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Sample records for catalytic membrane reactor

  1. Novel Catalytic Membrane Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart Nemser, PhD

    2010-10-01

    There are many industrial catalytic organic reversible reactions with amines or alcohols that have water as one of the products. Many of these reactions are homogeneously catalyzed. In all cases removal of water facilitates the reaction and produces more of the desired chemical product. By shifting the reaction to right we produce more chemical product with little or no additional capital investment. Many of these reactions can also relate to bioprocesses. Given the large number of water-organic compound separations achievable and the ability of the Compact Membrane Systems, Inc. (CMS) perfluoro membranes to withstand these harsh operating conditions, this is an ideal demonstration system for the water-of-reaction removal using a membrane reactor. Enhanced reaction synthesis is consistent with the DOE objective to lower the energy intensity of U.S. industry 25% by 2017 in accord with the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and to improve the United States manufacturing competitiveness. The objective of this program is to develop the platform technology for enhancing homogeneous catalytic chemical syntheses.

  2. Novel Catalytic Membrane Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-02-01

    This factsheet describes a research project that will focus on the development and application of nonporous high gas flux perfluoro membranes with high temperature rating and excellent chemical resistance.

  3. Determination of the gas-to-membrane mass transfer coefficient in a catalytic membrane reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldsink, J.W.; Versteeg, G.F.; Swaaij, W.P.M. van

    1995-01-01

    A novel method to determine the external mass transfer coefficient in catalytic membrane reactors (Sloot et al., 1992a, b) was presented in this study. In a catalytically active membrane reactor, in which a very fast reaction occurs, the external transfer coefficient can conveniently be measured by

  4. Oxyfuel combustion using a catalytic ceramic membrane reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Xiaoyao; Li, K. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, University of London, South Kensington, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Thursfield, A.; Metcalfe, I.S. [School of Chemical Engineering and Advanced Materials, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2008-02-29

    Membrane catalytic combustion (MCC) is an environmentally friendly technique for heat and power generation from methane. This work demonstrates the performances of a MCC perovskite hollow fibre membrane reactor for the catalytic combustion of methane. The ionic-electronic La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{alpha}} (LSCF6428) mixed conductor, in the form of an oxygen-permeable hollow fibre membrane, has been prepared successfully by means of a phase-inversion spinning/sintering technique. For this process polyethersulfone (PESf) was used as a binder, N-methyl-2-pyrrollidone (NMP) as solvent and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP, K16-18) as an additive. With the prepared LSCF6428 hollow fibre membranes packed with catalyst, hollow fibre membrane reactors (HFMRs) have been assembled to perform the catalytic combustion of methane. A simple mathematical model that combines the local oxygen permeation rate with approximate catalytic reaction kinetics has been developed and can be used to predict the performance of the HFMRs for methane combustion. The effects of operating temperature and methane and air feed flow rates on the performance of the HFMR have been investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Both the methane conversion and oxygen permeation rate can be improved by means of coating platinum on the air side of the hollow fibre membranes. (author)

  5. Hydrogenation of Maltose in Catalytic Membrane Reactor for Maltitol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makertihartha I.G.B.N.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Maltitol is one of the low-calorie sweeteners which has a major role in food industries. Due to its characteristics of comparable sweetness level to sucrose, maltitol can be a suitable sugar replacement. In this work, catalytic membrane reactor (CMR was examined in maltitol production through hydrogenation of maltose. Commercial ceramic membrane impregnated with Kalcat 8030 Nickel was used as the CMR. The reaction was conducted at a batch mode operation, 95 to 110°C of temperature, and 5 to 8 bar of pressure. In the range of working conditions used in this study, up to 47% conversion was achieved. The reaction conversion was significantly affected by temperature and pressure. Results of this preliminary study indicated that CMR can be used for hydrogenation of maltose with good performance under a relatively low operating pressure.

  6. Oxygen transport membrane system and method for transferring heat to catalytic/process reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Sean M; Kromer, Brian R; Litwin, Michael M; Rosen, Lee J; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie R; Kosowski, Lawrence W; Robinson, Charles

    2014-01-07

    A method and apparatus for producing heat used in a synthesis gas production is provided. The disclosed method and apparatus include a plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements adapted to separate oxygen from an oxygen containing stream contacting the retentate side of the membrane elements. The permeated oxygen is combusted with a hydrogen containing synthesis gas stream contacting the permeate side of the tubular oxygen transport membrane elements thereby generating a reaction product stream and radiant heat. The present method and apparatus also includes at least one catalytic reactor containing a catalyst to promote the stream reforming reaction wherein the catalytic reactor is surrounded by the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements. The view factor between the catalytic reactor and the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements radiating heat to the catalytic reactor is greater than or equal to 0.5.

  7. Oxygen transport membrane system and method for transferring heat to catalytic/process reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Sean M.; Kromer, Brian R.; Litwin, Michael M.; Rosen, Lee J.; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie R.; Kosowski, Lawrence W.; Robinson, Charles

    2016-01-19

    A method and apparatus for producing heat used in a synthesis gas production process is provided. The disclosed method and apparatus include a plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements adapted to separate oxygen from an oxygen containing stream contacting the retentate side of the membrane elements. The permeated oxygen is combusted with a hydrogen containing synthesis gas stream contacting the permeate side of the tubular oxygen transport membrane elements thereby generating a reaction product stream and radiant heat. The present method and apparatus also includes at least one catalytic reactor containing a catalyst to promote the steam reforming reaction wherein the catalytic reactor is surrounded by the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements. The view factor between the catalytic reactor and the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements radiating heat to the catalytic reactor is greater than or equal to 0.5

  8. Computer-aided modeling framework – a generic modeling template for catalytic membrane fixed bed reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedorova, Marina; Sin, Gürkan; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    and users to generate and test models systematically, efficiently and reliably. In this way, development of products and processes can be faster, cheaper and very efficient. In this contribution, as part of the framework a generic modeling template for the systematic derivation of problem specific catalytic...... membrane fixed bed models is developed. The application of the modeling template is highlighted with a case study related to the modeling of a catalytic membrane reactor coupling dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene with hydrogenation of nitrobenzene....

  9. A reverse flow catalytic membrane reactor for the production of syngas: an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J.; Bekink, G.J.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper experimental results are presented for a demonstration unit of a recently proposed novel integrated reactor concept (Smit et. al., 2005) for the partial oxidation of natural gas to syngas (POM), namely a Reverse Flow Catalytic Membrane Reactor (RFCMR). Natural gas has great potential

  10. Catalytic membrane reactor for tritium extraction system from He purge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santucci, Alessia; Incelli, Marco; Sansovini, Mirko; Tosti, Silvano

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • In the HCBB blanket, the produced tritium is recovered by purging with helium; membrane technologies are able to separate tritium from helium. • The paper presents the results of two experimental campaigns. • In the first, a Pd–Ag diffuser for hydrogen separation is tested at several operating conditions. • In the second, the ability of a Pd–Ag membrane reactor for water decontamination is assessed by performing isotopic swamping and water gas shift reactions. - Abstract: In the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) blanket concept, the produced tritium is recovered purging the breeder with helium at low pressure, thus a tritium extraction system (TES) is foreseen to separate the produced tritium (which contains impurities like water) from the helium gas purge. Several R&D activities are running in parallel to experimentally identify most promising TES technologies: particularly, Pd-based membrane reactors (MR) are under investigation because of their large hydrogen selectivity, continuous operation capability, reliability and compactness. The construction and operation under DEMO relevant conditions (that presently foresee a He purge flow rate of about 10,000 Nm 3 /h and a H 2 /He ratio of 0.1%) of a medium scale MR is scheduled for next year, while presently preliminary experiments on a small scale reactor are performed to identify most suitable operative conditions and catalyst materials. This work presents the results of an experimental campaign carried out on a Pd-based membrane aimed at measuring the capability of this device in separating hydrogen from the helium. Many operative conditions have been investigated by considering different He/H 2 feed flow ratios, several lumen pressures and reactor temperatures. Moreover, the performances of a membrane reactor (composed of a Pd–Ag tube having a wall thickness of about 113 μm, length 500 mm and diameter 10 mm) in processing the water contained in the purge gas have been measured by using

  11. Catalytic membrane reactor for tritium extraction system from He purge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santucci, Alessia, E-mail: alessia.santucci@enea.it [ENEA for EUROfusion, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Incelli, Marco [ENEA for EUROfusion, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); DEIM, University of Tuscia, Via del Paradiso 47, 01100 Viterbo (Italy); Sansovini, Mirko; Tosti, Silvano [ENEA for EUROfusion, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • In the HCBB blanket, the produced tritium is recovered by purging with helium; membrane technologies are able to separate tritium from helium. • The paper presents the results of two experimental campaigns. • In the first, a Pd–Ag diffuser for hydrogen separation is tested at several operating conditions. • In the second, the ability of a Pd–Ag membrane reactor for water decontamination is assessed by performing isotopic swamping and water gas shift reactions. - Abstract: In the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) blanket concept, the produced tritium is recovered purging the breeder with helium at low pressure, thus a tritium extraction system (TES) is foreseen to separate the produced tritium (which contains impurities like water) from the helium gas purge. Several R&D activities are running in parallel to experimentally identify most promising TES technologies: particularly, Pd-based membrane reactors (MR) are under investigation because of their large hydrogen selectivity, continuous operation capability, reliability and compactness. The construction and operation under DEMO relevant conditions (that presently foresee a He purge flow rate of about 10,000 Nm{sup 3}/h and a H{sub 2}/He ratio of 0.1%) of a medium scale MR is scheduled for next year, while presently preliminary experiments on a small scale reactor are performed to identify most suitable operative conditions and catalyst materials. This work presents the results of an experimental campaign carried out on a Pd-based membrane aimed at measuring the capability of this device in separating hydrogen from the helium. Many operative conditions have been investigated by considering different He/H{sub 2} feed flow ratios, several lumen pressures and reactor temperatures. Moreover, the performances of a membrane reactor (composed of a Pd–Ag tube having a wall thickness of about 113 μm, length 500 mm and diameter 10 mm) in processing the water contained in the purge gas have been

  12. On the study of catalytic membrane reactor for water detritiation: Modeling approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liger, Karine, E-mail: karine.liger@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DTN/SMTA/LIPC Cadarache, Saint Paul-lez-Durance F-13108 (France); Mascarade, Jérémy [CEA, DEN, DTN/SMTA/LIPC Cadarache, Saint Paul-lez-Durance F-13108 (France); Joulia, Xavier; Meyer, Xuan-Mi [Université de Toulouse, INPT, UPS, Laboratoire de Génie Chimique, 4, Allée Emile Monso, Toulouse F-31030 (France); CNRS, Laboratoire de Génie Chimique, Toulouse F-31030 (France); Troulay, Michèle; Perrais, Christophe [CEA, DEN, DTN/SMTA/LIPC Cadarache, Saint Paul-lez-Durance F-13108 (France)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Experimental results for the conversion of tritiated water (using deuterium as a simulant of tritium) by means of a catalytic membrane reactor in view of tritium recovery. • Phenomenological 2D model to represent catalytic membrane reactor behavior including the determination of the compositions of gaseous effluents. • Good agreement between the simulation results and experimental measurements performed on the dedicated facility. • Explanation of the unexpected behavior of the catalytic membrane reactor by the modeling results and in particular the gas composition estimation. - Abstract: In the framework of tritium recovery from tritiated water, efficiency of packed bed membrane reactors have been successfully demonstrated. Thanks to protium isotope swamping, tritium bonded water can be recovered under the valuable Q{sub 2} form (Q = H, D or T) by means of isotope exchange reactions occurring on catalyst surface. The use of permselective Pd-based membrane allows withdrawal of reactions products all along the reactor, and thus limits reverse reaction rate to the benefit of the direct one (shift effect). The reactions kinetics, which are still little known or unknown, are generally assumed to be largely greater than the permeation ones so that thermodynamic equilibriums of isotope exchange reactions are generally assumed. This paper proposes a new phenomenological 2D model to represent catalytic membrane reactor behavior with the determination of gas effluents compositions. A good agreement was obtained between the simulation results and experimental measurements performed on a dedicated facility. Furthermore, the gas composition estimation permits to interpret unexpected behavior of the catalytic membrane reactor. In the next future, further sensitivity analysis will be performed to determine the limits of the model and a kinetics study will be conducted to assess the thermodynamic equilibrium of reactions.

  13. On the study of catalytic membrane reactor for water detritiation: Modeling approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liger, Karine; Mascarade, Jérémy; Joulia, Xavier; Meyer, Xuan-Mi; Troulay, Michèle; Perrais, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental results for the conversion of tritiated water (using deuterium as a simulant of tritium) by means of a catalytic membrane reactor in view of tritium recovery. • Phenomenological 2D model to represent catalytic membrane reactor behavior including the determination of the compositions of gaseous effluents. • Good agreement between the simulation results and experimental measurements performed on the dedicated facility. • Explanation of the unexpected behavior of the catalytic membrane reactor by the modeling results and in particular the gas composition estimation. - Abstract: In the framework of tritium recovery from tritiated water, efficiency of packed bed membrane reactors have been successfully demonstrated. Thanks to protium isotope swamping, tritium bonded water can be recovered under the valuable Q_2 form (Q = H, D or T) by means of isotope exchange reactions occurring on catalyst surface. The use of permselective Pd-based membrane allows withdrawal of reactions products all along the reactor, and thus limits reverse reaction rate to the benefit of the direct one (shift effect). The reactions kinetics, which are still little known or unknown, are generally assumed to be largely greater than the permeation ones so that thermodynamic equilibriums of isotope exchange reactions are generally assumed. This paper proposes a new phenomenological 2D model to represent catalytic membrane reactor behavior with the determination of gas effluents compositions. A good agreement was obtained between the simulation results and experimental measurements performed on a dedicated facility. Furthermore, the gas composition estimation permits to interpret unexpected behavior of the catalytic membrane reactor. In the next future, further sensitivity analysis will be performed to determine the limits of the model and a kinetics study will be conducted to assess the thermodynamic equilibrium of reactions.

  14. Feasibility study of a reverse flow catalytic membrane reactor with porous membranes for the production of syngas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a novel reverse flow catalytic membrane reactor (RFCMR) is proposed for the partial oxidation of CH4 to syngas. The feasibility of the RFCMR concept has been investigated for industrial conditions on basis of a simulation study employing a reactor model, which includes a detailed

  15. A study of the isobutane dehydrogenation in a porous membrane catalytic reactor: design, use and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casanave, D

    1996-01-26

    The aim of this study was to set up and model a catalytic fixed-bed membrane reactor for the isobutane dehydrogenation. The catalyst, developed at Catalysis Research Institute (IRC), was a silicalite-supported Pt-based catalyst. Their catalytic performances (activity, selectivity, stability) where found better adapted to the membrane reactor, when compared with commercial Pt or Cr based catalysts. The kinetic study of the reaction has been performed in a differential reactor and led to the determination of a kinetic law, suitable when the catalyst is used near thermodynamic equilibrium. The mass transfer mechanisms were determined in meso-porous and microporous membranes through both permeability and gas mixtures (iC{sub 4}/H{sub 2}/N{sub 2}) separation measurements. For the meso-porous {gamma}-alumina, the mass transfer is ensured by a Knudsen diffusion mechanism which can compete with surface diffusion for condensable gas like isobutane. The resulting permselectivity H{sub 2}/iC4 of this membrane is low ({approx} 4). For the microporous zeolite membrane, molecular sieving occurs due to steric hindrance, leading to higher permselectivity {approx}14. Catalyst/membrane associations were compared in terms of isobutane dehydrogenation performances, for both types of membranes (meso-porous and microporous) and for two different reactor configurations (co-current and counter-current sweep gas flow). The best experimental results were obtained with the zeolite membrane, when sweeping the outer compartment in a co-current flow. The equilibrium displacement observed with the {gamma}-alumina membrane was lower and mainly due to a dilution effect of the reaction mixture by the sweep gas. A mathematical model was developed, which correctly describes all the experimental results obtained with the zeolite membrane, when the co-current mode is used. (Abstract Truncated)

  16. Catalytic combustion of propane in a membrane reactor with separate feed of reactants—II. Operation in presence of trans-membrane pressure gradients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saracco, Guido; Veldsink, Jan Willem; Versteeg, Geert F.; Swaaij, Wim P.M. van

    1995-01-01

    This is the second communication of a series dealing with an experimental and modelling study on propane catalytic combustion in a membrane reactor with separate feed of reactants. In paper I the behaviour of the reactor in the absence of trans-membrane pressure gradients was presented and

  17. Catalytic membrane reactors for tritium recovery from tritiated water in the ITER fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosti, S.; Violante, V.; Basile, A.; Chiappetta, G.; Castelli, S.; De Francesco, M.; Scaglione, S.; Sarto, F.

    2000-01-01

    Palladium and palladium-silver permeators have been obtained by coating porous ceramic tubes with a thin metal layer. Three coating techniques have been studied and characterized: chemical electroless deposition (PdAg film thickness of 10 μm), ion sputtering (about 1 μm) and rolling of thin metal sheets (50 μm). The Pd-ceramic membranes have been used for manufacturing catalytic membrane reactors (CMR) for hydrogen and its isotopes recovering and purifying. These composite membranes and the CMR have been studied and developed for a closed-loop process with reference to the design requirements of the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER) blanket tritium recovery system in the enhanced performance phase of operation. The membranes and CMR have been tested in a pilot plant equipped with temperature, pressure and flow-rate on-line measuring and controlling devices. The conversion value for the water gas shift reaction in the CMR has been measured close to 100% (always above the equilibrium one, 80% at 350 deg. C): the effect of the membrane is very clear since the reaction is moved towards the products because of the continuous hydrogen separation. The rolled thin film membranes have separated the hydrogen from other gases with a complete selectivity and exhibited a slightly larger mass transfer resistance with respect to the electroless membranes. Preliminary tests on the sputtered membranes have also been carried out with a promising performance. Considerations on the use of different palladium alloy in order to improve the performances of the membranes in terms of permeation flux and mechanical strength, such as palladium/yttrium, are also reported

  18. Experimental demonstration of the reverse flow catalytic membrane reactor concept for energy efficient syngas production. Part 2: Model development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J.; Bekink, G.J.; Sint Annaland, van M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    In this contribution the technical feasibility of the reverse flow catalytic membrane reactor (RFCMR) concept with porous membranes for energy efficient syngas production is investigated. In earlier work an experimental proof of principle was already provided [Smit, J., Bekink, G.J., van Sint

  19. Production of hydrogen from bio-ethanol in catalytic membrane reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gernot, E.; Aupretre, F.; Deschamps, A.; Etievant, C.; Epron, F.; Marecot, P.; Duprez, D.

    2006-01-01

    Production of hydrogen from renewable energy sources offers a great potential for CO 2 emission reduction, responsible for global warming. Among renewable energies, liquid biofuels are very convenient hydrogen carriers for decentralized applications such as micro-cogeneration and transports. Ethanol, produced from sugar plants and cereals, allows a reduction of more than 60% of CO 2 emissions in comparison to gasoline. BIOSTAR is an R and D project, co-funded by the French Agency for Environment and Energy Management (ADEME) which aims at developing an efficient source of hydrogen from bio-ethanol, suitable for proton exchange membrane fuel cell systems. The objectives are to obtain, through catalytic process at medium temperature range, an efficient conversion of bio-ethanol into pure hydrogen directly usable for PEMFC. CETH has developed a catalytic membrane reformer (CMR), based on a patented technology, integrating a steam reforming catalyst as well as a combustion catalyst. Both catalysts have been developed and optimized for membrane reactor in partnership with the University of Poitiers. The composite metallic membrane developed by CETH allows hydrogen extraction near the hydrogen production sites, which enhances both efficiency and compactness. (authors)

  20. Elaboration by tape-casting and co-sintering of multilayer catalytic membrane reactor- performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julian, A.

    2008-12-01

    This research deals with the increasing interest of the conversion of natural gas into liquid fuels (diesel, kerosene) using the Gas To Liquid (GTL) process. Within this context, Catalytic Membrane-based Reactors (CMR) would allow an improvement of the process efficiency and a reduction of investment and production costs with respect to the present technologies. They allow performing the separation of oxygen from air, and the conversion of natural gas into synthesis gas within a single step. After having highlighted the economical and technological advantages of using a ceramic membrane for the production of syngas (H 2 + CO 2 ), the author describes the protocols of synthesis of powders selected for the dense membrane and the porous support, and their physical characteristics. The obtained powders are then adapted to the tape-casting forming process. Graded-composition multilayer structures and microstructure are then elaborated by co-sintering. Performances in terms of membrane oxygen flows are presented. Mechanisms limiting the oxygen flow are discussed in order to propose ways of improving membrane performances. The limits of the studied system are defined in terms of elastic properties, and optimization ways are proposed for the dense membrane material composition in terms of mechanical properties and performance in oxygen semi-permeation

  1. Dynamic simulation of pure hydrogen production via ethanol steam reforming in a catalytic membrane reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedayati, Ali; Le Corre, Olivier; Lacarrière, Bruno; Llorca, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol steam reforming (ESR) was performed over Pd-Rh/CeO 2 catalyst in a catalytic membrane reactor (CMR) as a reformer unit for production of fuel cell grade pure hydrogen. Experiments were performed at 923 K, 6–10 bar, and fuel flow rates of 50–200 μl/min using a mixture of ethanol and distilled water with steam to carbon ratio of 3. A static model for the catalytic zone was derived from the Arrhenius law to calculate the total molar production rates of ESR products, i.e. CO, CO 2 , CH 4 , H 2 , and H 2 O in the catalytic zone of the CMR (coefficient of determination R 2  = 0.993). The pure hydrogen production rate at steady state conditions was modeled by means of a static model based on the Sieverts' law. Finally, a dynamic model was developed under ideal gas law assumptions to simulate the dynamics of pure hydrogen production rate in the case of the fuel flow rate or the operating pressure set point adjustment (transient state) at isothermal conditions. The simulation of fuel flow rate change dynamics was more essential compared to the pressure change one, as the system responded much faster to such an adjustment. The results of the dynamic simulation fitted very well to the experimental values at P = 7–10 bar, which proved the robustness of the simulation based on the Sieverts' law. The simulation presented in this work is similar to the hydrogen flow rate adjustments needed to set the electrical load of a fuel cell, when fed online by the pure hydrogen generating reformer studied. - Highlights: • Ethanol steam reforming (ESR) experiments were performed in a Pd-Ag membrane reactor. • The model of the catalytic zone of the reactor was derived from the Arrhenius law. • The permeation zone (membrane) was modeled based on the Sieverts' law. • The Sieverts' law model showed good results for the range of P = 7–10 bar. • Pressure and fuel flow rate adjustments were considered for dynamic simulation.

  2. Catalytic combustion of propane in a membrane reactor with separate feed of reactants—I. Operation in absence of trans-membrane pressure gradients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saracco, Guido; Veldsink, Jan Willem; Versteeg, Geert F.; Swaaij, Wim P.M. van

    1995-01-01

    A pilot plant study on propane catalytic combustion in a membrane reactor with separate reactant feeds is presented. The membrane consisted of a porous alumina tube activated by insertion into its pores of a Pt/γ-Al2O3 catalyst. The role of reactants concentration and of the feed flow rates were

  3. Modeling and simulation of ammonia removal from purge gases of ammonia plants using a catalytic Pd-Ag membrane reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimpour, M.R.; Asgari, A.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, the removal of ammonia from synthesis purge gas of an ammonia plant has been investigated. Since the ammonia decomposition is thermodynamically limited, a membrane reactor is used for complete decomposition. A double pipe catalytic membrane reactor is used to remove ammonia from purge gas. The purge gas is flowing in the reaction side and is converted to hydrogen and nitrogen over nickel-alumina catalyst. The hydrogen is transferred through the Pd-Ag membrane of tube side to the shell side. A mathematical model including conservation of mass in the tube and shell side of reactor is proposed. The proposed model was solved numerically and the effects of different parameters on the rector performance were investigated. The effects of pressure, temperature, flow rate (sweep ratio), membrane thickness and reactor diameter have been investigated in the present study. Increasing ammonia conversion was observed by raising the temperature, sweep ratio and reducing membrane thickness. When the pressure increases, the decomposition is gone toward completion but, at low pressure the ammonia conversion in the outset of reactor is higher than other pressures, but complete destruction of the ammonia cannot be achieved. The proposed model can be used for design of an industrial catalytic membrane reactor for removal of ammonia from ammonia plant and reducing NO x emissions

  4. Phenomenological modeling and study of a catalytic membrane reactor for water detritiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascarade, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Tritium is produced in light and heavy water reactor fuel by ternary fission or neutron activation. This by-product is used as fuel in fusion fuel reactors such as JET in Culham or ITER in Cadarache (France). The growing interest of this research area will make the tritium fluxes increase; it is then worth addressing the question of its future whether it will be used or flushed out from liquid and gaseous effluents or waste. This thesis studies the recovery of tritium as fuel for fusion machines by means of packed bed membrane reactor (PBMR). Such a reactor combines catalytic conversion of tritiated water thanks to isotope exchange with hydrogen according to the reversible reaction Q 2 O+H 2 ↔H 2 O+Q 2 (Q=H,D or T) and selective permeation of Q 2 through Pd-based membrane. In fact, palladium has the ability to bond with hydrogen isotopes, creating a selective permeation barrier. In the PBMR, thanks to the reaction products withdrawal, these permeation fluxes drive the heavy water conversion rate, to higher values than those reached in conventional fixed bed reactors (Le Chatelier's law). In order to study PBMRs, the CEA has built a test bench, using deuterium instead of tritium, allowing the analysis of their conversion and separation performances at the laboratory scale. An in-house method has been developed to determine simultaneously hydrogen and water isotopologues content by mass spectrometer analysis. It was experimentally shown that the activity of Ni-based catalyst used in this study was sufficient to allow the isotope exchange reactions to reach their thermodynamic equilibrium in a very short time. In addition, hydrogen permeation flux was shown to follow a Richardson's law. Sensitivity studies performed on the PBMR's main operating parameters revealed that its global performance (i.e. de-deuteration factor) increases with the temperature, the transmembrane pressure difference, the sweep gas flow rate and the residence time in the catalyst

  5. Effect of UV on De-NOx performance and microbial community of a hybrid catalytic membrane biofilm reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhouyang; Huang, Zhensha; He, Yiming; Xiao, Xiaoliang; Wei, Zaishan

    2018-02-01

    The hybrid membrane catalytic biofilm reactor provides a new way of flue gas denitration. However, the effects of UV on denitrification performance, microbial community and microbial nitrogen metabolism are still unknown. In this study, the effects of UV on deNO x performance, nitrification and denitrification, microbial community and microbial nitrogen metabolism of a bench scale N-TiO2/PSF hybrid catalytic membrane biofilm reactor (HCMBR) were evaluated. The change from nature light to UV in the HCMBR leads to the fall of NO removal efficiency of HCMBR from 92.8% to 81.8%. UV affected the microbial community structure, but did not change microbial nitrogen metabolism, as shown by metagenomics sequencing method. Some dominant phyla, such as Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Alphaproteobacteria, increased in abundance, whereas others, such as Proteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria, decreased. There were nitrification, denitrification, nitrogen fixation, and organic nitrogen metabolism in the HCMBR.

  6. A Catalytically Active Membrane Reactor for Fast, Highly Exothermic, Heterogeneous Gas Reactions. A Pilot Plant Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldsink, Jan W.; Versteeg, Geert F.; Swaaij, Wim P.M. van

    1995-01-01

    Membrane reactors have been frequently studied because of their ability to combine chemical activity and separation properties into one device. Due to their thermal stability and mechanical strength, ceramic membranes are preferred over polymeric ones, but small transmembrane fluxes obstruct a

  7. A catalytically membrane reactor for fast, highly exothermic, heterogeneous gas reactions : a pilot plant study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldsink, J.W.; Veldsink, J.W.; Versteeg, Geert; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1995-01-01

    Membrane reactors have been frequently studied because of their ability to combine chemical activity and separation properties into one device. Due to their thermal stability and mechanical strength, ceramic membranes are preferred over polymeric ones, but small transmembrane fluxes obstruct a

  8. Catalytic nanoporous membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellin, Michael J; Hryn, John N; Elam, Jeffrey W

    2013-08-27

    A nanoporous catalytic membrane which displays several unique features Including pores which can go through the entire thickness of the membrane. The membrane has a higher catalytic and product selectivity than conventional catalysts. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes serve as the catalyst substrate. This substrate is then subjected to Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), which allows the controlled narrowing of the pores from 40 nm to 10 nm in the substrate by deposition of a preparatory material. Subsequent deposition of a catalytic layer on the inner surfaces of the pores reduces pore sizes to less than 10 nm and allows for a higher degree of reaction selectivity. The small pore sizes allow control over which molecules enter the pores, and the flow-through feature can allow for partial oxidation of reactant species as opposed to complete oxidation. A nanoporous separation membrane, produced by ALD is also provided for use in gaseous and liquid separations. The membrane has a high flow rate of material with 100% selectivity. Also provided is a method for producing a catalytic membrane having flow-through pores and discreet catalytic clusters adhering to the inside surfaces of the pores.

  9. Influence of geometrical and operational parameters on the performance of porous catalytic membrane reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aran, H.C.; Klooster, H.J.G.; Jani, J.M.; Wessling, Matthias; Lefferts, Leonardus; Lammertink, Rob G.H.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, porous membrane reactors with various characteristic length (inner diameter), controllable catalyst support thickness, active catalyst surface area and tunable wetting properties are described for heterogeneously catalyzed gas¿liquid¿solid (G¿L¿S) reactions. We developed porous

  10. Pretreated Landfill Gas Conversion Process via a Catalytic Membrane Reactor for Renewable Combined Fuel Cell-Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe Ziaka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new landfill gas-based reforming catalytic processing system for the conversion of gaseous hydrocarbons, such as incoming methane to hydrogen and carbon oxide mixtures, is described and analyzed. The exit synthesis gas (syn-gas is fed to power effectively high-temperature fuel cells such as SOFC types for combined efficient electricity generation. The current research work is also referred on the description and design aspects of permreactors (permeable reformers carrying the same type of landfill gas-reforming reactions. Membrane reactors is a new technology that can be applied efficiently in such systems. Membrane reactors seem to perform better than the nonmembrane traditional reactors. The aim of this research includes turnkey system and process development for the landfill-based power generation and fuel cell industries. Also, a discussion of the efficient utilization of landfill and waste type resources for combined green-type/renewable power generation with increased processing capacity and efficiency via fuel cell systems is taking place. Moreover, pollution reduction is an additional design consideration in the current catalytic processors fuel cell cycles.

  11. Experimental demonstration of the reverse flow catalytic membrane reactor concept for energy efficient syngas production. Part 1: Influence of operating conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J.; Bekink, G.J.; Sint Annaland, van M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    In this contribution the technical feasibility of the reverse flow catalytic membrane reactor (RFCMR) concept with porous membranes for energy efficient syngas production is investigated. In earlier work an experimental proof of principle was already provided [Smit, J., Bekink, G.J., van Sint

  12. Environmentally benign synthesis of amides and ureas via catalytic dehydrogenation coupling of volatile alcohols and amines in a Pd-Ag membrane reactor

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Tao

    2016-05-31

    In this study, we report the direct synthesis of amides and ureas via the catalytic dehydrogenation of volatile alcohols and amines using the Milstein catalyst in a Pd-Ag/ceramic membrane reactor. A series of amides and ureas, which could not be synthesized in an open system by catalytic dehydrogenation coupling, were obtained in moderate to high yields via catalytic dehydrogenation of volatile alcohols and amines. This process could be monitored by the hydrogen produced. Compared to the traditional method of condensation, this catalytic system avoids the stoichiometric pre-activation or in situ activation of reagents, and is a much cleaner process with high atom economy. This methodology, only possible by employing the Pd-Ag/ceramic membrane reactor, not only provides a new environmentally benign synthetic approach of amides and ureas, but is also a potential method for hydrogen storage.

  13. Environmentally benign synthesis of amides and ureas via catalytic dehydrogenation coupling of volatile alcohols and amines in a Pd-Ag membrane reactor

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Tao; Zeng, Gaofeng; Lai, Zhiping; Huang, Kuo-Wei

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we report the direct synthesis of amides and ureas via the catalytic dehydrogenation of volatile alcohols and amines using the Milstein catalyst in a Pd-Ag/ceramic membrane reactor. A series of amides and ureas, which could not be synthesized in an open system by catalytic dehydrogenation coupling, were obtained in moderate to high yields via catalytic dehydrogenation of volatile alcohols and amines. This process could be monitored by the hydrogen produced. Compared to the traditional method of condensation, this catalytic system avoids the stoichiometric pre-activation or in situ activation of reagents, and is a much cleaner process with high atom economy. This methodology, only possible by employing the Pd-Ag/ceramic membrane reactor, not only provides a new environmentally benign synthetic approach of amides and ureas, but is also a potential method for hydrogen storage.

  14. Ceramic oxygen transport membrane array reactor and reforming method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Sean M.; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Robinson, Charles; Wilson, Jamie R.; Gonzalez, Javier E.; Doraswami, Uttam R.

    2016-11-08

    The invention relates to a commercially viable modular ceramic oxygen transport membrane reforming reactor configured using repeating assemblies of oxygen transport membrane tubes and catalytic reforming reactors.

  15. Hydrogen production by steam reforming of bio-alcohols. The use of conventional and membrane-assisted catalytic reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seelam, P. K.

    2013-11-01

    The energy consumption around the globe is on the rise due to the exponential population growth and urbanization. There is a need for alternative and non-conventional energy sources, which are CO{sub 2}-neutral, and a need to produce less or no environmental pollutants and to have high energy efficiency. One of the alternative approaches is hydrogen economy with the fuel cell (FC) technology which is forecasted to lead to a sustainable society. Hydrogen (H{sub 2}) is recognized as a potential fuel and clean energy carrier being at the same time a carbon-free element. Moreover, H{sub 2} is utilized in many processes in chemical, food, metallurgical, and pharmaceutical industry and it is also a valuable chemical in many reactions (e.g. refineries). Non-renewable resources have been the major feedstock for H{sub 2} production for many years. At present, {approx}50% of H{sub 2} is produced via catalytic steam reforming of natural gas followed by various down-stream purification steps to produce {approx}99.99% H{sub 2}, the process being highly energy intensive. Henceforth, bio-fuels like biomass derived alcohols (e.g. bio-ethanol and bio-glycerol), can be viable raw materials for the H{sub 2} production. In a membrane based reactor, the reaction and selective separation of H{sub 2} occur simultaneously in one unit, thus improving the overall reactor efficiency. The main motivation of this work is to produce H{sub 2} more efficiently and in an environmentally friendly way from bio-alcohols with a high H{sub 2} selectivity, purity and yield. In this thesis, the work was divided into two research areas, the first being the catalytic studies using metal decorated carbon nanotube (CNT) based catalysts in steam reforming of ethanol (SRE) at low temperatures (<450 deg C). The second part was the study of steam reforming (SR) and the water-gas-shift (WGS) reactions in a membrane reactor (MR) using dense and composite Pd-based membranes to produce high purity H{sub 2}. CNTs

  16. Engineering reactors for catalytic reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Extensive studies have been conducted to establish sound basis for design and engineering of reactors for practising such catalytic reactions and for realizing improvements in reactor performance. In this article, application of recent (and not so recent) developments in engineering reactors for catalytic reactions is ...

  17. Experimental, kinetic and numerical modeling of hydrogen production by catalytic reforming of crude ethanol over a commercial catalyst in packed bed tubular reactor and packed bed membrane reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboudheir, Ahmed; Akande, Abayomi; Idem, Raphael

    2006-01-01

    The demand for hydrogen energy has increased tremendously in recent years essentially because of the increase in the word energy consumption as well as recent developments in fuel cell technologies. The energy information administration has projected that world energy consumption will increase by 59% over the next two decades, from 1999 to 2020, in which the largest share is still dominated by fossil fuels (oil, natural gas and coal). Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions resulting from the combustion of these fossil fuels currently are estimated to account for three-fourth of human-caused CO 2 emissions worldwide. Greenhouse gas emission, including CO 2 , should be limited, as recommended at the Kyoto Conference, Japan, in December 1997. In this regard, hydrogen (H 2 ) has a significant future potential as an alternative fuel that can solve the problems of CO 2 emissions as well as the emissions of other air contaminants. One of the techniques to produce hydrogen is by reforming of hydrocarbons or biomass. Crude ethanol (a form of biomass, which essentially is fermentation broth) is easy to produce, is free of sulphur, has low toxicity, and is also safe to handle, transport and store. In addition, crude ethanol consists of oxygenated hydrocarbons, such as ethanol, lactic acid, glycerol, and maltose. These oxygenated hydrocarbons can be reformed completely to H 2 and CO 2 , the latter of which could be separated from H 2 by membrane technology. This provides for CO 2 capture for eventual storage or destruction. In the case of using crude ethanol, this will result in negative CO 2 , emissions. In this paper, we conducted experimental work on production of hydrogen by the catalytic reforming of crude ethanol over a commercial promoted Ni-based catalyst in a packed bed tubular reactor as well as a packed bed membrane reactor. As well, a rigorous numerical model was developed to simulate this process in both the catalytic packed bed tubular reactor and packed bed membrane

  18. A polygeneration from a dual-gas partial catalytic oxidation coupling with an oxygen-permeable membrane reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Yanhong; Huang, Yi; Gong, Minhui; Li, Wenying; Feng, Jie; Yi, Qun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new polygeneration system (PL-PCO-OPMR) to DME/methanol/power is proposed. • Exergeo-economic analysis is adopted to disclose the performance of systems. • Key technological conditions and parameters for PL-PCO-OPMR are optimized. • PL-PCO-OPMR shows high energy efficiency and low CO_2 emission. • PL-PCO-OPMR is an attractive way for high efficient and clean use of COG and CGG. - Abstract: Polygeneration system, typically involving chemicals/fuels and electricity co-production, is a promising technology for the sustainable development of energy and environment. In this study, a new polygeneration system based on coal and coke oven gas (COG) inputs for co-production of dimethyl ether (DME)/methanol and electricity is proposed. In the new system, an appropriate syngas for the synthesis of DME is from coal gasified gas (CGG) reforming of COG coupled with an oxygen-permeable membrane reactor, in which both COG and CGG reforming process and fuel combustion process are incorporated, which reduces exergy destruction in the whole reforming process. In order to obtain the best performance of CO_2 reduction, energy saving and economic benefit, the key operation parameters of the proposed process are analyzed and optimized. The new system is compared with the process based on CH_4/CO_2 dry reforming, in terms of exergy efficiency, exergy cost and CO_2 emissions. Through the new system, the exergy efficiency can be increased by 7.8%, the exergy cost can be reduced by 0.88 USD/GJ and the CO_2 emission can be reduced by 0.023 kg/MJ. These results suggest that the polygeneration system from CGG and COG partial catalytic oxidation coupling with an oxygen-permeable membrane reactor (PL-PCO-OPMR) would be a more attractive way for highly efficient and clean use of CGG and COG.

  19. Engineering reactors for catalytic reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    126, No. 2, March 2014, pp. 341–351. c Indian Academy of Sciences. ... enhancement was realized by catalyst design, appropriate choice of reactor, better injection and .... Gas–liquid and liquid–solid transport processes in catalytic reactors.5.

  20. The Enhancement of the Selectivity of Complex Reactions by a Catalytic Membrane Reactor -Ethylene Oxidation Over a Ag Catalyst Supported in a Ceramic Membrane-

    OpenAIRE

    馮, 臨; 小林, 正義; Lin, FENG; Masayoshi, KOBAYASHI

    1991-01-01

    This research demonstrated that, using a membrane reactor consisting of a tubular, microporous, glass-ceramic membrane, it is possible to achieve selective oxidation of ethylene to ethylene oxide with an Ag catalyst. In experiments which a reaction temperature range of 115 to 300℃ and a contact time of 1.5 to 5 seconds, resulting data illustrated the following characteristics of this membrane reactor : 1) compared with a classic tubular reactor, the selectivity of ethylene oxide is increased ...

  1. Catalytic reforming of methane to syngas in an oxygen-permeative membrane reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urano, Takeshi; Kubo, Keiko; Saito, Tomoyuki; Hitomi, Atsushi, E-mail: turano@jp.tdk.com [Materials and Process Development Center, TDK Corporation 570-2, Matsugashita, Minamihatori, Narita, Chiba 286-8588 (Japan)

    2011-05-15

    For fuel cell applications, partial oxidative reforming of methane to syngas, hydrogen and carbon monoxide, was performed via a dense oxygen-permeative ceramic membrane composed by both ionic and electronic conductive materials. The modification of Ni-based catalyst by noble metals was investigated to increase oxygen permeation flux and decrease carbon deposition during reforming reaction. The role of each component in catalyst was also discussed.

  2. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T [Huntington Beach, CA; Sahimi, Muhammad [Altadena, CA; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak [Richmond, CA; Harale, Aadesh [Los Angeles, CA; Park, Byoung-Gi [Yeosu, KR; Liu, Paul K. T. [Lafayette Hill, PA

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  3. Catalytic combustion of the retentate gas from a CO2/H2 separation membrane reactor for further CO2 enrichment and energy recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Kyung-Ran; Park, Jin-Woo; Lee, Sung-Wook; Hong, Sungkook; Lee, Chun-Boo; Oh, Duck-Kyu; Jin, Min-Ho; Lee, Dong-Wook; Park, Jong-Soo

    2015-01-01

    The CCR (catalytic combustion reaction) of the retentate gas, consisting of 90% CO 2 and 10% H 2 obtained from a CO 2 /H 2 separation membrane reactor, was investigated using a porous Ni metal catalyst in order to recover energy and further enrich CO 2 . A disc-shaped porous Ni metal catalyst, namely Al[0.1]/Ni, was prepared by a simple method and a compact MCR (micro-channel reactor) equipped with a catalyst plate was designed for the CCR. CO 2 and H 2 concentrations of 98.68% and 0.46%, respectively, were achieved at an operating temperature of 400 °C, GHSV (gas-hourly space velocity) of 50,000 h −1 and a H 2 /O 2 ratio (R/O) of 2 in the unit module. In the case of the MCR, a sheet of the Ni metal catalyst was easily installed along with the other metal plates and the concentration of CO 2 in the retentate gas increased up to 96.7%. The differences in temperatures measured before and after the CCR were 31 °C at the product outlet and 19 °C at the N 2 outlet in the MCR. The disc-shaped porous metal catalyst and MCR configuration used in this study exhibit potential advantages, such as high thermal transfer resulting in improved energy recovery rate, simple catalyst preparation, and easy installation of the catalyst in the MCR. - Highlights: • The catalytic combustion of a retentate gas obtained from the H 2 /CO 2 separation membrane. • A disc-shaped porous nickel metal catalyst and a micro-channel reactor for catalytic hydrogen combustion. • CO 2 enrichment up to 98.68% at 400 °C, 50,000 h −1 and H 2 /O 2 ratio of 2.

  4. Integration of Methane Steam Reforming and Water Gas Shift Reaction in a Pd/Au/Pd-Based Catalytic Membrane Reactor for Process Intensification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Dominguez, Bernardo; Mardilovich, Ivan P; Ma, Liang-Chih; Ma, Rui; Dixon, Anthony G; Kazantzis, Nikolaos K; Ma, Yi Hua

    2016-09-19

    Palladium-based catalytic membrane reactors (CMRs) effectively remove H₂ to induce higher conversions in methane steam reforming (MSR) and water-gas-shift reactions (WGS). Within such a context, this work evaluates the technical performance of a novel CMR, which utilizes two catalysts in series, rather than one. In the process system under consideration, the first catalyst, confined within the shell side of the reactor, reforms methane with water yielding H₂, CO and CO₂. After reforming is completed, a second catalyst, positioned in series, reacts with CO and water through the WGS reaction yielding pure H₂O, CO₂ and H₂. A tubular composite asymmetric Pd/Au/Pd membrane is situated throughout the reactor to continuously remove the produced H₂ and induce higher methane and CO conversions while yielding ultrapure H₂ and compressed CO₂ ready for dehydration. Experimental results involving (i) a conventional packed bed reactor packed (PBR) for MSR, (ii) a PBR with five layers of two catalysts in series and (iii) a CMR with two layers of two catalysts in series are comparatively assessed and thoroughly characterized. Furthermore, a comprehensive 2D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to explore further the features of the proposed configuration. The reaction was studied at different process intensification-relevant conditions, such as space velocities, temperatures, pressures and initial feed gas composition. Finally, it is demonstrated that the above CMR module, which was operated for 600 h, displays quite high H₂ permeance and purity, high CH₄ conversion levels and reduced CO yields.

  5. Gas pollutant cleaning by a membrane reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topis, S.; Koutsonikolas, D.; Kaldis, S. (and others) [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2005-07-01

    An alternative technology for the removal of gas pollutants at the integrated gasification combined cycle process for power generation is the use of a catalytic membrane reactor. In the present study, ammonia decomposition in a catalytic reactor, with simultaneous removal of hydrogen through a ceramic membrane, was investigated. A Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was prepared by the dry and wet impregnation method and characterized by ICP, SEM, XRD and N{sub 2} adsorption before and after activation. Commercially available {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} membranes were also characterized and the permeabilities and selectivities of H{sub 2}, N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} were measured by the variable volume method. In parallel with the experimental analysis, the necessary mathematical models were developed to describe the operation of the catalytic membrane reactor and to compare its performance with the conventional reactor. 5 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Gas pollutant cleaning by a membrane reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaldis Sotiris

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An alternative technology for the removal of gas pollutants at the integrated gasification combined cycle process for power generation is the use of a catalytic membrane reactor. In the present study, ammonia decomposition in a catalytic reactor, with a simultaneous removal of hydrogen through a ceramic membrane, was investigated. A Ni/Al2O3 catalyst was prepared by the dry and wet impregnation method and characterized by the inductively coupled plasma method, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and N2 adsorption before and after activation. Commercially available a-Al2O3 membranes were also characterized and the permeabilities and permselectivities of H2, N2, and CO2 were measured by the variable volume method. In parallel with the experimental analysis, the necessary mathematical models were developed to describe the operation of the catalytic membrane reactor and to compare its performance with the conventional reactor. .

  7. Gas pollutant cleaning by a membrane reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George E. Skodras; Sotiris Kaldis; Savas G. Topis; Dimitris Koutsonikolas; George P. Sakellaropoulos [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece). Chemical Process Engineering Laboratory, Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2006-07-01

    An alternative technology for the removal of gas pollutants at the intergrated gasification combined cycle process for power generation is the use of a catalytic membrane reactor. In the present study, ammonia decomposition in a catalytic reactor, with a simultaneous removal of hydrogen through a ceramic membrane, was investigated. A Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was prepared by the dry and wet impregnation method and characterized by ICP, SEM, XRD and N{sub 2} adsorption before and after activation. Commercially available {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} membranes were also characterized and the permeabilities and permselectivities of H{sub 2}, N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} were measured by the variable volume method. In parallel with the experimental analysis, the necessary mathematical models were developed to describe the operation of the catalytic membrane reactor and to compare its performance with the conventional reactor. 9 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Integration of Methane Steam Reforming and Water Gas Shift Reaction in a Pd/Au/Pd-Based Catalytic Membrane Reactor for Process Intensification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Castro-Dominguez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Palladium-based catalytic membrane reactors (CMRs effectively remove H2 to induce higher conversions in methane steam reforming (MSR and water-gas-shift reactions (WGS. Within such a context, this work evaluates the technical performance of a novel CMR, which utilizes two catalysts in series, rather than one. In the process system under consideration, the first catalyst, confined within the shell side of the reactor, reforms methane with water yielding H2, CO and CO2. After reforming is completed, a second catalyst, positioned in series, reacts with CO and water through the WGS reaction yielding pure H2O, CO2 and H2. A tubular composite asymmetric Pd/Au/Pd membrane is situated throughout the reactor to continuously remove the produced H2 and induce higher methane and CO conversions while yielding ultrapure H2 and compressed CO2 ready for dehydration. Experimental results involving (i a conventional packed bed reactor packed (PBR for MSR, (ii a PBR with five layers of two catalysts in series and (iii a CMR with two layers of two catalysts in series are comparatively assessed and thoroughly characterized. Furthermore, a comprehensive 2D computational fluid dynamics (CFD model was developed to explore further the features of the proposed configuration. The reaction was studied at different process intensification-relevant conditions, such as space velocities, temperatures, pressures and initial feed gas composition. Finally, it is demonstrated that the above CMR module, which was operated for 600 h, displays quite high H2 permeance and purity, high CH4 conversion levels and reduced CO yields.

  9. Synthesis of a catalytic reactor membrane for synthesis gas production; Elaboration d'une membrane de reacteur catalytique pour la production de gaz de synthese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juste, E.; Julian, A.; Chartier, T. [Limoges Univ., Lab. Science des Procedes Ceramiques et de Traitements de Surface (SPCTS, UMR 6638 CNRS), 87 (France); Juste, E.; Julian, A.; Del Gallo, P.; Richet, N. [Centre de Recherche Claude-Delorme, Air Liquide, 78 - Jouy en Josas (France)

    2007-07-01

    The conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas (mixture of H{sub 2} and CO) is a main challenge for the hydrogen and clean fuels production. Mixed (ionic O{sup 2-} and electronic) conducing ceramics membrane reactors seem particularly promising. The design considered for the membrane is a tri-layer system integrating a reforming catalyst and a dense membrane laying on a porous support. Among the materials considered for the dense membrane, perovskites La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}Fe{sub 1-y}Ga{sub y}O{sub 3-{delta}} seem to be interesting for their performances and stability. The oxygen flux through the membrane is measured in terms of temperature under different oxygen partial pressure gradients. In the industrial experimental conditions, the membrane is submitted to a strong oxygen (air/methane) partial pressure gradient of about 900 C which induces mechanical stresses, on account of the material expansion difference, in terms of p{sub O2}. In this framework, the evolutions of the performances and of the expansion coefficient have been followed in terms of the substitutions rates in La{sub (1-x)}Sr{sub x}Fe{sub (1-y)}Ga{sub y}O{sub 3-{delta}} with x{<=}0.5 and y{<=}0.5. (O.M.)

  10. Recent advances on polymeric membranes for membrane reactors

    KAUST Repository

    Buonomenna, M. G.

    2012-06-24

    Membrane reactors are generally applied in high temperature reactions (>400 °C). In the field of fine chemical synthesis, however, much milder conditions are generally applicable and polymeric membranes were applied without their damage. The successful use of membranes in membrane reactors is primary the result of two developments concerning: (i) membrane materials and (ii) membrane structures. The selection of a suited material and preparation technique depends on the application the membrane is to be used in. In this chapter a review of up to date literature about polymers and configuration catalyst/ membranes used in some recent polymeric membrane reactors is given. The new emerging concept of polymeric microcapsules as catalytic microreactors has been proposed. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers. All rights reserved.

  11. Continuous esterification to produce biodiesel by SPES/PES/NWF composite catalytic membrane in flow-through membrane reactor: experimental and kinetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wenying; He, Benqiao; Cao, Yuping; Li, Jianxin; Yan, Feng; Cui, Zhenyu; Zou, Zhiqun; Guo, Shiwei; Qian, Xiaomin

    2013-02-01

    A novel composite catalytic membrane (CCM) was prepared from sulfonated polyethersulfone (SPES) and polyethersulfone (PES) blend supported by non-woven fabrics, as a heterogeneous catalyst to produce biodiesel from continuous esterification of oleic acid with methanol in a flow-through mode. A kinetic model of esterification was established based on a plug-flow assumption. The effects of the CCM structure (thickness, area, porosity, etc.), reaction temperature and the external and internal mass transfer resistances on esterification were investigated. The results showed that the CCM structure had a significant effect on the acid conversion. The external mass transfer resistance could be neglected when the flow rate was over 1.2 ml min(-1). The internal mass transfer resistance impacted on the conversion when membrane thickness was over 1.779 mm. An oleic acid conversion kept over 98.0% for 500 h of continuous running. The conversions obtained from the model are in good agreement with the experimental data. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Flame assisted synthesis of catalytic ceramic membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Johnny; Mosleh, Majid; Johannessen, Tue

    2004-01-01

    technology it is possible to make supported catalysts, composite metal oxides, catalytically active surfaces, and porous ceramic membranes. Membrane layers can be formed by using a porous substrate tube (or surface) as a nano-particle filter. The aerosol gas from the flame is led through a porous substrate...

  13. New separation technique. Catalytically functionated separation membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urgami, Tadashi [Kansai Univ., Osaka (Japan)

    1989-02-01

    This report introduces research examples, showing the fundamental principle of the membrane by separating the catalytically functionated separation membrane into enzyme fixing separation membrane, polymerized metal complex separation membrane and polymer catalyst separation membrane. This membrane can achieve both functions of separation and catalytic reaction simultaneously and has sufficient possibility to combine powerful functions. Enzyme fixing separation membrane is prepared by carrier combination method, bridging method or covering method and the enzyme fixing method with polymerized complex in which enzyme is controlled to prevent the activity lowering as much as possible and enzyme is fixed from an aqueous solution into polymer membrane. This membrane is applied to the continuous manufacturing of invert sugar from cane sugar and adsorption and removing of harmful substances from blood by utilizing both micro-capsuled urease and active carbon. Alginic acid-copper (II) complex membrane is used for the polymerized metal complex membrane and polystyrene sulfonate membrane is used for the polymer catalyst separation membrane. 28 refs., 4 figs., 1 tabs.

  14. High aspect ratio catalytic reactor and catalyst inserts therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiefeng; Kelly, Sean M.

    2018-04-10

    The present invention relates to high efficient tubular catalytic steam reforming reactor configured from about 0.2 inch to about 2 inch inside diameter high temperature metal alloy tube or pipe and loaded with a plurality of rolled catalyst inserts comprising metallic monoliths. The catalyst insert substrate is formed from a single metal foil without a central supporting structure in the form of a spiral monolith. The single metal foil is treated to have 3-dimensional surface features that provide mechanical support and establish open gas channels between each of the rolled layers. This unique geometry accelerates gas mixing and heat transfer and provides a high catalytic active surface area. The small diameter, high aspect ratio tubular catalytic steam reforming reactors loaded with rolled catalyst inserts can be arranged in a multi-pass non-vertical parallel configuration thermally coupled with a heat source to carry out steam reforming of hydrocarbon-containing feeds. The rolled catalyst inserts are self-supported on the reactor wall and enable efficient heat transfer from the reactor wall to the reactor interior, and lower pressure drop than known particulate catalysts. The heat source can be oxygen transport membrane reactors.

  15. Elaboration by tape-casting and co-sintering of multilayer catalytic membrane reactor- performances; Elaboration par coulage en bande et cofrittage de reacteurs catalytiques membranaires multicouches-performances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julian, A

    2008-12-15

    This research deals with the increasing interest of the conversion of natural gas into liquid fuels (diesel, kerosene) using the Gas To Liquid (GTL) process. Within this context, Catalytic Membrane-based Reactors (CMR) would allow an improvement of the process efficiency and a reduction of investment and production costs with respect to the present technologies. They allow performing the separation of oxygen from air, and the conversion of natural gas into synthesis gas within a single step. After having highlighted the economical and technological advantages of using a ceramic membrane for the production of syngas (H{sub 2} + CO{sub 2}), the author describes the protocols of synthesis of powders selected for the dense membrane and the porous support, and their physical characteristics. The obtained powders are then adapted to the tape-casting forming process. Graded-composition multilayer structures and microstructure are then elaborated by co-sintering. Performances in terms of membrane oxygen flows are presented. Mechanisms limiting the oxygen flow are discussed in order to propose ways of improving membrane performances. The limits of the studied system are defined in terms of elastic properties, and optimization ways are proposed for the dense membrane material composition in terms of mechanical properties and performance in oxygen semi-permeation.

  16. Innovative hybrid biological reactors using membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diez, R.; Esteban-Garcia, A. L.; Florio, L. de; Rodriguez-Hernandez, L.; Tejero, I.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present two lines of research on hybrid reactors including the use of membranes, although with different functions: RBPM, biofilm reactors and membranes filtration RBSOM, supported biofilm reactors and oxygen membranes. (Author) 14 refs.

  17. 3. International conference on catalysis in membrane reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    The 3. International Conference on Catalysis in Membrane Reactors, Copenhagen, Denmark, is a continuation of the previous conferences held in Villeurbanne 1994 and Moscow 1996 and will deal with the rapid developments taking place within membranes with emphasis on membrane catalysis. The approx. 80 contributions in form of plenary lectures and posters discuss hydrogen production, methane reforming into syngas, selectivity and specificity of various membranes etc. The conference is organised by the Danish Catalytic Society under the Danish Society for Chemical Engineering. (EG)

  18. Carbon nanofibers in catalytic membrane microreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aran, H.C.; Pacheco Benito, Sergio; Luiten-Olieman, Maria W.J.; Er, S.; Wessling, Matthias; Lefferts, Leonardus; Benes, Nieck Edwin; Lammertink, Rob G.H.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we report on the fabrication and operation of new hybrid membrane microreactors for gas–liquid–solid (G–L–S) reactions. The presented reactors consist of porous stainless steel tubes onto which carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are grown as catalyst support, all encapsulated by a gas permeable

  19. OXIDATIVE COUPLING OF METHANE USING INORGANIC MEMBRANE REACTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Y.H. Ma; Dr. W.R. Moser; Dr. A.G. Dixon; Dr. A.M. Ramachandra; Dr. Y. Lu; C. Binkerd

    1998-04-01

    The objective of this research is to study the oxidative coupling of methane in catalytic inorganic membrane reactors. A specific target is to achieve conversion of methane to C{sub 2} hydrocarbons at very high selectivity and higher yields than in conventional non-porous, co-feed, fixed bed reactors by controlling the oxygen supply through the membrane. A membrane reactor has the advantage of precisely controlling the rate of delivery of oxygen to the catalyst. This facility permits balancing the rate of oxidation and reduction of the catalyst. In addition, membrane reactors minimize the concentration of gas phase oxygen thus reducing non selective gas phase reactions, which are believed to be a main route for the formation of CO{sub x} products. Such gas phase reactions are a cause of decreased selectivity in the oxidative coupling of methane in conventional flow reactors. Membrane reactors could also produce higher product yields by providing better distribution of the reactant gases over the catalyst than the conventional plug flow reactors. Membrane reactor technology also offers the potential for modifying the membranes both to improve catalytic properties as well as to regulate the rate of the permeation/diffusion of reactants through the membrane to minimize by-product generation. Other benefits also exist with membrane reactors, such as the mitigation of thermal hot-spots for highly exothermic reactions such as the oxidative coupling of methane. The application of catalytically active inorganic membranes has potential for drastically increasing the yield of reactions which are currently limited by either thermodynamic equilibria, product inhibition, or kinetic selectivity.

  20. Recent advances on polymeric membranes for membrane reactors

    KAUST Repository

    Buonomenna, M. G.; Choi, Seung Hak

    2012-01-01

    . The successful use of membranes in membrane reactors is primary the result of two developments concerning: (i) membrane materials and (ii) membrane structures. The selection of a suited material and preparation technique depends on the application the membrane

  1. Microchannel Reactor System for Catalytic Hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adeniyi Lawal; Woo Lee; Ron Besser; Donald Kientzler; Luke Achenie

    2010-12-22

    We successfully demonstrated a novel process intensification concept enabled by the development of microchannel reactors, for energy efficient catalytic hydrogenation reactions at moderate temperature, and pressure, and low solvent levels. We designed, fabricated, evaluated, and optimized a laboratory-scale microchannel reactor system for hydrogenation of onitroanisole and a proprietary BMS molecule. In the second phase of the program, as a prelude to full-scale commercialization, we designed and developed a fully-automated skid-mounted multichannel microreactor pilot plant system for multiphase reactions. The system is capable of processing 1 – 10 kg/h of liquid substrate, and an industrially relevant immiscible liquid-liquid was successfully demonstrated on the system. Our microreactor-based pilot plant is one-of-akind. We anticipate that this process intensification concept, if successfully demonstrated, will provide a paradigm-changing basis for replacing existing energy inefficient, cost ineffective, environmentally detrimental slurry semi-batch reactor-based manufacturing practiced in the pharmaceutical and fine chemicals industries.

  2. A study on naphtha catalytic reforming reactor simulation and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ke-min; Guo, Hai-yan; Pan, Shi-wei

    2005-06-01

    A naphtha catalytic reforming unit with four reactors in series is analyzed. A physical model is proposed to describe the catalytic reforming radial flow reactor. Kinetics and thermodynamics equations are selected to describe the naphtha catalytic reforming reactions characteristics based on idealizing the complex naphtha mixture by representing the paraffin, naphthene, and aromatic groups by single compounds. The simulation results based above models agree very well with actual operation unit data.

  3. A study on naphtha catalytic reforming reactor simulation and analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Ke-min; Guo, Hai-yan; Pan, Shi-wei

    2005-01-01

    A naphtha catalytic reforming unit with four reactors in series is analyzed. A physical model is proposed to describe the catalytic reforming radial flow reactor. Kinetics and thermodynamics equations are selected to describe the naphtha catalytic reforming reactions characteristics based on idealizing the complex naphtha mixture by representing the paraffin, naphthene, and aromatic groups by single compounds. The simulation results based above models agree very well with actual operation uni...

  4. A Review on Catalytic Membranes Production and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba Abdallah

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of the chemical industry regarding reducing the production cost and obtaining a high-quality product with low environmental impact became the essential requirements of the world in these days. The catalytic membrane is considered as one of the new alternative solutions of catalysts problems in the industries, where the reaction and separation can be amalgamated in one unit. The catalytic membrane has numerous advantages such as breaking the thermodynamic equilibrium limitation, increasing conversion rate, reducing the recycle and separation costs. But the limitation or most disadvantages of catalytic membranes related to the high capital costs for fabrication or the fact that manufacturing process is still under development. This review article summarizes the most recent advances and research activities related to preparation, characterization, and applications of catalytic membranes. In this article, various types of catalytic membranes are displayed with different applications and explained the positive impacts of using catalytic membranes in various reactions. Copyright © 2017 BCREC Group. All rights reserved. Received: 1st April 2016; Revised: 14th February 2017; Accepted: 22nd February 2017 How to Cite: Abdallah, H. (2017. A Review on Catalytic Membranes Production and Applications. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 12 (2: 136-156 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.12.2.462.136-156 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.12.2.462.136-156

  5. Oxidative coupling of methane using inorganic membrane reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Y.H.; Moser, W.R.; Dixon, A.G. [Worcester Polytechnic Institute, MA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The goal of this research is to improve the oxidative coupling of methane in a catalytic inorganic membrane reactor. A specific target is to achieve conversion of methane to C{sub 2} hydrocarbons at very high selectivity and relatively higher yields than in fixed bed reactors by controlling the oxygen supply through the membrane. A membrane reactor has the advantage of precisely controlling the rate of delivery of oxygen to the catalyst. This facility permits balancing the rate of oxidation and reduction of the catalyst. In addition, membrane reactors minimize the concentration of gas phase oxygen thus reducing non selective gas phase reactions, which are believed to be a main route for formation of CO{sub x} products. Such gas phase reactions are a cause for decreased selectivity in oxidative coupling of methane in conventional flow reactors. Membrane reactors could also produce higher product yields by providing better distribution of the reactant gases over the catalyst than the conventional plug flow reactors. Modeling work which aimed at predicting the observed experimental trends in porous membrane reactors was also undertaken in this research program.

  6. Catalytic reactor for low-Btu fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lance; Etemad, Shahrokh; Karim, Hasan; Pfefferle, William C.

    2009-04-21

    An improved catalytic reactor includes a housing having a plate positioned therein defining a first zone and a second zone, and a plurality of conduits fabricated from a heat conducting material and adapted for conducting a fluid therethrough. The conduits are positioned within the housing such that the conduit exterior surfaces and the housing interior surface within the second zone define a first flow path while the conduit interior surfaces define a second flow path through the second zone and not in fluid communication with the first flow path. The conduit exits define a second flow path exit, the conduit exits and the first flow path exit being proximately located and interspersed. The conduits define at least one expanded section that contacts adjacent conduits thereby spacing the conduits within the second zone and forming first flow path exit flow orifices having an aggregate exit area greater than a defined percent of the housing exit plane area. Lastly, at least a portion of the first flow path defines a catalytically active surface.

  7. Catalytic Reactor for Inerting of Aircraft Fuel Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-06-01

    Aluminum Panels After Triphase Corrosion Test 79 35 Inerting System Flows in Various Flight Modes 82 36 High Flow Reactor Parametric Data 84 37 System...AD/A-000 939 CATALYTIC REACTOR FOR INERTING OF AIRCRAFT FUEL TANKS George H. McDonald, et al AiResearch Manufacturing Company Prepared for: Air Force...190th Street 2b. GROUP Torrance, California .. REPORT TITLE CATALYTIC REACTOR FOR INERTING OF AIRCRAFT FUEL TANKS . OESCRIP TIVE NOTEs (Thpe of refpoft

  8. Catalytic Reactor For Oxidizing Mercury Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfritch, Dennis J.

    1998-07-28

    A catalytic reactor (10) for oxidizing elemental mercury contained in flue gas is provided. The catalyst reactor (10) comprises within a flue gas conduit a perforated corona discharge plate (30a, b) having a plurality of through openings (33) and a plurality of projecting corona discharge electrodes (31); a perforated electrode plate (40a, b, c) having a plurality of through openings (43) axially aligned with the through openings (33) of the perforated corona discharge plate (30a, b) displaced from and opposing the tips of the corona discharge electrodes (31); and a catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) overlaying that face of the perforated electrode plate (40a, b, c) opposing the tips of the corona discharge electrodes (31). A uniformly distributed corona discharge plasma (1000) is intermittently generated between the plurality of corona discharge electrode tips (31) and the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) when a stream of flue gas is passed through the conduit. During those periods when corona discharge (1000) is not being generated, the catalyst molecules of the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) adsorb mercury vapor contained in the passing flue gas. During those periods when corona discharge (1000) is being generated, ions and active radicals contained in the generated corona discharge plasma (1000) desorb the mercury from the catalyst molecules of the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d), oxidizing the mercury in virtually simultaneous manner. The desorption process regenerates and activates the catalyst member molecules.

  9. Analysis of heterogeneous oxygen exchange and fuel oxidation on the catalytic surface of perovskite membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Jongsup

    2013-10-01

    The catalytic kinetics of oxygen surface exchange and fuel oxidation for a perovskite membrane is investigated in terms of the thermodynamic state in the immediate vicinity of or on the membrane surface. Perovskite membranes have been shown to exhibit both oxygen perm-selectivity and catalytic activity for hydrocarbon conversion. A fundamental description of their catalytic surface reactions is needed. In this study, we infer the kinetic parameters for heterogeneous oxygen surface exchange and catalytic fuel conversion reactions, based on permeation rate measurements and a spatially resolved physical model that incorporates detailed chemical kinetics and transport in the gas-phase. The conservation equations for surface and bulk species are coupled with those of the gas-phase species through the species production rates from surface reactions. It is shown that oxygen surface exchange is limited by dissociative/associative adsorption/desorption of oxygen molecules onto/from the membrane surface. On the sweep side, while the catalytic conversion of methane to methyl radical governs the overall surface reactions at high temperature, carbon monoxide oxidation on the membrane surface is dominant at low temperature. Given the sweep side conditions considered in ITM reactor experiments, gas-phase reactions also play an important role, indicating the significance of investigating both homogeneous and heterogeneous chemistry and their coupling when examining the results. We show that the local thermodynamic state at the membrane surface should be considered when constructing and examining models of oxygen permeation and heterogeneous chemistry. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  10. Analysis of heterogeneous oxygen exchange and fuel oxidation on the catalytic surface of perovskite membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Jongsup; Kirchen, Patrick; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2013-01-01

    The catalytic kinetics of oxygen surface exchange and fuel oxidation for a perovskite membrane is investigated in terms of the thermodynamic state in the immediate vicinity of or on the membrane surface. Perovskite membranes have been shown to exhibit both oxygen perm-selectivity and catalytic activity for hydrocarbon conversion. A fundamental description of their catalytic surface reactions is needed. In this study, we infer the kinetic parameters for heterogeneous oxygen surface exchange and catalytic fuel conversion reactions, based on permeation rate measurements and a spatially resolved physical model that incorporates detailed chemical kinetics and transport in the gas-phase. The conservation equations for surface and bulk species are coupled with those of the gas-phase species through the species production rates from surface reactions. It is shown that oxygen surface exchange is limited by dissociative/associative adsorption/desorption of oxygen molecules onto/from the membrane surface. On the sweep side, while the catalytic conversion of methane to methyl radical governs the overall surface reactions at high temperature, carbon monoxide oxidation on the membrane surface is dominant at low temperature. Given the sweep side conditions considered in ITM reactor experiments, gas-phase reactions also play an important role, indicating the significance of investigating both homogeneous and heterogeneous chemistry and their coupling when examining the results. We show that the local thermodynamic state at the membrane surface should be considered when constructing and examining models of oxygen permeation and heterogeneous chemistry. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  11. Adlayers of palladium particles and their aggregates on porous polypropylene hollow fiber membranes as hydrogenization contractors/reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volkov, V.V.; Lebedeva, V.I.; Petrova, I.V.; Bobyl, A.V.; Konnikov, S.G.; Roldughin, V.I.; Erkel, J. van; Tereshchenko, G.F.

    2011-01-01

    Principal approaches for the preparation of catalytic membrane reactors based on polymer membranes containing palladium nanoparticles and for the description of their characteristics are presented. The method for the development of adlayers composed of palladium nanoparticles and their aggregates on

  12. Preparation of amino-functionalized regenerated cellulose membranes with high catalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Bai, Qian; Liang, Tao; Bai, Huiyu; Liu, Xiaoya

    2017-09-01

    The modification of regenerated cellulose (RC) membranes was carried out by using silane coupling agents presenting primary and secondary amino-groups. The grafting of the amino groups onto the modified cellulose molecule was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies and 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic analyses. The crystallinity of the cellulose membranes (CM) decreased after chemical modification as indicated by the X-ray diffraction results. Moreover, a denser structure was observed at the surface and cross section of the modified membranes by SEM images. The contact angle measurements showed that the silane coupling treatment enhanced the hydrophobicity of the obtained materials. Then the catalytic properties of two types of modified membranes were studied in a batch process by evaluating their catalytic performance in a Knoevenagel condensation. The results indicated that the cellulose membrane grafted with many secondary amines exhibited a better catalytic activity compared to the one grafted only by primary amines. In addition, the compact structure of the modified membranes permitted their application in a pervaporation catalytic membrane reactor. Therefore, functional CM that prepared in this paper represented a promising material in the field of industrial catalysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Catalytic membrane in reduction of aqueous nitrates: operational principles and catalytic performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ilinitch, O.M.; Cuperus, F.P.; Nosova, L.V.; Gribov, E.N.

    2000-01-01

    The catalytic membrane with palladium-copper active component supported over the macroporous ceramic membrane, and a series of γ-Al 2O 3 supported Pd-Cu catalysts were prepared and investigated. In reduction of nitrate ions by hydrogen in water at ambient temperature, pronounced internal diffusion

  14. Polymer and Membrane Design for Low Temperature Catalytic Reactions

    KAUST Repository

    Villalobos, Luis Francisco

    2016-02-29

    Catalytically active asymmetric membranes have been developed with high loadings of palladium nanoparticles located solely in the membrane\\'s ultrathin skin layer. The manufacturing of these membranes requires polymers with functional groups, which can form insoluble complexes with palladium ions. Three polymers have been synthesized for this purpose and a complexation/nonsolvent induced phase separation followed by a palladium reduction step is carried out to prepare such membranes. Parameters to optimize the skin layer thickness and porosity, the palladium loading in this layer, and the palladium nanoparticles size are determined. The catalytic activity of the membranes is verified with the reduction of a nitro-compound and with a liquid phase Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction. Very low reaction times are observed. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Polymer and Membrane Design for Low Temperature Catalytic Reactions

    KAUST Repository

    Villalobos, Luis Francisco; Xie, Yihui; Nunes, Suzana Pereira; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2016-01-01

    Catalytically active asymmetric membranes have been developed with high loadings of palladium nanoparticles located solely in the membrane's ultrathin skin layer. The manufacturing of these membranes requires polymers with functional groups, which can form insoluble complexes with palladium ions. Three polymers have been synthesized for this purpose and a complexation/nonsolvent induced phase separation followed by a palladium reduction step is carried out to prepare such membranes. Parameters to optimize the skin layer thickness and porosity, the palladium loading in this layer, and the palladium nanoparticles size are determined. The catalytic activity of the membranes is verified with the reduction of a nitro-compound and with a liquid phase Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction. Very low reaction times are observed. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Free-standing hierarchical α-MnO2@CuO membrane for catalytic filtration degradation of organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xinsheng; Liang, Heng; Qu, Fangshu; Ding, An; Cheng, Xiaoxiang; Tang, Chuyang Y; Li, Guibai

    2018-06-01

    Catalytic membrane, due to its compact reactor assembling, high catalytic performance as well as low energy consumption, has proved to be more attractive for wastewater treatment. In this work, a free-standing α-MnO 2 @CuO membrane with hierarchical nanostructures was prepared and evaluated as the catalytic membrane to generate radicals from peroxymonosulfate (PMS) for the oxidative degradation of organic dyes in aqueous solution. Benefiting from the high mass transport efficiency and the hierarchical nanostructures, a superior catalytic activity of the membrane was observed for organic dyes degradation. As a typical organic dye, more than 99% of methylene blue (MB) was degraded within 0.23 s using dead-end filtration cell. The effects of flow rate, PMS concentration and buffer solution on MB degradation were further investigated. Besides MB, the catalytic membrane also showed excellent performance for the removal of other dyes, such as congo red, methyl orange, rhodamine B, acid chrome blue K and malachite green. Moreover, the mechanism study indicated that OH and SO 4 - generated from the interaction between PMS and Mn/Cu species with different oxidation states mainly accounted for the dyes degradation. The catalytic filtration process using α-MnO 2 @CuO catalytic membrane could provide a novel method for wastewater purification with high efficiency and low energy consumption. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Degradation pathway of malachite green in a novel dual-tank photoelectrochemical catalytic reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diao, Zenghui; Li, Mingyu; Zeng, Fanyin; Song, Lin; Qiu, Rongliang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel dual-tank photoelectrochemical catalytic reactor was designed. • Malachite green degraded in bipolar double-effect mode. • Salt bridge replaced by a cation exchange membrane in the reactor. • Degradation pathways of malachite green in the cathode and anode tanks were similar. -- Abstract: A novel dual-tank photoelectrochemical catalytic reactor was designed to investigate the degradation pathway of malachite green. A thermally formed TiO 2 /Ti thin film electrode was used as photoanode, graphite was used as cathode, and a saturated calomel electrode was employed as the reference electrode in the reactor. In the reactor, the anode and cathode tanks were connected by a cation exchange membrane. Results showed that the decolorization ratio of malachite green in the anode and cathode was 98.5 and 96.5% after 120 min, respectively. Malachite green in the two anode and cathode tanks was oxidized, achieving the bipolar double effect. Malachite green in both the anode and cathode tanks exhibited similar catalytic degradation pathways. The double bond of the malachite green molecule was attacked by strong oxidative hydroxyl radicals, after which the organic compound was degraded by the two pathways into 4,4-bis(dimethylamino) benzophenone, 4-(dimethylamino) benzophenone, 4-(dimethylamino) phenol, and other intermediate products. Eventually, malachite green was degraded into oxalic acid as a small molecular organic acid, which was degraded by processes such as demethylation, deamination, nitration, substitution, addition, and other reactions

  18. Recent advances on membranes and membrane reactors for hydrogen production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallucci, F.; Fernandez Gesalaga, E.; Corengia, P.; Sint Annaland, van M.

    2013-01-01

    Membranes and membrane reactors for pure hydrogen production are widely investigated not only because of the important application areas of hydrogen, but especially because mechanically and chemically stable membranes with high perm-selectivity towards hydrogen are available and are continuously

  19. Reactor vessel using metal oxide ceramic membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Marc A.; Zeltner, Walter A.

    1992-08-11

    A reaction vessel for use in photoelectrochemical reactions includes as its reactive surface a metal oxide porous ceramic membrane of a catalytic metal such as titanium. The reaction vessel includes a light source and a counter electrode. A provision for applying an electrical bias between the membrane and the counter electrode permits the Fermi levels of potential reaction to be favored so that certain reactions may be favored in the vessel. The electrical biasing is also useful for the cleaning of the catalytic membrane.

  20. Hydrogen Production by Catalytic Partial Oxidation of Coke Oven Gas in BaCo0.7Fe0.3-xZrxO3-δ Ceramic Membrane Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Weilin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The BaCo0.7Fe0.3-xZrxO3-δ (BCFZ, x = 0.04–0.12 mixed ionic–electronic conducting (MIEC membranes were synthesized with a sol–gel method and evaluated as potential membrane reactor materials for the partial oxidation of coke oven gas (COG. The effect of zirconium content on the phase structure, microstructure and performance of the BCFZ membrane under He or COG atmosphere were systemically investigated. The BaCo0.7Fe0.24Zr0.06O3-δ membrane exhibited the best oxygen permeability and good operation stability, which could be a potential candidate of the membrane materials for hydrogen production through the partial oxidation of COG.

  1. Role of membranes and membrane reactors in the hydrogen supply of fuel cells for transports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julbe, A.; Guizard, Ch. [Institut Europeen des Membranes, UMII, Lab. des Materiaux et des Procedes Membranaires, CNRS UMR 5635, 34 - Montpellier (France)

    2000-07-01

    Production, storage and supply of high-purity hydrogen as a clean and efficient fuel is central to fuel cells technology, in particular in vehicle traction. Actually, technologies for handling liquefied or gaseous hydrogen in transports are not available so that a number of alternative fuels are considered with the aim of in-situ generation of hydrogen through catalytic processes. The integrated concept of membrane reactors (MRs) can greatly benefit to these technologies. Particular emphasis is put on inorganic membranes and their role in MRs performance for H{sub 2} production.

  2. Innovative hybrid biological reactors using membranes; Reactores biologico hibrido innovadores utilizando membranas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diez, R.; Esteban-Garcia, A. L.; Florio, L. de; Rodriguez-Hernandez, L.; Tejero, I.

    2011-07-01

    In this paper we present two lines of research on hybrid reactors including the use of membranes, although with different functions: RBPM, biofilm reactors and membranes filtration RBSOM, supported biofilm reactors and oxygen membranes. (Author) 14 refs.

  3. Use of a Ceramic Membrane to Improve the Performance of Two-Separate-Phase Biocatalytic Membrane Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranieri, Giuseppe; Mazzei, Rosalinda; Wu, Zhentao; Li, Kang; Giorno, Lidietta

    2016-03-14

    Biocatalytic membrane reactors (BMR) combining reaction and separation within the same unit have many advantages over conventional reactor designs. Ceramic membranes are an attractive alternative to polymeric membranes in membrane biotechnology due to their high chemical, thermal and mechanical resistance. Another important use is their potential application in a biphasic membrane system, where support solvent resistance is highly needed. In this work, the preparation of asymmetric ceramic hollow fibre membranes and their use in a two-separate-phase biocatalytic membrane reactor will be described. The asymmetric ceramic hollow fibre membranes were prepared using a combined phase inversion and sintering technique. The prepared fibres were then used as support for lipase covalent immobilization in order to develop a two-separate-phase biocatalytic membrane reactor. A functionalization method was proposed in order to increase the density of the reactive hydroxyl groups on the surface of ceramic membranes, which were then amino-activated and treated with a crosslinker. The performance and the stability of the immobilized lipase were investigated as a function of the amount of the immobilized biocatalytst. Results showed that it is possible to immobilize lipase on a ceramic membrane without altering its catalytic performance (initial residual specific activity 93%), which remains constant after 6 reaction cycles.

  4. Use of a Ceramic Membrane to Improve the Performance of Two-Separate-Phase Biocatalytic Membrane Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Ranieri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Biocatalytic membrane reactors (BMR combining reaction and separation within the same unit have many advantages over conventional reactor designs. Ceramic membranes are an attractive alternative to polymeric membranes in membrane biotechnology due to their high chemical, thermal and mechanical resistance. Another important use is their potential application in a biphasic membrane system, where support solvent resistance is highly needed. In this work, the preparation of asymmetric ceramic hollow fibre membranes and their use in a two-separate-phase biocatalytic membrane reactor will be described. The asymmetric ceramic hollow fibre membranes were prepared using a combined phase inversion and sintering technique. The prepared fibres were then used as support for lipase covalent immobilization in order to develop a two-separate-phase biocatalytic membrane reactor. A functionalization method was proposed in order to increase the density of the reactive hydroxyl groups on the surface of ceramic membranes, which were then amino-activated and treated with a crosslinker. The performance and the stability of the immobilized lipase were investigated as a function of the amount of the immobilized biocatalytst. Results showed that it is possible to immobilize lipase on a ceramic membrane without altering its catalytic performance (initial residual specific activity 93%, which remains constant after 6 reaction cycles.

  5. Chemically-modified cellulose paper as a microstructured catalytic reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Hirotaka; Kitaoka, Takuya; Isogai, Akira

    2015-01-15

    We discuss the successful use of chemically-modified cellulose paper as a microstructured catalytic reactor for the production of useful chemicals. The chemical modification of cellulose paper was achieved using a silane-coupling technique. Amine-modified paper was directly used as a base catalyst for the Knoevenagel condensation reaction. Methacrylate-modified paper was used for the immobilization of lipase and then in nonaqueous transesterification processes. These catalytic paper materials offer high reaction efficiencies and have excellent practical properties. We suggest that the paper-specific interconnected microstructure with pulp fiber networks provides fast mixing of the reactants and efficient transport of the reactants to the catalytically-active sites. This concept is expected to be a promising route to green and sustainable chemistry.

  6. Chemically-Modified Cellulose Paper as a Microstructured Catalytic Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka Koga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the successful use of chemically-modified cellulose paper as a microstructured catalytic reactor for the production of useful chemicals. The chemical modification of cellulose paper was achieved using a silane-coupling technique. Amine-modified paper was directly used as a base catalyst for the Knoevenagel condensation reaction. Methacrylate-modified paper was used for the immobilization of lipase and then in nonaqueous transesterification processes. These catalytic paper materials offer high reaction efficiencies and have excellent practical properties. We suggest that the paper-specific interconnected microstructure with pulp fiber networks provides fast mixing of the reactants and efficient transport of the reactants to the catalytically-active sites. This concept is expected to be a promising route to green and sustainable chemistry.

  7. A submerged ceramic membrane reactor for the p-nitrophenol hydrogenation over nano-sized nickel catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R Z; Sun, H L; Xing, W H; Jin, W Q; Xu, N P

    2009-02-01

    The catalytic hydrogenation of p-nitrophenol to p-aminophenol over nano-sized nickel catalysts was carried out in a submerged ceramic membrane reactor. It has been demonstrated that the submerged ceramic membrane reactor is more suitable for the p-nitrophenol hydrogenation over nano-sized nickel catalysts compared with the side-stream ceramic membrane reactor, and the membrane module configuration has a great influence on the reaction rate of p-nitrophenol hydrogenation and the membrane treating capacity. The deactivation of nano-sized nickel is mainly caused by the adsorption of impurity on the surface of nickel and the increase of oxidation degree of nickel.

  8. Staged membrane oxidation reactor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2012-09-11

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

  9. Counter-current membrane reactor for WGS process: Membrane design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piemonte, Vincenzo; Favetta, Barbara [Department of Chemical Engineering Materials and Environment, University of Rome ' ' La Sapienza' ' , via Eudossiana 18, 00184 Rome (Italy); De Falco, Marcello [Faculty of Engineering, University Campus Bio-Medico of Rome, via Alvaro del Portillo 21, 00128 Rome (Italy); Basile, Angelo [CNR-ITM, c/o University of Calabria, Via Pietro Bucci, Cubo 17/C, 87030 Rende (CS) (Italy)

    2010-11-15

    Water gas shift (WGS) is a thermodynamically limited reaction which has to operate at low temperatures, reducing kinetics rate and increasing the amount of catalyst required to reach valuable CO conversions. It has been widely demonstrated that the integration of hydrogen selective membranes is a promising way to enhance WGS reactors performance: a Pd-based MR operated successfully overcoming the thermodynamic constraints of a traditional reactor thanks to the removal of hydrogen from reaction environment. In the first part of a MR, the H{sub 2} partial pressure starts from a minimum value since the reaction has not started. As a consequence, if the carrier gas in the permeation zone is sent in counter-current, which is the most efficient configuration, in the first reactor section the H{sub 2} partial pressure in reaction zone is low while in the permeation zone is high, potentially implying back permeation. This means a bad utilization of the first part of the membrane area and thus, a worsening of the MR performance with lower H{sub 2} recovery and lower CO conversion with respect to the case in which the whole selective surface is properly used. To avoid this problem different MR configurations were evaluated by a 1-D pseudo-homogeneous model, validated with WGS industrial data reported in scientific literature. It was demonstrated that the permeated H{sub 2} flow rate per membrane surface, i.e. the membrane flux, strongly improves if selective membrane is placed only in the second part of the reactor: in fact, if the membrane is placed at L{sub m}/L{sub tot} = 0.5, the membrane flux is 0.2 kmol/(m{sup 2}h) about, if it is placed along all reactor tube (L{sub m}/L{sub tot} = 1), flux is 0.05 kmol/(m{sup 2}h). The effect of the L/D reactor ratio and of the reactor wall temperature on the CO conversion were also assessed. (author)

  10. Surface-Enhanced Separation of Water from Hydrocarbons: Potential Dewatering Membranes for the Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis of Pine Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engtrakul, Chaiwat; Hu, Michael Z.; Bischoff, Brian L.; Jang, Gyoung G.

    2016-10-20

    The impact of surface-selective coatings on water permeation through a membrane when exposed to catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) vapor products was studied by tailoring the surface properties of the membrane coating from superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic. Our approach used high-performance architectured surface-selective (HiPAS) membranes that were inserted after a CFP reactor. At this insertion point, the inner wall surface of a tubular membrane was exposed to a mixture of water and upgraded product vapors, including light gases and deoxygenated hydrocarbons. Under proper membrane operating conditions, a high selectivity for water over one-ring upgraded biomass pyrolysis hydrocarbons was observed as a result of a surface-enhanced capillary condensation process. Owing to this surface-enhanced effect, HiPAS membranes have the potential to enable high flux separations, suggesting that water can be selectively removed from the CFP product vapors.

  11. Catalysts with Cerium in a Membrane Reactor for the Removal of Formaldehyde Pollutant from Water Effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirella Gutiérrez-Arzaluz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We report the synthesis of cerium oxide, cobalt oxide, mixed cerium, and cobalt oxides and a Ce–Co/Al2O3 membrane, which are employed as catalysts for the catalytic wet oxidation (CWO reaction process and the removal of formaldehyde from industrial effluents. Formaldehyde is present in numerous waste streams from the chemical industry in a concentration low enough to make its recovery not economically justified but high enough to create an environmental hazard. Common biological degradation methods do not work for formaldehyde, a highly toxic but refractory, low biodegradability substance. The CWO reaction is a recent, promising alternative that also permits much lower temperature and pressure conditions than other oxidation processes, resulting in economic benefits. The CWO reaction employing Ce- and Co-containing catalysts was carried out inside a slurry batch reactor and a membrane reactor. Experimental results are reported. Next, a mixed Ce–Co oxide film was supported on an γ-alumina membrane used in a catalytic membrane reactor to compare formaldehyde removal between both types of systems. Catalytic materials with cerium and with a relatively large amount of cerium favored the transformation of formaldehyde. Cerium was present as cerianite in the catalytic materials, as indicated by X-ray diffraction patterns.

  12. Degradation pathway of malachite green in a novel dual-tank photoelectrochemical catalytic reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Zenghui; Li, Mingyu; Zeng, Fanyin; Song, Lin; Qiu, Rongliang

    2013-09-15

    A novel dual-tank photoelectrochemical catalytic reactor was designed to investigate the degradation pathway of malachite green. A thermally formed TiO₂/Ti thin film electrode was used as photoanode, graphite was used as cathode, and a saturated calomel electrode was employed as the reference electrode in the reactor. In the reactor, the anode and cathode tanks were connected by a cation exchange membrane. Results showed that the decolorization ratio of malachite green in the anode and cathode was 98.5 and 96.5% after 120 min, respectively. Malachite green in the two anode and cathode tanks was oxidized, achieving the bipolar double effect. Malachite green in both the anode and cathode tanks exhibited similar catalytic degradation pathways. The double bond of the malachite green molecule was attacked by strong oxidative hydroxyl radicals, after which the organic compound was degraded by the two pathways into 4,4-bis(dimethylamino) benzophenone, 4-(dimethylamino) benzophenone, 4-(dimethylamino) phenol, and other intermediate products. Eventually, malachite green was degraded into oxalic acid as a small molecular organic acid, which was degraded by processes such as demethylation, deamination, nitration, substitution, addition, and other reactions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Experimental studies on catalytic hydrogen recombiners for light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drinovac, P.

    2006-01-01

    In the course of core melt accidents in nuclear power plants a large amount of hydrogen can be produced and form an explosive or even detonative gas mixture with aerial oxygen in the reactor building. In the containment atmosphere of pressurized water reactors hydrogen combines a phlogistically with the oxygen present to form water vapor even at room temperature. In the past, experimental work conducted at various facilities has contributed little or nothing to an understanding of the operating principles of catalytic recombiners. Hence, the purpose of the present study was to conduct detailed investigations on a section of a recombiner essentially in order to deepen the understanding of reaction kinetics and heat transport processes. The results of the experiments presented in this dissertation form a large data base of measurements which provides an insight into the processes taking place in recombiners. The reaction-kinetic interpretation of the measured data confirms and deepens the diffusion theory - proposed in an earlier study. Thus it is now possible to validate detailed numeric models representing the processes in recombiners. Consequently the present study serves to broaden and corroborate competence in this significant area of reactor technology. In addition, the empirical knowledge thus gained may be used for a critical reassessment of previous numeric model calculations. (orig.)

  14. Liberated PKA Catalytic Subunits Associate with the Membrane via Myristoylation to Preferentially Phosphorylate Membrane Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillo, Shane E; Xiong, Wei-Hong; Takahashi, Maho; Miao, Sheng; Andrade, Adriana L; Fortin, Dale A; Yang, Guang; Qin, Maozhen; Smoody, Barbara F; Stork, Philip J S; Zhong, Haining

    2017-04-18

    Protein kinase A (PKA) has diverse functions in neurons. At rest, the subcellular localization of PKA is controlled by A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). However, the dynamics of PKA upon activation remain poorly understood. Here, we report that elevation of cyclic AMP (cAMP) in neuronal dendrites causes a significant percentage of the PKA catalytic subunit (PKA-C) molecules to be released from the regulatory subunit (PKA-R). Liberated PKA-C becomes associated with the membrane via N-terminal myristoylation. This membrane association does not require the interaction between PKA-R and AKAPs. It slows the mobility of PKA-C and enriches kinase activity on the membrane. Membrane-residing PKA substrates are preferentially phosphorylated compared to cytosolic substrates. Finally, the myristoylation of PKA-C is critical for normal synaptic function and plasticity. We propose that activation-dependent association of PKA-C renders the membrane a unique PKA-signaling compartment. Constrained mobility of PKA-C may synergize with AKAP anchoring to determine specific PKA function in neurons. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Upgrading of Gasification Gases by means of a Catalytic Membrane Reactor: WGS Catalysts and Inorganic Palladium Membranes HENRECA Project (ENE2004-07758-CO2-01). Final Report; Estudios de Enriquecimiento en H{sub 2} de Gases de Gasificacion mediante el Uso Reactor Catalitico de Membranas: Catalizadores WGS y Membranas Inorganicas de Paladio. Informe Final Proyecto HENRECA (ENE2004-07758-C02-01)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maranon Bujan, M.; Sanchez Hervas, J. M.; Barreiro Carou, M. del

    2008-07-01

    The combination of a CO catalytic converter with a highly hydrogen selective membrane out stands as a very promising technology for the upgrading of biomass gasification gases. The advantages of this combined system over the traditional two stages WGS technology has been investigated within the HENRECA project, financed under the Spanish PN 2004-2007 of the Ministry of Science and Technology. This project started in September 2004 and had a duration of three years. The Division of Combustion and Gasification of CIEMAT participates in this project in three main activities: the study of the catalytic activity of WGS catalysts synthesised by the other partner of the project (University Rey Juan Carlos), the design of the reaction-separation system and the design and construction of a bench-scale pilot plant where the performance of the membranes prepared by URJC and the catalytic membrane system were investigated. This report describes the activities carried out within the project and the main results obtained. (Author) 14 ref.

  16. Hydrogen enrichment and separation from synthesis gas by the use of a membrane reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, J.M.; Barreiro, M.M.; Marono, M.

    2011-01-01

    One of the objectives of the CHRISGAS project was to study innovative gas separation and gas upgrading systems that have not been developed sufficiently yet to be tested at a demonstration scale within the time frame of the project, but which show some attractive merits and features for further development. In this framework CIEMAT studied, at bench scale, hydrogen enrichment and separation from syngas by the use of membranes and membrane catalytic reactors. In this paper results about hydrogen separation from synthesis gas by means of selective membranes are presented. Studies dealt with the evaluation of permeation and selectivity to hydrogen of prepared and pre-commercial Pd-based membranes. Whereas prepared membranes turned out to be non-selective, due to discontinuities of the palladium layer, studies conducted with the pre-commercial membrane showed that by means of a membrane reactor it is possible to completely separate hydrogen from the other gas components and produce pure hydrogen as a permeate stream, even in the case of complex reaction system (H 2 /CO/CO 2 /H 2 O) under WGS conditions gas mixtures. The advantages of using a water-gas shift membrane reactor (MR) over a traditional fixed bed reactor (TR) have also been studied. The experimental device included the pre-commercial Pd-based membrane and a commercial high temperature Fe-Cr-based, WGS catalyst, which was packed in the annulus between the membrane and the reactor outer shell. Results show that in the MR concept, removal of H 2 from the reaction side has a positive effect on WGS reaction, reaching higher CO conversion than in a traditional packed bed reactor at a given temperature. On increasing pressure on the reaction side permeation is enhanced and hence carbon monoxide conversion increases. -- Highlights: → H 2 enrichment and separation using a bench-scale membrane reactor MR is studied. → Permeation and selectivity to H 2 of Pd-based membranes was determined. → Complete separation

  17. Novel, Regenerable Microlith Catalytic Reactor for CO2 Reduction via Bosch Process, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI) proposes to develop an extremely compact, lightweight and regenerable MicrolithREG catalytic CO2 reduction reactor, capable of...

  18. Experimental Investigation of Flow Resistance in a Coal Mine Ventilation Air Methane Preheated Catalytic Oxidation Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Bin; Liu, Yongqi; Liu, Ruixiang; Meng, Jian; Mao, Mingming

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the results of experimental investigation of flow resistance in a coal mine ventilation air methane preheated catalytic oxidation reactor. The experimental system was installed at the Energy Research Institute of Shandong University of Technology. The system has been used to investigate the effects of flow rate (200 Nm3/h to 1000 Nm3/h) and catalytic oxidation bed average temperature (20°C to 560°C) within the preheated catalytic oxidation reactor. The pressure drop and res...

  19. Lactose hydrolysis in an enzymatic membrane reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertens, B; Huyghebaert, A

    1987-10-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis of lactose in whey permeate with subsequent recuperation of Saccharomyces lactis lactase by means of ultrafiltration was investigated. In whey permeate, S. lactis lactase shows maximal activity at pH 6.5; the optimal temperature was found to be 45/sup 0/C and is limited by strong thermal inactivation beyond this temperature. High activity combined with acceptable thermal inactivation (< 10% after 5 h incubation) was established at 30/sup 0/C. S. lactis lactase also displays considerable activity at low temperature (5/sup 0/C). Enzyme stability is reduced drastically by demineralisation: addition of low concentrations of manganese ions (10/sup -3/ M) considerably enhances stability. Using a DDS Lab-Unit 35 fitted with GR61PP polysulphon membranes (cut-off: 20.000), pilot scale experiments were carried out (pH 6.5; 30/sup 0/C) in which whey permeate was hydrolyzed to a degree of hydrolysis of 82% minimum. Enzyme recuperation amounted to 96.5% per batch, all enzyme activity loss being due to thermal inactivation. Microbiological examination of the enzymatic membrane reactor showed that growth of mcicroorganisms can largely be suppressed by working at lower temperature (5/sup 0/C). Eventually, 50 ppm H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ or sterile filtration will adequately solve microbiological problems without affecting enzyme activity.

  20. Experimental Investigation of Flow Resistance in a Coal Mine Ventilation Air Methane Preheated Catalytic Oxidation Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of experimental investigation of flow resistance in a coal mine ventilation air methane preheated catalytic oxidation reactor. The experimental system was installed at the Energy Research Institute of Shandong University of Technology. The system has been used to investigate the effects of flow rate (200 Nm3/h to 1000 Nm3/h and catalytic oxidation bed average temperature (20°C to 560°C within the preheated catalytic oxidation reactor. The pressure drop and resistance proportion of catalytic oxidation bed, the heat exchanger preheating section, and the heat exchanger flue gas section were measured. In addition, based on a large number of experimental data, the empirical equations of flow resistance are obtained by the least square method. It can also be used in deriving much needed data for preheated catalytic oxidation designs when employed in industry.

  1. Simultaneous hydrogen and methanol enhancement through a recuperative two-zone thermally coupled membrane reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayat, M. [Shiraz University, Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahimpour, M.R. [Shiraz University, Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shiraz University, Gas Center of Excellence, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    In this work, a novel configuration with two zones instead of one single integrated catalytic bed in thermally coupled membrane reactor (TCMR) is developed for enhancement of simultaneous methanol, benzene and hydrogen production. In the first zone, the synthesis gas is partly converted to methanol in a conventional water-cooled reactor. In the second zone, the reaction heat is used to drive the endothermic dehydrogenation of cyclohexane reaction in second tube side. Selective permeation of hydrogen through the Pd-Ag membrane is achieved by co-current flow of sweep gas through the permeation side. The length of first zone is chosen equal 35 cm which the optimization procedure obtained this value. The proposed model has been used to compare the performance of a two-zone thermally coupled membrane reactor (TZTCMR) with conventional reactor (CR) and TCMR at identical process conditions. The simulation results represent 13.14 % enhancement in the production of pure hydrogen in comparison with TCMR. Moreover, 2.96 and 4.54 % enhancement of the methanol productivity relative to TCMR and CR were seen, respectively, owing to utilizing higher temperature at the first parts of reactor for higher reaction rate and then reducing temperature gradually at the end parts of reactor for increasing thermodynamics equilibrium conversion in TZTCMR. (orig.)

  2. Steam reforming of heptane in a fluidized bed membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakib, Mohammad A.; Grace, John R.; Lim, C. Jim; Elnashaie, Said S. E. H.

    n-Heptane served as a model compound to study steam reforming of naphtha as an alternative feedstock to natural gas for production of pure hydrogen in a fluidized bed membrane reactor. Selective removal of hydrogen using Pd 77Ag 23 membrane panels shifted the equilibrium-limited reactions to greater conversion of the hydrocarbons and lower yields of methane, an intermediate product. Experiments were conducted with no membranes, with one membrane panel, and with six panels along the height of the reactor to understand the performance improvement due to hydrogen removal in a reactor where catalyst particles were fluidized. Results indicate that a fluidized bed membrane reactor (FBMR) can provide a compact reformer for pure hydrogen production from a liquid hydrocarbon feedstock at moderate temperatures (475-550 °C). Under the experimental conditions investigated, the maximum achieved yield of pure hydrogen was 14.7 moles of pure hydrogen per mole of heptane fed.

  3. Operation of staged membrane oxidation reactor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repasky, John Michael

    2012-10-16

    A method of operating a multi-stage ion transport membrane oxidation system. The method comprises providing a multi-stage ion transport membrane oxidation system with at least a first membrane oxidation stage and a second membrane oxidation stage, operating the ion transport membrane oxidation system at operating conditions including a characteristic temperature of the first membrane oxidation stage and a characteristic temperature of the second membrane oxidation stage; and controlling the production capacity and/or the product quality by changing the characteristic temperature of the first membrane oxidation stage and/or changing the characteristic temperature of the second membrane oxidation stage.

  4. Challege and Opportunities of Membrane Bioelctrochemical Reactors for Wastewater Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are potentially advantageous as an energy-efficient approach for wastewater treatment. Integrating membrane filtration with MFCs could be a viable option for advanced wastewater treatment with a low energy input. Such an integration is termed as membrane bioelectrochemical reactors (MBERs). Comparing to the conventional membrane bioreactors or anaerobic membrane bioreactors, MBER could be a competitive technology, due to the its advantages on energy consumption and...

  5. Recent Advances on Carbon Molecular Sieve Membranes (CMSMs and Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margot A. Llosa Tanco

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbon molecular sieve membranes (CMSMs are an important alternative for gas separation because of their ease of manufacture, high selectivity due to molecular sieve separation, and high permeance. The integration of separation by membranes and reaction in only one unit lead to a high degree of process integration/intensification, with associated benefits of increased energy, production efficiencies and reduced reactor or catalyst volume. This review focuses on recent advances in carbon molecular sieve membranes and their applications in membrane reactors.

  6. Catalytic membranes for CO oxidation in fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandi-Tapia, Giselle; Carrado Gregar, Kathleen; Kizilel, Riza

    2010-06-08

    A hydrogen permeable membrane, which includes a polymer stable at temperatures of about 200 C having clay impregnated with Pt or Au or Ru or Pd particles or mixtures thereof with average diameters of less than about 10 nanometers (nms) is disclosed. The membranes are useful in fuel cells or any device which requires hydrogen to be separated from carbon monoxide.

  7. A novel approach to the design and operation scheduling of heterogeneous catalytic reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghodasara, Kamlesh; Smith, Robin; Hwang, Sungwon

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies have been conducted to reduce the overall level of catalyst deactivation in heterogeneous catalytic reactors, and improve the performance of reactors, such as yield, conversion or selectivity. The methodology generally includes optimization of the following: (1) operating conditions of the reaction system, such as feed temperature, normal operating temperature, pressure, and composition of feed streams; (2) reactor design parameters, such as dimension of the reactor, side stream distribution along the axis of the reactor beds, the mixing ratio of inert catalyst at each bed; and (3) catalyst design parameters, such as the pore size distribution across the pellet, active material distribution, size and shape of the catalyst, etc. Few studies have examined optimization of the overall catalyst reactor performance throughout the catalyst lifetime, considering catalyst deactivation. Furthermore, little attention has been given to the impact of various configurations of reactor networks and scheduling of the reactor operation (i.e., online and offline-regeneration) on the overall reactor performance throughout the catalyst lifetime. Therefore, we developed a range of feasible sequences of reactors and scheduling of reactors for operation and regeneration, and compared the overall reactor performance of multiple cases. Furthermore, a superstructure of reactor networks was developed and optimized to determine the optimum reactor network that shows the maximum overall reactor performance. The operating schedule of each reactor in the network was considered further. Lastly, the methodology was illustrated using a case study of the MTO (methanol to olefin) process

  8. Catalytic-Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Reactor For Methane and Carbon Dioxide Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istadi Istadi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A catalytic - DBD plasma reactor was designed and developed for co-generation of synthesis gas and C2+ hydrocarbons from methane. A hybrid Artificial Neural Network - Genetic Algorithm (ANN-GA was developed to model, simulate and optimize the reactor. Effects of CH4/CO2 feed ratio, total feed flow rate, discharge voltage and reactor wall temperature on the performance of catalytic DBD plasma reactor was explored. The Pareto optimal solutions and corresponding optimal operating parameters ranges based on multi-objectives can be suggested for catalytic DBD plasma reactor owing to two cases, i.e. simultaneous maximization of CH4 conversion and C2+ selectivity, and H2 selectivity and H2/CO ratio. It can be concluded that the hybrid catalytic DBD plasma reactor is potential for co-generation of synthesis gas and higher hydrocarbons from methane and carbon dioxide and showed better than the conventional fixed bed reactor with respect to CH4 conversion, C2+ yield and H2 selectivity for CO2 OCM process. © 2007 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.[Presented at Symposium and Congress of MKICS 2007, 18-19 April 2007, Semarang, Indonesia][How to Cite: I. Istadi, N.A.S. Amin. (2007. Catalytic-Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Reactor For Methane and Carbon Dioxide Conversion. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 2 (2-3: 37-44.  doi:10.9767/bcrec.2.2-3.8.37-44][How to Link/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.2.2-3.8.37-44 || or local: http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/8][Cited by: Scopus 1 |

  9. Achievements of European projects on membrane reactor for hydrogen production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    di Marcoberardino, G.; Binotti, M.; Manzolini, G.; Viviente, J.L.; Arratibel Plazaola, A.; Roses, L.; Gallucci, F.

    2017-01-01

    Membrane reactors for hydrogen production can increase both the hydrogen production efficiency at small scale and the electric efficiency in micro-cogeneration systems when coupled with Polymeric Electrolyte Membrane fuel cells. This paper discusses the achievements of three European projects

  10. Ceramic oxygen transport membrane array reactor and reforming method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Sean M.; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Robinson, Charles; Wilson, Jamie R; Gonzalez, Javier E.; Doraswami, Uttam R.

    2017-10-03

    The invention relates to a commercially viable modular ceramic oxygen transport membrane system for utilizing heat generated in reactively-driven oxygen transport membrane tubes to generate steam, heat process fluid and/or provide energy to carry out endothermic chemical reactions. The system provides for improved thermal coupling of oxygen transport membrane tubes to steam generation tubes or process heater tubes or reactor tubes for efficient and effective radiant heat transfer.

  11. Dense inorganic membranes - studies on transport properties, defect chemistry and catalytic behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Elshof, Johan E.

    1997-01-01

    Oxygen separation with dense oxide membranes may be an attractive method for the production of oxygen from air. Another possible application is the direct supply of oxygen in membrane reactors for the (partial) oxidation of hydrocarbons. The driving force for oxygen permeation through dense mixed

  12. Preliminary design of fusion reactor fuel cleanup system by palladium alloy membrane method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hiroshi; Konishi, Satoshi; Naruse, Yuji

    1981-10-01

    A design of palladium diffuser and Fuel Cleanup System (FCU) for D-T fusion reactor is proposed. Feasibility of palladium alloy membrane method is discussed based on the early studies by the authors. Operating conditions of the palladium diffuser are determined experimentally. Dimensions of the diffuser are estimated from computer simulation. FCU system is designed under the feed conditions of Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The system is composed of Pd-diffusers, catalytic oxidizer, freezer and zink beds, and has some advantages in system layout and operation. This design can readily be extended to other conditions of plasma exhaust gases. (author)

  13. Simulation of a porous ceramic membrane reactor for hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, W.; Ohmori, T.; Yamamoto, T.; Endo, A.; Nakaiwa, M.; Hayakawa, T. [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan); Itoh, N. [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan); Utsunomiya Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry

    2005-08-01

    A systematic simulation study was performed to investigate the performance of a porous ceramic membrane reactor for hydrogen production by means of methane steam reforming. The results show that the methane conversions much higher than the corresponding equilibrium values can be achieved in the membrane reactor due to the selective removal of products from the reaction zone. The comparison of isothermal and non-isothermal model predictions was made. It was found that the isothermal assumption overestimates the reactor performance and the deviation of calculation results between the two models is subject to the operating conditions. The effects of various process parameters such as the reaction temperature, the reaction side pressure, the feed flow rate and the steam to methane molar feed ratio as well as the sweep gas flow rate and the operation modes, on the behavior of membrane reactor were analyzed and discussed. (author)

  14. Catalytic molecularly imprinted polymer membranes: development of the biomimetic sensor for phenols detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeyeva, T A; Slinchenko, O A; Gorbach, L A; Matyushov, V F; Brovko, O O; Piletsky, S A; Sergeeva, L M; Elska, G V

    2010-02-05

    Portable biomimetic sensor devices for the express control of phenols content in water were developed. The synthetic binding sites mimicking active site of the enzyme tyrosinase were formed in the structure of free-standing molecularly imprinted polymer membranes. Molecularly imprinted polymer membranes with the catalytic activity were obtained by co-polymerization of the complex Cu(II)-catechol-urocanic acid ethyl ester with (tri)ethyleneglycoldimethacrylate, and oligourethaneacrylate. Addition of the elastic component oligourethaneacrylate provided formation of the highly cross-linked polymer with the catalytic activity in a form of thin, flexible, and mechanically stable membrane. High accessibility of the artificial catalytic sites for the interaction with the analyzed phenol molecules was achieved due to addition of linear polymer (polyethyleneglycol Mw 20,000) to the initial monomer mixture before the polymerization. As a result, typical semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (semi-IPNs) were formed. The cross-linked component of the semi-IPN was represented by the highly cross-linked catalytic molecularly imprinted polymer, while the linear one was represented by polyethyleneglycol Mw 20,000. Extraction of the linear polymer from the fully formed semi-IPN resulted in formation of large pores in the membranes' structure. Concentration of phenols in the analyzed samples was detected using universal portable device oxymeter with the oxygen electrode in a close contact with the catalytic molecularly imprinted polymer membrane as a transducer. The detection limit of phenols detection using the developed sensor system based on polymers-biomimics with the optimized composition comprised 0.063 mM, while the linear range of the sensor comprised 0.063-1 mM. The working characteristics of the portable sensor devices were investigated. Storage stability of sensor systems at room temperature comprised 12 months (87%). As compared to traditional methods of phenols

  15. Recovery of hydrogen from impurities using a palladium membrane reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willms, R.S.; Okuno, K.

    1993-01-01

    One of the important steps in processing the exhaust from a fusion reactor is recovering tritium which is incorporated into molecules such as water and methane. One device which may prove to be very effective for this purpose is a palladium membrane reactor. This is a reactor which incorporates a Pd/Ag membrane in the reactor geometry. Reactions such as water gas shift, steam reforming and methane cracking can be carried out over the reactor catalyst, and the product hydrogen can be simultaneously removed from the reacting mixture. Because product is removed, greater than usual conversions can be obtained. In addition ultrapure hydrogen is produced, eliminating the need for an additional processing step. A palladium membrane reactor has been built and tested with three different catalysts. Initial results with a Ni-based catalyst show that it is very effective at promoting all three reactions listed above. Under the proper conditions, hydrogen recoveries approaching 100% have been observed. This study serves to experimentally validate the palladium membrane reactor as potentially important tool for fusion fuel processing

  16. Block copolymer hollow fiber membranes with catalytic activity and pH-response

    KAUST Repository

    Hilke, Roland

    2013-08-14

    We fabricated block copolymer hollow fiber membranes with self-assembled, shell-side, uniform pore structures. The fibers in these membranes combined pores able to respond to pH and acting as chemical gates that opened above pH 4, and catalytic activity, achieved by the incorporation of gold nanoparticles. We used a dry/wet spinning process to produce the asymmetric hollow fibers and determined the conditions under which the hollow fibers were optimized to create the desired pore morphology and the necessary mechanical stability. To induce ordered micelle assembly in the doped solution, we identified an ideal solvent mixture as confirmed by small-angle X-ray scattering. We then reduced p-nitrophenol with a gold-loaded fiber to confirm the catalytic performance of the membranes. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  17. Low Temperature Steam Methane Reforming Over Ni Based Catalytic Membrane Prepared by Electroless Palladium Plating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Moon; Hong, Sung Chang; Kim, Sung Su

    2018-09-01

    A Pd/Ni-YSZ porous membrane with different palladium loadings and hydrazine as a reducing reagent was prepared by electroless plating and evaluated for the steam methane reforming activity. The steam-reforming activity of a Ni-YSZ porous membrane was greatly increased by the deposition of 4 g/L palladium in the low-temperature range (600 °C). With an increasing amount of reducing reagent, the Pd clusters were well dispersed on the Ni-YSZ surface and were uniform in size (∼500 nm). The Pd/Ni-YSZ catalytic porous membrane prepared by 1 of Pd/hydrazine ratio possessed an abundant amount of metallic Pd. The optimal palladium loadings and Pd/hydrazine ratio increased the catalytic activity in both the steam-reforming reaction and the Pd dispersion.

  18. Block copolymer hollow fiber membranes with catalytic activity and pH-response

    KAUST Repository

    Hilke, Roland; Neelakanda, Pradeep; Madhavan, Poornima; Vainio, Ulla; Behzad, Ali Reza; Sougrat, Rachid; Nunes, Suzana Pereira; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2013-01-01

    We fabricated block copolymer hollow fiber membranes with self-assembled, shell-side, uniform pore structures. The fibers in these membranes combined pores able to respond to pH and acting as chemical gates that opened above pH 4, and catalytic activity, achieved by the incorporation of gold nanoparticles. We used a dry/wet spinning process to produce the asymmetric hollow fibers and determined the conditions under which the hollow fibers were optimized to create the desired pore morphology and the necessary mechanical stability. To induce ordered micelle assembly in the doped solution, we identified an ideal solvent mixture as confirmed by small-angle X-ray scattering. We then reduced p-nitrophenol with a gold-loaded fiber to confirm the catalytic performance of the membranes. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  19. Coupling membrane pervaporation with a fixed-bed reactor for enhanced esterification of oleic acid with ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Ying; Lv, Enmin; Ma, Lingling; Lu, Jie; Chen, Kexun; Ding, Jincheng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The reactor coupling membrane pervaporation with a fixed-bed reactor was studied. • The factors effecting the esterification of oleic acid were investigated. • NaA zeolite membrane was used for dehydration in the coupled reactor. - Abstract: Process intensification through membrane pervaporation (PV) integrated with a fixed-bed reactor could be successfully applied to the esterification of oleic acid and ethanol, which is a crucial step in the biodiesel synthesis using waste oil and grease as resource. The properties of the NaA zeolite membrane such as structure, formulation and separation were investigated by scanning electronic microscopy–energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM–EDS), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and PV dehydration. Results showed that the NaA zeolite membrane had good separating property for removing water from the organics mixture. The operating conditions were optimized as the ethanol to oleic acid molar ratio of 15:1, feedstock flow rate of 1.0 ml/min, reaction temperature of 80.0 °C and catalyst bed height of 132 mm. The final conversion of oleic acid increased from 84.23% to 87.18% by PV using the NaA zeolite membrane at 24.0 h of operation. The membrane showed good PV performance after used for eight successive runs in the PV-assisted esterification. The resin exhibited a much high catalytic activity and operation stability after used for 100 h in the consecutive single pass fixed-bed esterification.

  20. N2O Catalytic Decomposition – from Laboratory Experiment to Industry Reactor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Obalová, L.; Jirátová, Květa; Karásková, K.; Chromčáková, Ž.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 191, č. 1 (2012), s. 116-120 ISSN 0920-5861 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01020336 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : N2O * catalytic decomposition * fixed bed reactor Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.980, year: 2012

  1. Prediction of Improved Performance of Catalytic Hydrogenation Reactor by Periodic Modulation of the Feed Rate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Staněk, Vladimír; Hanika, Jiří; Jiřičný, Vladimír; Stavárek, Petr; Tukač, V.; Lederer, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 3 (2009), s. 251-257 ISSN 1451-9372 R&D Projects: GA MPO FT-TA/039 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : trickle bed * feed modulation * catalytic reactor Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  2. Simulation and calculation of three-reactor system of catalytic reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rikalovska, Tatjana; Markovska, Liljana; Meshko, Vera; Poposka, Filimena

    1999-01-01

    The process of catalytic reforming has been operated for quite a long time, one can not always find real data for the kinetics and thermodynamics of the reactions that take place during the catalytic reforming process in order to facilitate the designing of reactor system or its simulation in a wide:ran e of process parameters. Kinetic and thermodynamic data have been collected for the reactions that take place during the catalytic reforming process. The stress has been pointed on four major reactions: dehydrogenation of naphthenes (aromatization), dehydrocyclization of paraffins and hydrocracking of naphthenes and paraffins. On the base of such a kinetic model, the reforming process has been described with a system of differential equations. For the purpose of solving these equations computer programs for simulation of a three-reactor system for adiabatic operation of the reactors. The computer simulation of the mathematical model of this three-reactor system has been accomplished by use of the ISIM-dynamic simulator. The results obtained out of the simulation agree very good with the data of the real process of catalytic reforming in OKTA Crude Oil Refinery in Skopje, Macedonia. (Author)

  3. Catalytic fast pyrolysis of white oak wood in-situ using a bubbling fluidized bed reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalytic fast pyrolysis was performed on white oak wood using two zeolite-type catalysts as bed material in a bubbling fluidized bed reactor. The two catalysts chosen, based on a previous screening study, were Ca2+ exchanged Y54 (Ca-Y54) and a proprietary ß-zeolite type catalyst (catalyst M) both ...

  4. The Membrane Gradostat Reactor: Secondary metabolite production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This manuscript focuses on the aspect of a membrane gradostat as an entirely different concept compared to submerged hollow fibre modules. The use of membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology is rapidly advancing in the wastewater treatment industries. However, this is not the case in the biopharmaceutical ...

  5. Methanol steam-reforming in a catalytic fixed bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duesterwald, H G; Hoehlein, B; Kraut, H; Meusinger, J; Peters, R [Research Centre Juelich (KFA) (Germany). Inst. of Energy Process Engineering; Stimming, U [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Inst. fuer Festkoerperphysik und Techn. Phys.

    1997-12-01

    Designing an appropriate methanol steam reformer requires detailed knowledge about the processes within such a reactor. Thus, the axial temperature and concentration gradients and catalyst ageing were investigated. It was found that for a fresh catalyst load, the catalyst located in the reactor entrance was most active during the experiment. The activity of this part of the catalyst bed decreased after some time of operation due to ageing. With further operation, the most active zone moved through the catalyst bed. From the results concerning hydrogen production and catalyst degradation, the necessary amount of catalyst for a mobile PEMFC-system can be estimated. (orig.)

  6. Biofilm formation on membranes used for membrane aerated biological reactors, under different stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade-Molinar, C.; Ballinas-Casarrubias, M. L.; Solis-Martinez, F. J.; Rivera-Chavira, B. E.; Cuevas-Rodirguez, G.; Nevarez-Moorillon, G. V.

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial biofilm play an important role in wastewater treatment processes, and have been optimized in the membrane aerated biofilm reactors (MABR). In MABR, a hydrophobic membrane is used as support for the formation of biofilm, and supplements enough aeration to assure an aerobic process. (Author)

  7. Integrated gasification gas combined cycle plant with membrane reactors: Technological and economical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amelio, Mario; Morrone, Pietropaolo; Gallucci, Fausto; Basile, Angelo

    2007-01-01

    In the present work, the capture and storage of carbon dioxide from the fossil fuel power plant have been considered. The main objective was to analyze the thermodynamic performances and the technological aspects of two integrated gasification gas combined cycle plants (IGCC), as well as to give a forecast of the investment costs for the plants and the resulting energy consumptions. The first plant considered is an IGCC* plant (integrated gasification gas combined cycle plant with traditional shift reactors) characterized by the traditional water gas shift reactors and a CO 2 physical adsorption system followed by the power section. The second one is an IGCC M plant (integrated gasification gas combined cycle plant with membrane reactor) where the coal thermal input is the same as the first one, but the traditional shift reactors and the physical adsorption unit are replaced by catalytic palladium membrane reactors (CMR). In the present work, a mono-dimensional computational model of the membrane reactor was proposed to simulate and evaluate the capability of the IGCC M plant to capture carbon dioxide. The energetic performances, efficiency and net power of the IGCC* and IGCC M plants were, thus, compared, assuming as standard a traditional IGCC plant without carbon dioxide capture. The economical aspects of the three plants were compared through an economical analysis. Since the IGCC* and IGCC M plants have additional costs related to the capture and disposal of the carbon dioxide, a Carbon Tax (adopted in some countries like Sweden) proportional to the number of kilograms of carbon dioxide released in the environment was assumed. According to the economical analysis, the IGCC M plant proved to be more convenient than the IGCC* one

  8. Periodic Operation of Three-Phase Catalytic Reactors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Silveston, P.T.; Hanika, Jiří

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 6 (2005), s. 1105-1142 ISSN 0008-4034 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : three-phase reactors * trickle bed * periodic operation Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 0.574, year: 2005

  9. Membrane reactor technology for ultrapure hydrogen production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patil, Charudatta Subhash

    2005-01-01

    The suitability of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) for stationary and vehicular applications because of its low operating temperatures, compactness, higher power density, cleaner exhausts and higher efficiencies compared to conventional internal combustion engines and gas turbines

  10. Ceramic membrane microfilter as an immobilized enzyme reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, T J; Gainer, J L; Kirwan, D J

    1992-10-01

    This study investigated the use of a ceramic microfilter as an immobilized enzyme reactor. In this type of reactor, the substrate solution permeates the ceramic membrane and reacts with an enzyme that has been immobilized within its porous interior. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of permeation rate on the observed kinetic parameters for the immobilized enzyme in order to assess possible mass transfer influences or shear effects. Kinetic parameters were found to be independent of flow rate for immobilized penicillinase and lactate dehydrogenase. Therefore, neither mass transfer nor shear effects were observed for enzymes immobilized within the ceramic membrane. Both the residence time and the conversion in the microfilter reactor could be controlled simply by regulating the transmembrane pressure drop. This study suggests that a ceramic microfilter reactor can be a desirable alternative to a packed bed of porous particles, especially when an immobilized enzyme has high activity and a low Michaelis constant.

  11. Research and proposal on selective catalytic reduction reactor optimization for industrial boiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yiming; Li, Jian; He, Hong

    2017-08-24

    The advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software STAR-CCM+ was used to simulate a denitrification (De-NOx) project for a boiler in this paper, and the simulation result was verified based on a physical model. Two selective catalytic reduction (SCR) reactors were developed: reactor 1 was optimized and reactor 2 was developed based on reactor 1. Various indicators, including gas flow field, ammonia concentration distribution, temperature distribution, gas incident angle, and system pressure drop were analyzed. The analysis indicated that reactor 2 was of outstanding performance and could simplify developing greatly. Ammonia injection grid (AIG), the core component of the reactor, was studied; three AIGs were developed and their performances were compared and analyzed. The result indicated that AIG 3 was of the best performance. The technical indicators were proposed for SCR reactor based on the study. Flow filed distribution, gas incident angle, and temperature distribution are subjected to SCR reactor shape to a great extent, and reactor 2 proposed in this paper was of outstanding performance; ammonia concentration distribution is subjected to ammonia injection grid (AIG) shape, and AIG 3 could meet the technical indicator of ammonia concentration without mounting ammonia mixer. The developments above on the reactor and the AIG are both of great application value and social efficiency.

  12. Lagrangian Approach to Study Catalytic Fluidized Bed Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madi, Hossein; Hossein Madi Team; Marcelo Kaufman Rechulski Collaboration; Christian Ludwig Collaboration; Tilman Schildhauer Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    Lagrangian approach of fluidized bed reactors is a method, which simulates the movement of catalyst particles (caused by the fluidization) by changing the gas composition around them. Application of such an investigation is in the analysis of the state of catalysts and surface reactions under quasi-operando conditions. The hydrodynamics of catalyst particles within a fluidized bed reactor was studied to improve a Lagrangian approach. A fluidized bed methanation employed in the production of Synthetic Natural Gas from wood was chosen as the case study. The Lagrangian perspective was modified and improved to include different particle circulation patterns, which were investigated through this study. Experiments were designed to evaluate the concepts of the model. The results indicate that the setup is able to perform the designed experiments and a good agreement between the simulation and the experimental results were observed. It has been shown that fluidized bed reactors, as opposed to fixed beds, can be used to avoid the deactivation of the methanation catalyst due to carbon deposits. Carbon deposition on the catalysts tested with the Lagrangian approach was investigated by temperature programmed oxidation (TPO) analysis of ex-situ catalyst samples. This investigation was done to identify the effects of particles velocity and their circulation patterns on the amount and type of deposited carbon on the catalyst surface. Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne(EPFL), Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI)

  13. Investigation of a submerged membrane reactor for continuous biomass hydrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malmali, Mohammadmahdi; Stickel, Jonathan; Wickramasinghe, S. Ranil

    2015-10-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose is one of the most costly steps in the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass. Use of a submerged membrane reactor has been investigated for continuous enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose thus allowing for greater use of the enzyme compared to a batch process. Moreover, the submerged 0.65 μm polyethersulfone microfiltration membrane avoids the need to pump a cellulose slurry through an external loop. Permeate containing glucose is withdrawn at pressures slightly below atmospheric pressure. The membrane rejects cellulose particles and cellulase enzyme bound to cellulose. Our proof-of-concept experiments have been conducted using a modified, commercially available membrane filtration cell under low fluxes around 75 L/(m2 h). The operating flux is determined by the rate of glucose production. Maximizing the rate of glucose production involves optimizing mixing, reactor holding time, and the time the feed is held in the reactor prior to commencement of membrane filtration and continuous operation. When we maximize glucose production rates it will require that we operate it at low glucose concentration in order to minimize the adverse effects of product inhibition. Consequently practical submerged membrane systems will require a combined sugar concentration step in order to concentrate the product sugar stream prior to fermentation.

  14. Ceramic membrane reactor with two reactant gases at different pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Mieville, Rodney L.

    2001-01-01

    The invention is a ceramic membrane reactor for syngas production having a reaction chamber, an inlet in the reactor for natural gas intake, a plurality of oxygen permeating ceramic slabs inside the reaction chamber with each slab having a plurality of passages paralleling the gas flow for transporting air through the reaction chamber, a manifold affixed to one end of the reaction chamber for intake of air connected to the slabs, a second manifold affixed to the reactor for removing the oxygen depleted air, and an outlet in the reaction chamber for removing syngas.

  15. Use of a Ceramic Membrane to Improve the Performance of Two-Separate-Phase Biocatalytic Membrane Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Ranieri, G; Mazzei, R; Wu, Z; Li, K; Giorno, L

    2016-01-01

    Biocatalytic membrane reactors (BMR) combining reaction and separation within the same unit have many advantages over conventional reactor designs. Ceramic membranes are an attractive alternative to polymeric membranes in membrane biotechnology due to their high chemical, thermal and mechanical resistance. Another important use is their potential application in a biphasic membrane system, where support solvent resistance is highly needed. In this work, the preparation of asymmetric ceramic ho...

  16. One Step Biomass Gas Reforming-Shift Separation Membrane Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Michael J. [Gas Technology Institute; Souleimanova, Razima [Gas Technology Institute

    2012-12-28

    GTI developed a plan where efforts were concentrated in 4 major areas: membrane material development, membrane module development, membrane process development, and membrane gasifier scale-up. GTI assembled a team of researchers to work in each area. Task 1.1 Ceramic Membrane Synthesis and Testing was conducted by Arizona State University (ASU), Task 1.2 Metallic Membrane Synthesis and Testing was conducted by the U.S. National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Task 1.3 was conducted by SCHOTT, and GTI was to test all membranes that showed potential. The initial focus of the project was concentrated on membrane material development. Metallic and glass-based membranes were identified as hydrogen selective membranes under the conditions of the biomass gasification, temperatures above 700C and pressures up to 30 atmospheres. Membranes were synthesized by arc-rolling for metallic type membranes and incorporating Pd into a glass matrix for glass membranes. Testing for hydrogen permeability properties were completed and the effects of hydrogen sulfide and carbon monoxide were investigated for perspective membranes. The initial candidate membrane of Pd80Cu20 chosen in 2008 was selected for preliminary reactor design and cost estimates. Although the H2A analysis results indicated a $1.96 cost per gge H2 based on a 5A (micron) thick PdCu membrane, there was not long-term operation at the required flux to satisfy the go/no go decision. Since the future PSA case yielded a $2.00/gge H2, DOE decided that there was insufficient savings compared with the already proven PSA technology to further pursue the membrane reactor design. All ceramic membranes synthesized by ASU during the project showed low hydrogen flux as compared with metallic membranes. The best ceramic membrane showed hydrogen permeation flux of 0.03 SCFH/ft2 at the required process conditions while the metallic membrane, Pd80Cu20 showed a flux of 47.2 SCFH/ft2 (3 orders of magnitude difference). Results from

  17. Fouling-induced enzyme immobilization for membrane reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Jianquan; Meyer, Anne S.; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    2013-01-01

    A simple enzyme immobilization method accomplished by promoting membrane fouling formation is proposed. The immobilization method is based on adsorption and entrapment of the enzymes in/on the membrane. To evaluate the concept, two membrane orientations, skin layer facing feed (normal mode......, but the reverse mode allowed for higher enzyme loading and stability, and irreversible fouling (i.e. pore blocking) developed more readily in the support structure than in the skin layer. Compared with an enzymatic membrane reactor (EMR) with free enzymes, the novel EMR with enzymes immobilized in membrane......) and support layer facing feed (reverse mode), were used to immobilize alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, EC 1.1.1.1) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, EC 1.4.1.3), respectively. The nature of the fouling in each mode was determined by filtration fouling models. The permeate flux was larger in the normal mode...

  18. Simulation of Water Gas Shift Zeolite Membrane Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makertiharta, I. G. B. N.; Rizki, Z.; Zunita, Megawati; Dharmawijaya, P. T.

    2017-07-01

    The search of alternative energy sources keeps growing from time to time. Various alternatives have been introduced to reduce the use of fossil fuel, including hydrogen. Many pathways can be used to produce hydrogen. Among all of those, the Water Gas Shift (WGS) reaction is the most common pathway to produce high purity hydrogen. The WGS technique faces a downstream processing challenge due to the removal hydrogen from the product stream itself since it contains a mixture of hydrogen, carbon dioxide and also the excess reactants. An integrated process using zeolite membrane reactor has been introduced to improve the performance of the process by selectively separate the hydrogen whilst boosting the conversion. Furthermore, the zeolite membrane reactor can be further improved via optimizing the process condition. This paper discusses the simulation of Zeolite Membrane Water Gas Shift Reactor (ZMWGSR) with variation of process condition to achieve an optimum performance. The simulation can be simulated into two consecutive mechanisms, the reaction prior to the permeation of gases through the zeolite membrane. This paper is focused on the optimization of the process parameters (e.g. temperature, initial concentration) and also membrane properties (e.g. pore size) to achieve an optimum product specification (concentration, purity).

  19. [Kinetics of catalytic wet air oxidation of phenol in trickle bed reactor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guang-ming; Zhao, Jian-fu; Wang, Hua; Zhao, Xiu-hua; Zhou, Yang-yuan

    2004-05-01

    By using a trickle bed reactor which was designed by the authors, the catalytic wet air oxidation reaction of phenol on CuO/gamma-Al2O3 catalyst was studied. The results showed that in mild operation conditions (at temperature of 180 degrees C, pressure of 3 MPa, liquid feed rate of 1.668 L x h(-1) and oxygen feed rate of 160 L x h(-1)), the removal of phenol can be over 90%. The curve of phenol conversion is similar to "S" like autocatalytic reaction, and is accordance with chain reaction of free radical. The kinetic model of pseudo homogenous reactor fits the catalytic wet air oxidation reaction of phenol. The effects of initial concentration of phenol, liquid feed rate and temperature for reaction also were investigated.

  20. Effect of Catalytic Cylinders on Autothermal Reforming of Methane for Hydrogen Production in a Microchamber Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfei Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new multicylinder microchamber reactor is designed on autothermal reforming of methane for hydrogen production, and its performance and thermal behavior, that is, based on the reaction mechanism, is numerically investigated by varying the cylinder radius, cylinder spacing, and cylinder layout. The results show that larger cylinder radius can promote reforming reaction; the mass fraction of methane decreased from 26% to 21% with cylinder radius from 0.25 mm to 0.75 mm; compact cylinder spacing corresponds to more catalytic surface and the time to steady state is decreased from 40 s to 20 s; alteration of staggered and aligned cylinder layout at constant inlet flow rates does not result in significant difference in reactor performance and it can be neglected. The results provide an indication and optimize performance of reactor; it achieves higher conversion compared with other reforming reactors.

  1. Effect of catalytic cylinders on autothermal reforming of methane for hydrogen production in a microchamber reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yunfei; Guo, Hongliang; Zhang, Li; Zhu, Junchen; Yang, Zhongqing; Tang, Qiang; Ji, Xin

    2014-01-01

    A new multicylinder microchamber reactor is designed on autothermal reforming of methane for hydrogen production, and its performance and thermal behavior, that is, based on the reaction mechanism, is numerically investigated by varying the cylinder radius, cylinder spacing, and cylinder layout. The results show that larger cylinder radius can promote reforming reaction; the mass fraction of methane decreased from 26% to 21% with cylinder radius from 0.25 mm to 0.75 mm; compact cylinder spacing corresponds to more catalytic surface and the time to steady state is decreased from 40 s to 20 s; alteration of staggered and aligned cylinder layout at constant inlet flow rates does not result in significant difference in reactor performance and it can be neglected. The results provide an indication and optimize performance of reactor; it achieves higher conversion compared with other reforming reactors.

  2. Membrane contactor/separator for an advanced ozone membrane reactor for treatment of recalcitrant organic pollutants in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Wai Kit; Jouët, Justine; Heng, Samuel; Yeung, King Lun; Schrotter, Jean-Christophe

    2012-01-01

    An advanced ozone membrane reactor that synergistically combines membrane distributor for ozone gas, membrane contactor for pollutant adsorption and reaction, and membrane separator for clean water production is described. The membrane reactor represents an order of magnitude improvement over traditional semibatch reactor design and is capable of complete conversion of recalcitrant endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in water at less than three minutes residence time. Coating the membrane contactor with alumina and hydrotalcite (Mg/Al=3) adsorbs and traps the organics in the reaction zone resulting in 30% increase of total organic carbon (TOC) removal. Large surface area coating that diffuses surface charges from adsorbed polar organic molecules is preferred as it reduces membrane polarization that is detrimental to separation. - Graphical abstract: Advanced ozone membrane reactor synergistically combines membrane distributor for ozone, membrane contactor for sorption and reaction and membrane separator for clean water production to achieve an order of magnitude enhancement in treatment performance compared to traditional ozone reactor. Highlights: ► Novel reactor using membranes for ozone distributor, reaction contactor and water separator. ► Designed to achieve an order of magnitude enhancement over traditional reactor. ► Al 2 O 3 and hydrotalcite coatings capture and trap pollutants giving additional 30% TOC removal. ► High surface area coating prevents polarization and improves membrane separation and life.

  3. Recent advances in AFB biomass gasification pilot plant with catalytic reactors in a downstream slip flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aznar, M P; Gil, J; Martin, J A; Frances, E; Olivares, A; Caballero, M A; Perez, P [Saragossa Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Chemistry and Environment; Corella, J [Madrid Univ. (Spain)

    1997-12-31

    A new 3rd generation pilot plant is being used for hot catalytic raw gas cleaning. It is based on a 15 cm. i.d. fluidized bed with biomass throughputs of 400-650 kg/h.m{sup 2}. Gasification is performed using mixtures of steam and oxygen. The produced gas is passed in a slip flow by two reactors in series containing a calcined dolomite and a commercial reforming catalyst. Tars are periodically sampled and analysed after the three reactors. Tar conversions of 99.99 % and a 300 % increase of the hydrogen content in the gas are obtained. (author) (2 refs.)

  4. Recent advances in AFB biomass gasification pilot plant with catalytic reactors in a downstream slip flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aznar, M.P.; Gil, J.; Martin, J.A.; Frances, E.; Olivares, A.; Caballero, M.A.; Perez, P. [Saragossa Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Chemistry and Environment; Corella, J. [Madrid Univ. (Spain)

    1996-12-31

    A new 3rd generation pilot plant is being used for hot catalytic raw gas cleaning. It is based on a 15 cm. i.d. fluidized bed with biomass throughputs of 400-650 kg/h.m{sup 2}. Gasification is performed using mixtures of steam and oxygen. The produced gas is passed in a slip flow by two reactors in series containing a calcined dolomite and a commercial reforming catalyst. Tars are periodically sampled and analysed after the three reactors. Tar conversions of 99.99 % and a 300 % increase of the hydrogen content in the gas are obtained. (author) (2 refs.)

  5. μ-reactor measurements of catalytic activity of mass selected nano-particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riedel, Jakob Nordheim

    The work of this thesis revolves around catalytic activity measurements of nano-particles tested using a μ-reactor platform, developed and produced at DTU, in a collaboration between CINF and Nanotech. The thesis contains the results from two separate research projects; both utilising μ-reactors ......The work of this thesis revolves around catalytic activity measurements of nano-particles tested using a μ-reactor platform, developed and produced at DTU, in a collaboration between CINF and Nanotech. The thesis contains the results from two separate research projects; both utilising μ......-reactors in combination with surface science techniques and computer simulations. The first project described is a study of hydrogen dissociation on mono-disperse platinum clusters. The second project studies methanation from carbon monoxide and hydrogen on nano-particles of nickel-iron alloys. The second study is a work...... in progress, and the corresponding chapter aims to summarise the results so far. Other projects are not included in the thesis because they are inconclusive or dead ends. Hydrogen dissociation was studied by the H2/D2 exchange reaction on SiO2-supported mono-disperse platinum clusters in a -reactor...

  6. System and method for air temperature control in an oxygen transport membrane based reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Sean M

    2016-09-27

    A system and method for air temperature control in an oxygen transport membrane based reactor is provided. The system and method involves introducing a specific quantity of cooling air or trim air in between stages in a multistage oxygen transport membrane based reactor or furnace to maintain generally consistent surface temperatures of the oxygen transport membrane elements and associated reactors. The associated reactors may include reforming reactors, boilers or process gas heaters.

  7. Low temperature catalytic combustion of propane over Pt-based catalyst with inverse opal microstructure in microchannel reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guan, G.; Zapf, R.; Kolb, G.A.; Men, Y.; Hessel, V.; Löwe, H.; Ye, J.; Zentel, R.

    2007-01-01

    novel Pt-based catalyst with highly regular, periodic inverse opal microstructure was fabricated in a microchannel reactor, and catalytic testing revealed excellent conversion and stable activity for propane combustion at low temperatures

  8. A model of protocell based on the introduction of a semi-permeable membrane in a stochastic model of catalytic reaction networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Villani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work we introduce some preliminary analyses on the role of a semi-permeable membrane in the dynamics of a stochastic model of catalytic reaction sets (CRSs of molecules. The results of the simulations performed on ensembles of randomly generated reaction schemes highlight remarkable differences between this very simple protocell description model and the classical case of the continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR. In particular, in the CSTR case, distinct simulations with the same reaction scheme reach the same dynamical equilibrium, whereas, in the protocell case, simulations with identical reaction schemes can reach very different dynamical states, despite starting from the same initial conditions.

  9. A forced-flow membrane reactor for transfructosylation using ceramic membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizawa, K; Nakajima, M; Nabetani, H

    2000-04-05

    A forced-flow membrane reactor system for transfructosylation was investigated using several ceramic membranes having different pore sizes. beta-Fructofuranosidase from Aspergillus niger ATCC 20611 was immobilized chemically to the inner surface of a ceramic membrane activated by a silane-coupling reagent. Sucrose solution was forced through the ceramic membrane by crossflow filtration while transfructosylation took place. The saccharide composition of the product, which was a mixture of fructooligosaccharides (FOS), was a function of the permeate flux, which was easily controlled by pressure. Using 0.2 micrometer pore size of symmetric ceramic membrane, the volumetric productivity obtained was 3.87 kg m(-3) s(-1), which was 560 times higher than that in a reported batch system, with a short residence time of 11 s. The half-life of the immobilized enzyme in the membrane was estimated to be 35 days by a long-term operation. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  10. Anaerobic membrane bio-reactors for severe industrial effluents and urban spill waters : The AMBROSIUS project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Lier, J.B.; Ozgun, H.; Ersahin, M.E.; Dereli, R.K.

    2013-01-01

    With growing application experiences from aerobic membrane bioreactors, combination of membrane and anaerobic processes become more and more attractive and feasible. In anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs), biomass and particulate organic matter are physically retained inside the reactor,

  11. A novel catalytic ceramic membrane fabricated with CuMn2O4 particles for emerging UV absorbers degradation from aqueous and membrane fouling elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yang; Song, Zilong; Xu, Bingbing; Li, Yanning; Qi, Fei; Croue, Jean-Philippe; Yuan, Donghai

    2018-02-15

    A novel catalytic ceramic membrane (CM) for improving ozonation and filtration performance was fabricated by surface coating CuMn 2 O 4 particles on a tubular CM. The degradation of ultraviolet (UV) absorbers, reduction of toxicity, elimination of membrane fouling and catalytic mechanism were investigated. The characterization results suggested the particles were well-fixed on membrane surface. The modified membrane showed improved benzophenone-3 removal performance (from 28% to 34%), detoxification (EC 50 as 12.77%) and the stability of catalytic activity. In the degradation performance of model UV absorbers, the developed membrane significantly decreased the UV254 and DOC values in effluent. Compared with a virgin CM, this CM ozonation increased water flux as 29.9% by in-situ degrade effluent organic matters. The CuMn 2 O 4 modified membrane enhanced the ozone self-decompose to generate O 2 - and initiated the chain reaction of ozone decomposition, and subsequently reacted with molecule ozone to produce OH. Additionally, CM was able to promote the interaction between ozone and catalyst/organic chemicals to form H 2 O 2 that promoted the formation of OH. This catalytic ceramic membrane combining with ozonation showed potential applications in emerging pollutant degradation and membrane fouling elimination, and acted as a novel ternary technology for wastewater treatment and water reuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Dry Reforming of Methane Using a Nickel Membrane Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas M. Leimert

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Dry reforming is a very interesting process for synthesis gas generation from CH 4 and CO 2 but suffers from low hydrogen yields due to the reverse water–gas shift reaction (WGS. For this reason, membranes are often used for hydrogen separation, which in turn leads to coke formation at the process temperatures suitable for the membranes. To avoid these problems, this work shows the possibility of using nickel self-supported membranes for hydrogen separation at a temperature of 800 ∘ C. The higher temperature effectively suppresses coke formation. The paper features the analysis of the dry reforming reaction in a nickel membrane reactor without additional catalyst. The measurement campaign targeted coke formation and conversion of the methane feedstock. The nickel approximately 50% without hydrogen separation. The hydrogen removal led to an increase in methane conversion to 60–90%.

  13. WATER-GAS SHIFT KINETICS OVER IRON OXIDE CATALYSTS AT MEMBRANE REACTOR CONDITIONS; A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carl R.F. Lund

    2001-01-01

    This report covers the second year of a project investigating water-gas shift catalysts for use in membrane reactors. It has been established that a simple iron high temperature shift catalyst becomes ineffective in a membrane reactor because the reaction rate is severely inhibited by the build-up of the product CO(sub 2). During the past year, an improved microkinetic model for water-gas shift over iron oxide was developed. Its principal advantage over prior models is that it displays the correct asymptotic behavior at all temperatures and pressures as the composition approaches equilibrium. This model has been used to explore whether it might be possible to improve the performance of iron high temperature shift catalysts under conditions of high CO(sub 2) partial pressure. The model predicts that weakening the surface oxygen bond strength by less than 5% should lead to higher catalytic activity as well as resistance to rate inhibition at higher CO(sub 2) partial pressures. Two promoted iron high temperature shift catalysts were studied. Ceria and copper were each studied as promoters since there were indications in the literature that they might weaken the surface oxygen bond strength. Ceria was found to be ineffective as a promoter, but preliminary results with copper promoted FeCr high temperature shift catalyst show it to be much more resistant to rate inhibition by high levels of CO(sub 2). Finally, the performance of sulfided CoMo/Al(sub 2)O(sub 3) catalysts under conditions of high CO(sub 2) partial pressure was simulated using an available microkinetic model for water-gas shift over this catalyst. The model suggests that this catalyst might be quite effective in a medium temperature water-gas shift membrane reactor, provided that the membrane was resistant to the H(sub 2)S that is required in the feed

  14. Numerical Investigations of the Influencing Factors on a Rotary Regenerator-Type Catalytic Combustion Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenkun Sang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-low calorific value gas (ULCVG not only poses a problem for environmental pollution, but also createsa waste of energy resources if not utilized. A novel reactor, a rotary regenerator-type catalytic combustion reactor (RRCCR, which integrates the functions of a regenerator and combustor into one component, is proposed for the elimination and utilization of ULCVG. Compared to reversal-flow reactor, the operation of the RRCCR is achieved by incremental rotation rather than by valve control, and it has many outstanding characteristics, such as a compact structure, flexible application, and limited energy for circulation. Due to the effects of the variation of the gas flow and concentration on the performance of the reactor, different inlet velocities and concentrations are analyzed by numerical investigations. The results reveal that the two factors have a major impact on the performance of the reactor. The performance of the reactor is more sensitive to the increase of velocity and the decrease of methane concentration. When the inlet concentration (2%vol. is reduced by 50%, to maintain the methane conversion over 90%, the inlet velocity can be reduced by more than three times. Finally, the highly-efficient and stable operating envelope of the reactor is drawn.

  15. Low concentration volatile organic pollutants removal in combined adsorber-desorber-catalytic reactor system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsenijević Zorana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs from numerous emission sources is of crucial importance due to more rigorous demands on air quality. Different technologies can be used to treat the VOCs from effluent gases: absorption, physical adsorption, open flame combustion, thermal and catalytic incineration. Their appropriateness for the specific process depends on several factors such as efficiency, energy consumption, secondary pollution, capital investments etc. The distinctive features of the catalytic combustion are high efficiency and selectivity toward be­nign products, low energy consumption and absence of secondary polluti­on. The supported noble catalysts are widely used for catalytic incineration due to their low ignition temperatures and high thermal and chemical stability. In our combined system adsorption and desorption are applied in the spouted bed with draft tube (SBDT unit. The annular zone, loaded with sorbent, was divided in adsorption and desorption section. Draft tube enabled sorbent recirculation between sections. Combustion of desorbed gases to CO2 and water vapor are realized in additive catalytic reactor. This integrated device provided low concentrations VOCs removal with reduced energy consumption. Experiments were conducted on a pilot unit of 220 m3/h nominal capacity. The sorbent was activated carbon, type K81/B - Trayal Corporation, Krusevac. A sphere shaped commercial Pt/Al2O3 catalyst with "egg-shell" macro-distribution was used for the investigation of xylene deep oxidation. Within this paper the investigations of removal of xylene vapors, a typical pollutant in production of liquid pesticides, in combined adsorber/desorber/catalytic reactor system is presented.

  16. Reverse-Bumpy-Ball-Type-Nanoreactor-Loaded Nylon Membranes as Peroxidase-Mimic Membrane Reactors for a Colorimetric Assay for H₂O₂.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Ying; Jiao, Xiangyu; Yang, Hankun; Wen, Yongqiang; Su, Lei; Zhang, Xueji

    2016-04-01

    Herein we report for the first time fabrication of reverse bumpy ball (RBB)-type-nanoreactor-based flexible peroxidase-mimic membrane reactors (MRs). The RBB-type nanoreactors with gold nanoparticles embedded in the inner walls of carbon shells were loaded on nylon membranes through a facile filtration approach. The as-prepared flexible catalytic membrane was studied as a peroxidase-mimic MR. It was found that the obtained peroxidase-mimic MR could exhibit several advantages over natural enzymes, such as facile and good recyclability, long-term stability and easy storage. Moreover, the RBB NS-modified nylon MRs as a peroxidase mimic provide a useful colorimetric assay for H₂O₂.

  17. APPLICATION OF MEMBRANE SORPTION REACTOR TECHNOLOGY FOR LRW MANAGEMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glagolenko, Yuri; Dzekun, Evgeny; Myasoedovg, Boris; Gelis, Vladimir; Kozlitin, Evgeny; Milyutin, Vitaly; Trusov, Lev; Rengel, Mike; Mackay, Stewart M.; Johnson, Michael E.

    2003-01-01

    A new membrane-sorption technology has been recently developed and industrially implemented in Russia for the treatment of the Liquid (Low-Level) Radioactive Waste (LRW). The first step of the technology is a precipitation of the radionuclides and/or their adsorption onto sorbents of small particle size. The second step is filtration of the precipitate/sorbent through the metal-ceramic membrane, Trumem.. The unique feature of the technology is a Membrane-Sorption Reactor (MSR), in which the precipitation / sorption and the filtration of the radionuclides occur simultaneously, in one stage. This results in high efficiency, high productivity and compactness of the equipment, which are the obvious advantages of the developed technology. Two types of MSR based on Flat Membranes device and Centrifugal Membrane device were developed. The advantages and disadvantages of application of each type of the reactors are discussed. The MSR technology has been extensively tested and efficiently implemented at ''Mayak '' nuclear facility near Chelyabinsk, Russia as well as at other Russian sites. The results of this and other applications of the MSR technology at the different Russian nuclear facilities are discussed. The results of the first industrial applications of the MSR technology for radioactive waste treatment in Russia and analysis of the available information about LRW accumulated in other countries imply that this technology can be successfully used for the Low Level Radioactive Waste treatment in the USA and in other nuclear countries

  18. Improving carbon tolerance of Ni-YSZ catalytic porous membrane by palladium addition for low temperature steam methane reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Moon; Won, Jong Min; Kim, Geo Jong; Lee, Seung Hyun; Kim, Sung Su; Hong, Sung Chang

    2017-10-01

    Palladium was added on the Ni-YSZ catalytic porous membrane by wet impregnation and electroless plating methods. Its surface morphology characteristics and carbon deposition properties for the low temperature steam methane reforming were investigated. The addition of palladium could obviously be enhanced the catalytic activity as well as carbon tolerance of the Ni-YSZ porous membrane. The porous membranes were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), H2 temperature-programmed reduction (H2-TPR), CH4 temperature-programmed reduction (CH4-TPR), and O2 temperature-programmed oxidation (O2-TPO). It was found that the Pd-Ni-YSZ catalytic porous membrane showed the superior stability as well as the deposition of carbon on the surface during carbon dissociation adsorption at 650 °C was also suppressed.

  19. A microcatalytic flow reactor for the study of heterogeneous catalytic reactions at elevated pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belyi, A S; Fomichev, Yu V; Duplyakin, V K; Alfeev, V S

    1977-07-01

    A microcatalytic flow reactor for the study of heterogeneous catalytic reactions at elevated pressures (i.e., up to 40 atm) and nearly isothermal conditions up to 600/sup 0/C was designed for the conversion of small quantities of petrochemical feeds or feed mixtures at uniform, controllable flow rates of 0.5-5.0 cc/hr, for direct gas-chromatographic analysis of product samples at the reactor outlet, and for continuous monitoring of the degree of conversion in processes that evolve or absorb hydrogen. The device includes a feed injection system with a unique sealing feature that ensures a constant flow of liquid from a feed buret under positive displacement by a counterweight piston at very low rates into a tubular reactor of the perfect mixing type, a highly efficient vaporizer-mixer, and a two-channel sampler leading to the chromatograph. The apparatus has proved reliable, accurate, and convenient in two years of regular use. Diagrams.

  20. Dynamic\tmodelling of catalytic three-phase reactors for hydrogenation and oxidation processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salmi T.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic modelling principles for typical catalytic three-phase reactors, batch autoclaves and fixed (trickle beds were described. The models consist of balance equations for the catalyst particles as well as for the bulk phases of gas and liquid. Rate equations, transport models and mass balances were coupled to generalized heterogeneous models which were solved with respect to time and space with algorithms suitable for stiff differential equations. The aspects of numerical solution strategies were discussed and the procedure was illustrated with three case studies: hydrogenation of aromatics, hydrogenation of aldehydes and oxidation of ferrosulphate. The case studies revealed the importance of mass transfer resistance inside the catalyst pallets as well as the dynamics of the different phases being present in the reactor. Reliable three-phase reactor simulation and scale-up should be based on dynamic heterogeneous models.

  1. Syngas upgrading in a membrane reactor with thin Pd-alloy supported membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunetti, A.; Caravella, A.; Fernandez Gesalaga, E.; Pacheco Tanaka, D. A.; Gallucci, F.; Drioli, E.; Curcio, E.; Viviente, J. L.; Barbieri, G.

    2015-01-01

    In hydrogen production, the syngas streams produced by reformers and/or coal gasification plants contain a large amount of H2 and CO in need of upgrading. To this purpose, reactors using Pd-based membranes have been widely studied as they allow separation and recovery of a pure hydrogen stream.

  2. Continuous hyperpolarization with parahydrogen in a membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmkuhl, Sören; Wiese, Martin; Schubert, Lukas; Held, Mathias; Küppers, Markus; Wessling, Matthias; Blümich, Bernhard

    2018-06-01

    Hyperpolarization methods entail a high potential to boost the sensitivity of NMR. Even though the "Signal Amplification by Reversible Exchange" (SABRE) approach uses para-enriched hydrogen, p-H2, to repeatedly achieve high polarization levels on target molecules without altering their chemical structure, such studies are often limited to batch experiments in NMR tubes. Alternatively, this work introduces a continuous flow setup including a membrane reactor for the p-H2, supply and consecutive detection in a 1 T NMR spectrometer. Two SABRE substrates pyridine and nicotinamide were hyperpolarized, and more than 1000-fold signal enhancement was found. Our strategy combines low-field NMR spectrometry and a membrane flow reactor. This enables precise control of the experimental conditions such as liquid and gas pressures, and volume flow for ensuring repeatable maximum polarization.

  3. Performance and economics of a Pd-based planar WGS membrane reactor for coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolan, M.D. [CSIRO Energy Technology, Pullenvale QLD 4069 (Australia); Donelson, R. [CSIRO Process Science and Engineering, Clayton VIC 3168 (Australia); Dave, N.C. [CSIRO Energy Technology, North Ryde NSW 2113 (Australia)

    2010-10-15

    Conceptual 300 tonne per day (tpd) H{sub 2}-from-coal plants have been the subject of several major costing exercises in the past decade. Incorporating conventional high- and low-temperature water-gas-shift (WGS) reactors, amine-based CO{sub 2} removal and PSA-based H{sub 2} purification systems, these studies provide a benchmark against which alternative H{sub 2}-from-coal technologies can be compared. The catalytic membrane reactor (CMR), combining a WGS catalyst and hydrogen-selective metal membrane, can potentially replace the multiple shift and separation stages of a plant based on conventional technology. CMR-based shift and separation offers several major advantages over the conventional approach, including greater-than-equilibrium WGS conversion, the containment of the CO{sub 2} at high-pressure and a reduction in the number of unit processes. To determine capital costs of a WGS CMR-based H{sub 2}-from-coal plant, a prototype planar CMR was constructed and tested with varying catalyst bed depth, residence time and membrane type (commercially-sourced 50 {mu}m Pd or 40 {mu}m Pd-25Ag wt%). Experiments to measure CO conversion, and H{sub 2} flux and yield were conducted at 400 C with a feed pressure of 20 bar H{sub 2}O:C ratio of 3 and a H{sub 2} product pressure of 1 bar. Under the optimum conditions examined (with a 40 {mu}m-thick Pd-25Ag membrane and <3 mm-thick catalyst bed), a membrane surface area of {proportional_to}25,000 m{sup 2} would be required to provide a throughput of 300 tpd with 85% H{sub 2} yield. The capital cost of the CMR component of the plant would be around $US 180 million (based on current metal prices), of which 73% can be attributed to the cost of the Pd-Ag alloy membranes. Incorporation of a membrane that meets the 2015 US DOE cost and flux targets would offer

  4. Fast Pyrolysis Oil Stabilization: An Integrated Catalytic and Membrane Approach for Improved Bio-oils. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, George W.; Upadhye, Aniruddha A.; Ford, David M.; Bhatia, Surita R.; Badger, Phillip C.

    2012-10-19

    with model AFBO excluding guaiacol were also conducted. NF membranes showed retention factors of glucose greater than 80% and of acetic acid less than 15% when operated at transmembrane pressures near 60 bar. Task 3.0 Acid Removal by Catalytic Processing It was found that the TAN reduction in bio-oil was very difficult using low temperature hydrogenation in flow and batch reactors. Acetic acid is very resilient to hydrogenation and we could only achieve about 16% conversion for acetic acid. Although it was observed that acetic acid was not responsible for instability of aqueous fraction of bio-oil during ageing studies (described in task 5). The bimetallic catalyst PtRe/ceria-zirconia was found to be best catalyst because its ability to convert the acid functionality with low conversion to gas phase carbon. Hydrogenation of the whole bio-oil was carried out at 125°C, 1450 psi over Ru/C catalyst in a flow reactor. Again, negligible acetic acid conversion was obtained in low temperature hydrogenation. Hydrogenation experiments with whole bio-oil were difficult to perform because of difficulty to pumping the high viscosity oil and reactor clogging. Task 4.0 Acid Removal using Ion Exchange Resins DOWEX M43 resin was used to carry out the neutralization of bio-oil using a packed bed column. The pH of the bio-oil increased from 2.43 to 3.7. The GC analysis of the samples showed that acetic acid was removed from the bio-oil during the neutralization and recovered in the methanol washing. But it was concluded that process would not be economical at large scale as it is extremely difficult to regenerate the resin once the bio-oil is passed over it. Task 5.0 Characterization of Upgraded Bio-oils We investigated the viscosity, microstructure, and chemical composition of bio-oils prepared by a fast pyrolysis approach, upon aging these fuels at 90ºC for periods of several days. Our results suggest that the viscosity increase is not correlated with the acids or char present in the

  5. Operation of a catalytic reverse flow reactor for the purification of air contamined with volatile organic compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Beld, L.; van de Beld, L.; Westerterp, K.R.

    1997-01-01

    Catalytic oxidation in a reverse flow reactor is an attractive process for the decontamination of air polluted with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In this paper several aspects of operating this type of reactor for air purification under strongly varying conditions will be discussed. For a

  6. Experimental and Numerical Evaluation of the By-Pass Flow in a Catalytic Plate Reactor for Hydrogen Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdsson, Haftor Örn; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2011-01-01

    Numerical and experimental study is performed to evaluate the reactant by-pass flow in a catalytic plate reactor with a coated wire mesh catalyst for steam reforming of methane for hydrogen generation. By-pass of unconverted methane is evaluated under different wire mesh catalyst width to reactor...

  7. SEPARATION OF HYDROGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE USING A NOVEL MEMBRANE REACTOR IN ADVANCED FOSSIL ENERGY CONVERSION PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamsuddin Ilias

    2005-02-03

    Inorganic membrane reactors offer the possibility of combining reaction and separation in a single operation at high temperatures to overcome the equilibrium limitations experienced in conventional reactor configurations. Such attractive features can be advantageously utilized in a number of potential commercial opportunities, which include dehydrogenation, hydrogenation, oxidative dehydrogenation, oxidation and catalytic decomposition reactions. However, to be cost effective, significant technological advances and improvements will be required to solve several key issues which include: (a) permselective thin solid film, (b) thermal, chemical and mechanical stability of the film at high temperatures, and (c) reactor engineering and module development in relation to the development of effective seals at high temperature and high pressure. In this project, we are working on the development and application of palladium and palladium-silver alloy thin-film composite membranes in membrane reactor-separator configuration for simultaneous production and separation of hydrogen and carbon dioxide at high temperature. From our research on Pd-composite membrane, we have demonstrated that the new membrane has significantly higher hydrogen flux with very high perm-selectivity than any of the membranes commercially available. The steam reforming of methane by equilibrium shift in Pd-composite membrane reactor is being studied to demonstrate the potential application of this new development. A two-dimensional, pseudo-homogeneous membrane-reactor model was developed to investigate the steam-methane reforming (SMR) reactions in a Pd-based membrane reactor. Radial diffusion was taken into consideration to account for the concentration gradient in the radial direction due to hydrogen permeation through the membrane. With appropriate reaction rate expressions, a set of partial differential equations was derived using the continuity equation for the reaction system. The equations were

  8. Catalytic performance improvement of styrene hydrogenation in trickle bed reactor by using periodic operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wongkia, Atittahn; Praserthdam, Piyasan; Assabumrungrat, Suttichai; Suriye, Kongkiat; Nonkhamwong, Anuwat

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the catalytic performance improvement of styrene hydrogenation in a trickle bed reactor by using periodic operation. The effects of cycle period and split on relative conversion, which is defined as styrene conversion obtained from periodic operation over that from steady state operation, were examined at various operating conditions including gas and average liquid flow rates, pressure and temperature. The experimental results reveal that both cycle period and split have strong influence on the catalytic performance. The fast mode (short cycle period) is a favorable condition. The improvement by the periodic operation becomes less pronounced for operations at high average liquid flow rate, pressure and temperature. From this study, a maximum improvement of styrene conversion of 18% is observed

  9. Catalytic performance improvement of styrene hydrogenation in trickle bed reactor by using periodic operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wongkia, Atittahn; Praserthdam, Piyasan; Assabumrungrat, Suttichai [Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok (Thailand); Suriye, Kongkiat; Nonkhamwong, Anuwat [SCG Chemicals Co. Ltd., Bangkok (Thailand)

    2013-03-15

    We investigated the catalytic performance improvement of styrene hydrogenation in a trickle bed reactor by using periodic operation. The effects of cycle period and split on relative conversion, which is defined as styrene conversion obtained from periodic operation over that from steady state operation, were examined at various operating conditions including gas and average liquid flow rates, pressure and temperature. The experimental results reveal that both cycle period and split have strong influence on the catalytic performance. The fast mode (short cycle period) is a favorable condition. The improvement by the periodic operation becomes less pronounced for operations at high average liquid flow rate, pressure and temperature. From this study, a maximum improvement of styrene conversion of 18% is observed.

  10. Simple and rapid hydrogenation of p-nitrophenol with aqueous formic acid in catalytic flow reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahat Javaid

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The inner surface of a metallic tube (i.d. 0.5 mm was coated with a palladium (Pd-based thin metallic layer by flow electroless plating. Simultaneous plating of Pd and silver (Ag from their electroless-plating solution produced a mixed distributed bimetallic layer. Preferential acid leaching of Ag from the Pd–Ag layer produced a porous Pd surface. Hydrogenation of p-nitrophenol was examined in the presence of formic acid simply by passing the reaction solution through the catalytic tubular reactors. p-Aminophenol was the sole product of hydrogenation. No side reaction occurred. Reaction conversion with respect to p-nitrophenol was dependent on the catalyst layer type, the temperature, pH, amount of formic acid, and the residence time. A porous and oxidized Pd (PdO surface gave the best reaction conversion among the catalytic reactors examined. p-Nitrophenol was converted quantitatively to p-aminophenol within 15 s of residence time in the porous PdO reactor at 40 °C. Evolution of carbon dioxide (CO2 was observed during the reaction, although hydrogen (H2 was not found in the gas phase. Dehydrogenation of formic acid did not occur to any practical degree in the absence of p-nitrophenol. Consequently, the nitro group was reduced via hydrogen transfer from formic acid to p-nitrophenol and not by hydrogen generated by dehydrogenation of formic acid.

  11. Performance and economics of a Pd-based planar WGS membrane reactor for coal gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, M.D.; Donelson, R.; Dave, N.C.

    2010-01-01

    Conceptual 300 tonne per day (tpd) H 2 -from-coal plants have been the subject of several major costing exercises in the past decade. Incorporating conventional high- and low-temperature water-gas-shift (WGS) reactors, amine-based CO 2 removal and PSA-based H 2 purification systems, these studies provide a benchmark against which alternative H 2 -from-coal technologies can be compared. The catalytic membrane reactor (CMR), combining a WGS catalyst and hydrogen-selective metal membrane, can potentially replace the multiple shift and separation stages of a plant based on conventional technology. CMR-based shift and separation offers several major advantages over the conventional approach, including greater-than-equilibrium WGS conversion, the containment of the CO 2 at high-pressure and a reduction in the number of unit processes. To determine capital costs of a WGS CMR-based H 2 -from-coal plant, a prototype planar CMR was constructed and tested with varying catalyst bed depth, residence time and membrane type (commercially-sourced 50 μm Pd or 40 μm Pd-25Ag wt%). Experiments to measure CO conversion, and H 2 flux and yield were conducted at 400 C with a feed pressure of 20 bar H 2 O:C ratio of 3 and a H 2 product pressure of 1 bar. Under the optimum conditions examined (with a 40 μm-thick Pd-25Ag membrane and 2 would be required to provide a throughput of 300 tpd with 85% H 2 yield. The capital cost of the CMR component of the plant would be around $US 180 million (based on current metal prices), of which 73% can be attributed to the cost of the Pd-Ag alloy membranes. Incorporation of a membrane that meets the 2015 US DOE cost and flux targets would offer cost parity, with a plant cost of $US 44 million and a total membrane area of ∝13,000 m 2 . Meeting these performance and cost targets would likely require a shift to very thin Pd-alloy membranes or highly-permeable Group IV, V body-centred-cubic alloys. (author)

  12. Treating domestic sewage by Integrated Inclined-Plate-Membrane bio-reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Li Ming; Wang, Zi; Chen, Lei; Zhong, Min; Dong, Zhan Feng

    2017-12-01

    Membrane fouling shorten the service life of the membrane and increases aeration rate for membrane surface cleaning. Two membrane bio-reactors, one for working and another for comparing, were set up to evaluate the feasibility of alleviating membrane fouling and improving wastewater treatment efficiency by integrating inclined-plate precipitation and membrane separation. The result show that: (1) Inclined-plate in reactor had a good effect on pollutant removal of membrane bioreactor. The main role of inclined-plate is dividing reactor space and accelerating precipitation. (2) Working reactor have better performance in COD, TN and TP removal, which can attribute to that working reactor (integrated inclined-plate-Membrane bioreactor) takes both advantages of membrane separation and biological treatment. When influent COD, TP and TN concentration is 163-248 mg/L, 2.08-2.81 mg/L and 24.38-30.49 mg/L in working reactor, effluent concentration is 27-35 mg/L, 0.53-0.59 mg/L and 11.28-11.56 mg/L, respectively. (3) Membrane fouling was well alleviated in integrated inclined-plate-Membrane bioreactor, and membrane normal service time is significantly longer than that in comparing reactor, which can attribute to accelerating precipitation of inclined-plate. In summary, integrated inclined-plate-Membrane bioreactor is a promising technology to alleviating membrane fouling and improving wastewater treatment efficiency, having good performance and bright future in application.

  13. Comparative catalytic activity of PET track-etched membranes with embedded silver and gold nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashentseva, Anastassiya; Borgekov, Daryn; Kislitsin, Sergey; Zdorovets, Maxim; Migunova, Anastassiya

    2015-12-01

    Irradiated by heavy ions nanoporous polyethylene terephthalate track-etched membranes (PET TeMs) after +15Kr84 ions bombardment (1.75 MeV/nucl with the ion fluency of 1 × 109 cm-2) and sequential etching was applied in this research as a template for development of composites with catalytically enriched properties. A highly ordered silver and gold nanotubes arrays were embedded in 100 nm pores of PET TeMs via electroless deposition technique at 4 °C during 1 h. All "as-prepared" composites were examined for catalytic activity using reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) to 4-aminophenol (4-AP) by sodium borohydride as a common reaction to test metallic nanostructures catalysts. The effect of temperature on the catalytic activity was investigated in range of 292-313 K and activation energy were calculated. Kapp of Ag/PET composites linearly increase with an increase of the temperature thus normal Arrhenius behavior have been seen and the activation energy was calculated to be 42.13 kJ/mol. Au/PET composites exhibit not only more powerful catalytic activity but also non-linear dependence of rate constant from temperature. Kapp increased with increasing temperature throughout the 292-308 K temperature range; the reaction had an activation energy 65.32 kJ/mol. In range 311-313 K rate constant dramatically decreased and the apparent activation energy at this temperature rang was -91.44 kJ/mol due some structural changes, i.e. agglomeration of Au nanoparticles on the surface of composite.

  14. Catalytic effect of different reactor materials under subcritical water conditions: decarboxylation of cysteic acid into taurine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal, M.

    2018-03-01

    In order to understand the influence of reactor materials on the catalytic effect for a particular reaction, the decomposition of cysteic acid from Ni/Fe-based alloy reactors under subcritical water conditions was examined. Experiments were carried out in three batch reactors made of Inconel 625, Hastelloy C-22 and SUS 316 over temperatures of 200 to 300 °C. The highest amount of eluted metals was found for SUS 316. The results demonstrated that reactor materials contribute to the resulting product. Under the tested conditions, cysteic acid decomposes readily with SUS 316. However, the Ni-based materials (Inconel 625 and Hastelloy C-22) show better resistance to metal elution. It was found that among the materials used in this work, SUS 316 gave the highest reaction rate constant of 0.1934 s‑1. The same results were obtained at temperatures of 260 and 300 °C. Investigation of the Arrhenius activation energy revealed that the highest activation energy was for Hastelloy C-22 (109 kJ/mol), followed by Inconel 625 (90 kJ/mol) and SUS 316 (70 kJ/mol). The decomposition rate of cysteic acid was found to follow the results for the trend of the eluted metals. Therefore, it can be concluded that the decomposition of cysteic acid was catalyzed by the elution of heavy metals from the surface of the reactor. The highest amount of taurine from the decarboxylation of cysteic acid was obtained from SUS 316.

  15. Tritium recovery from tritiated water with a two-stage palladium membrane reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birdsell, S.A.; Willms, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    A process to recover tritium from tritiated water has been successfully demonstrated at TSTA. The 2-stage palladium membrane reactor (PMR) is capable of recovering tritium from water without generating additional waste. This device can be used to recover tritium from the substantial amount of tritiated water that is expected to be generated in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor both from torus exhaust and auxiliary operations. A large quantity of tritiated waste water exists world wide because the predominant method of cleaning up tritiated streams is to oxidize tritium to tritiated water. The latter can be collected with high efficiency for subsequent disposal. The PMR is a combined catalytic reactor/permeator. Cold (non-tritium) water processing experiments were run in preparation for the tritiated water processing tests. Tritium was recovered from a container of molecular sieve loaded with 2,050 g (2,550 std. L) of water and 4.5 g of tritium. During this experiment, 27% (694 std. L) of the water was processed resulting in recovery of 1.2 g of tritium. The maximum water processing rate for the PMR system used was determined to be 0.5 slpm. This correlates well with the maximum processing rate determined from the smaller PMR system on the cold test bench and has resulted in valuable scale-up and design information

  16. Tritium recovery from tritiated water with a two-stage palladium membrane reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birdsell, S.A.; Willms, R.S.

    1997-04-01

    A process to recover tritium from tritiated water has been successfully demonstrated at TSTA. The 2-stage palladium membrane reactor (PMR) is capable of recovering tritium from water without generating additional waste. This device can be used to recover tritium from the substantial amount of tritiated water that is expected to be generated in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor both from torus exhaust and auxiliary operations. A large quantity of tritiated waste water exists world wide because the predominant method of cleaning up tritiated streams is to oxidize tritium to tritiated water. The latter can be collected with high efficiency for subsequent disposal. The PMR is a combined catalytic reactor/permeator. Cold (non-tritium) water processing experiments were run in preparation for the tritiated water processing tests. Tritium was recovered from a container of molecular sieve loaded with 2,050 g (2,550 std. L) of water and 4.5 g of tritium. During this experiment, 27% (694 std. L) of the water was processed resulting in recovery of 1.2 g of tritium. The maximum water processing rate for the PMR system used was determined to be 0.5 slpm. This correlates well with the maximum processing rate determined from the smaller PMR system on the cold test bench and has resulted in valuable scale-up and design information.

  17. Theoretical comparison of packed bed and fluidized bed membrane reactors for methane reforming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallucci, F.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    In this theoretical work the performance of different membrane reactor concepts, both fluidized bed and packed bed membrane reactors, has been compared for ultra-pure hydrogen production via methane reforming. Using detailed theoretical models, the required membrane area to reach a given conversion

  18. Comparison of packed bed and fluidized bed membrane reactors for methane reforming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallucci, F.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this work the performance of different membrane reactor concepts, both fluidized bed and packed bed membrane reactors, have been compared for the reforming of methane for the production of ultra-pure hydrogen. Using detailed theoretical models, the required membrane area to reach a given

  19. Membrane bio-reactor for textile wastewater treatment plant upgrading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubello, C; Gori, R

    2005-01-01

    Textile industries carry out several fiber treatments using variable quantities of water, from five to forty times the fiber weight, and consequently generate large volumes of wastewater to be disposed of. Membrane Bio-reactors (MBRs) combine membrane technology with biological reactors for the treatment of wastewater: micro or ultrafiltration membranes are used for solid-liquid separation replacing the secondary settling of the traditional activated sludge system. This paper deals with the possibility of realizing a new section of one existing WWTP (activated sludge + clariflocculation + ozonation) for the treatment of treating textile wastewater to be recycled, equipped with an MBR (76 l/s as design capacity) and running in parallel with the existing one. During a 4-month experimental period, a pilot-scale MBR proved to be very effective for wastewater reclamation. On average, removal efficiency of the pilot plant (93% for COD, and over 99% for total suspended solids) was higher than the WWTP ones. Color was removed as in the WWTP. Anionic surfactants removal of pilot plant was lower than that of the WWTP (90.5 and 93.2% respectively), while the BiAS removal was higher in the pilot plant (98.2 vs. 97.1). At the end cost analysis of the proposed upgrade is reported.

  20. Experiment and modeling of low-concentration methane catalytic combustion in a fluidized bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zhongqing; Yang, Peng; Zhang, Li; Guo, Mingnv; Ran, Jingyu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The catalytic combustion of 0.15~3 vol. % low concentration methane in a fluidized bed was studied. • A mathematical model was proposed on the basis of gas–solid flow theory. • A comparative analysis of the established model with plug flow, mixed flow and K-L models was carried out. • The axial methane profile along fluidized bed was predicted by using the mathematical model. • The bed temperature has greater impact on methane conversion than fluidized velocity. - Abstract: This study undertakes a theoretical analysis and an experimental investigation into the characteristics of low-concentration methane catalytic combustion in a bubbling fluidized bed reactor using 0.5 wt.% Pd/Al_2O_3 as catalytic particles. A mathematical model is established based on gas–solid flow theory and is used to study the effects of bed temperature and fluidized velocity on methane catalytic combustion, and predict the dimensionless methane concentration axial profile in reactor. It is shown that methane conversion increases with bed temperature, but decreases with increasing fluidized velocity. These theoretical results are found to correlate well with the experimental measurement, with a deviation within 5%. A comparative analysis of the developed model with plug flow, mixed flow and K-L models is also carried out, and this further verifies that the established model better reflects the characteristics of low-concentration methane catalytic combustion in a bubbling fluidized bed. Using this reaction model, it was found that the difference in methane conversion between dense and freeboard zones gradually increases with bed temperature; the dense zone reaction levels off at 650 °C, thereby minimizing the difference between the dense and freeboard regions to around 15%. With an increase in bed temperature, the dimensionless methane concentration in the dense zone decreases exponentially, while in the splash zone, it varies from an exponential decay to a slow

  1. Catalytic pyrolysis of woody biomass in a fluidized bed reactor: influence of the zeolite structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Aho; N. Kumar; K. Eranen; T. Salmi; M. Hupa; D.Yu. Murzin [Aabo Akademi University, Aabo/Turku (Finland). Process Chemistry Centre, Laboratory of Industrial Chemistry and Reaction Engineering

    2008-09-15

    Catalytic pyrolysis of biomass from pine wood was carried out in a fluidized bed reactor at 450{sup o}C. Different structures of acidic zeolite catalysts were used as bed material in the reactor. Proton forms of Beta, Y, ZSM-5, and Mordenite were tested as catalysts in the pyrolysis of pine, while quartz sand was used as a reference material in the non-catalytic pyrolysis experiments. The yield of the pyrolysis product phases was only slightly influenced by the structures, at the same time the chemical composition of the bio-oil was dependent on the structure of acidic zeolite catalysts. Ketones and phenols were the dominating groups of compounds in the bio-oil. The formation of ketones was higher over ZSM-5 and the amount of acids and alcohols lower than over the other bed materials tested. Mordenite and quartz sand produced smaller quantities of polyaromatic hydrocarbons than the other materials tested. It was possible to successfully regenerate the spent zeolites without changing the structure of the zeolite. 12 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Structural investigations of the active-site mutant Asn156Ala of outer membrane phospholipase A: Function of the Asn-His interaction in the catalytic triad

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, H.J.; van Eerde, J.H.; Kalk, K.H.; Dekker, N.; Egmond, M.R.; Dijkstra, B.W.

    2010-01-01

    Outer membrane phospholipase A (OMPLA) from Escherichia coli is an integral-membrane enzyme with a unique His-Ser-Asn catalytic triad. In serine proteases and serine esterases usually an Asp occurs in the catalytic triad; its role has been the subject of much debate. Here the role of the uncharged

  3. A conceptual design of catalytic gasification fuel cell hybrid power plant with oxygen transfer membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wangying; Han, Minfang

    2017-09-01

    A hybrid power generation system integrating catalytic gasification, solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), oxygen transfer membrane (OTM) and gas turbine (GT) is established and system energy analysis is performed. In this work, the catalytic gasifier uses steam, recycled anode off-gas and pure oxygen from OTM system to gasify coal, and heated by hot cathode off-gas at the same time. A zero-dimension SOFC model is applied and verified by fitting experimental data. Thermodynamic analysis is performed to investigate the integrated system performance, and system sensitivities on anode off-gas back flow ratio, SOFC fuel utilization, temperature and pressure are discussed. Main conclusions are as follows: (1) System overall electricity efficiency reaches 60.7%(HHV) while the gasifier operates at 700 °C and SOFC at 850 °C with system pressure at 3.04 bar; (2) oxygen enriched combustion simplify the carbon-dioxide capture process, which derives CO2 of 99.2% purity, but results in a penalty of 6.7% on system electricity efficiency; (3) with SOFC fuel utilization or temperature increasing, the power output of SOFC increases while GT power output decreases, and increasing system pressure can improve both the performance of SOFC and GT.

  4. Reduced membrane fouling in a novel bio-entrapped membrane reactor for treatment of food and beverage processing wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kok-Kwang; Lin, Cheng-Fang; Panchangam, Sri Chandana; Andy Hong, Pui-Kwan; Yang, Ping-Yi

    2011-08-01

    A novel Bio-Entrapped Membrane Reactor (BEMR) packed with bio-ball carriers was constructed and investigated for organics removal and membrane fouling by soluble microbial products (SMP). An objective was to evaluate the stability of the filtration process in membrane bioreactors through backwashing and chemical cleaning. The novel BEMR was compared to a conventional membrane bioreactor (CMBR) on performance, with both treating identical wastewater from a food and beverage processing plant. The new reactor has a longer sludge retention time (SRT) and lower mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) content than does the conventional. Three different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 6, 9, and 12 h were studied. The results show faster rise of the transmembrane pressure (TMP) with decreasing hydraulic retention time (HRT) in both reactors, where most significant membrane fouling was associated with high SMP (consisting of carbohydrate and protein) contents that were prevalent at the shortest HRT of 6 h. Membrane fouling was improved in the new reactor, which led to a longer membrane service period with the new reactor. Rapid membrane fouling was attributed to increased production of biomass and SMP, as in the conventional reactor. SMP of 10-100 kDa from both MBRs were predominant with more than 70% of the SMP <100 kDa. Protein was the major component of SMP rather than carbohydrate in both reactors. The new reactor sustained operation at constant permeate flux that required seven times less frequent chemical cleaning than did the conventional reactor. The new BEMR offers effective organics removal while reducing membrane fouling. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Water Gas Shift Reaction with A Single Stage Low Temperature Membrane Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciora, Richard J [Media and Process Technology Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Liu, Paul KT [Media and Process Technology Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2013-12-31

    Palladium membrane and Palladium membrane reactor were developed under this project for hydrogen separation and purification for fuel cell applications. A full-scale membrane reactor was designed, constructed and evaluated for the reformate produced from a commercial scale methanol reformer. In addition, the Pd membrane and module developed from this project was successfully evaluated in the field for hydrogen purification for commercial fuel cell applications.

  6. Multienzyme Immobilized Polymeric Membrane Reactor for the Transformation of a Lignin Model Compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupam Sarma

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We have developed an integrated, multienzyme functionalized membrane reactor for bioconversion of a lignin model compound involving enzymatic catalysis. The membrane bioreactors were fabricated through the layer-by-layer assembly approach to immobilize three different enzymes (glucose oxidase, peroxidase and laccase into pH-responsive membranes. This novel membrane reactor couples the in situ generation of hydrogen peroxide (by glucose oxidase to oxidative conversion of a lignin model compound, guaiacylglycerol-β-guaiacyl ether (GGE. Preliminary investigation of the efficacy of these functional membranes towards GGE degradation is demonstrated under convective flow mode. Over 90% of the initial feed could be degraded with the multienzyme immobilized membranes at a residence time of approximately 22 s. GGE conversion product analysis revealed the formation of oligomeric oxidation products upon reaction with peroxidase, which may be a potential hazard to membrane bioreactors. These oxidation products could further be degraded by laccase enzymes in the multienzymatic membranes, explaining the potential of multi enzyme membrane reactors. The multienzyme incorporated membrane reactors were active for more than 30 days of storage time at 4 °C. During this time span, repetitive use of the membrane reactor was demonstrated involving 5–6 h of operation time for each cycle. The membrane reactor displayed encouraging performance, losing only 12% of its initial activity after multiple cycles of operation.

  7. Membrane Guanylate Cyclase catalytic Subdomain: Structure and Linkage with Calcium Sensors and Bicarbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarangan Ravichandran

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Membrane guanylate cyclase (MGC is a ubiquitous multi-switching cyclic GMP generating signaling machine linked with countless physiological processes. In mammals it is encoded by seven distinct homologous genes. It is a single transmembrane spanning multi-modular protein; composed of integrated blocks and existing in homo-dimeric form. Its core catalytic domain (CCD module is a common transduction center where all incoming signals are translated into the production of cyclic GMP, a cellular signal second messenger. Crystal structure of the MGC’s CCD does not exist and its precise identity is ill-defined. Here, we define it at a sub-molecular level for the phototransduction-linked MGC, the rod outer segment guanylate cyclase type 1, ROS-GC1. (1 The CCD is a conserved 145-residue structural unit, represented by the segment V820-P964. (2 It exists as a homo-dimer and contains seven conserved catalytic elements (CEs wedged into seven conserved motifs. (3 It also contains a conserved 21-residue neurocalcin δ-modulated structural domain, V836-L857. (4 Site-directed mutagenesis documents that each of the seven CEs governs the cyclase’s catalytic activity. (5 In contrast to the soluble and the bacterium MGC which use Mn2+-GTP substrate for catalysis, MGC CCD uses the natural Mg2+-GTP substrate. (6 Strikingly, the MGC CCD requires anchoring by the Transmembrane Domain (TMD to exhibit its major (∼92% catalytic activity; in isolated form the activity is only marginal. This feature is not linked with any unique sequence of the TMD; there is minimal conservation in TMD. Finally, (7 the seven CEs control each of four phototransduction pathways- -two Ca2+-sensor GCAPs-, one Ca2+-sensor, S100B-, and one bicarbonate-modulated. The findings disclose that the CCD of ROS-GC1 has built-in regulatory elements that control its signal translational activity. Due to conservation of these regulatory elements, it is proposed that these elements also control the

  8. Membrane steam reforming of natural gas for hydrogen production by utilization of medium temperature nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djati Hoesen Salimy

    2010-01-01

    The assessment of steam reforming process with membrane reactor for hydrogen production by utilizing of medium temperature nuclear reactor has been carried out. Difference with the conventional process of natural gas steam reforming that operates at high temperature (800-1000°C), the process with membrane reactor operates at lower temperature (~500°C). This condition is possible because the use of perm-selective membrane that separate product simultaneously in reactor, drive the optimum conversion at the lower temperature. Besides that, membrane reactor also acts the role of separation unit, so the plant will be more compact. From the point of nuclear heat utilization, the low temperature of process opens the chance of medium temperature nuclear reactor utilization as heat source. Couple the medium temperature nuclear reactor with the process give the advantage from the point of saving fossil fuel that give direct implication of decreasing green house gas emission. (author)

  9. Food industrial wastewater reuse by membrane bio-reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patthanant Natpinit

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this investigation was to study the possibility and performance of treating food industrial wastewater by Membrane BioReactor (MBR. In addition, the effluent of MBR was treated by Reverse Osmosis system (RO to reuse in boiler or cooling tower. The membranes of hollow fiber type were filled in the aerobic tank with aerobe bacteria. The total area of membrane 6 units was 630 m2 so the flux of the operation was 0.25 m/d or 150 m3/d. The spiral wound RO was operated at 100 m3/d of influent and received 72 m3/d of permeate. The sludge volume (MLSS of MBR was maintained at 8,000-10,000 mg/l. The average COD and SS of MBR influent were 600 mg/l and 300 mg/l respectively. After treating by MBR, COD and SS of effluent were maintained at less than 100 mg/l and less than 10 mg/l respectively. In the same way, COD and SS of RO permeate were less than 10 mg/l and less than 5 mg/l respectively.

  10. Carbon dioxide (hydrogen sulfide) membrane separations and WGS membrane reactor modeling for fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin

    Acid-gas removal is of great importance in many environmental or energy-related processes. Compared to current commercial technologies, membrane-based CO2 and H2S capture has the advantages of low energy consumption, low weight and space requirement, simplicity of installation/operation, and high process flexibility. However, the large-scale application of the membrane separation technology is limited by the relatively low transport properties. In this study, CO2 (H2S)-selective polymeric membranes with high permeability and high selectivity have been studied based on the facilitated transport mechanism. The membrane showed facilitated effect for both CO2 and H2S. A CO2 permeability of above 2000 Barrers, a CO2/H2 selectivity of greater than 40, and a CO2/N2 selectivity of greater than 200 at 100--150°C were observed. As a result of higher reaction rate and smaller diffusing compound, the H2S permeability and H2S/H2 selectivity were about three times higher than those properties for CO2. The novel CO2-selective membrane has been applied to capture CO 2 from flue gas and natural gas. In the CO2 capture experiments from a gas mixture with N2 and H2, a permeate CO 2 dry concentration of greater than 98% was obtained by using steam as the sweep gas. In CO2/CH4 separation, decent CO 2 transport properties were obtained with a feed pressure up to 500 psia. With the thin-film composite membrane structure, significant increase on the CO2 flux was achieved with the decrease of the selective layer thickness. With the continuous removal of CO2, CO2-selective water-gas-shift (WGS) membrane reactor is a promising approach to enhance CO conversion and increase the purity of H2 at process pressure under relatively low temperature. The simultaneous reaction and transport process in the countercurrent WGS membrane reactor was simulated by using a one-dimensional non-isothermal model. The modeling results show that a CO concentration of less than 10 ppm and a H2 recovery of greater

  11. Noncatalytic hydrogenation of decene-1 with hydrogen accumulated in a hybrid carbon nanostructure in nanosized membrane reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatov, A. P.

    2014-08-01

    Studies on the creation of nanosized membrane reactors (NMRs) of a new generation with accumulated hydrogen and a regulated volume of reaction zone were continued at the next stage. Hydrogenation was performed in the pores of ceramic membranes with hydrogen preliminarily adsorbed in mono- and multilayered orientated carbon nanotubes with graphene walls (OCNTGs)—a new hybrid carbon nanostructure formed on the inner pore surface. Quantitative determination of hydrogen adsorption in OCNTGs was performed using TRUMEM ultrafiltration membranes with D av = 50 and 90 nm and showed that hydrogen adsorption was up to ˜1.5% of the mass of OCNTG. The instrumentation and procedure for noncatalytic hydrogenation of decene-1 at 250-350°C using hydrogen accumulated and stored in OCNTG were developed. The conversion of decene-1 into decane was ˜0.2-1.8% at hydrogenation temperatures of 250 and 350°C, respectively. The rate constants and activation energy of hydrogenation were determined. The latter was found to be 94.5 kJ/mol, which is much smaller than the values typical for noncatalytic hydrogenations and very close to the values characteristic for catalytic reactions. The quantitative distribution of the reacting compounds in each pore regarded as a nanosized membrane reactor was determined. The activity of hydrogen adsorbed in a 2D carbon nanostructure was evaluated. Possible mechanisms of noncatalytic hydrogenation were discussed.

  12. Poly-thiosemicarbazide/gold nanoparticles catalytic membrane: In-situ growth of well-dispersed, uniform and stable gold nanoparticles in a polymeric membrane

    KAUST Repository

    Villalobos, Luis Francisco

    2014-11-01

    This work presents a method that achieves the highest loading, published so far, of non-agglomerated and well-distributed gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) inside a polymeric membrane. The method uses poly-thiosemicarbazide (PTSC) as the starting material for fabricating the membranes. This polymer contains one chelate site per monomeric unit, resulting in a high content of adsorption sites. This helps to achieve such high loading without agglomeration, along with the strong interaction of the chelate sites with the metal ions and the fact that they are distributed homogeneously along the membrane structure. The simple and scalable three-step procedure developed in this work resulted in a PTSC membrane containing 33.5 wt.% Au/PTSC in the form of 2.9 nm AuNPs. The membrane demonstrated catalytic activity for the reduction of 4-Nitrophenol (4-NP) to 4-Aminophenol (4-AP). © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  13. Pd-Ag membrane reactor for steam reforming reactions: a comparison between different fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallucci, F.; Basile, A.

    2008-01-01

    The simulation of a dense Pd-based membrane reactor for carrying out the methane, the methanol and the ethanol steam reforming (SR) reactions for pure hydrogen production is performed. The same simulation is also performed in a traditional reactor. This modelling work shows that the use of membrane

  14. Les réacteurs à membranes : possibilités d'application dans l'industrie pétrolière et pétrochimique Membrane Reactors: Possibilities of Application in the Petroleum and Petrochemical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article fait le point sur l'état de la recherche dans le domaine des réacteurs chimiques avec séparation par membrane intégrée et de leur applications dans le domaine du raffinage et de la pétrochimie. Trois applications potentiellement intéressantes sont identifiées et, pour chacune, les avantages de l'utilisation d'un réacteur à membrane sont discutés. Ce sont : la déshydrogénation du propane en propylène, la déshydrogénation d'un naphtène cyclohexanique et le vaporéformage du gaz naturel. Pour ces réactions, les membranes à base de palladium apparaissent les plus performantes compte tenu de leur tenue en température, de leur sélectivité et de leur perméabilité à l'hydrogène. Quelques éléments relatifs à leur développement sont présentés en conclusion. Recently, the use of membrane in reaction engineering has been more and more advocated. The selective separation of the products from the reaction mixture allows to achieve higher conversion or better selectivity or to operate under less severe conditions or with smaller units. This paper presents an update on the recent advances in the field of chemical membrane reactors and on their applications in refining and petrochemistry. Previous work. Most of the possible applications of membrane reactors in petroleum and petrochemical industry concern gaseous catalytic reactions. For this reason, gas permeation membranes are the primary component of membrane reactors. Gas permeation membranes present different types of physical structure : dense, microporous or asymmetric which is a combination of the two. Separating properties of dense membranes are function of the solubility and diffusivity of each gaseous component in the membrane material. For microporous membranes, they follow four mechanisms : Knudsen diffusion, surface diffusion, capillary condensation or molecular sieving. Although organic polymers are the common constituent of gas permeation membrane, their

  15. Sewage disposal using anaerobic membrane reactor. Kenkiseimaku reactor ni yoru gesui shori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Y. (Dic-Degremont Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-11-01

    Discussions were given on a small-scale sewage disposal of about bod 200 mg/l, for which no many examples of use have been hitherto available, using a system combining an anaerobic reactor and membrane modules. Experiments had been carried out from 1988 through 1990 as a part of the Aqua-Renaissance Project. The test equipment wza installed in the premises of the Chigasaki Coastal Research Facilities operated by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, which used sewage flowing from the adjoining sewage treatment plant for the southern area of the Fujisawa City. The test facility consisted of a system comprising a pretreatment facility, SS decomposing reactor, fluid-bed reactor, separation membrane modules, nitrogen removing facility and micro-organism activity measurement. The test facility was constucted assuming a treatment of 10 m{sup 3} a day. The system was divided into a composite system, A system and B system to operate the system in simplified flows. As a result of comparing the composite system, A system and B system, it was found that B system can deal with wider range of disposal for a small-scale sewage treatment of about 1000 m{sup 3} a day. 6 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Performance of integrated bioelectrochemical membrane reactor: Energy recovery, pollutant removal and membrane fouling alleviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yue; He, Weihua; Li, Chao; Liang, Dandan; Qu, Youpeng; Han, Xiaoyu; Feng, Yujie

    2018-04-01

    A novel hybrid bioelectrochemical membrane reactor with integrated microfiltration membrane as the separator between electrodes is developed for domestic wastewater treatment. After accumulation of biofilm, the organic pollutants are mainly degraded in anodic compartment, and microfiltration membrane blocks the adverse leakage of dissolved oxygen from aerated cathodic compartment. The maximum system power output is restricted by gas-water ratio following a Monod-like relationship. Within the tested gas-water ratios ranging from 0.6 to 42.9, the half-saturation constant (KQ) is 5.9 ± 0.9 with a theoretic maximum power density of 20.4 ± 1.0 W m-3. Energy balance analysis indicates an appropriate gas-water ratio regulation (from 2.3 to 28.6) for cathodic compartment is necessary to obtain positive energy output for the system. A maximum net electricity output is 9.09 × 10-3 kWh m-3 with gas-water ratio of 17.1. Notably, the system achieves the chemical oxygen demand removal of 98.3 ± 0.3%, ammonia nitrogen removal of 99.6 ± 0.1%, and total nitrogen removal of 80.0 ± 0.9%. This work verifies an effective integration of microfiltration membrane into bioelectrochemical system as separator for high-quality effluent and provides an insight into the operation and regulation of biocathode system for effective electrical energy output.

  17. EVALUATING HYDROGEN PRODUCTION IN BIOGAS REFORMING IN A MEMBRANE REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. S. A. Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Syngas and hydrogen production by methane reforming of a biogas (CH4/CO2 = 2.85 using carbon dioxide was evaluated in a fixed bed reactor with a Pd-Ag membrane in the presence of a nickel catalyst (Ni 3.31% weight/γ-Al2O3 at 773 K, 823 K, and 873 K and 1.01×105 Pa. Operation with hydrogen permeation at 873 K increased the methane conversion to approximately 83% and doubled the hydrogen yield relative to operation without hydrogen permeation. A mathematical model was formulated to predict the evolution of the effluent concentrations. Predictions based on the model showed similar evolutions for yields of hydrogen and carbon monoxide at temperatures below 823 K for operations with and without the hydrogen permeation. The hydrogen yield reached approximately 21% at 823 K and 47% at 873 K under hydrogen permeation conditions.

  18. Nuclear power plant laundry drain treatment using membrane bio reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukamoto, Masaaki; Kohanawa, Osamu; Kinugasa, Atsushi; Ogawa, Naoki; Murogaki, Kenta

    2012-01-01

    In nuclear power plant, the radioactive effluent generated by washing the clothes worn in controlled area and the hand and shower water used at the controlled area are treated in laundry drain treatment system. Although various systems which treat such liquid waste preexist, the traditional treatment system has disadvantages such as high running cost and a large amount of secondary waste generation. To solve these matters, we have considered application of an activated sludge system, membrane bio reactor, which has been practically used in general industry. For nuclear power plant, the activated sludge system has been developed, tested in its adaptability and the adequacy has been proved. Some preexisting treatment systems have been replaced with this activated sludge system for the first time in a domestic nuclear power plant, and the renewal system is now in operation. The result is reported. (author)

  19. Effect of inlet temperature on the performance of a catalytic reactor. [air pollution control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D. N.

    1978-01-01

    A 12 cm diameter by 15 cm long catalytic reactor was tested with No. 2 diesel fuel in a combustion test rig at inlet temperatures of 700, 800, 900, and 1000 K. Other test conditions included pressures of 3 and 6 x 10 to the 5th power Pa, reference velocities of 10, 15, and 20 m/s, and adiabatic combustion temperatures in the range 1100 to 1400 K. The combustion efficiency was calculated from measurements of carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbon emissions. Nitrogen oxide emissions and reactor pressure drop were also measured. At a reference velocity of 10 m/s, the CO and unburned hydrocarbons emissions, and, therefore, the combustion efficiency, were independent of inlet temperature. At an inlet temperature of 1000 K, they were independent of reference velocity. Nitrogen oxides emissions resulted from conversion of the small amount (135 ppm) of fuel-bound nitrogen in the fuel. Up to 90 percent conversion was observed with no apparent effect of any of the test variables. For typical gas turbine operating conditions, all three pollutants were below levels which would permit the most stringent proposed automotive emissions standards to be met.

  20. 3D printing in chemical engineering and catalytic technology: structured catalysts, mixers and reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Cabrera, Cesar; Achille, Clement; Kuhn, Simon; Ameloot, Rob

    2018-01-02

    Computer-aided fabrication technologies combined with simulation and data processing approaches are changing our way of manufacturing and designing functional objects. Also in the field of catalytic technology and chemical engineering the impact of additive manufacturing, also referred to as 3D printing, is steadily increasing thanks to a rapidly decreasing equipment threshold. Although still in an early stage, the rapid and seamless transition between digital data and physical objects enabled by these fabrication tools will benefit both research and manufacture of reactors and structured catalysts. Additive manufacturing closes the gap between theory and experiment, by enabling accurate fabrication of geometries optimized through computational fluid dynamics and the experimental evaluation of their properties. This review highlights the research using 3D printing and computational modeling as digital tools for the design and fabrication of reactors and structured catalysts. The goal of this contribution is to stimulate interactions at the crossroads of chemistry and materials science on the one hand and digital fabrication and computational modeling on the other.

  1. A catalytic reactor for the organocatalyzed enantioselective continuous flow alkylation of aldehydes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porta, Riccardo; Benaglia, Maurizio; Puglisi, Alessandra; Mandoli, Alessandro; Gualandi, Andrea; Cozzi, Pier Giorgio

    2014-12-01

    The use of immobilized metal-free catalysts offers the unique possibility to develop sustainable processes in flow mode. The challenging intermolecular organocatalyzed enantioselective alkylation of aldehydes was performed for the first time under continuous flow conditions. By using a packed-bed reactor filled with readily available supported enantiopure imidazolidinone, different aldehydes were treated with three distinct cationic electrophiles. In the organocatalyzed α-alkylation of aldehydes with 1,3-benzodithiolylium tetrafluoroborate, excellent enantioselectivities, in some cases even better than those obtained in the flask process (up to 95% ee at 25 °C), and high productivity (more than 3800 h(-1) ) were obtained, which thus shows that a catalytic reactor may continuously produce enantiomerically enriched compounds. Treatment of the alkylated products with Raney-nickel furnished enantiomerically enriched α-methyl derivatives, key intermediates for active pharmaceutical ingredients and natural products. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Zeolite Membrane Reactor for Water Gas Shift Reaction for Hydrogen Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jerry Y.S. [Arizona State Univ., Mesa, AZ (United States)

    2013-01-29

    Gasification of biomass or heavy feedstock to produce hydrogen fuel gas using current technology is costly and energy-intensive. The technology includes water gas shift reaction in two or more reactor stages with inter-cooling to maximize conversion for a given catalyst volume. This project is focused on developing a membrane reactor for efficient conversion of water gas shift reaction to produce a hydrogen stream as a fuel and a carbon dioxide stream suitable for sequestration. The project was focused on synthesizing stable, hydrogen perm-selective MFI zeolite membranes for high temperature hydrogen separation; fabricating tubular MFI zeolite membrane reactor and stable water gas shift catalyst for membrane reactor applications, and identifying experimental conditions for water gas shift reaction in the zeolite membrane reactor that will produce a high purity hydrogen stream. The project has improved understanding of zeolite membrane synthesis, high temperature gas diffusion and separation mechanisms for zeolite membranes, synthesis and properties of sulfur resistant catalysts, fabrication and structure optimization of membrane supports, and fundamentals of coupling reaction with separation in zeolite membrane reactor for water gas shift reaction. Through the fundamental study, the research teams have developed MFI zeolite membranes with good perm-selectivity for hydrogen over carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and water vapor, and high stability for operation in syngas mixture containing 500 part per million hydrogen sulfide at high temperatures around 500°C. The research teams also developed a sulfur resistant catalyst for water gas shift reaction. Modeling and experimental studies on the zeolite membrane reactor for water gas shift reaction have demonstrated the effective use of the zeolite membrane reactor for production of high purity hydrogen stream.

  3. Hydrogen Production From catalytic reforming of greenhouse gases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    a fixed bed stainless steel reactor. The 20wt%. ... catalytic activity for hydrogen production with the highest yield and selectivity of 32.5% and 17.6% respectively. © JASEM ... CO2 reforming of methane is however not fully developed ..... Design and preparation of .... catalytic nickel membrane for gas to liquid (GTL) process.

  4. Integrated Water Gas Shift Membrane Reactors Utilizing Novel, Non Precious Metal Mixed Matrix Membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraris, John P. [Univ. of Texas-Dallas, Richardson, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2013-09-30

    Nanoparticles of zeolitic imidazolate frameworks and other related hybrid materials were prepared by modifying published synthesis procedures by introducing bases, changing stoichiometric ratios, or adjusting reaction conditions. These materials were stable at temperatures >300 °C and were compatible with the polymer matrices used to prepare mixed- matrix membranes (MMMs). MMMs tested at 300 °C exhibited a >30 fold increase in permeability, compared to those measured at 35 °C, while maintaining H2/CO2 selectivity. Measurements at high pressure (up to 30 atm) and high temperature (up to 300 °C) resulted in an increase in gas flux across the membrane with retention of selectivity. No variations in permeability were observed at high pressures at either 35 or 300 °C. CO2-induced plasticization was not observed for Matrimid®, VTEC, and PBI polymers or their MMMs at 30 atm and 300 °C. Membrane surface modification by cross-linking with ethanol diamine resulted in an increase in H2/CO2 selectivity at 35 °C. Spectrometric analysis showed that the cross-linking was effective to temperatures <150 °C. At higher temperatures, the cross-linked membranes exhibit a H2/CO2 selectivity similar to the uncross-linked polymer. Performance of the polybenzimidazole (PBI) hollow fibers prepared at Santa Fe Science and Technology (SFST, Inc.) showed increased flux and selectivity at 300 °C, which is comparable to a flat PBI membrane. A water-gas shift reactor has been built and currently being optimized for testing under DOE conditions.

  5. CFD Simulation of an Anaerobic Membrane BioReactor (AnMBR to Treat Industrial Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura C. Zuluaga

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD simulation has been developed for an Anaerobic Membrane BioReactor (AnMBR to treat industrial wastewater. As the process consists of a side-stream MBR, two separate simulations were created: (i reactor and (ii membrane. Different cases were conducted for each one, so the surrounding temperature and the total suspended solids (TSS concentration were checked. For the reactor, the most important aspects to consider were the dead zones and the mixing, whereas for the ceramic membrane, it was the shear stress over the membrane surface. Results show that the reactor's mixing process was adequate and that the membrane presented higher shear stress in the 'triangular' channel.

  6. Pre-Combustion Carbon Dioxide Capture by a New Dual Phase Ceramic-Carbonate Membrane Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jerry Y. S. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    2015-01-31

    This report documents synthesis, characterization and carbon dioxide permeation and separation properties of a new group of ceramic-carbonate dual-phase membranes and results of a laboratory study on their application for water gas shift reaction with carbon dioxide separation. A series of ceramic-carbonate dual phase membranes with various oxygen ionic or mixed ionic and electronic conducting metal oxide materials in disk, tube, symmetric, and asymmetric geometric configurations was developed. These membranes, with the thickness of 10 μm to 1.5 mm, show CO2 permeance in the range of 0.5-5×10-7 mol·m-2·s-1·Pa-1 in 500-900°C and measured CO2/N2 selectivity of up to 3000. CO2 permeation mechanism and factors that affect CO2 permeation through the dual-phase membranes have been identified. A reliable CO2 permeation model was developed. A robust method was established for the optimization of the microstructures of ceramic-carbonate membranes. The ceramic-carbonate membranes exhibit high stability for high temperature CO2 separations and water gas shift reaction. Water gas shift reaction in the dual-phase membrane reactors was studied by both modeling and experiments. It is found that high temperature syngas water gas shift reaction in tubular ceramic-carbonate dual phase membrane reactor is feasible even without catalyst. The membrane reactor exhibits good CO2 permeation flux, high thermal and chemical stability and high thermal shock resistance. Reaction and separation conditions in the membrane reactor to produce hydrogen of 93% purity and CO2 stream of >95% purity, with 90% CO2 capture have been identified. Integration of the ceramic-carbonate dual-phase membrane reactor with IGCC process for carbon dioxide capture was analyzed. A methodology was developed to identify optimum operation conditions for a

  7. Optimization of a membrane reactor for hydrogen production with genetic algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raceanu, Mircea; Iordache, Ioan; Curuia, Marian; Rasoi, Gabriel; Patularu, Laurentiu; Enache, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Hydrogen is produced via steam reforming of hydrocarbons such as natural gas or methane by using conventional systems. Unfortunately, these systems need at least four different stages, consisting of three reactors and a purification system. Moreover, the steam reforming reaction is an endothermic thermodynamically limited system, meaning that high temperature energy supply is needed for complete conversion. Among different technologies related to production, separation and purification of H 2 , membrane technologies seem to really play a fundamental role. The specific thermodynamic limits are overcome using the so-called membrane reactors, systems in which both reaction and separation occur simultaneously. The hydrogen is driven across the membrane by the pressure difference, depending on the temperature, pressure and reactor length the methane can be completely converted and consequently very pure hydrogen is produced. A membrane reactor has two components which can be optimized namely, the membrane and the reactor dimensions. This paper presents a study on optimization of membrane reactor for enhancing the overall production. A mathematical heterogeneous model of the reactor was used for optimization of reactor performance. Genetic algorithms were used as powerful methods for optimization of complex problems. (authors)

  8. CFD modelling of a membrane reactor for hydrogen production from ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shwe Hla, San; Dolan, Michael D.

    2018-01-01

    Despite the growing use of hydrogen (H2) as a transport fuel, one of the major barriers still remaining is efficient and inexpensive fuel distribution and storage. Current approaches, such as compression, liquefaction or metal hydride formation, incur a significant energy penalty. Ammonia (NH3) has long been considered a prospective H2 medium, exhibiting a higher volumetric H2 density than liquid H2, through liquid-phase storage at mild pressure. Decomposition of NH3 into H2 and N2 can be achieved via use of catalytic reactors and fuel-cell-grade H2 can be produced using metal membranes at H2 distribution sites.In this study, a 3-Dimensional (3D) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model has been developed to understand the performance of the H2 separation process in gas mixtures derived from an NH3-cracking reaction. The reactor consists of 19 tubular membrane tubes, each 470 mm long, inside a tubular shell with an inner diameter of 130 mm. Standard transport and energy equations governing a 3D, pressure-based, steady-state model were derived from the laws of conservation of mass, momentum and energy. The governing equations were solved using commercial CFD software ANSYS Fluent 18.0. Gas flow and mixing were modelled by the two-equation standard k-epsilon model for closure. Coupled solver was used for pressure-velocity coupling, enabling a pseudo-transient option with pseudo time steps of 0.01 s. To estimate H2 permeation through the metal membrane, a constant H2 permeability of 3.0E-07 mol.m-1 s-1 Pa-0.5 derived from series of experiments tested under a range of industrial conditions, was used. Model simulations were conducted for an adiabatic temperature of 300 °C, a feed-side pressure of 7.8 bara and a permeate side pressure of 0.1 bara. A parametric analysis was carried out to explore the effects of variation in total feed-gas flow and effects of changes in NH3-cracking efficiency on H2 production rates and H2 yields. The model estimated that 4.6-11.6 kg H2

  9. Validation of the catalytic properties of Cu-Os/13X using single fixed bed reactor in selective catalytic reduction of NO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Kwang Seok; Woo, Seong Ihl

    2007-01-01

    Catalytic decomposition of NO over Cu-Os/13X has been carried out in a tubular fixed bed reactor at atmospheric pressure and the results were compared with literature data performed by high-throughput screening (HTS). The activity and durability of Cu-Os/13X prepared by conventional ion-exchange method have been investigated in the presence of H 2 O and SO 2 . It was found that Cu-Os/13X prepared by ion-exchange shows a high activity in a wide temperature range in selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO with C 3 H 6 compared to Cu/13X, proving the existence of more NO adsorption site on Cu-Os/13X. However, Cu-Os/13X exhibited low activity in the presence of water, and was quite different from the result reported in literature. SO 2 resistance is also low and does not recover its original activity when the SO 2 was blocked in the feed gas stream. This result suggested that catalytic activity between combinatorial screening and conventional testing should be compared to confirm the validity of high-throughput screening

  10. Reducing NO(x) emissions from a nitric acid plant of domestic petrochemical complex: enhanced conversion in conventional radial-flow reactor of selective catalytic reduction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasfard, Hamed; Hashemi, Seyed Hamid; Rahimpour, Mohammad Reza; Jokar, Seyyed Mohammad; Ghader, Sattar

    2013-01-01

    The nitric acid plant of a domestic petrochemical complex is designed to annually produce 56,400 metric tons (based on 100% nitric acid). In the present work, radial-flow spherical bed reactor (RFSBR) for selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxides (NO(x)) from the stack of this plant was modelled and compared with the conventional radial-flow reactor (CRFR). Moreover, the proficiency of a radial-flow (water or nitrogen) membrane reactor was also compared with the CRFR which was found to be inefficient at identical process conditions. In the RFSBR, the space between the two concentric spheres is filled by a catalyst. A mathematical model, including conservation of mass has been developed to investigate the performance of the configurations. The model was checked against the CRFR in a nitric acid plant located at the domestic petrochemical complex. A good agreement was observed between the modelling results and the plant data. The effects of some important parameters such as pressure and temperature on NO(x) conversion were analysed. Results show 14% decrease in NO(x) emission annually in RFSBR compared with the CRFR, which is beneficial for the prevention of NO(x) emission, global warming and acid rain.

  11. Biotemplating of Luffa cylindrica sponges to self-supporting hierarchical zeolite macrostructures for bio-inspired structured catalytic reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zampieri, Alessandro; Mabande, Godwin T.P.; Selvam, Thangaraj; Schwieger, Wilhelm; Rudolph, Alexander; Hermann, Ralph; Sieber, Heino; Greil, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Biomorphic self-supporting MFI-type zeolite frameworks with hierarchical porosity and complex architecture were prepared using a 2-step (in-situ seeding and secondary crystal growth) hydrothermal synthesis in the presence of a biological template (Luffa sponge), employed as a macroscale sacrificial structure builder. The bio-inspired zeolitic replica inherited the complex spongy morphology and the intricate open-porous architecture of the biotemplate. Moreover, it exhibited reasonable mechanical stability in order to study the applicability of the biomorphic catalyst in a technical catalytic process. A bio-inspired catalytic reactor utilising the self-supporting ZSM-5 scaffold in monolithic configuration was developed in order to test the catalytic performance of the material

  12. Efficient production of lactulose from whey powder by cellobiose 2-epimerase in an enzymatic membrane reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lingtian; Xu, Cen; Li, Sha; Liang, Jinfeng; Xu, Hong; Xu, Zheng

    2017-06-01

    In this study, the gene encoding cellobiose 2-epimerase from Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus (CsCE) was successfully expressed in Bacillus subtilis WB800. After the fermentation medium optimization, the activity of recombinant strain was 4.5-fold higher than the original medium in a 7.5L fermentor. The optimal catalytic pH and temperature of crude CsCE were 7.0 and 80°C, respectively. An enzymatic synthesis of lactulose was developed using cheese-whey lactose as its substrate. The maximum conversion rate of whey powder obtained was 58.5% using 7.5 U/mL CsCE. The enzymatic membrane reactor system exhibited a great operational stability, confirmed with the higher lactose conversion (42.4%) after 10 batches. To our best knowledge, this is the first report of lactulose synthesis in food grade strain, which improve the food safety, and we not only realize the biological production of lactulose, but also make good use of industrial waste, which have positive impact on environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Recent palladium membrane reactor development at the tritium systems test assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willms, R.S.; Birdsell, S.A.; Wilhelm, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    The palladium membrane reactor (PMR) is proving to be a simple and effective means for recovering hydrogen isotopes from fusion fuel impurities such as methane and water. This device directly combines two techniques which have long been utilized for hydrogen processing, namely catalytic shift reactions and palladium/silver permeators. A proof-of-principle (PMR) has been constructed and tested at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly of Los Alamos National Laboratory. The first tests with this device showed that is was effective for the proposed purpose. Initial work concluded that a nickel catalyst was an appropriate choice for use in a PMR. More detailed testing of the PMR with such a catalyst was performed and reported in other works. It was shown that a nickel catalyst-packed PMR did, indeed, recover hydrogen from water and methane with efficiencies approaching 100% in a single processing pass. These experiments were conducted over an extended period of time and no failure or need for regeneration was encountered. These positive results have prompted further PMR development. Topics addressed include alternate PMR geometries and initial testing of the PMR with tritium. These are the subjects of this paper

  14. Techno-economic assessment of membrane assisted fluidized bed reactors for pure H_2 production with CO_2 capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spallina, V.; Pandolfo, D.; Battistella, A.; Romano, M.C.; Van Sint Annaland, M.; Gallucci, F.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Membrane reactors improve the overall efficiency of H_2 production up to 20%. • Respect to conventional reforming, the H_2 yield increases from 12% to 20%. • The COH is reduced of at least 220% using membrane reactors. • FBMR capture 72% of CO_2 with a specific cost of 8 eur/tonn_C_O_2_. • MA-CLR can reach 90% of CO_2 avoided with same cost of FTR. - Abstract: This paper addresses the techno-economic assessment of two membrane-based technologies for H_2 production from natural gas, fully integrated with CO_2 capture. In the first configuration, a fluidized bed membrane reactor (FBMR) is integrated in the H_2 plant: the natural gas reacts with steam in the catalytic bed and H_2 is simultaneously separated using Pd-based membranes, and the heat of reaction is provided to the system by feeding air as reactive sweep gas in part of the membranes and by burning part of the permeated H_2 (in order to avoid CO_2 emissions for heat supply). In the second system, named membrane assisted chemical looping reforming (MA-CLR), natural gas is converted in the fuel rector by reaction with steam and an oxygen carrier (chemical looping reforming), and the produced H_2 permeates through the membranes. The oxygen carrier is re-oxidized in a separate air reactor with air, which also provides the heat required for the endothermic reactions in the fuel reactor. The plants are optimized by varying the operating conditions of the reactors such as temperature, pressures (both at feed and permeate side), steam-to-carbon ratio and the heat recovery configuration. The plant design is carried out using Aspen Simulation, while the novel reactor concepts have been designed and their performance have been studied with a dedicated phenomenological model in Matlab. Both configurations have been designed and compared with reference technologies for H_2 production based on conventional fired tubular reforming (FTR) with and without CO_2 capture. The results of the analysis show

  15. On-line Analysis of Catalytic Reaction Products Using a High-Pressure Tandem Micro-reactor GC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Atsushi; Kim, Young-Min; Hosaka, Akihiko; Watanabe, Chuichi; Teramae, Norio; Ohtani, Hajime; Kim, Seungdo; Park, Young-Kwon; Wang, Kaige; Freeman, Robert R

    2017-01-01

    When a GC/MS system is coupled with a pressurized reactor, the separation efficiency and the retention time are directly affected by the reactor pressure. To keep the GC column flow rate constant irrespective of the reaction pressure, a restrictor capillary tube and an open split interface are attached between the GC injection port and the head of a GC separation column. The capability of the attached modules is demonstrated for the on-line GC/MS analysis of catalytic reaction products of a bio-oil model sample (guaiacol), produced under a pressure of 1 to 3 MPa.

  16. Catalytic Oxidation of Vanillyl Alcohol Using FeMCM-41 Nanoporous Tubular Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elamathi, P.; Kolli, Murali Krishna; Chandrasekar, G.

    Iron containing nanoporous MCM-41 (FeMCM-41) with different Si/Fe ratios of 50, 100 and 150 was synthesized by hydrothermal synthesis process. The materials obtained from hydrothermal synthesis were characterized by various physico chemical techniques such as XRD, N2 adsorption, DR UV-vis, EPR and FTIR spectroscopy. XRD analyses of FeMCM-41 materials confirmed the presence of well-ordered crystalline structure. N2 isotherm of FeMCM-41 materials showed type IV adsorption isotherm. EPR and DR UV-vis analysis of FeMCM-41 samples indicates the presence of high tetrahedral coordination at the Si/Fe ratios of 100 and 150. The catalytic performance of FeMCM-41 nano tubular reactor was tested in the liquid phase oxidation of vanillyl alcohol into vanillin using H2O2 (50wt% in water). The reaction products were analyzed by gas chromatography in DB-5 capillary column with flame ionization detector. The products were confirmed by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and LC-Mass spectroscopy. The maximum conversion of vanillyl alcohol (85%) and selectivity towards vanillin (82%) were observed using the catalyst FeMCM-41(100) in 30min at 60∘C. The influence of reaction temperature, reaction time, reactants molar ratio, Si/Fe ratio and amount of catalyst were investigated.

  17. Control of hydrogen concentration in reactor containment buildings by using passive catalytic recombiners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, U.

    1993-01-01

    Severe accidents in nuclear power plants have the potential to generate hydrogen within the reactor containment building in concentrations likely to deflagrate or even detonate. This could endanger the containment integrity. Autocatalytic devices have been developed by the NIS company in Hanau, Germany, to control the hydrogen concentration within the containment. These devices have been tested by the Battelle Institute in Frankfurt, Germany, under conditions relevant to severe accidents. The catalytic device functions as required in a wide band of gas mixtures ranging from inerted conditions with low-hydrogen and/or low-oxygen concentrations up to detonable mixtures. The device starts up quickly, and has a high resistance against catalyst poisons including the effects of oil or cable fires. The device makes a strong contribution to gas mixing in the containment atmosphere. The paper summarizes the development work done and describes the final design of the device. Theoretical tools for analysis and prediction of catalyst performance in containment environments have been developed by the Battelle Institute and the Technical University of Munich. These tools have been verified and validated against experimental data. A phenomenological discussion of accident scenarios is used to explain the functional requirements for the autocatalytic devices in the control of hydrogen. Both the potential for and limitations of such devices for hydrogen control are discussed for large dry containments (PWRs) and for those which are originally inerted (BWRs)

  18. Non-catalytic alcoholysis process for production of biodiesel fuel by using bubble column reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, S.; Nabetani, H.; Nakajima, M.

    2015-04-01

    -edible lipids by use of the SMV reactor has not been examined yet. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the productivity of biodiesel produced from waste vegetable oils using the SMV reactor. Biodiesel fuel is a replacement for diesel as a fuel produced from biomass resources. It is generally produced as a FAME derived from vegetable oil by using alkaline catalyzed alcoholysis process. This alkaline method requires deacidification process prior to the reaction process and the alkaline catalyst removal process after the reaction. Those process increases the total cost of biodiesel fuel production. In order to solve the problems in the conventional alkaline catalyzed alcoholysis process, the authors proposed a non-catalytic alcoholysis process called the Superheated Methanol Vapor (SMV) method with bubble column reactor. So, this study aims to investigate the productivity of biodiesel produced from vegetable oils and other lipids using the SMV method with bubble column reactor.

  19. Non-catalytic alcoholysis process for production of biodiesel fuel by using bubble column reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagiwara, S; Nabetani, H; Nakajima, M

    2015-01-01

    -edible lipids by use of the SMV reactor has not been examined yet. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the productivity of biodiesel produced from waste vegetable oils using the SMV reactor. Biodiesel fuel is a replacement for diesel as a fuel produced from biomass resources. It is generally produced as a FAME derived from vegetable oil by using alkaline catalyzed alcoholysis process. This alkaline method requires deacidification process prior to the reaction process and the alkaline catalyst removal process after the reaction. Those process increases the total cost of biodiesel fuel production. In order to solve the problems in the conventional alkaline catalyzed alcoholysis process, the authors proposed a non-catalytic alcoholysis process called the Superheated Methanol Vapor (SMV) method with bubble column reactor. So, this study aims to investigate the productivity of biodiesel produced from vegetable oils and other lipids using the SMV method with bubble column reactor

  20. Molecular beam mass spectrometer equipped with a catalytic wall reactor for in situ studies in high temperature catalysis research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, R.; Ihmann, K.; Ihmann, J.; Jentoft, F.C.; Geske, M.; Taha, A.; Pelzer, K.; Schloegl, R.

    2006-01-01

    A newly developed apparatus combining a molecular beam mass spectrometer and a catalytic wall reactor is described. The setup has been developed for in situ studies of high temperature catalytic reactions (>1000 deg. C), which involve besides surface reactions also gas phase reactions in their mechanism. The goal is to identify gas phase radicals by threshold ionization. A tubular reactor, made from the catalytic material, is positioned in a vacuum chamber. Expansion of the gas through a 100 μm sampling orifice in the reactor wall into differentially pumped nozzle, skimmer, and collimator chambers leads to the formation of a molecular beam. A quadrupole mass spectrometer with electron impact ion source designed for molecular beam inlet and threshold ionization measurements is used as the analyzer. The sampling time from nozzle to detector is estimated to be less than 10 ms. A detection time resolution of up to 20 ms can be reached. The temperature of the reactor is measured by pyrometry. Besides a detailed description of the setup components and the physical background of the method, this article presents measurements showing the performance of the apparatus. After deriving the shape and width of the energy spread of the ionizing electrons from measurements on N 2 and He we estimated the detection limit in threshold ionization measurements using binary mixtures of CO in N 2 to be in the range of several hundreds of ppm. Mass spectra and threshold ionization measurements recorded during catalytic partial oxidation of methane at 1250 deg. C on a Pt catalyst are presented. The detection of CH 3 · radicals is successfully demonstrated

  1. Molecular beam mass spectrometer equipped with a catalytic wall reactor for in situ studies in high temperature catalysis research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, R.; Ihmann, K.; Ihmann, J.; Jentoft, F. C.; Geske, M.; Taha, A.; Pelzer, K.; Schlögl, R.

    2006-05-01

    A newly developed apparatus combining a molecular beam mass spectrometer and a catalytic wall reactor is described. The setup has been developed for in situ studies of high temperature catalytic reactions (>1000°C), which involve besides surface reactions also gas phase reactions in their mechanism. The goal is to identify gas phase radicals by threshold ionization. A tubular reactor, made from the catalytic material, is positioned in a vacuum chamber. Expansion of the gas through a 100μm sampling orifice in the reactor wall into differentially pumped nozzle, skimmer, and collimator chambers leads to the formation of a molecular beam. A quadrupole mass spectrometer with electron impact ion source designed for molecular beam inlet and threshold ionization measurements is used as the analyzer. The sampling time from nozzle to detector is estimated to be less than 10ms. A detection time resolution of up to 20ms can be reached. The temperature of the reactor is measured by pyrometry. Besides a detailed description of the setup components and the physical background of the method, this article presents measurements showing the performance of the apparatus. After deriving the shape and width of the energy spread of the ionizing electrons from measurements on N2 and He we estimated the detection limit in threshold ionization measurements using binary mixtures of CO in N2 to be in the range of several hundreds of ppm. Mass spectra and threshold ionization measurements recorded during catalytic partial oxidation of methane at 1250°C on a Pt catalyst are presented. The detection of CH3• radicals is successfully demonstrated.

  2. Numerical simulation of ion transport membrane reactors: Oxygen permeation and transport and fuel conversion

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Jongsup; Kirchen, Patrick; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2012-01-01

    Ion transport membrane (ITM) based reactors have been suggested as a novel technology for several applications including fuel reforming and oxy-fuel combustion, which integrates air separation and fuel conversion while reducing complexity

  3. Autotrophic Nitrogen Removal in a Membrane-Aerated Biofilm Reactor Under Continuous Aeration: A Demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilmore, Kevin R.; Terada, Akihiko; Smets, Barth F.

    2013-01-01

    This work describes the successful coupling of partial nitrification (nitritation) and anaerobic ammonium oxidation in a membrane-aerated biofilm reactor (MABR) with continuous aeration. Controlling the relative surface loadings of oxygen versus ammonium prevented complete nitrite oxidation and a...

  4. Catalytic wet oxidation of phenol in a trickle bed reactor over a Pt/TiO2 catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maugans, Clayton B; Akgerman, Aydin

    2003-01-01

    Catalytic wet oxidation of phenol was studied in a batch and a trickle bed reactor using 4.45% Pt/TiO2 catalyst in the temperature range 150-205 degrees C. Kinetic data were obtained from batch reactor studies and used to model the reaction kinetics for phenol disappearance and for total organic carbon disappearance. Trickle bed experiments were then performed to generate data from a heterogeneous flow reactor. Catalyst deactivation was observed in the trickle bed reactor, although the exact cause was not determined. Deactivation was observed to linearly increase with the cumulative amount of phenol that had passed over the catalyst bed. Trickle bed reactor modeling was performed using a three-phase heterogeneous model. Model parameters were determined from literature correlations, batch derived kinetic data, and trickle bed derived catalyst deactivation data. The model equations were solved using orthogonal collocations on finite elements. Trickle bed performance was successfully predicted using the batch derived kinetic model and the three-phase reactor model. Thus, using the kinetics determined from limited data in the batch mode, it is possible to predict continuous flow multiphase reactor performance.

  5. Modeling and Simulation of the Hydrogenation of α-Methylstyrene on Catalytically Active Metal Foams as Tubular Reactor Packing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Lali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a one-dimensional reactor model for a tubular reactor packed with a catalytically active foam packing with a pore density of 30 PPI in cocurrent upward flow in the example of hydrogenation reaction of α-methylstyrene to cumene. This model includes material, enthalpy, and momentum balances as well as continuity equations. The model was solved within the parameter space applied for experimental studies under assumption of a bubbly flow. The method of orthogonal collocation on finite elements was applied. For isothermal and polytropic processes and steady state conditions, axial profiles for concentration, temperature, fluid velocities, pressure, and liquid holdup were computed and the conversions for various gas and liquid flow rates were validated with experimental results. The obtained results were also compared in terms of space time yield and catalytic activity with experimental results and stirred tank and also with random packed bed reactor. The comparison shows that the application of solid foams as reactor packing is advantageous compared to the monolithic honeycombs and random packed beds.

  6. Solar reforming of methane in a direct absorption catalytic reactor on a parabolic dish. 2: Modeling and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skocypec, Russell D.; Hogan, Roy E., Jr.; Muir, James F.

    1991-01-01

    The catalytically enhanced solar absorption receiver (CAESAR) experiment was conducted to determine the thermal, chemical, and mechanical performance of a commercial-scale, dish-mounted, direct catalytic absorption receiver (DCAR) reactor over a range of steady state and transient (cloud) operating conditions. The focus of the experiment is on global performance such as receiver efficiencies and overall methane conversion; it was not intended to provide data for code validation. A numerical model was previously developed to provide guidance in the design of the absorber. The one-dimensional, planar and steady-state model incorporates, the following energy transfer mechanisms: solar and infrared radiation, heterogeneous chemical reaction, conduction in the solid phase, and convection between the fluid and solid phases. A number of upgrades to the model and improved property values are presented here. Model predictions are shown to bound the experimental axial thermocouple data when experimental uncertainties are included. Global predictions are made using a technique in which the incident solar flux distribution is subdivided into flux contour bands. Model predictions for each band are then spatially integrated to provide global predictions such as reactor efficiencies and methane conversions. Global predictions are shown to compare well with experimental data. Reactor predictions for anticipated operating conditions suggest a further decrease in optical density at the front of the absorber inner disk may be beneficial. The need to conduct code-validation experiments is identified as being essential in improving the confidence in the capability to predict large-scale reactor operation.

  7. A comparison of co-current and counter-current modes of operation for a novel hydrogen-permselective membrane dual-type FTS reactor in GTL technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahimpour, M.R.; Forghani, A.A.; Mostafazadeh, A. Khosravanipour; Shariati, A. [Chemical Engineering Department, School of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71345 (Iran)

    2010-01-15

    In this work, a comparison of co-current and counter-current modes of operation for a novel hydrogen-permselective membrane reactor for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) has been carried out. In both modes of operations, a system with two-catalyst bed instead of one single catalyst bed is developed for FTS reactions. In the first catalytic reactor, the synthesis gas is partly converted to products in a conventional water-cooled fixed-bed reactor, while in the second reactor which is a membrane fixed-bed reactor, the FTS reactions are completed and heat of reaction is used to preheat the feed synthesis gas to the first reactor. In the co-current mode, feed gas is entered into the tubes of the second reactor in the same direction with the reacting gas stream in shell side while in the counter-current mode the gas streams are in the opposite direction. Simulation results for both co-current and counter-current modes have been compared in terms of temperature, gasoline and CO{sub 2} yields, H{sub 2} and CO conversion, selectivity of components as well as permeation rate of hydrogen through the membrane. The results showed that the reactor in the co-current configuration operates with lower conversion and lower permeation rate of hydrogen, but it has more favorable profile of temperature. The counter-current mode of operation decreases undesired products such as CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} and also produces more gasoline. (author)

  8. The effect of gas permeation through vertical membranes on chemical switching reforming (CSR) reactor performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassie, S.A.; Gallucci, F.; Cloete, S.; Zaabout, A.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Amini, S.

    2016-01-01

    A novel membrane assisted fluidized bed reactor concept has been proposed for ultra-pure hydrogen production with integrated CO2 capture from steam methane reforming. The so-called Chemical Switching Reactor (CSR) concept combines the use of an oxygen carrier for supplying heat and catalysing the

  9. A dense Pd/Ag membrane reactor for methanol steam reforming: Experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basile, A.; Gallucci, F.; Paturzo, L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on an experimental study of the methanol steam reforming (MSR) reaction. A dense Pd/Ag membrane reactor (MR) has been used, and its behaviour has been compared to the performance of a traditional reactor (TR) packed with the same catalyst type and amount. The parameters

  10. Recovery of homogeneous polyoxometallate catalysts from aqueous and organic media by a mesoporous ceramic membrane without loss of catalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy Chowdhury, Sankhanilay; Witte, Peter T; Blank, Dave H A; Alsters, Paul L; Ten Elshof, Johan E

    2006-04-03

    The recovery of homogeneous polyoxometallate (POM) oxidation catalysts from aqueous and non-aqueous media by a nanofiltration process using mesoporous gamma-alumina membranes is reported. The recovery of Q(12)[WZn(3)(ZnW(9)O(34))(2)] (Q=[MeN(n-C(8)H(17))(3)](+)) from toluene-based media was quantitative within experimental error, while up to 97 % of Na(12)[WZn(3)(ZnW(9)O(34))(2)] could be recovered from water. The toluene-soluble POM catalyst was used repeatedly in the conversion of cyclooctene to cyclooctene oxide and separated from the product mixture after each reaction. The catalytic activity increased steadily with the number of times that the catalyst had been recycled, which was attributed to partial removal of the excess QCl that is known to have a negative influence on the catalytic activity. Differences in the permeability of the membrane for different liquid media can be attributed to viscosity differences and/or capillary condensation effects. The influence of membrane pore radius on permeability and recovery is discussed.

  11. The catalytic function of cytochrome P450 is entwined with its membrane-bound nature [version 1; referees: 4 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Barnaba

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cytochrome P450, a family of monooxygenase enzymes, is organized as a catalytic metabolon, which requires enzymatic partners as well as environmental factors that tune its complex dynamic. P450 and its reducing counterparts—cytochrome P450-reductase and cytochrome b5—are membrane-bound proteins located in the cytosolic side of the endoplasmic reticulum. They are believed to dynamically associate to form functional complexes. Increasing experimental evidence signifies the role(s played by both protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions in P450 catalytic function and efficiency. However, the biophysical challenges posed by their membrane-bound nature have severely limited high-resolution understanding of the molecular interfaces of these interactions. In this article, we provide an overview of the current knowledge on cytochrome P450, highlighting the environmental factors that are entwined with its metabolic function. Recent advances in structural biophysics are also discussed, setting up the bases for a new paradigm in the study of this important class of membrane-bound enzymes.

  12. Membrane assisted fluidized bed reactor: experimental demonstration for partial oxidation of methanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deshmukh, S.A.R.K.

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis the reactor concept has been developed on the basis of an experimental study on the effect of fluidization conditions on the membrane permeation rate in a MAFBR, the extent of gas back mixing and the tube-to-bed heat transfer rates in the presence of membrane bundles with and without

  13. Ethanol steam reforming kinetics of a Pd-Ag membrane reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tosti, S.; Basile, A.; Borelli, R.; Borgognoni, F.; Castelli, S.; Fabbricino, M.; Gallucci, F.; Licusati, C.

    2009-01-01

    The ethanol steam reforming reaction carried out in a Pd-based tubular membrane reactor has been modelled via a finite element code. The model considers the membrane tube divided into finite volume elements where the mass balances for both lumen and shell sides are carried out accordingly to the

  14. Fabrication of palladium nanoparticles immobilized on an amine-functionalized ceramic membrane support using a nanoparticulate colloidal impregnation method with enhanced catalytic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Yan; Chen, Rizhi [Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing (China)

    2015-09-15

    An efficient and reusable catalyst was developed by depositing palladium nanoparticles on an amine-functionalized ceramic membrane support using a nanoparticulate colloidal impregnation method. The as-prepared Pdloaded ceramic membrane support was characterized by XRD, SEM, EDS, TEM, XPS, ICP, and its catalytic properties were investigated in the liquid-phase p-nitrophenol hydrogenation. A comparative study was also made with the palladium nanoparticles deposited on an amine-functionalized ceramic membrane support by an impregnation-reduction method. The palladium nanoparticles could be homogeneously immobilized on the ceramic membrane support surface, and exhibited excellent catalytic performance in the p-nitrophenol hydrogenation. The catalytic activity of the Pdloaded ceramic membrane support prepared by the nanoparticulate colloidal impregnation method increased by 16.6% compared to that of impregnation-reduction method. In the nanoparticulate colloidal impregnation method, palladium nanoparticles were presynthesized, higher loading of Pd(0) could be obtained, resulting in better catalytic activity. The as-prepared Pd-loaded ceramic membrane support could be easily reused for several cycles without appreciable degradation of catalytic activity.

  15. ENHANCEMENT OF EQUILIBRIUMSHIFT IN DEHYDROGENATION REACTIONS USING A NOVEL MEMBRANE REACTOR; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamsuddin Ilias, Ph.d., P.E.; Franklin G. King, D.Sc.

    2001-01-01

    With the advances in new inorganic materials and processing techniques, there has been renewed interest in exploiting the benefits of membranes in many industrial applications. Inorganic and composite membranes are being considered as potential candidates for use in membrane-reactor configuration for effectively increasing reaction rate, selectivity and yield of equilibrium limited reactions. To investigate the usefulness of a palladium-ceramic composite membrane in a membrane reactor-separator configuration, we investigated the dehydrogenation of cyclohexane by equilibrium shift. A two-dimensional pseudo-homogeneous reactor model was developed to study the dehydrogenation of cyclohexane by equilibrium shift in a tubular membrane reactor. Radial diffusion was considered to account for the concentration gradient in the radial direction due to permeation through the membrane. For a dehydrogenation reaction, the feed stream to the reaction side contained cyclohexane and argon, while the separation side used argon as the sweep gas. Equilibrium conversion for dehydrogenation of cyclohexane is 18.7%. The present study showed that 100% conversion could be achieved by equilibrium shift using Pd-ceramic membrane reactor. For a feed containing cyclohexane and argon of 1.64 x 10(sup -6) and 1.0 x 10(sup -3) mol/s, over 98% conversion could be readily achieved. The dehydrogenation of cyclohexane was also experimentally investigated in a palladium-ceramic membrane reactor. The Pd-ceramic membrane was fabricated by electroless deposition of palladium on ceramic substrate. The performance of Pd-ceramic membrane was compared with a commercially available hydrogen-selective ceramic membrane. From limited experimental data it was observed that by appropriate choice of feed flow rate and sweep gas rate, the conversion of cyclohexane to benzene and hydrogen can increased to 56% at atmospheric pressure and 200 C in a Pd-ceramic membrane reactor. In the commercial ceramic membrane

  16. Pyrolysis of aseptic packages (tetrapak) in a laboratory screw type reactor and secondary thermal/catalytic tar decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haydary, J., E-mail: juma.haydary@stuba.sk [Institute of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Radlinského 9, 812 37 Bratislava (Slovakia); Susa, D.; Dudáš, J. [Institute of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Radlinského 9, 812 37 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Pyrolysis of aseptic packages was carried out in a laboratory flow reactor. ► Distribution of tetrapak into the product yields was obtained. ► Composition of the pyrolysis products was estimated. ► Secondary thermal and catalytic decomposition of tars was studied. ► Two types of catalysts (dolomite and red clay marked AFRC) were used. - Abstract: Pyrolysis of aseptic packages (tetrapak cartons) in a laboratory apparatus using a flow screw type reactor and a secondary catalytic reactor for tar cracking was studied. The pyrolysis experiments were realized at temperatures ranging from 650 °C to 850 °C aimed at maximizing of the amount of the gas product and reducing its tar content. Distribution of tetrapak into the product yields at different conditions was obtained. The presence of H{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2} and light hydrocarbons, HCx, in the gas product was observed. The Aluminum foil was easily separated from the solid product. The rest part of char was characterized by proximate and elemental analysis and calorimetric measurements. The total organic carbon in the tar product was estimated by elemental analysis of tars. Two types of catalysts (dolomite and red clay marked AFRC) were used for catalytic thermal tar decomposition. Three series of experiments (without catalyst in a secondary cracking reactor, with dolomite and with AFRC) at temperatures of 650, 700, 750, 800 and 850 °C were carried out. Both types of catalysts have significantly affected the content of tars and other components in pyrolytic gases. The effect of catalyst on the tetrapack distribution into the product yield on the composition of gas and on the total organic carbon in the tar product is presented in this work.

  17. Coupling of separation and reaction in zeolite membrane reactor for hydroisomerization of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gora, L.; Maloncy, M.L.; Jansen, J.C. [Ceramic Membrane Centre, The Pore, DelftChemTech, Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)

    2004-07-01

    A zeolite membrane reactor has been developed for the hydroisomerization of hydrocarbons, in which the linear molecules are separated from branch ones on the silicalite-1 membrane prior to conversion of the permeated linear hydrocarbons to equilibrium levels on the catalyst bed. A model studies using C6 components are conduct. Separated n-C6 from 2MP (selectivity 24) is converted for 72% with 36% selectivity towards di-branched isomers (at 393 K). The results indicate that platinum containing chlorinated alumina/silicalite-1 membrane reactor has a potential in upgrading octane values and offers advantages such as higher efficiency, better process control and lower consumption of energy. (orig.)

  18. Numerical study of the behavior of methane-hydrogen/air pre-mixed flame in a micro reactor equipped with catalytic segmented bluff body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baigmohammadi, Mohammadreza; Tabejamaat, Sadegh; Zarvandi, Jalal

    2015-01-01

    In this work, combustion characteristics of premixed methane-hydrogen/air in a micro reactor equipped with a catalytic bluff body is investigated numerically. In this regard, the detailed chemistry schemes for gas phase (homogeneous) and the catalyst surface (heterogeneous) are used. The applied catalytic bluff body is coated with a thin layer of platinum (Pt) on its surface. Also, the lean reactive mixture is entered to the reactor with equivalence ratio 0.9. The results of this study showed that the use of catalytic bluff body in the center of a micro reactor can significantly increase the flame stability, especially at high velocities. Moreover, it is found that a catalytic bluff body with several cavities on its surface and also high thermal conductivity improves the flame stability more than a catalytic bluff body without cavities and low thermal conductivity. Finally, it is maintained that the most advantage of using the catalytic bluff body is its easy manufacturing process as compared to the catalytic wall. This matter seems to be more prevalent when we want to create several cavities with various sizes on the bluff-body. - Highlights: • Presence of a bluff body in a micro reactor can move the flame towards the upstream. • Catalytic bluff body can significantly increase flame stability at high velocities. • Creating non-catalytic cavities on the bluff body promotes homogeneous reactions. • Segmented catalytic bluff body improves the flame stability more than a simple one. • Creating the segments on a bluff body is easier compared to a wall

  19. Microbial activity catalyzes oxygen transfer in membrane-aerated nitritating biofilm reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pellicer i Nàcher, Carles; Domingo Felez, Carlos; Lackner, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    The remarkable oxygen transfer efficiencies attainable in membrane-aerated biofilm reactors (MABRs) are expected to favor their prompt industrial implementation. However, tests in clean water, currently used for the estimation of their oxygen transfer potential, lead to wrong estimates once biofilm...... is present, significantly complicating reactor modelling and control. This study shows for the first time the factors affecting oxygen mass transfer across membranes during clean water tests and reactor operation via undisturbed microelectrode inspection and bulk measurements. The mass transfer resistance...... of the liquid boundary layer developed at the membrane-liquid interface during clean water tests accounted for two thirds of the total mass transfer resistance, suggesting a strong underestimation of the oxygen transfer rates when it is absent (e.g. after biofilm growth). Reactor operation to attain partial...

  20. Photo-catalytic reactors for in-building grey water reuse. Comparison with biological processes and market potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jefferson, B.; Murray, C.; Diaper, C.; Parsons, S.A.; Jeffrey, P. [School of Water Sciences, Cranfield Univ., Cranfield, Bedfordshire (United Kingdom); Bedel, C. [Dept. of Industrial Process, National Inst. of Applied Sciences (France); Centeno, C. [Dept. of the Faculty of Engineering, Univ. of Santo Tomas, Manila (Philippines)

    2003-07-01

    Photo catalytic reactors potentially have a market in the reuse of grey water as they do not suffer from problems associated with toxic shocks and can be compact. The process is dependant upon the ratio of TOC to TiO{sub 2} concentration such that a greater proportion of the feed is degraded when either are increased. Economic assessment of grey water recycling showed both scale of operation and regional location to be the two most important factors in deciding the financial acceptability of any reuse technology. Overall the assessment suggested that photo catalytic oxidation (PCO) technology was suitable for grey water recycling and that the technology should be marketed at large buildings such as residential accommodation and offices. (orig.)

  1. Mathematical modeling of methyl ester concentration distribution in a continuous membrane tubular reactor and comparison with conventional tubular reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaghat, M. R.; Jokar, S. M.; Modarres, E.

    2017-10-01

    The reduction of fossil fuel resources and environmental issues made researchers find alternative fuels include biodiesels. One of the most widely used methods for production of biodiesel on a commercial scale is transesterification method. In this work, the biodiesel production by a transesterification method was modeled. Sodium hydroxide was considered as a catalyst to produce biodiesel from canola oil and methanol in a continuous tubular ceramic membranes reactor. As the Biodiesel production reaction from triglycerides is an equilibrium reaction, the reaction rate constants depend on temperature and related linearly to catalyst concentration. By using the mass balance for a membrane tubular reactor and considering the variation of raw materials and products concentration with time, the set of governing equations were solved by numerical methods. The results clearly show the superiority of membrane reactor than conventional tubular reactors. Afterward, the influences of molar ratio of alcohol to oil, weight percentage of the catalyst, and residence time on the performance of biodiesel production reactor were investigated.

  2. A novel auto-thermal reforming membrane reactor for high purity H2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tony Boyd; Grace, J.R.; Lim, C.J.; Adris, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    A novel hydrogen reactor based on steam reforming of natural gas has been developed and tested. The reactor produces high purity hydrogen using in-situ perm-selective membranes installed in a fluidized catalyst bed, thus shifting the thermodynamic equilibrium of the SMR reaction and eliminating the need for downstream hydrogen purification. The reactor is particularly suited to auto-thermal reforming, where air is added to the reformer to provide the endothermic reaction heat, thus eliminating the need to indirectly heat the reactor. The gas flow pattern within the fluidized bed induces an internal circulation of catalyst particles between the central SMR reaction (permeation) zone and an outer annulus. The circulating hot catalyst particles from the oxidation zone carry the required endothermic heat of reaction for the reforming, while ensuring that the palladium membranes are not exposed to excessive temperatures or to oxygen. Another beneficial characteristic of the reactor is that very little of the nitrogen present in the oxidation air reaches the reaction zone, thus maintaining the hydrogen driving force for the perm-selective membranes. Pilot plant results carried out in a semi-industrial scale reactor will be presented. The reactor was operated up to 650 C and 14 bar. Pure hydrogen (99.999+%) was initially obtained from the reactor and an equilibrium shift was demonstrated. (authors)

  3. Numerical study of methanol–steam reforming and methanol–air catalytic combustion in annulus reactors for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chein, Reiyu; Chen, Yen-Cho; Chung, J.N.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Performance of mini-scale integrated annulus reactors for hydrogen production. ► Flow rates fed to combustor and reformer control the reactor performance. ► Optimum performance is found from balance of flow rates to combustor and reformer. ► Better performance can be found when shell side is designed as combustor. -- Abstract: This study presents the numerical simulation on the performance of mini-scale reactors for hydrogen production coupled with liquid methanol/water vaporizer, methanol/steam reformer, and methanol/air catalytic combustor. These reactors are designed similar to tube-and-shell heat exchangers. The combustor for heat supply is arranged as the tube or shell side. Based on the obtained results, the methanol/air flow rate through the combustor (in terms of gas hourly space velocity of combustor, GHSV-C) and the methanol/water feed rate to the reformer (in terms of gas hourly space velocity of reformer, GHSV-R) control the reactor performance. With higher GHSV-C and lower GHSV-R, higher methanol conversion can be achieved because of higher reaction temperature. However, hydrogen yield is reduced and the carbon monoxide concentration is increased due to the reversed water gas shift reaction. Optimum reactor performance is found using the balance between GHSV-C and GHSV-R. Because of more effective heat transfer characteristics in the vaporizer, it is found that the reactor with combustor arranged as the shell side has better performance compared with the reactor design having the combustor as the tube side under the same operating conditions.

  4. Study of a dense metal membrane reactor for hydrogen separation from hydroiodic acid decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosti, Silvano; Borelli, Rodolfo; Borgognoni, Fabio [ENEA, Dipartimento FPN, C.R. ENEA Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, Frascati, Roma I-00044 (Italy); Favuzza, Paolo; Tarquini, Pietro [ENEA, Dipartimento TER, C.R. ENEA Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, Roma (Italy); Rizzello, Claudio [Tesi Sas, Via Bolzano 28, Roma (Italy)

    2008-10-15

    A membrane reactor has been studied for separating the hydrogen produced by the dissociation of hydroiodic acid in the thermochemical-sulfur iodine process. A dense metal membrane tube of wall thickness 0.250 mm has been considered in this analysis for hosting a fixed-bed catalyst: the selective separation of hydrogen from an azeotropic H{sub 2}O-HI mixture has been studied in the temperature range of 700-800 K. The materials being considered for the construction of the membrane tube are niobium and tantalum; as a matter of fact, the most commonly used Pd-Ag membranes cannot withstand the corrosive environment generated by the hydroiodic acid. The Damkohler-Peclet analysis has been used for designing the membrane reactor, while a finite element method has simulated its behaviour: the effect of the temperature and pressure on the HI conversion and hydrogen yield has been evaluated. (author)

  5. Directing filtration to narrow molecular weight distribution of oligodextran in an enzymatic membrane reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Ziran; Luo, Jianquan; Pinelo, Manuel

    2018-01-01

    ) should be minimized to reduce accumulation of large oligodextran molecules on the membrane surface, which might diffuse through the membrane and thus broaden the Mw distribution of the products in the permeate. Both dextranase and dextran caused membrane irreversible fouling. The fouling caused...... product, hypersaline wastewater discharge and potential safety hazards. In this work, a novel enzymatic membrane reactor (EMR) system to produce oligodextran is proposed, whereby in-situ product recovery can be manipulated to control the Mw distribution of the resulting products. Results showed...... that the membrane material played an important role in the permeate flux and transmission of oligodextran. Among the tested membranes, a 20kDa polyethersulfone (PES) membrane was found to be optimal for building up the EMR, as it successfully controlled the oligodextran Mw within the desired range with a relatively...

  6. Catalytic Chan–Lam coupling using a ‘tube-in-tube’ reactor to deliver molecular oxygen as an oxidant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl J. Mallia

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A flow system to perform Chan–Lam coupling reactions of various amines and arylboronic acids has been realised employing molecular oxygen as an oxidant for the re-oxidation of the copper catalyst enabling a catalytic process. A tube-in-tube gas reactor has been used to simplify the delivery of the oxygen accelerating the optimisation phase and allowing easy access to elevated pressures. A small exemplification library of heteroaromatic products has been prepared and the process has been shown to be robust over extended reaction times.

  7. Bipolar membranes in forward bias region for fuel cell reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobyntseva, Elena; Kallio, Tanja; Kontturi, Kyoesti

    2006-01-01

    Three bipolar membranes, two home-made composed of commercial cation (DuPont) and anion (FuMA-Tech) exchange membranes (called Nafion/FT-FAA and Nafion/FT-FAS) and a commercial one, BP-1 from FuMA-Tech, were investigated in order to characterize their suitability to use in a H 2 /O 2 fuel cell intended to produce hydrogen peroxide on the cathode instead of water. The Nafion/FT-FAA and Nafion/FT-FAS membranes were prepared using a hot-pressing method. The optimal hot-pressing conditions were determined by measuring the ionic conductivity of the membranes. The latter was observed to depend on the relative humidity of the bipolar membrane. Of the studied bipolar membranes, Nafion/FT-FAA showed the best performance. The transport number of protons measured in a concentration cell was observed to depend on the direction of the proton diffusion flux through these membranes so that transport numbers of ca. unity were obtained when the cation exchange side faced the solution with higher proton concentration. In the opposite case, when the higher concentration faced anion exchange side, the transport number of proton was clearly lower, indicating the usefulness of the bipolar membranes for hydrogen peroxide production in the fuel cell

  8. Advanced design of fast reactor-membrane reformer (FR-MR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashimo, M.; Hori, I.; Yasuda, I.; Shirasaki, Y.; Kobayashi, K.

    2004-01-01

    A new plant concept of nuclear-produced hydrogen is being studied using a Fast Reactor-Membrane Reformer (FR-MR). The conventional steam methane reforming (SMR) system is a three-stage process. The first stage includes the reforming, the second contains a shift reaction and the third is the separation process. The reforming process requires high temperatures of 800 ∼ 900 deg C. The shift process generates heat and is performed at around 200 deg C. The membrane reforming has only one process stage under a nonequilibrium condition by removing H2 selectively through a membrane tube. The steam reforming temperature can be decreased from 800 deg C to 550 deg C, which is a remarkable benefit offered by the non-equilibrium condition. With this new technology, the reactor type can be changed from a High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) to a Fast Reactor (FR). A Fast Reactor-Membrane Reformer (FR-MR) is composed of a nuclear plant and a hydrogen plant. The nuclear plant is a sodium-cooled Fast Reactor with mixed oxide fuel and with a power of 240 MWt. The heat transport system contains two circuits, the primary circuit and the secondary circuit. The membrane reformer units are set in the secondary circuit. The heat, supplied by the sodium, can produce 200 000 Nm 3 /h by 2 units. There are two types of membranes. One is made of Pd another one (advanced) is made of, for example V, or Nb. The technology for the Pd membrane is already established in a small scale. The non-Pd type is expected to improve the performance. (author)

  9. Improvement of Membrane Performances to Enhance the Yield of Vanillin in a Pervaporation Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Camera-Roda

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In membrane reactors, the interaction of reaction and membrane separation can be exploited to achieve a “process intensification”, a key objective of sustainable development. In the present work, the properties that the membrane must have to obtain this result in a pervaporation reactor are analyzed and discussed. Then, the methods to enhance these properties are investigated for the photocatalytic synthesis of vanillin, which represents a case where the recovery from the reactor of vanillin by means of pervaporation while it is produced allows a substantial improvement of the yield, since its further oxidation is thus prevented. To this end, the phenomena that control the permeation of both vanillin and the reactant (ferulic acid are analyzed, since they ultimately affect the performances of the membrane reactor. The results show that diffusion of the aromatic compounds takes place in the presence of low concentration gradients, so that the process is controlled by other phenomena, in particular by the equilibrium with the vapor at the membrane-permeate interface. On this basis, it is demonstrated that the performances are enhanced by increasing the membrane thickness and/or the temperature, whereas the pH begins to limit the process only at values higher than 6.5.

  10. Catalytic membrane in denitrification of water: a means to facilitate intraporous diffusion of reactants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ilinich, O.M.; Cuperus, F.P.; Gemert, van R.W.; Gribov, E.N.; Nosova, L.V.

    2000-01-01

    The series of mono- and bi-metallic catalysts with Pd and/or Cu supported over γ-Al 2O 3 was investigated with respect to reduction of nitrate and nitrite ions in water by hydrogen. Pronounced limitations of catalytic performance due to intraporous diffusion of the reactants were observed in the

  11. Development of a coupled reactor with a catalytic combustor and steam reformer for a 5 kW solid oxide fuel cell system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Sanggyu; Lee, Kanghun; Yu, Sangseok; Lee, Sang Min; Ahn, Kook-Young

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Proposes the scale-up strategy to develop a large-scale coupled reactor. • Investigation of performance of steam reformer coupled with catalytic combustor. • Experimental parameters are inlet temp., air excess ratio, SCR, fuel utilization. • Evaluation of the heat transfer distribution along the gas flow direction. • The mean value of methane conversion rate is approximately 93.4%. - Abstract: The methane (CH 4 ) conversion rate of a steam reformer can be increased by thermal integration with a catalytic combustor, called a coupled reactor. In the present study, a 5 kW coupled reactor has been developed based on a 1 kW coupled reactor in previous work. The geometric parameters of the space velocity, diameter and length of the coupled reactor selected from the 1 kW coupled reactor are tuned and applied to the design of the 5 kW coupled reactor. To confirm the scale-up strategy, the performance of 5 kW coupled reactor is experimentally investigated with variations of operating parameters such as the fuel utilization in the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack, the inlet temperature of the catalytic combustor, the excess air ratio of the catalytic combustor, and the steam to carbon ratio (SCR) in the steam reformer. The temperature distributions of coupled reactors are measured along the gas flow direction. The gas composition at the steam reformer outlet is measured to find the CH 4 conversion rate of the coupled reactor. The maximum value of the CH 4 conversion rate is approximately 93.4%, which means the proposed scale-up strategy can be utilized to develop a large-scale coupled reactor

  12. Microbial community stratification in Membrane-Aerated Biofilm Reactors for Completely Autotrophic Nitrogen Removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pellicer i Nàcher, Carles; Ruscalleda, Maël; Terada, Akihiko

    of bacterial granules or biofilms. In this sense, completely autotrophic nitrogen removal from high ammonium strength wastewater was achieved in a Membrane-Aereated Biofilm Reactor (MABR) in a single step. Here, a biofilm containing nitrifiers (Aerobic Ammonium and Nitrite Oxidizing Bacteria, AOB and NOB......, respectively) and Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidizing Bacteria (AnAOB) is grown on bubbleless aeration membranes to remove ammonium. Since oxygen permeates through the membrane-biofilm interface while ammonium diffuses into the biofilm from the biofilm-liquid interface, oxygen gradients can be established across...... the biofilm, allowing nitrogen removal in a single reactor by simultaneous activity of the mentioned biocatalysts. This work consists on the analysis of the microbial community existing in two laboratory-scale reactors operated for more than 300 days, which removed up to 5.5 g-N/m2/day. The system contained...

  13. Palladium based membranes and membrane reactors for hydrogen production and purification : An overview of research activities at Tecnalia and TU/e

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez, E.; Helmi Siasi Farimani, A.; Medrano Jimenez, J.A.; Coenen, K.T.; Arratibel Plazaola, A.; Melendez Rey, J.; de Nooijer, N.C.A.; Viviente, J.L.; Zuniga, J.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Gallucci, F.; Pacheco Tanaka, D.A.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the main achievements of several European research projects on Pd based membranes and Pd membrane reactors for hydrogen production are reported. Pd-based membranes have received an increasing interest for separation and purification of hydrogen. In addition, the integration of such

  14. Waste Water treatment by membrane bioreactors; Tratamiento de aguas residuales urbanas mediante reactores biologicos de membranas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malfeito, J. J.; Palacios, E.

    2001-07-01

    Wastewater reuse plants can be simplified to a single step process with a membrane bioreactor developed by PRIDESA. The process consists on a biological reactor integrated with immersed membranes that combines clarification and filtration of an activated sludge process into a simplified single step process. Because of the design of the membranes and plate and frame module, the hydrostatic pressure difference is enough to ensure the design permeate flowrate. That means low energy requirements and reduced fouling, as contaminants are not forced into the membrane pores. A 90-days pilot scale operation for reclamation of urban wastewater was studied and the performance of the system was investigated with a sludge retention time (SRT) of 25 days and membrane flux between 50.90 l/h. with different membranes. Averaged 98% of BODS, a 95% of COD and a 99.49% of SS were removed. (Author) 5 refs.

  15. Bubbling bed catalytic hydropyrolysis process utilizing larger catalyst particles and smaller biomass particles featuring an anti-slugging reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, Terry L; Felix, Larry G; Linck, Martin B; Roberts, Michael J

    2014-09-23

    This invention relates to a process for thermochemically transforming biomass or other oxygenated feedstocks into high quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels. In particular, a catalytic hydropyrolysis reactor, containing a deep bed of fluidized catalyst particles is utilized to accept particles of biomass or other oxygenated feedstocks that are significantly smaller than the particles of catalyst in the fluidized bed. The reactor features an insert or other structure disposed within the reactor vessel that inhibits slugging of the bed and thereby minimizes attrition of the catalyst. Within the bed, the biomass feedstock is converted into a vapor-phase product, containing hydrocarbon molecules and other process vapors, and an entrained solid char product, which is separated from the vapor stream after the vapor stream has been exhausted from the top of the reactor. When the product vapor stream is cooled to ambient temperatures, a significant proportion of the hydrocarbons in the product vapor stream can be recovered as a liquid stream of hydrophobic hydrocarbons, with properties consistent with those of gasoline, kerosene, and diesel fuel. Separate streams of gasoline, kerosene, and diesel fuel may also be obtained, either via selective condensation of each type of fuel, or via later distillation of the combined hydrocarbon liquid.

  16. Bubbling bed catalytic hydropyrolysis process utilizinig larger catalyst particles and small biomass particles featuring an anti-slugging reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, Terry L.; Felix, Larry G.; Linck, Martin B.; Roberts, Michael J.

    2016-12-06

    This invention relates to a process for thermochemically transforming biomass or other oxygenated feedstocks into high quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels. In particular, a catalytic hydropyrolysis reactor, containing a deep bed of fluidized catalyst particles is utilized to accept particles of biomass or other oxygenated feedstocks that are significantly smaller than the particles of catalyst in the fluidized bed. The reactor features an insert or other structure disposed within the reactor vessel that inhibits slugging of the bed and thereby minimizes attrition of the catalyst. Within the bed, the biomass feedstock is converted into a vapor-phase product, containing hydrocarbon molecules and other process vapors, and an entrained solid char product, which is separated from the vapor stream after the vapor stream has been exhausted from the top of the reactor. When the product vapor stream is cooled to ambient temperatures, a significant proportion of the hydrocarbons in the product vapor stream can be recovered as a liquid stream of hydrophobic hydrocarbons, with properties consistent with those of gasoline, kerosene, and diesel fuel. Separate streams of gasoline, kerosene, and diesel fuel may also be obtained, either via selective condensation of each type of fuel, or via later distillation of the combined hydrocarbon liquid.

  17. Micro-scale H2-CO2 dynamics in a hydrogenotrophic methanogenic membrane reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Robledo, Emilio; Ottosen, Lars Ditlev Mørck; Voigt, Niels Vinther

    2016-01-01

    Biogas production is a key factor in a sustainable energy supply. It is possible to get biogas with very high methane content if the biogas reactors are supplied with exogenous hydrogen, and one of the technologies for supplying hydrogen is through gas permeable membranes. In this study the activ......Biogas production is a key factor in a sustainable energy supply. It is possible to get biogas with very high methane content if the biogas reactors are supplied with exogenous hydrogen, and one of the technologies for supplying hydrogen is through gas permeable membranes. In this study...

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF MIEX® RESIN FOR WATER TREATMENT EFFICIENCYIN A HYBRID MEMBRANE REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariola Rajca

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of studies related to the effectiveness of removal of natural organic matter (NOM from water using hybrid membrane reactor in which ion exchange and ultrafiltration processes were performed. MIEX® resin by Orica Watercare and immersed ultrafiltration polyvinylidene fluoride capillary module ZeeWeed 1 (ZW 1 by GE Power&Water operated at negative pressure were used. The application of multifunctional reactor had a positive effect on the removal of contaminants and enabled the production of high quality water. Additionally, in refer to single stage ultrafiltration it minimalized the occurrence of membrane fouling.

  19. Experimental evaluation of methane dry reforming process on a membrane reactor to hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Fabiano S.A.; Benachour, Mohand; Abreu, Cesar A.M. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. of Chemical Engineering], Email: f.aruda@yahoo.com.br

    2010-07-01

    In a fixed bed membrane reactor evaluations of methane-carbon dioxide reforming over a Ni/{gamma}- Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst were performed at 773 K, 823 K and 873 K. A to convert natural gas into syngas a fixed-bed reactor associate with a selective membrane was employed, where the operating procedures allowed to shift the chemical equilibrium of the reaction in the direction of the products of the process. Operations under hydrogen permeation, at 873 K, promoted the increase of methane conversion, circa 83%, and doubled the yield of hydrogen production, when compared with operations where no hydrogen permeation occurred. (author)

  20. Coordination kinetics of different metal ions with the amidoximated polyacrylonitrile nanofibrous membranes and catalytic behaviors of their complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Fu; Dong, Yong Chun; Kang, Wei Min; Cheng, Bowen; Qu, Xiang; Cui, Guixin [School of Textiles, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin (China)

    2016-12-15

    Two transition metal ions (Fe{sup 3+} and Cu{sup 2+}) and a rare earth metal ion (Ce{sup 3+}) were selected to coordinate with amidoximated polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibrous membrane for preparing three metal modified PAN nanofibrous membrane complexes (M-AO-n-PANs, M = Fe, Cu, or Ce) as the heterogeneous Fenton catalysts for the dye degradation in water under visible irradiation. The coordination kinetics of three metal ions with modified PAN nanofibrous membranes was studied and the catalytic properties of the resulting complexes were also compared. The results indicated that increasing metal ion concentrations in solution or higher coordination temperature led to a significant increase in metal content, particularly in Fe and Cu contents of the complexes. Their coordination process could be described using Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second-order kinetic equations. Moreover, Fe-AO-n-PAN had the best photocatalytic efficiency for the dye degradation in acidic medium, but a lower photocatalytic activity than Cu-AO-n-PAN in alkali medium.

  1. Ion transport membrane reactor systems and methods for producing synthesis gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repasky, John Michael

    2015-05-12

    Embodiments of the present invention provide cost-effective systems and methods for producing a synthesis gas product using a steam reformer system and an ion transport membrane (ITM) reactor having multiple stages, without requiring inter-stage reactant injections. Embodiments of the present invention also provide techniques for compensating for membrane performance degradation and other changes in system operating conditions that negatively affect synthesis gas production.

  2. Catalytic Ionic-Liquid Membranes: The Convergence of Ionic-Liquid Catalysis and Ionic-Liquid Membrane Separation Technologies.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Izák, Pavel; Bobbink, F.D.; Hulla, M.; Klepic, M.; Friess, K.; Hovorka, Š.; Dyson, P.J.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 1 (2018), s. 7-18 ISSN 2192-6506 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-00089S; GA ČR GA17-05421S Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : heterogeneous catalysis * ionic liquids * membranes Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering OBOR OECD: Chemical process engineering Impact factor: 2.797, year: 2016

  3. A new combination of membranes and membrane reactors for improved tritium management in breeder blanket of fusion machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demange, D.; Staemmler, S.; Kind, M.

    2011-01-01

    Tritium used as fuel in future fusion machines will be produced within the breeder blanket. The tritium extraction system recovers the tritium to be routed into the inner-fuel cycle of the machine. Accurate and precise tritium accountancy between both systems is mandatory to ensure a reliable operation. Handling in the blanket huge helium flow rates containing tritium as traces in molecular and oxide forms is challenging both for the process and the accountancy. Alternative tritium processes based on combinations of membranes and membrane reactors are proposed to facilitate the tritium management. The PERMCAT process is based on counter-current isotope swamping in a palladium membrane reactor. It allows recovering tritium efficiently from any chemical species. It produces a pure hydrogen stream enriched in tritium of advantage for integration upstream of the accountancy stage. A pre-separation and pre-concentration stage using new zeolite membranes has been studied to optimize the whole process. Such a combination could improve the tritium processes and facilitate accountancy in DEMO.

  4. Potentialities of a Membrane Reactor with Laccase Grafted Membranes for the Enzymatic Degradation of Phenolic Compounds in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorleak Chea

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the degradation of phenolic compounds by laccases from Trametes versicolor in an enzymatic membrane reactor (EMR. The enzymatic membranes were prepared by grafting laccase on a gelatine layer previously deposited onto α-alumina tubular membranes. The 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (DMP was selected  from among the three different phenolic compounds tested (guaiacol, 4-chlorophenol and DMP to study the performance of the EMR in dead end configuration. At the lowest feed substrate concentration tested (100 mg·L−1, consumption increased with flux (up to 7.9 × 103 mg·h−1·m−2 at 128 L·h−1·m−2, whereas at the highest substrate concentration (500 mg·L−1, it was shown that the reaction was limited by the oxygen content.

  5. Membrane support of accelerated fuel capsules for inertial fusion energy reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petzoldt, R.W.; Moir, R.W.

    1993-01-01

    The use of a thin membrane to suspend an (inertial fusion energy) fuel capsule in a holder for injection into a reactor chamber is investigated. Capsule displacement and membrane deformation angle are calculated for an axisymmetric geometry for a range of membrane strain and capsule size. This information is used to calculate maximum target accelerations. Membranes must be thin (perhaps of order one micron) to minimize their effect on capsule implosion symmetry. For example, a 5 μm thick cryogenic mylar membrane is calculated to allow 1,000 m/s 2 acceleration of a 3 mm radius, 100 mg capsule. Vibration analysis (for a single membrane support) shows that if membrane vibration is not deliberately minimized, allowed acceleration may be reduced by a factor of four. A two membrane alternative geometry would allow several times greater acceleration. Therefore, alternative membrane geometry's should be used to provide greater target acceleration potential and reduce capsule displacement within the holder (for a given membrane thickness)

  6. Co-current and counter-current configurations for ethanol steam reforming in a dense Pd-Ag membrane reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallucci, F.; de Falco, M.; Tosti, S.; Marrelli, L; Basile, A.

    2008-01-01

    The ethanol steam-reforming reaction to produce pure hydrogen has been studied theoretically. A mathematical model has been formulated for a traditional system and a palladium membrane reactor packed with a Co-based catalyst and the simulation results related to the membrane reactor for both

  7. Transforming p21 ras protein: flexibility in the major variable region linking the catalytic and membrane-anchoring domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willumsen, B M; Papageorge, A G; Hubbert, N

    1985-01-01

    or increasing it to 50 amino acids has relatively little effect on the capacity of the gene to induce morphological transformation of NIH 3T3 cells. Assays of GTP binding, GTPase and autophosphorylating activities of such mutant v-rasH-encoded proteins synthesized in bacteria indicated that the sequences...... that is required for post-translational processing, membrane localization and transforming activity of the proteins. We have now used the viral oncogene (v-rasH) of Harvey sarcoma virus to study the major variable region by deleting or duplicating parts of the gene. Reducing this region to five amino acids...... that encode these biochemical activities are located upstream from the major variable region. In the context of transformation, we propose that the region of sequence heterogeneity serves principally to connect the N-terminal catalytic domain with amino acids at the C terminus that are required to anchor...

  8. The catalytic oxidation of organic contaminants in a packed bed reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Beld, L.; Bijl, M.P.G.; Reinders, A.; van der Wert, B.; Westerterp, K.R.

    1994-01-01

    The catalytic oxidation of several hydrocarbons was studied over noble metal and metal oxide catalysts. A fast empirical method was developed to determine the minimum operating temperature required to guarantee complete conversion of the hydrocarbon. The influence of the operating parameters such as

  9. Catalytic non-thermal plasma reactor for the decomposition of a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    diseases), hence has a negative impact on the environ- ment.1–4 Some of the well-established technologies for. VOC abatement are thermal and catalytic ... motor driven syringe pump and mixed with ambient air. (300 ml/min at STP) in a mixing chamber. Air flow was regulated by pre-calibrated mass flow controllers.

  10. Catalytic non-thermal plasma reactor for the decomposition of a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Among the catalytic study, MnOx/SMF (manganese oxide on sintered metal fibres electrode) shows better performance, probably due to the formation of active oxygen species by in situ decomposition of ozone on the catalyst surface. Water vapour further enhanced the performance due to the in situ ...

  11. Surface modification of polysulfone membranes applied for a membrane reactor with immobilized alcohol dehydrogenase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Christian; Silau, Harald; Pinelo, Manuel

    2018-01-01

    activated by lithiation followed by functionalization with acid chlorides at 0 °C, permitting modification of commercial PSf membranes without compromising the mechanical integrity of the membrane. Post-functionalization polymer grafting was illustrated through both, a “grafting from” approach by surface...... initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) and by a “grafting to” approach exploiting Cu(I) catalyzed 1,3-cycloadditions of alkynes with azides (CuAAC) introducing hydrophilic polymers onto the membrane surface. Poly(1-vinyl imidazole) (pVim) grafted membranes were exploited as support...

  12. Methane-steam reforming by molten salt - membrane reactor using concentrated solar thermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanuki, K.; Nakajima, H.; Hasegawa, N.; Kaneko, H.; Tamaura, Y.

    2006-01-01

    By utilization of concentrated solar thermal energy for steam reforming of natural gas, which is an endothermic reaction, the chemical energy of natural gas can be up-graded. The chemical system for steam reforming of natural gas with concentrated solar thermal energy was studied to produce hydrogen by using the thermal storage with molten salt and the membrane reactor. The original steam reforming module with hydrogen permeable palladium membrane was developed and fabricated. Steam reforming of methane proceeded with the original module with palladium membrane below the decomposition temperature of molten salt (around 870 K). (authors)

  13. Sequentially aerated membrane biofilm reactors for autotrophic nitrogen removal: microbial community composition and dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pellicer i Nàcher, Carles; Franck, Stephanie; Gülay, Arda

    2014-01-01

    Membrane-aerated biofilm reactors performing autotrophic nitrogen removal can be successfully applied to treat concentrated nitrogen streams. However, their process performance is seriously hampered by the growth of nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB). In this work we document how sequential aeration...

  14. Carbon-coated ceramic membrane reactor for production of hydrogen via aqueous phase reforming of sorbitol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neira d'Angelo, M.F.; Ordomskiy, V.; Schouten, J.C.; Schaaf, van der J.; Nijhuis, T.A.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen was produced by aqueous-phase reforming (APR) of sorbitol in a carbon-on-alumina tubular membrane reactor (4 nm pore size, 7 cm long, 3 mm internal diameter) that allows the hydrogen gas to permeate to the shell side, whereas the liquid remains in the tube side. The hydrophobic nature of

  15. Phospholipase C-catalyzed sphingomyelin hydrolysis in a membrane reactor for ceramide production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Long; Liang, Shanshan; Hellgren, Lars

    2008-01-01

    A membrane reactor for the production of ceramide through sphingomyelin hydrolysis with phospholipase C from Clostridium perfringens was studied for the first time. Ceramide has raised a large interest as an active component in both pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry. The enzymatic hydrolysis...

  16. Thermo-catalytic pyrolysis of waste polyethylene bottles in a packed bed reactor with different bed materials and catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obeid, Farah; Zeaiter, Joseph; Al-Muhtaseb, Ala’a H.; Bouhadir, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermo-catalytic pyrolysis of waste polyethylene bottles was investigated. • The highest yield of liquid (82%) was obtained over a cement powder bed. • Acidic catalysts narrowed the carbon chain length of the paraffins to C 10 –C 28 . • Combination of cement bed with HBeta catalyst gave the highest yield of liquid. • Significant yield of aromatics was obtained mainly naphthalene and D-limonene. - Abstract: Plastic waste is an increasing economic and environmental problem as such there is a great need to process this waste and reduce its environmental impact. In this work, the pyrolysis of high density polyethylene (HDPE) waste products was investigated using both thermal and catalytic cracking techniques. The experimental work was carried out using packed bed reactor operating under an inert atmosphere at 450 °C. Different reactor bed materials, including sand, cement and white clay were used to enhance the thermal cracking of HDPE. In addition, the catalytic effect of sodium hydroxide, HUSY and HBeta zeolite catalysts on the degradation of HDPE waste was also investigated. The reactor beds were found to significantly alter the yield as well as the product composition. Products such as paraffins (⩽C 44 ), olefins (⩽C 22 ), aromatics (⩽C 14 ) and alcohols (C 16 and C 17 ) were obtained at varying rates. The highest yield of liquid (82%) was obtained over a cement powder bed with a paraffin yield of 58%. The yield of paraffins and olefins followed separate paths, for paraffins it was found to increase in the order or Cement > White clay > Silica Sand, whereas for the olefins it was in the reverse order Silica Sand > White clay > Cement. The results obtained in this work exhibited a higher P/O ratio than expected, where the amount of generated paraffins was greater than 60% in most cases. Less olefin was generated as a consequence. This indicates that the product generated is more suited to be used as a fuel rather than as a chemical

  17. Coupling of separation and reaction in zeolite membrane reactor for hydroisomerization of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gora, L.; Jansen, J.C. [Ceramic Membrane Centre, The Pore, DelftChemTech, Delft Univ. of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)

    2005-03-01

    A zeolite membrane reactor has been developed for the hydroisomerization of hydrocarbons, in which the linear molecules are separated from branched ones on the silicalite-1 membrane prior to conversion of the permeated linear hydrocarbons to equilibrium levels on the catalyst bed. Model studies using C{sub 6} components are conducted. n-C{sub 6} separated from 2MP (selectivity 24) is converted for 72% with 36% selectivity towards di-branched isomers (at 393 K). The results indicate that platinum containing chlorinated alumina/silicalite-1 membrane reactor has a potential in upgrading octane values and offers advantages such as higher efficiency, better process control and lower consumption of energy. (orig.)

  18. Novel Composite Hydrogen-Permeable Membranes for Nonthermal Plasma Reactors for the Decomposition of Hydrogen Sulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris Argyle; John Ackerman; Suresh Muknahallipatna; Jerry Hamann; Stanislaw Legowski; Gui-Bing Zhao; Sanil John; Ji-Jun Zhang; Linna Wang

    2007-09-30

    The goal of this experimental project was to design and fabricate a reactor and membrane test cell to dissociate hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) in a nonthermal plasma and to recover hydrogen (H{sub 2}) through a superpermeable multi-layer membrane. Superpermeability of hydrogen atoms (H) has been reported by some researchers using membranes made of Group V transition metals (niobium, tantalum, vanadium, and their alloys), but it was not achieved at the moderate pressure conditions used in this study. However, H{sub 2}S was successfully decomposed at energy efficiencies higher than any other reports for the high H{sub 2}S concentration and moderate pressures (corresponding to high reactor throughputs) used in this study.

  19. Mussel-inspired co-deposition to enhance bisphenol A removal in a bifacial enzymatic membrane reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xiaotong; Luo, Jianquan; Woodley, John M.

    2018-01-01

    were used as the matrix to further exploit the potential of the biocatalytic membranes. such prepared biocatalytic membranes were enzymatically active on both sides, making it possible to construct a bifacial enzymatic membrane reactor (EMR) for highly efficient micro-pollutants removal (taking...

  20. Degradation of Reactive Black 5 dye using anaerobic/aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR) and photochemical membrane reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Sheng-Jie; Damodar, Rahul A.; Hou, Sheng-Chon

    2010-01-01

    Three different types of advance treatment methods were evaluated for the degradation of Reactive Black 5 (RB5). The performance of two stage anaerobic SBR-aerobic MBR, anaerobic MBR with immobilized and suspended biocells and an integrated membrane photocatalytic reactor (MPR) using slurry UV/TiO 2 system were investigated. The results suggest that, nearly 99.9% color removal and 80-95% organic COD and TOC removal can be achieved using different reactor systems. Considering the Taiwan EPA effluent standard discharge criteria for COD/TOC, the degree of treatment achieved by combining the anaerobic-aerobic system was found to be acceptable. Anew, Bacilluscereus, high color removal bacterium was isolated from Anaerobic SBR. Furthermore, when this immobilized into PVA-calcium alginate pellets, and suspended in the anaerobic MBR was able to achieve high removal efficiencies, similar to the suspended biocells system. However, the immobilized cell Anaerobic MBR was found to be more advantageous, due to lower fouling rates in the membrane unit. Results from slurry type MPR system showed that this system was capable of mineralizing RB5 dyes with faster degradation rate as compared to other systems. The reactor was also able to separate the catalyst effectively and perform efficiently without much loss of catalyst activity.

  1. Synergetic mechanism of methanol–steam reforming reaction in a catalytic reactor with electric discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taegyu; Jo, Sungkwon; Song, Young-Hoon; Lee, Dae Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Methanol–steam reforming was performed on Cu catalysts under an electric discharge. • Discharge had a synergetic effect on the catalytic reaction for methanol conversion. • Discharge lowered the temperature for catalyst activation or light off. • Discharge controlled the yield and selectivity of species in a reforming process. • Adsorption triggered by a discharge was a possible mechanism for a synergetic effect. - Abstract: Methanol–steam reforming was performed on Cu/ZnO/Al 2 O 3 catalysts under an electric discharge. The discharge occurred between the electrodes where the catalysts were packed. The electric discharge was characterized by the discharge voltage and electric power to generate the discharge. The existence of a discharge had a synergetic effect on the catalytic reaction for methanol conversion. The electric discharge provided modified reaction paths resulting in a lower temperature for catalyst activation or light off. The discharge partially controlled the yield and selectivity of species in a reforming process. The aspect of control was examined in view of the reaction kinetics. The possible mechanisms for the synergetic effect between the catalytic reaction and electric discharge on methanol–steam reforming were addressed. A discrete reaction path, particularly adsorption triggered by an electric discharge, was suggested to be the most likely mechanism for the synergetic effect. These results are expected to provide a guide for understanding the plasma–catalyst hybrid reaction

  2. Performance and membrane fouling of a step-fed submerged membrane sequencing batch reactor treating swine biogas digestion slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhiying; Chen, Shixia; Lin, Xiaochang; Yu, Hongjun; Duan, Li'an; Ye, Zhangying; Jia, Yanbo; Zhu, Songming; Liu, Dezhao

    2018-01-02

    To identify the performance of step-fed submerged membrane sequencing batch reactor (SMSBR) treating swine biogas digestion slurry and to explore the correlation between microbial metabolites and membrane fouling within this novel reactor, a lab-scale step-fed SMSBR was operated under nitrogen loading rate of 0.026, 0.052 and 0.062 g NH 4 + -N (gVSS·d) -1 . Results show that the total removal efficiencies for NH 4 + -N, total nitrogen and chemical oxygen demand in the reactor (>94%, >89% and >97%, respectively) were high during the whole experiment. However, the cycle removal efficiency of NH 4 + -N decreased significantly when the nitrogen loading rate was increased to 0.062 g NH 4 + -N (gVSS·d) -1 . The total removal efficiency of total phosphorus in the step-fed SMSBR was generally higher than 75%, though large fluctuations were observed during the experiments. In addition, the concentrations of microbial metabolites, i.e., soluble microbial products (SMP) and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from activated sludge increased as nitrogen loading rate increased, both showing quadratic equation correlations with viscosity of the mixed liquid in the step-fed SMSBR (both R 2 > 0.90). EPS content was higher than SMP content, while protein (PN) was detected as the main component in both SMP and EPS. EPS PN was found to be well correlated with transmembrane pressure, membrane flux and the total membrane fouling resistance. Furthermore, the three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy results suggested the tryptophan-like protein as one of the main contributors to the membrane fouling. Overall, this study showed that the step-fed SMSBR could be used to treat swine digestion slurry at nitrogen loading rate of 0.052 g NH 4 + -N (gVSS·d) -1 , and the control strategy of membrane fouling should be developed based on reducing the tryptophan-like PN in EPS.

  3. Catalytic, Conductive Bipolar Membrane Interfaces through Layer-by-Layer Deposition for the Design of Membrane-Integrated Artificial Photosynthesis Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Michael B; Freund, Michael S; Hammond, Paula T

    2017-11-23

    In the presence of an electric field, bipolar membranes (BPMs) are capable of initiating water disassociation (WD) within the interfacial region, which can make water splitting for renewable energy in the presence of a pH gradient possible. In addition to WD catalytic efficiency, there is also the need for electronic conductivity in this region for membrane-integrated artificial photosynthesis (AP) systems. Graphene oxide (GO) was shown to catalyze WD and to be controllably reduced, which resulted in electronic conductivity. Layer-by-layer (LbL) film deposition was employed to improve GO film uniformity in the interfacial region to enhance WD catalysis and, through the addition of a conducting polymer in the process, add electronic conductivity in a hybrid film. Three different deposition methods were tested to optimize conducting polymer synthesis with the oxidant in a metastable solution and to yield the best film properties. It was found that an approach that included substrate dipping in a solution containing the expected final monomer/oxidant ratio provided the most predictable film growth and smoothest films (by UV/Vis spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy/scanning electron microscopy, respectively), whereas dipping in excess oxidant or co-spraying the oxidant and monomer produced heterogeneous films. Optimized films were found to be electronically conductive and produced a membrane ohmic drop that was acceptable for AP applications. Films were integrated into the interfacial region of BPMs and revealed superior WD efficiency (≥1.4 V at 10 mA cm -2 ) for thinner films (<10 bilayers≈100 nm) than for either the pure GO catalyst or conducting polymer individually, which indicated that there was a synergistic effect between these materials in the structure configured by the LbL method. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Catalytic wet-air oxidation of lignin in a three-phase reactor with aromatic aldehyde production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sales F.G.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work a process of catalytic wet air oxidation of lignin obtained from sugar-cane bagasse is developed with the objective of producing vanillin, syringaldehyde and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde in a continuous regime. Palladium supported on g-alumina was used as the catalyst. The reactions in the lignin degradation and aldehyde production were described by a kinetic model as a system of complex parallel and series reactions, in which pseudo-first-order steps are found. For the purpose of producing aromatic aldehydes in continuous regime, a three-phase fluidized reactor was built, and it was operated using atmospheric air as the oxidizer. The best yield in aromatic aldehydes was of 12%. The experimental results were compatible with those values obtained by the pseudo-heterogeneous axial dispersion model (PHADM applied to the liquid phase.

  5. Dynamical and technological consequences of multiple isolas of steady states in a catalytic fluidised-bed reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bizon Katarzyna

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Steady-state characteristics of a catalytic fluidised bed reactor and its dynamical consequences are analyzed. The occurrence of an untypical steady-state structure manifesting in a form of multiple isolas is described. A two-phase bubbling bed model is used for a quantitative description of the bed of catalyst. The influence of heat exchange intensity and a fluidisation ratio onto the generation of isolated solution branches is presented for two kinetic schemes. Dynamical consequences of the coexistence of such untypical branches of steady states are presented. The impact of linear growth of the fluidisation ratio and step change of the cooling medium temperature onto the desired product yield is analyzed. The results presented in this study confirm that the identification of a region of the occurrence of multiple isolas is important due to their strong impact both on the process start-up and its control.

  6. SYNTHESIS OF BIODIESEL ON A HYBRID CATALYTIC-PLASMA REACTOR OVER K2O/CaO-ZnO CATALYST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luqman Buchori

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to study the synergistic effects of dielectric barrier discharge plasma and 5 % K2O/CaO-ZnO catalyst on biodiesel synthesis. The catalyst was prepared using co-precipitation followed by impregnation method. The catalyst was characterized by XRD, while the catalyst basicity was tested by titration method. The effects of voltage, weight hourly space velocity (WHSV, and catalyst pellet diameter on the yield of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME and biodiesel were studied. The transesterification process within and without plasma environment was investigated to find synergistic effect between the role of high energetic electrons from the plasma through the catalytic reaction zone and the role of basicity in the catalyst. From the results, an applied voltage of 5 kV, a WHSV of 1.186 min-1, and a catalyst diameter of 5 mm gave the better FAME yield of 77.19 %. The reaction time required was only 1.25 minutes at a discharge power of 530 W. This result proved that the plasma environment has a significant effect on performance of the hybrid catalytic-plasma reactor for biodiesel production.

  7. Catalytic wet air oxidation of coke-plant wastewater on ruthenium-based eggshell catalysts in a bubbling bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, M; Sun, Y; Xu, A H; Lu, X Y; Du, H Z; Sun, C L; Li, C

    2007-07-01

    Catalytic wet air of coke-plant wastewater was studied in a bubbling bed reactor. Two types of supported Ru-based catalysts, eggshell and uniform catalysts, were employed. Compared with the results in the wet air oxidation of coke-plant wastewater, supported Ru uniform catalysts showed high activity for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia/ammonium compounds (NH3-N) removal at temperature of 250 degrees C and pressure of 4.8 MPa, and it has been demonstrated that the catalytic activity of uniform catalyst depended strongly on the distribution of active sites of Ru on catalyst. Compared to the corresponding uniform catalysts with the same Ru loading (0.25 wt.% and 0.1 wt.%, respectively), the eggshell catalysts showed higher activities for CODcr removal and much higher activities for NH3-N degradation. The high activity of eggshell catalyst for treatment of coke-plant wastewater can be attributed to the higher density of active Ru sites in the shell layer than that of the corresponding uniform catalyst with the same Ru loading. It has been also evidenced that the active Ru sites in the internal core of uniform catalyst have very little or no contribution to CODcr and NH3-N removal in the total oxidation of coke-plant wastewater.

  8. Effects of Weight Hourly Space Velocity and Catalyst Diameter on Performance of Hybrid Catalytic-Plasma Reactor for Biodiesel Synthesis over Sulphated Zinc Oxide Acid Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luqman Buchori

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel synthesis through transesterification of soybean oil with methanol on hybrid catalytic-plasma reactor over sulphated zinc oxide (SO42-/ZnO active acid catalyst was investigated. This research was aimed to study effects of Weight Hourly Space Velocity (WHSV and the catalyst diameter on performance of the hybrid catalytic-plasma reactor for biodiesel synthesis. The amount (20.2 g of active sulphated zinc oxide solid acid catalysts was loaded into discharge zone of the reactor. The WHSV and the catalyst diameter were varied between 0.89 to 1.55 min-1 and 3, 5, and 7 mm, respectively. The molar ratio of methanol to oil as reactants of 15:1 is fed to the reactor, while operating condition of the reactor was kept at reaction temperature of 65 oC and ambient pressure. The fatty acid methyl ester (FAME component in biodiesel product was identified by Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. The results showed that the FAME yield decreases with increasing WHSV. It was found that the optimum FAME yield was achieved of 56.91 % at WHSV of 0.89 min-1 and catalyst diameter of 5 mm and reaction time of 1.25 min. It can be concluded that the biodiesel synthesis using the hybrid catalytic-plasma reactor system exhibited promising the FAME yield. Copyright © 2017 BCREC Group. All rights reserved Received: 15th November 2016; Revised: 24th December 2016; Accepted: 16th February 2017 How to Cite: Buchori, L., Istadi, I., Purwanto, P. (2017. Effects of Weight Hourly Space Velocity and Catalyst Diameter on Performance of Hybrid Catalytic-Plasma Reactor for Biodiesel Synthesis over Sulphated Zinc Oxide Acid Catalyst. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 12 (2: 227-234 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.12.2.775.227-234 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.12.2.775.227-234

  9. A distributed dynamic model of a monolith hydrogen membrane reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelsen, Finn Are; Wilhelmsen, Øivind; Zhao, Lei; Aasen, Knut Ingvar

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We model a rigorous distributed dynamic model for a HMR unit. ► The model includes enough complexity for steady-state and dynamic analysis. ► Simulations show that the model is non-linear within the normal operating range. ► The model is useful for studying and handling disturbances such as inlet changes and membrane leakage. - Abstract: This paper describes a distributed mechanistic dynamic model of a hydrogen membrane reformer unit (HMR) used for methane steam reforming. The model is based on a square channel monolith structure concept, where air flows adjacent to a mix of natural gas and water distributed in a chess pattern of channels. Combustion of hydrogen gives energy to the endothermic steam reforming reactions. The model is used for both steady state and dynamic analyses. It therefore needs to be computationally attractive, but still include enough complexity to study the important steady state and dynamic features of the process. Steady-state analysis of the model gives optimum for the steam to carbon and steam to oxygen ratios, where the conversion of methane is 92% and the hydrogen used as energy for the endothermic reactions is 28% at the nominal optimum. The dynamic analysis shows that non-linear control schemes may be necessary for satisfactory control performance

  10. Theoretical Study of Palladium Membrane Reactor Performance During Propane Dehydrogenation Using CFD Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Ghasemzadeh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a 2D-axisymmetric computational fluid dynamic (CFD model to investigate the performance Pd membrane reactor (MR during propane dehydrogenation process for hydrogen production. The proposed CFD model provided the local information of temperature and component concentration for the driving force analysis. After investigation of mesh independency of CFD model, the validation of CFD model results was carried out by other modeling data and a good agreement between CFD model results and theoretical data was achieved. Indeed, in the present model, a tubular reactor with length of 150 mm was considered, in which the Pt-Sn-K/Al2O3 as catalyst were filled in reaction zone. Hence, the effects of the important operating parameter (reaction temperature on the performances of membrane reactor (MR were studied in terms of propane conversion and hydrogen yield. The CFD results showed that the suggested MR system during propane dehydrogenation reaction presents higher performance with respect to once obtained in the conventional reactor (CR. In particular, by applying Pd membrane, was found that propane conversion can be increased from 41% to 49%. Moreover, the highest value of propane conversion (X = 91% was reached in case of Pd-Ag MR. It was also established that the feed flow rate of the MR is to be the one of the most important factors defining efficiency of the propane dehydrogenation process.

  11. Testing of a 7-tube palladium membrane reactor for potential use in TEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, Bryan J.; Trujillo, Stephen; Willms, R. Scott

    2010-01-01

    A Palladium Membrane Reactor (PMR) consists of a palladium/silver membrane permeator filled with catalyst (catalyst may be inside or outside the membrane tubes). The PMR is designed to recover tritium from the methane, water, and other impurities present in fusion reactor effluent. A key feature of a PMR is that the total hydrogen isotope content of a stream is significantly reduced as (1) methane-steam reforming and/or water-gas shift reactions proceed on the catalyst bed and (2) hydrogen isotopes are removed via permeation through the membrane. With a PMR design matched to processing requirements, nearly complete hydrogen isotope removals can be achieved. A 3-tube PMR study was recently completed. From the results presented in this study, it was possible to conclude that a PMR is appropriate for TEP, perforated metal tube protectors function well, platinum on aluminum (PtA) catalyst performs the best, conditioning with air is probably required to properly condition the Pd/Ag tubes, and that CO/CO 2 ratios maybe an indicator of coking. The 3-tube PMR had a permeator membrane area of 0.0247 m 2 and a catalyst volume to membrane area ratio of 4.63 cc/cm 2 (with the catalyst on the outside of the membrane tubes and the catalyst only covering the membrane tube length). A PMR for TEP will require a larger membrane area (perhaps 0.35 m 2 ). With this in mind, an intermediate sized PMR was constructed. This PMR has 7 permeator tubes and a total membrane area of 0.0851 m 2 . The catalyst volume to membrane area ratio for the 7-tube PMR was 5.18 cc/cm 2 . The total membrane area of the 7-tube PMR (0.0851 m 2 ) is 3.45 times larger than total membrane area of the 3-tube PMR (0.0247 m 2 ). The following objectives were identified for the 7-tube PMR tests: (1) Refine test measurements, especially humidity and flow; (2) Refine maintenance procedures for Pd/Ag tube conditioning; (3) Evaluate baseline PMR operating conditions; (4) Determine PMR scaling method; (5) Evaluate PMR

  12. Effect of Mass-Transport Limitations on the Performance of a Packed Bed Membrane Reactor for Partial Oxidations. Transport from the Membrane to the Packed Bed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sint Annaland, M.; Kurten, U.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    With a packed bed membrane reactor, the product yield can be significantly enhanced for partial oxidation systems, via distributive addition of oxygen to the reaction mixture along the axial coordinate of the reactor, provided that the reaction order in oxygen of the formation rate of the target

  13. Effect of mass-transport limitations on the performance of a packed bed membrane reactor for partial oxidations. Transport from the membrane to the packed bed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sint Annaland, van M.; Kurten, U.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    With a packed bed membrane reactor, the product yield can be significantly enhanced for partial oxidation systems, via distributive addition of oxygen to the reaction mixture along the axial coordinate of the reactor, provided that the reaction order in oxygen of the formation rate of the target

  14. Cell-Culture Reactor Having a Porous Organic Polymer Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Steven L. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A method for making a biocompatible polymer article using a uniform atomic oxygen treatment is disclosed. The substrate may be subsequently optionally grated with a compatibilizing compound. Compatibilizing compounds may include proteins, phosphory1choline groups, platelet adhesion preventing polymers, albumin adhesion promoters, and the like. The compatibilized substrate may also have a living cell layer adhered thereto. The atomic oxygen is preferably produced by a flowing afterglow microwave discharge, wherein the substrate resides in a sidearm out of the plasma. Also, methods for culturing cells for various purposes using the various membranes are disclosed as well. Also disclosed are porous organic polymers having a distributed pore chemistry (DPC) comprising hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions, and a method for making the DPC by exposing the polymer to atomic oxygen wherein the rate of hydrophilization is greater than the rate of mass loss.

  15. Planar ceramic membrane assembly and oxidation reactor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Michael Francis; Dyer, legal representative, Kathryn Beverly; Wilson, Merrill Anderson; Ohm, Ted R.; Kneidel, Kurt E.; Peterson, David; Chen, Christopher M.; Rackers, Keith Gerard; Dyer, deceased, Paul Nigel

    2007-10-09

    Planar ceramic membrane assembly comprising a dense layer of mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material, wherein the dense layer has a first side and a second side, a porous layer of mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material in contact with the first side of the dense layer, and a ceramic channeled support layer in contact with the second side of the dense layer. The planar ceramic membrane assembly can be used in a ceramic wafer assembly comprising a planar ceramic channeled support layer having a first side and a second side; a first dense layer of mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material having an inner side and an outer side, wherein the inner side is in contact with the first side of the ceramic channeled support layer; a first outer support layer comprising porous mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material and having an inner side and an outer side, wherein the inner side is in contact with the outer side of the first dense layer; a second dense layer of mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material having an inner side and an outer side, wherein the inner side is in contact with the second side of the ceramic channeled layer; and a second outer support layer comprising porous mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material and having an inner side and an outer side, wherein the inner side is in contact with the outer side of the second dense layer.

  16. Grafting of VO x/TiO2 catalyst on anodized aluminum plates for structured catalytic reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giornelli, Thierry; Loefberg, Axel; Bordes-Richard, Elisabeth

    2005-01-01

    Structured reactors are promising to carry out exothermic reactions because the heat transfer is better controlled than in usual packed-bed reactors. However the coating by oxide powders which must exhibit catalytic activity/selectivity while being mechanically stable is not so straightforward. We have studied the parameters to be controlled to coat aluminum walls by V 2 O 5 /TiO 2 catalysts which are used in the mild oxidation of hydrocarbons and NO x abatement. The dip-coating technique using metallic alcoholates has been chosen for the grafting of TiO 2 on Al 2 O 3 /Al, which is controlled by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). A monolayer of TiO 2 is first grafted, and then a porous film of TiO 2 -anatase is deposited by sol-gel. Finally, VO x species are grafted on titania and their loading again determined by XPS. Techniques such as Laser Raman Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy are used to characterize the samples after each step, and the porous texture is determined. The layers are mechanically and thermally stable. The dispersion and nature of VO x species on TiO 2 /Al 2 O 3 /Al are similar to what is found in literature for TiO 2 powders, showing thereby that the shaping of anatase support on plates has not modified the chemical properties of VO x /TiO 2 -anatase system

  17. Air purification by catalytic oxidation in a reactor with periodic flow reversal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Beld, L.; van de Beld, Bert; Westerterp, K.R.

    1994-01-01

    The behaviour of an adiabatic packed bed reactor with periodic flow reversal has been studied by means of model calculations. A heterogeneous model as well as a pseudo-homogeneous model have been developed. It is shown that a high degree of conversion can be obtained in an autothermal process even

  18. Ex situ themo-catalytic upgrading of biomass pyrolysis vapors using a traveling wave microwave reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microwave heating offers a number of advantages over conventional heating methods, such as, rapid and volumetric heating, precise temperature control, energy efficiency and lower temperature gradient. In this article we demonstrate the use of 2450 MHz microwave traveling wave reactor to heat the cat...

  19. Modelling of a reverse flow catalytic membrane reactor for the partial oxidation of methane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    Gas-To-Liquid (GTL) processes have great potential as alternative to conventional oil and coal processing for the production of liquid fuels. In GTL-processes the partial oxidation of methane (POM) is combined with the Fischer-Tropsch reaction. An important part of the investment costs of a

  20. Application of CO{sub 2} selective membrane reactors in pre-combustion decarbonisation systems for power production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven C.A. Kluiters; Virginie C. Feuillade; Jan Wilco Dijkstra; Daniel Jansen; Wim G. Haije [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), Petten (Netherlands)

    2006-07-01

    For pre-combustion decarbonisation of fuels for large-scale power production or H{sub 2} generation both CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} selective membranes are viable candidates for use in steam reforming and water gas shift membrane reactors. It will be shown that the choice between either option is not a matter of taste, but dictated by the fuel used and, to a lesser extent, the total system layout. Hydrotalcites, clay-like materials, are shown to be promising candidates as membrane material for low temperature, below 400{sup o}C, membrane shift reactors. 7 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Microlith-Based Catalytic Reactor for Air Quality and Trace Contaminant Control Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilekar, Saurabh; Hawley, Kyle; Junaedi, Christian; Crowder, Bruce; Prada, Julian; Mastanduno, Richard; Perry, Jay L.; Kayatin, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, gaseous compounds such as methane, carbon monoxide, and trace contaminants have posed challenges for maintaining clean air in enclosed spaces such as crewed spacecraft cabins as they are hazardous to humans and are often difficult to remove by conventional adsorption technology. Catalytic oxidizers have provided a reliable and robust means of disposing of even trace levels of these compounds by converting them into carbon dioxide and water. Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI) and NASA - Marshall (MSFC) have been developing, characterizing, and optimizing high temperature catalytic oxidizers (HTCO) based on PCI's patented Microlith® technology to meet the requirements of future extended human spaceflight explorations. Current efforts have focused on integrating the HTCO unit with a compact, simple recuperative heat exchanger to reduce the overall system size and weight while also reducing its energy requirements. Previous efforts relied on external heat exchangers to recover the waste heat and recycle it to the oxidizer to minimize the system's power requirements; however, these units contribute weight and volume burdens to the overall system. They also result in excess heat loss due to the separation of the HTCO and the heat recuperator, resulting in lower overall efficiency. Improvements in the recuperative efficiency and close coupling of HTCO and heat recuperator lead to reductions in system energy requirements and startup time. Results from testing HTCO units integrated with heat recuperators at a variety of scales for cabin air quality control and heat melt compactor applications are reported and their benefits over previous iterations of the HTCO and heat recuperator assembly are quantified in this paper.

  2. On the potential of nickel catalysts for steam reforming in membrane reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieterse, J.A.Z.; Boon, J.; Van Delft, Y.C.; Dijkstra, J.W.; Van den Brink, R.W. [Energy research Center of the Netherlands, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2010-10-15

    Hydrogen membrane reactors have been identified as a promising option for hydrogen production for power generation from natural gas with pre-combustion decarbonisation. While Pd or Pd-alloy membranes already provide good hydrogen permeances the most suitable catalyst design for steam reforming in membrane reactors (SRMR) is yet to be identified. This contribution aims to provide insight in the suitability of nickel based catalysts in SRMR. The use of nickel (Ni) catalysts would benefit the cost-effectiveness of membrane reactors and therefore its feasibility. For this, the activity of nickel catalysts in SRMR was assessed with kinetics reported in literature. A 1D model was composed in order to compare the hydrogen production rates derived from the kinetics with the rate of hydrogen withdrawal by permeation. Catalyst stability was studied by exposing the catalysts to reformate gas with two different H/C ratios to mimic the hydrogen lean reformate gas in the membrane reactor. For both the activity (modeling) and stability study the Ni-based catalysts were compared to relevant catalyst compositions based on rhodium (Rh). Using the high pressure kinetics reported for Al2O3 supported Rh and MgAl2O4 and Al2O3 supported Ni catalyst it showed that Ni and Rh catalysts may very well provide similar hydrogen production rates. Interestingly, the stability of Ni-based catalysts proved to be superior to precious metal based catalysts under exposure to simulated reformate feed gas with low H/C molar ratio. A commercial (pre-)reforming Ni-based catalyst was selected for further testing in an experimental membrane reactor for steam reforming at high pressure. During the test period 98% conversion at 873 K could be achieved. The conversion was adjusted to approximately 90% and stable conversion was obtained during the test period of another 3 weeks. Nonetheless, carbon quantification tests of the Ni catalyst indicated that a small amount of carbon had deposited onto the catalyst

  3. CO-free hydrogen production by ethanol steam reforming in a Pd-Ag membrane reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basile, A.; Gallucci, F.; Iulianelli, A.; Tosti, S.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, the ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction has been studied by using a dense Pd-Ag membrane reactor (MR) by varying the water/ethanol molar ratio between 3:1 and 9:1 in a temperature range of 300-400°C and at 1.3 bar as reaction pressure. The MR was packed with a commercial Ru-based

  4. Application of Forward Osmosis Membrane in a Sequential Batch Reactor for Water Reuse

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Qingyu

    2011-07-01

    Forward osmosis (FO) is a novel membrane process that potentially can be used as an energy-saving alternative to conventional membrane processes. The objective of this study is to investigate the performance of a FO membrane to draw water from wastewater using seawater as draw solution. A study on a novel osmotic sequential batch reactor (OsSBR) was explored. In this system, a plate and frame FO cell including two flat-sheet FO membranes was submerged in a bioreactor treating the wastewater. We found it feasible to treat the wastewater by the OsSBR process. The DOC removal rate was 98.55%. Total nitrogen removal was 62.4% with nitrate, nitrite and ammonium removals of 58.4%, 96.2% and 88.4% respectively. Phosphate removal was almost 100%. In this OsSBR system, the 15-hour average flux for a virgin membrane with air scouring is 3.103 LMH. After operation of 3 months, the average flux of a fouled membrane is 2.390 LMH with air scouring (23% flux decline). Air scouring can help to remove the loose foulants on the active layer, thus helping to maintain the flux. Cleaning of the FO membrane fouled in the active layer was probably not effective under the conditions of immersing the membrane in the bioreactor. LC-OCD results show that the FO membrane has a very good performance in rejecting biopolymers, humics and building blocks, but a limited ability in rejecting low molecular weight neutrals.

  5. A novel ion transport membrane reactor for fundamental investigations of oxygen permeation and oxy-combustion under reactive flow conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Kirchen, Patrick; Apo, Daniel J.; Hunt, Anton; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2013-01-01

    Ion transport membrane (ITM) reactors present an attractive technology for combined air separation and fuel conversion in applications such as syngas production, oxidative coupling or oxy-combustion, with the promise of lower capital and operating

  6. Oxygen transport membrane reactor based method and system for generating electric power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Sean M.; Chakravarti, Shrikar; Li, Juan

    2017-02-07

    A carbon capture enabled system and method for generating electric power and/or fuel from methane containing sources using oxygen transport membranes by first converting the methane containing feed gas into a high pressure synthesis gas. Then, in one configuration the synthesis gas is combusted in oxy-combustion mode in oxygen transport membranes based boiler reactor operating at a pressure at least twice that of ambient pressure and the heat generated heats steam in thermally coupled steam generation tubes within the boiler reactor; the steam is expanded in steam turbine to generate power; and the carbon dioxide rich effluent leaving the boiler reactor is processed to isolate carbon. In another configuration the synthesis gas is further treated in a gas conditioning system configured for carbon capture in a pre-combustion mode using water gas shift reactors and acid gas removal units to produce hydrogen or hydrogen-rich fuel gas that fuels an integrated gas turbine and steam turbine system to generate power. The disclosed method and system can also be adapted to integrate with coal gasification systems to produce power from both coal and methane containing sources with greater than 90% carbon isolation.

  7. Hydrodynamic effects of air sparging on hollow fiber membranes in a bubble column reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Lijun; Law, Adrian Wing-Keung; Fane, Anthony G

    2013-07-01

    Air sparging is now a standard approach to reduce concentration polarization and fouling of membrane modules in membrane bioreactors (MBRs). The hydrodynamic shear stresses, bubble-induced turbulence and cross flows scour the membrane surfaces and help reduce the deposit of foulants onto the membrane surface. However, the detailed quantitative knowledge on the effect of air sparging remains lacking in the literature due to the complex hydrodynamics generated by the gas-liquid flows. To date, there is no valid model that describes the relationship between the membrane fouling performance and the flow hydrodynamics. The present study aims to examine the impact of hydrodynamics induced by air sparging on the membrane fouling mitigation in a quantitative manner. A modelled hollow fiber module was placed in a cylindrical bubble column reactor at different axial heights with the trans-membrane pressure (TMP) monitored under constant flux conditions. The configuration of bubble column without the membrane module immersed was identical to that studied by Gan et al. (2011) using Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA), to ensure a good quantitative understanding of turbulent flow conditions along the column height. The experimental results showed that the meandering flow regime which exhibits high flow instability at the 0.3 m is more beneficial to fouling alleviation compared with the steady flow circulation regime at the 0.6 m. The filtration tests also confirmed the existence of an optimal superficial air velocity beyond which a further increase is of no significant benefit on the membrane fouling reduction. In addition, the alternate aeration provided by two air stones mounted at the opposite end of the diameter of the bubble column was also studied to investigate the associated flow dynamics and its influence on the membrane filtration performance. It was found that with a proper switching interval and membrane module orientation, the membrane fouling can be effectively

  8. Ethanol steam reforming kinetics of a Pd-Ag membrane reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosti, Silvano; Borelli, Rodolfo; Borgognoni, Fabio [ENEA, Dipartimento FPN, C.R. ENEA Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, Frascati (RM) I-00044 (Italy); Basile, Angelo [Institute on Membrane Technology, ITM-CNR, c/o Univ. of Calabria, via P. Bucci, Cubo 17/C, 87030 Rende (CS) (Italy); Castelli, Stefano [ENEA, Dipartimento ACS, C.R. ENEA Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, Roma I-00123 (Italy); Fabbricino, Massimiliano; Licusati, Celeste [Dept. of Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering, Univ. of Naples Federico II, Via Claudio 21, Naples 80125 (Italy); Gallucci, Fausto [Fundamentals of Chemical Reaction Engineering Group, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2009-06-15

    The ethanol steam reforming reaction carried out in a Pd-based tubular membrane reactor has been modelled via a finite element code. The model considers the membrane tube divided into finite volume elements where the mass balances for both lumen and shell sides are carried out accordingly to the reaction and permeation kinetics. Especially, a simplified ''power law'' has been applied for the reaction kinetics: the comparison with experimental data obtained by using three different kinds of catalyst (Ru, Pt and Ni based) permitted defining the coefficients of the kinetics expression as well as to validate the model. Based on the Damkohler-Peclet analysis, the optimization of the membrane reformer has been also approached. (author)

  9. Shape-dependent plasma-catalytic activity of ZnO nanomaterials coated on porous ceramic membrane for oxidation of butane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjeeva Gandhi, M; Mok, Young Sun

    2014-12-01

    In order to explore the effects of the shape of ZnO nanomaterials on the plasma-catalytic decomposition of butane and the distribution of byproducts, three types of ZnO nanomaterials (nanoparticles (NPs), nanorods (NRs) and nanowires (NWs)) were prepared and coated on multi-channel porous alumina ceramic membrane. The structures and morphologies of the nanomaterials were confirmed by X-ray diffraction method and scanning electron microscopy. The observed catalytic activity of ZnO in the oxidative decomposition of butane was strongly shape-dependent. It was found that the ZnO NWs exhibited higher catalytic activity than the other nanomaterials and could completely oxidize butane into carbon oxides (COx). When using the bare or ZnO NPs-coated ceramic membrane, several unwanted partial oxidation and decomposition products like acetaldehyde, acetylene, methane and propane were identified during the decomposition of butane. When the ZnO NWs- or ZnO NRs-coated membrane was used, however, the formation of such unwanted byproducts except methane was completely avoided, and full conversion into COx was achieved. Better carbon balance and COx selectivity were obtained with the ZnO NWs and NRs than with the NPs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of a membrane-assisted fluidized bed reactor - 2 - Experimental demonstration and modeling for the partial oxidation of methanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deshmukh, S.A.R.K.; Laverman, J.A.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    A small laboratory-scale membrane-assisted fluidized bed reactor (MAFBR) was constructed in order to experimentally demonstrate the reactor concept for the partial oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde. Methanol conversion and product selectivities were measured at various overall fluidization

  11. A theoretical analysis of methanol synthesis from CO2 and H2 in a ceramic membrane reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallucci, F.; Basile, A.

    2007-01-01

    In this theoretical work the CO2 conversion into methanol in both a traditional reactor (TR) and a membrane reactor (MR) is considered. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of increasing CO2 conversion into methanol with respect to a TR. A zeolite MR, able to combine

  12. Membrane-aerated biofilm reactor for the removal of 1,2-dichloroethane by Pseudomonas sp strain DCA1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hage, J.C.; Houten, R.T.; Tramper, J.; Hartmans, S.

    2004-01-01

    A membrane-aerated biofilm reactor (MBR) with a biofilm of Pseudomonas sp. strain DCA1 was studied for the removal of 1,2-dichloroethane (DCA) from water. A hydrophobic membrane was used to create a barrier between the liquid and the gas phase. Inoculation of the MBR with cells of strain DCA1 grown

  13. Lipase kinetics: hydrolysis of triacetin by lipase from Candida cylindracea in a hollow-fiber membrane reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guit, R.P.M.; Kloosterman, M.; Meindersma, G.W.; Mayer, M.; Meijer, E.M.

    1991-01-01

    The aptitude of a hollow-fiber membrane reactor to det. lipase kinetics was investigated using the hydrolysis of triacetin catalyzed by lipase from C. cylindracea as a model system. The binding of the lipase to the membrane appears not to be very specific (surface adsorption), and probably its

  14. Preparation and characterization of a nickel/alumina composite membrane for high temperature hydrogen separation. Application in a membrane reactor for the dry reforming of methane; De la synthese d'une membrane composite nikel/ceramique permselective a l'hydrogene au reacteur membranaire. Application au reformage du methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haag, St.

    2003-11-01

    The objective of this work was to develop composite inorganic membranes based on nickel or palladium supported on a porous ceramic for high temperature hydrogen separation. These membranes were used in a membrane reactor for the dry reforming of methane in order to shift the chemical equilibrium towards the production of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. The metal layers were deposited on a tubular alumina support by electroless plating. The Ni and the Pd layers are 1 micron thick. The hydrogen permeation tests were done for high temperatures. The Pd/ceramic membrane is permselective to hydrogen and the H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} separation factor (single gas) is 60 at 400 deg C with a transmembrane pressure difference of 1 bar. With a gas mixture, the H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} separation factor is 13. This membrane is not completely dense and the transport mechanism of hydrogen through the Pd layer is mixed: solution-diffusion through the metal bulk and surface diffusion through the defects of the film. However, an embrittlement of the palladium layer under hydrogen atmosphere was observed at 500 deg C. The Ni/ceramic membrane is stable until 600 deg C, its permselectivity to hydrogen increases with the temperature. The use of a sweep gas can provide a H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} separation factor (mixture) of about 25. The main diffusion mechanism is surface diffusion through the pores. Both membranes are not catalytic. Thus, some catalysts composed of nickel and cobalt supported on MgO, SiO{sub 2} or Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were prepared. These systems allow to reach theoretical limits of conversion calculated for a conventional fixed bed reactor. In the membrane reactor, an enhancement of the methane conversion (15-20%) is observed with both membranes due the selective removal of hydrogen during the reaction. The Ni/ceramic membrane more stable, more permeable and as selective as the palladium one is a brand new material for high temperature hydrogen separation. (author)

  15. Yield optimization in a cycled trickle-bed reactor: ethanol catalytic oxidation as a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayude, A.; Haure, P. [INTEMA, CONICET, Mar del Plata (Argentina); Cassanello, M. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, PINMATE, Departamento de Industrias, FCEyN, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Martinez, O. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, FI-UNLP-CINDECA, La Plata (Argentina)

    2012-05-15

    The effect of slow ON-OFF liquid flow modulation on the yield of consecutive reactions is investigated for oxidation of aqueous ethanol solutions using a 0.5 % Pd/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} commercial catalyst in a laboratory trickle-bed reactor. Experiments with modulated liquid flow rate (MLFR) were performed under the same hydrodynamic conditions (degree of wetting, liquid holdup) as experiments with constant liquid flow rate (CLFR). Thus, the impact of the duration of wet and dry cycles as well as the period can be independently investigated. Depending on cycling conditions, acetaldehyde or acetic acid production is favored with MLFR compared to CLFR. Results suggest both the opportunity and challenge of finding a way to tune the cycling parameters for producing the most appropriate product. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Energy Efficient Microlith-Based Catalytic Reactor and Recuperator for Air Quality Control Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilekar, Saurabh A.; Hawley, Kyle; Junaedi, Christian; Crowder, Bruce; Prada, Julian; Mastanduno, Richard; Perry, Jay L.; Kayatin, Matthew J.

    2017-01-01

    Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI) and NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have been developing, characterizing, and optimizing high temperature catalytic oxidizers (HTCO) based on PCI’s patented Microlith technology to meet the requirements of future extended human spaceflight explorations. Previous efforts focused on integrating PCI’s HTCO unit with a compact, simple recuperative heat exchanger to reduce the overall system size and weight. Significant improvement was demonstrated over traditional approaches of integrating the HTCO with an external recuperative heat exchanger. While the critical target performance metrics were achieved, the thermal effectiveness of PCI’s recuperator remained a potential area of improvement to further reduce the energy requirements of the integrated system. Using the same material combinations and an improved recuperator design, the redesigned prototype has experimentally demonstrated 20 – 30% reduction (flow dependent) in steady state power consumption compared to the earlier prototype without compromising the destruction efficiency of methane and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Moreover, design modifications and improvements allow our redesigned prototype to be more easily manufactured compared to traditional brazed plate-fin recuperator designs. The redesigned prototype was delivered to MSFC for validation testing. Here, we report and discuss the performance of the improved prototype HTCO unit with a high efficiency recuperative heat exchanger based on testing at PCI and MSFC. The device is expected to provide a reliable and robust means of disposing of trace levels of methane and VOCs by oxidizing them into carbon dioxide and water in order to maintain clean air in enclosed spaces, such as crewed spacecraft cabins.

  17. Influence on moisture and hydrocarbons on conversion rate of tritium in catalytic reactors of fusion-DEMO detritiation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edao, Yuki; Sato, Katsumi; Iwai, Yasunori; Hayashi, Takumi

    2017-01-01

    Thoughtful consideration of abnormal events such as fire is required to design and qualify a detritiation system (DS) of a nuclear fusion facility. Since conversion of tritium to tritiated vapor over catalyst is the key process of the DS, it is indispensable to evaluate the effect of excess moisture and hydrocarbons produced by combustion of cables on tritium conversion rate considering fire events. We conducted demonstration tests on tritium conversion under the following representative conditions: (I) leakage of tritium, (II) leakage of tritium plus moisture, and (III) leakage of tritium plus hydrocarbons. Detritiation behavior in the simulated room was assessed, and the amount of catalyst to fulfill the requirement on tritium conversion rate was evaluated. The dominant parameters for detritiation are the concentration of hydrogen in air and catalyst temperature. The tritium in the simulated room was decreased for condition (I) following ventilation theory. An initial reduction in conversion rate was measured for condition (II). To recover the reduction smoothly, it is suggested to optimize the power of preheater. An increase in catalyst temperature by heat of reaction of hydrocarbon combustion was evaluated for condition (III). The heat balance of catalytic reactor is a point to be carefully investigated to avoid runaway of catalyst temperature. (author)

  18. Interdisciplinary study of the influence on effectiveness of catalytic hydrogen recombiners of operating conditions in the reactor containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelm, S.; Reinecke, E.A.; Schoppe, L.; Dornseiffer, J.; Leistner, F.; Juehe, S.

    2008-01-01

    At the Emsland nuclear power station, a total of 58 autocatalytic hydrogen recombiners were backfitted in 1999 as an additional measure of risk reduction in connection with major hydrogen releases after events going beyond the design basis. Annual in-service inspections after 2002 revealed that some of the catalyst sheets developed startup delays and marked evolutions of smoke and smell. Recombiners not meeting the inspection criterion were completely regenerated as a measure of precaution. A preventive study was conducted jointly with institutes of the Juelich Research Center and the Aachen Technical University to analyze the composition of the deposits, which was then compared with the chemical characteristics of potential sources in the reactor containment. At the same time, the influence on effectiveness of the catalyst sheets was examined. On the basis of a random evaluation of the in-service inspection logs of the past few years, representative samples were taken whose startup behavior and operating characteristics were studied in a test rig alongside chemical analyses so as to allow a correlation to be established between the analytical findings and the catalytic activity of the samples. The findings made allowed internal sources of the catalyst deposits to be excluded. The impurities are introduced with the outside air. As a consequence, the air ducts in the vicinity of the respective recombiners were inspected and optimization steps were taken in connection with in-service inspections and regeneration procedures. (orig.)

  19. Mathematical Modelling of Catalytic Fixed-Bed Reactor for Carbon Dioxide Reforming of Methane over Rh/Al2O3 Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    New Pei Yee

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A one-dimensional mathematical model was developed to simulate the performance of catalytic fixed bedreactor for carbon dioxide reforming of methane over Rh/Al2O3 catalyst at atmospheric pressure. The reactionsinvolved in the system are carbon dioxide reforming of methane (CORM and reverse water gas shiftreaction (RWGS. The profiles of CH4 and CO2 conversions, CO and H2 yields, molar flow rate and molefraction of all species as well as reactor temperature along the axial bed of catalyst were simulated. In addition,the effects of different reactor temperature on the reactor performance were also studied. The modelscan also be applied to analyze the performances of lab-scale micro reactor as well as pilot-plant scale reactorwith certain modifications and model verification with experimental data. © 2008 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.[Received: 20 August 2008; Accepted: 25 September 2008][How to Cite: N.A.S. Amin, I. Istadi, N.P. Yee. (2008. Mathematical Modelling of Catalytic Fixed-Bed Reactor for Carbon Dioxide Reforming of Methane over Rh/Al2O3 Catalyst. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 3 (1-3: 21-29. doi:10.9767/bcrec.3.1-3.19.21-29

  20. Production of Biodiesel Using a Membrane Reactor to Minimize Separation Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olagunju, O. A.; Musonge, P.

    2017-07-01

    This study investigates the performance of a packed bed membrane reactor in the transesterification process of triglycerides to methyl ester using soyabean oil as feedstock. A TiO2/Al2O3 ceramic microporous membrane was selected due to its chemical inert nature and thermal stability to selectively remove the product from the reaction medium. CaO impregnated on the surface of activated carbon was packed into the membrane and acted as catalyst. The synthesized catalyst had a total loading of 40.50 % and was characterized by XRD and temperature-programmed desorption of CO2 (CO2-TPD). The crude biodiesel produced was micro-filtered by the ceramic membrane with a pore size of 0.02 μm to retain the unreacted oil and free glycerol, at the transmembrane pressure of 100 KPa. The best condition was achieved with a temperature of 65 °C, methanol/oil molar ratio of 6:1 for 150 minutes, which resulted in the highest FAME yield of 94 %. Methyl ester produced met the ASTM D6751 and SANS 1935 specifications. The product obtained was mainly composed of methyl esters. Glycerol was not detected in the product stream due to the ability of the membrane to retain the glycerol and the unreacted oil in the medium, which solved the issue of glycerol separation from biodiesel.

  1. Electrochemical membrane reactor: In situ separation and recovery of chromic acid and metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Jeeshan; Tripathi, Bijay P.; Saxena, Arunima; Shahi, Vinod K.

    2007-01-01

    An electrochemical membrane reactor with three compartments (anolyte, catholyte and central compartment) based on in-house-prepared cation- and anion-exchange membrane was developed to achieve in situ separation and recovery of chromic acid and metal ions. The physicochemical and electrochemical properties of the ion-exchange membrane under standard operating conditions reveal its suitability for the proposed reactor. Experiments using synthetic solutions of chromate and dichromate of different concentrations were carried out to study the feasibility of the process. Electrochemical reactions occurring at the cathode and anode under operating conditions are proposed. It was observed that metal ion migrated through the cation-exchange membrane from central compartment to catholyte and OH - formation at the cathode leads to the formation of metal hydroxide. Simultaneously, chromate ion migrated through the anion-exchange membrane from central compartment to the anolyte and formed chromic acid by combining H + produced their by oxidative water splitting. Thus a continuous decay in the concentration of chromate and metal ion was observed in the central compartment, which was recovered separately in the anolyte and catholyte, respectively, from their mixed solution. This process was completely optimized in terms of operating conditions such as initial concentration of chromate and metal ions in the central compartment, the applied cell voltage, chromate and metal ion flux, recovery percentage, energy consumption, and current efficiency. It was concluded that chromic acid and metal ions can be recovered efficiently from their mixed solution leaving behind the uncharged organics and can be reused as their corresponding acid and base apart from the purifying water for further applications

  2. Drinking water treatment using a submerged internal-circulation membrane coagulation reactor coupled with permanganate oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongguo; Liu, Dan; Qian, Yu; Wu, Yue; He, Peiran; Liang, Shuang; Fu, Xiaozheng; Li, Jiding; Ye, Changqing

    2017-06-01

    A submerged internal circulating membrane coagulation reactor (MCR) was used to treat surface water to produce drinking water. Polyaluminum chloride (PACl) was used as coagulant, and a hydrophilic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) submerged hollow fiber microfiltration membrane was employed. The influences of trans-membrane pressure (TMP), zeta potential (ZP) of the suspended particles in raw water, and KMnO 4 dosing on water flux and the removal of turbidity and organic matter were systematically investigated. Continuous bench-scale experiments showed that the permeate quality of the MCR satisfied the requirement for a centralized water supply, according to the Standards for Drinking Water Quality of China (GB 5749-2006), as evaluated by turbidity (<1 NTU) and total organic carbon (TOC) (<5mg/L) measurements. Besides water flux, the removal of turbidity, TOC and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the raw water also increased with increasing TMP in the range of 0.01-0.05MPa. High ZP induced by PACl, such as 5-9mV, led to an increase in the number of fine and total particles in the MCR, and consequently caused serious membrane fouling and high permeate turbidity. However, the removal of TOC and DOC increased with increasing ZP. A slightly positive ZP, such as 1-2mV, corresponding to charge neutralization coagulation, was favorable for membrane fouling control. Moreover, dosing with KMnO 4 could further improve the removal of turbidity and DOC, thereby mitigating membrane fouling. The results are helpful for the application of the MCR in producing drinking water and also beneficial to the research and application of other coagulation and membrane separation hybrid processes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. A novel ion transport membrane reactor for fundamental investigations of oxygen permeation and oxy-combustion under reactive flow conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Kirchen, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Ion transport membrane (ITM) reactors present an attractive technology for combined air separation and fuel conversion in applications such as syngas production, oxidative coupling or oxy-combustion, with the promise of lower capital and operating costs, as well higher product selectivities than traditional technologies. The oxygen permeation rate through a given ITM is defined by the membrane temperature and oxygen chemical potential difference across it. Both of these parameters can be strongly influenced by thermochemical reactions occurring in the vicinity of the membrane, though in the literature they are often characterized in terms of the well mixed product stream at the reactor exit. This work presents the development of a novel ITM reactor for the fundamental investigation of the coupling between fuel conversion and oxygen permeation under well defined fluid dynamic and thermodynamic conditions, including provisions for spatially resolved, in-situ investigations. A planar, finite gap stagnation flow reactor with optical and probe access to the reaction zone is used to facilitate in-situ measurements and cross-validation with detailed numerical simulations. Using this novel reactor, baseline measurements are presented to elucidate the impact of the sweep gas fuel (CH4) fraction on the oxygen permeation and fuel conversion. In addition, the difference between well-mixed gas compositions measured at the reactor outlet and those measured in the vicinity of the membrane surface are discussed, demonstrating the unique utility of the reactor. © 2012 The Combustion Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Techno-economic prospects of small-scale membrane reactors in a future hydrogen-fuelled transportation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjardin, M.; Damen, K.J.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2006-01-01

    The membrane reactor is a novel technology for the production of hydrogen from natural gas. It promises economic small-scale hydrogen production, e.g. at refuelling stations and has the potential of inexpensive CO 2 separation. Four configurations of the membrane reactor have been modelled with Aspen plus to determine its thermodynamic and economic prospects. Overall energy efficiency is 84% HHV without H 2 compression (78% with compression up to 482bar). The modelling results also indicate that by using a sweep gas, the membrane reactor can produce a reformer exit stream consisting mainly of CO 2 and H 2 O (>90% mol ) suited for CO 2 sequestration after water removal with an efficiency loss of only 1% pt . Reforming with a 2MW membrane reactor (250 unit production volume) costs 14$/GJ H 2 including compression, which is more expensive than conventional steam reforming+compression (12$/GJ). It does, however, promise a cheap method of CO 2 separation, 14$/t CO 2 captured, due to the high purity of the exit stream. The well-to-wheel chain of the membrane reactor has been compared to centralised steam reforming to assess the trade-off between production scale and the construction of a hydrogen and a CO 2 distribution infrastructure. If the scale of centralised hydrogen production is below 40MW, the trade-off could be favourable for the membrane reactor with small-scale CO 2 capture (18$/GJ including H 2 storage, dispensing and CO 2 sequestration for 40MW SMR versus 19$/GJ for MR). The membrane reactor might become competitive with conventional steam reforming provided that thin membranes can be combined with high stability and a cheap manufacturing method for the membrane tubes. Thin membranes, industrial utility prices and larger production volumes (i.e. technological learning) might reduce the levelised hydrogen cost of the membrane reactor at the refuelling station to less than 14$/GJ including CO 2 sequestration cost, below that of large-scale H 2 production with

  5. Glycerol etherification with TBA: high yield to poly-ethers using a membrane assisted batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannilla, Catia; Bonura, Giuseppe; Frusteri, Leone; Frusteri, Francesco

    2014-05-20

    In this work, a novel approach to obtain high yield to poly-tert-butylglycerolethers by glycerol etherification reaction with tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) is proposed. The limit of this reaction is the production of poly-ethers, which inhibits the formation of poly-ethers potentially usable in the blend with conventional diesel for transportation. The results herein reported demonstrate that the use of a water permselective membrane offers the possibility to shift the equilibrium toward the formation of poly-ethers since the water formed during reaction is continuously and selectively removed from the reaction medium by the recirculation of the gas phase. Using a proper catalyst and optimizing the reaction conditions, in a single experiment, a total glycerol conversion can be reached with a yield to poly-ethers close to 70%, which represents data never before reached using TBA as reactant. The approach here proposed could open up new opportunities for all catalytic reactions affected by water formation.

  6. Impact of the fouling mechanism on enzymatic depolymerization of xylan in different configurations of membrane reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohd Sueb, Mohd Shafiq Bin; Luo, Jianquan; Meyer, Anne S.

    2017-01-01

    In order to maximize enzymatic xylan depolymerization while simultaneously purifying the resulting monosaccharide (xylose), different ultrafiltration (UF) membrane reactor configurations were evaluated. Initial results showed that the two hydrolytic enzymes required for complete depolymerization...... which hindered enzymatic attack in addition to fouling. Reaction with both enzymes followed by UF was found to be the optimal configuration, providing at least 40% higher xylan hydrolysis than the cascade configuration (involving sequential reaction with each of the enzymes separately......) and the simultaneous reaction-filtration with both enzymes, respectively. This study thus confirmed that the reactor configuration has a crucial impact on the performance of both the reaction and the separation process of xylose during enzymatic xylan degradation, and that the type of fouling mechanism varies...

  7. Effect of inlet conditions on the performance of a palladium membrane reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birdsell, S.A.; Willms, R.S.; Arzu, P.; Costello, A.

    1997-10-01

    Palladium membrane reactors (PMR) will be used to remove tritium and other hydrogen isotopes from impurities, such as tritiated methane and tritiated water, in the exhaust of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. In addition to fusion-fuel processing, the PMR system can be used to recover tritium from tritiated waste water. This paper investigates the effect of inlet conditions on the performance of a PMR. A set of experiments were run to determine, independently, the effect of inlet compositions and residence time on performance. Also, the experiments were designed to determine if the injected form of hydrogen (CH 4 or H 2 O) effects performance. Results show that the PMR operates at optimal hydrogen recovery with a broad range of inlet compositions and performance is shown to increase with increased residence time. PMR performance is shown to be independent of whether hydrogen is injected in the form of CH 4 or H 2 O

  8. Membrane chemical reactor (MCR) combining photocatalysis and microfiltration for grey water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, M J; Parsons, S A; Jeffrey, P; Pidou, M; Jefferson, B

    2006-01-01

    Urban water recycling is now becoming an important issue where water resources are becoming scarce. This paper looks at reusing grey water; the preference is treatment processes based on biological systems to remove the dissolved organic content. Here, an alternative process, photocatalysis is discussed as it is an attractive technology that could be well-suited for treating the recalcitrant organic compounds found in grey water. The photocatalytic process oxidises organic reactants at a catalyst surface in the presence of ultraviolet light. Given enough exposure time, organic compounds will be oxidized into CO2 and water. The best contact is achieved in a slurry reactor but a second step to separate and recover the catalyst is need. This paper discusses a new membrane chemical reactor (MCR) combining photocatalysis and microfiltration for grey water treatment.

  9. Membrane reactor for water detritiation: a parametric study on operating parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mascarade, J.; Liger, K.; Troulay, M.; Perrais, C. [CEA, DEN, DTN/STPA/LIPC, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Joulia, X.; Meyer, X.M. [Universite de Toulouse, INPT, UPS, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, Toulouse (France); CNRS, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, Toulouse (France)

    2015-03-15

    This paper presents the results of a parametric study done on a single stage finger-type packed-bed membrane reactor (PBMR) used for heavy water vapor de-deuteration. Parametric studies have been done on 3 operating parameters which are: the membrane temperature, the total feed flow rate and the feed composition through D{sub 2}O content variations. Thanks to mass spectrometer analysis of streams leaving the PBMR, speciation of deuterated species was achieved. Measurement of the amounts of each molecular component allowed the calculation of reaction quotient at the packed-bed outlet. While temperature variation mainly influences permeation efficiency, feed flow rate perturbation reveals dependence of conversion and permeation properties to contact time between catalyst and reacting mixture. The study shows that isotopic exchange reactions occurring on the catalyst particles surface are not thermodynamically balanced. Moreover, the variation of the heavy water content in the feed exhibits competition between permeation and conversion kinetics.

  10. A fluidized bed membrane bioelectrochemical reactor for energy-efficient wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Ge, Zheng; He, Zhen

    2014-09-01

    A fluidized bed membrane bioelectrochemical reactor (MBER) was investigated using fluidized granular activated carbon (GAC) as a mean of membrane fouling control. During the 150-day operation, the MBER generated electricity with contaminant removal from either synthetic solution or actual wastewater, as a standalone or a coupled system. It was found that fluidized GAC could significantly reduce transmembrane pressure (TMP), although its function as a part of the anode electrode was minor. When the MBER was linked to a regular microbial fuel cell (MFC) for treating a wastewater from a cheese factory, the MFC acted as a major process for energy recovery and contaminant removal, and the coupled system removed more than 90% of chemical oxygen demand and >80% of suspended solids. The analysis showed that the ratio of energy recovery and consumption was slightly larger than one, indicating that the coupled system could be theoretically energy neutral. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A Miniature Membrane Reactor for Evaluation of Process Design Options on the Enzymatic Degradation of Pectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zainal Alam, Muhd Nazrul Hisham; Pinelo, Manuel; Arnous, Anis

    2011-01-01

    was fabricated from poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) with a working volume of ∼190 μL. The prototype also contained the necessary sensors and actuators, i.e., pressure transducer, mixing via magnetic stirrer bar and a temperature controller. The functionality of the prototype...... was demonstrated by performing a continuous enzymatic degradation of pectin experiment for a range of reactor conditions: different membrane molecular weight cutoff (MWCO) values, enzyme-to-substrate ratios (E/S), and substrate feeding rates (F) were assessed. Based on the experimental data, it was found...

  12. Engineering a self-driven PVDF/PDA hybrid membranes based on membrane micro-reactor effect to achieve super-hydrophilicity, excellent antifouling properties and hemocompatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Hua; Ni, Xing-Xing; Zhang, De-Bin; Zheng, Hui; Wang, Jia-Bin; Zhang, Qi-Qing

    2018-06-01

    A facile and versatile approach for the preparation of super-hydrophilic, excellent antifouling and hemocompatibility membranes had been developed through the generation in situ of bio-inspired polydopamine (PDA) microspheres on PVDF membranes. SEM images showed that the PDA microspheres were uniformly dispersed on the upper surface and the lower surface of the modified membranes. And there were a great number of PDA microspheres immobilized on the cross-section, but the interconnected pores structure was not destroyed. These facts indicated the existence of membrane micro-reactor effect for the whole membrane structure. Considering the remarkable improvement of hydrophilicity, antifouling properties, and permeation fluxes, we also proposed the cluster phenolic hydroxyl effect for the PVDF/PDA hybrid membranes. And the cluster phenolic hydroxyl effect can be ascribed to the all directions distributed phenolic hydroxyl groups on the whole membrane structure. Besides, the self-driven filtration experiments showed the great wetting ability and permeability of the PVDF/PDA hybrid membranes in filtration process without any external pressure. This implied the existence of accelerating self-driven force after the water flow flowed into the internal of membranes, which contributed to the increase of water flow velocity. All the three aspects were in favor of the enhancement of hydrophilicity, antifouling properties and permeability of the modified membranes. Moreover, the conventional filtration tests, oil/water emulsion filtration tests and protein adsorption tests were also carried out to discuss the practical applications of PVDF/PDA hybrid membranes. And the hemocompatibility of the modified membranes was also proved to enhance greatly through the hemolysis tests and platelet adhesion tests, indicating that the membranes were greatly promising in biomedical applications. The strategy of material modification reported here is substrate-independent and can be extended

  13. Numerical simulation of ion transport membrane reactors: Oxygen permeation and transport and fuel conversion

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Jongsup

    2012-07-01

    Ion transport membrane (ITM) based reactors have been suggested as a novel technology for several applications including fuel reforming and oxy-fuel combustion, which integrates air separation and fuel conversion while reducing complexity and the associated energy penalty. To utilize this technology more effectively, it is necessary to develop a better understanding of the fundamental processes of oxygen transport and fuel conversion in the immediate vicinity of the membrane. In this paper, a numerical model that spatially resolves the gas flow, transport and reactions is presented. The model incorporates detailed gas phase chemistry and transport. The model is used to express the oxygen permeation flux in terms of the oxygen concentrations at the membrane surface given data on the bulk concentration, which is necessary for cases when mass transfer limitations on the permeate side are important and for reactive flow modeling. The simulation results show the dependence of oxygen transport and fuel conversion on the geometry and flow parameters including the membrane temperature, feed and sweep gas flow, oxygen concentration in the feed and fuel concentration in the sweep gas. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  14. Nuclear Track-Etched Pore Membrane Production Using OAEP's Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chittrakarn, Thawat; Bhongsuwan, Tripob; Wanichapichart, Pikul; Nuanuin, Paiboon; Chongkum, Somporn; Khonduangkaew, Areerat; Bordeepong, Sunaree

    2003-10-01

    Result of this study shows that the OAEP's nuclear research reactor is a good source of both fast and thermal neutrons for pore piercing process on polycarbonate thin film. With our experimental design, the fast neutron provides better results in pore piercing comparing with thermal neutron bombardment. This can be explained that most of the latent tracks that occur by thermal neutron bombardment do not piercing through the thin film. Chemical etching process using NaOH solution with an appropriated time, concentration and temperature was employed to enlarge the latent tracks in the bombarded film by fast neutrons. Fast neutron bombardment with 5, 10 and 20 minutes bombarding time successfully produces the nuclear track membrane. Pore size and pore density of the produced membranes examined by SEM were 0.24-1.01 μm and 4.67 - 245 x 10 6 pore/cm 2 , respectively. Bubble point test showed the maximum pore diameter of the produced membrane ranged between 1.18 - 3.25 μm. Water permeability was studied and compared between the produced and commercial membranes

  15. Modelling and sequential simulation of multi-tubular metallic membrane and techno-economics of a hydrogen production process employing thin-layer membrane reactor

    KAUST Repository

    Shafiee, Alireza

    2016-09-24

    A theoretical model for multi-tubular palladium-based membrane is proposed in this paper and validated against experimental data for two different sized membrane modules that operate at high temperatures. The model is used in a sequential simulation format to describe and analyse pure hydrogen and hydrogen binary mixture separations, and then extended to simulate an industrial scale membrane unit. This model is used as a sub-routine within an ASPEN Plus model to simulate a membrane reactor in a steam reforming hydrogen production plant. A techno-economic analysis is then conducted using the validated model for a plant producing 300 TPD of hydrogen. The plant utilises a thin (2.5 μm) defect-free and selective layer (Pd75Ag25 alloy) membrane reactor. The economic sensitivity analysis results show usefulness in finding the optimum operating condition that achieves minimum hydrogen production cost at break-even point. A hydrogen production cost of 1.98 $/kg is estimated while the cost of the thin-layer selective membrane is found to constitute 29% of total process capital cost. These results indicate the competiveness of this thin-layer membrane process against conventional methods of hydrogen production. © 2016 Hydrogen Energy Publications LLC

  16. Removal of selected nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds in biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (BPCGW) using the catalytic ozonation process combined with the two-stage membrane bioreactor (MBR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hao; Han, Yuxing; Ma, Wencheng; Han, Hongjun; Ma, Weiwei

    2017-12-01

    Three identical anoxic-aerobic membrane bioreactors (MBRs) were operated in parallel for 300 consecutive days for raw (R 1 ), ozonated (R 2 ) and catalytic ozonated (R 3 ) biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (BPCGW) treatment. The results demonstrated that catalytic ozonation process (COP) applied asa pretreatment remarkably improved the performance of the unsatisfactory single MBR. The overall removal efficiencies of COD, NH 3 -N and TN in R 3 were 92.7%, 95.6% and 80.6%, respectively. In addition, typical nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds (NHCs) of quinoline, pyridine and indole were completely removed in the integrated process. Moreover, COP could alter sludge properties and reshape microbial community structure, thus delaying the occurrence of membrane fouling. Finally, the total cost for this integrated process was estimated to be lower than that of single MBR. The results of this study suggest that COP is a good option to enhance pollutants removal and alleviate membrane fouling in the MBR for BPCGW treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Modelling and sequential simulation of multi-tubular metallic membrane and techno-economics of a hydrogen production process employing thin-layer membrane reactor

    KAUST Repository

    Shafiee, Alireza; Arab, Mobin; Lai, Zhiping; Liu, Zongwen; Abbas, Ali

    2016-01-01

    reforming hydrogen production plant. A techno-economic analysis is then conducted using the validated model for a plant producing 300 TPD of hydrogen. The plant utilises a thin (2.5 μm) defect-free and selective layer (Pd75Ag25 alloy) membrane reactor

  18. A novel water perm-selective membrane dual-type reactor concept for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis of GTL (gas to liquid) technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimpour, M.R.; Mirvakili, A.; Paymooni, K.

    2011-01-01

    The present study proposes a novel configuration of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) reactors in which a fixed-bed water perm-selective membrane reactor is followed by a fluidized-bed hydrogen perm-selective membrane reactor. This novel concept which has been named fixed-bed membrane reactor followed by fluidized-bed membrane reactor (FMFMDR) produces gasoline from synthesis gas. The walls of the tubes of a fixed-bed reactor (water-cooled reactor) of FMFMDR configuration are coated by a high water perm-selective membrane layer. In this new configuration, two membrane reactors instead of one membrane reactor are developed for FTS reactions. In other words, two different membrane layers are used. In order to investigate the performance of FMFMDR, a one-dimensional heterogeneous model is taken into consideration. The simulation results of three schemes named fluidized-bed membrane dual-type reactor (FMDR), FMFMDR and conventional fixed-bed reactor (CR) are presented. They have been compared in terms of temperature, gasoline and CO 2 yields, H 2 and CO conversions and the water permeation rate through the membrane layer. Results show that the gasoline yield in FMFMDR is higher than the one in FMDR. The FMFMDR configuration not only decreases the undesired product such as CO 2 but also produces more gasoline. -- Research highlights: → The application of H-SOD membrane layer in FTS reactors. → Approximate 7.5% and 37% increase in the gasoline yield in terms of [g/g feed x 100] in comparison with FMDR and CR, respectively. → A remarkable decrease in CO 2 emission to the environment. → A good configuration mainly due to reduction in catalysts sintering as a result of in situ water removal.

  19. In-situ catalytic upgrading of biomass pyrolysis vapor: Co-feeding with methanol in a multi-zone fixed bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asadieraghi, Masoud; Wan Daud, Wan Mohd Ashri

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Aromatics yield improved with increasing H/C eff ratio of the feed. • HZSM-5 catalyst was an effective catalyst for in-situ bio-oil upgrading. • Biomass/methanol co-feeding attenuated the coke formation. • Methanol co-feeding enhanced the bio-oil quality. - Abstract: The in-situ catalytic upgrading of the biomass pyrolysis vapor and its mixture with methanol were conducted in a fixed bed multi-zone reactor. The steps were comprised; thermally converting the biomass in the pyrolysis reactor, passing its vapor in contact with the HZSM-5 zeolite catalyst in the presence of methanol vapor, and transformation of the resulting upgraded pyrolysis vapor into the liquid product. The biomass pyrolysis and catalytic pyrolysis vapor upgrading were performed at 500 °C. The highly valuable chemicals production was a function of the hydrogen to carbon effective ratio (H/C eff ) of the feed. This ratio was regulated by changing the relative amount of biomass and methanol. More aromatic hydrocarbons (50.02 wt.%) and less coke deposition on the catalyst (1.3 wt.%) were yielded from the biomass, when methanol was co-fed to the catalytic pyrolysis process (H/C eff = 1.35). In this contribution, the deposited coke on the catalyst was profoundly investigated. The coke, with high contents of oxo-aromatics and aromatic compounds, was generated by polymerization of biomass lignin derived components activated by catalyst acid sites

  20. Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal chemical industry wastewater using the catalytic ozonation process combined with a gas-liquid-solid internal circulating fluidized bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhipeng; Liu, Feng; You, Hong; Ding, Yi; Yao, Jie; Jin, Chao

    2018-04-01

    This paper investigated the performance of the combined system of catalytic ozonation and the gas-liquid-solid internal circulating fluidized bed reactor for the advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal chemical industry wastewater (CCIW). The results indicated that with ozonation alone for 60min, the removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) could reach 34%. The introduction of activated carbon, pumice, γ-Al 2 O 3 carriers improved the removal performance of COD, and the removal efficiency was increased by 8.6%, 4.2%, 2%, respectively. Supported with Mn, the catalytic performance of activated carbon and γ-Al 2 O 3 were improved significantly with COD removal efficiencies of 46.5% and 41.3%, respectively; however, the promotion effect of pumice supported with Mn was insignificant. Activated carbon supported with Mn had the best catalytic performance. The catalytic ozonation combined system of MnO X /activated carbon could keep ozone concentration at a lower level in the liquid phase, and promote the transfer of ozone from the gas phase to the liquid phase to improve ozonation efficiency.

  1. A dense cell retention culture system using stirred ceramic membrane reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, T; Sato, T; Kominami, M

    1994-11-20

    A novel reactor design incorporating porous ceramic tubes into a stirred jar fermentor was developed. The stirred ceramic membrane reactor has two ceramic tubular membrane units inside the vessel and maintains high filtration flux by alternating use for filtering and recovering from clogging. Each filter unit was linked for both extraction of culture broth and gas sparging. High permeability was maintained for long periods by applying the periodical control between filtering and air sparging during the stirred retention culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The ceramic filter aeration system increased the k(L)a to about five times that of ordinary gas sparing. Using the automatic feeding and filtering system, cell mass concentration reached 207 g/L in a short time, while it was 64 g/L in a fed-batch culture. More than 99% of the growing cells were retained in the fermentor by the filtering culture. Both yield and productivity of cells were also increased by controlling the feeding of fresh medium and filtering the supernatant of the dense cells culture. (c) 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  2. Hydrogen amplification of coke oven gas by reforming of methane in a ceramic membrane reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuwen; Li, Qian; Shen, Peijun; Liu, Yong; Yang, Zhibin; Ding, Weizhong; Lu, Xionggang [School of Material Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, No. 275 Mail Box, 149 Yanchang Road, Shanghai 200072 (China)

    2008-07-15

    To maximize hydrogen production from coke oven gas (COG), partial oxidation of methane in COG was studied thermodynamically and experimentally. Thermodynamic analysis indicates that an optimal hydrogen yield of 1.04-1.10 mole per mole of the consumed COG can be achieved when the initial ratio of O{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} is 0.57-0.46 in a temperature range of 800-900 C, and the corresponding amplification of original hydrogen in COG reaches 1.8-1.9 times. The amplification of original hydrogen was carried out in a BaCo{sub 0.7}Fe{sub 0.2}Nb{sub 0.1}O{sub 3-{delta}} (BCFNO) membrane reactor, and the hydrogen yield in the lab scale was about 80% more than that of original H{sub 2} in model COG. In a large hydrogen content in COG, the ceramic membrane reactors made from perovskite mixed-conducting oxygen-permeable materials must have higher stability to withstand the harsh reduction condition. (author)

  3. The recovery of zinc from hot galvanizing slag in an anion-exchange membrane electrolysis reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren Xiulian [College of Ocean, Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai, Weihai 264209 (China); Wei Qifeng, E-mail: weiqifeng163@163.com [College of Ocean, Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai, Weihai 264209 (China); Hu Surong; Wei Sijie [College of Ocean, Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai, Weihai 264209 (China)

    2010-09-15

    This paper reports the optimization of the process parameters for recovery of zinc from hot galvanizing slag in an anion-exchange membrane electrolysis reactor. The experiments were carried out in an ammoniacal ammonium chloride system. The influence of composition of electrolytes, pH, stirring rate, current density and temperature, on cathodic current efficiency, specific power consumption and anodic dissolution of Zn were investigated. The results indicate that the cathode current efficiency increases and the hydrogen evolution decreased with increasing the cathode current density. The partial current for electrodeposition of Zn has liner relationship with {omega}{sup 1/2} ({omega}: rotation rate). The highest current efficiency for dissolving zinc was obtained when NH{sub 4}Cl concentration was 53.46 g L{sup -1} and the anodic dissolution of zinc was determined by mass transfer rate at stirring rate 0-300 r min{sup -1}. Increase in temperature benefits to improve CE and dissolution of Zn, and reduce cell voltage. Initial pH of electrolytes plays an important role in the deposition and anodic dissolution of Zn. The results of single factor experiment show that about 50% energy consumption was saved for electrodeposition of Zn in the anion-exchange membrane electrolysis reactor.

  4. The recovery of zinc from hot galvanizing slag in an anion-exchange membrane electrolysis reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiulian; Wei, Qifeng; Hu, Surong; Wei, Sijie

    2010-09-15

    This paper reports the optimization of the process parameters for recovery of zinc from hot galvanizing slag in an anion-exchange membrane electrolysis reactor. The experiments were carried out in an ammoniacal ammonium chloride system. The influence of composition of electrolytes, pH, stirring rate, current density and temperature, on cathodic current efficiency, specific power consumption and anodic dissolution of Zn were investigated. The results indicate that the cathode current efficiency increases and the hydrogen evolution decreased with increasing the cathode current density. The partial current for electrodeposition of Zn has liner relationship with omega(1/2) (omega: rotation rate). The highest current efficiency for dissolving zinc was obtained when NH(4)Cl concentration was 53.46 g L(-1) and the anodic dissolution of zinc was determined by mass transfer rate at stirring rate 0-300 r min(-1). Increase in temperature benefits to improve CE and dissolution of Zn, and reduce cell voltage. Initial pH of electrolytes plays an important role in the deposition and anodic dissolution of Zn. The results of single factor experiment show that about 50% energy consumption was saved for electrodeposition of Zn in the anion-exchange membrane electrolysis reactor. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The recovery of zinc from hot galvanizing slag in an anion-exchange membrane electrolysis reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Xiulian; Wei Qifeng; Hu Surong; Wei Sijie

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the optimization of the process parameters for recovery of zinc from hot galvanizing slag in an anion-exchange membrane electrolysis reactor. The experiments were carried out in an ammoniacal ammonium chloride system. The influence of composition of electrolytes, pH, stirring rate, current density and temperature, on cathodic current efficiency, specific power consumption and anodic dissolution of Zn were investigated. The results indicate that the cathode current efficiency increases and the hydrogen evolution decreased with increasing the cathode current density. The partial current for electrodeposition of Zn has liner relationship with ω 1/2 (ω: rotation rate). The highest current efficiency for dissolving zinc was obtained when NH 4 Cl concentration was 53.46 g L -1 and the anodic dissolution of zinc was determined by mass transfer rate at stirring rate 0-300 r min -1 . Increase in temperature benefits to improve CE and dissolution of Zn, and reduce cell voltage. Initial pH of electrolytes plays an important role in the deposition and anodic dissolution of Zn. The results of single factor experiment show that about 50% energy consumption was saved for electrodeposition of Zn in the anion-exchange membrane electrolysis reactor.

  6. Performance of a palladium membrane reactor using a Ni catalyst for fusion fuel impurities processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willms, R.S.; Wilhelm, R.; Okuno, K.

    1994-01-01

    The palladium membrane reactor (PNM) provides a means to recover hydrogen isotopes from impurities expected to be present in fusion reactor exhaust. This recovery is based on reactions such as water-gas shift and steam reforming for which conversion is equilibrium limited. By including a selectively permeable membrane such as Pd/Ag in the catalyst bed, hydrogen isotopes can be removed from the reacting environment, thus promoting the reaction to complete conversion. Such a device has been built and operated at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). For the reactions listed above, earlier study with this unit has shown that hydrogen single-pass recoveries approaching 100% can be achieved. It was also determined that a nickel catalyst is a feasible choice for use with a PMR appropriate for fusion fuel impurities processing. The purpose of this study was to systematically assess the performance of the PMR using a nickel catalyst over a range of temperatures, feed compositions and flowrates. Reactions which were studied are the water-gas shift reaction and steam reforming

  7. The characteristics of extracellular polymeric substances and soluble microbial products in moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Liang; Jiang, Wei; Song, Yonghui; Xia, Siqing; Hermanowicz, Slawomir W

    2013-11-01

    The characteristics of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and soluble microbial products (SMP) in conventional membrane bioreactor (MBR) and in moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactors (MBBR-MBR) were investigated in long-term (170 days) experiments. The results showed that all reactors had high removal efficiency of ammonium and COD, despite very different fouling conditions. The MBBR-MBR with media fill ratio of 26.7% had much lower total membrane resistance and no obvious fouling were detected during the whole operation. In contrast, MBR and MBBR-MBR with lower and higher media fill experienced more significant fouling. Low fouling at optimum fill ratio may be due to the higher percentage of small molecular size (100 kDa) of EPS and SMP in the reactor. The composition of EPS and SMP affected fouling due to different O-H bonds in hydroxyl functional groups, and less polysaccharides and lipids. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Potentiality of a ceramic membrane reactor for the laccase-catalyzed removal of bisphenol A from secondary effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arca-Ramos, A; Eibes, G; Feijoo, G; Lema, J M; Moreira, M T

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the removal of bisphenol A (BPA) by laccase in a continuous enzymatic membrane reactor (EMR) was investigated. The effects of key parameters, namely, type of laccase, pH, and enzyme activity, were initially evaluated. Once optimal conditions were determined, the continuous removal of the pollutant in an EMR was assessed in synthetic and real biologically treated wastewaters. The reactor configuration consisted of a stirred tank reactor coupled to a ceramic membrane, which prevented the sorption of the pollutant and allowed the recovery and recycling of laccase. Nearly complete removal of BPA was attained under both operation regimes with removal yields above 94.5 %. In experiments with real wastewater, the removal of BPA remained high while the presence of colloids and certain ions and the formation of precipitates on the membrane potentially affected enzyme stability and made necessary the periodic addition of laccase. Polymerization and degradation were observed as probable mechanisms of BPA transformation by laccase.

  9. Optimization of a Pd-based membrane reactor for hydrogen production from methane steam reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assis, A.J.; Hori, C.E.; Silva, L.C.; Murata, V.V. [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), MG (Brazil). School of Chemical Engineering]. E-mail: adilsonjassis@gmail.com

    2008-07-01

    In this work, it is proposed a phenomenological model in steady state to describe the performance of a membrane reactor for hydrogen production through methane steam reform as well as it is performed an optimization of operating conditions. The model is composed by a set of ordinary differential equations from mass, energy and momentum balances and constitutive relations. They were used two different intrinsic kinetic expressions from literature. The results predicted by the model were validated using experimental data. They were investigated the effect of five important process parameters, inlet reactor pressure (PR0), methane feed flow rate (FCH40), sweep gas flow rate (FI), external reactor temperature (TW) and steam to methane feed flow ratio (M), both on methane conversion (XCH{sub 4} ) and hydrogen recovery (YH{sub 2}). The best operating conditions were obtained through simple parametric optimization and by a method based on gradient, which uses the computer code DIRCOL in FORTRAN. It is shown that high methane conversion (96%) as well as hydrogen recovery (91%) can be obtained, using the optimized conditions. (author)

  10. Micro-scale H2-CO2 dynamics in a hydrogenotrophic methanogenic membrane reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Garcia-Robledo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Biogas production is a key factor in a sustainable energy supply. It is possible to get biogas with very high methane content if the biogas reactors are supplied with exogenous hydrogen, and one of the technologies for supplying hydrogen is through gas permeable membranes. In this study the activity and stratification of hydrogen consumption above such a membrane was investigated by use of microsensors for hydrogen and pH. A hydrogenotrophic methanogenic community that was able to consume the hydrogen flux within 0.5 mm of the membrane with specific rates of up to 30 m3 H2 m-3 day-1 developed within 3 days in fresh manure and was already established at time zero when analyzing slurry from a biogas plant. The hydrogen consumption was dependent on a simultaneous carbon dioxide supply and was inhibited when carbon dioxide depletion elevated the pH to 9.2. The activity was only partially restored when the carbon dioxide supply was resumed. Bioreactors supplied with hydrogen gas should thus be carefully monitored and either have the hydrogen supply disrupted or be supplemented with carbon dioxide when the pH rises to values about 9.

  11. Hydrogen production by methanol steam reforming carried out in membrane reactor on Cu/Zn/Mg-based catalyst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basile, A.; Parmaliana, A.; Tosti, S.; Iulianelli, A.; Gallucci, F.; Espro, C.; Spooren, J.

    2008-01-01

    The methanol steam reforming (MSR) reaction was studied by using both a dense Pd-Ag membrane reactor (MR) and a fixed bed reactor (FBR). Both the FBR and the MR were packed with a new catalyst based on CuOAl2O3ZnOMgO, having an upper temperature limit of around 350 °C. A constant sweep gas flow rate

  12. System design study of a membrane reforming hydrogen production plant using a small sized sodium cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikazawa, Y.; Konomura, M.; Hori, T.; Sato, H.; Uchida, S.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, a membrane reforming hydrogen production plant using a small sized sodium cooled reactor was designed as one of promising concepts. In the membrane reformer, methane and steam are reformed into carbon dioxide and hydrogen with sodium heat at a temperature 500 deg-C. In the equilibrium condition, steam reforming proceeds with catalyst at a temperature more than 800 deg-C. Using membrane reformers, the steam reforming temperature can be decreased from 800 to 500 deg-C because the hydrogen separation membrane removes hydrogen selectively from catalyst area and the partial pressure of hydrogen is kept much lower than equilibrium condition. In this study, a hydrogen and electric co-production plant has been designed. The reactor thermal output is 375 MW and 25% of the thermal output is used for hydrogen production (70000 Nm 3 /h). The hydrogen production cost is estimated to 21 yen/Nm 3 but it is still higher than the economical goal (17 yen/Nm 3 ). The major reason of the high cost comes from the large size of hydrogen separation reformers because of the limit of hydrogen separation efficiency of palladium membrane. A new highly efficient hydrogen separation membrane is needed to reduce the cost of hydrogen production using membrane reformers. There is possibility of multi-tube failure in the membrane reformers. In future study, a design of measures against tube failure and elemental experiments of reaction between sodium and reforming gas will be needed. (authors)

  13. Oxygen distribution in packed-bed membrane reactors for partial oxidations: effect of the radial porosity profiles on the product selectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurten, U.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    A two-dimensional, pseudohomogeneous reactor model was presented to describe the radial and axial concentration profiles in a packed-bed membrane reactor and the local velocity field while accounting for the influences due to the distributive membrane flow and the radial porosity profile. The effect

  14. Definition of validated membrane reactor model for 5 kW power output CHP system for different natural gas compositions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Marcoberardino, Gioele; Gallucci, Fausto; Manzolini, Giampaolo; van Sint Annaland, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Over the last years, many studies focused on the development of membrane reactors for micro-cogeneration systems based on PEM fuel cells, thanks to its unique feature of separating pure hydrogen. This work deals with (i) the design of a fluidized bed membrane reactor flexible towards different

  15. Oxygen Transport Membrane Reactors for Oxy-Fuel Combustion and Carbon Capture Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenstein-Smith, Ryan L.

    This thesis investigates oxygen transport membrane reactors (OTMs) for the application of oxy-fuel combustion. This is done by evaluating the material properties and oxygen permeability of different OTM compositions subjected to a variety of operating conditions. The scope of this work consists of three components: (1) evaluate the oxygen permeation capabilities of perovskite-type materials for the application of oxy-fuel combustion; (2) determine the effects of dual-phase membrane compositions on the oxygen permeation performance and membrane characteristics; and (3) develop a new method for estimating the oxygen permeation performance of OTMs utilized for the application of oxy-fuel combustion. SrSc0.1Co0.9O3-delta (SSC) is selected as the primary perovskite-type material used in this research due to its reported high ionic and electronic conductive properties and chemical stability. SSC's oxygen ion diffusivity is investigated using a conductivity relaxation technique and thermogravimetric analysis. Material properties such as chemical structure, morphology, and ionic and electronic conductivity are examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), and conductivity testing using a four-probe method, respectively. Oxygen permeation tests study the oxygen permeability OTMs under modified membrane temperatures, sweeping gas flow rates, sweeping gas compositions, membrane configurations, and membrane compositions. When utilizing a pure CO2 sweeping gas, the membrane composition was modified with the addition of Sm0.2Ce0.8O1.9-delta (SDC) at varying wt.% to improve the membranes mechanical stability. A newly developed method to evaluate the oxygen permeation performance of OTMs is also presented by fitting OTM's oxygen permeability to the methane fraction in the sweeping gas composition. The fitted data is used to estimate the overall performance and size of OTMs utilized for the application of oxy-fuel combustion. The findings from this

  16. Novel Composite Hydrogen-Permeable Membranes for Non-Thermal Plasma Reactors for the Decomposition of Hydrogen Sulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris D. Argyle; John F. Ackerman; Suresh Muknahallipatna; Jerry C. Hamann; Stanislaw Legowski; Guibing Zhao; Sanil John

    2006-09-30

    The goal of this experimental project is to design and fabricate a reactor and membrane test cell to dissociate hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) in a non-thermal plasma and recover hydrogen (H{sub 2}) through a superpermeable multi-layer membrane. Superpermeability of hydrogen atoms (H) has been reported by some researchers using membranes made of Group V transition metals (niobium, tantalum, vanadium, and their alloys), although it has yet to be confirmed in this study. Several pulsed corona discharge (PCD) reactors have been fabricated and used to dissociate H{sub 2}S into hydrogen and sulfur. Visual observation shows that the corona is not uniform throughout the reactor. The corona is stronger near the top of the reactor in argon, while nitrogen and mixtures of argon or nitrogen with H{sub 2}S produce stronger coronas near the bottom of the reactor. Both of these effects appear to be explainable base on the different electron collision interactions with monatomic versus polyatomic gases. A series of experiments varying reactor operating parameters, including discharge capacitance, pulse frequency, and discharge voltage were performed while maintaining constant power input to the reactor. At constant reactor power input, low capacitance, high pulse frequency, and high voltage operation appear to provide the highest conversion and the highest energy efficiency for H{sub 2}S decomposition. Reaction rates and energy efficiency per H{sub 2}S molecule increase with increasing flow rate, although overall H{sub 2}S conversion decreases at constant power input. Voltage and current waveform analysis is ongoing to determine the fundamental operating characteristics of the reactors. A metal infiltrated porous ceramic membrane was prepared using vanadium as the metal and an alumina tube. Experiments with this type of membrane are continuing, but the results thus far have been consistent with those obtained in previous project years: plasma driven permeation or superpermeability

  17. Modelling of non-catalytic reactors in a gas-solid trickle flow reactor: Dry, regenerative flue gas desulphurization using a silica-supported copper oxide sorbent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiel, J.H.A.; Kiel, J.H.A.; Prins, W.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1992-01-01

    A one-dimensional, two-phase dispersed plug flow model has been developed to describe the steady-state performance of a relatively new type of reactor, the gas-solid trickle flow reactor (GSTFR). In this reactor, an upward-flowing gas phase is contacted with as downward-flowing dilute solids phase

  18. Removal of gaseous trichloroethylene (TCE) in a composite membrane biofilm reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Vercruyssen, Aline; Dewulf, Jo; Lens, Piet; Van Langenhove, Herman

    2012-01-01

    A membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) was investigated for the degradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) vapors inoculated by Burkholderia vietnamiensis G4. Toluene (TOL) was used as the primary substrate. The MBfR was loaded sequentially with TOL, TCE (or both) during 110 days. In this study, a maximum steady-state TCE removal efficiency of 23% and a maximum volumetric elimination capacity (EC) of 2.1 g m(-3) h(-1) was achieved. A surface area based maximum elimination capacity (EC(m)) of 4.2 × 10(-3) g m(-2) h(-1) was observed, which is 2-10 times higher than reported in other gas phase biological treatment studies. However, further research is needed to optimize the TCE feeding cycle and to evaluate the inhibiting effects of TCE and its intermediates on TOL biodegradation.

  19. Recent palladium membrane reactor development at the tritium systems test assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, W.R.; Birdsell, S.A.; Wilhelm, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    The palladium membrane reactor (PMR) is being investigated as a means for recovering hydrogen isotopes (including tritium) from compounds such as water and methane. Previous work with protiated water and methane showed that this device can be used to obtain high hydrogen recovery efficiencies using a single processing pass and with essentially no waste production. With these successful proof-of-principle results completed, recent work has focused on PMR development. This included studies of various geometries and testing with tritium. The results, which are reported here, have led to a better understanding of the PMR and will lead to the ultimate goal of building a production PMR and putting it into practical tritium processing service. 3 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  20. Sequentially aerated membrane biofilm reactors for autotrophic nitrogen removal: microbial community composition and dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pellicer i Nàcher, Carles; Franck, Stephanie; Gülay, Arda

    2014-01-01

    Membrane-aerated biofilm reactors performing autotrophic nitrogen removal can be successfully applied to treat concentrated nitrogen streams. However, their process performance is seriously hampered by the growth of nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB). In this work we document how sequential aeration...... (rich in oxygen) and AnAOB in regions neighbouring the liquid phase. Both communities were separated by a transition region potentially populated by denitrifying heterotrophic bacteria. AOB and AnAOB bacterial groups were more abundant and diverse than NOB, and dominated by the r......-strategists Nitrosomonas europaea and Ca. Brocadia anammoxidans, respectively. Taken together, the present work presents tools to better engineer, monitor and control the microbial communities that support robust, sustainable and efficient nitrogen removal....

  1. A green approach to ethyl acetate: Quantitative conversion of ethanol through direct dehydrogenation in a Pd-Ag membrane reactor

    KAUST Repository

    Zeng, Gaofeng; Chen, Tao; He, Lipeng; Pinnau, Ingo; Lai, Zhiping; Huang, Kuo-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Pincers do the trick: The conversion of ethanol to ethyl acetate and hydrogen was achieved using a pincer-Ru catalyst in a Pd-Ag membrane reactor. Near quantitative conversions and yields could be achieved without the need for acid or base promoters

  2. The production of hydrogen through the use of a 77 wt% Pd 23 wt% Ag membrane water gas shift reactor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Baloyi, Liberty N

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available stainless steel (PSS) is evaluated for the production of hydrogen and the potential replacement of the current two-stage Water-Gas Shift (WGS) reaction by a single stage reaction. The permeability of a 20 µm Pd–Ag membrane reactor was examined at 320 °C, 380...

  3. A green approach to ethyl acetate: Quantitative conversion of ethanol through direct dehydrogenation in a Pd-Ag membrane reactor

    KAUST Repository

    Zeng, Gaofeng

    2012-11-07

    Pincers do the trick: The conversion of ethanol to ethyl acetate and hydrogen was achieved using a pincer-Ru catalyst in a Pd-Ag membrane reactor. Near quantitative conversions and yields could be achieved without the need for acid or base promoters or hydrogen acceptors (see scheme). © 2012 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Hollow fiber membrane based H-2 diffusion for efficient in situ biogas upgrading in an anaerobic reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Gang; Angelidaki, Irini

    2013-01-01

    Bubbleless gas transfer through a hollow fiber membrane (HFM) module was used to supply H2 to an anaerobic reactor for in situ biogas upgrading, and it creates a novel system that could achieve a CH4 content higher than 90 % in the biogas. The increase of CH4 content and pH, and the decrease...

  5. Hydrogen safety risk assessment methodology applied to a fluidized bed membrane reactor for autothermal reforming of natural gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Psara, N.; Van Sint Annaland, M.; Gallucci, F.

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this paper is the development and implementation of a safety risk assessment methodology to highlight hazards potentially prevailing during autothermal reforming of natural gas for hydrogen production in a membrane reactor, as well as to reveal potential accidents related to hydrogen

  6. SACCHARIFICATION OF NATIVE CASSAVA STARCH AT HIGH DRY SOLIDS IN AN ENZYMATIC MEMBRANE REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Widiasa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to develop a novel process scheme for hydrolysis of native cassava starch at high dry solids using an enzymatic membrane reactor (EMR. Firstly, liquefied cassava starch having solids content up to 50% by weight was prepared by three stage liquefactions in a conventional equipment using a commercially available heat stable a-amylase (Termamyl 120L. The liquefied cassava starch was further saccharified in an EMR using glucoamylase (AMG E. By using the developed process scheme, a highly clear hydrolysate with dextrose equivalent (DE approximately 97 could be produced, provided the increase of solution viscosity during the liquefaction was precisely controlled. The excessive space time could result in reduction in conversion degree of starch. Moreover, a residence time distribution study confirmed that the EMR could be modelled as a simple continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR. Using Lineweaver-Burk analysis, the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (Km and glucose production rate constant (k2 were 552 (g/l and 4.04 (min-1, respectively. Application of simple CSTR model with those kinetic parameters was quietly appropriate to predict the reactor’s performance at low space time.

  7. Mixed reforming of simulated gasoline to hydrogen in a BSCFO membrane reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Wenliang; Han, Wei; Xiong, Guoxing; Yang, Weishen [State Key Laboratory of Catalysis, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 110, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2006-10-30

    Currently, fuel cells are receiving more and more attention as the most promising new power generation technology, and fuel processing by the mixed reforming of liquid hydrocarbons (MRL) with water and oxygen is regarded as a desirable way for fuel cells. In this paper, we developed a new mixed reforming method for hydrogen production by combining a dense ceramic membrane Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-{delta}}(BSCFO) with a catalyst LiLaNiO/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in a membrane reactor and reforming a simulated gasoline. During a 500-h long-term test at optimized reaction conditions, all the components in the simulated gasoline converted completely, and around 90% selectivity of CO, around 95% selectivity of H{sub 2} and around 8.0mLcm{sup -2}min{sup -1} oxygen permeation flux were achieved. This provides a new optional way of hydrogen production for fuel cells. (author)

  8. Rheology and Microbiology of Sludge from a Thermophilic Aerobic Membrane Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Abbà

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A thermophilic aerobic membrane reactor (TAMR treating high-strength COD liquid wastes was submitted to an integrated investigation, with the aim of characterizing the biomass and its rheological behaviour. These processes are still scarcely adopted, also because the knowledge of their biology as well as of the physical-chemical properties of the sludge needs to be improved. In this paper, samples of mixed liquor were taken from a TAMR and submitted to fluorescent in situ hybridization for the identification and quantification of main bacterial groups. Measurements were also targeted at flocs features, filamentous bacteria, and microfauna, in order to characterize the sludge. The studied rheological properties were selected as they influence significantly the performances of membrane bioreactors (MBR and, in particular, of the TAMR systems that operate under thermophilic conditions (i.e., around 50°C with high MLSS concentrations (up to 200 gTS L−1. The proper description of the rheological behaviour of sludge represents a useful and fundamental aspect that allows characterizing the hydrodynamics of sludge suspension devoted to the optimization of the related processes. Therefore, in this study, the effects on the sludge rheology produced by the biomass concentration, pH, temperature, and aeration were analysed.

  9. Bio-diatomite dynamic membrane reactor for micro-polluted surface water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Huaqiang; Cao, Dawen; Dong, Bingzhi; Qiang, Zhimin

    2010-03-01

    This work investigated the feasibility of treating micro-polluted surface water for drinking water production with a bio-diatomite dynamic membrane reactor (BDDMR) at lab-scale in continuous-flow mode. Results indicate that the BDDMR was effective in removing COD(Mn), DOC, UV(254), NH(3)-N and trihalomethanes' formation potential (THMFP) at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3.5h due to its high concentrations of mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) and mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS). The removal of pollutants was mainly ascribed to microbial degradation in BDDMR because the dynamic membrane alone was much less effective in pollutant removal. Though the diatomite particles (5-20microm) were much smaller in size than the aperture of the stainless steel support mesh (74microm), microorganisms and their extracellular polymer substances could bind these particles tightly to form bio-diatomite particles which were completely retained by the support mesh. The analysis of molecular weight (MW) distribution by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) shows that the BDDMR could effectively remove the hydrophilic fraction of dissolved organic materials present in the raw water. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Carbon-coated ceramic membrane reactor for the production of hydrogen by aqueous-phase reforming of sorbitol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neira D'Angelo, M F; Ordomsky, V; Schouten, J C; van der Schaaf, J; Nijhuis, T A

    2014-07-01

    Hydrogen was produced by aqueous-phase reforming (APR) of sorbitol in a carbon-on-alumina tubular membrane reactor (4 nm pore size, 7 cm long, 3 mm internal diameter) that allows the hydrogen gas to permeate to the shell side, whereas the liquid remains in the tube side. The hydrophobic nature of the membrane serves to avoid water loss and to minimize the interaction between the ceramic support and water, thus reducing the risks of membrane degradation upon operation. The permeation of hydrogen is dominated by the diffusivity of the hydrogen in water. Thus, higher operation temperatures result in an increase of the flux of hydrogen. The differential pressure has a negative effect on the flux of hydrogen due to the presence of liquid in the larger pores. The membrane was suitable for use in APR, and yielded 2.5 times more hydrogen than a reference reactor (with no membrane). Removal of hydrogen through the membrane assists in the reaction by preventing its consumption in undesired reactions. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Optimal oxygen feeding policy to maximize the production of Maleic anhydride in unsteady state fixed bed catalytic reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ali

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different oxygen feeding scenarios in a fixed bed reactor for the production of Maleic anhydride (MA is studied. Two reactor configurations were examined. In the first configuration, a cross flow reactor (CFR with 4 discrete feeding points is considered. Another configuration is the conventional packed-bed reactor (PBR with a single feed. Nonlinear Model Predictive Controller (NLMPC was used as optimal controller to operate the CFR in dynamic mode and to optimize the multiple feed dosages in order to enhance the MA yield. The simulation results indicated that different combinations of the four feed ratios can operate the reactor at the best value for the yield provided the first feeding point is kept as low as possible. For the packed bed reactor configuration, a single oxygen feed is considered and is optimized transiently by NLMPC. The simulation outcomes showed that the reactor performance in terms of the produced MA mole fraction can also be enhanced to the same magnitude obtained by CFR configuration. This improvement requires decreasing the oxygen ratio in the reactor single feed by 70%.

  12. The gas-solid trickle-flow reactor for the catalytic oxidation of hydrogen sulphide: a trickle-phase model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verver, A.B.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1987-01-01

    The oxidation of H2S by O2 producing elemental sulphur has been studied at temperatures of 100–300°C and at atmospheric pressure in a laboratory-scale gas-solid trickle-flow reactor. In this reactor one of the reaction products, i.e. sulphur, is removed continuously by flowing solids. A porous,

  13. Pt{sub 1-x}Co{sub x} nanoparticles as cathode catalyst for proton exchange membrane fuel cells with enhanced catalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Huimin; Wexler, David; Liu Huakun [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Savadogo, O. [Materials Engineering Department, Ecole Polytechique de Montreal, Montreal, QC H3C3A7 (Canada); Ahn, Jungho [Department of Materials Engineering, Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Wang Guoxiu, E-mail: Guoxiu.Wang@uts.edu.au [Department of Chemistry and Forensic Science, University of Technology, Sydney, NSW 2007 (Australia)

    2010-11-01

    Nanosize carbon-supported Pt{sub 1-x}Co{sub x} (x = 0.2, 0.3, and 0.45) electrocatalysts were prepared by a chemical reduction method using sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}) as the reduction agent. Transmission electron microscopy examination showed uniform dispersion of Pt{sub 1-x}Co{sub x} alloy catalysts on carbon matrix, with the particle size less than 10 nm. The electrochemical characteristics of Pt{sub 1-x}Co{sub x} alloy catalysts were studied by cyclic voltammetry, linear sweep voltammetry, and chronoamperometric testing. The as-prepared Pt{sub 1-x}Co{sub x} alloy nanoparticles could be promising cathode catalysts for oxygen reduction in proton exchange membrane fuel cells with the feature of much reduced cost, but significantly increased catalytic activity.

  14. Enhancing the production of hydrogen via water-gas shift reaction using Pd-based membrane reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Diogo; Chibante, Vania; Mendes, Adelio; Madeira, Luis M. [LEPAE, Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Zheng, Ju-Meng [Dutch Separation Technology Institute (DSTI), 3800 AE Amersfoort (Netherlands); Tosti, Silvano; Borgognoni, Fabio [ENEA, Unita Tecnica Fusione, C.R. ENEA Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, Frascati (RM) I-00044 (Italy)

    2010-11-15

    In this work, it is described an experimental study regarding the performance of a Pd-Ag membrane reactor recently proposed and suitable for the production of ultra-pure hydrogen. A dense metallic permeator tube was assembled by an innovative annealing and diffusion welding technique from a commercial flat sheet membrane of Pd-Ag. A ''finger-like'' configuration of the self-supported membrane has been designed and used as a packed-bed membrane reactor (MR) for producing ultra-pure hydrogen via water-gas shift reaction (WGS). A CuO/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst, from REB Research and Consulting, was used for packing the WGS membrane reactor. The performance of the reactor was evaluated in terms of CO conversion and H{sub 2} recovery in a wide range of conditions: temperature from 200 C to 300 C, feed pressure from 1.0 bar to 4.0 bar, vacuum and sweep-gas modes and with a simulated reformate feed (4.70% CO, 34.78% H{sub 2}O, 28.70% H{sub 2}, 10.16% CO{sub 2} balanced in N{sub 2}). Also, the effect of the reactants feed composition was investigated and discussed. CO conversions remained in most conditions above the thermodynamic equilibrium based on feed conditions. In particular, it is worth mentioning that around 100% of CO conversion and almost complete H{sub 2} recovery was achieved when operating the MR at 300 C with a GSHV = 1200 L{sub N} kg{sub cat}{sup -1} h{sup -1}, P{sub feed} = 4 bar, P{sub perm} = 3 bar and using 1000 mL{sub N} min{sup -1} of sweep-gas. (author)

  15. Polymer nanocomposite membranes with hierarchically structured catalysts for high throughput dehalogenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crock, Christopher A.

    Halogenated organics are categorized as primary pollutants by the Environmental Protection Agency. Trichloroethylene (TCE), which had broad industrial use in the past, shows persistence in the environment because of its chemical stability. The large scale use and poor control of TCE resulted in its prolonged release into the environment before the carcinogenic risk associated with TCE was fully understood. TCE pollution stemmed from industrial effluents and improper disposal of solvent waste. Membrane reactors are promising technology for treating TCE polluted groundwater because of the high throughput, relatively low cost of membrane fabrication and facile retrofitting of existing membrane based water treatment facilities with catalytic membrane reactors. Compared to catalytic fluidized or fixed bed reactors, catalytic membrane reactors feature minimal diffusional limitation. Additionally, embedding catalyst within the membrane avoids the need for catalyst recovery and can prevent aggregation of catalytic nanoparticles. In this work, Pd/xGnP, Pd-Au/xGnP, and commercial Pd/Al2O3 nanoparticles were employed in batch and flow-through membrane reactors to catalyze the dehalogenation of TCE in the presence of dissolved H2. Bimetallic Pd-Au/xGnP catalysts were shown to be more active than monometallic Pd/xGnP or commercial Pd/Al 2O3 catalysts. In addition to synthesizing nanocomposite membranes for high-throughput TCE dehalogenation, the membrane based dehalogenation process was designed to minimize the detrimental impact of common catalyst poisons (S2-, HS-, and H2S -) by concurrent oxidation of sulfide species to gypsum in the presence of Ca2+ and removal of gypsum through membrane filtration. The engineered membrane dehalogenation process demonstrated that bimetallic Pd-Au/xGnP catalysts resisted deactivation by residual sulfide species after oxidation, and showed complete removal of gypsum during membrane filtration.

  16. Co-generation of synthesis gas and C{sub 2+} hydrocarbons from methane and carbon dioxide in a hybrid catalytic-plasma reactor: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Istadi; Nor Aishah Saidina Amin [Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru (Malaysia). Chemical Reaction Engineering Group (CREG), Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering

    2006-03-15

    The topics on conversion and utilization of methane and carbon dioxide are important issues in tackling the global warming effects from the two greenhouse gases. Several technologies including catalytic and plasma have been proposed to improve the process involving conversion and utilization of methane and carbon dioxide. In this paper, an overview of the basic principles, and the effects of CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} feed ratio, total feed flow rate, discharge power, catalyst, applied voltage, wall temperature, and system pressure in dielectric-barrier discharge (DBD) plasma reactor are addressed. The discharge power, discharge gap, applied voltage and CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} ratio in the feed showed the most significant effects on the reactor performance. Co-feeding carbon dioxide with the methane feed stream reduced coking and increased methane conversion. The H{sub 2}/CO ratio in the products was significantly affected by CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} ratio. The synergism of the catalyst placed in the discharge gap and the plasma affected the products distribution significantly. Methane and carbon dioxide conversions were influenced significantly by discharge power and applied voltage. The drawbacks of DBD plasma application in the CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2} conversion should be taken into consideration before a new plausible reactor system can be implemented. 76 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Filtration behavior of casein glycomacropeptide (CGMP) in an enzymatic membrane reactor: fouling control by membrane selection and threshold flux operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Jianquan; Morthensen, Sofie Thage; Meyer, Anne S.

    2014-01-01

    . In this study, the filtration performance and fouling behavior during ultrafiltration (UF) of CGMP for the enzymatic production of 3′-sialyllactose were investigated. A 5kDa regenerated cellulose membrane with high anti-fouling performance, could retain CGMP well, permeate 3′-sialyllactose, and was found...... to be the most suitable membrane for this application. Low pH increased CGMP retention but produced more fouling. Higher agitation and lower CGMP concentration induced larger permeate flux and higher CGMP retention. Adsorption fouling and pore blocking by CGMP in/on membranes could be controlled by selecting...... a highly hydrophilic membrane with appropriate pore size. Operating under threshold flux could minimize the concentration polarization and cake/gel/scaling layers, but might not avoid irreversible fouling caused by adsorption and pore blocking. The effects of membrane properties, pH, agitation and CGMP...

  18. Hydrogen production in membrane reactors using Rh catalysts on binary supports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrara, Carlos; Roa, Alejandro; Cornaglia, Laura; Lombardo, Eduardo A. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Catalisis y Petroquimica (FIQ, UNL-CONICET), Sgo del Estero 2829-3000 Santa Fe (Argentina); Mateos-Pedrero, Cecilia; Ruiz, Patricio [Unite de Catalyse et Chimie des Materiaux Divises, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Place Croix du Sud 2/17, 1348 Louvain-la Neuve (Belgium)

    2008-04-15

    The binary supports employed in this work were prepared by different methods. The Ti(7%)-MgO and the Ti(13%)-SiO{sub 2} were obtained using the grafting technique. The La(27%)-SiO{sub 2} was obtained through the incipient wetness impregnation with La(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} of Aerosil 300, previously calcined at 1173 K. The Rh was incorporated to these supports by wet impregnation. The catalysts were first evaluated for the CH{sub 4} + CO{sub 2} reaction in a fixed-bed reactor. They were found to be active and stable as to justify their use in the membrane reactor, which was operated at 823 K achieving methane conversions up to twice as much as the equilibrium values. In all cases, the activity of the Rh solids remained constant after 120 h on stream with very little formation of carbonaceous residues only detected through LRS. The catalysts were characterized through either hydrogen or carbon monoxide chemisorption, TPR, XRD, LRS and XPS. The Rh(0.6)/La-SiO{sub 2} catalyst showed a high metal dispersion that remained constant after use and the highest capacity to restore the CH{sub 4} + CO{sub 2} equilibrium when H{sub 2} was permeated out of the reaction section. The Rh(0.8)/Ti-MgO showed the highest Rh/oxide interaction associated with the lowest capacity to restore the reaction equilibrium. The Rh(0.8)/Ti-SiO{sub 2} exhibited an intermediate activity due in part to the partial segregation of the TiO{sub 2} upon calcinations and the subsequent appearance of small Rh crystallites in the used catalysts. (author)

  19. Modeling of simultaneous anaerobic methane and ammonium oxidation in a membrane biofilm reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xueming; Guo, Jianhua; Shi, Ying; Hu, Shihu; Yuan, Zhiguo; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2014-08-19

    Nitrogen removal by using the synergy of denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation (DAMO) and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) microorganisms in a membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) has previously been demonstrated experimentally. In this work, a mathematical model is developed to describe the simultaneous anaerobic methane and ammonium oxidation by DAMO and Anammox microorganisms in an MBfR for the first time. In this model, DAMO archaea convert nitrate, both externally fed and/or produced by Anammox, to nitrite, with methane as the electron donor. Anammox and DAMO bacteria jointly remove the nitrite fed/produced, with ammonium and methane as the electron donor, respectively. The model is successfully calibrated and validated using the long-term (over 400 days) dynamic experimental data from the MBfR, as well as two independent batch tests at different operational stages of the MBfR. The model satisfactorily describes the methane oxidation and nitrogen conversion data from the system. Modeling results show the concentration gradients of methane and nitrogen would cause stratification of the biofilm, where Anammox bacteria mainly grow in the biofilm layer close to the bulk liquid and DAMO organisms attach close to the membrane surface. The low surface methane loadings result in a low fraction of DAMO microorganisms, but the high surface methane loadings would lead to overgrowth of DAMO bacteria, which would compete with Anammox for nitrite and decrease the fraction of Anammox bacteria. The results suggest an optimal methane supply under the given condition should be applied not only to benefit the nitrogen removal but also to avoid potential methane emissions.

  20. Poly-thiosemicarbazide/gold nanoparticles catalytic membrane: In-situ growth of well-dispersed, uniform and stable gold nanoparticles in a polymeric membrane

    KAUST Repository

    Villalobos, Luis Francisco; Neelakanda, Pradeep; Karunakaran, Madhavan; Cha, Dong Kyu; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a method that achieves the highest loading, published so far, of non-agglomerated and well-distributed gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) inside a polymeric membrane. The method uses poly-thiosemicarbazide (PTSC) as the starting material

  1. Catalytic distillation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1982-06-22

    A method is described for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C[sub 4] feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

  2. Pressure Drop and Catalytic Dehydrogenation of NaBH{sub 4} Solution Across Pin Fin Structures in a Microchannel Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Ki Moon [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seok Hyun [Key Valve Technologies Ltd., Siheung (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hee Joon [Kookmin Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Dehydrogenation from the hydrolysis of a sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}) solution has been of interest owing to its high theoretical hydrogen storage capacity (10.8 wt.%) and potentially safe operation. An experimental study has been performed on the catalytic reaction rate and pressure drop of a NaBH4 solution over both a single microchannel with a hydraulic diameter of 300 μm and a staggered array of micro pin fins in the microchannel with hydraulic diameter of 50 μm. The catalytic reaction rates and pressure drops were obtained under Reynolds numbers from 1 to 60 and solution concentrations from 5 to 20 wt.%. Moreover, reacting flows were visualized using a high-speed camera with a macro zoom lens. As a result, both the amount of hydrogenation and pressure drop are 2.45 times and 1.5 times larger in a pin fin microchannel array than in a single microchannel, respectively.

  3. Catalytic Oxidation of CO and Soot over Ce-Zr-Pr Mixed Oxides Synthesized in a Multi-Inlet Vortex Reactor: Effect of Structural Defects on the Catalytic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensaid, Samir; Piumetti, Marco; Novara, Chiara; Giorgis, Fabrizio; Chiodoni, Angelica; Russo, Nunzio; Fino, Debora

    2016-12-01

    In the present work, ceria, ceria-zirconia (Ce = 80 at.%, Zr = 20 at.%), ceria praseodymia (Ce = 80 at.%, Pr = 20 at.%) and ceria-zirconia-praseodymia catalysts (Ce = 80 at.%, Zr = 10 at.% and Pr = 10 at.%) have been prepared by the multi-inlet vortex reactor (MIVR). For each set of samples, two inlet flow rates have been used during the synthesis (namely, 2 ml min -1 , and 20 ml min -1 ) in order to obtain different particle sizes. Catalytic activity of the prepared materials has been investigated for CO and soot oxidation reactions. As a result, when the catalysts exhibit similar crystallite sizes (in the 7.7-8.8 nm range), it is possible to observe a direct correlation between the O v /F 2g vibrational band intensity ratios and the catalytic performance for the CO oxidation. This means that structural (superficial) defects play a key role for this process. The incorporation of Zr and Pr species into the ceria lattice increases the population of structural defects, as measured by Raman spectroscopy, according to the order: CeO 2  oxidation activity for these catalysts, in contrast with nanostructured ones (e.g., Ce-Zr-O nanopolyhedra, Ce-Pr-O nanocubes) described elsewhere (Andana et al. Appl. Catal. B 197: 125-137, 2016; Piumetti et al., Appl Catal B 180: 271-282, 2016).

  4. Recovery of homogeneous polyoxometallate catalysts from aqueous and organic media by a mesoporous ceramic membrane without loss of catalytic activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy Chowdhury, S.; Roy Chowdhury, Sankhanilay; Witte, Peter T.; Blank, David H.A.; Alsters, Paul L.; ten Elshof, Johan E.

    2006-01-01

    The recovery of homogeneous polyoxometallate (POM) oxidation catalysts from aqueous and non-aqueous media by a nanofiltration process using mesoporous γ-alumina membranes is reported. The recovery of Q12[WZn3(ZnW9O34)2] (Q=[MeN(n-C8H17)3]+) from toluene-based media was quantitative within

  5. Catalytic and Noncatalytic Conversion of Methane to Olefins and Synthesis Gas in an AC Parallel Plate Discharge Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Khodagholi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct conversion of methane to ethylene, acetylene, and synthesis gas at ambient pressure and temperature in a parallel plate discharge reactor was investigated. The experiments were carried out using a quartz reactor of outer diameter of 9 millimeter and a driving force of ac current of 50 Hz. The input power to the reactor to establish a stable gas discharge varied from 9.6 to maximum 15.3 watts (w. The effects of ZSM5, Fe–ZSM5, and Ni–ZSM5 catalysts combined with corona discharge for conversion of methane to more valued products have been addressed. It was found that in presence or absence of a catalyst in gas discharge reactor, the rate of methane and oxygen conversion increased upon higher input power supplied to the reactor. The effect of Fe–ZSM5 catalyst combined with gas discharge plasma yields C2 hydrocarbons up to 21.9%, which is the highest productions of C2 hydrocarbons in this work. The effect of combined Ni–ZSM5 and gas discharge plasma was mainly production of synthesis gas. The advantage of introducing ZSM5 to the plasma zone was increase in synthesis gas and acetylene production. The highest energy efficiency was 0.22 mmol/kJ, which belongs to lower rate of energy injection to the reactor.

  6. Membrane bio-reactor - Research, pilot installation and measurement campaign; Membranbioreaktor (MBR) - Forschung, Pilotanlage und Messkampagne - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hersener, J -L [Ingenieurbuero Hersener, Wiesendangen (Switzerland); Meier, U [Meritec GmbH, Guntershausen (Switzerland)

    2007-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE), takes a look at a project involving a fermenter installation in Eastern Switzerland. Research work is noted, the pilot installation is described and the results of a measurement campaign are presented and commented on. The plant is able to handle about 20,000-25,000 tonnes of slurry and organic waste. The plant is built as a membrane bio-reactor and allows the separation of the digested biomass into fractions of solid and liquid fertilisers and useful water. Furthermore, a part of the separated and digested liquid is returned to the fermenter in order to improve the digestion process. For the production of electricity a 1.1 MW generator is installed. The adaptations made during the measurement period are noted and commented on. According to the authors, the results - although difficult to interpret - show that the concept of a membrane bio-reactor can work successfully.

  7. Laccase/mediator assisted degradation of triarylmethane dyes in a continuous membrane reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Meenu; Mishra, Saroj; Sreekrishnan, Trichur Ramaswamy

    2009-08-10

    Laccase/mediator systems are important bioremediation agents as the rates of reactions can be enhanced in the presence of the mediators. The decolorization mechanism of two triarylmethane dyes, namely, Basic Green 4 and Acid Violet 17 is reported using Cyathus bulleri laccase. Basic Green 4 was decolorized through N-demethylation by laccase alone, while in mediator assisted reactions, dye breakdown was initiated from oxidation of carbinol form of the dye. Benzaldehyde and N,N-dimethyl aniline were the major end products. With Acid Violet 17, laccase carried out N-deethylation and in mediator assisted reactions, oxidation of the carbinol form of the dye occurred resulting in formation of formyl benzene sulfonic acid, carboxy benzene sulfonic acid and benzene sulfonic acid. Toxicity analysis revealed that Basic Green 4 was toxic and treatment with laccase/mediators resulted in 80-100% detoxification. The treatment of the textile dye solution using laccase and 2,2'-azino-di-(-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) was demonstrated in an enzyme membrane reactor. At a hydraulic retention time of 6h, the process was operated for a period of 15 days with nearly 95% decolorization, 10% reduction in flux and 70% recovery of active ABTS.

  8. Catalytic wet air oxidation of bisphenol A solution in a batch-recycle trickle-bed reactor over titanate nanotube-based catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Renata; Erjavec, Boštjan; Senila, Marin; Pintar, Albin

    2014-10-01

    Catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) is classified as an advanced oxidation process, which proved to be highly efficient for the removal of emerging organic pollutant bisphenol A (BPA) from water. In this study, BPA was successfully removed in a batch-recycle trickle-bed reactor over bare titanate nanotube-based catalysts at very short space time of 0.6 min gCAT g(-1). The as-prepared titanate nanotubes, which underwent heat treatment at 600 °C, showed high activity for the removal of aqueous BPA. Liquid-phase recycling (5- or 10-fold recycle) enabled complete BPA conversion already at 200 °C, together with high conversion of total organic carbon (TOC), i.e., 73 and 98 %, respectively. The catalyst was chemically stable in the given range of operating conditions for 189 h on stream.

  9. Ceramic membranes with mixed conductivity and their application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozhevnikov, V L; Leonidov, I A; Patrakeev, M V

    2013-01-01

    Data on the catalytic reactors with ceramic membranes possessing mixed oxygen ion and electronic conductivity that make it possible to integrate the processes of oxygen separation and oxidation are analyzed and generalized. The development of this approach is of interest for the design of energy efficient and environmentally friendly processes for processing natural gas and other raw materials. The general issues concerning the primary processing of light alkanes in reactors with oxygen separating membranes are expounded and general demands to the membrane materials are discussed. Particular attention is paid to the process of oxidative conversion of methane to synthesis gas. The bibliography includes 110 references

  10. Azo dye removal in a membrane-free up-flow biocatalyzed electrolysis reactor coupled with an aerobic bio-contact oxidation reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Dan; Guo, Yu-Qi; Cheng, Hao-Yi; Liang, Bin; Kong, Fan-Ying [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 202 Haihe Road, Harbin 150090 (China); Lee, Hyung-Sool [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada); Wang, Ai-Jie, E-mail: waj0578@hit.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 202 Haihe Road, Harbin 150090 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A membrane-free up-flow biocatalyzed electrolysis reactor coupled with an aerobic bio-contact oxidation reactor was developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alizarin Yellow R as the mode of azo dyes was efficiently converted to p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PPD and 5-ASA were further oxidized in a bio-contact oxidation reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mechanism of UBER for azo dye removal was discussed. - Abstract: Azo dyes that consist of a large quantity of dye wastewater are toxic and persistent to biodegradation, while they should be removed before being discharged to water body. In this study, Alizarin Yellow R (AYR) as a model azo dye was decolorized in a combined bio-system of membrane-free, continuous up-flow bio-catalyzed electrolysis reactor (UBER) and subsequent aerobic bio-contact oxidation reactor (ABOR). With the supply of external power source 0.5 V in the UBER, AYR decolorization efficiency increased up to 94.8 {+-} 1.5%. Products formation efficiencies of p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) were above 90% and 60%, respectively. Electron recovery efficiency based on AYR removal in cathode zone was nearly 100% at HRTs longer than 6 h. Relatively high concentration of AYR accumulated at higher AYR loading rates (>780 g m{sup -3} d{sup -1}) likely inhibited acetate oxidation of anode-respiring bacteria on the anode, which decreased current density in the UBER; optimal AYR loading rate for the UBER was 680 g m{sup -3} d{sup -1} (HRT 2.5 h). The subsequent ABOR further improved effluent quality. Overall the Chroma decreased from 320 times to 80 times in the combined bio-system to meet the textile wastewater discharge standard II in China.

  11. Azo dye removal in a membrane-free up-flow biocatalyzed electrolysis reactor coupled with an aerobic bio-contact oxidation reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Dan; Guo, Yu-Qi; Cheng, Hao-Yi; Liang, Bin; Kong, Fan-Ying; Lee, Hyung-Sool; Wang, Ai-Jie

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A membrane-free up-flow biocatalyzed electrolysis reactor coupled with an aerobic bio-contact oxidation reactor was developed. ► Alizarin Yellow R as the mode of azo dyes was efficiently converted to p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA). ► PPD and 5-ASA were further oxidized in a bio-contact oxidation reactor. ► The mechanism of UBER for azo dye removal was discussed. - Abstract: Azo dyes that consist of a large quantity of dye wastewater are toxic and persistent to biodegradation, while they should be removed before being discharged to water body. In this study, Alizarin Yellow R (AYR) as a model azo dye was decolorized in a combined bio-system of membrane-free, continuous up-flow bio-catalyzed electrolysis reactor (UBER) and subsequent aerobic bio-contact oxidation reactor (ABOR). With the supply of external power source 0.5 V in the UBER, AYR decolorization efficiency increased up to 94.8 ± 1.5%. Products formation efficiencies of p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) were above 90% and 60%, respectively. Electron recovery efficiency based on AYR removal in cathode zone was nearly 100% at HRTs longer than 6 h. Relatively high concentration of AYR accumulated at higher AYR loading rates (>780 g m −3 d −1 ) likely inhibited acetate oxidation of anode-respiring bacteria on the anode, which decreased current density in the UBER; optimal AYR loading rate for the UBER was 680 g m −3 d −1 (HRT 2.5 h). The subsequent ABOR further improved effluent quality. Overall the Chroma decreased from 320 times to 80 times in the combined bio-system to meet the textile wastewater discharge standard II in China.

  12. Amperometric NOx-sensor for Combustion Exhaust Gas Control. Studies on transport properties and catalytic activity of oxygen permeable ceramic membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romer, E.W.J.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the research described in this thesis is the development of a mixed conducting oxide layer, which can be used as an oxygen permselective membrane in an amperometric NOx sensor. The sensor will be used in exhaust gas systems. The exhaust gas-producing engine will run in the lean mix mode. The preparation of this sensor is carried out using screen-printing technology, in which the different layers of the sensor are applied successively. Hereafter, a co-firing step is applied in which all layers are sintered together. This co-firing step imposes several demands on the selection of materials. The design specifications of the sensor further include requirements concerning the operating temperature, measurement range and overall stability. The operating temperature of the sensor varies between 700 and 850C, enabling measurement of NOx concentrations between 50 and 1200 ppm with a measurement accuracy of 10 ppm. Concerning the stability of the sensor, it must withstand the exhaust gas atmosphere containing, amongst others, smoke, acids, abrasive particles and sulphur. Because of the chosen lean-mix engine concept, in which the fuel/air mixture switches continuously between lean (excess oxygen) and fat (excess fuel) mixtures, the sensor must withstand alternately oxidising and reducing atmospheres. Besides, it should be resistant to thermal shock and show no cross-sensitivity of NOx with other exhaust gas constituents like oxygen and hydrocarbons. The response time should be short, typically less than 500 ms. Because of the application in combustion engines of cars, the operational lifetime should be longer than 10 years. Demands on the mixed conducting oxide layer include the following ones. The layer should show minimal catalytic activity towards NOx-reduction. The oxygen permeability must be larger than 6.22 10 -8 mol/cm 2 s at a layer thickness between 3-50 μm. Since the mixed conducting oxide layer is coated on the YSZ electrolyte embodiment, the two

  13. The coupling effect of gas-phase chemistry and surface reactions on oxygen permeation and fuel conversion in ITM reactors

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Jongsup; Kirchen, Patrick; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. The effect of the coupling between heterogeneous catalytic reactions supported by an ion transport membrane (ITM) and gas-phase chemistry on fuel conversion and oxygen permeation in ITM reactors is examined. In ITM reactors

  14. A comparison of mass transfer coefficients between trickle-bed, hollow fiber membrane and stirred tank reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgill, James J; Atiyeh, Hasan K; Devarapalli, Mamatha; Phillips, John R; Lewis, Randy S; Huhnke, Raymond L

    2013-04-01

    Trickle-bed reactor (TBR), hollow fiber membrane reactor (HFR) and stirred tank reactor (STR) can be used in fermentation of sparingly soluble gasses such as CO and H2 to produce biofuels and bio-based chemicals. Gas fermenting reactors must provide high mass transfer capabilities that match the kinetic requirements of the microorganisms used. The present study compared the volumetric mass transfer coefficient (K(tot)A/V(L)) of three reactor types; the TBR with 3 mm and 6 mm beads, five different modules of HFRs, and the STR. The analysis was performed using O2 as the gaseous mass transfer agent. The non-porous polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) HFR provided the highest K(tot)A/V(L) (1062 h(-1)), followed by the TBR with 6mm beads (421 h(-1)), and then the STR (114 h(-1)). The mass transfer characteristics in each reactor were affected by agitation speed, and gas and liquid flow rates. Furthermore, issues regarding the comparison of mass transfer coefficients are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Application of carbon-coated TiO2 for decomposition of methylene blue in a photocatalytic membrane reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozia, Sylwia; Toyoda, Masahiro; Inagaki, Michio; Tryba, Beata; Morawski, Antoni W.

    2007-01-01

    An application of carbon-coated TiO 2 for decomposition of methylene blue (MB) in a photocatalytic membrane reactor (PMR), coupling photocatalysis and direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) was investigated. Moreover, photodegradation of a model pollutant in a batch reactor without membrane distillation (MD) was also examined. Carbon-modified TiO 2 catalysts containing different amount of carbon and commercially available TiO 2 (ST-01) were used in this study. The carbon-coated catalyst prepared from a mixture of ST-01 and polyvinyl alcohol in the mass ratio of 70/30 was the most effective in degradation of MB from all of the photocatalysts applied. Photodecomposition of MB on the recovered photocatalysts was lower than on the fresh ones. The photodegradation of MB in the PMR was slower than in the batch reactor, what probably resulted from shorter time of exposure of the catalyst particles to UV irradiation. The MD process could be successfully applied for separation of photocatalyst and by-products from the feed solution

  16. Preliminary study on application of Pd composite membrane in helium purification system of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Jianhua; Yang Xiaoyong; Wang Jie; Yu Suyuan

    2008-01-01

    Helium purification system (HPS) is the main part of the helium auxiliary system of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGR), also in fusion reactors. Some exploratory work was carried out on the application of Pd composite membrane in the separation of He and H 2 . A typical single stripper permeator with recycle (SSP) system was designed, based on the design parameters of a small scale He purification test system CIGNE in CADARACHE, CEA, France, and finite element analysis method was used to solve the model. The total length of membrane module is fixed to 0.5 m. The results show that the concentration of H 2 is found to reduce from 1 000 μL/L in feed gas to 5 μL/L in the product He (the upper limitation of HPS in HTGR). And the molar ratio of product He to feed gas is 96.18% with the optimized ratio of sweep gas to retentive gas 0. 3970. It's an exponential distribution of H 2 concentration along the membrane module. The results were also compared with the other two popular designs, two stripper in series permeator (TSSP) and continuous membrane column (CMC). (authors)

  17. Dense ceramic membranes for methane conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouwmeester, Henny J.M. [Laboratory for Inorganic Materials Science, Department of Science and Technology and MESA Research Institute, University of Twente, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

    2003-07-30

    Dense ceramic membranes made from mixed oxygen-ionic and electronic conducting perovskite-related oxides allow separation of oxygen from an air supply at elevated temperatures (>700C). By combining air separation and catalytic partial oxidation of methane to syngas into a ceramic membrane reactor, this technology is expected to significantly reduce the capital costs of conversion of natural gas to liquid added-value products. The present survey is mainly concerned with the material properties that govern the performance of the mixed-conducting membranes in real operating conditions and highlights significant developments in the field.

  18. Changed membrane integration and catalytic site conformation are two mechanisms behind the increased Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio by presenilin 1 familial Alzheimer-linked mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Wanngren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The enzyme complex γ-secretase generates amyloid β-peptide (Aβ, a 37–43-residue peptide associated with Alzheimer disease (AD. Mutations in presenilin 1 (PS1, the catalytical subunit of γ-secretase, result in familial AD (FAD. A unifying theme among FAD mutations is an alteration in the ratio Aβ species produced (the Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio, but the molecular mechanisms responsible remain elusive. In this report we have studied the impact of several different PS1 FAD mutations on the integration of selected PS1 transmembrane domains and on PS1 active site conformation, and whether any effects translate to a particular amyloid precursor protein (APP processing phenotype. Most mutations studied caused an increase in the Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio, but via different mechanisms. The mutations that caused a particular large increase in the Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio did also display an impaired APP intracellular domain (AICD formation and a lower total Aβ production. Interestingly, seven mutations close to the catalytic site caused a severely impaired integration of proximal transmembrane/hydrophobic sequences into the membrane. This structural defect did not correlate to a particular APP processing phenotype. Six selected FAD mutations, all of which exhibited different APP processing profiles and impact on PS1 transmembrane domain integration, were found to display an altered active site conformation. Combined, our data suggest that FAD mutations affect the PS1 structure and active site differently, resulting in several complex APP processing phenotypes, where the most aggressive mutations in terms of increased Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio are associated with a decrease in total γ-secretase activity.

  19. Coupling of kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of surface reactions to transport in a fluid for heterogeneous catalytic reactor modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, C.; Jansen, A. P. J.

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a method to couple kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of surface reactions at a molecular scale to transport equations at a macroscopic scale. This method is applicable to steady state reactors. We use a finite difference upwinding scheme and a gap-tooth scheme to efficiently use a limited amount of kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. In general the stochastic kinetic Monte Carlo results do not obey mass conservation so that unphysical accumulation of mass could occur in the reactor. We have developed a method to perform mass balance corrections that is based on a stoichiometry matrix and a least-squares problem that is reduced to a non-singular set of linear equations that is applicable to any surface catalyzed reaction. The implementation of these methods is validated by comparing numerical results of a reactor simulation with a unimolecular reaction to an analytical solution. Furthermore, the method is applied to two reaction mechanisms. The first is the ZGB model for CO oxidation in which inevitable poisoning of the catalyst limits the performance of the reactor. The second is a model for the oxidation of NO on a Pt(111) surface, which becomes active due to lateral interaction at high coverages of oxygen. This reaction model is based on ab initio density functional theory calculations from literature.

  20. Catalytic phosphonation of high performance polymers and POSS. Novel components for polymer blend and nanocomposite fuel cell membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bock, T.R.

    2006-10-15

    Aim of this thesis was the preparation and evaluation of phosphonated high performance (HP) polyelectrolytes and polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) for polyelectrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) application. Brominated derivatives of the commercial high performance (HP) polymers poly(ethersulfone) (PES), poly(etheretherketone) (PEEK), poly(phenylsulfone) (PPSu), poly(sulfone) (PSU) and of octaphenyl-POSS of own production were phosphonated by Ni-catalysed Arbuzov reaction. Phosphonated PSU was cast into pure and blend films with sulfonated PEEK (s-PEEK) to investigate H+-conductivity, water uptake and film morphology. Blend films' properties were referenced to films containing unmodified blend partners. Solution-compounding of phosphonated octaphenyl-POSS and s-PEEK was used to produce novel nanocomposite films. An in-situ zirconisation method was assessed as convenient strategy for novel ionically crosslinked membranes of enhanced swelling resistance. Dibromo isocyanuric acid (DBI) and N-bromo succinimide (NBS) as brominating agents allowed polymer analogous preparation of the novel brominated PES and PEEK with precise reaction control. A random distribution of functional groups, i.e. polyelectrolytes' microstructural homogeneity was revealed as decisive factor concerning solubility of phosphonated PSU. Brominated phT8 was prepared with Br2 by a high temperature approach in tetrachloroethane (TCE). Brominated polymers were phosphonated by Ni-catalysis in non-coordinating high temperature solvents, such as diphenylether, benzophenone and diphenylsulfone without notable solvent influence. The lack of solvent - catalyst complexes and high reaction temperatures of 180-200 C led to halogen-free phosphonates with unprecedented high functionalities. Polymer analogous application of P(OSiMe3)3 offered a novel direct access to easily cleavable disilyl ester derivatives. These were obtained from PEEK and PSU in near quantitative yields at NiCl2-loads as

  1. The production of hydrogen through the use of a 77 wt% Pd 23 wt% Ag membrane water gas shift reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liberty N. Baloyi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen as an energy carrier has the potential to decarbonize the energy sector. This work presents the application of a palladium-silver (Pd–Ag membrane-based reactor. The membrane reactor which is made from Pd–Ag film supported by porous stainless steel (PSS is evaluated for the production of hydrogen and the potential replacement of the current two-stage Water-Gas Shift (WGS reaction by a single stage reaction. The permeability of a 20 μm Pd–Ag membrane reactor was examined at 320 °C, 380 °C and 430 °C. The effect of continuous hydrogen exposure on the Pd–Ag membrane at high temperature and low temperature was examined to investigate the thermal stability and durability of the membrane. During continuous operation to determine thermal stability, the membrane reactor exhibited stable hydrogen permeation at 320 °C for 120 h and unstable hydrogen permeation at 430 °C was observed. For the WGS reaction, the reactor was loaded with Ferrochrome catalyst. The membrane showed the ability to produce high purity hydrogen, with a CO conversion and an H2 recovery of 84% and 88%, respectively. The membrane suffered from hydrogen embrittlement due to desorption and adsorption of hydrogen on the membrane surface. SEM analysis revealed cracks that occurred on the surface of the membrane after hydrogen exposure. XRD analysis revealed lattice expansion after hydrogen loading which suggests the occurrence of phase change from α-phase to the more brittle β-phase.

  2. Processing Tritiated Water at the Savannah River Site: A Production-Scale Demonstration of a palladium membrane reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sessions, K

    2004-01-01

    The Palladium Membrane Reactor (PMR) process was installed in the Tritium Facilities at the Savannah River Site to perform a production-scale demonstration for the recovery of tritium from tritiated water adsorbed on molecular sieve (zeolite). Unlike the current recovery process that utilizes magnesium, the PMR offers a means to process tritiated water in a more cost effective and environmentally friendly manner. The design and installation of the large-scale PMR process was part of a collaborative effort between the Savannah River Site and Los Alamos National Laboratory. The PMR process operated at the Savannah River Site between May 2001 and April 2003. During the initial phase of operation the PMR processed thirty-four kilograms of tritiated water from the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The water was processed in fifteen separate batches to yield approximately 34,400 liters (STP) of hydrogen isotopes. Each batch consisted of round-the-clock operations for approximately nine days. In April 2003 the reactor's palladium-silver membrane ruptured resulting in the shutdown of the PMR process. Reactor performance, process performance and operating experiences have been evaluated and documented. A performance comparison between PMR and current magnesium process is also documented

  3. Multifunctional nanocomposite hollow fiber membranes by solvent transfer induced phase separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Martin F; Jeon, Harim; Hough, Noah; Kim, Jong Hak; Stebe, Kathleen J; Lee, Daeyeon

    2017-11-01

    The decoration of porous membranes with a dense layer of nanoparticles imparts useful functionality and can enhance membrane separation and anti-fouling properties. However, manufacturing of nanoparticle-coated membranes requires multiple steps and tedious processing. Here, we introduce a facile single-step method in which bicontinuous interfacially jammed emulsions are used to form nanoparticle-functionalized hollow fiber membranes. The resulting nanocomposite membranes prepared via solvent transfer-induced phase separation and photopolymerization have exceptionally high nanoparticle loadings (up to 50 wt% silica nanoparticles) and feature densely packed nanoparticles uniformly distributed over the entire membrane surfaces. These structurally well-defined, asymmetric membranes facilitate control over membrane flux and selectivity, enable the formation of stimuli responsive hydrogel nanocomposite membranes, and can be easily modified to introduce antifouling features. This approach forms a foundation for the formation of advanced nanocomposite membranes comprising diverse building blocks with potential applications in water treatment, industrial separations and as catalytic membrane reactors.

  4. Porous polyoxadiazole membranes for harsh environment

    KAUST Repository

    Maab, Husnul

    2013-10-01

    A series of polyoxadiazoles with exceptionally high stability at temperatures as high as 370°C and in oxidative medium has been synthesized by polycondensation and manufactured into porous membranes by phase inversion. The membranes were characterized by thermal analysis (TGA), chemical stability was measured by immersion test, oxidative stability by Fenton\\'s test, pore diameter by porosimetry and the morphology by FESEM. The polymers are soluble only in sulfuric acid and are stable in organic solvents like NMP, THF and isopropanol. The membranes selectivity was confirmed by separation of polystyrene standards with different molecular weights. Most membranes were characterized as having a cut-off of 60,000. g/mol. Being stable under harsh environments, the membranes have incomparable characteristics with perspectives of application in chemical and pharmaceutical industry, catalytic reactors, in combination with oxidative processes and other applications so far envisioned only for ceramic membranes. © 2013.

  5. In-situ catalytic upgrading of biomass pyrolysis vapor: Using a cascade system of various catalysts in a multi-zone fixed bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asadieraghi, Masoud; Wan Daud, Wan Mohd Ashri

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A cascade system of different catalysts exhibited the best performance to produce high quality bio-oil. • Meso-HZSM-5, Ga (1 wt.%)/meso-HZSM-5 and Cu (5 wt.%)/SiO 2 were employed in a cascade system. • The incorporation of the appropriate gallium amount to meso-HZSM-5 enhanced the aromatics selectivity. • Meso-HZSM-5 indicated a very good activity in bio-oil upgrading. - Abstract: The in-situ catalytic upgrading of palm kernel shell (PKS) fast pyrolysis vapors was performed over each individual meso-H-ZSM-5, Ga/meso-HZSM-5 and Cu/SiO 2 catalyst or a cascade system of them in a multi-zone fixed bed reactor. The effects of mesoporosity creation into the parent H-ZSM-5 catalyst and also gallium incorporation into mesoporous H-ZSM-5 on the produced bio-oil chemical composition and distribution were studied. Key upgrading reactions for different oxygenated compounds in pyrolysis oil (small oxygenates, lignin derived and sugar derived components), including aldol condensation, alkylation, hydrogenation, aromatization, and deoxygenation were discussed. The catalysts were characterized using SEM, XRF, XRD, N 2 adsorption and NH 3 -TPD methods. Furthermore, the produced bio-oils (catalytic and non-catalytic) were analyzed using GC–MS, FTIR, CHNS/O elemental analyzer and Karl Fischer titration. Production of the upgraded bio-oil with lower content of oxygenated compound was the main objective of this investigation. Among different catalysts, meso-H-ZSM-5 zeolite demonstrated a very good activity in aromatization and deoxygenation during the upgrading of pyrolytic vapors, although it decreased the bio-oil yield (32.6 wt.%). The gallium incorporation into the meso-HZSM-5 zeolite increased the bio-oil yield from 32.6 wt.% (meso-HZSM-5) to 35.8 wt.% (using 1.0 wt.% Ga). Furthermore, the aromatics selectivity was enhanced when the appropriate amount of gallium (1.0 wt.%) was introduced. A cascade system of various catalysts comprising meso-HZSM-5, Ga (1

  6. Optimization of a heterogeneous catalytic hydrodynamic cavitation reactor performance in decolorization of Rhodamine B: application of scrap iron sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiri Parsa, Jalal; Ebrahimzadeh Zonouzian, Seyyed Alireza

    2013-11-01

    A low pressure pilot scale hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) reactor with 30 L volume, using fixed scrap iron sheets, as the heterogeneous catalyst, with no external source of H2O2 was devised to investigate the effects of operating parameters of the HC reactor performance. In situ generation of Fenton reagents suggested an induced advanced Fenton process (IAFP) to explain the enhancing effect of the used catalyst in the HC process. The reactor optimization was done based upon the extent of decolorization (ED) of aqueous solution of Rhodamine B (RhB). To have a perfect study on the pertinent parameters of the heterogeneous catalyzed HC reactor, the following cases as, the effects of scrap iron sheets, inlet pressure (2.4-5.8 bar), the distance between orifice plates and catalyst sheets (submerged and inline located orifice plates), back-pressure (2-6 bar), orifice plates type (4 various orifice plates), pH (2-10) and initial RhB concentration (2-14 mg L(-1)) have been investigated. The results showed that the highest cavitational yield can be obtained at pH 3 and initial dye concentration of 10 mg L(-1). Also, an increase in the inlet pressure would lead to an increase in the ED. In addition, it was found that using the deeper holes (thicker orifice plates) would lead to lower ED, and holes with larger diameter would lead to the higher ED in the same cross-sectional area, but in the same holes' diameters, higher cross-sectional area leads to the lower ED. The submerged operation mode showed a greater cavitational effects rather than the inline mode. Also, for the inline mode, the optimum value of 3 bar was obtained for the back-pressure condition in the system. Moreover, according to the analysis of changes in the UV-Vis spectra of RhB, both degradation of RhB chromophore structure and N-deethylation were occurred during the catalyzed HC process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Reactor design for minimizing product inhibition during enzymatic lignocellulose hydrolysis II. Quantification of inhibition and suitability of membrane reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andric, Pavle; Meyer, Anne S.; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2010-01-01

    conversion are required for alleviation of glucose product inhibition. Supported by numerous calculations this review assesses the quantitative aspects of glucose product inhibition on enzyme-catalyzed cellulose degradation rates. The significance of glucose product inhibition on dimensioning of different......Product inhibition of cellulolytic enzymes affects the efficiency of the biocatalytic conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol and other valuable products. New strategies that focus on reactor designs encompassing product removal, notably glucose removal, during enzymatic cellulose...... reactor features, including system set-up, dilution rate, glucose output profile, and the problem of cellobiose are examined to illustrate the quantitative significance of the glucose product inhibition and the total glucose concentration on the cellulolytic conversion rate. Comprehensive overviews...

  8. Treatment of poultry slaughterhouse wastewater using a static granular bed reactor (SGBR) coupled with ultrafiltration (UF) membrane system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basitere, M; Rinquest, Z; Njoya, M; Sheldon, M S; Ntwampe, S K O

    2017-07-01

    The South African poultry industry has grown exponentially in recent years due to an increased demand for their products. As a result, poultry plants consume large volumes of high quality water to ensure that hygienically safe poultry products are produced. Furthermore, poultry industries generate high strength wastewater, which can be treated successfully at low cost using anaerobic digesters. In this study, the performance of a bench-scale mesophilic static granular bed reactor (SGBR) containing fully anaerobic granules coupled with an ultrafiltration (UF) membrane system, as a post-treatment system, was investigated. The poultry slaughterhouse wastewater was characterized by a chemical oxygen demand (COD) range between 1,223 and 9,695mg/L, average biological oxygen demand of 2,375mg/L and average fats, oil and grease (FOG) of 554mg/L. The SGBR anaerobic reactor was operated for 9 weeks at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs), i.e. 55 and 40 h, with an average organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.01 and 3.14g COD/L.day. The SGBR results showed an average COD, total suspended solids (TSS) and FOG removal of 93%, 95% and 90% respectively, for both OLR. The UF post-treatment results showed an average of COD, TSS and FOG removal of 64%, 88% and 48%, respectively. The overall COD, TSS and FOG removal of the system (SGBR and UF membrane) was 98%, 99.8%, and 92.4%, respectively. The results of the combined SGBR reactor coupled with the UF membrane showed a potential to ensure environmentally friendly treatment of poultry slaughterhouse wastewater.

  9. The ReactorSTM: Atomically resolved scanning tunneling microscopy under high-pressure, high-temperature catalytic reaction conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbschleb, C. T.; Tuijn, P. C. van der; Roobol, S. B.; Navarro, V.; Bakker, J. W.; Liu, Q.; Stoltz, D.; Cañas-Ventura, M. E.; Verdoes, G.; Spronsen, M. A. van; Bergman, M.; Crama, L.; Taminiau, I.; Frenken, J. W. M., E-mail: frenken@physics.leidenuniv.nl [Huygens-Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratory, Leiden University, P.O. box 9504, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Ofitserov, A.; Baarle, G. J. C. van [Leiden Probe Microscopy B.V., J.H. Oortweg 21, 2333 CH Leiden (Netherlands)

    2014-08-15

    To enable atomic-scale observations of model catalysts under conditions approaching those used by the chemical industry, we have developed a second generation, high-pressure, high-temperature scanning tunneling microscope (STM): the ReactorSTM. It consists of a compact STM scanner, of which the tip extends into a 0.5 ml reactor flow-cell, that is housed in a ultra-high vacuum (UHV) system. The STM can be operated from UHV to 6 bars and from room temperature up to 600 K. A gas mixing and analysis system optimized for fast response times allows us to directly correlate the surface structure observed by STM with reactivity measurements from a mass spectrometer. The in situ STM experiments can be combined with ex situ UHV sample preparation and analysis techniques, including ion bombardment, thin film deposition, low-energy electron diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The performance of the instrument is demonstrated by atomically resolved images of Au(111) and atom-row resolution on Pt(110), both under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions.

  10. Bioreduction of para-chloronitrobenzene in drinking water using a continuous stirred hydrogen-based hollow fiber membrane biofilm reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia Siqing, E-mail: siqingxia@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Li Haixiang; Zhang Zhiqiang [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhang Yanhao [College of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Shandong Jianzhu University, Jinan 250101 (China); Yang Xin; Jia Renyong; Xie Kang; Xu Xiaotian [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2011-08-30

    Highlights: {yields} We designed a novel hollow fiber membrane biofilm reactor for p-CNB removal. {yields} Biotransformation pathway of p-CNB in the reactor was investigated in this study. {yields} Nitrate and sulfate competed more strongly for hydrogen than p-CNB. {yields} This reactor achieved high removal efficiency and hydrogen utilization efficiency. - Abstract: para-Chloronitrobenzene (p-CNB) is particularly harmful and persistent in the environment and is one of the priority pollutants. A feasible degradation pathway for p-CNB is bioreduction under anaerobic conditions. Bioreduction of p-CNB using a hydrogen-based hollow fiber membrane biofilm reactor (HFMBfR) was investigated in the present study. The experiment results revealed that p-CNB was firstly reduced to para-chloraniline (p-CAN) as an intermediate and then reduced to aniline that involves nitro reduction and reductive dechlorination with H{sub 2} as the electron donor. The HFMBfR had reduced p-CNB to a major extent with a maximum removal percentage of 99.3% at an influent p-CNB concentration of 2 mg/L and a hydraulic residence time of 4.8 h, which corresponded to a p-CNB flux of 0.058 g/m{sup 2} d. The H{sub 2} availability, p-CNB loading, and the presence of competing electron acceptors affected the p-CNB reduction. Flux analysis indicated that the reduction of p-CNB and p-CAN could consume fewer electrons than that of nitrate and sulfate. The HFMBfR had high average hydrogen utilization efficiencies at different steady states in this experiment, with a maximum efficiency at 98.2%.

  11. Membrane-aerated biofilm reactor for the removal of 1,2-dichloroethane by Pseudomonas sp. strain DCA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hage, J C; Van Houten, R T; Tramper, J; Hartmans, S

    2004-06-01

    A membrane-aerated biofilm reactor (MBR) with a biofilm of Pseudomonas sp. strain DCA1 was studied for the removal of 1,2-dichloroethane (DCA) from water. A hydrophobic membrane was used to create a barrier between the liquid and the gas phase. Inoculation of the MBR with cells of strain DCA1 grown in a continuous culture resulted in the formation of a stable and active DCA-degrading biofilm on the membrane. The maximum removal rate of the MBR was reached at a DCA concentration of approximately 80 micro M. Simulation of the DCA fluxes into the biofilm showed that the MBR performance at lower concentrations was limited by the DCA diffusion rate rather than by kinetic constraints of strain DCA1. Aerobic biodegradation of DCA present in anoxic water could be achieved by supplying oxygen solely from the gas phase to the biofilm grown on the liquid side of the membrane. As a result, direct aeration of the water, which leads to undesired coagulation of iron oxides, could be avoided.

  12. An experimental study of CO2 hydrogenation into methanol involving a zeolite membrane reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallucci, F.; Paturzo, L.; Basile, A.

    2004-01-01

    Conversion of CO2 into methanol by catalytic hydrogenation has been recognised as one of the most promising processes for stabilising the atmospheric CO2 level, and furthermore the methanol produced could be used as fuel or basic chemical for satisfying the large demand world-wide. The purpose of

  13. Development and process optimization of an enzyme membrane reactor for lactose hydrolysis. Entwicklung und verfahrenstechnische Optimierung eines Enzym-Membranreaktors fuer die Hydrolyse von Laktose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czermak, P

    1990-01-01

    The development and process optimization up to the production stage of a vapour sterilizable hollow-fiber membrane reactor for dialysis is illustrated by the example of enzymatic hydrolysis of lactose. The expected conversion efficiency of the membrane reactor is a function of the mass transfer resistance and by the deviations from the defined hydrodynamic status. The transport/reaction behaviour of membrane reactors is therefore described by a model for real reactors which takes account of the non-linear kinetics of the native enzyme, the real mixing conditions inside the reactor, and the mass transfer through the membrane. A coupled numerical solution is used for the calculations. The reaction kinetics, the mass transfer inside the membrane, the hydrodynamics and the conversion rate are determined experimentally. The model can calculate important design data from selected data of the reaction system. Measurements of conversion rates show that the results obtained with real substances, e.g. milk, are well compatible with the model calculations. (orig.) With 85 figs., 25 tabs.

  14. Treatment of ammonia by catalytic wet oxidation process over platinum-rhodium bimetallic catalyst in a trickle-bed reactor: effect of pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chang-Mao; Lin, Wei-Bang; Ho, Ching-Lin; Shen, Yun-Hwei; Hsia, Shao-Yi

    2010-08-01

    This work adopted aqueous solutions of ammonia for use in catalytic liquid-phase reduction in a trickle-bed reactor with a platinum-rhodium bimetallic catalyst, prepared by the co-precipitation of chloroplatinic acid (H2PtCl6) and rhodium nitrate [Rh(NO3)3]. The experimental results demonstrated that a minimal amount of ammonia was removed from the solution by wet oxidation in the absence of any catalyst, while approximately 97.0% of the ammonia was removed by wet oxidation over the platinum-rhodium bimetallic catalyst at 230 degrees C with an oxygen partial pressure of 2.0 MPa. The oxidation of ammonia has been studied as a function of pH, and the main reaction products were determined. A synergistic effect is manifest in the platinum-rhodium bimetallic structure, in which the material has the greatest capacity to reduce ammonia. The reaction pathway linked the oxidizing ammonia to nitric oxide, nitrogen, and water.

  15. Degradation and COD removal of catechol in wastewater using the catalytic ozonation process combined with the cyclic rotating-bed biological reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghapour, Ali Ahmad; Moussavi, Gholamreza; Yaghmaeian, Kamyar

    2015-07-01

    The effect of ozonation catalyzed with MgO/granular activated carbon (MgO/GAC) composite as a pretreatment process on the performance of cyclic rotating-bed biological reactor (CRBR) for the catechol removal from wastewater has been investigated. CRBR with acclimated biomasses could efficiently remove catechol and its related COD from wastewater at organic loading rate (OLR) of 7.82 kg COD/m(3).d (HRT of 9 h). Then, OLR increased to 15.64 kg COD/m(3).d (HRT of 4.5 h) and CRBR failed. Catalytic ozonation process (COP) used as a pre-treatment and could improve the performance of the failed CRBR. The overall removal efficiency of the combined process attained respective steady states of 91% and 79% for degradation and COD removal of catechol. Therefore, the combined process is more effective in degradation and COD removal of catechol; it is also a viable alternative for upgrading industrial wastewater treatment plant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Integrated Removal of NOx with Carbon Monoxide as Reductant, and Capture of Mercury in a Low Temperature Selective Catalytic and Adsorptive Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neville Pinto; Panagiotis Smirniotis; Stephen Thiel

    2010-08-31

    Coal will likely continue to be a dominant component of power generation in the foreseeable future. This project addresses the issue of environmental compliance for two important pollutants: NO{sub x} and mercury. Integration of emission control units is in principle possible through a Low Temperature Selective Catalytic and Adsorptive Reactor (LTSCAR) in which NO{sub x} removal is achieved in a traditional SCR mode but at low temperature, and, uniquely, using carbon monoxide as a reductant. The capture of mercury is integrated into the same process unit. Such an arrangement would reduce mercury removal costs significantly, and provide improved control for the ultimate disposal of mercury. The work completed in this project demonstrates that the use of CO as a reductant in LTSCR is technically feasible using supported manganese oxide catalysts, that the simultaneous warm-gas capture of elemental and oxidized mercury is technically feasible using both nanostructured chelating adsorbents and ceria-titania-based materials, and that integrated removal of mercury and NO{sub x} is technically feasible using ceria-titania-based materials.

  17. Double-side active TiO{sub 2}-modified nanofiltration membranes in continuous flow photocatalytic reactors for effective water purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanos, G.Em., E-mail: groman@chem.demokritos.gr [Institute of Physical Chemistry, NCSR Demokritos, 153 10 Agia Paraskevi Attikis, Athens (Greece); Athanasekou, C.P.; Katsaros, F.K.; Kanellopoulos, N.K. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, NCSR Demokritos, 153 10 Agia Paraskevi Attikis, Athens (Greece); Dionysiou, D.D. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0071 (United States); Likodimos, V.; Falaras, P. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, NCSR Demokritos, 153 10 Agia Paraskevi Attikis, Athens (Greece)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel CVD reactor for the developments of double side active TiO{sub 2} membranes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Double side active TiO{sub 2} membranes efficiently photodegrade organic pollutants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A photocatalytic membrane purification device for continuous flow water treatment. - Abstract: A chemical vapour deposition (CVD) based innovative approach was applied with the purpose to develop composite TiO{sub 2} photocatalytic nanofiltration (NF) membranes. The method involved pyrolytic decomposition of titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) vapor and formation of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles through homogeneous gas phase reactions and aggregation of the produced intermediate species. The grown nanoparticles diffused and deposited on the surface of {gamma}-alumina NF membrane tubes. The CVD reactor allowed for online monitoring of the carrier gas permeability during the treatment, providing a first insight on the pore efficiency and thickness of the formed photocatalytic layers. In addition, the thin TiO{sub 2} deposits were developed on both membrane sides without sacrificing the high yield rates. Important innovation was also introduced in what concerns the photocatalytic performance evaluation. The membrane efficiency to photo degrade typical water pollutants, was evaluated in a continuous flow water purification device, applying UV irradiation on both membrane sides. The developed composite NF membranes were highly efficient in the decomposition of methyl orange exhibiting low adsorption-fouling tendency and high water permeability.

  18. Analysis of Gas Separated for Silica Membrane in Hydrogen Gas Production by Using Nuclear Reactor Thermal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandiangan, Tumpal

    2007-01-01

    One of the hydrogen production method that have been developed is a thermo-chemical method. This method is permissible to increase thermal efficiency up to 70 % and to decrease of operational temperature from 800℃ down to 450 ℃. One of several factor that can increase of the hydrogen production thermal efficiency at the above method is to apply a separated membrane that have a relative good for permeansce and selectivity performance. It had been carried out for analyzing of time and temperature CVD (Chemical Vapouration Deposition) that is affected to permeansce and power selecting performance of the membrane. The layering membrane silica process was carried out by means of the CVD method at atmosphere pressure. The membrane silica layering that was observed was developed by a CVD method in atmospheric pressure. The silica membrane was formed at the out side surface of the alumina gamma cylinder that had been coated by alumina gamma which it has average porosity about of 0.01 mic.meter. A permeansce and separation power performance of the membrane silica that was carried out by means of CVD method at 600 ℃ on H 2 , He and N 2 are : 2 x 10 -10 , 9 x 10 -9 and 4 x 10 -7 mol Pa/m 2 s and the selected power of H 2 /N 2 = 45. The permeansce of that membrane is relative good but the selected power is relative not so good. (author)

  19. Study on treating of low-level radioactive reactor wastewater by combined membrane process (UF-RO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yunyun; Cao Qiru; Chen Yunming; Huang Lijuan; Bai Xiaofeng; Li Bing; Feng Liang

    2013-01-01

    According to the characteristics of radionuclide exists in the low-level radioactive reactor waste water from HFETR, we use a new combined membrane process separation technology to study the efficient treating of low-lever radioactive reactor wastewater. First, the prepared the simulated wastewater contained Cs + , Sr 2+ , CO 2+ , Ni 2+ , and Fe 3+ . Then, we sequentially investigated the pressure, ion concentration, pH value and EDTA, which have effects on the desalination rate of membrane processing metal ions in wastewater. The results show that: in the condition of pH = 7, and added 0.15 mol/L EDTA, the simulated wastewater separated by UF-RO, desalination rates of Cs + , Sr 2+ , CO 2+ , Ni 2+ and Fe 3+ are all above 95%; In the subsequent trials, adding 0.15 mol/L EDTA into the radioactive residuary solution, and then treating by UF-RO-RO, the decontamination efficiency can reach 95.7%. (authors)

  20. Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, Masahiro; Kasai, Shigeo.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a lmfbr type reactor wherein effusion of coolants through a loop contact portion is reduced even when fuel assemblies float up, and misloading of reactor core constituting elements is prevented thereby improving the reactor safety. Constitution: The reactor core constituents are secured in the reactor by utilizing the differential pressure between the high-pressure cooling chamber and low-pressure cooling chamber. A resistance port is formed at the upper part of a connecting pipe, and which is connect the low-pressure cooling chamber and the lower surface of the reactor core constituent. This resistance part is formed such that the internal sectional area of the connecting pipe is made larger stepwise toward the upper part, and the cylinder is formed larger so that it profiles the inner surface of the connecting pipe. (Aizawa, K.)

  1. Simultaneous removal of selected oxidized contaminants in groundwater using a continuously stirred hydrogen-based membrane biofilm reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Siqing; Liang, Jun; Xu, Xiaoyin; Shen, Shuang

    2013-01-01

    A laboratory trial was conducted for evaluating the capability of a continuously stirred hydrogen-based membrane biofilm reactor to simultaneously reduce nitrate (NO(3-)-N), sulfate (SO4(2-)), bromate (BrO3-), hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) and parachloronitrobenzene (p-CNB). The reactor contained two bundles of hollow fiber membranes functioning as an autotrophic biofilm carrier and hydrogen pipe as well. On the condition that hydrogen was supplied as electron donor and diffused into water through membrane pores, autohydrogenotrophic bacteria were capable of reducing contaminants to forms with lower toxicity. Reduction occurred within 1 day and removal fluxes for NO(3-)-N, SO4(2-), BrO3-, Cr(VI), and p-CNB reached 0.641, 2.396, 0.008, 0.016 and 0.031 g/(day x m2), respectively after 112 days of continuous operation. Except for the fact that sulfate was 37% removed under high surface loading, the other four contaminants were reduced by over 95%. The removal flux comparison between phases varying in surface loading and H2 pressure showed that decreasing surface loading or increasing H2 pressure would promote removal flux. Competition for electrons occurred among the five contaminants. Electron-equivalent flux analysis showed that the amount of utilized hydrogen was mainly controlled by NO(3-)-N and SO4(2-) reduction, which accounted for over 99% of the electron flux altogether. It also indicated the electron acceptor order, showing that nitrate was the most prior electron acceptor while suIfate was the second of the five contaminants.

  2. Azo dye removal in a membrane-free up-flow biocatalyzed electrolysis reactor coupled with an aerobic bio-contact oxidation reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Dan; Guo, Yu-Qi; Cheng, Hao-Yi; Liang, Bin; Kong, Fan-Ying; Lee, Hyung-Sool; Wang, Ai-Jie

    2012-11-15

    Azo dyes that consist of a large quantity of dye wastewater are toxic and persistent to biodegradation, while they should be removed before being discharged to water body. In this study, Alizarin Yellow R (AYR) as a model azo dye was decolorized in a combined bio-system of membrane-free, continuous up-flow bio-catalyzed electrolysis reactor (UBER) and subsequent aerobic bio-contact oxidation reactor (ABOR). With the supply of external power source 0.5 V in the UBER, AYR decolorization efficiency increased up to 94.8±1.5%. Products formation efficiencies of p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) were above 90% and 60%, respectively. Electron recovery efficiency based on AYR removal in cathode zone was nearly 100% at HRTs longer than 6 h. Relatively high concentration of AYR accumulated at higher AYR loading rates (>780 gm(-3) d(-1)) likely inhibited acetate oxidation of anode-respiring bacteria on the anode, which decreased current density in the UBER; optimal AYR loading rate for the UBER was 680 gm(-3) d(-1) (HRT 2.5 h). The subsequent ABOR further improved effluent quality. Overall the Chroma decreased from 320 times to 80 times in the combined bio-system to meet the textile wastewater discharge standard II in China. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Masaomi; Kashimura, Kazuo; Inoue, Kazuyuki; Nishioka, Kazuya.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To facilitate the construction of a reactor containment building, whereby the inspections of the outer wall of a reactor container after the completion of the construction of the reactor building can be easily carried out. Constitution: In a reactor accommodated in a container encircled by a building wall, a space is provided between the container and the building wall encircling the container, and a metal wall is provided in the space so that it is fitted in the building wall in an attachable or detatchable manner. (Aizawa, K.)

  4. Insight into effects of antibiotics on reactor performance and evolutions of antibiotic resistance genes and microbial community in a membrane reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Qinxue; Yang, Lian; Zhao, Yaqi; Huang, Long; Chen, Zhiqiang

    2018-04-01

    A lab-scale anoxic/oxic-membrane bioreactor was designed to treat antibiotics containing wastewater at different antibiotics concentrations (0.5 mg/L, 1 mg/L and 3 mg/L of each antibiotic). Overall COD and NH 4 + N removal (more than 90%) were not affected during the exposure to antibiotics and good TN removal was also achieved, while TP removal was significantly affected. The maximum removal efficiency of penicillin and chlorotetracycline reached 97.15% and 96.10% respectively due to strong hydrolysis, and sulfamethoxazole reached 90.07% by biodegradation. However, 63.87% of norfloxacin maximum removal efficiency was achieved mainly by sorption. The system had good ability to reduce ARGs, peaking to more than 4 orders of magnitude, which mainly depended on the biomass retaining of the membrane module. Antibiotics concentration influenced the evolution of ARGs and bacterial communities in the reactor. This research provides great implication to reduce ARGs and antibiotics in antibiotics containing wastewater using A/O-MBR. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization of the gas releasing behaviors of catalytic pyrolysis of rice husk using potassium over a micro-fluidized bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yuan; Wang, Yan; Guo, Feiqiang; Li, Xiaolei; Li, Tiantao; Guo, Chenglong; Chang, Jiafu

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Releasing propensity of CO, CO 2 , CH 4 and H 2 was studied in a micro-fluidized bed. • Gas releasing pattern was influenced by temperature and potassium concentration. • Variations in gas forming E a are indicative of catalytic performance of potassium. - Abstract: Influence of potassium on the gas releasing behaviors during rice husk high-temperature pyrolysis was investigated under isothermal conditions in a two stage micro-fluidized bed reactor. Reaction kinetics for generating H 2 , CO, CO 2 and CH 4 was investigated based on the Friedman and model-fitting approaches. Results indicated that different gas species had different times to start and end the gas release process, particularly at 600 °C, representing different chemical routes and mechanics for generating these gas components. The resulting apparent activation energies for H 2 , CO, and CO 2 decreased from 23.10 to 12.00 kJ/mol, 15.48 to 14.03 kJ/mol and 10.14 to 7.61 kJ/mol respectively with an increase in potassium concentration from 0 to 0.5 mol/kg, while that for CH 4 increased from 16.85 to 19.40 kJ/mol. The results indicated that the addition of potassium could promote the generation reactions of H 2 , CO and CO 2 while hinder the generation reactions of CH 4 . The pyrolysis reaction was further found to be subject to the three-dimensional diffusion model for all the samples.

  6. Novel Composite Hydrogen-Permeable Membranes for Non-Thermal Plasma Reactors for the Decomposition of Hydrogen Sulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris D. Argyle; John F. Ackerman; Suresh Muknahallipatna; Jerry C. Hamann; Stanislaw Legowski; Guibling Zhao; Ji-Jun Zhang; Sanil John

    2005-10-01

    The goal of this experimental project is to design and fabricate a reactor and membrane test cell to dissociate hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) in a non-thermal plasma and recover hydrogen (H{sub 2}) through a superpermeable multi-layer membrane. Superpermeability of hydrogen atoms (H) has been reported by some researchers using membranes made of Group V transition metals (niobium, tantalum, vanadium, and their alloys), although it has yet to be confirmed in this study. A pulsed corona discharge (PCD) reactor has been fabricated and used to dissociate H{sub 2}S into hydrogen and sulfur. A nonthermal plasma cannot be produced in pure H{sub 2}S with our reactor geometry, even at discharge voltages of up to 30 kV, because of the high dielectric strength of pure H{sub 2}S ({approx}2.9 times higher than air). Therefore, H{sub 2}S was diluted in another gas with lower breakdown voltage (or dielectric strength). Breakdown voltages of H{sub 2}S in four balance gases (Ar, He, N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}) have been measured at different H{sub 2}S concentrations and pressures. Breakdown voltages are proportional to the partial pressure of H{sub 2}S and the balance gas. H{sub 2}S conversion and the reaction energy efficiency depend on the balance gas and H{sub 2}S inlet concentrations. With increasing H{sub 2}S concentrations, H{sub 2}S conversion initially increases, reaches a maximum, and then decreases. H{sub 2}S conversion in atomic balance gases, such as Ar and He, is more efficient than that in diatomic balance gases, such as N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}. These observations can be explained by the proposed reaction mechanism of H{sub 2}S dissociation in different balance gases. The results show that nonthermal plasmas are effective for dissociating H{sub 2}S into hydrogen and sulfur.

  7. Prospects and problems of dense oxygen permeable membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, P.V.; Larsen, P.H.; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2000-01-01

    The prospects of using mixed ionic/electronic conducting ceramics for syngas production in a catalytic membrane reactor are analysed. Problems relating to limited thermodynamic stability and poor dimensional stability of candidate materials are addressed, The consequences for these problems......, of flux improving measures like minimization of membrane thickness and minimization of the losses due to oxygen exchange over the membrane surfaces, are discussed. The analysis is conducted on two candidate materials: La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-delta and SrFeCo0.5Ox. Finally. experimental investigations...

  8. Comparative study between chemostat and batch reactors to quantify membrane permeability changes on bacteria exposed to silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anaya, Nelson M.; Faghihzadeh, Fatemeh [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Rhode Island, 1 Lippitt Rd., Bliss Hall 203, Kingston, RI 02881 (United States); Ganji, Nasim; Bothun, Geoff [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Rhode Island, 16 Greenhouse Rd., Crawford Hall, Kingston, RI 02881 (United States); Oyanedel-Craver, Vinka, E-mail: craver@uri.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Rhode Island, 1 Lippitt Rd., Bliss Hall 203, Kingston, RI 02881 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    Continuous and batch reactors were used to assess the effect of the exposure of casein-coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on Escherichia coli (E. coli). Additionally, E. coli membrane extracts, membrane permeability and Langmuir film balance assays were used to determine integrity and changes in lipid composition in response to AgNPs exposure. Results showed that batch conditions were not appropriate for the tests due to the production of exopolymeric substances (EPS) during the growth phase. After 5 h of contact between AgNPs and the used growth media containing EPS, the nanoparticles increased in size from 86 nm to 282 nm reducing the stability and thus limiting cell-nanoparticle interactions. AgNPs reduced E. coli growth by 20% at 1 mg/L, in terms of Optical Density 670 (OD670), while no effect was detected at 15 mg/L. At 50 mg/L of AgNPs was not possible to perform the test due to aggregation and sedimentation of the nanoparticles. Membrane extract assays showed that at 1 mg/L AgNPs had a greater change in area (− 4.4cm{sup 2}) on bacteria compared to 15 mg/L (− 4.0cm{sup 2}). This area increment suggested that membrane disruption caused by AgNPs had a stabilizing/rigidifying effect where the cells responded by shifting their lipid composition to more unsaturated lipids to counteract membrane rigidification. In chemostats, the constant inflow of fresh media and aeration resulted in less AgNPs aggregation, thus increased the AgNPs-bacteria interactions, in comparison to batch conditions. AgNPs at 1 mg/L, 15 mg/L, and 50 mg/L inhibited the growth (OD670 reduction) by 0%, 11% and 16.3%, respectively. Membrane extracts exposed to 1 mg/L, 15 mg/L, and 50 mg/L of AgNPs required greater changes in area by − 0.5 cm{sup 2}, 2.7 cm{sup 2} and 3.6 cm{sup 2}, respectively, indicating that the bacterial membranes were disrupted and bacteria responded by synthesizing lipids that stabilize or strengthen membranes. This study showed that the chemostat is more

  9. Optimization of the biological process using flat membrane bioreactors. Maximum treatment performance with minimum reactor volume; Optimizacion del proceso biologico con BRM de membrana plana. Maximo rendimiento de depuracion con minimo volumen de reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lluch Vallmithana, S.; Lopez Gavin, A.

    2006-07-01

    In a conventional activated sludge process, the membranes are inside the biological reactor where they drain the water through suction or a water column. This system can be operated with heavy loads and sludge of 12-14 g/l or more, and is not affected by problems of bulking or foaming. This makes it suitable for treating difficult industrial waste waters, providing treated water that is free of bacteria and viruses. Micro filtration membranes are flat without any rubbing between them. The membranes require infrequent chemical cleaning and do not need back washing. As no final sedimented is needed, the waste water treatment plant occupies less space. (Author)

  10. Solar membrane natural gas steam-reforming process: evaluation of reactor performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Falco, M.; Basile, A.; Gallucci, F.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the performance of an innovative plant for efficient hydrogen production using solar energy for the process heat duty requirements has been evaluated via a detailed 2D model. The steam-reforming reactor consists of a bundle of coaxial double tubes assembled in a shell. The annular

  11. Solar membrane natural gas steam-reforming process : evaluation of reactor performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falco, de M.; Basile, A.; Gallucci, F.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the performance of an innovative plant for efficient hydrogen production using solar energy for the process heat duty requirements has been evaluated via a detailed 2D model. The steam-reforming reactor consists of a bundle of coaxial double tubes assembled in a shell. The annular

  12. Enrichment of Thermophilic Syntrophic Anaerobic Glutamate-Degrading Consortia using a Dialysis Membrane Reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plugge, C.M.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    A dialysis cultivation system was used to enrich slow-growing moderately thermophilic anaerobic bacteria at high cell densities. Bicarbonate buffered mineral salts medium with 5 mM glutamate as the sole carbon and energy source was used and the incubation temperature was 55 degrees C. The reactor

  13. Development of packed bed membrane reactor for the oxidative dehydrogenation of propane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotanjac, Zeljko

    2009-01-01

    In this research, a reactor concept for the oxidative dehydrogenation of propane was studied. First a literature survey was performed, to investigate which are the best catalyst systems and best operating conditions that result in the largest propylene yield. In the kinetic study of ODHP over a

  14. Catalytic biomass pyrolysis process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayton, David C.; Gupta, Raghubir P.; Turk, Brian S.; Kataria, Atish; Shen, Jian-Ping

    2018-04-17

    Described herein are processes for converting a biomass starting material (such as lignocellulosic materials) into a low oxygen containing, stable liquid intermediate that can be refined to make liquid hydrocarbon fuels. More specifically, the process can be a catalytic biomass pyrolysis process wherein an oxygen removing catalyst is employed in the reactor while the biomass is subjected to pyrolysis conditions. The stream exiting the pyrolysis reactor comprises bio-oil having a low oxygen content, and such stream may be subjected to further steps, such as separation and/or condensation to isolate the bio-oil.

  15. Start-up strategies of membrane-aerated biofilm reactor (MABR) for completely autotrophic nitrogen removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Sheng-Peng; Pellicer i Nàcher, Carles; Terada, Akihiko

    2009-01-01

    Completely autotrophic nitrogen removal, coupling aerobic and anaerobic ammonium oxidation, can be achieved via redox stratified biofilms growing on gas-permeable membranes. These sequential reactions are mediated by aerobic and anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB and AnAOB). The major...

  16. Sequential Aeration of Membrane-Aerated Biofilm Reactors for High-Rate Autotrophic Nitrogen Removal: Experimental Demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pellicer i Nàcher, Carles; Sun, Sheng-Peng; Lackner, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    One-stage autotrophic nitrogen (N) removal, requiring the simultaneous activity of aerobic and anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB and AnAOB), can be obtained in spatially redox-stratified biofilms. However, previous experience with Membrane-Aerated Biofilm Reactors (MABRs) has revealed...... a difficulty in reducing the abundance and activity of nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB), which drastically lowers process efficiency. Here we show how sequential aeration is an effective strategy to attain autotrophic N removal in MABRs: Two separate MABRs, which displayed limited or no N removal under...... continuous aeration, could remove more than 5.5 g N/m2/day (at loads up to 8 g N/m2/day) by controlled variation of sequential aeration regimes. Daily averaged ratios of the surficial loads of O2 (oxygen) to NH4+ (ammonium) (LO2/LNH4) were close to 1.73 at this optimum. Real-time quantitative PCR based on 16...

  17. Gravity filtration performances of the bio-diatomite dynamic membrane reactor for slightly polluted surface water purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Huaqiang; Dong, Bingzhi; Zhang, Yalei; Zhou, Xuefei

    2012-01-01

    A bio-diatomite dynamic membrane (BDDM) reactor for surface water treatment under a water head of 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 cm, respectively, was investigated, which was very effective for pollutants removal. The water head exerted strong influences on filtration flux of BDDM during the precoating process, as well as on the formation of BDDM and turbidity variations. A high filtration flux (approximately 200-300 L/m2 h) could be achieved in the long filtration times of BDDM with a stable effluent turbidity of approximately 0.11-0.25 NTU. The BDDM could remove particles larger than 25 μm completely. The adopted sintered diatomite mainly consisted of macro pores, which were beneficial for improving the filtration flux of BDDM. During the backwash stage, the BDDM could be removed completely by the air backwash.

  18. A membrane-free, continuously feeding, single chamber up-flow biocatalyzed electrolysis reactor for nitrobenzene reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ai-Jie; Cui, Dan; Cheng, Hao-Yi; Guo, Yu-Qi; Kong, Fan-Ying; Ren, Nan-Qi; Wu, Wei-Min

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A novel membrane-free up-flow biocatalyzed electrolysis reactor (UBER) was developed. ► Nitrobenzene as the mode of nitroaromatics was efficiently converted to aniline. ► The impact of phosphate buffer and acetate concentrations and power supplied were investigated. ► The prospects of UBER for the recalcitrant compound removal were discussed. - Abstract: A new bioelectrochemical system (BES), a membrane-free, continuous feeding up-flow biocatalyzed electrolysis reactor (UBER) was developed to reduce oxidative toxic chemicals to less- or non-toxic reduced form in cathode zone with oxidation of electron donor in anode zone. Influent was fed from the bottom of UBER and passed through cathode zone and then anode zone. External power source (0.5 V) was provided between anode and cathode to enhance electrochemical reactions. Granular graphite and carbon brush were used as cathode and anode, respectively. This system was tested for the reduction of nitrobenzene (NB) using acetate as electron donor and carbon source. The influent contained NB (50–200 mg L −1 ) and acetate (1000 mg L −1 ). NB was removed by up to 98% mainly in cathode zone. The anode potential maintained under −480 mV. The maximum NB removal rate was up to 3.5 mol m −3 TV d −1 (TV = total empty volume) and the maximum aniline (AN) formation rate was 3.06 mol m −3 TV d −1 . Additional energy required was less than 0.075 kWh mol −1 NB. The molar ratio of NB removed vs acetate consumed varied from 4.3 ± 0.4 to 2.3 ± 0.1 mol mol −1 . Higher influent phosphate or acetate concentration helped NB removal rate. NB could be efficiently reduced to AN as the power supplied of 0.3 V.

  19. High-purity fatty acid methyl ester production from canola, soybean, palm, and yellow grease lipids by means of a membrane reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Peigang; Dube, Marc A.; Tremblay, Andre Y.

    2008-01-01

    High-purity fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was produced from different lipids, such as soybean oil, canola oil, a hydrogenated palm oil/palm oil blend, yellow grease, and brown grease, combined with methanol using a continuous membrane reactor. The membrane reactor combines reaction and separation in a single unit, provides continuous mixing of raw materials, and maintains a high molar ratio of methanol to lipid in the reaction loop while maintaining two phases during the reaction. It was demonstrated that the membrane reactor can be operated using a very broad range of feedstocks at highly similar operating conditions to produce FAME. The total glycerine and free glycerine contents of the FAME produced were below the ASTM D6751 standard after a single reaction step. Under essentially the same reaction conditions, a conventional batch reaction was not able to achieve the same degree of FAME purity. The effect of the fatty acid composition of the lipid feedstocks on the FAME purity was also shown. It was demonstrated that, due to the fatty acid composition, FAME from virgin soybean oil and virgin canola oil was produced in the membrane reactor within ASTM specifications even without a water washing step

  20. Effect of mass-transport limitations on the performance of a packed bed membrane reactor for partial oxidations. Intraparticle mass transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sint Annaland, van M.; Kurten, U.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    For partial oxidation systems, where the reaction order in oxygen of the formation rate of the target product is smaller than the reaction order in oxygen of the consecutive reaction rate toward the waste product, a packed bed membrane reactor can be applied to distributively dose oxygen along the

  1. Effect of Mass-Transport Limitations on the Performance of a Packed Bed Membrane Reactor for Partial Oxidations. Intraparticle Mass Transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sint Annaland, M.; Kurten, U.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    For partial oxidation systems, where the reaction order in oxygen of the formation rate of the target product is smaller than the reaction order in oxygen of the consecutive reaction rate toward the waste product, a packed bed membrane reactor can be applied to distributively dose oxygen along the

  2. Reactor building 3D-model for evaluating the pressures on concrete regularization and foundation waterproofing membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello Junior, Glauco J.T.; Cardoso, Tarcisio de F.; Prates, Carlos L.M. [Eletrobras Termonuclear S.A. - ELETRONUCLEAR, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia de Analise de Tensoes GAN.T], e-mail: glauco@eletronuclear.gov.br, e-mail: tarci@eletronuclear.gov.br, e-mail: prates@eletronuclear.gov.br

    2009-07-01

    Angra dos Reis site in Brazil has already 2 operating PWR NPPs. Unit 3, with identical design to Unit 2, also a 1350 MW PWR, is expected to have its construction started in 2009. This new plant shall be founded directly on sound rock. The first step is to prepare this rock surface with a concrete regularization and a foundation waterproofing membrane. This study presents a 3D model approach of the corresponding reactor building to verify the maximum pressure acting on this surface. The 3D model permits to show a more realistic pressure distribution at every foundation specific detail. A static analysis is performed using ANSYS Mechanical Release 11.1. Dead weight, permanent and live loads, Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE) combined with Burst Pressure Wave (BPW) from the Feedwater Tank (SSB=SSE+BPW) and differences of temperature are taken into account. Considering all foundation nodes , the pressure distribution on the waterproofing membrane for each load case is obtained for vertical and horizontal directions, which corresponds to compression and tangential reaction loads. The maximum values occur in distinct positions for each load case. The maximum results are obtained according to DIN 25449 (2008) load combination criteria. The results are compared to a simplified analysis performed before, showing a good agreement in global values. (author)

  3. The effects of mediator and granular activated carbon addition on degradation of trace organic contaminants by an enzymatic membrane reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Luong N; Hai, Faisal I; Price, William E; Leusch, Frederic D L; Roddick, Felicity; Ngo, Hao H; Guo, Wenshan; Magram, Saleh F; Nghiem, Long D

    2014-09-01

    The removal of four recalcitrant trace organic contaminants (TrOCs), namely carbamazepine, diclofenac, sulfamethoxazole and atrazine by laccase in an enzymatic membrane reactor (EMR) was studied. Laccases are not effective for degrading non-phenolic compounds; nevertheless, 22-55% removal of these four TrOCs was achieved by the laccase EMR. Addition of the redox-mediator syringaldehyde (SA) to the EMR resulted in a notable dose-dependent improvement (15-45%) of TrOC removal affected by inherent TrOC properties and loading rates. However, SA addition resulted in a concomitant increase in the toxicity of the treated effluent. A further 14-25% improvement in aqueous phase removal of the TrOCs was consistently observed following a one-off dosing of 3g/L granular activated carbon (GAC). Mass balance analysis reveals that this improvement was not due solely to adsorption but also enhanced biodegradation. GAC addition also reduced membrane fouling and the SA-induced toxicity of the effluent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Reactor building 3D-model for evaluating the pressures on concrete regularization and foundation waterproofing membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello Junior, Glauco J.T.; Cardoso, Tarcisio de F.; Prates, Carlos L.M.

    2009-01-01

    Angra dos Reis site in Brazil has already 2 operating PWR NPPs. Unit 3, with identical design to Unit 2, also a 1350 MW PWR, is expected to have its construction started in 2009. This new plant shall be founded directly on sound rock. The first step is to prepare this rock surface with a concrete regularization and a foundation waterproofing membrane. This study presents a 3D model approach of the corresponding reactor building to verify the maximum pressure acting on this surface. The 3D model permits to show a more realistic pressure distribution at every foundation specific detail. A static analysis is performed using ANSYS Mechanical Release 11.1. Dead weight, permanent and live loads, Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE) combined with Burst Pressure Wave (BPW) from the Feedwater Tank (SSB=SSE+BPW) and differences of temperature are taken into account. Considering all foundation nodes , the pressure distribution on the waterproofing membrane for each load case is obtained for vertical and horizontal directions, which corresponds to compression and tangential reaction loads. The maximum values occur in distinct positions for each load case. The maximum results are obtained according to DIN 25449 (2008) load combination criteria. The results are compared to a simplified analysis performed before, showing a good agreement in global values. (author)

  5. Membrane biofouling in a wastewater nitrification reactor: Microbial succession from autotrophic colonization to heterotrophic domination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Huijie; Xue, Zheng; Saikaly, Pascal; Nunes, Suzana P; Bluver, Ted R; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2016-01-01

    Membrane biofouling is a complex process that involves bacterial adhesion, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) excretion and utilization, and species interactions. To obtain a better understanding of the microbial ecology of biofouling process, this study conducted rigorous, time-course analyses on the structure, EPS and microbial composition of the fouling layer developed on ultrafiltration membranes in a nitrification bioreactor. During a 14-day fouling event, three phases were determined according to the flux decline and microbial succession patterns. In Phase I (0-2 days), small sludge flocs in the bulk liquid were selectively attached on membrane surfaces, leading to the formation of similar EPS and microbial community composition as the early biofilms. Dominant populations in small flocs, e.g., Nitrosomonas, Nitrobacter, and Acinetobacter spp., were also the major initial colonizers on membranes. In Phase II (2-4 d), fouling layer structure, EPS composition, and bacterial community went through significant changes. Initial colonizers were replaced by fast-growing and metabolically versatile heterotrophs (e.g., unclassified Sphingobacteria). The declining EPS polysaccharide to protein (PS:PN) ratios could be correlated well with the increase in microbial community diversity. In Phase III (5-14 d), heterotrophs comprised over 90% of the community, whereas biofilm structure and EPS composition remained relatively stable. In all phases, AOB and NOB were constantly found within the top 40% of the fouling layer, with the maximum concentrations around 15% from the top. The overall microbial succession pattern from autotrophic colonization to heterotrophic domination implied that MBR biofouling could be alleviated by forming larger bacterial flocs in bioreactor suspension (reducing autotrophic colonization), and by designing more specific cleaning procedures targeting dominant heterotrophs during typical filtration cycles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All

  6. Membrane biofouling in a wastewater nitrification reactor: microbial succession from autotrophic colonization to heterotrophic domination

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Huijie

    2015-10-22

    Membrane biofouling is a complex process that involves bacterial adhesion, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) excretion and utilization, and species interactions. To obtain a better understanding of the microbial ecology of biofouling process, this study conducted rigorous, time-course analyses on the structure, EPS and microbial composition of the fouling layer developed on ultrafiltration membranes in a nitrification bioreactor. During a 14-day fouling event, three phases were determined according to the flux decline and microbial succession patterns. In Phase I (0-2 days), small sludge flocs in the bulk liquid were selectively attached on membrane surfaces, leading to the formation of similar EPS and microbial community composition as the early biofilms. Dominant populations in small flocs, e.g., Nitrosomonas, Nitrobacter, and Acinetobacter spp., were also the major initial colonizers on membranes. In Phase II (2-4 d), fouling layer structure, EPS composition, and bacterial community went through significant changes. Initial colonizers were replaced by fast-growing and metabolically versatile heterotrophs (e.g., unclassified Sphingobacteria). The declining EPS polysaccharide to protein (PS:PN) ratios could be correlated well with the increase in microbial community diversity. In Phase III (5-14 d), heterotrophs comprised over 90% of the community, whereas biofilm structure and EPS composition remained relatively stable. In all phases, AOB and NOB were constantly found within the top 40% of the fouling layer, with the maximum concentrations around 15% from the top. The overall microbial succession pattern from autotrophic colonization to heterotrophic domination implied that MBR biofouling could be alleviated by forming larger bacterial flocs in bioreactor suspension (reducing autotrophic colonization), and by designing more specific cleaning procedures targeting dominant heterotrophs during typical filtration cycles.

  7. Effects of COD/N ratio on soluble microbial products in effluent from sequencing batch reactors and subsequent membrane fouling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Quang Viet; Nghiem, Long D; Sibag, Mark; Maqbool, Tahir; Hur, Jin

    2018-05-01

    The relative ratios of chemical oxygen demand (COD) to nitrogen (N) in wastewater are known to have profound effects on the characteristics of soluble microbial products (SMP) from activated sludge. In this study, the changes in the SMP characteristics upon different COD/N ratios and the subsequent effects on ultrafiltration (UF) membrane fouling potentials were examined in sequencing batch reactors (SBR) using excitation emission matrix-parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC). Three unique fluorescent components were identified from the SMP samples in the bioreactors operated at the COD/N ratios of 100/10 (N rich), 100/5 (N medium), and 100/2 (N deficient). The tryptophan-like component (C1) was the most depleted at the N medium condition. Fulvic-like (C2) and humic-like (C3) components were more abundant with N rich wastewater. Greater abundances of large size biopolymer (BP) and low molecular weight neutrals (LMWN) were found under the N deficient and N rich conditions, respectively. SMPs from various COD/N exhibited a greater degree on membrane fouling following the order of 100/2 > 100/10 > 100/5. C1 and C2 had close associations with reversible and irreversible fouling, respectively, while the reversible fouling potential of C3 depended on the COD/N ratios. No significant impact of COD/N ratio was observed on the relative contributions of SMP size fractions to either reversible or irreversible fouling potential. However, the COD/N ratios likely altered the BP foulants' composition with greater contribution of proteinaceous substances to reversible fouling under the N deficient condition than at other N richer conditions. The opposite trend was observed for irreversible fouling. Our results provided further insight into changes in different SMP constitutes and their membrane fouling in response to microbial activities under different COD/N ratios. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. In-Situ Catalytic Surface Modification of Micro-Structured La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ (LSCF Oxygen Permeable Membrane Using Vacuum-Assisted technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman Nur Hidayati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at investigating the means to carry out in-situ surface modification of La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ (LSCF oxygen permeable membrane by using vacuum assisted technique. The unique structure of the LSCF hollow fibre membrane used in this study, which consists of an outer dense oxygen separation layer and conical-shaped microchannels open at the inner surface has allowed the membrane to be used as oxygen separation membrane and as a structured substrate for where catalyst can be deposited. A catalyst solution of similar material, LSCF was prepared using sol-gel technique. Effects of calcination temperature and heating rate were investigated using XRD and TGA to ensure pure perovskites structure of LSCF was obtained. It was found that a lower calcination temperature can be used to obtain pure perovskite phase if slower heating rate is used. The SEM photograph shows that the distribution of catalyst onto the membrane microchannels using in-situ deposition technique was strongly related to the viscosity of LSCF catalytic sol. Interestingly, it was found that the amount of catalyst deposited using viscous solution was slightly higher than the less viscous sol. This might be due to the difficulty of catalyst sol to infiltrate the membrane and as a result, thicker catalyst layer was observed at the lumen rather than onto the conical-shaped microchannels. Therefore, the viscosity of catalyst solution and calcination process should be precisely controlled to ensure homogeneous catalyst layer deposition. Analysis of the elemental composition will be studied in the future using energy dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX to determine the elements deposited onto the membranes. Once the elemental analysis is confirmed, oxygen permeation analysis will be carried out.

  9. Metallic Membranes for High Temperature Hydrogen Separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Y.H.; Catalano, Jacopo; Guazzone, Federico

    2013-01-01

    membrane fabrication methods have matured over the last decades, and the deposition of very thin films (1–5 µm) of Pd over porous ceramics or modified porous metal supports is quite common. The H2 permeances and the selectivities achieved at 400–500 °C were in the order of 50–100 Nm3/m/h/bar0.5 and greater......Composite palladium membranes have extensively been studied in laboratories and, more recently, in small pilot industrial applications for the high temperature separation of hydrogen from reactant mixtures such as water-gas shift (WGS) reaction or methane steam reforming (MSR). Composite Pd...... than 1000, respectively. This chapter describes in detail composite Pd-based membrane preparation methods, which consist of the grading of the support and the deposition of the dense metal layer, their performances, and their applications in catalytic membrane reactors (CMRs) at high temperatures (400...

  10. Oxygen Transfer Model for a Flow-Through Hollow-Fiber Membrane Biofilm Reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilmore, K. R.; Little, J. C.; Smets, Barth F.

    2009-01-01

    overpredicted the oxygen transfer by a factor of 1.3 relative to the result calculated from the outlet gas oxygen concentration, which was considered the most accurate of the measured benchmarks. A mass transfer coefficient derived from the clean water testing with oxygen sensors at the membrane......-liquid interface was the most accurate of the predictive models (overpredicted by a factor of 1.1) while a coefficient determined by measuring bulk liquid dissolved oxygen underpredicted the oxygen transfer by a factor of 3. The mechanistic model was found to be an adequate tool for design because it used...

  11. Exergy analysis of a hydrogen fired combined cycle with natural gas reforming and membrane assisted shift reactors for CO2 capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atsonios, K.; Panopoulos, K.D.; Doukelis, A.; Koumanakos, A.; Kakaras, Em.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Exergy analysis of NGCC with CCS. ► WGS-MR: exergetically efficient technology for CCS, less than 2% total exergy losses. ► 10% of total exergy dissipation in the ATR. ► Optimization of ATR operation and CO 2 stream treatment. - Abstract: Hydrogen production from fossil fuels together with carbon capture has been suggested as a means of providing a carbon free power. The paper presents a comparative exergetic analysis performed on the hydrogen production from natural gas with several combinations of reactor systems: (a) oxy or air fired autothermal reforming with subsequent water gas shift reactor and (b) membrane reactor assisted with shift catalysts. The influence of reactor temperature and pressure as well as operating parameter steam-to-carbon ratio, is also studied exergetically. The results indicate optimal power plant configurations with CO 2 capture, or hydrogen delivery for industrial applications.

  12. Experimental study of lactose hydrolysis and separation in cstr-uf membrane reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Namvar-Mahboub

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of processing conditions on the performance of continuous stirred tank -ultrafiltration (CSTR-UF in dead - end mode was investigated. An UF membrane with a molecular weight cutoff of 3 kDa made of regenerated cellulose material was used to separate enzyme from products. The effect of operating pressure ranging between 2 and 5 bar and time on the performance of the CSTR-UF system was studied. The experiments were performed with a 0.139 molar aqueous solution of lactose as feed. According to the experimental data, the lactose concentration in the permeate decreased with time due to concentration polarization and hydrolysis. It was found that the rejection factor of lactose increases from 33 to 77% with time from 5 to 85 min. Permeation flux of the membrane was evaluated in terms of pure water flux (PWF and lactose aqueous solution. Results showed that a high operating pressure led to a high permeation flux for both mentioned cases. Also, adding lactose and enzyme to pure water caused a reduction of the permeation flux due to concentration polarization.

  13. Retrofitting the Structure of the Catalytic Cracking Reactor, from Petrobrazi Refinery, Ploieşti by Transforming the Steel Structure into a Moment Resisting Frame and Enhancing the Damping of the Structure by Means of Viscous Dampers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilescu Ionuţ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper presents the structural and seismic retrofit solution for the structure of the Catalytic Cracking Reactor, from Petrobrazi Refinery, Ploiești, Romania. The spatial truss type steel structure was designed and built during 1965-1968, following United States codes of that time. The capacity of the reactor is intended to be increased, thus its weight increases by approx. 43%. The retrofit solution had to take into consideration many criteria, not only technical, but also technological. After analyzing several possibilities, it was decided that the only feasible solution in order to fulfill all these requirements was to significantly increase the viscous damping of the structure – by introducing viscous dampers in its diagonals, accompanied by the strengthening of steel structure and changing the structural system into a moment resisting frame.

  14. Water reuse by membrane bioreactors (MBR); Reutilizacion de agua depurada mediante reactores biologicos de membrana (MBR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, G.; Huete, E.; Martinez, L. C.; Torres, A.

    2010-07-01

    This paper shows an up-to date overview of the use of membrane bioreactor (MBR) to obtain water treated for reusing it. Considering the existing rules. it has been presented a summary of published studies in which the quality of the effluent is analyzed in terms on physico-chemical and biological parameters. Furthermore, MBR results are compared with the conventional treatment ones. Due to the suitability of MBR technology for removing pathogens, particular attention has been paid to disinfection process and the mechanism that govern it. Results from reviewed studies of MBR have showed equal or better quality of water treated than conventional treatments (activated sludge plus disinfection tertiary treatment by the addition of antibacterial agents). (Author) 32 refs.

  15. Photocatalytic Membrane Reactor for the Removal of C.I. Disperse Red 73

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Buscio

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available After the dyeing process, part of the dyes used to color textile materials are not fixed into the substrate and are discharged into wastewater as residual dyes. In this study, a heterogeneous photocatalytic process combined with microfiltration has been investigated for the removal of C.I. Disperse Red 73 from synthetic textile effluents. The titanium dioxide (TiO2 Aeroxide P25 was selected as photocatalyst. The photocatalytic treatment achieved between 60% and 90% of dye degradation and up to 98% chemical oxygen demand (COD removal. The influence of different parameters on photocatalytic degradation was studied: pH, initial photocatalyst loading, and dye concentration. The best conditions for dye degradation were pH 4, an initial dye concentration of 50 mg·L−1, and a TiO2 loading of 2 g·L−1. The photocatalytic membrane treatment provided a high quality permeate, which can be reused.

  16. Monitoring and modeling of nitrogen conversions in membrane-aerated biofilm reactors: Effects of intermittent aeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Yunjie

    Nitrogen can be removed from sewage by a variety of physicochemical and biological processes. Due to the high removal efficiency and relatively low costs, biological processes have been widely adopted for treating nitrogen-rich wastewaters. Among the biological technologies, biofilm processes show...... the membrane, whilst NH4+ is provid-ed from the bulk liquid phase. The counter substrate supply not only offers flexible aeration control, but also supports the development of a unique mi-crobial community and spatial structure inside the biofilm. In this study, lab-scale MABRs were operated under two types...... relevant biological N2O production pathways. Sensitive kinetic parameters were estimated with long-term bulk performance data. With the calibrated model, roles of HB and AnAOB were discussed and evaluated in mitigating N2O emissions in auto-trophic nitrogen removal MABRs. Moreover, I developed a 1-D...

  17. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Yoshihiro; Hosomi, Kenji; Otonari, Jun-ichiro.

    1997-01-01

    In the present invention, a catalyst for oxidizing hydrogen to be disposed in a reactor container upon rupture of pipelines of a reactor primary coolant system is prevented from deposition of water droplets formed from a reactor container spray to suppress elevation of hydrogen concentration in the reactor container. Namely, a catalytic combustion gas concentration control system comprises a catalyst for oxidizing hydrogen and a support thereof. In addition, there is also disposed a water droplet deposition-preventing means for preventing deposition of water droplets in a reactor pressure vessel on the catalyst. Then, the effect of the catalyst upon catalytic oxidation reaction of hydrogen can be kept high. The local elevation of hydrogen concentration can be prevented even upon occurrence of such a phenomenon that various kinds of mobile forces in the container such as dry well cooling system are lost. (I.S.)

  18. Degradation of organic pollutants by an integrated photo-Fenton-like catalysis/immersed membrane separation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan, E-mail: jiedeng05@sina.com [School of Environment, Guang Xi University, Nanning 530004 (China); School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Xiong, Ya [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Tang, Yankui; Wang, Yinghui [School of Environment, Guang Xi University, Nanning 530004 (China)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: ► The photo-Fenton-like reaction and membrane separation was coupled. ► FeVO{sub 4} was used as catalyst in the PFM reactor. ► Dynamics simulation would direct the actual application of the reactor. -- Abstract: To resolve the continuously reuse problem of fine catalysts, a new reactor was investigated by coupling the heterogeneous photo-Fenton-like oxidation with membrane separation. The reactor consisted of a Xe lamp, a submerged membrane module and FeVO{sub 4} as catalyst with high activity. Results showed that the catalyst was successfully left in the reactor. It was proved by the kinetics study of membrane fouling that the avoidless membrane fouling was brought mainly by surface cake, at catalyst concentration of 4 g/L, it accounted for more than 90% of the total resistance. The kinetics study of catalytic degradation of AO II under sub-critical flux showed the optimal concentration of catalyst was 0.5 g/L and under this concentration the membrane fouling was negligible. For a residence time of 60 min, the degradation efficiency of AO II reached more than 99% and the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency was as high as 91%. The model of continuous stirred tank reactor could predict well for the degradation which was consistent with hydrodynamics study. Moreover, the PFM reactor shows a long-term behavior with both membrane and catalyst in it and merits consideration for scaled-up trials.

  19. Reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Vivek; Vaz Salles, Marcos António

    2018-01-01

    The requirements for OLTP database systems are becoming ever more demanding. Domains such as finance and computer games increasingly mandate that developers be able to encode complex application logic and control transaction latencies in in-memory databases. At the same time, infrastructure...... engineers in these domains need to experiment with and deploy OLTP database architectures that ensure application scalability and maximize resource utilization in modern machines. In this paper, we propose a relational actor programming model for in-memory databases as a novel, holistic approach towards......-level function calls. In contrast to classic transactional models, however, reactors allow developers to take advantage of intra-transaction parallelism and state encapsulation in their applications to reduce latency and improve locality. Moreover, reactors enable a new degree of flexibility in database...

  20. Effect of Catalyst Pellet-Diameter and Basicity on Transesterification of Soybean Oil into Biodiesel using K2O/CaO-ZnO Catalyst over Hybrid Catalytic-Plasma Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istadi I.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed to study the effect of catalyst pellet-diameter and catalyst basicity on the transesterification process of soybean oil into biodiesel over a hybrid catalytic-plasma reactor. Various catalyst diameters (3, 5, and 7 mm were tested in this reaction system. Catalyst basicity was also examined by comparing fresh and used catalyst as well as with and without K2O promoter. All catalysts testing were performed in a hybrid plasma-catalytic reactor (dielectric barrier discharge – DBD type. From the results, the synergistic effects roles of the catalyst and the plasma in the transesterification process are important, in which the energetic electrons within plasma assist the reaction on the catalyst surface by an exciting bonded electron. The catalyst basicity was influenced by the composition of CaO on the catalyst as well as roles of the alkaline K2O promoter. Catalyst basicity is important in producing biodiesel with high performance. Yield of fatty acid alkyl ester (FAAE or biodiesel is slightly influenced by the catalyst diameter within the range of diameter studied.

  1. Design of water detritiation system for fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Bo; Wang Heyi; Liu Yunnu; Guan Rui

    2006-01-01

    The water detritiation system (WDS) of tritium plant for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) was designed. The concept of the Combined Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange and Gas Chromatography (CECE-GC) process was selected for the system and subsystems' descriptions of the WDS. ITER-WDS is characterised from the present demonstration system by rejecting the use of a recombiner and alkali electrolyzer, but a solid polymer electrolyzer (SPE) and a Pd/Ag membrane permeator system are adopted to recover tritium. (authors)

  2. Pyrosequencing analysis yields comprehensive assessment of microbial communities in pilot-scale two-stage membrane biofilm reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontiveros-Valencia, Aura; Tang, Youneng; Zhao, He-Ping; Friese, David; Overstreet, Ryan; Smith, Jennifer; Evans, Patrick; Rittmann, Bruce E; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa

    2014-07-01

    We studied the microbial community structure of pilot two-stage membrane biofilm reactors (MBfRs) designed to reduce nitrate (NO3(-)) and perchlorate (ClO4(-)) in contaminated groundwater. The groundwater also contained oxygen (O2) and sulfate (SO4(2-)), which became important electron sinks that affected the NO3(-) and ClO4(-) removal rates. Using pyrosequencing, we elucidated how important phylotypes of each "primary" microbial group, i.e., denitrifying bacteria (DB), perchlorate-reducing bacteria (PRB), and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), responded to changes in electron-acceptor loading. UniFrac, principal coordinate analysis (PCoA), and diversity analyses documented that the microbial community of biofilms sampled when the MBfRs had a high acceptor loading were phylogenetically distant from and less diverse than the microbial community of biofilm samples with lower acceptor loadings. Diminished acceptor loading led to SO4(2-) reduction in the lag MBfR, which allowed Desulfovibrionales (an SRB) and Thiothrichales (sulfur-oxidizers) to thrive through S cycling. As a result of this cooperative relationship, they competed effectively with DB/PRB phylotypes such as Xanthomonadales and Rhodobacterales. Thus, pyrosequencing illustrated that while DB, PRB, and SRB responded predictably to changes in acceptor loading, a decrease in total acceptor loading led to important shifts within the "primary" groups, the onset of other members (e.g., Thiothrichales), and overall greater diversity.

  3. Application of acidogenic fixed-bed reactor prior to anaerobic membrane bioreactor for sustainable slaughterhouse wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddoud, Ahlem; Sayadi, Sami

    2007-11-19

    High rate anaerobic treatment systems such as anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AMBR) are less popular for slaughterhouse wastewater due to the presence of high fat oil and suspended matters in the effluent. This affects the performance and efficiency of the treatment system. In this work, AMBR has been tried for slaughterhouse wastewater treatment. After the start up period, the reactor was operated with an average organic loading rate (OLR) of 4.37 kg TCODm(-3)d(-1) with gradual increase to an average of 13.27 kg TCODm(-3)d(-1). At stable conditions, the treatment efficiency was high with an average COD and BOD(5) reduction of 93.7 and 93.96%, respectively. However, a reduction in the AMBR performance was shown with the increase of the OLR to 16.32 kg TCODm(-3)d(-1). The removal efficiencies of SCOD and BOD(5) were drastically decreased to below 53.6 and 73.3%, respectively. The decrease of the AMBR performance was due to the accumulation of VFAs. Thus, a new integrated system composed of a FBR for the acidogenesis step followed by the AMBR for methanogenesis step was developed. At high ORL, the integrated system improved the performance of the anaerobic digestion and it successfully overcame the VFA accumulation problem in the AMBR. The anaerobic treatment led to a total removal of all tested pathogens. Thus, the microbiological quality of treated wastewater fits largely with WHO guidelines.

  4. Application of acidogenic fixed-bed reactor prior to anaerobic membrane bioreactor for sustainable slaughterhouse wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saddoud, Ahlem; Sayadi, Sami

    2007-01-01

    High rate anaerobic treatment systems such as anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AMBR) are less popular for slaughterhouse wastewater due to the presence of high fat oil and suspended matters in the effluent. This affects the performance and efficiency of the treatment system. In this work, AMBR has been tried for slaughterhouse wastewater treatment. After the start up period, the reactor was operated with an average organic loading rate (OLR) of 4.37 kg TCOD m -3 d -1 with gradual increase to an average of 13.27 kg TCOD m -3 d -1 . At stable conditions, the treatment efficiency was high with an average COD and BOD 5 reduction of 93.7 and 93.96%, respectively. However, a reduction in the AMBR performance was shown with the increase of the OLR to 16.32 kg TCOD m -3 d -1 . The removal efficiencies of SCOD and BOD 5 were drastically decreased to below 53.6 and 73.3%, respectively. The decrease of the AMBR performance was due to the accumulation of VFAs. Thus, a new integrated system composed of a FBR for the acidogenesis step followed by the AMBR for methanogenesis step was developed. At high ORL, the integrated system improved the performance of the anaerobic digestion and it successfully overcame the VFA accumulation problem in the AMBR. The anaerobic treatment led to a total removal of all tested pathogens. Thus, the microbiological quality of treated wastewater fits largely with WHO guidelines

  5. Simultaneous enrichment of denitrifying anaerobic methane-oxidizing microorganisms and anammox bacteria in a hollow-fiber membrane biofilm reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhao-Wei; Lu, Yong-Ze; Fu, Liang; Ding, Jing; Zeng, Raymond J

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the coculture system of denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation (DAMO) microbes and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria was successfully enriched in a hollow-fiber membrane biofilm reactor (HfMBR) using freshwater sediment as the inoculum. The maximal removal rates of nitrate and ammonium were 78 mg N/L/day (131 mg N/m 2 /day) and 26 mg N/L/day (43 mg N/m 2 /day), respectively. Due to the high rate of methane mass transfer in HfMBR, the activity of DAMO archaea continued to increase during the enrichment period, indicating that HfMBR could be a powerful tool to enrich DAMO microorganisms. Effects of partial methane pressure, temperature, and pH on the cocultures were obvious. However, the microbial activity in HfMBR could be recovered quickly after the shock change of environmental factors. Furthermore, the result also found that DAMO bacteria likely had a stronger competitive advantage than anammox bacteria under the operating conditions in this study. High-throughput sequencing 16S rRNA genes illustrated that the dominant microbes were NC10, Euryarchaeota, Proteobacteria, Planctomycetes, and Chlorobi with relative abundance of 38.8, 26.2, 13.78, 6.2, and 3.6 %, respectively.

  6. Investigation on the conditions mitigating membrane fouling caused by TiO2 deposition in a membrane photocatalytic reactor (MPR) used for dye wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damodar, Rahul-Ashok; You, Sheng-Jie; Chiou, Guan-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The charge differences between particle and membrane accelerate the intensity of fouling and binding of TiO 2 particles. ► Severe fouling at pH 5 and low fouling at pH ≥ 7 at all flux conditions. ► The presence of a very thin TiO 2 cake layer can alter the hydrophilicity of the membrane surface. ► The resistance offered by dense TiO 2 cake layer could dominate the hydrophilic effect of TiO 2 particles. - Abstract: In this study, the effects of MPR's operating conditions such as permeate flux, solution pH, and membrane hydrophobicity on separation characteristics and membrane fouling caused by TiO 2 deposition were investigated. The extent of fouling was measured in terms of TMP and tank turbidity variation. The results showed that, at mildly acidic conditions (pH ∼ 5), the turbidity within the tank decreased and the extent of turbidity drop increased with increasing flux for all the membranes. On the other hand, at pH ≥ 7, the turbidity remained constant at all flux and for all membranes tested. The fouling variation at different pH was closely linked with the surface charge (zeta potential) and hydrophilicity of both membrane and particles. It was observed that the charge differences between the particles and membranes accelerate the intensity of fouling and binding of TiO 2 particles on the membrane surface under different pH conditions. The presence of a very thin layer of TiO 2 can alter the hydrophilicity of the membranes and can slightly decrease the TMP (filtration resistance) of the fouled membranes. Besides, the resistance offered by the dense TiO 2 cake layer would dominate this hydrophilic effect of TiO 2 particles, and it may not alter the filtration resistance of the fouled membranes.

  7. Catalytic treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindley, W T.R.

    1931-04-18

    An apparatus is described for the catalytic treatment of liquids, semi-liquids, and gases comprising a vessel into which the liquid, semi-liquid, or gas to be treated is introduced through a common inlet to a chamber within the vessel whence it passes to contact with a catalyst through radially arranged channels or passages to a common outlet chamber.

  8. The effect of hydraulic retention time on the performance and fouling characteristics of membrane sequencing batch reactors used for the treatment of synthetic petroleum refinery wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariati, Seyed Ramin Pajoum; Bonakdarpour, Babak; Zare, Nasim; Ashtiani, Farzin Zokaee

    2011-09-01

    The use of membrane sequencing batch reactors, operated at HRT of 8, 16 and 24h, was considered for the treatment of a synthetic petroleum wastewater. Increase in HRT resulted in statistically significant decrease in MLSS. Removal efficiencies higher than 97% were found for the three model hydrocarbon pollutants at all HRTs, with air stripping making a small contribution to overall removal. Particle size distribution (PSD) and microscopic analysis showed reduction in the protozoan populations in the activated sludge with decreasing HRT. PSD analysis also showed a higher proportion of larger and smaller sized particles at the lowest HRT. The rate of membrane fouling was found to increase with decreasing HRT; SMP, especially carbohydrate SMP, and mixed liquor apparent viscosity also showed a pronounced increase with decreasing HRT, whereas the concentration of EPS and its components decreased. FTIR analysis identified organic compounds as the main component of membrane pore fouling. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujibayashi, Toru.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To provide a boiling water reactor which can enhance a quake resisting strength and flatten power distribution. Structure: At least more than four fuel bundles, in which a plurality of fuel rods are arranged in lattice fashion which upper and lower portions are supported by tie-plates, are bundled and then covered by a square channel box. The control rod is movably arranged within a space formed by adjoining channel boxes. A spacer of trapezoidal section is disposed in the central portion on the side of the channel box over substantially full length in height direction, and a neutron instrumented tube is disposed in the central portion inside the channel box. Thus, where a horizontal load is exerted due to earthquake or the like, the spacers come into contact with each other to support the channel box and prevent it from abnormal vibrations. (Furukawa, Y.)

  10. Application of acidogenic fixed-bed reactor prior to anaerobic membrane bioreactor for sustainable slaughterhouse wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saddoud, Ahlem [Laboratoire des Bio-procedes, Centre de Biotechnologie de Sfax, BP: K, Sfax 3038 (Tunisia); Sayadi, Sami [Laboratoire des Bio-procedes, Centre de Biotechnologie de Sfax, BP: K, Sfax 3038 (Tunisia)], E-mail: sami.sayadi@cbs.rnrt.tn

    2007-11-19

    High rate anaerobic treatment systems such as anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AMBR) are less popular for slaughterhouse wastewater due to the presence of high fat oil and suspended matters in the effluent. This affects the performance and efficiency of the treatment system. In this work, AMBR has been tried for slaughterhouse wastewater treatment. After the start up period, the reactor was operated with an average organic loading rate (OLR) of 4.37 kg TCOD m{sup -3} d{sup -1} with gradual increase to an average of 13.27 kg TCOD m{sup -3} d{sup -1}. At stable conditions, the treatment efficiency was high with an average COD and BOD{sub 5} reduction of 93.7 and 93.96%, respectively. However, a reduction in the AMBR performance was shown with the increase of the OLR to 16.32 kg TCOD m{sup -3} d{sup -1}. The removal efficiencies of SCOD and BOD{sub 5} were drastically decreased to below 53.6 and 73.3%, respectively. The decrease of the AMBR performance was due to the accumulation of VFAs. Thus, a new integrated system composed of a FBR for the acidogenesis step followed by the AMBR for methanogenesis step was developed. At high ORL, the integrated system improved the performance of the anaerobic digestion and it successfully overcame the VFA accumulation problem in the AMBR. The anaerobic treatment led to a total removal of all tested pathogens. Thus, the microbiological quality of treated wastewater fits largely with WHO guidelines.

  11. Sulfamethoxazole in poultry wastewater: Identification, treatability and degradation pathway determination in a membrane-photocatalytic slurry reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asha, Raju C; Kumar, Mathava

    2015-01-01

    The presence of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) in a real-time poultry wastewater was identified via HPLC analysis. Subsequently, SMX removal from the poultry wastewater was investigated using a continuous-mode membrane-photocatalytic slurry reactor (MPSR). The real-time poultry wastewater was found to have an SMX concentration of 0-2.3 mg L(-1). A granular activated carbon supported TiO2 (GAC-TiO2) was synthesized, characterized and used in MPSR experiments. The optimal MPSR condition, i.e., HRT ∼ 125 min and catalyst dosage 529.3 mg L(-1), for complete SMX removal was found out using unconstrained optimization technique. Under the optimized condition, the effect of SMX concentration on MPSR performance was investigated by synthetic addition of SMX (i.e., 1, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg L(-1)) into the wastewater. Interestingly, complete removals of total volatile solids (TVS), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and SMX were observed under all SMX concentrations investigated. However, a decline in SMX removal rate and proportionate increase in transmembrane-pressure (TMP) were observed when the SMX concentration was increased to higher levels. In the MPSR, the SMX mineralization was through one of the following degradation pathways: (i) fragmentation of the isoxazole ring and (ii) the elimination of methyl and amide moieties followed by the formation of phenyl sulfinate ion. These results show that the continuous-mode MPSR has great potential in the removal for SMX contaminated real-time poultry wastewater and similar organic micropollutants from wastewater.

  12. A new degassing membrane coupled upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor to achieve in-situ biogas upgrading and recovery of dissolved CH4 from the anaerobic effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Gang; Wang, Wen; Angelidaki, Irini

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new UASB configuration was developed by coupling with degassing membrane. • In-situ biogas upgrading was achieved with high methane content (>90%). • Decrease of dissolved methane in the anaerobic effluent was achieved. - Abstract: A new technology for in-situ biogas upgrading and recovery of CH 4 from the effluent of biogas reactors was proposed and demonstrated in this study. A vacuum degassing membrane module was used to desorb CO 2 from the liquid phase of a biogas reactor. The degassing membrane was submerged into a degassing unit (DU). The results from batch experiments showed that mixing intensity, transmembrane pressure, pH and inorganic carbon concentration affected the CO 2 desorption rate in the DU. Then, the DU was directly connected to an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. The results showed the CH 4 content was only 51.7% without desorption of CO 2 , while it increased when the liquid of UASB was recycled through the DU. The CH 4 content increased to 71.6%, 90%, and 94% with liquid recirculation rate through the DU of 0.21, 0.42 and 0.63 L/h, respectively. The loss of methane due to dissolution in the effluent was reduced by directly pumping the reactor effluent through the DU. In this way, the dissolved CH 4 concentration in the effluent decreased from higher than 0.94 mM to around 0.13 mM, and thus efficient recovery of CH 4 from the anaerobic effluent was achieved. In the whole operational period, the COD removal efficiency and CH 4 yield were not obviously affected by the gas desorption

  13. Non-catalytic production of fatty acid ethyl esters from soybean oil with supercritical ethanol in a two-step process using a microtube reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Camila da; Lima, Ana Paula de; Castilhos, Fernanda de; Cardozo Filho, Lucio; Oliveira, J. Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    This work reports the production of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) from the transesterification of soybean oil in supercritical ethanol in a continuous catalyst-free process using different reactor configurations. Experiments were performed in a microtube reactor with experimental simulation of two reactors operated in series and a reactor with recycle, both configurations at a constant temperature of 573 K, pressure of 20 MPa and oil to ethanol mass ratio of 1:1. Results show that the configurations studied with intermediate separation of glycerol afford higher conversions of vegetable oil to its fatty acid ethyl ester derivatives when compared to the one-step reaction, with relatively low decomposition of fatty acids (<3.0 wt%).

  14. Study for increasing the stabilization time of a catalytic dye to facilitate the fabrication of membrane electrode assemblies; Estudio para incrementar el tiempo de estabilizacion de una tinta catalitica para facilitar la fabricacion de ensambles membrana-electrodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Hernandez, J. Roberto [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)] e-mail: jrflores@iie.org.mx; Martinez Vado, F. Isaias [Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Cano Castillo, Ulises, Albarran Sanchez, Lorena [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    An infrastructure project has been underway for hydrogen technology and fuel cells at the Electrical Research Institute (IIE, Spanish acronym). Part of this project is an activity for the fabrication of membrane electrode assemblies (MEA). Currently, a fabrication process is well-established for the MEA using the spray technique. In addition, a catalytic dye base composition has been developed for use in the fabrication of high-quality MEA with a good degree of reproducibility. Nevertheless, the instability of the dye over time prevents continuous fabrication of MEA. This document presents the results obtained, to-date, of research conducted at the IIE aimed at increasing the stability of the catalytic dye by adding a surfactant with different concentrations and increasing the concentration of the Nafion® solution. It was found that the effect of adding the surfactant to the catalytic dye results in a qualitative decrease in the agglomerate sizes, while also decreasing the porosity of the dye once it has dried. In addition, it was found that increasing the amount of Nafion® in the catalytic die increases the porosity. [Spanish] En el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) se ha venido trabajando en un proyecto de infraestructura sobre la tecnologia de hidrogeno y celdas de combustible. Dentro de este proyecto se tiene una actividad orientada a la fabricacion de Ensambles Membrana-Electrodo (MEA's). Actualmente se tiene un proceso de fabricacion bien establecido para la elaboracion de MEA's utilizando la tecnica de rociado, asimismo, se tiene una composicion base de tinta catalitica con la cual se fabrican MEA's de buena calidad y con buen grado de reproducibilidad. Sin embargo, la inestabilidad de la tinta con respecto al tiempo impide tener una fabricacion continua de los MEA's. En este documento se presentan los resultados obtenidos hasta ahora de una investigacion que se realiza en el IIE orientada a incrementar la estabilidad de la

  15. Investigation on the conditions mitigating membrane fouling caused by TiO{sub 2} deposition in a membrane photocatalytic reactor (MPR) used for dye wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damodar, Rahul-Ashok [Department of Bioenvironmental Engineering and R and D Center for Membrane Technology, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung li 320, Taiwan, ROC (China); You, Sheng-Jie, E-mail: sjyou@cycu.edu.tw [Department of Bioenvironmental Engineering and R and D Center for Membrane Technology, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung li 320, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chiou, Guan-Wei [Department of Civil Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung li 320, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The charge differences between particle and membrane accelerate the intensity of fouling and binding of TiO{sub 2} particles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Severe fouling at pH 5 and low fouling at pH {>=} 7 at all flux conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The presence of a very thin TiO{sub 2} cake layer can alter the hydrophilicity of the membrane surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The resistance offered by dense TiO{sub 2} cake layer could dominate the hydrophilic effect of TiO{sub 2} particles. - Abstract: In this study, the effects of MPR's operating conditions such as permeate flux, solution pH, and membrane hydrophobicity on separation characteristics and membrane fouling caused by TiO{sub 2} deposition were investigated. The extent of fouling was measured in terms of TMP and tank turbidity variation. The results showed that, at mildly acidic conditions (pH {approx} 5), the turbidity within the tank decreased and the extent of turbidity drop increased with increasing flux for all the membranes. On the other hand, at pH {>=} 7, the turbidity remained constant at all flux and for all membranes tested. The fouling variation at different pH was closely linked with the surface charge (zeta potential) and hydrophilicity of both membrane and particles. It was observed that the charge differences between the particles and membranes accelerate the intensity of fouling and binding of TiO{sub 2} particles on the membrane surface under different pH conditions. The presence of a very thin layer of TiO{sub 2} can alter the hydrophilicity of the membranes and can slightly decrease the TMP (filtration resistance) of the fouled membranes. Besides, the resistance offered by the dense TiO{sub 2} cake layer would dominate this hydrophilic effect of TiO{sub 2} particles, and it may not alter the filtration resistance of the fouled membranes.

  16. Analysis of Microbial Communities in Biofilms from CSTR-Type Hollow Fiber Membrane Biofilm Reactors for Autotrophic Nitrification and Hydrogenotrophic Denitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jung-Hun; Kim, Byung-Chun; Choi, Okkyoung; Kim, Hyunook; Sang, Byoung-In

    2015-10-01

    Two hollow fiber membrane biofilm reactors (HF-MBfRs) were operated for autotrophic nitrification and hydrogenotrophic denitrification for over 300 days. Oxygen and hydrogen were supplied through the hollow fiber membrane for nitrification and denitrification, respectively. During the period, the nitrogen was removed with the efficiency of 82-97% for ammonium and 87-97% for nitrate and with the nitrogen removal load of 0.09-0.26 kg NH4(+)-N/m(3)/d and 0.10-0.21 kg NO3(-)-N/m(3)/d, depending on hydraulic retention time variation by the two HF-MBfRs for autotrophic nitrification and hydrogenotrophic denitrification, respectively. Biofilms were collected from diverse topological positions in the reactors, each at different nitrogen loading rates, and the microbial communities were analyzed with partial 16S rRNA gene sequences in denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Detected DGGE band sequences in the reactors were correlated with nitrification or denitrification. The profile of the DGGE bands depended on the NH4(+) or NO3(-) loading rate, but it was hard to find a major strain affecting the nitrogen removal efficiency. Nitrospira-related phylum was detected in all biofilm samples from the nitrification reactors. Paracoccus sp. and Aquaspirillum sp., which are an autohydrogenotrophic bacterium and an oligotrophic denitrifier, respectively, were observed in the denitrification reactors. The distribution of microbial communities was relatively stable at different nitrogen loading rates, and DGGE analysis based on 16S rRNA (341f /534r) could successfully detect nitrate-oxidizing and hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria but not ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in the HF-MBfRs.

  17. FY 1998 annual report on the decomposition/removal of harmful compounds in the gaseous phase by porous membrane provided with a catalytic function; 1998 nendo shokubai kinotsuki fuyo takomaku ni yoru kisochu yugai busshitsu no bunkai jokyo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Harmful compounds, e.g., dioxins and nitrogen oxides, released into the air are causing severer environmental problems on a global scale. In order to solve these problems, it is necessary to efficiently remove the released compounds in the vicinity of the living environments, while preventing, as far as possible, their formation at the sources. An attempt has been made to develop porous membranes impregnated with composites of a variety of metallic oxides showing activities as photocatalysts and for dark reactions by the ion engineering method, in order to drastically solve the above problems. Described herein are the FY 1998 results. Thin films of various titanium oxide crystals (anatase, rutile, and their combinations) are formed on Si substrates by the ion engineering method, as the photocatalysts for decomposition of aldehyde and water (for hydrogen production), to validate the optimum crystalline structures for the photocatalysis. Porous bodies of Ni and carbon are also impregnated with anatase TiO{sub 2} for decomposition of harmful gaseous compounds and water, to validate the effects of the porous membranes provided with catalytic functions. (NEDO)

  18. A new degassing membrane coupled upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor to achieve in-situ biogas upgrading and recovery of dissolved CH4 from the anaerobic effluent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Gang; Wang, Wen; Angelidaki, Irini

    2014-01-01

    A new technology for in-situ biogas upgrading and recovery of CH4 from the effluent of biogas reactors was proposed and demonstrated in this study. A vacuum degassing membrane module was used to desorb CO2 from the liquid phase of a biogas reactor. The degassing membrane was submerged...... into a degassing unit (DU). The results from batch experiments showed that mixing intensity, transmembrane pressure, pH and inorganic carbon concentration affected the CO2 desorption rate in the DU. Then, the DU was directly connected to an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. The results showed the CH4...... content was only 51.7% without desorption of CO2, while it increased when the liquid of UASB was recycled through the DU. The CH4 content increased to 71.6%, 90%, and 94% with liquid recirculation rate through the DU of 0.21, 0.42 and 0.63L/h, respectively. The loss of methane due to dissolution...

  19. Influence of air scouring on the performance of a Self Forming Dynamic Membrane BioReactor (SFD MBR) for municipal wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Carlo; Vergine, Pompilio; Berardi, Giovanni; Pollice, Alfieri

    2017-01-01

    The Membrane BioReactor (MBR) is a well-established filtration-based technology for wastewater treatment. Despite the high quality of the effluent produced, one of the main drawbacks of the MBR is membrane fouling. In this context, a possible evolution towards systems having potentially lower installation and operating costs is the Self Forming Dynamic Membrane BioReactor (SFD MBR). Key of this technology is the self-formation of a biological filtering layer on a support of inert material. In this work, a lab-scale aerobic SFD MBR equipped with a nylon mesh was operated at approximately 95Lm -2 h -1 . Two mesh pore sizes (20 and 50μm) and three air scouring flow rates (150, 250, and 500mL air min -1 ) were tested at steady state. Under all the tested conditions, the SFD MBR effectively treated real municipal wastewater. The quality of the produced effluent increased for lower mesh size and lower air scouring intensity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Association with the Plasma Membrane Is Sufficient for Potentiating Catalytic Activity of Regulators of G Protein Signaling (RGS) Proteins of the R7 Subfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntean, Brian S; Martemyanov, Kirill A

    2016-03-25

    Regulators of G protein Signaling (RGS) promote deactivation of heterotrimeric G proteins thus controlling the magnitude and kinetics of responses mediated by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). In the nervous system, RGS7 and RGS9-2 play essential role in vision, reward processing, and movement control. Both RGS7 and RGS9-2 belong to the R7 subfamily of RGS proteins that form macromolecular complexes with R7-binding protein (R7BP). R7BP targets RGS proteins to the plasma membrane and augments their GTPase-accelerating protein (GAP) activity, ultimately accelerating deactivation of G protein signaling. However, it remains unclear if R7BP serves exclusively as a membrane anchoring subunit or further modulates RGS proteins to increase their GAP activity. To directly answer this question, we utilized a rapidly reversible chemically induced protein dimerization system that enabled us to control RGS localization independent from R7BP in living cells. To monitor kinetics of Gα deactivation, we coupled this strategy with measuring changes in the GAP activity by bioluminescence resonance energy transfer-based assay in a cellular system containing μ-opioid receptor. This approach was used to correlate changes in RGS localization and activity in the presence or absence of R7BP. Strikingly, we observed that RGS activity is augmented by membrane recruitment, in an orientation independent manner with no additional contributions provided by R7BP. These findings argue that the association of R7 RGS proteins with the membrane environment provides a major direct contribution to modulation of their GAP activity. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Continuous production of lactic acid from molasses by perfusion culture of Lactococcus lactis using a stirred ceramic membrane reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, R; Yamamoto, T; Suzuki, T

    1999-01-01

    A perfusion culture system was used for continuous production of lactic acid by retaining cells at a high density of Lactococcus lactis in a stirred ceramic membrane reactor (SCMR). After the cell concentration increased to 248 g/l, half of the culture broth volume was replaced with the fermentation medium. Subsequently, a substrate solution containing glucose (run 1) or molasses (run 2) was continuously supplied to the cells retained in the SCMR. Simultaneously, the culture supernatant was extracted using a ceramic filter with a pore size of 0.2 mum. The dilution rate was initially set at 0.4 h(-1) and gradually decreased to 0.2 h(-1) due to reduction in the permeability of the filter. The concentration of glucose in the substrate solution was adjusted to 60 g/l for the transition and the first period until 240 h, 90 g/l for the second period from 240 h to 440 h, and 70 g/l for the third period from 440 h to 643 h. The average concentration of lactic acid in the filtrate reached 46 g/l in the first period, 43 g/l in the second period, and 33 g/l for the third period. The productivity obtained for the first period reached 15.8 g.l(-1).h(-1), twice as much as that achieved in repeated batch fermentations. Based on the results obtained in run 1, the substrate solution containing 120 g/l of molasses was continuously supplied for 240 h in run 2. The concentration and productivity of lactic acid reached 40 g/l and 10.6 g.l(-1).h(-1), respectively, by continuously replenishing the culture medium at a dilution rate of 0.26 h(-1). These results demonstrated that the filtration capacity of the SCMR was sufficient for a continuous and rapid replenishment of molasses solution from the dense cell culture and, therefore, the perfusion culture system is considered to provide a low-cost process for continuous production of lactic acid from cheap resources.

  2. Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) Microspectroscopic System Designed for the In Situ Characterization of the Dehydrogenation Reaction Over Platinum Supported Catalytic Microchannel Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarnaba, Emee Grace Tabares; Lee, Yi Fuan; Yamada, Hiroshi; Tagawa, Tomohiko

    2016-11-01

    An ultraviolet visible (UV-Vis) microspectroscopic system was designed for the in situ characterization of the activity of the silica supported platinum (Pt) catalyst toward the dehydrogenation of 1-methyl-1,4-cyclohexadiene carried out in a custom-designed catalytic microreactor cell. The in situ catalytic microreactor cell (ICMC) with inlet/outlet ports was prepared using quartz cover as the optical window to facilitate UV-Vis observation. A fabricated thermometric stage was adapted to the UV-Vis microspectrophotometer to control the reaction temperature inside the ICMC. The spectra were collected by focusing the UV-Vis beam on a 30 × 30 µm area at the center of ICMC. At 393 K, the sequential measurement of the spectra recorded during the reaction exhibited a broad absorption peak with maximum absorbance at 260 nm that is characteristic for gaseous toluene. This result indicates that the silica supported Pt catalyst is active towards the dehydrogenation of 1-methyl-1,4-cyclohexadiene at the given experimental conditions. The onset of coke formation was also detected based on the appearance of absorption bands at 300 nm. The UV-Vis microspectroscopic system developed can be used further in studying the mechanism of the dehydrogenation reaction. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Application of hollow fiber supported liquid membrane as a chemical reactor for esterification of lactic acid and ethanol to ethyl lactate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teerachaiyapat, Thanyarutt; Ramakul, Prakorn [Faculty of Engineering and Industrial Technology, Silpakorn University, Nakhon Pathom (Thailand)

    2016-01-15

    Hollow fiber supported liquid membrane was applied as a reactor to synthesize ethyl lactate from lactic acid. Lactic acid in the feed solution was extracted by tri-n-octylamine (TOA) and stripped by ethanol with p-toluene sulfonic acid acting as the catalyst to form ethyl lactate. Central composite design (CCD) was used to determine the significant factors and their interactions. The response surface was applied for optimization. An optimized yield of 30% was predicted and its validity was evaluated by comparison with experimental results at different concentrations of lactic acid in the feed solution, with good agreement achieved.

  4. Application of hollow fiber supported liquid membrane as a chemical reactor for esterification of lactic acid and ethanol to ethyl lactate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teerachaiyapat, Thanyarutt; Ramakul, Prakorn

    2016-01-01

    Hollow fiber supported liquid membrane was applied as a reactor to synthesize ethyl lactate from lactic acid. Lactic acid in the feed solution was extracted by tri-n-octylamine (TOA) and stripped by ethanol with p-toluene sulfonic acid acting as the catalyst to form ethyl lactate. Central composite design (CCD) was used to determine the significant factors and their interactions. The response surface was applied for optimization. An optimized yield of 30% was predicted and its validity was evaluated by comparison with experimental results at different concentrations of lactic acid in the feed solution, with good agreement achieved.

  5. Design, construction and implementation of a packed reactor system to study the production of hydrogen by the catalytic reaction of reforming of oxygenated hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas Aguilar, Cesar Augusto

    2014-01-01

    The Laboratorio de Quimica Inorganica of the Universidad de Costa Rica has evaluated the performance of several types of catalysts and supports in steam reforming reactions, using different conditions for synthesis of the same. The construction of a reaction system at laboratory scale is described to improve the conditions of the reforming process compared to previous projects. Catalysts synthesized and characterized are used but providing better disposal through a packed bed reactor. The system has had the necessary instrumentation for proper measurement of the temperature at the entrance and inside the reactor, proper feeding of reactants, flow measurement and sampling and measurement system. The conceptual design of the reactions system presented has taken into account the income of reactants through a peristaltic pump, preheating or vaporization of reagents, income and measurement of carrier gas sampling, take of sampling, flow measurement product, reactor packed and cooler product. The order of each stage is defined and positioning in the entire system. The design of a preheater and a tubular reactor is detailed, taking into account the dimensions and construction materials of each of the pieces. The design is presented in a series of diagrams and then the result of the construction is illustrated by photographs, all work done also has been described. The implementation of the system has described by the coupling of all parties and the respective tests. A basic experimental plan is presented to evaluate the performance of the reaction system, using glycerin as a reactant, demonstrating ability to react and take effective data. Four experiments are performed: vacuum reactor, packed reactor with two types of filling and reactor with an exposed surface cobalt oxide (II) reduced, the gases produced in the reaction are analyzed by gas chromatography. The results are discussed and analyzed, focusing on the overall selectivity of hydrogen relative to methane, and the

  6. Water-Gas-Shift Membrane Reactor for High-Pressure Hydrogen Production. A comprehensive project report (FY2010 - FY2012)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaehn, John [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Peterson, Eric [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Orme, Christopher [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bhandari, Dhaval [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Miller, Scott [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Ku, Anthony [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Polishchuk, Kimberly [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Narang, Kristi [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Singh, Surinder [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Wei, Wei [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Shisler, Roger [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Wickersham, Paul [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); McEvoy, Kevin [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Alberts, William [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Howson, Paul [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Barton, Thomas [Western Research inst., Laramie, WY (United States); Sethi, Vijay [Western Research inst., Laramie, WY (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL), GE Global Research (GEGR), and Western Research Institute (WRI) have successfully produced hydrogen-selective membranes for water-gas-shift (WGS) modules that enable high-pressure hydrogen product streams. Several high performance (HP) polymer membranes were investigated for their gas separation performance under simulated (mixed gas) and actual syngas conditions. To enable optimal module performance, membranes with high hydrogen (H2) selectivity, permeance, and stability under WGS conditions are required. The team determined that the VTEC PI 80-051 and VTEC PI 1388 (polyimide from Richard Blaine International, Inc.) are prime candidates for the H2 gas separations at operating temperatures (~200°C). VTEC PI 80-051 was thoroughly analyzed for its H2 separations under syngas processing conditions using more-complex membrane configurations, such as tube modules and hollow fibers. These membrane formats have demonstrated that the selected VTEC membrane is capable of providing highly selective H2/CO2 separation (α = 7-9) and H2/CO separation (α = 40-80) in humidified syngas streams. In addition, the VTEC polymer membranes are resilient within the syngas environment (WRI coal gasification) at 200°C for over 1000 hours. The information within this report conveys current developments of VTEC PI 80-051 as an effective H2 gas separations membrane for high-temperature syngas streams.

  7. Comparison of the Effects of Fluidized-Bed and Fixed-Bed Reactors in Microwave-Assisted Catalytic Decomposition of TCE by Hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Ren

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichloroethylene (TCE decomposition by hydrogen with microwave heating under different reaction systems was investigated. The activities of a series of catalysts for microwave-assisted TCE hydrodechlorination were tested through the fixed-bed and the fluidized-bed reactor systems. This study found that the different reaction system is suitable for different catalyst type. And there is an interactive relationship between the catalyst type and the reaction bed type.

  8. An Integrated Membrane Process for Butenes Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Melone

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Iso-butene is an important material for the production of chemicals and polymers. It can take part in various chemical reactions, such as hydrogenation, oxidation and other additions owing to the presence of a reactive double bond. It is usually obtained as a by-product of a petroleum refinery, by Fluidized Catalytic Cracking (FCC of naphtha or gas-oil. However, an interesting alternative to iso-butene production is n-butane dehydroisomerization, which allows the direct conversion of n-butane via dehydrogenation and successive isomerization. In this work, a simulation analysis of an integrated membrane system is proposed for the production and recovery of butenes. The dehydroisomerization of n-butane to iso-butene takes place in a membrane reactor where the hydrogen is removed from the reaction side with a Pd/Ag alloys membrane. Afterwards, the retentate and permeate post-processing is performed in membrane separation units for butenes concentration and recovery. Four different process schemes are developed. The performance of each membrane unit is analyzed by appropriately developed performance maps, to identify the operating conditions windows and the membrane permeation properties required to maximize the recovery of the iso-butene produced. An analysis of integrated systems showed a yield of butenes higher than the other reaction products with high butenes recovery in the gas separation section, with values of molar concentration between 75% and 80%.

  9. The energy-saving anaerobic baffled reactor membrane bioreactor (EABR-MBR) system for recycling wastewater from a high-rise building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanatamskul, Chavalit; Charoenphol, Chakraphan

    2015-01-01

    A novel energy-saving anaerobic baffled reactor-membrane bioreactor (EABR-MBR) system has been developed as a compact biological treatment system for reuse of water from a high-rise building. The anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) compartment had five baffles and served as the anaerobic degradation zone, followed by the aerobic MBR compartment. The total operating hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the EABR-MBR system was 3 hours (2 hours for ABR compartment and very short HRT of 1 hour for aerobic MBR compartment). The wastewater came from the Charoen Wisawakam building. The results showed that treated effluent quality was quite good and highly promising for water reuse purposes. The average flux of the membrane was kept at 30 l/(m2h). The EABR-MBR system could remove chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen and total phosphorus from building wastewater by more than 90%. Moreover, it was found that phosphorus concentration was rising in the ABR compartment due to the phosphorus release phenomenon, and then the concentration decreased rapidly in the aerobic MBR compartment due to the phosphorus uptake phenomenon. This implies that phosphorus-accumulating organisms inside the EABR-MBR system are responsible for biological phosphorus removal. The research suggests that the EABR-MBR system can be a promising system for water reuse and reclamation for high-rise building application in the near future.

  10. Carbamazepine degradation using a N-doped TiO_2 coated photocatalytic membrane reactor: Influence of physical parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horovitz, Inna; Avisar, Dror; Baker, Mark A.; Grilli, Rossana; Lozzi, Luca; Di Camillo, Daniela; Mamane, Hadas

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • UV–vis N-doped TiO_2 was deposited by sol-gel onto Al_2O_3 microfiltration membranes. • Coating decreased permeability by 50 and 12% for 200- and 800-nm Al_2O_3 membranes. • Flow through membrane results in higher reaction rates compared to flow on top. • Higher vis photocatalytic activity for N-doped TiO_2 vs. non-doped TiO_2 membranes. • Mass transfer is a critical parameter for the design of immobilized PMR. - Abstract: Commercial α-Al_2O_3 photocatalytic membranes with a pore size of 200 and 800-nm were coated with N-doped TiO_2 photocatalytic film using a sol-gel technique for concurrent bottom-up filtration and photocatalytic oxidation. X-ray diffraction confirmed that the deposited N-doped TiO_2 films are in the form of anatase with 78–84% coverage of the membrane surface. The concentration of N found by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was in the range of 0.3–0.9 atomic percentage. Membrane permeability after coating decreased by 50% and 12% for the 200- and 800-nm membrane substrates, respectively. The impact of operational parameters on the photocatalytic activity (PCA) of the N-doped TiO_2-coated membranes was examined in a laboratory flow cell based on degradation of the model micropollutant carbamazepine, using a solar simulator as the light source. The significant gap in degradation rate between flow through the membrane and flow on the surface of the membrane was attributed both to the hydraulic effect and in-pore PCA. N-doped TiO_2-coated membranes showed enhanced activity for UV wavelengths, in addition to activity under visible light. Experiments of PCA under varying flow rates concluded that the process is in the mass-transfer control regime. Carbamazepine removal rate increased with temperature, despite the decrease in dissolved oxygen concentration.

  11. Carbamazepine degradation using a N-doped TiO{sub 2} coated photocatalytic membrane reactor: Influence of physical parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horovitz, Inna [School of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); The Hydro-Chemistry Laboratory, Faculty of Geography and the Environment, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Avisar, Dror [The Hydro-Chemistry Laboratory, Faculty of Geography and the Environment, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Baker, Mark A.; Grilli, Rossana [The Surface Analysis Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Lozzi, Luca; Di Camillo, Daniela [Department of Physical and Chemical Sciences, University of L' Aquila, Via Vetoio, I-67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Mamane, Hadas, E-mail: hadasmg@post.tau.ac.il [School of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2016-06-05

    Highlights: • UV–vis N-doped TiO{sub 2} was deposited by sol-gel onto Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} microfiltration membranes. • Coating decreased permeability by 50 and 12% for 200- and 800-nm Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} membranes. • Flow through membrane results in higher reaction rates compared to flow on top. • Higher vis photocatalytic activity for N-doped TiO{sub 2} vs. non-doped TiO{sub 2} membranes. • Mass transfer is a critical parameter for the design of immobilized PMR. - Abstract: Commercial α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} photocatalytic membranes with a pore size of 200 and 800-nm were coated with N-doped TiO{sub 2} photocatalytic film using a sol-gel technique for concurrent bottom-up filtration and photocatalytic oxidation. X-ray diffraction confirmed that the deposited N-doped TiO{sub 2} films are in the form of anatase with 78–84% coverage of the membrane surface. The concentration of N found by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was in the range of 0.3–0.9 atomic percentage. Membrane permeability after coating decreased by 50% and 12% for the 200- and 800-nm membrane substrates, respectively. The impact of operational parameters on the photocatalytic activity (PCA) of the N-doped TiO{sub 2}-coated membranes was examined in a laboratory flow cell based on degradation of the model micropollutant carbamazepine, using a solar simulator as the light source. The significant gap in degradation rate between flow through the membrane and flow on the surface of the membrane was attributed both to the hydraulic effect and in-pore PCA. N-doped TiO{sub 2}-coated membranes showed enhanced activity for UV wavelengths, in addition to activity under visible light. Experiments of PCA under varying flow rates concluded that the process is in the mass-transfer control regime. Carbamazepine removal rate increased with temperature, despite the decrease in dissolved oxygen concentration.

  12. Process for producing curved surface of membrane rings for large containers, particulary for prestressed concrete pressure vessels of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumpf, H.

    1977-01-01

    Membrane rings for large pressure vessels, particularly for prestressed-concrete pressure vessels, often have curved surfaces. The invention describes a process of producing these at site, which is particularly advantageous as the forming and installation of the vessel component coincide. According to the invention, the originally flat membrane ring is set in a predetermined position, is then pressed in sections by a forming tool (with a preformed support ring as opposite tool), and shaped. After this, the shaped parts are welded to the ring-shaped wall parts of the large vessel. The manufacture of single and double membrane rings arrangements is described. (HP) [de

  13. Influence of Irradiance, Flow Rate, Reactor Geometry, and Photopromoter Concentration in Mineralization Kinetics of Methane in Air and in Aqueous Solutions by Photocatalytic Membranes Immobilizing Titanium Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignazio Renato Bellobono

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Photomineralization of methane in air (10.0–1000 ppm (mass/volume of C at 100% relative humidity (dioxygen as oxygen donor was systematically studied at 318±3 K in an annular laboratory-scale reactor by photocatalytic membranes immobilizing titanium dioxide as a function of substrate concentration, absorbed power per unit length of membrane, reactor geometry, and concentration of a proprietary vanadium alkoxide as photopromoter. Kinetics of both substrate disappearance, to yield intermediates, and total organic carbon (TOC disappearance, to yield carbon dioxide, were followed. At a fixed value of irradiance (0.30 W⋅cm-1, the mineralization experiments in gaseous phase were repeated as a function of flow rate (4–400 m3⋅h−1. Moreover, at a standard flow rate of 300 m3⋅h−1, the ratio between the overall reaction volume and the length of the membrane was varied, substantially by varying the volume of reservoir, from and to which circulation of gaseous stream took place. Photomineralization of methane in aqueous solutions was also studied, in the same annular reactor and in the same conditions, but in a concentration range of 0.8–2.0 ppm of C, and by using stoichiometric hydrogen peroxide as an oxygen donor. A kinetic model was employed, from which, by a set of differential equations, four final optimised parameters, k1 and K1, k2 and K2, were calculated, which is able to fit the whole kinetic profile adequately. The influence of irradiance on k1 and k2, as well as of flow rate on K1 and K2, is rationalized. The influence of reactor geometry on k values is discussed in view of standardization procedures of photocatalytic experiments. Modeling of quantum yields, as a function of substrate concentration and irradiance, as well as of concentration of photopromoter, was carried out very satisfactorily. Kinetics of hydroxyl radicals reacting between themselves, leading to hydrogen peroxide, other than with substrate or

  14. Optimized coupling of a submerged membrane electro-bioreactor with pre-anaerobic reactors containing anode electrodes for wastewater treatment and fouling reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Taghipour

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the performance of a submerged membrane electro-bioreactor with pre-anaerobic reactors containing anode electrodes (SMEBR+ was compared with that of a membrane bioreactor (MBR in municipal wastewater treatment. The new design idea of the SMEBR+ was based on applications of direct current (DC on the anode and cathode electrodes. The pilot study was divided into 2 stages and operated for 48 days. In Stage I, the MBR was continuously operated for 24 days without the application of electrodes. In Stage II, the SMEBR+ was continuously operated for 24 days, while aluminum electrodes and an intermittent DC were working with an operational mode of 2 min ON/4 min OFF at a constant voltage of 1.4 V. The results indicated that membrane fouling was reduced by nearly 22.02% in the SMEBR+ compared to the MBR. The results also showed that the SMEBR+ increased the quality of effluent to the extent that high removals of NH3+-N, PO43−-P, and chemical oxygen demand (COD were 98%, 76%, and 90%, respectively. This system, in comparison with those proposed in other studies, showed a suitable improvement in biological treatments, considering the high removal of NH3+-N. Therefore, SMEBR+ can be considered as a promising treatment alternative to the conventional MBR.

  15. Clean hydrogen generation through the electrocatalytic oxidation of ethanol in a Proton Exchange Membrane Electrolysis Cell (PEMEC): Effect of the nature and structure of the catalytic anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Claude; Jaubert, Thomas; Baranton, Stève; Coutanceau, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The electrocatalytic oxidation of ethanol was investigated in a Proton Exchange Membrane Electrolysis Cell (PEMEC) working at low temperature (20°C) on several Pt-based catalysts (Pt/C, PtSn/C, PtSnRu/C) in order to produce very clean hydrogen by electrolysis of a biomass compound. The electrocatalytic activity was determined by cyclic voltammetry and the rate of hydrogen evolution was measured for each catalyst at different current densities. The cell voltages UEtOH were recorded as a function of time for each current density. At 100 mA cm-2, i.e. 0.5 A with the 5 cm2 surface area PEMEC used, the cell voltage did not exceed 0.9 V for an evolution rate of about 220 cm3 of hydrogen per hour and the electrical energy consumed was less than 2.3 kWh (Nm3)-1, i.e. less than one half of the energy needed for water electrolysis (4.7 kWh (Nm3)-1 at UH2O = 2 V). This result is valid for the decomposition of any organic compound, particularly those originated from biomass resource, provided that their electro-oxidation rate is sufficient (>100 mA cm-2) at a relatively low cell voltage (Ucell < 1 V) which necessitates the development of efficient electrocatalysts for the electrochemical decomposition of this compound.

  16. On the use of supported ceria membranes for oxyfuel process/syngas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lobera, M.P.; Serra, J.M.; Foghmoes, Søren Preben Vagn

    2011-01-01

    Ceramic oxygen transport membranes (OTMs) enable selective oxygen separation from air at high temperatures. Among several potential applications for OTMs, the use in (1) oxygen production for oxyfuel power plants and (2) the integration in high-temperature catalytic membrane reactors for alkane...... upgrading through selective oxidative reactions are of special interest. Nevertheless, these applications involve the direct contact of the membrane surface with carbon-rich atmospheres. Most state-of-the-art permeable membranes are based on perovskites, which are prone to carbonation under operation in CO2......-rich environments and/or decomposition in reducing gas environments. The oxygen flux through supported thin film membranes of Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95−δ (CGO) with 2 mol.% of cobalt was measured for oxygen separation in oxyfuel processes and in syngas production and degradation was compared to perovskite...

  17. Engineering Development of Ceramic Membrane Reactor System for Converting Natural Gas to Hydrogen and Synthesis Gas for Liquid Transportation Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Air Products and Chemicals

    2008-09-30

    An Air Products-led team successfully developed ITM Syngas technology from the concept stage to a stage where a small-scale engineering prototype was about to be built. This technology produces syngas, a gas containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen, by reacting feed gas, primarily methane and steam, with oxygen that is supplied through an ion transport membrane. An ion transport membrane operates at high temperature and oxygen ions are transported through the dense membrane's crystal lattice when an oxygen partial pressure driving force is applied. This development effort solved many significant technical challenges and successfully scaled-up key aspects of the technology to prototype scale. Throughout the project life, the technology showed significant economic benefits over conventional technologies. While there are still on-going technical challenges to overcome, the progress made under the DOE-funded development project proved that the technology was viable and continued development post the DOE agreement would be warranted.

  18. Evaluation of the Parameters and Conditions of Process in the Ethylbenzene Dehydrogenation with Application of Permselective Membranes to Enhance Styrene Yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Paulo Jardel P; Leite, Manuela Souza; Ravagnani, Teresa M Kakuta

    2016-01-01

    Styrene is an important monomer in the manufacture of thermoplastic. Most of it is produced by the catalytic dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene. In this process that depends on reversible reactions, the yield is usually limited by the establishment of thermodynamic equilibrium in the reactor. The styrene yield can be increased by using a hybrid process, with reaction and separation simultaneously. It is proposed using permselective composite membrane to remove hydrogen and thus suppress the reverse and secondary reactions. This paper describes the simulation of a dehydrogenation process carried out in a tubular fixed-bed reactor wrapped in a permselective composite membrane. A mathematical model was developed, incorporating the various mass transport mechanisms found in each of the membrane layers and in the catalytic fixed bed. The effects of the reactor feed conditions (temperature, steam-to-oil ratio, and the weight hourly space velocity), the fixed-bed geometry (length, diameter, and volume), and the membrane geometry (thickness of the layers) on the styrene yield were analyzed. These variables were used to determine experimental conditions that favour the production of styrene. The simulation showed that an increase of 40.98% in the styrene yield, compared to a conventional fixed-bed process, could be obtained by wrapping the reactor in a permselective composite membrane.

  19. Evaluation of the Parameters and Conditions of Process in the Ethylbenzene Dehydrogenation with Application of Permselective Membranes to Enhance Styrene Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Jardel P. Araújo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Styrene is an important monomer in the manufacture of thermoplastic. Most of it is produced by the catalytic dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene. In this process that depends on reversible reactions, the yield is usually limited by the establishment of thermodynamic equilibrium in the reactor. The styrene yield can be increased by using a hybrid process, with reaction and separation simultaneously. It is proposed using permselective composite membrane to remove hydrogen and thus suppress the reverse and secondary reactions. This paper describes the simulation of a dehydrogenation process carried out in a tubular fixed-bed reactor wrapped in a permselective composite membrane. A mathematical model was developed, incorporating the various mass transport mechanisms found in each of the membrane layers and in the catalytic fixed bed. The effects of the reactor feed conditions (temperature, steam-to-oil ratio, and the weight hourly space velocity, the fixed-bed geometry (length, diameter, and volume, and the membrane geometry (thickness of the layers on the styrene yield were analyzed. These variables were used to determine experimental conditions that favour the production of styrene. The simulation showed that an increase of 40.98% in the styrene yield, compared to a conventional fixed-bed process, could be obtained by wrapping the reactor in a permselective composite membrane.

  20. Membranes for corrosive oxidations. Final CRADA report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, S. W.; Energy Systems

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this project is to develop porous hydrophilic membranes that are highly resistant to oxidative and corrosive conditions and to deploy them for recovery and purification of high tonnage chemicals such as hydrogen peroxide and other oxychemicals. The research team patented a process for membrane-based separation of hydrogen peroxide (US Patent No. 5,662,878). The process is based on using a hydrophilic membrane to separate hydrogen peroxide from the organic working solution. To enable this process, a new method for producing hydrophilic membrane materials (Patent No.6,464,880) was reported. We investigated methods of producing these hydrophilic materials and evaluated separations performance in comparison to membrane stability. It was determined that at the required membrane flux, membrane stability was not sufficient to design a commercial process. This work was published (Hestekin et al., J. Membrane Science 2006). To meet the performance needs of the process, we developed a membrane contactor method to extract the hydrogen peroxide, then we surveyed several commercial and pre-commercial membrane materials. We identified pre-commercial hydrophilic membranes with the required selectivity, flux, and stability to meet the needs of the process. In addition, we invented a novel reaction/separations format that greatly increases the performance of the process. To test the performance of the membranes and the new formats we procured and integrated reactor/membrane separations unit that enables controlled mixing, flow, temperature control, pressure control, and sampling. The results were used to file a US non-provisional patent application (ANL-INV 03-12). Hydrogen peroxide is widely used in pulp and paper applications, environmental treatment, and other industries. Virtually all hydrogen peroxide production is now based on a process featuring catalytic hydrogenation followed by auto-oxidation of suitable organic carrier molecules. This process has several