Sample records for catalytic h2o-3h exchange

  1. Tritium Labeled Gentamicin C: II.- Bioradiactive Degradation Products of Gentamicin by Catalytic H2O-3H Exchange Reaction; Getamicina C Tritiada: II.- Productos de Degradacion Radiactivos y Bioactivos en el Intercambio Catalitico con H2O-3H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, C.; Diaz, A.; Paz, D.; Jimeno, M. L.


    The main bio radioactive degradation products from catalytic hydrogen exchange of gentamicin C, (C1 + C2 + Cla) in basic form, are generated by N-demethylation in 3{sup -}N and 6-N positions. Their structures were confirmed by 1HNMR and 13CNMR. These derivatives were fractionated by chromatography on silica gel. Antibacterial activities were similar to those of the parent antibiotics. Tritium exchange, under vacuum or nitrogen, is highly increased (4:1) when gentamicin are in basic form. In contrast with gentamicin sulfate, hydrolytic sub products as gramine, genta mines, garosamine and purpurosamines are practically absent. To properly optimize the exchange process, the composition of the gentamicin C complex must be taken into account. The exchange decreases in the order C2 > C1> Cla. Because of 6'-N-demethyl gentamicin C1 is C2, the radiochemical yield of C2 appears enhanced in the H2O-3H exchange of a mixture of them. Radioactivity distribution among the components and subunits of these three gentamicin were studied by strong and mild hydrolysis, and by methanolysis. (Author) 18 refs.

  2. General Tritium Labelling of Gentamicin C by catalytic hydrogen exchange Reaction with Tritiated Water; Marcado general con tritio de la Gentamicina C por intercambio catalitico con agua triatiada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, C.; Diaz, D.; Paz, D.


    Gentamicin C was labelled with tritium by means of a PtO2 catalyzed hydrogen exchange reaction. Under the conditions of the exchange (100 mg of gentamicin, basic form, 0,3 ml H2O-3H, and 50 mg of prereduced PtO2) the radiochemical yield was 0,24, 0,38 and 0,48 % at 120 degree celsius, for 8, 16 and 24 hours respectively. Chemical yield for purified gentamicin was about 60 %. Purification was accomplished with a cellulose column eluted with the lower phase of chloroform-methanol 17 % ammonium hydroxide (2:1:1, v/v) . Chemical purity, determined by HPLC, was 96,5 % and radiochemical one was 95. Main exchange degradation products show biological activity. (Author) 12 refs.

  3. Natural clinoptilolite exchanged with iron: characterization and catalytic activity in nitrogen monoxide reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Tito-Ferro


    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to characterize the natural clinoptilolite from Tasajeras deposit, Cuba, modified by hydrothermal ion-exchange with solutions of iron (II sulfate and iron (III nitrate in acid medium. Besides this, its catalytic activity to reduce nitrogen monoxide with carbon monoxide/propene in the presence of oxygen was evaluated. The characterization was performed by Mössbauer and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopies and adsorption measurements. The obtained results lead to conclude that in exchanged samples, incorporated divalent and trivalent irons are found in octahedral coordination. Both irons should be mainly in cationic extra-framework positions inside clinoptilolite channels as charge compensating cations, and also as iron oxy-hydroxides resulting from limited hydrolysis of these cations. The iron (III exchanged samples has a larger amount of iron oxy-hydroxides agglomerates. The iron (II exchanged samples have additionally iron (II sulfate adsorbed. The catalytic activity in the nitrogen monoxide reduction is higher in the exchanged zeolites than starting. Among all samples, those exchanged of iron (II has the higher catalytic activity. This lead to outline that, main catalytically active centers are associated with divalent iron.

  4. Analysis of heterogeneous oxygen exchange and fuel oxidation on the catalytic surface of perovskite membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Jongsup


    The catalytic kinetics of oxygen surface exchange and fuel oxidation for a perovskite membrane is investigated in terms of the thermodynamic state in the immediate vicinity of or on the membrane surface. Perovskite membranes have been shown to exhibit both oxygen perm-selectivity and catalytic activity for hydrocarbon conversion. A fundamental description of their catalytic surface reactions is needed. In this study, we infer the kinetic parameters for heterogeneous oxygen surface exchange and catalytic fuel conversion reactions, based on permeation rate measurements and a spatially resolved physical model that incorporates detailed chemical kinetics and transport in the gas-phase. The conservation equations for surface and bulk species are coupled with those of the gas-phase species through the species production rates from surface reactions. It is shown that oxygen surface exchange is limited by dissociative/associative adsorption/desorption of oxygen molecules onto/from the membrane surface. On the sweep side, while the catalytic conversion of methane to methyl radical governs the overall surface reactions at high temperature, carbon monoxide oxidation on the membrane surface is dominant at low temperature. Given the sweep side conditions considered in ITM reactor experiments, gas-phase reactions also play an important role, indicating the significance of investigating both homogeneous and heterogeneous chemistry and their coupling when examining the results. We show that the local thermodynamic state at the membrane surface should be considered when constructing and examining models of oxygen permeation and heterogeneous chemistry. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  5. Catalytic heat exchangers for small-scale production of hydrogen - feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silversand, F. [Catator AB, Lund (Sweden)


    A feasibility study concerning heat-exchanger reactors in small-scale production of hydrogen has been performed on the request of Svenskt Gastekniskt Center AB and SWEP International AB. The basic idea is to implement different catalysts into brazed plate-type heat exchangers. This can be achieved by installing catalytic cylinders in the inlet-and outlet ports of the heat exchangers or through treatment of the plates to render them catalytically active. It is also possible to sandwich catalytically active wire meshes between the plates. Experiments concerning steam reforming of methanol and methane have been performed in a micro-reactor to gather kinetic data for modelling purposes. Performance calculations concerning heat exchanger reactors have then been conducted with Catator's generic simulation code for catalytic reactors (CatalystExplorer). The simulations clearly demonstrate the technical performance of these reactors. Indeed, the production rate of hydrogen is expected to be about 10 nm{sup 3}/h per litre of heat exchanger. The corresponding value for a conventional steam-reforming unit is about 1 nm{sup 3}/h or less per litre of reactor volume. Also, the compactness and the high degree of integration together with the possibilities of mass production will give an attractive cost for such units. Depending on the demands concerning the purity of the hydrogen it is possible to add secondary catalytic steps like water-gas shifters, methanation and selective oxidation, into a one-train unit, i.e. to design an all-inclusive design. Such reactors can be used for the supply of hydrogen to fuel cells. The production cost for hydrogen can be cut by 60 - 70% through the utilisation of heat exchanger reactors instead of conventional electrolysis. This result is primarily a result of the high price for electricity compared to the feed stock prices in steam reforming. It is important to verify the performance calculations and the simulation results through

  6. Experimental study of an integral catalytic combustor: Heat exchanger for Stirling engines (United States)

    Bulzan, D. L.


    The feasibility of using catalytic combustion with heat removal for the Stirling engine to reduce exhaust emissions and also improve heat transfer to the working fluid was studied using spaced parallel plates. An internally air-cooled heat exchanger was placed between two noble metal catalytic plates. A preheated fuel-air mixture passed between the plates and reacted on the surface of the catalyzed plates. Heat was removed from the catalytic surface by radiation and convection to the aircooled heat exchangers to control temperature and minimize thermal nitrogen oxide emissions. Test conditions were inlet combustion air temperatures from 850 to 900 K, inlet velocities of about 10 m/s, equivalence ratios from 0.5 to 0.9, and pressures from 1.3x10 to the 5th power to 2.0x10 to the 5th power Pa. Propane fuel was used for all testing. Combustion efficiencies greater than 99.5 percent were measured. Nitrogen oxide emissions ranged from 1.7 to 3.3 g NO2/kg fuel. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the concept and indicate that further investigation of the concept is warranted.

  7. First principle study of selective catalytic nitrogen oxide reduction over copper-exchanged zeolites (United States)

    Sun, Donghai

    Cu-ZXM5 is as promising catalyst candidate for mobile source (auto truck) NOX emission control. The present work studies this phenomenon from different perspectives. Firstly, a methodology is developed to validate the proposed NO decomposition mechanism with a kinetic Reactor model. The Reactor model involves a plug flow reactor that simulates forty-two elementary reactions. The simulation operates at moderate temperatures (300-1000 K) and the results are compared with micro-reactor experimental results. Secondly, gas phase reaction of NO with NH3 in the thermal deNOX process is studied to reveal origins of ammonia's selectivity for NO over O2. The gas phase study does electronic comparison of the competing reactions of NH3 radical with NO and O2 respectively. NH3 selectivity lies in strongly bound H2NNO adduct that readily rearranges and decompose to N2 and H2O. The pronounced discrimination of NH3 against reaction with O2 is explored through comparison of the electronic structures of the H2NNO and H2NOO radical adducts and provides insight into the selectivity of NH3 in the surface reactions. Thirdly, thermal chemistry of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOX with ammonia over Cu-exchanged zeolites is investigated with density functional theory (DFT). The catalytic reaction pathways are mapped out and compared with those in the gas phase reactions, which reveals that the major activation barriers are lowered in the catalytic reactions.

  8. Catalytic

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    S.A. Hanafi


    Full Text Available A series of dealuminated Y-zeolites impregnated by 0.5 wt% Pt catalysts promoted by different amounts of Ni, Pd or Cr (0.3 and 0.6 wt% were prepared and characterized as hydrocracking catalysts. The physicochemical and structural characterization of the solid catalysts were investigated and reported through N2 physisorption, XRD, TGA-DSC, FT-IR and TEM techniques. Solid catalysts surface acidities were investigated through FT-IR spectroscopy aided by pyridine adsorption. The solid catalytic activities were evaluated through hydroconversion of n-hexane and n-heptane employing micro-catalytic pulse technique directly connected to a gas chromatograph analyzer. The thermal stability of the solids was also investigated up to 800 °C. Crystallinity studies using the XRD technique of all modified samples proved analogous to the parent Y-zeolite, exhibiting nearly an amorphous and microcrystalline character of the second metal oxides. Disclosure of bimetallic catalysts crystalline characterization, through XRD, was not viable. The nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms for all samples concluded type I adsorption isotherms, without any hysteresis loop, indicating that the entire pore system is composed of micropores. TEM micrographs of the solid catalysts demonstrate well-dispersed Pt, Ni and Cr nanoparticles having sizes of 2–4 nm and 7–8 nm, respectively. The catalytic activity results indicate that the bimetallic (0.5Pt–0.3Cr/D18H–Y catalyst is the most active towards n-hexane and n-heptane isomerization while (0.5Pt–0.6Ni/D18H–Y catalyst can be designed as most suitable as a cracking catalyst.

  9. Enhanced incorporation of nonhydrolyzable tritium in GnRH and TRF by catalytic exchange labeling

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    Oehlke, J.; Bienert, M.; Niedrich, H.; Mittag, E.; Toth, G.


    Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), D-Phe/sub 6/-GnRH and thyro-tropin releasing factor (TRF) were tritiated by direct catalytic exchange using RhA1/sub 2/O/sub 3/ + HT under conditions which lead in model deuterations of N..cap alpha..-acetylhistidine amide to a high incorporation of deuterium into position 5 of the histidine ring. Specific activities up to a range of 400 GBqmmol in form of nonhydrolyzable tritium are attainable after removal of the label incorporated into position 2 of the histidine ring. A crucial reason for diminished specific activities was found to be a catalyst mediated hydrogen transfer between the peptides and traces of water, contained in the reaction mixture, competing with the tritiation.

  10. The tritium labeling of Butibufen by heterogeneous catalytic exchange; Marcado del Butibufen con Tritio por inter- cambio catalitico en disolucion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santamaria, J.; Rebollo, D.


    The labeling of a new non-steroidal antiinflammatory agent, Butibufen (2-(4-isobutylphenyl) butyric acid) was studied. The method used was heterogeneous catalytic exchange between Butibufen and tritiated water, obtained in situ. Purification was accomplished through thin layer chromatography. Concentration, purity and specific activity of the labeled drug were determined by ultraviolet and liquid scintillation techniques. (Author) 7 refs.

  11. Synthesis of ultrasmall Li-Mn spinel oxides exhibiting unusual ion exchange, electrochemical, and catalytic properties. (United States)

    Miyamoto, Yumi; Kuroda, Yoshiyuki; Uematsu, Tsubasa; Oshikawa, Hiroyuki; Shibata, Naoya; Ikuhara, Yuichi; Suzuki, Kosuke; Hibino, Mitsuhiro; Yamaguchi, Kazuya; Mizuno, Noritaka


    The efficient surface reaction and rapid ion diffusion of nanocrystalline metal oxides have prompted considerable research interest for the development of high functional materials. Herein, we present a novel low-temperature method to synthesize ultrasmall nanocrystalline spinel oxides by controlling the hydration of coexisting metal cations in an organic solvent. This method selectively led to Li-Mn spinel oxides by tuning the hydration of Li(+) ions under mild reaction conditions (i.e., low temperature and short reaction time). These particles exhibited an ultrasmall crystallite size of 2.3 nm and a large specific surface area of 371 ± 15 m(2) g(-1). They exhibited unique properties such as unusual topotactic Li(+)/H(+) ion exchange, high-rate discharge ability, and high catalytic performance for several aerobic oxidation reactions, by creating surface phenomena throughout the particles. These properties differed significantly from those of Li-Mn spinel oxides obtained by conventional solid-state methods.

  12. Production of an ion-exchange membrane-catalytic electrode bonded material for electrolytic cells (United States)

    Takenaka, H.; Torikai, E.


    A good bond is achieved by placing a metal salt in solution on one side of a membrane and a reducing agent on the other side so that the reducing agent penetrates the membrane and reduces the metal. Thus, a solution containing Pt, Rh, etc., is placed on one side of the membrane and a reducing agent such as NaBH, is placed on the other side. The bonded metal layer obtained is superior in catalytic activity and is suitable as an electrode in a cell such as for solid polymer electrolyte water electrolysis.

  13. Carboxylate Anions Accelerate Pyrrolidinopyridine (PPy)-Catalyzed Acylation: Catalytic Site-Selective Acylation of a Carbohydrate by in Situ Counteranion Exchange. (United States)

    Yanagi, Masanori; Imayoshi, Ayumi; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Furuta, Takumi; Kawabata, Takeo


    Acylpyridinium ions have been known as catalytically active species in acylation reactions catalyzed by 4-dimethylaminopyridine and its analogues. Acylpyridinium carboxylates were found to be 800-1300 times more reactive than the corresponding acylpyridinium chlorides. A catalytic cycle was developed, in which acylpyridinium carboxylates were generated by in situ counteranion exchange from the acylpyridinium chlorides. A catalyst loading as low as 0.01 mol % and catalyst turnover number of up to 6700 were achieved for site-selective acylation of a carbohydrate.

  14. Ligand exchange and redox processes in iridium triazolylidene complexes relevant to catalytic water oxidation. (United States)

    Petronilho, Ana; Llobet, Antoni; Albrecht, Martin


    Iridium(III) complexes containing a bidentate spectator ligand have emerged as powerful catalyst precursors for water oxidation. Here we investigate the initial steps of the transformation at the iridium center when using complex [IrCp*(pyr-trz)Cl] 1 (Cp* = pentamethylcyclopentadienyl, pyr-trz = 4-(2-pyridyl)-1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidene), a potent water oxidation catalyst precursor. Ligand exchange with water is facile and is reversed in the presence of chloride ions, while MeCN substitution is effective only from the corresponding aqua complex. A pKa of 8.3 for the aqua complex was determined, which is in agreement with strong electron donation from the triazolylidene ligand that is comparable to aryl anions. Evaluation of the pH-dependent oxidation process in aqueous media reveals two regimes (pH 4-8.5 and above pH 10.5) where proton-coupled electron transfer processes occur. These investigations will help to further optimize water oxidation catalysts and indicate that MeCN as a cosolvent has adverse effects for initiating water coordination in the oxidation process.

  15. Catalytic role of calix[4]hydroquinone in acetone-water proton exchange: a quantum chemical study of proton transfer via keto-enol tautomerism. (United States)

    Zakharov, M; Masunov, A E; Dreuw, A


    Calix[4]hydroquinone has recently attracted considerable interest since it forms stable tubular aggregates mediated solely by hydrogen bonding and pi-pi-stacking interactions. These aggregates trap specifically various small organic molecules and, in particular, catalyze the proton exchange of water with acetone. Using correlated quantum chemical methods, the mechanism of the observed proton exchange mediated by keto-enol tautomerism of acetone is investigated in detail. Starting with an investigation of keto-enol tautomerism of acetone-water clusters, it appears that four catalytic water molecules are optimal for the catalysis and that additional solvent water molecules lead to a decrease in efficiency. Analyses of the partial charges revealed a decrease of the polarization of the reactive hydrogen bonds due to the additional water molecules. As a next step, hydroquinone-acetone-water complexes were studied as models for the situation in the CHQ moieties. However, the computations revealed that the proton transfer reaction becomes less efficient when one catalytic water molecule is replaced by hydroquinone. Although concerted proton transfer via keto-enol tautomerism of acetone seems to be the predominant mechanism in supercritical water, it is no longer the rate-determining reaction mechanism for the catalyzed acetone-water proton exchange observed in tubular CHQ. Nevertheless, a key feature of the catalytic function of tubular CHQ has been identified to be the stiff hydrogen bonding network and the exclusion of additional solvent water molecules.

  16. Preparation of a highly active Fe-ZSM-5 catalyst through solid-state ion exchange for the catalytic decomposition of N{sub 2}O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauscher, M.; Kesore, K.; Moennig, R.; Schwieger, W. [Institut fuer Technische Chemie und Makromolekulare Chemie, Martin-Luther-Universitaet Halle-Wittenberg, Schlossberg 2, D-06108 Halle/S (Germany); Tissler, A. [ALSI-PENTA Zeolithe GmbH, Alustrasse 50-52, D-92421 Schwandorf (Germany); Turek, T. [Institut fuer Chemische Verfahrenstechnik, Universitaet Karlsruhe TH, Kaiserstrasse 12, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)


    This work describes a new and simple preparation method for Fe-ZSM-5 pentasil-zeolites through solid-state ion exchange process. The zeolite catalysts thus prepared exhibit high activity during the catalytic decomposition of N{sub 2}O in the absence of reducing agents. The aimed choice of using FeSO{sub 4}x7H{sub 2}O and NH{sub 4}-ZSM-5 as starting materials consisted of forming such products (ammonium salts) after the ion exchange process that can be completely removed through thermal treatment. The complete preparation process leading to the formation of catalytically active iron species inside the zeolite takes place in two steps at two distinguished temperatures, respectively. The first step during which the solid-state ion exchange takes place has been carried out through two different routes, in air and in vacuum, in search for an enhanced catalytic activity. The second step has to be necessarily done under anaerobic conditions. XRD measurements have revealed the presence of hematite in samples with a Fe(II)/Al ratio above 0.5. The different numbers of Broensted sites occupied by the iron species in the catalysts with different Fe contents have also been determined

  17. Performance and life cycle environmental benefits of recycling spent ion exchange brines by catalytic treatment of nitrate. (United States)

    Choe, Jong Kwon; Bergquist, Allison M; Jeong, Sangjo; Guest, Jeremy S; Werth, Charles J; Strathmann, Timothy J


    Salt used to make brines for regeneration of ion exchange (IX) resins is the dominant economic and environmental liability of IX treatment systems for nitrate-contaminated drinking water sources. To reduce salt usage, the applicability and environmental benefits of using a catalytic reduction technology to treat nitrate in spent IX brines and enable their reuse for IX resin regeneration were evaluated. Hybrid IX/catalyst systems were designed and life cycle assessment of process consumables are used to set performance targets for the catalyst reactor. Nitrate reduction was measured in a typical spent brine (i.e., 5000 mg/L NO3(-) and 70,000 mg/L NaCl) using bimetallic Pd-In hydrogenation catalysts with variable Pd (0.2-2.5 wt%) and In (0.0125-0.25 wt%) loadings on pelletized activated carbon support (Pd-In/C). The highest activity of 50 mgNO3(-)/(min - g(Pd)) was obtained with a 0.5 wt%Pd-0.1 wt%In/C catalyst. Catalyst longevity was demonstrated by observing no decrease in catalyst activity over more than 60 days in a packed-bed reactor. Based on catalyst activity measured in batch and packed-bed reactors, environmental impacts of hybrid IX/catalyst systems were evaluated for both sequencing-batch and continuous-flow packed-bed reactor designs and environmental impacts of the sequencing-batch hybrid system were found to be 38-81% of those of conventional IX. Major environmental impact contributors other than salt consumption include Pd metal, hydrogen (electron donor), and carbon dioxide (pH buffer). Sensitivity of environmental impacts of the sequencing-batch hybrid reactor system to sulfate and bicarbonate anions indicate the hybrid system is more sustainable than conventional IX when influent water contains reuse cycles. The study showed that hybrid IX/catalyst reactor systems have potential to reduce resource consumption and improve environmental impacts associated with treating nitrate-contaminated water sources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  18. The tritium labelling of organic molecules by heterogeneous catalytic exchange; El marcado de moleculas organicas con tritio por intercambio catalitico heterogeneo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angoso Marina, M.; Kaiser Ruiz del Olmo, F.


    The influence of the temperature at 65 degree centigree and 120 degree centigree on the labelling of three organic molecules with tritium was studied. The compounds were: benzoic acid, de phenyl glyoxal and 2,3-tetramethylene-4-pantothenyl-7-oxo diacetin.The method employed was the heterogeneous catalytic exchange between tritiated water and the organic compound. The purification was made by thin-layer chromatography and the concentration, purity and specific activity of the products were determined by counting and ultraviolet techniques. The thermal stability and the radiolytic effects on labelled benzoic acid were also considered. (Author) 9 refs.

  19. Evaluation of ion exchange-modified Y and ZSM5 zeolites in Cr(VI) biosorption and catalytic oxidation of ethyl acetate


    Silva, Bruna Andreia Nogueira Airosa; Figueiredo, Hugo; Soares, O. S. G. P.; Pereira, M. de F. R.; Figueiredo, J.L.; Lewandowska, A. E.; Bañares, M. A.; Neves, I.C.; Tavares,M. T.


    The aim of this work was the evaluation of the performance of two zeolites with different structures (FAU and MFI) and acidity properties in the biosorption of Cr(VI) and catalytic oxidation of ethyl acetate. The starting zeolites, Y (FAU) and ZSM5 (MFI), were modified by ion exchange treatments with NaNO3 in order to obtain zeolites with different acidity and sodium content. A biosorption system consisting of a bacterium, Arthrobacter viscosus, supported on the different zeolites was used fo...

  20. Enhanced catalytic performance of copper-exchanged SAPO-34 molecular sieve in methanol-to-olefin reaction. (United States)

    Kim, Sun Jung; Park, Ji Won; Lee, Kwang Young; Seo, Gon; Song, Mee Kyung; Jeong, Soon-Yong


    Methanol-to-olefin (MTO) reaction over copper-exchanged SAPO-34 catalysts was investigated in order to extend their catalyst life. The exchange of copper ions into the cages of an SAPO-34 molecular sieve was confirmed by ESR, XPS, and 129Xe NMR techniques. Copper ions located in its cages considerably reduced its deactivation rate in the MTO reaction, while those dispersed on the external surface of the SAPO-34 molecular sieve accelerated the deactivation due to the limited mass transfer through the pore entrances. The 13C NMR and UV-VIS spectroscopy investigations of the materials occluded on the copper-exchanged SAPO-34 catalysts during the MTO reaction clearly showed that the copper ions exchanged in the cages suppressed the further condensation of alkyl aromatics to large, fused polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Theoretical calculations for the SAPO-34 and copper-exchanged SAPO-34 molecular sieves supported this observation because copper ions located in the cages stabilized the alkyl aromatics. Therefore, the exchange of copper ions into the SAPO-34 molecular sieve stabilized the reactive intermediates, alkyl aromatics, of the MTO reaction and suppressed their further condensation to PAHs, thereby slowing the deactivation.

  1. Identification of the protein kinase A regulatory RIalpha-catalytic subunit interface by amide H/2H exchange and protein docking. (United States)

    Anand, Ganesh S; Law, Dennis; Mandell, Jeffrey G; Snead, Aaron N; Tsigelny, Igor; Taylor, Susan S; Ten Eyck, Lynn F; Komives, Elizabeth A


    An important goal after structural genomics is to build up the structures of higher-order protein-protein complexes from structures of the individual subunits. Often structures of higher order complexes are difficult to obtain by crystallography. We have used an alternative approach in which the structures of the individual catalytic (C) subunit and RIalpha regulatory (R) subunit of PKA were first subjected to computational docking, and the top 100,000 solutions were subsequently filtered based on amide hydrogen/deuterium (H/2H) exchange interface protection data. The resulting set of filtered solutions forms an ensemble of structures in which, besides the inhibitor peptide binding site, a flat interface between the C-terminal lobe of the C-subunit and the A- and B-helices of RIalpha is uniquely identified. This holoenzyme structure satisfies all previous experimental data on the complex and allows prediction of new contacts between the two subunits.

  2. Electro-Catalytic Biodiesel Production from Canola Oil in Methanolic and Ethanolic Solutions with Low-Cost Stainless Steel and Hybrid Ion-Exchange Resin Grafted Electrodes

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    Francois-Marie Allioux


    Full Text Available Biodiesel is a growing alternative to petroleum fuels and is produced by the catalyzed transesterification of fats in presence of an alcohol base. Transesterification processes using homogeneous catalysts are considered to be among the most efficient methods but rely on the feedstock quality and low water content in order to avoid undesirable saponification reactions. In this work, the electro-catalytic conversion of canola oil to biodiesel in a 1% aqueous methanolic and ethanolic reaction mixture was performed without the addition of external catalyst or cosolvent. An inexpensive stainless steel (SS electrode and a hybrid SS electrode coated with an ion-exchange resin catalyst were used as cathode materials while the anode was composed of a plain carbon paper. The cell voltages were varied from 10 to 40 V and the reaction temperature maintained at 20 or 40°C. The canola oil conversion rates were found to be superior at 40°C without saponification reactions for cell voltages below 30 V. The conversion rates were as high as 87% for the hybrid electrode and 81% for the plain SS electrode. This work could inspire new process development for the conversion of high water content feedstock for the production of second-generation biodiesel.

  3. Catalytic Intermediate Pyrolysis of Napier Grass in a Fixed Bed Reactor with ZSM-5, HZSM-5 and Zinc-Exchanged Zeolite-A as the Catalyst

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    Isah Yakub Mohammed


    Full Text Available The environmental impact from the use of fossil fuel cum depletion of the known fossil oil reserves has led to increasing interest in liquid biofuels made from renewable biomass. This study presents the first experimental report on the catalytic pyrolysis of Napier grass, an underutilized biomass source, using ZSM-5, 0.3HZSM-5 and zinc exchanged zeolite-A catalyst. Pyrolysis was conducted in fixed bed reactor at 600 °C, 30 °C/min and 7 L/min nitrogen flow rate. The effect of catalyst-biomass ratio was evaluated with respect to pyrolysis oil yield and composition. Increasing the catalyst loading from 0.5 to 1.0 wt % showed no significant decrease in the bio-oil yield, particularly, the organic phase and thereafter decreased at catalyst loadings of 2.0 and 3.0 wt %. Standard analytical methods were used to establish the composition of the pyrolysis oil, which was made up of various aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatics and other valuable chemicals and varied greatly with the surface acidity and pore characteristics of the individual catalysts. This study has demonstrated that pyrolysis oil with high fuel quality and value added chemicals can be produced from pyrolysis of Napier grass over acidic zeolite based catalysts.

  4. Recent Advances in Solid Catalysts Obtained by Metalloporphyrins Immobilization on Layered Anionic Exchangers: A Short Review and Some New Catalytic Results

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    Shirley Nakagaki


    Full Text Available Layered materials are a very interesting class of compounds obtained by stacking of two-dimensional layers along the basal axis. A remarkable property of these materials is their capacity to interact with a variety of chemical species, irrespective of their charge (neutral, cationic or anionic. These species can be grafted onto the surface of the layered materials or intercalated between the layers, to expand or contract the interlayer distance. Metalloporphyrins, which are typically soluble oxidation catalysts, are examples of molecules that can interact with layered materials. This work presents a short review of the studies involving metalloporphyrin immobilization on two different anionic exchangers, Layered Double Hydroxides (LDHs and Layered Hydroxide Salts (LHSs, published over the past year. After immobilization of anionic porphyrins, the resulting solids behave as reusable catalysts for heterogeneous oxidation processes. Although a large number of publications involving metalloporphyrin immobilization on LDHs exist, only a few papers have dealt with LHSs as supports, so metalloporphyrins immobilized on LHSs represent a new and promising research field. This work also describes new results on an anionic manganese porphyrin (MnP immobilized on Mg/Al-LDH solids with different nominal Mg/Al molar ratios (2:1, 3:1 and 4:1 and intercalated with different anions (CO32− or NO3−. The influence of the support composition on the MnP immobilization rates and the catalytic performance of the resulting solid in cyclooctene oxidation reactions will be reported.

  5. Electro-catalytic biodiesel production from canola oil in methanolic and ethanolic solutions with low cost stainless steel and hybrid ion-exchange resin grafted electrodes (United States)

    Allioux, Francois-Marie; Holland, Brendan J.; Kong, Lingxue; Dumée, Ludovic F.


    Biodiesel is a growing alternative to petroleum fuels and is produced by the catalysed transesterification of fats in presence of an alcohol base. Transesterification processes using homogeneous catalysts are considered to be amongst the most efficient methods but rely on the feedstock quality and low water content in order to avoid undesirable saponification reactions. In this work, the electro-catalytic conversion of canola oil to biodiesel in a 1% aqueous methanolic and ethanolic reaction mixture was performed without the addition of external catalyst or co-solvent. An inexpensive stainless steel electrode and a hybrid stainless steel electrode coated with an ion-exchange resin catalyst were used as cathode materials while the anode was composed of a plain carbon paper. The cell voltages were varied from 10 to 40 V and the reaction temperature maintained at 20 or 40°C. The canola oil conversion rates were found to be superior at 40°C without saponification reactions for cell voltages below 30 V. The conversion rates were as high as 87% for the hybrid electrode and 81% for the plain stainless steel electrode. This work could inspire new process development for the conversion of high water content feedstock for the production of second-generation biodiesel.

  6. Catalytic distillation process (United States)

    Smith, L.A. Jr.


    A method is described for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C[sub 4] feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

  7. Amide H/2H exchange reveals communication between the cAMP and catalytic subunit-binding sites in the R(I)alpha subunit of protein kinase A. (United States)

    Anand, Ganesh S; Hughes, Carrie A; Jones, John M; Taylor, Susan S; Komives, Elizabeth A


    The changes in backbone hydrogen/deuterium (H/2H) exchange in the regulatory subunit (R(I)alpha(94-244)) of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) were probed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The three naturally occurring states of the regulatory subunit were studied: (1) free R(I)alpha(94-244), which likely represents newly synthesized protein, (2) R(I)alpha(94-244) bound to the catalytic (C) subunit, or holoenzyme, and (3) R(I)alpha(94-244) bound to cAMP. Protection from amide exchange upon C-subunit binding was observed for the helical subdomain, including the A-helix and B-helix, pointing to regions adjacent to those shown to be important by mutagenesis. In addition, C-subunit binding caused changes in observed amide exchange in the distal cAMP-binding pocket. Conversely, cAMP binding caused protection in the cAMP-binding pocket and increased exchange in the helical subdomain. These results suggest that the mutually exclusive binding of either cAMP or C-subunit is controlled by binding at one site transmitting long distance changes to the other site.

  8. Catalytic C-H bond activation at nanoscale Lewis acidic aluminium fluorides: H/D exchange reactions at aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. (United States)

    Prechtl, Martin H G; Teltewskoi, Michael; Dimitrov, Anton; Kemnitz, Erhard; Braun, Thomas


    Nanoscopic amorphous Lewis acidic aluminium fluorides, such as aluminium chlorofluoride (ACF) and high-surface aluminium fluoride (HS-AlF(3)), are capable of activating C-H bonds of aliphatic hydrocarbons. H/D exchange reactions are catalysed under mild conditions (40 °C). Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Catalytic converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liber, B.


    A catalytic converter is provided which is economical to manufacture and is not readily poisoned by contaminants in a gas stream such as would be encountered in the operation of an internal combustion engine, whereby an improved life expectancy of the unit can be achieved. The converter of the invention comprises a sintered porous body including molybdenum or a molybdenum-containing compound or a molybdenum complex. A method of forming a catlytic converter unit comprises forming a slurry including molybdenum or a molybdenum compound, forming the slurry into a sintered body member, and hardening or curing the same to form a self-sustaining body member. A method for treating an exhaust gas using the above catalytic converter is also disclosed. A preferred embodiment for an internal combustion engine is described. Examples of different catalytic compositions are included. 13 figs.

  10. Protonation of carboxyl groups in EuDOTA-tetraamide complexes results in catalytic prototropic exchange and quenching of the CEST signal (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Evbuomwan, Osasere M.; Tieu, Michael; Zhao, Piyu; Martins, Andre F.; Sherry, A. Dean


    The CEST properties of EuDOTA-tetraamide complexes bearing pendant carboxylate and carboxyl ethyl esters were measured as a function of pH. The CEST signal from the Eu3+-bound water molecule decreased in intensity between pH 8.5 and 4.5 while the proton exchange rates (kex) increased over this same pH range. In comparison, the CEST signal in the corresponding carboxyl ester derivatives was nearly constant. Both observations are consistent with stepwise protonation of the four carboxylic acid groups over this same pH range. This indicates that negative charges on the carboxyl groups above pH 6 facilitate the formation of a strong hydrogen-bonding network in the coordination second sphere above the single Eu3+-bound water molecule, thereby decreasing prototropic exchange of protons on the bound water molecule with bulk water protons. The percentage of square antiprismatic versus twisted square antiprism coordination isomers also decreased as the appended carboxylic acid groups were positioned further away from the amide. The net effect of lowering the pH was an overall increase in kex and a quenching of the CEST signal. This article is part of the themed issue 'Challenges for chemistry in molecular imaging'.

  11. Catalytic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ming; Zhang, Xiang


    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to catalytic devices. In one aspect, a device includes a substrate, an electrically insulating layer disposed on the substrate, a layer of material disposed on the electrically insulating layer, and a catalyst disposed on the layer of material. The substrate comprises an electrically conductive material. The substrate and the layer of material are electrically coupled to one another and configured to have a voltage applied across them.

  12. Computer model of catalytic combustion/Stirling engine heater head (United States)

    Chu, E. K.; Chang, R. L.; Tong, H.


    The basic Acurex HET code was modified to analyze specific problems for Stirling engine heater head applications. Specifically, the code can model: an adiabatic catalytic monolith reactor, an externally cooled catalytic cylindrical reactor/flat plate reactor, a coannular tube radiatively cooled reactor, and a monolithic reactor radiating to upstream and downstream heat exchangers.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    adsorption process on the catalytic site and the second, the breaking of the carbon-heteroatom bond leading to the heteroatom elimination. The adsorption process of thiiren have ... The calculation program is ICON 8 provided by the Quantum Chemistry. Program Exchange (QCPE 344) written by the Roald Hoffmann group.

  14. Rich catalytic injection (United States)

    Veninger, Albert [Coventry, CT


    A gas turbine engine includes a compressor, a rich catalytic injector, a combustor, and a turbine. The rich catalytic injector includes a rich catalytic device, a mixing zone, and an injection assembly. The injection assembly provides an interface between the mixing zone and the combustor. The injection assembly can inject diffusion fuel into the combustor, provides flame aerodynamic stabilization in the combustor, and may include an ignition device.

  15. Catalytic asymmetric fluorinations. (United States)

    Bobbio, Carla; Gouverneur, Véronique


    The appearance of structurally diverse fluorinating reagents displaying a large spectrum of reactivity has been critical to the development of the catalytic asymmetric fluorination processes known to date. In this article, we discuss how this area of research emerged and which strategies have allowed for the successful development of both nucleophilic and electrophilic catalytic enantioselective fluorinations. We also present the fundamental understanding of catalytic activity and enantioselectivity for the most efficient processes and highlight the first synthetic application with the preparation of a complex fluorinated target.

  16. Catalytic distillation structure (United States)

    Smith, L.A. Jr.


    Catalytic distillation structure is described for use in reaction distillation columns, and provides reaction sites and distillation structure consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and is present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consists of at least 10 volume % open space. 10 figs.

  17. Barter exchanges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek

    Although barter is often perceived as something that proceeded money, barter is still used. The focus of the paper is on barter exchanges. Barter exchanges are used both in developing countries as well as in developed countries (including the U.S.). They are used by both organizations...... and individuals. They usually allow to exchange good but some include also services. Some exchanges allow only for bi-directional barter, i.e. when only two parties are involved in the exchange. But probably most of the barter exchanges use barter money; this makes it easier to exchange goods and services...

  18. A graphene-based smart catalytic system with superior catalytic performances and temperature responsive catalytic behaviors. (United States)

    Qi, Junjie; Lv, Weipeng; Zhang, Guanghui; Li, Yang; Zhang, Guoliang; Zhang, Fengbao; Fan, Xiaobin


    We have successfully developed a unique graphene-based smart catalytic system which consists of the graphene supported Au-Pt bimetallic nanocatalyst with a well-defined core-shell structure and a dextran-based temperature-responsive polymer. The unique catalytic system possesses excellent catalytic performances and the catalytic activities could be readily switched on or off at different temperature windows.

  19. Experimental study of improvement of exchanged power in gases by catalytic dissociation: ammonia (1961); Etude experimentale de l'amelioration des echanges de chaleur avec les gaz par dissociation catalytique: ammoniac (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perroud, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; De La Harpe, A. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique(CNRS), 75 - Paris (France)


    Rates of ammonia dissociation and resulting coefficients of improvement of exchanged power have been measured in an annular channel under following conditions: mean wall temperature until 1500 deg. C (tungsten rod, diameter 3 mm), mass velocity until 11 g/cm{sup 2}.s and absolute pressure between 1.5 and 7 kg/cm{sup 2}. Rate of dissociation is mainly function of wall temperature and total mass flow rate of ammonia; it depends little on entrance gas temperature and is practically independent of pressure. Apparent coefficients of improvement of exchanged power under above conditions (including radiation) have reached 1.8; this maximum was obtained for a mean wall temperature of 1250 deg. C. These coefficients decrease when Reynolds number increases. Finally, a theoretical analysis of the phenomenon is given as well as possibilities of application. (authors) [French] Les taux de dissociation d'ammoniac et les coefficients d'amelioration de puissance echangee resultants ont ete mesures en espace annulaire dans les conditions suivantes: temperature moyenne de paroi jusqu'a 1500 deg. C (barreau de tungstene de diametre 3 mm), vitesse massique jusqu'a 11 g/cm{sup 2}.s et pression absolue comprise entre 1,5 et 7 kg/cm{sup 2}. Le taux de dissociation est surtout fonction de la temperature de paroi et du debit en masse total d'ammoniac; il depend peu de la temperature d'entree du gaz et est pratiquement independant de la pression. Les coefficients d'amelioration apparents de la puissance echangee dans les conditions d'experience (rayonnement compris) ont atteint 1,8. Ce maximum observe se place vers une temperature moyenne de la paroi de 1250 deg. C. Ces coefficients decroissent quand le nombre de Reynolds de l'ecoulement croit. Finalement, une analyse theorique du phenomene est donnee ainsi que les perspectives d'applications. (auteurs)


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... ionic exchange between Na+ and NH4+ increases the acidity of MCM-41 materials. A close correlation between acidity and isomerisation was observed. Coke deposition, which reduces the activity, was also studied. KEY WORDS: MCM-41 materials, Catalytic properties, Acid strength, Heptane isomerisation. Bull. Chem.

  1. Nanocarbons for Catalytic Desulfurization. (United States)

    Gu, Qingqing; Lin, Yangming; Heumann, Saskia; Su, Dangsheng


    Nanocarbon catalysts are green and sustainable alternatives to metal-based catalysts for numerous catalytic transformations. The application of nanocarbons for environmental catalysis is an emerging research discipline and has undergone rapid development in recent years. In this focus review, we provide a critical analysis of state-of-the-art nanocarbon catalysts for three different catalytic desulfurization processes. In particular, we focus on the advantages and limitations as well as the reaction mechanisms of the nanocarbon catalysts at the molecular level. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the property that in 0.12 M sulfuric acid medium titanium(IV) catalyzes the discoloring reaction of DBS-arsenazo oxidized by potassium bromate, a new catalytic kinetic spectrophotometric method for the determination of trace titanium (IV) was developed. The linear range of the determination of titanium is


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Research Center for Nanotechnology, Changchun University of Science and Technology,. Changchun 130022 ... Although catalytic kinetic spectrophotometry has been used in the determination of copper, the selectivity ... In this paper CPApA was used as the chromogenic agent, H2O2 as the oxidant, Cu(II) as the catalyst.

  4. Thrombomodulin Binding Selects the Catalytically Active Form of Thrombin. (United States)

    Handley, Lindsey D; Treuheit, Nicholas A; Venkatesh, Varun J; Komives, Elizabeth A


    Human α-thrombin is a serine protease with dual functions. Thrombin acts as a procoagulant, cleaving fibrinogen to make the fibrin clot, but when bound to thrombomodulin (TM), it acts as an anticoagulant, cleaving protein C. A minimal TM fragment consisting of the fourth, fifth, and most of the sixth EGF-like domain (TM456m) that has been prepared has much improved solubility, thrombin binding capacity, and anticoagulant activity versus those of previous TM456 constructs. In this work, we compare backbone amide exchange of human α-thrombin in three states: apo, D-Phe-Pro-Arg-chloromethylketone (PPACK)-bound, and TM456m-bound. Beyond causing a decreased level of amide exchange at their binding sites, TM and PPACK both cause a decreased level of amide exchange in other regions including the γ-loop and the adjacent N-terminus of the heavy chain. The decreased level of amide exchange in the N-terminus of the heavy chain is consistent with the historic model of activation of serine proteases, which involves insertion of this region into the β-barrel promoting the correct conformation of the catalytic residues. Contrary to crystal structures of thrombin, hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry results suggest that the conformation of apo-thrombin does not yet have the N-terminus of the heavy chain properly inserted for optimal catalytic activity, and that binding of TM allosterically promotes the catalytically active conformation.

  5. New aryloxybenzylidene ruthenium chelates – synthesis, reactivity and catalytic performance in ROMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrycja Żak


    Full Text Available New phenoxybenzylidene ruthenium chelates were synthesised from the second generation Grubbs catalysts bearing a triphenylphosphine ligand (or its para-substituted analogues by metathesis exchange with substituted 2-vinylphenols. The complexes behave like a latent catalyst and are characterized by an improved catalytic behaviour as compared to that of the known analogues, i.e., they exhibit high catalytic inactivity in their dormant forms and a profound increase in activity after activation with HCl. The strong electronic influence of substituents in the chelating ligand on the catalytic activity was demonstrated. The catalytic properties were tested in ROMP of cyclooctadien (COD and a single selected norbornene derivative.

  6. Catalytic performance of the exchanged Y faujasites by Ce{sup 3+}, La{sup 3}+, UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Sr{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, Tl{sup +} and NH{sup 4+} cations in the disproportionation reaction of toluene; Performances catalytiques de faujasites Y echangees par des cations de Ce{sup 3+}, La{sup 3+}, UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Sr{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, Tl{sup +} et NH{sub 4}{sup +} dans la reaction de dismutation du toluene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amokrane, S. [Universite des sciences et de la technologie Houari Boumediene, Departement genie chimique et cryogenie, Faculte de Genie mecanique et genie des procedes, Alger (Algeria); Nibou, D. [Universite des sciences et de la technologie Houari Boumediene, faculte de genie mecanique et genie des procedes, Departement sciences des materiaux, Alger (Algeria)


    The catalytic performance of exchanged Y faujasites by Ce{sup 3+}, La{sup 3+}, UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Sr{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, Tl{sup +} and NH{sup 4+} ions were studied in a disproportionation reaction in the gaseous phase. It was shown that total acidity generated by exchanged ions is responsible of the catalytic activity. Rare earths (cerium, lanthanum and uranium) catalysts have appreciable performance and allowed one to obtain an important xylenes proportion at 400 to 450 C. The decrease of xylenes and trimethyl-benzenes proportion in studied catalysts shows the implication of xylenes in toluene disproportionation reaction. (authors)

  7. Thrombomodulin binding selects the catalytically active form of thrombin (United States)

    Handley, Lindsey D.; Treuheit, Nicholas A.; Venkatesh, Varun J.; Komives, Elizabeth A.


    Human α-thrombin is a serine protease with dual functions. Thrombin acts as a procoagulant, cleaving fibrinogen to make the fibrin clot, but when bound to thrombomodulin (TM), it acts as an anticoagulant, cleaving protein C. A minimal TM fragment consisting of the 4th, 5th, and most of the 6th EGF-like domain (TM456m) has been prepared that has much improved solubility, thrombin-binding capacity, and anticoagulant activity over previous TM456 constructs. In the present work we compare backbone amide exchange of human α-thrombin in three states: apo, PPACK-bound, and TM456m-bound. Beyond causing decreased amide exchange at their binding sites, TM and PPACK both cause decreased amide exchange in regions more distant from the active site, within the γ-loop and the adjacent N-terminus of the heavy chain. The decreased amide exchange in the N-terminus of the heavy chain is consistent with the historic model of activation of serine proteases, which involves insertion of this region into the β-barrel promoting the correct conformation of the catalytic residues. Contrary to crystal structures of thrombin, HDXMS results suggest that the conformation of apo-thrombin does not yet have the N-terminus of the heavy chain properly inserted for optimal catalytic activity, and that binding of TM allosterically promotes the catalytically active conformation. PMID:26468766

  8. Catalytic reforming methods (United States)

    Tadd, Andrew R; Schwank, Johannes


    A catalytic reforming method is disclosed herein. The method includes sequentially supplying a plurality of feedstocks of variable compositions to a reformer. The method further includes adding a respective predetermined co-reactant to each of the plurality of feedstocks to obtain a substantially constant output from the reformer for the plurality of feedstocks. The respective predetermined co-reactant is based on a C/H/O atomic composition for a respective one of the plurality of feedstocks and a predetermined C/H/O atomic composition for the substantially constant output.

  9. Urinary catalytic iron in obesity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thethi, Tina K; Parsha, Kaushik; Rajapurkar, Mohan; Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata; Shah, Sudhir; Yau, C Lillian; Japa, Shanker; Fonseca, Vivian


    ...), hypertension, and chronic kidney disease. Catalytic iron, which has been associated with these chronic diseases, may be one of the links between obesity and these multifactorial diverse disorders...

  10. Novel Catalytic Membrane Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart Nemser, PhD


    There are many industrial catalytic organic reversible reactions with amines or alcohols that have water as one of the products. Many of these reactions are homogeneously catalyzed. In all cases removal of water facilitates the reaction and produces more of the desired chemical product. By shifting the reaction to right we produce more chemical product with little or no additional capital investment. Many of these reactions can also relate to bioprocesses. Given the large number of water-organic compound separations achievable and the ability of the Compact Membrane Systems, Inc. (CMS) perfluoro membranes to withstand these harsh operating conditions, this is an ideal demonstration system for the water-of-reaction removal using a membrane reactor. Enhanced reaction synthesis is consistent with the DOE objective to lower the energy intensity of U.S. industry 25% by 2017 in accord with the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and to improve the United States manufacturing competitiveness. The objective of this program is to develop the platform technology for enhancing homogeneous catalytic chemical syntheses.

  11. Exchange Network (United States)

    The Environmental Information Exchange Network (EIEN) is an Internet-based system used by state, tribal and territorial partners to securely share environmental and health information with one another and EPA.

  12. Flow in axisymmetric expansion in a catalytic converter


    Gotfredsen, Erik; Meyer, Knud Erik


    The flow in an axisymmetric expansion (circular diffusor) is used in many different engineering applications, such as heat exchangers, catalytic converters and filters. These applications require a relatively uniform flow at the inlet. To minimise the pressure loss, an ideal solution would be to use a quite long expansion, but this is often not possible due to space restrictions. Therefore a short expansion combined with e.g. guide vanes is often used. The present study will use a Selective C...

  13. Engineering reactors for catalytic reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Extensive studies have been conducted to establish sound basis for design and engineering of reactors for practising such catalytic reactions and for realizing improvements in reactor performance. In this article, application of recent (and not so recent) developments in engineering reactors for catalytic reactions is ...

  14. Evolution of random catalytic networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, S.M. [Santa Fe Inst., NM (United States); Reidys, C.M. [Santa Fe Inst., NM (United States)]|[Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)


    In this paper the authors investigate the evolution of populations of sequences on a random catalytic network. Sequences are mapped into structures, between which are catalytic interactions that determine their instantaneous fitness. The catalytic network is constructed as a random directed graph. They prove that at certain parameter values, the probability of some relevant subgraphs of this graph, for example cycles without outgoing edges, is maximized. Populations evolving under point mutations realize a comparatively small induced subgraph of the complete catalytic network. They present results which show that populations reliably discover and persist on directed cycles in the catalytic graph, though these may be lost because of stochastic effects, and study the effect of population size on this behavior.

  15. Catalytic Combustion of Gasified Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusar, Henrik


    This thesis concerns catalytic combustion for gas turbine application using a low heating-value (LHV) gas, derived from gasified waste. The main research in catalytic combustion focuses on methane as fuel, but an increasing interest is directed towards catalytic combustion of LHV fuels. This thesis shows that it is possible to catalytically combust a LHV gas and to oxidize fuel-bound nitrogen (NH{sub 3}) directly into N{sub 2} without forming NO{sub x} The first part of the thesis gives a background to the system. It defines waste, shortly describes gasification and more thoroughly catalytic combustion. The second part of the present thesis, paper I, concerns the development and testing of potential catalysts for catalytic combustion of LHV gases. The objective of this work was to investigate the possibility to use a stable metal oxide instead of noble metals as ignition catalyst and at the same time reduce the formation of NO{sub x} In paper II pilot-scale tests were carried out to prove the potential of catalytic combustion using real gasified waste and to compare with the results obtained in laboratory scale using a synthetic gas simulating gasified waste. In paper III, selective catalytic oxidation for decreasing the NO{sub x} formation from fuel-bound nitrogen was examined using two different approaches: fuel-lean and fuel-rich conditions. Finally, the last part of the thesis deals with deactivation of catalysts. The various deactivation processes which may affect high-temperature catalytic combustion are reviewed in paper IV. In paper V the poisoning effect of low amounts of sulfur was studied; various metal oxides as well as supported palladium and platinum catalysts were used as catalysts for combustion of a synthetic gas. In conclusion, with the results obtained in this thesis it would be possible to compose a working catalytic system for gas turbine application using a LHV gas.

  16. Hydrogen exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Foged; Rand, Kasper Dyrberg


    Hydrogen exchange (HX) monitored by mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful analytical method for investigation of protein conformation and dynamics. HX-MS monitors isotopic exchange of hydrogen in protein backbone amides and thus serves as a sensitive method for probing protein conformation...... and dynamics along the entire protein backbone. This chapter describes the exchange of backbone amide hydrogen which is highly quenchable as it is strongly dependent on the pH and temperature. The HX rates of backbone amide hydrogen are sensitive and very useful probes of protein conformation......, as they are distributed along the polypeptide backbone and form the fundamental hydrogen-bonding networks of basic secondary structure. The effect of pressure on HX in unstructured polypeptides (poly-dl-lysine and oxidatively unfolded ribonuclease A) and native folded proteins (lysozyme and ribonuclease A) was evaluated...

  17. Catalytic production of biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theilgaard Madsen, A.


    The focus of this thesis is the catalytic production of diesel from biomass, especially emphasising catalytic conversion of waste vegetable oils and fats. In chapter 1 an introduction to biofuels and a review on different catalytic methods for diesel production from biomass is given. Two of these methods have been used industrially for a number of years already, namely the transesterification (and esterification) of oils and fats with methanol to form fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), and the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of fats and oils to form straight-chain alkanes. Other possible routes to diesel include upgrading and deoxygenation of pyrolysis oils or aqueous sludge wastes, condensations and reductions of sugars in aqueous phase (aqueous-phase reforming, APR) for monofunctional hydrocarbons, and gasification of any type of biomass followed by Fischer-Tropsch-synthesis for alkane biofuels. These methods have not yet been industrialised, but may be more promising due to the larger abundance of their potential feedstocks, especially waste feedstocks. Chapter 2 deals with formation of FAME from waste fats and oils. A range of acidic catalysts were tested in a model fat mixture of methanol, lauric acid and trioctanoin. Sulphonic acid-functionalised ionic liquids showed extremely fast convertion of lauric acid to methyl laurate, and trioctanoate was converted to methyl octanoate within 24 h. A catalyst based on a sulphonated carbon-matrix made by pyrolysing (or carbonising) carbohydrates, so-called sulphonated pyrolysed sucrose (SPS), was optimised further. No systematic dependency on pyrolysis and sulphonation conditions could be obtained, however, with respect to esterification activity, but high activity was obtained in the model fat mixture. SPS impregnated on opel-cell Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and microporous SiO{sub 2} (ISPS) was much less active in the esterification than the original SPS powder due to low loading and thereby low number of strongly acidic sites on the

  18. Exchange Options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamshidian, F.


    The contract is described and market examples given. Essential theoretical developments are introduced and cited chronologically. The principles and techniques of hedging and unique pricing are illustrated for the two simplest nontrivial examples: the classical Black-Scholes/Merton/Margrabe exchange

  19. Catalytic cracking with deasphalted oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaton, W.I.; Taylor, J.L.; Peck, L.B.; Mosby, J.F.


    This patent describes a catalytic cracking process. It comprises: hydrotreating resid; thereafter deasphalting the hydrotreated resid to produce substantially deasphalted oil; catalytically cracking the hydrotreated oil in a catalytic cracking unit in the presence of a cracking catalyst to produce upgraded oil leaving coked catalyst; and regenerating the coked catalyst in the presence of a combustion-supporting gas comprising excess molecular oxygen in an amount greater than the stoichiometric amount required for substantially completely combusting the coke on the catalyst to carbon dioxide.

  20. Catalytic cracking of lignites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, M.; Nowak, S.; Naegler, T.; Zimmermann, J. [Hochschule Merseburg (Germany); Welscher, J.; Schwieger, W. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ. (Germany); Hahn, T. [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany)


    A most important factor for the chemical industry is the availability of cheap raw materials. As the oil price of crude oil is rising alternative feedstocks like coal are coming into focus. This work, the catalytic cracking of lignite is part of the alliance ibi (innovative Braunkohlenintegration) to use lignite as a raw material to produce chemicals. With this new one step process without an input of external hydrogen, mostly propylene, butenes and aromatics and char are formed. The product yield depends on manifold process parameters. The use of acid catalysts (zeolites like MFI) shows the highest amount of the desired products. Hydrogen rich lignites with a molar H/C ratio of > 1 are to be favoured. Due to primary cracking and secondary reactions the ratio between catalyst and lignite, temperature and residence time are the most important parameter to control the product distribution. Experiments at 500 C in a discontinuous rotary kiln reactor show yields up to 32 wt-% of hydrocarbons per lignite (maf - moisture and ash free) and 43 wt-% char, which can be gasified. Particularly, the yields of propylene and butenes as main products can be enhanced four times to about 8 wt-% by the use of catalysts while the tar yield decreases. In order to develop this innovative process catalyst systems fixed on beads were developed for an easy separation and regeneration of the used catalyst from the formed char. (orig.)

  1. Local Environment and Nature of Cu Active Sites in Zeolite-Based Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NOx

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deka, U.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/325811202; Lezcano-Gonzalez, I.; Weckhuysen, B.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/285484397; Beale, A.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/325802068


    Cu-exchanged zeolites have demonstrated widespread use as catalyst materials in the abatement of NOx, especially from mobile sources. Recent studies focusing on Cu-exchanged zeolites with the CHA structure have demonstrated them to be excellent catalysts in the ammonia-assisted selective catalytic

  2. Catalytic pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Sa, Jacinto


    This chapter reports on the latest developments of biomass catalytic pyrolysis for the production of fuels. The primary focus is on the role of catalysts in the process, namely, their influence in the liquefaction of lignocellulosic biomass.

  3. Engineering reactors for catalytic reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chemical Engineering and Process Development Division, CSIR - National Chemical Laboratory,. Pune 411 008, India ... Abstract. Catalytic reactions are ubiquitous in chemical and allied industries. ... strategies and recent advances in process intensification/ multifunctional reactors are discussed to illustrate the approach.

  4. Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis: A Review


    Theodore Dickerson; Juan Soria


    Catalytic pyrolysis is a promising thermochemical conversion route for lignocellulosic biomass that produces chemicals and fuels compatible with current, petrochemical infrastructure. Catalytic modifications to pyrolysis bio-oils are geared towards the elimination and substitution of oxygen and oxygen-containing functionalities in addition to increasing the hydrogen to carbon ratio of the final products. Recent progress has focused on both hydrodeoxygenation and hydrogenation of bio-oil using...

  5. Fuel-Rich Catalytic Combustion (United States)

    Brabbs, Theodore A.; Olson, Sandra L.


    Two-stage combustion system reduces particulate emissions. Program on catalytic oxidation of iso-octane demonstrates feasibility of two-stage combustion system for reducing particulate emissions. With fuel-rich (fuel/air equivalence ratios of 4.8 to 7.8) catalytic-combustion preburner as first stage, combustion process free of soot at reactor-outlet temperatures of 1,200 K or less.

  6. Ion exchange equilibrium constants

    CERN Document Server

    Marcus, Y


    Ion Exchange Equilibrium Constants focuses on the test-compilation of equilibrium constants for ion exchange reactions. The book first underscores the scope of the compilation, equilibrium constants, symbols used, and arrangement of the table. The manuscript then presents the table of equilibrium constants, including polystyrene sulfonate cation exchanger, polyacrylate cation exchanger, polymethacrylate cation exchanger, polysterene phosphate cation exchanger, and zirconium phosphate cation exchanger. The text highlights zirconium oxide anion exchanger, zeolite type 13Y cation exchanger, and

  7. Catalytic organometallic anticancer complexes (United States)

    Dougan, Sarah J.; Habtemariam, Abraha; McHale, Sarah E.; Parsons, Simon; Sadler, Peter J.


    Organometallic complexes offer chemistry that is not accessible to purely organic molecules and, hence, potentially new mechanisms of drug action. We show here that the presence of both an iodido ligand and a σ-donor/π-acceptor phenylazopyridine ligand confers remarkable inertness toward ligand substitution on the half-sandwich “piano-stool” ruthenium arene complexes [(η6-arene)Ru(azpy)I]+ (where arene = p-cymene or biphenyl, and azpy = N,N-dimethylphenyl- or hydroxyphenyl-azopyridine) in aqueous solution. Surprisingly, despite this inertness, these complexes are highly cytotoxic to human ovarian A2780 and human lung A549 cancer cells. Fluorescence-trapping experiments in A549 cells suggest that the cytotoxicity arises from an increase in reactive oxygen species. Redox activity of these azopyridine RuII complexes was confirmed by electrochemical measurements. The first one-electron reduction step (half-wave potential −0.2 to −0.4 V) is assignable to reduction of the azo group of the ligand. In contrast, the unbound azopyridine ligands are not readily reduced. Intriguingly the ruthenium complex acted as a catalyst in reactions with the tripeptide glutathione (γ-l-Glu-l-Cys-Gly), a strong reducing agent present in cells at millimolar concentrations; millimolar amounts of glutathione were oxidized to glutathione disulfide in the presence of micromolar ruthenium concentrations. A redox cycle involving glutathione attack on the azo bond of coordinated azopyridine is proposed. Such ligand-based redox reactions provide new concepts for the design of catalytic drugs. PMID:18687892

  8. Catalysis using hydrous metal oxide ion exchanges (United States)

    Dosch, Robert G.; Stephens, Howard P.; Stohl, Frances V.


    In a process which is catalyzed by a catalyst comprising an active metal on a carrier, said metal being active as a catalyst for the process, an improvement is provided wherein the catalyst is a hydrous, alkali metal or alkaline earth metal titanate, zirconate, niobate or tantalate wherein alkali or alkaline earth metal cations have been exchanged with a catalytically effective amount of cations of said metal.

  9. Catalysis using hydrous metal oxide ion exchangers (United States)

    Dosch, R.G.; Stephens, H.P.; Stohl, F.V.


    In a process which is catalyzed by a catalyst comprising an active metal on a carrier, said metal being active as a catalyst for the process, an improvement is provided wherein the catalyst is a hydrous, alkali metal or alkaline earth metal titanate, zirconate, niobate or tantalate wherein alkali or alkaline earth metal cations have been exchanged with a catalytically effective amount of cations of said metal.

  10. Crystal structure of catalytic domain of the initiation factor 2B epsilon subunit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Thomas; Mohammad, Sarah S.; Pavitt, Graham D.

    , UMIST, PO Box 88, Manchester, M60 1QD, UK Eukaryotic initiation factor 2B (eIF2B) is the exchange factor of initiation factor 2 (eIF2) and catalyses the reaction where GDP bound to eIF2 is exchanged for GTP, a crucial step in translation. The crystal structure of the C-terminal catalytic domain of the e...

  11. Catalytic bioreactors and methods of using same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worden, Robert Mark; Liu, Yangmu Chloe


    Various embodiments provide a bioreactor for producing a bioproduct comprising one or more catalytically active zones located in a housing and adapted to keep two incompatible gaseous reactants separated when in a gas phase, wherein each of the one or more catalytically active zones may comprise a catalytic component retainer and a catalytic component retained within and/or thereon. Each of the catalytically active zones may additionally or alternatively comprise a liquid medium located on either side of the catalytic component retainer. Catalytic component may include a microbial cell culture located within and/or on the catalytic component retainer, a suspended catalytic component suspended in the liquid medium, or a combination thereof. Methods of using various embodiments of the bioreactor to produce a bioproduct, such as isobutanol, are also provided.

  12. Catalytic distillation extends its reach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rock, K.; McGuirk, T. [Catalytic Distillation Technologies, Houston, TX (United States); Gildert, G.R. [Catalytic Distillation Technologies, Pasadena, TX (United States)


    Since the early 1980s, catalytic distillation processes have been selected by more than a hundred operators for various applications. Since such a unit performs both reaction and distillation simultaneously, a combined column can replace a separate, fixed-bed reactor and distillation column, thereby eliminating equipment and reducing capital costs. And, compared to the conventional approach, catalytic distillation may also improve other factors, such as reactant conversion, selectivity, mass transfer, operating pressure, oligomer formation and catalyst fouling. The constant washing of the catalyst by liquid flowing down the column and the distillation of high-boiling foulants results in extended catalyst life. Four selective hydrogenation applications of catalytic distillation are discussed: Butadiene selective hydrogenation combined within an MTBE unit; Pentadiene selective hydrogenation; C{sub 4} acetylene conversion; and Benzene saturation.

  13. Catalytic activity of Au nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Britt Hvolbæk; Janssens, Ton V.W.; Clausen, Bjerne


    Au is usually viewed as an inert metal, but surprisingly it has been found that Au nanoparticles less than 3–5 nm in diameter are catalytically active for several chemical reactions. We discuss the origin of this effect, focusing on the way in which the chemical activity of Au may change with par......Au is usually viewed as an inert metal, but surprisingly it has been found that Au nanoparticles less than 3–5 nm in diameter are catalytically active for several chemical reactions. We discuss the origin of this effect, focusing on the way in which the chemical activity of Au may change...... with particle size. We find that the fraction of low-coordinated Au atoms scales approximately with the catalytic activity, suggesting that atoms on the corners and edges of Au nanoparticles are the active sites. This effect is explained using density functional calculations....

  14. Production of aromatic hydrocarbons via catalytic pyrolysis of biomass over fe-modified HZSM-5 zeolites (United States)

    Iron modified HZSM-5 catalysts were prepared by partial ion exchange of NH4ZSM-5 with Fe (II) at three different loadings (1.4, 2.8 and 4.2 wt%), and their effectiveness for producing aromatic hydrocarbons from cellulose, cellobiose, lignin and switchgrass by catalytic pyrolysis were screened using ...

  15. Solid particles thermal transfer process and device for a double regeneration in catalytic cracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonifay, R.; Hoffmann, F.; Pontier, R.; Gauthier, T.


    A process for the regeneration of a used catalyst with a fluidized bed heat exchanger is presented. It is well suited for the regeneration of catalysts contaminated with hydrocarbon residues and coke after reaction (catalytic cracking, reforming, etc.). The catalyst cooling process is especially well controlled.

  16. Catalytic Decoupling of Quantum Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majenz, Christian; Berta, Mario; Dupuis, Frédéric


    The decoupling technique is a fundamental tool in quantum information theory with applications ranging from quantum thermodynamics to quantum many body physics to the study of black hole radiation. In this work we introduce the notion of catalytic decoupling, that is, decoupling in the presence...... of an uncorrelated ancilla system. This removes a restriction on the standard notion of decoupling, which becomes important for structureless resources, and yields a tight characterization in terms of the max-mutual information. Catalytic decoupling naturally unifies various tasks like the erasure of correlations...

  17. Atomic-scale Modelling of Electro-catalytic Surfaces and Dynamic Electrochemical Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Hangaard

    This dissertation addresses numerical calculations on the atomic scale to study catalytic surfaces for electrochemistry. The first half of the thesis deals with calculations on the properties of catalytic surfaces, using well known methodology, whereas the second half of the thesis deals with the......This dissertation addresses numerical calculations on the atomic scale to study catalytic surfaces for electrochemistry. The first half of the thesis deals with calculations on the properties of catalytic surfaces, using well known methodology, whereas the second half of the thesis deals...... with the development of new methodology to explicitly include the electrolyte in the atomic scale calculations. Chapter 3 presents calculations on contracted and reconstructed platinum surfaces, which are relevant for development of catalysts for proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Correlation of the results...

  18. Segmented heat exchanger (United States)

    Baldwin, Darryl Dean; Willi, Martin Leo; Fiveland, Scott Byron; Timmons, Kristine Ann


    A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.

  19. Catalytic carboxyester hydrolysis by diaminodiphenols

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Two diaminodiphenols, 1 and 2, have been examined as catalysts for the hydrolysis of 4- nitrophenyl acetate (NA) and 4-nitrophenylphosphate (NP) in aqueous-acetonitrile (25% acetonitrile v/v) media at 35ºC, I = 1·0 mol dm–3. The compound 1 enhances the hydrolysis rate of NA more than 105 times. Its catalytic efficiency ...

  20. Selective oxidation of propane over cation exchanged zeolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, J.


    This thesis focuses on investigation of the fundamental knowledge on a new method for selective oxidation of propane with O2 at low temperature (< 100°C). The relation between propane catalytic selective oxidation and physicochemical properties of cation exchanged Y zeolite has been studied. An

  1. Catalytic Polymerization of Acrylonitrile by Khulays Bentonite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matar M. Al-Esaimi


    Full Text Available The aqueous polymerization of acrylonitrile (AN catalyzed with exchanged Khulays bentonite . The influence of various polymerization parameters ( e.g., concentrations of Potassium Persulfate (K2S2O8 and monomer , various of organic solvents, and different temperature has been investigated. It was found that the rate of polymerization of AN was found to be dependent on monomer concentration, initiator and temperature. The activation energy of polymerization was calculated .Thermal properties of the polymer were studied by TGA and DSC techniques. © 2007 CREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.Received: 5 February 2007; Received in revised: 19 April 2007; Accepted: 7 May 2007[How to Cite: M. M. Al-Esaimi. (2007. Catalytic Polymerization of Acrylonitrile by Khulays Bentonite. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 2 (2-3: 32-36.  doi:10.9767/bcrec.][How to Link/DOI: || or local:] 

  2. Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore Dickerson


    Full Text Available Catalytic pyrolysis is a promising thermochemical conversion route for lignocellulosic biomass that produces chemicals and fuels compatible with current, petrochemical infrastructure. Catalytic modifications to pyrolysis bio-oils are geared towards the elimination and substitution of oxygen and oxygen-containing functionalities in addition to increasing the hydrogen to carbon ratio of the final products. Recent progress has focused on both hydrodeoxygenation and hydrogenation of bio-oil using a variety of metal catalysts and the production of aromatics from bio-oil using cracking zeolites. Research is currently focused on developing multi-functional catalysts used in situ that benefit from the advantages of both hydrodeoxygenation and zeolite cracking. Development of robust, highly selective catalysts will help achieve the goal of producing drop-in fuels and petrochemical commodities from wood and other lignocellulosic biomass streams. The current paper will examine these developments by means of a review of existing literature.

  3. Catalytic combustion of residual fuels (United States)

    Bulzan, D. L.; Tacina, R. R.


    A noble metal catalytic reactor was tested using two grades of petroleum derived residual fuels at specified inlet air temperatures, pressures, and reference velocities. Combustion efficiencies greater than 99.5 percent were obtained. Steady state operation of the catalytic reactor required inlet air temperatures of at least 800 K. At lower inlet air temperatures, upstream burning in the premixing zone occurred which was probably caused by fuel deposition and accumulation on the premixing zone walls. Increasing the inlet air temperature prevented this occurrence. Both residual fuels contained about 0.5 percent nitrogen by weight. NO sub x emissions ranged from 50 to 110 ppm by volume at 15 percent excess O2. Conversion of fuel-bound nitrogen to NO sub x ranged from 25 to 50 percent.

  4. Catalytic electrochemistry of xanthine dehydrogenase. (United States)

    Kalimuthu, Palraj; Leimkühler, Silke; Bernhardt, Paul V


    We report the mediated electrocatalytic voltammetry of the molybdoenzyme xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) from Rhodobacter capsulatus at a thiol-modified Au electrode. The 2-electron acceptor N-methylphenazinium methanesulfonate (phenazine methosulfate, PMS) is an effective artificial electron transfer partner for XDH instead of its native electron acceptor NAD(+). XDH catalyzes the oxidative hydroxylation of hypoxanthine to xanthine and xanthine to uric acid. Cyclic voltammetry was used to generate the active (oxidized) form of the mediator. Simulation of the catalytic voltammetry across a broad range of substrate and PMS concentrations at different sweep rates was achieved with the program DigiSim to yield a set of consistent rate and equilibrium constants that describe the catalytic system. This provides the first example of the mediated electrochemistry of a xanthine dehydrogenase (or oxidase) that is uncomplicated by interference from product oxidation. A remarkable two-step, sequential oxidation of hypoxanthine to uric acid via xanthine by XDH is observed.

  5. Totalization Data Exchange (TDEX) (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Totalization Data Exchange (TDEX) process is an exchange between SSA and its foreign country partners to identify deaths of beneficiaries residing abroad. The...

  6. Environmental Engineering of Pd Nanoparticle Catalysts for Catalytic Hydrogenation of CO2 and Bicarbonate. (United States)

    Lee, Li-Chen; Xing, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Yan


    The extraordinary catalytic properties of enzymes are derived not only from their catalytic groups but also the unique properties of the active site. Tuning the microenvironment of synthetic catalysts is expected to enhance their performance if effective strategies can be developed. Interfacially cross-linked reverse micelles were prepared from three different cross-linkable surfactants. Pd nanoparticles were deposited in the core of the micelle for the catalytic hydrogenation of bicarbonate and CO2. The catalytic performance was found to depend heavily on the nature of the headgroup of the surfactant. Quaternary ammonium-based surfactants through ion exchange could bring bicarbonate to the catalytic center, whereas tertiary amine-based surfactants worked particularly well in CO2 hydrogenation, with turnover numbers an order of magnitude higher than that of commercially available Pd/C. The amines were proposed to bring CO2 to the proximity of the catalysts through reversible formation of carbamate, in the nanospace of the hydrophilic core of the cross-linked reverse micelle. In the bicarbonate reduction, additional improvement of the catalysts was achieved through localized sol-gel synthesis that introduced metal oxide near the catalytic metal.

  7. Dynamic Responsive Systems for Catalytic Function. (United States)

    Vlatković, Matea; Collins, Beatrice S L; Feringa, Ben L


    Responsive systems have recently gained much interest in the scientific community in attempts to mimic dynamic functions in biological systems. One of the fascinating potential applications of responsive systems lies in catalysis. Inspired by nature, novel responsive catalytic systems have been built that show analogy with allosteric regulation of enzymes. The design of responsive catalytic systems allows control of catalytic activity and selectivity. In this Review, advances in the field over the last four decades are discussed and a comparison is made amongst the dynamic responsive systems based on the principles underlying their catalytic mechanisms. The catalyst systems are sorted according to the triggers used to achieve control of the catalytic activity and the distinct catalytic reactions illustrated. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Kinetics of heterogeneous catalytic reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Boudart, Michel


    This book is a critical account of the principles of the kinetics of heterogeneous catalytic reactions in the light of recent developments in surface science and catalysis science. Originally published in 1984. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These paperback editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase acc

  9. Catalytic Decoupling of Quantum Information. (United States)

    Majenz, Christian; Berta, Mario; Dupuis, Frédéric; Renner, Renato; Christandl, Matthias


    The decoupling technique is a fundamental tool in quantum information theory with applications ranging from thermodynamics to many-body physics and black hole radiation whereby a quantum system is decoupled from another one by discarding an appropriately chosen part of it. Here, we introduce catalytic decoupling, i.e., decoupling with the help of an independent system. Thereby, we remove a restriction on the standard decoupling notion and present a tight characterization in terms of the max-mutual information. The novel notion unifies various tasks and leads to a resource theory of decoupling.

  10. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stock, L.M.; Yang, Shiyong [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)


    This research, which is relevant to the development of new catalytic systems for the improvement of the quality of coal liquids by the addition of dihydrogen, is divided into two tasks. Task 1 centers on the activation of dihydrogen by molecular basic reagents such as hydroxide ion to convert it into a reactive adduct (OH{center_dot}H{sub 2}){sup {minus}} that can reduce organic molecules. Such species should be robust withstanding severe conditions and chemical poisons. Task 2 is focused on an entirely different approach that exploits molecular catalysts, derived from organometallic compounds that are capable of reducing monocyclic aromatic compounds under very mild conditions. Accomplishments and conclusions are discussed.

  11. Catalytic Combustion of Ethyl Acetate


    ÖZÇELİK, Tuğba GÜRMEN; ATALAY, Süheyda; ALPAY, Erden


    The catalytic combustion of ethyl acetate over prepared metal oxide catalysts was investigated. CeO, Co2O3, Mn2O3, Cr2O3, and CeO-Co2O3 catalysts were prepared on monolith supports and they were tested. Before conducting the catalyst experiments, we searched for the homogeneous gas phase combustion reaction of ethyl acetate. According to the homogeneous phase experimental results, 45% of ethyl acetate was converted at the maximum reactor temperature tested (350 °C). All the prepare...

  12. Computational Introduction of Catalytic Activity into Proteins. (United States)

    Bertolani, Steve J; Carlin, Dylan Alexander; Siegel, Justin B


    Recently, there have been several successful cases of introducing catalytic activity into proteins. One method that has been used successfully to achieve this is the theozyme placement and enzyme design algorithms implemented in Rosetta Molecular Modeling Suite. Here, we illustrate how to use this software to recapitulate the placement of catalytic residues and ligand into a protein using a theozyme, protein scaffold, and catalytic constraints as input.

  13. Nanostructured Catalytic Reactors for Air Purification Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I project proposes the development of lightweight compact nanostructured catalytic reactors for air purification from toxic gaseous organic...

  14. Nanostructured Catalytic Reactors for Air Purification Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase II project proposes the development of lightweight compact nanostructured catalytic reactors for air purification from toxic gaseous organic...

  15. Catalytic enantioselective Reformatsky reaction with ketones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez-Ibanez, M. Angeles; Macia, Beatriz; Minnaard, Adriaan J.; Feringa, Ben L.


    Chiral tertiary alcohols were obtained with good yields and enantioselectivities via a catalytic Reformatsky reaction with ketones, including the challenging diaryl ketones, using chiral BINOL derivatives.

  16. Catalytic conversion of light alkanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, J.E.


    The second Quarterly Report of 1992 on the Catalytic Conversion of Light Alkanes reviews the work done between April 1, 1992 and June 31, 1992 on the Cooperative Agreement. The mission of this work is to devise a new catalyst which can be used in a simple economic process to convert the light alkanes in natural gas to oxygenate products that can either be used as clean-burning, high octane liquid fuels, as fuel components or as precursors to liquid hydrocarbon uwspomdon fuel. During the past quarter we have continued to design, prepare, characterize and test novel catalysts for the mild selective reaction of light hydrocarbons with air or oxygen to produce alcohols directly. These catalysts are designed to form active metal oxo (MO) species and to be uniquely active for the homolytic cleavage of the carbon-hydrogen bonds in light alkanes producing intermediates which can form alcohols. We continue to investigate three molecular environments for the active catalytic species that we are trying to generate: electron-deficient macrocycles (PHASE I), polyoxometallates (PHASE II), and regular oxidic lattices including zeolites and related structures as well as other molecular surface structures having metal oxo groups (PHASE I).

  17. Catalytic reforming feed characterisation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larraz Mora, R.; Arvelo Alvarez, R. [Univ. of La Laguna, Chemical Engineering Dept., La Laguna (Spain)


    The catalytic reforming of naphtha is one of the major refinery processes, designed to increase the octane number of naphtha or to produce aromatics. The naphtha used as catalytic reformer feedstock usually contains a mixture of paraffins, naphthenes, and aromatics in the carbon number range C{sub 6} to C{sub 10}. The detailed chemical composition of the feed is necessary to predict the aromatics and hydrogen production as well as the operation severity. The analysis of feed naphtha is usually reported in terms of its ASTM distillation curve and API or specific gravity. Since reforming reactions are described in terms of lumped chemical species (paraffins, naphthenes and aromatics), a feed characterisation technique should be useful in order to predict reforming operating conditions and detect feed quality changes. Unfortunately online analyzer applications as cromatography or recently introduced naphtha NMR [1] are scarce in most of refineries. This work proposes an algorithmic characterisation method focusing on its main steps description. The method could help on the subjects previously described, finally a calculation example is shown. (orig.)

  18. Determining the storage, availability and reactivity of NH3 within Cu-Chabazite-based Ammonia Selective Catalytic Reduction systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lezcano-Gonzalez, I; Deka, U; Arstad, B; Van Yperen-De Deyne, A; Hemelsoet, K; Waroquier, M; Van Speybroeck, V; Weckhuysen, B M; Beale, A M


    Three different types of NH3 species can be simultaneously present on Cu(2+)-exchanged CHA-type zeolites, commonly used in Ammonia Selective Catalytic Reduction (NH3-SCR) systems. These include ammonium ions (NH4(+)), formed on the Brønsted acid sites, [Cu(NH3)4](2+) complexes, resulting from NH3

  19. Catalytic gasification of dry and wet biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossum, G.; Potic, B.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria


    Catalytic gasification of dry biomass and of wet biomass streams in hot compressed water are reviewed and discussed as potential technologies for the production of synthesis gas, hydrogen- and methane-rich gas. Next to literature data also new experimental results from our laboratory on catalytic

  20. Understanding catalytic biomass conversion through data mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ras, E.J.; McKay, B.; Rothenberg, G.


    Catalytic conversion of biomass is a key challenge that we chemists face in the twenty-first century. Worldwide, research is conducted into obtaining bulk chemicals, polymers and fuels. Our project centres on glucose valorisation via furfural derivatives using catalytic hydrogenation. We present

  1. Heterogeneous catalytic degradation of polyacrylamide solution | Hu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modified with trace metal elements, the catalytic activity of Fe2O3/Al2O3 could be changed greatly. Among various trace metal elements, Fe2O3/Al2O3 catalysts modified with Co and Cu showed great increase on catalytic activity. International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology, Vol. 2, No. 7, 2010, pp. 110- ...

  2. VT Telephone Exchange Boundaries (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The UtilityTelecom_EXCHANGE represents Vermont Telephone Exchange boundaries as defined by the VT Public Service Board. The original data was...

  3. Electrochemical promotion of catalytic reactions (United States)

    Imbihl, R.


    The electrochemical promotion of heterogeneously catalyzed reactions (EPOC) became feasible through the use of porous metal electrodes interfaced to a solid electrolyte. With the O 2- conducting yttrium stabilized zirconia (YSZ), the Na + conducting β″-Al 2O 3 (β-alumina), and several other types of solid electrolytes the EPOC effect has been demonstrated for about 100 reaction systems in studies conducted mainly in the mbar range. Surface science investigations showed that the physical basis for the EPOC effect lies in the electrochemically induced spillover of oxygen and alkali metal, respectively, onto the surface of the metal electrodes. For the catalytic promotion effect general concepts and mechanistic schemes were proposed but these concepts and schemes are largely speculative. Applying surface analytical tools to EPOC systems the proposed mechanistic schemes can be verified or invalidated. This report summarizes the progress which has been achieved in the mechanistic understanding of the EPOC effect.

  4. Selective catalytic oxidation of ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppaelahti, J.; Koljonen, T. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)


    In the combustion of fossil fuels, the principal source of nitrogen oxides is nitrogen bound in the fuel structure. In gasification, a large part of fuel nitrogen forms NH{sub 3}, which may form nitrogen oxides during gas combustion. If NH{sub 3} and other nitrogen species could be removed from hot gas, the NO emission could be considerably reduced. However, relatively little attention has been paid to finding new means of removing nitrogen compounds from the hot gasification gas. The possibility of selectively oxidizing NH{sub 3} to N{sub 2} in the hot gasification has been studied at VTT Energy. The largest NH{sub 3} reductions have been achieved by catalytic oxidation on aluminium oxides. (author) (4 refs.)


    Busey, H.M.


    A convection type recombiner is described for catalytically recombining hydrogen and oxygen which have been radiolytically decomposed in an aqueous homogeneous nuclear reactor. The device is so designed that the energy of recombination is used to circulate the gas mixture over the catalyst. The device consists of a vertical cylinder having baffles at its lower enda above these coarse screens having platinum and alumina pellets cemented thereon, and an annular passage for the return of recombined, condensed water to the reactor moderator system. This devicea having no moving parts, provides a simple and efficient means of removing the danger of accumulated hot radioactive, explosive gases, and restoring them to the moderator system for reuse.

  6. Fluctuations in catalytic surface reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Imbihl, R


    The internal reaction-induced fluctuations which occur in catalytic CO oxidation on a Pt field emitter tip have been studied using field electron microscopy (FEM) as a spatially resolving method. The structurally heterogeneous Pt tip consists of facets of different orientations with nanoscale dimensions. The FEM resolution of roughly 2 nm corresponds to a few hundred reacting adsorbed particles whose variations in the density are imaged as brightness fluctuations. In the bistable range of the reaction one finds fluctuation-induced transitions between the two stable branches of the reaction kinetics. The fluctuations exhibit a behaviour similar to that of an equilibrium phase transition, i.e. the amplitude diverges upon approaching the bifurcation point terminating the bistable range of the reaction. Simulations with a hybrid Monte Carlo/mean-field model reproduce the experimental observations. Fluctuations on different facets are typically uncorrelated but within a single facet a high degree of spatial cohere...

  7. Method of fabricating a catalytic structure (United States)

    Rollins, Harry W [Idaho Falls, ID; Petkovic, Lucia M [Idaho Falls, ID; Ginosar, Daniel M [Idaho Falls, ID


    A precursor to a catalytic structure comprising zinc oxide and copper oxide. The zinc oxide has a sheet-like morphology or a spherical morphology and the copper oxide comprises particles of copper oxide. The copper oxide is reduced to copper, producing the catalytic structure. The catalytic structure is fabricated by a hydrothermal process. A reaction mixture comprising a zinc salt, a copper salt, a hydroxyl ion source, and a structure-directing agent is formed. The reaction mixture is heated under confined volume conditions to produce the precursor. The copper oxide in the precursor is reduced to copper. A method of hydrogenating a carbon oxide using the catalytic structure is also disclosed, as is a system that includes the catalytic structure.

  8. Ideal Heat Exchange System (United States)

    Tsirlin, A. M.


    The requirements with which a heat exchange system should comply in order that at certain values of the total contact surface and heat load the entropy production in it should be minimal have been determined. It has been shown that this system can serve as a standard for real systems of irreversible heat exchange. We have found the conditions for physical realizability of a heat exchange system in which heat exchange occurs by a law linear with respect to the temperature difference between contacting flows. Analogous conditions are given without deriving for the case of heat exchange by the Fourier law.

  9. Resolution exchange simulation. (United States)

    Lyman, Edward; Ytreberg, F Marty; Zuckerman, Daniel M


    We extend replica-exchange simulation in two ways and apply our approaches to biomolecules. The first generalization permits exchange simulation between models of differing resolution--i.e., between detailed and coarse-grained models. Such "resolution exchange" can be applied to molecular systems or spin systems. The second extension is to "pseudoexchange" simulations, which require little CPU usage for most levels of the exchange ladder and also substantially reduce the need for overlap between levels. Pseudoexchanges can be used in either replica or resolution exchange simulations. We perform efficient, converged simulations of a 50-atom peptide to illustrate the new approaches.

  10. Millisecond dynamics in glutaredoxin during catalytic turnover is dependent on substrate binding and absent in the resting states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristine Steen; Winther, Jakob R; Teilum, Kaare


    tuned to exchange on the millisecond time scale. The conformational changes of the protein backbone during catalysis were followed by (15)N nuclear spin relaxation dispersion experiments. A conformational transition that is well described by a two-state process with an exchange rate corresponding...... to the glutathione exchange rate was observed for 23 residues. Binding of reduced glutathione resulted in competitive inhibition of the reduced enzyme having kinetics similar to that of the reaction. This observation couples the motions observed during catalysis directly to substrate binding. Backbone motions......Conformational dynamics is important for enzyme function. Which motions of enzymes determine catalytic efficiency and whether the same motions are important for all enzymes, however, are not well understood. Here we address conformational dynamics in glutaredoxin during catalytic turnover...

  11. Catalytic reaction in confined flow channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hassel, Bart A.


    A chemical reactor comprises a flow channel, a source, and a destination. The flow channel is configured to house at least one catalytic reaction converting at least a portion of a first nanofluid entering the channel into a second nanofluid exiting the channel. The flow channel includes at least one turbulating flow channel element disposed axially along at least a portion of the flow channel. A plurality of catalytic nanoparticles is dispersed in the first nanofluid and configured to catalytically react the at least one first chemical reactant into the at least one second chemical reaction product in the flow channel.

  12. Catalytic properties of Caucasian zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostandyan, M.N.; Babayan, S.G.; Musaev, M.R.; Mirzoeva, K.G.


    Great deposits of natural zeolites have been discovered in the Caucasus which can be used in various fields of the economy. One promising direction of using them may be the field of petrochemistry. The results of research on the conversion of 1-hexanol in natural zeolites in the Caucasus have been reported previously. This work was carried out in order to obtain comparative data on the catalytic activity of zeolites from the following deposits: Novyy Kokhb in Armenia, Ay-Dag in Azerbaijan, and Khekordzula in Georgia. This established that without any preliminary chemical treatment these zeolites are good catalysts for the dehydration of primary hexyl alcohol and the isomerization of the l-hexene obtained into 2-hexene. The activity of all three catalysts is almost identical. Continuing the research in this direction, the conversion of cyclohexanol in the same natural zeolites has been studied. The conditions for carrying out the experiments and methodology of obtaining the reaction products are presented. The data obtained show that the degree of dehydration of cyclohexanol at low temperatures (250-350/sup 0/C) is significantly greater than the degree of dehydration of 1-hexanol. The dehydration is accompanied by skeletal isomerization into 1- and 3-methylcyclopentenes (a total of 3%). At high temperatures (400-450/sup 0/), along with an increased degree of isomerization of cyclohexene into methocyclopentenes, the formation of methylcyclopentane is observed as a result of the redistribution of hydrogen and coke on the catalysts. 1 reference.

  13. Plausibility of potassium ion-exchanged ZSM-5 as soot combustion catalysts. (United States)

    Lu, Chenxi; Liu, Taizheng; Shi, Qiaolan; Li, Qian; Xin, Ying; Zheng, Lei; Zhang, Zhaoliang


    Potassium (K) ion-exchanged ZSM-5 zeolites were investigated for catalytic soot combustion. X-ray absorption fine-structure (XAFS), Raman, in situ IR and NH3-temperature programmed desorption (NH3-TPD) confirmed the location of K+ at the ion-exchanged sites. Temperature-programmed oxidation (TPO) reactions showed that K-ZSM-5 decreased ignition tempeatures of soot combustion and increased selectivity to CO2. The improved activity for soot combustion by increasing K+-exchanged amounts via decreasing the Si/Al ratio reinforced the K+ ions participating in soot combustion. 18O2 isotopic isothermal reactions suggested the activation of gaseous oxygen by the K+ ions. This demonstrated a new appliction of alkali metal exchanged zeolites and the strategy for enhancement of catalytic soot combustion activity.

  14. On the study of catalytic membrane reactor for water detritiation: Modeling approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liger, Karine, E-mail: [CEA, DEN, DTN/SMTA/LIPC Cadarache, Saint Paul-lez-Durance F-13108 (France); Mascarade, Jérémy [CEA, DEN, DTN/SMTA/LIPC Cadarache, Saint Paul-lez-Durance F-13108 (France); Joulia, Xavier; Meyer, Xuan-Mi [Université de Toulouse, INPT, UPS, Laboratoire de Génie Chimique, 4, Allée Emile Monso, Toulouse F-31030 (France); CNRS, Laboratoire de Génie Chimique, Toulouse F-31030 (France); Troulay, Michèle; Perrais, Christophe [CEA, DEN, DTN/SMTA/LIPC Cadarache, Saint Paul-lez-Durance F-13108 (France)


    Highlights: • Experimental results for the conversion of tritiated water (using deuterium as a simulant of tritium) by means of a catalytic membrane reactor in view of tritium recovery. • Phenomenological 2D model to represent catalytic membrane reactor behavior including the determination of the compositions of gaseous effluents. • Good agreement between the simulation results and experimental measurements performed on the dedicated facility. • Explanation of the unexpected behavior of the catalytic membrane reactor by the modeling results and in particular the gas composition estimation. - Abstract: In the framework of tritium recovery from tritiated water, efficiency of packed bed membrane reactors have been successfully demonstrated. Thanks to protium isotope swamping, tritium bonded water can be recovered under the valuable Q{sub 2} form (Q = H, D or T) by means of isotope exchange reactions occurring on catalyst surface. The use of permselective Pd-based membrane allows withdrawal of reactions products all along the reactor, and thus limits reverse reaction rate to the benefit of the direct one (shift effect). The reactions kinetics, which are still little known or unknown, are generally assumed to be largely greater than the permeation ones so that thermodynamic equilibriums of isotope exchange reactions are generally assumed. This paper proposes a new phenomenological 2D model to represent catalytic membrane reactor behavior with the determination of gas effluents compositions. A good agreement was obtained between the simulation results and experimental measurements performed on a dedicated facility. Furthermore, the gas composition estimation permits to interpret unexpected behavior of the catalytic membrane reactor. In the next future, further sensitivity analysis will be performed to determine the limits of the model and a kinetics study will be conducted to assess the thermodynamic equilibrium of reactions.

  15. Introduction of Residue Fluid Catalytic Cracking Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library



    .... Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is one of the most important conversion processes in a petroleum refinery, it also occupies very significant position in the refinery due to its economic benefits...

  16. Catalytic models developed through social work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mogens


    The article develops the concept of catalytic processes in relation to social work with adolescents in an attempt to both reach a more nuanced understanding of social work and at the same time to develop the concept of catalytic processes in psychology. The social work is pedagogical treatment...... of adolescents placed in out-of-home care and is characterised using three situated cases as empirical data. Afterwards the concept of catalytic processes is briefly presented and then applied in an analysis of pedagogical treatment in the three cases. The result is a different conceptualisation of the social...... work with new possibilities of development of the work, but also suggestions for development of the concept of catalytic processes....

  17. Catalytic converters as a source of platinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fornalczyk


    Full Text Available The increase of Platinum Group Metals demand in automotive industry is connected with growing amount of cars equipped with the catalytic converters. The paper presents the review of available technologies during recycling process. The possibility of removing platinum from the used catalytic converters applying pyrometallurgical and hyrdometallurgical methods were also investigated. Metals such as Cu, Pb, Ca, Mg, Cd were used in the pyrometallurgical research (catalytic converter was melted with Cu, Pb and Ca or Mg and Cd vapours were blown through the whole carrier. In hydrometallurgical research catalytic converters was dissolved in aqua regia. Analysis of Pt contents in the carrier before and after the process was performed by means of atomic absorption spectroscopy. Obtained result were discussed.

  18. Catalytic iron and acute kidney injury. (United States)

    Leaf, David E; Swinkels, Dorine W


    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and often devastating condition among hospitalized patients and is associated with markedly increased hospital length of stay, mortality, and cost. The pathogenesis of AKI is complex, but animal models support an important role for catalytic iron in causing AKI. Catalytic iron, also known as labile iron, is a transitional pool of non-transferrin-bound iron that is readily available to participate in redox cycling. Initial findings related to catalytic iron and animal models of kidney injury have only recently been extended to human AKI. In this review, we discuss the role of catalytic iron in human AKI, focusing on recent translational studies in humans, assay considerations, and potential therapeutic targets for future interventional studies. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Adaptively Compressed Exchange Operator

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Lin


    The Fock exchange operator plays a central role in modern quantum chemistry. The large computational cost associated with the Fock exchange operator hinders Hartree-Fock calculations and Kohn-Sham density functional theory calculations with hybrid exchange-correlation functionals, even for systems consisting of hundreds of atoms. We develop the adaptively compressed exchange operator (ACE) formulation, which greatly reduces the computational cost associated with the Fock exchange operator without loss of accuracy. The ACE formulation does not depend on the size of the band gap, and thus can be applied to insulating, semiconducting as well as metallic systems. In an iterative framework for solving Hartree-Fock-like systems, the ACE formulation only requires moderate modification of the code, and can be potentially beneficial for all electronic structure software packages involving exchange calculations. Numerical results indicate that the ACE formulation can become advantageous even for small systems with tens...

  20. Catalytic ammonia oxidation to nitrogen (i) oxide




    The process of synthesis of nitrous oxide by low-temperature catalytical oxidation of NH has been investigated for organic synthesis. The investigation has been carried out by the stage separation approach with NH oxidation occurring in several reaction zones, which characterized by different catalytic conditions. The selectivity for N2O was 92-92,5% at the ammonia conversion of 98-99.5% in the optimal temperature range


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedi V.E.


    Full Text Available The design and purpose of the basic units of the mobile waste processing complex “MPK” are described. Experimental data of catalytic purification of exhaust gases are presented. Experimental data on catalytic clearing of final gases of a designed mobile incinerator plant are shown. It is defined, that concentrating of parasitic bridging in waste gases of the complex are considerably smaller, rather than allowed by normative documents.

  2. Laser Processed Heat Exchangers (United States)

    Hansen, Scott


    The Laser Processed Heat Exchanger project will investigate the use of laser processed surfaces to reduce mass and volume in liquid/liquid heat exchangers as well as the replacement of the harmful and problematic coatings of the Condensing Heat Exchangers (CHX). For this project, two scale unit test articles will be designed, manufactured, and tested. These two units are a high efficiency liquid/liquid HX and a high reliability CHX.

  3. Microsoft Exchange 2013 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Van Horenbeeck, Michael


    This book is a practical, hands-on guide that provides the reader with a number of clear, step-by-step exercises.""Microsoft Exchange 2013 Cookbook"" is targeted at network administrators who deal with the Exchange server in their day-to-day jobs. It assumes you have some practical experience with previous versions of Exchange (although this is not a requirement), without being a subject matter expert.

  4. Microtube strip heat exchanger (United States)

    Doty, F. D.


    During the last quarter, Doty Scientific, Inc. (DSI) continued to make progress on the microtube strip (MTS) heat exchanger. The DSI completed a heat exchanger stress analysis of the ten-module heat exchanger bank; and performed a shell-side flow inhomogeneity analysis of the three-module heat exchanger bank. The company produced 50 tubestrips using an in-house CNC milling machine and began pressing them onto tube arrays. The DSI revised some of the tooling required to encapsulate a tube array and press tubestrips into the array to improve some of the prototype tooling.

  5. Catalytic hydrogenation of carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayland, B.B.


    This project is focused on developing strategies to accomplish the reduction and hydrogenation of carbon monoxide to produce organic oxygenates at mild conditions. Our approaches to this issue are based on the recognition that rhodium macrocycles have unusually favorable thermodynamic values for producing a series of intermediate implicated in the catalytic hydrogenation of CO. Observations of metalloformyl complexes produced by reactions of H{sub 2} and CO, and reductive coupling of CO to form metallo {alpha}-diketone species have suggested a multiplicity of routes to organic oxygenates that utilize these species as intermediates. Thermodynamic and kinetic-mechanistic studies are used in constructing energy profiles for a variety of potential pathways, and these schemes are used in guiding the design of new metallospecies to improve the thermodynamic and kinetic factors for individual steps in the overall process. Variation of the electronic and steric effects associated with the ligand arrays along with the influences of the reaction medium provide the chemical tools for tuning these factors. Emerging knowledge of the factors that contribute to M-H, M-C and M-O bond enthalpies is directing the search for ligand arrays that will expand the range of metal species that have favorable thermodynamic parameters to produce the primary intermediates for CO hydrogenation. Studies of rhodium complexes are being extended to non-macrocyclic ligand complexes that emulate the favorable thermodynamic features associated with rhodium macrocycles, but that also manifest improved reaction kinetics. Multifunctional catalyst systems designed to couple the ability of rhodium complexes to produce formyl and diketone intermediates with a second catalyst that hydrogenates these imtermediates are promising approaches to accomplish CO hydrogenation at mild conditions.

  6. Adsorbent catalytic nanoparticles and methods of using the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slowing, Igor Ivan; Kandel, Kapil


    The present invention provides an adsorbent catalytic nanoparticle including a mesoporous silica nanoparticle having at least one adsorbent functional group bound thereto. The adsorbent catalytic nanoparticle also includes at least one catalytic material. In various embodiments, the present invention provides methods of using and making the adsorbent catalytic nanoparticles. In some examples, the adsorbent catalytic nanoparticles can be used to selectively remove fatty acids from feedstocks for biodiesel, and to hydrotreat the separated fatty acids.

  7. Concentration of ions Co(II), Ni(II) at the Tokem-250 carboxylic cation exchange for catalysts development (United States)

    Zharkova, Valentina; Bobkova, Ludmila; Brichkov, Anton; Kozik, Vladimir


    Sorption and catalytic properties of the cation exchanger are investigated. It was found that the Tokem-250 has a wide operating range of pH. The value of the effective ionization constant of the functional groups of the cation exchanger (pKa) is 6.59. The Tokem-250 cation exchanger exhibits selectivity to Ni2+ ions to Co2+ (D˜103). This is probably due to the stability of ion-exchange complexes detected by the method of diffuse reflectance electron spectroscopy (ESDD). According to these data, for Co2+ ions, in contrast to Ni2+, tetragonal distortion of octahedral coordination is characteristic, which has a positive effect on the stability of complexes with Co2+. To obtain spherical catalysts on the basis of Tokem-250, cobalt-containing samples of cation exchanger were used. The developed spherical materials have catalytic activity in the reactions of deep and partial oxidation of n-heptane.

  8. GRUNDTVIG in transnational exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grundtvig in transnational exchange is the report from the seminar in december 2015 in cooperation with University of Cape Town and University of Hamburg.......Grundtvig in transnational exchange is the report from the seminar in december 2015 in cooperation with University of Cape Town and University of Hamburg....

  9. Optimization of Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivan Catton


    The objective of this research is to develop tools to design and optimize heat exchangers (HE) and compact heat exchangers (CHE) for intermediate loop heat transport systems found in the very high temperature reator (VHTR) and other Generation IV designs by addressing heat transfer surface augmentation and conjugate modeling. To optimize heat exchanger, a fast running model must be created that will allow for multiple designs to be compared quickly. To model a heat exchanger, volume averaging theory, VAT, is used. VAT allows for the conservation of mass, momentum and energy to be solved for point by point in a 3 dimensional computer model of a heat exchanger. The end product of this project is a computer code that can predict an optimal configuration for a heat exchanger given only a few constraints (input fluids, size, cost, etc.). As VAT computer code can be used to model characteristics )pumping power, temperatures, and cost) of heat exchangers more quickly than traditional CFD or experiment, optimization of every geometric parameter simultaneously can be made. Using design of experiment, DOE and genetric algorithms, GE, to optimize the results of the computer code will improve heat exchanger disign.

  10. Education and Industry Exchange (United States)

    Webb, Gerald A.


    Through an exchange plan a school representative worked at the personnel counter of a local company, and a supervisor from that company worked with counselors, faculty, administrators, and students from the local school. The exchange of ideas and insights were of benefit to the school and the company. (KP)

  11. Dual Studies on a Hydrogen-Deuterium Exchange of Resorcinol and the Subsequent Kinetic Isotope Effect (United States)

    Giles, Richard; Kim, Iris; Chao, Weyjuin Eric; Moore, Jennifer; Jung, Kyung Woon


    An efficient laboratory experiment has been developed for undergraduate students to conduct hydrogen-deuterium (H-D) exchange of resorcinol by electrophilic aromatic substitution using D[subscript 2]O and a catalytic amount of H[subscript 2]SO[subscript 4]. The resulting labeled product is characterized by [superscript 1]H NMR. Students also…

  12. Heat exchange performance of stainless steel and carbon foams modified with carbon nano fibers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuzovskaya, I.; Pacheco Benito, Sergio; Chinthaginjala, J.K.; Reed, C.P.; Lefferts, Leonardus; van der Meer, Theodorus H.


    Carbon nanofibers (CNF), with fishbone and parallel wall structures, were grown by catalytic chemical vapor deposition on the surface of carbon foam and stainless steel foam, in order to improve their heat exchange performance. Enhancement in heat transfer efficiency between 30% and 75% was achieved

  13. Atomically Precise Metal Nanoclusters for Catalytic Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Rongchao [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)


    The central goal of this project is to explore the catalytic application of atomically precise gold nanoclusters. By solving the total structures of ligand-protected nanoclusters, we aim to correlate the catalytic properties of metal nanoclusters with their atomic/electronic structures. Such correlation unravel some fundamental aspects of nanocatalysis, such as the nature of particle size effect, origin of catalytic selectivity, particle-support interactions, the identification of catalytically active centers, etc. The well-defined nanocluster catalysts mediate the knowledge gap between single crystal model catalysts and real-world conventional nanocatalysts. These nanoclusters also hold great promise in catalyzing certain types of reactions with extraordinarily high selectivity. These aims are in line with the overall goals of the catalytic science and technology of DOE and advance the BES mission “to support fundamental research to understand, predict, and ultimately control matter and energy at the level of electrons, atoms, and molecules”. Our group has successfully prepared different sized, robust gold nanoclusters protected by thiolates, such as Au25(SR)18, Au28(SR)20, Au38(SR)24, Au99(SR)42, Au144(SR)60, etc. Some of these nanoclusters have been crystallographically characterized through X-ray crystallography. These ultrasmall nanoclusters (< 2 nm diameter) exhibit discrete electronic structures due to quantum size effect, as opposed to quasicontinuous band structure of conventional metal nanoparticles or bulk metals. The available atomic structures (metal core plus surface ligands) of nanoclusters serve as the basis for structure-property correlations. We have investigated the unique catalytic properties of nanoclusters (i.e. not observed in conventional nanogold catalysts) and revealed the structure-selectivity relationships. Highlights of our

  14. Electro Catalytic Oxidation (ECO) Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan Jones


    The power industry in the United States is faced with meeting many new regulations to reduce a number of air pollutants including sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, fine particulate matter, and mercury. With over 1,000 power plants in the US, this is a daunting task. In some cases, traditional pollution control technologies such as wet scrubbers and SCRs are not feasible. Powerspan's Electro-Catalytic Oxidation, or ECO{reg_sign} process combines four pollution control devices into a single integrated system that can be installed after a power plant's particulate control device. Besides achieving major reductions in emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NOx), fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and mercury (Hg), ECO produces a highly marketable fertilizer, which can help offset the operating costs of the process system. Powerspan has been operating a 50-MW ECO commercial demonstration unit (CDU) at FirstEnergy Corp.'s R.E. Burger Plant near Shadyside, Ohio, since February 2004. In addition to the CDU, a test loop has been constructed beside the CDU to demonstrate higher NOx removal rates and test various scrubber packing types and wet ESP configurations. Furthermore, Powerspan has developed the ECO{reg_sign}{sub 2} technology, a regenerative process that uses a proprietary solvent to capture CO{sub 2} from flue gas. The CO{sub 2} capture takes place after the capture of NOx, SO{sub 2}, mercury, and fine particulate matter. Once the CO{sub 2} is captured, the proprietary solution is regenerated to release CO{sub 2} in a form that is ready for geological storage or beneficial use. Pilot scale testing of ECO{sub 2} began in early 2009 at FirstEnergy's Burger Plant. The ECO{sub 2} pilot unit is designed to process a 1-MW flue gas stream and produce 20 tons of CO{sub 2} per day, achieving a 90% CO{sub 2} capture rate. The ECO{sub 2} pilot program provided the opportunity to confirm process design and cost estimates, and prepare for large

  15. Pulsed-field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance study of transport properties of fluid catalytic cracking catalysts. (United States)

    Kortunov, P; Vasenkov, S; Kärger, J; Fé Elía, M; Perez, M; Stöcker, M; Papadopoulos, G K; Theodorou, D; Drescher, B; McElhiney, G; Bernauer, B; Krystl, V; Kocirik, M; Zikanova, A; Jirglova, H; Berger, C; Gläser, R; Weitkamp, J; Hansen, E W


    Pulsed-field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance (PFG NMR) has been applied to study molecular diffusion in industrial fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts and in USY zeolite for a broad range of molecular displacements and temperatures. The results of this study have been used to elucidate the relevance of molecular transport on various displacements for the rate of molecular exchange between catalyst particles and their surroundings. It turned out that this rate, which may determine the overall rate and selectivity of FCC process, is primarily related to the diffusion mode associated with displacements larger than the size of zeolite crystals located in the particles but smaller than the size of the particles. This conclusion has been confirmed by comparative studies of the catalytic performance of different FCC catalysts.

  16. Catalytic transformation of carbon dioxide and methane into syngas over ruthenium and platinum supported hydroxyapatites (United States)

    Rêgo De Vasconcelos, Bruna; Zhao, Lulu; Sharrock, Patrick; Nzihou, Ange; Pham Minh, Doan


    This work focused on the catalytic transformation of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) into syngas (mixture of CO and H2). Ruthenium- and platinum-based catalysts were prepared using hydroxyapatite (HAP) as catalyst support. Different methods for metal deposition were used including incipient wetness impregnation (IWI), excess liquid phase impregnation (LIM), and cationic exchange (CEX). Metal particle size varied in large range from less than 1 nm to dozens nm. All catalysts were active at 400-700 °C but only Pt catalyst prepared by IWI method (Pt/HAP IWI) was found stable. The catalytic performance of Pt/HAP IWI could be comparable with the literature data on noble metal-based catalysts, prepared on metal oxide supports. For the first time, water was experimentally quantified as a by-product of the reaction. This helped to correctly buckle the mass balance of the process.

  17. Heat exchanger design handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Thulukkanam, Kuppan


    Completely revised and updated to reflect current advances in heat exchanger technology, Heat Exchanger Design Handbook, Second Edition includes enhanced figures and thermal effectiveness charts, tables, new chapter, and additional topics--all while keeping the qualities that made the first edition a centerpiece of information for practicing engineers, research, engineers, academicians, designers, and manufacturers involved in heat exchange between two or more fluids.See What's New in the Second Edition: Updated information on pressure vessel codes, manufacturer's association standards A new c

  18. Anion exchange membrane (United States)

    Verkade, John G; Wadhwa, Kuldeep; Kong, Xueqian; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus


    An anion exchange membrane and fuel cell incorporating the anion exchange membrane are detailed in which proazaphosphatrane and azaphosphatrane cations are covalently bonded to a sulfonated fluoropolymer support along with anionic counterions. A positive charge is dispersed in the aforementioned cations which are buried in the support to reduce the cation-anion interactions and increase the mobility of hydroxide ions, for example, across the membrane. The anion exchange membrane has the ability to operate at high temperatures and in highly alkaline environments with high conductivity and low resistance.

  19. Highly Dense Isolated Metal Atom Catalytic Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yaxin; Kasama, Takeshi; Huang, Zhiwei


    Atomically dispersed noble-metal catalysts with highly dense active sites are promising materials with which to maximise metal efficiency and to enhance catalytic performance; however, their fabrication remains challenging because metal atoms are prone to sintering, especially at a high metal...... loading. A dynamic process of formation of isolated metal atom catalytic sites on the surface of the support, which was achieved starting from silver nanoparticles by using a thermal surface-mediated diffusion method, was observed directly by using in situ electron microscopy and in situ synchrotron X......-ray diffraction. A combination of electron microscopy images with X-ray absorption spectra demonstrated that the silver atoms were anchored on five-fold oxygen-terminated cavities on the surface of the support to form highly dense isolated metal active sites, leading to excellent reactivity in catalytic oxidation...

  20. Catalytic Organic Transformations Mediated by Actinide Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabell S. R. Karmel


    Full Text Available This review article presents the development of organoactinides and actinide coordination complexes as catalysts for homogeneous organic transformations. This chapter introduces the basic principles of actinide catalysis and deals with the historic development of actinide complexes in catalytic processes. The application of organoactinides in homogeneous catalysis is exemplified in the hydroelementation reactions, such as the hydroamination, hydrosilylation, hydroalkoxylation and hydrothiolation of alkynes. Additionally, the use of actinide coordination complexes for the catalytic polymerization of α-olefins and the ring opening polymerization of cyclic esters is presented. The last part of this review article highlights novel catalytic transformations mediated by actinide compounds and gives an outlook to the further potential of this field.

  1. Temperature Modulation of a Catalytic Gas Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eike Brauns


    Full Text Available The use of catalytic gas sensors usually offers low selectivity, only based on their different sensitivities for various gases due to their different heats of reaction. Furthermore, the identification of the gas present is not possible, which leads to possible misinterpretation of the sensor signals. The use of micro-machined catalytic gas sensors offers great advantages regarding the response time, which allows advanced analysis of the sensor response. By using temperature modulation, additional information about the gas characteristics can be measured and drift effects caused by material shifting or environmental temperature changes can be avoided. In this work a miniaturized catalytic gas sensor which offers a very short response time (<150 ms was developed. Operation with modulated temperature allows analysis of the signal spectrum with advanced information content, based on the Arrhenius approach. Therefore, a high-precise electronic device was developed, since theory shows that harmonics induced by the electronics must be avoided to generate a comprehensible signal.

  2. Porous media for catalytic renewable energy conversion (United States)

    Hotz, Nico


    A novel flow-based method is presented to place catalytic nanoparticles into a reactor by sol-gelation of a porous ceramic consisting of copper-based nanoparticles, silica sand, ceramic binder, and a gelation agent. This method allows for the placement of a liquid precursor containing the catalyst into the final reactor geometry without the need of impregnating or coating of a substrate with the catalytic material. The so generated foam-like porous ceramic shows properties highly appropriate for use as catalytic reactor material, e.g., reasonable pressure drop due to its porosity, high thermal and catalytic stability, and excellent catalytic behavior. The catalytic activity of micro-reactors containing this foam-like ceramic is tested in terms of their ability to convert alcoholic biofuel (e.g. methanol) to a hydrogen-rich gas mixture with low concentrations of carbon monoxide (up to 75% hydrogen content and less than 0.2% CO, for the case of methanol). This gas mixture is subsequently used in a low-temperature fuel cell, converting the hydrogen directly to electricity. A low concentration of CO is crucial to avoid poisoning of the fuel cell catalyst. Since conventional Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cells require CO concentrations far below 100 ppm and since most methods to reduce the mole fraction of CO (such as Preferential Oxidation or PROX) have CO conversions of up to 99%, the alcohol fuel reformer has to achieve initial CO mole fractions significantly below 1%. The catalyst and the porous ceramic reactor of the present study can successfully fulfill this requirement.

  3. Catalytic burners in larger boiler appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silversand, Fredrik; Persson, Mikael (Catator AB, Lund (Sweden))


    This project focuses on the scale up of a Catator's catalytic burner technology to enable retrofit installation in existing boilers and the design of new innovative combinations of catalytic burners and boilers. Different design approaches are discussed and evaluated in the report and suggestions are made concerning scale-up. Preliminary test data, extracted from a large boiler installation are discussed together with an accurate analysis of technical possibilities following an optimization of the boiler design to benefit from the advantages of catalytic combustion. The experimental work was conducted in close collaboration with ICI Caldaie (ICI), located in Verona, Italy. ICI is a leading European boiler manufacturer in the effect segment ranging from about 20 kWt to several MWt. The study shows that it is possibly to scale up the burner technology and to maintain low emissions. The boilers used in the study were designed around conventional combustion and were consequently not optimized for implementation of catalytic burners. From previous experiences it stands clear that the furnace volume can be dramatically decreased when applying catalytic combustion. In flame combustion, this volume is normally dimensioned to avoid flame impingement on cold surfaces and to facilitate completion of the gas-phase reactions. The emissions of nitrogen oxides can be reduced by decreasing the residence time in the furnace. Even with the over-dimensioned furnace used in this study, we easily reached emission values close to 35 mg/kWh. The emissions of carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons were negligible (less than 5 ppmv). It is possible to decrease the emissions of nitrogen oxides further by designing the furnace/boiler around the catalytic burner, as suggested in the report. Simultaneously, the size of the boiler installation can be reduced greatly, which also will result in material savings, i.e. the production cost can be reduced. It is suggested to optimize the

  4. Catalytic gasification of oil-shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapidus, A.; Avakyan, T. [I.M. Gubkin Russian State Univ. of Oil and Gas, Moscow (Russian Federation); Strizhakova, Yu. [Samara State Univ. (Russian Federation)


    Nowadays, the problem of complex usage of solid fossil fuels as raw materials for obtaining of motor fuels and chemical products is becoming increasingly important. A one of possible solutions of the problem is their gasification with further processing of gaseous and liquid products. In this work we have investigated the process of thermal and catalytic gasification of Baltic and Kashpir oil-shales. We have shown that, as compared with non-catalytic process, using of nickel catalyst in the reaction increases the yield of gas, as well as hydrogen content in it, and decreases the amount of liquid products. (orig.)

  5. Toward a catalytic site in DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Ulla; Rohr, Katja; Vogel, Stefan


    A number of functionalized polyaza crown ether building blocks have been incorporated into DNA-conjugates as catalytic Cu(2+) binding sites. The effect of the DNA-conjugate catalyst on the stereochemical outcome of a Cu(2+)-catalyzed Diels-Alder reaction will be presented.......A number of functionalized polyaza crown ether building blocks have been incorporated into DNA-conjugates as catalytic Cu(2+) binding sites. The effect of the DNA-conjugate catalyst on the stereochemical outcome of a Cu(2+)-catalyzed Diels-Alder reaction will be presented....

  6. Data Exchange Inventory System (DEXI) (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Enterprise tool used to identify data exchanges occurring between SSA and our trading partners. DEXI contains information on both incoming and outgoing exchanges and...

  7. Microplate Heat Exchanger Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a microplate heat exchanger for cryogenic cooling systems used for continuous flow distributed cooling systems, large focal plane arrays, multiple cooling...

  8. Exchange Risk Management Policy

    CERN Document Server


    At the Finance Committee of March 2005, following a comment by the CERN Audit Committee, the Chairman invited the Management to prepare a document on exchange risk management policy. The Finance Committee is invited to take note of this document.

  9. HUD Exchange Grantee Database (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The About Grantees section of the HUD Exchange brings up contact information, reports, award, jurisdiction, and location data for organizations that receive HUD...

  10. NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) represents a new platform for the Earth science community that provides a mechanism for scientific collaboration and knowledge sharing....

  11. Anion exchange polymer electrolytes (United States)

    Kim, Yu Seung; Kim, Dae Sik


    Anion exchange polymer electrolytes that include guanidinium functionalized polymers may be used as membranes and binders for electrocatalysts in preparation of anodes for electrochemical cells such as solid alkaline fuel cells.

  12. Cryptographic Combinatorial Securities Exchanges (United States)

    Thorpe, Christopher; Parkes, David C.

    We present a useful new mechanism that facilitates the atomic exchange of many large baskets of securities in a combinatorial exchange. Cryptography prevents information about the securities in the baskets from being exploited, enhancing trust. Our exchange offers institutions who wish to trade large positions a new alternative to existing methods of block trading: they can reduce transaction costs by taking advantage of other institutions’ available liquidity, while third party liquidity providers guarantee execution—preserving their desired portfolio composition at all times. In our exchange, institutions submit encrypted orders which are crossed, leaving a “remainder”. The exchange proves facts about the portfolio risk of this remainder to third party liquidity providers without revealing the securities in the remainder, the knowledge of which could also be exploited. The third parties learn either (depending on the setting) the portfolio risk parameters of the remainder itself, or how their own portfolio risk would change if they were to incorporate the remainder into a portfolio they submit. In one setting, these third parties submit bids on the commission, and the winner supplies necessary liquidity for the entire exchange to clear. This guaranteed clearing, coupled with external price discovery from the primary markets for the securities, sidesteps difficult combinatorial optimization problems. This latter method of proving how taking on the remainder would change risk parameters of one’s own portfolio, without revealing the remainder’s contents or its own risk parameters, is a useful protocol of independent interest.

  13. Heterogeneous Catalytic Oligomerization of Ethylene (United States)

    Jan, Oliver Dennis

    increased with temperature, with 17 wt.% observed at 190ºC. Higher reaction temperatures led to the formation of odd-numbered oligomers primarily due to acid-catalyzed cracking reactions. In the range of space velocities tested, a moderate WHSV of 2.0 hr-1 resulted in a local maximum of 10.6 wt.% of liquid hydrocarbon yield. A moderate nickel loading of 3.4 wt.% also resulted in the highest liquid yield out of the three loadings tested (10.6 wt.%). The variation in nickel loading revealed the importance of having a synergistic balance of nickel and acid sites on the catalyst to maximize ethylene conversion and maintain high liquid hydrocarbon yield. Lastly, we used supercritical ethylene as both a solvent and as a reactant for ethylene oligomerization over two silica-alumina type catalysts: Ni-Hbeta and Ni-Al-SBA-15. Specifically, the effect of pressure and temperature on the overall conversion and product selectivity were evaluated in the range from 0 to 65 bar and 30 to 120ºC. At subcritical conditions, the ethylene conversion reached a plateau of around 50%. By increasing the pressure past the critical point of ethylene, the conversion drastically increased to 71%. The increased conversion can be attributed to the solubility of certain oligomers, namely butene, in supercritical ethylene that promotes desorption from catalytic active site before further oligomerization. We also tested a mesoporous catalyst, Ni-Al-SBA-15 and observed conversion trends analogous to that of Ni-Hbeta. At supercritical conditions, ethylene oligomerization over Ni-Al-SBA-15 was more selective towards the butene product, with nearly 74 wt.% butenes observed. The catalyst activity increased with temperature from 30ºC to 120ºC. The experiment conducted at 30ºC showed very little activity and ethylene conversion, however it effectively heavy molecular weight species from the catalyst. This condition, albeit being not effective for ethylene oligomerization, could be implemented as an in

  14. Use of multi-transition-metal-ion-exchanged zeolite 13X catalysts in methane emissions abatement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui, K.S.; Chao, C.Y.H.; Kwong, C.W.; Wan, M.P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)


    Methane is a potent greenhouse gas. It has a global warming potential (GWP) 23 times greater than carbon dioxide. Reducing methane emissions would lead to substantial economic and environmental benefits. This study investigated the performance of multi-transition-metal-(Cu, Cr, Ni, and Co)-ion-exchanged zeolite 13X catalysts in methane emissions abatement. The catalytic activity in methane combustion using multi-ion-exchanged catalysts was studied with different parameters including the molar percentage of metal loading, the space velocity, and the inlet methane concentration under atmospheric pressure and at a relatively low reaction temperature of 500 C. The performance of the catalysts was determined in terms of the apparent activation energy, the number of active sites of the catalyst, and the BET surface area of the catalyst. This study showed that multi-ion-exchanged catalysts outperformed single-ion-exchanged and acidified 13X catalysts and that lengthening the residence time led to a higher methane conversion percentage. The enhanced catalytic activity in the multi-ion-exchanged catalysts was attributed to the presence of exchanged transition ions instead of acid sites in the catalyst. The catalytic activity of the catalysts was influenced by the metal loading amount, which played an important role in affecting the apparent activation energy for methane combustion, the active sites, and the BET surface area of the catalyst. Increasing the amount of metal loading in the catalyst decreased the apparent activation energy for methane combustion and also the BET surface area of the catalyst. An optimized metal loading amount at which the highest catalytic activity was observed due to the combined effects of the various factors was determined. (author)

  15. Theoretical models for NO decomposition in Cu-exchanged zeolites

    CERN Document Server

    Tsekov, R


    A unified description of the catalytic effect of Cu-exchanged zeolites is proposed for the decomposition of NO. A general expression for the rate constant of NO decomposition is obtained by assuming that the rate-determining step consists of the transferring of a single atom associated with breaking of the N-O bond. The analysis is performed on the base of the generalized Langevin equation and takes into account both the potential interactions in the system and the memory effects due to the zeolite vibrations. Two different mechanisms corresponding to monomolecular and bimolecular NO decomposition are discussed. The catalytic effect in the monomolecular mechanism is related to both the Cu+ ions and zeolite O-vacancies, while in the case of the bimolecular mechanism the zeolite contributes through dissipation only. The comparison of the theoretically calculated rate constants with experimental results reveals additional information about the geometric and energetic characteristics of the active centers and con...

  16. Novel Metal Nanomaterials and Their Catalytic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqing Wang


    Full Text Available In the rapidly developing areas of nanotechnology, nano-scale materials as heterogeneous catalysts in the synthesis of organic molecules have gotten more and more attention. In this review, we will summarize the synthesis of several new types of noble metal nanostructures (FePt@Cu nanowires, Pt@Fe2O3 nanowires and bimetallic Pt@Ir nanocomplexes; Pt-Au heterostructures, Au-Pt bimetallic nanocomplexes and Pt/Pd bimetallic nanodendrites; Au nanowires, CuO@Ag nanowires and a series of Pd nanocatalysts and their new catalytic applications in our group, to establish heterogeneous catalytic system in “green” environments. Further study shows that these materials have a higher catalytic activity and selectivity than previously reported nanocrystal catalysts in organic reactions, or show a superior electro-catalytic activity for the oxidation of methanol. The whole process might have a great impact to resolve the energy crisis and the environmental crisis that were caused by traditional chemical engineering. Furthermore, we hope that this article will provide a reference point for the noble metal nanomaterials’ development that leads to new opportunities in nanocatalysis.

  17. Electrochemical Promotion of Catalytic Reactions Using

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrushina, Irina; Bjerrum, Niels; Cleemann, Lars Nilausen


    This paper presents the results of a study on electrochemical promotion (EP) of catalytic reactions using Pt/C/polybenzimidazole(H3PO4)/Pt/C fuel cell performed by the Energy and Materials Science Group (Technical University of Denmark) during the last 6 years[1-4]. The development of our...... understanding of the nature of the electrochemical promotion is also presented....

  18. Dynamic Responsive Systems for Catalytic Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlatkovic, Matea; Collins, Beatrice S. L.; Feringa, Ben L.


    Responsive systems have recently gained much interest in the scientific community in attempts to mimic dynamic functions in biological systems. One of the fascinating potential applications of responsive systems lies in catalysis. Inspired by nature, novel responsive catalytic systems have been

  19. Catalytic dehydrogenations of ethylbenzene to styrene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kapteijn, F.; Makkee, M.; Nederlof, C.

    This research work on the catalytic dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene (EB) to styrene (ST) had a primary goal of developing improved catalysts for dehydrogenation processes both in CO2 as well as with O2 that can compete with the conventional dehydrogenation process in steam. In order to achieve this

  20. Catalytic kinetic spectrophotometric determination of trace copper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A novel catalytic kinetic-spectrophotometric method is proposed for the determination of copper based on this principle. Copper(II) can be determined spectrophotometrically by measuring the decrease in the absorbance of CPApA at the wavelength of 554 nm using the fixed-time method. The optimum reaction conditions ...

  1. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and catalytic oxidation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 123; Issue 3. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and catalytic oxidation properties of ONO/ONS donor Schiff base ruthenium(III) complexes containing PPh3/AsPh3. Priyarega M Muthu Tamizh R Karvembu R Prabhakaran K Natarajan. Volume 123 Issue 3 May ...

  2. Lignin Valorization using Heterogenous Catalytic Oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melián Rodríguez, Mayra; Shunmugavel, Saravanamurugan; Kegnæs, Søren

    is complex so different model compounds are often used to study lignin valorization. These model compounds contain the linkages present in lignin, simplifying catalytic analysis and present analytical challenges related to the study of the complicated lignin polymer and the plethora of products that could...

  3. Reversible Electrochemical Modulation of a Catalytic Nanosystem. (United States)

    Della Sala, Flavio; Chen, Jack L-Y; Ranallo, Simona; Badocco, Denis; Pastore, Paolo; Ricci, Francesco; Prins, Leonard J


    A catalytic system based on monolayer-functionalized gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) that can be electrochemically modulated and reversibly activated is reported. The catalytic activity relies on the presence of metal ions (Cd(2+) and Cu(2+) ), which can be complexed by the nanoparticle-bound monolayer. This activates the system towards the catalytic cleavage of 2-hydroxypropyl-p-nitrophenyl phosphate (HPNPP), which can be monitored by UV/Vis spectroscopy. It is shown that Cu(2+) metal ions can be delivered to the system by applying an oxidative potential to an electrode on which Cu(0) was deposited. By exploiting the different affinity of Cd(2+) and Cu(2+) ions for the monolayer, it was also possible to upregulate the catalytic activity after releasing Cu(2+) from an electrode into a solution containing Cd(2+) . Finally, it is shown that the activity of this supramolecular nanosystem can be reversibly switched on or off by oxidizing/reducing Cu/Cu(2+) ions under controlled conditions. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and catalytic oxidation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of porphyrin containing enzymes.6 Though metallo- porphyrins catalyse oxidation reactions, the catalytic yield is not satisfactory to have any commercial viabil- ity. Moreover, it is not easy to synthesize metallopor- phyrins and this led scientists to look for other ligands to make novel complexes to be employed as catalysts.

  5. Catalytic enantioselective conjugate addition with Grignard reagents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez, Fernando; Minnaard, Adriaan J.; Feringa, Ben L.

    In this Account, recent advances in catalytic asymmetric conjugate addition of Grignard reagents are discussed. Synthetic methodology to perform highly enantioselective Cu-catalyzed conjugate addition of Grignard reagents to cyclic enones with ee's up to 96% was reported in 2004 from our

  6. Electrochemical promotion of sulfur dioxide catalytic oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrushina, Irina; Bandur, Viktor; Cappeln, Frederik Vilhelm


    The effect of electrochemical polarization on the catalytic SO2 oxidation in the molten V2O5-K2S2O7 system has been studied using a gold working electrode in the temperature range 400-460 degrees C. A similar experiment has been performed with the industrial catalyst VK-58. The aim of the present...

  7. Fluid catalytic cracking : Feedstocks and reaction mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dupain, X.


    The Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) process is one of the key units in a modern refinery. Traditionally, its design is primarily aimed for the production of gasoline from heavy oil fractions, but as co-products also diesel blends and valuable gasses (e.g. propene and butenes) are formed in

  8. Enhancement of reaction rates for catalytic benzaldehyde ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 126; Issue 2. Enhancement of reaction rates for catalytic benzaldehyde hydrogenation and sorbitol dehydration in water solvent by addition of carbon dioxide. Masayuki Shirai Osamu Sato Norihito Hiyoshi Aritomo Yamaguchi. Volume 126 Issue 2 March 2014 pp 395- ...

  9. Toward Facilitative Mentoring and Catalytic Interventions (United States)

    Smith, Melissa K.; Lewis, Marilyn


    In TESOL teacher mentoring, giving advice can be conceptualized as a continuum, ranging from directive to facilitative feedback. The goal, over time, is to lead toward the facilitative end of the continuum and specifically to catalytic interventions that encourage self-reflection and autonomous learning. This study begins by examining research on…

  10. Rapid Deployment of Rich Catalytic Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard S. Tuthill


    The overall objective of this research under the Turbines Program is the deployment of fuel flexible rich catalytic combustion technology into high-pressure ratio industrial gas turbines. The resulting combustion systems will provide fuel flexibility for gas turbines to burn coal derived synthesis gas or natural gas and achieve NO{sub x} emissions of 2 ppmvd or less (at 15 percent O{sub 2}), cost effectively. This advance will signify a major step towards environmentally friendly electric power generation and coal-based energy independence for the United States. Under Phase 1 of the Program, Pratt & Whitney (P&W) performed a system integration study of rich catalytic combustion in a small high-pressure ratio industrial gas turbine with a silo combustion system that is easily scalable to a larger multi-chamber gas turbine system. An implementation plan for this technology also was studied. The principal achievement of the Phase 1 effort was the sizing of the catalytic module in a manner which allowed a single reactor (rather than multiple reactors) to be used by the combustion system, a conclusion regarding the amount of air that should be allocated to the reaction zone to achieve low emissions, definition of a combustion staging strategy to achieve low emissions, and mechanical integration of a Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) combustor liner with the catalytic module.

  11. Enhancement of reaction rates for catalytic benzaldehyde ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Enhancement of reaction rates for catalytic benzaldehyde hydrogenation and sorbitol dehydration in water solvent by addition of carbon dioxide. MASAYUKI SHIRAIa,b,∗, OSAMU SATOa, NORIHITO HIYOSHIa and. ARITOMO YAMAGUCHIa. aResearch Center for Compact Chemical System, National Institute of Advanced ...

  12. Exchanging Description Logic Knowledge Bases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arenas, M.; Botoeva, E.; Calvanese, D.; Ryzhikov, V.; Sherkhonov, E.


    In this paper, we study the problem of exchanging knowledge between a source and a target knowledge base (KB), connected through mappings. Differently from the traditional database exchange setting, which considers only the exchange of data, we are interested in exchanging implicit knowledge. As

  13. Structural determinants of APOBEC3B non-catalytic domain for molecular assembly and catalytic regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Xiao; Yang, Hanjing; Arutiunian, Vagan; Fang, Yao; Besse, Guillaume; Morimoto, Cherie; Zirkle, Brett; Chen, Xiaojiang S. (USC)


    The catalytic activity of human cytidine deaminase APOBEC3B (A3B) has been correlated with kataegic mutational patterns within multiple cancer types. The molecular basis of how the N-terminal non-catalytic CD1 regulates the catalytic activity and consequently, biological function of A3B remains relatively unknown. Here, we report the crystal structure of a soluble human A3B-CD1 variant and delineate several structural elements of CD1 involved in molecular assembly, nucleic acid interactions and catalytic regulation of A3B. We show that (i) A3B expressed in human cells exists in hypoactive high-molecular-weight (HMW) complexes, which can be activated without apparent dissociation into low-molecular-weight (LMW) species after RNase A treatment. (ii) Multiple surface hydrophobic residues of CD1 mediate the HMW complex assembly and affect the catalytic activity, including one tryptophan residue W127 that likely acts through regulating nucleic acid binding. (iii) One of the highly positively charged surfaces on CD1 is involved in RNA-dependent attenuation of A3B catalysis. (iv) Surface hydrophobic residues of CD1 are involved in heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) binding to A3B. The structural and biochemical insights described here suggest that unique structural features on CD1 regulate the molecular assembly and catalytic activity of A3B through distinct mechanisms.

  14. Tandem reactions in self-sorted catalytic molecular hydrogels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, N.; Zhang, K.; Angulo-Pachón, C.A.; Mendez Sevillano, D.; van Esch, J.H.; Escuder, B.


    By equipping mutually incompatible carboxylic acid and proline catalytic groups with different self-assembling motives we have achieved self-sorting of the resulting catalytic gelators, namely SucVal8 and ProValDoc, into different supramolecular fibers, thus preventing the acidic and basic catalytic


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    indicator reaction for the kinetic-catalytic determination of Ru(III) is explored. In this communication, we report a kinetic-catalytic method for determination Ru(III), using it's selective catalytic efficiency to catalyse the oxidation of Nile blue by acidic chlorite. EXPERIMENTAL. Reagents. Sodium chlorite (BDH) was recrystallized ...

  16. Microgravity condensing heat exchanger (United States)

    Thomas, Christopher M. (Inventor); Ma, Yonghui (Inventor); North, Andrew (Inventor); Weislogel, Mark M. (Inventor)


    A heat exchanger having a plurality of heat exchanging aluminum fins with hydrophilic condensing surfaces which are stacked and clamped between two cold plates. The cold plates are aligned radially along a plane extending through the axis of a cylindrical duct and hold the stacked and clamped portions of the heat exchanging fins along the axis of the cylindrical duct. The fins extend outwardly from the clamped portions along approximately radial planes. The spacing between fins is symmetric about the cold plates, and are somewhat more closely spaced as the angle they make with the cold plates approaches Passageways extend through the fins between vertex spaces which provide capillary storage and communicate with passageways formed in the stacked and clamped portions of the fins, which communicate with water drains connected to a pump externally to the duct. Water with no entrained air is drawn from the capillary spaces.

  17. Ion exchange phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourg, I.C.; Sposito, G.


    Ion exchange phenomena involve the population of readily exchangeable ions, the subset of adsorbed solutes that balance the intrinsic surface charge and can be readily replaced by major background electrolyte ions (Sposito, 2008). These phenomena have occupied a central place in soil chemistry research since Way (1850) first showed that potassium uptake by soils resulted in the release of an equal quantity of moles of charge of calcium and magnesium. Ion exchange phenomena are now routinely modeled in studies of soil formation (White et al., 2005), soil reclamation (Kopittke et al., 2006), soil fertilitization (Agbenin and Yakubu, 2006), colloidal dispersion/flocculation (Charlet and Tournassat, 2005), the mechanics of argillaceous media (Gajo and Loret, 2007), aquitard pore water chemistry (Tournassat et al., 2008), and groundwater (Timms and Hendry, 2007; McNab et al., 2009) and contaminant hydrology (Chatterjee et al., 2008; van Oploo et al., 2008; Serrano et al., 2009).

  18. Anion exchange: a novel way of preparing hierarchical porous structure in poly(ionic liquid)s. (United States)

    Qin, Li; Wang, Binshen; Zhang, Yongya; Chen, Li; Gao, Guohua


    Hierarchical porous poly(ionic liquid)s (PILs) with high specific surface area were firstly synthesized via anion exchange. The exchange of bulky salicylate and its dimers/clusters in PILs by other smaller anions increased the specific surface area and fabricated a hierarchical porous structure. The high specific surface area and hierarchical porous structure prompted a high degree of exposure of the active sites and made the heterogeneous PIL catalysts contact with substrates sufficiently, enhancing their catalytic activity.

  19. Surface modification of nanoclays by catalytically active transition metal ions. (United States)

    Nawani, Pranav; Gelfer, Mikhail Y; Hsiao, Benjamin S; Frenkel, Anatoly; Gilman, Jeffrey W; Khalid, Syed


    A unique class of nanoclays was prepared by modification of pristine clays or organoclays (Cloisite C20A) with transition metal ions (TMIs). The composition, structure, morphology and thermal properties of TMI-modified nanoclays were investigated by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), elemental analysis (EA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The content of TMIs in modified clays was found to be close to the limiting value of ion exchange capacity. SEM and X-ray results confirmed that TMIs were located between the mineral layers instead of being adsorbed on the surface of clay particles. TGA results indicated that the TMI treatment of organoclays could significantly increase the thermal stability, which was more pronounced in air than in nitrogen. Temperature-resolved SAXS measurements revealed that the presence of TMIs increased the onset temperature of structural degradation. The higher thermal stability of TMI-modified organoclays can be attributed to the change in the thermal degradation mechanism, resulting in a decrease in the yield of volatile products and the formation of char facilitated by the presence of catalytically active TMIs.

  20. Surface Modification of Nanoclays by Catalytically Active Transition Metal Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nawani,P.; Gelfer, M.; Hsiao, B.; Frenkel, A.; Gilman, J.; Khalid, S.


    A unique class of nanoclays was prepared by modification of pristine clays or organoclays (Cloisite C20A) with transition metal ions (TMIs). The composition, structure, morphology and thermal properties of TMI-modified nanoclays were investigated by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), elemental analysis (EA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The content of TMIs in modified clays was found to be close to the limiting value of ion exchange capacity. SEM and X-ray results confirmed that TMIs were located between the mineral layers instead of being adsorbed on the surface of clay particles. TGA results indicated that the TMI treatment of organoclays could significantly increase the thermal stability, which was more pronounced in air than in nitrogen. Temperature-resolved SAXS measurements revealed that the presence of TMIs increased the onset temperature of structural degradation. The higher thermal stability of TMI-modified organoclays can be attributed to the change in the thermal degradation mechanism, resulting in a decrease in the yield of volatile products and the formation of char facilitated by the presence of catalytically active TMIs.

  1. Catalytic Reactive Distillation for the Esterification Process: Experimental and Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mallaiah


    Full Text Available In the present study, methyl acetate has been synthesized using esterification of acetic acid with methanol in a continuous packed bed catalytic reactive distillation col- umn in the presence of novel Indion 180 ion exchange resin solid catalyst. The experiments were conducted at various operating conditions like reboiler temperature, reflux ratio, and different feed flow rates of the acetic acid and methanol. The non-ideal pseudo-homogeneous kinetic model has been developed for esterification of acetic acid with methanol in the presence of Indion 180 catalyst. The developed kinetic model was used for the simulation of the reactive distillation column for the synthesis of methyl acetate using equilibrium stage model in Aspen Plus version 7.3. The simulation results were compared with experimental results, and found that there is a good agreement between them. The sensitivity analyses were also carried out for the different parameters of bot- tom flow rate, feed temperatures of acetic acid and methanol, and feed flow rate of acetic acid and methanol.

  2. Heat exchanger panel (United States)

    Warburton, Robert E. (Inventor); Cuva, William J. (Inventor)


    The present invention relates to a heat exchanger panel which has broad utility in high temperature environments. The heat exchanger panel has a first panel, a second panel, and at least one fluid containment device positioned intermediate the first and second panels. At least one of the first panel and the second panel have at least one feature on an interior surface to accommodate the at least one fluid containment device. In a preferred embodiment, each of the first and second panels is formed from a high conductivity, high temperature composite material. Also, in a preferred embodiment, the first and second panels are joined together by one or more composite fasteners.

  3. Microscale Regenerative Heat Exchanger (United States)

    Moran, Matthew E.; Stelter, Stephan; Stelter, Manfred


    The device described herein is designed primarily for use as a regenerative heat exchanger in a miniature Stirling engine or Stirling-cycle heat pump. A regenerative heat exchanger (sometimes called, simply, a "regenerator" in the Stirling-engine art) is basically a thermal capacitor: Its role in the Stirling cycle is to alternately accept heat from, then deliver heat to, an oscillating flow of a working fluid between compression and expansion volumes, without introducing an excessive pressure drop. These volumes are at different temperatures, and conduction of heat between these volumes is undesirable because it reduces the energy-conversion efficiency of the Stirling cycle.

  4. Modified ion exchange resins - synthesis and properties. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doescher, F.; Klein, J.; Pohl, F.; Widdecke, H.


    Sulfomethylated resins are prepared by polymer analogous reactions, starting from macroporous poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) matrices. Different reaction paths are discussed and used in the synthesis. Sulfomethylation can be achieved by reaction of a chloromethylated resin with dimethyl sulfide and sodium sulfonate or alternatively by oxidation of polymer-bound thiol groups. Both methods give high conversions as shown by IR spectra and titration of the sulfonic acid groups. Poly(1-(4-hydroxysulfomethylphenyl)ethylene) (3) is obtained by reaction of poly(1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethylene) (2) resin with formaldehyde/sodium sulfonate. The thermal stability, catalytic activity, and ion exchange equilibria of the sulfomethylated resin are investigated.

  5. Catalytic site interactions in yeast OMP synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Riis; Barr, Eric W.; Jensen, Kaj Frank


    The enigmatic kinetics, half-of-the-sites binding, and structural asymmetry of the homodimeric microbial OMP synthases (orotate phosphoribosyltransferase, EC have been proposed to result from an alternating site mechanism in these domain-swapped enzymes [R.W. McClard et al., Biochemistry...... and ablated ability to bind PRPP, complemented to produce a heterodimer with a single fully functional active site showing intersecting initial velocity plots. Equilibrium binding of PRPP and orotidine 5'-monophosphate showed a single class of two binding sites per dimer in WT and K106S enzymes. Evidence here...... shows that the enzyme does not follow half-of-the-sites cooperativity; that interplay between catalytic sites is not an essential feature of the catalytic mechanism; and that parallel lines in steady-state kinetics probably arise from tight substrate binding....

  6. Mutational analysis of a ras catalytic domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willumsen, B M; Papageorge, A G; Kung, H F


    transformation of NIH 3T3 cells with approximately the same efficiency as the wild-type v-rasH gene to those that failed to induce any detectable morphologic changes. Correlation of transforming activity with the location of the mutations enabled us to identify three nonoverlapping segments within the catalytic......We used linker insertion-deletion mutagenesis to study the catalytic domain of the Harvey murine sarcoma virus v-rasH transforming protein, which is closely related to the cellular rasH protein. The mutants displayed a wide range of in vitro biological activity, from those that induced focal...... localization. We speculate that this latter region interacts with the putative cellular target of ras. The results suggest that transforming ras proteins require membrane localization, guanosine nucleotide binding, and an additional undefined function that may represent interaction with their target....

  7. Catalytic combustion of coal-derived liquids (United States)

    Bulzan, D. L.; Tacina, R. R.


    A noble metal catalytic reactor was tested with three grades of SRC 2 coal derived liquids, naphtha, middle distillate, and a blend of three parts middle distillate to one part heavy distillate. A petroleum derived number 2 diesel fuel was also tested to provide a direct comparison. The catalytic reactor was tested at inlet temperatures from 600 to 800 K, reference velocities from 10 to 20 m/s, lean fuel air ratios, and a pressure of 3 x 10 to the 5th power Pa. Compared to the diesel, the naphtha gave slightly better combustion efficiency, the middle distillate was almost identical, and the middle heavy blend was slightly poorer. The coal derived liquid fuels contained from 0.58 to 0.95 percent nitrogen by weight. Conversion of fuel nitrogen to NOx was approximately 75 percent for all three grades of the coal derived liquids.

  8. A microreactor array for spatially resolved measurement of catalytic activity for high-throughput catalysis science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondratyuk, Petro; Gumuslu, Gamze; Shukla, Shantanu; Miller, James B; Morreale, Bryan D; Gellman, Andrew J


    We describe a 100 channel microreactor array capable of spatially resolved measurement of catalytic activity across the surface of a flat substrate. When used in conjunction with a composition spread alloy film (CSAF, e.g. Pd{sub x}Cu{sub y}Au{sub 1-x-y}) across which component concentrations vary smoothly, such measurements permit high-throughput analysis of catalytic activity and selectivity as a function of catalyst composition. In the reported implementation, the system achieves spatial resolution of 1 mm{sup 2} over a 10×10 mm{sup 2} area. During operation, the reactant gases are delivered at constant flow rate to 100 points of differing composition on the CSAF surface by means of a 100-channel microfluidic device. After coming into contact with the CSAF catalyst surface, the product gas mixture from each of the 100 points is withdrawn separately through a set of 100 isolated channels for analysis using a mass spectrometer. We demonstrate the operation of the device on a Pd{sub x}Cu{sub y}Au{sub 1-x-y} CSAF catalyzing the H{sub 2}-D{sub 2} exchange reaction at 333 K. In essentially a single experiment, we measured the catalytic activity over a broad swathe of concentrations from the ternary composition space of the Pd{sub x}Cu{sub y}Au{sub 1-x-y} alloy.

  9. Catalytic Asymmetric Synthesis of Phosphine Boronates. (United States)

    Hornillos, Valentín; Vila, Carlos; Otten, Edwin; Feringa, Ben L


    The first catalytic enantioselective synthesis of ambiphilic phosphine boronate esters is presented. The asymmetric boration of α,β-unsaturated phosphine oxides catalyzed by a copper bisphosphine complex affords optically active organoboronate esters that bear a vicinal phosphine oxide group in good yields and high enantiomeric excess. The synthetic utility of the products is demonstrated through stereospecific transformations into multifunctional optically active compounds. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.S. El Ouchdi, L. Cherif, R. Bachir, A. Choukchou-Braham, S. Merad-Bedrane [Laboratory of Catalysis and Synthesis in Organic Chemistry, University of Tlemcen, Chemistry Department, Tiemcen (Algeria)


    One of the greatest revolutions in the 20th century is that of transport. Inventions of cars, trucks, and airplanes have created a new world that has become increasingly dependent on combustion of hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline, diesel fuel, and jet fuel. Major environmental global problems are due to emissions of pollutants from fuels combustion, such as NOx, SOx, particulate matter and greenhouse gases (CO2 , CH4 , etc.). The present work is devoted to the study of ethanol catalytic steam reforming. The challenge is a high yield in hydrogen and a high selectivity towards CO2 . The reaction is classically carried out over transition metal catalysts supported on Al2O3, MgO, ZnO and SiO2. Our innovation consists in using mesoporous materials such as SBA-15, Al-SBA-15, CMK3 and mesoporous Alumina known for very interesting and large catalytic properties as supports for our metal catalysts. Cupper and nickel were used as active metal phase. The interest of our work is to obtain high activities under mild conditions. In fact, catalytic tests were carried out in gas phase at 300 C and atmospheric pressure. Ethanol and water were automatically injected with a constant velocity of 0.033 cm3 min-1 and a molar ratio ethanol/water = 1/3. Such operating conditions could be easily reproduced on-board. Catalysts were fully characterized using XRD, EM, TPR and metal loading analysis. Influence of the nature and the structure of the mesoporous support, the nature of the metal, the preparation way, the metal loading and catalysts pre-treatment was checked. A correlation between the materials' properties and catalytic activities will be suggested. All these results will be widely discussed during the presentation.

  11. CO2 Activation over Catalytic Surfaces. (United States)

    Álvarez, Andrea; Borges, Marta; Corral-Pérez, Juan José; Olcina, Joan Giner; Hu, Lingjun; Cornu, Damien; Huang, Rui; Stoian, Dragos; Urakawa, Atsushi


    This article describes the main strategies to activate and convert carbon dioxide (CO2 ) into valuable chemicals over catalytic surfaces. Coherent elements such as common intermediates are identified in the different strategies and concisely discussed based on the reactivity of CO2 with the aim to understand the decisive factors for selective and efficient CO2 conversion. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Zeolitic catalytic conversion of alochols to hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin


    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon, the method comprising contacting said alcohol with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst at a temperature of at least C. and up to C., wherein said alcohol can be produced by a fermentation process, said metal is a positively-charged metal ion, and said metal-loaded zeolite catalyst is catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon.

  13. Supercritical Catalytic Cracking of Hydrocarbon Feeds Insight (United States)


    collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources ...failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE...and parasitic catalytic cracking pathways. Synthetic methods to produce mordenite framework inverted (MFI) crystals with dimensions as large as 150

  14. Control of a catalytic fluid cracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbel, A.; Huang, Z.; Rinard, I.; Shinnar, R.


    Control offers an important tool for savings in refineries, mainly by integration of process models into on-line control. This paper is part of a research effort to better understand problems of partial control; control of a Fluid Catalytic Cracker (FCC) is used as example. Goal is to understand better the control problems of an FCC in context of model based control of a refinery, and to understand the general problem of designing partial control systems.

  15. Catalytic fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass. (United States)

    Liu, Changjun; Wang, Huamin; Karim, Ayman M; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong


    Increasing energy demand, especially in the transportation sector, and soaring CO2 emissions necessitate the exploitation of renewable sources of energy. Despite the large variety of new energy carriers, liquid hydrocarbon still appears to be the most attractive and feasible form of transportation fuel taking into account the energy density, stability and existing infrastructure. Biomass is an abundant, renewable source of energy; however, utilizing it in a cost-effective way is still a substantial challenge. Lignocellulose is composed of three major biopolymers, namely cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Fast pyrolysis of biomass is recognized as an efficient and feasible process to selectively convert lignocellulose into a liquid fuel-bio-oil. However bio-oil from fast pyrolysis contains a large amount of oxygen, distributed in hundreds of oxygenates. These oxygenates are the cause of many negative properties, such as low heating value, high corrosiveness, high viscosity, and instability; they also greatly limit the application of bio-oil particularly as transportation fuel. Hydrocarbons derived from biomass are most attractive because of their high energy density and compatibility with the existing infrastructure. Thus, converting lignocellulose into transportation fuels via catalytic fast pyrolysis has attracted much attention. Many studies related to catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass have been published. The main challenge of this process is the development of active and stable catalysts that can deal with a large variety of decomposition intermediates from lignocellulose. This review starts with the current understanding of the chemistry in fast pyrolysis of lignocellulose and focuses on the development of catalysts in catalytic fast pyrolysis. Recent progress in the experimental studies on catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass is also summarized with the emphasis on bio-oil yields and quality.

  16. Method to produce catalytically active nanocomposite coatings (United States)

    Erdemir, Ali; Eryilmaz, Osman Levent; Urgen, Mustafa; Kazmanli, Kursat


    A nanocomposite coating and method of making and using the coating. The nanocomposite coating is disposed on a base material, such as a metal or ceramic; and the nanocomposite consists essentially of a matrix of an alloy selected from the group of Cu, Ni, Pd, Pt and Re which are catalytically active for cracking of carbon bonds in oils and greases and a grain structure selected from the group of borides, carbides and nitrides.

  17. Materials for High-Temperature Catalytic Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersson, Anders


    Catalytic combustion is an environmentally friendly technique to combust fuels in e.g. gas turbines. Introducing a catalyst into the combustion chamber of a gas turbine allows combustion outside the normal flammability limits. Hence, the adiabatic flame temperature may be lowered below the threshold temperature for thermal NO{sub X} formation while maintaining a stable combustion. However, several challenges are connected to the application of catalytic combustion in gas turbines. The first part of this thesis reviews the use of catalytic combustion in gas turbines. The influence of the fuel has been studied and compared over different catalyst materials. The material section is divided into two parts. The first concerns bimetallic palladium catalysts. These catalysts showed a more stable activity compared to their pure palladium counterparts for methane combustion. This was verified both by using an annular reactor at ambient pressure and a pilot-scale reactor at elevated pressures and flows closely resembling the ones found in a gas turbine combustor. The second part concerns high-temperature materials, which may be used either as active or washcoat materials. A novel group of materials for catalysis, i.e. garnets, has been synthesised and tested in combustion of methane, a low-heating value gas and diesel fuel. The garnets showed some interesting abilities especially for combustion of low-heating value, LHV, gas. Two other materials were also studied, i.e. spinels and hexa aluminates, both showed very promising thermal stability and the substituted hexa aluminates also showed a good catalytic activity. Finally, deactivation of the catalyst materials was studied. In this part the sulphur poisoning of palladium, platinum and the above-mentioned complex metal oxides has been studied for combustion of a LHV gas. Platinum and surprisingly the garnet were least deactivated. Palladium was severely affected for methane combustion while the other washcoat materials were

  18. Method to produce catalytically active nanocomposite coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdemir, Ali; Eryilmaz, Osman Levent; Urgen, Mustafa; Kazmanli, Kursat


    A nanocomposite coating and method of making and using the coating. The nanocomposite coating is disposed on a base material, such as a metal or ceramic; and the nanocomposite consists essentially of a matrix of an alloy selected from the group of Cu, Ni, Pd, Pt and Re which are catalytically active for cracking of carbon bonds in oils and greases and a grain structure selected from the group of borides, carbides and nitrides.

  19. Preface: Challenges for Catalytic Exhaust Aftertreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nova, Isabella; Epling, Bill; Peden, Charles HF


    This special issue of Catalysis Today continues the tradition established since the 18th NAM in Cancun, 2003, of publishing the highlights coming from these catalytic after-treatment technologies sessions, where this volume contains 18 papers based on oral and poster presentations of the 23rd NAM, 2013. The guest editors would like to thank all of the catalyst scientists and engineers who presented in the "Emission control" sessions, and especially the authors who contributed to this special issue of Catalysis Today.

  20. Nature's Heat Exchangers. (United States)

    Barnes, George


    Discusses the heat-transfer systems of different animals. Systems include heat conduction into the ground, heat transferred by convection, heat exchange in lizards, fish and polar animals, the carotid rete system, electromagnetic radiation from animals and people, and plant and animal fiber optics. (MDH)

  1. Basic Exchange Rate Theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)


    textabstractThis four-chapter overview of basic exchange rate theories discusses (i) the elasticity and absorption approach, (ii) the (long-run) implications of the monetary approach, (iii) the short-run effects of monetary and fiscal policy under various economic conditions, and (iv) the transition

  2. Technology Performance Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    To address the need for accessible, high-quality data, the Department of Energy has developed the Technology Performance Exchange (TPEx). TPEx enables technology suppliers, third-party testing laboratories, and other entities to share product performance data. These data are automatically transformed into a format that technology evaluators can easily use in their energy modeling assessments to inform procurement decisions.

  3. Telephone Exchange Maintenance

    CERN Document Server


    Urgent maintenance work on CERN telephone exchanges will be performed on 24 March from 6 a.m. to 8 a.m. Telephone services may be disrupted or even interrupted during this time. For more details, please contact us by email at

  4. Baltic Exchange toodi Tallinna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Viimane osa merekonteineritesse kokkupakitud Londoni laevandus- ja merebörsi Baltic Exchange'i endise peakorteri detailidest jõudis 2007. a. juunis Tallinna. Hoone detailid ostnud ärimehed Heiti Hääl ja Eerik-Niiles Kross plaanivad leida hoonele koha Tallinna kesklinnas. E.-N. Krossi kommentaar

  5. Heat exchanger. Varmeveksler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosman, I.E.; Wagner, W.R.


    The invention concerns a manifold for a plate-type heat exchanger, and includes a side channel connected the inlet of the manifold. The plates can be designed as an integral assembly together with the integrated side- and external end-manifolds as well. 16 drawings.

  6. Chemical exchange program analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waffelaert, Pascale


    As part of its EMS, Sandia performs an annual environmental aspects/impacts analysis. The purpose of this analysis is to identify the environmental aspects associated with Sandia's activities, products, and services and the potential environmental impacts associated with those aspects. Division and environmental programs established objectives and targets based on the environmental aspects associated with their operations. In 2007 the most significant aspect identified was Hazardous Materials (Use and Storage). The objective for Hazardous Materials (Use and Storage) was to improve chemical handling, storage, and on-site movement of hazardous materials. One of the targets supporting this objective was to develop an effective chemical exchange program, making a business case for it in FY07, and fully implementing a comprehensive chemical exchange program in FY08. A Chemical Exchange Program (CEP) team was formed to implement this target. The team consists of representatives from the Chemical Information System (CIS), Pollution Prevention (P2), the HWMF, Procurement and the Environmental Management System (EMS). The CEP Team performed benchmarking and conducted a life-cycle analysis of the current management of chemicals at SNL/NM and compared it to Chemical Exchange alternatives. Those alternatives are as follows: (1) Revive the 'Virtual' Chemical Exchange Program; (2) Re-implement a 'Physical' Chemical Exchange Program using a Chemical Information System; and (3) Transition to a Chemical Management Services System. The analysis and benchmarking study shows that the present management of chemicals at SNL/NM is significantly disjointed and a life-cycle or 'Cradle-to-Grave' approach to chemical management is needed. This approach must consider the purchasing and maintenance costs as well as the cost of ultimate disposal of the chemicals and materials. A chemical exchange is needed as a mechanism to re-apply chemicals on site. This

  7. Probing catalytic rate enhancement during intramembrane proteolysis. (United States)

    Arutyunova, Elena; Smithers, Cameron C; Corradi, Valentina; Espiritu, Adam C; Young, Howard S; Tieleman, D Peter; Lemieux, M Joanne


    Rhomboids are ubiquitous intramembrane serine proteases involved in various signaling pathways. While the high-resolution structures of the Escherichia coli rhomboid GlpG with various inhibitors revealed an active site comprised of a serine-histidine dyad and an extensive oxyanion hole, the molecular details of rhomboid catalysis were unclear because substrates are unknown for most of the family members. Here we used the only known physiological pair of AarA rhomboid with its psTatA substrate to decipher the contribution of catalytically important residues to the reaction rate enhancement. An MD-refined homology model of AarA was used to identify residues important for catalysis. We demonstrated that the AarA active site geometry is strict and intolerant to alterations. We probed the roles of H83 and N87 oxyanion hole residues and determined that substitution of H83 either abolished AarA activity or reduced the transition state stabilization energy (ΔΔG‡) by 3.1 kcal/mol; substitution of N87 decreased ΔΔG‡ by 1.6-3.9 kcal/mol. Substitution M154, a residue conserved in most rhomboids that stabilizes the catalytic general base, to tyrosine, provided insight into the mechanism of nucleophile generation for the catalytic dyad. This study provides a quantitative evaluation of the role of several residues important for hydrolytic efficiency and oxyanion stabilization during intramembrane proteolysis.

  8. Catalytic pyrolysis of olive mill wastewater sludge (United States)

    Abdellaoui, Hamza

    From 2008 to 2013, an average of 2,821.4 kilotons/year of olive oil were produced around the world. The waste product of the olive mill industry consists of solid residue (pomace) and wastewater (OMW). Annually, around 30 million m3 of OMW are produced in the Mediterranean area, 700,000 m3 year?1 in Tunisia alone. OMW is an aqueous effluent characterized by an offensive smell and high organic matter content, including high molecular weight phenolic compounds and long-chain fatty acids. These compounds are highly toxic to micro-organisms and plants, which makes the OMW a serious threat to the environment if not managed properly. The OMW is disposed of in open air evaporation ponds. After evaporation of most of the water, OMWS is left in the bottom of the ponds. In this thesis, the effort has been made to evaluate the catalytic pyrolysis process as a technology to valorize the OMWS. The first section of this research showed that 41.12 wt. % of the OMWS is mostly lipids, which are a good source of energy. The second section proved that catalytic pyrolysis of the OMWS over red mud and HZSM-5 can produce green diesel, and 450 °C is the optimal reaction temperature to maximize the organic yields. The last section revealed that the HSF was behind the good fuel-like properties of the OMWS catalytic oils, whereas the SR hindered the bio-oil yields and quality.

  9. Demonstration of catalytic combustion with residual fuel (United States)

    Dodds, W. J.; Ekstedt, E. E.


    An experimental program was conducted to demonstrate catalytic combustion of a residual fuel oil. Three catalytic reactors, including a baseline configuration and two backup configurations based on baseline test results, were operated on No. 6 fuel oil. All reactors were multielement configurations consisting of ceramic honeycomb catalyzed with palladium on stabilized alumina. Stable operation on residual oil was demonstrated with the baseline configuration at a reactor inlet temperature of about 825 K (1025 F). At low inlet temperature, operation was precluded by apparent plugging of the catalytic reactor with residual oil. Reduced plugging tendency was demonstrated in the backup reactors by increasing the size of the catalyst channels at the reactor inlet, but plugging still occurred at inlet temperature below 725 K (845 F). Operation at the original design inlet temperature of 589 K (600 F) could not be demonstrated. Combustion efficiency above 99.5% was obtained with less than 5% reactor pressure drop. Thermally formed NO sub x levels were very low (less than 0.5 g NO2/kg fuel) but nearly 100% conversion of fuel-bound nitrogen to NO sub x was observed.


    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  11. Counterflow Regolith Heat Exchanger (United States)

    Zubrin, Robert; Jonscher, Peter


    A problem exists in reducing the total heating power required to extract oxygen from lunar regolith. All such processes require heating a great deal of soil, and the heat energy is wasted if it cannot be recycled from processed material back into new material. The counterflow regolith heat exchanger (CoRHE) is a device that transfers heat from hot regolith to cold regolith. The CoRHE is essentially a tube-in-tube heat exchanger with internal and external augers attached to the inner rotating tube to move the regolith. Hot regolith in the outer tube is moved in one direction by a right-hand - ed auger, and the cool regolith in the inner tube is moved in the opposite direction by a left-handed auger attached to the inside of the rotating tube. In this counterflow arrangement, a large fraction of the heat from the expended regolith is transferred to the new regolith. The spent regolith leaves the heat exchanger close to the temperature of the cold new regolith, and the new regolith is pre-heated close to the initial temperature of the spent regolith. Using the CoRHE can reduce the heating requirement of a lunar ISRU system by 80%, reducing the total power consumption by a factor of two. The unique feature of this system is that it allows for counterflow heat exchange to occur between solids, instead of liquids or gases, as is commonly done. In addition, in variants of this concept, the hydrogen reduction can be made to occur within the counterflow heat exchanger itself, enabling a simplified lunar ISRU (in situ resource utilization) system with excellent energy economy and continuous nonbatch mode operation.

  12. Analytical applications of ion exchangers

    CERN Document Server

    Inczédy, J


    Analytical Applications of Ion Exchangers presents the laboratory use of ion-exchange resins. This book discusses the development in the analytical application of ion exchangers. Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the history and significance of ion exchangers for technical purposes. This text then describes the properties of ion exchangers, which are large molecular water-insoluble polyelectrolytes having a cross-linked structure that contains ionic groups. Other chapters consider the theories concerning the operation of ion-exchange resins and investigate th

  13. Superior acidic catalytic activity and stability of Fe-doped HTaWO6 nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, He


    Fe-doped HTaWO6 (H1-3xFexTaWO6, x = 0.23) nanotubes as highly active solid acid catalysts were prepared via an exfoliation-scrolling-exchange process. The specific surface area and pore volume of undoped nanotubes (20.8 m2 g-1, 0.057 cm3 g-1) were remarkably enhanced through Fe3+ ion-exchange (>100 m2 g-1, 0.547 cm3 g-1). Doping Fe ions into the nanotubes endowed them with improved thermal stability due to the stronger interaction between the intercalated Fe3+ ions and the host layers. This interaction also facilitated the preservation of effective Brønsted acid sites and the generation of new acid sites. The integration of these functional roles resulted in Fe-doped nanotubes with high acidic catalytic activities in the Friedel-Crafts alkylation of anisole and the esterification of acetic acid. Facile accessibility to active sites, generation of effective Brønsted acid sites, high stability of the tubular structure and strong acid sites were found to synergistically contribute to the excellent acidic catalytic efficiency. Additionally, the activity of cycled nanocatalysts can be easily recovered through annealing treatment.

  14. Staff exchange with Chemical Waste Management. Final project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrer, B.J.; Barak, D.W.


    Original objective was transfer of PNL technology and expertise in computational chemistry and waste flow/treatment modeling to CWM. Identification and characterization of a broader portfolio of PNL`s environmental remediation technologies with high potential for rapid application became the focus of the exchange, which included E-mail exchanges. Of the 14 technologies discussed, the following were identified as being of high interest to CWM: six phase soil heating (in-situ heating), high energy electrical corona, RAAS/ReOpt{trademark} (remedial, expert system), TEES{trademark} (catalytic production of methane from biological wastes), PST (process for treating petroleum sludge). CWM`s reorganization and downsizing reduced the potential benefits to industry, but a proposal for transfer and application of PST to Wheelabrator was made.

  15. Peptide-Directed PdAu Nanoscale Surface Segregation: Toward Controlled Bimetallic Architecture for Catalytic Materials. (United States)

    Bedford, Nicholas M; Showalter, Allison R; Woehl, Taylor J; Hughes, Zak E; Lee, Sungsik; Reinhart, Benjamin; Ertem, S Piril; Coughlin, E Bryan; Ren, Yang; Walsh, Tiffany R; Bunker, Bruce A


    Bimetallic nanoparticles are of immense scientific and technological interest given the synergistic properties observed when two different metallic species are mixed at the nanoscale. This is particularly prevalent in catalysis, where bimetallic nanoparticles often exhibit improved catalytic activity and durability over their monometallic counterparts. Yet despite intense research efforts, little is understood regarding how to optimize bimetallic surface composition and structure synthetically using rational design principles. Recently, it has been demonstrated that peptide-enabled routes for nanoparticle synthesis result in materials with sequence-dependent catalytic properties, providing an opportunity for rational design through sequence manipulation. In this study, bimetallic PdAu nanoparticles are synthesized with a small set of peptides containing known Pd and Au binding motifs. The resulting nanoparticles were extensively characterized using high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and high-energy X-ray diffraction coupled to atomic pair distribution function analysis. Structural information obtained from synchrotron radiation methods was then used to generate model nanoparticle configurations using reverse Monte Carlo simulations, which illustrate sequence dependence in both surface structure and surface composition. Replica exchange with solute tempering molecular dynamics simulations were also used to predict the modes of peptide binding on monometallic surfaces, indicating that different sequences bind to the metal interfaces via different mechanisms. As a testbed reaction, electrocatalytic methanol oxidation experiments were performed, wherein differences in catalytic activity are clearly observed in materials with identical bimetallic composition. Taken together, this study indicates that peptides could be used to arrive at bimetallic surfaces with enhanced catalytic properties, which could be leveraged

  16. Characterization of the catalytic center of the Ebola virus L polymerase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Luisa Schmidt


    Full Text Available Ebola virus (EBOV causes a severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates. While no licensed therapeutics are available, recently there has been tremendous progress in developing antivirals. Targeting the ribonucleoprotein complex (RNP proteins, which facilitate genome replication and transcription, and particularly the polymerase L, is a promising antiviral approach since these processes are essential for the virus life cycle. However, until now little is known about L in terms of its structure and function, and in particular the catalytic center of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp of L, which is one of the most promising molecular targets, has never been experimentally characterized.Using multiple sequence alignments with other negative sense single-stranded RNA viruses we identified the putative catalytic center of the EBOV RdRp. An L protein with mutations in this center was then generated and characterized using various life cycle modelling systems. These systems are based on minigenomes, i.e. miniature versions of the viral genome, in which the viral genes are exchanged against a reporter gene. When such minigenomes are coexpressed with RNP proteins in mammalian cells, the RNP proteins recognize them as authentic templates for replication and transcription, resulting in reporter activity reflecting these processes. Replication-competent minigenome systems indicated that our L catalytic domain mutant was impaired in genome replication and/or transcription, and by using replication-deficient minigenome systems, as well as a novel RT-qPCR-based genome replication assay, we showed that it indeed no longer supported either of these processes. However, it still showed similar expression to wild-type L, and retained its ability to be incorporated into inclusion bodies, which are the sites of EBOV genome replication.We have experimentally defined the catalytic center of the EBOV RdRp, and thus a promising antiviral target

  17. Data Exchange Inventory (DEXI) System (United States)

    Social Security Administration — DEXI is an intranet application used by SSA users to track all incoming and outgoing data exchanges between SSA and our data exchange partners. Information such as...

  18. Heterogeneous catalytic materials solid state chemistry, surface chemistry and catalytic behaviour

    CERN Document Server

    Busca, Guido


    Heterogeneous Catalytic Materials discusses experimental methods and the latest developments in three areas of research: heterogeneous catalysis; surface chemistry; and the chemistry of catalysts. Catalytic materials are those solids that allow the chemical reaction to occur efficiently and cost-effectively. This book provides you with all necessary information to synthesize, characterize, and relate the properties of a catalyst to its behavior, enabling you to select the appropriate catalyst for the process and reactor system. Oxides (used both as catalysts and as supports for cata

  19. Dynamical Clustering of Exchange Rates


    Fenn, Daniel J.; Porter, Mason A.; Mucha, Peter J; Mark McDonald; Stacy Williams; Johnson, Neil F.; Jones, Nick S


    We use techniques from network science to study correlations in the foreign exchange (FX) market over the period 1991--2008. We consider an FX market network in which each node represents an exchange rate and each weighted edge represents a time-dependent correlation between the rates. To provide insights into the clustering of the exchange rate time series, we investigate dynamic communities in the network. We show that there is a relationship between an exchange rate's functional role withi...

  20. Serial tempering without exchange. (United States)

    Nymeyer, Hugh


    Serial tempering is a computational method that turns the temperature T (or more generally any independent λ parameter) into a dynamical variable. It is shown that, under conditions for which this variable is fast, serial tempering is equivalent to the umbrella sampling method with a single effective potential. This equivalence is demonstrated using both a small one-dimensional system and a small solvated peptide. The suggestion is then made to replace the serial tempering protocol with the equivalent umbrella sampling calculation. This approach, serial tempering without exchange (STeWiE), has the same performance as serial tempering in the limit that exchanges are frequent, is simpler to implement, and has fewer adjustable parameters than conventional serial tempering. The equivalence of serial tempering and STeWiE also provides a convenient route for estimating and optimizing the performance of serial tempering simulations and other generalized-ensemble methods.

  1. Lipid exchange by ultracentrifugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachmann, Nikolaj Düring; Olesen, Claus


    Lipids play an important role in maintaining P-type ATPase structure and function, and often they are crucial for ATPase activity. When the P-type ATPases are in the membrane, they are surrounded by a mix of different lipids species with varying aliphatic chain lengths and saturation......, and the complex interplay between the lipids and the P-type ATPases are still not well understood. We here describe a robust method to exchange the majority of the lipids surrounding the ATPase after solubilisation and/or purification with a target lipid of interest. The method is based on an ultracentrifugation...... step, where the protein sample is spun through a dense buffer containing large excess of the target lipid, which results in an approximately 80-85 % lipid exchange. The method is a very gently technique that maintains protein folding during the process, hence allowing further characterization...

  2. Exchange rate rebounds after foreign exchange market interventions (United States)

    Hoshikawa, Takeshi


    This study examined the rebounds in the exchange rate after foreign exchange intervention. When intervention is strongly effective, the exchange rate rebounds at next day. The effect of intervention is reduced slightly by the rebound after the intervention. The exchange rate might have been 67.12-77.47 yen to a US dollar without yen-selling/dollar-purchasing intervention of 74,691,100 million yen implemented by the Japanese government since 1991, in comparison to the actual exchange rate was 103.19 yen to the US dollar at the end of March 2014.

  3. O3 and NOx Exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loubet, B.; Castell, J.F.; Laville, P.; Personne, E.; Tuzet, A.; Ammann, C.; Emberson, L.; Ganzeveld, L.; Kowalski, A.S.; Merbold, L.; Stella, P.; Tuovinen, J.P.


    This discussion was based on the background document “Review on modelling atmosphere-biosphere exchange of Ozone and Nitrogen oxides”, which reviews the processes contributing to biosphere-atmosphere exchange of O3 and NOx, including stomatal and non-stomatal exchange of O3 and NO, NO2.

  4. The stability of exchange networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doğan, G.; Assen, M. van; Rijt, A. van de; Buskens, V.W.


    Economic and sociological exchange theories predict divisions of exchange benefits given an assumed fixed network of exchange relations. Since network structure has been found to have a large impact on actors’ payoffs, actors have strong incentives for network change.Weanswer the question what

  5. Integrated foreign exchange risk management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Høg, Esben; Kuhn, Jochen


    Empirical research has focused on export as a proxy for exchange rate exposure and the use of foreign exchange derivatives as an instrument to deal with this exposure. This empirical study applies an integrated foreign exchange risk management approach with a particular focus on the role of impor...

  6. Integrated Foreign Exchange Risk Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Høg, Esben; Kuhn, Jochen

    Empirical research has focused on export as a proxy for the exchange rate exposure and the use of foreign exchange derivatives as the instrument to deal with this exposure. This empirical study applies an integrated foreign exchange risk management approach with a particular focus on the role...

  7. Scraped surface heat exchangers. (United States)

    Rao, Chetan S; Hartel, Richard W


    Scraped surface heat exchangers (SSHEs) are commonly used in the food, chemical, and pharmaceutical industries for heat transfer, crystallization, and other continuous processes. They are ideally suited for products that are viscous, sticky, that contain particulate matter, or that need some degree of crystallization. Since these characteristics describe a vast majority of processed foods, SSHEs are especially suited for pumpable food products. During operation, the product is brought in contact with a heat transfer surface that is rapidly and continuously scraped, thereby exposing the surface to the passage of untreated product. In addition to maintaining high and uniform heat exchange, the scraper blades also provide simultaneous mixing and agitation. Heat exchange for sticky and viscous foods such as heavy salad dressings, margarine, chocolate, peanut butter, fondant, ice cream, and shortenings is possible only by using SSHEs. High heat transfer coefficients are achieved because the boundary layer is continuously replaced by fresh material. Moreover, the product is in contact with the heating surface for only a few seconds and high temperature gradients can be used without the danger of causing undesirable reactions. SSHEs are versatile in the use of heat transfer medium and the various unit operations that can be carried out simultaneously. This article critically reviews the current understanding of the operations and applications of SSHEs.

  8. Timing Foreign Exchange Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel W. Malone


    Full Text Available To improve short-horizon exchange rate forecasts, we employ foreign exchange market risk factors as fundamentals, and Bayesian treed Gaussian process (BTGP models to handle non-linear, time-varying relationships between these fundamentals and exchange rates. Forecasts from the BTGP model conditional on the carry and dollar factors dominate random walk forecasts on accuracy and economic criteria in the Meese-Rogoff setting. Superior market timing ability for large moves, more than directional accuracy, drives the BTGP’s success. We explain how, through a model averaging Monte Carlo scheme, the BTGP is able to simultaneously exploit smoothness and rough breaks in between-variable dynamics. Either feature in isolation is unable to consistently outperform benchmarks throughout the full span of time in our forecasting exercises. Trading strategies based on ex ante BTGP forecasts deliver the highest out-of-sample risk-adjusted returns for the median currency, as well as for both predictable, traded risk factors.

  9. Paste heat exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The subject of coal paste heat exchangers is discussed in this letter report from Gelsenberg A.G. to I.G. Farbenindustrie A.G. Gelsenberg had given little consideration to the heating of coal paste by means of regeneration (heat exchange) because of the lack of experience in paste regeneration with bituminous coal, especially at 700 atmospheres. At the I.G. Farben plant at Poelitz, paste regeneration was carried out so that low concentration coal paste was heated in the regenerator together with the process gas, and the remaining coal was fed into the cold pass of the preheater in a thicker paste. Later tests proved this process viable. Gelsenberg heated normal coal paste and the gas in heat exchangers with the goal of relieving the preheater. Good results were achieved without change in design. The coal paste was heated with process gas in the regenerator at up to 315 degrees with constant pressure difference, so that after three months no decrease in K-values and no deposition or thickening was observed. Through the omission of paste gas, the pressure difference of the system became more constant and did not rise above the former level. The temperature also was more controllable, the chamber smoother running. Principal thermal data are given in a table. 1 table, 1 graph.

  10. The exchangeability of shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaba Dramane


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Landmark based geometric morphometrics (GM allows the quantitative comparison of organismal shapes. When applied to systematics, it is able to score shape changes which often are undetectable by traditional morphological studies and even by classical morphometric approaches. It has thus become a fast and low cost candidate to identify cryptic species. Due to inherent mathematical properties, shape variables derived from one set of coordinates cannot be compared with shape variables derived from another set. Raw coordinates which produce these shape variables could be used for data exchange, however they contain measurement error. The latter may represent a significant obstacle when the objective is to distinguish very similar species. Results We show here that a single user derived dataset produces much less classification error than a multiple one. The question then becomes how to circumvent the lack of exchangeability of shape variables while preserving a single user dataset. A solution to this question could lead to the creation of a relatively fast and inexpensive systematic tool adapted for the recognition of cryptic species. Conclusions To preserve both exchangeability of shape and a single user derived dataset, our suggestion is to create a free access bank of reference images from which one can produce raw coordinates and use them for comparison with external specimens. Thus, we propose an alternative geometric descriptive system that separates 2-D data gathering and analyzes.

  11. A threonine stabilizes the NiC and NiR catalytic intermediates of [NiFe]-hydrogenase. (United States)

    Abou-Hamdan, Abbas; Ceccaldi, Pierre; Lebrette, Hugo; Gutiérrez-Sanz, Oscar; Richaud, Pierre; Cournac, Laurent; Guigliarelli, Bruno; De Lacey, Antonio L; Léger, Christophe; Volbeda, Anne; Burlat, Bénédicte; Dementin, Sébastien


    The heterodimeric [NiFe] hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio fructosovorans catalyzes the reversible oxidation of H2 into protons and electrons. The catalytic intermediates have been attributed to forms of the active site (NiSI, NiR, and NiC) detected using spectroscopic methods under potentiometric but non-catalytic conditions. Here, we produced variants by replacing the conserved Thr-18 residue in the small subunit with Ser, Val, Gln, Gly, or Asp, and we analyzed the effects of these mutations on the kinetic (H2 oxidation, H2 production, and H/D exchange), spectroscopic (IR, EPR), and structural properties of the enzyme. The mutations disrupt the H-bond network in the crystals and have a strong effect on H2 oxidation and H2 production turnover rates. However, the absence of correlation between activity and rate of H/D exchange in the series of variants suggests that the alcoholic group of Thr-18 is not necessarily a proton relay. Instead, the correlation between H2 oxidation and production activity and the detection of the NiC species in reduced samples confirms that NiC is a catalytic intermediate and suggests that Thr-18 is important to stabilize the local protein structure of the active site ensuring fast NiSI-NiC-NiR interconversions during H2 oxidation/production. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Catalytic cracking models developed for predictive control purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dag Ljungqvist


    Full Text Available The paper deals with state-space modeling issues in the context of model-predictive control, with application to catalytic cracking. Emphasis is placed on model establishment, verification and online adjustment. Both the Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC and the Residual Catalytic Cracking (RCC units are discussed. Catalytic cracking units involve complex interactive processes which are difficult to operate and control in an economically optimal way. The strong nonlinearities of the FCC process mean that the control calculation should be based on a nonlinear model with the relevant constraints included. However, the model can be simple compared to the complexity of the catalytic cracking plant. Model validity is ensured by a robust online model adjustment strategy. Model-predictive control schemes based on linear convolution models have been successfully applied to the supervisory dynamic control of catalytic cracking units, and the control can be further improved by the SSPC scheme.

  13. An Assay for Measuring Histone Variant Exchange within Nucleosomes In Vitro. (United States)

    Laflamme, Liette; Guillemette, Benoit; Gaudreau, Luc


    The incorporation of histone variants into specific chromatin regions is a mechanism by which cells can regulate many important biological processes. One such example is H2A.Z, a highly conserved variant of H2A that is incorporated in genomic regulatory regions and contributes to control gene expression. H2A.Z variant exchange involves the removal of H2A-H2B dimers from a preassembled nucleosome and their replacement with H2A.Z-H2B dimers. A specific family of chromatin remodeling complexes, homologous to the yeast Swr1 complex, have been shown to be capable of this histone exchange activity both in vivo and in vitro. Here, we describe an assay to measure the histone H2A.Z exchange activity of recombinant human p400 on immobilized mononucleosomes in vitro. The assay can be adapted to other histone exchange complexes/catalytic subunits purified from any species.

  14. Catalytic combustion with incompletely vaporized residual fuel (United States)

    Rosfjord, T. J.


    Catalytic combustion of fuel lean mixtures of incompletely vaporized residual fuel and air was investigated. The 7.6 cm diameter, graded cell reactor was constructed from zirconia spinel substrate and catalyzed with a noble metal catalyst. Streams of luminous particles exited the rector as a result of fuel deposition and carbonization on the substrate. Similar results were obtained with blends of No. 6 and No. 2 oil. Blends of shale residual oil and No. 2 oil resulted in stable operation. In shale oil blends the combustor performance degraded with a reduced degree of fuel vaporization. In tests performed with No. 2 oil a similar effect was observed.

  15. Novel Hydrophobic Pt/Inorganic Catalyst Used in Hydrogen Isotope Exchange Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIA Qing-qing1;HU Shi-lin1;FENG Xiao-yan2;LIU Ya-ming1


    Full Text Available To improve the performance of hydrophobic catalyst and extend its using range, this research adopted the porous columnar inorganic carriers (ø=5 mm to prepare the hydrophobic catalyst used in hydrogen isotopes exchange reaction, the hydrophilic carriers became hydrophobic with the nanostructured CeO2 coating and the catalyst were then fabricated by convenient impregnation method. The samples were characterized by XRD、SEM、EDX、XPS and CO adsorption. The catalytic activity were tested through catalytic exchange reaction between hydrogen and saturated water vapor to investigate the effect of micro structured CeO2 on the catalyst properties. It turned out that the nano-CeO2 coating could build favorable hydrophobic environment for the catalysts and had almost no influence on the pore structure properties of carriers. Although the hydrophobic coating would lead to the decrease of Pt particle dispersion and metallic Pt content, it could make the Pt particles mostly deposit on the surface layer of the catalysts, which would make more Pt particle participate in the reaction at the same time. The catalytic activity of the novel Pt/inorganic catalyst could reach to 80% of the mature Pt/organic catalyst. After being flushed by water for 12 weeks, the catalytic activity of Pt/inorganic catalyst decreased less than 5%. The novel hydrophobic catalyst with good activity and stability was practical and had great application prospects.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.Q. Long; N. Tharappiwattananon; W.B. Li; R.T. Yang


    Removal of NO{sub x} (NO + NO{sub 2}) from exhaust gases is a challenging subject. V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-based catalysts are commercial catalysts for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) with NH{sub 3} for stationary sources. However, for diesel and lean-burn gasoline engines in vehicles, hydrocarbons would be the preferred reducing agents over NH{sub 3} because of the practical problems associated with the use of NH{sub 3} (i.e., handling and slippage through the reactor). The noble-metal three-way catalysts are not effective under these conditions. The first catalyst found to be active for selective catalytic reduction of NO by hydrocarbons in the presence of excess oxygen was copper exchanged ZSM-5 and other zeolites, reported in 1990 by Iwamoto in Japan and Held et al. in Germany. Although Cu-ZSM-5 is very active and the most intensively studied catalyst, it suffers from severe deactivation in engine tests, mainly due to H{sub 2}O and SO{sub 2}. In this project, we found that ion-exchanged pillared clays and MCM-41 catalysts showed superior SCR activities of NO with hydrocarbon. All Cu{sup 2+}-exchanged pillared clays showed higher SCR activities than Cu-ZSM-5 reported in the literature. In particular, H{sub 2}O and SO{sub 2} only slightly deactivated the SCR activity of Cu-TiO{sub 2}-PILC, whereas severe deactivation was observed for Cu-ZSM-5. Moreover, Pt/MCM-41 provided the highest specific NO reduction rates as compared with other Pt doped catalysts, i.e., Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Pt/SiO{sub 2} and Pt/ZSM-5. The Pt/MCM-41 catalyst also showed a good stability in the presence of H{sub 2}O and SO{sub 2}.

  17. A study on naphtha catalytic reforming reactor simulation and analysis


    Liang, Ke-min; Guo, Hai-Yan; Pan, Shi-Wei


    A naphtha catalytic reforming unit with four reactors in series is analyzed. A physical model is proposed to describe the catalytic reforming radial flow reactor. Kinetics and thermodynamics equations are selected to describe the naphtha catalytic reforming reactions characteristics based on idealizing the complex naphtha mixture by representing the paraffin, naphthene, and aromatic groups by single compounds. The simulation results based above models agree very well with actual operation uni...

  18. A study on naphtha catalytic reforming reactor simulation and analysis. (United States)

    Liang, Ke-min; Guo, Hai-yan; Pan, Shi-wei


    A naphtha catalytic reforming unit with four reactors in series is analyzed. A physical model is proposed to describe the catalytic reforming radial flow reactor. Kinetics and thermodynamics equations are selected to describe the naphtha catalytic reforming reactions characteristics based on idealizing the complex naphtha mixture by representing the paraffin, naphthene, and aromatic groups by single compounds. The simulation results based above models agree very well with actual operation unit data.

  19. Dual temperature dual pressure water-hydrogen chemical exchange for water detritiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, Takahiko, E-mail: [Faculty of Engineering, Nagoya University, Fro-cho 1, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Takada, Akito; Morita, Youhei [Faculty of Engineering, Nagoya University, Fro-cho 1, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Kotoh, Kenji [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu University, Moto-oka 744, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Munakata, Kenzo [Faculty of Engineering and Resource Science, Akita University, Tegata-gakuen-machi 1-1, Akita 010-8502 (Japan); Taguchi, Akira [Hydrogen Isotope Research Center, University of Toyama, Gofuku 3190, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Kawano, Takao; Tanaka, Masahiro; Akata, Naofumi [National Institute for Fusion Science, Oroshi-cho 322-6, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan)


    Experimental and analytical studies on hydrogen-tritium isotope separation by a dual temperature dual pressure catalytic exchange (DTDP-CE) with liquid phase chemical exchange columns were carried out in order to apply it to a part of the water detritiation system for DEMO fuel cycle. A prototype DTDP-CE apparatus was successfully operated and it was confirmed that tritium was separated by the apparatus as significantly distinguishable. A calculation code was developed based on the channeling stage model. The values of separation factors and the effects of some operating parameters were well predicted by the separative analyses with the code.

  20. Effect of support on the catalytic activity of manganese oxide catalyts for toluene combustion. (United States)

    Pozan, Gulin Selda


    The aim of this work was to study combustion of toluene (1000ppm) over MnO(2) modified with different supports. α-Al(2)O(3) and γ-Al(2)O(3) obtained from Boehmite, γ-Al(2)O(3) (commercial), SiO(2), TiO(2) and ZrO(2) were used as commercial support materials. In view of potential interest of this process, the influence of support material on the catalytic performance was discussed. The deposition of 9.5MnO(2) was performed by impregnation over support. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), temperature programmed reduction and oxidation (TPR/TPO) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The catalytic tests were carried out at atmospheric pressure in a fixed-bed flow reactor. 9.5MnO(2)/α-Al(2)O(3)(B) (synthesized from Boehmite) catalyst exhibits the highest catalytic activity, over which the toluene conversion was up to 90% at a temperature of 289°C. Considering all the characterization and reaction data reported in this study, it was concluded that the manganese state and oxygen species played an important role in the catalytic activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Novel high chromium containing braze filler metals for heat exchanger applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangaswamy, S.; Fortuna, D. [Sulzer Metco, Troy (United States)


    A new family of boron-free, high chromium containing braze filler metal compositions were developed (Amdry 105, Amdry 108, Amdry 805). Filler metal properties including metallurgical phases, melting range, flow, corrosion resistance and high temperature oxidation resistance are reported. Additionally, the technical and economical advantages of using these new filler metals in fabricating flat plate type of heat exchangers and metallic catalytic converters is discussed. (orig.)

  2. Catalytically favorable surface patterns in Pt-Au nanoclusters

    KAUST Repository

    Mokkath, Junais Habeeb


    Motivated by recent experimental demonstrations of novel PtAu nanoparticles with highly enhanced catalytic properties, we present a systematic theoretical study that explores principal catalytic indicators as a function of the particle size and composition. We find that Pt electronic states in the vicinity of the Fermi level combined with a modified electron distribution in the nanoparticle due to Pt-to-Au charge transfer are the origin of the outstanding catalytic properties. From our model we deduce the catalytically favorable surface patterns that induce ensemble and ligand effects. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013.

  3. The Dynamics of Multilateral Exchange (United States)

    Hausken, Kjell; Moxnes, John F.

    The article formulates a dynamic mathematical model where arbitrarily many players produce, consume, exchange, loan, and deposit arbitrarily many goods over time to maximize utility. Consuming goods constitutes a benefit, and producing, exporting, and loaning away goods constitute a cost. Utilities are benefits minus costs, which depend on the exchange ratios and bargaining functions. Three-way exchange occurs when one player acquires, through exchange, one good from another player with the sole purpose of using this good to exchange against the desired good from a third player. Such a triple handshake is not merely a set of double handshakes since the player assigns no interest to the first good in his benefit function. Cognitive and organization costs increase dramatically for higher order exchanges. An exchange theory accounting for media of exchange follows from simple generalization of two-way exchange. The examples of r-way exchange are the triangle trade between Africa, the USA, and England in the 17th and 18th centuries, the hypothetical hypercycle involving RNAs as players and enzymes as goods, and reaction-diffusion processes. The emergence of exchange, and the role of trading agents are discussed. We simulate an example where two-way exchange gives zero production and zero utility, while three-way exchange causes considerable production and positive utility. Maximum utility for each player is reached when exchanges of the same order as the number of players in society are allowed. The article merges micro theory and macro theory within the social, natural, and physical sciences.

  4. Catalytic hydrothermal liquefaction of water hyacinth. (United States)

    Singh, Rawel; Balagurumurthy, Bhavya; Prakash, Aditya; Bhaskar, Thallada


    Thermal and catalytic hydrothermal liquefaction of water hyacinth was performed at temperatures from 250 to 300 °C under various water hyacinth:H2O ratio of 1:3, 1:6 and 1:12. Reactions were also carried out under various residence times (15-60 min) as well as catalytic conditions (KOH and K2CO3). The use of alkaline catalysts significantly increased the bio-oil yield. Maximum bio-oil yield (23 wt%) comprising of bio-oil1 and bio-oil2 as well as conversion (89%) were observed with 1N KOH solution. (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR data showed that both bio-oil1 and bio-oil2 have high aliphatic carbon content. FTIR of bio-residue indicated that the usage of alkaline catalyst resulted in bio-residue samples with lesser oxygen functionality indicating that catalyst has a marked effect on nature of the bio-residue and helps to decompose biomass to a greater extent compared to thermal case. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Aluminosilicate nanoparticles for catalytic hydrocarbon cracking. (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Pinnavaia, Thomas J


    Aluminosilicate nanoparticles containing 9.0-20 nm mesopores were prepared through the use of protozeolitic nanoclusters as the inorganic precursor and starch as a porogen. The calcined, porogen-free composition containing 2 mol % aluminum exhibited the porosity, hydrothermal stability, and acidity needed for the cracking of very large hydrocarbons. In fact, the hydrothermal stability of the nanoparticles to pure steam at 800 degrees C, along with the cumene cracking activity, surpassed the analogous performance properties of ultrastable Y zeolite, the main catalyst component of commercial cracking catalysts. The remarkable hydrothermal stability and catalytic reactivity of the new nanoparticles are attributable to a unique combination of two factors, the presence of protozeolitic nanoclusters in the pore walls and the unprecedented pore wall thickness (7-15 nm). In addition, the excellent catalytic longevity of the nanoparticles is most likely facilitated by the small domain size of the nanoparticles that greatly improves access to the acid sites on the pore walls and minimizes the diffusion length of coke precursors out of the pores.

  6. SNRB catalytic baghouse laboratory pilot testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudlac, G.A.; Farthing, G.A. (Babcock and Wilcox, Alliance, Ohio (United States)) Szymanski, T. (Norton Co., Akron, OH (United States)); Corbett, R. (Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States))


    The SOx-NOx-Rox Box{trademark} (SNRB) is an advanced air pollution process patented by Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) that provides for significantly reduced sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and particulate emissions from coal-fired boilers. The process uses a high-temperature catalytic baghouse for integrating SO{sub x} reduction through injecting an alkali sorbent (such as hydrated lime or sodium bicarbonate), NO{sub x} removal through ammonia injection and selective catalytic reduction (SCR), and particulate collection. The advantages of the process include: compact integration of the emission control technologies into a single component; dry sorbent and by-product handling; and improved SCR catalyst life due to lowered SO{sub x} and particulate levels. The SNRB concept has been successfully demonstrated in a 1,500-ACFM pilot baghouse at B and W's Alliance (Ohio) Research Center. This paper describes the SNRB technology presents the SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, and particulate removal performance results over a range of operating conditions for the laboratory pilot test program.

  7. Cryogenic regenerative heat exchangers

    CERN Document Server

    Ackermann, Robert A


    An in-depth survey of regenerative heat exchangers, this book chronicles the development and recent commercialization of regenerative devices for cryogenic applications. Chapters cover historical background, concepts, practical applications, design data, and numerical solutions, providing the latest information for engineers to develop advanced cryogenic machines. The discussions include insights into the operation of a regenerator; descriptions of the cyclic and fluid temperature distributions in a regenerator; data for various matrix geometries and materials, including coarse and fine bronze, stainless steel-woven wire mesh screens, and lead spheres; and unique operating features of cryocoolers that produce deviations from ideal regenerator theory.

  8. Complex Heat Exchangers for Improved Performance (United States)

    Bran, Gabriela Alejandra

    propagates along the channel. However, the sinusoidal behavior on one of the fluids does not fully translate to the other gets damped by the wall and the heat transfer coefficients that can be barely seen on the other flow. A scaling analysis and a parametric study were performed to determine the influence the different parameters on the system have on the time a heat exchanger takes to reach steady state. The results show the dependency of tst* (time a system takes to reach steady state) on the dimensionless parameters M, C, NTUh, NTUc, and Cw. t st* depends linearly on C and Cw, and it is a power function of M. It was also shown that tst* has a logarithmic dependency on NTUh and NTUc. A correlation was generated to approximate the time a system takes to reach steady state for systems where C w behavior during the system start-up was presented. In order to achieve the desired outlet steam temperature at a reasonable time, the system must operate at high gas mass flow rates. If the inlet temperature of the gas suffers a step change, it affects the reaction rate as well as the outlet steam temperature. A small perturbation on the gas mass flow rate has an effect on the profile shape. However, the maximum temperature reached by the gas due to reaction is not affected, and consequently, it has little effect on the steam temperature. Axial conduction in the reactor heat exchanger was also investigated, specifically in the gas section. Axial conduction cannot be assumed to be negligible in the reactor heat exchanger because of the iron-based catalytic bed. Results in this section show that axial conduction is detrimental for the system. It was found that for Peclet number greater than 100, axial conduction can be neglected. An alternative solution to address axial conduction was proposed, namely to include a well-insulated non-reacting section (without a catalytic bed) upstream of the reactor. The modified reactor heat exchanger was a novel solution to avoid the negative effect

  9. Removal of radionuclides from partitioning waste solutions by adsorption and catalytic oxidation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamagishi, Isao; Yamaguchi, Isoo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Kubota, Masumitsu [Research Organization for Information Science and Technology (RIST), Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)


    Adsorption of radionuclides with inorganic ion exchangers and catalytic oxidation of a complexant were studied for the decontamination of waste solutions generated in past partitioning tests with high-level liquid waste. Granulated ferrocyanide and titanic acid were used for adsorption of Cs and Sr, respectively, from an alkaline solution resulting from direct neutralization of an acidic waste solution. Both Na and Ba inhibited adsorption of Sr but Na did not that of Cs. These exchangers adsorbed Cs and Sr at low concentration with distribution coefficients of more than 10{sup 4}ml/g from 2M Na solution of pH11. Overall decontamination factors (DFs) of Cs and total {beta} nuclides exceeded 10{sup 5} and 10{sup 3}, respectively, at the neutralization-adsorption step of actual waste solutions free from a complexant. The DF of total {alpha} nuclides was less than 10{sup 3} for a waste solution containing diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). DTPA was rapidly oxidized by nitric acid in the presence of a platinum catalyst, and radionuclides were removed as precipitates by neutralization of the resultant solution. The DF of {alpha} nuclides increased to 8x10{sup 4} by addition of the oxidation step. The DFs of Sb and Co were quite low through the adsorption step. A synthesized Ti-base exchanger (PTC) could remove Sb with the DF of more than 4x10{sup 3}. (author)

  10. Predicting the catalytic sites of isopenicillin N synthase (IPNS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Predicting the catalytic sites of isopenicillin N synthase (IPNS) related non-haem iron-dependent oxygenases and oxidases (NHIDOX) through a structural superimposition ... With the advancement of protein structural analysis software, it is possible to predict the catalytic sites of protein that shared a structural resemblance.

  11. Synthesis, characterization and study of catalytic activity of Silver ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Catalytic activity was tested using liquid-phase selective oxidation of benzylic alcohols to aldehydes. The influence of some parameters such as optimum weight of Ag, catalyst dosage, oxidant and various solvents were studied. The superior catalytic performance of the Ag/ZnO nanocomposite was observed in microwave ...

  12. Packed-bed catalytic cracking of oak derived pyrolytic vapors (United States)

    Catalytic upgrading of pyrolysis vapors derived from oak was carried out using a fixed-bed catalytic column at 425 deg C. The vapors were drawn by splitting a fraction from the full stream of vapors produced at 500 deg C in a 5 kg/hr bench-scale fast pyrolysis reactor system downstream the cyclone s...

  13. Platinum recovery from used auto catalytic converters in electrorefining process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fornalczyk


    Full Text Available This paper presents possibility of removing platinum from the used catalytic converters applying copper as a metal collector in pyrometallurgical methods. The catalytic converter carrier was grinded and melted with copper. During the research obtained Cu-Pt alloy was casted as an anode. Such anode was electrically refined in order to recover platinum. Obtained results were discussed.

  14. Functionalized TUD-1 : Synthesis, characterization and (photo-)catalytic performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saad, M.S.Hamdy M.


    The new mesoporous material; TUD-1 is chosen of which the synthesis, characterization, and functionalization for (photo)-catalytic performance are extensively investigated in this study. The synthesis of the new catalytic materials M TUD-1 (M = Ti, V, Cr, Mo, Fe, Co and Cu) is carried out through an

  15. Including lateral interactions into microkinetic models of catalytic reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellman, Anders; Honkala, Johanna Karoliina


    In many catalytic reactions lateral interactions between adsorbates are believed to have a strong influence on the reaction rates. We apply a microkinetic model to explore the effect of lateral interactions and how to efficiently take them into account in a simple catalytic reaction. Three...

  16. Developing bulk exchange spring magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mccall, Scott K.; Kuntz, Joshua D.


    A method of making a bulk exchange spring magnet by providing a magnetically soft material, providing a hard magnetic material, and producing a composite of said magnetically soft material and said hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet. The step of producing a composite of magnetically soft material and hard magnetic material is accomplished by electrophoretic deposition of the magnetically soft material and the hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet.

  17. Characteristics of model heat exchanger (United States)

    Kolínský, Jan


    The aim of this paper is thermal analysis of model water to water heat exchanger at different mass flow rates. Experimental study deals with determination of total heat transfer - power of the heat exchanger. Furthermore the paper deals with analysis of heat exchanger charakcteristic using a definition of thermal efficiency. It is demonstrated that it is advisable to monitor the dependence of thermal efficiency and flow ratio.

  18. Catalytic control over supramolecular gel formation (United States)

    Boekhoven, Job; Poolman, Jos M.; Maity, Chandan; Li, Feng; van der Mee, Lars; Minkenberg, Christophe B.; Mendes, Eduardo; van Esch, Jan H.; Eelkema, Rienk


    Low-molecular-weight gels show great potential for application in fields ranging from the petrochemical industry to healthcare and tissue engineering. These supramolecular gels are often metastable materials, which implies that their properties are, at least partially, kinetically controlled. Here we show how the mechanical properties and structure of these materials can be controlled directly by catalytic action. We show how in situ catalysis of the formation of gelator molecules can be used to accelerate the formation of supramolecular hydrogels, which drastically enhances their resulting mechanical properties. Using acid or nucleophilic aniline catalysis, it is possible to make supramolecular hydrogels with tunable gel-strength in a matter of minutes, under ambient conditions, starting from simple soluble building blocks. By changing the rate of formation of the gelator molecules using a catalyst, the overall rate of gelation and the resulting gel morphology are affected, which provides access to metastable gel states with improved mechanical strength and appearance despite an identical gelator composition.

  19. Catalytic conversion of biomass: challenges and issues. (United States)

    Gallezot, Pierre


    There are strong incentives to develop the production of fuels, chemicals and materials from biomass. However, the extensive use of biomass for industrial production, particularly for biofuels which involves high tonnages, raises environmental and ethical issues that may throw some doubts on the sustainability of these processes. The processing cost of biomass must be decreased by designing new processing routes and catalytic systems because those employed for hydrocarbons are not adapted to the molecular structure of biomolecules. To avoid competition with food supply, lignocellulosic feedstocks should be used rather than traditional agricultural crops particularly for biofuel production. Life-cycle assessment, which takes into account all the inputs and outputs of a process/product, should be carried out to evaluate the environmental impact of processes and used as a decision-making tool for product development.

  20. Catalytic cartridge SO/sub 3/ decomposer (United States)

    Galloway, T.R.


    A catalytic cartridge surrounding a heat pipe driven by a heat source is utilized as a SO/sub 3/ decomposer for thermochemical hydrogen production. The cartridge has two embodiments, a cross-flow cartridge and an axial flow cartridge. In the cross-flow cartridge, SO/sub 3/ gas is flowed through a chamber and incident normally to a catalyst coated tube extending through the chamber, the catalyst coated tube surrounding the heat pipe. In the axial-flow cartridge, SO/sub 3/ gas is flowed through the annular space between concentric inner and outer cylindrical walls, the inner cylindrical wall being coated by a catalyst and surrounding the heat pipe. The modular cartridge decomposer provides high thermal efficiency, high conversion efficiency, and increased safety. A fusion reactor may be used as the heat source.

  1. Stoichiometric and Catalytic Synthesis of Alkynylphosphines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie-Claude Gaumont


    Full Text Available Alkynylphosphines or their borane complexes are available either through C–P bond forming reactions or through modification of the phosphorus or the alkynyl function of various alkynyl phosphorus derivatives. The latter strategy, and in particular the one involving phosphoryl reduction by alanes or silanes, is the method of choice for preparing primary and secondary alkynylphosphines, while the former strategy is usually employed for the synthesis of tertiary alkynylphosphines or their borane complexes. The classical C–P bond forming methods rely on the reaction between halophosphines or their borane complexes with terminal acetylenes in the presence of a stoichiometric amount of organometallic bases, which precludes the access to alkynylphosphines bearing sensitive functional groups. In less than a decade, efficient catalytic procedures, mostly involving copper complexes and either an electrophilic or a nucleophilic phosphorus reagent, have emerged. By proceeding under mild conditions, these new methods have allowed a significant broadening of the substituent scope and structure complexity.

  2. Catalytically defective ganglioside neuraminidase in mucolipidosis IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Yoseph, Y.; Momoi, T.; Hahn, L.C.; Nadler, H.L. (Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (USA))


    Cultured skin fibroblasts from patients with mucolipidosis IV were found to be deficient in neuraminidase activity toward GDsub(la) and GDsub(lb) gangliosides radiolabelled in C/sub 3/ and C/sub 7/ analogs of their sialic acid residues. Neuraminidase activities toward 4-methylumbelliferyl-N-acetyl-neuraminic acid, neuraminlactose, and radiolabelled neuraminlactitol, fetuin and ..cap alpha../sub 1/-acid glycoprotein were within the range of normal controls. Fibroblasts from parents of patients with mucolipidosis IV demonstrated intermediate levels of ganglioside neuraminidase activity and normal levels of glycoprotein neuraminidase activity. The redidual acidic neuraminidase activity toward GDsub(1a) ganglioside in the patients' fibroblasts did not differ from that of controls in its pH optimum and thermostability, but had an abnormal apparent Ksub(m) which was about 18 times higher than that of the normal enzyme. These findings suggest that mucolipidosis IV is a ganglioside sialidosis due to a catalytically defective ganglioside neuraminidase.

  3. Catalytic hot gas cleaning of gasification gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simell, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies


    The aim of this work was to study the catalytic cleaning of gasification gas from tars and ammonia. In addition, factors influencing catalytic activity in industrial applications were studied, as well as the effects of different operation conditions and limits. Also the catalytic reactions of tar and ammonia with gasification gas components were studied. The activities of different catalyst materials were measured with laboratory-scale reactors fed by slip streams taken from updraft and fluid bed gasifiers. Carbonate rocks and nickel catalysts proved to be active tar decomposing catalysts. Ammonia decomposition was in turn facilitated by nickel catalysts and iron materials like iron sinter and iron dolomite. Temperatures over 850 deg C were required at 2000{sup -1} space velocity at ambient pressure to achieve almost complete conversions. During catalytic reactions H{sub 2} and CO were formed and H{sub 2}O was consumed in addition to decomposing hydrocarbons and ammonia. Equilibrium gas composition was almost achieved with nickel catalysts at 900 deg C. No deactivation by H{sub 2}S or carbon took place in these conditions. Catalyst blocking by particulates was avoided by using a monolith type of catalyst. The apparent first order kinetic parameters were determined for the most active materials. The activities of dolomite, nickel catalyst and reference materials were measured in different gas atmospheres using laboratory apparatus. This consisted of nitrogen carrier, toluene as tar model compound, ammonia and one of the components H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, CO, CO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}+H{sub 2}O or CO+CO{sub 2}. Also synthetic gasification gas was used. With the dolomite and nickel catalyst the highest toluene decomposition rates were measured with CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. In gasification gas, however, the rate was retarded due to inhibition by reaction products (CO, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}). Tar decomposition over dolomite was modelled by benzene reactions with CO{sub 2}, H

  4. Flowthrough Reductive Catalytic Fractionation of Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Eric M.; Stone, Michael L.; Katahira, Rui; Reed, Michelle; Beckham, Gregg T.; Román-Leshkov, Yuriy


    Reductive catalytic fractionation (RCF) has emerged as a leading biomass fractionation and lignin valorization strategy. Here, flowthrough reactors were used to investigate RCF of poplar. Most RCF studies to date have been conducted in batch, but a flow-based process enables the acquisition of intrinsic kinetic and mechanistic data essential to accelerate the design, optimization, and scale-up of RCF processes. Time-resolved product distributions and yields obtained from experiments with different catalyst loadings were used to identify and deconvolute events during solvolysis and hydrogenolysis. Multi-bed RCF experiments provided unique insights into catalyst deactivation, showing that leaching, sintering, and surface poisoning are causes for decreased catalyst performance. The onset of catalyst deactivation resulted in higher concentrations of unsaturated lignin intermediates and increased occurrence of repolymerization reactions, producing high-molecular-weight species. Overall, this study demonstrates the concept of flowthrough RCF, which will be vital for realistic scale-up of this promising approach.

  5. Radiant non-catalytic recuperative reformer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khinkis, Mark J.; Kozlov, Aleksandr P.


    A radiant, non-catalytic recuperative reformer has a flue gas flow path for conducting hot exhaust gas from a thermal process and a reforming mixture flow path for conducting a reforming mixture. At least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path is positioned adjacent to the flue gas flow path to permit heat transfer from the hot exhaust gas to the reforming mixture. The reforming mixture flow path contains substantially no material commonly used as a catalyst for reforming hydrocarbon fuel (e.g., nickel oxide, platinum group elements or rhenium), but instead the reforming mixture is reformed into a higher calorific fuel via reactions due to the heat transfer and residence time. In a preferred embodiment, a portion of the reforming mixture flow path is positioned outside of flue gas flow path for a relatively large residence time.

  6. Flame assisted synthesis of catalytic ceramic membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Johnny; Mosleh, Majid; Johannessen, Tue


    technology it is possible to make supported catalysts, composite metal oxides, catalytically active surfaces, and porous ceramic membranes. Membrane layers can be formed by using a porous substrate tube (or surface) as a nano-particle filter. The aerosol gas from the flame is led through a porous substrate......Membranes consisting of one or more metal oxides can be synthesized by flame pyrolysis. The general principle behind flame pyrolysis is the decomposition and oxidation of evaporated organo-metallic precursors in a flame, thereby forming metal oxide monomers. Because of the extreme supersaturation...... created in the flame, the monomers will nucleate homogeneously and agglomerate to form aggregates of large ensembles of monomers. The aggregates will then sinter together to form single particles. If the flame temperature and the residence time are sufficiently high, the formed oxide particles...

  7. A note on random catalytic branching processes. (United States)

    Steel, Mike; Kauffman, Stuart


    A variety of evolutionary processes in biology can be viewed as settings where organisms 'catalyse' the formation of new types of organisms. One example, relevant to the origin of life, is where transient biological colonies (e.g. prokaryotes or protocells) give rise to new colonies via lateral gene transfer. In this short note, we describe and analyse a simple random process which models such settings. By applying theory from general birth-death processes, we describe how the survival of a population under catalytic diversification depends on interplay of the catalysis rate and the initial population size. We also note how such process can also be viewed within the framework of 'self-sustaining autocatalytic networks'. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Carbon nanofibers: a versatile catalytic support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelize Maria de Almeida Coelho


    Full Text Available The aim of this article is present an overview of the promising results obtained while using carbon nanofibers based composites as catalyst support for different practical applications: hydrazine decomposition, styrene synthesis, direct oxidation of H2S into elementary sulfur and as fuel-cell electrodes. We have also discussed some prospects of the use of these new materials in total combustion of methane and in ammonia decomposition. The macroscopic carbon nanofibers based composites were prepared by the CVD method (Carbon Vapor Deposition employing a gaseous mixture of hydrogen and ethane. The results showed a high catalytic activity and selectivity in comparison to the traditional catalysts employed in these reactions. The fact was attributed, mainly, to the morphology and the high external surface of the catalyst support.

  9. Catalytic creativity. The case of Linus Pauling. (United States)

    Nakamura, J; Csikszentmihalyi, M


    This article illustrates how creativity is constituted by forces beyond the innovating individual, drawing examples from the career of the eminent chemist Linus Pauling. From a systems perspective, a scientific theory or other product is creative only if the innovation gains the acceptance of a field of experts and so transforms the culture. In addition to this crucial selective function vis-à-vis the completed work, the social field can play a catalytic role, fostering productive interactions between person and domain throughout a career. Pauling's case yields examples of how variously the social field contributes to creativity, shaping the individual's standards of judgment and providing opportunities, incentives, and critical evaluation. A formidable set of strengths suited Pauling for his scientific achievements, but examination of his career qualifies the notion of a lone genius whose brilliance carries the day.

  10. Noncatalytic and catalytic pyrolysis of toluene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pant, K. K.; Kunzru, D. [Indian Institute of Technology, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Kanpur (India)


    Investigation of the effects of process variables on conversion and product yields during catalytic and noncatalytic pyrolysis of toluene was described. The catalyst used was potassium carbonate-impregnated calcium aluminate. Kinetics of the pyrolysis of toluene was also studied. Compared to noncatalytic pyrolysis, the conversions were significantly higher in the presence of the catalyst, although product sensitivities were not affected. With nitrogen as a diluent the main products were hydrogen, methane, benzene, bibenzyl and higher hydrocarbons. Using steam as the diluent, significant amounts of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide were also produced. Based on the result, it was concluded that the overall consumption of toluene can be represented by two parallel reactions. one for the toluene decomposition, the other for the toluene-steam reaction. The activation energy for toluene decomposition was significantly reduced in the presence of the catalyst; only marginal reduction in the activation energy was observed when steam was used as the diluent. 11 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  11. Sequence-Dependent Structure/Function Relationships of Catalytic Peptide-Enabled Gold Nanoparticles Generated under Ambient Synthetic Conditions. (United States)

    Bedford, Nicholas M; Hughes, Zak E; Tang, Zhenghua; Li, Yue; Briggs, Beverly D; Ren, Yang; Swihart, Mark T; Petkov, Valeri G; Naik, Rajesh R; Knecht, Marc R; Walsh, Tiffany R


    Peptide-enabled nanoparticle (NP) synthesis routes can create and/or assemble functional nanomaterials under environmentally friendly conditions, with properties dictated by complex interactions at the biotic/abiotic interface. Manipulation of this interface through sequence modification can provide the capability for material properties to be tailored to create enhanced materials for energy, catalysis, and sensing applications. Fully realizing the potential of these materials requires a comprehensive understanding of sequence-dependent structure/function relationships that is presently lacking. In this work, the atomic-scale structures of a series of peptide-capped Au NPs are determined using a combination of atomic pair distribution function analysis of high-energy X-ray diffraction data and advanced molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The Au NPs produced with different peptide sequences exhibit varying degrees of catalytic activity for the exemplar reaction 4-nitrophenol reduction. The experimentally derived atomic-scale NP configurations reveal sequence-dependent differences in structural order at the NP surface. Replica exchange with solute-tempering MD simulations are then used to predict the morphology of the peptide overlayer on these Au NPs and identify factors determining the structure/catalytic properties relationship. We show that the amount of exposed Au surface, the underlying surface structural disorder, and the interaction strength of the peptide with the Au surface all influence catalytic performance. A simplified computational prediction of catalytic performance is developed that can potentially serve as a screening tool for future studies. Our approach provides a platform for broadening the analysis of catalytic peptide-enabled metallic NP systems, potentially allowing for the development of rational design rules for property enhancement.

  12. Sequence-Dependent Structure/Function Relationships of Catalytic Peptide-Enabled Gold Nanoparticles Generated under Ambient Synthetic Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedford, Nicholas M.; Hughes, Zak E.; Tang, Zhenghua; Li, Yue; Briggs, Beverly D.; Ren, Yang; Swihart, Mark T.; Petkov, Valeri G.; Naik, Rajesh R.; Knecht, Mark R.; Walsh, Tiffany R.


    Peptide-enabled nanoparticle (NP) synthesis routes can create and/or assemble functional nanomaterials under environmentally friendly conditions, with properties dictated by complex interactions at the biotic/abiotic interface. Manipulation of this interface through sequence modification can provide the capability for material properties to be tailored to create enhanced materials for energy, catalysis, and sensing applications. Fully realizing the potential of these materials requires a comprehensive understanding of sequence-dependent structure/function relationships that is presently lacking. In this work, the atomic-scale structures of a series of peptide-capped Au NPs are determined using a combination of atomic pair distribution function analysis of high-energy X-ray diffraction data and advanced molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The Au NPs produced with different peptide sequences exhibit varying degrees of catalytic activity for the exemplar reaction 4-nitrophenol reduction. The experimentally derived atomic-scale NP configurations reveal sequence-dependent differences in structural order at the NP surface. Replica exchange with solute-tempering MD simulations are then used to predict the morphology of the peptide overlayer on these Au NPs and identify factors determining the structure/catalytic properties relationship. We show that the amount of exposed Au surface, the underlying surface structural disorder, and the interaction strength of the peptide with the Au surface all influence catalytic performance. A simplified computational prediction of catalytic performance is developed that can potentially serve as a screening tool for future studies. Our approach provides a platform for broadening the analysis of catalytic peptide-enabled metallic NP systems, potentially allowing for the development of rational design rules for property enhancement.

  13. Nitrene Radical Intermediates in Catalytic Synthesis. (United States)

    Kuijpers, Petrus F; van der Vlugt, Jarl Ivar; Schneider, Sven; de Bruin, Bas


    Nitrene radical complexes are reactive intermediates with discrete spin density at the nitrogen-atom of the nitrene moiety. These species have become important intermediates for organic synthesis, being invoked in a broad range of C-H functionalization and aziridination reactions. Nitrene radical complexes have intriguing electronic structures, and are best described as one-electron reduced Fischer type nitrenes. They can be generated by intramolecular single electron transfer to the "redox non-innocent" nitrene moiety at the metal. Nitrene radicals generated at open-shell cobalt(II) have thus far received most attention in terms of spectroscopic characterization, reactivity screening, catalytic nitrene-transfer reactions and (computational and experimental) mechanistic studies, but some interesting iron and precious metal catalysts have also been employed in related reactions involving nitrene radicals. In some cases, redox-active ligands are used to facilitate intramolecular single electron transfer from the complex to the nitrene moiety. Organic azides are among the most attractive nitrene precursors in this field, typically requiring pre-activated organic azides (e.g. RSO2 N3 , (RO)2 P(=O)N3 , ROC(=O)N3 and alike) to achieve efficient and selective catalysis. Challenging, non-activated aliphatic organic azides were recently added to the palette of reagents useful in synthetically relevant reactions proceeding via nitrene radical intermediates. This concept article describes the electronic structure of nitrene radical complexes, emphasizes on their usefulness in the catalytic synthesis of various organic products, and highlights the important developments in the field. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  14. Catalytic combustion in small wood burning appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oravainen, H. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)


    There is over a million hand fired small heating appliances in Finland where about 5,4 million cubic meters of wood fuel is used. Combustion in such heating appliances is a batch-type process. In early stages of combustion when volatiles are burned, the formation of carbon monoxide (CO) and other combustible gases are difficult to avoid when using fuels that have high volatile matter content. Harmful emissions are formed mostly after each fuel adding but also during char burnout period. When the CO-content in flue gases is, say over 0.5 %, also other harmful emissions will be formed. Methane (CH{sub 4}) and other hydrocarbons are released and the amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)-compounds can be remarkable. Some PAH-compounds are very carcinogenic. It has been estimated that in Finland even more than 90 % of hydrocarbon and PAH emissions are due to small scale wood combustion. Emissions from transportation is excluded from these figures. That is why wood combustion has a net effect on greenhouse gas phenomena. For example carbon monoxide emissions from small scale wood combustion are two fold compared to that of energy production in power plants. Methane emission is of the same order as emission from transportation and seven fold compared with those of energy production. Emissions from small heating appliances can be reduced by developing the combustion techniques, but also by using other means, for example catalytic converters. In certain stages of the batch combustion, temperature is not high enough, gas mixing is not good enough and residence time is too short for complete combustion. When placed to a suitable place inside a heating appliance, a catalytic converter can oxidize unburned gases in the flue gas into compounds that are not harmful to the environment. (3 refs.)

  15. What Drives Stock Exchange Integration?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ekaterina Dorodnykh


    .... After a broad discussion of the existent literature, the investigation combines a large number of potentially relevant determinants for the explanation of whether stock exchanges are participating...

  16. Mastering Microsoft Exchange Server 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Elfassy, David


    The bestselling guide to Exchange Server, fully updated for the newest version Microsoft Exchange Server 2013 is touted as a solution for lowering the total cost of ownership, whether deployed on-premises or in the cloud. Like the earlier editions, this comprehensive guide covers every aspect of installing, configuring, and managing this multifaceted collaboration system. It offers Windows systems administrators and consultants a complete tutorial and reference, ideal for anyone installing Exchange Server for the first time or those migrating from an earlier Exchange Server version.Microsoft

  17. Hybrid Heat Exchangers (United States)

    Tu, Jianping Gene; Shih, Wei


    A hybrid light-weight heat exchanger concept has been developed that uses high-conductivity carbon-carbon (C-C) composites as the heat-transfer fins and uses conventional high-temperature metals, such as Inconel, nickel, and titanium as the parting sheets to meet leakage and structural requirements. In order to maximize thermal conductivity, the majority of carbon fiber is aligned in the fin direction resulting in 300 W/m.K or higher conductivity in the fin directions. As a result of this fiber orientation, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the C-C composite in both non-fiber directions matches well with the CTE of various high-temperature metal alloys. This allows the joining of fins and parting sheets by using high-temperature braze alloys.

  18. The Radioecology Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, Catherine L.; Beresford, Nicholas A.; Patel, Sabera; Wells, Claire; Howard, Brenda J. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, CEH Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Av., Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Mora, Juan Carlos; Real, Almudena [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Avenida complutense 22, Madrid, 28040 (Spain); Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Gilbin, Rodolphe; Hinton, Thomas [IRSN-Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 31, Avenue de la Division Leclerc, 92260 Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France); Vesterbacka, Pia; Muikku, Maarit; Outola, Iisa [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, P.O. Box 14, FI-00881 Helsinki (Finland); Skuterud, Lavrans; AlbumYtre-Eide, Martin [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Grini Naeringspark 13, Oesteraas, 1332 (Norway); Bradshaw, Clare; Stark, Karolina; Jaeschke, Ben [Stockholms Universitet, Universitetsvaegen 10, Stockholm, 10691 (Sweden); Oughton, Deborah; Skipperud, Lindis [NMBU Norwegian University of Life Science P.O. Box 5003N-1432 Aas, Oslo (Norway); Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Vanhoudt, Nathalie [SCK.CEN, Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie/Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire, Avenue Herrmann-Debroux 40, BE-1160 Brussels (Belgium); Willrodt, Christine; Steiner, Martin [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Willy-Brandt-Strasse 5, 38226 Salzgitter (Germany)


    The Radioecology Exchange ( was created in 2011 under the EU FP7 STAR (Strategy for Allied Radioecology) network of excellence. The project aims to integrate the research efforts on radioecology of nine European organisations into a sustainable network. The web site (together with associated Twitter feeds and Facebook page) currently provides the gateway to project outputs and other on-line radiation protection and radioecological resources. In 2013, the EU FP7 COMET (Coordination and implementation of a pan-European instrument for radioecology) project commenced; it aims to strengthen research on the impact of radiation on man and the environment. COMET includes the STAR partners with the addition of one Japanese and two Ukrainian research institutes. As STAR and COMET interact closely together and with the European Radioecology Alliance (, the Radioecology Exchange will be modified to become an international 'hub' for information related to radioecology. Project specific information will be hosted on separate web sites and This paper will present an overview of the resources hosted on the Radioecology Exchange inviting other scientists to contribute. Highlighted aspects of the site include: Social media (News blog, Twitter, Facebook) - Items announcing project outputs, training courses, jobs, studentships etc. Virtual laboratory - Information which encourages integration through joint research and integrated use of data and sample materials. These pages will focus on three categories: (1) Methodological: descriptions and video clips of commonly used analytical methods and protocols and the procedures used in STAR and COMET; (2) Informative: databases made available by STAR/COMET partners together with details of sample archives held. Fact-sheets on radio-ecologically important radionuclides and 'topical descriptions' which show absorbed

  19. Catalytic Destruction of Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds (United States)


    13X Molecular Sieve," J. Catal.. 50, 390 (1977). 48. Poutsma, M. L., in " Zeolite Chemistry and Catalysis", ACS Monograph 171 (Ed: Rabo, J. A...DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. A.BSTRACT (Maximum,200 words) , _ _ . _ This report gives test results for 14 different cation-modifled zeolite catalysts, all of...found that the most active cat- alysts for destruction of One-carbon VOCs were cobalt exchanged Y- zeolites , while for two-carbon VOCs, the presence

  20. Influence of cations on catalytic properties of silica gel in radiolysis of adsorbed water molecules. [Gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garibov, A.A.; Melikzade, M.M.; Bakirov, M.Ya.; Ramazanova, M.Kh.

    Kinetics of hydrogen formation during gamma-radiolysis of water, adsorbed on the surface of silica gels: KSK, hyghly pure SiO/sub 2/-J and its SiO/sub 2/-Ca, SiO/sub 2/-Al cation exchange forms has been studied. Of all the studied samples SiO/sub 2/-Al possesses the highest catalytic activity. It is established that temperature increase from 25 to 250 deg causes the decrease in radiation-chemical yield of hydrogen molecules from 1.12 to 0.28 per 100 eV of energy, absorbed in system KSK/sup +/ adsorbed water.

  1. An experimental study of diffusion and convection of multicomponent gases through catalytic and non-catalytic membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldsink, J.W.; Veldsink, J.W.; Versteeg, Geert; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria


    Diffusion of binary and ternary gases through catalytic and non-catalytic membranes has been studied experimentally at atmospheric pressure. These experiments were conducted in a modified Wicke-Kallenbach diffusion cell consisting of two continuously stirred gas volumes separated by a membrane. The

  2. Caracterização e propriedades catalíticas da zeolita HZSM5 modificada com nióbio Characterization and catalytical properties of hzsm5 zeolite modified by niobium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Florentino


    Full Text Available HZSM5 zeolite was modified by exchanging proton by niobium (V. Several samples were obtained with various degrees of exchange. Pore volumes and acidity were measured to characterize these exchanged zeolites. Catalytic properties were evaluated with two reaction tests: m-xylene transformation and n-heptane cracking. The introduction of niobium on HZSM5 zeolite decreases the diffusion coefficient of 2-methyl-pentane and increases the zeolite acidity. The sample containing niobium are initially more active in cracking of n-heptane and m-xylene isomerization than HZSM5 alone.

  3. Promotion of enzyme flexibility by dephosphorylation and coupling to the catalytic mechanism of a phosphohexomutase. (United States)

    Lee, Yingying; Villar, Maria T; Artigues, Antonio; Beamer, Lesa J


    The enzyme phosphomannomutase/phosphoglucomutase (PMM/PGM) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa catalyzes an intramolecular phosphoryl transfer across its phosphosugar substrates, which are precursors in the synthesis of exoproducts involved in bacterial virulence. Previous structural studies of PMM/PGM have established a key role for conformational change in its multistep reaction, which requires a dramatic 180° reorientation of the intermediate within the active site. Here hydrogen-deuterium exchange by mass spectrometry and small angle x-ray scattering were used to probe the conformational flexibility of different forms of PMM/PGM in solution, including its active, phosphorylated state and the unphosphorylated state that occurs transiently during the catalytic cycle. In addition, the effects of ligand binding were assessed through use of a substrate analog. We found that both phosphorylation and binding of ligand produce significant effects on deuterium incorporation. Phosphorylation of the conserved catalytic serine has broad effects on residues in multiple domains and is supported by small angle x-ray scattering data showing that the unphosphorylated enzyme is less compact in solution. The effects of ligand binding are generally manifested near the active site cleft and at a domain interface that is a site of conformational change. These results suggest that dephosphorylation of the enzyme may play two critical functional roles: a direct role in the chemical step of phosphoryl transfer and secondly through propagation of structural flexibility. We propose a model whereby increased enzyme flexibility facilitates the reorientation of the reaction intermediate, coupling changes in structural dynamics with the unique catalytic mechanism of this enzyme.

  4. Promotion of Enzyme Flexibility by Dephosphorylation and Coupling to the Catalytic Mechanism of a Phosphohexomutase* (United States)

    Lee, Yingying; Villar, Maria T.; Artigues, Antonio; Beamer, Lesa J.


    The enzyme phosphomannomutase/phosphoglucomutase (PMM/PGM) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa catalyzes an intramolecular phosphoryl transfer across its phosphosugar substrates, which are precursors in the synthesis of exoproducts involved in bacterial virulence. Previous structural studies of PMM/PGM have established a key role for conformational change in its multistep reaction, which requires a dramatic 180° reorientation of the intermediate within the active site. Here hydrogen-deuterium exchange by mass spectrometry and small angle x-ray scattering were used to probe the conformational flexibility of different forms of PMM/PGM in solution, including its active, phosphorylated state and the unphosphorylated state that occurs transiently during the catalytic cycle. In addition, the effects of ligand binding were assessed through use of a substrate analog. We found that both phosphorylation and binding of ligand produce significant effects on deuterium incorporation. Phosphorylation of the conserved catalytic serine has broad effects on residues in multiple domains and is supported by small angle x-ray scattering data showing that the unphosphorylated enzyme is less compact in solution. The effects of ligand binding are generally manifested near the active site cleft and at a domain interface that is a site of conformational change. These results suggest that dephosphorylation of the enzyme may play two critical functional roles: a direct role in the chemical step of phosphoryl transfer and secondly through propagation of structural flexibility. We propose a model whereby increased enzyme flexibility facilitates the reorientation of the reaction intermediate, coupling changes in structural dynamics with the unique catalytic mechanism of this enzyme. PMID:24403075

  5. Preparation of ion-exchange fiber fabrics by electrospray deposition. (United States)

    Matsumoto, Hidetoshi; Wakamatsu, Yuji; Minagawa, Mie; Tanioka, Akihiko


    Ion-exchange fiber (IEF) fabrics were prepared by electrospray deposition (ESD) and post-deposition chemical modification of their surfaces. Nonwoven fibrous fabrics were obtained from the solutions of synthetic polymers-polystyrene (PS) and poly(4-vinylpyridine) (P4VP)-of various concentrations. The diameter of the fiber in the fabrics ranged from 600 nm to 1.70 microm. Cation- and anion-exchange fiber (CEF and AEF) fabrics were obtained from the sulfonation of PS fabrics and the quaternization of P4VP fabrics, respectively. These fabrics were thoroughly characterized by a series of techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), permporometry, nitrogen adsorption measurements, and potentiometric titrations. The SEM images showed that the fabrics had a porous structure after their chemical modification. The mean pore size, porosity, and specific surface area of the flow-through pores were 1.67-3.53 microm, about 80%, and 13 m(2)/g, respectively. The ion-exchange capacity was in the range from 0.78 to 1.34 mmol/g. The AEF fabric, on the other hand, showed a high specific surface area, i.e., the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of 600 m(2)/g, due to the formation of much smaller pores on the surface of the fiber structure in the fabric. The secondary chemical modification of the nano-microfiber fabrics by ESD provides novel functional materials with a large adsorption capacity and a high catalytic activity.

  6. Decoupled catalytic hydrogen evolution from a molecular metal oxide redox mediator in water splitting. (United States)

    Rausch, Benjamin; Symes, Mark D; Chisholm, Greig; Cronin, Leroy


    The electrolysis of water using renewable energy inputs is being actively pursued as a route to sustainable hydrogen production. Here we introduce a recyclable redox mediator (silicotungstic acid) that enables the coupling of low-pressure production of oxygen via water oxidation to a separate, catalytic hydrogen production step outside the electrolyzer that requires no post-electrolysis energy input. This approach sidesteps the production of high-pressure gases inside the electrolytic cell (a major cause of membrane degradation) and essentially eliminates the hazardous issue of product gas crossover at the low current densities that characterize renewables-driven water-splitting devices. We demonstrated that a platinum-catalyzed system can produce pure hydrogen over 30 times faster than state-of-the-art proton exchange membrane electrolyzers at equivalent platinum loading. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. Effect of Acid Properties of Catalysts on Fluid Catalytic Cracking of Residual Oil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yoshifumi Hiramatsu; Youhei Aita; Takashi Umeki


      This article describes the relationship between the different acidic properties of catalytic active sites and their catalytic cracking ability using desulfurized atmospheric residue (DSAR) as a feed...

  8. 78 FR 69910 - Joint Industry Plan; BATS Exchange, Inc., BATS-Y Exchange, Inc., BOX Options Exchange LLC, C2... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Joint Industry Plan; BATS Exchange, Inc., BATS-Y Exchange, Inc., BOX Options Exchange LLC, C2... LLC, NYSE Arca, Inc. and Topaz Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed National Market System Plan... and Exchange Commission (``Commission'') the proposed National Market System (``NMS'') Plan Governing...

  9. Liquid/liquid heat exchanger (United States)

    Miller, C. G.


    Conceptual design for heat exchanger, utilizing two immiscible liquids with dissimilar specific gravities in direct contact, is more efficient mechanism of heat transfer than conventional heat exchangers with walls or membranes. Concept could be adapted for collection of heat from solar or geothermal sources.

  10. Educators Exchange: A Program Evaluation. (United States)

    Armstrong, William B.

    The Educators Exchange Program (EEP) was established under a training and educational exchange agreement reached by California's San Diego Community College District (SDCCD) and the republic of Mexico. In the program, the District provided a 4-week technological training program to faculty at Centros de Capacitacion Tecnologica Industrial…

  11. Risk Balance in Exchange Protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.T. Dashti (Mohammad); Y. Wang (Yanjing); I. Cervesato


    htmlabstractWe study the behaviour of rational agents in exchange protocols which rely on trustees. We allow malicious parties to compromise the trustee by paying a cost and, thereby, present a game analysis that advocates exchange protocols which induce balanced risks on the participants. We also

  12. Professional Exchange: Mapping the Future. (United States)

    Dingman, Robert L.


    New associate editor of Professional Exchange section of "Journal of Mental Health Counseling" discusses importance of section. Lists potential topics suggested in 1989, then adds several other topics to the list. Concludes with guidelines for submission to Professional Exchange section. (NB)

  13. Catalytic transformation of carbon dioxide and methane into syngas over ruthenium and platinum supported hydroxyapatites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rêgo De Vasconcelos, Bruna; Zhao, Lulu; Sharrock, Patrick; Nzihou, Ange; Pham Minh, Doan, E-mail:


    Highlights: • Formation of nanoparticles of Pt and Ru on hydroxyapatite surface support (HAP). • Pt catalyst more active and stable than Ru catalyst in dry reforming of methane (DRM). • Low carbon deposition on the surface of Pt catalyst after reaction. • Quantification of water as by-product of the reaction for the first time. • Good mass balance of the reaction. - Abstract: This work focused on the catalytic transformation of methane (CH{sub 4}) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) into syngas (mixture of CO and H{sub 2}). Ruthenium- and platinum-based catalysts were prepared using hydroxyapatite (HAP) as catalyst support. Different methods for metal deposition were used including incipient wetness impregnation (IWI), excess liquid phase impregnation (LIM), and cationic exchange (CEX). Metal particle size varied in large range from less than 1 nm to dozens nm. All catalysts were active at 400–700 °C but only Pt catalyst prepared by IWI method (Pt/HAP IWI) was found stable. The catalytic performance of Pt/HAP IWI could be comparable with the literature data on noble metal-based catalysts, prepared on metal oxide supports. For the first time, water was experimentally quantified as a by-product of the reaction. This helped to correctly buckle the mass balance of the process.

  14. Catalytic Emulsion Based on Janus Nanosheets for Ultra-Deep Desulfurization. (United States)

    Xia, Lixin; Zhang, Hairan; Wei, Zhichao; Jiang, Yi; Zhang, Ling; Zhao, Jie; Zhang, Junhui; Dong, Li; Li, Erni; Ruhlmann, Laurent; Zhang, Qian


    Catalytic Janus nanosheets were synthesized by using an anion-exchange reaction between heteropolyacids (HPAs) and the modified ionic-liquid (IL) moieties of Janus nanosheets. Their morphology and surface properties were characterized by using SEM, energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), FTIR spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies. Because of their inherent Janus structure, the nanosheets exhibited good amphipathic character with ILs and oil to form a stable ILs-in-oil emulsion. Therefore, these Janus nanosheets can be used as both emulsifiers and catalysts to perform emulsive desulfurization. During this process, sulfur-containing compounds at the interface could be easily oxidized and efficiently removed from a model oil. Application of this Janus emulsion brings an efficient, useful, and green procedure to the desulfurization process. Compared with the desulfurization catalyzed by using HPAs in a conventional two-phase system, the sulfur removal of dibenzothiophene (DBT) achieved in a Janus emulsion system was improved from 68 to 97 % within 1.5 h. Moreover, this emulsion system could be demulsified easily by simple centrifugation to recover both the nanosheets and the ILs. Owing to the good structural stability of the Janus nanosheets, the sulfur removal efficiency of DBT could still reach 99.9 % after the catalytic nanosheets had been recycled at least six times. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. The potential of medium-pore zeolites for improved propene yields from catalytic cracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bager, F.; Salas, N.; Ernst, S. [Technische Univ. Kaiserslautern (Germany). Dept. of Chemistry, Chemical Technology


    The medium-pore zeolites ZSM-5 (MFI), ZSM-22 (TON), ZSM-23 (MTT), and EU-1 (EUO) were synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and modified by ion exchange to obtain the Broensted-acid forms. The activity and selectivity of these catalysts in catalytic cracking of a model compound, viz. n-octane, was studied in a fixed-bed flow-type reactor. The catalytic results clearly reflect the differences in the pore architectures of the tested zeolites on n-octane conversion and on the product selectivities. Over the zeolites with one-dimensional pore systems and without large intracrystalline cavities, a remarkable increase of the contribution of the monomolecular cracking mechanism could be observed as compared to the standard catalyst zeolite ZSM-5. This is indicated by a high selectivity for unsaturated products and, hence, increasing yields of propene. Large cavities in the pore system, viz. in the case of zeolite EU-1, increase the conversion in particular at lower temperatures. However, the large cavities also favor the formation of large transition states required for the classical bimolecular cracking mechanism, resulting in decreased selectivities for unsaturated products, increased selectivities for aromatics formation and faster deactivation. (orig.)

  16. Size dependent reactivity of metal nanoparticles and alloys supported on HOPG, probed by the H-D exchange and the NH3 decomposition reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiordaliso, Elisabetta Maria

    the exchange reaction on the nanoparticles and on alloys have been summarized in two scientific articles which have been recently published [1, 2]. The exchange reaction is carried out on supported catalysts. The effect of the interaction between metals and support on the catalytic activity has been......, Rh and Pt thin films, on Ru nanoparticles and on Ir/Ru alloys. Preliminary results indicated that Ru is the most active among the selected metals, but no definitive conclusions can be drawn on the effect of the particle diameter on the decomposition rate. In the case of the Ru/Ir alloys, it is found......This thesis presents the results obtained from experiments performed in an Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) apparatus, named Parallel Screening, consisting of a preparation chamber combined to a High Pressure Cell (HPC) for testing catalytic activity at 1 bar. Two catalytic reactions have been carried out...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    The liquid-phase hydration of cyclohexene, a pseudo-first-order reversible reaction catalyzed by a strong acid ion-exchange resin, was investigated in solvent mixtures of water and sulfolane. Macroporous Amberlite XE 307 was used because of its superior catalytic activity. Chemical equilibrium

  18. Microlith-Based Catalytic Reactor for Air Quality and Trace Contaminant Control Applications (United States)

    Vilekar, Saurabh; Hawley, Kyle; Junaedi, Christian; Crowder, Bruce; Prada, Julian; Mastanduno, Richard; Perry, Jay L.; Kayatin, Matthew J.


    Traditionally, gaseous compounds such as methane, carbon monoxide, and trace contaminants have posed challenges for maintaining clean air in enclosed spaces such as crewed spacecraft cabins as they are hazardous to humans and are often difficult to remove by conventional adsorption technology. Catalytic oxidizers have provided a reliable and robust means of disposing of even trace levels of these compounds by converting them into carbon dioxide and water. Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI) and NASA - Marshall (MSFC) have been developing, characterizing, and optimizing high temperature catalytic oxidizers (HTCO) based on PCI's patented Microlith® technology to meet the requirements of future extended human spaceflight explorations. Current efforts have focused on integrating the HTCO unit with a compact, simple recuperative heat exchanger to reduce the overall system size and weight while also reducing its energy requirements. Previous efforts relied on external heat exchangers to recover the waste heat and recycle it to the oxidizer to minimize the system's power requirements; however, these units contribute weight and volume burdens to the overall system. They also result in excess heat loss due to the separation of the HTCO and the heat recuperator, resulting in lower overall efficiency. Improvements in the recuperative efficiency and close coupling of HTCO and heat recuperator lead to reductions in system energy requirements and startup time. Results from testing HTCO units integrated with heat recuperators at a variety of scales for cabin air quality control and heat melt compactor applications are reported and their benefits over previous iterations of the HTCO and heat recuperator assembly are quantified in this paper.

  19. Heat exchanger leakage problem location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jícha Miroslav


    Full Text Available Recent compact heat exchangers are very often assembled from numerous parts joined together to separate heat transfer fluids and to form the required heat exchanger arrangement. Therefore, the leak tightness is very important property of the compact heat exchangers. Although, the compact heat exchangers have been produced for many years, there are still technological problems associated with manufacturing of the ideal connection between the individual parts, mainly encountered with special purpose heat exchangers, e.g. gas turbine recuperators. This paper describes a procedure used to identify the leakage location inside the prime surface gas turbine recuperator. For this purpose, an analytical model of the leaky gas turbine recuperator was created to assess its performance. The results obtained are compared with the experimental data which were acquired during the recuperator thermal performance analysis. The differences between these two data sets are used to indicate possible leakage areas.

  20. Transendothelial lipoprotein exchange and microalbuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jan Skov; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo; Jensen, Kurt Svarre


    OBJECTIVE: Microalbuminuria associates with increased risk of atherosclerosis in individuals without diabetes. We hypothesized that transendothelial lipoprotein exchange is elevated among such individuals, possibly explaining increased intimal lipoprotein accumulation and thus atherosclerosis....... METHODS: Using an in vivo isotope technique, transendothelial exchange of low density lipoprotein (LDL) was measured in 77 non-diabetic individuals. Autologous 131-iodinated LDL was reinjected intravenously, and the 1-h fractional escape rate was calculated as index of transendothelial exchange. RESULTS......: There was no difference in transendothelial LDL exchange between subjects with microalbuminuria versus normoalbuminuria (mean (95% confidence interval) 3.8%/h (3.3-4.3%/h) versus 4.2%/h (3.7-4.7%/h); P=0.33). In contrast, there was a positive correlation between transendothelial LDL exchange and (logarithmically...

  1. Next Generation Microchannel Heat Exchangers

    CERN Document Server

    Ohadi, Michael; Dessiatoun, Serguei; Cetegen, Edvin


    In Next Generation Microchannel Heat Exchangers, the authors’ focus on the new generation highly efficient heat exchangers and presentation of novel data and technical expertise not available in the open literature.  Next generation micro channels offer record high heat transfer coefficients with pressure drops much less than conventional micro channel heat exchangers. These inherent features promise fast penetration into many mew markets, including high heat flux cooling of electronics, waste heat recovery and energy efficiency enhancement applications, alternative energy systems, as well as applications in mass exchangers and chemical reactor systems. The combination of up to the minute research findings and technical know-how make this book very timely as the search for high performance heat and mass exchangers that can cut costs in materials consumption intensifies.

  2. High Temperature Heat Exchanger Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony E. Hechanova, Ph.D.


    The UNLV Research Foundation assembled a research consortium for high temperature heat exchanger design and materials compatibility and performance comprised of university and private industry partners under the auspices of the US DOE-NE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative in October 2003. The objectives of the consortium were to conduct investigations of candidate materials for high temperature heat exchanger componets in hydrogen production processes and design and perform prototypical testing of heat exchangers. The initial research of the consortium focused on the intermediate heat exchanger (located between the nuclear reactor and hydrogen production plan) and the components for the hydrogen iodine decomposition process and sulfuric acid decomposition process. These heat exchanger components were deemed the most challenging from a materials performance and compatibility perspective

  3. Catalytic properties and acidity of modified MCM-41 mesoporous materials with low Si/Al ratio: heptane isomerisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Belhakem


    Full Text Available The catalytic properties and acidity of modified MCM-41 with a low Si/Al ratio and 0-95% NH4+ exchange were investigated. The samples were characterised by X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and nitrogen adsorption. The acidity was studied by pyridine adsorption, temperature programmed desorption (TPD of ammonia, and infrared (IR spectroscopy. Adsorption of pyridine and IR spectroscopy indicated various types of Lewis and Brönsted acid sites. The density distribution of acid sites was determined by TPD. Both Lewis and Brönsted acid sites were found to be active in the heptane isomerisation. The presence of aluminium (low Si/Al combined to the ionic exchange between Na+ and NH4+ increases the acidity of MCM-41 materials. A close correlation between acidity and isomerisation was observed. Coke deposition, which reduces the activity, was also studied.

  4. Fault-Tolerant Heat Exchanger (United States)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Crowley, Christopher J.


    A compact, lightweight heat exchanger has been designed to be fault-tolerant in the sense that a single-point leak would not cause mixing of heat-transfer fluids. This particular heat exchanger is intended to be part of the temperature-regulation system for habitable modules of the International Space Station and to function with water and ammonia as the heat-transfer fluids. The basic fault-tolerant design is adaptable to other heat-transfer fluids and heat exchangers for applications in which mixing of heat-transfer fluids would pose toxic, explosive, or other hazards: Examples could include fuel/air heat exchangers for thermal management on aircraft, process heat exchangers in the cryogenic industry, and heat exchangers used in chemical processing. The reason this heat exchanger can tolerate a single-point leak is that the heat-transfer fluids are everywhere separated by a vented volume and at least two seals. The combination of fault tolerance, compactness, and light weight is implemented in a unique heat-exchanger core configuration: Each fluid passage is entirely surrounded by a vented region bridged by solid structures through which heat is conducted between the fluids. Precise, proprietary fabrication techniques make it possible to manufacture the vented regions and heat-conducting structures with very small dimensions to obtain a very large coefficient of heat transfer between the two fluids. A large heat-transfer coefficient favors compact design by making it possible to use a relatively small core for a given heat-transfer rate. Calculations and experiments have shown that in most respects, the fault-tolerant heat exchanger can be expected to equal or exceed the performance of the non-fault-tolerant heat exchanger that it is intended to supplant (see table). The only significant disadvantages are a slight weight penalty and a small decrease in the mass-specific heat transfer.

  5. Catalytic strategies of self-cleaving ribozymes. (United States)

    Cochrane, Jesse C; Strobel, Scott A


    [Structure: see text]. Five naturally occurring nucleolytic ribozymes have been identified: the hammerhead, hairpin, glmS, hepatitis delta virus (HDV), and Varkud satellite (VS) ribozymes. All of these RNA enzymes catalyze self-scission of the RNA backbone using a chemical mechanism equivalent to that of RNase A. RNase A uses four basic strategies to promote this reaction: geometric constraints, activation of the nucleophile, transition-state stabilization, and leaving group protonation. In this Account, we discuss the current thinking on how nucleolytic ribozymes harness RNase A's four sources of catalytic power. The geometry of the phosphodiester cleavage reaction constrains the nucleotides flanking the scissile phosphate so that they are unstacked from a canonical A-form helix and thus require alternative stabilization. Crystal structures and mutational analysis reveal that cross-strand base pairing, along with unconventional stacking and tertiary hydrogen-bonding interactions, work to stabilize the splayed conformation in nucleolytic ribozymes. Deprotonation of the 2'-OH nucleophile greatly increases its nucleophilicity in the strand scission reaction. Crystal structures of the hammerhead, hairpin, and glmS ribozymes reveal the N1 of a G residue within hydrogen-bonding distance of the 2'-OH. In each case, this residue has also been shown to be important for catalysis. In the HDV ribozyme, a hydrated magnesium has been implicated as the general base. Catalysis by the VS ribozyme requires both an A and a G, but the precise role of either has not been elucidated. Enzymes can lower the energy of a chemical reaction by binding more tightly to the transition state than to the ground states. Comparison of the hairpin ground- and transition-state mimic structures reveal greater hydrogen bonding to the transition-state mimic structure, suggesting transition-state stabilization as a possible catalytic strategy. However, the hydrogen-bonding pattern in the glmS ribozyme

  6. Electrically switched ion exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilga, M.A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Schwartz, D.T.; Genders, D.


    A variety of waste types containing radioactive {sup 137}Cs are found throughout the DOE complex. These waste types include water in reactor cooling basins, radioactive high-level waste (HLW) in underground storage tanks, and groundwater. Safety and regulatory requirements and economics require the removal of radiocesium before these wastes can be permanently disposed of. Electrically Switched Ion Exchange (ESIX) is an approach for radioactive cesium separation that combines IX and electrochemistry to provide a selective, reversible, and economic separation method that also produces little or no secondary waste. In the ESIX process, an electroactive IX film is deposited electrochemically onto a high-surface area electrode, and ion uptake and elution are controlled directly by modulating the potential of the film. For cesium, the electroactive films under investigation are ferrocyanides, which are well known to have high selectivities for cesium in concentrated sodium solutions. When a cathode potential is applied to the film, Fe{sup +3} is reduced to the Fe{sup +2} state, and a cation must be intercalated into the film to maintain charge neutrality (i.e., Cs{sup +} is loaded). Conversely, if an anodic potential is applied, a cation must be released from the film (i.e., Cs{sup +} is unloaded). Therefore, to load the film with cesium, the film is simply reduced; to unload cesium, the film is oxidized.

  7. Exchanging conformations of a hydroformylation catalyst structurally characterized using two-dimensional vibrational spectroscopy. (United States)

    Panman, Matthijs R; Vos, Jannie; Bocokić, Vladica; Bellini, Rosalba; de Bruin, Bas; Reek, Joost H N; Woutersen, Sander


    Catalytic transition-metal complexes often occur in several conformations that exchange rapidly (exchanging solution conformations of the hydroformylation catalyst (xantphos)Rh(CO)2H using two-dimensional vibrational spectroscopy, a method that can be applied to any catalyst provided that the exchange between its conformers occurs on a time scale of a few picoseconds or slower. We find that, in one of the conformations, the OC-Rh-CO angle deviates significantly from the canonical value in a trigonal-bipyramidal structure. On the basis of complementary density functional calculations, we ascribe this effect to attractive van der Waals interaction between the CO and the xantphos ligand.

  8. Catalytic hydrothermal upgradation of wheat husk. (United States)

    Singh, Rawel; Bhaskar, Thallada; Dora, Sambha; Balagurumurthy, Bhavya


    Catalytic hydrothermal upgradation of wheat husk was performed at 280°C for 15 min in the presence of alkaline catalysts (KOH and K2CO3). The effect of alkaline catalysts on the yield of bio-oil products and composition of bio-oils obtained were discussed. Total bio-oil yield (31%) comprising of bio-oil1 (ether fraction) and bio-oil2 (acetone fraction) was maximum with K2CO3 solution. Powder XRD (X-ray diffraction) analysis of wheat husk as well as bio-residue samples show that the peaks due to cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin become weak in bio-residue samples which suggest that these components have undergone hydrolytic cleavage/decomposition. The FTIR spectra of bio-oils indicate that the lignin in the wheat husk samples was decomposed to low molecular weight phenolic compounds. (1)H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectrum of bio-oil1 shows more than 50% of the protons resonate in the up field region from 0.5 ppm to 3.0 ppm. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Microchannel Reactor System for Catalytic Hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adeniyi Lawal; Woo Lee; Ron Besser; Donald Kientzler; Luke Achenie


    We successfully demonstrated a novel process intensification concept enabled by the development of microchannel reactors, for energy efficient catalytic hydrogenation reactions at moderate temperature, and pressure, and low solvent levels. We designed, fabricated, evaluated, and optimized a laboratory-scale microchannel reactor system for hydrogenation of onitroanisole and a proprietary BMS molecule. In the second phase of the program, as a prelude to full-scale commercialization, we designed and developed a fully-automated skid-mounted multichannel microreactor pilot plant system for multiphase reactions. The system is capable of processing 1 – 10 kg/h of liquid substrate, and an industrially relevant immiscible liquid-liquid was successfully demonstrated on the system. Our microreactor-based pilot plant is one-of-akind. We anticipate that this process intensification concept, if successfully demonstrated, will provide a paradigm-changing basis for replacing existing energy inefficient, cost ineffective, environmentally detrimental slurry semi-batch reactor-based manufacturing practiced in the pharmaceutical and fine chemicals industries.

  10. Catalytic extraction processing of contaminated scrap metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, T.P.; Johnston, J.E.; Payea, B.M. [Molten Metal Technology, Inc., Waltham, MA (United States)] [and others


    The U.S. Department of Energy issued a Planned Research and Development Announcement (PRDA) in 1993, with the objective of identifying unique technologies which could be applied to the most hazardous waste streams at DOE sites. The combination of radioactive contamination with additional contamination by hazardous constituents such as those identified by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) pose an especially challenging problem. Traditional remediation technologies are increasingly becoming less acceptable to stakeholders and regulators because of the risks they pose to public health and safety. Desirable recycling technologies were described by the DOE as: (1) easily installed, operated, and maintained; (2) exhibiting superior environmental performance; (3) protective of worker and public health and safety; (4) readily acceptable to a wide spectrum of evaluators; and (5) economically feasible. Molten Metal Technology, Inc. (MMT) was awarded a contract as a result of the PRDA initiative to demonstrate the applicability of Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP), MMT`s proprietary elemental recycling technology, to DOE`s inventory of low level mixed waste. This includes DOE`s inventory of radioactively- and RCRA-contaminated scrap metal and other waste forms expected to be generated by the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of DOE sites.

  11. Catalytic, stereospecific syn-dichlorination of alkenes (United States)

    Cresswell, Alexander J.; Eey, Stanley T.-C.; Denmark, Scott E.


    As some of the oldest organic chemical reactions known, the ionic additions of elemental halogens such as bromine and chlorine to alkenes are prototypical examples of stereospecific reactions, typically delivering vicinal dihalides resulting from anti-addition. Although the invention of enantioselective variants is an ongoing challenge, the ability to overturn the intrinsic anti-diastereospecificity of these transformations is also a largely unsolved problem. Here, we describe the first catalytic, syn-stereospecific dichlorination of alkenes, employing a group transfer catalyst based on a redox-active main group element (selenium). With diphenyl diselenide (PhSeSePh) (5 mol%) as the pre-catalyst, benzyltriethylammonium chloride (BnEt3NCl) as the chloride source and an N-fluoropyridinium salt as the oxidant, a wide variety of functionalized cyclic and acyclic 1,2-disubstituted alkenes, including simple allylic alcohols, deliver syn-dichlorides with exquisite stereocontrol. This methodology is expected to find applications in streamlining the synthesis of polychlorinated natural products such as the chlorosulfolipids.

  12. Plasma-catalytic decomposition of TCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandenbroucke, A.; Morent, R.; De Geyter, N.; Leys, C. [Ghent Univ., Ghent (Belgium). Dept. of Applied Physics; Tuan, N.D.M.; Giraudon, J.M.; Lamonier, J.F. [Univ. des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Villeneuve (France). Dept. de Catalyse et Chimie du Solide


    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are gaseous pollutants that pose an environmental hazard due to their high volatility and their possible toxicity. Conventional technologies to reduce the emission of VOCs have their advantages, but they become cost-inefficient when low concentrations have to be treated. In the past 2 decades, non-thermal plasma technology has received growing attention as an alternative and promising remediation method. Non-thermal plasmas are effective because they produce a series of strong oxidizers such as ozone, oxygen radicals and hydroxyl radicals that provide a reactive chemical environment in which VOCs are completely oxidized. This study investigated whether the combination of NTP and catalysis could improve the energy efficiency and the selectivity towards carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). Trichloroethylene (TCE) was decomposed by non-thermal plasma generated in a DC-excited atmospheric pressure glow discharge. The production of by-products was qualitatively investigated through FT-IR spectrometry. The results were compared with those from a catalytic reactor. The removal rate of TCE reached a maximum of 78 percent at the highest input energy. The by-products of TCE decomposition were CO{sub 2}, carbon monoxide (CO) hydrochloric acid (HCl) and dichloroacetylchloride. Combining the plasma system with a catalyst located in an oven downstream resulted in a maximum removal of 80 percent, at an energy density of 300 J/L, a catalyst temperature of 373 K and a total air flow rate of 2 slm. 14 refs., 6 figs.

  13. Catalytic Asymmetric Synthesis of Butenolides and Butyrolactones. (United States)

    Mao, Bin; Fañanás-Mastral, Martín; Feringa, Ben L


    γ-Butenolides, γ-butyrolactones, and derivatives, especially in enantiomerically pure form, constitute the structural core of numerous natural products which display an impressive range of biological activities which are important for the development of novel physiological and therapeutic agents. Furthermore, optically active γ-butenolides and γ-butyrolactones serve also as a prominent class of chiral building blocks for the synthesis of diverse biological active compounds and complex molecules. Taking into account the varying biological activity profiles and wide-ranging structural diversity of the optically active γ-butenolide or γ-butyrolactone structure, the development of asymmetric synthetic strategies for assembling such challenging scaffolds has attracted major attention from synthetic chemists in the past decade. This review offers an overview of the different enantioselective synthesis of γ-butenolides and γ-butyrolactones which employ catalytic amounts of metal complexes or organocatalysts, with emphasis focused on the mechanistic issues that account for the observed stereocontrol of the representative reactions, as well as practical applications and synthetic potentials.

  14. Catalytic thermal treatment of desizing wastewaters. (United States)

    Kumar, Pradeep; Prasad, B; Mishra, I M; Chand, Shri


    In the present study, catalytic thermal treatment (thermolysis) was investigated for the reduction of COD and color of the desizing wastewater under moderate temperature and atmospheric pressure conditions using various catalysts. The experimental runs were performed in a glass reactor equipped with a vertical condenser. The homogeneous copper sulfate catalyst was found to be the most active in comparison to other catalysts under similar operating conditions. A removal of about 71.6% chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 87.2% color of desizing wastewater was obtained with a catalyst concentration of 4 kg/m(3) at pH 4. The initial pH value of the wastewater showed a pronounced effect on the precipitation process. During the thermolysis, copper gets leached to the aqueous phase, the residue obtained after the treatment is rich in copper and it can be blended with organic manure for use in agricultural fields. The thermogravimetric analysis showed that the thermal oxidation of the solid residue obtained after thermolysis gets oxidized at a higher temperature range than that of the residue obtained from the desizing wastewater. The results lead to the conclusion that thermochemical precipitation is a very fast (instantaneous) process and would need a very small reactor vessel in comparison to other processes.

  15. Catalytic glycerol steam reforming for hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan, Monica, E-mail:; Mihet, Maria, E-mail:; Lazar, Mihaela D., E-mail: [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 67-103 Donat Street, 400293 Cluj Napoca (Romania)


    Hydrogen production from glycerol by steam reforming combine two major advantages: (i) using glycerol as raw material add value to this by product of bio-diesel production which is obtained in large quantities around the world and have a very limited utilization now, and (ii) by implication of water molecules in the reaction the efficiency of hydrogen generation is increased as each mol of glycerol produces 7 mol of H{sub 2}. In this work we present the results obtained in the process of steam reforming of glycerol on Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The catalyst was prepared by wet impregnation method and characterized through different methods: N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption, XRD, TPR. The catalytic study was performed in a stainless steel tubular reactor at atmospheric pressure by varying the reaction conditions: steam/carbon ratio (1-9), gas flow (35 ml/min -133 ml/min), temperature (450-650°C). The gaseous fraction of the reaction products contain: H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO, CO{sub 2}. The optimum reaction conditions as resulted from this study are: temperature 550°C, Gly:H{sub 2}O ratio 9:1 and Ar flow 133 ml/min. In these conditions the glycerol conversion to gaseous products was 43% and the hydrogen yield was 30%.

  16. Catalytic pyrolysis using UZM-39 aluminosilicate zeolite (United States)

    Nicholas, Christpher P; Boldingh, Edwin P


    A new family of coherently grown composites of TUN and IMF zeotypes has been synthesized and show to be effective catalysts for catalytic pyrolysis of biomass. These zeolites are represented by the empirical formula. Na.sub.nM.sub.m.sup.n+R.sub.rQ.sub.qAl.sub1-xE.sub.xSi.sub.yO.s- ub.z where M represents zinc or a metal or metals from Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 or the lanthanide series of the periodic table, R is an A,.OMEGA.-dihalosubstituted paraffin such as 1,4-dibromobutane, Q is a neutral amine containing 5 or fewer carbon atoms such as 1-methylpyrrolidine and E is a framework element such as gallium. The process involves contacting a carbonaceous biomass feedstock with UZM-39 at pyrolysis conditions to produce pyrolysis gases comprising hydrocarbons. The catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction converting oxygenated hyrdocarbons into hydrocarbons removing the oxygen as carbon oxides and water. A portion of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to produce low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  17. Catalytic determination of vanadium in water (United States)

    Fishman, M. J.; Skougstad, M.W.


    A rapid, accurate, and sensitive spectrophotometric method for the quantitative determination of trace amounts of vanadium in water is based on the catalytic effect of vanadium on the rate of oxidation of gallic acid by persulfate in acid solution. Under given conditions of concentrations of reactants, temperature, and reaction time, the extent of oxidation of gallic acid is proportional to the concentration of vanadium present. Vanadium is determined by measuring the absorbance of the sample at 415 m?? and comparison with standard solutions treated in an identical manner. Concentrations in the range of from 0.1 to 8.0 ??g. per liter may be determined with a standard deviation of 0.2 or less. By reducing the reaction time, the method may be extended to cover the range from 1 to 100 ??g. with a standard deviation of 0.8 or less. Several substances interfere, including chloride above 100 p.p.m., and bromide and iodide in much lower concentrations. Interference from the halides is eliminated or minimized by the addition of mercuric nitrate solution. Most other substances do not interfere at the concentration levels at which they commonly occur in natural waters.

  18. Catalytic autothermal reforming of Jet fuel (United States)

    Lenz, Bettina; Aicher, Thomas

    Aircraft manufacturers have to reduce the emissions and the specific fuel consumption of their systems. Fuel cell use in a 'more electric aircraft' can be one possibility. To keep the technology simple only one fuel (Jet A, Jet A-1) shall be used on board the aircraft. Therefore, the catalytic reforming of Jet A-1 fuel was examined in this paper, although the use of fossil fuels causes the production of greenhouse effect promoting gases like carbon dioxide CO 2. The autothermal reforming of desulphurised kerosene is examined with a 15 kW (based on the lower heating value of Jet fuel) test rig. The experiments are performed at steam to carbon ratios of S/C = 1.5-2.5 and air to fuel ratios of λ = 0.24-0.32, respectively. The composition of the product gas, the volumetric flow rate of the product gas at standard conditions and the temperatures in the catalyst are determined as a function of the operating variables. The gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) is varied between 50,000 and 300,000 h -1. The influence of sulphur containing feed streams (real Jet fuel) on reforming behaviour is investigated as well as the influence of the hydrogen concentration on the hydrodesulphurisation process. Another simple way of desulphurisation is the adsorption of liquid sulphur containing hydrocarbons, the influence of the variation of the liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV) is measured at a temperature of 150 °C.

  19. Catalytic steam reforming of model biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philipp Kolbitsch; Christoph Pfeifer; Hermann Hofbauer [Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria). Institute of Chemical Engineering


    Catalytic steam reforming of a model biogas (CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} = 60/40) is investigated to produce H{sub 2}-rich synthesis gas. Gas engines benefit from synthesis gas fuel in terms of higher efficiency and lower NOx production when compared to raw biogas or CH{sub 4}. The process is realized in a fixed bed reactor with a Ni-based catalyst on CaO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} support. To optimize the performance, the reactor temperature and the amount of excess steam are varied. The experimental results are compared to the theoretical values from thermodynamic calculation and the main trends of CH{sub 4} conversion and H{sub 2} yield are analyzed and verified. Finally, optimal reactor temperature is pointed out and a range of potential steam to methane ratios is presented. The experimental results will be applied to design a steam reformer at an existing anaerobic biomass fermentation plant in Strem, Austria. 20 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Catalytic combustion of volatile organic compounds. (United States)

    Everaert, K; Baeyens, J


    Despite the success of adsorption and thermal incineration of (C)VOC emissions, there is still a need for research on techniques which are both economically more favorable and actually destroy the pollutants rather than merely remove them for recycling elsewhere in the biosphere. The catalytic destruction of (C)VOC to CO2, H2O and HCl/Cl2 appears very promising in this context and is the subject of the present paper. The experiments mainly investigate the catalytic combustion of eight target compounds, all of which are commonly encountered in (C)VOC emissions and/or act as precursors for the formation of PCDD/F. Available literature on the different catalysts active in the oxidation of (C)VOC is reviewed and the transition metal oxide complex V2O5-WO3/TiO2 appears most suitable for the current application. Different reactor geometries (e.g. fixed pellet beds, honeycombs, etc.) are also described. In this research a novel catalyst type is introduced, consisting of a V2O5-WO3/TiO2 coated metal fiber fleece. The conversion of (C)VOC by thermo-catalytic reactions is governed by both reaction kinetics and reaction equilibrium. Full conversion of all investigated VOC to CO2, Cl2, HCl and H2O is thermodynamically feasible within the range of experimental conditions used in this work (260-340 degrees C, feed concentrations 30-60 ppm). A first-order rate equation is proposed for the (C)VOC oxidation reactions. The apparent rate constant is a combination of reaction kinetics and mass transfer effects. The oxidation efficiencies were measured with various (C)VOC in the temperature range of 260-340 degrees C. Literature data for oxidation reactions in fixed beds and honeycomb reactors are included in the assessment. Mass transfer resistances are calculated and are generally negligible for fleece reactors and fixed pellet beds, but can be of importance for honeycomb monoliths. The experimental investigations demonstrate: (i) that the conversion of the hydrocarbons is

  1. Catalytic hydrolysis of cellulose into furans (United States)

    Shi, Chengmei; Tao, Furong; Cui, Yuezhi


    Chromium chloride in 4-(3-methylimidazolium-1-yl)butane-1-sulfonic acid hydrogen sulfate (IL-1) was found to effectively catalyze the hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) at 150°C for 300 min to achieve 87.8% conversion to a slate of products. With a catalytic amount of CrCl3, the yields of 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF) and furfural were up to 32.4 and 15.2%, respectively, small molecules levulinic acid (LA, 10.8%) and the total reducing sugars (TRS, 10.7%) were also generated. Through LC-MSD analysis and mass spectra, dimer of furan compounds as the main by-products were speculated, and the components of gas products were methane, ethane, CO, CO2, and H2. We suggested that IL-1 and CrCl3 exhibited a coordination interaction; the formation of the intermediate via the hydride shift played a key role in the formation of HMF. The catalyst was recycled and exhibited constant activity for five successive trials.

  2. Characterization and Catalytic Upgrading of Aqueous Stream Carbon from Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis of Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starace, Anne K. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, Colorado 80401, United States; Black, Brenna A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, Colorado 80401, United States; Lee, David D. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, Colorado 80401, United States; Palmiotti, Elizabeth C. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, Colorado 80401, United States; Orton, Kellene A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, Colorado 80401, United States; Michener, William E. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, Colorado 80401, United States; ten Dam, Jeroen [Johnson Matthey Technology Centre, P.O. Box 1, Belasis Avenue, Billingham, Cleveland TS23 1LB, United Kingdom; Watson, Michael J. [Johnson Matthey Technology Centre, P.O. Box 1, Belasis Avenue, Billingham, Cleveland TS23 1LB, United Kingdom; Beckham, Gregg T. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, Colorado 80401, United States; Magrini, Kimberly A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, Colorado 80401, United States; Mukarakate, Calvin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, Colorado 80401, United States


    Catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) of biomass produces a liquid product consisting of organic and aqueous streams. The organic stream is typically slated for hydrotreating to produce hydrocarbon biofuels, while the aqueous stream is considered a waste stream, resulting in the loss of residual biogenic carbon. Here, we report the detailed characterization and catalytic conversion of a CFP wastewater stream with the ultimate aim to improve overall biomass utilization within a thermochemical biorefinery. An aqueous stream derived from CFP of beech wood was comprehensively characterized, quantifying 53 organic compounds to a total of 17% organics. The most abundant classes of compounds are acids, aldehydes, and alcohols. The most abundant components identified in the aqueous stream were C1-C2 organics, comprising 6.40% acetic acid, 2.16% methanol, and 1.84% formaldehyde on wet basis. The CFP aqueous stream was catalytically upgraded to olefins and aromatic hydrocarbons using a Ga/HZSM-5 catalyst at 500 degrees C. When the conversion yield of the upgraded products was measured with fresh, active catalyst, 33% of the carbon in the aqueous stream was recovered as aromatic hydrocarbons and 29% as olefins. The majority of the experiments were conducted using a molecular beam mass spectrometer and separate GC-MS/FID experiments were used to confirm the assignments and quantification of products with fresh excess catalyst. The recovered 62% carbon in the form of olefins and aromatics can be used to make coproducts and/or fuels potentially improving biorefinery economics and sustainability. Spent catalysts were collected after exposure to varying amounts of the feed, and were characterized using multipoint-Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) adsorption, ammonia temperature programmed desorption (TPD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to monitor deactivation of Ga/HZSM-5. These characterization data revealed that deactivation was caused by coke deposits, which blocked access to active

  3. Arg126 and Asp49 Are Essential for the Catalytic Function of Microsomal Prostaglandin E2 Synthase 1 and Ser127 Is Not.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Raouf

    Full Text Available Prostaglandins are signaling molecules that regulate different physiological processes, involving allergic and inflammatory responses and cardiovascular control. They are involved in several pathophysiological processes, including inflammation and cancer. The inducible terminal enzyme, microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1 (MPGES1, catalyses prostaglandin E2 production during inflammation. MPGES1 has therefore been intensively studied as a pharmaceutical target and many competitive inhibitors targeting its active site have been developed. However, little is known about its catalytic mechanism.The objective of this study was to investigate which amino acids play a key role in the catalytic mechanism of MPGES1.Based on results and predictions from previous structural studies, the amino acid residues Asp49, Arg73, Arg126, and Ser127 were chosen and altered by site-directed mutagenesis. The mutated enzyme variants were cloned and expressed in both the E. coli and the Baculovirus expression systems. Their catalytic significance was evaluated by activity measurements with prostanoid profiling.Our study shows that Arg126 and Asp49 are absolutely required for the catalytic activity of MPGES1, as when exchanged, the enzyme variants loose activity. Ser127 and Arg73 on the other hand, don't seem to be central to the catalytic mechanism because when exchanged, their variants retain considerable activity. Our finding that the Ser127Ala variant retains activity was surprising since high-resolution structural data supported a role in glutathione activation. The close proximity of Ser127 to the active site is, however, supported since the Ser127Cys variant displays 80% lowered activity.

  4. Custom, contract, and kidney exchange. (United States)

    Healy, Kieran; Krawiec, Kimberly D


    In this Essay, we examine a case in which the organizational and logistical demands of a novel form of organ exchange (the nonsimultaneous, extended, altruistic donor (NEAD) chain) do not map cleanly onto standard cultural schemas for either market or gift exchange, resulting in sociological ambiguity and legal uncertainty. In some ways, a NEAD chain resembles a form of generalized exchange, an ancient and widespread instance of the norm of reciprocity that can be thought of simply as the obligation to “pay it forward” rather than the obligation to reciprocate directly with the original giver. At the same time, a NEAD chain resembles a string of promises and commitments to deliver something in exchange for some valuable consideration--that is, a series of contracts. Neither of these salient "social imaginaries" of exchange--gift giving or formal contract--perfectly meets the practical demands of the NEAD system. As a result, neither contract nor generalized exchange drives the practice of NEAD chains. Rather, the majority of actual exchanges still resemble a simpler form of exchange: direct, simultaneous exchange between parties with no time delay or opportunity to back out. If NEAD chains are to reach their full promise for large-scale, nonsimultaneous organ transfer, legal uncertainties and sociological ambiguities must be finessed, both in the practices of the coordinating agencies and in the minds of NEAD-chain participants. This might happen either through the further elaboration of gift-like language and practices, or through a creative use of the cultural form and motivational vocabulary, but not necessarily the legal and institutional machinery, of contract.

  5. Fuel-rich catalytic combustion of Jet-A fuel-equivalence ratios 5.0 to 8.0 (United States)

    Brabbs, Theodore A.; Gracia-Salcedo, Carmen M.


    Fuel-rich catalytic combustion (E.R. greater than 5.0) is a unique technique for preheating a hydrocarbon fuel to temperatures much higher than those obtained by conventional heat exchangers. In addition to producing very reactive molecules, the process upgrades the structure of the fuel by the formation of hydrogen and smaller hydrocarbons and produces a cleaner burning fuel by removing some of the fuel carbon from the soot formation chain. With fuel-rich catalytic combustion as the first stage of a two stage combustion system, enhanced fuel properties can be utilized by both high speed engines, where time for ignition and complete combustion is limited, and engines where emission of thermal NO sub x is critical. Two-stage combustion (rich-lean) has been shown to be effective for NO sub x reduction in stationary burners where residence times are long enough to burn-up the soot formed in the first stage. Such residence times are not available in aircraft engines. Thus, the soot-free nature of the present process is critical for high speed engines. The successful application of fuel-rich catalytic combustion to Jet-A, a multicomponent fuel used in gas turbine combustors, is discusssed.

  6. Development and testing of new exchange correlation functionals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgård, Keld Troen

    Catalysts are used in 90% of the world’s chemical processes to produce 60% of its chemical products, and they are thus very important to our modern society. We therefore seek to better understand current catalytic materials, so that we can find alternatives that will improve the energy efficiency...... on accurate and efficient approximations to the exchange correlation functional, yet these functional approximations have lacked a systematic way to estimate the underlying uncertainties. A Bayesian error estimation approach provides a mechanism for calculating approximative uncertainties, and so accurate......-empirical functional approximations have been made: BEEF-vdW, mBEEF, and mBEEFvdW. It is shown that these functionals are able balance the accuracy of predicting energetics of covalent and non-covalent chemistry better than any comparative functional that we have tested, and they could therefore become the functional...



    Podobeková, Veronika; Peráčková, Jana


    The article discusses utilization of heat from waste water in sewage. During the year, temperature of water in sewage ranges between 10 °C and 20 °C and the heat from sewage could be used for heating, cooling and hot water preparation in building. The heat is extracted through a transfer surface area of the heat exchanger into the heat pump, which is able to utilize the low–potential energy. Different design and types of the heat exchangers in sewage are dealt with: heat exchangers embedded i...

  8. Relational and XML Data Exchange

    CERN Document Server

    Arenas, Marcelo


    Data exchange is the problem of finding an instance of a target schema, given an instance of a source schema and a specification of the relationship between the source and the target. Such a target instance should correctly represent information from the source instance under the constraints imposed by the target schema, and it should allow one to evaluate queries on the target instance in a way that is semantically consistent with the source data. Data exchange is an old problem that re-emerged as an active research topic recently, due to the increased need for exchange of data in various for

  9. Heat exchanger using graphite foam (United States)

    Campagna, Michael Joseph; Callas, James John


    A heat exchanger is disclosed. The heat exchanger may have an inlet configured to receive a first fluid and an outlet configured to discharge the first fluid. The heat exchanger may further have at least one passageway configured to conduct the first fluid from the inlet to the outlet. The at least one passageway may be composed of a graphite foam and a layer of graphite material on the exterior of the graphite foam. The layer of graphite material may form at least a partial barrier between the first fluid and a second fluid external to the at least one passageway.

  10. Bimetallic Nanoparticles in Alternative Solvents for Catalytic Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trung Dang-Bao


    Full Text Available Bimetallic nanoparticles represent attractive catalytic systems thanks to the synergy between both partners at the atomic level, mainly induced by electronic effects which in turn are associated with the corresponding structures (alloy, core-shell, hetero-dimer. This type of engineered material can trigger changes in the kinetics of catalyzed processes by variations on the electrophilicity/nucleophilicity of the metal centers involved and also promote cooperative effects to foster organic transformations, including multi-component and multi-step processes. Solvents become a crucial factor in the conception of catalytic processes, not only due to their environmental impact, but also because they can preserve the bimetallic structure during the catalytic reaction and therefore increase the catalyst life-time. In this frame, the present review focuses on the recent works described in the literature concerning the synthesis of bimetallic nanoparticles in non-conventional solvents, i.e., other than common volatile compounds, for catalytic applications.

  11. synthesis, characterization, electrical and catalytic studies of some

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. S. Chandravanshi

    SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION, ELECTRICAL AND CATALYTIC STUDIES. OF SOME COORDINATION COMPOUNDS DERIVED FROM UNSYMMETRICAL. SCHIFF BASE LIGAND. Gaurav B. Pethe, Amit R. Yaul and Anand S. Aswar*. Department of Chemistry, Sant Gadge Baba Amravati University, Amravati-444 602 ...

  12. Enzyme engineering: reaching the maximal catalytic efficiency peak. (United States)

    Goldsmith, Moshe; Tawfik, Dan S


    The practical need for highly efficient enzymes presents new challenges in enzyme engineering, in particular, the need to improve catalytic turnover (kcat) or efficiency (kcat/KM) by several orders of magnitude. However, optimizing catalysis demands navigation through complex and rugged fitness landscapes, with optimization trajectories often leading to strong diminishing returns and dead-ends. When no further improvements are observed in library screens or selections, it remains unclear whether the maximal catalytic efficiency of the enzyme (the catalytic 'fitness peak') has been reached; or perhaps, an alternative combination of mutations exists that could yield additional improvements. Here, we discuss fundamental aspects of the process of catalytic optimization, and offer practical solutions with respect to overcoming optimization plateaus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Plasma Catalytic Extraction of Oxygen from the Martian Atmosphere Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Plasma catalytic techniques are proposed for the extraction of oxygen from the abundant carbon dioxide contained in the Martian atmosphere (95% CO2).. The Phase I...

  14. Highly efficient catalytic systems based on Pd-coated microbeads (United States)

    Lim, Jin Hyun; Cho, Ahyoung; Lee, Seung Hwan; Park, Bumkyo; Kang, Dong Woo; Koo, Chong Min; Yu, Taekyung; Park, Bum Jun


    The efficiency of two prototype catalysis systems using palladium (Pd)-coated microparticles was investigated with regard to the recovery and recyclability of the catalytic particles. One such system was the interface-adsorption method, in which polymer particles coated with Pd nanoparticles strongly and irreversibly attach to the oil-water interface. Due to the irreversible adsorption of the catalytic particles to the interface, particle loss was completely prevented while mixing the aqueous solution and while collecting the products. The other system was based on the magnetic field-associated particle recovery method. The use of polymeric microparticles containing Pd nanoparticles and magnetite nanoparticles accelerated the sedimentation of the particles in the aqueous phase by applying a strong magnetic field, consequently suppressing drainage of the particles from the reactor along the product stream. Upon multiple runs of the catalytic reactions, it was found that conversion does not change significantly, demonstrating the excellent recyclability and performance efficiency in the catalytic processes.

  15. Catalytic asymmetric alkylation of ketones using organometallic reagents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madduri, Ashoka V.R.; Harutyunyan, Syuzanna R.; Minnaard, Adriaan J.


    The catalytic asymmetric synthesis of tertiary alcohols by the addition of organometallic reagents to ketones is of central importance in organic chemistry. The resulting quaternary stereocentres are difficult to prepare selectively by other means despite their widespread occurrence in natural

  16. The Catalytic Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (+)‐Liphagal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Day, Joshua J.; McFadden, Ryan M.; Virgil, Scott C.


    Ring a ding: The first catalytic enantioselective total synthesis of the meroterpenoid natural product (+)-liphagal is disclosed. The approach showcases a variety of technology including enantioselective enolate alkylation, a photochemical alkyne-alkene [2+2] reaction, microwaveassisted metal cat...

  17. Catalytic combustion of heavy partially-vaporized fuels (United States)

    Rosfjord, T. J.


    An experimental program to demonstrate efficient catalytic combustion of fuel-lean and fuel-rich mixtures of residual fuel and air, and to assess the influence of incomplete fuel vaporization on the performance of a catalytic reactor is being conducted. A 7.5-cm diameter catalytic reactor was designed and will be tested over a matrix of conditions representative of a gas turbine combustor inlet. For each of three test phases, two series of tests with a uniform but poorly vaporized (less than 50 percent) mixture of No. 6 fuel oil and air will be performed. In the first series, the non-vaporized fuel will be contained in a spray of droplets with a Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) less than 30 microns. In the second series, the non-vaporized fuel will be characterized by a spray SMD approximately equal to 100 microns. The designs of the fuel injection system and the catalytic reactor are described in this paper.

  18. The role of surface generated radicals in catalytic combustion (United States)

    Santavicca, D. A.; Stein, Y.; Royce, B. S. H.


    Experiments were conducted to better understand the role of catalytic surface reactions in determining the ignition characteristics of practical catalytic combustors. Hydrocarbon concentrations, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide concentrations, hydroxyl radical concentrations, and gas temperature were measured at the exit of a platinum coated, stacked plate, catalytic combustor during the ignition of lean propane-air mixtures. The substrate temperature profile was also measured during the ignition transient. Ignition was initiated by suddenly turning on the fuel and the time to reach steady state was of the order of 10 minutes. The gas phase reaction, showed no pronounced effect due to the catalytic surface reactions, except the absence of a hydroxyl radical overshoot. It is found that the transient ignition measurements are valuable in understanding the steady state performance characteristics.

  19. Catalytic skeletal isomerization of linear butenes to isobutene

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Butler, AC


    Full Text Available since the late 1970s in implementing the catalytic skeletal isomerization reaction of these linear alkenes. Halogenated catalysts, especially those based on alumina, and prepared using a variety of compounds of fluorine, chlorine or bromine, have been...

  20. Aerobic, catalytic oxidation of alcohols in ionic liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Roberto F. de


    Full Text Available An efficient and simple catalytic system based on RuCl3 dissolved in ionic liquids has been developed for the oxidation of alcohols into aldehydes and ketones under mild conditions. A new fluorinated ionic liquid, 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium pentadecafluorooctanoate, was synthesized and demonstrated better performance that the other ionic liquids employed. Moreover this catalytic system utilizes molecular oxygen as an oxidizing agent, producing water as the only by-product.

  1. Resolving the Structure of Active Sites on Platinum Catalytic Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Lan Yun; Barnard, Amanda S.; Gontard, Lionel Cervera


    Accurate understanding of the structure of active sites is fundamentally important in predicting catalytic properties of heterogeneous nanocatalysts. We present an accurate determination of both experimental and theoretical atomic structures of surface monatomic steps on industrial platinum...... nanoparticles. This comparison reveals that the edges of nanoparticles can significantly alter the atomic positions of monatomic steps in their proximity, which can lead to substantial deviations in the catalytic properties compared with the extended surfaces....

  2. Water recovery by catalytic treatment of urine vapor (United States)

    Budininkas, P.; Quattrone, P. D.; Leban, M. I.


    The objective of this investigation was to demonstrate the feasibility of water recovery on a man-rated scale by the catalytic processing of untreated urine vapor. For this purpose, two catalytic systems, one capable of processing an air stream containing low urine vapor concentrations and another to process streams with high urine vapor concentrations, were designed, constructed, and tested to establish the quality of the recovered water.

  3. Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biddy, M.; Jones, S.


    This technology pathway case investigates the catalytic conversion of solubilized carbohydrate streams to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent efforts within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium (NABC) in collaboration with Virent, Inc. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for the catalytic conversion of sugars pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks have been identified.

  4. Advanced Catalytic Converter in Gasoline Enginer Emission Control: A Review


    Leman A.M.; Jajuli Afiqah; Feriyanto Dafit; Rahman Fakhrurrazi; Zakaria Supaat


    Exhaust emission from automobile source has become a major contributor to the air pollution and environmental problem. Catalytic converter is found to be one of the most effective tools to reduce the overwhelming exhaust pollutants in our environment. The development of sustainable catalytic converter still remains a critical issue due to the stringent exhaust emission regulations. Another issue such as price and availability of the precious metal were also forced the automotive industry to i...

  5. Application of Zeolitic Additives in the Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nemati Kharat


    Full Text Available Current article describes application of zeolites in fluid catalytic cracking (FCC. The use of several zeolitic additives for the production light olefins and reduction of pollutants is described. Application of zeolites as fluid catalytic cracking (FCC catalysts and additives due to the presence of active acid sites in the zeolite framework  increase the formation of desired cracking products (i.e., olefin and branched products  in the FCC unit.

  6. Research on Integration of an Automotive Exhaust-Based Thermoelectric Generator and a Three-Way Catalytic Converter (United States)

    Deng, Y. D.; Chen, Y. L.; Chen, S.; Xianyu, W. D.; Su, C. Q.


    A key research topic related to thermoelectric generators (TEGs) for automotive applications is to improve their compatibility with the original vehicle exhaust system, which determines the quality of the exhaust gas treatment and the realization of energy conservation and emission reduction. A new TEG integrated with a three-way catalytic converter (CTEG) by reshaping the converter as the heat exchanger is proposed. A heat-flux coupling simulation model of the integrated TEG is established at the light-off stage of the original three-way catalytic converter (TWC). Temperature distribution maps of the integrated heat exchanger, thermoelectric modules, and cooling-water tank are obtained to present the process of energy flow among the parts of the CTEG. Based on the simulation results, the output power of the CTEG is calculated by a mathematical model. A minimum output power of 31.93 W can be obtained by conversion when the TWC starts working at steady conditions. Theoretically, this case study demonstrates the great potential for use of CTEGs in vehicles.

  7. Catalytic pyrolysis of car tire waste using expanded perlite. (United States)

    Kar, Y


    In this study, the non-catalytic and catalytic pyrolysis experiments were conducted on the sample of tire waste using expanded perlite as an additive material to determine especially the effect of temperature and catalyst-to-tire ratio on the products yields and the compositions and qualities of pyrolytic oils (NCPO and CPO). Non-catalytic studies, which were carried out under the certain conditions (a nitrogen flow of 100mL/min and a heating rate of 10°C/min), showed that the highest yield of pyrolytic oil (NCPO) was 60.02wt.% at 425°C. Then, the catalytic pyrolysis studies were carried out at catalyst-to-tire ratio range of 0.05-0.25 and the highest catalytic pyrolytic oil (CPO) yield was 65.11wt.% at the ratio of 0.10 with the yield increase of 8.48wt.% compared with the non-catalytic pyrolysis. Lastly, the pyrolytic oils were characterized with applying a various techniques such as elemental analyses and various chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques (GC-MS, (1)H NMR, FT-IR, etc.). The characterization results revealed that the pyrolytic oils which were complex mixtures of C(5)-C(15) organic compounds (predominantly aromatic compounds) and also the CPO compared to the NCPO was more similar to conventional fuels in view of the certain fuel properties. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Catalytic activities of zeolite compounds for decomposing aqueous ozone. (United States)

    Kusuda, Ai; Kitayama, Mikito; Ohta, Yoshio


    The advanced oxidation process (AOP), chemical oxidation using aqueous ozone in the presence of appropriate catalysts to generate highly reactive oxygen species, offers an attractive option for removing poorly biodegradable pollutants. Using the commercial zeolite powders with various Si/Al ratios and crystal structures, their catalytic activities for decomposing aqueous ozone were evaluated by continuously flowing ozone to water containing the zeolite powders. The hydrophilic zeolites (low Si/Al ratio) with alkali cations in the crystal structures were found to possess high catalytic activity for decomposing aqueous ozone. The hydrophobic zeolite compounds (high Si/Al ratio) were found to absorb ozone very well, but to have no catalytic activity for decomposing aqueous ozone. Their catalytic activities were also evaluated by using the fixed bed column method. When alkali cations were removed by acid rinsing or substituted by alkali-earth cations, the catalytic activities was significantly deteriorated. These results suggest that the metal cations on the crystal surface of the hydrophilic zeolite would play a key role for catalytic activity for decomposing aqueous ozone. Copyright © 2013 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. ResBoost: characterizing and predicting catalytic residues in enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freund Yoav


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying the catalytic residues in enzymes can aid in understanding the molecular basis of an enzyme's function and has significant implications for designing new drugs, identifying genetic disorders, and engineering proteins with novel functions. Since experimentally determining catalytic sites is expensive, better computational methods for identifying catalytic residues are needed. Results We propose ResBoost, a new computational method to learn characteristics of catalytic residues. The method effectively selects and combines rules of thumb into a simple, easily interpretable logical expression that can be used for prediction. We formally define the rules of thumb that are often used to narrow the list of candidate residues, including residue evolutionary conservation, 3D clustering, solvent accessibility, and hydrophilicity. ResBoost builds on two methods from machine learning, the AdaBoost algorithm and Alternating Decision Trees, and provides precise control over the inherent trade-off between sensitivity and specificity. We evaluated ResBoost using cross-validation on a dataset of 100 enzymes from the hand-curated Catalytic Site Atlas (CSA. Conclusion ResBoost achieved 85% sensitivity for a 9.8% false positive rate and 73% sensitivity for a 5.7% false positive rate. ResBoost reduces the number of false positives by up to 56% compared to the use of evolutionary conservation scoring alone. We also illustrate the ability of ResBoost to identify recently validated catalytic residues not listed in the CSA.

  10. 40 CFR Table 15 to Subpart Uuu of... - Organic HAP Emission Limits for Catalytic Reforming Units (United States)


    ... Catalytic Reforming Units 15 Table 15 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Refineries: Catalytic Cracking Units, Catalytic Reforming Units, and Sulfur Recovery Units Pt. 63, Subpt. UUU, Table 15 Table 15 to Subpart UUU of Part 63—Organic HAP Emission Limits for Catalytic Reforming Units As...

  11. 40 CFR Table 22 to Subpart Uuu of... - Inorganic HAP Emission Limits for Catalytic Reforming Units (United States)


    ... Catalytic Reforming Units 22 Table 22 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Refineries: Catalytic Cracking Units, Catalytic Reforming Units, and Sulfur Recovery Units Pt. 63, Subpt. UUU, Table 22 Table 22 to Subpart UUU of Part 63—Inorganic HAP Emission Limits for Catalytic Reforming Units...

  12. Catalytic flash pyrolysis of oil-impregnated-wood and jatropha cake using sodium based catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali Imran, A.; Bramer, Eduard A.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Brem, Gerrit


    Catalytic pyrolysis of wood with impregnated vegetable oil was investigated and compared with catalytic pyrolysis of jatropha cake making use of sodium based catalysts to produce a high quality bio-oil. The catalytic pyrolysis was carried out in two modes: in-situ catalytic pyrolysis and post

  13. 40 CFR Table 8 to Subpart Uuu of... - Organic HAP Emission Limits for Catalytic Cracking Units (United States)


    ... Catalytic Cracking Units 8 Table 8 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Refineries: Catalytic Cracking Units, Catalytic Reforming Units, and Sulfur Recovery Units Pt. 63, Subpt. UUU, Table 8 Table 8 to Subpart UUU of Part 63—Organic HAP Emission Limits for Catalytic Cracking Units As...

  14. Pu Anion Exchange Process Intensification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    This project seeks to improve the efficiency of the plutonium anion-exchange process for purifying Pu through the development of alternate ion-exchange media. The objective of the project in FY15 was to develop and test a porous foam monolith material that could serve as a replacement for the current anion-exchange resin, Reillex® HPQ, used at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for purifying Pu. The new material provides advantages in efficiency over the current resin by the elimination of diffusive mass transport through large granular resin beads. By replacing the large resin beads with a porous foam there is much more efficient contact between the Pu solution and the anion-exchange sites present on the material. Several samples of a polystyrene based foam grafted with poly(4-vinylpyridine) were prepared and the Pu sorption was tested in batch contact tests.

  15. Liquid droplet heat exchanger studies (United States)

    Bruckner, A. P.; Hedges, D. E.; Yungster, S.


    Recent analytical and experimental investigations of the liquid droplet heat exchanger (LDHX) concept for space power applications are described. The performance of the LDHX is compared to that of a conventional heat exchanger for heat rejection applications in a Brayton cycle, using the mass-specific heat exchanger effectiveness as a figure of merit. It is shown that the LDHX has an order of magnitude advantage over the conventional heat exchanger. Furthermore, significant improvement in cycle efficiency and power to mass ratio is possible. Two-phase flow experiments in a laboratory scale LDHX, using air and water as the two media, show very good agreement with the quasi-one-dimensional model used in the parametric studies.

  16. Estimating Foreign Exchange Reserve Adequacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hakim


    Full Text Available Accumulating foreign exchange reserves, despite their cost and their impacts on other macroeconomics variables, provides some benefits. This paper models such foreign exchange reserves. To measure the adequacy of foreign exchange reserves for import, it uses total reserves-to-import ratio (TRM. The chosen independent variables are gross domestic product growth, exchange rates, opportunity cost, and a dummy variable separating the pre and post 1997 Asian financial crisis. To estimate the risky TRM value, this paper uses conditional Value-at-Risk (VaR, with the help of Glosten-Jagannathan-Runkle (GJR model to estimate the conditional volatility. The results suggest that all independent variables significantly influence TRM. They also suggest that the short and long run volatilities are evident, with the additional evidence of asymmetric effects of negative and positive past shocks. The VaR, which are calculated assuming both normal and t distributions, provide similar results, namely violations in 2005 and 2008.

  17. VLER Health Exchange by Area (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — “Connect Your Docs” through the Virtual Lifetime Electronic Record (VLER) Health Exchange program. This program gives VA and community health care providers secure...

  18. Counterflow Regolith Heat Exchanger Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The counterflow regolith heat exchanger (CoRHE) is a device that transfers heat from hot regolith to cold regolith. The CoRHE is essentially a tube-in-tube heat...

  19. Passivation of textured crystalline silicon surfaces by catalytic CVD silicon nitride films and catalytic phosphorus doping (United States)

    Ohdaira, Keisuke; Cham, Trinh Thi; Matsumura, Hideki


    Silicon nitride (SiN x ) films formed by catalytic chemical vapor deposition (Cat-CVD) and phosphorus (P)-doped layers formed by catalytic impurity doping (Cat-doping) are applied for the passivation of pyramid-shaped textured crystalline Si (c-Si) surfaces formed by anisotropic etching in alkaline solution. Lower surface recombination velocities (SRVs) tend to be obtained when smaller pyramids are formed on c-Si surfaces. P Cat-doping is effective for reducing the SRV of textured c-Si surfaces as in the case of flat c-Si surfaces. We realize SRVs of textured c-Si surfaces of ∼8.0 and ∼6.7 cm/s for only SiN x passivation and for the combination of SiN x and P Cat-doping, respectively. These structures also have high optical transparency and low Auger recombination loss, and are of great worth in application for the surface passivation of interdigitated back-contact c-Si solar cells.

  20. International Prices and Exchange Rates


    Gopinath, Gita; Burstein, Ariel


    We survey the recent empirical and theoretical developments in the literature on the relation between prices and exchange rates. After updating some of the major findings in the empirical literature we present a simple framework to interpret this evidence. We review theoretical models that generate insensitivity of prices to exchange rate changes through variable markups, both under flexible prices and nominal rigidities, first in partial equilibrium and then in general equilibrium.

  1. Exchange rate determination in Vietnam


    Thai-Ha Le


    This study investigates the determinants of the exchange rate in Vietnam and suggests policy implications. Gregory-Hansen cointegration tests and generalised variance decomposition (VDC) analysis were applied to monthly data from July 2004 to December 2013. The model was built based on the three popular approaches to exchange rate determination, which are purchasing power parity (PPP) approach, balance of payment (BOP) approach, and monetary and portfolio approach. This study finds that the p...

  2. Shared Year Exchange in Nursing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedsegaard, Helle Wendner; Wederkinck, Elisabeth


    Beskrivelse af Shared Year Exchange in Nursing, et udviklingsporjekt omhandlende udvikling, beskrivelse og implementering af et fælles studieår for sygeplejerskestuderende ved Metropol og La Trobe University Australien.......Beskrivelse af Shared Year Exchange in Nursing, et udviklingsporjekt omhandlende udvikling, beskrivelse og implementering af et fælles studieår for sygeplejerskestuderende ved Metropol og La Trobe University Australien....

  3. Petroleum Refineries (Catalytic Cracking, Catalytic Reforming and Sulfur Recovery Units): National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (United States)

    learn more about the NESHAP for catalytic cracking and reforming units, as well as sulfur recovery units in petroleum refineries by reading the rule history, rule summary, background information documents, and compliance information

  4. Simultaneous catalytic removal of NO and N{sub 2}O using Fe-MFI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koegel, M.; Turek, T. [Univ. Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Chemische Verfahrenstechnik; Moennig, R.; Schwieger, W. [Martin-Luther-Univ. Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Chemie und Makromolekulare Chemie; Tissler, A. [AlSi-PENTA Zeolithe GmbH, Schwandorf (Germany)


    Fe-MFI preparations active for the reduction of nitric oxide and nitrous oxide with hydrocarbons have been prepared by solid-state ion-exchange in the presence of air. While nitrous oxide can be removed by a variety of reducing agents, C{sub 3} hydrocarbons, especially propane, are suitable for the catalytic reduction of nitric oxide. The reduction of nitrous oxide was always enhanced by increasing temperature, whereas maximum NO conversions were observed at temperatures around 300 C. The addition of up to 7% of water was found to decrease the achievable conversions of the nitrogen oxides moderately. The activity for the removal of nitrous oxide was strongly inhibited in the presence of NO, probably via an intermediate formed from NO{sub 2} and the hydrocarbon. On the other hand, the observed NO conversions were not affected by the presence of nitrous oxide. In all cases, considerable amounts of carbon monoxide were formed from the hydrocarbons. It could be shown that the degree of ion-exchange achievable during the solid-state procedure is limited. At iron contents exceeding Fe/Al = 0.5, Fe ions are no longer being introduced into the zeolite. The excess iron is being precipitated as hematite, which is inactive in the reduction of both nitric oxide and nitrous oxide.

  5. Metal-Exchange Catalysis in the Growth of Sesquioxides: Towards Heterostructures of Transparent Oxide Semiconductors (United States)

    Vogt, Patrick; Brandt, Oliver; Riechert, Henning; Lähnemann, Jonas; Bierwagen, Oliver


    We observe that the growth rate of Ga2 O3 in plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy can be drastically enhanced by an additional In supply. This enhancement is shown to result from a catalytic effect, namely, the rapid formation of In2 O3 , immediately followed by a transformation of In2 O3 to Ga2 O3 due to an In-Ga interatomic exchange. We derive a simple model that quantitatively describes this process as well as its consequences on the formation rate of Ga2 O3 . Moreover, we demonstrate that the catalytic action of In2 O3 allows the synthesis of the metastable hexagonal phase of Ga2 O3 . Since the Ga2 O3 (0001 )/In2O3 (111 ) interface is closely lattice matched, this novel growth mode opens a new path for the fabrication of sesquioxide heterostructures.

  6. Catalytic combustion over high temperature stable metal oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, M. [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)


    This thesis presents a study of the catalytic effects of two interesting high temperature stable metal oxides - magnesium oxide and manganese substituted barium hexa-aluminate (BMA) - both of which can be used in the development of new monolithic catalysts for such applications. In the first part of the thesis, the development of catalytic combustion for gas turbine applications is reviewed, with special attention to alternative fuels such as low-BTU gas, e.g. produced in an air blown gasifier. When catalytic combustion is applied for such a fuel, the primary advantage is the possibility of decreasing the conversion of fuel nitrogen to NO{sub x}, and achieving flame stability. In the experimental work, MgO was shown to have a significant activity for the catalytic combustion of methane, lowering the temperature needed to achieve 10 percent conversion by 270 deg C compared with homogeneous combustion.The reaction kinetics for methane combustion over MgO was also studied. It was shown that the heterogeneous catalytic reactions were dominant but that the catalytically initiated homogeneous gas phase reactions were also important, specially at high temperatures. MgO and BMA were compared. The latter showed a higher catalytic activity, even when the differences in activity decreased with increasing calcination temperature. For BMA, CO{sub 2} was the only product detected, but for MgO significant amounts of CO and C{sub 2}-hydrocarbons were formed. BMA needed a much lower temperature to achieve total conversion of other fuels, e.g. CO and hydrogen, compared to the temperature for total conversion of methane. This shows that BMA-like catalysts are interesting for combustion of fuel mixtures with high CO and H{sub 2} content, e.g. gas produced from gasification of biomass. 74 refs

  7. Structural Dynamics Control Allosteric Activation of Cytohesin Family Arf GTPase Exchange Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malaby, Andrew W.; Das, Sanchaita; Chakravarthy, Srinivas; Irving, Thomas C.; Bilsel, Osman; Lambright, David G.


    Membrane dynamic processes including vesicle biogenesis depend on Arf guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) activation by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) containing a catalytic Sec7 domain and a membrane-targeting module such as a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. The catalytic output of cytohesin family Arf GEFs is controlled by autoinhibitory interactions that impede accessibility of the exchange site in the Sec7 domain. These restraints can be relieved through activator Arf-GTP binding to an allosteric site comprising the PH domain and proximal autoinhibitory elements (Sec7-PH linker and C-terminal helix). Small-angle X-ray scattering and negative-stain electron microscopy were used to investigate the structural organization and conformational dynamics of cytohesin-3 (Grp1) in autoinhibited and active states. The results support a model in which hinge dynamics in the autoinhibited state expose the activator site for Arf-GTP binding, while subsequent C-terminal helix unlatching and repositioning unleash conformational entropy in the Sec7-PH linker to drive exposure of the exchange site.

  8. Energy Efficient Microlith-Based Catalytic Reactor and Recuperator for Air Quality Control Applications (United States)

    Vilekar, Saurabh A.; Hawley, Kyle; Junaedi, Christian; Crowder, Bruce; Prada, Julian; Mastanduno, Richard; Perry, Jay L.; Kayatin, Matthew J.


    Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI) and NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have been developing, characterizing, and optimizing high temperature catalytic oxidizers (HTCO) based on PCI’s patented Microlith technology to meet the requirements of future extended human spaceflight explorations. Previous efforts focused on integrating PCI’s HTCO unit with a compact, simple recuperative heat exchanger to reduce the overall system size and weight. Significant improvement was demonstrated over traditional approaches of integrating the HTCO with an external recuperative heat exchanger. While the critical target performance metrics were achieved, the thermal effectiveness of PCI’s recuperator remained a potential area of improvement to further reduce the energy requirements of the integrated system. Using the same material combinations and an improved recuperator design, the redesigned prototype has experimentally demonstrated 20 – 30% reduction (flow dependent) in steady state power consumption compared to the earlier prototype without compromising the destruction efficiency of methane and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Moreover, design modifications and improvements allow our redesigned prototype to be more easily manufactured compared to traditional brazed plate-fin recuperator designs. The redesigned prototype was delivered to MSFC for validation testing. Here, we report and discuss the performance of the improved prototype HTCO unit with a high efficiency recuperative heat exchanger based on testing at PCI and MSFC. The device is expected to provide a reliable and robust means of disposing of trace levels of methane and VOCs by oxidizing them into carbon dioxide and water in order to maintain clean air in enclosed spaces, such as crewed spacecraft cabins.

  9. Reductive Catalytic Fractionation of Corn Stover Lignin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Eric M.; Katahira, Rui; Reed, Michelle; Resch, Michael G.; Karp, Eric M.; Beckham, Gregg T.; Román-Leshkov, Yuriy


    Reductive catalytic fractionation (RCF) has emerged as an effective biomass pretreatment strategy to depolymerize lignin into tractable fragments in high yields. We investigate the RCF of corn stover, a highly abundant herbaceous feedstock, using carbon-supported Ru and Ni catalysts at 200 and 250 degrees C in methanol and, in the presence or absence of an acid cocatalyst (H3PO4 or an acidified carbon support). Three key performance variables were studied: (1) the effectiveness of lignin extraction as measured by the yield of lignin oil, (2) the yield of monomers in the lignin oil, and (3) the carbohydrate retention in the residual solids after RCF. The monomers included methyl coumarate/ferulate, propyl guaiacol/syringol, and ethyl guaiacol/syringol. The Ru and Ni catalysts performed similarly in terms of product distribution and monomer yields. The monomer yields increased monotonically as a function of time for both temperatures. At 6 h, monomer yields of 27.2 and 28.3% were obtained at 250 and 200 degrees C, respectively, with Ni/C. The addition of an acid cocatalysts to the Ni/C system increased monomer yields to 32% for acidified carbon and 38% for phosphoric acid at 200 degrees C. The monomer product distribution was dominated by methyl coumarate regardless of the use of the acid cocatalysts. The use of phosphoric acid at 200 degrees C or the high temperature condition without acid resulted in complete lignin extraction and partial sugar solubilization (up to 50%) thereby generating lignin oil yields that exceeded the theoretical limit. In contrast, using either Ni/C or Ni on acidified carbon at 200 degrees C resulted in moderate lignin oil yields of ca. 55%, with sugar retention values >90%. Notably, these sugars were amenable to enzymatic digestion, reaching conversions >90% at 96 h. Characterization studies on the lignin oils using two-dimensional heteronuclear single quantum coherence nuclear magnetic resonance and gel permeation chromatrography revealed

  10. Fair Exchange in Strand Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D. Guttman


    Full Text Available Many cryptographic protocols are intended to coordinate state changes among principals. Exchange protocols coordinate delivery of new values to the participants, e.g. additions to the set of values they possess. An exchange protocol is fair if it ensures that delivery of new values is balanced: If one participant obtains a new possession via the protocol, then all other participants will, too. Fair exchange requires progress assumptions, unlike some other protocol properties. The strand space model is a framework for design and verification of cryptographic protocols. A strand is a local behavior of a single principal in a single session of a protocol. A bundle is a partially ordered global execution built from protocol strands and adversary activities. The strand space model needs two additions for fair exchange protocols. First, we regard the state as a multiset of facts, and we allow strands to cause changes in this state via multiset rewriting. Second, progress assumptions stipulate that some channels are resilient-and guaranteed to deliver messages-and some principals are assumed not to stop at certain critical steps. This method leads to proofs of correctness that cleanly separate protocol properties, such as authentication and confidentiality, from invariants governing state evolution. G. Wang's recent fair exchange protocol illustrates the approach.

  11. Pu Anion Exchange Process Intensification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    This research is focused on improving the efficiency of the anion exchange process for purifying plutonium. While initially focused on plutonium, the technology could also be applied to other ion-exchange processes. Work in FY17 focused on the improvement and optimization of porous foam columns that were initially developed in FY16. These foam columns were surface functionalized with poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PVP) to provide the Pu specific anion-exchange sites. Two different polymerization methods were explored for maximizing the surface functionalization with the PVP. The open-celled polymeric foams have large open pores and large surface areas available for sorption. The fluid passes through the large open pores of this material, allowing convection to be the dominant mechanism by which mass transport takes place. These materials generally have very low densities, open-celled structures with high cell interconnectivity, small cell sizes, uniform cell size distributions, and high structural integrity. These porous foam columns provide advantages over the typical porous resin beads by eliminating the slow diffusion through resin beads, making the anion-exchange sites easily accessible on the foam surfaces. The best performing samples exceeded the Pu capacity of the commercially available resin, and also offered the advantage of sharper elution profiles, resulting in a more concentrated product, with less loss of material to the dilute heads and tails cuts. An alternate approach to improving the efficiency of this process was also explored through the development of a microchannel array system for performing the anion exchange.

  12. Electrically Switched Cesium Ion Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JPH Sukamto; ML Lilga; RK Orth


    This report discusses the results of work to develop Electrically Switched Ion Exchange (ESIX) for separations of ions from waste streams relevant to DOE site clean-up. ESIX combines ion exchange and electrochemistry to provide a selective, reversible method for radionuclide separation that lowers costs and minimizes secondary waste generation typically associated with conventional ion exchange. In the ESIX process, an electroactive ion exchange film is deposited onto. a high surface area electrode, and ion uptake and elution are controlled directly by modulating the potential of the film. As a result, the production of secondary waste is minimized, since the large volumes of solution associated with elution, wash, and regeneration cycles typical of standard ion exchange are not needed for the ESIX process. The document is presented in two parts: Part I, the Summary Report, discusses the objectives of the project, describes the ESIX concept and the approach taken, and summarizes the major results; Part II, the Technology Description, provides a technical description of the experimental procedures and in-depth discussions on modeling, case studies, and cost comparisons between ESIX and currently used technologies.

  13. Poisoning of bubble propelled catalytic micromotors: the chemical environment matters. (United States)

    Zhao, Guanjia; Sanchez, Samuel; Schmidt, Oliver G; Pumera, Martin


    Self-propelled catalytic microjets have attracted considerable attention in recent years and these devices have exhibited the ability to move in complex media. The mechanism of propulsion is via the Pt catalysed decomposition of H2O2 and it is understood that the Pt surface is highly susceptible to poisoning by sulphur-containing molecules. Here, we show that important extracellular thiols as well as basic organic molecules can significantly hamper the motion of catalytic microjet engines. This is due to two different mechanisms: (i) molecules such as dimethyl sulfoxide can quench the hydroxyl radicals produced at Pt surfaces and reduce the amount of oxygen gas generated and (ii) molecules containing -SH, -SSR, and -SCH3 moieties can poison the catalytically active platinum surface, inhibiting the motion of the jet engines. It is essential that the presence of such molecules in the environment be taken into consideration for future design and operation of catalytic microjet engines. We show this effect on catalytic micromotors prepared by both rolled-up and electrodeposition approaches, demonstrating that such poisoning is universal for Pt catalyzed micromotors. We believe that our findings will contribute significantly to this field to develop alternative systems or catalysts for self-propulsion when practical applications in the real environment are considered.

  14. Catalytic conversion of biomass to fuels. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garten, R. L.; Ushiba, K. K.; Cooper, M.; Mahawili, I.


    This report presents an assessment and perspective concerning the application of catalytic technologies to the thermochemical conversion of biomass resources to fuels. The major objectives of the study are: to provide a systematic assessment of the role of catalysis in the direct thermochemical conversion of biomass into gaseous and liquid fuels; to establish the relationship between potential biomass conversion processes and catalytic processes currently under development in other areas, with particular emphasis on coal conversion processes; and to identify promising catalytic systems which could be utilized to reduce the overall costs of fuels production from biomass materials. The report is divided into five major parts which address the above objectives. In Part III the physical and chemical properties of biomass and coal are compared, and the implications for catalytic conversion processes are discussed. With respect to chemical properties, biomass is shown to have significant advantages over coal in catalytic conversion processes because of its uniformly high H/C ratio and low concentrations of potential catalyst poisons. The physical properties of biomass can vary widely, however, and preprocessing by grinding is difficult and costly. Conversion technologies that require little preprocessing and accept a wide range of feed geometries, densities, and particle sizes appear desirable. Part IV provides a comprehensive review of existing and emerging thermochemical conversion technologies for biomass and coal. The underlying science and technology for gasification and liquefaction processes are presented.

  15. Catalytic Promiscuity of Ancestral Esterases and Hydroxynitrile Lyases. (United States)

    Devamani, Titu; Rauwerdink, Alissa M; Lunzer, Mark; Jones, Bryan J; Mooney, Joanna L; Tan, Maxilmilien Alaric O; Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Xu, Jian-He; Dean, Antony M; Kazlauskas, Romas J


    Catalytic promiscuity is a useful, but accidental, enzyme property, so finding catalytically promiscuous enzymes in nature is inefficient. Some ancestral enzymes were branch points in the evolution of new enzymes and are hypothesized to have been promiscuous. To test the hypothesis that ancestral enzymes were more promiscuous than their modern descendants, we reconstructed ancestral enzymes at four branch points in the divergence hydroxynitrile lyases (HNL's) from esterases ∼ 100 million years ago. Both enzyme types are α/β-hydrolase-fold enzymes and have the same catalytic triad, but differ in reaction type and mechanism. Esterases catalyze hydrolysis via an acyl enzyme intermediate, while lyases catalyze an elimination without an intermediate. Screening ancestral enzymes and their modern descendants with six esterase substrates and six lyase substrates found higher catalytic promiscuity among the ancestral enzymes (P promiscuous and catalyzed both hydrolysis and lyase reactions with many substrates. A broader screen tested mechanistically related reactions that were not selected for by evolution: decarboxylation, Michael addition, γ-lactam hydrolysis and 1,5-diketone hydrolysis. The ancestral enzymes were more promiscuous than their modern descendants (P = 0.04). Thus, these reconstructed ancestral enzymes are catalytically promiscuous, but HNL1 is especially so.

  16. Pervaporation with ion exchange membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeddeker, K.W.; Wenzlaff, A.


    Sorption and pervaporation of aqueous-organic solvent systems (water-ethanol; water-carboxylic acids) with commercial ion exchange membranes are compared to obtain information on polymersolvent interaction vs. coupling. Close agreement between sorption selectivity and pervaporation selectivity indicates coupling. If pervaporation is less selective than sorption, polymer-solvent interaction overtakes coupling, the limit of de-coupling being phase separation within the sorbate as signaled by a sudden increase in permeability of the lesser interacting component. As long as sorption and pervaporation operate in parallel, favoring enrichment of the same component, coupling enhances the separation effect. If pervaporation counteracts sorption, coupling is detrimental to the separation effect. Potential applications include the dehydration of pre-concentrated water-ethanol using anion exchange membranes, and the enrichment of acetic acid from dilute aqueous solution by pervaporative removal of water through cation exchange membranes.

  17. Using Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry to Define the Specific Interactions of the Phospholipase A2 Superfamily with Lipid Substrates, Inhibitors, and Membranes* (United States)

    Cao, Jian; Burke, John E.; Dennis, Edward A.


    The phospholipase A2 (PLA2) superfamily consists of 16 groups and many subgroups and constitutes a diverse set of enzymes that have a common catalytic activity due to convergent evolution. However, different PLA2 types have unique three-dimensional structures and catalytic residues as well as specific tissue localization and distinct biological functions. Understanding how the different PLA2 enzymes associate with phospholipid membranes, specific phospholipid substrate molecules, and inhibitors on a molecular basis has advanced in recent years due to the introduction of hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry. Its theory, practical considerations, and application to understanding PLA2/membrane interactions are addressed. PMID:23209293

  18. Preparation of anion exchanger by amination of acrylic acid grafted polypropylene nonwoven fiber and its ion-exchange property. (United States)

    Park, Hyun-Ju; Na, Choon-Ki


    To develop the polymeric adsorbent that possess anionic exchangeable function, PP-g-AA-Am fibers were prepared by photoinduced grafting of acrylic acid (AA) onto polypropylene (PP) nonwoven fibers and subsequent conversion of carboxyl group in grafted AA to an amine (Am) group by reaction with diethylene triamine (DETA). The amination of grafted AA increased with increase in the degree of grafting, the reaction time and temperature of the chemical modification process. Catalytic effect of metal chlorides such as AlCl(3) and FeCl(3) on the amination of grafted AA was significant but not essential to lead the amination. FT-IR and solid (13)C NMR data indicate that amine group was introduced into PP-g-AA fiber through amide linkage between grafted AA and DETA. The anion exchange capacity of PP-g-AA-Am fiber increased with increase in the degree of amination, but reached maximum value at about 60% amination of 150% grafted AA. PP-g-AA-Am fiber showed much higher maximum capacity for PO(4)-P and a similar capacity for NO(3)-N compared to commercial anion resins. Furthermore, the PP-g-AA-Am fiber also has adsorption ability for cations because of unaminated residual carboxyl group.

  19. Oscillating-Coolant Heat Exchanger (United States)

    Scotti, Stephen J.; Blosser, Max L.; Camarda, Charles J.


    Devices useful in situations in which heat pipes inadequate. Conceptual oscillating-coolant heat exchanger (OCHEX) transports heat from its hotter portions to cooler portions. Heat transported by oscillation of single-phase fluid, called primary coolant, in coolant passages. No time-averaged flow in tubes, so either heat removed from end reservoirs on every cycle or heat removed indirectly by cooling sides of channels with another coolant. Devices include leading-edge cooling devices in hypersonic aircraft and "frost-free" heat exchangers. Also used in any situation in which heat pipe used and in other situations in which heat pipes not usable.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The experience of recentyears showsthat it hasa fundamentalroleformation mechanismof the exchange rateinmacroeconomic stabilization. Global economiccrises, oil shockshave shownthe difficultyoffloatingsustainabilitybyparticipants in the system. EuropeanMonetary System, focused onconcertedfloatingcurrenciestoECU, was formedunder the conditionsin which somecountries have adoptedregional monetaryarrangements(EU countries, with suchbasescurrencyregimeshybridthat combinesspecific mechanismsto those offixedratefree floating. This paperaims to demonstratethe important role thatithasthe choice ofexchange rateregimeas abasic elementin thefoundationofmacroeconomic stabilizationinstruments. Consideredan expression of thestateof the domestic economyandinternationalcompetitiveness, the exchange rate is determined bya complex set ofexternal factorsorinternalstabilityisa prerequisite forthe crisis.

  1. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Zhigang


    Preface Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel CellsFuel CellsTypes of Fuel CellsAdvantages of Fuel CellsProton Exchange Membrane Fuel CellsMembraneCatalystCatalyst LayerGas Diffusion MediumMicroporous LayerMembrane Electrode AssemblyPlateSingle CellStackSystemCell Voltage Monitoring Module (CVM)Fuel Supply Module (FSM)Air Supply Module (ASM)Exhaust Management Module (EMM)Heat Management Module (HMM)Water Management Module (WMM)Internal Power Supply Module (IPM)Power Conditioning Module (PCM)Communications Module (COM)Controls Module (CM)SummaryThermodynamics and KineticsTheoretical EfficiencyVoltagePo

  2. [Histone variants and histone exchange]. (United States)

    Wu, Nan; Gui, Jian-Fang


    Histones, as the basic components of nucleosome, are essential to chromatin structure and function. To adapt to various states of chromatin, corresponding histone variants are incorporated in nucleosome, and certain modifications also occur on the variants' tails. These variants change the conformation and stability of nucleosome to facilitate transcriptional activation or deactivation, DNA repairing, heterochromatin formation, and others. During histone exchange, chromatin remodeling complex facilitates histone variant deposition into nucleosome, and different variants have diverse deposition pathways. Recently, research on histone variants is not only a new hotspot in epigenetics, but also a new annotation of "histone code". In addition, histone exchange reveals new changing mechanism of DNA-histone interaction.

  3. Chemically-Modified Cellulose Paper as a Microstructured Catalytic Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka Koga


    Full Text Available We discuss the successful use of chemically-modified cellulose paper as a microstructured catalytic reactor for the production of useful chemicals. The chemical modification of cellulose paper was achieved using a silane-coupling technique. Amine-modified paper was directly used as a base catalyst for the Knoevenagel condensation reaction. Methacrylate-modified paper was used for the immobilization of lipase and then in nonaqueous transesterification processes. These catalytic paper materials offer high reaction efficiencies and have excellent practical properties. We suggest that the paper-specific interconnected microstructure with pulp fiber networks provides fast mixing of the reactants and efficient transport of the reactants to the catalytically-active sites. This concept is expected to be a promising route to green and sustainable chemistry.

  4. [Super catalytic antibodies (antigenase) capable of destroying H. pylori urease]. (United States)

    Taizo, Uda; Hifumi, Emi; Okamura, Yoshiko


    Antigenase has an ability to decompose the antigen peptide or protein. We have produced some monoclonal antibodies(HpU mAbs series) for H. pylori urease. Out of them, the light chain of HpU-9 mAb possesses a catalytic triad composed of Asp, Ser and His, which acts as a catalytic site against the antigen, based on the structural analysis of molecular modeling. HpU-9-L belongs to the germline cs1 which inherently encodes the catalytic triads in the sequence, indicating that HpU-9-L must be an antigenase. As expected, HpU-9-L showed the specific degradation against the beta-subunit of the urease. The heavy chain of HpU-2 also exhibited the specific degradation of the urease. These antigenases will be used for the medicinal application.

  5. Photolytic AND Catalytic Destruction of Organic Waste Water Pollutants (United States)

    Torosyan, V. F.; Torosyan, E. S.; Kryuchkova, S. O.; Gromov, V. E.


    The system: water supply source - potable and industrial water - wastewater - sewage treatment - water supply source is necessary for water supply and efficient utilization of water resources. Up-to-date technologies of waste water biological treatment require for special microorganisms, which are technologically complex and expensive but unable to solve all the problems. Application of photolytic and catalytically-oxidizing destruction is quite promising. However, the most reagents are strong oxidizers in catalytic oxidation of organic substances and can initiate toxic substance generation. Methodic and scientific approaches to assess bread making industry influence on the environment have been developed in this paper in order to support forecasting and taking technological decisions concerning reduction of this influence. Destructive methods have been tested: ultra violet irradiation and catalytic oxidation for extraction of organic compounds from waste water by natural reagents.

  6. Catalytic Desulfurization of Benzothiophene Using Keggin Type Polyoxometalates as Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldes Lesbani


    Full Text Available Performance of catalytic desulfurization of benzothiophen (BT was studied using polyoxometalates as catalyst. Polyoxometalates H3[a-PW12O40] and H4[a-SiW12O40], have different heteroatom in Keggin structure and catalytic activities. Polyoxometalates H3[a-PW12O40] and H4[a-SiW12O40] have high crystallinity with homogeneous distribution particles. Desulfurization of BT using polyoxometalates H3[a-PW12O40] and H4[a-SiW12O40] resulted % conversion up to 99% for 3 h reaction time and at temperature 40 oC. Application of polyoxometalates H3[a-PW12O40] and H4[a-SiW12O40] for crude oil desulfurization showed % conversion of 4-88%. The main functional groups of polyoxometalates still retained after catalytic desulfurization indicated the stability of polyoxometalate compounds

  7. In situ and operando transmission electron microscopy of catalytic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crozier, Peter A.; Hansen, Thomas Willum


    Catalytic nanomaterials play a major role in chemical conversions and energy transformations. Understanding how materials control and regulate surface reactions is a major objective for fundamental research on heterogeneous catalysts. In situ environmental transmission electron microscopy (ETEM......) is a powerful technique for revealing the atomic structures of materials at elevated temperatures in the presence of reactive gases. This approach can allow the structure-reactivity relations underlying catalyst functionality to be investigated. Thus far, ETEM has been limited by the absence of in situ...... measurements of gas-phase catalytic products. To overcome this deficiency, operando TEM techniques are being developed that combine atomic characterization with the simultaneous measurement of catalytic products. This article provides a short review of the current status and major developments...

  8. Catalytic bismetallative multicomponent coupling reactions: scope, applications, and mechanisms (United States)

    Cho, Hee Yeon


    Catalytic reactions have played an indispensable role in organic chemistry for the last several decades. In particular, catalytic multicomponent reactions have attracted a lot of attention due to their efficiency and expediency towards complex molecule synthesis. The presence of bismetallic reagents (e.g. B–B, Si–Si, B–Si, Si–Sn, etc.) in this process renders the products enriched with various functional groups and multiple stereocenters. For this reason, catalytic bismetallative coupling is considered an effective method to generate the functional and stereochemical complexity of simple hydrocarbon substrates. This review highlights key developments of transition-metal catalyzed bismetallative reactions involving multiple π components. Specifically, it will highlight the scope, synthetic applications, and proposed mechanistic pathways of this process. PMID:24736839

  9. A critical view on catalytic pyrolysis of biomass. (United States)

    Venderbosch, R H


    The rapid heating of biomass in an oxygen-free environment optimizes the yield of fast-pyrolysis liquids. This liquid comprises a mix of acids, (dehydrated) carbohydrates, aldehydes, ketones, lignin fragments, aromatics, and alcohols, limiting its use. Deoxygenation of these liquids to replace hydrocarbons represents significant challenges. Catalytic pyrolysis is seen as a promising route to yield liquids with a higher quality. In this paper, literature data on catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass are reviewed and deoxygenation results correlated with the overall carbon yield. Evidence is given that in an initial stage of the catalytic process reactive components are converted to coke, gas, and water, and only to a limited extent to a liquid product. Catalysts are not yet good enough, and an appropriate combination of pyrolysis conditions, reactive products formed, and different reactions to take place to yield improved quality liquids may be practically impossible. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Catalytic partial oxidation of methanol and ethanol for hydrogen generation. (United States)

    Hohn, Keith L; Lin, Yu-Chuan


    Hydrogen-powered fuel cell vehicles feature high energy efficiency and minor environmental impact. Liquid fuels are ideal hydrogen carriers, which can catalytically be converted into syngas or hydrogen to power vehicles. Among the potential liquid fuels, alcohols have several advantages. The hydrogen/carbon ratio is higher than that of other liquid hydrocarbons or oxygenates, especially in the case of methanol. In addition, alcohols can be derived from renewable biomass resources. Catalytic partial oxidation of methanol or ethanol offers immense potential for onboard hydrogen generation due to its rapid reaction rate and exothermic nature. These benefits stimulate a burgeoning research community in catalyst design, reaction engineering, and mechanistic investigation. The purpose of this Minireview is to provide insight into syngas and hydrogen production from methanol and ethanol partial oxidation, particularly highlighting catalytic chemistry.

  11. Nano-Catalytic Ozonation of 4-Nitrochlorobenzene in Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Tabatabaei


    Full Text Available In this paper, efficiency of nano-ZnO particles on catalytic ozonation of 4-nitrochlorobenzene (4NCB using semi-batch reactor has been studied at various pHs. During the catalytic ozonation, TOC and concentration of nitrate ions was monitored. Results indicate that degradation of 4NCB was improved by combination of nano-ZnO with ozone. The effect of ZnO particle size and pH are also examined. According to the results, concentration of 4NCB decreased with increasing of particle size from nanosized to microsized and pH from 3.0 to 9.0. Based on the results, it suggests radical hydroxyl does not affect on the degradation of 4NCB in catalytic ozonation, but the surface of catalyst plays main role. Kinetic studies showed degradation of 4NCB followed pseudo-first-order kinetic and maximum degradation rate was observed at pH=3.

  12. Melting Phase Transitions and Catalytic Activity of Bilayer Gold Nanoclusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanting Wang; Sergey N. Rashkeev


    Recent experiments in oxidation catalysis indicate that bilayer gold nanostructures exhibit exceptional catalytic activity at ambient temperatures. Here we use molecular dynamics simulations to show that an unsupported bilayer gold nanocluster has a broad and mild second-order melting phase transition. The transition is characterized by an interplay between the intralayer and interlayer diffusion processes, and the transition temperature region ranges from about 300 K to 1200 K. We suggest that surface thermal instabilities of partially melted bilayer gold nanoclusters result in their exceptional catalytic activity at ambient temperatures. For gold nanoclusters with more than two layers, the melting transition temperature range narrows, and the activity of the cluster decreases due to the suppression of surface fluctuations. These results systematically explain experimental observations showing that catalytic ability of gold nanoclusters decreases with size.

  13. Templated synthesis, postsynthetic metal exchange, and properties of a porphyrin-encapsulating metal-organic material

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, ZhenJie


    Reaction of biphenyl-3,4′,5-tricarboxylate (H 3BPT) and CdCl 2 in the presence of meso-tetra(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphine tetratosylate (TMPyP) afforded porph@MOM-10, a microporous metal-organic material containing CdTMPyP cations encapsulated in an anionic Cd(II) carboxylate framework, [Cd 6(BPT) 4Cl 4(H 2O) 4]. Porph@MOM-10 is a versatile platform that undergoes exchange to serve as the parent of a series of porph@MOMs that exhibit permanent porosity and heterogeneous catalytic activity. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  14. Kinetic and catalytic performance of a BI-porous composite material in catalytic cracking and isomerisation reactions

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Khattaf, S.


    Catalytic behaviour of pure zeolite ZSM-5 and a bi-porous composite material (BCM) were investigated in transformation of m-xylene, while zeolite HY and the bi-porous composite were used in the cracking of 1,3,5-triisopropylbenzene (TIPB). The micro/mesoporous material was used to understand the effect of the presence of mesopores on these reactions. Various characterisation techniques, that is, XRD, SEM, TGA, FT-IR and nitrogen sorption measurements were applied for complete characterisation of the catalysts. Catalytic tests using CREC riser simulator showed that the micro/mesoporous composite catalyst exhibited higher catalytic activity as compared with the conventional microporous ZSM-5 and HY zeolite for transformation of m-xylene and for the catalytic cracking of TIPB, respectively. The outstanding catalytic reactivity of m-xylene and TIPB molecules were mainly attributed to the easier access of active sites provided by the mesopores. Apparent activation energies for the disappearance of m-xylene and TIPB over all catalysts were found to decrease in the order: EBCM>EZSM-5 and EBCM>EHY, respectively. © 2012 Canadian Society for Chemical Engineering.

  15. Fuel Flexible, Low Emission Catalytic Combustor for Opportunity Fuel Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eteman, Shahrokh


    Limited fuel resources, increasing energy demand and stringent emission regulations are drivers to evaluate process off-gases or process waste streams as fuels for power generation. Often these process waste streams have low energy content and/or highly reactive components. Operability of low energy content fuels in gas turbines leads to issues such as unstable and incomplete combustion. On the other hand, fuels containing higher-order hydrocarbons lead to flashback and auto-ignition issues. Due to above reasons, these fuels cannot be used directly without modifications or efficiency penalties in gas turbine engines. To enable the use of these wide variety of fuels in gas turbine engines a rich catalytic lean burn (RCL®) combustion system was developed and tested in a subscale high pressure (10 atm.) rig. The RCL® injector provided stability and extended turndown to low Btu fuels due to catalytic pre-reaction. Previous work has shown promise with fuels such as blast furnace gas (BFG) with LHV of 85 Btu/ft3 successfully combusted. This program extends on this work by further modifying the combustor to achieve greater catalytic stability enhancement. Fuels containing low energy content such as weak natural gas with a Lower Heating Value (LHV) of 6.5 MJ/m3 (180 Btu/ft3 to natural gas fuels containing higher hydrocarbon (e.g ethane) with LHV of 37.6 MJ/m3 (1010 Btu/ft3) were demonstrated with improved combustion stability; an extended turndown (defined as the difference between catalytic and non-catalytic lean blow out) of greater than 250oF was achieved with CO and NOx emissions lower than 5 ppm corrected to 15% O2. In addition, for highly reactive fuels the catalytic region preferentially pre-reacted the higher order hydrocarbons with no events of flashback or auto-ignition allowing a stable and safe operation with low NOx and CO emissions.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lisý


    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the theoretical description of the cleaning of syngas from biomass and waste gasification using catalytic methods, and on the verification of the theory through experiments. The main obstruction to using syngas from fluid gasification of organic matter is the presence of various high-boiling point hydrocarbons (i.e., tar in the gas. The elimination of tar from the gas is a key factor in subsequent use of the gas in other technologies for cogeneration of electrical energy and heat. The application of a natural or artificial catalyst for catalytic destruction of tar is one of the methods of secondary elimination of tar from syngas. In our experiments, we used a natural catalyst (dolomite or calcium magnesium carbonate from Horní Lánov with great mechanical and catalytic properties, suitable for our purposes. The advantages of natural catalysts in contrast to artificial catalysts include their availability, low purchase prices and higher resilience to the so-called catalyst poison. Natural calcium catalysts may also capture undesired compounds of sulphure and chlorine. Our paper presents a theoretical description and analysis of catalytic destruction of tar into combustible gas components, and of the impact of dolomite calcination on its efficiency. The efficiency of the technology is verified in laboratories. The facility used for verification was a 150 kW pilot gasification unit with a laboratory catalytic filter. The efficiency of tar elimination reached 99.5%, the tar concentration complied with limits for use of the gas in combustion engines, and the tar content reached approximately 35 mg/mn3. The results of the measurements conducted in laboratories helped us design a pilot technology for catalytic gas cleaning.

  17. Quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics study of the catalytic cycle of water splitting in photosystem II. (United States)

    Sproviero, Eduardo M; Gascón, José A; McEvoy, James P; Brudvig, Gary W; Batista, Victor S


    This paper investigates the mechanism of water splitting in photosystem II (PSII) as described by chemically sensible models of the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) in the S0-S4 states. The reaction is the paradigm for engineering direct solar fuel production systems since it is driven by solar light and the catalyst involves inexpensive and abundant metals (calcium and manganese). Molecular models of the OEC Mn3CaO4Mn catalytic cluster are constructed by explicitly considering the perturbational influence of the surrounding protein environment according to state-of-the-art quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) hybrid methods, in conjunction with the X-ray diffraction (XRD) structure of PSII from the cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus. The resulting models are validated through direct comparisons with high-resolution extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopic data. Structures of the S3, S4, and S0 states include an additional mu-oxo bridge between Mn(3) and Mn(4), not present in XRD structures, found to be essential for the deprotonation of substrate water molecules. The structures of reaction intermediates suggest a detailed mechanism of dioxygen evolution based on changes in oxidization and protonation states and structural rearrangements of the oxomanganese cluster and surrounding water molecules. The catalytic reaction is consistent with substrate water molecules coordinated as terminal ligands to Mn(4) and calcium and requires the formation of an oxyl radical by deprotonation of the substrate water molecule ligated to Mn(4) and the accumulation of four oxidizing equivalents. The oxyl radical is susceptible to nucleophilic attack by a substrate water molecule initially coordinated to calcium and activated by two basic species, including CP43-R357 and the mu-oxo bridge between Mn(3) and Mn(4). The reaction is concerted with water ligand exchange, swapping the activated water by a water molecule in the second coordination shell of

  18. Sub-micron Cu/SSZ-13: Synthesis and application as selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prodinger, Sebastian; Derewinski, Miroslaw A.; Wang, Yilin; Washton, Nancy M.; Walter, Eric D.; Szanyi, János; Gao, Feng; Wang, Yong; Peden, Charles H. F.


    For the first time, sub-micron Cu/SSZ-13, obtained by modifying an existing synthesis procedure, was shown to be an effective and stable catalyst for selective catalytic reduction reactions, such as NO reduction. Characterization of the materials with X-ray diffraction, N2-physisorption and 27Al MAS NMR shows that hydrothermal aging, simulating SCR reaction conditions, is more destructive in respect to dealumination for smaller particles prior to Cu-exchange. However, the catalytic performance and hydrothermal stability for Cu/SSZ-13 is independent of the particle size. In particular, the stability of tetrahedral framework Al is improved in the sub-micron Cu/SSZ-13 catalysts of comparable Cu loading. This indicates that variations in the Al distribution for different SSZ-13 synthesis procedures have a more critical influence on stabilizing isolated Cu-ions during harsh hydrothermal aging than the particle size. This study is of high interest for applications in vehicular DeNOx technologies where high loadings of active species on wash coats can be achieved by using sub-micron Cu/SSZ-13. The authors would like to thank B. W. Arey and J. J. Ditto for performing electron microscope imaging. The authors gratefully acknowledge the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office for the support of this work. S. P and M. A. D also acknowledge support by the Materials Synthesis and Simulation Across Scales (MS3 Initiative) conducted under the Laboratory Directed Research & Development Program at PNNL. The research described in this paper was performed in the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a national scientific user facility sponsored by the DOE’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated for the US DOE by Battelle.

  19. Improved propene yields from catalytic cracking. The potential of medium-pore zeolites as additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bager, Florian; Nieves Lopez Salas, Maria de las; Ernst, Stefan [Kaiserslautern Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Chemistry, Chemical Technology


    Light olefins, especially ethene and propene, are important building blocks in the petrochemical industry. Today, the major part of propene is produced via steam cracking and, to a smaller extent, obtained as a by-product from fluid catalytic cracking (FCC). The standard catalyst in the FCC process still is zeolite Y, but zeolite ZSM-5 is used since many years as an additive to increase the yield of light olefins, especially of propene. The aim of our study is to investigate the potential of medium-pore zeolites different from ZSM-5 as additives for FCC catalysts. Therefore, a series of ten-membered ring zeolites, viz. ZSM-22 (TON), ZSM-23 (MTT), EU-1 (EUO) and ZSM-5 (MFI) as reference material were synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and modified by ion exchange to obtain the Broensted-acid forms. The activity and selectivity of these catalysts in the catalytic cracking of n-octane as a model hydrocarbon were studied in a continuously operated fixed-bed flow-type reactor. The obtained results clearly demonstrate the effect of the pore architecture on the n-octane conversion and the product distribution. Compared with the three-dimensional zeolite ZSM-5, both one-dimensional zeolites lacking any intracrystalline cavities, viz. ZSM-22 and ZSM-23, exhibit a remarkable increase of monomolecular cracking, resulting in an increasing selectivity to unsaturated products. Introducing large cavities in the pore system, i. e. as in the case of zeolite EU-1, enhances the conversion in particular at lower reaction temperatures. However, these large cavities offer more space for the formation of large transition states required for the classical bimolecular cracking mechanism. As a result, a decreasing selectivity to olefins(including propene) and an increasing amount of aromatics is observed. (orig.)

  20. 40 CFR 63.1566 - What are my requirements for organic HAP emissions from catalytic reforming units? (United States)


    ... HAP emissions from catalytic reforming units? 63.1566 Section 63.1566 Protection of Environment... Petroleum Refineries: Catalytic Cracking Units, Catalytic Reforming Units, and Sulfur Recovery Units Catalytic Cracking Units, Catalytic Reforming Units, Sulfur Recovery Units, and Bypass Lines § 63.1566 What...

  1. 40 CFR 63.1567 - What are my requirements for inorganic HAP emissions from catalytic reforming units? (United States)


    ... HAP emissions from catalytic reforming units? 63.1567 Section 63.1567 Protection of Environment... Petroleum Refineries: Catalytic Cracking Units, Catalytic Reforming Units, and Sulfur Recovery Units Catalytic Cracking Units, Catalytic Reforming Units, Sulfur Recovery Units, and Bypass Lines § 63.1567 What...

  2. 40 CFR 63.1564 - What are my requirements for metal HAP emissions from catalytic cracking units? (United States)


    ... emissions from catalytic cracking units? 63.1564 Section 63.1564 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Refineries: Catalytic Cracking Units, Catalytic Reforming Units, and Sulfur Recovery Units Catalytic Cracking... requirements for metal HAP emissions from catalytic cracking units? (a) What emission limitations and work...

  3. 40 CFR 63.1565 - What are my requirements for organic HAP emissions from catalytic cracking units? (United States)


    ... HAP emissions from catalytic cracking units? 63.1565 Section 63.1565 Protection of Environment... Petroleum Refineries: Catalytic Cracking Units, Catalytic Reforming Units, and Sulfur Recovery Units Catalytic Cracking Units, Catalytic Reforming Units, Sulfur Recovery Units, and Bypass Lines § 63.1565 What...

  4. Developing catalysts and catalytic processes with industrial relevance. (United States)

    Blaser, Hans-Ulrich


    The catalysis group of Solvias has its roots in the Central Research Laboratories of Ciba-Geigy. Since the early eighties its research has been focused on three areas of catalytic technology: heterogeneous hydrogenation, coupling catalysis, and enantioselective hydrogenation. Today, these are still the catalytic methods with the greatest industrial potential. In this overview a short description will be given how these methods have been developed further since the spin-off of Solvias in 1999. It will be discussed which strategies were successful and what the most important results have been in the first decade of Solvias.

  5. Upgrading of Intermediate Bio-Oil Produced by Catalytic Pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, Zia [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Chadwell, Brad [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Taha, Rachid [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Hindin, Barry [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Ralston, Kevin [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States)


    The objectives of this project were to (1) develop a process to upgrade catalytic pyrolysis bio-oil, (2) investigate new upgrading catalysts suited for upgrading catalytic pyrolysis bio-oil, (3) demonstrate upgrading system operation for more than 1,000 hours using a single catalyst charge, and (4) produce a final upgraded product that can be blended to 30 percent by weight with petroleum fuels or that is compatible with existing petroleum refining operations. This project has, to the best of our knowledge, for the first time enabled a commercially viable bio-oil hydrotreatment process to produce renewable blend stock for transportation fuels.

  6. Catalytic processing of coal and biomass to carbon materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, B.N.; Shchipko, M.L.; Golovin, Y.G.; Ugay, M.Y. [Krasnoyarsk State University, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation). Inst. of Chemistry of Natural Organic Materials


    The synthesis of carbon materials is rather new and promising field of a catalyst application. The high potentialities of catalytic processes in the carbon materials production are connected with the catalyst ability to regulate the structure and some properties of carbon products, to increase the process affectivity and ecological safety. The new catalytic methods, developed by authors for the producing of different types of carbon products from coal and biomass raw materials, are described in the present paper. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Assembly of catalytic subunits of aspartate transcarbamoylase from Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, D.L.; Schachman, H.K.


    Although extensive studies have been conducted on the assembly of the allosteric enzyme, aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase) from isolate, intact catalytic (C) and regulatory (R) subunits, there has been little research on the formation of these subunits from individual catalytic (c) and regulatory (r) polypeptide chains. Such studies would be useful for evaluating the strengths of the interchain bonding domains within the subunits just as earlier experiments provided valuable data regarding interactions between the subunits in ATCase. The intact enzyme comprising two C trimers and three R dimers is designated as C/sub 2/R/sub 3/ or c/sub 6/r/sub 6/.

  8. Catalytic oxidation for treatment of ECLSS and PMMS waste streams (United States)

    Akse, James R.; Jolly, Clifford D.


    It is shown that catalytic oxidation is an effective technique for the removal of trace organic contaminants in a multifiltration potable processor's effluent. Essential elements of this technology are devices that deliver oxygen to the influent, and remove gaseous reaction byproducts from the effluent, via hollow-tube, gas-permeable membranes. Iodine, which poisons existing catalysis, is removed by a small deiodination bed prior to catalytic reactor entrance. The catalyst used is a mixture of Pt and Ru deposited on carbon, operating at 125-160 C and 39-90 psi pressures.

  9. Porous protein crystals as catalytic vessels for organometallic complexes. (United States)

    Tabe, Hiroyasu; Abe, Satoshi; Hikage, Tatsuo; Kitagawa, Susumu; Ueno, Takafumi


    Porous protein crystals, which are protein assemblies in the solid state, have been engineered to form catalytic vessels by the incorporation of organometallic complexes. Ruthenium complexes in cross-linked porous hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) crystals catalyzed the enantioselective hydrogen-transfer reduction of acetophenone derivatives. The crystals accelerated the catalytic reaction and gave different enantiomers based on the crystal form (tetragonal or orthorhombic). This method represents a new approach for the construction of bioinorganic catalysts from protein crystals. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Catalytic Antibodies for Prophylaxis/Treatment of Cyanide Poisoning (United States)


    antibodies by site-directed mutagenis and by chain shf ’,𔃻- and large increases on the order of 200-300X have been reported by Sharon (1990), Bedzyk...CONTRACT NO: DAD17-90-C-0C23 TITLE: CATALYTIC ANTIBODIES FOR PROPHYLAXIS/TREATKENT OF CYANIDE POISONING PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: C. Edgar Cook, Ph.D...28M 19 Fnl 5February 1990 - 30 April 1993, 4 TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDIN4G NUMBERS Catalytic Antibodies for Prophylaxis/Treatment of DAMD17-90-C-0023


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This project was directed at an investigation of catalytic NO{sub x} reduction on carbonaceous supports at low temperatures. The experimental work was conducted primarily in a packed bed reactor/gas flow system that was constructed for this work. The analytical techniques employed were mass spectrometry, NO{sub x} chemiluminescence, and gas chromatography. The experimental plan was focused on steady-state reactivity experiments, followed by temperature programmed desorption (TPD) of surface intermediates, and also selected temperature-programmed reaction (TPR) experiments. Both uncatalyzed and catalyzed (potassium-promoted) phenolic resin char, were investigated as well as the catalytic effect of additional CO in the gas phase.

  12. Exchange asymmetry in experimental settings (United States)

    Thomas C. Brown; Mark D. Morrison; Jacob A. Benfield; Gretchen Nurse Rainbolt; Paul A. Bell


    We review past trading experiments and present 11 new experiments designed to show how the trading rate responds to alterations of the experimental procedure. In agreement with earlier studies, results show that if the trade decision is converted to one resembling a choice between goods the exchange asymmetry disappears, but otherwise the asymmetry is...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Using spectral analysis is very common in technical areas but rather unusual in economics and finance, where ARIMA and GARCH modeling are much more in use. To show that spectral analysis can be useful in determining hidden periodic components for high-frequency finance data as well, we use the example of foreign exchange rates

  14. Our International Art Exchange Project. (United States)

    Cocciolone, Kathy R.


    Discusses an international art exchange project designed to teach fifth-grade students that the culture of a country is reflected in its art and that art is a universal language. Describes the contributions from Scotland, Mexico, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Japan, and India. Points out ways to use materials in schools. (KO)

  15. Milk fouling in heat exchangers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurnink, T.J.M.


    The mechanisms of fouling of heat exchangers by milk were studied. Two major fouling mechanisms were indentified during the heat treatment of milk: (i) the formation and the subsequent deposition of activated serum protein molecules as a result of the heat denaturation; (ii) the

  16. Update of telephone exchange switches

    CERN Multimedia


    Within the scope of the CERN phone services improvement, a software update will be done on exchange switches on Wednesday 27 october from 7.00 pm to 12.00 pm. Disturbances or even interruptions of telephony services may occur during this intervention. We appology in advance for any inconveniences that may occur.

  17. Maintenance of CERN telephone exchanges

    CERN Multimedia


    A maintenance of CERN telephone exchanges will be performed on 21st, 22nd, 23rd, 24th of September from 7 p.m. to 9 p.m. Disturbances or even interruptions of telephony services may occur during this lapse of time. We apology in advance for any inconveniences that this may cause.

  18. The Commodity and its Exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset


    and the value of the quota are examined through the concrete exchange of fishing rights, and it is explained why quota trade can give rise to speculation and monopolies. In the final part of the chapter, it is argued that the value of transferable fishing quotas rely on a social relation between owners...... and nonowners of quota, as a form of monopoly rent....

  19. Baltic Exchange teper v Tallinne

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Viimane osa merekonteineritesse kokkupakitud Londoni laevandus- ja merebörsi Baltic Exchange'i endise peakorteri detailidest jõudis 2007. a. juunis Tallinna. Hoone detailid ostnud ärimehed Heiti Hääl ja Eerik-Niiles Kross plaanivad leida hoonele koha Tallinna kesklinnas. E.-N. Krossi kommentaar

  20. Energy Exchange NASA Opening Plenary (United States)

    Marrs, Rick


    Rick Marrs, Deputy Assistant Administrator Office of Strategic Infrastructure NASA Headquarters will be speaking during the 2017 Energy Exchange opening plenary. His presentation showcases the NASA mission, sustainability at NASA, NASA's strategic Sustainability Performance Plan, Existing PV Partnerships, and NASA funded Solar Initiatives at KSC.

  1. Homans on Exchange: Hedonism Revived (United States)

    Abrahamsson, Bengt


    George C. Homan's theory on social exchange is critically examined and found to have serious shortcomings with regard to its deductive and inductive aspects. An expecially prominent shortcoming concerns the tautological character of his concept of reward," which makes his theory deductively unclear and empirically untestable. Homan's critique…

  2. Common knowledge in email exchanges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sietsma, F.; Apt, K.R.; van Eijck, D.J.N.; Verbrugge, R.


    We consider a framework in which a group of agents communicates by means of emails, with the possibility of replies, forwards and blind carbon copies (BCC). We study the epistemic consequences of such email exchanges by introducing an appropriate epistemic language and semantics. This allows us to

  3. Knowledge Exchange with Sistema Scotland (United States)

    Allan, Julie; Moran, Nikki; Duffy, Celia; Loening, Gica


    This paper reports on a knowledge exchange project, funded by the Scottish Funding Council and undertaken by a group of researchers from three higher education institutions in Scotland and the project partner, Sistema Scotland. This newly established charity is attempting to implement a major programme of social change, developed in Venezuela,…

  4. Inflationary trispectrum from graviton exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seery, David; Sloth, Martin Snoager; Vernizzi, Filippo


    We compute the connected four-point correlation function of the primordial curvature perturbation generated during inflation with standard kinetic terms, where the correlation is established via exchange of a graviton between two pairs of scalar fluctuations. Any such correlation yields a contrib...

  5. On the study of catalytic membrane reactor for water detritiation: Membrane characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mascarade, Jérémy, E-mail: [CEA, DEN, DTN/STPA/LIPC Cadarache, F-13108 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Liger, Karine; Troulay, Michèle [CEA, DEN, DTN/STPA/LIPC Cadarache, F-13108 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Joulia, Xavier; Meyer, Xuan-Mi [CNRS, Laboratoire de Génie Chimique, F-31030 Toulouse (France); Perrais, Christophe [CEA, DEN, DTN/STPA/LIPC Cadarache, F-13108 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Tosti, Silvano [ENEA, UTFUS, C.R. ENEA Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (RM) (Italy)


    Highlights: ► Catalytic palladium based membrane reactor is studied for ITER tritium waste management. ► Concentration polarization effect was highlighted by two-dimensional mass transfer model. ► Mass transfer resistance due to concentration polarization is reduced by the increase of fluid velocity. ► Concentration polarization phenomenon is enhanced by the decrease of non-permeable species content in the feed stream. -- Abstract: Tritium waste recycling is a real economic and ecological issue. Generally under the non-valuable Q{sub 2}O form (Q = H, D or T), waste can be converted into fuel Q{sub 2} for a fusion machine (e.g. JET, ITER) by isotope exchange reaction Q{sub 2}O + H{sub 2} = H{sub 2}O + Q{sub 2}. Such a reaction is carried out over Ni-based catalyst bed packed in a thin wall hydrogen permselective membrane tube. This catalytic membrane reactor can achieve higher conversion ratios than conventional fixed bed reactors by selective removal of reaction product Q{sub 2} by the membrane according to Le Chatelier's Law. This paper presents some preliminary permeation tests performed on a catalytic membrane reactor. Permeabilities of pure hydrogen and deuterium as well as those of binary mixtures of hydrogen, deuterium and nitrogen have been estimated by measuring permeation fluxes at temperatures ranging from 573 to 673 K, and pressure differences up to 1.5 bar. Pure component global fluxes were linked to permeation coefficient by means of Sieverts’ law. The thin membrane (150 μm), made of Pd–Ag alloy (23 wt.%{sub Ag}), showed good permeability and infinite selectivity toward protium and deuterium. Lower permeability values were obtained with mixtures containing non permeable gases highlighting the existence of gas phase resistance. The sensitivity of this concentration polarization phenomenon to the composition and the flow rate of the inlet was evaluated and fitted by a two-dimensional model.

  6. Exchange Rate Expectations and the Current Exchange Rate: A Test of the Monetarist Approach


    V S Somanath


    The monetarist model of the exchange rate includes expectations of the future exchange rate as a determinant of the current exchange rate. This paper investigates whether expectations are a significant determinant of the exchange rate. An expectations process that is consistent with a basic monetarist exchange rate model is considered. Alternative measures of expectations are generated using this process. In the empirical tests, while the standard forward exchange premium measure of expectati...

  7. Phase exposure-dependent exchange (United States)

    Ginn, T. R.; Schreyer, L. G.; Zamani, K.


    Solutes and suspended material often experience delays during exchange between phases one of which may be moving. Consequently transport often exhibits combined effects of advection/dispersion, and delays associated with exchange between phases. Such processes are ubiquitous and include transport in porous/fractured media, watersheds, rivers, forest canopies, urban infrastructure systems, and networks. Upscaling approaches often treat the transport and delay mechanisms together, yielding macroscopic "anomalous transport" models. When interaction with the immobile phase is responsible for the delays, it is not the transport that is anomalous, but the lack of it, due to delays. We model such exchanges with a simple generalization of first-order kinetics completely independent of transport. Specifically, we introduce a remobilization rate coefficient that depends on the time in immobile phase. Memory-function formulations of exchange (with or without transport) can be cast in this framework, and can represent practically all time-nonlocal mass balance models including multirate mass transfer and its equivalent counterparts in the continuous time random walk and time-fractional advection dispersion formalisms, as well as equilibrium exchange. Our model can address delayed single-/multievent remobilizations as in delay-differential equations and periodic remobilizations that may be useful in sediment transport modeling. It is also possible to link delay mechanisms with transport if so desired, or to superpose an additional source of nonlocality through the transport operator. This approach allows for mechanistic characterization of the mass transfer process with measurable parameters, and the full set of processes representable by these generalized kinetics is a new open question.

  8. Foreign Exchange Reserves: Bangladesh Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zahangir Alam


    Full Text Available This study is about foreign exchangereserves of Bangladesh. The mainpurpose of this study is to the influence of exchange rates on foreign exchangereserves to the Bangladesh context.  Both the primary and secondary data has been used inthis study. The primary data has been collected through a structuredquestionnaire from 50 respondents. The secondary data, namely Bangladeshforeign exchange reserves (FER, Bangladesh current account balance (CAB,Bangladesh capital andfinancial account balance (CFAB, and BDT/USD exchange rates (ER.  This study covers yearly data from July 01,1996 to June 30, 2005 and quarterly data from July 01, 2005 to June 30, 2012. Findingsof this study shows that out of the selected 16 factors affecting foreignexchange reserves, exchange rates occupy the first position, weighted averagescore (WAS being 4.56. Foreign exchange reserves (FER and current accountbalance (CAB have increased by 502.9087% and 1451.218%,whereas capital and financial account (CFAB has decreased by -649.024% on June30, 2012 compared to June 30, 1997. The influence of other factors heldconstant, as ER changes by 285.6894 units due to one unit change in FER, onaverage in the same direction which represents that ER has positive effect on theFER and this relationship is statistically significant.  62.1526 percentof the variation in FER is explained by ER. The outcomes of Breusch-Godfrey test (LM test, ARCHtest, and the Normality test are that there is a serial correlation among residuals, the variance of residuals is notconstant, and the residuals are not normally distributed.

  9. Compact Ceramic Microchannel Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewinsohn, Charles [Ceramatec, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)


    The objective of the proposed work was to demonstrate the feasibility of a step change in power plant efficiency at a commercially viable cost, by obtaining performance data for prototype, compact, ceramic microchannel heat exchangers. By performing the tasks described in the initial proposal, all of the milestones were met. The work performed will advance the technology from Technology Readiness Level 3 (TRL 3) to Technology Readiness Level 4 (TRL 4) and validate the potential of using these heat exchangers for enabling high efficiency solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) or high-temperature turbine-based power plants. The attached report will describe how this objective was met. In collaboration with The Colorado School of Mines (CSM), specifications were developed for a high temperature heat exchanger for three commercial microturbines. Microturbines were selected because they are a more mature commercial technology than SOFC, they are a low-volume and high-value target for market entry of high-temperature heat exchangers, and they are essentially scaled-down versions of turbines used in utility-scale power plants. Using these specifications, microchannel dimensions were selected to meet the performance requirements. Ceramic plates were fabricated with microchannels of these dimensions. The plates were tested at room temperature and elevated temperature. Plates were joined together to make modular, heat exchanger stacks that were tested at a variety of temperatures and flow rates. Although gas flow rates equivalent to those in microturbines could not be achieved in the laboratory environment, the results showed expected efficiencies, robust operation under significant temperature gradients at high temperature, and the ability to cycle the stacks. Details of the methods and results are presented in this final report.

  10. The exchange factor Cdc24 is required for cell fusion during yeast mating. (United States)

    Barale, Sophie; McCusker, Derek; Arkowitz, Robert A


    During Saccharomyces cerevisiae mating, chemotropic growth and cell fusion are critical for zygote formation. Cdc24p, the guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the Cdc42 G protein, is necessary for oriented growth along a pheromone gradient during mating. To understand the functions of this critical Cdc42p activator, we identified additional cdc24 mating mutants. Two mating-specific mutants, the cdc24-m5 and cdc24-m6 mutants, each were isolated with a mutated residue in the conserved catalytic domain. The cdc24-m6 mutant responds normally to pheromone and orients its growth towards a mating partner yet accumulates prezygotes during mating. cdc24-m6 prezygotes have two apposed intact cell walls and do not correctly localize proteins required for cell fusion, despite normal exocytosis. Our results indicate that the exchange factor Cdc24p is necessary for maintaining or restricting specific proteins required for cell fusion to the cell contact region during mating.

  11. Catalytic carbonization of wood charcoal : graphite or diamond?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hata, T; Vystavel, T; Bronsveld, P; DeHosson, J; Kikuchi, H; Nishimiya, K; Imamura, Y


    We report on the process of making graphite out of wood by catalytic carbonization. Two different types of microstructure were observed. One type being typical for graphitization of wood without the effect of a catalyst, the main characteristic being the typical fibrillar microstructure related back

  12. Synthesis, characterization and study of catalytic activity of Silver ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The highly dispersed Ag metal particles on ZnO surface was considered to be responsible for the catalytic activity. Keywords. Ag/ZnO nanocomposite; selective oxidation; benzyl alcohol; heterogeneous catalysis. 1. Introduction. The heterogeneous catalysis is recently extended to synthetic organic chemistry for production of ...

  13. Use of Electrically Heated Metal Catalytic Converter in Cold Starting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The easiest way to preheat the converter is to use electric resistance heaters. The electrical systems on most cars provide enough energy or power to heat the catalytic converter fast enough. So, in this research the main converter remains its usual position, whereas the heated catalyst is placed close to the exhaust manifold ...

  14. Studies on relative catalytic efficiencies of zinc and aluminium on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In Zn–Bi and Al–Bi systems, both of which belong to monotectic class, dispersion of second phase particles within the matrix have been produced through rapid solidification processing (RSP) route. In order to understand relative catalytic efficiencies of Zn and Al matrices in catalyzing nucleation of Bi particles entrapped in ...

  15. Catalytic aspects of a copper (II) complex: biological oxidase to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This copper complex displays excellent catalytic efficiency, kcat /KM (h⁻¹) = 6.17 × 10⁵ towards the oxidative coupling of 2-aminophenol (2-AP) to aminophenoxazin-3-one. Further, upon stoichiometric addition of copper(II) complex to 3,5-DTBC in presence of molecular oxygen in ethanol medium, the copper complex ...

  16. Evidence for the powerful catalytic ability of imidozirconocene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Imidozirconocene complex is known for its bifunctional reactivity and catalytic ability and this complex mediates ring cleavage of epoxides. Cyclooctene oxide (1) Norbornene oxide (2) and 2,5-dimethyl cyclohexene oxide (3) undergo ring cleavage in the presence of imidozirconocene complex. Epoxide 1 has.

  17. Well-defined transition metal hydrides in catalytic isomerizations. (United States)

    Larionov, Evgeny; Li, Houhua; Mazet, Clément


    This Feature Article intends to provide an overview of a variety of catalytic isomerization reactions that have been performed using well-defined transition metal hydride precatalysts. A particular emphasis is placed on the underlying mechanistic features of the transformations discussed. These have been categorized depending upon the nature of the substrate and in most cases discussed following a chronological order.

  18. Magnetic, catalytic, EPR and electrochemical studies on binuclear ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Spectral, catalytic, magnetic, EPR and electrochemical studies have been ... attention in recent years, particularly to understand the redox function of copper ... Binuclear Cu(II) complexes with 3,4-disubstituted phenol. 3. 2.2 Materials. All solvents and reagents were obtained from commercial source. Ethanol and methanol.

  19. Enhanced catalytic behavior of Ni alloys in steam methane reforming (United States)

    Yoon, Yeongpil; Kim, Hanmi; Lee, Jaichan


    The dissociation process of methane on Ni and Ni alloys are investigated by density functional theory (DFT) in terms of catalytic efficiency and carbon deposition. Examining the dissociation to CH3, CH2, CH, C, and H is not sufficient to properly predict the catalytic efficiency and carbon deposition, and further investigation of the CO gas-evolving reaction is required to completely understand methane dissociation in steam. The location of alloying element in Ni alloy needed be addressed from the results of ab-inito molecular dynamics (MD). The reaction pathway of methane dissociation associated with CO gas evolution is traced by performing first-principles calculations of the adsorption and activation energies of each dissociation step. During the dissociation process, two alternative reaction steps producing adsorbed C and H or adsorbed CO are critically important in determining coking inhibition as well as H2 gas evolution (i.e., the catalytic efficiency). The theoretical calculations presented here suggest that alloying Ni with Ru is an effective way to reduce carbon deposition and enhance the catalytic efficiency of H2 fueling in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs).

  20. Note on “Electrochemical promotion of catalytic reactions” (United States)

    Vernoux, Philippe; Vayenas, Constantinos G.


    A recent review published in this Journal of the electrochemical promotion of catalysis (EPOC or NEMCA effect) is discussed. Some key aspects of the effect’s phenomenology and physicochemical origin are reviewed and clarified and the interplay of catalytic kinetics and mass transfer limitations in EPOC studies under high vacuum is discussed.

  1. Catalytic characterization of bi-functional catalysts derived from Pd ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    (MIBK) from the reaction of acetone and hydrogen, which requires acid-base (for condensation) and metallic. (for hydrogenation) functions. It may be noted that several catalytic systems containing Pd, supported on various acid- base supports (Yang and Wu 2000; Das et al 2001) have also been tested for this reaction, ...

  2. Synthesis and characterization of Polyindole and its catalytic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The catalytic performance study of polyindole as a heterogeneous catalyst is reported for the syn- thesis of 3,3'-arylmethylene-bis-1H-Indole derivatives using various substituted aldehydes and indole under reflux reaction condition with good to excellent yield. Polyindole was synthesized by chemical oxidative poly ...

  3. Catalytic behavior of Cu, Ag and Au nanoparticles. A comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lippits, Meindert Jan


    Clearly gold deposited as nanoparticles on a support is a very active catalyst in contrast to bulk gold which does not show any catalytic activity. The question arises if this particle size effect is exclusively valid for gold catalysis or can a similar effect be found in other metals? In the

  4. Biobased methacrylic acid via selective catalytic decarboxylation of itaconic acid (United States)

    We report a bio-based route to methacrylic acid via selective decarboxylation of itaconic acid utilizing catalytic ruthenium carbonyl propionate in an aqueous solvent system. High selectivity (>90%) was achieved at low catalyst loading (0.1 mol %) with high substrate concentration (5.5 M) at low tem...

  5. Catalytic abatement of nitrous oxide from nitric and production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonk, J.


    Nitric acid production is identified as a main source of nitrous oxide. Options for emission reduction however are not available. TNO and Hydro Agri studied the technological and economic feasibility of catalytic decomposition of nitrous oxide in nitric acid tail-gases. Although in literature

  6. Advanced Catalytic Converter in Gasoline Enginer Emission Control: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leman A.M.


    Full Text Available Exhaust emission from automobile source has become a major contributor to the air pollution and environmental problem. Catalytic converter is found to be one of the most effective tools to reduce the overwhelming exhaust pollutants in our environment. The development of sustainable catalytic converter still remains a critical issue due to the stringent exhaust emission regulations. Another issue such as price and availability of the precious metal were also forced the automotive industry to investigate the alternatives for producing a better replacement for the material used in catalytic converter. This paper aims at reviewing the present development and improvement on the catalytic converter used on the reduction of exhaust emission in order to meet the regulations and market demand. The use of new catalyst such as to replace the noble metal material of Platinum (Pt, Palladium (Pd and Rhodium (Rh has been reviewed. Material such as zeolite, nickel oxide and metal oxide has been found to effectively reduce the emission than the commercial converter. The preparation method of the catalyst has also evolved through the years as it is to ensure a good characteristic of a good monolith catalyst. Ultrasonic treatment with combination of electroplating technique, citrate method and Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO has been found as the latest novel preparation method on producing an effective catalyst in reducing the exhaust emission.

  7. Oxidation of phosphine by sulfur or selenium involving a catalytic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    sulfur bond with the formation of new copper–phosphorous bond led to the development of a catalytic cycle using excess. PPh3 and S or Se as the reacting ... clean inter conversion between tetramer and monomer complex using elemental sulfur ...

  8. Trends in catalytic NO decomposition over transition metal surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falsig, Hanne; Bligaard, Thomas; Rass-Hansen, Jeppe


    The formation of NOx from combustion of fossil and renewable fuels continues to be a dominant environmental issue. We take one step towards rationalizing trends in catalytic activity of transition metal catalysts for NO decomposition by combining microkinetic modelling with density functional the...

  9. Ex-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biddy, M.; Dutta, A.; Jones, S.; Meyer, A.


    This technology pathway case investigates converting woody biomass using ex-situ catalytic fast pyrolysis followed by upgrading to gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for this pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived blendstocks have been identified.

  10. In-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biddy, M.; Dutta, A.; Jones, S.; Meyer, A.


    This technology pathway case investigates converting woody biomass using in-situ catalytic fast pyrolysis followed by upgrading to gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for this pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived blendstocks have been identified.

  11. Catalytic oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) - A review (United States)

    Kamal, Muhammad Shahzad; Razzak, Shaikh A.; Hossain, Mohammad M.


    Emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is one of the major contributors to air pollution. The main sources of VOCs are petroleum refineries, fuel combustions, chemical industries, decomposition in the biosphere and biomass, pharmaceutical plants, automobile industries, textile manufacturers, solvents processes, cleaning products, printing presses, insulating materials, office supplies, printers etc. The most common VOCs are halogenated compounds, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, aromatic compounds, and ethers. High concentrations of these VOCs can cause irritations, nausea, dizziness, and headaches. Some VOCs are also carcinogenic for both humans and animals. Therefore, it is crucial to minimize the emission of VOCs. Among the available technologies, the catalytic oxidation of VOCs is the most popular because of its versatility of handling a range of organic emissions under mild operating conditions. Due to that fact, there are numerous research initiatives focused on developing advanced technologies for the catalytic destruction of VOCs. This review discusses recent developments in catalytic systems for the destruction of VOCs. Review also describes various VOCs and their sources of emission, mechanisms of catalytic destruction, the causes of catalyst deactivation, and catalyst regeneration methods.

  12. Visualizing the mobility of silver during catalytic soot oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardini, Diego; Christensen, Jakob M.; Damsgaard, Christian Danvad


    The catalytic activity and mobility of silver nanoparticles used as catalysts in temperature programmed oxidation of soot:silver (1:5 wt:wt) mixtures have been investigated by means of flow reactor experiments and in situ environmental transmission electron microscopy (ETEM). The carbon oxidation...

  13. Alkali resistivity of Cu based selective catalytic reduction catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putluru, Siva Sankar Reddy; Jensen, Anker Degn; Riisager, Anders


    The deactivation of V2O5–WO3–TiO2, Cu–HZSM5 and Cu–HMOR plate type monolithic catalysts was investigated when exposed to KCl aerosols in a bench-scale reactor. Fresh and exposed catalysts were characterized by selective catalytic reduction (SCR) activity measurements, scanning electron microscope...

  14. Theoretical study of catalytic hydrogenation of oxirane and its methyl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    C3H6O) is its methyl derivative. Theoretical studies on catalytic hydrogenation of both compounds, in presence of aluminium chloride (AlCl3) catalyst, are carried out. The products of reactions are ethanol and propan-1-ol from oxirane and ...

  15. Heteropolyacids as an efficient and reusable catalytic system for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Highly regiospecific mononitration of phenols and substituted phenols is accomplished employing a metal nitrate and a catalytic amount of heteropolyacid in acetonitrile. An exclusive ortho-selectivity was observed with excellent yields. A variety of metal nitrates were used to obtain o-nitrophenols exclusively in good to ...

  16. Peroxidase-like catalytic activities of ionic metalloporphyrins ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The efficiency order for the various PS-MTPPS was seen to be Co>Mn>Fe, with CoTPPS showing efficiency comparable to that of horseradish peroxidase. The catalytic efficiency was found to be increasing with temperature for all the catalysts. The re-usability of these PS-MTPPS systems for peroxidase-like activity was also ...

  17. Synthesis of carbon nanotubes by catalytic vapor decomposition ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper describes an effect of flow rate, carrier gas (H2, N2 and Ar) composition, and amount of benzene on the quality and the yield of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) formed by catalytical vapour decomposition (CVD) method. The flow and mass control of gases and precursor vapors respectively were found to be ...

  18. Short hydrogen bonds in the catalytic mechanism of serine proteases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The survey of crystallographic data from the Protein Data Bank for 37 structures of trypsin and other serine proteases at a resolution of 0.78–1.28 Å revealed the presence of hydrogen bonds in the active site of the enzymes, which are formed between the catalytic histidine and aspartate residues and are on average 2.7 Å long. This is the typical bond length for normal hydrogen bonds. The geometric properties of the hydrogen bonds in the active site indicate that the H atom is not centered between the heteroatoms of the catalytic histidine and aspartate residues in the active site. Taken together, these findings exclude the possibility that short “low-barrier” hydrogen bonds are formed in the ground state structure of the active sites examined in this work. Some time ago, it was suggested by Cleland that the “low-barrier hydrogen bond” hypothesis is operative in the catalytic mechanism of serine proteases, and requires the presence of short hydrogen bonds around 2.4 Å long in the active site, with the H atom centered between the catalytic heteroatoms. The conclusions drawn from this work do not exclude the validity of the “low-barrier hydrogen bond” hypothesis at all, but they merely do not support it in this particular case, with this particular class of enzymes.

  19. Trends in the Catalytic CO Oxidation Activity of Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Jens Kehlet; Falsig, Hanne; Larsen, Britt Hvolbæk


    Going for gold: Density functional calculations show how gold nanoparticles are more active catalysts for CO oxidation than other metal nanoparticles. The high catalytic activity of nanosized gold clusters at low temperature is found to be related to the ability of low-coordinate metal atoms...

  20. Oxidation of phosphine by sulfur or selenium involving a catalytic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 121; Issue 1. Oxidation of phosphine by sulfur or selenium involving a catalytic cycle in the interconversion of monomer and tetramer forms of copper-maleonitriledithiolate complexes. Biplab K Maiti Sabyasachi Sarkar. Full Papers Volume 121 Issue 1 January 2009 pp ...

  1. Highly efficient catalytic reductive degradation of various organic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CeO₂-TiO₂ nano-hybrid along with NaBH₄ exhibited remarkable catalytic activities towards all the probed dyes, namely Methylene Blue, Methyl Orange, Congo Red, Rhodamine B and Malachite Green, with a degradation efficiency of ~100% in ...

  2. Dealumination of mordenite zeolite and its catalytic performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The catalytic performances of these synthesized catalysts were investigated for meta-xylene isomerization reaction in a fixed bed reactor. The performances were then benchmarked with the performance of SAPO-11, a commercially available catalyst.The results showed that p-xylene/o-xylene ratio over the catalysts was ...

  3. Polymer supported nickel complex: Synthesis, structure and catalytic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRASANTA RATHc. aCatalysis Research Lab, Department of Chemistry, Ravenshaw University, Cuttack - 3, Odisha, India ... But polymer supported transition metal complexes have shown high catalytic activity7,8 in comparison to homogeneous and unsupported catalysts. Also, polymer-supported cata- lysts are easily ...

  4. Catalytic Oxidation of Allylic Alcohols to Methyl Esters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallas-Hulin, Agata; Kotni, Rama Krishna; Nielsen, Martin


    parameters are studied to find the suitable reaction conditions. All catalysts are characterised by XRD, XRF and TEM. Among these catalysts, Au/TiO2 showed the most efficient catalytic activity towards the selective oxidation of allylic alcohols to the corresponding esters. Moreover, the same Au/TiO2...

  5. Catalytic Activity Control via Crossover between Two Different Microstructures

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Yuheng


    Metal nanocatalysts hold great promise for a wide range of heterogeneous catalytic reactions, while the optimization strategy of catalytic activity is largely restricted by particle size or shape control. Here, we demonstrate that a reversible microstructural control through the crossover between multiply-twinned nanoparticle (MTP) and single crystal (SC) can be readily achieved by solvent post-treatment on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Polar solvents (e.g. water, methanol) direct the transformation from MTP to SC accompanied by the disappearance of twinning and stacking faults. A reverse transformation from SC to MTP is achieved in non-polar solvent (e.g. toluene) mixed with thiol ligands. The transformation between two different microstructures is directly observed by in-situ TEM and leads to a drastic modulation of catalytic activity towards the gas-phase selective oxidation of alcohols. There is a quasi-linear relationship between TOFs and MTP concentrations. Based on the combined experimental and theoretical investigations of alcohol chemisorption on these nanocatalysts, we propose that the exposure of {211}-like microfacets associated with twin boundaries and stack faults accounts for the strong chemisorption of alcohol molecules on MTP AuNPs and thus the exceptionally high catalytic activity.

  6. High rates of catalytic hydrogen combustion with air over coated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    Aug 2, 2017 ... High rates of catalytic hydrogen combustion with air over. Ti0.97Pd0.03O2−δ coated cordierite monolith. BHASKAR DEVU MUKRI. ∗ and M S HEGDE. Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India. E-mail: MS received 9 May 2017; ...

  7. Catalytic wet peroxide oxidation of formic acid in wastewater with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jul 3, 2016 ... ABSTRACT. The catalytic wet oxidation of formic acid, using hydrogen peroxide as the oxidizing agent over naturally-occurring iron ore, was explored. Firstly, the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to its hydroxyl radicals (HO• and HOO•) over naturally-occurring iron ore was investigated. The reaction was ...

  8. Catalytic wet peroxide oxidation of formic acid in wastewater with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The catalytic wet oxidation of formic acid, using hydrogen peroxide as the oxidizing agent over naturally-occurring iron ore, was explored. Firstly, the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to its hydroxyl radicals (HO• and HOO•) over naturally-occurring iron ore was investigated. The reaction was monitored by ATR FTIR by ...

  9. Catalytic water oxidation: Rugged water-oxidation anodes (United States)

    Llobet, Antoni


    The efficient catalytic oxidation of water to dioxygen in the solid state is one of the challenges to be overcome to build sun-driven and/or electrocatalytic water-splitting devices. Now, an effective water-oxidation hybrid catalyst system has been made by attaching a ruthenium-polyoxometallate complex to a carbon nanotube.

  10. Catalytic Ketone Hydrodeoxygenation Mediated by Highly Electrophilic Phosphonium Cations. (United States)

    Mehta, Meera; Holthausen, Michael H; Mallov, Ian; Pérez, Manuel; Qu, Zheng-Wang; Grimme, Stefan; Stephan, Douglas W


    Ketones are efficiently deoxygenated in the presence of silane using highly electrophilic phosphonium cation (EPC) salts as catalysts, thus affording the corresponding alkane and siloxane. The influence of distinct substitution patterns on the catalytic effectiveness of several EPCs was evaluated. The deoxygenation mechanism was probed by DFT methods. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Catalytic transfer-hydrogenations of olefins in glycerol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Wolfson


    Full Text Available Glycerol has been successfully employed as a green solvent and hydrogen donor in the biphasic catalytic transfer-hydrogenation of olefins over Pd/C to yield the corresponding paraffins and dihydroxyacetone, respectively. The use of glycerol eased product separation and catalyst recycling and allowed for microwave-assisted reactions.

  12. Theoretical study of the catalytic desulfurization mechanism of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The desulfurization process of compounds implicates two steps. The first step is the adsorption process on the catalytic site and the second, the breaking of the carbon-heteroatom bond leading to the heteroatom elimination. The adsorption process of thiiren have been studied and published in previous works. The results ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    +, H+, ClO2- and catalyst. The pertinent mechanism, consistent with the experimental results is proposed. Based on the high sensitivity and selectivity of the reaction to the presence of Ru(III), using its catalytic efficiency on the oxidation of Nile ...

  14. Synthesis, characterization, scale-up and catalytic behaviour of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Highly uniform cobalt oxide (Co3O4) nanoparticles were synthesized via thermal decomposition of cobalt hydroxy carbonates with particle size around 16 ± 1 nm. The process gives reproducible results in batches of 1–5 kg. The particles show good catalytic activity for the oxidation of oxalic acid and benzaldehyde under ...

  15. Synthesis, characterization and catalytic performance of a novel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    Nov 22, 2009 ... three kinds of Mo-containing catalysts of ITQ-2-like, MCM-22 and ITQ-2 were investigated in the reaction of methane aromatization. ... Laforge et al 2005) and gas-oil cracking (Corma et al. 1999). It was found that the ... bited greater catalytic activity compared to other catalysts in the direct conversion of ...

  16. Life and death of a single catalytic cracking particle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meirer, Florian; Kalirai, Samanbir; Morris, Darius; Soparawalla, Santosh; Liu, Yijin; Mesu, Gerbrand; Andrews, Joy C; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) particles account for 40 to 45% of worldwide gasoline production. The hierarchical complex particle pore structure allows access of long-chain feedstock molecules into active catalyst domains where they are cracked into smaller, more valuable hydrocarbon products (for

  17. Catalytic oxidative cracking of hexane as a route to olefins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boyadjian, C.A.; Lefferts, Leonardus; Seshan, Kulathuiyer


    Catalytic oxidative cracking of naphtha is conceptually an alternative process to steam cracking. The performance of sol–gel synthesized Li/MgO in oxidative cracking of hexane as a model compound of naphtha, has been studied and compared to that of conventionally prepared catalyst. At a temperature

  18. Catalytic properties of ADAM12 and its domain deletion mutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Jonas; Visse, Robert; Sørensen, Hans Peter


    restricted specificity but a consensus sequence could not be defined as its subsite requirements are promiscuous. Kinetic analysis revealed that the noncatalytic C-terminal domains are important regulators of Cm-Tf activity and that ADAM12-PC consisting of the pro domain and catalytic domain is the most...

  19. Catalytic upgrading of biomass pyrolysis vapours using Faujasite zeolite catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.S.; Zabeti, M.; Lefferts, Leonardus; Brem, Gerrit; Seshan, Kulathuiyer


    Bio-oil produced via fast pyrolysis of biomass has the potential to be processed in a FCC (fluid catalytic cracking) unit to generate liquid fuel. However, this oil requires a significant upgrade to become an acceptable feedstock for refinery plants due to its high oxygen content. One promising

  20. Biodiesel by catalytic reactive distillation powered by metal oxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, A.A.; Dimian, A.C.; Rothenberg, G.


    The properties and use of biodiesel as a renewable fuel as well as the problems associated with its current production processes are outlined. A novel sustainable esterification process based on catalytic reactive distillation is proposed. The pros and cons of manufacturing biodiesel via fatty acid

  1. One-pot Solvent-free Catalytic Dimerization Reaction of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Catalytic reactions; Phenylacetylene; 1-Phenylnaphthalene; Copper(0)-Carbone catalyst; Solvent free synthesis; EDS; SEM; Molecular modelling. 1. Introduction. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been attracting a lot of attention in recent years.1–6 They are formed as a result of burning organic compounds ...

  2. Synthesis and characterization of Polyindole and its catalytic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The catalytic performance study of polyindole as a heterogeneous catalyst is reported for the synthesis of 3,3'-arylmethylene-bis-1H-Indole derivatives using various substituted aldehydes and indole under reflux reaction condition with good to excellent yield. Polyindole was synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerization ...

  3. Catalytic Synthesis of Ethyl Ester From Some Common Oils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Catalytic conversion of ethanol to fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) was carried out by homogeneous and heterogeneous transesterification of melon seed, shea butter and neem seed oils using NaOH, KOH and 5wt%CaO/Al2O3 catalyst systems respectively. Oil content of the seeds from n-hexane or hot water extract ranged ...

  4. Catalytic dehydrogenation of light alkanes on metals and metal oxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sattler, Jesper J H B|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/328235601; Ruiz-Martinez, Javier|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341386405; Santillan-Jimenez, Eduardo|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/323171958; Weckhuysen, Bert M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/285484397


    A study is conducted to demonstrate catalytic dehydrogenation of light alkanes on metals and metal oxides. The study provides a complete overview of the materials used to catalyze this reaction, as dehydrogenation for the production of light olefins has become extremely relevant. Relevant factors,

  5. Heterogeneous kinetic modeling of the catalytic conversion of cycloparaffins (United States)

    Al-Sabawi, Mustafa N.

    The limited availability of high value light hydrocarbon feedstocks along with the rise in crude prices has resulted in the international recognition of the vast potential of Canada's oil sands. With the recent expansion of Canadian bitumen production come, however, many technical challenges, one of which is the significant presence of aromatics and cycloparaffins in bitumen-derived feedstocks. In addition to their negative environmental impact, aromatics limit fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) feedstock conversion, decrease the yield and quality of valuable products such as gasoline and middle distillates, increase levels of polyaromatic hydrocarbons prone to form coke on the catalyst, and ultimately compromise the FCC unit performance. Although cycloparaffins do not have such negative impacts, they are precursors of aromatics as they frequently undergo hydrogen transfer reactions. However, cycloparaffin cracking chemistry involves other competing reactions that are complex and need much investigation. This dissertation provides insights and understanding of the fundamentals of the catalytic cracking of cycloparaffins using carefully selected model compounds such as methylcyclohexane (MCH) and decalin. Thermal and catalytic cracking of these cycloparaffins on FCC-type catalysts are carried out using the CREC Riser Simulator under operating conditions similar to those of the industrial FCC units in terms of temperature, reaction time, reactant partial pressure and catalyst-to-hydrocarbon ratio. The crystallite size of the supported zeolites is varied between 0.4 and 0.9 microns, with both activity and selectivity being monitored. Catalytic conversions ranged between 4 to 16 wt% for MCH and between 8 to 27 wt% for decalin. Reaction pathways of cycloparaffins are determined, and these include ring-opening, protolytic cracking, isomerization, hydrogen transfer and transalkylation. The yields and selectivities of over 60 and 140 products, formed during MCH and decalin

  6. On the effects of flow pulsation upon the performance of flow deflector for catalytic converter

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    HIRATA, Katsuya; TANAKA, Shinya; OTA, Masaya; INOUE, Taishi; OZAKI, Tomohiro; TANIGAWA, Hirochika


    ... catalytic-conversion efficiency. The authors have reported that a flow deflector placed inside a catalytic-converter diffuser part can drastically reduce the pressure loss and improve the velocity-profile uniformity in comparison...

  7. Catalytic Asymmetric Addition Reaction of Dialkylzinc to Nitrone Utilizing Tartaric Acid Ester as a Chiral Auxiliary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ukaji, Yutaka; Shimizu, Yuuko; Kenmoku, Yuuichi; Ahmed, Alauddin; Inomata, Katsuhiko


    The catalytic asymmetric addition reaction of dialkylzinc to carbon-nitrogen double bond in 3,4-dihydroisoquinoline N-oxide derivatives was achieved by utilizing a catalytic amount of dicyclopentyl (R,R...

  8. Structured catalysts and reactors for three phase catalytic reactions: manipulating activity and selectivity in nitrite hydrogenation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunet Espinosa, Roger


    This work aimed at fabricating structured catalytic reactors for fast multiphase reactions, namely, nitrite hydrogenation and H2O2 decomposition. These reactors allowed a better understanding of these reactions and an improvement in terms of catalytic activity and selectivity.

  9. Methods of using structures including catalytic materials disposed within porous zeolite materials to synthesize hydrocarbons (United States)

    Rollins, Harry W [Idaho Falls, ID; Petkovic, Lucia M [Idaho Falls, ID; Ginosar, Daniel M [Idaho Falls, ID


    Catalytic structures include a catalytic material disposed within a zeolite material. The catalytic material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of methanol from carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide, and the zeolite material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of hydrocarbon molecules from methanol. The catalytic material may include copper and zinc oxide. The zeolite material may include a first plurality of pores substantially defined by a crystal structure of the zeolite material and a second plurality of pores dispersed throughout the zeolite material. Systems for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules also include catalytic structures. Methods for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules include contacting hydrogen and at least one of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide with such catalytic structures. Catalytic structures are fabricated by forming a zeolite material at least partially around a template structure, removing the template structure, and introducing a catalytic material into the zeolite material.

  10. Industrial Gas Turbine Engine Catalytic Pilot Combustor-Prototype Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etemad, Shahrokh [Precision Combustion, Inc., North Haven, CT (United States); Baird, Benjamin [Precision Combustion, Inc., North Haven, CT (United States); Alavandi, Sandeep [Precision Combustion, Inc., North Haven, CT (United States); Pfefferle, William [Precision Combustion, Inc., North Haven, CT (United States)


    PCI has developed and demonstrated its Rich Catalytic Lean-burn (RCL®) technology for industrial and utility gas turbines to meet DOE's goals of low single digit emissions. The technology offers stable combustion with extended turndown allowing ultra-low emissions without the cost of exhaust after-treatment and further increasing overall efficiency (avoidance of after-treatment losses). The objective of the work was to develop and demonstrate emission benefits of the catalytic technology to meet strict emissions regulations. Two different applications of the RCL® concept were demonstrated: RCL® catalytic pilot and Full RCL®. The RCL® catalytic pilot was designed to replace the existing pilot (a typical source of high NOx production) in the existing Dry Low NOx (DLN) injector, providing benefit of catalytic combustion while minimizing engine modification. This report discusses the development and single injector and engine testing of a set of T70 injectors equipped with RCL® pilots for natural gas applications. The overall (catalytic pilot plus main injector) program NOx target of less than 5 ppm (corrected to 15% oxygen) was achieved in the T70 engine for the complete set of conditions with engine CO emissions less than 10 ppm. Combustor acoustics were low (at or below 0.1 psi RMS) during testing. The RCL® catalytic pilot supported engine startup and shutdown process without major modification of existing engine controls. During high pressure testing, the catalytic pilot showed no incidence of flashback or autoignition while operating over a wide range of flame temperatures. In applications where lower NOx production is required (i.e. less than 3 ppm), in parallel, a Full RCL® combustor was developed that replaces the existing DLN injector providing potential for maximum emissions reduction. This concept was tested at industrial gas turbine conditions in a Solar Turbines, Incorporated high-pressure (17 atm.) combustion rig and in a modified Solar

  11. Enhanced model predictive control of a catalytic flow reversal reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devals, C.; Bertrand, F.; Perrier, M. [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. de Genie Chimique; Fuxman, A.; Forbes, J.F.; Hayes, R.E. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering


    The removal of atmospheric methane by conversion to carbon dioxide has the potential to significantly reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) effect. Methane can be burned using conventional or catalytic combustion. Different types of reactors can be used for catalytic combustion, including the catalytic flow reversal reactor (CFRR) which has drawn much attention because auto-thermal operation can be achieved for lean low temperature feed. However, the control of CFRR is challenging. This study presented a method to predict the stationary state for the reactor. The method can be incorporated into a model predictive control (MPC) strategy as a terminal constant. The study involved a numerical simulation of the catalytic combustion of lean methane in a CFRR. In particular, the combustion of lean methane air mixtures in a CFRR was examined using a two dimensional heterogeneous continuum model, based on mole and energy balance equations for the solid (the inert and catalytic sections of the reactor) and the fluid phases. Several simulations were performed to study the reactor performance. The results showed the impact on the methane conversion and the maximum temperature in the reactor of key process parameters, such as the methane inlet concentration, the superficial gas velocity, the switching time, and the mass extraction rate. A simple empirical model was created to predict the maximum temperature and conversion of methane in the reactor at stationary state. Simulations revealed an improvement in control performance when adding a constraint for the maximum temperature. The improved results showed better performance in terms of heat extraction and smoothness of operation at low and high inlet concentrations. 23 refs., 4 tabs., 14 figs.

  12. Selenium utilization in thioredoxin and catalytic advantage provided by selenocysteine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Moon-Jung [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu 705-717 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byung Cheon [Division of Genetics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Division of Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences & Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Kwang Yeon [Division of Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences & Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Gladyshev, Vadim N. [Division of Genetics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Kim, Hwa-Young, E-mail: [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu 705-717 (Korea, Republic of)


    Thioredoxin (Trx) is a major thiol-disulfide reductase that plays a role in many biological processes, including DNA replication and redox signaling. Although selenocysteine (Sec)-containing Trxs have been identified in certain bacteria, their enzymatic properties have not been characterized. In this study, we expressed a selenoprotein Trx from Treponema denticola, an oral spirochete, in Escherichia coli and characterized this selenoenzyme and its natural cysteine (Cys) homologue using E. coli Trx1 as a positive control. {sup 75}Se metabolic labeling and mutation analyses showed that the SECIS (Sec insertion sequence) of T. denticola selenoprotein Trx is functional in the E. coli Sec insertion system with specific selenium incorporation into the Sec residue. The selenoprotein Trx exhibited approximately 10-fold higher catalytic activity than the Sec-to-Cys version and natural Cys homologue and E. coli Trx1, suggesting that Sec confers higher catalytic activity on this thiol-disulfide reductase. Kinetic analysis also showed that the selenoprotein Trx had a 30-fold higher K{sub m} than Cys-containing homologues, suggesting that this selenoenzyme is adapted to work efficiently with high concentrations of substrate. Collectively, the results of this study support the hypothesis that selenium utilization in oxidoreductase systems is primarily due to the catalytic advantage provided by the rare amino acid, Sec. - Highlights: • The first characterization of a selenoprotein Trx is presented. • The selenoenzyme Trx exhibits 10-fold higher catalytic activity than Cys homologues. • Se utilization in Trx is primarily due to the catalytic advantage provided by Sec residue.

  13. Modular Heat Exchanger With Integral Heat Pipe (United States)

    Schreiber, Jeffrey G.


    Modular heat exchanger with integral heat pipe transports heat from source to Stirling engine. Alternative to heat exchangers depending on integrities of thousands of brazed joints, contains only 40 brazed tubes.

  14. Flexible Exchange of Farming Device Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Pedersen, Torben Bach


    A new trend in the farming business is to replace conventional farming devices with computerized farming devices. Accordingly, numerous computer-based farming devices for logging, processing and exchanging data have recently been installed on moving farm machinery such as tractors. The exchange...... of data generally takes place between the devices and farming systems, mostly installed at the premises of farmers, contractors, advisory services etc. In most cases, data exchange is based on farming data exchange standards and is bi-directional. Bi-directional data exchange allows different devices...... and systems to exchange data based on a predefined set of rules. In consequence, many hand-coded data exchange solutions have been developed in the farming business. Although efforts regarding incorporating data exchange standards have been made, their actual usage so far has been limited, due to the fact...

  15. Heterogeneous Catalysis "On Demand": Mechanically Controlled Catalytic Activity of a Metal Surface. (United States)

    Mazur, Tomasz; Lach, Slawomir; Grzybowski, Bartosz A


    A metal surface passivated with a tightly packed self-assembled monolayer (SAM) can be made catalytically active upon the metal's mechanical deformation. This deformation renders the SAM sparser and exposes additional catalytic sites on the metal's surface. If the deformation is elastic, return of the metal to the original shape "heals" the SAM and nearly extinguishes the catalytic activity. Kelvin probe force microscopy and theoretical considerations both indicate that the catalytic domains "opening up" in the deformed SAM are of nanoscopic dimensions.

  16. Component Development to Accelerate Commercial Implementation of Ultra-Low Emissions Catalytic Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarty, Jon; Berry, Brian; Lundberg, Kare; Anson, Orris


    This final report describes a 2000-2003 program for the development of components and processes to enhance the commercialization of ultra-low emissions catalytic combustion in industrial gas turbines. The range of project tasks includes: development of more durable, lower-cost catalysts and catalytic combustor components; development and design of a catalytic pre-burner and a catalytic pilot burner for gas turbines, and on-site fuel conversion processing for utilization of liquid fuel.

  17. Rethinking exchange market models as optimization algorithms (United States)

    Luquini, Evandro; Omar, Nizam


    The exchange market model has mainly been used to study the inequality problem. Although the human society inequality problem is very important, the exchange market models dynamics until stationary state and its capability of ranking individuals is interesting in itself. This study considers the hypothesis that the exchange market model could be understood as an optimization procedure. We present herein the implications for algorithmic optimization and also the possibility of a new family of exchange market models

  18. Latin American foreign exchange intervention - Updated


    Da Silva, Sergio; Nunes, Mauricio


    We examine Latin American foreign exchange intervention in a framework where the exchange rate regime is endogenous and there exists an inefficient, equilibrium foreign exchange intervention bias. The model suggests that greater central bank independence is associated with lesser intervention in the foreign exchange market, and also with leaning-against-the-wind intervention. Both results are confirmed by data from 13 Latin American countries.

  19. How to stabilize the currency exchange rate


    BLINOV, Sergey


    In 2015, many countries had to deal with the weakening of their currencies. Issues regarding exchange rate management by the Central Banks have again become the focal point of heated debate. For example, the Russian Ruble exchange rate has been fluctuating hugely. The problem now is not so much the Ruble's weakness as instability of its exchange rate, volatility. The management of the Central Bank claims that stabilization of the Ruble exchange rate is not possible though it is the respons...

  20. Heat exchanger and related methods (United States)

    Turner, Terry D.; McKellar, Michael G.


    Heat exchangers include a housing having an inlet and an outlet and forming a portion of a transition chamber. A heating member may form another portion of the transition chamber. The heating member includes a first end having a first opening and a second end having a second opening larger than the first opening. Methods of conveying a fluid include supplying a first fluid into a transition chamber of a heat exchanger, supplying a second fluid into the transition chamber, and altering a state of a portion of the first fluid with the second fluid. Methods of sublimating solid particles include conveying a first fluid comprising a material in a solid state into a transition chamber, heating the material to a gaseous state by directing a second fluid through a heating member and mixing the first fluid and the second fluid.