichiometry for α4β3δ receptors of 2α, 2β and 1δ. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  14. Multi site polyadenylation and transcriptional response to stress of a vacuolar type H+-ATPase subunit A gene in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogarten Johann

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vacuolar type H+-ATPases play a critical role in the maintenance of vacuolar homeostasis in plant cells. V-ATPases are also involved in plants' defense against environmental stress. This research examined the expression and regulation of the catalytic subunit of the vacuolar type H+-ATPase in Arabidopsis thaliana and the effect of environmental stress on multiple transcripts generated by this gene. Results Evidence suggests that subunit A of the vacuolar type H+-ATPase is encoded by a single gene in Arabidopsis thaliana. Genome blot analysis showed no indication of a second subunit A gene being present. The single gene identified was shown by whole RNA blot analysis to be transcribed in all organs of the plant. Subunit A was shown by sequencing the 3' end of multiple cDNA clones to exhibit multi site polyadenylation. Four different poly (A tail attachment sites were revealed. Experiments were performed to determine the response of transcript levels for subunit A to environmental stress. A PCR based strategy was devised to amplify the four different transcripts from the subunit A gene. Conclusions Amplification of cDNA generated from seedlings exposed to cold, salt stress, and etiolation showed that transcript levels for subunit A of the vacuolar type H+-ATPase in Arabidopsis were responsive to stress conditions. Cold and salt stress resulted in a 2–4 fold increase in all four subunit A transcripts evaluated. Etiolation resulted in a slight increase in transcript levels. All four transcripts appeared to behave identically with respect to stress conditions tested with no significant differential regulation.

  15. Hypersecretion of the alpha-subunit in clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas: Diagnostic accuracy is improved by adding alpha-subunit/gonadotropin ratio to levels of alpha-subunit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Marianne; Ganc-Petersen, Joanna; Jørgensen, Jens O L

    2010-01-01

    In vitro, the majority of clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) produce gonadotropins or their alpha-subunit; however, in vivo, measurements of alpha-subunit levels may not accurately detect the hypersecretion of the alpha-subunit.......In vitro, the majority of clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) produce gonadotropins or their alpha-subunit; however, in vivo, measurements of alpha-subunit levels may not accurately detect the hypersecretion of the alpha-subunit....

  16. Dynamic Responsive Systems for Catalytic Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlatković, Matea; Collins, Beatrice S L; Feringa, Ben L

    2016-11-21

    Responsive systems have recently gained much interest in the scientific community in attempts to mimic dynamic functions in biological systems. One of the fascinating potential applications of responsive systems lies in catalysis. Inspired by nature, novel responsive catalytic systems have been built that show analogy with allosteric regulation of enzymes. The design of responsive catalytic systems allows control of catalytic activity and selectivity. In this Review, advances in the field over the last four decades are discussed and a comparison is made amongst the dynamic responsive systems based on the principles underlying their catalytic mechanisms. The catalyst systems are sorted according to the triggers used to achieve control of the catalytic activity and the distinct catalytic reactions illustrated. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Kinetics of heterogeneous catalytic reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Boudart, Michel

    2014-01-01

    This book is a critical account of the principles of the kinetics of heterogeneous catalytic reactions in the light of recent developments in surface science and catalysis science. Originally published in 1984. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These paperback editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase acc

  18. Catalytic Decoupling of Quantum Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majenz, Christian; Berta, Mario; Dupuis, Frédéric; Renner, Renato; Christandl, Matthias

    2017-02-24

    The decoupling technique is a fundamental tool in quantum information theory with applications ranging from thermodynamics to many-body physics and black hole radiation whereby a quantum system is decoupled from another one by discarding an appropriately chosen part of it. Here, we introduce catalytic decoupling, i.e., decoupling with the help of an independent system. Thereby, we remove a restriction on the standard decoupling notion and present a tight characterization in terms of the max-mutual information. The novel notion unifies various tasks and leads to a resource theory of decoupling.

  19. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stock, L.M.; Yang, Shiyong [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This research, which is relevant to the development of new catalytic systems for the improvement of the quality of coal liquids by the addition of dihydrogen, is divided into two tasks. Task 1 centers on the activation of dihydrogen by molecular basic reagents such as hydroxide ion to convert it into a reactive adduct (OH{center_dot}H{sub 2}){sup {minus}} that can reduce organic molecules. Such species should be robust withstanding severe conditions and chemical poisons. Task 2 is focused on an entirely different approach that exploits molecular catalysts, derived from organometallic compounds that are capable of reducing monocyclic aromatic compounds under very mild conditions. Accomplishments and conclusions are discussed.

  20. Catalytic Combustion of Ethyl Acetate

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZÇELİK, Tuğba GÜRMEN; ATALAY, Süheyda; ALPAY, Erden

    2014-01-01

    The catalytic combustion of ethyl acetate over prepared metal oxide catalysts was investigated. CeO, Co2O3, Mn2O3, Cr2O3, and CeO-Co2O3 catalysts were prepared on monolith supports and they were tested. Before conducting the catalyst experiments, we searched for the homogeneous gas phase combustion reaction of ethyl acetate. According to the homogeneous phase experimental results, 45% of ethyl acetate was converted at the maximum reactor temperature tested (350 °C). All the prepare...

  1. Computational Introduction of Catalytic Activity into Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolani, Steve J; Carlin, Dylan Alexander; Siegel, Justin B

    2016-01-01

    Recently, there have been several successful cases of introducing catalytic activity into proteins. One method that has been used successfully to achieve this is the theozyme placement and enzyme design algorithms implemented in Rosetta Molecular Modeling Suite. Here, we illustrate how to use this software to recapitulate the placement of catalytic residues and ligand into a protein using a theozyme, protein scaffold, and catalytic constraints as input.

  2. Diversity of heterotrimeric G-protein γ subunits in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trusov Yuri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heterotrimeric G-proteins, consisting of three subunits Gα, Gβ and Gγ are present in most eukaryotes and mediate signaling in numerous biological processes. In plants, Gγ subunits were shown to provide functional selectivity to G-proteins. Three unconventional Gγ subunits were recently reported in Arabidopsis, rice and soybean but no structural analysis has been reported so far. Their relationship with conventional Gγ subunits and taxonomical distribution has not been yet demonstrated. Results After an extensive similarity search through plant genomes, transcriptomes and proteomes we assembled over 200 non-redundant proteins related to the known Gγ subunits. Structural analysis of these sequences revealed that most of them lack the obligatory C-terminal prenylation motif (CaaX. According to their C-terminal structures we classified the plant Gγ subunits into three distinct types. Type A consists of Gγ subunits with a putative prenylation motif. Type B subunits lack a prenylation motif and do not have any cysteine residues in the C-terminal region, while type C subunits contain an extended C-terminal domain highly enriched with cysteines. Comparative analysis of C-terminal domains of the proteins, intron-exon arrangement of the corresponding genes and phylogenetic studies suggested a common origin of all plant Gγ subunits. Conclusion Phylogenetic analyses suggest that types C and B most probably originated independently from type A ancestors. We speculate on a potential mechanism used by those Gγ subunits lacking isoprenylation motifs to anchor the Gβγ dimer to the plasma membrane and propose a new flexible nomenclature for plant Gγ subunits. Finally, in the light of our new classification, we give a word of caution about the interpretation of Gγ research in Arabidopsis and its generalization to other plant species.

  3. Structural properties of cyanase. Denaturation, renaturation, and role of sulfhydryls and oligomeric structure in catalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, R M; Anderson, P M

    1987-07-25

    Cyanase is an inducible enzyme in Escherichia coli that catalyzes bicarbonate-dependent decomposition of cyanate to give ammonia and bicarbonate. The enzyme is composed of 8-10 identical subunits (Mr = 17,008). The objective of this study was to clarify some of the structural properties of cyanase for the purpose of understanding the relationship between oligomeric structure and catalytic activity. Circular dichroism studies showed that cyanase has a significant amount of alpha-helix and beta-sheet structure. The one sulfhydryl group per subunit does not react with 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) unless cyanase is denatured. Denaturation is apparently complete in 10 M urea or 6 M guanidine hydrochloride, but is significantly reduced in 10 M urea by the presence of azide (analog of cyanate) and is incomplete in 8 M urea. Denatured cyanase could be renatured and reactivated (greater than 85%) by removal of denaturants. Reactivation was greatly facilitated by the presence of certain anions, particularly bicarbonate, and by high ionic strength and protein concentration. The catalytic activity of renatured cyanase was associated only with oligomer. Cyanase that had been denatured in the presence of DTNB to give a cyanase-DTNB derivative could also be renatured at 26 degrees C to give active cyanase-DTNB oligomer. The active oligomeric form of the cyanase-DTNB derivative could be converted reversibly to inactive dimer by lowering the temperature to 4 degrees C or by reduction of the ionic strength and removal of monoanions. These results provide evidence that free sulfhydryl groups are not required for catalytic activity and that catalytic activity may be dependent upon oligomeric structure.

  4. Nanostructured Catalytic Reactors for Air Purification Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I project proposes the development of lightweight compact nanostructured catalytic reactors for air purification from toxic gaseous organic...

  5. Nanostructured Catalytic Reactors for Air Purification Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase II project proposes the development of lightweight compact nanostructured catalytic reactors for air purification from toxic gaseous organic...

  6. Catalytic enantioselective Reformatsky reaction with ketones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez-Ibanez, M. Angeles; Macia, Beatriz; Minnaard, Adriaan J.; Feringa, Ben L.

    2008-01-01

    Chiral tertiary alcohols were obtained with good yields and enantioselectivities via a catalytic Reformatsky reaction with ketones, including the challenging diaryl ketones, using chiral BINOL derivatives.

  7. Photolabeling of Glu-129 of the S-1 subunit of pertussis toxin with NAD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbieri, J.T.; Mende-Mueller, L.M.; Rappuoli, R.; Collier, R.J. (Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (USA))

    1989-11-01

    UV irradiation was shown to induce efficient transfer of radiolabel from nicotinamide-labeled NAD to a recombinant protein (C180 peptide) containing the catalytic region of the S-1 subunit of pertussis toxin. Incorporation of label from (3H-nicotinamide)NAD was efficient (0.5 to 0.6 mol/mol of protein) relative to incorporation from (32P-adenylate)NAD (0.2 mol/mol of protein). Label from (3H-nicotinamide)NAD was specifically associated with Glu-129. Replacement of Glu-129 with glycine or aspartic acid made the protein refractory to photolabeling with (3H-nicotinamide)NAD, whereas replacement of a nearby glutamic acid, Glu-139, with serine did not. Photolabeling of the C180 peptide with NAD is similar to that observed with diphtheria toxin and exotoxin A of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, in which the nicotinamide portion of NAD is transferred to Glu-148 and Glu-553, respectively, in the two toxins. These results implicate Glu-129 of the S-1 subunit as an active-site residue and a potentially important site for genetic modification of pertussis toxin for development of an acellular vaccine against Bordetella pertussis.

  8. Cloning and characterization of GST fusion tag stabilized large subunit of Escherichia coli acetohydroxyacid synthase I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Heng; Liu, Nan; Wang, Wen-Ting; Wang, Ji-Yu; Gao, Wen-Yun

    2016-01-01

    There are three acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS, EC 4.1.3.18) isozymes (I, II, and III) in the enterobacteria Escherichia coli among which AHAS I is the most active. Its large subunit (LSU) possesses full catalytic machinery, but is unstable in the absence of the small subunit (SSU). To get applicable LSU of AHAS I, we prepared and characterized in this study the polypeptide as a His-tagged (His-LSU) and a glutathione S-transferase (GST)-tagged (GST-LSU) fusion protein, respectively. The results showed that the His-LSU is unstable, whereas the GST-LSU displays excellent stability. This phenomenon suggests that the GST polypeptide fusion tag could stabilize the target protein when compared with histidine tag. It is the first time that the stabilizing effect of the GST tag was observed. Further characterization of the GST-LSU protein indicated that it possesses the basic functions of AHAS I with a specific activity of 20.8 μmol min(-1) mg(-1) and a Km value for pyruvate of 0.95 mM. These observations imply that introduction of the GST fusion tag to LSU of AHAS I does not affect the function of the protein. The possible reasons that the GST fusion tag could make the LSU stable are initially discussed. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Catalytic conversion of light alkanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, J.E.

    1992-06-30

    The second Quarterly Report of 1992 on the Catalytic Conversion of Light Alkanes reviews the work done between April 1, 1992 and June 31, 1992 on the Cooperative Agreement. The mission of this work is to devise a new catalyst which can be used in a simple economic process to convert the light alkanes in natural gas to oxygenate products that can either be used as clean-burning, high octane liquid fuels, as fuel components or as precursors to liquid hydrocarbon uwspomdon fuel. During the past quarter we have continued to design, prepare, characterize and test novel catalysts for the mild selective reaction of light hydrocarbons with air or oxygen to produce alcohols directly. These catalysts are designed to form active metal oxo (MO) species and to be uniquely active for the homolytic cleavage of the carbon-hydrogen bonds in light alkanes producing intermediates which can form alcohols. We continue to investigate three molecular environments for the active catalytic species that we are trying to generate: electron-deficient macrocycles (PHASE I), polyoxometallates (PHASE II), and regular oxidic lattices including zeolites and related structures as well as other molecular surface structures having metal oxo groups (PHASE I).

  10. Catalytic reforming feed characterisation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larraz Mora, R.; Arvelo Alvarez, R. [Univ. of La Laguna, Chemical Engineering Dept., La Laguna (Spain)

    2002-09-01

    The catalytic reforming of naphtha is one of the major refinery processes, designed to increase the octane number of naphtha or to produce aromatics. The naphtha used as catalytic reformer feedstock usually contains a mixture of paraffins, naphthenes, and aromatics in the carbon number range C{sub 6} to C{sub 10}. The detailed chemical composition of the feed is necessary to predict the aromatics and hydrogen production as well as the operation severity. The analysis of feed naphtha is usually reported in terms of its ASTM distillation curve and API or specific gravity. Since reforming reactions are described in terms of lumped chemical species (paraffins, naphthenes and aromatics), a feed characterisation technique should be useful in order to predict reforming operating conditions and detect feed quality changes. Unfortunately online analyzer applications as cromatography or recently introduced naphtha NMR [1] are scarce in most of refineries. This work proposes an algorithmic characterisation method focusing on its main steps description. The method could help on the subjects previously described, finally a calculation example is shown. (orig.)

  11. Reconstruction of the nasal soft triangle subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantine, Fadi C; Lee, Michael R; Sinno, Sammy; Thornton, James F

    2013-05-01

    Of all nine subunits, the soft triangle is perhaps the most challenging to recreate. The complexity of soft triangle reconstruction resides in its proximity to such important structures as the nasal tip, nasal ala, and distal columella. If the soft triangle is not properly reconstructed, problems with nasal function and aesthetics often arise. Anatomical asymmetries in the lower third and abnormal shadowing can occur following insufficient restoration. A retrospective review was completed of all patients undergoing reconstruction of the nasal soft triangle subunit at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas, Texas, from 1995 to 2010. Defects with only external skin intact were classified as type I. Defects involving both skin and underlying soft tissue with intact mucosa were classified as type II. Finally, transmural defects with violated mucosa were classified as type III. Surgical outcomes were graded on a scale of I to IV. Grades given were based on the complexity of the existing defect and restoration of the soft triangle, with higher grades given when adjacent structures were not distorted. Of the 14 cases reviewed, two (14 percent) were type I defects, nine (64 percent) were type II defects, and three (21 percent) were type III defects. Three patients (21 percent) required revision with subsequent resurfacing and two (14 percent) required resurfacing alone. All but one patient (93 percent) had a grade of 2.0 or better, with the one patient opting not to undergo revision. The authors believe their method of soft triangle reconstruction using the proposed algorithm is an easy approach to soft triangle reconstruction that will yield consistent surgical and clinical success from aesthetic and functional perspectives. Furthermore, the authors were able to achieve excellent aesthetic outcomes without compromise or facing any structural complications. Therapeutic, IV.

  12. Interactions between subunits in heterodimeric Ncd molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocik, Elzbieta; Skowronek, Krzysztof J; Kasprzak, Andrzej A

    2009-12-18

    The nonprocessive minus-end-directed kinesin-14 Ncd is involved in the organization of the microtubule (MT) network during mitosis. Only one of the two motor domains is involved in the interaction with the MT. The other head is tethered to the bound one. Here we prepared, purified, and characterized mutated Ncd molecules carrying point mutations in one of the heads, thus producing heterodimeric motors. The mutations tested included substitutions in Switch I and II: R552A, E585A, and E585D; the decoupling mutant N600K; and a deletion in the motor domain in one of the subunits resulting in a single-headed molecule (NcN). These proteins were isolated by two sequential affinity chromatography steps, followed by measurements of their affinities to MT, enzymatic properties, and the velocity of the microtubule gliding test in vitro. A striking observation is a low affinity of the single-headed NcN for MT both without nucleotides and in the presence of 5'-adenylyl-beta,gamma-imidodiphosphate, implying that the tethered head has a profound effect on the structure of the Ncd-MT complex. Mutated homodimers had no MT-activated ATPase and no motility, whereas NcN had motility comparable with that of the wild type Ncd. Although the heterodimers had one fully active and one inactive head, the ATPase and motility of Ncd heterodimers varied dramatically, clearly demonstrating that interactions between motor domains exist in Ncd. We also show that the bulk property of dimeric proteins that interact with the filament with only one of its heads depends also on the distribution of the filament-interacting subunits.

  13. Crystallization of the glycogen-binding domain of the AMP-activated protein kinase β subunit and preliminary X-ray analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polekhina, Galina, E-mail: gpolekhina@svi.edu.au; Feil, Susanne C.; Gupta, Abhilasha [St Vincent’s Institute of Medical Research, 9 Princes Street, Fitzroy, Victoria 3065 (Australia); O’Donnell, Paul [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010 (Australia); Stapleton, David; Parker, Michael W. [St Vincent’s Institute of Medical Research, 9 Princes Street, Fitzroy, Victoria 3065 (Australia)

    2005-01-01

    The glycogen-binding domain of the AMP-activated kinase β subunit has been crystallized in the presence of β-cyclodextrin. The structure has been determined by single isomorphous replacement and threefold averaging using in-house X-ray data collected from selenomethionine-substituted protein. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an intracellular energy sensor that regulates metabolism in response to energy demand and supply by adjusting the ATP-generating and ATP-consuming pathways. AMPK potentially plays a critical role in diabetes and obesity as it is known to be activated by metforin and rosiglitazone, drugs used for the treatment of type II diabetes. AMPK is a heterotrimer composed of a catalytic α subunit and two regulatory subunits, β and γ. Mutations in the γ subunit are known to cause glycogen accumulation, leading to cardiac arrhythmias. Recently, a functional glycogen-binding domain (GBD) has been identified in the β subunit. Here, the crystallization of GBD in the presence of β-cyclodextrin is reported together with preliminary X-ray data analysis allowing the determination of the structure by single isomorphous replacement and threefold averaging using in-house X-ray data collected from a selenomethionine-substituted protein.

  14. The β and γ subunits play distinct functional roles in the α2βγ heterotetramer of human NAD-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tengfei; Peng, Yingjie; Huang, Wei; Liu, Yabing; Ding, Jianping

    2017-01-01

    Human NAD-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase existing as the α2βγ heterotetramer, catalyzes the decarboxylation of isocitrate into α-ketoglutarate in the Krebs cycle, and is allosterically regulated by citrate, ADP and ATP. To explore the functional roles of the regulatory β and γ subunits, we systematically characterized the enzymatic properties of the holoenzyme and the composing αβ and αγ heterodimers in the absence and presence of regulators. The biochemical and mutagenesis data show that αβ and αγ alone have considerable basal activity but the full activity of α2βγ requires the assembly and cooperative function of both heterodimers. α2βγ and αγ can be activated by citrate or/and ADP, whereas αβ cannot. The binding of citrate or/and ADP decreases the S0.5,isocitrate and thus enhances the catalytic efficiencies of the enzymes, and the two activators can act independently or synergistically. Moreover, ATP can activate α2βγ and αγ at low concentration and inhibit the enzymes at high concentration, but has only inhibitory effect on αβ. Furthermore, the allosteric activation of α2βγ is through the γ subunit not the β subunit. These results demonstrate that the γ subunit plays regulatory role to activate the holoenzyme, and the β subunit the structural role to facilitate the assembly of the holoenzyme.

  15. Site-directed mutants of 16S rRNA reveal important RNA domains for KsgA function and 30S subunit assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Pooja M; Culver, Gloria M; Rife, Jason P

    2011-02-08

    KsgA is an rRNA methyltransferase important to the process of small subunit biogenesis in bacteria. It is ubiquitously found in all life including archaea and eukarya, where the enzyme is referred to as Dim1. Despite the emergence of considerable data addressing KsgA function over the last several years, details pertaining to RNA recognition are limited, in part because the most accessible substrate for in vitro studies of KsgA is the 900000 Da 30S ribosomal subunit. To overcome challenges imposed by size and complexity, we adapted recently reported techniques to construct in vivo assembled mutant 30S subunits suitable for use in in vitro methyltransferase assays. Using this approach, numerous 16S rRNA mutants were constructed and tested. Our observations indicate that the 790 loop of helix 24 plays an important role in overall catalysis by KsgA. Moreover, the length of helix 45 also is important to catalysis. In both cases loss of catalytic function occurred without an increase in the production of N(6)-methyladenosine, a likely indication that there was no critical reduction in binding strength. Both sets of observations support a "proximity" mechanism of KsgA function. We also report that several of the mutants constructed failed to assemble properly into 30S subunits, while some others did so with reduced efficiency. Therefore, the same technique of generating mutant 30S subunits can be used to study ribosome biogenesis on the whole.

  16. Site-directed mutants of 16S rRNA reveal important RNA domains for KsgA function and 30S subunit assembly †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Pooja M.; Culver, Gloria M.; Rife, Jason P.

    2013-01-01

    KsgA is an rRNA methyltransferase important to the process of small subunit biogenesis in bacteria. It is ubiquitously found in all life including archaea and eukarya, where the enzyme is referred to as Dim1. Despite the emergence of considerable data addressing KsgA function over the last several years, details pertaining to RNA recognition are limited, in part because the most accessible substrate for in vitro studies of KsgA is the 900,000 Daltons 30S ribosomal subunit. To overcome challenges imposed by size and complexity we adapted recently reported techniques to construct in vivo assembled mutant 30S subunits suitable for use in in vitro methyltransferase assays. Using this approach, numerous 16S rRNA mutants were constructed and tested. Our observations indicate that the 790 loop of helix 24 plays an important role in overall catalysis by KsgA. Moreover, the length of helix 45 also is important to catalysis. In both cases loss of catalytic function occurred without an increase in the production of N6-methyladenosine, a likely indication that there was no critical reduction in binding strength. Both sets of observations support a ‘proximity’ mechanism of KsgA function. We also report that several of the mutants constructed failed to assemble properly into 30S subunits, while some others did so with reduced efficiency. Therefore, the same technique of generating mutant 30S subunits can be used to study ribosome biogenesis on the whole. PMID:21142019

  17. Liposome-Based Adjuvants for Subunit Vaccines: Formulation Strategies for Subunit Antigens and Immunostimulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe Tandrup Schmidt

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of subunit vaccines has become very attractive in recent years due to their superior safety profiles as compared to traditional vaccines based on live attenuated or whole inactivated pathogens, and there is an unmet medical need for improved vaccines and vaccines against pathogens for which no effective vaccines exist. The subunit vaccine technology exploits pathogen subunits as antigens, e.g., recombinant proteins or synthetic peptides, allowing for highly specific immune responses against the pathogens. However, such antigens are usually not sufficiently immunogenic to induce protective immunity, and they are often combined with adjuvants to ensure robust immune responses. Adjuvants are capable of enhancing and/or modulating immune responses by exposing antigens to antigen-presenting cells (APCs concomitantly with conferring immune activation signals. Few adjuvant systems have been licensed for use in human vaccines, and they mainly stimulate humoral immunity. Thus, there is an unmet demand for the development of safe and efficient adjuvant systems that can also stimulate cell-mediated immunity (CMI. Adjuvants constitute a heterogeneous group of compounds, which can broadly be classified into delivery systems or immunostimulators. Liposomes are versatile delivery systems for antigens, and they can carefully be customized towards desired immune profiles by combining them with immunostimulators and optimizing their composition, physicochemical properties and antigen-loading mode. Immunostimulators represent highly diverse classes of molecules, e.g., lipids, nucleic acids, proteins and peptides, and they are ligands for pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs, which are differentially expressed on APC subsets. Different formulation strategies might thus be required for incorporation of immunostimulators and antigens, respectively, into liposomes, and the choice of immunostimulator should ideally be based on knowledge regarding the

  18. Cloning and characterization of GABAA α subunits and GABAB subunits in Xenopus laevis during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeser, Gwendolyn E; Rabe, Brian A; Saha, Margaret S

    2011-04-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult nervous system, acts via two classes of receptors, the ionotropic GABA(A) and metabotropic GABA(B) receptors. During the development of the nervous system, GABA acts in a depolarizing, excitatory manner and plays an important role in various neural developmental processes including cell proliferation, migration, synapse formation, and activity-dependent differentiation. Here we describe the spatial and temporal expression patterns of the GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptors during early development of Xenopus laevis. Using in situ hybridization and qRT-PCR, GABA(A) α2 was detected as a maternal mRNA. All other α-subunits were first detected by tailbud through hatching stages. Expression of the various subunits was seen in the brain, spinal cord, cranial ganglia, olfactory epithelium, pineal, and pituitary gland. Each receptor subunit showed a distinctive, unique expression pattern, suggesting these receptors have specific functions and are regulated in a precise spatial and temporal manner. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Catalytic gasification of dry and wet biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossum, G.; Potic, B.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    2009-01-01

    Catalytic gasification of dry biomass and of wet biomass streams in hot compressed water are reviewed and discussed as potential technologies for the production of synthesis gas, hydrogen- and methane-rich gas. Next to literature data also new experimental results from our laboratory on catalytic

  20. Understanding catalytic biomass conversion through data mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ras, E.J.; McKay, B.; Rothenberg, G.

    2010-01-01

    Catalytic conversion of biomass is a key challenge that we chemists face in the twenty-first century. Worldwide, research is conducted into obtaining bulk chemicals, polymers and fuels. Our project centres on glucose valorisation via furfural derivatives using catalytic hydrogenation. We present

  1. Heterogeneous catalytic degradation of polyacrylamide solution | Hu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modified with trace metal elements, the catalytic activity of Fe2O3/Al2O3 could be changed greatly. Among various trace metal elements, Fe2O3/Al2O3 catalysts modified with Co and Cu showed great increase on catalytic activity. International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology, Vol. 2, No. 7, 2010, pp. 110- ...

  2. The contribution of the C5 protein subunit of Escherichia coli ribonuclease P to specificity for precursor tRNA is modulated by proximal 5' leader sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niland, Courtney N; Anderson, David R; Jankowsky, Eckhard; Harris, Michael E

    2017-10-01

    Recognition of RNA by RNA processing enzymes and RNA binding proteins often involves cooperation between multiple subunits. However, the interdependent contributions of RNA and protein subunits to molecular recognition by ribonucleoproteins are relatively unexplored. RNase P is an endonuclease that removes 5' leaders from precursor tRNAs and functions in bacteria as a dimer formed by a catalytic RNA subunit (P RNA) and a protein subunit (C5 in E. coli). The P RNA subunit contacts the tRNA body and proximal 5' leader sequences [N(-1) and N(-2)] while C5 binds distal 5' leader sequences [N(-3) to N(-6)]. To determine whether the contacts formed by P RNA and C5 contribute independently to specificity or exhibit cooperativity or anti-cooperativity, we compared the relative kcat/Km values for all possible combinations of the six proximal 5' leader nucleotides (n = 4096) for processing by the E. coli P RNA subunit alone and by the RNase P holoenzyme. We observed that while the P RNA subunit shows specificity for 5' leader nucleotides N(-2) and N(-1), the presence of the C5 protein reduces the contribution of P RNA to specificity, but changes specificity at N(-2) and N(-3). The results reveal that the contribution of C5 protein to RNase P processing is controlled by the identity of N(-2) in the pre-tRNA 5' leader. The data also clearly show that pairing of the 5' leader with the 3' ACCA of tRNA acts as an anti-determinant for RNase P cleavage. Comparative analysis of genomically encoded E. coli tRNAs reveals that both anti-determinants are subject to negative selection in vivo. © 2017 Niland et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  3. Expression and purification of the central stalk subunits of Na + ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , NtpD and NtpG subunits. The aim of the present study was cloning and expression of these central stalk subunits of E. hirae V-type Na+-ATPase. Here we cloned the synthesized DNA fragments, corresponding to ntpC, ntpD and ntpG genes, ...

  4. Electrochemical promotion of catalytic reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbihl, R.

    2010-05-01

    The electrochemical promotion of heterogeneously catalyzed reactions (EPOC) became feasible through the use of porous metal electrodes interfaced to a solid electrolyte. With the O 2- conducting yttrium stabilized zirconia (YSZ), the Na + conducting β″-Al 2O 3 (β-alumina), and several other types of solid electrolytes the EPOC effect has been demonstrated for about 100 reaction systems in studies conducted mainly in the mbar range. Surface science investigations showed that the physical basis for the EPOC effect lies in the electrochemically induced spillover of oxygen and alkali metal, respectively, onto the surface of the metal electrodes. For the catalytic promotion effect general concepts and mechanistic schemes were proposed but these concepts and schemes are largely speculative. Applying surface analytical tools to EPOC systems the proposed mechanistic schemes can be verified or invalidated. This report summarizes the progress which has been achieved in the mechanistic understanding of the EPOC effect.

  5. Selective catalytic oxidation of ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppaelahti, J.; Koljonen, T. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    In the combustion of fossil fuels, the principal source of nitrogen oxides is nitrogen bound in the fuel structure. In gasification, a large part of fuel nitrogen forms NH{sub 3}, which may form nitrogen oxides during gas combustion. If NH{sub 3} and other nitrogen species could be removed from hot gas, the NO emission could be considerably reduced. However, relatively little attention has been paid to finding new means of removing nitrogen compounds from the hot gasification gas. The possibility of selectively oxidizing NH{sub 3} to N{sub 2} in the hot gasification has been studied at VTT Energy. The largest NH{sub 3} reductions have been achieved by catalytic oxidation on aluminium oxides. (author) (4 refs.)

  6. APPARATUS FOR CATALYTICALLY COMBINING GASES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busey, H.M.

    1958-08-12

    A convection type recombiner is described for catalytically recombining hydrogen and oxygen which have been radiolytically decomposed in an aqueous homogeneous nuclear reactor. The device is so designed that the energy of recombination is used to circulate the gas mixture over the catalyst. The device consists of a vertical cylinder having baffles at its lower enda above these coarse screens having platinum and alumina pellets cemented thereon, and an annular passage for the return of recombined, condensed water to the reactor moderator system. This devicea having no moving parts, provides a simple and efficient means of removing the danger of accumulated hot radioactive, explosive gases, and restoring them to the moderator system for reuse.

  7. Fluctuations in catalytic surface reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Imbihl, R

    2003-01-01

    The internal reaction-induced fluctuations which occur in catalytic CO oxidation on a Pt field emitter tip have been studied using field electron microscopy (FEM) as a spatially resolving method. The structurally heterogeneous Pt tip consists of facets of different orientations with nanoscale dimensions. The FEM resolution of roughly 2 nm corresponds to a few hundred reacting adsorbed particles whose variations in the density are imaged as brightness fluctuations. In the bistable range of the reaction one finds fluctuation-induced transitions between the two stable branches of the reaction kinetics. The fluctuations exhibit a behaviour similar to that of an equilibrium phase transition, i.e. the amplitude diverges upon approaching the bifurcation point terminating the bistable range of the reaction. Simulations with a hybrid Monte Carlo/mean-field model reproduce the experimental observations. Fluctuations on different facets are typically uncorrelated but within a single facet a high degree of spatial cohere...

  8. Method of fabricating a catalytic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Harry W [Idaho Falls, ID; Petkovic, Lucia M [Idaho Falls, ID; Ginosar, Daniel M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-09-22

    A precursor to a catalytic structure comprising zinc oxide and copper oxide. The zinc oxide has a sheet-like morphology or a spherical morphology and the copper oxide comprises particles of copper oxide. The copper oxide is reduced to copper, producing the catalytic structure. The catalytic structure is fabricated by a hydrothermal process. A reaction mixture comprising a zinc salt, a copper salt, a hydroxyl ion source, and a structure-directing agent is formed. The reaction mixture is heated under confined volume conditions to produce the precursor. The copper oxide in the precursor is reduced to copper. A method of hydrogenating a carbon oxide using the catalytic structure is also disclosed, as is a system that includes the catalytic structure.

  9. INTRINSIC REGULATION OF HEMOGLOBIN EXPRESSION BY VARIABLE SUBUNIT INTERFACE STRENGTHS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, James M.; Popowicz, Anthony M.; Padovan, Julio C.; Chait, Brian T.; Manning, Lois R.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The expression of the six types of human hemoglobin subunits over time is currently considered to be regulated mainly by transcription factors that bind to upstream control regions of the gene (the “extrinsic” component of regulation). Here we describe how subunit pairing and further assembly to tetramers in the liganded state is influenced by the affinity of subunits for one another (the “intrinsic” component of regulation). The adult hemoglobin dimers have the strongest subunit interfaces and the embryonic hemoglobins are the weakest with fetal hemoglobins of intermediate strength, corresponding to the temporal order of their expression. These variable subunit binding strengths and the attenuating effects of acetylation contribute to the differences with which these hemoglobin types form functional O2-binding tetramers consistent with gene switching. PMID:22129306

  10. The small subunit of snapdragon geranyl diphosphate synthase modifies the chain length specificity of tobacco geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase in planta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlova, Irina; Nagegowda, Dinesh A; Kish, Christine M; Gutensohn, Michael; Maeda, Hiroshi; Varbanova, Marina; Fridman, Eyal; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Hanada, Atsushi; Kamiya, Yuji; Krichevsky, Alexander; Citovsky, Vitaly; Pichersky, Eran; Dudareva, Natalia

    2009-12-01

    Geranyl diphosphate (GPP), the precursor of many monoterpene end products, is synthesized in plastids by a condensation of dimethylallyl diphosphate and isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) in a reaction catalyzed by homodimeric or heterodimeric GPP synthase (GPPS). In the heterodimeric enzymes, a noncatalytic small subunit (GPPS.SSU) determines the product specificity of the catalytic large subunit, which may be either an active geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGPPS) or an inactive GGPPS-like protein. Here, we show that expression of snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus) GPPS.SSU in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants increased the total GPPS activity and monoterpene emission from leaves and flowers, indicating that the introduced catalytically inactive GPPS.SSU found endogenous large subunit partner(s) and formed an active snapdragon/tobacco GPPS in planta. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation and in vitro enzyme analysis of individual and hybrid proteins revealed that two of four GGPPS-like candidates from tobacco EST databases encode bona fide GGPPS that can interact with snapdragon GPPS.SSU and form a functional GPPS enzyme in plastids. The formation of chimeric GPPS in transgenic plants also resulted in leaf chlorosis, increased light sensitivity, and dwarfism due to decreased levels of chlorophylls, carotenoids, and gibberellins. In addition, these transgenic plants had reduced levels of sesquiterpene emission, suggesting that the export of isoprenoid intermediates from the plastids into the cytosol was decreased. These results provide genetic evidence that GPPS.SSU modifies the chain length specificity of phylogenetically distant GGPPS and can modulate IPP flux distribution between GPP and GGPP synthesis in planta.

  11. t-Darpp stimulates protein kinase A activity by forming a complex with its RI regulatory subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theile, Dirk; Geng, Shuhui; Denny, Erin C; Momand, Jamil; Kane, Susan E

    2017-12-01

    t-Darpp is the truncated form of the dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of 32kDa (Darpp-32) and has been demonstrated to confer resistance to trastuzumab, a Her2-targeted anticancer agent, via sustained signaling through the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway and activation of protein kinase A (PKA). The mechanism of t-Darpp-mediated PKA activation is poorly understood. In the PKA holoenzyme, when the catalytic subunits are bound to regulatory subunits RI or RII, kinase activity is inhibited. We investigated PKA activity and holoenzyme composition in cell lines overexpressing t-Darpp (SK.tDp) or a T39A phosphorylation mutant (SK.tDpT39A), as well as an empty vector control cell line (SK.empty). We also evaluated protein-protein interactions between t-Darpp and PKA catalytic (PKAc) or regulatory subunits RI and RII in those cell lines. SK.tDp cells had elevated PKA activity and showed diminished association of RI with PKAc, whereas SK.tDpT39A cells did not have these properties. Moreover, wild type t-Darpp associates with RI. Concurrent expression of Darpp-32 reversed t-Darrp's effects on PKA holoenzyme state, consistent with earlier observations that Darpp-32 reverses t-Darpp's activation of PKA. Together, t-Darpp phosphorylation at T39 seems to be crucial for t-Darpp-mediated PKA activation and this activation appears to occur through an association with RI and sequestering of RI away from PKAc. The t-Darpp-RI interaction could be a druggable target to reduce PKA activity in drug-resistant cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Structures and functions of calcium channel beta subunits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaumer, L; Qin, N; Olcese, R; Tareilus, E; Platano, D; Costantin, J; Stefani, E

    1998-08-01

    Calcium channel beta subunits have profound effects on how alpha1 subunits perform. In this article we summarize our present knowledge of the primary structures of beta subunits as deduced from cDNAs and illustrate their different properties. Upon co-expression with alpha1 subunits, the effects of beta subunits vary somewhat between L-type and non-L-type channels mostly because the two types of channels have different responses to voltage which are affected by beta subunits, such as long-lasting prepulse facilitation of alpha1C (absent in alpha1E) and inhibition by G protein betagamma dimer of alpha1E, absent in alpha1C. One beta subunit, a brain beta2a splice variant that is palmitoylated, has several effects not seen with any of the others, and these are due to palmitoylation. We also illustrate the finding that functional expression of alpha1 in oocytes requires a beta subunit even if the final channel shows no evidence for its presence. We propose two structural models for Ca2+ channels to account for "alpha1 alone" channels seen in cells with limited beta subunit expression. In one model, beta dissociates from the mature alpha1 after proper folding and membrane insertion. Regulated channels seen upon co-expression of high levels of beta would then have subunit composition alpha1beta. In the other model, the "chaperoning" beta remains associated with the mature channel and "alpha1 alone" channels would in fact be alpha1beta channels. Upon co-expression of high levels of beta the regulated channels would have composition [alpha1beta]beta.

  13. Identification, cloning and characterization of a novel 47 kDa murine PKA C subunit homologous to human and bovine Cβ2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ørstavik Sigurd

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two main genes encoding the catalytic subunits Cα and Cβ of cyclic AMP dependent protein kinase (PKA have been identified in all vertebrates examined. The murine, bovine and human Cβ genes encode several splice variants, including the splice variant Cβ2. In mouse Cβ2 has a relative molecular mass of 38 kDa and is only expressed in the brain. In human and bovine Cβ2 has a relative molecular mass of 47 kDa and is mainly expressed in lymphoid tissues. Results We identified a novel 47 kDa splice variant encoded by the mouse Cβ gene that is highly expressed in lymphoid cells. Cloning, expression, and production of a sequence-specific antiserum and characterization of PKA catalytic subunit activities demonstrated the 47 kDa protein to be a catalytically active murine homologue of human and bovine Cβ2. Based on the present results and the existence of a human brain-specifically expressed Cβ splice variant designated Cβ4 that is identical to the former mouse Cβ2 splice variant, the mouse splice variant has now been renamed mouse Cβ4. Conclusion Murine lymphoid tissues express a protein that is a homologue of human and bovine Cβ2. The murine Cβ gene encodes the splice variants Cβ1, Cβ2, Cβ3 and Cβ4, as is the case with the human Cβ gene.

  14. Catalytic reaction in confined flow channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hassel, Bart A.

    2016-03-29

    A chemical reactor comprises a flow channel, a source, and a destination. The flow channel is configured to house at least one catalytic reaction converting at least a portion of a first nanofluid entering the channel into a second nanofluid exiting the channel. The flow channel includes at least one turbulating flow channel element disposed axially along at least a portion of the flow channel. A plurality of catalytic nanoparticles is dispersed in the first nanofluid and configured to catalytically react the at least one first chemical reactant into the at least one second chemical reaction product in the flow channel.

  15. Identification of residues in the heme domain of soluble guanylyl cyclase that are important for basal and stimulated catalytic activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmamalini Baskaran

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide signals through activation of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC, a heme-containing heterodimer. NO binds to the heme domain located in the N-terminal part of the β subunit of sGC resulting in increased production of cGMP in the catalytic domain located at the C-terminal part of sGC. Little is known about the mechanism by which the NO signaling is propagated from the receptor domain (heme domain to the effector domain (catalytic domain, in particular events subsequent to the breakage of the bond between the heme iron and Histidine 105 (H105 of the β subunit. Our modeling of the heme-binding domain as well as previous homologous heme domain structures in different states point to two regions that could be critical for propagation of the NO activation signal. Structure-based mutational analysis of these regions revealed that residues T110 and R116 in the αF helix-β1 strand, and residues I41 and R40 in the αB-αC loop mediate propagation of activation between the heme domain and the catalytic domain. Biochemical analysis of these heme mutants allows refinement of the map of the residues that are critical for heme stability and propagation of the NO/YC-1 activation signal in sGC.

  16. Echinococcus granulosus Antigen B Structure: Subunit Composition and Oligomeric States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Karina M.; Cardoso, Mateus B.; Follmer, Cristian; da Silveira, Nádya P.; Vargas, Daiani M.; Kitajima, Elliot W.; Zaha, Arnaldo; Ferreira, Henrique B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Antigen B (AgB) is the major protein secreted by the Echinococcus granulosus metacestode and is involved in key host-parasite interactions during infection. The full comprehension of AgB functions depends on the elucidation of several structural aspects that remain unknown, such as its subunit composition and oligomeric states. Methodology/Principal Findings The subunit composition of E. granulosus AgB oligomers from individual bovine and human cysts was assessed by mass spectrometry associated with electrophoretic analysis. AgB8/1, AgB8/2, AgB8/3 and AgB8/4 subunits were identified in all samples analyzed, and an AgB8/2 variant (AgB8/2v8) was found in one bovine sample. The exponentially modified protein abundance index (emPAI) was used to estimate the relative abundance of the AgB subunits, revealing that AgB8/1 subunit was relatively overrepresented in all samples. The abundance of AgB8/3 subunit varied between bovine and human cysts. The oligomeric states formed by E. granulosus AgB and recombinant subunits available, rAgB8/1, rAgB8/2 and rAgB8/3, were characterized by native PAGE, light scattering and microscopy. Recombinant subunits showed markedly distinct oligomerization behaviors, forming oligomers with a maximum size relation of rAgB8/3>rAgB8/2>rAgB8/1. Moreover, the oligomeric states formed by rAgB8/3 subunit were more similar to those observed for AgB purified from hydatid fluid. Pressure-induced dissociation experiments demonstrated that the molecular assemblies formed by the more aggregative subunits, rAgB8/2 and rAgB8/3, also display higher structural stability. Conclusions/Significance For the first time, AgB subunit composition was analyzed in samples from single hydatid cysts, revealing qualitative and quantitative differences between samples. We showed that AgB oligomers are formed by different subunits, which have distinct abundances and oligomerization properties. Overall, our findings have significantly contributed to increase the

  17. Single‐molecule mechanochemical characterization of E. coli pol III core catalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naufer, M. Nabuan; Murison, David A.; Rouzina, Ioulia; Beuning, Penny J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Pol III core is the three‐subunit subassembly of the E. coli replicative DNA polymerase III holoenzyme. It contains the catalytic polymerase subunit α, the 3′ → 5′ proofreading exonuclease ε, and a subunit of unknown function, θ. We employ optical tweezers to characterize pol III core activity on a single DNA substrate. We observe polymerization at applied template forces F  30 pN. Both polymerization and exonucleolysis occur as a series of short bursts separated by pauses. For polymerization, the initiation rate after pausing is independent of force. In contrast, the exonucleolysis initiation rate depends strongly on force. The measured force and concentration dependence of exonucleolysis initiation fits well to a two‐step reaction scheme in which pol III core binds bimolecularly to the primer‐template junction, then converts at rate k 2 into an exo‐competent conformation. Fits to the force dependence of k init show that exo initiation requires fluctuational opening of two base pairs, in agreement with temperature‐ and mismatch‐dependent bulk biochemical assays. Taken together, our results support a model in which the pol and exo activities of pol III core are effectively independent, and in which recognition of the 3′ end of the primer by either α or ε is governed by the primer stability. Thus, binding to an unstable primer is the primary mechanism for mismatch recognition during proofreading, rather than an alternative model of duplex defect recognition. PMID:28263430

  18. Cytochrome c oxidase loses catalytic activity and structural integrity during the aging process in Drosophila melanogaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Jian-Ching; Rebrin, Igor [Department of Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States); Klichko, Vladimir; Orr, William C. [Department of Biological Sciences, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275 (United States); Sohal, Rajindar S., E-mail: sohal@usc.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States)

    2010-10-08

    Research highlights: {yields} Cytochrome c oxidase loses catalytic activity during the aging process. {yields} Abundance of seven nuclear-encoded subunits of cytochrome c oxidase decreased with age in Drosophila. {yields} Cytochrome c oxidase is specific intra-mitochondrial site of age-related deterioration. -- Abstract: The hypothesis, that structural deterioration of cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) is a causal factor in the age-related decline in mitochondrial respiratory activity and an increase in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} generation, was tested in Drosophila melanogaster. CcO activity and the levels of seven different nuclear DNA-encoded CcO subunits were determined at three different stages of adult life, namely, young-, middle-, and old-age. CcO activity declined progressively with age by 33%. Western blot analysis, using antibodies specific to Drosophila CcO subunits IV, Va, Vb, VIb, VIc, VIIc, and VIII, indicated that the abundance these polypeptides decreased, ranging from 11% to 40%, during aging. These and previous results suggest that CcO is a specific intra-mitochondrial site of age-related deterioration, which may have a broad impact on mitochondrial physiology.

  19. Catalytic properties of Caucasian zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostandyan, M.N.; Babayan, S.G.; Musaev, M.R.; Mirzoeva, K.G.

    1985-09-01

    Great deposits of natural zeolites have been discovered in the Caucasus which can be used in various fields of the economy. One promising direction of using them may be the field of petrochemistry. The results of research on the conversion of 1-hexanol in natural zeolites in the Caucasus have been reported previously. This work was carried out in order to obtain comparative data on the catalytic activity of zeolites from the following deposits: Novyy Kokhb in Armenia, Ay-Dag in Azerbaijan, and Khekordzula in Georgia. This established that without any preliminary chemical treatment these zeolites are good catalysts for the dehydration of primary hexyl alcohol and the isomerization of the l-hexene obtained into 2-hexene. The activity of all three catalysts is almost identical. Continuing the research in this direction, the conversion of cyclohexanol in the same natural zeolites has been studied. The conditions for carrying out the experiments and methodology of obtaining the reaction products are presented. The data obtained show that the degree of dehydration of cyclohexanol at low temperatures (250-350/sup 0/C) is significantly greater than the degree of dehydration of 1-hexanol. The dehydration is accompanied by skeletal isomerization into 1- and 3-methylcyclopentenes (a total of 3%). At high temperatures (400-450/sup 0/), along with an increased degree of isomerization of cyclohexene into methocyclopentenes, the formation of methylcyclopentane is observed as a result of the redistribution of hydrogen and coke on the catalysts. 1 reference.

  20. Proteomic analysis reveals that proteasome subunit beta 6 is involved in hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    Full Text Available Chronic hypoxia (CH is known to be one of the major causes of pulmonary hypertension (PH, which is characterized by sustained elevation of pulmonary vascular resistance resulting from vascular remodeling. In this study, we investigated whether the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS was involved in the mechanism of hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling. We isolated the distal pulmonary artery (PA from a previously defined chronic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (CHPH rat model, performed proteomic analyses in search of differentially expressed proteins belonging to the UPS, and subsequently identified their roles in arterial remodeling.Twenty-two proteins were differently expressed between the CH and normoxic group. Among them, the expression of proteasome subunit beta (PSMB 1 and PSMB6 increased after CH exposure. Given that PSMB1 is a well-known structural subunit and PSMB6 is a functional subunit, we sought to assess whether PSMB6 could be related to the multiple functional changes during the CHPH process. We confirmed the proteomic results by real-time PCR and Western blot. With the increase in quantity of the active subunit, proteasome activity in both cultured pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs and isolated PA from the hypoxic group increased. An MTT assay revealed that the proteasome inhibitor MG132 was able to attenuate the hypoxia-induced proliferation of PASMC in a dose-dependent manner. Knockdown of PSMB6 using siRNA also prevented hypoxia-induced proliferation.The present study revealed the association between increased PSMB6 and CHPH. CH up-regulated proteasome activity and the proliferation of PASMCs, which may have been related to increased PSMB6 expression and the subsequently enhanced functional catalytic sites of the proteasome. These results suggested an essential role of the proteasome during CHPH development, a novel finding requiring further study.

  1. Synthesis of chlorophyll b: Localization of chlorophyllide a oxygenase and discovery of a stable radical in the catalytic subunit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brune Daniel C

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assembly of stable light-harvesting complexes (LHCs in the chloroplast of green algae and plants requires synthesis of chlorophyll (Chl b, a reaction that involves oxygenation of the 7-methyl group of Chl a to a formyl group. This reaction uses molecular oxygen and is catalyzed by chlorophyllide a oxygenase (CAO. The amino acid sequence of CAO predicts mononuclear iron and Rieske iron-sulfur centers in the protein. The mechanism of synthesis of Chl b and localization of this reaction in the chloroplast are essential steps toward understanding LHC assembly. Results Fluorescence of a CAO-GFP fusion protein, transiently expressed in young pea leaves, was found at the periphery of mature chloroplasts and on thylakoid membranes by confocal fluorescence microscopy. However, when membranes from partially degreened cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cw15 were resolved on sucrose gradients, full-length CAO was detected by immunoblot analysis only on the chloroplast envelope inner membrane. The electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum of CAO included a resonance at g = 4.3, assigned to the predicted mononuclear iron center. Instead of a spectrum of the predicted Rieske iron-sulfur center, a nearly symmetrical, approximately 100 Gauss peak-to-trough signal was observed at g = 2.057, with a sensitivity to temperature characteristic of an iron-sulfur center. A remarkably stable radical in the protein was revealed by an isotropic, 9 Gauss peak-to-trough signal at g = 2.0042. Fragmentation of the protein after incorporation of 125I- identified a conserved tyrosine residue (Tyr-422 in Chlamydomonas and Tyr-518 in Arabidopsis as the radical species. The radical was quenched by chlorophyll a, an indication that it may be involved in the enzymatic reaction. Conclusion CAO was found on the chloroplast envelope and thylakoid membranes in mature chloroplasts but only on the envelope inner membrane in dark-grown C. reinhardtii cells. Such localization provides further support for the envelope membranes as the initial site of Chl b synthesis and assembly of LHCs during chloroplast development. Identification of a tyrosine radical in the protein provides insight into the mechanism of Chl b synthesis.

  2. AMPK-mediated AS160 phosphorylation in skeletal muscle is dependent on AMPK catalytic and regulatory subunits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treebak, Jonas Thue; Glund, Stephan; Deshmukh, Atul

    2006-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a heterotrimeric protein that regulates glucose transport mediated by cellular stress or pharmacological agonists such as 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1 ß-D-ribonucleoside (AICAR). AS160, a Rab GTPase-activating protein, provides a mechanism linking AMPK s...

  3. Genetic Interactions among AMPK Catalytic Subunit Ssp2 and Glycogen Synthase Kinases Gsk3 and Gsk31 in Schizosaccharomyces Pombe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qingyun; Ma, Yan; Kato, Toshiaki; Furuyashiki, Tomoyuki

    2016-08-03

    In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Ssp2, an ortholog of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), is critical for cell growth at restrictive temperatures and under glucose depletion as well as sexual differentiation under nitrogen depletion. To identify genes genetically related to Ssp2, we performed a genetic screening to search for the genes whose overexpression rescued the growth defects in Δssp2 cells at restrictive temperatures, and identified 35 cosmids as multicopy suppressor genes. In Southern blot analyses, 22 out of these cosmids were hybridized to an ssp2+ probe. Using nucleotide sequencing, we identified the gsk3+ gene in one of the cosmids, and the remaining 12 cosmids were hybridized to a gsk3+ probe. Overexpression of the gsk3+ gene or the gsk31+ gene, another GSK3 member, rescues defective growth of Δssp2 cells at restrictive temperatures and under glucose depletion as well as sexual differentiation under nitrogen depletion. Δgsk3Δgsk31 double knockout cells, but neither Δgsk3 nor Δgsk31 single knockout cells, phenocopy Δssp2 cells. The deletion of the gsk3+ or gsk31+ gene augments the phenotypes of Δssp2 cells. These findings suggest that Gsk3 and Gsk31 are critical and interact with Ssp2 in multiple cellular functions.

  4. A Mutation in the Catalytic Subunit of the Glycosylphosphatidylinositol Transamidase Disrupts Growth, Fertility, and Stomata Formation1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) are essential for plant growth and development; knockout mutations in enzymes responsible for anchor biosynthesis or attachment are gametophyte or embryo lethal. In a genetic screen targeted to identify genes regulating stomata formation, we discovered a missense mutation in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) homolog of GPI8/PIG-K, a Cys protease that transfers an assembled GPI anchor to proteins. The Arabidopsis genome has a single copy of AtGPI8, and the atgpi8-1 mutation reduces the efficiency of this enzyme, leading to reduced accumulation of GPI-anchored proteins. While the atgpi8-1 mutation strongly disrupts plant growth, it is not lethal. Phenotypic analysis of atgpi8-1 mutants suggests that GPI-APs are important for root and shoot growth, stomata formation, apical dominance, transition to flowering, and male gametophyte viability. In addition, atgpi8-1 mutants accumulate higher levels of callose and have reduced plasmodesmata permeability. Genetic interactions of atgpi8-1 with mutations in ERECTA family (ERf) genes suggest the existence of a GPI-AP in a branch of the ERf signaling pathway that regulates stomata formation. Activation of the ERf signal transduction cascade by constitutively active YODA rescues stomata clustering in atgpi8-1, indicating that a GPI-AP functions upstream of the MAP kinase cascade. TOO MANY MOUTHS (TMM) is a receptor-like protein that is able to form heterodimers with ERfs. Our analysis demonstrates that tmm-1 is epistatic to atgpi8-1, indicating that either TMM is a GPI-AP or there is another GPI-AP regulating stomata development whose function is dependent upon TMM. PMID:27208238

  5. Conformational plasticity of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase CK2 and its consequences for regulation and drug design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niefind, Karsten; Issinger, Olaf-Georg

    2010-01-01

    well to the constitutive activity of the enzyme, meaning, its independence from phosphorylation or other characteristic control factors. Most CK2alpha structures are based on the enzyme from Zea mays, supplemented by an increasing number of human CK2alpha structures. In the latter a surprising...... molecule seems to favour the partially and fully inactive states. This observation may be exploited to design effective and selective CK2 inhibitors....

  6. Introduction of Residue Fluid Catalytic Cracking Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    SAKAKURA, Kei

    2014-01-01

    .... Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is one of the most important conversion processes in a petroleum refinery, it also occupies very significant position in the refinery due to its economic benefits...

  7. Catalytic models developed through social work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    The article develops the concept of catalytic processes in relation to social work with adolescents in an attempt to both reach a more nuanced understanding of social work and at the same time to develop the concept of catalytic processes in psychology. The social work is pedagogical treatment...... of adolescents placed in out-of-home care and is characterised using three situated cases as empirical data. Afterwards the concept of catalytic processes is briefly presented and then applied in an analysis of pedagogical treatment in the three cases. The result is a different conceptualisation of the social...... work with new possibilities of development of the work, but also suggestions for development of the concept of catalytic processes....

  8. Catalytic converters as a source of platinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fornalczyk

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The increase of Platinum Group Metals demand in automotive industry is connected with growing amount of cars equipped with the catalytic converters. The paper presents the review of available technologies during recycling process. The possibility of removing platinum from the used catalytic converters applying pyrometallurgical and hyrdometallurgical methods were also investigated. Metals such as Cu, Pb, Ca, Mg, Cd were used in the pyrometallurgical research (catalytic converter was melted with Cu, Pb and Ca or Mg and Cd vapours were blown through the whole carrier. In hydrometallurgical research catalytic converters was dissolved in aqua regia. Analysis of Pt contents in the carrier before and after the process was performed by means of atomic absorption spectroscopy. Obtained result were discussed.

  9. Catalytic iron and acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, David E; Swinkels, Dorine W

    2016-11-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and often devastating condition among hospitalized patients and is associated with markedly increased hospital length of stay, mortality, and cost. The pathogenesis of AKI is complex, but animal models support an important role for catalytic iron in causing AKI. Catalytic iron, also known as labile iron, is a transitional pool of non-transferrin-bound iron that is readily available to participate in redox cycling. Initial findings related to catalytic iron and animal models of kidney injury have only recently been extended to human AKI. In this review, we discuss the role of catalytic iron in human AKI, focusing on recent translational studies in humans, assay considerations, and potential therapeutic targets for future interventional studies. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Catalytic ammonia oxidation to nitrogen (i) oxide

    OpenAIRE

    MASALITINA NATALIYA YUREVNA; SAVENKOV ANATOLIY SERGEEVICH

    2015-01-01

    The process of synthesis of nitrous oxide by low-temperature catalytical oxidation of NH has been investigated for organic synthesis. The investigation has been carried out by the stage separation approach with NH oxidation occurring in several reaction zones, which characterized by different catalytic conditions. The selectivity for N2O was 92-92,5% at the ammonia conversion of 98-99.5% in the optimal temperature range

  11. MOBILE COMPLEX FOR CATALYTIC THERMAL WASTE TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedi V.E.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The design and purpose of the basic units of the mobile waste processing complex “MPK” are described. Experimental data of catalytic purification of exhaust gases are presented. Experimental data on catalytic clearing of final gases of a designed mobile incinerator plant are shown. It is defined, that concentrating of parasitic bridging in waste gases of the complex are considerably smaller, rather than allowed by normative documents.

  12. Rubisco catalytic properties of wild and domesticated relatives provide scope for improving wheat photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Anneke; Orr, Douglas J; Andralojc, P John; Reynolds, Matthew P; Carmo-Silva, Elizabete; Parry, Martin A J

    2016-03-01

    Rubisco is a major target for improving crop photosynthesis and yield, yet natural diversity in catalytic properties of this enzyme is poorly understood. Rubisco from 25 genotypes of the Triticeae tribe, including wild relatives of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), were surveyed to identify superior enzymes for improving photosynthesis in this crop. In vitro Rubisco carboxylation velocity (V c), Michaelis-Menten constants for CO2 (K c) and O2 (K o) and specificity factor (S c/o) were measured at 25 and 35 °C. V c and K c correlated positively, while V c and S c/o were inversely related. Rubisco large subunit genes (rbcL) were sequenced, and predicted corresponding amino acid differences analysed in relation to the corresponding catalytic properties. The effect of replacing native wheat Rubisco with counterparts from closely related species was analysed by modelling the response of photosynthesis to varying CO2 concentrations. The model predicted that two Rubisco enzymes would increase photosynthetic performance at 25 °C while only one of these also increased photosynthesis at 35 °C. Thus, under otherwise identical conditions, catalytic variation in the Rubiscos analysed is predicted to improve photosynthetic rates at physiological CO2 concentrations. Naturally occurring Rubiscos with superior properties amongst the Triticeae tribe can be exploited to improve wheat photosynthesis and crop productivity. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  13. A process yields large quantities of pure ribosome subunits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, M.; Lu, P.; Rich, A.

    1972-01-01

    Development of process for in-vitro protein synthesis from living cells followed by dissociation of ribosomes into subunits is discussed. Process depends on dialysis or use of chelating agents. Operation of process and advantages over previous methods are outlined.

  14. The Neurospora crassa PP2A Regulatory Subunits RGB1 and B56 Are Required for Proper Growth and Development and Interact with the NDR Kinase COT1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hila Shomin-Levi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available COT1 is the founding member of the highly conserved nuclear Dbf2-related (NDR Ser/Thr kinase family and plays a role in the regulation of polar growth and development in Neurospora crassa and other fungi. Changes in COT1 phosphorylation state have been shown to affect hyphal elongation, branching, and conidiation. The function of NDR protein kinases has been shown to be regulated by type 2A protein phosphatases (PP2As. PP2As are heterotrimers comprised of a catalytic and scaffolding protein along with an interchangeable regulatory subunit involved in determining substrate specificity. Inactivation of the N. crassa PP2A regulatory subunits rgb-1 and b56 conferred severe hyphal growth defects. Partial suppression of defects observed in the rgb-1RIP strain (but not in the Δb56 mutant was observed in cot-1 phosphomimetic mutants, demonstrating that altering COT1 phosphorylation state can bypass, at least in part, the requirement of a functional RGB1 subunit. The functional fusion proteins RGB1::GFP and B56::GFP predominantly localized to hyphal tips and septa, respectively, indicating that their primary activity is in different cellular locations. COT1 protein forms exhibited a hyperphosphorylated gel migration pattern in an rgb-1RIP mutant background, similar to that observed when the fungus was cultured in the presence of the PP2A inhibitor cantharidin. COT1 was hypophosphorylated in a Δb56 mutant background, suggesting that this regulatory subunit may be involved in determining COT1 phosphorylation state, yet in an indirect manner. Reciprocal co-immunoprecipitation analyses, using tagged COT1, PPH1, RGB1, and B56 subunits established that these proteins physically interact. Taken together, our data determine the presence of a functional and physical link between PP2A and COT1 and show that two of the PP2A regulatory subunits interact with the kinase and determine COT1 phosphorylation state.

  15. Catalytic hydrogenation of carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayland, B.B.

    1992-12-01

    This project is focused on developing strategies to accomplish the reduction and hydrogenation of carbon monoxide to produce organic oxygenates at mild conditions. Our approaches to this issue are based on the recognition that rhodium macrocycles have unusually favorable thermodynamic values for producing a series of intermediate implicated in the catalytic hydrogenation of CO. Observations of metalloformyl complexes produced by reactions of H{sub 2} and CO, and reductive coupling of CO to form metallo {alpha}-diketone species have suggested a multiplicity of routes to organic oxygenates that utilize these species as intermediates. Thermodynamic and kinetic-mechanistic studies are used in constructing energy profiles for a variety of potential pathways, and these schemes are used in guiding the design of new metallospecies to improve the thermodynamic and kinetic factors for individual steps in the overall process. Variation of the electronic and steric effects associated with the ligand arrays along with the influences of the reaction medium provide the chemical tools for tuning these factors. Emerging knowledge of the factors that contribute to M-H, M-C and M-O bond enthalpies is directing the search for ligand arrays that will expand the range of metal species that have favorable thermodynamic parameters to produce the primary intermediates for CO hydrogenation. Studies of rhodium complexes are being extended to non-macrocyclic ligand complexes that emulate the favorable thermodynamic features associated with rhodium macrocycles, but that also manifest improved reaction kinetics. Multifunctional catalyst systems designed to couple the ability of rhodium complexes to produce formyl and diketone intermediates with a second catalyst that hydrogenates these imtermediates are promising approaches to accomplish CO hydrogenation at mild conditions.

  16. A balanced transcription between telomerase and the telomeric DNA-binding proteins TRF1, TRF2 and Pot1 in resting, activated, HTLV-1-transformed and Tax-expressing human T lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Eric

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The functional state of human telomeres is controlled by telomerase and by a protein complex named shelterin, including the telomeric DNA-binding proteins TRF1, TRF2 and Pot1 involved in telomere capping functions. The expression of hTERT, encoding the catalytic subunit of telomerase, plays a crucial role in the control of lymphocyte proliferation by maintaining telomere homeostasis. It has been previously found that hTERT activity is down-regulated by the human T cell leukaemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1 Tax protein in HTLV-1 transformed T lymphocytes. In this study, we have examined the effects of Tax expression on the transcriptional profile of telomerase and of shelterin in human T lymphocytes. Results We first provide evidence that the up-regulation of hTERT transcription in activated CD4+ T lymphocytes is associated with a down-regulation of that of TERF1, TERF2 and POT1 genes. Next, the down-regulation of hTERT transcription by Tax in HTLV-1 transformed or in Tax-expressing T lymphocytes is found to correlate with a significant increase of TRF2 and/or Pot1 mRNAs. Finally, ectopic expression of hTERT in one HTLV-1 T cell line induces a marked decrease in the transcription of the POT1 gene. Collectively, these observations predict that the increased transcriptional expression of shelterin genes is minimizing the impact on telomere instability induced by the down-regulation of hTERT by Tax. Conclusion These findings support the notion that Tax, telomerase and shelterin play a critical role in the proliferation of HTLV-1 transformed T lymphocytes.

  17. Defect of Dpb2p, a noncatalytic subunit of DNA polymerase ɛ, promotes error prone replication of undamaged chromosomal DNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraszewska, Joanna; Garbacz, Marta; Jonczyk, Piotr; Fijalkowska, Iwona J; Jaszczur, Malgorzata

    2012-09-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA polymerase epsilon holoenzyme (Pol ɛ HE) is composed of four subunits: Pol2p, Dpb2p, Dpb3p and Dpb4p. The biological functions of Pol2p, the catalytic subunit of Pol ɛ, are subject of active investigation, while the role of the other three, noncatalytic subunits, is not well defined. We showed previously that mutations in Dpb2p, a noncatalytic but essential subunit of Pol ɛ HE, influence the fidelity of DNA replication in yeast cells. The strength of the mutator phenotype due to the different dpb2 alleles was inversely proportional to the strength of protein-protein interactions between Pol2p and the mutated forms of Dpb2p. To understand better the mechanisms of the contribution of Dpb2p to the controlling of the level of spontaneous mutagenesis we undertook here a further genetic analysis of the mutator phenotype observed in dpb2 mutants. We demonstrate that the presence of mutated forms of Dpb2p in the cell not only influences the intrinsic fidelity of Pol ɛ but also facilitates more frequent participation of error-prone DNA polymerase zeta (Pol ζ) in DNA replication. The obtained results suggest that the structural integrity of Pol ɛ HE is a crucial contributor to accurate chromosomal DNA replication and, when compromised, favors participation of error prone DNA Pol ζ in this process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. C25, an essential RNA polymerase III subunit related to the RNA polymerase II subunit RPB7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhale, P P; Woychik, N A

    1994-09-01

    We identified a partially sequenced Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene which encodes a protein related to the S. cerevisiae RNA polymerase II subunit, RPB7. Several lines of evidence suggest that this related gene, YKL1, encodes the RNA polymerase III subunit C25. C25, like RPB7, is present in submolar ratios, easily dissociates from the enzyme, is essential for cell growth and viability, but is not required in certain transcription assays in vitro. YKL1 has ABF-1 and PAC upstream sequences often present in RNA polymerase subunit genes. The sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis mobility of the YKL1 gene product is equivalent to that of the RNA polymerase III subunit C25. Finally, a C25 conditional mutant grown at the nonpermissive temperature synthesizes tRNA at reduced rates relative to 5.8S rRNA, a hallmark of all characterized RNA polymerase III mutants.

  19. Adsorbent catalytic nanoparticles and methods of using the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slowing, Igor Ivan; Kandel, Kapil

    2017-01-31

    The present invention provides an adsorbent catalytic nanoparticle including a mesoporous silica nanoparticle having at least one adsorbent functional group bound thereto. The adsorbent catalytic nanoparticle also includes at least one catalytic material. In various embodiments, the present invention provides methods of using and making the adsorbent catalytic nanoparticles. In some examples, the adsorbent catalytic nanoparticles can be used to selectively remove fatty acids from feedstocks for biodiesel, and to hydrotreat the separated fatty acids.

  20. Casein kinase 2 down-regulation and activation by polybasic peptides are mediated by acidic residues in the 55-64 region of the beta-subunit. A study with calmodulin as phosphorylatable substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meggio, F; Boldyreff, B; Issinger, O G

    1994-01-01

    are conversely ineffective. The latent "calmodulin kinase" activity of CK2 can also be specifically unmasked by a peptide (alpha[66-86]) reproducing a basic insert of the catalytic subunit. This effect is reversed by equimolar addition of a peptide (beta[55-71]) including the 55-64 acidic stretch of the beta......-subunit. Comparable polylysine stimulation was observed with the holoenzymes reconstituted with either beta wt or the beta mutants capable of assembling with the alpha-subunit, with the notable exception of those bearing Ala substitutions for acidic residues at positions 55, 57, and 59-61. These were nearly...... insensitive to 42 nM polylysine, which conversely promotes a more than 10-fold increase of calmodulin phosphorylation with wild-type beta.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...

  1. Genetic Construction of Truncated and Chimeric Metalloproteins Derived from the Alpha Subunit of Acetyl-CoA Synthase from Clostridium thermoaceticum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huay-Keng Loke; Xiangshi Tan; Paul A. Lindahl

    2002-06-28

    In this study, a genetics-based method is used to truncate acetyl-coenzyme A synthase from Clostridium thermoaceticum (ACS), an alpha2beta2 tetrameric 310 kda bifunctional enzyme. ACS catalyzes the reversible reduction of CO2 to CO and the synthesis of acetyl-CoA from CO (or CO2 in the presence of low-potential reductants), CoA, and a methyl group bound to a corrinoid-iron sulfur protein (CoFeSP). ACS contains 7 metal-sulfur clusters of 4 different types called A, B, C, and D. The B, C, and D clusters are located in the 72 kda beta subunit while the A-cluster, a Ni-X-Fe4S4 cluster that serves as the active site for acetyl-CoA synthase activity, is located in the 82 kda alpha subunit. The extent to which the essential properties of the cluster, including catalytic, redox, spectroscopic, and substrate-binding properties, were retained as ACS was progressively truncated was determined. Acetyl-CoA synthase catalytic activity remained when the entire alpha subunit was removed, as long as CO, rather than CO2 and a low-potential reductant, was used as a substrate. Truncating an {approx} 30 kda region from the N-terminus of the alpha subunit yielded a 49 kda protein that lacked catalytic activity but exhibited A-cluster-like spectroscopic, redox, and CO binding properties. Further truncation afforded a 23 kda protein that lacked recognizable A-cluster properties except for UV-vis spectra typical of [Fe4S4]2+ clusters. Two chimeric proteins were constructed by fusing the gene encoding a ferredoxin from Chromatium vinosum to genes encoding the 49 kda and 82 kda fragments of the alpha subunit. The chimeric proteins exhibited EPR signals that were not the simple sum of the signals from the separate proteins, suggesting magnetic interactions between clusters. This study highlights the potential for using genetics to simplify the study of complex multi-centered metalloenzymes and to generate new complex metalloenzymes with interesting properties.

  2. A bioinformatic and computational study of myosin phosphatase subunit diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dippold, Rachael P; Fisher, Steven A

    2014-08-01

    Variability in myosin phosphatase (MP) subunits may provide specificity in signaling pathways that regulate muscle tone. We utilized public databases and computational algorithms to investigate the phylogenetic diversity of MP regulatory (PPP1R12A-C) and inhibitory (PPP1R14A-D) subunits. The comparison of exonic coding sequences and expression data confirmed or refuted the existence of isoforms and their tissue-specific expression in different model organisms. The comparison of intronic and exonic sequences identified potential expressional regulatory elements. As examples, smooth muscle MP regulatory subunit (PPP1R12A) is highly conserved through evolution. Its alternative exon E24 is present in fish through mammals with two invariant features: 1) a reading frame shift generating a premature termination codon and 2) a hexanucleotide sequence adjacent to the 3' splice site hypothesized to be a novel suppressor of exon splicing. A characteristic of the striated muscle MP regulatory subunit (PPP1R12B) locus is numerous and phylogenetically variable transcriptional start sites. In fish this locus only codes for the small (M21) subunit, suggesting the primordial function of this gene. Inhibitory subunits show little intragenic variability; their diversity is thought to have arisen by expansion and tissue-specific expression of different gene family members. We demonstrate differences in the regulatory landscape between smooth muscle enriched (PPP1R14A) and more ubiquitously expressed (PPP1R14B) family members and identify deeply conserved intronic sequence and predicted transcriptional cis-regulatory elements. This bioinformatic and computational study has uncovered a number of attributes of MP subunits that supports selection of ideal model organisms and testing of hypotheses regarding their physiological significance and regulated expression. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Pituitary glycoprotein hormone a-subunit secretion by cirrhotic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira M.C.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Secretion of the a-subunit of pituitary glycoprotein hormones usually follows the secretion of intact gonadotropins and is increased in gonadal failure and decreased in isolated gonadotropin deficiency. The aim of the present study was to determine the levels of the a-subunit in the serum of patients with cirrhosis of the liver and to compare the results obtained for eugonadal cirrhotic patients with those obtained for cirrhotic patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Forty-seven of 63 patients with cirrhosis (74.6% presented hypogonadism (which was central in 45 cases and primary in 2, 7 were eugonadal, and 9 women were in normal menopause. The serum a-subunit was measured by the fluorimetric method using monoclonal antibodies. Cross-reactivity with LH, TSH, FSH and hCG was 6.5, 1.2, 4.3 and 1.1%, respectively, with an intra-assay coefficient of variation (CV of less than 5% and an interassay CV of 5%, and sensitivity limit of 4 ng/l. The serum a-subunit concentration ranged from 36 to 6253 ng/l, with a median of 273 ng/l. The median was 251 ng/l for patients with central hypogonadism and 198 ng/l for eugonadal patients. The correlation between the a-subunit and basal LH levels was significant both in the total sample (r = 0.48, P<0.01 and in the cirrhotic patients with central hypogonadism (r = 0.33, P = 0.02. Among men with central hypogonadism there was a negative correlation between a-subunit levels and total testosterone levels (r = 0.54, P<0.01 as well as free testosterone levels (r = -0.53, P<0.01. In conclusion, although the a-subunit levels are correlated with LH levels, at present they cannot be used as markers for hypogonadism in patients with cirrhosis of the liver.

  4. Hypersecretion of the alpha-subunit in clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas: Diagnostic accuracy is improved by adding alpha-subunit/gonadotropin ratio to levels of alpha-subunit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Marianne; Ganc-Petersen, Joanna; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In vitro, the majority of clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) produce gonadotropins or their alpha-subunit; however, in vivo, measurements of alpha-subunit levels may not accurately detect the hypersecretion of the alpha-subunit. AIM: We wanted to estimate...

  5. Atomically Precise Metal Nanoclusters for Catalytic Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Rongchao [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-11-18

    The central goal of this project is to explore the catalytic application of atomically precise gold nanoclusters. By solving the total structures of ligand-protected nanoclusters, we aim to correlate the catalytic properties of metal nanoclusters with their atomic/electronic structures. Such correlation unravel some fundamental aspects of nanocatalysis, such as the nature of particle size effect, origin of catalytic selectivity, particle-support interactions, the identification of catalytically active centers, etc. The well-defined nanocluster catalysts mediate the knowledge gap between single crystal model catalysts and real-world conventional nanocatalysts. These nanoclusters also hold great promise in catalyzing certain types of reactions with extraordinarily high selectivity. These aims are in line with the overall goals of the catalytic science and technology of DOE and advance the BES mission “to support fundamental research to understand, predict, and ultimately control matter and energy at the level of electrons, atoms, and molecules”. Our group has successfully prepared different sized, robust gold nanoclusters protected by thiolates, such as Au25(SR)18, Au28(SR)20, Au38(SR)24, Au99(SR)42, Au144(SR)60, etc. Some of these nanoclusters have been crystallographically characterized through X-ray crystallography. These ultrasmall nanoclusters (< 2 nm diameter) exhibit discrete electronic structures due to quantum size effect, as opposed to quasicontinuous band structure of conventional metal nanoparticles or bulk metals. The available atomic structures (metal core plus surface ligands) of nanoclusters serve as the basis for structure-property correlations. We have investigated the unique catalytic properties of nanoclusters (i.e. not observed in conventional nanogold catalysts) and revealed the structure-selectivity relationships. Highlights of our

  6. Structure of the catalytic chain of Methanococcus jannaschii aspartate transcarbamoylase in a hexagonal crystal form: Insights into the path of carbamoyl phosphate to the active site of the enzyme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitali J.; Soares A.; Singh, A. K.; Colaneri, M. J.

    2012-05-01

    Crystals of the catalytic chain of Methanococcus jannaschii aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase) grew in the presence of the regulatory chain in the hexagonal space group P6{sub 3}22, with one monomer per asymmetric unit. This is the first time that crystals with only one monomer in the asymmetric unit have been obtained; all known structures of the catalytic subunit contain several crystallographically independent monomers. The symmetry-related chains form the staggered dimer of trimers observed in the other known structures of the catalytic subunit. The central channel of the catalytic subunit contains a sulfate ion and a K{sup +} ion as well as a glycerol molecule at its entrance. It is possible that it is involved in channeling carbamoyl phosphate (CP) to the active site of the enzyme. A second sulfate ion near Arg164 is near the second CP position in the wild-type Escherichia coli ATCase structure complexed with CP. It is suggested that this position may also be in the path that CP takes when binding to the active site in a partial diffusion process at 310 K. Additional biochemical studies of carbamoylation and the molecular organization of this enzyme in M. jannaschii will provide further insight into these points.

  7. 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase activity and subunit expression in exercise-trained human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jakob Nis; Mustard, Kirsty J.W.; Graham, Drew A.

    2002-01-01

    (3)) AMPK subunits and exercise-induced AMPK activity are influenced by exercise training status, muscle biopsies were obtained from seven endurance exercise-trained and seven sedentary young healthy men. The alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-AMPK mRNA contents in trained subjects were both 117 +/- 2...... trained human skeletal muscle has increased alpha(1)-AMPK protein levels and blunted AMPK activation during exercise.......5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been proposed to be a pivotal factor in cellular responses to both acute exercise and exercise training. To investigate whether protein levels and gene expression of catalytic (alpha(1), alpha(2)) and regulatory (beta(1), beta(2), gamma(1), gamma(2), gamma...

  8. Electro Catalytic Oxidation (ECO) Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan Jones

    2011-03-31

    The power industry in the United States is faced with meeting many new regulations to reduce a number of air pollutants including sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, fine particulate matter, and mercury. With over 1,000 power plants in the US, this is a daunting task. In some cases, traditional pollution control technologies such as wet scrubbers and SCRs are not feasible. Powerspan's Electro-Catalytic Oxidation, or ECO{reg_sign} process combines four pollution control devices into a single integrated system that can be installed after a power plant's particulate control device. Besides achieving major reductions in emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NOx), fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and mercury (Hg), ECO produces a highly marketable fertilizer, which can help offset the operating costs of the process system. Powerspan has been operating a 50-MW ECO commercial demonstration unit (CDU) at FirstEnergy Corp.'s R.E. Burger Plant near Shadyside, Ohio, since February 2004. In addition to the CDU, a test loop has been constructed beside the CDU to demonstrate higher NOx removal rates and test various scrubber packing types and wet ESP configurations. Furthermore, Powerspan has developed the ECO{reg_sign}{sub 2} technology, a regenerative process that uses a proprietary solvent to capture CO{sub 2} from flue gas. The CO{sub 2} capture takes place after the capture of NOx, SO{sub 2}, mercury, and fine particulate matter. Once the CO{sub 2} is captured, the proprietary solution is regenerated to release CO{sub 2} in a form that is ready for geological storage or beneficial use. Pilot scale testing of ECO{sub 2} began in early 2009 at FirstEnergy's Burger Plant. The ECO{sub 2} pilot unit is designed to process a 1-MW flue gas stream and produce 20 tons of CO{sub 2} per day, achieving a 90% CO{sub 2} capture rate. The ECO{sub 2} pilot program provided the opportunity to confirm process design and cost estimates, and prepare for large

  9. Alpha2 subunit specificity of cyclothiazide inhibition on glycine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Bing; Sun, Guang-Chun; Liu, Lu-Ying; Yu, Fang; Xu, Tian-Le

    2008-04-01

    In the mammalian cortex, alpha2 subunit-containing glycine receptors (GlyRs) mediate tonic inhibition, but the precise functional role of this type of GlyRs is difficult to establish because of the lack of subtype-selective antagonist. In this study, we found that cyclothiazide (CTZ), an epileptogenic agent, potently inhibited GlyR-mediated current (I(Gly)) in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. The inhibition was glycine concentration-dependent, suggesting a competitive mechanism. Note that GlyRs containing the alpha2 but not alpha1 or alpha3 subunits, when being heterologously expressed in human embryonic kidney 293T cells, were inhibited by CTZ, indicating subunit specificity of CTZ action. In addition, the degree of CTZ inhibition on I(Gly) in rat spinal neurons declined with time in culture, in parallel with a decline of alpha2 subunit expression, which is known to occur during spinal cord development. Furthermore, site-directed mutagenesis indicates that a single-amino acid threonine at position 59 near the N terminus of the alpha2 subunit confers the specificity of CTZ action. Thus, CTZ is a potent and selective inhibitor of alpha2-GlyRs, and threonine at position 59 plays a critical role in the susceptibility of GlyR to CTZ inhibition.

  10. The Crystal Structure of PF-8, the DNA Polymerase Accessory Subunit from Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baltz, Jennifer L.; Filman, David J.; Ciustea, Mihai; Silverman, Janice Elaine Y.; Lautenschlager, Catherine L.; Coen, Donald M.; Ricciardi, Robert P.; Hogle, James M.; (UPENN)

    2009-12-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus is an emerging pathogen whose mechanism of replication is poorly understood. PF-8, the presumed processivity factor of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus DNA polymerase, acts in combination with the catalytic subunit, Pol-8, to synthesize viral DNA. We have solved the crystal structure of residues 1 to 304 of PF-8 at a resolution of 2.8 {angstrom}. This structure reveals that each monomer of PF-8 shares a fold common to processivity factors. Like human cytomegalovirus UL44, PF-8 forms a head-to-head dimer in the form of a C clamp, with its concave face containing a number of basic residues that are predicted to be important for DNA binding. However, there are several differences with related proteins, especially in loops that extend from each monomer into the center of the C clamp and in the loops that connect the two subdomains of each protein, which may be important for determining PF-8's mode of binding to DNA and to Pol-8. Using the crystal structures of PF-8, the herpes simplex virus catalytic subunit, and RB69 bacteriophage DNA polymerase in complex with DNA and initial experiments testing the effects of inhibition of PF-8-stimulated DNA synthesis by peptides derived from Pol-8, we suggest a model for how PF-8 might form a ternary complex with Pol-8 and DNA. The structure and the model suggest interesting similarities and differences in how PF-8 functions relative to structurally similar proteins.

  11. The Crystal Structure of PF-8, the DNA Polymerase Accessory Subunit from Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltz, Jennifer L.; Filman, David J.; Ciustea, Mihai; Silverman, Janice Elaine Y.; Lautenschlager, Catherine L.; Coen, Donald M.; Ricciardi, Robert P.; Hogle, James M.

    2009-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus is an emerging pathogen whose mechanism of replication is poorly understood. PF-8, the presumed processivity factor of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus DNA polymerase, acts in combination with the catalytic subunit, Pol-8, to synthesize viral DNA. We have solved the crystal structure of residues 1 to 304 of PF-8 at a resolution of 2.8 Å. This structure reveals that each monomer of PF-8 shares a fold common to processivity factors. Like human cytomegalovirus UL44, PF-8 forms a head-to-head dimer in the form of a C clamp, with its concave face containing a number of basic residues that are predicted to be important for DNA binding. However, there are several differences with related proteins, especially in loops that extend from each monomer into the center of the C clamp and in the loops that connect the two subdomains of each protein, which may be important for determining PF-8's mode of binding to DNA and to Pol-8. Using the crystal structures of PF-8, the herpes simplex virus catalytic subunit, and RB69 bacteriophage DNA polymerase in complex with DNA and initial experiments testing the effects of inhibition of PF-8-stimulated DNA synthesis by peptides derived from Pol-8, we suggest a model for how PF-8 might form a ternary complex with Pol-8 and DNA. The structure and the model suggest interesting similarities and differences in how PF-8 functions relative to structurally similar proteins. PMID:19759157

  12. Highly Dense Isolated Metal Atom Catalytic Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yaxin; Kasama, Takeshi; Huang, Zhiwei

    2015-01-01

    Atomically dispersed noble-metal catalysts with highly dense active sites are promising materials with which to maximise metal efficiency and to enhance catalytic performance; however, their fabrication remains challenging because metal atoms are prone to sintering, especially at a high metal...... loading. A dynamic process of formation of isolated metal atom catalytic sites on the surface of the support, which was achieved starting from silver nanoparticles by using a thermal surface-mediated diffusion method, was observed directly by using in situ electron microscopy and in situ synchrotron X......-ray diffraction. A combination of electron microscopy images with X-ray absorption spectra demonstrated that the silver atoms were anchored on five-fold oxygen-terminated cavities on the surface of the support to form highly dense isolated metal active sites, leading to excellent reactivity in catalytic oxidation...

  13. Catalytic Organic Transformations Mediated by Actinide Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabell S. R. Karmel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This review article presents the development of organoactinides and actinide coordination complexes as catalysts for homogeneous organic transformations. This chapter introduces the basic principles of actinide catalysis and deals with the historic development of actinide complexes in catalytic processes. The application of organoactinides in homogeneous catalysis is exemplified in the hydroelementation reactions, such as the hydroamination, hydrosilylation, hydroalkoxylation and hydrothiolation of alkynes. Additionally, the use of actinide coordination complexes for the catalytic polymerization of α-olefins and the ring opening polymerization of cyclic esters is presented. The last part of this review article highlights novel catalytic transformations mediated by actinide compounds and gives an outlook to the further potential of this field.

  14. Temperature Modulation of a Catalytic Gas Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eike Brauns

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of catalytic gas sensors usually offers low selectivity, only based on their different sensitivities for various gases due to their different heats of reaction. Furthermore, the identification of the gas present is not possible, which leads to possible misinterpretation of the sensor signals. The use of micro-machined catalytic gas sensors offers great advantages regarding the response time, which allows advanced analysis of the sensor response. By using temperature modulation, additional information about the gas characteristics can be measured and drift effects caused by material shifting or environmental temperature changes can be avoided. In this work a miniaturized catalytic gas sensor which offers a very short response time (<150 ms was developed. Operation with modulated temperature allows analysis of the signal spectrum with advanced information content, based on the Arrhenius approach. Therefore, a high-precise electronic device was developed, since theory shows that harmonics induced by the electronics must be avoided to generate a comprehensible signal.

  15. Porous media for catalytic renewable energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotz, Nico

    2012-05-01

    A novel flow-based method is presented to place catalytic nanoparticles into a reactor by sol-gelation of a porous ceramic consisting of copper-based nanoparticles, silica sand, ceramic binder, and a gelation agent. This method allows for the placement of a liquid precursor containing the catalyst into the final reactor geometry without the need of impregnating or coating of a substrate with the catalytic material. The so generated foam-like porous ceramic shows properties highly appropriate for use as catalytic reactor material, e.g., reasonable pressure drop due to its porosity, high thermal and catalytic stability, and excellent catalytic behavior. The catalytic activity of micro-reactors containing this foam-like ceramic is tested in terms of their ability to convert alcoholic biofuel (e.g. methanol) to a hydrogen-rich gas mixture with low concentrations of carbon monoxide (up to 75% hydrogen content and less than 0.2% CO, for the case of methanol). This gas mixture is subsequently used in a low-temperature fuel cell, converting the hydrogen directly to electricity. A low concentration of CO is crucial to avoid poisoning of the fuel cell catalyst. Since conventional Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cells require CO concentrations far below 100 ppm and since most methods to reduce the mole fraction of CO (such as Preferential Oxidation or PROX) have CO conversions of up to 99%, the alcohol fuel reformer has to achieve initial CO mole fractions significantly below 1%. The catalyst and the porous ceramic reactor of the present study can successfully fulfill this requirement.

  16. Molecular dynamics and mutational analysis of the catalytic and translocation cycle of RNA polymerase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kireeva Maria L

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During elongation, multi-subunit RNA polymerases (RNAPs cycle between phosphodiester bond formation and nucleic acid translocation. In the conformation associated with catalysis, the mobile “trigger loop” of the catalytic subunit closes on the nucleoside triphosphate (NTP substrate. Closing of the trigger loop is expected to exclude water from the active site, and dehydration may contribute to catalysis and fidelity. In the absence of a NTP substrate in the active site, the trigger loop opens, which may enable translocation. Another notable structural element of the RNAP catalytic center is the “bridge helix” that separates the active site from downstream DNA. The bridge helix may participate in translocation by bending against the RNA/DNA hybrid to induce RNAP forward movement and to vacate the active site for the next NTP loading. The transition between catalytic and translocation conformations of RNAP is not evident from static crystallographic snapshots in which macromolecular motions may be restrained by crystal packing. Results All atom molecular dynamics simulations of Thermus thermophilus (Tt RNAP reveal flexible hinges, located within the two helices at the base of the trigger loop, and two glycine hinges clustered near the N-terminal end of the bridge helix. As simulation progresses, these hinges adopt distinct conformations in the closed and open trigger loop structures. A number of residues (described as “switch” residues trade atomic contacts (ion pairs or hydrogen bonds in response to changes in hinge orientation. In vivo phenotypes and in vitro activities rendered by mutations in the hinge and switch residues in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sc RNAP II support the importance of conformational changes predicted from simulations in catalysis and translocation. During simulation, the elongation complex with an open trigger loop spontaneously translocates forward relative to the elongation complex with a

  17. Catalytic burners in larger boiler appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silversand, Fredrik; Persson, Mikael (Catator AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2009-02-15

    This project focuses on the scale up of a Catator's catalytic burner technology to enable retrofit installation in existing boilers and the design of new innovative combinations of catalytic burners and boilers. Different design approaches are discussed and evaluated in the report and suggestions are made concerning scale-up. Preliminary test data, extracted from a large boiler installation are discussed together with an accurate analysis of technical possibilities following an optimization of the boiler design to benefit from the advantages of catalytic combustion. The experimental work was conducted in close collaboration with ICI Caldaie (ICI), located in Verona, Italy. ICI is a leading European boiler manufacturer in the effect segment ranging from about 20 kWt to several MWt. The study shows that it is possibly to scale up the burner technology and to maintain low emissions. The boilers used in the study were designed around conventional combustion and were consequently not optimized for implementation of catalytic burners. From previous experiences it stands clear that the furnace volume can be dramatically decreased when applying catalytic combustion. In flame combustion, this volume is normally dimensioned to avoid flame impingement on cold surfaces and to facilitate completion of the gas-phase reactions. The emissions of nitrogen oxides can be reduced by decreasing the residence time in the furnace. Even with the over-dimensioned furnace used in this study, we easily reached emission values close to 35 mg/kWh. The emissions of carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons were negligible (less than 5 ppmv). It is possible to decrease the emissions of nitrogen oxides further by designing the furnace/boiler around the catalytic burner, as suggested in the report. Simultaneously, the size of the boiler installation can be reduced greatly, which also will result in material savings, i.e. the production cost can be reduced. It is suggested to optimize the

  18. Catalytic gasification of oil-shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapidus, A.; Avakyan, T. [I.M. Gubkin Russian State Univ. of Oil and Gas, Moscow (Russian Federation); Strizhakova, Yu. [Samara State Univ. (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    Nowadays, the problem of complex usage of solid fossil fuels as raw materials for obtaining of motor fuels and chemical products is becoming increasingly important. A one of possible solutions of the problem is their gasification with further processing of gaseous and liquid products. In this work we have investigated the process of thermal and catalytic gasification of Baltic and Kashpir oil-shales. We have shown that, as compared with non-catalytic process, using of nickel catalyst in the reaction increases the yield of gas, as well as hydrogen content in it, and decreases the amount of liquid products. (orig.)

  19. Toward a catalytic site in DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Ulla; Rohr, Katja; Vogel, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    A number of functionalized polyaza crown ether building blocks have been incorporated into DNA-conjugates as catalytic Cu(2+) binding sites. The effect of the DNA-conjugate catalyst on the stereochemical outcome of a Cu(2+)-catalyzed Diels-Alder reaction will be presented.......A number of functionalized polyaza crown ether building blocks have been incorporated into DNA-conjugates as catalytic Cu(2+) binding sites. The effect of the DNA-conjugate catalyst on the stereochemical outcome of a Cu(2+)-catalyzed Diels-Alder reaction will be presented....

  20. Cholera Toxin B: One Subunit with Many Pharmaceutical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keegan J. Baldauf

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cholera, a waterborne acute diarrheal disease caused by Vibrio cholerae, remains prevalent in underdeveloped countries and is a serious health threat to those living in unsanitary conditions. The major virulence factor is cholera toxin (CT, which consists of two subunits: the A subunit (CTA and the B subunit (CTB. CTB is a 55 kD homopentameric, non-toxic protein binding to the GM1 ganglioside on mammalian cells with high affinity. Currently, recombinantly produced CTB is used as a component of an internationally licensed oral cholera vaccine, as the protein induces potent humoral immunity that can neutralize CT in the gut. Additionally, recent studies have revealed that CTB administration leads to the induction of anti-inflammatory mechanisms in vivo. This review will cover the potential of CTB as an immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory agent. We will also summarize various recombinant expression systems available for recombinant CTB bioproduction.

  1. INTER-SUBUNIT INTERACTION AND ARRANGEMENT OF THE CENTRAL STALK SUBUNITS OF ENTEROCOCCUS HIRAE V-ATPASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Mozaffor Hossain1,2

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available V-ATPases function as ATP-dependent ion pumps in various membrane systems of living organisms. ATP hydrolysis causes rotation of the central rotor complex, which is composed of NtpC, NtpD,and NtpG subunits. We successfully cloned, expressed, and purified the central stalk subunits of Na+- translocating V-type ATPase from E. hirae. Full length DNAs for genes of NtpC, NtpD, and NtpG subunits were amplified by conventional PCR method and cloned into the plasmid vector pET23d. Recombinant DNA transformed E. coli (JM109 cells were grown in LB agar plate containing ampicillin. NtpC and NtpG subunit proteins were expressed as separate His-tagged soluble proteins in E. coli BL21(DE3 cells at 30 °C and NtpD subunit protein was stably expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3 cells at 16 °C. Expressed central stalk subunit proteins were purified by affinity chromatography followed by gel-filtration method. The amount of purified NtpC, NtpD, and NtpG subunit proteins were 13.8 mg/1 liter culture, 16.6 mg/1 liter culture, and 15.2 mg/1 liter culture, respectively. Tobacco etch virus (TEV-protease was also expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3 cells and purified by affinity chromatography. The amount of purified TEV-protease was 8.50 mg/1 liter culture. Here, we report the stable interaction and the complex formation mechanisms of the central stalk subunits of E. hirae V-ATPase. The purified NtpD could interact directly with NtpG and NtpC could bind directly to NtpD-G complex and these three subunits could form NtpD-G-C complex. NtpD could bind to NtpG and formed NtpD-G complex. NtpD or NtpD-G complex could bind to NtpA3-B3 and formed NtpA3-B3-D or NtpA3-B3-D-G complex, respectively. NtpC could bind to NtpA3-B3-D-G and formed NtpA3-B3-D-G-C complex but could not bind to NtpA3-B3, NtpA3-B3-D, NtpD, or NtpG.

  2. Binding mechanism and dynamic conformational change of C subunit of PKA with different pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Wen-Ting; Chu, Xiakun; Wang, Jin

    2017-09-19

    The catalytic subunit of PKA (PKAc) exhibits three major conformational states (open, intermediate, and closed) during the biocatalysis process. Both ATP and substrate/inhibitor can effectively induce the conformational changes of PKAc from open to closed states. Aiming to explore the mechanism of this allosteric regulation, we developed a coarse-grained model and analyzed the dynamics of conformational changes of PKAc during binding by performing molecular dynamics simulations for apo PKAc, binary PKAc (PKAc with ATP, PKAc with PKI), and ternary PKAc (PKAc with ATP and PKI). Our results suggest a mixed binding mechanism of induced fit and conformational selection, with the induced fit dominant. The ligands can drive the movements of Gly-rich loop as well as some regions distal to the active site in PKAc and stabilize them at complex state. In addition, there are two parallel pathways (pathway with PKAc-ATP as an intermediate and pathway PKAc-PKI as an intermediate) during the transition from open to closed states. By molecular dynamics simulations and rate constant analyses, we find that the pathway through PKAc-ATP intermediate is the main binding route from open to closed state because of the fact that the bound PKI will hamper ATP from successful binding and significantly increase the barrier for the second binding subprocess. These findings will provide fundamental insights of the mechanisms of PKAc conformational change upon binding.

  3. Mitochondrial Genes of Dinoflagellates Are Transcribed by a Nuclear-Encoded Single-Subunit RNA Polymerase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Ying Teng

    Full Text Available Dinoflagellates are a large group of algae that contribute significantly to marine productivity and are essential photosynthetic symbionts of corals. Although these algae have fully-functioning mitochondria and chloroplasts, both their organelle genomes have been highly reduced and the genes fragmented and rearranged, with many aberrant transcripts. However, nothing is known about their RNA polymerases. We cloned and sequenced the gene for the nuclear-encoded mitochondrial polymerase (RpoTm of the dinoflagellate Heterocapsa triquetra and showed that the protein presequence targeted a GFP construct into yeast mitochondria. The gene belongs to a small gene family, which includes a variety of 3'-truncated copies that may have originated by retroposition. The catalytic C-terminal domain of the protein shares nine conserved sequence blocks with other single-subunit polymerases and is predicted to have the same fold as the human enzyme. However, the N-terminal (promoter binding/transcription initiation domain is not well-conserved. In conjunction with the degenerate nature of the mitochondrial genome, this suggests a requirement for novel accessory factors to ensure the accurate production of functional mRNAs.

  4. Separation and characterization of alpha-chain subunits from tilapia (Tilapia zillii) skin gelatin using ultrafiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shulin; Tang, Lanlan; Su, Wenjin; Weng, Wuyin; Osako, Kazufumi; Tanaka, Munehiko

    2015-12-01

    Alpha-chain subunits were separated from tilapia skin gelatin using ultrafiltration, and the physicochemical properties of obtained subunits were investigated. As a result, α1-subunit and α2-subunit could be successfully separated by 100 kDa MWCO regenerated cellulose membranes and 150 kDa MWCO polyethersulfone membranes, respectively. Glycine was the most dominant amino acid in both α1-subunit and α2-subunit. However, the tyrosine content was higher in α2-subunit than in α1-subunit, resulting in strong absorption near 280 nm observed in the UV absorption spectrum. Based on the DSC analysis, it was found that the glass transition temperatures of gelatin, α1-subunit and α2-subunit were 136.48 °C, 126.77 °C and 119.43 °C, respectively. Moreover, the reduced viscosity and denaturation temperature of α1-subunit were higher than those of α2-subunit, and the reduced viscosity reached the highest when α-subunits were mixed with α1/α2 ratio of approximately 2, suggesting that α1-subunit plays a more important role in the thermostability of gelatin than α2-subunit. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cyclothiazide: a subunit-specific inhibitor of GABAC receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, An; Song, Xiangqian; Ripps, Harris; Qian, Haohua

    2008-06-01

    We tested the effects of cyclothiazide (CTZ), an agent used to block desensitization of AMPA-type glutamate receptors, on heterologously expressed GABA(C) receptors formed by homomeric rho subunits. CTZ inhibition of GABA(C) receptors was subunit specific; it produced a dose-dependent reduction of the GABA-elicited current on homomeric rho2 receptors with an IC(50) of about 12 microm, but had no significant effect on homomeric rho1 receptors. This differential sensitivity was attributable to a single amino acid located on the second transmembrane domain of the rho subunits. Mutating the residue at this position from serine to proline on the rho2 subunit eliminated CTZ sensitivity, whereas switching proline to serine on the rho1 subunit made the receptor CTZ sensitive. The inhibitory properties of CTZ were consistent with its action as a channel blocker on the receptors formed by rho2 subunits. The effect showed a small degree of voltage dependence, and was due mainly to a non-competitive mechanism that reduced the maximum response elicited by GABA. In addition, the prominent membrane current rebound when co-application of GABA and CTZ was terminated suggests that the binding site for CTZ on the GABA(C) receptor is distinct from that for GABA, and that CTZ acts as a non-competitive antagonist on the GABA(C) receptor. CTZ inhibited the open channel of the GABA(C) receptor with a time constant of about 0.4 s, but the kinetics were approximately 10-fold slower when GABA is absent. The ability of CTZ to interact with various types of neurotransmitter receptors indicates that the drug has multiple actions in the CNS.

  6. Localisation of AMPK γ subunits in cardiac and skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinter, Katalin; Grignani, Robert T; Watkins, Hugh; Redwood, Charles

    2013-12-01

    The trimeric protein AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an important sensor of energetic status and cellular stress, and mutations in genes encoding two of the regulatory γ subunits cause inherited disorders of either cardiac or skeletal muscle. AMPKγ2 mutations cause hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with glycogen deposition and conduction abnormalities; mutations in AMPKγ3 result in increased skeletal muscle glycogen. In order to gain further insight into the roles of the different γ subunits in muscle and into possible disease mechanisms, we localised the γ2 and γ3 subunits, along with the more abundant γ1 subunit, by immunofluorescence in cardiomyocytes and skeletal muscle fibres. The predominant cardiac γ2 variant, γ2-3B, gave a striated pattern in cardiomyocytes, aligning with the Z-disk but with punctate staining similar to T-tubule (L-type Ca(2+) channel) and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SERCA2) markers. In skeletal muscle fibres AMPKγ3 localises to the I band, presenting a uniform staining that flanks the Z-disk, also coinciding with the position of Ca(2+) influx in these muscles. The localisation of γ2-3B- and γ3-containing AMPK suggests that these trimers may have similar functions in the different muscles. AMPK containing γ2-3B was detected in oxidative skeletal muscles which had low expression of γ3, confirming that these two regulatory subunits may be co-ordinately regulated in response to metabolic requirements. Compartmentalisation of AMPK complexes is most likely dependent on the regulatory γ subunit and this differential localisation may direct substrate selection and specify particular functional roles.

  7. Specific interaction of IP6 with human Ku70/80, the DNA-binding subunit of DNA-PK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanakahi, Les A; West, Stephen C

    2002-04-15

    In eukaryotic cells, DNA double-strand breaks can be repaired by non-homologous end-joining, a process dependent upon Ku70/80, XRCC4 and DNA ligase IV. In mammals, this process also requires DNA-PK(cs), the catalytic subunit of the DNA-dependent protein kinase DNA-PK. Previously, inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) was shown to be bound by DNA-PK and to stimulate DNA-PK-dependent end-joining in vitro. Here, we localize IP6 binding to the Ku70/80 subunits of DNA- PK, and show that DNA-PK(cs) alone exhibits no detectable affinity for IP6. Moreover, proteolysis mapping of Ku70/80 in the presence and absence of IP6 indicates that binding alters the conformation of the Ku70/80 heterodimer. The yeast homologue of Ku70/80, yKu70/80, fails to bind IP6, indicating that the function of IP6 in non-homologous end-joining, like that of DNA-PK(cs), is unique to the mammalian end-joining process.

  8. Advancements in the development of subunit influenza vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Naru; Zheng, Bo-Jian; Lu, Lu; Zhou, Yusen; Jiang, Shibo; Du, Lanying

    2014-01-01

    The ongoing threat of influenza epidemics and pandemics has emphasized the importance of developing safe and effective vaccines against infections from divergent influenza viruses. In this review, we first introduce the structure and life cycle of influenza A viruses, describing major influenza A virus-caused pandemics. We then compare different types of influenza vaccines and discuss current advancements in the development of subunit influenza vaccines, particularly those based on nucleoprotein (NP), extracellular domain of matrix protein 2 (M2e) and hemagglutinin (HA) proteins. We also illustrate potential strategies for improving the efficacy of subunit influenza vaccines. PMID:25529753

  9. Heterogeneous Catalytic Oligomerization of Ethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Oliver Dennis

    increased with temperature, with 17 wt.% observed at 190ºC. Higher reaction temperatures led to the formation of odd-numbered oligomers primarily due to acid-catalyzed cracking reactions. In the range of space velocities tested, a moderate WHSV of 2.0 hr-1 resulted in a local maximum of 10.6 wt.% of liquid hydrocarbon yield. A moderate nickel loading of 3.4 wt.% also resulted in the highest liquid yield out of the three loadings tested (10.6 wt.%). The variation in nickel loading revealed the importance of having a synergistic balance of nickel and acid sites on the catalyst to maximize ethylene conversion and maintain high liquid hydrocarbon yield. Lastly, we used supercritical ethylene as both a solvent and as a reactant for ethylene oligomerization over two silica-alumina type catalysts: Ni-Hbeta and Ni-Al-SBA-15. Specifically, the effect of pressure and temperature on the overall conversion and product selectivity were evaluated in the range from 0 to 65 bar and 30 to 120ºC. At subcritical conditions, the ethylene conversion reached a plateau of around 50%. By increasing the pressure past the critical point of ethylene, the conversion drastically increased to 71%. The increased conversion can be attributed to the solubility of certain oligomers, namely butene, in supercritical ethylene that promotes desorption from catalytic active site before further oligomerization. We also tested a mesoporous catalyst, Ni-Al-SBA-15 and observed conversion trends analogous to that of Ni-Hbeta. At supercritical conditions, ethylene oligomerization over Ni-Al-SBA-15 was more selective towards the butene product, with nearly 74 wt.% butenes observed. The catalyst activity increased with temperature from 30ºC to 120ºC. The experiment conducted at 30ºC showed very little activity and ethylene conversion, however it effectively heavy molecular weight species from the catalyst. This condition, albeit being not effective for ethylene oligomerization, could be implemented as an in

  10. Functional mapping of the fission yeast DNA polymerase δ B-subunit Cdc1 by site-directed and random pentapeptide insertion mutagenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray Fiona C

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA polymerase δ plays an essential role in chromosomal DNA replication in eukaryotic cells, being responsible for synthesising the bulk of the lagging strand. In fission yeast, Pol δ is a heterotetrameric enzyme comprising four evolutionarily well-conserved proteins: the catalytic subunit Pol3 and three smaller subunits Cdc1, Cdc27 and Cdm1. Pol3 binds directly to the B-subunit, Cdc1, which in turn binds the C-subunit, Cdc27. Human Pol δ comprises the same four subunits, and the crystal structure was recently reported of a complex of human p50 and the N-terminal domain of p66, the human orthologues of Cdc1 and Cdc27, respectively. Results To gain insights into the structure and function of Cdc1, random and directed mutagenesis techniques were used to create a collection of thirty alleles encoding mutant Cdc1 proteins. Each allele was tested for function in fission yeast and for binding of the altered protein to Pol3 and Cdc27 using the two-hybrid system. Additionally, the locations of the amino acid changes in each protein were mapped onto the three-dimensional structure of human p50. The results obtained from these studies identify amino acid residues and regions within the Cdc1 protein that are essential for interaction with Pol3 and Cdc27 and for in vivo function. Mutations specifically defective in Pol3-Cdc1 interactions allow the identification of a possible Pol3 binding surface on Cdc1. Conclusion In the absence of a three-dimensional structure of the entire Pol δ complex, the results of this study highlight regions in Cdc1 that are vital for protein function in vivo and provide valuable clues to possible protein-protein interaction surfaces on the Cdc1 protein that will be important targets for further study.

  11. Basis of catalytic assembly of the mitotic checkpoint complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faesen, Alex C; Thanasoula, Maria; Maffini, Stefano; Breit, Claudia; Müller, Franziska; van Gerwen, Suzan; Bange, Tanja; Musacchio, Andrea

    2017-02-23

    In mitosis, for each daughter cell to inherit an accurate copy of the genome from the mother cell, sister chromatids in the mother cell must attach to microtubules emanating from opposite poles of the mitotic spindle, a process known as bi-orientation. A surveillance mechanism, termed the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), monitors the microtubule attachment process and can temporarily halt the separation of sister chromatids and the completion of mitosis until bi-orientation is complete. SAC failure results in abnormal chromosome numbers, termed aneuploidy, in the daughter cells, a hallmark of many tumours. The HORMA-domain-containing protein mitotic arrest deficient 2 (MAD2) is a subunit of the SAC effector mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC). Structural conversion from the open to the closed conformation of MAD2 is required for MAD2 to be incorporated into the MCC. In vitro, MAD2 conversion and MCC assembly take several hours, but in cells the SAC response is established in a few minutes. Here, to address this discrepancy, we reconstituted a near-complete SAC signalling system with purified components and monitored assembly of the MCC in real time. A marked acceleration in MAD2 conversion and MCC assembly was observed when monopolar spindle 1 (MPS1) kinase phosphorylated the MAD1-MAD2 complex, triggering it to act as the template for MAD2 conversion and therefore contributing to the establishment of a physical platform for MCC assembly. Thus, catalytic activation of the SAC depends on regulated protein-protein interactions that accelerate the spontaneous but rate-limiting conversion of MAD2 required for MCC assembly.

  12. Crystallographic Snapshots of the Complete Catalytic Cycle of the Unregulated Aspartate Transcarbamoylase from Bacillus subtilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K Harris; G Cockrell; D Puleo; E Kantrowitz

    2011-12-31

    Here, we report high-resolution X-ray structures of Bacillus subtilis aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase), an enzyme that catalyzes one of the first reactions in pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis. Structures of the enzyme have been determined in the absence of ligands, in the presence of the substrate carbamoyl phosphate, and in the presence of the bisubstrate/transition state analog N-phosphonacetyl-L-aspartate. Combining the structural data with in silico docking and electrostatic calculations, we have been able to visualize each step in the catalytic cycle of ATCase, from the ordered binding of the substrates, to the formation and decomposition of the tetrahedral intermediate, to the ordered release of the products from the active site. Analysis of the conformational changes associated with these steps provides a rationale for the lack of cooperativity in trimeric ATCases that do not possess regulatory subunits.

  13. Managing brain extracellular K+ during neuronal activity: The physiological role of the Na+/K+-ATPase subunit isoforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Roland eLarsen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractDuring neuronal activity in the brain, extracellular K+ rises and is subsequently removed to prevent a widespread depolarization. One of the key players in regulating extracellular K+ is the Na+/K+-ATPase, although the relative involvement and physiological impact of the different subunit isoform compositions of the Na+/K+-ATPase remain unresolved. The various cell types in the brain serve a certain temporal contribution in the face of network activity; astrocytes respond directly to the immediate release of K+ from neurons, whereas the neurons themselves become the primary K+ absorbers as activity ends. The kinetic characteristics of the catalytic α subunit isoforms of the Na+/K+-ATPase are, partly, determined by the accessory β subunit with which they combine. The isoform combinations expressed by astrocytes and neurons, respectively, appear to be in line with the kinetic characteristics required to fulfill their distinct physiological roles in clearance of K+ from the extracellular space in the face of neuronal activity.Understanding the nature, impact and effects of the various Na+/K+-ATPase isoform combinations in K+ management in the central nervous system might reveal insights into pathological conditions such as epilepsy, migraine, and spreading depolarization following cerebral ischemia. In addition, particular neurological diseases occur as a result of mutations in the α2- (familial hemiplegic migraine type 2 and α3 isoforms (rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism/alternating hemiplegia of childhood. This review addresses aspects of the Na+/K+-ATPase in the regulation of extracellular K+ in the central nervous system as well as the related pathophysiology. Understanding the physiological setting in non-pathological tissue would provide a better understanding of the pathological events occurring during disease.

  14. Variation in the organization and subunit composition of the mammalian pyruvate dehydrogenase complex E2/E3BP core assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakrishnan, Swetha; Callow, Philip; Nutley, Margaret A; McGow, Donna P; Gilbert, David; Kropholler, Peter; Cooper, Alan; Byron, Olwyn; Lindsay, J Gordon

    2011-08-01

    Crucial to glucose homoeostasis in humans, the hPDC (human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex) is a massive molecular machine comprising multiple copies of three distinct enzymes (E1-E3) and an accessory subunit, E3BP (E3-binding protein). Its icosahedral E2/E3BP 60-meric 'core' provides the central structural and mechanistic framework ensuring favourable E1 and E3 positioning and enzyme co-operativity. Current core models indicate either a 48E2+12E3BP or a 40E2+20E3BP subunit composition. In the present study, we demonstrate clear differences in subunit content and organization between the recombinant hPDC core (rhPDC; 40E2+20E3BP), generated under defined conditions where E3BP is produced in excess, and its native bovine (48E2+12E3BP) counterpart. The results of the present study provide a rational basis for resolving apparent differences between previous models, both obtained using rhE2/E3BP core assemblies where no account was taken of relative E2 and E3BP expression levels. Mathematical modelling predicts that an 'average' 48E2+12E3BP core arrangement allows maximum flexibility in assembly, while providing the appropriate balance of bound E1 and E3 enzymes for optimal catalytic efficiency and regulatory fine-tuning. We also show that the rhE2/E3BP and bovine E2/E3BP cores bind E3s with a 2:1 stoichiometry, and propose that mammalian PDC comprises a heterogeneous population of assemblies incorporating a network of E3 (and possibly E1) cross-bridges above the core surface. © The Authors Journal compilation © 2011 Biochemical Society

  15. Functional analysis of the glycogen binding subunit CG9238/Gbs-70E of protein phosphatase 1 in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerekes, Éva; Kókai, Endre; Páldy, Ferenc Sándor; Dombrádi, Viktor

    2014-06-01

    The product of the CG9238 gene that we termed glycogen binding subunit 70E (Gbs-70E) was characterized by biochemical and molecular genetics methods. The interaction between Gbs-70E and all catalytic subunits of protein phosphatase 1 (Pp1-87B, Pp1-9C, Pp1-96A and Pp1-13C) of Drosophila melanogaster was confirmed by pairwise yeast two-hybrid tests, co-immunoprecipitation and pull down experiments. The binding of Gbs-70E to glycogen was demonstrated by sedimentation analysis. With RT-PCR we found that the mRNAs coding for the longer Gbs-70E PB/PC protein were expressed in all developmental stages of the fruit flies while the mRNA for the shorter Gbs-70E PA was restricted to the eggs and the ovaries of the adult females. The development specific expression of the shorter splice variant was not conserved in different Drosophila species. The expression level of the gene was manipulated by P-element insertions and gene deletion to analyze the functions of the gene product. A small or moderate reduction in the gene expression resulted in no significant changes, however, a deletion mutant expressing very low level of the transcript lived shorter and exhibited reduced glycogen content in the imagos. In addition, the gene deletion decreased the fertility of the fruit flies. Our results prove that Gbs-70E functions as the glycogen binding subunit of protein phosphatase 1 that regulates glycogen content and plays a role in the development of eggs in D. melanogaster. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Novel Metal Nanomaterials and Their Catalytic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqing Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the rapidly developing areas of nanotechnology, nano-scale materials as heterogeneous catalysts in the synthesis of organic molecules have gotten more and more attention. In this review, we will summarize the synthesis of several new types of noble metal nanostructures (FePt@Cu nanowires, Pt@Fe2O3 nanowires and bimetallic Pt@Ir nanocomplexes; Pt-Au heterostructures, Au-Pt bimetallic nanocomplexes and Pt/Pd bimetallic nanodendrites; Au nanowires, CuO@Ag nanowires and a series of Pd nanocatalysts and their new catalytic applications in our group, to establish heterogeneous catalytic system in “green” environments. Further study shows that these materials have a higher catalytic activity and selectivity than previously reported nanocrystal catalysts in organic reactions, or show a superior electro-catalytic activity for the oxidation of methanol. The whole process might have a great impact to resolve the energy crisis and the environmental crisis that were caused by traditional chemical engineering. Furthermore, we hope that this article will provide a reference point for the noble metal nanomaterials’ development that leads to new opportunities in nanocatalysis.

  17. Electrochemical Promotion of Catalytic Reactions Using

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrushina, Irina; Bjerrum, Niels; Cleemann, Lars Nilausen

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study on electrochemical promotion (EP) of catalytic reactions using Pt/C/polybenzimidazole(H3PO4)/Pt/C fuel cell performed by the Energy and Materials Science Group (Technical University of Denmark) during the last 6 years[1-4]. The development of our...... understanding of the nature of the electrochemical promotion is also presented....

  18. THEORETICAL STUDY OF THE CATALYTIC DESULFURIZATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    adsorption process on the catalytic site and the second, the breaking of the carbon-heteroatom bond leading to the heteroatom elimination. The adsorption process of thiiren have ... The calculation program is ICON 8 provided by the Quantum Chemistry. Program Exchange (QCPE 344) written by the Roald Hoffmann group.

  19. Dynamic Responsive Systems for Catalytic Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlatkovic, Matea; Collins, Beatrice S. L.; Feringa, Ben L.

    2016-01-01

    Responsive systems have recently gained much interest in the scientific community in attempts to mimic dynamic functions in biological systems. One of the fascinating potential applications of responsive systems lies in catalysis. Inspired by nature, novel responsive catalytic systems have been

  20. Catalytic dehydrogenations of ethylbenzene to styrene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kapteijn, F.; Makkee, M.; Nederlof, C.

    This research work on the catalytic dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene (EB) to styrene (ST) had a primary goal of developing improved catalysts for dehydrogenation processes both in CO2 as well as with O2 that can compete with the conventional dehydrogenation process in steam. In order to achieve this

  1. Catalytic kinetic spectrophotometric determination of trace copper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A novel catalytic kinetic-spectrophotometric method is proposed for the determination of copper based on this principle. Copper(II) can be determined spectrophotometrically by measuring the decrease in the absorbance of CPApA at the wavelength of 554 nm using the fixed-time method. The optimum reaction conditions ...

  2. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and catalytic oxidation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 123; Issue 3. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and catalytic oxidation properties of ONO/ONS donor Schiff base ruthenium(III) complexes containing PPh3/AsPh3. Priyarega M Muthu Tamizh R Karvembu R Prabhakaran K Natarajan. Volume 123 Issue 3 May ...

  3. Lignin Valorization using Heterogenous Catalytic Oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melián Rodríguez, Mayra; Shunmugavel, Saravanamurugan; Kegnæs, Søren

    is complex so different model compounds are often used to study lignin valorization. These model compounds contain the linkages present in lignin, simplifying catalytic analysis and present analytical challenges related to the study of the complicated lignin polymer and the plethora of products that could...

  4. Reversible Electrochemical Modulation of a Catalytic Nanosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Sala, Flavio; Chen, Jack L-Y; Ranallo, Simona; Badocco, Denis; Pastore, Paolo; Ricci, Francesco; Prins, Leonard J

    2016-08-26

    A catalytic system based on monolayer-functionalized gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) that can be electrochemically modulated and reversibly activated is reported. The catalytic activity relies on the presence of metal ions (Cd(2+) and Cu(2+) ), which can be complexed by the nanoparticle-bound monolayer. This activates the system towards the catalytic cleavage of 2-hydroxypropyl-p-nitrophenyl phosphate (HPNPP), which can be monitored by UV/Vis spectroscopy. It is shown that Cu(2+) metal ions can be delivered to the system by applying an oxidative potential to an electrode on which Cu(0) was deposited. By exploiting the different affinity of Cd(2+) and Cu(2+) ions for the monolayer, it was also possible to upregulate the catalytic activity after releasing Cu(2+) from an electrode into a solution containing Cd(2+) . Finally, it is shown that the activity of this supramolecular nanosystem can be reversibly switched on or off by oxidizing/reducing Cu/Cu(2+) ions under controlled conditions. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and catalytic oxidation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of porphyrin containing enzymes.6 Though metallo- porphyrins catalyse oxidation reactions, the catalytic yield is not satisfactory to have any commercial viabil- ity. Moreover, it is not easy to synthesize metallopor- phyrins and this led scientists to look for other ligands to make novel complexes to be employed as catalysts.

  6. Catalytic enantioselective conjugate addition with Grignard reagents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez, Fernando; Minnaard, Adriaan J.; Feringa, Ben L.

    In this Account, recent advances in catalytic asymmetric conjugate addition of Grignard reagents are discussed. Synthetic methodology to perform highly enantioselective Cu-catalyzed conjugate addition of Grignard reagents to cyclic enones with ee's up to 96% was reported in 2004 from our

  7. Electrochemical promotion of sulfur dioxide catalytic oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrushina, Irina; Bandur, Viktor; Cappeln, Frederik Vilhelm

    2000-01-01

    The effect of electrochemical polarization on the catalytic SO2 oxidation in the molten V2O5-K2S2O7 system has been studied using a gold working electrode in the temperature range 400-460 degrees C. A similar experiment has been performed with the industrial catalyst VK-58. The aim of the present...

  8. Fluid catalytic cracking : Feedstocks and reaction mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dupain, X.

    2006-01-01

    The Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) process is one of the key units in a modern refinery. Traditionally, its design is primarily aimed for the production of gasoline from heavy oil fractions, but as co-products also diesel blends and valuable gasses (e.g. propene and butenes) are formed in

  9. Enhancement of reaction rates for catalytic benzaldehyde ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 126; Issue 2. Enhancement of reaction rates for catalytic benzaldehyde hydrogenation and sorbitol dehydration in water solvent by addition of carbon dioxide. Masayuki Shirai Osamu Sato Norihito Hiyoshi Aritomo Yamaguchi. Volume 126 Issue 2 March 2014 pp 395- ...

  10. Toward Facilitative Mentoring and Catalytic Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Melissa K.; Lewis, Marilyn

    2015-01-01

    In TESOL teacher mentoring, giving advice can be conceptualized as a continuum, ranging from directive to facilitative feedback. The goal, over time, is to lead toward the facilitative end of the continuum and specifically to catalytic interventions that encourage self-reflection and autonomous learning. This study begins by examining research on…

  11. Rapid Deployment of Rich Catalytic Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard S. Tuthill

    2004-06-10

    The overall objective of this research under the Turbines Program is the deployment of fuel flexible rich catalytic combustion technology into high-pressure ratio industrial gas turbines. The resulting combustion systems will provide fuel flexibility for gas turbines to burn coal derived synthesis gas or natural gas and achieve NO{sub x} emissions of 2 ppmvd or less (at 15 percent O{sub 2}), cost effectively. This advance will signify a major step towards environmentally friendly electric power generation and coal-based energy independence for the United States. Under Phase 1 of the Program, Pratt & Whitney (P&W) performed a system integration study of rich catalytic combustion in a small high-pressure ratio industrial gas turbine with a silo combustion system that is easily scalable to a larger multi-chamber gas turbine system. An implementation plan for this technology also was studied. The principal achievement of the Phase 1 effort was the sizing of the catalytic module in a manner which allowed a single reactor (rather than multiple reactors) to be used by the combustion system, a conclusion regarding the amount of air that should be allocated to the reaction zone to achieve low emissions, definition of a combustion staging strategy to achieve low emissions, and mechanical integration of a Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) combustor liner with the catalytic module.

  12. Enhancement of reaction rates for catalytic benzaldehyde ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Enhancement of reaction rates for catalytic benzaldehyde hydrogenation and sorbitol dehydration in water solvent by addition of carbon dioxide. MASAYUKI SHIRAIa,b,∗, OSAMU SATOa, NORIHITO HIYOSHIa and. ARITOMO YAMAGUCHIa. aResearch Center for Compact Chemical System, National Institute of Advanced ...

  13. Probing the proton channels in subunit N of Complex I from Escherichia coli through intra-subunit cross-linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tursun, Ablat; Zhu, Shaotong; Vik, Steven B

    2016-12-01

    Respiratory Complex I appears to have 4 sites for proton translocation, which are coupled to the oxidation of NADH and reduction of coenzyme Q. The proton pathways are thought to be made of offset half-channels that connect to the membrane surfaces, and are connected by a horizontal path through the center of the membrane. In this study of the enzyme from Escherichia coli, subunit N, containing one of the sites, was targeted. Pairs of cysteine residues were introduced into neighboring α-helices along the proposed proton pathways. In an effort to constrain conformational changes that might occur during proton translocation, we attempted to form disulfide bonds or methanethiosulfonate bridges between two engineered cysteine residues. Cysteine modification was inferred by the inability of PEG-maleimide to shift the electrophoretic mobility of subunit N, which will occur upon reaction with free sulfhydryl groups. After the cross-linking treatment, NADH oxidase and NADH-driven proton translocation were measured. Ten different pairs of cysteine residues showed evidence of cross-linking. The most significant loss of enzyme activity was seen for residues near the essential Lys 395. This residue is positioned between the proposed proton half-channel to the periplasm and the horizontal connection through subunit N, and is also near the essential Glu 144 of subunit M. The results suggest important conformational changes in this region for the delivery of protons to the periplasm, or for coupling the actions of subunit N to subunit M. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the heterodimeric crotoxin complex and the isolated subunits crotapotin and phospholipase A{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, K. F.; Murakami, M. T. [Department of Physics, IBILCE/UNESP, Cristóvão Colombo 2265, CEP 15054-000, São José do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Cintra, A. C. O. [Departamento de Análises Clínicas, Toxicológicas e Bromatológicas, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Toyama, M. H.; Marangoni, S. [Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidade de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Forrer, V. P.; Brandão Neto, J. R. [Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Polikarpov, I. [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Arni, R. K., E-mail: arni@ibilce.unesp.br [Department of Physics, IBILCE/UNESP, Cristóvão Colombo 2265, CEP 15054-000, São José do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Center for Applied Toxinology, CEPID (Brazil)

    2007-04-01

    Crotoxin, a potent neurotoxin from the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, exists as a heterodimer formed between a phospholipase A{sub 2} and a catalytically inactive acidic phospholipase A{sub 2} analogue (crotapotin). Large single crystals of the crotoxin complex and of the isolated subunits have been obtained. Crotoxin, a potent neurotoxin from the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, exists as a heterodimer formed between a phospholipase A{sub 2} and a catalytically inactive acidic phospholipase A{sub 2} analogue (crotapotin). Large single crystals of the crotoxin complex and of the isolated subunits have been obtained. The crotoxin complex crystal belongs to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 38.2, b = 68.7, c = 84.2 Å, and diffracted to 1.75 Å resolution. The crystal of the phospholipase A{sub 2} domain belongs to the hexagonal space group P6{sub 1}22 (or its enantiomorph P6{sub 5}22), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 38.7, c = 286.7 Å, and diffracted to 2.6 Å resolution. The crotapotin crystal diffracted to 2.3 Å resolution; however, the highly diffuse diffraction pattern did not permit unambiguous assignment of the unit-cell parameters.

  15. Specific Methylation of Asp160 (49 kDa subunit) Located inside the Quinone Binding Cavity of Bovine Mitochondrial Complex I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, Masatoshi; Inaoka, Hiroyuki; Masuya, Takahiro; Aburaya, Shunsuke; Aoki, Wataru; Miyoshi, Hideto

    2016-06-14

    Asp160 in the 49 kDa subunit of bovine mitochondrial complex I, which is located in the inner part of the quinone binding cavity, is considered to be an essential residue for energy conversion of the enzyme. To elucidate the catalytic function of this residue, we attempted to specifically methylate 49 kDa Asp160 [Asp(COO)-CH3] through a ligand-directed tosyl (LDT) chemistry technique with an acetogenin derivative (ALM) as a high-affinity ligand. We confirmed the specific methylation of 49 kDa Asp160 through liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of the tryptic digests of the 49 kDa subunit. The binding affinity of a quinazoline-type inhibitor ([(125)I]AzQ) occupying the quinone binding cavity was not affected by methylation, indicating that this chemical modification does not induce significant structural changes inside the quinone binding cavity. The methylation of 49 kDa Asp160 did not lead to the complete loss of catalytic activity; the modified enzyme retained partial electron transfer and proton translocation activities. These results along with the fact that 49 kDa Asp160 elicits a very strong nucleophilicity against various LDT reagents in the local protein environment strongly suggest that this residue is free from strict interactions (such as electrostatic interaction) arising from nearby residue(s) and is functionally important but not essential for the energy conversion of complex I.

  16. Subunit compensation and plasticity of synaptic GABAA receptors induced by ethanol in α4 subunit knockout mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha eSuryanarayanan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable evidence that ethanol (EtOH potentiates γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAAR action, but only GABAARs containing δ subunits appear sensitive to low mM EtOH. The α4 and δ subunits co-assemble into GABAARs which are relatively highly expressed at extrasynaptic locations in the dentate gyrus where they mediate tonic inhibition. We previously demonstrated reversible- and time-dependent changes in GABAAR function and subunit composition in rats after single-dose EtOH intoxication. We concluded that early tolerance to EtOH occurs by over-activation and subsequent internalization of EtOH-sensitive extrasynaptic α4βδ-GABAARs. Based on this hypothesis, any highly EtOH-sensitive GABAARs should be subject to internalization following exposure to suitably high EtOH doses. To test this, we studied the GABAARs in mice with a global deletion of the α4 subunit (KO. The dentate granule cells (DGCs of these mice exhibited greatly reduced tonic currents and greatly reduced potentiation by acutely applied EtOH, whereas synaptic currents showed heightened sensitivity to low EtOH concentrations. The hippocampus of naive KO mice showed reduced δ subunit protein levels, but increased α2, and γ2 levels compared to wild-type (WT controls, suggesting at least partial compensation by these subunits in synaptic, highly EtOH-sensitive GABAARs of KO mice. In WT mice, cross-linking and Western blot analysis at 1 h after an EtOH challenge (3.5 g/kg, i.p. revealed increased intracellular fraction of the α1, α4 and δ, but not α2, α5 or γ2 subunits. By contrast, we observed significant internalization of α1, α2, δ, and γ2 subunits after a similar EtOH challenge in KO mice. Synaptic currents from naïve KO mice were more sensitive to potentiation by zolpidem (0.3 μM, requiring α1/α2, inactive at α4/5 GABAARs than those from naïve WT mice. At 1 h after EtOH, synaptic currents of WT mice were unchanged, whereas those of KO mice

  17. Directed mutagenesis of the strongly conserved aspartate 242 in the beta-subunit of Escherichia coli proton-ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shawi, M K; Parsonage, D; Senior, A E

    1988-12-25

    Oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis was used to substitute Asn or Val for residue Asp-242 in the beta-subunit of Escherichia coli F1-ATPase. Asp-242 is strongly conserved in beta-subunits of F1-ATPase enzymes, in a region of sequence which shows homology with numerous nucleotide-binding proteins. By analogy with adenylate kinase (Fry, D.C., Kuby, S.A., and Mildvan, A.S. (1986) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 83, 907-911), beta-Asp-242 of F1-ATPase might participate in catalysis through electrostatic effects on the substrate Mg2+ or through hydrogen bonding to the substrate(s); an acid-base catalytic role is also plausible. The substitutions Asn and Val were chosen to affect the charge, hydrogen-bonding ability, and hydrophobicity of residue beta-Asp-242. Both mutations significantly impaired oxidative phosphorylation rates in vivo and membrane ATPase and ATP-driven proton-pumping activities in vitro. Asn-242 was more detrimental than Val-242. Purified soluble mutant F1-ATPases had normal molecular size and subunit composition, and displayed 7% (beta-Asn-242) and 17% (beta-Val-242) of normal specific Mg-ATPase activity. The relative MgATPase activities of both mutant enzymes showed similar pH dependence to normal. Relative MgATPase and CaATPase activities of normal and mutant enzymes were compared at widely varied pMg and pCa. The mutations had little effect on KM MgATP, but KM CaATP was reduced. The data showed that the carboxyl side-chain of beta-Asp-242 is not involved in catalysis either as a general acid-base catalyst or through direct involvement in any protonation/deprotonation-linked mechanism, nor is it likely to be directly involved in liganding to substrate Mg2+ during the reaction. Specificity constants (kcat/KM) for MgATP and CaATP were reduced in both mutant enzymes, showing that the mutations destabilized interactions between the catalytic nucleotide-binding domain and the transition state.

  18. Bacterial cellulose biosynthesis: diversity of operons, subunits, products, and functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römling, Ute; Galperin, Michael Y

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies of bacterial cellulose biosynthesis, including structural characterization of a functional cellulose synthase complex, provided the first mechanistic insight into this fascinating process. In most studied bacteria, just two subunits, BcsA and BcsB, are necessary and sufficient for the formation of the polysaccharide chain in vitro. Other subunits - which differ among various taxa - affect the enzymatic activity and product yield in vivo by modulating (i) the expression of the biosynthesis apparatus, (ii) the export of the nascent β-D-glucan polymer to the cell surface, and (iii) the organization of cellulose fibers into a higher-order structure. These auxiliary subunits play key roles in determining the quantity and structure of resulting biofilms, which is particularly important for the interactions of bacteria with higher organisms - leading to rhizosphere colonization and modulating the virulence of cellulose-producing bacterial pathogens inside and outside of host cells. We review the organization of four principal types of cellulose synthase operon found in various bacterial genomes, identify additional bcs genes that encode components of the cellulose biosynthesis and secretion machinery, and propose a unified nomenclature for these genes and subunits. We also discuss the role of cellulose as a key component of biofilms and in the choice between acute infection and persistence in the host. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Allelic variation of HMW glutenin subunits of Ethiopian bread wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High molecular weight glutenins are often effective in identifying wheat (Triticum aestivum) genotypes with good baking quality. The high molecular weight glutenin subunit composition of Ethiopian cultivars and advanced lines was investigated to determine their influence on quality. Three alleles at Glu-A1, five at Glu-B1 ...

  20. Cholera toxin B subunit induces local curvature on lipid bilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pezeshkian, Weria; Nåbo, Lina J.; Ipsen, John H.

    2017-01-01

    The B subunit of the bacterial cholera toxin (CTxB) is responsible for the toxin binding to the cell membrane and its intracellular trafficking. CTxB binds to the monosialotetrahexosyl ganglioside at the plasma membrane of the target cell and mediates toxin internalization by endocytosis. CTx...

  1. Bacterial cellulose biosynthesis: diversity of operons, subunits, products and functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römling, Ute; Galperin, Michael Y.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Recent studies of bacterial cellulose biosynthesis, including structural characterization of a functional cellulose synthase complex, provided the first mechanistic insight into this fascinating process. In most studied bacteria, just two subunits, BcsA and BcsB, are necessary and sufficient for the formation of the polysaccharide chain in vitro. Other subunits – which differ among various taxa – affect the enzymatic activity and product yield in vivo by modulating expression of biosynthesis apparatus, export of the nascent β-D-glucan polymer to the cell surface, and the organization of cellulose fibers into a higher-order structure. These auxiliary subunits play key roles in determining the quantity and structure of the resulting biofilm, which is particularly important for interactions of bacteria with higher organisms that lead to rhizosphere colonization and modulate virulence of cellulose-producing bacterial pathogens inside and outside of host cells. Here we review the organization of four principal types of cellulose synthase operons found in various bacterial genomes, identify additional bcs genes that encode likely components of the cellulose biosynthesis and secretion machinery, and propose a unified nomenclature for these genes and subunits. We also discuss the role of cellulose as a key component of biofilms formed by a variety of free-living and pathogenic bacteria and, for the latter, in the choice between acute infection and persistence in the host. PMID:26077867

  2. Structural determinants of APOBEC3B non-catalytic domain for molecular assembly and catalytic regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Xiao; Yang, Hanjing; Arutiunian, Vagan; Fang, Yao; Besse, Guillaume; Morimoto, Cherie; Zirkle, Brett; Chen, Xiaojiang S. (USC)

    2017-05-30

    The catalytic activity of human cytidine deaminase APOBEC3B (A3B) has been correlated with kataegic mutational patterns within multiple cancer types. The molecular basis of how the N-terminal non-catalytic CD1 regulates the catalytic activity and consequently, biological function of A3B remains relatively unknown. Here, we report the crystal structure of a soluble human A3B-CD1 variant and delineate several structural elements of CD1 involved in molecular assembly, nucleic acid interactions and catalytic regulation of A3B. We show that (i) A3B expressed in human cells exists in hypoactive high-molecular-weight (HMW) complexes, which can be activated without apparent dissociation into low-molecular-weight (LMW) species after RNase A treatment. (ii) Multiple surface hydrophobic residues of CD1 mediate the HMW complex assembly and affect the catalytic activity, including one tryptophan residue W127 that likely acts through regulating nucleic acid binding. (iii) One of the highly positively charged surfaces on CD1 is involved in RNA-dependent attenuation of A3B catalysis. (iv) Surface hydrophobic residues of CD1 are involved in heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) binding to A3B. The structural and biochemical insights described here suggest that unique structural features on CD1 regulate the molecular assembly and catalytic activity of A3B through distinct mechanisms.

  3. Tandem reactions in self-sorted catalytic molecular hydrogels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, N.; Zhang, K.; Angulo-Pachón, C.A.; Mendez Sevillano, D.; van Esch, J.H.; Escuder, B.

    2016-01-01

    By equipping mutually incompatible carboxylic acid and proline catalytic groups with different self-assembling motives we have achieved self-sorting of the resulting catalytic gelators, namely SucVal8 and ProValDoc, into different supramolecular fibers, thus preventing the acidic and basic catalytic

  4. RUTHENIUM(III) DETERMINATION BY KINETIC-CATALYTIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    indicator reaction for the kinetic-catalytic determination of Ru(III) is explored. In this communication, we report a kinetic-catalytic method for determination Ru(III), using it's selective catalytic efficiency to catalyse the oxidation of Nile blue by acidic chlorite. EXPERIMENTAL. Reagents. Sodium chlorite (BDH) was recrystallized ...

  5. Ire1 Has Distinct Catalytic Mechanisms for XBP1/HAC1 Splicing and RIDD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvin B. Tam

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available An evolutionarily conserved unfolded protein response (UPR component, IRE1, cleaves XBP1/HAC1 introns in order to generate spliced mRNAs that are translated into potent transcription factors. IRE1 also cleaves endoplasmic-reticulum-associated RNAs leading to their decay, an activity termed regulated IRE1-dependent decay (RIDD; however, the mechanism by which IRE1 differentiates intron cleavage from RIDD is not well understood. Using in vitro experiments, we found that IRE1 has two different modes of action: XBP1/HAC1 is cleaved by IRE1 subunits acting cooperatively within IRE1 oligomers, whereas a single subunit of IRE1 performs RIDD without cooperativity. Furthermore, these distinct activities can be separated by complementation of catalytically inactive IRE1 RNase and mutations at oligomerization interfaces. Using an IRE1 RNase inhibitor, STF-083010, selective inhibition of XBP1 splicing indicates that XBP1 promotes cell survival, whereas RIDD leads to cell death, revealing modulation of IRE1 activities as a drug-development strategy.

  6. Catalytic Characteristics of New Antibacterials Based on Hexahistidine-Containing Organophosphorus Hydrolase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Maslova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic characteristics of hexahistidine-containing organophosphorus hydrolase (His6-OPH and its enzyme-polyelectrolyte complexes with poly-l-glutamic acid or poly-l-aspartic acid (His6-OPH/PLD50, hydrolyzing organophosphorous compounds, and N-acyl homoserine lactones were studied in the presence of various antibiotics (ampicillin, gentamicin, kanamycin, and rifampicin. The antibiotics at concentrations below 1 g·L−1 had a negligible inhibiting effect on the His6-OPH activity. Mixed inhibition of His6-OPH was established for higher antibiotic concentrations, and rifampicin was the most potent inhibitor. Stabilization of the His6-OPH activity was observed in the presence of antibiotics at a concentration of 0.2 g·L−1 during exposure at 25–41 °C. Molecular docking of antibiotics to the surface of His6-OPH dimer revealed the antibiotics binding both to the area near active centers of the enzyme subunits and to the region of contact between subunits of the dimer. Such interactions between antibiotics and His6-OPH were verified with Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. Considering all the results of the study, the combination of His6-OPH/PLD50 with β-lactam antibiotic ampicillin was established as the optimal one in terms of exhibition and persistence of maximal lactonase activity of the enzyme.

  7. The oligosaccharyltransferase subunits OST48, DAD1 and KCP2 function as ubiquitous and selective modulators of mammalian N-glycosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roboti, Peristera; High, Stephen

    2012-07-15

    Protein N-glycosylation is an essential modification that occurs in all eukaryotes and is catalysed by the oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) in the endoplasmic reticulum. Comparative studies have clearly shown that eukaryotic STT3 proteins alone can fulfil the enzymatic requirements for N-glycosylation, yet in many cases STT3 homologues form stable complexes with a variety of non-catalytic OST subunits. Whereas some of these additional components might play a structural role, others appear to increase or modulate N-glycosylation efficiency for certain precursors. Here, we have analysed the roles of three non-catalytic mammalian OST components by studying the consequences of subunit-specific knockdowns on the stability and enzymatic activity of the OST complex. Our results demonstrate that OST48 and DAD1 are required for the assembly of both STT3A- and STT3B-containing OST complexes. The structural perturbations of these complexes we observe in OST48- and DAD1-depleted cells underlie their pronounced hypoglycosylation phenotypes. Thus, OST48 and DAD1 are global modulators of OST stability and hence N-glycosylation. We show that KCP2 also influences protein N-glycosylation, yet in this case, the effect of its depletion is substrate specific, and is characterised by the accumulation of a novel STT3A-containing OST subcomplex. Our results suggest that KCP2 acts to selectively enhance the OST-dependent processing of specific protein precursors, most likely co-translational substrates of STT3A-containing complexes, highlighting the potential for increased complexity of OST subunit composition in higher eukaryotes.

  8. Effect of high and low molecular weight glutenin subunits, and subunits of gliadin on physicochemical parameters of different wheat genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Souza Costa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Identification of functional properties of wheat flour by specific tests allows genotypes with appropriate characteristics to be selected for specific industrial uses. The objective of wheat breeding programs is to improve the quality of germplasm bank in order to be able to develop wheat with suitable gluten strength and extensibility for bread making. The aim of this study was to evaluate 16 wheat genotypes by correlating both glutenin subunits of high and low molecular weight and gliadin subunits with the physicochemical characteristics of the grain. Protein content, sedimentation volume, sedimentation index, and falling number values were analyzed after the grains were milled. Hectoliter weight and mass of 1000 seeds were also determined. The glutenin and gliadin subunits were separated using polyacrylamide gel in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. The data were evaluated using variance analysis, Pearson's correlation, principal component analysis, and cluster analysis. The IPR 85, IPR Catuara TM, T 091015, and T 091069 genotypes stood out from the others, which indicate their possibly superior grain quality with higher sedimentation volume, higher sedimentation index, and higher mass of 1000 seeds; these genotypes possessed the subunits 1 (Glu-A1, 5 + 10 (Glu-D1, c (Glu-A3, and b (Glu-B3, with exception of T 091069 genotype that possessed the g allele instead of b in the Glu-B3.

  9. Isolation and characterization of cDNAs and genomic DNAs encoding ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase large and small subunits from sweet potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu-Xi; Chen, Yu-Xiang; Tao, Xiang; Cheng, Xiao-Jie; Wang, Hai-Yan

    2016-04-01

    Sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.], the world's seventh most important food crop, is also a major industrial raw material for starch and ethanol production. In the plant starch biosynthesis pathway, ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) catalyzes the first, rate-limiting step and plays a pivotal role in regulating this process. In spite of the importance of sweet potato as a starch source, only a few studies have focused on the molecular aspects of starch biosynthesis in sweet potato and almost no intensive research has been carried out on the AGPase gene family in this species. In this study, cDNAs encoding two small subunits (SSs) and four large subunits (LSs) of AGPase isoforms were cloned from sweet potato and the genomic organizations of the corresponding AGPase genes were elucidated. Expression pattern analysis revealed that the two SSs were constitutively expressed, whereas the four LSs displayed differential expression patterns in various tissues and at different developmental stages. Co-expression of SSs with different LSs in Escherichia coli yielded eight heterotetramers showing different catalytic activities. Interactions between different SSs and LSs were confirmed by a yeast two-hybrid experiment. Our findings provide comprehensive information about AGPase gene sequences, structures, expression profiles, and subunit interactions in sweet potato. The results can serve as a foundation for elucidation of molecular mechanisms of starch synthesis in tuberous roots, and should contribute to future regulation of starch biosynthesis to improve sweet potato starch yield.

  10. Protein phosphatase 2A is regulated by PKCα-dependent phosphorylation of its targeting subunit B56α at Ser41

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchhefer, Uwe; Heinick, Alexander; König, Simone

    2014-01-01

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a family of multifunctional serine/threonine phosphatases consisting of a catalytic C, a structural A, and a regulatory B subunit. The substrate and therefore the functional specificity of PP2A are determined by the assembly of the enzyme complex...... with the appropriate regulatory B subunit families, namely B55, B56, PR72 or PR93/PR110. It has been suggested that additional levels of regulating PP2A function may result from the phosphorylation of B56 isoforms. In this study, we identified a novel phosphorylation site at Ser41 of B56α. This phosphoamino acid...... residue was efficiently phosphorylated in vitro by PKCα. We detected a 7-fold higher phosphorylation of B56α in failing human hearts compared to non-failing hearts. Purified PP2A dimeric holoenzyme (subunits C and A) was able to dephosphorylate PKCα-phosphorylated B56α. The potency of B56α for PP2A...

  11. RT-PCR detection of Na,K-ATPase subunit isoforms in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC): evidence for the presence of alpha1 and beta3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, S; Compe, E; Grillasca, J P; Plannells, R; Sampol, J; Pressley, T A; Maixent, J M

    2001-03-01

    The endothelial Na,K-ATPase is an active component in maintaining a variety of normal vascular functions. The enzyme is characterized by a complex molecular heterogeneity that results from differential expression and association of multiple isoforms of both its alpha- and beta-subunits. The aim of the present study was to determine which isoforms of the Na,K-ATPase are expressed in human endothelial cells. HUVEC (human umbilical vein endothelial cells) were used as a model of well known human endothelial cells. The high sensitive method RT-PCR was used with primers specific for the various isoforms of the alpha- and beta-subunits of the Na,K-ATPase. The results show that HUVEC express alpha1-, but not alpha2-, alpha3- or alpha4-isoforms of the catalytic subunit and that beta3- but not beta2- or beta1-isoforms is present in these cells. These findings are in contradiction with our previous detection of Na,K-ATPase isoforms in HUVEC using antibodies (14). Such results raise the technical problem of the specificity of the available antibodies directed against the different isoforms as well as the question of the physiological relevance of the diversity of the Na,K-ATPase isoforms.

  12. Subunit topology in the V type ATPase and related enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaban, Yuriy

    2005-01-01

    During the last decades impressive progress has been made in understanding of the catalytic mechanism of F-type ATP synthase, which is the key enzyme in the energy metabolism of eukaryotes and most bacteria. This enzyme catalyzes the final step in the process of oxidative phosphorylation in bacteria

  13. Cytosolic phospholipase A2: a member of the signalling pathway of a new G protein α subunit in Sporothrix schenckii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Méndez Ricardo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sporothrix schenckii is a pathogenic dimorphic fungus, the etiological agent of sporotrichosis, a lymphocutaneous disease that can remain localized or can disseminate, involving joints, lungs, and the central nervous system. Pathogenic fungi use signal transduction pathways to rapidly adapt to changing environmental conditions and S. schenckii is no exception. S. schenckii yeast cells, either proliferate (yeast cell cycle or engage in a developmental program that includes proliferation accompanied by morphogenesis (yeast to mycelium transition depending on the environmental conditions. The principal intracellular receptors of environmental signals are the heterotrimeric G proteins, suggesting their involvement in fungal dimorphism and pathogenicity. Identifying these G proteins in fungi and their involvement in protein-protein interactions will help determine their role in signal transduction pathways. Results In this work we describe a new G protein α subunit gene in S. schenckii, ssg-2. The cDNA sequence of ssg-2 revealed a predicted open reading frame of 1,065 nucleotides encoding a 355 amino acids protein with a molecular weight of 40.9 kDa. When used as bait in a yeast two-hybrid assay, a cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 catalytic subunit was identified as interacting with SSG-2. The sspla2 gene, revealed an open reading frame of 2538 bp and encoded an 846 amino acid protein with a calculated molecular weight of 92.62 kDa. The principal features that characterize cPLA2 were identified in this enzyme such as a phospholipase catalytic domain and the characteristic invariable arginine and serine residues. A role for SSPLA2 in the control of dimorphism in S. schenckii is suggested by observing the effects of inhibitors of the enzyme on the yeast cell cycle and the yeast to mycelium transition in this fungus. Phospholipase A2 inhibitors such as AACOCF3 (an analogue of archidonic acid and isotetrandrine (an inhibitor of G protein

  14. Catalytic site interactions in yeast OMP synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Riis; Barr, Eric W.; Jensen, Kaj Frank

    2014-01-01

    The enigmatic kinetics, half-of-the-sites binding, and structural asymmetry of the homodimeric microbial OMP synthases (orotate phosphoribosyltransferase, EC 2.4.2.10) have been proposed to result from an alternating site mechanism in these domain-swapped enzymes [R.W. McClard et al., Biochemistry...... and ablated ability to bind PRPP, complemented to produce a heterodimer with a single fully functional active site showing intersecting initial velocity plots. Equilibrium binding of PRPP and orotidine 5'-monophosphate showed a single class of two binding sites per dimer in WT and K106S enzymes. Evidence here...... shows that the enzyme does not follow half-of-the-sites cooperativity; that interplay between catalytic sites is not an essential feature of the catalytic mechanism; and that parallel lines in steady-state kinetics probably arise from tight substrate binding....

  15. Mutational analysis of a ras catalytic domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willumsen, B M; Papageorge, A G; Kung, H F

    1986-01-01

    transformation of NIH 3T3 cells with approximately the same efficiency as the wild-type v-rasH gene to those that failed to induce any detectable morphologic changes. Correlation of transforming activity with the location of the mutations enabled us to identify three nonoverlapping segments within the catalytic......We used linker insertion-deletion mutagenesis to study the catalytic domain of the Harvey murine sarcoma virus v-rasH transforming protein, which is closely related to the cellular rasH protein. The mutants displayed a wide range of in vitro biological activity, from those that induced focal...... localization. We speculate that this latter region interacts with the putative cellular target of ras. The results suggest that transforming ras proteins require membrane localization, guanosine nucleotide binding, and an additional undefined function that may represent interaction with their target....

  16. Catalytic combustion of coal-derived liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulzan, D. L.; Tacina, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    A noble metal catalytic reactor was tested with three grades of SRC 2 coal derived liquids, naphtha, middle distillate, and a blend of three parts middle distillate to one part heavy distillate. A petroleum derived number 2 diesel fuel was also tested to provide a direct comparison. The catalytic reactor was tested at inlet temperatures from 600 to 800 K, reference velocities from 10 to 20 m/s, lean fuel air ratios, and a pressure of 3 x 10 to the 5th power Pa. Compared to the diesel, the naphtha gave slightly better combustion efficiency, the middle distillate was almost identical, and the middle heavy blend was slightly poorer. The coal derived liquid fuels contained from 0.58 to 0.95 percent nitrogen by weight. Conversion of fuel nitrogen to NOx was approximately 75 percent for all three grades of the coal derived liquids.

  17. Ensemble perspective for catalytic promiscuity: calorimetric analysis of the active site conformational landscape of a detoxification enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honaker, Matthew T; Acchione, Mauro; Sumida, John P; Atkins, William M

    2011-12-09

    Enzymological paradigms have shifted recently to acknowledge the biological importance of catalytic promiscuity. However, catalytic promiscuity is a poorly understood property, and no thermodynamic treatment has described the conformational landscape of promiscuous versus substrate-specific enzymes. Here, two structurally similar glutathione transferase (GST, glutathione S-transferase) isoforms with high specificity or high promiscuity are compared. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) indicates a reversible low temperature transition for the promiscuous GSTA1-1 that is not observed with substrate-specific GSTA4-4. This transition is assigned to rearrangement of the C terminus at the active site of GSTA1-1 based on the effects of ligands and mutations. Near-UV and far-UV circular dichroism indicate that this transition is due to repacking of tertiary contacts with the remainder of the subunit, rather than "unfolding" of the C terminus per se. Analysis of the DSC data using a modified Landau theory indicates that the local conformational landscape of the active site of GSTA1-1 is smooth, with barrierless transitions between states. The partition function of the C-terminal states is a broad unimodal distribution at all temperatures within this DSC transition. In contrast, the remainder of the GSTA1-1 subunit and the GSTA4-4 protein exhibit folded and unfolded macrostates with a significant energy barrier separating them. Their partition function includes a sharp unimodal distribution of states only at temperatures that yield either folded or unfolded macrostates. At intermediate temperatures the partition function includes a bimodal distribution. The barrierless rearrangement of the GSTA1-1 active site within a local smooth energy landscape suggests a thermodynamic basis for catalytic promiscuity.

  18. Catalytic Asymmetric Synthesis of Phosphine Boronates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornillos, Valentín; Vila, Carlos; Otten, Edwin; Feringa, Ben L

    2015-06-26

    The first catalytic enantioselective synthesis of ambiphilic phosphine boronate esters is presented. The asymmetric boration of α,β-unsaturated phosphine oxides catalyzed by a copper bisphosphine complex affords optically active organoboronate esters that bear a vicinal phosphine oxide group in good yields and high enantiomeric excess. The synthetic utility of the products is demonstrated through stereospecific transformations into multifunctional optically active compounds. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. INNOVATIVE CATALYTIC MATERIALS FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.S. El Ouchdi, L. Cherif, R. Bachir, A. Choukchou-Braham, S. Merad-Bedrane [Laboratory of Catalysis and Synthesis in Organic Chemistry, University of Tlemcen, Chemistry Department, Tiemcen (Algeria)

    2008-09-30

    One of the greatest revolutions in the 20th century is that of transport. Inventions of cars, trucks, and airplanes have created a new world that has become increasingly dependent on combustion of hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline, diesel fuel, and jet fuel. Major environmental global problems are due to emissions of pollutants from fuels combustion, such as NOx, SOx, particulate matter and greenhouse gases (CO2 , CH4 , etc.). The present work is devoted to the study of ethanol catalytic steam reforming. The challenge is a high yield in hydrogen and a high selectivity towards CO2 . The reaction is classically carried out over transition metal catalysts supported on Al2O3, MgO, ZnO and SiO2. Our innovation consists in using mesoporous materials such as SBA-15, Al-SBA-15, CMK3 and mesoporous Alumina known for very interesting and large catalytic properties as supports for our metal catalysts. Cupper and nickel were used as active metal phase. The interest of our work is to obtain high activities under mild conditions. In fact, catalytic tests were carried out in gas phase at 300 C and atmospheric pressure. Ethanol and water were automatically injected with a constant velocity of 0.033 cm3 min-1 and a molar ratio ethanol/water = 1/3. Such operating conditions could be easily reproduced on-board. Catalysts were fully characterized using XRD, EM, TPR and metal loading analysis. Influence of the nature and the structure of the mesoporous support, the nature of the metal, the preparation way, the metal loading and catalysts pre-treatment was checked. A correlation between the materials' properties and catalytic activities will be suggested. All these results will be widely discussed during the presentation.

  20. CO2 Activation over Catalytic Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Andrea; Borges, Marta; Corral-Pérez, Juan José; Olcina, Joan Giner; Hu, Lingjun; Cornu, Damien; Huang, Rui; Stoian, Dragos; Urakawa, Atsushi

    2017-11-17

    This article describes the main strategies to activate and convert carbon dioxide (CO2 ) into valuable chemicals over catalytic surfaces. Coherent elements such as common intermediates are identified in the different strategies and concisely discussed based on the reactivity of CO2 with the aim to understand the decisive factors for selective and efficient CO2 conversion. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Zeolitic catalytic conversion of alochols to hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2017-01-03

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon, the method comprising contacting said alcohol with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst at a temperature of at least 100.degree. C. and up to 550.degree. C., wherein said alcohol can be produced by a fermentation process, said metal is a positively-charged metal ion, and said metal-loaded zeolite catalyst is catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon.

  2. Supercritical Catalytic Cracking of Hydrocarbon Feeds Insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-21

    collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources ...failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE...and parasitic catalytic cracking pathways. Synthetic methods to produce mordenite framework inverted (MFI) crystals with dimensions as large as 150

  3. Control of a catalytic fluid cracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbel, A.; Huang, Z.; Rinard, I.; Shinnar, R.

    1993-12-13

    Control offers an important tool for savings in refineries, mainly by integration of process models into on-line control. This paper is part of a research effort to better understand problems of partial control; control of a Fluid Catalytic Cracker (FCC) is used as example. Goal is to understand better the control problems of an FCC in context of model based control of a refinery, and to understand the general problem of designing partial control systems.

  4. Catalytic fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changjun; Wang, Huamin; Karim, Ayman M; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-11-21

    Increasing energy demand, especially in the transportation sector, and soaring CO2 emissions necessitate the exploitation of renewable sources of energy. Despite the large variety of new energy carriers, liquid hydrocarbon still appears to be the most attractive and feasible form of transportation fuel taking into account the energy density, stability and existing infrastructure. Biomass is an abundant, renewable source of energy; however, utilizing it in a cost-effective way is still a substantial challenge. Lignocellulose is composed of three major biopolymers, namely cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Fast pyrolysis of biomass is recognized as an efficient and feasible process to selectively convert lignocellulose into a liquid fuel-bio-oil. However bio-oil from fast pyrolysis contains a large amount of oxygen, distributed in hundreds of oxygenates. These oxygenates are the cause of many negative properties, such as low heating value, high corrosiveness, high viscosity, and instability; they also greatly limit the application of bio-oil particularly as transportation fuel. Hydrocarbons derived from biomass are most attractive because of their high energy density and compatibility with the existing infrastructure. Thus, converting lignocellulose into transportation fuels via catalytic fast pyrolysis has attracted much attention. Many studies related to catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass have been published. The main challenge of this process is the development of active and stable catalysts that can deal with a large variety of decomposition intermediates from lignocellulose. This review starts with the current understanding of the chemistry in fast pyrolysis of lignocellulose and focuses on the development of catalysts in catalytic fast pyrolysis. Recent progress in the experimental studies on catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass is also summarized with the emphasis on bio-oil yields and quality.

  5. Method to produce catalytically active nanocomposite coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemir, Ali; Eryilmaz, Osman Levent; Urgen, Mustafa; Kazmanli, Kursat

    2016-02-09

    A nanocomposite coating and method of making and using the coating. The nanocomposite coating is disposed on a base material, such as a metal or ceramic; and the nanocomposite consists essentially of a matrix of an alloy selected from the group of Cu, Ni, Pd, Pt and Re which are catalytically active for cracking of carbon bonds in oils and greases and a grain structure selected from the group of borides, carbides and nitrides.

  6. Materials for High-Temperature Catalytic Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersson, Anders

    2003-04-01

    Catalytic combustion is an environmentally friendly technique to combust fuels in e.g. gas turbines. Introducing a catalyst into the combustion chamber of a gas turbine allows combustion outside the normal flammability limits. Hence, the adiabatic flame temperature may be lowered below the threshold temperature for thermal NO{sub X} formation while maintaining a stable combustion. However, several challenges are connected to the application of catalytic combustion in gas turbines. The first part of this thesis reviews the use of catalytic combustion in gas turbines. The influence of the fuel has been studied and compared over different catalyst materials. The material section is divided into two parts. The first concerns bimetallic palladium catalysts. These catalysts showed a more stable activity compared to their pure palladium counterparts for methane combustion. This was verified both by using an annular reactor at ambient pressure and a pilot-scale reactor at elevated pressures and flows closely resembling the ones found in a gas turbine combustor. The second part concerns high-temperature materials, which may be used either as active or washcoat materials. A novel group of materials for catalysis, i.e. garnets, has been synthesised and tested in combustion of methane, a low-heating value gas and diesel fuel. The garnets showed some interesting abilities especially for combustion of low-heating value, LHV, gas. Two other materials were also studied, i.e. spinels and hexa aluminates, both showed very promising thermal stability and the substituted hexa aluminates also showed a good catalytic activity. Finally, deactivation of the catalyst materials was studied. In this part the sulphur poisoning of palladium, platinum and the above-mentioned complex metal oxides has been studied for combustion of a LHV gas. Platinum and surprisingly the garnet were least deactivated. Palladium was severely affected for methane combustion while the other washcoat materials were

  7. Method to produce catalytically active nanocomposite coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdemir, Ali; Eryilmaz, Osman Levent; Urgen, Mustafa; Kazmanli, Kursat

    2017-12-19

    A nanocomposite coating and method of making and using the coating. The nanocomposite coating is disposed on a base material, such as a metal or ceramic; and the nanocomposite consists essentially of a matrix of an alloy selected from the group of Cu, Ni, Pd, Pt and Re which are catalytically active for cracking of carbon bonds in oils and greases and a grain structure selected from the group of borides, carbides and nitrides.

  8. Preface: Challenges for Catalytic Exhaust Aftertreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nova, Isabella; Epling, Bill; Peden, Charles HF

    2014-03-31

    This special issue of Catalysis Today continues the tradition established since the 18th NAM in Cancun, 2003, of publishing the highlights coming from these catalytic after-treatment technologies sessions, where this volume contains 18 papers based on oral and poster presentations of the 23rd NAM, 2013. The guest editors would like to thank all of the catalyst scientists and engineers who presented in the "Emission control" sessions, and especially the authors who contributed to this special issue of Catalysis Today.

  9. Probing catalytic rate enhancement during intramembrane proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arutyunova, Elena; Smithers, Cameron C; Corradi, Valentina; Espiritu, Adam C; Young, Howard S; Tieleman, D Peter; Lemieux, M Joanne

    2016-09-01

    Rhomboids are ubiquitous intramembrane serine proteases involved in various signaling pathways. While the high-resolution structures of the Escherichia coli rhomboid GlpG with various inhibitors revealed an active site comprised of a serine-histidine dyad and an extensive oxyanion hole, the molecular details of rhomboid catalysis were unclear because substrates are unknown for most of the family members. Here we used the only known physiological pair of AarA rhomboid with its psTatA substrate to decipher the contribution of catalytically important residues to the reaction rate enhancement. An MD-refined homology model of AarA was used to identify residues important for catalysis. We demonstrated that the AarA active site geometry is strict and intolerant to alterations. We probed the roles of H83 and N87 oxyanion hole residues and determined that substitution of H83 either abolished AarA activity or reduced the transition state stabilization energy (ΔΔG‡) by 3.1 kcal/mol; substitution of N87 decreased ΔΔG‡ by 1.6-3.9 kcal/mol. Substitution M154, a residue conserved in most rhomboids that stabilizes the catalytic general base, to tyrosine, provided insight into the mechanism of nucleophile generation for the catalytic dyad. This study provides a quantitative evaluation of the role of several residues important for hydrolytic efficiency and oxyanion stabilization during intramembrane proteolysis.

  10. Catalytic pyrolysis of olive mill wastewater sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellaoui, Hamza

    From 2008 to 2013, an average of 2,821.4 kilotons/year of olive oil were produced around the world. The waste product of the olive mill industry consists of solid residue (pomace) and wastewater (OMW). Annually, around 30 million m3 of OMW are produced in the Mediterranean area, 700,000 m3 year?1 in Tunisia alone. OMW is an aqueous effluent characterized by an offensive smell and high organic matter content, including high molecular weight phenolic compounds and long-chain fatty acids. These compounds are highly toxic to micro-organisms and plants, which makes the OMW a serious threat to the environment if not managed properly. The OMW is disposed of in open air evaporation ponds. After evaporation of most of the water, OMWS is left in the bottom of the ponds. In this thesis, the effort has been made to evaluate the catalytic pyrolysis process as a technology to valorize the OMWS. The first section of this research showed that 41.12 wt. % of the OMWS is mostly lipids, which are a good source of energy. The second section proved that catalytic pyrolysis of the OMWS over red mud and HZSM-5 can produce green diesel, and 450 °C is the optimal reaction temperature to maximize the organic yields. The last section revealed that the HSF was behind the good fuel-like properties of the OMWS catalytic oils, whereas the SR hindered the bio-oil yields and quality.

  11. Demonstration of catalytic combustion with residual fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, W. J.; Ekstedt, E. E.

    1981-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted to demonstrate catalytic combustion of a residual fuel oil. Three catalytic reactors, including a baseline configuration and two backup configurations based on baseline test results, were operated on No. 6 fuel oil. All reactors were multielement configurations consisting of ceramic honeycomb catalyzed with palladium on stabilized alumina. Stable operation on residual oil was demonstrated with the baseline configuration at a reactor inlet temperature of about 825 K (1025 F). At low inlet temperature, operation was precluded by apparent plugging of the catalytic reactor with residual oil. Reduced plugging tendency was demonstrated in the backup reactors by increasing the size of the catalyst channels at the reactor inlet, but plugging still occurred at inlet temperature below 725 K (845 F). Operation at the original design inlet temperature of 589 K (600 F) could not be demonstrated. Combustion efficiency above 99.5% was obtained with less than 5% reactor pressure drop. Thermally formed NO sub x levels were very low (less than 0.5 g NO2/kg fuel) but nearly 100% conversion of fuel-bound nitrogen to NO sub x was observed.

  12. Single-dose monomeric HA subunit vaccine generates full protection from influenza challenge

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mallajosyula, JK

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant subunit vaccines are an efficient strategy to meet the demands of a possible influenza pandemic, because of rapid and scalable production. However, vaccines made from recombinant hemagglutinin (HA) subunit protein are often of low...

  13. The Conservation of Structure and Mechanism of Catalytic Action in a Family of Thiamin Pyrophosphate (TPP)-dependent Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominiak, P.; Ciszak, Ewa

    2004-01-01

    Thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP)-dependent enzymes are a divergent family of TPP and metal ion binding proteins that perform a wide range of functions with the common decarboxylation steps of a -(O=)C-C(OH)- fragment of alpha-ketoacids and alpha- hydroxyaldehydes. To determine how structure and catalytic action are conserved in the context of large sequence differences existing within this family of enzymes, we have carried out an analysis of TPP-dependent enzymes of known structures. The common structure of TPP-dependent enzymes is formed at the interface of four alpha/beta domains from at least two subunits, which provide for two metal and TPP-binding sites. Residues around these catalytic sites are conserved for functional purpose, while those further away from TPP are conserved for structural reasons. Together they provide a network of contacts required for flip-flop catalytic action within TPP-dependent enzymes. Thus our analysis defines a TPP-action motif that is proposed for annotating TPP-dependent enzymes for advancing functional proteomics.

  14. A threonine stabilizes the NiC and NiR catalytic intermediates of [NiFe]-hydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Hamdan, Abbas; Ceccaldi, Pierre; Lebrette, Hugo; Gutiérrez-Sanz, Oscar; Richaud, Pierre; Cournac, Laurent; Guigliarelli, Bruno; De Lacey, Antonio L; Léger, Christophe; Volbeda, Anne; Burlat, Bénédicte; Dementin, Sébastien

    2015-03-27

    The heterodimeric [NiFe] hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio fructosovorans catalyzes the reversible oxidation of H2 into protons and electrons. The catalytic intermediates have been attributed to forms of the active site (NiSI, NiR, and NiC) detected using spectroscopic methods under potentiometric but non-catalytic conditions. Here, we produced variants by replacing the conserved Thr-18 residue in the small subunit with Ser, Val, Gln, Gly, or Asp, and we analyzed the effects of these mutations on the kinetic (H2 oxidation, H2 production, and H/D exchange), spectroscopic (IR, EPR), and structural properties of the enzyme. The mutations disrupt the H-bond network in the crystals and have a strong effect on H2 oxidation and H2 production turnover rates. However, the absence of correlation between activity and rate of H/D exchange in the series of variants suggests that the alcoholic group of Thr-18 is not necessarily a proton relay. Instead, the correlation between H2 oxidation and production activity and the detection of the NiC species in reduced samples confirms that NiC is a catalytic intermediate and suggests that Thr-18 is important to stabilize the local protein structure of the active site ensuring fast NiSI-NiC-NiR interconversions during H2 oxidation/production. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Membrane invagination induced by Shiga toxin B-subunit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pezeshkian, W.; Hansen, Allan Grønhøj; Johannes, Ludger

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial Shiga toxin is composed of an enzymatically active A-subunit, and a receptor-binding homopentameric B-subunit (STxB) that mediates intracellular toxin trafficking. Upon STxB-mediated binding to the glycolipid globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) at the plasma membrane of target cells, Shiga...... toxin is internalized by clathrin-dependent and independent endocytosis. The formation of tubular membrane invaginations is an essential step in the clathrin-independent STxB uptake process. However, the mechanism by which STxB induces these invaginations has remained unclear. Using a combination of all...... toxin molecules then creates a tubular membrane invagination that drives toxin entry into the cell. This mechanism requires: (1) a precise molecular architecture of the STxB binding sites; (2) a fluid bilayer in order for the tubular invagination to form. Although, STxB binding to the membrane requires...

  16. Mapping of the Mouse Actin Capping Protein Beta Subunit Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper John A

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Capping protein (CP, a heterodimer of α and β subunits, is found in all eukaryotes. CP binds to the barbed ends of actin filaments in vitro and controls actin assembly and cell motility in vivo. Vertebrates have three isoforms of CPβ produced by alternatively splicing from one gene; lower organisms have one gene and one isoform. Results We isolated genomic clones corresponding to the β subunit of mouse CP and identified its chromosomal location by interspecies backcross mapping. Conclusions The CPβ gene (Cappb1 mapped to Chromosome 4 between Cdc42 and D4Mit312. Three mouse mutations, snubnose, curly tail, and cribriform degeneration, map in the vicinity of the β gene.

  17. Testing experimental subunit furunculosis vaccines for rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marana, Moonika H.; Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Skov, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida (AS) is the etiological agent of typical furunculosis in salmonid fish. The disease causes bacterial septicemia and is a major fish health problem in salmonid aquaculture worldwide, inducing high morbidity and mortality. In this study we vaccinated rainbow...... trout with subunit vaccines containing protein antigens that were selected based on an in silico antigen discovery approach. Thus, the proteome of AS strain A449 was analyzed by an antigen discovery platform and its proteins consequently ranked by their predicted ability to evoke protective immune...... response against AS. Fourteen proteins were prepared in 3 different experimental subunit vaccine combinations and used to vaccinate rainbow trout by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. We tested the proteins for their ability to elicit antibody production and protection. Thus, fish were exposed to virulent...

  18. Screening for AMPA receptor auxiliary subunit specific modulators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caleigh M Azumaya

    Full Text Available AMPA receptors (AMPAR are ligand gated ion channels critical for synaptic transmission and plasticity. Their dysfunction is implicated in a variety of psychiatric and neurological diseases ranging from major depressive disorder to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Attempting to potentiate or depress AMPAR activity is an inherently difficult balancing act between effective treatments and debilitating side effects. A newly explored strategy to target subsets of AMPARs in the central nervous system is to identify compounds that affect specific AMPAR-auxiliary subunit complexes. This exploits diverse spatio-temporal expression patterns of known AMPAR auxiliary subunits, providing means for designing brain region-selective compounds. Here we report a high-throughput screening-based pipeline that can identify compounds that are selective for GluA2-CNIH3 and GluA2-stargazin complexes. These compounds will help us build upon the growing library of AMPAR-auxiliary subunit specific inhibitors, which have thus far all been targeted to TARP γ-8. We used a cell-based assay combined with a voltage-sensitive dye (VSD to identify changes in glutamate-gated cation flow across the membranes of HEK cells co-expressing GluA2 and an auxiliary subunit. We then used a calcium flux assay to further validate hits picked from the VSD assay. VU0612951 and VU0627849 are candidate compounds from the initial screen that were identified as negative and positive allosteric modulators (NAM and PAM, respectively. They both have lower IC50/EC50s on complexes containing stargazin and CNIH3 than GSG1L or the AMPAR alone. We have also identified a candidate compound, VU0539491, that has NAM activity in GluA2(R-CNIH3 and GluA2(Q complexes and PAM activity in GluA2(Q-GSG1L complexes.

  19. Chloroflexus aurantiacus has 30S ribosomal subunits of the eubacterial type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, E; Pierson, B K; Lake, J A

    1983-01-01

    Ribosomal subunits from Chloroflexus aurantiacus were isolated and examined by sucrose gradient sedimentation, gel electrophoresis, and electron microscopy. The 30S subunits had all the characteristic structural features of other eubacterial 30S subunits. The data support the proposal that the absence of the archaebacterial bill is a valid phylogenetic marker of the eubacterial lineage. Images PMID:6348030

  20. Chloroflexus aurantiacus has 30S ribosomal subunits of the eubacterial type.

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, E; Pierson, B. K.; Lake, J A

    1983-01-01

    Ribosomal subunits from Chloroflexus aurantiacus were isolated and examined by sucrose gradient sedimentation, gel electrophoresis, and electron microscopy. The 30S subunits had all the characteristic structural features of other eubacterial 30S subunits. The data support the proposal that the absence of the archaebacterial bill is a valid phylogenetic marker of the eubacterial lineage.

  1. Restoration of the orbital aesthetic subunit in complex midface defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepeha, Douglas B; Wang, Steven J; Marentette, Lawrence J; Bradford, Carol R; Boyd, Charles M; Prince, Mark E; Teknos, Theodoros N

    2004-10-01

    Although various options exist for restoration of the orbital defect in complex craniofacial resections, the aesthetic appearance and functional result of the orbit are optimized when the bony orbital architecture, orbital volume, and facial contour are specifically addressed. The study describes an approach using free tissue transfer for restoration of the native orbital aesthetic subunit. Retrospective case series. Nineteen patients (male-to-female ratio, 14:5; mean age, 52 y [age range, 8-79 y]) in the study period between 1997 and 2001 had orbital defects that could be classified into one of the following categories: 1) orbital exenteration cavities only, 2) orbital exenteration cavities with resection of less than 30% of the bony orbital rim, or 3) radical orbital exenteration cavities with resection of overlying skin and bony malar eminence. Group 1 had reconstructions with fasciocutaneous forearm flaps; group 2, with osseocutaneous forearm flaps; and group 3, with osseocutaneous scapula flaps. Eighteen of 19 patients achieved a closed orbital reconstruction with restoration of the orbital aesthetic subunit. Among 16 patients with more than 4 months of follow-up, 10 patients had minimal or no resulting facial contour deformity and 8 patients engaged in social activities outside the home on a frequent basis. Five of the nine patients who were working before their surgery were able to return to work. Patients with complex midface defects involving the orbit can undergo free tissue transfer and have successful restoration of the native orbital aesthetic subunit without an orbital prosthesis.

  2. Covalent dimerization of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase subunits by UV radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, R M; Franco, E; Teixeira, A R

    1996-08-15

    The effect of UV radiation (UV-A, UV-B and UV-C) on ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase from a variety of plant species was examined. The exposition of plant leaves or the pure enzyme to UV radiation produced a UV-dependent accumulation of a +5 kDa polypeptide (P65). Different approaches were utilized to elucidate the origin and structure of P65: electrophoretic and fluorographic analyses of 35S-labelled ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase exposed to UV radiation and immunological experiments using antibodies specific for P65, for the large and small subunits of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase and for high-molecular-mass aggregates of the enzyme. These studies revealed that P65 is a dimer, formed by the covalent, non-disulphide linkage of one small subunit with one large subunit of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase. For short periods of time (extracts. However, the UV-dependent and the UV-independent formation of P65 seemed to occur by distinct molecular mechanisms. The UV-dependent accumulation of P65 was immunologically detected in all species examined, including Lemna minor, Arum italicum, Brassica oleracea, Triticum aestivum, Zea mays, Pisum sativum and Phaseolus vulgaris, suggesting that it may constitute a universal response to UV radiation, common to all photo-synthetic tissues.

  3. Structural Basis of Telomerase Inhibition by the Highly Specific BIBR1532

    OpenAIRE

    Bryan, Christopher; Rice, Cory; Hoffman, Hunter; Harkisheimer, Michael; Sweeny, Melanie; Skordalakes, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    BIBR1532 is a highly specific telomerase inhibitor, however the molecular basis for inhibition is unknown. Here we present the crystal structure of BIBR1532 bound to Tribolium castaneum catalytic subunit of telomerase (tcTERT). BIBR1532 binds to a conserved hydrophobic pocket (FVYL motif) on the outer surface of the thumb domain. The FVYL motif is near TRBD residues that bind the activation domain (CR4/5) of hTER. RNA binding assays show that the human TERT (hTERT) thumb domain binds the P6.1...

  4. Sulforaphane modulates telomerase activity via epigenetic regulation in prostate cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Ata; Hall, J Adam; Patterson, William L; Ho, Emily; Hsu, Anna; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Georgel, Philippe T

    2016-02-01

    Epidemiologic studies have revealed that diets rich in sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate present in cruciferous vegetables, are associated with a marked decrease in prostate cancer incidence. The chemo-preventive role of SFN is associated with its histone de-acetylase inhibitor activity. However, the effect of SFN on chromatin composition and dynamic folding, especially in relation to HDAC inhibitor activity, remains poorly understood. In this study, we found that SFN can inhibit the expression and activity of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), the catalytic subunit of telomerase, in 2 prostate cancer cell lines. This decrease in gene expression is correlated with SFN-induced changes in chromatin structure and composition. The SFN-mediated changes in levels of histone post-translational modifications, more specifically acetylation of histone H3 lysine 18 and di-methylation of histone H3 lysine 4, 2 modifications linked with high risk of prostate cancer recurrence, were associated with regulatory elements within the hTERT promoter region. Chromatin condensation may also play a role in SFN-mediated hTERT repression, since expression and recruitment of MeCP2, a known chromatin compactor, were altered in SFN treated prostate cancer cells. Chromatin immuno-precipitation (ChIP) of MeCP2 showed enrichment over regions of the hTERT promoter with increased nucleosome density. These combined results strongly support a role for SFN in the mediation of epigenetic events leading to the repression of hTERT in prostate cancer cells. This ability of SFN to modify chromatin composition and structure associated with target gene expression provides a new model by which dietary phytochemicals may exert their chemoprevention activity.

  5. PolV(PolIVb) function in RNA-directed DNA methylation requires the conserved active site and an additional plant-specific subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmy, Sylvie; Pontier, Dominique; Cavel, Emilie; Vega, Danielle; El-Shami, Mahmoud; Kanno, Tatsuo; Lagrange, Thierry

    2009-01-20

    Two forms of a plant-specific RNA polymerase (Pol), PolIV(PolIVa) and PolV(PolIVb), currently defined by their respective largest subunits [NRPD1(NRPD1a) and NRPE1(NRPD1b)], have been implicated in the production and activity of 24-nt small RNAs (sRNAs) in RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM). Prevailing models support the view that PolIV(PolIVa) plays an upstream role in RdDM by producing the 24-nt sRNAs, whereas PolV(PolIVb) would act downstream at a structural rather than an enzymatic level to reinforce sRNA production by PolIV(PolIVa) and mediate DNA methylation. However, the composition and mechanism of action of PolIV(PolIVa)/PolV(PolIVb) remain unclear. In this work, we have identified a plant-specific PolV(PolIVb) subunit, NRPE5a, homologous to NRPB5a, a common subunit shared by PolI-III and shown here to be present in PolIV(PolIVa). Our results confirm the combinatorial diversity of PolIV(PolIVa)/PolV(PolIVb) subunit composition and indicate that these plant-specific Pols are eukaryotic-type polymerases. Moreover, we show that nrpe5a-1 mutation differentially impacts sRNAs accumulation at various PolIV(PolIVa)/PolV(PolIVb)-dependent loci, indicating a target-specific requirement for NRPE5a in the process of PolV(PolIVb)-dependent gene silencing. We then describe that the triad aspartate motif present in the catalytic center of PolV(PolIVb) is required for recapitulation of all activities associated with this Pol complex in RdDM, suggesting that RNA polymerization is important for PolV(PolIVb) to perform its regulatory functions.

  6. Heterogeneous catalytic materials solid state chemistry, surface chemistry and catalytic behaviour

    CERN Document Server

    Busca, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Heterogeneous Catalytic Materials discusses experimental methods and the latest developments in three areas of research: heterogeneous catalysis; surface chemistry; and the chemistry of catalysts. Catalytic materials are those solids that allow the chemical reaction to occur efficiently and cost-effectively. This book provides you with all necessary information to synthesize, characterize, and relate the properties of a catalyst to its behavior, enabling you to select the appropriate catalyst for the process and reactor system. Oxides (used both as catalysts and as supports for cata

  7. Downregulation of SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling factor subunits modulates cisplatin cytotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kothandapani, Anbarasi [Department of Biochemistry and Cancer Biology, University of Toledo-Health Science Campus, Toledo, OH 43614 (United States); Gopalakrishnan, Kathirvel [Physiological Genomics Laboratory, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Toledo College of Medicine, Toledo, OH 43614 (United States); Kahali, Bhaskar; Reisman, David [Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Patrick, Steve M., E-mail: Stephan.Patrick@utoledo.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Cancer Biology, University of Toledo-Health Science Campus, Toledo, OH 43614 (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Chromatin remodeling complex SWI/SNF plays important roles in many cellular processes including transcription, proliferation, differentiation and DNA repair. In this report, we investigated the role of SWI/SNF catalytic subunits Brg1 and Brm in the cellular response to cisplatin in lung cancer and head/neck cancer cells. Stable knockdown of Brg1 and Brm enhanced cellular sensitivity to cisplatin. Repair kinetics of cisplatin DNA adducts revealed that downregulation of Brg1 and Brm impeded the repair of both intrastrand adducts and interstrand crosslinks (ICLs). Cisplatin ICL-induced DNA double strand break repair was also decreased in Brg1 and Brm depleted cells. Altered checkpoint activation with enhanced apoptosis as well as impaired chromatin relaxation was observed in Brg1 and Brm deficient cells. Downregulation of Brg1 and Brm did not affect the recruitment of DNA damage recognition factor XPC to cisplatin DNA lesions, but affected ERCC1 recruitment, which is involved in the later stages of DNA repair. Based on these results, we propose that SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex modulates cisplatin cytotoxicity by facilitating efficient repair of the cisplatin DNA lesions. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stable knockdown of Brg1 and Brm enhances cellular sensitivity to cisplatin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Downregulation of Brg1 and Brm impedes the repair of cisplatin intrastrand adducts and interstrand crosslinks. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Brg1 and Brm deficiency results in impaired chromatin relaxation, altered checkpoint activation as well as enhanced apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Downregulation of Brg1 and Brm affects recruitment of ERCC1, but not XPC to cisplatin DNA lesions.

  8. On the multiple roles of the voltage gated sodium channel β1 subunit in genetic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora eBaroni

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated sodium channels are intrinsic plasma membrane proteins that initiate the action potential in electrically excitable cells. They are composed of a pore-forming α-subunit and associated β-subunits. The β1-subunit was the first accessory subunit to be cloned. It can be important for controlling cell excitability and modulating multiple aspects of sodium channel physiology. Mutations of β1 are implicated in a wide variety of inherited pathologies, including epilepsy and cardiac conduction diseases. This review summarizes β1-subunit related channelopathies pointing out the current knowledge concerning their genetic background and their underlying molecular mechanisms.

  9. BcsA and BcsB form the catalytically active core of bacterial cellulose synthase sufficient for in vitro cellulose synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omadjela, Okako; Narahari, Adishesh; Strumillo, Joanna; Mélida, Hugo; Mazur, Olga; Bulone, Vincent; Zimmer, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    Cellulose is a linear extracellular polysaccharide. It is synthesized by membrane-embedded glycosyltransferases that processively polymerize UDP-activated glucose. Polymer synthesis is coupled to membrane translocation through a channel formed by the cellulose synthase. Although eukaryotic cellulose synthases function in macromolecular complexes containing several different enzyme isoforms, prokaryotic synthases associate with additional subunits to bridge the periplasm and the outer membrane. In bacteria, cellulose synthesis and translocation is catalyzed by the inner membrane-associated bacterial cellulose synthase (Bcs)A and BcsB subunits. Similar to alginate and poly-β-1,6 N-acetylglucosamine, bacterial cellulose is implicated in the formation of sessile bacterial communities, termed biofilms, and its synthesis is likewise stimulated by cyclic-di-GMP. Biochemical studies of exopolysaccharide synthesis are hampered by difficulties in purifying and reconstituting functional enzymes. We demonstrate robust in vitro cellulose synthesis reconstituted from purified BcsA and BcsB proteins from Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Although BcsA is the catalytically active subunit, the membrane-anchored BcsB subunit is essential for catalysis. The purified BcsA-B complex produces cellulose chains of a degree of polymerization in the range 200–300. Catalytic activity critically depends on the presence of the allosteric activator cyclic-di-GMP, but is independent of lipid-linked reactants. Our data reveal feedback inhibition of cellulose synthase by UDP but not by the accumulating cellulose polymer and highlight the strict substrate specificity of cellulose synthase for UDP-glucose. A truncation analysis of BcsB localizes the region required for activity of BcsA within its C-terminal membrane-associated domain. The reconstituted reaction provides a foundation for the synthesis of biofilm exopolysaccharides, as well as its activation by cyclic-di-GMP. PMID:24127606

  10. Catalytic cracking models developed for predictive control purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dag Ljungqvist

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with state-space modeling issues in the context of model-predictive control, with application to catalytic cracking. Emphasis is placed on model establishment, verification and online adjustment. Both the Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC and the Residual Catalytic Cracking (RCC units are discussed. Catalytic cracking units involve complex interactive processes which are difficult to operate and control in an economically optimal way. The strong nonlinearities of the FCC process mean that the control calculation should be based on a nonlinear model with the relevant constraints included. However, the model can be simple compared to the complexity of the catalytic cracking plant. Model validity is ensured by a robust online model adjustment strategy. Model-predictive control schemes based on linear convolution models have been successfully applied to the supervisory dynamic control of catalytic cracking units, and the control can be further improved by the SSPC scheme.

  11. Catalytic combustion with incompletely vaporized residual fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosfjord, T. J.

    1981-01-01

    Catalytic combustion of fuel lean mixtures of incompletely vaporized residual fuel and air was investigated. The 7.6 cm diameter, graded cell reactor was constructed from zirconia spinel substrate and catalyzed with a noble metal catalyst. Streams of luminous particles exited the rector as a result of fuel deposition and carbonization on the substrate. Similar results were obtained with blends of No. 6 and No. 2 oil. Blends of shale residual oil and No. 2 oil resulted in stable operation. In shale oil blends the combustor performance degraded with a reduced degree of fuel vaporization. In tests performed with No. 2 oil a similar effect was observed.

  12. Allotopic Expression of a Gene Encoding FLAG Tagged-subunit 8 of Yeast Mitochondrial ATP Synthase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I MADE ARTIKA

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Subunit 8 of yeast mitochondrial ATP synthase is a polypeptide of 48 amino acids encoded by the mitochondrial ATP8 gene. A nuclear version of subunit 8 gene has been designed to encode FLAG tagged-subunit 8 fused with a mitochondrial signal peptide. The gene has been cloned into a yeast expression vector and then expressed in a yeast strain lacking endogenous subunit 8. Results showed that the gene was successfully expressed and the synthesized FLAG tagged-subunit 8 protein was imported into mitochondria. Following import, the FLAG tagged-subunit 8 protein assembled into functional mitochondrial ATP synthase complex. Furthermore, the subunit 8 protein could be detected using anti-FLAG tag monoclonal antibody.

  13. Modulation of BK Channel Function by Auxiliary Beta and Gamma Subunits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q.; Yan, J.

    2016-01-01

    The large-conductance, Ca2+- and voltage-activated K+ (BK) channel is ubiquitously expressed in mammalian tissues and displays diverse biophysical or pharmacological characteristics. This diversity is in part conferred by channel modulation with different regulatory auxiliary subunits. To date, two distinct classes of BK channel auxiliary subunits have been identified: β subunits and γ subunits. Modulation of BK channels by the four auxiliary β (β1–β4) subunits has been well established and intensively investigated over the past two decades. The auxiliary γ subunits, however, were identified only very recently, which adds a new dimension to BK channel regulation and improves our understanding of the physiological functions of BK channels in various tissues and cell types. This chapter will review the current understanding of BK channel modulation by auxiliary β and γ subunits, especially the latest findings. PMID:27238261

  14. Studies on the Catalytic Properties of Partially Purified Alkaline Proteases from Some Selected Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titilayo Olufunke Femi-Ola

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The research was done to study the conditions enhancing catalytic activities of alkaline proteases from Vibro sp., Lactobacillus brevis, Zymomonas sp., Athrobacter sp., Corynebacterium sp. and Bacillus subtilis.Methodology and Results: The proteolytic enzymes were purified in 2-step procedures involving ammonium sulphate precipitation and sephadex G-150 gel permeation chromatography. The upper and lower limits for the specific activities of proteases from the selected microorganisms were estimated at 20.63 and 47.51 units/mg protein with Zymomonas protease having the highest specific activity towards casein as its substrate and purification fold of 3.46, while that ofLactobacillus brevis protease was 8.06. The native molecular weights of these active proteins ranged from 30.4 to 45.7 kDa with Athrobacter sp. protease having the highest weight for its subunits. The proteolytic enzymes had optimum pH range of 8 to 10 and temperature range of 50 to 62 ºC accounting for the percentage relative activity range of 75 to 94% and 71 to 84 % respectively. The activities of Lactobacillus brevis and Bacillus subtilis proteases were maximum at pH 9 and 10 respectively. Lactobacillus brevis protease activity was maximum at temperature of 62 ºC, while beyond this value, a general thermal instability of these active proteins was observed. At above 70 ºC, the catalytic activities of Corynebacterium sp., Vibrio sp., Zymomonas sp. and Arthrobacter sp. proteases were progressively reduced over a period of 120 min of incubation, while Bacillus subtlis and Lactobacillus brevis proteases were relatively stable. Effect of metal ions was investigated on the catalytic activity of protease from the microorganisms. Lactobacillus brevis,Zymomonas sp., Arthrobacter sp., Corynebacterium sp. and Bacillus subtilis protease activities were strongly activated by metal ions such as Ca+2 and Mg+2. Enzyme activities were inhibited strongly by Cu2+ and Hg2+ but were not

  15. A study on naphtha catalytic reforming reactor simulation and analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Ke-min; Guo, Hai-Yan; Pan, Shi-Wei

    2005-01-01

    A naphtha catalytic reforming unit with four reactors in series is analyzed. A physical model is proposed to describe the catalytic reforming radial flow reactor. Kinetics and thermodynamics equations are selected to describe the naphtha catalytic reforming reactions characteristics based on idealizing the complex naphtha mixture by representing the paraffin, naphthene, and aromatic groups by single compounds. The simulation results based above models agree very well with actual operation uni...

  16. A study on naphtha catalytic reforming reactor simulation and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ke-min; Guo, Hai-yan; Pan, Shi-wei

    2005-06-01

    A naphtha catalytic reforming unit with four reactors in series is analyzed. A physical model is proposed to describe the catalytic reforming radial flow reactor. Kinetics and thermodynamics equations are selected to describe the naphtha catalytic reforming reactions characteristics based on idealizing the complex naphtha mixture by representing the paraffin, naphthene, and aromatic groups by single compounds. The simulation results based above models agree very well with actual operation unit data.

  17. Effect of support on the catalytic activity of manganese oxide catalyts for toluene combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozan, Gulin Selda

    2012-06-30

    The aim of this work was to study combustion of toluene (1000ppm) over MnO(2) modified with different supports. α-Al(2)O(3) and γ-Al(2)O(3) obtained from Boehmite, γ-Al(2)O(3) (commercial), SiO(2), TiO(2) and ZrO(2) were used as commercial support materials. In view of potential interest of this process, the influence of support material on the catalytic performance was discussed. The deposition of 9.5MnO(2) was performed by impregnation over support. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), temperature programmed reduction and oxidation (TPR/TPO) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The catalytic tests were carried out at atmospheric pressure in a fixed-bed flow reactor. 9.5MnO(2)/α-Al(2)O(3)(B) (synthesized from Boehmite) catalyst exhibits the highest catalytic activity, over which the toluene conversion was up to 90% at a temperature of 289°C. Considering all the characterization and reaction data reported in this study, it was concluded that the manganese state and oxygen species played an important role in the catalytic activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A single aspartate mutation in the conserved catalytic site of Rev3L generates a hypomorphic phenotype in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzen, Rémi; Delbos, Frédéric; De Smet, Annie; Palancade, Benoît; Canman, Christine E; Aoufouchi, Said; Weill, Jean-Claude; Reynaud, Claude-Agnès; Storck, Sébastien

    2016-10-01

    Rev3, the catalytic subunit of yeast DNA polymerase ζ, is required for UV resistance and UV-induced mutagenesis, while its mammalian ortholog, REV3L, plays further vital roles in cell proliferation and embryonic development. To assess the contribution of REV3L catalytic activity to its in vivo function, we generated mutant mouse strains in which one or two Ala residues were substituted to the Asp of the invariant catalytic YGDTDS motif. The simultaneous mutation of both Asp (ATA) phenocopies the Rev3l knockout, which proves that the catalytic activity is mandatory for the vital functions of Rev3L, as reported recently. Surprisingly, although the mutation of the first Asp severely impairs the enzymatic activity of other B-family DNA polymerases, the corresponding mutation of Rev3 (ATD) is hypomorphic in yeast and mouse, as it does not affect viability and proliferation and moderately impacts UVC-induced cell death and mutagenesis. Interestingly, Rev3l hypomorphic mutant mice display a distinct, albeit modest, alteration of the immunoglobulin gene mutation spectrum at G-C base pairs, further documenting its role in this process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Catalytically favorable surface patterns in Pt-Au nanoclusters

    KAUST Repository

    Mokkath, Junais Habeeb

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by recent experimental demonstrations of novel PtAu nanoparticles with highly enhanced catalytic properties, we present a systematic theoretical study that explores principal catalytic indicators as a function of the particle size and composition. We find that Pt electronic states in the vicinity of the Fermi level combined with a modified electron distribution in the nanoparticle due to Pt-to-Au charge transfer are the origin of the outstanding catalytic properties. From our model we deduce the catalytically favorable surface patterns that induce ensemble and ligand effects. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013.

  20. Functional Consequences of Deletions of the N Terminus of the [epsilon] Subunit of the Chloroplast ATP Synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, J. A.; Radkowski, C. A.; McCarty, R. E.

    1997-04-01

    The [epsilon] subunit of the chloroplast ATP synthase functions in part to prevent wasteful ATP hydrolysis by the enzyme. In addition, [epsilon] together with the remainder of the catalytic portion of the synthase (CF1) is required to block the nonproductive leak of protons through the membrane-embedded component of the synthase (CFO). Mutant [epsilon] subunits of the spinach (Spinacia oleracea) chloroplast ATP synthase that lack 5, 11, or 20 amino acids from their N termini ([epsilon]-[delta]5N, [epsilon]-[delta]11N, and [epsilon]-[delta]20N, respectively), were overexpressed as inclusion bodies. Using a procedure that resulted in the folding of full-length, recombinant [epsilon] in a biologically active form, none of these truncated forms resulted in [epsilon] that inhibited the ATPase activity of CF1 deficient in [epsilon], CF1(-[epsilon]). Yet, the [epsilon]-[delta]5N and [epsilon]-[delta]11N peptides significantly inhibited the ATPase activity of CF1(-[epsilon]) bound to CFO in NaBr-treated thylakoids. Although full-length [epsilon] rapidly inhibited the ATPase activity of CF1(-[epsilon]) in solution or bound to CFO, an extended period was required for the truncated forms to inhibit membrane-bound CF1(-[epsilon]). Despite the fact that [epsilon]-[delta]5N significantly inhibited the ATPase activity of CF1(-[epsilon]) bound to CFO, it did not block the proton conductance through CFO in NaBr-treated thylakoids reconstituted with CF1(-[epsilon]). Based on selective proteolysis and the binding of 8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulfonic acid, each of the truncated peptides gained significant secondary structure after folding. These results strongly suggest (a) that the N terminus of [epsilon] is important in its binding to CF1, (b) that CF0 stabilizes [epsilon] binding to the entire ATP synthase, and (c) that the N terminus may play some role in the regulation of proton flux through CFO.

  1. Human mediator subunit MED15 promotes transcriptional activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsubo, Takuya; Nishitani, Saori; Kikuchi, Yuko; Iida, Satoshi; Yamada, Kana; Tanaka, Aki; Ohkuma, Yoshiaki

    2014-10-01

    In eukaryotes, the Mediator complex is an essential transcriptional cofactor of RNA polymerase II (Pol II). In humans, it contains up to 30 subunits and consists of four modules: head, middle, tail, and CDK/Cyclin. One of the subunits, MED15, is located in the tail module, and was initially identified as Gal11 in budding yeast, where it plays an essential role in the transcriptional regulation of galactose metabolism with the potent transcriptional activator Gal4. For this reason, we investigated the function of the human MED15 subunit (hMED15) in transcriptional activation. First, we measured the effect of hMED15 knockdown on cell growth in HeLa cells. The growth rate was greatly reduced. By immunostaining, we observed the colocalization of hMED15 with the general transcription factors TFIIE and TFIIH in the nucleus. We measured the effects of siRNA-mediated knockdown of hMED15 on transcriptional activation using two different transcriptional activators, VP16 and SREBP1a. Treatment with siRNAs reduced transcriptional activation, and this reduction could be rescued by overexpression of HA/Flag-tagged, wild-type hMED15. To investigate hMED15 localization, we treated human MCF-7 cells with the MDM2 inhibitor Nutlin-3, thus inducing p21 transcription. We found that hMED15 localized to both the p53 binding site and the p21 promoter region, along with TFIIE and TFIIH. These results indicate that hMED15 promotes transcriptional activation.

  2. Covalent dimerization of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase subunits by UV radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, R.M.B. [Universidade Tecnica, Lisbon (Portugal). Inst. Superior de Agronomia]|[Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Oeiras (Portugal). Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica; Franco, E.; Teixeira, A.R.N. [Universidade Tecnica, Lisbon (Portugal). Inst. Superior de Agronomia

    1996-08-15

    The effect of UV radiation (UV-A, UV-B and UV-C) on ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase from a variety of plant species was examined. The exposition of plant leaves or the pure enzyme to UV radiation produced a UV-dependent accumulation of a 65 kDa polypeptide (P65). Different approaches were utilized to elucidate the origin and structure of P65: electrophoretic and fluorographic analyses of {sup 35}S-labelled ribulose biphosphate carboxylase exposed to UV radiation and immunological experiments using antibodies specific for P65, for the large and small subunits of ribulose biphosphate carboxylase and for high-molecular-mass aggregates of the enzyme. These studies revealed that P65 is a dimer, formed by the covalent, non-disulphide linkage of one small subunit with one large subunit of ribulose biphosphate carboxylase. For short periods of time (<1 h), the amount of P65 formed increased with the duration of the exposure to the UV radiation and with the energy of the radiation applied. Prolonged exposure to UV radiation (1-6 h) resulted in the formation of high-molecular-mass aggregates of ribulose biphosphate carboxylase. Formation of P65 was shown to depend on the native state of the protein, was stimulated by inhibitors of enzyme activity, and was inhibited by activators of enzyme activity. A UV-independent accumulation of P65 was also achieved by the in vitro incubation of plant crude extracts. However, the UV-dependent and the UV-independent formation of P65 seemed to occur by distinct molecular mechanisms. The UV-dependent accumulation of P65 was immunologically detected in all species examined, including Lemna minor, Arum italicum, Brassica oleracea, Triticum aestivum, Zea mays, Pisum sativum and Phaseolus vulgaris, suggesting that it may constitute a universal response to UV radiation, common to all photosynthetic tissues. (Author).

  3. Flexible Connectors between Capsomer Subunits that Regulate Capsid Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasek, Mary L; Maurer, Joshua B; Hendrix, Roger W; Duda, Robert L

    2017-08-04

    Viruses build icosahedral capsids of specific size and shape by regulating the spatial arrangement of the hexameric and pentameric protein capsomers in the growing shell during assembly. In the T=7 capsids of Escherichia coli bacteriophage HK97 and other phages, 60 capsomers are hexons, while the rest are pentons that are correctly positioned during assembly. Assembly of the HK97 capsid to the correct size and shape has been shown to depend on specific ionic contacts between capsomers. We now describe additional ionic interactions within capsomers that also regulate assembly. Each is between the long hairpin, the "E-loop," that extends from one subunit to the adjacent subunit within the same capsomer. Glutamate E153 on the E-loop and arginine R210 on the adjacent subunit's backbone alpha-helix form salt bridges in hexamers and pentamers. Mutations that disrupt these salt bridges were lethal for virus production, because the mutant proteins assembled into tubes or sheets instead of capsids. X-ray structures show that the E153-R210 links are flexible and maintained during maturation despite radical changes in capsomer shape. The E153-R210 links appear to form early in assembly to enable capsomers to make programmed changes in their shape during assembly. The links also prevent flattening of capsomers and premature maturation. Mutant phenotypes and modeling support an assembly model in which flexible E153-R210 links mediate capsomer shape changes that control where pentons are placed to create normal-sized capsids. The E-loop may be conserved in other systems in order to play similar roles in regulating assembly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Catalytic hydrothermal liquefaction of water hyacinth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rawel; Balagurumurthy, Bhavya; Prakash, Aditya; Bhaskar, Thallada

    2015-02-01

    Thermal and catalytic hydrothermal liquefaction of water hyacinth was performed at temperatures from 250 to 300 °C under various water hyacinth:H2O ratio of 1:3, 1:6 and 1:12. Reactions were also carried out under various residence times (15-60 min) as well as catalytic conditions (KOH and K2CO3). The use of alkaline catalysts significantly increased the bio-oil yield. Maximum bio-oil yield (23 wt%) comprising of bio-oil1 and bio-oil2 as well as conversion (89%) were observed with 1N KOH solution. (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR data showed that both bio-oil1 and bio-oil2 have high aliphatic carbon content. FTIR of bio-residue indicated that the usage of alkaline catalyst resulted in bio-residue samples with lesser oxygen functionality indicating that catalyst has a marked effect on nature of the bio-residue and helps to decompose biomass to a greater extent compared to thermal case. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Aluminosilicate nanoparticles for catalytic hydrocarbon cracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Pinnavaia, Thomas J

    2003-03-05

    Aluminosilicate nanoparticles containing 9.0-20 nm mesopores were prepared through the use of protozeolitic nanoclusters as the inorganic precursor and starch as a porogen. The calcined, porogen-free composition containing 2 mol % aluminum exhibited the porosity, hydrothermal stability, and acidity needed for the cracking of very large hydrocarbons. In fact, the hydrothermal stability of the nanoparticles to pure steam at 800 degrees C, along with the cumene cracking activity, surpassed the analogous performance properties of ultrastable Y zeolite, the main catalyst component of commercial cracking catalysts. The remarkable hydrothermal stability and catalytic reactivity of the new nanoparticles are attributable to a unique combination of two factors, the presence of protozeolitic nanoclusters in the pore walls and the unprecedented pore wall thickness (7-15 nm). In addition, the excellent catalytic longevity of the nanoparticles is most likely facilitated by the small domain size of the nanoparticles that greatly improves access to the acid sites on the pore walls and minimizes the diffusion length of coke precursors out of the pores.

  6. SNRB catalytic baghouse laboratory pilot testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudlac, G.A.; Farthing, G.A. (Babcock and Wilcox, Alliance, Ohio (United States)) Szymanski, T. (Norton Co., Akron, OH (United States)); Corbett, R. (Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States))

    1992-02-01

    The SOx-NOx-Rox Box{trademark} (SNRB) is an advanced air pollution process patented by Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) that provides for significantly reduced sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and particulate emissions from coal-fired boilers. The process uses a high-temperature catalytic baghouse for integrating SO{sub x} reduction through injecting an alkali sorbent (such as hydrated lime or sodium bicarbonate), NO{sub x} removal through ammonia injection and selective catalytic reduction (SCR), and particulate collection. The advantages of the process include: compact integration of the emission control technologies into a single component; dry sorbent and by-product handling; and improved SCR catalyst life due to lowered SO{sub x} and particulate levels. The SNRB concept has been successfully demonstrated in a 1,500-ACFM pilot baghouse at B and W's Alliance (Ohio) Research Center. This paper describes the SNRB technology presents the SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, and particulate removal performance results over a range of operating conditions for the laboratory pilot test program.

  7. Plant mitochondrial F0F1 ATP synthase. Identification of the individual subunits and properties of the purified spinach leaf mitochondrial ATP synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamasur, B; Glaser, E

    1992-04-01

    Spinach leaf mitochondrial F0F1 ATPase has been purified and is shown to consist of twelve polypeptides. Five of the polypeptides constitute the F1 part of the enzyme. The remaining polypeptides, with molecular masses of 28 kDa, 23 kDa, 18.5 kDa, 15 kDa, 10.5 kDa, 9.5 kDa and 8.5 kDa, belong to the F0 part of the enzyme. This is the first report concerning identification of the subunits of the plant mitochondrial F0. The identification of the components is achieved on the basis of the N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis and Western blot technique using monospecific antibodies against proteins characterized in other sources. The 28-kDa protein crossreacts with antibodies against the subunit of bovine heart ATPase with N-terminal Pro-Val-Pro- which corresponds to subunit F0b of Escherichia coli F0F1. Sequence analysis of the N-terminal 32 amino acids of the 23-kDa protein reveals that this protein is similar to mammalian oligomycin-sensitivity-conferring protein and corresponds to the F1 delta subunit of the chloroplast and E. coli ATPases. The 18.5-kDa protein crossreacts with antibodies against subunit 6 of the beef heart F0 and its N-terminal sequence of 14 amino acids shows a high degree of sequence similarity to the conserved regions at N-terminus of the ATPase subunits 6 from different sources. ATPase subunit 6 corresponds to subunit F0a of the E. coli enzyme. The 15-kDa protein and the 10.5-kDa protein crossreact with antibodies against F6 and the endogenous ATPase inhibitor protein of beef heart F0F1-ATPase, respectively. The 9.5-kDa protein is an N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide-binding protein corresponding to subunit F0c of the E. coli enzyme. The 8.5-kDa protein is of unknown identity. The isolated spinach mitochondrial F0F1 ATPase catalyzes oligomycin-sensitive ATPase activity of 3.5 mumol.mg-1.min-1. The enzyme catalyzes also hydrolysis of GTP (7.5 mumol.mg-1.min-1) and ITP (4.4 mumol.mg-1.min-1). Hydrolysis of ATP was stimulated fivefold in the

  8. N-linked Glycans are Required on Epithelial Na+ Channel Subunits for Maturation and Surface Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashlan, Ossama B; Kinlough, Carol L; Myerburg, Michael M; Shi, Shujie; Chen, Jingxin; Blobner, Brandon M; Buck, Teresa M; Brodsky, Jeffrey L; Hughey, Rebecca P; Kleyman, Thomas R

    2017-11-29

    Epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) subunits undergo N-linked glycosylation in the endoplasmic reticulum where they assemble into an αβγ complex. Six, thirteen and five consensus sites (Asn-x-Ser/Thr) for N-glycosylation reside in the extracellular domains of the mouse α, β and γ subunits, respectively. Because the importance of ENaC N-linked glycans has not been fully addressed, we examined the effect of preventing N-glycosylation of specific subunits on channel function, expression, maturation, and folding. Heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes or Fisher rat thyroid cells with αβγENaC lacking N-linked glycans on a single subunit reduced ENaC activity as well as the inhibitory response to extracellular Na+ The lack of N-linked glycans on the β subunit also precluded channel activation by trypsin. However, channel activation by shear stress was N-link glycan independent, regardless of which subunit was modified. We also discovered that the lack of N-linked glycans on any one subunit reduced the total and surface levels of cognate subunits. The lack of N-linked glycans on the β subunit had the largest effect on total levels, with the lack of N-linked glycans on the α and γ subunits having intermediate and modest effects, respectively. Finally, channels with wild type β subunits were more sensitive to limited trypsin proteolysis than channels lacking N-linked glycans on the β subunit. Our results indicate that N-linked glycans on each subunit are required for proper folding, maturation, surface expression and function of the channel. Copyright © 2017, American Journal of Physiology-Renal Physiology.

  9. Resistance of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase against [2',5'-bis-O-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-3'-spiro-5''-(4''-amino-1'',2''- oxathiole-2'',2''-dioxide)] (TSAO) derivatives is determined by the mutation Glu138-->Lys on the p51 subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonckheere, H; Taymans, J M; Balzarini, J; Velázquez, S; Camarasa, M J; Desmyter, J; De Clercq, E; Anné, J

    1994-10-14

    Determination of the three-dimensional structure of the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) has indicated a totally different folding for the 51-kDa subunit (p51) than for the 66-kDa subunit (p66). The polymerase catalytic site is located on the p66 subunit. Moreover, the HIV-1-specific RT inhibitors, also designated as the non-nucleoside RT inhibitors (NNRTIs), select for amino acid mutations that afford resistance to these compounds and are clustered in the palm domain of the HIV-1 RT p66 subunit. This pocket is located in the vicinity of, but clearly distinct from, the polymerase active site. However, for the NNRTIs that belong to the class of the [2',5'-bis-O-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-3'-spiro-5''-(4''-amino-1'',2''- oxathiole- 2'',2''-dioxide)] (TSAO) derivatives, the resistance mutation is located at position Glu138. On the p66 subunit, this amino acid is distant from the binding site of the HIV-1-specific RT inhibitors. When the TSAO-specific resistance mutation Glu138-->Lys was introduced solely in the p51 subunit of the RT p66/p51 heterodimer, the enzyme proved completely resistant to TSAO-m3T but retained full sensitivity to TIBO R82150 and ddGTP. On the other hand, when the mutation was introduced only in the p66 subunit the enzyme remained equally sensitive to the inhibitory effects of TSAO-m3T, TIBO R82150, and ddGTP. Our data provide compelling evidence for a structural and functional role of the p51 subunit in the sensitivity and/or resistance of the enzyme to the NNRTIs.

  10. Thermostable cross-protective subunit vaccine against Brucella species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherwonogrodzky, John W; Barabé, Nicole D; Grigat, Michelle L; Lee, William E; Poirier, Robert T; Jager, Scott J; Berger, Bradley J

    2014-12-01

    A subunit vaccine candidate was produced from Brucella suis 145 (biovar 4; expressing both the A antigen of Brucella abortus and the M antigen of Brucella melitensis). The preparation consisted mostly of polysaccharide (PS; >90% [wt/wt]; both cell-associated PS and exo-PS were combined) and a small amount of protein (1 to 3%) with no apparent nucleic acids. Vaccinated mice were protected (these had a statistically significant reduction in bacterial colonization compared to that of unvaccinated controls) when challenged with representative strains of three Brucella species most pathogenic for humans, i.e., B. abortus, B. melitensis, and B. suis. As little as 1 ng of the vaccine, without added adjuvant, protected mice against B. suis 145 infection (5 × 10(5) CFU), and a single injection of 1 μg of this subunit vaccine protected mice from B. suis 145 challenge for at least 14 months. A single immunization induced a serum IgG response to Brucella antigens that remained elevated for up to 9 weeks. The use of heat (i.e., boiling-water bath, autoclaving) in the vaccine preparation showed that it was thermostable. This method also ensured safety and security. The vaccine produced was immunogenic and highly protective against multiple strains of Brucella and represents a promising candidate for further evaluation. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Characterization of tryptophan synthase alpha subunit mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwanski, E R; Barczak, A J; Last, R L

    1996-12-13

    Three mutations in the Arabidopsis thaliana gene encoding the alpha subunit of tryptophan synthase were isolated by selection for resistance to 5-methylanthranilate or 5-fluoroindole, toxic analogs of tryptophan pathway intermediates. Plants homozygous for trp3-1 and trp3-2 are light-conditional tryptophan auxotrophs, while trp3-100 is a more leaky mutant. Genetic complementation crosses demonstrated that the three mutations are allelic to each other, and define a new complementation group. All three mutants have decreased steady-state levels of tryptophan synthase alpha protein, and the trp3-100 polypeptide exhibits altered electrophoretic mobility. All three mutations were shown to be in the TSA1 (tryptophan synthase alpha subunit) structural gene by several criteria. Firstly, the trp3-1 mutation is linked to TSA1 on the bottom of chromosome 3. Secondly, the trp3-1 mutation was complemented when transformed with the wild-type TSA1 gene. Finally, DNA sequence analysis of the TSA1 gene revealed a single transition mutation in each trp3 mutant.

  12. Architecture of the Pol III–clamp–exonuclease complex reveals key roles of the exonuclease subunit in processive DNA synthesis and repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toste Rêgo, Ana; Holding, Andrew N; Kent, Helen; Lamers, Meindert H

    2013-01-01

    DNA polymerase III (Pol III) is the catalytic α subunit of the bacterial DNA Polymerase III holoenzyme. To reach maximum activity, Pol III binds to the DNA sliding clamp β and the exonuclease ɛ that provide processivity and proofreading, respectively. Here, we characterize the architecture of the Pol III–clamp–exonuclease complex by chemical crosslinking combined with mass spectrometry and biochemical methods, providing the first structural view of the trimeric complex. Our analysis reveals that the exonuclease is sandwiched between the polymerase and clamp and enhances the binding between the two proteins by providing a second, indirect, interaction between the polymerase and clamp. In addition, we show that the exonuclease binds the clamp via the canonical binding pocket and thus prevents binding of the translesion DNA polymerase IV to the clamp, providing a novel insight into the mechanism by which the replication machinery can switch between replication, proofreading, and translesion synthesis. PMID:23549287

  13. Proteome analysis reveals phosphorylation of ATP synthase beta -subunit in human skeletal muscle and proteins with potential roles in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Kurt; Wrzesinski, Krzysztof; Larsen, Peter Mose

    2003-01-01

    quantitate a large number of proteins and their post-translational modifications simultaneously and is a powerful tool to study polygenic diseases like type 2 diabetes. Using this approach on human skeletal muscle biopsies, we have identified eight potential protein markers for type 2 diabetes in the fasting......Insulin resistance in skeletal muscle is a hallmark feature of type 2 diabetes. An increasing number of enzymes and metabolic pathways have been implicated in the development of insulin resistance. However, the primary cellular cause of insulin resistance remains uncertain. Proteome analysis can...... of patients with type 2 diabetes. Phosphorylation appears to play a key, potentially coordinating role for most of the proteins identified in this study. In particular, we demonstrated that the catalytic beta-subunit of ATP synthase is phosphorylated in vivo and that the levels of a down-regulated ATP...

  14. Kinetic mechanism of luciferase subunit folding and assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, A C; Raso, S W; Sinclair, J F; Ziegler, M M; Chaffotte, A F; Baldwin, T O

    1997-02-18

    The kinetic mechanism in vitro of the folding and assembly of the heterodimeric flavin monooxygenase bacterial luciferase has been defined by a unique set of rate constants which describe both the productive refolding pathway and competing off-pathway reactions in 50 mM phosphate, pH 7.0 at 18 degrees C. The individual alpha and beta subunits fold independently to form heterodimerization-competent species, alpha i and beta i. The alpha i beta i species can interact to form an inactive heterodimeric intermediate, [alpha beta ]i, which isomerizes to form the active alpha beta structure; the structure of the enzyme has been determined to 1.5 A resolution [Fisher, A. J., Thompson, T. B., Thoden, J. B., Baldwin, T. O., & Rayment, I. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 21956-21968]. In the absence of alpha i, beta i can form a kinetically trapped homodimer, beta 2, with a second-order rate constant of about 180 M-1 s-1 [Sinclair, J. F., Ziegler, M. M., & Baldwin, T. O. (1994) Nat. Struct. Biol. 1, 320-326]; the structure of beta 2 has recently been reported [Thoden. J. B., Holden, H. M., Fisher, A. J., Sinclair. J. F., Wesenberg, G., Baldwin, T.O., & Rayment, I. (1997) Protein Sci. 6, 13-23]. The beta i species, or some other form that precedes beta i on the refolding pathway, can also undergo a first-order conversion into a form (designated beta x) that cannot associate with alpha i to form the native enzyme. The rate constant for this process, assigned here, accounts well for the previously observed dependence of final yield on concentration of refolding species [Ziegler, M.M., Goldberg, M.E., Chaffotte, A. F., & Baldwin, T. O. (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268, 10760-10765]. In simulations of the refolding reaction, all processes associated with the refolding of the individual subunits were combined into single first-order rate constants for each subunit which were consistent with the rate constants determined from stopped-flow circular dichroism studies. The first-order rate constant

  15. Predicting the catalytic sites of isopenicillin N synthase (IPNS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Predicting the catalytic sites of isopenicillin N synthase (IPNS) related non-haem iron-dependent oxygenases and oxidases (NHIDOX) through a structural superimposition ... With the advancement of protein structural analysis software, it is possible to predict the catalytic sites of protein that shared a structural resemblance.

  16. Synthesis, characterization and study of catalytic activity of Silver ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Catalytic activity was tested using liquid-phase selective oxidation of benzylic alcohols to aldehydes. The influence of some parameters such as optimum weight of Ag, catalyst dosage, oxidant and various solvents were studied. The superior catalytic performance of the Ag/ZnO nanocomposite was observed in microwave ...

  17. Packed-bed catalytic cracking of oak derived pyrolytic vapors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalytic upgrading of pyrolysis vapors derived from oak was carried out using a fixed-bed catalytic column at 425 deg C. The vapors were drawn by splitting a fraction from the full stream of vapors produced at 500 deg C in a 5 kg/hr bench-scale fast pyrolysis reactor system downstream the cyclone s...

  18. Platinum recovery from used auto catalytic converters in electrorefining process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fornalczyk

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents possibility of removing platinum from the used catalytic converters applying copper as a metal collector in pyrometallurgical methods. The catalytic converter carrier was grinded and melted with copper. During the research obtained Cu-Pt alloy was casted as an anode. Such anode was electrically refined in order to recover platinum. Obtained results were discussed.

  19. Functionalized TUD-1 : Synthesis, characterization and (photo-)catalytic performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saad, M.S.Hamdy M.

    2005-01-01

    The new mesoporous material; TUD-1 is chosen of which the synthesis, characterization, and functionalization for (photo)-catalytic performance are extensively investigated in this study. The synthesis of the new catalytic materials M TUD-1 (M = Ti, V, Cr, Mo, Fe, Co and Cu) is carried out through an

  20. Including lateral interactions into microkinetic models of catalytic reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellman, Anders; Honkala, Johanna Karoliina

    2007-01-01

    In many catalytic reactions lateral interactions between adsorbates are believed to have a strong influence on the reaction rates. We apply a microkinetic model to explore the effect of lateral interactions and how to efficiently take them into account in a simple catalytic reaction. Three...

  1. Computer model of catalytic combustion/Stirling engine heater head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, E. K.; Chang, R. L.; Tong, H.

    1981-01-01

    The basic Acurex HET code was modified to analyze specific problems for Stirling engine heater head applications. Specifically, the code can model: an adiabatic catalytic monolith reactor, an externally cooled catalytic cylindrical reactor/flat plate reactor, a coannular tube radiatively cooled reactor, and a monolithic reactor radiating to upstream and downstream heat exchangers.

  2. A new non-catalytic role for ubiquitin ligase RNF8 in unfolding higher-order chromatin structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luijsterburg, Martijn S; Acs, Klara; Ackermann, Leena

    2012-01-01

    . Our data show that CHD4, the catalytic subunit of the NuRD complex, interacts with RNF8 and is essential for RNF8-mediated chromatin unfolding. The chromatin remodelling activity of CHD4 promotes efficient ubiquitin conjugation and assembly of RNF168 and BRCA1 at DNA double-strand breaks....... Interestingly, RNF8-mediated recruitment of CHD4 and subsequent chromatin remodelling were independent of the ubiquitin-ligase activity of RNF8, but involved a non-canonical interaction with the forkhead-associated (FHA) domain. Our study reveals a new mechanism of chromatin remodelling-assisted ubiquitylation......, which involves the cooperation between CHD4 and RNF8 to create a local chromatin environment that is permissive to the assembly of checkpoint and repair machineries at DNA lesions....

  3. Catalytic control over supramolecular gel formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boekhoven, Job; Poolman, Jos M.; Maity, Chandan; Li, Feng; van der Mee, Lars; Minkenberg, Christophe B.; Mendes, Eduardo; van Esch, Jan H.; Eelkema, Rienk

    2013-05-01

    Low-molecular-weight gels show great potential for application in fields ranging from the petrochemical industry to healthcare and tissue engineering. These supramolecular gels are often metastable materials, which implies that their properties are, at least partially, kinetically controlled. Here we show how the mechanical properties and structure of these materials can be controlled directly by catalytic action. We show how in situ catalysis of the formation of gelator molecules can be used to accelerate the formation of supramolecular hydrogels, which drastically enhances their resulting mechanical properties. Using acid or nucleophilic aniline catalysis, it is possible to make supramolecular hydrogels with tunable gel-strength in a matter of minutes, under ambient conditions, starting from simple soluble building blocks. By changing the rate of formation of the gelator molecules using a catalyst, the overall rate of gelation and the resulting gel morphology are affected, which provides access to metastable gel states with improved mechanical strength and appearance despite an identical gelator composition.

  4. Catalytic conversion of biomass: challenges and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallezot, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    There are strong incentives to develop the production of fuels, chemicals and materials from biomass. However, the extensive use of biomass for industrial production, particularly for biofuels which involves high tonnages, raises environmental and ethical issues that may throw some doubts on the sustainability of these processes. The processing cost of biomass must be decreased by designing new processing routes and catalytic systems because those employed for hydrocarbons are not adapted to the molecular structure of biomolecules. To avoid competition with food supply, lignocellulosic feedstocks should be used rather than traditional agricultural crops particularly for biofuel production. Life-cycle assessment, which takes into account all the inputs and outputs of a process/product, should be carried out to evaluate the environmental impact of processes and used as a decision-making tool for product development.

  5. Catalytic cartridge SO/sub 3/ decomposer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, T.R.

    1980-11-18

    A catalytic cartridge surrounding a heat pipe driven by a heat source is utilized as a SO/sub 3/ decomposer for thermochemical hydrogen production. The cartridge has two embodiments, a cross-flow cartridge and an axial flow cartridge. In the cross-flow cartridge, SO/sub 3/ gas is flowed through a chamber and incident normally to a catalyst coated tube extending through the chamber, the catalyst coated tube surrounding the heat pipe. In the axial-flow cartridge, SO/sub 3/ gas is flowed through the annular space between concentric inner and outer cylindrical walls, the inner cylindrical wall being coated by a catalyst and surrounding the heat pipe. The modular cartridge decomposer provides high thermal efficiency, high conversion efficiency, and increased safety. A fusion reactor may be used as the heat source.

  6. Stoichiometric and Catalytic Synthesis of Alkynylphosphines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie-Claude Gaumont

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Alkynylphosphines or their borane complexes are available either through C–P bond forming reactions or through modification of the phosphorus or the alkynyl function of various alkynyl phosphorus derivatives. The latter strategy, and in particular the one involving phosphoryl reduction by alanes or silanes, is the method of choice for preparing primary and secondary alkynylphosphines, while the former strategy is usually employed for the synthesis of tertiary alkynylphosphines or their borane complexes. The classical C–P bond forming methods rely on the reaction between halophosphines or their borane complexes with terminal acetylenes in the presence of a stoichiometric amount of organometallic bases, which precludes the access to alkynylphosphines bearing sensitive functional groups. In less than a decade, efficient catalytic procedures, mostly involving copper complexes and either an electrophilic or a nucleophilic phosphorus reagent, have emerged. By proceeding under mild conditions, these new methods have allowed a significant broadening of the substituent scope and structure complexity.

  7. Catalytically defective ganglioside neuraminidase in mucolipidosis IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Yoseph, Y.; Momoi, T.; Hahn, L.C.; Nadler, H.L. (Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (USA))

    1982-01-01

    Cultured skin fibroblasts from patients with mucolipidosis IV were found to be deficient in neuraminidase activity toward GDsub(la) and GDsub(lb) gangliosides radiolabelled in C/sub 3/ and C/sub 7/ analogs of their sialic acid residues. Neuraminidase activities toward 4-methylumbelliferyl-N-acetyl-neuraminic acid, neuraminlactose, and radiolabelled neuraminlactitol, fetuin and ..cap alpha../sub 1/-acid glycoprotein were within the range of normal controls. Fibroblasts from parents of patients with mucolipidosis IV demonstrated intermediate levels of ganglioside neuraminidase activity and normal levels of glycoprotein neuraminidase activity. The redidual acidic neuraminidase activity toward GDsub(1a) ganglioside in the patients' fibroblasts did not differ from that of controls in its pH optimum and thermostability, but had an abnormal apparent Ksub(m) which was about 18 times higher than that of the normal enzyme. These findings suggest that mucolipidosis IV is a ganglioside sialidosis due to a catalytically defective ganglioside neuraminidase.

  8. Catalytic hot gas cleaning of gasification gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simell, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1997-12-31

    The aim of this work was to study the catalytic cleaning of gasification gas from tars and ammonia. In addition, factors influencing catalytic activity in industrial applications were studied, as well as the effects of different operation conditions and limits. Also the catalytic reactions of tar and ammonia with gasification gas components were studied. The activities of different catalyst materials were measured with laboratory-scale reactors fed by slip streams taken from updraft and fluid bed gasifiers. Carbonate rocks and nickel catalysts proved to be active tar decomposing catalysts. Ammonia decomposition was in turn facilitated by nickel catalysts and iron materials like iron sinter and iron dolomite. Temperatures over 850 deg C were required at 2000{sup -1} space velocity at ambient pressure to achieve almost complete conversions. During catalytic reactions H{sub 2} and CO were formed and H{sub 2}O was consumed in addition to decomposing hydrocarbons and ammonia. Equilibrium gas composition was almost achieved with nickel catalysts at 900 deg C. No deactivation by H{sub 2}S or carbon took place in these conditions. Catalyst blocking by particulates was avoided by using a monolith type of catalyst. The apparent first order kinetic parameters were determined for the most active materials. The activities of dolomite, nickel catalyst and reference materials were measured in different gas atmospheres using laboratory apparatus. This consisted of nitrogen carrier, toluene as tar model compound, ammonia and one of the components H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, CO, CO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}+H{sub 2}O or CO+CO{sub 2}. Also synthetic gasification gas was used. With the dolomite and nickel catalyst the highest toluene decomposition rates were measured with CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. In gasification gas, however, the rate was retarded due to inhibition by reaction products (CO, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}). Tar decomposition over dolomite was modelled by benzene reactions with CO{sub 2}, H

  9. Flowthrough Reductive Catalytic Fractionation of Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Eric M.; Stone, Michael L.; Katahira, Rui; Reed, Michelle; Beckham, Gregg T.; Román-Leshkov, Yuriy

    2017-11-01

    Reductive catalytic fractionation (RCF) has emerged as a leading biomass fractionation and lignin valorization strategy. Here, flowthrough reactors were used to investigate RCF of poplar. Most RCF studies to date have been conducted in batch, but a flow-based process enables the acquisition of intrinsic kinetic and mechanistic data essential to accelerate the design, optimization, and scale-up of RCF processes. Time-resolved product distributions and yields obtained from experiments with different catalyst loadings were used to identify and deconvolute events during solvolysis and hydrogenolysis. Multi-bed RCF experiments provided unique insights into catalyst deactivation, showing that leaching, sintering, and surface poisoning are causes for decreased catalyst performance. The onset of catalyst deactivation resulted in higher concentrations of unsaturated lignin intermediates and increased occurrence of repolymerization reactions, producing high-molecular-weight species. Overall, this study demonstrates the concept of flowthrough RCF, which will be vital for realistic scale-up of this promising approach.

  10. Radiant non-catalytic recuperative reformer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khinkis, Mark J.; Kozlov, Aleksandr P.

    2017-10-31

    A radiant, non-catalytic recuperative reformer has a flue gas flow path for conducting hot exhaust gas from a thermal process and a reforming mixture flow path for conducting a reforming mixture. At least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path is positioned adjacent to the flue gas flow path to permit heat transfer from the hot exhaust gas to the reforming mixture. The reforming mixture flow path contains substantially no material commonly used as a catalyst for reforming hydrocarbon fuel (e.g., nickel oxide, platinum group elements or rhenium), but instead the reforming mixture is reformed into a higher calorific fuel via reactions due to the heat transfer and residence time. In a preferred embodiment, a portion of the reforming mixture flow path is positioned outside of flue gas flow path for a relatively large residence time.

  11. Flame assisted synthesis of catalytic ceramic membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Johnny; Mosleh, Majid; Johannessen, Tue

    2004-01-01

    technology it is possible to make supported catalysts, composite metal oxides, catalytically active surfaces, and porous ceramic membranes. Membrane layers can be formed by using a porous substrate tube (or surface) as a nano-particle filter. The aerosol gas from the flame is led through a porous substrate......Membranes consisting of one or more metal oxides can be synthesized by flame pyrolysis. The general principle behind flame pyrolysis is the decomposition and oxidation of evaporated organo-metallic precursors in a flame, thereby forming metal oxide monomers. Because of the extreme supersaturation...... created in the flame, the monomers will nucleate homogeneously and agglomerate to form aggregates of large ensembles of monomers. The aggregates will then sinter together to form single particles. If the flame temperature and the residence time are sufficiently high, the formed oxide particles...

  12. A note on random catalytic branching processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Mike; Kauffman, Stuart

    2018-01-21

    A variety of evolutionary processes in biology can be viewed as settings where organisms 'catalyse' the formation of new types of organisms. One example, relevant to the origin of life, is where transient biological colonies (e.g. prokaryotes or protocells) give rise to new colonies via lateral gene transfer. In this short note, we describe and analyse a simple random process which models such settings. By applying theory from general birth-death processes, we describe how the survival of a population under catalytic diversification depends on interplay of the catalysis rate and the initial population size. We also note how such process can also be viewed within the framework of 'self-sustaining autocatalytic networks'. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Carbon nanofibers: a versatile catalytic support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelize Maria de Almeida Coelho

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is present an overview of the promising results obtained while using carbon nanofibers based composites as catalyst support for different practical applications: hydrazine decomposition, styrene synthesis, direct oxidation of H2S into elementary sulfur and as fuel-cell electrodes. We have also discussed some prospects of the use of these new materials in total combustion of methane and in ammonia decomposition. The macroscopic carbon nanofibers based composites were prepared by the CVD method (Carbon Vapor Deposition employing a gaseous mixture of hydrogen and ethane. The results showed a high catalytic activity and selectivity in comparison to the traditional catalysts employed in these reactions. The fact was attributed, mainly, to the morphology and the high external surface of the catalyst support.

  14. Catalytic creativity. The case of Linus Pauling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, J; Csikszentmihalyi, M

    2001-04-01

    This article illustrates how creativity is constituted by forces beyond the innovating individual, drawing examples from the career of the eminent chemist Linus Pauling. From a systems perspective, a scientific theory or other product is creative only if the innovation gains the acceptance of a field of experts and so transforms the culture. In addition to this crucial selective function vis-à-vis the completed work, the social field can play a catalytic role, fostering productive interactions between person and domain throughout a career. Pauling's case yields examples of how variously the social field contributes to creativity, shaping the individual's standards of judgment and providing opportunities, incentives, and critical evaluation. A formidable set of strengths suited Pauling for his scientific achievements, but examination of his career qualifies the notion of a lone genius whose brilliance carries the day.

  15. Noncatalytic and catalytic pyrolysis of toluene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pant, K. K.; Kunzru, D. [Indian Institute of Technology, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Kanpur (India)

    1999-02-01

    Investigation of the effects of process variables on conversion and product yields during catalytic and noncatalytic pyrolysis of toluene was described. The catalyst used was potassium carbonate-impregnated calcium aluminate. Kinetics of the pyrolysis of toluene was also studied. Compared to noncatalytic pyrolysis, the conversions were significantly higher in the presence of the catalyst, although product sensitivities were not affected. With nitrogen as a diluent the main products were hydrogen, methane, benzene, bibenzyl and higher hydrocarbons. Using steam as the diluent, significant amounts of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide were also produced. Based on the result, it was concluded that the overall consumption of toluene can be represented by two parallel reactions. one for the toluene decomposition, the other for the toluene-steam reaction. The activation energy for toluene decomposition was significantly reduced in the presence of the catalyst; only marginal reduction in the activation energy was observed when steam was used as the diluent. 11 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  16. Nitrene Radical Intermediates in Catalytic Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijpers, Petrus F; van der Vlugt, Jarl Ivar; Schneider, Sven; de Bruin, Bas

    2017-10-09

    Nitrene radical complexes are reactive intermediates with discrete spin density at the nitrogen-atom of the nitrene moiety. These species have become important intermediates for organic synthesis, being invoked in a broad range of C-H functionalization and aziridination reactions. Nitrene radical complexes have intriguing electronic structures, and are best described as one-electron reduced Fischer type nitrenes. They can be generated by intramolecular single electron transfer to the "redox non-innocent" nitrene moiety at the metal. Nitrene radicals generated at open-shell cobalt(II) have thus far received most attention in terms of spectroscopic characterization, reactivity screening, catalytic nitrene-transfer reactions and (computational and experimental) mechanistic studies, but some interesting iron and precious metal catalysts have also been employed in related reactions involving nitrene radicals. In some cases, redox-active ligands are used to facilitate intramolecular single electron transfer from the complex to the nitrene moiety. Organic azides are among the most attractive nitrene precursors in this field, typically requiring pre-activated organic azides (e.g. RSO2 N3 , (RO)2 P(=O)N3 , ROC(=O)N3 and alike) to achieve efficient and selective catalysis. Challenging, non-activated aliphatic organic azides were recently added to the palette of reagents useful in synthetically relevant reactions proceeding via nitrene radical intermediates. This concept article describes the electronic structure of nitrene radical complexes, emphasizes on their usefulness in the catalytic synthesis of various organic products, and highlights the important developments in the field. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  17. Catalytic combustion in small wood burning appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oravainen, H. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    There is over a million hand fired small heating appliances in Finland where about 5,4 million cubic meters of wood fuel is used. Combustion in such heating appliances is a batch-type process. In early stages of combustion when volatiles are burned, the formation of carbon monoxide (CO) and other combustible gases are difficult to avoid when using fuels that have high volatile matter content. Harmful emissions are formed mostly after each fuel adding but also during char burnout period. When the CO-content in flue gases is, say over 0.5 %, also other harmful emissions will be formed. Methane (CH{sub 4}) and other hydrocarbons are released and the amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)-compounds can be remarkable. Some PAH-compounds are very carcinogenic. It has been estimated that in Finland even more than 90 % of hydrocarbon and PAH emissions are due to small scale wood combustion. Emissions from transportation is excluded from these figures. That is why wood combustion has a net effect on greenhouse gas phenomena. For example carbon monoxide emissions from small scale wood combustion are two fold compared to that of energy production in power plants. Methane emission is of the same order as emission from transportation and seven fold compared with those of energy production. Emissions from small heating appliances can be reduced by developing the combustion techniques, but also by using other means, for example catalytic converters. In certain stages of the batch combustion, temperature is not high enough, gas mixing is not good enough and residence time is too short for complete combustion. When placed to a suitable place inside a heating appliance, a catalytic converter can oxidize unburned gases in the flue gas into compounds that are not harmful to the environment. (3 refs.)

  18. [Chromatographic and spectroscopic characterization of phycocyanin and its subunits purified from Anabaena variabilis CCC421].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakdar, N; Sakha, S; Pabbi, S

    2014-01-01

    Phycocyanin, a high value pigment was purified from diazotrophic cyanobacteria Anabaena variabilis CCC421 using a strategy involving ammonium sulfate precipitation, dialysis and anion exchange chromatography using DEAE-cellulose column. 36% phycocyanin with a purity of 2.75 was recovered finally after anion exchange chromatography. Purified phycocyanin was found to contain 2 subunits of 17 and 18 kDa which were identified as a-and (3 subunits by SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOE HPLC method using a C5 column coupled with fluorescence or photodiode-based detection was also developed to separate and detect the A. variabilis CCC421 phycocyanin subunits. The fluorescence method was more sensitive than photodiode one. The purified phycocyanin from A. variabilis CCC421 as well as its subunits was characterized with respect to absorption and IR spectra. Spectral characterization of the subunits revealed that alpha and beta subunits contained one and two phycocyanobilin groups as chromophores, respectively.

  19. Phylogenetic position of Placozoa based on large subunit (LSU and small subunit (SSU rRNA genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Britto da Silva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The phylum Placozoa, represented by its single species Trichoplax adhaerens, has always been considered one of the most basal animal clades due to its low morphological complexity. However, despite its importance, the phylogenetic position of the Placozoa remains uncertain, as does the relationships between the basal metazoans. We sequenced the nearly complete large subunit (LSU of the T. adhaerens rRNA gene together with the small subunit (SSU rRNA and used several methods to infer the phylogenetic position of Placozoa and the relationships between the basal animal phyla. The phylogenetic trees obtained from the LSU, SSU and SSU + LSU datasets support monophyly of all basal metazoan phyla, except the Porifera. However, the relationships between all these phyla were not consistently resolved due to a strong conflict between the LSU and SSU phylogenetic signals. The hypotheses that Placozoa is a derived Cnidaria or the most basal metazoan were not supported by our data. Moreover, our analyses suggests that Placozoa is most likely the sister group of Cnidaria and/or Bilateria.

  20. The NH2-terminal php domain of the alpha subunit of the Escherichia coli replicase binds the epsilon proofreading subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Anna; McHenry, Charles S

    2006-05-05

    The alpha subunit of the replicase of all bacteria contains a php domain, initially identified by its similarity to histidinol phosphatase but of otherwise unknown function (Aravind, L., and Koonin, E. V. (1998) Nucleic Acids Res. 26, 3746-3752). Deletion of 60 residues from the NH2 terminus of the alpha php domain destroys epsilon binding. The minimal 255-residue php domain, estimated by sequence alignment with homolog YcdX, is insufficient for epsilon binding. However, a 320-residue segment including sequences that immediately precede the polymerase domain binds epsilon with the same affinity as the 1160-residue full-length alpha subunit. A subset of mutations of a conserved acidic residue (Asp43 in Escherichia coli alpha) present in the php domain of all bacterial replicases resulted in defects in epsilon binding. Using sequence alignments, we show that the prototypical gram+ Pol C, which contains the polymerase and proofreading activities within the same polypeptide chain, has an epsilon-like sequence inserted in a surface loop near the center of the homologous YcdX protein. These findings suggest that the php domain serves as a platform to enable coordination of proofreading and polymerase activities during chromosomal replication.