WorldWideScience

Sample records for catalytic flue gas

  1. COMPARISON OF WEST GERMAN AND U.S. FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION AND SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION COSTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report documents a comparison of the actual cost retrofitting flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on Federal Republic of German (FRG) boilers to cost estimating procedures used in the U.S. to estimate the retrofit of these controls on U.S. b...

  2. Flue gas cleaning chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutberlet, H. [VEBA Kraftwerke Ruhr AG, Gelsenkirchen (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    The introduction of modern flue gas cleaning technology into fossil-fueled power stations has repeatedly confronted the power station chemists with new and interesting problems over the last 15 - 20 years. Both flue gas desulphurization by lime washing and catalytic removal of nitrogen oxides are based on simple basic chemical reactions. Owing to the use of readily available starting materials, the production of safe, useful end products and, last but not least, the possibility of implementing all this on an industrial scale by means of efficient process engineering, limestone desulphurization and catalytic removal of nitrogen oxides dominate the world market and, little by little, are becoming still more widespread. The origin and thus the quality of fuels and starting materials, the firing method, the mode of operation and engineering peculiarities in each plant interact in a complex manner. Simple cause/effect relationships are frequently incapable of explaining phenomena; thinking in complex interrelationships is needed. (EG)

  3. Long-time experience in catalytic flue gas cleaning and catalytic NO{sub x} reduction in biofueled boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahonen, M. [Tampella Power Inc., Tampere (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    NO emissions are reduced by primary or secondary methods. Primary methods are based on NO reduction in the combustion zone and secondary methods on flue gas cleaning. The most effective NO reduction method is selective catalytic reduction (SCR). It is based on NO reduction by ammonia on the surface of a catalyst. Reaction products are water and nitrogen. A titanium-dioxide-based catalyst is very durable and selective in coal-fired power plants. It is not poisoned by sulphur dioxide and side reactions with ammonia and sulphur dioxide hardly occur. The long time experience and suitability of a titanium-dioxide-based catalyst for NO reduction in biofuel-fired power plants was studied. The biofuels were: peat, wood and bark. It was noticed that deactivation varied very much due to the type of fuel and content of alkalinities in fuel ash. The deactivation in peat firing was moderate, close to the deactivation noticed in coal firing. Wood firing generally had a greater deactivation effect than peat firing. Fuel and fly ash were analyzed to get more information on the flue gas properties. The accumulation of alkali and alkaline earth metals and sulphates was examined together with changes in the physical composition of the catalysts. In the cases where the deactivation was the greatest, the amount of alkali and alkaline earth metals in fuels and fly ashes and their accumulation were very significant. (author) (3 refs.)

  4. Testing and design of selective catalytic reduction DENOX catalysts on the basis of titanium dioxide for flue gas cleaning plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neufert, R.; Zuerbig, J. (Siemens AG, Redwitz (Germany). Unternehmensbereich KWU, Keramik- und Porzellanwerk)

    1990-12-01

    Selective catalytic reduction catalysers based on titanium dioxide enjoy a commanding position in the market. Reasons for this are high catalytic activity with simultaneous high specificity, low SO{sub 2}/SO{sub 3} oxidation rates, chemical resistance against acid, flue gas constituents and mechanical stability. The principle of DENOX catalyser design is precise knowledge and analyses of the limiting conditions under which use in power station shall result. A suitable type of catalyser has to be selected in accordance with the conditions of application. Manufacture has to be supported by a complex system of quality assurance measures and tests, so that the catalyser characteristics specified in the design can be guaranteed. 4 figs.

  5. A Technical and Economical Evaluation of CO2 Capture from Fluidized Catalytic Cracking (FCC Flue Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Digne Romina

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Environmental issues, related to greenhouse gas and among them CO2, are becoming short term challenges. Pressure on industries and therefore on refining to limit and manage CO2 emissions will be reinforced in next few years. Refining industry is responsible for about 2.7% of global CO2 emissions. Fluidized Catalytic Cracking unit (FCC, one of the main process in refining, represents by itself 20% of the refinery CO2 emissions. As FCC unit is present in half of the refining schemes, it is challenging to find technologies to manage its emissions. Based on an industrial case, the aims of the presented work are to determine if amine technology HiCapt+, developed for power plant, might be a relevant solution to manage FCC CO2 emissions and to evaluate the additional cost to be supported by refiners.

  6. Flue Gas Cleaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fehrmann, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    and sulfuric acid in the atmosphere causing precipitation of acid rain resulting in death of forests and destruction of buildings and monuments in addition to human health problems. The most common state-of-the-art methods applied today industrially for cleaning of flue gases will be addressed, including wet......-time. But the problems may also be attacked by new materials like supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) gas absorbers where the pollutants may be selectively absorbed, desorbed and finally converted to useful mineral acids of commercial grade – really a green waste-to-value approach that we persue instead...

  7. Flue gas conditioning today

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southam, B.J.; Coe, E.L. Jr. [Wahlco Engineering International Ltd., Santa Ana, CA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Many relatively small electrostatic precipitators (ESP`s) exist which collect fly ash at remarkably high efficiencies and have been tested consistently at correspondingly high migration velocities. But the majority of the world`s coal supplies produce ashes which are collected at much lower migration velocities for a given efficiency and therefore require correspondingly large specific collection areas to achieve acceptable results. Early trials of flue gas conditioning (FGC) showed benefits in maximizing ESP performance and minimizing expense which justified continued experimentation. Trials of several dozen ways of doing it wrong eventually developed a set of reliable rules for doing it right. One result is that the use of sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}) for adjustment of the resistivity of fly ash from low sulfur coal has been widely applied and has become an automatically accepted part of the option of burning low sulfur coal for compliance with the Clean Air Act of l990 in the U.S.A. Currently, over 100,000 MW of generating capacity is using FGC, and it is estimated that approximately 45,800 MW will utilize coal-switching with FGC for Clean Air Act emission compliance. Guarantees that this equipment will be available to operate at least 98 percent of the time it is called upon are routinely fulfilled.

  8. Mercury sorbent delivery system for flue gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klunder; ,Edgar B.

    2009-02-24

    The invention presents a device for the removal of elemental mercury from flue gas streams utilizing a layer of activated carbon particles contained within the filter fabric of a filter bag for use in a flue gas scrubbing system.

  9. Wet flue gas desulfurization processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayrunnisa Çavuşoğlu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The wet flue gas desulfurization process is widely used for the treatment of exhaust gases in power stations. Due to its high level of effectiveness over the already available processes, it has also been the mostly preferred method by industry. Its high SO2 removal efficiency, wide applicability of absorption chemicals and the ease of the chemical process handling which does not require comprehensive konowledge are among the main advantages of this process. In this article, various wet flue gas desulfurization processes such as lime/limestone have beendiscussed.

  10. Coal fired flue gas mercury emission controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jiang; Pan, Weiguo [Shanghai Univ. of Electric Power (China); Cao, Yan; Pan, Weiping [Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metals, harmful to both the environment and human health. Hg is released into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources and its emission control has caused much concern. This book introduces readers to Hg pollution from natural and anthropogenic sources and systematically describes coal-fired flue gas mercury emission control in industry, especially from coal-fired power stations. Mercury emission control theory and experimental research are demonstrated, including how elemental mercury is oxidized into oxidized mercury and the effect of flue gas contents on the mercury speciation transformation process. Mercury emission control methods, such as existing APCDs (air pollution control devices) at power stations, sorbent injection, additives in coal combustion and photo-catalytic methods are introduced in detail. Lab-scale, pilot-scale and full-scale experimental studies of sorbent injection conducted by the authors are presented systematically, helping researchers and engineers to understand how this approach reduces the mercury emissions in flue gas and to apply the methods in mercury emission control at coal-fired power stations.

  11. Catalytic hydrolysis of urea with fly ash for generation of ammonia in a batch reactor for flue gas conditioning and NOx reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahu, J.N.; Gangadharan, P.; Patwardhan, A.V.; Meikap, B.C. [Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur (India). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2009-01-15

    Ammonia is a highly volatile noxious material with adverse physiological effects, which become intolerable even at very low concentrations and present substantial environmental and operating hazards and risk. Yet ammonia has long been known to be used for feedstock of flue gas conditioning and NOx reduction. Urea as the source of ammonia for the production of ammonia has the obvious advantages that no ammonia shipping, handling, and storage is required. The process of this invention minimizes the risks and hazards associated with the transport, storage, and use of anhydrous and aqueous ammonia. Yet no such rapid urea conversion process is available as per requirement of high conversion in shorter time, so here we study the catalytic hydrolysis of urea for fast conversion in a batch reactor. The catalyst used in this study is fly ash, a waste material originating in great amounts in combustion processes. A number of experiments were carried out in a batch reactor at different catalytic doses, temperatures, times, and at a constant concentration of urea solution 10% by weight, and equilibrium and kinetic studies have been made.

  12. CeO2-TiO2 catalysts for catalytic oxidation of elemental mercury in low-rank coal combustion flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hailong; Wu, Chang-Yu; Li, Ying; Zhang, Junying

    2011-09-01

    CeO(2)-TiO(2) (CeTi) catalysts synthesized by an ultrasound-assisted impregnation method were employed to oxidize elemental mercury (Hg(0)) in simulated low-rank (sub-bituminous and lignite) coal combustion flue gas. The CeTi catalysts with a CeO(2)/TiO(2) weight ratio of 1-2 exhibited high Hg(0) oxidation activity from 150 to 250 °C. The high concentrations of surface cerium and oxygen were responsible for their superior performance. Hg(0) oxidation over CeTi catalysts was proposed to follow the Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism whereby reactive species from adsorbed flue gas components react with adjacently adsorbed Hg(0). In the presence of O(2), a promotional effect of HCl, NO, and SO(2) on Hg(0) oxidation was observed. Without O(2), HCl and NO still promoted Hg(0) oxidation due to the surface oxygen, while SO(2) inhibited Hg(0) adsorption and subsequent oxidation. Water vapor also inhibited Hg(0) oxidation. HCl was the most effective flue gas component responsible for Hg(0) oxidation. However, the combination of SO(2) and NO without HCl also resulted in high Hg(0) oxidation efficiency. This superior oxidation capability is advantageous to Hg(0) oxidation in low-rank coal combustion flue gas with low HCl concentration.

  13. Flue gas dehydration using polymer membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijbesma, Hylke; Nymeijer, Kitty; Marwijk, van Rob; Heijboer, Rob; Potreck, Jens; Wessling, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Coal-fired power plants produce electricity and in addition to that large volume flows of flue gas. To prevent condensation of the water vapor present in this flue gas stream, water has to be removed before emission to the atmosphere. The application of membrane technology for this separation is att

  14. Sorbents for mercury removal from flue gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granite, Evan J.; Hargis, Richard A.; Pennline, Henry W.

    1998-01-01

    A review of the various promoters and sorbents examined for the removal of mercury from flue gas is presented. Commercial sorbent processes are described along with the chemistry of the various sorbent-mercury interactions. Novel sorbents for removing mercury from flue gas are suggested. Since activated carbons are expensive, alternate sorbents and/or improved activated carbons are needed. Because of their lower cost, sorbent development work can focus on base metal oxides and halides. Additionally, the long-term sequestration of the mercury on the sorbent needs to be addressed. Contacting methods between the flue gas and the sorbent also merit investigation.

  15. Recent developments in novel sorbents for flue gas clean up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yan; Bisson, Teresa M.; Yang, Hongqun; Xu, Zhenghe [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    2010-10-15

    Coal combustion is one of the most important energy sources for electricity generation, but also produces airborne pollutants. The amount of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} for example, is in the order of hundreds to thousands of ppm, and tens to hundreds of ppm, respectively, while Hg in flue gases could be up to tens to hundreds of ppb. Flue gas desulphurization technology is already in place for SO{sub 2} removal, and new sorbents such as zeolites are being investigated for such an application. NO{sub x} can be removed by selective catalytic reduction with various catalysts. Mercury is the hardest to remove due to its persistent nature and relatively low concentration in flue gases. New sorbents have also been developed for mercury removal applications. A current trend in flue gas emission control is to remove Hg, NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} simultaneously. Various catalytic sorbents have been investigated to remove two or more of these pollutants concurrently. This article reviews recent developments made for emission control of coal-fired power plant flue gases using novel sorbents to target individual or multiple pollutants. (author)

  16. Improvement of flue gas selective catalytic reduction technology and equipment for propane dehydrogenation (PDH) unit%丙烷脱氢装置烟气脱硝技术与设备改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘唯奇; 张国甫; 高海见; 陈金锋

    2016-01-01

    为降低烟气中的氮氧化物含量,采用丹麦托普索公司催化剂和工艺技术,在烟气余热锅炉内增加脱硝段,以满足达标排放的目的.并与工程公司合作,优化脱硝注氨系统的工艺流程,减少氨水消耗量,降低氨逃逸浓度.技术与设备改进后,烟色得到改善,烟气中的NOx含量大幅降低,同时氨水消耗量低于设计值,产生了良好的环境效益和经济效益.%The NOx concentration in the flue gas is reduced for standardized emission by a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) reactor installed in the waste heat boiler.The catalyst and reactor design are provided by Denmark HALDOR TOPSOE.New ammonia injection process is studied with engineering company to reduce ammonia consumption and slip concentration.After the improvement of process and equipment,the colour of flue gas looks better than before.The flue gas NOx concentration is significantly decreased and ammonia consumption is lower than hte design value,which produce good environmental and economic benefits.

  17. Fundamental mechanisms in flue gas conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, T.R.; Vann Bush, P. [Southern Research Institute, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The overall goal of this research project has been to formulate a model describing effects of flue gas conditioning on particulate properties. By flue gas conditioning we mean any process by which solids, gases, or liquids are added to the combustor and/or the exhaust stream to the extent that flue gas and particulate properties may be altered. Our modeling efforts, which are included in our Final Report, are based on an understanding of how ash properties, such as cohesivity and resistivity, are changed by conditioning. Flue gas conditioning involves the modification of one or more of the parameters that determine the magnitude of forces acting on the fly ash particles, and can take place through many different methods. Modification of particulate properties can alter ash resistivity or ash cohesivity and result in improved or degraded control device performance. Changes to the flue gas, addition or particulate matter such as flue gas desulfurization (FGD) sorbents, or the addition of reactive gases or liquids can modify these properties. If we can better understand how conditioning agents react with fly ash particles, application of appropriate conditioning agents or processes may result in significantly improved fine particle collection at low capital and operating costs.

  18. Testing and design of selective catalytic reduction DENOX catalysts on the basis of titanium dioxide for flue gas cleaning plants. Pruefung und Auslegung von SCR-DENOX-Katalysatoren auf Basis TiO sub 2 fuer Rauchgasreinigungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neufert, R.; Zuerbig, J. (Siemens AG Unternehmensbereich KWU, Redwitz (Germany, F.R.). Keramik- und Porzellanwerk)

    1990-12-01

    Selective catalytic reduction catalysts based on titanium dioxide enjoy a commanding position in the market. Reasons for this are high catalytic activity with simultaneous high specificity, low SO{sub 2}/SO{sub 3} oxidation rates, chemical resistance against acid, flue gas constituents and mechanical stabiliy. The principle of DENOX catalyst design is precise knowledge and analyses of the limiting conditions under which use in the power station shall result. A suitable type of catalyst has to be selected in accordance with the conditions of application. Manufacture has to be supported by a complex system of quality assurance measures and tests, so that the catalyst characteristics specified in the design can be guaranteed. (orig.).

  19. Noble Metal Catalysts for Mercury Oxidation in Utility Flue Gas: Gold, Palladium and Platinum Formulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Presto, A.A.; Granite, E.J

    2008-07-01

    The use of noble metals as catalysts for mercury oxidation in flue gas remains an area of active study. To date, field studies have focused on gold and palladium catalysts installed at pilot scale. In this article, we introduce bench-scale experimental results for gold, palladium and platinum catalysts tested in realistic simulated flue gas. Our initial results reveal some intriguing characteristics of catalytic mercury oxidation and provide insight for future research into this potentially important process.

  20. A Flue Gas Tube for Thermoelectric Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The invention relates to a flue gas tube (FGT) (1) for generation of thermoelectric power having thermoelectric elements (8) that are integrated in the tube. The FTG may be used in combined heat and power (CHP) system (13) to produce directly electricity from waste heat from, e.g. a biomass boiler...

  1. STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF CHLORINE ADDITION ON MERCURY OXIDATION BY SCR CATALYST UNDER SIMULATED SUBBITUMINOUS COAL FLUE GAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    An entrained flow reactor is used to study the effect of addition of chlorine-containing species on the oxidation of elemental mercury (Hgo)by a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst in simulated subbituminous coal combustion flue gas. The combustion flue gas was doped wit...

  2. Characterization and Regeneration of Pt-Catalysts Deactivated in Municipal Waste Flue Gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren Birk; Kustov, Arkadii; Due-Hansen, Johannes;

    2006-01-01

    that siloxanes were the most severe catalyst poisons, although acidic sulfur compounds also caused deactivation. Furthermore, a method for on-site regeneration without shutdown of the catalytic flue gas cleaning system has been developed, i.e. an addition of H-2/N-2 gas to the off-gas can completely restore...

  3. Numerical Simulation for Uniform Mixing of Flue Gas and Ammonia in the Selective Catalytic Reduction Denitration Reacto%SCR脱硝反应器内烟气与氨均混的数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭慧; 姜昌伟; 陈冬林; 刘小波; 冯延林; 曾昭良

    2011-01-01

    为了改善选择性催化还原(SCR)脱硝反应器内烟气与氨气的混合效果,提出3种导流板布置方案,应用数值模拟方法分析了导流板布置方式对SCR反应器内烟气流场与氨浓度分布的影响。分析结果表明:不同的导流板布置方式对烟气与氨气混合效果具有重要影响,采用3块导流板不均匀布置的方案具有最佳的混合效果。%In order to improve the mixing effect of the flue gas and ammonia in SCR( selective catalytic reduc- tion) denitration reactor, three layout methods for deflectors are proposed. A numerical simulation has been applied for the study on the field of flue ga

  4. Fundamental mechanisms in flue gas conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, P.V.; Snyder, T.R.

    1992-01-09

    The overall goal of this research project is to formulate a mathematical model of flue gas conditioning. This model will be based on an understanding of why ask properties, such as cohesivity and resistivity, are changed by conditioning. Such a model could serve as a component of the performance models of particulate control devices where flue gas conditioning is used. There are two specific objectives of this research project, which divide the planned research into two main parts. One part of the project is designed to determine how ash particles are modified by interactions with sorbent injection processes and to describe the mechanisms by which these interactions affect fine particle collection. The objective of the other part of the project is to identify the mechanisms by which conditioning agents, including chemically active compounds, modify the key properties of fine fly ash particles.

  5. Electron beam flue gas treatment process. Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honkonen, V.A. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Chmielewski, A.G. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    The basis of the process for electron beam flue gas treatment are presented in the report. In tabular form the history of the research is reviewed. Main dependences of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal efficiencies on different physico-chemical parameters are discussed. Trends concerning industrial process implementation are presented in the paper,finally. (author). 74 refs, 11 figs, 1 tab.

  6. Combined effects Na and SO2 in flue gas on Mn-Ce/TiO2 catalyst for low temperature selective catalytic reduction of NO by NH3 simulated by Na2SO4 doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Aiyi; Yu, Danqing; Yang, Liu; Sheng, Zhongyi

    2016-08-01

    A series of Mn-Ce/TiO2 catalysts were synthesized through an impregnation method and used for low temperature selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx with ammonia (NH3). Na2SO4 was added into the catalyst to simulate the combined effects of alkali metal and SO2 in the flue gas. Experimental results showed that Na2SO4 had strong and fluctuant influence on the activity of Mn-Ce/TiO2, because the effect of Na2SO4 included pore occlusion and sulfation effect simultaneously. When Na2SO4 loading content increased from 0 to 1 wt.%, the SCR activities of Na2SO4-doped catalysts decreased greatly. With further increasing amount of Na2SO4, however, the catalytic activity increased gradually. XRD results showed that Na2SO4 doping could induce the crystallization of MnOx phases, which were also confirmed by TEM and SEM results. BET results showed that the surface areas decreased and a new bimodal mesoporous structure formed gradually with the increasing amount of Na2SO4. XPS results indicated that part of Ce4+ and Mn3+ were transferred to Ce3+ and Mn4+ due to the sulfation after Na2SO4 deposition on the surface of the catalysts. When the doped amounts of Na2SO4 increased, NH3-TPD results showed that the Lewis acid sites decreased and the Brønsted acid sites of Mn-Ce/TiO2 increased quickly, which could be considered as another reason for the observed changes in the catalytic activity. The decreased Mn and Ce atomic concentration, the changes of their oxidative states, and the variation in acidic properties on the surface of Na2SO4-doped catalysts could be the reasons for the fluctuant changes of the catalytic activity.

  7. Flue gas desulphurization (FGD) by seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arce Arce, A.; Baalina Insua, A.; Rodriguez Suarez, E.; Santaballa Lopez, J.A. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica

    1995-12-31

    Emission of large sulphur dioxide quantities proceeding from combustion processes is one of the most important sources of environmental pollution. These emissions may be controlled and reduced by means of the flue gases treatment before releasing them into the atmosphere. In this sense, seawater scrubbing process applied in the flue gas desulphurization (FGD) have a great industrial application and constitute an interesting method for atmospheric pollution control. In the seawater scrubbing, SO{sub 2} is absorbed and returned to the sea in the original form of sulphate salts. This paper presents an experimental research on sulphur dioxide scrubbing processes in a packed tower that uses seawater as absorbent agent, with the aim of studying the absorption conditions with different packing and effluent characteristics, in order to understand the real conditions in which FGD occurs. 5 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Coal fired flue gas mercury emission controls

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jiang; Pan, Weiguo; Pan, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metals, harmful to both the environment and human health. Hg is released into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources and its emission control has caused much concern. This book introduces readers to Hg pollution from natural and anthropogenic sources and systematically describes coal-fired flue gas mercury emission control in industry, especially from coal-fired power stations. Mercury emission control theory and experimental research are demonstrated, including how elemental mercury is oxidized into oxidized mercury and the effect of

  9. ENHANCED CONTROL OF MERCURY BY WET FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Blythe; B. Marsh; S. Miller; C. Richardson; M. Richardson

    2001-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and EPRI have co-funded this project to improve the control of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The project investigated catalytic oxidation of vapor-phase elemental mercury to a form that is more effectively captured in wet FGD systems. If successfully developed, the process could be applicable to over 90,000 MW of utility generating capacity with existing FGD systems and to future FGD installations. Field tests have been conducted to determine whether candidate catalyst materials remain active towards mercury oxidation after extended flue gas exposure. Catalyst life will have a large impact on the cost effectiveness of this potential process. A mobile catalyst test unit has been used to test the activity of four different catalyst materials for a period of up to six months at each of three utility sites. Catalyst testing was completed at the first site, which fires Texas lignite, in December 1998 and at the second test site, which fires a Powder River Basin subbituminous coal in the fall of 1999. Testing at the third site, which fires a medium- to high-sulfur bituminous coal, began in June 2000 and was completed at the end of January 2001. This Topical Reports includes results from Site 3; results from Sites 1 and 2 were reported previously. At Site 3, catalysts were tested in two forms, including powders dispersed in sand bed reactors and in a commercially available form as a coated honeycomb structure. Field testing has been supported by laboratory tests to screen catalysts for activity at specific flue gas compositions, to investigate catalyst deactivation mechanisms and methods for regenerating spent catalysts. Laboratory results related to the Site 3 field effort are also included and discussed in this Topical Report.

  10. Flue gas treatment with membrane gas absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, R.; Feron, P.H.M.; Jansen, A.E.

    1998-01-01

    Membrane gas absorption is a new, efficient and flexible way to carry out gas-liquid contacting operations with hollow fibre membranes. Advantages of gas absorption membranes over conventional G-L contactors are: -High specific surface area and rapid mass transfer resulting in very compact and low w

  11. Flue gas treatment with membrane gas absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, R.; Feron, P.H.M.; Jansen, A.E.

    1998-01-01

    Dutch researchers from the TN0 Institute have developed a technique to carry out gas-liquid contacting operations using hollow fibre membranes in combination with an absorption liquid. The method known as membrane gas absorption, aims to combine the advantages of membrane technology (compactness, fl

  12. AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON REMOVAL OF NOX IN FLUE GAS AT THE NONEQUILIBRIUM PLASMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张强; 许世森; 顾璠

    2004-01-01

    Removal of nitrogen oxides (NOX) in flue gas by means of nonequilibrium plasma technology is a very prospect and attractive method. As the nonequilibrium plasma micro discharges can generate a powerful energy flux, imparted to the flue gas, the molecules and atoms of pollutants are motivated and decomposed, and then NOX in the flue gas are decomposed and conversed in the particular conditions. Based on nonequilibrium plasma in combination with catalytic principle, an experimental investigation on NOX decomposition and conversion with Al2O3 catalysts was carried out and the NOX removal rate up to 95% was obtained. The NOX decomposition and conversion principle with Al2O3 catalysts was also discussed.

  13. Wet flue gas desulphurization and new fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiil, S.; Dam-Johansen, K.; Michelsen, M.L.

    1998-04-01

    This thesis describes experimental and theoretical investigations of wet flue gas desulphurization (FGD). A review of the current knowledge of the various rate determining steps in wet FDG plants is presented. The mechanism underlying the rate of dissolution of finely grained limestone particles was examined in a laboratory batch apparatus using acid titration. Three Danish limestones of different origin were tested. A transient, mass transport controlled, mathematical model was developed to describe the dissolution process. Model predictions were found to be qualitatively in good agreement with experimental data. Empirical correlations for the dimensionless mass transfer coefficients in a pilot plant (falling-film column) were determined. The presence of inert particles in the liquid phase was found to decrease the rate of gas phase mass transport with up to 15%, though the effect could not be correlated. A detailed model for a wet FGD pilot plant, based on the falling film principle, was developed. All important rate determining steps, absorption of SO{sub 2}, oxidation of HSO{sub 3}{sup -}, dissolution of limestone, and crystallisation of gypsum were included. Model predictions were compared to experimental data such as gas phase concentration profiles of SO{sub 2}, slurry pH-profiles, solids contents of slurry, liquid phase concentrations, and residual limestone in the gypsum. The possibility of co-firing straw and coal was investigated in a full-scale power plant. No effects on the overall performance of the wet FGD plant were observed, though laboratory experiments with fine dust and fly ash from the full-scale experiments showed a decrease in limestone reactivity. (EG) EFP-95. 45 refs.; Also ph.d. thesis of Soeren Kiil

  14. Flue gas desulfurization by rotating beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, N.; Keyvani, M.; Coskundeniz, A.

    1992-01-01

    The operating and mass transfer characteristics of rotating foam metal beds were studied to determine the potential for flue gas desulfurization. This is a final technical report on the work supported by DOE [number sign]FG22-87-PC79924. The report is divided into two sections, Part 1 deals primarily with the operating characteristics of rotating beds, and Part 2 covers the mass transfer characteristics of S0[sub 2] absorption in water-lime slurries. Rotating foam metal beds are in essence packed towers operated in high gravitational fields. The foam metal bed is in the form of a cylindrical donut, or torus, and is rotated to produced the high centrifugal forces. The liquid phase enters the bed at the inner surface of the torus and is pulled by the field through the bed. Gas flows countercurrent to the liquid. The bed packing can have a very large specific surface areas and not flood. Possible benefits include much smaller height of a transfer unit resulting in smaller equipment and supporting structures, reduced solvent inventory, faster response with improved process control, reduced pressure drop, and shorter startup and shut-down times. This work is concerned broadly with the operating characteristics of rotating beds, the objectives being to (1) determine the pressure drop through the rotating bed; (2) determine the power required to operate the beds, (3) investigate the residence time distribution of the liquid phase in the beds; and (4) determine the mass transfer coefficients of S0[sub 2] absorption. Three packings of differing specific surface areas were studied, with areas ranging from 656 to 2952 m[sub 2]/m[sub 3]. Liquid flow rates to 36 kg/s*m[sub 2], gas flow rate to 2.2 kg/s*m[sub 2], and gravitational fields to 300 g were covered in this study.

  15. Modified sorbents for flue gas desulphurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bis, Z.; Radecki, M. [Czestochowa Technical Univ., Dabrowskiego (Poland). Dept. of Energy Engineering; Nowak, W.; Szymanek, A. [Czestochowa Technical Univ., Dabrowskiego (Poland). Dept. of Heting, Ventilation and Air Protection

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents a technological description of modified sorbents that are highly reactive and which offer possibilities for economic ash utilization from atmospheric circulating fluidized-bed boilers (ACFB). Effective methods to use solid combustion products are becoming a necessity to reduce emissions to the atmosphere. Desulphurization products and limestone are compounds derived from ash from fluidized bed and other boilers where dry, or self-dry methods, of desulphurization are used. The safe disposal or effective utilization of solid waste produced during simultaneous processes of combustion and waste gas desulphurization is a challenge because of the high cost of capturing sulphur from flue gases and the high cost of sorbents. Efforts are being made to find new kinds of sorbents so that their consumption can be lowered substantially. The economic use of solid wastes from combustion and desulphurization processes is also being investigated. This paper described the basic aspects of sulphur capture by calcined sorbents, and the mechanical activation of sorbents. 11 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Highly integrated CO2 capture and conversion: Direct synthesis of cyclic carbonates from industrial flue gas

    KAUST Repository

    Barthel, Alexander

    2016-02-08

    Robust and selective catalytic systems based on early transition metal halides (Y, Sc, Zr) and organic nucleophiles were found able to quantitatively capture CO2 from diluted streams via formation of hemicarbonate species and to convert it to cyclic organic carbonates under ambient conditions. This observation was exploited in the direct and selective chemical fixation of flue gas CO2 collected from an industrial exhaust, affording high degrees of CO2 capture and conversion.

  17. Flue gas desulfurization/denitrification using metal-chelate additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, John B. L.; Doctor, Richard D.; Wingender, Ronald J.

    1986-01-01

    A method of simultaneously removing SO.sub.2 and NO from oxygen-containing flue gases resulting from the combustion of carbonaceous material by contacting the flue gas with an aqueous scrubber solution containing an aqueous sulfur dioxide sorbent and an active metal chelating agent which promotes a reaction between dissolved SO.sub.2 and dissolved NO to form hydroxylamine N-sulfonates. The hydroxylamine sulfonates are then separated from the scrubber solution which is recycled.

  18. Flue gas injection control of silica in cooling towers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, Patrick Vane; Anderson, Howard L., Jr.; Altman, Susan Jeanne

    2011-06-01

    Injection of CO{sub 2}-laden flue gas can decrease the potential for silica and calcite scale formation in cooling tower blowdown by lowering solution pH to decrease equilibrium calcite solubility and kinetic rates of silica polymerization. Flue gas injection might best inhibit scale formation in power plant cooling towers that use impaired makeup waters - for example, groundwaters that contain relatively high levels of calcium, alkalinity, and silica. Groundwaters brought to the surface for cooling will degas CO{sub 2} and increase their pH by 1-2 units, possibly precipitating calcite in the process. Recarbonation with flue gas can lower the pHs of these fluids back to roughly their initial pH. Flue gas carbonation probably cannot lower pHs to much below pH 6 because the pHs of impaired waters, once outgassed at the surface, are likely to be relatively alkaline. Silica polymerization to form scale occurs most rapidly at pH {approx} 8.3 at 25 C; polymerization is slower at higher and lower pH. pH 7 fluids containing {approx}220 ppm SiO{sub 2} require > 180 hours equilibration to begin forming scale whereas at pH 8.3 scale formation is complete within 36 hours. Flue gas injection that lowers pHs to {approx} 7 should allow substantially higher concentration factors. Periodic cycling to lower recoveries - hence lower silica concentrations - might be required though. Higher concentration factors enabled by flue gas injection should decrease concentrate volumes and disposal costs by roughly half.

  19. Heat Transfer in Flue Gas with Vapor Condensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾力; 彭晓峰

    2002-01-01

    This paper combines the film model with Nusselt's condensation theory to analyze the effects of water vapor condensation on the heat transfer performance of flue gas flowing through a vertical tube. The analysis compares the condensation and convective heat transfer rates. For the concentration range investigated, the water vapor condensation transfers more energy than the flue gas convection, but the convective heat transfer can not be neglected. The heat transfer intensification due to the condensation increased as the water vapor fraction increased. The theoretical results compared well with experimental data.

  20. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Green; Thomas Nelson; Brian S. Turk; Paul Box; Weijiong Li; Raghubir P. Gupta

    2005-07-01

    This report describes research conducted between April 1, 2005 and June 30, 2005 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas from coal combustion and synthesis gas from coal gasification. Supported sodium carbonate sorbents removed up to 76% of the carbon dioxide from simulated flue gas in a downflow cocurrent flow reactor system, with an approximate 15 second gas-solid contact time. This reaction proceeds at temperatures as low as 25 C. Lithium silicate sorbents remove carbon dioxide from high temperature simulated flue gas and simulated synthesis gas. Both sorbent types can be thermally regenerated and reused. The lithium silicate sorbent was tested in a thermogravimetric analyzer and in a 1-in quartz reactor at atmospheric pressure; tests were also conducted at elevated pressure in a 2-in diameter high temperature high pressure reactor system. The lithium sorbent reacts rapidly with carbon dioxide in flue gas at 350-500 C to absorb about 10% of the sorbent weight, then continues to react at a lower rate. The sorbent can be essentially completely regenerated at temperatures above 600 C and reused. In atmospheric pressure tests with synthesis gas of 10% initial carbon dioxide content, the sorbent removed over 90% of the carbon dioxide. An economic analysis of a downflow absorption process for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas with a supported sodium carbonate sorbent suggests that a 90% efficient carbon dioxide capture system installed at a 500 MW{sub e} generating plant would have an incremental capital cost of $35 million ($91/kWe, assuming 20 percent for contingencies) and an operating cost of $0.0046/kWh. Assuming capital costs of $1,000/kW for a 500 MWe plant the capital cost of the down flow absorption process represents a less than 10% increase, thus meeting DOE goals as set forth in its Carbon Sequestration Technology Roadmap and Program Plan.

  1. BUILDING MATERIALS MADE FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael W. Grutzeck; Maria DiCola; Paul Brenner

    2006-03-30

    Flue gas desulphurization (FGD) materials are produced in abundant quantities by coal burning utilities. Due to environmental restrains, flue gases must be ''cleaned'' prior to release to the atmosphere. They are two general methods to ''scrub'' flue gas: wet and dry. The choice of scrubbing material is often defined by the type of coal being burned, i.e. its composition. Scrubbing is traditionally carried out using a slurry of calcium containing material (slaked lime or calcium carbonate) that is made to contact exiting flue gas as either a spay injected into the gas or in a bubble tower. The calcium combined with the SO{sub 2} in the gas to form insoluble precipitates. Some plants have been using dry injection of these same materials or their own Class C fly ash to scrub. In either case the end product contains primarily hannebachite (CaSO{sub 3} {center_dot} 1/2H{sub 2}O) with smaller amounts of gypsum (CaSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O). These materials have little commercial use. Experiments were carried out that were meant to explore the feasibility of using blends of hannebachite and fly ash mixed with concentrated sodium hydroxide to make masonry products. The results suggest that some of these mixtures could be used in place of conventional Portland cement based products such as retaining wall bricks and pavers.

  2. Absorption of Flue-Gas Components by Ionic Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolding, Helene; Thomassen, Peter Langelund; Mossin, Susanne;

    2014-01-01

    for absorption of NOX, CO2 and SO2 are demonstrated and the possible mechanism of absorption described on the molecular level. Special focus regards the interaction of the ILs with water vapor, which is an important feature in envisaged application of flue gas cleaning in power plants, waste incineration plants...

  3. Workshop on sulfur chemistry in flue gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, W.E. Jr.

    1980-05-01

    The Flue Gas Desulfurization Workshop was held at Morgantown, West Virginia, June 7-8, 1979. The presentations dealt with the chemistry of sulfur and calcium compounds in scrubbers. DOE and EPRI programs in this area are described. Ten papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  4. Flue gas condensing with heat pump; Roekgaskondensering med vaermepump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axby, Fredrik; Pettersson, Camilla [Carl Bro Energikonsult AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    2004-11-01

    Flue gas condensing is often both a technically and economically efficient method to increase the thermal efficiency in a plant using fuels with high moisture and/or high hydrogen content. The temperature of the return water in district heating systems in Sweden is normally 50 deg C, which gives quite high efficiency for a flue gas condenser. The flue gas after the flue gas condenser still contains energy that to some extent can be recovered by a combustion air humidifier or a heat pump. The object of this project is to technically and economically analyse flue gas condensing with heat pump. The aim is that plant owners get basic data to evaluate if a coupling between a flue gas condenser and a heat pump could be of interest for their plant. With a heat pump the district heating water can be 'sub cooled' to increase the heat recover in the flue gas condenser and thereby increase the total efficiency. The project is set up as a case study of three different plants that represent different types of technologies and sizes; Aabyverket in Oerebro, Amagerforbraending in Copenhagen and Staffanstorp district heating central. In this report a system with a partial flow through the condenser of the heat pump is studied. For each plant one case with the smallest heat pump and a total optimization regarding total efficiency and cost for investment has been calculated. In addition to the optimizations sensitivity analyzes has been done of the following parameters: Moisture in fuel; Type of heat pump; Temperature of the return water in the district heating system; and, Size of plant. The calculations shows that the total efficiency increases with about 6 % by the installation of the heat pump at a temperature of the return water in the district heating system of 50 deg C at Aabyverket. The cost for production of heat is just below 210 kr/MWh and the straight time for pay-off is 5,4 years at 250 kr/MWh in heat credit and at 300 kr/MWh in basic price for electricity. The

  5. Carbon dioxide capture strategies from flue gas using microalgae: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Daniya M; Mechery, Jerry; Paulose, Sylas V

    2016-09-01

    Global warming and pollution are the twin crises experienced globally. Biological offset of these crises are gaining importance because of its zero waste production and the ability of the organisms to thrive under extreme or polluted condition. In this context, this review highlights the recent developments in carbon dioxide (CO2) capture from flue gas using microalgae and finding the best microalgal remediation strategy through contrast and comparison of different strategies. Different flue gas microalgal remediation strategies discussed are as follows: (i) Flue gas to CO2 gas segregation using adsorbents for microalgal mitigation, (ii) CO2 separation from flue gas using absorbents and later regeneration for microalgal mitigation, (iii) Flue gas to liquid conversion for direct microalgal mitigation, and (iv) direct flue gas mitigation using microalgae. This work also studies the economic feasibility of microalgal production. The study discloses that the direct convening of flue gas with high carbon dioxide content, into microalgal system is cost-effective.

  6. Flue Gas Cleaning With Alternative Processes and Reaction Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren Birk; Huang, Jun; Riisager, Anders;

    2007-01-01

    Alternative methods to the traditional industrial NOX and SOXflue gas cleaning processes working at lower temperatures and/orleading to useful products are desired. In this work we presentour latest results regarding the use of molten ionic media inelectrocatalytic membrane separation, ionic liquid...... reversibleabsorption and supported ionic liquid deNOX catalysis. Furtherdevelopment of the methods will hopefully make them suitable forinstallation in different positions in the flue gas duct ascompared to the industrial methods available today....

  7. Direct fired absorption machine flue gas recuperator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, Robert C.; Root, Richard A.

    1985-01-01

    A recuperator which recovers heat from a gas, generally the combustion gas of a direct-fired generator of an absorption machine. The recuperator includes a housing with liquid flowing therethrough, the liquid being in direct contact with the combustion gas for increasing the effectiveness of the heat transfer between the gas and the liquid.

  8. Flue gas conditioning for improved particle collection in electrostatic precipitators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, M.D.

    1992-04-27

    The purpose of this research program is to identify and evaluate a variety of additives capable of increasing particle cohesion which could be used for improving collection efficiency in an ESP. A three-phase screening process will be used to provide the, evaluation of many additives in a logical and cost-effective manner. The three step approach involves the following experimental setups: 1. Provide a preliminary screening in the laboratory by measuring the effects of various conditioning agents on reentrainment of flyash particles in an electric field operating at simulated flue gas conditions. 2. Evaluate the successful additives using a 100 acfm bench-scale ESP operating on actual flue gas. 3. Obtain the data required for scaling up the technology by testing the two or three most promising conditioning agents at the pilot scale.

  9. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry, Regenerable Sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Green; Thomas O. Nelson; Brian S. Turk; Paul D. Box Raghubir P. Gupta

    2006-09-30

    This report describes research conducted between July 1, 2006 and September 30, 2006 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal combustion flue gas. Modifications to the integrated absorber/ sorbent regenerator/ sorbent cooler system were made to improve sorbent flow consistency and measurement reliability. Operation of the screw conveyor regenerator to achieve a sorbent temperature of at least 120 C at the regenerator outlet is necessary for satisfactory carbon dioxide capture efficiencies in succeeding absorption cycles. Carbon dioxide capture economics in new power plants can be improved by incorporating increased capacity boilers, efficient flue gas desulfurization systems and provisions for withdrawal of sorbent regeneration steam in the design.

  10. Algal biomass production and carbon fixation from flue gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ling; ZHU Jing

    2016-01-01

    Algal biofuel has established as one of renewable energy. In this study, Nannochloropsis salina was cultured to test feasibility of biomass production and CO2 fixation from flue gas. Firstly, cultivation was conducted under different light intensity. Results showed that the highest dry biomass of 1.25±0.061 g/L was achieved at light intensity of 10klux, while the highest total lipids was 33.677±1.9% at light intensity of 15klux. The effect of mercury on algae growth was also investigated, the algae growth was serious limited at the presence of mercury, and there was no any difference at the range of 10-50 ug/m3. These results provide useful information for algal biomass production and CO2 fixation from flue gas.

  11. Performance improvement of a 330MWe power plant by flue gas heat recovery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Changchun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a utility boiler, the most heat loss is from the exhaust flue gas. In order to reduce the exhaust flue gas temperature and further boost the plant efficiency, an improved indirect flue gas heat recovery system and an additional economizer system are proposed. The waste heat of flue gas is used for high-pressure condensate regeneration heating. This reduces high pressure steam extraction from steam turbine and more power is generated. The waste heat recovery of flue gas decreases coal consumption. Other approaches for heat recovery of flue gas, direct utilization of flue gas energy and indirect flue gas heat recovery system, are also considered in this work. The proposed systems coupled with a reference 330MWe power plant are simulated using equivalent enthalpy drop method. The results show that the additional economizer scheme has the best performance. When the exhaust flue gas temperature decreases from 153℃ to 123℃, power output increases by 6.37MWe and increment in plant efficiency is about 1.89%. For the improved indirect flue gas heat recovery system, power output increases by 5.68MWe and the increment in plant efficiency is 1.69%.

  12. Catalytic Activity and Deactivation of SO2 Oxidation Catalysts in Simulated Power Plant Flue Gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masters, Stephen G.; Chrissanthopoulos, Asthanassios; Eriksen, Kim Michael;

    1997-01-01

    The catalyst deactivation and the simultaneious formation of compounds in commercial SO2 oxidation catalysts have been studied by combined activity measurements and in situ EPR spectroscopy in the temperature range 350-480 C in wet and dry simulated power plant flue gas.......The catalyst deactivation and the simultaneious formation of compounds in commercial SO2 oxidation catalysts have been studied by combined activity measurements and in situ EPR spectroscopy in the temperature range 350-480 C in wet and dry simulated power plant flue gas....

  13. Advanced separation technology for flue gas cleanup. Final report, February 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhown, A.S.; Alvarado, D.; Pakala, N.; Tagg, T.; Riggs, T.; Ventura, S.; Sirkar, K.K.; Majumdar, S.; Bhaumick, D.

    1998-06-01

    The objective of this work by SRI International was to develop a novel system for regenerable SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} scrubbing of flue gas that focuses on (1) a novel method for regenerating spent SO{sub 2} scrubbing liquor and (2) novel chemistry for reversible absorption of NO{sub x}. High efficiency, hollow fiber contactors (HFCs) were proposed as the devices for scrubbing the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from the flue gas. The system would be designed to remove more than 95% of the SO{sub 2} and more than 75% of the NO{sub x} from flue gases typical of pulverized coal-fired power plants at a cost that is at least 20% less than combined wet limestone scrubbing of SO{sub x} and selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. In addition, the process would generate only marketable by-products, if any (no waste streams are anticipated). The major cost item in existing technology is capital investment. Therefore, the approach was to reduce the capital cost by using high-efficiency, hollow fiber devices for absorbing and desorbing the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. The authors also introduced new process chemistry to minimize traditionally well-known problems with SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} absorption and desorption. The process and progress in its development are described.

  14. Investigation of a combined gas-steam system with flue gas recirculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chmielniak Tadeusz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents changes in the operating parameters of a combined gas-steam cycle with a CO2 capture installation and flue gas recirculation. Parametric equations are solved in a purpose-built mathematical model of the system using the Ebsilon Professional code. Recirculated flue gases from the heat recovery boiler outlet, after being cooled and dried, are fed together with primary air into the mixer and then into the gas turbine compressor. This leads to an increase in carbon dioxide concentration in the flue gases fed into the CO2 capture installation from 7.12 to 15.7%. As a consequence, there is a reduction in the demand for heat in the form of steam extracted from the turbine for the amine solution regeneration in the CO2 capture reactor. In addition, the flue gas recirculation involves a rise in the flue gas temperature (by 18 K at the heat recovery boiler inlet and makes it possible to produce more steam. These changes contribute to an increase in net electricity generation efficiency by 1%. The proposed model and the obtained results of numerical simulations are useful in the analysis of combined gas-steam cycles integrated with carbon dioxide separation from flue gases.

  15. Optimize flue gas settings to promote microalgae growth in photobioreactors via computer simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lian; Chen, Amelia B; Yu, Yi; Kucera, Leah; Tang, Yinjie

    2013-10-01

    Flue gas from power plants can promote algal cultivation and reduce greenhouse gas emissions(1). Microalgae not only capture solar energy more efficiently than plants(3), but also synthesize advanced biofuels(2-4). Generally, atmospheric CO2 is not a sufficient source for supporting maximal algal growth(5). On the other hand, the high concentrations of CO2 in industrial exhaust gases have adverse effects on algal physiology. Consequently, both cultivation conditions (such as nutrients and light) and the control of the flue gas flow into the photo-bioreactors are important to develop an efficient "flue gas to algae" system. Researchers have proposed different photobioreactor configurations(4,6) and cultivation strategies(7,8) with flue gas. Here, we present a protocol that demonstrates how to use models to predict the microalgal growth in response to flue gas settings. We perform both experimental illustration and model simulations to determine the favorable conditions for algal growth with flue gas. We develop a Monod-based model coupled with mass transfer and light intensity equations to simulate the microalgal growth in a homogenous photo-bioreactor. The model simulation compares algal growth and flue gas consumptions under different flue-gas settings. The model illustrates: 1) how algal growth is influenced by different volumetric mass transfer coefficients of CO2; 2) how we can find optimal CO2 concentration for algal growth via the dynamic optimization approach (DOA); 3) how we can design a rectangular on-off flue gas pulse to promote algal biomass growth and to reduce the usage of flue gas. On the experimental side, we present a protocol for growing Chlorella under the flue gas (generated by natural gas combustion). The experimental results qualitatively validate the model predictions that the high frequency flue gas pulses can significantly improve algal cultivation.

  16. NO x Reduction in the Iron Ore Sintering Process with Flue Gas Recirculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhiyuan; Fan, Xiaohui; Gan, Min; Chen, Xuling; Lv, Wei

    2017-02-01

    Flue gas recirculation (FGR) has been implemented for exhaust gas emissions reduction in iron ore sintering. However, the mechanism of NO x reduction through FGR is still unclear. In this paper, the laboratory pot-grate sintering test showed a 30% reduction in gas flow and 15.51% reduction in NO x emissions achieved with a 30% FGR ratio, and the sinter indexes almost matched those of the conventional process. In the sinter zone, NO-CO catalytic reduction occurs in the range of 500-900°C. When the sinter temperature is 700°C, the highest nitrogen reduction ratio (NRR) achieved is 8%; however, the NO x reduction is inhibited as the post-combustion of CO starts when the temperature increases beyond 700°C. NO x in the flue gas is mainly a product of the fuel combustion in the combustion zone, as the nitrogen conversion rate reaches 50-60%, because the N-containing intermediates exist during the fuel combustion. The existence of NO in the FGR gas inhibits the NO x generation from the fuel combustion, and the NO elimination—through the NO-carbon reaction—is significant in the combustion zone. The NRR in the combustion zone reaches a range of 18-20%.

  17. Water Extraction from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce C. Folkedahl; Greg F. Weber; Michael E. Collings

    2006-06-30

    The overall objective of this program was to develop a liquid disiccant-based flue gas dehydration process technology to reduce water consumption in coal-fired power plants. The specific objective of the program was to generate sufficient subscale test data and conceptual commercial power plant evaluations to assess process feasibility and merits for commercialization. Currently, coal-fired power plants require access to water sources outside the power plant for several aspects of their operation in addition to steam cycle condensation and process cooling needs. At the present time, there is no practiced method of extracting the usually abundant water found in the power plant stack gas. This project demonstrated the feasibility and merits of a liquid desiccant-based process that can efficiently and economically remove water vapor from the flue gas of fossil fuel-fired power plants to be recycled for in-plant use or exported for clean water conservation. After an extensive literature review, a survey of the available physical and chemical property information on desiccants in conjunction with a weighting scheme developed for this application, three desiccants were selected and tested in a bench-scale system at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC). System performance at the bench scale aided in determining which desiccant was best suited for further evaluation. The results of the bench-scale tests along with further review of the available property data for each of the desiccants resulted in the selection of calcium chloride as the desiccant for testing at the pilot-scale level. Two weeks of testing utilizing natural gas in Test Series I and coal in Test Series II for production of flue gas was conducted with the liquid desiccant dehumidification system (LDDS) designed and built for this study. In general, it was found that the LDDS operated well and could be placed in an automode in which the process would operate with no operator intervention or

  18. Catalytic hot gas cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simell, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Gasification gas that contains particulates can be purified from tars and ammonia by using nickel monolith catalysts. Temperatures over 900 deg C are required at 20 bar pressure to avoid deactivation by H{sub 2}S and carbon. Dolomites and limestones are effective tar decomposing catalysts only when calcined. Tar decomposition in gasification conditions can take place by steam or dry (CO{sub 2}) reforming reactions. These reactions follow apparent first order kinetics with respect to hydrocarbons in gasification conditions. (author) (16 refs.)

  19. Separation of Mercury from Flue Gas Desulfurization Scrubber Produced Gypsum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hensman, Carl, E., P.h.D; Baker, Trevor

    2008-06-16

    Frontier Geosciences (Frontier; FGS) proposed for DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER84669 that mercury control could be achieved in a wet scrubber by the addition of an amendment to the wet-FGD scrubber. To demonstrate this, a bench-scale scrubber and synthetic flue-gas supply was designed to simulate the limestone fed, wet-desulfurization units utilized by coal-fired power plants. Frontier maintains that the mercury released from these utilities can be controlled and reduced by modifying the existing equipment at installations where wet flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems are employed. A key element of the proposal was FGS-PWN, a liquid-based mercury chelating agent, which can be employed as the amendment for removal of all mercury species which enter the wet-FGD scrubber. However, the equipment design presented in the proposal was inadequate to demonstrate these functions and no significant progress was made to substantiate these claims. As a result, funding for a Phase II continuation of this work will not be pursued. The key to implementing the technology as described in the proposal and report appears to be a high liquid-to-gas ratio (L/G) between the flue-gas and the scrubber liquor, a requirement not currently implemented in existing wet-FGD designs. It may be that this constraint can be reduced through parametric studies, but that was not apparent in this work. Unfortunately, the bench-scale system constructed for this project did not function as intended and the funds and time requested were exhausted before the separation studies could occur.

  20. Transport Membrane Condenser for Water and Energy Recovery from Power Plant Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dexin Wang

    2012-03-31

    The new waste heat and water recovery technology based on a nanoporous ceramic membrane vapor separation mechanism has been developed for power plant flue gas application. The recovered water vapor and its latent heat from the flue gas can increase the power plant boiler efficiency and reduce water consumption. This report describes the development of the Transport Membrane Condenser (TMC) technology in details for power plant flue gas application. The two-stage TMC design can achieve maximum heat and water recovery based on practical power plant flue gas and cooling water stream conditions. And the report includes: Two-stage TMC water and heat recovery system design based on potential host power plant coal fired flue gas conditions; Membrane performance optimization process based on the flue gas conditions, heat sink conditions, and water and heat transport rate requirement; Pilot-Scale Unit design, fabrication and performance validation test results. Laboratory test results showed the TMC system can exact significant amount of vapor and heat from the flue gases. The recovered water has been tested and proved of good quality, and the impact of SO{sub 2} in the flue gas on the membrane has been evaluated. The TMC pilot-scale system has been field tested with a slip stream of flue gas in a power plant to prove its long term real world operation performance. A TMC scale-up design approach has been investigated and an economic analysis of applying the technology has been performed.

  1. Fundamentals of Mercury Oxidation in Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JoAnn S. Lighty; Geoffrey Silcox; Andrew Fry; Constance Senior; Joseph Helble; Balaji Krishnakumar

    2005-08-01

    The objective of this project is to understand the importance of and the contribution of gas-phase and solid-phase coal constituents in the mercury oxidation reactions. The project involves both experimental and modeling efforts. The team is comprised of the University of Utah, Reaction Engineering International, and the University of Connecticut. The objective is to determine the experimental parameters of importance in the homogeneous and heterogeneous oxidation reactions; validate models; and, improve existing models. Parameters to be studied include HCl, NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} concentrations, ash constituents, and temperature. This report summarizes Year 2 results for the experimental and modeling tasks. Experiments in the mercury reactor are underway and interesting results suggested that a more comprehensive look at catalyzed surface reactions was needed. Therefore, much of the work has focused on the heterogeneous reactions. In addition, various chemical kinetic models have been explored in an attempt to explain some discrepancies between this modeling effort and others.

  2. Distribution of heavy metals from flue gas in algal bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napan, Katerine

    Flue gas from coal-fired power plants is a major source of CO2 to the atmosphere. Microalgae can use this enriched form of CO2 as carbon source and in turn the biomass can be used to produce food, feed, fertilizer and biofuels. However, along with CO2, coal-based flue gas will inevitably introduce heavy metals, which have a high affinity to bind algal cells, could be toxic to the organisms and if transferred to the products could limit their uses. This study seeks to address the distribution and impact of heavy metals present in flue gas on microalgae production systems. To comprehend its effects, algae Scenedesmus obliquus was grown in batch reactors in a multimetal system. Ten heavy metals (Cu, Co, Zn, Pb, As, Se, Cr, Hg, Ni and Cd) were selected and were evaluated at four concentrations (1X, 2X, 5X and 10X). Results show that most heavy metals accumulated mainly in biomass and were found in very low concentrations in media. Hg was shown to be lost from the culture, with low amounts present in the biomass. An upper limit for As uptake was observed, suggesting its likelihood to build-up in the system during medium recycle. The As limited bioaccumulation was overcome by addition of sulfur to the algal medium. Heavy metal at 2X, 5X and 10X inhibited both growth and lipid production, while at the reference concentration both biomass and lipids yields were increased. Heavy metal concentrations in the medium and biomass were time dependent, and at the end of the cultivation most heavy metals in the supernatant solution complied with the recommendations for irrigation water, while biomass was below limits for cattle and poultry feed, fertilizer, plastic and paper. This research shows that bioremediation of CO2 and heavy metals in combination with energy production can be integrated, which is an environmentally friendly form of biotechnology.

  3. Fundamentals of Mercury Oxidation in Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JoAnn Lighty; Geoffrey Silcox; Constance Senior; Joseph Helble; Balaji Krishnakumar

    2008-07-31

    The objective of this project was to understand the importance of and the contribution of gas-phase and solid-phase coal constituents in the mercury oxidation reactions. The project involved both experimental and modeling efforts. The team was comprised of the University of Utah, Reaction Engineering International, and the University of Connecticut. The objective was to determine the experimental parameters of importance in the homogeneous and heterogeneous oxidation reactions; validate models; and, improve existing models. Parameters studied include HCl, NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} concentrations, ash constituents, and temperature. The results suggested that homogeneous mercury oxidation is below 10% which is not consistent with previous data of others and work which was completed early in this research program. Previous data showed oxidation above 10% and up to 100%. However, the previous data are suspect due to apparent oxidation occurring within the sampling system where hypochlorite ion forms in the KCl impinger, which in turn oxidized mercury. Initial tests with entrained iron oxide particles injected into a flame reactor suggest that iron present on fly ash particle surfaces can promote heterogeneous oxidation of mercury in the presence of HCl under entrained flow conditions. Using the data generated above, with homogeneous reactions accounting for less than 10% of the oxidation, comparisons were made to pilot- and full-scale data. The results suggest that heterogeneous reactions, as with the case of iron oxide, and adsorption on solid carbon must be taking place in the full-scale system. Modeling of mercury oxidation using parameters from the literature was conducted to further study the contribution of homogeneous pathways to Hg oxidation in coal combustion systems. Calculations from the literature used rate parameters developed in different studies, in some cases using transition state theory with a range of approaches and basis sets, and in other cases

  4. Study on the decomposition of trace benzene over V2O5-WO3/TiO2-based catalysts in simulated flue gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commercial and laboratory-prepared V2O5–WO3/TiO2-based catalysts with different compositions were tested for catalytic decomposition of chlorobenzene (ClBz) in simulated flue gas. Resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (REMPI-TOFMS) was employe...

  5. Separation of Flue Gas Components by SILP (Supported Ionic Liquid-Phase) Absorbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, P.; Kunov-Kruse, Andreas Jonas; Mossin, Susanne L.;

    2013-01-01

    Reversible absorption of the flue gas components CO2, NO, NO2 and SO2 has been tested for different ionic liquids (ILs) at different temperatures and flue gas compositions where porous, high surface area carriers have been applied as supports for the ionic liquids to obtain Supported Ionic Liquid....... The results show that CO2, NO and SO2 can be reversible and selective absorbed using different ILs and that Supported Ionic Liquid-Phase (SILP) absorbers are promising materials for industrial flue gas cleaning. Absorption/desorption dynamics can be tuned by temperature, pressure and gas concentration. © 2012......-Phase (SILP) absorber materials. The use of solid SILP absorbers with selected ILs were found to significantly improve the absorption capacity and sorption dynamics at low flue gas concentration, thus making the applicability of ILs viable in technical, continuous flow processes for flue gas cleaning...

  6. Research progress on catalytic reduction technique for denitration of cement flue gas%水泥窑炉烟气催化还原脱硝技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房晶瑞; 马忠诚; 汪澜

    2013-01-01

    Cement production is one of the highest NOx emission industries, where the post-combustion control technology should be utilized in future because the combustion control technology used is difficult to meet the enhanced demand of environmental protection and emission standard. Selective catalytic reduction technique is the most efficient denitration technology and has been widely used in the field of power plants. However, its utilization in cement industry is relatively few because the commercial SCR technique is not applicable to the condition and component of the exhausted gas from cement kilns. This paper briefly introduced the mechanism of selective catalytic reduction process, reaction mechanism, concluded the application of SCR in cement kilns and discussed the research focus on catalysts for denitration of cement kilns.%水泥工业是NOx的高排放行业,现有的燃烧控制技术难以满足日益提高的环保要求,因此烟气脱硝技术在水泥工业的应用将势在必行.选择性催化还原(SCR)脱硝技术是脱硝率最高的烟气脱硝技术,在燃煤电厂已有较大规模的应用,但是在水泥工业中的研究和应用相对滞后.简要介绍了SCR脱硝技术工作原理及其在水泥窑炉的应用现状,总结了催化材料研究和应用进展,探讨了水泥窑炉NOx减排用SCR脱硝技术和催化材料的研究方向.

  7. Capture and separation of CO2 from flue gas by coupling free and immobilized amines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A novel system has been proposed for the capture and separation of CO2 from flue gas. In this method, a resin isemployed to regenerate the amine capturing CO2 from flue gas atroom temperatures. The feasibility for the resin to regenerateamines such as MEA, MAE, TEA, and ammonia has been demonstrated. It was also discovered that the resin could be regenerated by hotwater.

  8. Materials in flue gas condensation plants; Materialval vid roekgaskondensering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, Barbara; Nordling Magnus

    2003-02-01

    This project is the first part of a larger project. In the part reported here, materials for flue gas condensers have been investigated by contact with plant owners and suppliers and by a literature review of reported failures. If it is decided to continue with another part of the project, a number of materials will be long term tested on site. The project is complementary to an earlier project, which investigated the operating experiences from flue gas condensers in biomass fired cogeneration plants. In the project materials (steel and polymeric) suitable for long term testing in existing plants are discussed. It is proposed that testing in the second part of the project is made with material coupons in one plant fired with only biomass and one plant where biomass is co fired with other fuels. In the biomass fired plant a number of steel materials should be tested. In the co fired plant, with its harsher operating conditions, the same steel materials plus a number of polymeric materials should be tested. Materials suitable for testing are summarised in the report.

  9. Flue-gas-influenced heavy metal bioaccumulation by the indigenous microalgae Desmodesmus communis LUCC 002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanisami, Swaminathan; Lee, Keesoo; Balakrishnan, Baskar; Nam, Paul Ki-souk

    2015-01-01

    Desmodesmus communis LUCC 002 was cultivated using flue gas originating from a coal-fired power plant as a carbon dioxide (CO2) source. The flue gas contains various heavy metals. For investigating the fate of flue-gas-introduced metals on the cultivation system, bioaccumulation was measured in the microalgal biomass and milieu. The accumulated biomass was found to contain eight heavy metals: arsenic, chromium, barium, lead, selenium, silver, cadmium, and mercury. High heavy metal accumulations were also found in the control group of algae grown without the addition of flue gas at the same location. Further testing revealed that some of the heavy metals originated from well water used in the cultivation. The flue-gas-influenced bioaccumulation pattern of different heavy metals was observed. The responses of individual heavy metals and the influence of well water microbial flora on the algal growth were investigated, this study showed that hormesis was developed by the D. communis LUCC 002.

  10. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir Gupta; Alejandro Lopez-Ortiz

    2001-01-01

    Four grades of sodium bicarbonate and two grades of trona were characterized in terms of particle size distribution, surface area, pore size distribution, and attrition. Surface area and pore size distribution determinations were conducted after calcination of the materials. The sorbent materials were subjected to thermogravimetric testing to determine comparative rates and extent of calcination (in inert gas) and sorption (in a simulated coal combustion flue gas mixture). Selected materials were exposed to five calcination/sorption cycles and showed no decrease in either sorption capacity or sorption rate. Process simulations were conducted involving different heat recovery schemes. The process is thermodynamically feasible. The sodium-based materials appear to have suitable physical properties for use as regenerable sorbents and, based on thermogravimetric testing, are likely to have sorption and calcination rates that are rapid enough to be of interest in full-scale carbon sequestration processes.

  11. Combined effects Na and SO{sub 2} in flue gas on Mn-Ce/TiO{sub 2} catalyst for low temperature selective catalytic reduction of NO by NH{sub 3} simulated by Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Aiyi [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Materials Cycling and Pollution Control, Nanjing 210023 (China); Yu, Danqing [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); Yang, Liu [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Materials Cycling and Pollution Control, Nanjing 210023 (China); Sheng, Zhongyi, E-mail: 09377@njnu.edu.cn [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Materials Cycling and Pollution Control, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Sodium sulfate (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) was deposited on Mn-Ce/TiO{sub 2} catalyst to simulate the co-existing of sodium and SO{sub 2} in the flue gas. • Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} had strong and fluctuant influence on Mn-Ce/TiO{sub 2} catalyst’s performance in SCR of NOx with NH{sub 3}, due to the combined effect of the deactivation of sodium salts and the enhanced performance of ceria with surface sulfation. • The changes of the surface chemical species and acid sites on the Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} deposited catalysts could be considered as the main reasons for the fluctuation changes with the catalytic activity. - Abstract: A series of Mn-Ce/TiO{sub 2} catalysts were synthesized through an impregnation method and used for low temperature selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx with ammonia (NH{sub 3}). Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} was added into the catalyst to simulate the combined effects of alkali metal and SO{sub 2} in the flue gas. Experimental results showed that Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} had strong and fluctuant influence on the activity of Mn-Ce/TiO{sub 2}, because the effect of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} included pore occlusion and sulfation effect simultaneously. When Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} loading content increased from 0 to 1 wt.%, the SCR activities of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-doped catalysts decreased greatly. With further increasing amount of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, however, the catalytic activity increased gradually. XRD results showed that Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} doping could induce the crystallization of MnOx phases, which were also confirmed by TEM and SEM results. BET results showed that the surface areas decreased and a new bimodal mesoporous structure formed gradually with the increasing amount of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. XPS results indicated that part of Ce{sup 4+} and Mn{sup 3+} were transferred to Ce{sup 3+} and Mn{sup 4+} due to the sulfation after Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} deposition on the surface of the catalysts. When the doped amounts of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} increased, NH{sub 3

  12. Mercury Speciation in Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas-Experimental Studies and Model Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radisav Vidic; Joseph Flora; Eric Borguet

    2008-12-31

    The overall goal of the project was to obtain a fundamental understanding of the catalytic reactions that are promoted by solid surfaces present in coal combustion systems and develop a mathematical model that described key phenomena responsible for the fate of mercury in coal-combustion systems. This objective was achieved by carefully combining laboratory studies under realistic process conditions using simulated flue gas with mathematical modeling efforts. Laboratory-scale studies were performed to understand the fundamental aspects of chemical reactions between flue gas constituents and solid surfaces present in the fly ash and their impact on mercury speciation. Process models were developed to account for heterogeneous reactions because of the presence of fly ash as well as the deliberate addition of particles to promote Hg oxidation and adsorption. Quantum modeling was used to obtain estimates of the kinetics of heterogeneous reactions. Based on the initial findings of this study, additional work was performed to ascertain the potential of using inexpensive inorganic sorbents to control mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants without adverse impact on the salability fly ash, which is one of the major drawbacks of current control technologies based on activated carbon.

  13. Experimental study on performance of flow & desulfurisation of a gas-liquid screen scrubber for wet flue gas desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In the paper, the gas-liquid two-phase flow performance and desulfurisation performance of the gasliquid screen scrubber were experimentally studied when limestone wag used as absorbent. Experiments were carried out at varying the flue gas velocity and slurry flux in concurrent and countercurrent tower respectively. The experimental results showed that the flow resistance of absorber increased rapidly with an increase of the flue gas velocity whether in concurrent or in countercurrent tower, and the up trend of the flow resistance in the countercurrent tower was higher than those in the concurrent one. The influence of the flue gas velocity on the flow resistance of absorber was more than those of the slurry flux density. Whether in the concurrent tower or in the countercurrent one, increasing the flue gas velocity or the slurry flux density would enhance the desulphurization efficiency. The influence of the slurry flux density on the desulfurisation efficiency was greater than those of the flue gas velocity.

  14. 烟气脱硝选择性催化还原催化剂反应模拟研究%Mathematical Simulation of Flue Gas Denitration Based on Selective Catalytic Reduction Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈伯雄; 赵宁; 刘亭

    2011-01-01

    以E-R机制为动力学基础,建立了选择性催化还原(selective catalytic reduction,SCR)催化剂单孔道一维数学模型,用于模拟SCR催化剂孔道内的反应进程.模型同时还考虑了氨氧化的副反应以及孔道内反应的热效应.经过模拟结果和实验结果对照,证明了模型的合理性.利用模型计算了孔道内的浓度和温度分布、不同运行参数对NO转化率的影响,及催化剂孔大小与孔形状对脱硝效率的影响.模拟计算结果表明,沿孔道方向反应物浓度逐渐降低,而温度略有提高;在反应温度为320~380℃、氨氮比为1.0~1.05和空速为3 200 h-1的运行条件下,单孔道SCR的NO转化率能达到65%以上;另外,通过对孔形状和孔大小的模拟计算发现,催化剂孔节距应设计小于10mm为宜,而催化剂选用蜂窝式较板式和波纹板式具有更高的NO转化率.%Based on Eley-Rideal kinetic mechanism, the one dimensional mathematical model for (selective catalytic reduction, SCR) catalyst was established, to simulate the selective catalytic reduction process in the catalyst channel. The side effect of ammonia oxidation and the thermal effect on the reaction in the channel were considered simultaneously in the modeling. The model was testified to be reliable by compared with the experimental data. By the model, the concentration and temperature distributions in the channel were calculated. The effects of different operation parameters, the pitch and the shape of catalyst channel on De-Nox efficiency were also studied. It was shown that the concentration of reactants decreased along the channel direction, but the temperature increased slightly. According to the calculated results, the SCR de-NO+ efficiency for the single channel can reach over 65%, for the operating condition of temperature 320-380℃, NH3/N0 feed ratio 1.0-1.05, and gas hourly space velocity 3 200h-1. Besides, the pitch of catalyst should be designed less than 10mm; the

  15. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry Regenerable Sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Nelson; David Green; Paul Box; Raghubir Gupta; Gennar Henningsen

    2007-06-30

    Regenerable sorbents based on sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) can be used to separate carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal-fired power plant flue gas. Upon thermal regeneration and condensation of water vapor, CO{sub 2} is released in a concentrated form that is suitable for reuse or sequestration. During the research project described in this report, the technical feasibility and economic viability of a thermal-swing CO{sub 2} separation process based on dry, regenerable, carbonate sorbents was confirmed. This process was designated as RTI's Dry Carbonate Process. RTI tested the Dry Carbonate Process through various research phases including thermogravimetric analysis (TGA); bench-scale fixed-bed, bench-scale fluidized-bed, bench-scale co-current downflow reactor testing; pilot-scale entrained-bed testing; and bench-scale demonstration testing with actual coal-fired flue gas. All phases of testing showed the feasibility of the process to capture greater than 90% of the CO{sub 2} present in coal-fired flue gas. Attrition-resistant sorbents were developed, and these sorbents were found to retain their CO{sub 2} removal activity through multiple cycles of adsorption and regeneration. The sodium carbonate-based sorbents developed by RTI react with CO{sub 2} and water vapor at temperatures below 80 C to form sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and/or Wegscheider's salt. This reaction is reversed at temperatures greater than 120 C to release an equimolar mixture of CO{sub 2} and water vapor. After condensation of the water, a pure CO{sub 2} stream can be obtained. TGA testing showed that the Na{sub 2}CO3 sorbents react irreversibly with sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and hydrogen chloride (HCl) (at the operating conditions for this process). Trace levels of these contaminants are expected to be present in desulfurized flue gas. The sorbents did not collect detectable quantities of mercury (Hg). A process was designed for the Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-based sorbent that

  16. Experimental and mechanism studies on seawater flue gas desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Seawater flue gas desulfurization (Seawater FGD) process has a number of advantages, but the study on mechanism of seawater FGD is little. The effects of absorbing efficiency of SO2 by the constant component and part of trace transition elements in seawater are studied by the experiment. The results indicate that the effect factors of absorption of SO2 by seawater are alkaline, ion intensity, catalysis of Cl- and transition metal ions Fe, Mn. The degree of effect is alkaline > the catalysis of Cl-, Fe2+ and Mn > ion intensity. The mechanisms of catalysis oxidation for S(IV) by Cl, Feand Mnare discussed. According to the results, some measures can be used to improved the capability of desulfurization.

  17. New particle formation in the fresh flue-gas plume from a coal-fired power plant: effect of flue-gas cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylläri, Fanni; Asmi, Eija; Anttila, Tatu; Saukko, Erkka; Vakkari, Ville; Pirjola, Liisa; Hillamo, Risto; Laurila, Tuomas; Häyrinen, Anna; Rautiainen, Jani; Lihavainen, Heikki; O'Connor, Ewan; Niemelä, Ville; Keskinen, Jorma; Dal Maso, Miikka; Rönkkö, Topi

    2016-06-01

    Atmospheric emissions, including particle number and size distribution, from a 726 MWth coal-fired power plant were studied experimentally from a power plant stack and flue-gas plume dispersing in the atmosphere. Experiments were conducted under two different flue-gas cleaning conditions. The results were utilized in a plume dispersion and dilution model taking into account particle formation precursor (H2SO4 resulted from the oxidation of emitted SO2) and assessment related to nucleation rates. The experiments showed that the primary emissions of particles and SO2 were effectively reduced by flue-gas desulfurization and fabric filters, especially the emissions of particles smaller than 200 nm in diameter. Primary pollutant concentrations reached background levels in 200-300 s. However, the atmospheric measurements indicated that new particles larger than 2.5 nm are formed in the flue-gas plume, even in the very early phases of atmospheric ageing. The effective number emission of nucleated particles were several orders of magnitude higher than the primary particle emission. Modelling studies indicate that regardless of continuing dilution of the flue gas, nucleation precursor (H2SO4 from SO2 oxidation) concentrations remain relatively constant. In addition, results indicate that flue-gas nucleation is more efficient than predicted by atmospheric aerosol modelling. In particular, the observation of the new particle formation with rather low flue-gas SO2 concentrations changes the current understanding of the air quality effects of coal combustion. The results can be used to evaluate optimal ways to achieve better air quality, particularly in polluted areas like India and China.

  18. Catalytic hot gas cleaning of gasification gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simell, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1997-12-31

    The aim of this work was to study the catalytic cleaning of gasification gas from tars and ammonia. In addition, factors influencing catalytic activity in industrial applications were studied, as well as the effects of different operation conditions and limits. Also the catalytic reactions of tar and ammonia with gasification gas components were studied. The activities of different catalyst materials were measured with laboratory-scale reactors fed by slip streams taken from updraft and fluid bed gasifiers. Carbonate rocks and nickel catalysts proved to be active tar decomposing catalysts. Ammonia decomposition was in turn facilitated by nickel catalysts and iron materials like iron sinter and iron dolomite. Temperatures over 850 deg C were required at 2000{sup -1} space velocity at ambient pressure to achieve almost complete conversions. During catalytic reactions H{sub 2} and CO were formed and H{sub 2}O was consumed in addition to decomposing hydrocarbons and ammonia. Equilibrium gas composition was almost achieved with nickel catalysts at 900 deg C. No deactivation by H{sub 2}S or carbon took place in these conditions. Catalyst blocking by particulates was avoided by using a monolith type of catalyst. The apparent first order kinetic parameters were determined for the most active materials. The activities of dolomite, nickel catalyst and reference materials were measured in different gas atmospheres using laboratory apparatus. This consisted of nitrogen carrier, toluene as tar model compound, ammonia and one of the components H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, CO, CO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}+H{sub 2}O or CO+CO{sub 2}. Also synthetic gasification gas was used. With the dolomite and nickel catalyst the highest toluene decomposition rates were measured with CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. In gasification gas, however, the rate was retarded due to inhibition by reaction products (CO, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}). Tar decomposition over dolomite was modelled by benzene reactions with CO{sub 2}, H

  19. Process for separating carbon dioxide from flue gas using sweep-based membrane separation and absorption steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijmans, Johannes G.; Baker, Richard W.; Merkel, Timothy C.

    2012-08-21

    A gas separation process for treating flue gases from combustion processes, and combustion processes including such gas separation. The invention involves routing a first portion of the flue gas stream to be treated to an absorption-based carbon dioxide capture step, while simultaneously flowing a second portion of the flue gas across the feed side of a membrane, flowing a sweep gas stream, usually air, across the permeate side, then passing the permeate/sweep gas to the combustor.

  20. Experimental and mechanism studies on simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification from flue gas using a flue gas circulating fluidized bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yi; XU PeiYao; SUN XiaoJun; WANG LiDong

    2007-01-01

    The oxidizing highly reactive absorbent was prepared from fly ash, industry lime, and an oxidizing additive M. Experiments of simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification were carried out in a flue gas circulating fluidized bed (CFB). The effects of influencing factors and calcium availability were also investigated on the removal efficiencies of desulfurization and denitrification. Removal efficiencies of 95.5% for SO2 and 64.8% for NO were obtained respectively under the optimal experimental conditions. The component of the spent absorbent was analyzed with chemical analysis methods. The results indicated that more nitrogen species appeared in the spent absorbent except sulfur species. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an accessory X-ray energy spectrometer were used to observe micro-properties of the samples, including fly ash, oxidizing highly reactive absorbent and spent absorbent. The simultaneous removal mechanism of SO2 and NO based on this absorbent was proposed according to the experimental results.

  1. Multi-component removal in flue gas by aqua ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, James T.; Pennline, Henry W.

    2007-08-14

    A new method for the removal of environmental compounds from gaseous streams, in particular, flue gas streams. The new method involves first oxidizing some or all of the acid anhydrides contained in the gas stream such as sulfur dioxide (SO.sub.2) and nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide (N.sub.2O) to sulfur trioxide (SO.sub.3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO.sub.2). The gas stream is subsequently treated with aqua ammonia or ammonium hydroxide which captures the compounds via chemical absorption through acid-base or neutralization reactions. The products of the reactions can be collected as slurries, dewatered, and dried for use as fertilizers, or once the slurries have been dewatered, used directly as fertilizers. The ammonium hydroxide can be regenerated and recycled for use via thermal decomposition of ammonium bicarbonate, one of the products formed. There are alternative embodiments which entail stoichiometric scrubbing of nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides with subsequent separate scrubbing of carbon dioxide.

  2. Biomimetic Membrane for CO2 Capture from Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael C. Trachtenberg

    2007-05-31

    These Phase III experiments successfully addressed several issues needed to characterize a permeator system for application to a pulverized coal (PC) burning furnace/boiler assuming typical post-combustion cleanup devices in place. We completed key laboratory stage optimization and modeling efforts needed to move towards larger scale testing. The SOPO addressed six areas. Task 1--Post-Combustion Particle Cleanup--The first object was to determine if the Carbozyme permeator performance was likely to be reduced by particles (materials) in the flue gas stream that would either obstruct the mouth of the hollow fibers (HF) or stick to the HF bore wall surface. The second, based on the Acceptance Standards (see below), was to determine whether it would be preferable to clean the inlet gas stream (removing acid gases and particulates) or to develop methods to clean the Carbozyme permeator if performance declined due to HF block. We concluded that condensation of particle and particulate emissions, in the heat exchanger, could result in the formation of very sticky sulfate aerosols with a strong likelihood of obtruding the HF. These must be managed carefully and minimized to near-zero status before entering the permeator inlet stream. More extensive post-combustion cleanup is expected to be a necessary expense, independent of CO{sub 2} capture technology This finding is in agreement with views now emerging in the literature for a variety of CO{sub 2} capture methods. Task 2--Water Condensation--The key goal was to monitor and control temperature distributions within the permeator and between the permeator and its surroundings to determine whether water condensation in the pores or the HF bore would block flow, decreasing performance. A heat transfer fluid and delivery system were developed and employed. The result was near isothermal performance that avoided all instances of flow block. Direct thermocouple measurements provided the basis for developing a heat transfer

  3. Biomimetic Membrane for CO2 Capture from Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael C. Trachtenberg

    2007-05-31

    These Phase III experiments successfully addressed several issues needed to characterize a permeator system for application to a pulverized coal (PC) burning furnace/boiler assuming typical post-combustion cleanup devices in place. We completed key laboratory stage optimization and modeling efforts needed to move towards larger scale testing. The SOPO addressed six areas. Task 1--Post-Combustion Particle Cleanup--The first object was to determine if the Carbozyme permeator performance was likely to be reduced by particles (materials) in the flue gas stream that would either obstruct the mouth of the hollow fibers (HF) or stick to the HF bore wall surface. The second, based on the Acceptance Standards (see below), was to determine whether it would be preferable to clean the inlet gas stream (removing acid gases and particulates) or to develop methods to clean the Carbozyme permeator if performance declined due to HF block. We concluded that condensation of particle and particulate emissions, in the heat exchanger, could result in the formation of very sticky sulfate aerosols with a strong likelihood of obtruding the HF. These must be managed carefully and minimized to near-zero status before entering the permeator inlet stream. More extensive post-combustion cleanup is expected to be a necessary expense, independent of CO{sub 2} capture technology This finding is in agreement with views now emerging in the literature for a variety of CO{sub 2} capture methods. Task 2--Water Condensation--The key goal was to monitor and control temperature distributions within the permeator and between the permeator and its surroundings to determine whether water condensation in the pores or the HF bore would block flow, decreasing performance. A heat transfer fluid and delivery system were developed and employed. The result was near isothermal performance that avoided all instances of flow block. Direct thermocouple measurements provided the basis for developing a heat transfer

  4. SOx-NOx-Rox Box{trademark} flue gas clean-up demonstration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Babcock and Wilcox`s (B and W) SOx-NOx-Rox Box{trademark} process effectively removes SOx, NOx and particulate (Rox) from flue gas generated from coal-fired boilers in a single unit operation, a high temperature baghouse. The SNRB technology utilizes dry sorbent injection upstream of the baghouse for removal of SOx and ammonia injection upstream of a zeolitic selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst incorporated in the baghouse to reduce NOx emissions. Because the SOx and NOx removal processes require operation at elevated gas temperatures (800--900 F) for high removal efficiency, high-temperature fabric filter bags are used in the baghouse. The SNRB technology evolved from the bench and laboratory pilot scale to be successfully demonstrated at the 5-MWe field scale. This report represents the completion of Milestone M14 as specified in the Work Plan. B and W tested the SNRB pollution control system at a 5-MWe demonstration facility at Ohio Edison`s R.E. Burger Plant located near Shadyside, Ohio. The design and operation were influenced by the results from laboratory pilot testing at B and W`s Alliance Research Center. The intent was to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of the SNRB process. The SNRB facility treated a 30,000 ACFM flue gas slipstream from Boiler No. 8. Operation of the facility began in May 1992 and was completed in May 1993. About 2,300 hours of high-temperature operation were achieved. The main emissions control performance goals of: greater than 70% SO{sub 2} removal using a calcium-based sorbent; greater than 90% NOx removal with minimal ammonia slip; and particulate emissions in compliance with the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) of 0.03 lb/million Btu were exceeded simultaneously in the demonstration program when the facility was operated at optimal conditions. Testing also showed significant reductions in emissions of some hazardous air pollutants.

  5. Effect and mechanism of coking residual ammonia water treating by flue gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The treatment of coking residual ammonia water has been a bigdifficult problem at home and abroad, and there is no breakthrough research achievement in the past. The invention patent "The method of treating all coking wastewater or treating coking residual ammonia water by flue gas" has been successfully used in Huaian Steel Works for high concentration and organic industry wastewater treatment. Not only can it realize the wastewater zero discharge, but also the wastewater treatment has an effect of de-sulfur and de-nitrogen for flue gas. So that the flue gas exhaustcan meet the requirement of emission standard. The mass transfer and heat transfer, fly ash absorption and coagulation, acid and alkali neutralization reaction, catalysis oxidation and reduction reaction in flue gas would be the major factors.

  6. Flue gas condensation in straw fired CHP plants; Roeggaskondensation i halmfyrede kraftvarmeanlaeg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-06-15

    The high price of straw and a general demand for increased use of straw in power and heat production are expected to result in an increased need for efficient fuel utilization. The use of flue gas condensation in straw fired CHP plants can contribute to a higher exploitation of energy, and at the same time open of the possibility of utilization of wet (cheaper) fuels without energy loss. Furthermore flue gas condensation can contribute to the flue gas cleaning process through removal of HCl and SO{sub 2} as well as in particle cleaning in wet cleaning processes. With starting point in a straw fired CHP plant the technical and economic consequences of installation of a flue gas condensation system are investigated. Fuel exploitation and power/heat production distribution is included in the investigation. (BA)

  7. Separation of flue-gas scrubber sludge into marketable products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawatra, S.K.; Eisele, T.C.

    1997-08-31

    A tremendous amount of wet flue-gas desulfurization scrubber sludge (estimated 20 million metric tons per year in the US) is currently being landfilled at a huge cost to utility companies. Scrubber sludge is the solid precipitate produced during desulfurization of flue-gas from burning high sulfur coal. The amount of this sludge is expected to increase in the near future due to ever increasing governmental regulation concerning the amount of sulfur emissions. Scrubber sludge is a fine, grey colored powder that contains calcium sulfite hemihydrate (CaSO{sub 3} {center_dot} 1/2H{sub 2}), calcium sulfate dihydrate (CaSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O), limestone (CaCO{sub 3}), silicates, and iron oxides. This material can continue to be landfilled at a steadily increasing cost, or an alternative for utilizing this material can be developed. This study explores the characteristics of a naturally oxidized wet flue-gas desulfurization scrubber sludge and uses these characteristics to develop alternatives for recycling this material. In order for scrubber sludge to be used as a feed material for various markets, it was necessary to process it to meet the specifications of these markets. A physical separation process was therefore needed to separate the components of this sludge into useful products at a low cost. There are several physical separation techniques available to separate fine particulates. These techniques can be divided into four major groups: magnetic separation, electrostatic separation, physico-chemical separation, and density-based separation. The properties of this material indicated that two methods of separation were feasible: water-only cycloning (density-based separation), and froth flotation (physico-chemical separation). These processes could be used either separately, or in combination. The goal of this study was to reduce the limestone impurity in this scrubber sludge from 5.6% by weight to below 2.0% by weight. The resulting clean calcium

  8. Analysis of Halogen-Mercury Reactions in Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paula Buitrago; Geoffrey Silcox; Constance Senior; Brydger Van Otten

    2010-01-01

    Oxidized mercury species may be formed in combustion systems through gas-phase reactions between elemental mercury and halogens, such as chorine or bromine. This study examines how bromine species affect mercury oxidation in the gas phase and examines the effects of mixtures of bromine and chlorine on extents of oxidation. Experiments were conducted in a bench-scale, laminar flow, methane-fired (300 W), quartz-lined reactor in which gas composition (HCl, HBr, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}) and temperature profile were varied. In the experiments, the post-combustion gases were quenched from flame temperatures to about 350 C, and then speciated mercury was measured using a wet conditioning system and continuous emissions monitor (CEM). Supporting kinetic calculations were performed and compared with measured levels of oxidation. A significant portion of this report is devoted to sample conditioning as part of the mercury analysis system. In combustion systems with significant amounts of Br{sub 2} in the flue gas, the impinger solutions used to speciate mercury may be biased and care must be taken in interpreting mercury oxidation results. The stannous chloride solution used in the CEM conditioning system to convert all mercury to total mercury did not provide complete conversion of oxidized mercury to elemental, when bromine was added to the combustion system, resulting in a low bias for the total mercury measurement. The use of a hydroxylamine hydrochloride and sodium hydroxide solution instead of stannous chloride showed a significant improvement in the measurement of total mercury. Bromine was shown to be much more effective in the post-flame, homogeneous oxidation of mercury than chlorine, on an equivalent molar basis. Addition of NO to the flame (up to 400 ppmv) had no impact on mercury oxidation by chlorine or bromine. Addition of SO{sub 2} had no effect on mercury oxidation by chlorine at SO{sub 2} concentrations below about 400 ppmv; some increase in mercury oxidation

  9. Temperature Modulation of a Catalytic Gas Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Eike Brauns; Eva Morsbach; Sebastian Kunz; Marcus Baeumer; Walter Lang

    2014-01-01

    The use of catalytic gas sensors usually offers low selectivity, only based on their different sensitivities for various gases due to their different heats of reaction. Furthermore, the identification of the gas present is not possible, which leads to possible misinterpretation of the sensor signals. The use of micro-machined catalytic gas sensors offers great advantages regarding the response time, which allows advanced analysis of the sensor response. By using temperature modulation, additi...

  10. Flue gas desulfurization by rotating beds. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, N.; Keyvani, M.; Coskundeniz, A.

    1992-12-01

    The operating and mass transfer characteristics of rotating foam metal beds were studied to determine the potential for flue gas desulfurization. This is a final technical report on the work supported by DOE {number_sign}FG22-87-PC79924. The report is divided into two sections, Part 1 deals primarily with the operating characteristics of rotating beds, and Part 2 covers the mass transfer characteristics of S0{sub 2} absorption in water-lime slurries. Rotating foam metal beds are in essence packed towers operated in high gravitational fields. The foam metal bed is in the form of a cylindrical donut, or torus, and is rotated to produced the high centrifugal forces. The liquid phase enters the bed at the inner surface of the torus and is pulled by the field through the bed. Gas flows countercurrent to the liquid. The bed packing can have a very large specific surface areas and not flood. Possible benefits include much smaller height of a transfer unit resulting in smaller equipment and supporting structures, reduced solvent inventory, faster response with improved process control, reduced pressure drop, and shorter startup and shut-down times. This work is concerned broadly with the operating characteristics of rotating beds, the objectives being to (1) determine the pressure drop through the rotating bed; (2) determine the power required to operate the beds, (3) investigate the residence time distribution of the liquid phase in the beds; and (4) determine the mass transfer coefficients of S0{sub 2} absorption. Three packings of differing specific surface areas were studied, with areas ranging from 656 to 2952 m{sub 2}/m{sub 3}. Liquid flow rates to 36 kg/s*m{sub 2}, gas flow rate to 2.2 kg/s*m{sub 2}, and gravitational fields to 300 g were covered in this study.

  11. Economic assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization processes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierman, G. R.; May, E. H.; Mirabelli, R. E.; Pow, C. N.; Scardino, C.; Wan, E. I.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the results of a project sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The purpose of the study was to perform an economic and market assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes for application to coal-fired electric utility plants. The time period considered in the study is 1981 through 1990, and costs are reported in 1980 dollars. The task was divided into the following four subtasks: (1) determine the factors affecting FGD cost evaluations; (2) select FGD processes to be cost-analyzed; (3) define the future electric utility FGD system market; and (4) perform cost analyses for the selected FGD processes. The study was initiated in September 1979, and separate reports were prepared for the first two subtasks. The results of the latter two subtasks appear only in this final reprot, since the end-date of those subtasks coincided with the end-date of the overall task. The Subtask 1 report, Criteria and Methods for Performing FGD Cost Evaluations, was completed in October 1980. A slightly modified and condensed version of that report appears as appendix B to this report. The Subtask 2 report, FGD Candidate Process Selection, was completed in January 1981, and the principal outputs of that subtask appear in Appendices C and D to this report.

  12. Separation of Flue-Gas Scrubber Sludge into Marketable Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-28

    The reduction of sulfur oxides from high sulfur coal burning utility companies has resulted in the production of huge quantities of wet flue-gas desulfurization scrubber sludge. A typical 400 MW power station burning a coal containing 3.5% sulfur by weight and using a limestone absorbent would produce approximately 177,000 tons (dry weight) of scrubber sludge per year. This brownish colored, finely divided material contains calcium sulfite (CaSO{sub 3} {center_dot} 1/2 H{sub 2}O), calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O), unreacted limestone (CaCO{sub 3}), and various other impurities such as fly-ash and iron oxide particles. The physical separation of the components of scrubber sludge would result in the re-use of this material. The primary use would be conversion to a highly pure synthetic gypsum. This technical report concentrates on the effect of baffle configuration on the separation of calcium sulfite/sulfate from limestone. The position of the baffles as they related to the feed inlet, and the quantity of the baffles were examined. A clean calcium sulfite/sulfate (less than 2.0% limestone by weight) was achieved with the combination of water-only cyclone and horizontally baffled column.

  13. SO2/Hg removal from flue gas by dry FGD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Fan; Wang Hongmei; Zhang Fan; Zhu Jinwei; Tian Gang; Liu Yu; Mao Jixian

    2012-01-01

    To study the mechanism of SO2 and Hg removal from flue gas,an experimental packed bed reactor was designed to simulate the dry FGD,where a mixture of lime and fly ash in ratio 1∶3 w/w was used as the SO2 and Hg sorbent,and steam at temperature of 100 ℃ was applied for activation of the sorbent,while the activation time set to 20 min.The experimental factors including the SO2/Hg sorbent characteristics,50% breakthrough time for SO2/Hg removal,sorbent packed bed depth and reaction temperature were investigated.The experimental results show that after steam activation,the BET specific surface area and specific pore volume increased from 37.8 to 45.5 m2/g and from 0.42 to 0.51 cm3/g,respectively.With activation of the sorbent by steam,the 50% breakthrough times of SO2 and Hg removal increased from 34 to 42 min and from 23 to 45 min,respectively.When the packed bed depth was increased from 5 to 25 mm,the 50% breakthrough times for Hg and SO2 removal increased from 12 to 52 min and from 6 to 47 min,respectively.With the increase of the reaction temperature,the 50% breakthrough of SO2/Hg removal decreased accordingly.Steam activation can efficiently improve SO2/Hg removal simultaneously.

  14. [Flue gas desulfurization by a novel biomass activated carbon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie-Ling; Tang, Zheng-Guang; Chen, Jie; Jiang, Wen-Ju; Jiang, Xia

    2013-04-01

    A novel biomass columnar activated carbon was prepared from walnut shell and pyrolusite was added as a catalyst. The activated carbon prepared was used for flue gas desulphurization in a fixed-bed reactor with 16 g of activated carbon. The impact of operating parameters such as SO2 inlet concentration, space velocity, bed temperature, moisture content and O2 concentration on the desulfurization efficiency of activated carbon was investigated. The results showed that both the breakthrough sulfur capacity and breakthrough time of activated carbon decreased with the increase of SO2 inlet concentration within the range of 0.1% -0.3%. The breakthrough sulfur capacity deceased with the increase of space velocity, with optimal space velocity of 600 h(-1). The optimal bed temperature was 80 degrees C, and the desulfurization efficiency can be reduced if the temperature continue to increase. The presence of moisture and oxygen greatly promoted the adsorption of SO2 onto the activated carbon. The best moisture content was 10%. When the oxygen concentrations were between 10% and 13%, the desulfurization performance of activated carbon was the highest. Under the optimal operating conditions, the sulfur capacity of activated carbon was 252 mg x g(-1), and the breakthrough time was up to 26 h when the SO2 inlet concentration was 0.2%.

  15. Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Demonstration Project, A DOE Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2001-08-31

    The AFGD process as demonstrated by Pure Air at the Bailly Station offers a reliable and cost-effective means of achieving a high degree of SO{sub 2} emissions reduction when burning high-sulfur coals. Many innovative features have been successfully incorporated in this process, and it is ready for widespread commercial use. The system uses a single-loop cocurrent scrubbing process with in-situ oxidation to produce wallboard-grade gypsum instead of wet sludge. A novel wastewater evaporation system minimizes effluents. The advanced scrubbing process uses a common absorber to serve multiple boilers, thereby saving on capital through economies of scale. Major results of the project are: (1) SO{sub 2} removal of over 94 percent was achieved over the three-year demonstration period, with a system availability exceeding 99.5 percent; (2) a large, single absorber handled the combined flue gas of boilers generating 528 MWe of power, and no spares were required; (3) direct injection of pulverized limestone into the absorber was successful; (4) Wastewater evaporation eliminated the need for liquid waste disposal; and (5) the gypsum by-product was used directly for wallboard manufacture, eliminating the need to dispose of waste sludge.

  16. Microbial communities associated with wet flue gas desulfurization systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan P. Brown

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Flue gas desulfurization (FGD systems are employed to remove SOx gasses that are produced by the combustion of coal for electric power generation, and consequently limit acid rain associated with these activities. Wet FGDs represent a physicochemically extreme environment due to the high operating temperatures and total dissolved solids of fluids in the interior of the FGD units. Despite the potential importance of microbial activities in the performance and operation of FGD systems, the microbial communities associated with them have not been evaluated. Microbial communities associated with distinct process points of FGD systems at several coal fired electricity generation facilities were evaluated using culture-dependent and –independent approaches. Due to the high solute concentrations and temperatures in the FGD absorber units, culturable halothermophilic/tolerant bacteria were more abundant in samples collected from within the absorber units than in samples collected from the makeup waters that are used to replenish fluids inside the absorber units. Evaluation of bacterial 16S rRNA genes recovered from scale deposits on the walls of absorber units revealed that the microbial communities associated with these deposits are primarily composed of thermophilic bacterial lineages. These findings suggest that unique microbial communities develop in FGD systems in response to physicochemical characteristics of the different process points within the systems. The activities of the thermophilic microbial communities that develop within scale deposits could play a role in the corrosion of steel structures in FGD systems.

  17. Industrial-scale experiments of desulfuration of coal flue gas using a pulsed corona discharge plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J.; Wu, Y.; Wang, N.H.; Li, G.F.; Huang, Q.N. [Dalian University of Technology, Dalian (China). Inst. of Electrostatics

    2003-06-01

    The flow rate of flue gas in the industrial experiments was 3000 Nm{sup 3}/h. The flue gas from the boiler burning coal was used. The influences of operating parameters on the efficiency of desulfurization (DeSO{sub 2}) were studied, which include the retention period of flue gas in the reactor, the initial concentration of SO{sub 2} in flue gas, a mole ratio of NH{sub 3} to SO{sub 2} in the gas, the temperature of the gas, as well as the power consumption of pulsed corona discharges. The experimental results shown that the efficiency of DeSO{sub 2} was above 80%, when the initial concentration of SO{sub 2} was 1000 -2000 ppm, the gas temperature was 60 - 75 {degree}C, the retention period was more than 5.8 s, a mole ratio of NH{sub 3} to SO{sub 2} was 2:1, the water content in flue gas was above 6%, and the consumption was 2.5-3.5 Wh/Nm{sup 3}.

  18. CO₂ Capture Membrane Process for Power Plant Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toy, Lora [Research Triangle Inst. International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Kataria, Atish [Research Triangle Inst. International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Gupta, Raghubir [Research Triangle Inst. International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Because the fleet of coal-fired power plants is of such importance to the nation's energy production while also being the single largest emitter of CO₂, the development of retrofit, post-combustion CO₂ capture technologies for existing and new, upcoming coal power plants will allow coal to remain a major component of the U.S. energy mix while mitigating global warming. Post-combustion carbon capture technologies are an attractive option for coal-fired power plants as they do not require modification of major power-plant infrastructures, such as fuel processing, boiler, and steam-turbine subsystems. In this project, the overall objective was to develop an advanced, hollow-fiber, polymeric membrane process that could be cost-effectively retrofitted into current pulverized coal-fired power plants to capture at least 90% of the CO₂ from plant flue gas with 95% captured CO₂ purity. The approach for this project tackled the technology development on three different fronts in parallel: membrane materials R&D, hollow-fiber membrane module development, and process development and engineering. The project team consisted of RTI (prime) and two industrial partners, Arkema, Inc. and Generon IGS, Inc. Two CO₂-selective membrane polymer platforms were targeted for development in this project. For the near term, a next-generation, high-flux polycarbonate membrane platform was spun into hollow-fiber membranes that were fabricated into both lab-scale and larger prototype (~2,200 ft²) membrane modules. For the long term, a new fluoropolymer membrane platform based on poly(vinylidene fluoride) [PVDF] chemistry was developed using a copolymer approach as improved capture membrane materials with superior chemical resistance to flue-gas contaminants (moisture, SO₂, NOx, etc.). Specific objectives were: - Development of new, highly chemically resistant, fluorinated polymers as membrane materials with minimum selectivity of 30 for CO₂ over N₂ and CO

  19. Experimental and mechanism studies on simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification from flue gas using a flue gas circulating fluidized bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The oxidizing highly reactive absorbent was prepared from fly ash,industry lime,and an oxidizing additive M.Experiments of simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification were carried out in a flue gas circulating fluidized bed(CFB).The effects of influencing factors and calcium availability were also investigated on the removal efficiencies of desulfurization and denitrification.Removal efficiencies of 95.5%for SO2 and 64.8%for NO were obtained respectively under the optimal experimental conditions. The component of the spent absorbent was analyzed with chemical analysis methods.The results in- dicated that more nitrogen species appeared in the spent absorbent except sulfur species.A scanning electron microscope(SEM)and an accessory X-ray energy spectrometer were used to observe micro-properties of the samples,including fly ash,oxidizing highly reactive absorbent and spent absorbent.The simultaneous removal mechanism of SO2 and NO based on this absorbent was pro- posed according to the experimental results.

  20. Assessment of corrosion in the flue gas cleaning system using on-line monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Vendelbo Nielsen, Lars; Berggreen Petersen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Amager unit 1 is a 350 MW multifuel suspension-fired plant commissioned in 2009 to fire biomass (straw and wood pellets). Increasing corrosion problems in the flue gas cleaning system were observed in the gas-gas preheater (GAFO), the booster fan and flue gas ducts. Chlorine containing corrosion...... products/deposits were detected. An on-line corrosion measurement system was established to determine corrosion mechanisms. It was revealed that many shutdowns/start-ups of the plant influence corrosion and result in decreased lifetime of components and increased maintenance. The change of fuel from...

  1. Chemical and physical properties of dry flue gas desulfurization products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost, David A; Bigham, Jerry M; Stehouwer, Richard C; Beeghly, Joel H; Fowler, Randy; Traina, Samuel J; Wolfe, William E; Dick, Warren A

    2005-01-01

    Beneficial and environmentally safe recycling of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) products requires detailed knowledge of their chemical and physical properties. We analyzed 59 dry FGD samples collected from 13 locations representing four major FGD scrubbing technologies. The chemistry of all samples was dominated by Ca, S, Al, Fe, and Si and strong preferential partitioning into the acid insoluble residue (i.e., coal ash residue) was observed for Al, Ba, Be, Cr, Fe, Li, K, Pb, Si, and V. Sulfur, Ca, and Mg occurred primarily in water- or acid-soluble forms associated with the sorbents or scrubber reaction products. Deionized water leachates (American Society for Testing and Materials [ASTM] method) and dilute acetic acid leachates (toxicity characteristic leaching procedure [TCLP] method) had mean pH values of >11.2 and high mean concentrations of S primarily as SO(2-)4 and Ca. Concentrations of Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, and Se (except for ASTM Se in two samples) were below drinking water standards in both ASTM and TCLP leachates. Total toxicity equivalents (TEQ) of dioxins, for two FGD products used for mine reclamation, were 0.48 and 0.53 ng kg(-1). This was similar to the background level of the mine spoil (0.57 ng kg(-1)). The FGD materials were mostly uniform in particle size. Specific surface area (m2 g(-1)) was related to particle size and varied from 1.3 for bed ash to 9.5 for spray dryer material. Many of the chemical and physical properties of these FGD samples were associated with the quality of the coal rather than the combustion and SO2 scrubbing processes used.

  2. PRODUCTION OF CONSTRUCTION AGGREGATES FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SLUDGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Through a cooperative agreement with DOE, the Research and Development Department of CONSOL Inc. (CONSOL R and D) is teaming with SynAggs, Inc. and Duquesne Light to design, construct, and operate a 500 lb/h continuous pilot plant to produce road construction aggregate from a mixture of wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) sludge, fly ash, and other components. The proposed project is divided into six tasks: (1) Project Management; (2) Mix Design Evaluation; (3) Process Design; (4) Construction; (5) Start-Up and Operation; and (6) Reporting. In this quarter, Tasks 1 and 2 were completed. A project management plan (Task 1) was issued to DOE on October 22, 1998 . The mix design evaluation (Task 2) with Duquesne Light Elrama Station FGD sludge and Allegheny Power Hatfields Ferry Station fly ash was completed. Eight semi-continuous bench-scale tests were conducted to examine the effects of mix formulation on aggregate properties. A suitable mix formulation was identified to produce aggregates that meet specifications of the American Association of State High Transport Officials (AASHTO) as Class A aggregate for use in highway construction. The mix formulation was used in designing the flow sheet of the pilot plant. The process design (Task 3) is approximately 80% completed. Equipment was evaluated to comply with design requirements. The design for the curing vessel was completed by an outside engineering firm. All major equipment items for the pilot plant, except the curing vessel, were ordered. Pilot plant construction (Task 4) was begun in October. The Hazardous Substance Plan was issued to DOE. The Allegheny County (PA) Heat Department determined that an air emission permit is not required for operation of the pilot plant.

  3. GRANULATION AND BRIQUETTING OF SOLID PRODUCTS FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan J. Hycnar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Most flue gas desulfurization products can be characterized by significant solubility in water and dusting in dry state. These characteristics can cause a considerable pollution of air, water, and soil. Among many approaches to utilization of this waste, the process of agglomeration using granulation or briquetting has proved very effective. Using desulfurization products a new material of aggregate characteristics has been acquired, and this material is resistant to water and wind erosion as well as to the conditions of transportation and storage. The paper presents the results of industrial trials granulation and briquetting of calcium desulphurization products. The granulation of a mixture of phosphogypsum used with fly ash (in the share 1:5. The resulting granules characterized by a compressive strength of 41.6 MPa, the damping resistance of 70% and 14.2% abrasion. The granulate was used for the production of cement mix. The produced concrete mortar have a longer setting and hardening time, as compared to the traditional ash and gypsum mortar, and have a higher or comparable flexural and compressive strength during hardening. Briquetting trials made of a product called synthetic gypsum or rea-gypsum both in pure form and with the addition of 5% and 10% of the limestone dust. Briquettes have a high initial strength and resistance to abrasion. The values ​​of these parameters increased after 72 hours of seasoning. It was found that higher hardiness of briquettes with rea-gypsum was obtained with the impact of atmospheric conditions and higher resistance to elution of water-soluble components in comparison to ash briquettes.

  4. Applying ACF to Desulfurization Process from Flue Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘义; 张智刚; 唐强; 曹子栋

    2004-01-01

    Inasmuch as the status of environmental pollution caused by SO2 is more and more serious and the policy of environmental protection is executed more and more strictly, desulfurization from flue gas (FGD) is introduced to a wide-spread field of national economy. By a comparison with lime-limestone method, the application of adsorption method in FGD is more effective in desulfurization and more adapted to the situation of our country in respect of its more valuable byproduct. However, the technique of adsorption method is limited by the large amount of adsorbent used. In this paper, activated carbon fiber (ACF) is proposed as a new type of adsorbent to apply in FGD. A series of experiments have been made in order to compare the performances between ACF and granular activated carbon (GAC) which has been mostly used.Experiments show that under the same working conditions ACF's adsorption capacity is 16.6 times as high as that of GAC, mass loss rate is 1/12 of GAC's, desorption efficiency of ACF can reach 99.9%. The theory of micropore adsorption dynamics is adopted to analyze the characteristics of both adsorbents. It is indicated that adsorbability and perfectibility of desorption are tightly related to the distribution of pores and the surface micromechanism of adsorbent surface. The accessibility of pores for specified adsorptive and the effects of capillary condensation are crucial factors to influence the process of FGD. According to the research of different adsorbents, conclusion can be drawn that ACF is a kind of good material with a strong selectivity for SO2. Compared with the traditional methods of FGD, the use of ACF can greatly economize the consumption of adsorbent and obviously reduce the introduction of new adsorbent, and at the same time keep down the equipment investment and operating cost.

  5. Flue gas dry scrubbing using pulsed electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penetrante, B.M.

    1996-02-20

    Electron beam dry scrubbing is a technique for removing in a single step both nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) from the off-gas generated by utilities burning high sulfur coal. The use of pulsed electron beams may provide the most cost-effective solution to the implementation of this technique. This paper presents the results of plasma chemistry calculations to study the effect of dose rate, pulse length and pulse repetition rate on pulsed electron beam processing of NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} in flue gases. The main objective is to determine if the proposed combinations of dose rate, pulse length and pulse repetition rate would have any deleterious effect on the utilization of radicals for pollutant removal. For a dose rate of 2x10{sup 5} megarads per second and a pulse length of 30 nanoseconds, the average dose per pulse is sufficiently low to prevent any deleterious effect on process efficiency because of radical-radical recombination reactions. During each post-pulse period, the radicals are utilized in the oxidation of NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} in a timescale of around 200 microseconds; thus, with pulse frequencies of around 5 kilohertz or less, the radical concentrations remain sufficiently low to prevent any significant competition between radical-pollutant and radical-radical reactions. The main conclusion is that a pulsed electron beam reactor, operating with a dose rate of 2x10{sup 5} megarads per second, pulse length of 30 ns and pulse repetition rate of up to around 5 kHz, will have the same plasma chemistry efficiency as an electron beam reactor operating with a very low dose rate in continuous mode.

  6. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minish Shah; Nich Degenstein; Monica Zanfir; Rahul Solunke; Ravi Kumar; Jennifer Bugayong; Ken Burgers

    2012-06-30

    The objectives of this project were to carry out an experimental program to enable development and design of near zero emissions (NZE) CO{sub 2} processing unit (CPU) for oxy-combustion plants burning high and low sulfur coals and to perform commercial viability assessment. The NZE CPU was proposed to produce high purity CO{sub 2} from the oxycombustion flue gas, to achieve > 95% CO{sub 2} capture rate and to achieve near zero atmospheric emissions of criteria pollutants. Two SOx/NOx removal technologies were proposed depending on the SOx levels in the flue gas. The activated carbon process was proposed for power plants burning low sulfur coal and the sulfuric acid process was proposed for power plants burning high sulfur coal. For plants burning high sulfur coal, the sulfuric acid process would convert SOx and NOx in to commercial grade sulfuric and nitric acid by-products, thus reducing operating costs associated with SOx/NOx removal. For plants burning low sulfur coal, investment in separate FGD and SCR equipment for producing high purity CO{sub 2} would not be needed. To achieve high CO{sub 2} capture rates, a hybrid process that combines cold box and VPSA (vacuum pressure swing adsorption) was proposed. In the proposed hybrid process, up to 90% of CO{sub 2} in the cold box vent stream would be recovered by CO{sub 2} VPSA and then it would be recycled and mixed with the flue gas stream upstream of the compressor. The overall recovery from the process will be > 95%. The activated carbon process was able to achieve simultaneous SOx and NOx removal in a single step. The removal efficiencies were >99.9% for SOx and >98% for NOx, thus exceeding the performance targets of >99% and >95%, respectively. The process was also found to be suitable for power plants burning both low and high sulfur coals. Sulfuric acid process did not meet the performance expectations. Although it could achieve high SOx (>99%) and NOx (>90%) removal efficiencies, it could not produce by

  7. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minish Shah; Nich Degenstein; Monica Zanfir; Rahul Solunke; Ravi Kumar; Jennifer Bugayong; Ken Burgers

    2012-06-30

    The objectives of this project were to carry out an experimental program to enable development and design of near zero emissions (NZE) CO{sub 2} processing unit (CPU) for oxy-combustion plants burning high and low sulfur coals and to perform commercial viability assessment. The NZE CPU was proposed to produce high purity CO{sub 2} from the oxycombustion flue gas, to achieve > 95% CO{sub 2} capture rate and to achieve near zero atmospheric emissions of criteria pollutants. Two SOx/NOx removal technologies were proposed depending on the SOx levels in the flue gas. The activated carbon process was proposed for power plants burning low sulfur coal and the sulfuric acid process was proposed for power plants burning high sulfur coal. For plants burning high sulfur coal, the sulfuric acid process would convert SOx and NOx in to commercial grade sulfuric and nitric acid by-products, thus reducing operating costs associated with SOx/NOx removal. For plants burning low sulfur coal, investment in separate FGD and SCR equipment for producing high purity CO{sub 2} would not be needed. To achieve high CO{sub 2} capture rates, a hybrid process that combines cold box and VPSA (vacuum pressure swing adsorption) was proposed. In the proposed hybrid process, up to 90% of CO{sub 2} in the cold box vent stream would be recovered by CO{sub 2} VPSA and then it would be recycled and mixed with the flue gas stream upstream of the compressor. The overall recovery from the process will be > 95%. The activated carbon process was able to achieve simultaneous SOx and NOx removal in a single step. The removal efficiencies were >99.9% for SOx and >98% for NOx, thus exceeding the performance targets of >99% and >95%, respectively. The process was also found to be suitable for power plants burning both low and high sulfur coals. Sulfuric acid process did not meet the performance expectations. Although it could achieve high SOx (>99%) and NOx (>90%) removal efficiencies, it could not produce by

  8. Temperature modulation of a catalytic gas sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauns, Eike; Morsbach, Eva; Kunz, Sebastian; Baeumer, Marcus; Lang, Walter

    2014-10-29

    The use of catalytic gas sensors usually offers low selectivity, only based on their different sensitivities for various gases due to their different heats of reaction. Furthermore, the identification of the gas present is not possible, which leads to possible misinterpretation of the sensor signals. The use of micro-machined catalytic gas sensors offers great advantages regarding the response time, which allows advanced analysis of the sensor response. By using temperature modulation, additional information about the gas characteristics can be measured and drift effects caused by material shifting or environmental temperature changes can be avoided. In this work a miniaturized catalytic gas sensor which offers a very short response time (electronic device was developed, since theory shows that harmonics induced by the electronics must be avoided to generate a comprehensible signal.

  9. 催化氧化法去除烟气中 NOx 的研究现状与展望%Research Status and Prospects of Using Catalytic Oxidation Method to Remove NOx in Flue Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑞元; 李凯; 宁平; 汤立红; 刘烨; 王驰

    2015-01-01

    综述了 SCO 法(选择性催化氧化法)中催化剂的研究现状。从过渡金属元素、稀土元素、贵金属、活性炭四类催化剂进行了介绍。锰类复合氧化物催化剂具有较高的催化活性,且成本较低。钙钛矿催化剂的催化活性能与贵金属类催化剂相媲美。这些非贵金属催化剂成本都较低,具有潜在的应用价值。但总的来说目前对于催化剂抗硫抗水的研究还不够深入,一些催化剂可能还未达到实际工业应用中应具有的抗中毒能力。总结分析了 SCO 法应用中存在的问题,展望了其应用前景。%The research status of the catalyst in the SCO method (Selective catalytic oxidation)were summa-rized.It introduces four kinds of catalysts,which including transition metal oxides,oxides of rare earth elements, precious metals,and activated carbon.The composite oxides catalysts of manganese exhibit good performance,which is cost-low.The activity of rare-earth perovskite structure catalysts can be comparable with that of noble metal cata-lysts.All these non-noble metal catalysts is cost-low,it has potential application value for industry.But now the re-search of poison tolerance of the catalysts is less,the tolerant ability for poisoning of the catalysts still could not reach the requirements of practical application.We also analyze the problems existing in the application of SCO and the out-look of the SCO method.

  10. Modeling and parametric analysis of hollow fiber membrane system for carbon capture from multicomponent flue gas

    KAUST Repository

    Khalilpour, Rajab

    2011-08-12

    The modeling and optimal design/operation of gas membranes for postcombustion carbon capture (PCC) is presented. A systematic methodology is presented for analysis of membrane systems considering multicomponent flue gas with CO 2 as target component. Simplifying assumptions is avoided by namely multicomponent flue gas represented by CO 2/N 2 binary mixture or considering the co/countercurrent flow pattern of hollow-fiber membrane system as mixed flow. Optimal regions of flue gas pressures and membrane area were found within which a technoeconomical process system design could be carried out. High selectivity was found to not necessarily have notable impact on PCC membrane performance, rather, a medium selectivity combined with medium or high permeance could be more advantageous. © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  11. Effects of flue gas compositions on nitrosamine and nitramine formation in postcombustion CO2 capture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ning; Mitch, William A

    2014-07-01

    Amine-based technologies are emerging as the prime contender for postcombustion CO2 capture. However, concerns have arisen over the health impacts of amine-based CO2 capture associated with the release of nitrosamines and nitramines, which are byproducts from the reactions between flue gas NOx and solvent amines. In this study, flue gas compositions were systematically varied to evaluate their effects on the formation of nitrosamines and nitramines in a lab-scale CO2 capture reactor with morpholine as a model solvent amine. The accumulation of N-nitrosomorpholine in both the absorber and washwater increased linearly with both NO and NO2 for concentrations up to ∼20 ppmv. These correlations could be extrapolated to estimate N-nitrosomorpholine accumulation at extremely low NOx levels (0.3 ppmv NO2 and 1.5 ppmv NO). NO played a particularly important role in driving N-nitrosomorpholine formation in the washwater, likely following partial oxidation to NO2 by O2. The accumulation of N-nitromorpholine in both the absorber and washwater positively correlated with flue gas NO2 concentration, but not with NO concentration. Both N-nitrosomorpholine and N-nitromorpholine accumulated fastest in the absence of CO2. Flue gas humidity did not affect nitrosamine accumulation in either the absorber or the washwater unit. These results provide a basis for estimating the effects of flue gas composition on nitrosamine and nitramine accumulation in postcombustion CO2 capture systems.

  12. Economic Comparison of Three Gas Separation Technologies for CO2 Capture from Power Plant Flue Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Hongjun; FAN Shuanshi; LANG Xuemei; WANG Yanhong; NIE Jianghua

    2011-01-01

    Three gas separation technologies,chemical absorption,membrane separation and pressure swing adsorption,are usually applied for CO2 capture from flue gas in coal-fired power plants.In this work,the costs of the three technologies are analyzed and compared.The cost for chemical absorption is mainly from $30 to $60 per ton(based on CO2 avoided),while the minimum value is $10 per ton(based on CO2 avoided).As for membrane separation and pressure swing adsorption,the costs are $50 to $78 and $40 to $63 per ton(based on CO2 avoided),respectively.Measures are proposed to reduce the cost of the three technologies.For CO2 capture and storage process,the CO2 recovery and purity should be greater than 90%.Based on the cost,recovery,and purity,it seems that chemical absorption is currently the most cost-effective technology for CO2 capture from flue gas from power plants.However,membrane gas separation is the most promising alternative approach in the future,provided that membrane performance is further improved.

  13. Simultaneous flue gas bioremediation and reduction of microalgal biomass production costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douskova, I.; Doucha, J.; Livansky, K.; Umysova, D.; Zachleder, V.; Vitova, M. [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Trebon (Czech Republic). Laboratory of Cell Cycles of Algae; Machat, J. [Masaryk University, Brno (Czech Republic). Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology; Novak, P. [Termizo Inc., Liberec (Czech Republic)

    2009-02-15

    A flue gas originating from a municipal waste incinerator was used as a source of CO{sub 2} for the cultivation of the microalga Chlorella vulgaris, in order to decrease the biomass production costs and to bioremediate CO{sub 2} simultaneously. The utilization of the flue gas containing 10-13% ({nu}/{nu}) CO2 and 8-10% ({nu}/{nu}) O{sub 2} for the photobioreactor agitation and CO{sub 2} supply was proven to be convenient. The growth rate of algal cultures on the flue gas was even higher when compared with the control culture supplied by a mixture of pure CO{sub 2} and air (11% ({nu}/{nu}) CO{sub 2}). Correspondingly, the CO{sub 2} fixation rate was also higher when using the flue gas (4.4 g CO{sub 2} l{sup -1} 24 h{sup -1}) than using the control gas (3.0 g CO{sub 2} l{sup -1} 24 h{sup -1}). The toxicological analysis of the biomass produced using untreated flue gas showed only a slight excess of mercury while all the other compounds (other heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls) were below the limits required by the European Union foodstuff legislation. Fortunately, extending the flue gas treatment prior to the cultivation unit by a simple granulated activated carbon column led to an efficient absorption of gaseous mercury and to the algal biomass composition compliant with all the foodstuff legislation requirements. (orig.)

  14. Selection and adaptation of microalgae to growth in 100% unfiltered coal-fired flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Ambreen; Thomas-Hall, Skye R; Mughal, Tahira Aziz; Schenk, Peer M

    2017-03-01

    Microalgae have been considered for biological carbon capture and sequestration to offset carbon emissions from fossil fuel combustion. This study shows that mixed biodiverse microalgal communities can be selected for and adapted to tolerate growth in 100% flue gas from an unfiltered coal-fired power plant that contained 11% CO2. The high SOx and NOx emissions required slow adaptation of microalgae over many months, with step-wise increases from 10% to 100% flue gas supplementation and phosphate buffering at higher concentrations. After a rapid decline in biodiversity over the first few months, community profiling revealed Desmodesmus spp. as the dominant microalgae. To the authors' knowledge this work is the first to demonstrate that up 100% unfiltered flue gas from coal-fired power generation can be used for algae cultivation. Implementation of serial passages over a range of photobioreactors may contribute towards the development of microalgal-mediated carbon capture and sequestration processes.

  15. Critical review of mercury chemistry in flue gas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendelsohn, M. H.; Livengood, C. D.

    2006-11-27

    Mercury (Hg) and its compounds have long been recognized as potentially hazardous to human health and the environment. Many man-made sources of mercury have been reduced in recent years through process changes and control measures. However, emissions of mercury from coal-fired power plants, while exceedingly dilute by the usual pollution standards, still constitute a major source when considered in the aggregate. Concerns over those emissions and the prospect of impending emissions regulations have led to a wide range of research projects dealing with the measurement and control of mercury in flue gas. This work has made considerable progress in improving the understanding of mercury emissions and their behavior, but inconsistencies and unexpected results have also shown that a better understanding of mercury chemistry is needed. To develop a more complete understanding of where additional research on mercury chemistry is needed, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) asked Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to conduct a critical review of the available information as reported in the technical literature. The objectives were to summarize the current state of the art of chemistry knowledge, identify significant knowledge gaps, and recommend future research to resolve those gaps. An initial evaluation of potential review topics indicated that the scope of the review would need to be limited and focused on the most important topics relative to mercury control. To aid in this process, Argonne developed a brief survey that was circulated to researchers in the field who could help identify and prioritize the many aspects of the problem. The results of the survey were then used to design and guide a highly focused literature search that identified key papers for analysis. Each paper was reviewed, summarized, and evaluated for the relevance and quality of the information presented. The results of that work provided the basis for conclusions regarding the state of knowledge

  16. Application of Pt/CdS for the Photocatalytic Flue Gas Desulfurization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiulan Song

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A photocatalytic flue gas desulfurization technology was designed to control emissions of SO2 from the combustion of fossil fuels. With the photocatalytic technology, we cannot only achieve the purpose of solving the problem of SO2 emissions but also realize the desire of hydrogen production from water. CdS loaded with Pt were selected as the model photocatalyst for the photocatalytic flue gas desulfurization. The factors influencing the rate of hydrogen production and ammonia sulfite solution oxidation were detected.

  17. Investigation of the Corrosion Behavior of Electroless Ni-P Coating in Flue Gas Condensate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hejie Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion behavior of Ni-P coating deposited on 3003 aluminum alloy in flue gas condensate was investigated by electrochemical approaches. The results indicated that nitrite acted as a corrosion inhibitor. The inhibiting effect of nitrite was reduced in solutions containing sulfate or nitrate. Chloride and sulfate accelerated the corrosion of Ni-P coatings greatly. This can provide important information for the researchers to develop special Ni-P coatings with high corrosion resistance in the flue gas condensate.

  18. Review of mercury removal from flue gas using non-thermal plasma technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mercury with various constituents in flue gas produced by burning coal could be an attractive alternative to non-thermal plasma process for mercury control. The mechanism of removal for pollutants using non-thermal plasma technology and the electric discharge form of non-thermal plasma are introduced. Then, we summary the research progress of mercury removal by non-thermal plasma in recent years, especially focus on how to oxide the elemental mercury from flue gas. We hope the non-thermal plasma technology can be improved to apply in the industry in the near future.

  19. Removal of dust from flue gas in magnetically stabilized fluidized bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yinghui Wang; Keting Gui; Mingheng Shi; Changfeng Li

    2008-01-01

    A magnetically stabilized fluidized bed (MSFB, φ 500mm x 2100mm) was designed to study dust removal from flue gas. Based on the mechanism of dust removal in a fixed bed, the effects on collection efficiency of magnetic field intensity, ratio of flue gas velocity to minimum fluidization velocity, bed height, and particle average diameter, were investigated. Then feasible methods for MSFB to better remove dust were proposed. Over 95% of dust removal with MSFB can be achieved, when stable fluidization is maintained and when magnetic particles are frequently renewed.

  20. The Effect of Water Spray upon Incineration Flue Gas Clean—up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HaigangWang; BinLi; 等

    2000-01-01

    The existence of liquid water was found very important in incineration flue gas clean-up systems for enhancing the absorption of acid components contained.In a newly developed incineration flue gas clean-up tower,which works in a semi-dry mode,the water is injected in the form of spray to maximum its contact surface with the gas.The criteria for the design of the water nozzles would be high water concentration but no liquid impinging on the solid wall and complete evaporation inside the tower,In order to optimize the atomizer design,the effects of the spray type (hollow or solid cone),their initial droplet size distribution and water flow rate on the performance of the acid gas absorption were investigated.The liquid behaviour was studied with a fluid dynamic simulation code,and the overall performance was checked experimentally.This paper presents the use of a commercial CFD code,FLUENT,and some modifications made during such investigation.The modification includes the viscosity of the flue gas defined as a function of the temperature,and the initial mass fraction of different droplet size group described with an exponential distribution formula of Rosin-Rammler.The investigation results (the optimal spray parameters)were used to guide the water nozzle design.The general performance of the flue gas clean-up system measured during the plant operation complied with the design criteria.

  1. Analytical methods and monitoring system for E-beam flue gas treatment process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licki, J.; Chmielewski, A. G.; Iller, E.; Zakrzewska-Trznadel, G.; Tokunaga, O.; Hashimoto, S.

    1998-06-01

    The results of reliable and precise measurement of gas composition in different key points of e-beam installation are necessary for its proper operation and control. Only the composition of flue gas coming into installation is adequate to composition of flue gas emitted from coal-fired boiler. At other points of e-b installation the gas composition is strongly modified by process conditions therefore specific measuring system (sampling and conditioning system and set of gas analyzers) for its determination are required. In the paper system for gas composition measurement at inlet and outlet of e-b installation are described. Process parameters are continuously monitoring by CEM system and occasionally by the grab sample system. Both system have been tested at pilot plant at EPS Kawȩczyn.

  2. The Clean Coal Technology Program 100 MWe demonstration of gas suspension absorption for flue gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, F.E.; Hedenhag, J.G. [AirPol Inc., Teterboro, NJ (United States); Marchant, S.K.; Pukanic, G.W. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center; Norwood, V.M.; Burnett, T.A. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    AirPol Inc., with the cooperation of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) under a Cooperative Agreement with the United States Department of Energy, installed and tested a 10 MWe Gas Suspension Absorption (GSA) Demonstration system at TVA`s Shawnee Fossil Plant near Paducah, Kentucky. This low-cost retrofit project demonstrated that the GSA system can remove more than 90% of the sulfur dioxide from high-sulfur coal-fired flue gas, while achieving a relatively high utilization of reagent lime. This paper presents a detailed technical description of the Clean Coal Technology demonstration project. Test results and data analysis from the preliminary testing, factorial tests, air toxics texts, 28-day continuous demonstration run of GSA/electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and 14-day continuous demonstration run of GSA/pulse jet baghouse (PJBH) are also discussed within this paper.

  3. Finned tubes in purified gas heat exchangers of flue gas desulfurization plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Donnell, J. Jr.; Meyer, T.H.

    1985-01-01

    The use of helical rolled, corrosion resistant finned tubes in the purified gas heat exchangers of flue gas desulfurization plant has considerable economic advantages over conventional heat exchangers with smooth tubes. As a result of a threefold larger external surface and hence improved heat transfer properties, heat exchangers with finned tubes can be made considerably smaller. The weight and space requirements are reduced and the pressure drop also falls owing to the smaller diameter. Thus piping, pumps, and fittings can all be made smaller. Moreover, deposition on the finned tubes is considerably lower. It is found that finned tubes can be recommended in all cases where the difference in heat transfer coefficients between the inside and the outside of the tube is considerable. (orig.).

  4. The disposal of flue gas desulphurisation waste: sulphur gas emissions and their control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiswell, R; Bottrell, S H

    1991-06-01

    Flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) equipment to be fitted to UK coal-fired power stations will produce more than 0.8 Mtonnes of calcium sulphate, as gypsum. Most gypsum should be of commercial quality, but any low grade material disposed as waste has the potential to generate a range of sulphur gases, including H2S, COS, CS2, DMS and DMDS. Literature data from the USA indicates that well-oxidised waste with a high proportion of calcium sulphate (the main UK product of FGD) has relatively low emissions of sulphur gases, which are comparable to background levels from inland soils. However, sulphur gas fluxes are greatly enhanced where reducing conditions become established within the waste, hence disposal strategies should be formulated to prevent the sub-surface consumption of oxygen.

  5. Decomposition of organochlorine compounds in flue gas from municipal solid waste incinerators using natural and activated acid clays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, In-Hee; Takahashi, Shigetoshi; Matsuo, Takayuki; Matsuto, Toshihiko

    2014-09-01

    High-temperature particle control (HTPC) using a ceramic filter is a dust collection method without inefficient cooling and reheating of flue gas treatment; thus, its use is expected to improve the energy recovery efficiency of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs). However there are concerns regarding de novo synthesis and a decrease in the adsorptive removal efficiency of dioxins (DXNs) at approximately 300 degrees C. In this study, the effect of natural and activated acid clays on the decomposition of monochlorobenzene (MCB), one of the organochlorine compounds in MSW flue gas, was investigated. From the results of MCB removal tests at 30-300 degrees C, the clays were classified as adsorption, decomposition, and low removal types. More than half of the clays (four kinds of natural acid clays and two kinds of activated acid clays) were of the decomposition type. In addition, the presence of Cl atoms detached from MCB was confirmed by washing the clay used in the MCB removal test at 300 degrees C. Activated acid clay was expected to have high dechlorination performance because of its proton-rich-composition, but only two clays were classed as decomposition type. Conversely, all the natural acid clays used in this work were of the decomposition type, which contained relatively higher di- and trivalent metal oxides such as Al2O3, Fe2O3, MgO, and CaO. These metal oxides might contribute to the catalytic dechlorination of MCB at 300 degrees C. Therefore, natural and activated acid clays can be used as alternatives for activated carbon at 300 degrees C to remove organochloride compounds such as DXNs. Their utilization is expected to mitigate the latent risks related to the adoption of HTPC, and also to contribute to the improvement of energy recovery efficiency of MSWI. Implications: The effect of natural and activated acid clays on MCB decomposition was investigated to evaluate their suitability as materials for the removal of organochlorine compounds, such as

  6. Decreasing phosphorus loss in tile-drained landscapes using flue gas desulfurization gypsum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevated phosphorus (P) loading from agricultural non-point source pollution continues to impair inland waterbodies throughout the world. The application of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum to agricultural fields has been suggested to decrease P loading because of its high calcium content and P...

  7. Simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification from flue gas by Ferrate(VI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi; Han, Yinghui; Ma, Tianzhong; Guo, Tianxiang

    2011-05-01

    An innovative semidry process has been developed to simultaneously remove NO and SO₂ from flue gas. According to the conditions of the flue gas circulating fluidized bed (CFB) system, ferrate(VI) absorbent was prepared and added to humidified water, and the effects of the various influencing factors, such as ferrate(VI) concentration, humidified water pH, inlet flue gas temperature, residence time, molar ratio of Ca/(S+N), and concentrations of SO₂ and NO on removal efficiencies of SO₂ and NO were studied experimentally. Removal efficiencies of 96.1% for SO₂ and 67.2% for NO were obtained, respectively, under the optimal experimental conditions, in which the concentration of ferrate(VI) was 0.03 M, the humidified water pH was 9.32, the inlet flue gas temperature was 130 °C, the residence time was 2.2 s, and the molar ratio of Ca/(S+N) was 1.2. In addition, the reaction mechanism of simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification using ferrate(VI) was proposed.

  8. CO2 Capture from Flue Gas using Amino Acid Salt Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Benedicte Mai; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Thomsen, Kaj

    2009-01-01

    difficult. Amino acid salt solutions have emerged as an alternative to the alkanolamine solutions. A number of advantages make amino acid salt solutions attractive solvents for CO2 capture from flue gas. In the present study CO2 absorption in aqueous solutions of 0.5 M potassium glycinate and 0.5 M...

  9. Fabrication and Characterization of multi-layer ceramics for electrochemical flue gas purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Cristine Grings; Ippolito, Davide; Bentzen, Janet Jonna;

    2013-01-01

    Multi-layered ceramics for electrochemical flue gas purification were fabricated by tape casting and lamination or by multi-layer tape casting. The sintered bodies were studied by scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It was shown that the samples made by multi...

  10. High Temperature Flue Gas Desulfurization In Moving Beds With Regenerable Copper Based Sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cengiz, P.A.; Ho, K.K.; Abbasian, J.; Lau, F.S.

    2002-09-20

    The objective of this study was to develop new and improved regenerable copper based sorbent for high temperature flue gas desulfurization in a moving bed application. The targeted areas of sorbent improvement included higher effective capacity, strength and long-term durability for improved process control and economic utilization of the sorbent.

  11. An inverse method for flue gas shielded metal surface temperature measurement based on infrared radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B.; Xu, C. L.; Wang, S. M.

    2016-07-01

    The infrared temperature measurement technique has been applied in various fields, such as thermal efficiency analysis, environmental monitoring, industrial facility inspections, and remote temperature sensing. In the problem of infrared measurement of the metal surface temperature of superheater surfaces, the outer wall of the metal pipe is covered by radiative participating flue gas. This means that the traditional infrared measurement technique will lead to intolerable measurement errors due to the absorption and scattering of the flue gas. In this paper, an infrared measurement method for a metal surface in flue gas is investigated theoretically and experimentally. The spectral emissivity of the metal surface, and the spectral absorption and scattering coefficients of the radiative participating flue gas are retrieved simultaneously using an inverse method called quantum particle swarm optimization. Meanwhile, the detected radiation energy simulated using a forward simulation method (named the source multi-flux method) is set as the input of the retrieval. Then, the temperature of the metal surface detected by an infrared CCD camera is modified using the source multi-flux method in combination with these retrieved physical properties. Finally, an infrared measurement system for metal surface temperature is built to assess the proposed method. Experimental results show that the modified temperature is closer to the true value than that of the direct measured temperature.

  12. A pilot-scale jet bubbling reactor for wet flue gas desulfurization with pyrolusite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Shi-jun; ZHU Xiao-fan; LIU Yong-jun; JIANG Wen-ju; JIN Yan

    2005-01-01

    MnO2 in pyrolusite can react with SO2 in flue gas and obtain by-product MnSO4· H2 O. A pilot scale jet bubbling reactor was applied in this work. Different factors affecting both SO2 absorption efficiency and Mn2+ extraction rate have been investigated, these factors include temperature of inlet gas flue, ration of liquid/solid mass flow rate(L/S), pyrolusite grade, and SO2 concentration in the inlet flue gas. In the meantime, the procedure of purification of absorption liquid was also discussed. Experiment results indicated that the increase of temperature from 30 to 70 K caused the increase of SO2 absorption efficiency from 81.4% to 91.2%. And when SO2 concentration in the inlet flue gas increased from 500 to 3000 ppm, SO2 absorption efficiency and Mn2+ extraction rate decreased from 98.1% to 82.2% and from 82.8% to 61.7%, respectively. The content of MnO2 in pyrolusite had a neglectable effect on SO2 absorption efficiency. Low L/S was good for both removal of SO2 and Mn2+ extraction. The absorption liquid was filtrated and purified to remove Si,standards.

  13. Novel Application of Carbonate Fuel Cell for Capturing Carbon Dioxide from Flue Gas Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolly, Stephen; Ghezel-Ayagh, Hossein; Willman, Carl; Patel, Dilip; DiNitto, M.; Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Steen, William A.

    2015-09-30

    To address concerns about climate change resulting from emission of CO2 by coal-fueled power plants, FuelCell Energy, Inc. has developed the Combined Electric Power and Carbon-dioxide Separation (CEPACS) system concept. The CEPACS system utilizes Electrochemical Membrane (ECM) technology derived from the Company’s Direct FuelCell® products. The system separates the CO2 from the flue gas of other plants and produces electric power using a supplementary fuel. FCE is currently evaluating the use of ECM to cost effectively separate CO2 from the flue gas of Pulverized Coal (PC) power plants under a U.S. Department of Energy contract. The overarching objective of the project is to verify that the ECM can achieve at least 90% CO2 capture from the flue gas with no more than 35% increase in the cost of electricity. The project activities include: 1) laboratory scale operational and performance tests of a membrane assembly, 2) performance tests of the membrane to evaluate the effects of impurities present in the coal plant flue gas, in collaboration with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 3) techno-economic analysis for an ECM-based CO2 capture system applied to a 550 MW existing PC plant, in partnership with URS Corporation, and 4) bench scale (11.7 m2 area) testing of an ECM-based CO2 separation and purification system.

  14. Regulations and Practice on Flue Gas Denitrification for Coal-Fired Power Plants in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Fahua; Zhao Guohua

    2008-01-01

    @@ In China, according to the relative up-to-date regulations and standards, the maincontrol measure for Nox emission of coal-fired power plants is, in principle, low Noxcombustion. However, in recent years, more and more newly approved coal-fired plantswere required to install flue gas denitrification equipment.

  15. Possibilities of mercury removal in the dry flue gas cleaning lines of solid waste incineration units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoboda, Karel; Hartman, Miloslav; Šyc, Michal; Pohořelý, Michael; Kameníková, Petra; Jeremiáš, Michal; Durda, Tomáš

    2016-01-15

    Dry methods of the flue gas cleaning (for HCl and SO2 removal) are useful particularly in smaller solid waste incineration units. The amount and forms of mercury emissions depend on waste (fuel) composition, content of mercury and chlorine and on the entire process of the flue gas cleaning. In the case of high HCl/total Hg molar ratio in the flue gas, the majority (usually 70-90%) of mercury is present in the form of HgCl2 and a smaller amount in the form of mercury vapors at higher temperatures. Removal of both main forms of mercury from the flue gas is dependent on chemical reactions and sorption processes at the temperatures below approx. 340 °C. Significant part of HgCl2 and a small part of elemental Hg vapors can be adsorbed on fly ash and solid particle in the air pollution control (APC) processes, which are removed in dust filters. Injection of non-impregnated active carbon (AC) or activated lignite coke particles is able to remove mainly the oxidized Hg(2+) compounds. Vapors of metallic Hg(o) are adsorbed relatively weakly. Much better chemisorption of Hg(o) together with higher sorbent capacity is achieved by AC-based sorbents impregnated with sulfur, alkali poly-sulfides, ferric chloride, etc. Inorganic sorbents with the same or similar chemical impregnation are also applicable for deeper Hg(o) removal (over 85%). SCR catalysts convert part of Hg(o) into oxidized compounds (HgO, HgCl2, etc.) contributing to more efficient Hg removal, but excess of NH3 has a negative effect. Both forms, elemental Hg(o) and HgCl2, can be converted into HgS particles by reacting with droplets/aerosol of poly-sulfides solutions/solids in flue gas. Mercury captured in the form of water insoluble HgS is more advantageous in the disposal of solid waste from APC processes. Four selected options of the dry flue gas cleaning with mercury removal are analyzed, assessed and compared (in terms of efficiency of Hg-emission reduction and costs) with wet methods and retrofits for more

  16. A component prediction method for flue gas of natural gas combustion based on nonlinear partial least squares method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hui; Yan, Xingyu; Li, Yaojiang; Wang, Yanxia; Zhou, Yan; Yang, Sanchun

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative analysis for the flue gas of natural gas-fired generator is significant for energy conservation and emission reduction. The traditional partial least squares method may not deal with the nonlinear problems effectively. In the paper, a nonlinear partial least squares method with extended input based on radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) is used for components prediction of flue gas. For the proposed method, the original independent input matrix is the input of RBFNN and the outputs of hidden layer nodes of RBFNN are the extension term of the original independent input matrix. Then, the partial least squares regression is performed on the extended input matrix and the output matrix to establish the components prediction model of flue gas. A near-infrared spectral dataset of flue gas of natural gas combustion is used for estimating the effectiveness of the proposed method compared with PLS. The experiments results show that the root-mean-square errors of prediction values of the proposed method for methane, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide are, respectively, reduced by 4.74%, 21.76%, and 5.32% compared to those of PLS. Hence, the proposed method has higher predictive capabilities and better robustness.

  17. The role of outlet temperature of flue gas in organic Rankine cycle considering low temperature corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Shuang Ying; Li, Chun; Xiao, Lan; Li, You Rong; Liu, Chao [Chongqing University, Chongqing (China)

    2014-12-15

    This paper gives a special focus on the role of outlet temperature of flue gas (T{sub go}) in organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system for low temperature flue gas waste heat recovery. The variations of performance indicators: net work (W{sub net}), exergy efficiency (η{sub ex}) and levelized energy cost (LEC) versus T{sub go} are discussed. Considering the corrosion of low temperature flue gas, the necessity and reasonability of limiting T{sub go} at its minimum allowed discharge temperature (355.15 K) are analyzed. Results show that there exist optimal T{sub go} (T{sub go,opt}) for W{sub net} and LEC, while T{sub go,opt} for η{sub ex} does not appear under the investigated range of T{sub go}. Moreover, the T{sub go,opt} for W{sub net} is always lower than 355.15 K, the T{sub go,opt} for LEC, despite being greater than the one for W{sub net}, is just slightly higher than 355.15 K when the inlet temperature of flue gas varies from 408.15 K to 463.15 K. For the waste heat recovery of low temperature flue gas, it is reasonable to fix T{sub go} at 355.15K if W{sub net} or LEC is selected as primary performance indicator under the pinch point temperature difference of evaporator (ΔT{sub e}) below 20K.

  18. Heat and Mass Transfer Processes in Scrubber of Flue Gas Heat Recovery Device

    OpenAIRE

    Veidenbergs, I; Blumberga, D; Vīgants, E; Kozuhars, G

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with the heat and mass transfer process research in a flue gas heat recovery device, where complicated cooling, evaporation and condensation processes are taking place simultaneously. The analogy between heat and mass transfer is used during the process of analysis. In order to prepare a detailed process analysis based on heat and mass process descriptive equations, as well as the correlation for wet gas parameter calculation, software in the Microsoft Office Excel environment...

  19. Effect of Flue Gas on Microalgae Population and Study the Heavy Metals Accumulation in Biomass from Power Plant System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendraperumal Guruvaiah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae have high photosynthetic efficiency that can fix CO2 from the flue gas directly without any upstream CO2 separation, and concomitantly produce biomass for biofuel applications. These gases, both untreated and treated into current discharge standards, contain CO2, N2, H2O, O2, NOx, SOx, CxHy, CO, particulate matter, halogen acids and heavy metals. Microalgae population studies were conducted in a batch mode experiments at Power plant site of Chamois, Missouri. The experiments were conducted in different period (June to December 2011 of time. This study evaluated the effect of several heavy metals that are present in flue gases on the algae, focusing on the growth and accumulation of lipids in the algae that can be converted to biodiesel. The genus Scenedesmus presented the greatest richness of species and number of counted individuals in the flue gas ponds compare than non flue gas treatment ponds. Among the diatomaceae the genus Navicula sp, Nitizchia sp and Synedra sp. presented the next subdominant richness in the ponds. The last results of counted green algae Ulothrix sp and Coelastrum sp were least number of cells reported in these ponds. The heavy metal-contaminated in flue gas and also enter into the microalgae biomass population. Comparative studies were carried out by flue gas and control system of open ponds. Control system of microalgae population was represented in less amount of heavy metals compare than flue gas ponds.

  20. Significance of RuO2 modified SCR catalyst for elemental mercury oxidation in coal-fired flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Naiqiang; Chen, Wanmiao; Chen, Jie; Qu, Zan; Guo, Yongfu; Yang, Shijian; Jia, Jinping

    2011-07-01

    Catalytic conversion of elemental mercury (Hg(0)) to its oxidized form has been considered as an effective way to enhance mercury removal from coal-fired power plants. In order to make good use of the existing selective catalytic reduction of NO(x) (SCR) catalysts as a cobenefit of Hg(0) conversion at lower level HCl in flue gas, various catalysts supported on titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) and commercial SCR catalysts were investigated at various cases. Among the tested catalysts, ruthenium oxides (RuO(2)) not only showed rather high catalytic activity on Hg(0) oxidation by itself, but also appeared to be well cooperative with the commercial SCR catalyst for Hg(0) conversion. In addition, the modified SCR catalyst with RuO(2) displayed an excellent tolerance to SO(2) and ammonia without any distinct negative effects on NO(x) reduction and SO(2) conversion. The demanded HCl concentration for Hg(0) oxidation can be reduced dramatically, and Hg(0) oxidation efficiency over RuO(2) doped SCR catalyst was over 90% even at about 5 ppm HCl in the simulated gases. Ru modified SCR catalyst shows a promising prospect for the cobenefit of mercury emission control.

  1. Optimizing the locations of the measuring points for an online calculation of the exhaust flue-gas loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drobnic, B.; Oman, J.; Kustrin, I.; Rotnik, U. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Uros Rotnik Sostanj Power Plant, Sostanj (Slovenia)

    2005-03-01

    Flue gas properties are very important for evaluation of a boiler's performance. Non-homogeneity of the properties and large dimensions of flue-gas ducts require measurements with large number of measuring points to provide high accuracy of measurement results. An analysis of simpler measuring methods is presented. It is shown that high accuracy can be achieved with small number of measuring points if their positions are optimised with respect to pre-determined conditions in the flue gas duct. The methods can be used as operational measurements to monitor boiler's performance and for on-line calculation of boiler's efficiency. (orig.)

  2. Conditions for lowering the flue gas temperature; Foerutsaettning foer saenkning av roekgastemperatur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordling, Magnus

    2012-02-15

    In heat and power production, the efficiency of the power plant increases the larger share of heat from the flue gas that is converted to power. However, this also implies that the temperature of the heat exchanging surfaces is lowered. If the temperature is lowered to a temperature below the dew point of the flue gas, this would result in condensation of the gas, which in turn elevates the risk of serious corrosion attack on the surfaces where condensation occurs. Thus, it is important to determine the dew point temperature. One way of determining the dew point temperature is to use data on composition of the fuel together with operation parameters of the plant, thus calculating the dew point temperature. However, this calculation of the dew point is not so reliable, especially if hygroscopic salts are present. Therefore, for safety reasons, the temperature of the flue gas is kept well above the dew point temperature. This results in lowered over-all efficiency of the plant. It could also be expected that for a certain plant, some construction materials under certain operation conditions would have corrosion characteristics that may allow condensation on the surface without severe and unpredictable corrosion attack. However, by only using operation parameters and fuel composition, it is even harder to predict the composition of the condensate at different operation temperatures than to calculate the dew point temperature. If the dew point temperature was known with a greater certainty, the temperature of the flue gas could be kept lower, just above the estimated value of the dew point, without any increased risk for condensation. If, in addition, also the resulting composition of the condensate at different temperatures below the dew point is known, it can be predicted if the construction materials of the flue gas channel were compatible with the formed condensate. If they are compatible, the flue gas temperature can be further lowered from the dew point

  3. Hg⁰ removal from flue gas by ionic liquid/H₂O₂.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guangwen; Bai, Bofeng; Zhang, Qiang; Cai, Ming

    2014-09-15

    1-Alkyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquids ([Cnmim] Cl, n=4, 6, 8) were prepared. The ionic liquid was then mixed with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to form an absorbent. The Hg(0) removal performance of the absorbent was investigated in a gas/liquid scrubber using simulated flue gas. It was found that the ionic liquid/H2O2 mixture was an excellent absorbent and could be used to remove Hg(0) from flue gas. When the mass ratio of H2O2 to ionic liquid was 0.5, the absorbent showed high Hg(0) removal efficiency (up to 98%). The Hg(0) removal efficiency usually increased with the absorption temperature, while decreased with the increase of alkyl chain length in ionic liquid molecule. The Hg(0) removal mechanism involved with Hg(0) oxidation by H2O2 and Hg(2+) transfer from aqueous phase to ionic liquid phase.

  4. [Intermediate experiment and mechanism analysis of flue gas desulfurization technology by circulating fluidized bed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xudong; Wu, Shaohua; Ma, Chunyuan; Qin, Yukun

    2002-03-01

    A new Circulating Fluidized Bed was designed for intermediate experiment of flue gas desulphurization, in which the flue gas flow rate was 3500 m3/h. By using it, the basic experiments were carried out to study the influence of Ca/S and supersaturated temperature on desulphurization efficiency and the effect of the recycling solid particle in the sulfur removal column on desulphurization performance. The results showed when Ca/S = 1.2, the desulphurization efficiency was increased by 15% through the recycle of solid particle; the gas velocity inside the bed could be designed higher. The mechanism analysis were also studied and the method to increase effective resident time was introduced.

  5. Purification technology of flue gas from remelting process of aluminum alloy tailings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彩亭; 曾光明; 魏先勋; 袁兴中; 王丽平

    2002-01-01

    Through a practical example of treatment of the flue gas from the remelting process of aluminum alloy tailings, the design and calculation method of exhaust hood, as well as the principles and the equipments of dust removal, smoke abatement and harmful gas elimination were studied. Combination of centrifugal and wet dust removal can purify the dust high efficiently. The carbon black and harmful gases in the flue gas can be removed by adding a small quantity of activator to the absorption solution. The application results are that the dedusting efficiency is 97.43%, Cl2 control efficiency is 88.03%, the exhaust fume blackness is lower than Ringelman number I, and the purification device resistance is 1126Pa.

  6. Simultaneous removal of multi-pollutants from flue gas by a vaporized composite absorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi; Hao, Runlong; Xue, Fangming; Feng, Yanan

    2017-01-05

    An economical process that was used to remove SO2, NO and Hg(0) simultaneously was developed, based on the pre-oxidations of Hg(0) and NO by a vaporized Fenton-based complex oxidant (FO) consisted of Fenton and NaClO. The effects of concentrations of FeSO4 and NaClO in the oxidant, the molar ratio of vaporized oxidant to multi-pollutant, the oxidant solution pH, the reaction temperature, the gas flow ratio of vaporized FO to multi-pollutants, the flue gas flow and the concentrations of coexistence gases in flue gas on the simultaneous removals were investigated experimentally. The results showed that the removals of NO and Hg(0) were significantly depended on FeSO4 and NaClO concentrations, the molar ratio of vaporized oxidant to multi-pollutants, the FO solution pH, the reaction temperature, the gas flow ratio of vaporized FO to multi-pollutants and flue gas flow. And higher concentration of SO2 and an appropriate concentration of NO had the promotion for Hg(0) removal. The average simultaneous removal efficiencies of 100% for SO2, 81% for NO and 91% for Hg(0) were obtained under the optimal reaction conditions. According to the characterization of the reaction removal products by SEM, EDS, XRD and AFS, the reaction mechanism was speculated.

  7. Utilization of on-line corrosion monitoring in the flue gas cleaning system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Nielsen, Lars V.; Petersen, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    The power plant unit 1 at Amager, Denmark is a 350 MWth multifuel suspension-fired plant commissioned in 2009 which uses biomass. Increasing corrosion problems in the flue gas cleaning system have been observed since 2011 in both the gas-gas preheater and the booster fan and booster fan duct...... fan. The corrosion rates measured with respect to time were correlated to plant data such as load, temperature, gas composition, water content as well as change in the fuel used. From these results it is clear that many shutdowns/start-ups influence corrosion and therefore cause decreased lifetime...

  8. SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION MERCURY FIELD SAMPLING PROJECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    A lack of data still exists as to the effect of selective catalytic reduction (SCR), selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR), and flue gas conditioning on the speciation and removal of mercury (Hg) at power plants. This project investigates the impact that SCR, SNCR, and flue gas...

  9. MEMBRANE PROCESS TO SEQUESTER CO2 FROM POWER PLANT FLUE GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tim Merkel; Karl Amo; Richard Baker; Ramin Daniels; Bilgen Friat; Zhenjie He; Haiqing Lin; Adrian Serbanescu

    2009-03-31

    The objective of this project was to assess the feasibility of using a membrane process to capture CO2 from coal-fired power plant flue gas. During this program, MTR developed a novel membrane (Polaris™) with a CO2 permeance tenfold higher than commercial CO2-selective membranes used in natural gas treatment. The Polaris™ membrane, combined with a process design that uses a portion of combustion air as a sweep stream to generate driving force for CO2 permeation, meets DOE post-combustion CO2 capture targets. Initial studies indicate a CO2 separation and liquefaction cost of $20 - $30/ton CO2 using about 15% of the plant energy at 90% CO2 capture from a coal-fired power plant. Production of the Polaris™ CO2 capture membrane was scaled up with MTR’s commercial casting and coating equipment. Parametric tests of cross-flow and countercurrent/sweep modules prepared from this membrane confirm their near-ideal performance under expected flue gas operating conditions. Commercial-scale, 8-inch diameter modules also show stable performance in field tests treating raw natural gas. These findings suggest that membranes are a viable option for flue gas CO2 capture. The next step will be to conduct a field demonstration treating a realworld power plant flue gas stream. The first such MTR field test will capture 1 ton CO2/day at Arizona Public Service’s Cholla coal-fired power plant, as part of a new DOE NETL funded program.

  10. Optimized wood/pellet heater with flue gas condensation; Optimerad ved/pelletspanna med roekgaskondensering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredriksson, Christian; Ramstroem, Erik; Berge, Niklas [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2002-09-01

    To increase the efficiency of small-scale combustion equipment it is possible to cool the flue gas and condense the water vapor in the flue gas in a flue gas condenser. This also makes it possible to reduce the emissions of particles and unburnt hydrocarbon if the condenser is designed in a suitable way. This work concerns flue gas condensation with respect to the design of the condenser, the handling of the condensate and the integration of the flue gas condenser in a heating system from a technical and an economical point of view. The results from laboratory experiments shows that a flue gas condenser, designed as a plate heat exchanger, connected to a wood pellet fired heater reduces the emissions of both particles and unburnt hydrocarbons. A reduction of 10 to 77% of the particle content in the gas was achieved, the content of hydrocarbons (BTX) was reduced by 50 to 91 %. It was not possible to see any effect on the emissions by changing the design of the condenser, due to the relatively large scatter in the determined particle content in the gas. When it comes to cooling capacity the trends were however more clear; the cooling capacity was strongly dependent on the design of the condenser. It was possible to increase the cooling capacity of the condenser with 124% by changing the condenser design from a reference case with conventional design of the condenser with flat walls, to a design with a corrugated shape of the wall. For a typical domestic wood stove heater of 30 kW this means that the cooling capacity in a condenser under similar conditions increases from 3.3 to 7.4 kW. The addition of water in a spray in the gas upstream of the condenser had only a limited effect on the cooling capacity. The condensate from the condenser was analyzed with respect to the components that currently are regulated for disposal to the district sewer system. The analyses showed that the condensate most likely could be disposed to the sewer system directly without any

  11. Adsorption separation of carbon dioxide from flue gas of natural gas-fired boiler by a novel nanoporous 'molecular basket' adsorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Xiaochun; Song, Chunshan; Miller, Bruce G.; Scaroni, Alan W. [Clean Fuels and Catalysis Program, The Energy Institute, and Department of Energy and Geo-Environmental Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, 209 Academic Projects Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2005-10-15

    A novel nanoporous CO{sub 2} 'molecular basket' adsorbent has been developed and applied in the separation of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of a natural gas fired boiler. The nanoporous CO{sub 2} 'molecular basket' adsorbent was prepared by uniformly dispersing polyethylenimine (PEI) into the pores of mesoporous molecular sieve MCM-41. The use of MCM-41 and PEI had a synergetic effect on the CO{sub 2} adsorption. The rates of CO{sub 2} adsorption/desorption of PEI were also greatly improved. Adsorption separation results showed that CO{sub 2} was selectively separated from simulated flue gas and flue gas of a natural gas-fired boiler by using this novel adsorbent. The adsorbent adsorbed very little N{sub 2}, O{sub 2} and CO in the flue gas. Moisture had a promoting effect on the adsorption separation of CO{sub 2} from flue gas. The adsorbent simultaneously adsorbed CO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from flue gas. The adsorbed amount of CO{sub 2} was around 3000 times larger than that of NO{sub x}. The adsorbent was stable in several cyclic adsorption/desorption operations. However, very little NO{sub x} desorbed after adsorption indicating the need for pre-removal of NO{sub x} from flue gas before capture of CO{sub 2} by this novel adsorbent. (author)

  12. Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas Using Condensing Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, Edward; Bilirgen, Harun; DuPont, John

    2011-03-31

    Most of the water used in a thermoelectric power plant is used for cooling, and DOE has been focusing on possible techniques to reduce the amount of fresh water needed for cooling. DOE has also been placing emphasis on recovery of usable water from sources not generally considered, such as mine water, water produced from oil and gas extraction, and water contained in boiler flue gas. This report deals with development of condensing heat exchanger technology for recovering moisture from flue gas from coal-fired power plants. The report describes: • An expanded data base on water and acid condensation characteristics of condensing heat exchangers in coal-fired units. This data base was generated by performing slip stream tests at a power plant with high sulfur bituminous coal and a wet FGD scrubber and at a power plant firing highmoisture, low rank coals. • Data on typical concentrations of HCl, HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in low temperature condensed flue gas moisture, and mercury capture efficiencies as functions of process conditions in power plant field tests. • Theoretical predictions for sulfuric acid concentrations on tube surfaces at temperatures above the water vapor dewpoint temperature and below the sulfuric acid dew point temperature. • Data on corrosion rates of candidate heat exchanger tube materials for the different regions of the heat exchanger system as functions of acid concentration and temperature. • Data on effectiveness of acid traps in reducing sulfuric acid concentrations in a heat exchanger tube bundle. • Condensed flue gas water treatment needs and costs. • Condensing heat exchanger designs and installed capital costs for full-scale applications, both for installation immediately downstream of an ESP or baghouse and for installation downstream of a wet SO{sub 2} scrubber. • Results of cost-benefit studies of condensing heat exchangers.

  13. Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas Using Condensing Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward Levy; Harun Bilirgen; John DuPoint

    2011-03-31

    Most of the water used in a thermoelectric power plant is used for cooling, and DOE has been focusing on possible techniques to reduce the amount of fresh water needed for cooling. DOE has also been placing emphasis on recovery of usable water from sources not generally considered, such as mine water, water produced from oil and gas extraction, and water contained in boiler flue gas. This report deals with development of condensing heat exchanger technology for recovering moisture from flue gas from coal-fired power plants. The report describes: (1) An expanded data base on water and acid condensation characteristics of condensing heat exchangers in coal-fired units. This data base was generated by performing slip stream tests at a power plant with high sulfur bituminous coal and a wet FGD scrubber and at a power plant firing high-moisture, low rank coals. (2) Data on typical concentrations of HCl, HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in low temperature condensed flue gas moisture, and mercury capture efficiencies as functions of process conditions in power plant field tests. (3) Theoretical predictions for sulfuric acid concentrations on tube surfaces at temperatures above the water vapor dewpoint temperature and below the sulfuric acid dew point temperature. (4) Data on corrosion rates of candidate heat exchanger tube materials for the different regions of the heat exchanger system as functions of acid concentration and temperature. (5) Data on effectiveness of acid traps in reducing sulfuric acid concentrations in a heat exchanger tube bundle. (6) Condensed flue gas water treatment needs and costs. (7) Condensing heat exchanger designs and installed capital costs for full-scale applications, both for installation immediately downstream of an ESP or baghouse and for installation downstream of a wet SO{sub 2} scrubber. (8) Results of cost-benefit studies of condensing heat exchangers.

  14. Carbon Mineralization by Aqueous Precipitation for Beneficial Use of CO2 from Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devenney, Martin; Gilliam, Ryan; Seeker, Randy

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate an innovative process to mineralize CO2 from flue gas directly to reactive carbonates and maximize the value and versatility of its beneficial use products. The program scope includes the design, construction, and testing of a CO2 Conversion to Material Products (CCMP) Pilot Demonstration Plant utilizing CO2 from the flue gas of a power production facility in Moss Landing, CA as well as flue gas from coal combustion. This topical report covers Phase 2b, which is the construction phase of pilot demonstration subsystems that make up the integrated plant. The subsystems included are the mineralization subsystem, the Alkalinity Based on Low Energy (ABLE) subsystem, the waste calcium oxide processing subsystem, and the fiber cement board production subsystem. The fully integrated plant is now capable of capturing CO2 from various sources (gas and coal) and mineralizing into a reactive calcium carbonate binder and subsequently producing commercial size (4ftx8ft) fiber cement boards. The topical report provides a description of the “as built” design of these subsystems and the results of the commissioning activities that have taken place to confirm operability. At the end of Phase 2b, the CCMP pilot demonstration is fully ready for testing.

  15. Research on Circular Flue Application in Flue Gas Desulfurization System%圆形烟道在烟气脱硫装置中的应用探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石亚超; 朱桂明; 郝若锦; 王鲁斐

    2013-01-01

    The square flue' s strength of the flue gas desulfurization system in a power plant was calculated with ANSYS,including the analysis of both inner and outer pressure and the dead weight which influencing the flue's structural stress and the load-carrying capability of cross-section circular flue,as well as the specifications of lateral reinforcement ribs of the circular flue with large diameter.the research results can provide the reference for the later engineering design.%利用大型有限元分析软件ANSYS对某电厂发电机组烟气脱硫装置的方形烟道进行了强度计算,并针对烟道内压、外压及自重等因素对结构应力的影响进行了分析,并以此为基础,研究了等截面的圆形烟道的受力情况,延伸了大直径圆形烟道横向加固肋的规格型号,研究结果可作为日后工程优化设计的参考.

  16. Explaining the differential solubility of flue gas components in ionic liquids from first-principle calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, B Ram; Senapati, Sanjib

    2009-04-09

    Flue gas is greatly responsible for acid rain formation and global warming. New generation ionic liquids (ILs) have potential in controlling the flue gas emissions, as they acquire high absorptivity for the component gases SO(2), CO(2), etc. The association of the IL-gas interactions to the absorptivity of gas molecules in ILs is, however, poorly understood. In this paper, we present a molecular level description of the interactions of ILs with SO(2), CO(2), and N(2) and show its implications to the differential gas solubility. Our results indicate that the IL anion-gas interactions play a key role in deciding the gas solubility in ILs, particularly for polar gases such as SO(2). On the other hand, regular solution assumption applies to N(2) solubility. In accordance with the previous theoretical and experimental findings, our results also imply that the IL anions dominate the interactions with gas molecules while the cations play a secondary role and the underlying fluid structures of the ILs remain unperturbed by the addition of gas molecules.

  17. Torrefaction of cedarwood in a pilot scale rotary kiln and the influence of industrial flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yanyang; Liu, Rujie; Yang, Qing; Yang, Haiping; Shao, Jingai; Draper, Christopher; Zhang, Shihong; Chen, Hanping

    2015-02-01

    Torrefaction of cedarwood was performed in a pilot-scale rotary kiln at various temperatures (200, 230, 260 and 290°C). The torrefaction properties, the influence on the grindability and hydroscopicity of the torrefied biomass were investigated in detail as well as the combustion performance. It turned out that, compared with raw biomass, the grindability and the hydrophobicity of the torrefied biomass were significantly improved, and the increasing torrefaction temperature resulted in a decrease in grinding energy consumption and an increase in the proportion of smaller-sized particles. The use of industrial flue gas had a significant influence on the behavior of cedarwood during torrefaction and the properties of the resultant solid products. To optimize the energy density and energy yield, the temperature of torrefaction using flue gas should be controlled within 260°C. Additionally, the combustion of torrefied samples was mainly the combustion of chars, with similar combustion characteristics to lignite.

  18. Transport—Reaction Process in the Reaction of Flue Gas Desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YanYan; DuuJongLee; 等

    2000-01-01

    A theoreticasl investigation was conducted to study the transport-reaction process in the spray-drying flue gas desulfurization.A transport-reaction model of single particle was proposed,which considered the water evaporation from the surface of droplet and the reaction at the same time.BHased on this model,the reaction rate and t6he absorbent utilization can be calculated.The most appropriate particle radius and the initial absorbent concentration can be deduced through comparing the wet lifetime with the residence time,the result shows in the case that the partial pressure of vapor in the bulk flue gas is 2000Pa,the optimum initial radius and absorent concentration are 210-310μm and 23% respectively.The model can supply the optimum parameters for semi-dry FGD system designed.

  19. Flue gas conditioning for improved particle collection in electrostatic precipitators. Quarterly technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, M.D.

    1992-04-27

    The purpose of this research program is to identify and evaluate a variety of additives capable of increasing particle cohesion which could be used for improving collection efficiency in an ESP. A three-phase screening process will be used to provide the, evaluation of many additives in a logical and cost-effective manner. The three step approach involves the following experimental setups: 1. Provide a preliminary screening in the laboratory by measuring the effects of various conditioning agents on reentrainment of flyash particles in an electric field operating at simulated flue gas conditions. 2. Evaluate the successful additives using a 100 acfm bench-scale ESP operating on actual flue gas. 3. Obtain the data required for scaling up the technology by testing the two or three most promising conditioning agents at the pilot scale.

  20. Review of technologies for mercury removal from flue gas from cement production processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuanjing; Jensen, Anker Degn; Windelin, Christian

    2012-01-01

    to the adsorption of mercury on the solids in the cold zone. However, recirculation of the kiln dust to the kiln will cause release of the captured mercury. The mercury chemistry in cement kiln systems is complicated and knowledge obtained from power plants and incinerators cannot be directly applied in cement......Mercury is a pollutant of concern and mercury emissions from cement plants are under environmental regulation. After coal-fired power plants, mercury emissions from cement and mineral production are the second largest anthropogenic sources. Compared to fuels, cement raw materials are the major...... sources of mercury in the cement kiln flue gas. Cement plants are quite different from power plants and waste incinerators regarding the flue gas composition, temperature, residence time, and material circulation. Cement kiln systems have some inherent ability to retain mercury in the solid materials due...

  1. {sup 29}Si-NMR study of the absorbent for flue gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattori, Hideshi; Kanuka, Nariyasu; Kanai, Ryu-ichi [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    The flue gas from a coal fired boiler contains a high concentration of SO{sub 2} which should be removed before emitted from a chimney for protection of environment from pollution. A wet desulfurization system is commonly adopted for flue gas desulfurization (FGD), and exhibits a high utilization efficiency of Ca component in the absorbent, but needs a large amount of water. As dry FDD systems, a duct injection and a slurry spraying are adopted. The efficiency, however, is not so high as compared to a wet FGD system. Recently, the SO{sub 2} absorbent which exhibits a high utilization efficiency of Ca component in a dry FGD process was prepared from a coal fly-ash, Ca(OH){sub 2}, and CaSO{sub 4} by hydrothermal reaction. In this project, we studied the structural changes of the absorbent during the hydrothermal reation and sulfur dioxide absorption by silicon 29-MASNMR.

  2. Biosequestration of atmospheric CO2 and flue gas-containing CO2 by microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Wai Yan; Show, Pau Loke; Chang, Jo-Shu; Ling, Tau Chuan; Juan, Joon Ching

    2015-05-01

    The unceasing rise of greenhouse gas emission has led to global warming and climate change. Global concern on this phenomenon has put forward the microalgal-based CO2 sequestration aiming to sequester carbon back to the biosphere, ultimately reducing greenhouse effects. Microalgae have recently gained enormous attention worldwide, to be the valuable feedstock for renewable energy production, due to their high growth rates, high lipid productivities and the ability to sequester carbon. The photosynthetic process of microalgae uses atmospheric CO2 and CO2 from flue gases, to synthesize nutrients for their growth. In this review article, we will primarily discuss the efficiency of CO2 biosequestration by microalgae species, factors influencing microalgal biomass productions, microalgal cultivation systems, the potential and limitations of using flue gas for microalgal cultivation as well as the bio-refinery approach of microalgal biomass.

  3. Removal of PCDD/Fs and PCBs from flue gas using a pilot gas cleaning system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoqing Lin; Yuqi Jin; Hailong Wu; Tong Chen; Xiaodong Li; Shengyong Lu; Xuguang Jiang

    2013-01-01

    A 100 Nm3/hr capacity pilot scale dual bag filter (DBF) system was tested on the flue gas from an actual hazardous waste incinerator (HWI),the removal efficiency of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was also studied.The first filter collected most of the fly ash and associated chlorinated organic; then activated carbon (AC) was injected and used to collect phase chlorinated organic from the gas.Concentrations of PCDD/Fs and PCBs after the DBF system were 0.07 and 0.01 ng TEQ/Nm3,respectively,which were both far below the national emission standard.Comparing with the original single bag filter system,the PCDD/Fs concentration dropped a lot from 0.36 to 0.07 ng TEQ/Nm3.Increasing AC feeding rate enhanced their collection efficiency,yet reduced the AC utilization efficiency,and it still needs further study to select an appropriate feeding rate in the system.These results will be useful for industrial application and assist in controlling emissions of PCDD/Fs and other persistent organic pollutions from stationary sources in China.

  4. Utilization of on-line corrosion monitoring in the flue gas cleaning system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Nielsen, Lars V.; Petersen, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    The power plant unit 1 at Amager, Denmark is a 350 MWth multifuel suspension-fired plant commissioned in 2009 which uses biomass. Increasing corrosion problems in the flue gas cleaning system have been observed since 2011 in both the gas-gas preheater and the booster fan and booster fan duct...... such as HCl, KCl or chlorine containing corrosion products. Without knowing when corrosion occurs, it is difficult to take reasonable measures to reduce corrosion. In order to gain an improved understanding of the corrosion problem, an on-line corrosion measurement system was established before the booster...

  5. The use of flue gas for the growth of microalgal biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeiler, K.G.; Kadam, K.L.; Heacox, D.A. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    Capture and utilization of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) by microalgae is a promising technology to help reduce emissions from fossil fuel-fired power plants. Microalgae are of particular interest because of their rapid growth rates and tolerance to varying environmental conditions. Laboratory work is directed toward investigating the effects of simulated flue gas on microalgae, while engineering studies have focused on the economics of the technology. One strain of a green algae, Monoraphidium minutum, has shown excellent tolerance and growth when exposed to simulated flue gas which meets the requirements of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (1990 CAAA). Biomass concentrations of {similar_to}2g/L have been measured in batch culture. Several other microalgae have also shown tolerance to simulated flue gas; however, the growth of these strains is not equivalent to that observed for M. minutum. Coupling the production of biodiesel or other microalgae-derived commodity chemicals with the use of flue gas carbon dioxide is potentially a zero-cost method of reducing the amount of carbon dioxide contributed to the atmosphere by fossil fuel-fired power plants. We have identified two major biological performance parameters which can provide sufficient improvement in this technology to render it cost-competitive with other existing CO{sub x} mitigation technologies. These are algal growth rate and lipid content. An updated economic analysis shows that growth rate is the more important of the two, and should be the focus of near term research activities. The long term goal of achieving zero cost will require other, non-biological, improvements in the process.

  6. The FCC Flue Gas SOx Transfer Additive RFS Developed by RIPP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Beiyan; Jiang Wenbin; Song Haitao; Shen Ningyuan; Tian Huiping; He Mingyuan

    2007-01-01

    The present paper introduces the development of FCC flue gas SOx transfer additives by RIPP with a brief discussion of SOx transfer mechanism. The second-generation SOx transfer additives of the RFS series are RIPP's proprietary additives with significantly improved performances. The results of commercial tests indicate that the RFS additive can effectively control SOx emission of the FCC regenerator while maintaining product yields and product quality when the additive is used in a proper concentration range.

  7. Utilization of heat pipes for transfer heat from the flue gas into the heat transfer medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenhard Richard

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The contribution is listed possible application of heat pipes in systems for obtaining heat from flue gas of small heat sources. It is also stated in the contribution design an experimental device on which to study the impact of fill (the quantity, type of load at various temperature parameters (temperature heating and cooling thermal power transferred to the heat pipe. Is listed measurement methodology using heat pipes designed experimental facility, measurement results and analysis of the results obtained.

  8. Crystallisation of Gypsum and Prevention of Foaming in Wet Flue Gas Desulphurisation (FGD) Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Brian Brun; Kiil, Søren; Johnsson, Jan Erik

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this project is to investigate two operational problems, which have been experienced during wet flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) operation, i.e. poor gypsum dewatering properties and foaming. The results of this work can be used for the optimization of wet FGD-plants in terms of reliability of operation and consistency of the gypsum quality obtained. This work may furthermore be of interest to other industrial systems in which foaming or gypsum crystallisation may take place. FGD is...

  9. Investigation of Parameters Affecting Gypsum Dewatering Properties in a Wet Flue Gas Desulphurization Pilot Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Brian Brun; Kiil, Søren

    2012-01-01

    Wet flue gas desulphurization (FGD) plants with forced oxidation, installed at coal and oil fired power plants for removal of SO2(g), must produce gypsum of high quality. However, quality issues such as an excessive moisture content, due to poor gypsum dewatering properties, may occur from time to time. In this work, the particle size distribution, morphology, and filtration rate of wet FGD gypsum formed in a pilot-scale experimental setup, operated in forced oxidation mode, have been studied...

  10. PILOT-SCALE STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION CATALYST ON MERCURY SPECIATION IN ILLINOIS AND POWDER RIVER BASIN COAL COMBUSTION FLUE GASES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst on mercury (Hg) speciation in bituminous and subbituminous coal combustion flue gases. Three different Illinois Basin bituminous coals (from high to low sulfur and chlorine) and one Po...

  11. A new flowsheeting tool for flue gas treating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Elk, E. P.; Arendsen, A. R. J.; Versteeg, G. F.

    2009-01-01

    A new flowsheeting tool, specifically designed for steady-state simulation of acid gas treating processes, has been developed. The models implemented in the new tool combine all issues relevant for the design, optimization and analysis of acid gas treating processes, including post-combustion and pr

  12. Analysis of CO2 Separation from Flue Gas, Pipeline Transportation, and Sequestration in Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric P. Robertson

    2007-09-01

    This report was written to satisfy a milestone of the Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery and CO2 Sequestration task of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration project. The report begins to assess the costs associated with separating the CO2 from flue gas and then injecting it into an unminable coal seam. The technical challenges and costs associated with CO2 separation from flue gas and transportation of the separated CO2 from the point source to an appropriate sequestration target was analyzed. The report includes the selection of a specific coal-fired power plant for the application of CO2 separation technology. An appropriate CO2 separation technology was identified from existing commercial technologies. The report also includes a process design for the chosen technology tailored to the selected power plant that used to obtain accurate costs of separating the CO2 from the flue gas. In addition, an analysis of the costs for compression and transportation of the CO2 from the point-source to an appropriate coal bed sequestration site was included in the report.

  13. Investigation of the moving-bed copper oxide process for flue gas cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennline, H.W.; Hoffman, J.S.; Yeh, J.T. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center; Resnik, K.P.; Vore, P.A. [Parsons Power Group, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Moving-Bed Copper Oxide Process is a dry, regenerable sorbent technique that uses supported copper oxide sorbent to simultaneously remove SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions from flue gas generated by coal combustion. The process can be integrated into the design of advanced power systems, such as the Low-Emission Boiler System (LEBS) or the High-Performance Power System (HIPPS). This flue gas cleanup technique is currently being evaluated in a life-cycle test system (LCTS) with a moving-bed flue gas contactor at DOE`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. An experimental data base being established will be used to verify reported technical and economic advantages, optimize process conditions, provide scaleup information, and validate absorber and regenerator mathematical models. In this communication, the results from several process parametric test series with the LCTS are discussed. The effects of various absorber and regenerator parameters on sorbent performance (e.g., SO{sub 2} removal) were investigated. Sorbent spheres of 1/8-in diameter were used as compared to 1/16-in sized sorbent of a previous study. Also discussed are modifications to the absorber to improve the operability of the LCTS when fly ash is present during coal combustion.

  14. Investigation of sewage sludge gasification with use of flue gas as a gasifying agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maj Izabella

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of investigation of low-temperature sewage sludge gasification with use of flue gas as a gasifying agent. Tests were conducted in a laboratory stand, equipped with a gasification reactor designed and constructed specifically for this purpose. During presented tests, gas mixture with a composition of typical flue gases was used as a gasifying agent. The measuring system ensures online measurements of syngas composition: CO, CO2, H2, CH4. As a result of gasification process a syngas with combustible components has been obtained. The aim of the research was to determine the usability of sewage sludge for indirect cofiring in power boilers with the use of flue gas from the boiler as a gasifying agent and recirculating the syngas to the boiler’s combustion chamber. Results of presented investigation will be used as a knowledge base for industrial-scale sewage sludge gasification process. Furthermore, toxicity of solid products of the process has been determined by the use of Microtox bioassay. Before tests, solid post-gasification residues have been ground to two particle size fractions and extracted into Milli-Q water. The response of test organisms (bioluminescent Aliivibrio fischeri bacteria in reference to a control sample (bacteria exposed to 2% NaCl solution was measured after 5 and 15 minutes of exposure. The obtained toxicity results proved that thermal treatment of sewage sludge by their gasification reduces their toxicity relative to water organisms.

  15. Suppression of dioxins formation in flue gas by removal of hydrogen chloride using foaming water glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuyumoto, I. [Kanazawa Institute of Technology, Nonoichi, Ishikawa (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Introduction Hydrogen chloride (HCl) is an acidic air pollutant emitted from municipal or industrial waste incinerators, and this causes the de novo synthesis of dioxins in flue gas. It is essential to remove hydrogen chloride from the flue gas to reduce dioxins emissions as well as to avoid air pollution. Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH){sub 2}) is often used as a dry sorbent injected in a spray reactor to remove HCl from the flue gas. However, usage of Ca(OH){sub 2} has disadvantage in reaction efficiency, and Ca(OH){sub 2} powder is usually injected in large excess over ten times its chemical reaction stoichiometry. This brings about the increase of fly ash and the rise in pH, which is undesirable to reduce solid wastes and to suppress the elution of amphoteric metals such as Pb, Zn, Sn. Recently, we have developed ''foaming water glass (FWG)'' as a new wet sorbent for injection in a cooling tower to remove HCl and simultaneously to suppress dioxins formation. FWG is a kind of sodium silicate hydrate (lNa{sub 2}OmSiO{sub 2}nH{sub 2}O) and has a special property to form a foam over about 80 C. Here we present the properties of FWG as a HCl remover and investigate the potential to replace Ca(OH){sub 2}.

  16. Biodesulfurization of flue gases using synthesis gas delivered as microbubbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selvaraj, P.T.; Bredwell, M.D.; Little, M.H.; Kaufman, E.N. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Bioprocessing Research and Development Center

    1997-03-01

    In this study, the authors have focused research on utilizing a gas mixture containing 36% H{sub 2}, 47% CO, 10% CO{sub 2}, 5% CH{sub 4} and a balance of N{sub 2} as a model coal synthesis gas as a low-cost feedstock for sulfate-reducing bacteria cultures. Coal synthesis gas will be readily available in power plants and the biological utilization of syn-gas as a carbon and energy source produces no organic end product that has to be processed prior to its disposal. Coal synthesis gas is, however, sparingly soluble in aqueous phase. This process utilizing SRB with syn-gas feedstock may be mass transfer limited and methods to enhance the mass transport have been investigated. A CSTR with cell recycle and a trickle bed reactor with cells immobilized in BIO-SEP{trademark} polymeric beads were operated with syn-gas feedstock to obtain maximum productivity for SO{sub 2} reduction to H{sub 2}S. The CSTR reactor was then fed with syn-gas as microbubbles in an effort to improve the mass transfer properties. With syn-gas fed as microbubbles, productivity in the CSTR increased from 1.2 to 2.1 mmol/h {center_dot} L in 33 h. This has been observed at the same biomass concentration of 5 g/L. This shows the mass transport limitation in the above process. In the trickle bed reactor, maximum productivity of 8.8 mmol/h {center_dot} L was achieved with less carbon and energy requirements (1 mol H{sub 2} and 1.2 mol CO per mol of SO{sub 2}) indicating better surface to volume ratio with cells immobilized in the pores of polymeric beads.

  17. Industrial Flue Gas Utilized to Improve Oilfield Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Pingping; Jiang Biwu

    2005-01-01

    @@ To decrease CO2 emission: one of China's important strategies The negative effect and harm for human being and natural environment caused by greenhouse effect has triggered all governments' great concerns throughout the world, which is generated by greenhouse gas emission into aerosphere. CO2 is the main component of greenhouse gas, accounting for about 65%. In order to constrain the global-warming trend, the Kyoto Protocol set a target for developed countries to reduce CO2 emission, which required the greenhouse gas emission would decline by 5.2% from 2008 to 2012 compared with that in 1990.

  18. Growth response of Spirulina platensis PCC9108 to elevated CO2 levels and flue gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedmahdi Hoseini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Because their ability to capture CO2, photosynthetical microorganisms have some advantages to CO2 mitigation from high CO2 streams such as flue gases and they can use CO2 as carbon source. Recently, experts have made efforts to exploit microorganisms intended for recovering CO2 from power plants. Materials and methods: To achieve this purpose, we studied the growth response of the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis PCC9108 under different concentrations of carbon dioxide (ranging from 0.036% to 10% and flue gas in a bench-scale system. Preparation of different concentrations of CO2 and injection into Erlenmeyer flasks was performed by a system including air compressor, CO2 capsule, pressure gauge and flow meter. Results: The main goal of studying this paper is a survey of organism's potential to grow by generated CO2 from flue gas of power plant. It already had the potential and highest biomass production recorded at 8% CO2 (v/v. Also we proved that S.platensis PCC9108 can be grown under flue gas, although biomass production decreased fairly. Total lipid content of algae interestingly enhanced with elevated CO2 levels from ambient air to 4% and 6% which ranged from 14.5 to 15.8 and 16 dry weight (wt. % respectively. In contrast, total protein content illustrated no difference between all treatment and its value was about 46 wt.%. Discussion and conclusion: The results of present study suggested that understudied S.platensis PCC9108 is appropriate for mitigating CO2 because of its carbon fixation ability. Also due to its high protein content, this cyanobacterium is a good candidate to produce SCP (single cell protein.

  19. Utilization of SO/sub 2/ gas of boiler flue gas in the epsilon-caprolactam (EC) manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, M.; Yoshida, Y.

    1979-09-01

    Sulfur dioxide in boiler exhaust gas from high-sulfur, heavy oil combustion is used at the Sakai caprolactam plant of Ube Industries Ltd. At this plant, 20,000 tons/yr out of a total 90,000 tons/yr of EC is prepared by the reaction of cyclohexanone with hydroxylamine, which is in turn prepared by the Raschig synthesis, which involves reduction by sulfur dioxide of aqueous ammonium nitrite prepared by absorption of N/sub 2/O/sub 3/ into aqueous ammonium bisulfite. For SO/sub 2/ absorption, the flue gas is cooled to about 60/sup 0/C by isothermal cooling with the absorption solution. The SO/sub 2/ absorption reaction occurs in liquid phase at pH 5-5.8 in the absence of free ammonia, since otherwise, an aerosol would form. After further absorption of SO/sub 2/ from flue gas in a second absorber of the same type (which uses a different concentration of absorption liquid), the SO/sub 2/ in the flue gas is diminished to 40-60 ppm from its original 1300 ppm concentration. The chemistry and performance of the SO/sub 2/ absorption procedure, including the composition of the crude ammonium bisulfite solution during the absorption reactions, and of the Raschig process are discussed.

  20. Effect of flue gas recirculation on heat transfer in a supercritical circulating fluidized bed combustor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błaszczuk Artur

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on assessment of the effect of flue gas recirculation (FGR on heat transfer behavior in 1296t/h supercritical coal-fired circulating fluidized bed (CFB combustor. The performance test in supercritical CFB combustor with capacity 966 MWth was performed with the low level of flue gas recirculation rate 6.9% into furnace chamber, for 80% unit load at the bed pressure of 7.7 kPa and the ratio of secondary air to the primary air SA/PA = 0.33. Heat transfer behavior in a supercritical CFB furnace between the active heat transfer surfaces (membrane wall and superheater and bed material has been analyzed for Geldart B particle with Sauter mean diameters of 0.219 and 0.246 mm. Bed material used in the heat transfer experiments had particle density of 2700 kg/m3. A mechanistic heat transfer model based on cluster renewal approach was used in this work. A heat transfer analysis of CFB combustion system with detailed consideration of bed-to-wall heat transfer coefficient distributions along furnace height is investigated. Heat transfer data for FGR test were compared with the data obtained for representative conditions without recycled flue gases back to the furnace through star-up burners.

  1. Effect of flue gas recirculation on heat transfer in a supercritical circulating fluidized bed combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błaszczuk, Artur

    2015-09-01

    This paper focuses on assessment of the effect of flue gas recirculation (FGR) on heat transfer behavior in 1296t/h supercritical coal-fired circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustor. The performance test in supercritical CFB combustor with capacity 966 MWth was performed with the low level of flue gas recirculation rate 6.9% into furnace chamber, for 80% unit load at the bed pressure of 7.7 kPa and the ratio of secondary air to the primary air SA/PA = 0.33. Heat transfer behavior in a supercritical CFB furnace between the active heat transfer surfaces (membrane wall and superheater) and bed material has been analyzed for Geldart B particle with Sauter mean diameters of 0.219 and 0.246 mm. Bed material used in the heat transfer experiments had particle density of 2700 kg/m3. A mechanistic heat transfer model based on cluster renewal approach was used in this work. A heat transfer analysis of CFB combustion system with detailed consideration of bed-to-wall heat transfer coefficient distributions along furnace height is investigated. Heat transfer data for FGR test were compared with the data obtained for representative conditions without recycled flue gases back to the furnace through star-up burners.

  2. Hot gas filtration: Investigations to remove gaseous pollutant components out of flue gas during hot gas filtration. Final report; HGR: Untersuchung zur Minimierung von gasfoermigen Schadstoffen aus Rauchgasen bei der Heissgasfiltration. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christ, A.; Gross, R.; Renz, U.

    1998-07-01

    Power plants with gas and steam turbines in pressurized fluidized bed or pressurized gasification processes enable power generation of coal with high efficiency and little emissions. To run these plants the cleaning of the flue gas is necessary before entering the turbines under the conditions of high temperature and pressure. Ceramic filter elements are the most probable method for hot gas cleaning. A simultaneous reduction of gaseous pollutant components under these conditions could help to make the whole process more efficient. The aim of the project is to integrate the catalytic reduction of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and nitric oxides into the hot gas filtration with ceramic filter elements as a one step mecanism. The project is focused on: - the catalytic behaviour of ferruginous ashes of brown coal, - the effectiveness of calcinated aluminates as a catalyst to remove uncombusted hydrocarbons in a hot gas filtration unit, - numerical simulation of the combined removal of particles and gaseous pollutant components out of the flue gas. (orig.) [Deutsch] Gas- und Dampfturbinen-Kraftwerke mit Druckwirbelschicht- oder mit Druckvergasungsverfahren ermoeglichen die Verstromung von Kohle mit hohem Wirkungsgrad und niedrigen Emissionen. Eine Voraussetzung fuer den Betrieb dieser Anlagen ist die Entstaubung der Rauchgase bei hohen Temperaturen und Druecken. Abreinigungsfilter mit keramischen Elementen werden dazu eingesetzt. Eine Reduzierung gasfoermiger Schadstoffe unter den gleichen Bedingungen koennte die Rauchgaswaesche ersetzen. Ziel des Gesamtvorhabens ist es, die Integration von Heissgasfiltration und katalytischem Abbau der Schadstoffe Kohlenmonoxid, Kohlenwasserstoffe und Stickoxide in einem Verfahrensschritt zu untersuchen. Die Arbeitsschwerpunkte dieses Teilvorhabens betreffen - die katalytische Wirkung eisenhaltiger Braunkohlenaschen, - die Wirksamkeit des Calciumaluminats als Katalysator des Abbaus unverbrannter Kohlenwasserstoffe im Heissgasfilter

  3. Regenerable copper-based sorbents for high temperature flue gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cengiz, P.; Abbasian, J.; Slimane, R.B.; Williams, B.E.; Khalili, N.R.; Ho, K.K.

    2000-07-01

    During conventional combustion process the sulfur in the coal is converted to sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}). This hazardous air pollutant combines with the moisture in the atmosphere and creates what is commonly known as acid rain. Thus the removal of this pollutant from flue gas prior to its discharge is very important. Government regulations have been introduced and have become progressively more stringent. In the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990, for example, legislation was introduced requiring electric utilities to adopt available technology for removal of pollutant gases and particulates from coal combustion flue gases so that the increased use of coal is done in an environmentally acceptable manner. A number of processes have been developed for flue gas desulfurization (FGD). The moving bed copper oxide process has been regarded as one of the most promising emerging technologies for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal from flue gases at elevated temperatures. This process is based on the utilization of a dry, regenerable sorbent, that consists of copper oxide (CuO) supported on gamma alumina ({gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), in a cross flow moving-bed reactor. This study has been directed toward evaluation of the commercially available alumina-supported copper-based (ALCOA) sorbent to establish the baseline for development of new and improved sorbents for the copper oxide process. Evaluation of the baseline sorbent included determination of effective sulfur capacity and sulfur removal efficiency of the sorbent, the effects of operating parameters on the performance of the sorbent, as well as long term durability of the sorbent. Physical and chemical properties of the baseline sorbent were also determined.

  4. Membrane Process to Capture CO{sub 2} from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkel, Tim; Wei, Xiaotong; Firat, Bilgen; He, Jenny; Amo, Karl; Pande, Saurabh; Baker, Richard; Wijmans, Hans; Bhown, Abhoyjit

    2012-03-31

    This final report describes work conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) on development of an efficient membrane process to capture carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from power plant flue gas (award number DE-NT0005312). The primary goal of this research program was to demonstrate, in a field test, the ability of a membrane process to capture up to 90% of CO{sub 2} in coal-fired flue gas, and to evaluate the potential of a full-scale version of the process to perform this separation with less than a 35% increase in the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE). Membrane Technology and Research (MTR) conducted this project in collaboration with Arizona Public Services (APS), who hosted a membrane field test at their Cholla coal-fired power plant, and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and WorleyParsons (WP), who performed a comparative cost analysis of the proposed membrane CO{sub 2} capture process. The work conducted for this project included membrane and module development, slipstream testing of commercial-sized modules with natural gas and coal-fired flue gas, process design optimization, and a detailed systems and cost analysis of a membrane retrofit to a commercial power plant. The Polaris? membrane developed over a number of years by MTR represents a step-change improvement in CO{sub 2} permeance compared to previous commercial CO{sub 2}-selective membranes. During this project, membrane optimization work resulted in a further doubling of the CO{sub 2} permeance of Polaris membrane while maintaining the CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity. This is an important accomplishment because increased CO{sub 2} permeance directly impacts the membrane skid cost and footprint: a doubling of CO{sub 2} permeance halves the skid cost and footprint. In addition to providing high CO{sub 2} permeance, flue gas CO{sub 2} capture membranes must be stable in the presence of contaminants including SO{sub 2}. Laboratory tests showed no

  5. Membrane Process to Capture CO{sub 2} from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkel, Tim; Wei, Xiaotong; Firat, Bilgen; He, Jenny; Amo, Karl; Pande, Saurabh; Baker, Richard; Wijmans, Hans; Bhown, Abhoyjit

    2012-03-31

    This final report describes work conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) on development of an efficient membrane process to capture carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from power plant flue gas (award number DE-NT0005312). The primary goal of this research program was to demonstrate, in a field test, the ability of a membrane process to capture up to 90% of CO{sub 2} in coal-fired flue gas, and to evaluate the potential of a full-scale version of the process to perform this separation with less than a 35% increase in the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE). Membrane Technology and Research (MTR) conducted this project in collaboration with Arizona Public Services (APS), who hosted a membrane field test at their Cholla coal-fired power plant, and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and WorleyParsons (WP), who performed a comparative cost analysis of the proposed membrane CO{sub 2} capture process. The work conducted for this project included membrane and module development, slipstream testing of commercial-sized modules with natural gas and coal-fired flue gas, process design optimization, and a detailed systems and cost analysis of a membrane retrofit to a commercial power plant. The Polaris? membrane developed over a number of years by MTR represents a step-change improvement in CO{sub 2} permeance compared to previous commercial CO{sub 2}-selective membranes. During this project, membrane optimization work resulted in a further doubling of the CO{sub 2} permeance of Polaris membrane while maintaining the CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity. This is an important accomplishment because increased CO{sub 2} permeance directly impacts the membrane skid cost and footprint: a doubling of CO{sub 2} permeance halves the skid cost and footprint. In addition to providing high CO{sub 2} permeance, flue gas CO{sub 2} capture membranes must be stable in the presence of contaminants including SO{sub 2}. Laboratory tests showed no

  6. Gas-solid flow field numerical simulation of different feeding and returning formations of flue-gas circulating fluidized bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hu

    2012-01-01

    3D Euler double-fluid model was applied and three different feedstocks and reverts formations were simulated.By calculating and analyzing the state of gas and solid fluxion in absorber using three different methods of the feedstocks and reverts in recirculating fluidized bed,described the behavior of gas and solid through the gas-phase velocity,turbulence intensity,gas-solid sliding velocity,and density of particles.The results show that the feedstocks and reverts enters into absorption tower through two symmetrical feedings and are mixed with flue gas.Based on the respective analysis of each model and the comparison analysis of the three models,this paper drew conclusions.The turbulence intensity of absorption tower is high,gas-solid sliding speed is big,and granule concentration near the axis is high,which has advantages for desulfurization and improving the utilization rate of absorbent.

  7. Study of flue gas condensing for biofuel fired heat and power plants; Studie av roekgaskondensering foer biobraensleeldade kraftvaermeanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axby, Fredrik; Gustafsson, J.O.; Nystroem, Johan; Johansson, Kent

    2000-11-01

    This report considers questions regarding flue gas condensing plants connected to bio-fuelled heat and power plants. The report consists of two parts, one where nine existing plants are described regarding technical issues and regarding the experience from the different plants. Part two is a theoretical study where heat balance calculations are made to show the technical and economical performance in different plant configurations and operating conditions. Initially the different parts in the flue gas condensing plant are described. Tube, plate and scrubber condensers are described briefly. The different types of humidifiers are also described, rotor, cross-stream plate heat exchanger and scrubber. Nine flue gas-condensing plants have been visited. The plants where chosen considering it should be bio-fuel fired plant primarily heat and power plants. Furthermore we tried to get a good dissemination considering plant configuration, supplier, geographical position, operating situation and plant size. The description of the different plants focuses on the flue gas condenser and the belonging components. The fuel, flue gas and condensate composition is described as well as which materials are used in the different parts of the plant. The experience from operating the plants and the reasons of why they decided to chose the actual condenser supplier are reported.

  8. Operating condition influences on PCDD/Fs emissions from sinter pot tests with hot flue gas recycling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongmei Yu; Minghui Zheng; Xianwei Li; Xiaolei He

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to clarify the influence of operating conditions on the formation and emissions of polychlorinated-p- dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) from a sintering process with hot flue gas recycling.A pilot scale sinter pot with simulated flue gas recycling was developed,and four key operational parameters,including temperature,oxygen content of the simulated waste,flue gas,the coke rate of the sintering mixture,and the quicklime quality,were selected for exploring PCDD/Fs formation.The results showed that the temperature of the recycled flue gas had a major affect on PCDD/Fs formation,and a high temperature could significantly increase their formation during sintering.A clear linear correlation between the temperature of recycling flue gas and PCDD/Fs emission (r =0.93) was found.PCDD/Fs could be reduced to a certain extent by decreasing the level of oxygen in the recycled flue gas,while sintering quality was unchanged.The coke rate had no significant influence on the formation of PCDD/Fs,but the quality of quicklime used in the sintering mixture could affect not only the amount of PCDD/Fs emissions but also the sintering productivity.Compared with a benchmark sinter pot test,PCDD/Fs emissions markedly decreased with improvements to quicklime quality.However,the reduction in PCDD/Fs emissions realized by using high-quality quicklime was limited by the temperature of the inlet gas.The highest reduction achieved was 51% compared with conventional quicklime when the temperature of the inlet gas was 150 ℃.

  9. Adsorbents for capturing mercury in coal-fired boiler flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongqun; Xu, Zhenghe; Fan, Maohong; Bland, Alan E; Judkins, Roddie R

    2007-07-19

    This paper reviews recent advances in the research and development of sorbents used to capture mercury from coal-fired utility boiler flue gas. Mercury emissions are the source of serious health concerns. Worldwide mercury emissions from human activities are estimated to be 1000 to 6000 t/annum. Mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants are believed to be the largest source of anthropogenic mercury emissions. Mercury emissions from coal-fired utility boilers vary in total amount and speciation, depending on coal types, boiler operating conditions, and configurations of air pollution control devices (APCDs). The APCDs, such as fabric filter (FF) bag house, electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD), can remove some particulate-bound and oxidized forms of mercury. Elemental mercury often escapes from these devices. Activated carbon injection upstream of a particulate control device has been shown to have the best potential to remove both elemental and oxidized mercury from the flue gas. For this paper, NORIT FGD activated carbon was extensively studied for its mercury adsorption behavior. Results from bench-, pilot- and field-scale studies, mercury adsorption by coal chars, and a case of lignite-burned mercury control were reviewed. Studies of brominated carbon, sulfur-impregnated carbon and chloride-impregnated carbon were also reviewed. Carbon substitutes, such as calcium sorbents, petroleum coke, zeolites and fly ash were analyzed for their mercury-adsorption performance. At this time, brominated activated carbon appears to be the best-performing mercury sorbent. A non-injection regenerable sorbent technology is briefly introduced herein, and the issue of mercury leachability is briefly covered. Future research directions are suggested.

  10. Compression Stripping of Flue Gas with Energy Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochs, Thomas L.; O' Connor, William K.

    2005-05-31

    A method of remediating and recovering energy from combustion products from a fossil fuel power plant having at least one fossil fuel combustion chamber, at least one compressor, at least one turbine, at least one heat exchanger and a source of oxygen. Combustion products including non-condensable gases such as oxygen and nitrogen and condensable vapors such as water vapor and acid gases such as SOX and NOX and CO2 and pollutants are produced and energy is recovered during the remediation which recycles combustion products and adds oxygen to support combustion. The temperature and/or pressure of the combustion products are changed by cooling through heat exchange with thermodynamic working fluids in the power generation cycle and/or compressing and/or heating and/or expanding the combustion products to a temperature/pressure combination below the dew point of at least some of the condensable vapors to condense liquid having some acid gases dissolved and/or entrained and/or directly condense acid gas vapors from the combustion products and to entrain and/or dissolve some of the pollutants while recovering sensible and/or latent heat from the combustion products through heat exchange between the combustion products and thermodynamic working fluids and/or cooling fluids used in the power generating cycle. Then the CO2, SO2, and H2O poor and oxygen enriched remediation stream is sent to an exhaust and/or an air separation unit and/or a turbine.

  11. A breakthrough in flue gas cleanup, CO2 mitigation and H2S removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Wolf; Wasas, James; Stenger, Raymond; Howell, Evan

    2010-09-15

    SWAPSOL Corp. is developing commercial processes around a newly discovered reaction that reduces H2S below detectable levels while reacting with CO2 to form water, sulfur and carsuls, a carbon-sulfur polymer. The Stenger-Wasas Process (SWAP) stands to simplify sulfur removal technology as it consumes CO2 in an exothermic reaction. The SWAP has applications in landfill, sour, flue and Claus tail gas cleanup and may replace Claus technology. Destruction of waste hydrocarbons provides a source of H2S. The primary reactions and variants have been independently verified and the chemical kinetics determined by a third party laboratory.

  12. Treatment of waste water from flue gas cleaning; Behandlung von Abwasser der Rauchgasreinigung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogiermann, Klaus; Meyerhoff, Thomas [Berkefeld - VWS Deutschland GmbH, Celle (Germany); Hagen, Klaus [Berkefeld - VWS Deutschland GmbH, Bayreuth (Germany); Basabe, Juan Luis [HPD Process Engineering S.A., Bilbao (Spain); Vendrup, Michael [Krueger A/S, Soeborg (Denmark)

    2012-11-01

    Strict limits must be adhered to for treating waste water incurred during flue gas desulphurisation (FGD). One and two-stage precipitation processes have proven themselves in FGD waste water treatment. Metals can be removed with the MetClean {sup registered} process. Another option is evaporation. Waste water ZLD systems (Zero Liquid Discharge) recover, via a falling film evaporator with subsequent crystallisation, more than 98 % of the water and produce, aside from the condensate, only solid material that can be disposed of in landfill. A further development, named ZLD CoLD trademark, significantly reduces the investment and operating costs of this solution. (orig.)

  13. Mercury Removal from Aqueous Solution and Flue Gas by Adsorption on Activated Carbon Fibres

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    The use of two activated carbon fibres, one laboratorial sample prepared from a commercial acrylic textile fibre and one commercial sample of Kynol1, as prepared/received and modified by reaction with powdered sulfur and H2S gas in order to increase the sulfur content were studied for the removal of mercury from aqueous solution and from flue gases from a fluidized bed combustor. The sulfur introduced ranged from 1 to 6 wt.% depending on the method used. The most important parameter ...

  14. Production of a half cell with a LSM/CGO support for electrochemical flue gas purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kjeld Bøhm; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2013-01-01

    Described herein is the production of a half cell with a strontium-substituted lanthanum manganite/cerium gadolinium oxide support and dense cerium gadolinium oxide electrolyte for electrochemical flue gas purification. The half cells were constructed through tape casting a strontium......-substituted lanthanum manganite/cerium gadolinium oxide support and cerium gadolinium oxide electrolyte. The half cells were produced by laminating the support and electrolyte layers followed by sintering. Perfectly flat half cells were constructed with a porous strontium-substituted lanthanum manganite....../cerium gadolinium oxide support layer and dense cerium gadolinium oxide electrolyte by adjusting sintering shrinkage at the electrolyte layer and altering the sintering aid....

  15. Experimental Investigation and Modelling of a Wet Flue Gas Desulphurisation Pilot Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiil, Søren; Michelsen, Michael Locht; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    1998-01-01

    A detailed model for a wet flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) pilot plant, based on the packed tower concept, has been developed. All important rate determining steps, absorption of SO2, oxidation of HSO3-, dissolution of limestone, and crystallisation of gypsum were included. Population balance...... limestone in the gypsum. Simulations were found to match experimental data for the two limestone types investigated. A parameter study of the model was conducted with the purpose of validating assumptions and extracting information on wet FGD systems. The modelling tools developed may be applicable to other...... wet FGD plants....

  16. Electro-membrane processes for flue gas cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, T. F.

    1997-12-31

    Various techniques for NO removal in Membrane Contactor were considered. However the NO absorption in a liquid adsorbent with chemical enhancement and its ease for regeneration, was selected as the most practicable choice. Various different compounds for chemical enhancement were studied and Fe(II)-chelate enhanced adsorbent was selected for further studies. The technical feasibility of Fe(II)-chelate enhanced adsorbent for obtaining greater than 80% NO removal have been successfully established. Even though the membrane area required for greater than 80% NO removal has been found to be about 500 m{sup 2}/MW{sub c} (compared to 50 - 150 m{sup 2}/MW{sub c}, for 95% SO{sub 2} removal, depending on the membrane characteristics), suitable Membrane Contactor design has been proposed for carrying out the process at an acceptable gas side pressure drop. The electro-membrane processes for the regeneration of adsorbents have been studied both theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical studies have concerned the study of basic functions of both the bipolar membranes and charge laden (anion/cation) membranes. Suitable experimental techniques have been devised for studying of these basic parameters (e.g. charge transport number, salt diffusion through membranes, current-voltage characteristics of bipolar membranes and electrical resistance of charge laden membranes). These parameters have further been utilized in the mechanistic model of combined membranes in an ED cell (electrodialysis). Based on these fundamental studies and analysis of process requirements, suitable configuration of ED cell has been developed and verified by experimental studies. The effect of both the stack design parameters (e.g. number of cells, membrane type and spacer design) and the operational parameters (e.g. temperature, electrolyte concentration, liquid velocity and current density) have been studied for optimization of energy consumption for regeneration of loaded adsorbents. As a result

  17. Adsorption of Carbon Dioxide by MIL-101(Cr): Regeneration Conditions and Influence of Flue Gas Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Ning, Liqi; Zheng, Shudong; Tao, Mengna; Shi, Yao; He, Yi

    2013-10-01

    MIL-101(Cr) has drawn much attention due to its high stability compared with other metal-organic frameworks. In this study, three trace flue gas contaminants (H2O, NO, SO2) were each added to a 10 vol% CO2/N2 feed flow and found to have a minimal impact on the adsorption capacity of CO2. In dynamic CO2 regeneration experiments, complete regeneration occurred in 10 min at 328 K for temperature swing adsorption-N2-stripping under a 50 cm3/min N2 flow and at 348 K for vacuum-temperature swing adsorption at 20 KPa. Almost 99% of the pre-regeneration adsorption capacity was preserved after 5 cycles of adsorption/desorption under a gas flow of 10 vol% CO2, 100 ppm SO2, 100 ppm NO, and 10% RH, respectively. Strong resistance to flue gas contaminants, mild recovery conditions, and excellent recycling efficiency make MIL-101(Cr) an attractive adsorbent support for CO2 capture.

  18. Mathematical modelling of flue gas tempered flames produced from pulverised coal fired with oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breussin, A.; Weber, R.; Kamp, W.L. van de

    1997-10-01

    The combustion of pulverised coal in conventional utility boilers contributes significantly to global CO{sub 2} emissions. Because atmospheric air is used as the combustion medium, the exhaust gases of conventional pulverised coal fired utility boilers contain approximately 15 % CO{sub 2}. This relatively low concentration makes separating and recovering CO{sub 2} a very energy-intensive process. This process can be simplified if N{sub 2} is eliminated from the comburent before combustion by firing the pulverised coal with pure oxygen. However, this concept will result in very high flames temperatures. Flue gas recirculation can be used to moderate the flame temperature, whilst generating a flue gas with a CO{sub 2} concentration of 95 %. In this presentation, both experimental and modelling work will be described. The former deals with identifying the issues related to the combustion of pulverised coal in simulated turbine exhaust gas, particularly with respect to stability, burnout and pollutant emissions. The second part of this presentation describes mathematical modelling of type 2 as well as type 1 swirling pulverised coal flames. Future work will concentrate on high CO{sub 2} levels environments. (orig.)

  19. Adsorption of carbon dioxide by MIL-101(Cr): regeneration conditions and influence of flue gas contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Ning, Liqi; Zheng, Shudong; Tao, Mengna; Shi, Yao; He, Yi

    2013-10-10

    MIL-101(Cr) has drawn much attention due to its high stability compared with other metal-organic frameworks. In this study, three trace flue gas contaminants (H2O, NO, SO2) were each added to a 10 vol% CO2/N2 feed flow and found to have a minimal impact on the adsorption capacity of CO2. In dynamic CO2 regeneration experiments, complete regeneration occurred in 10 min at 328 K for temperature swing adsorption-N2-stripping under a 50 cm(3)/min N2 flow and at 348 K for vacuum-temperature swing adsorption at 20 KPa. Almost 99% of the pre-regeneration adsorption capacity was preserved after 5 cycles of adsorption/desorption under a gas flow of 10 vol% CO2, 100 ppm SO2, 100 ppm NO, and 10% RH, respectively. Strong resistance to flue gas contaminants, mild recovery conditions, and excellent recycling efficiency make MIL-101(Cr) an attractive adsorbent support for CO2 capture.

  20. Experimental investigation of a pilot-scale jet bubbling reactor for wet flue gas desulphurisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuanjing; Kiil, Søren; Johnsson, Jan Erik

    2003-01-01

    In the present work, an experimental parameter study was conducted in a pilot-scale jet bubbling reactor for wet flue gas desulphurisation (FGD). The pilot plant is downscaled from a limestone-based, gypsum producing full-scale wet FGD plant. Important process parameters, such as slurry pH, inlet...... flue gas concentration of SO2, reactor temperature, and slurry concentration of Cl- have been varied. The degree of desulphurisation, residual limestone content of the gypsum, liquid phase concentrations, and solids content of the slurry were measured during the experimental series. The SO2 removal...... efficiency increased from 66.1% to 71.5% when the reactor slurry pH was changed from 3.5 to 5.5. Addition of Cl(in the form of CaCl2 . 2H(2)O) to the slurry (25 g Cl-/l) increased the degree of desulphurisation to above 99%, due to the onset of extensive foaming, which substantially increased the gas...

  1. Corrosion in the Flue Gas Cleaning System of a Biomass-Fired Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Olesen, R. E.; Gensmann, P.

    2017-01-01

    After only a few years operation, corrosiondamage was observed in the flue gas cleaning system of abiomass power plant. The corrosion was on the lower partof the gas/gas heat exchanger fabricated from A242weathering steel, where UNS S31600 bolts were used toattach sealing strips to the rotor. Thick...... iron oxides (up to5 mm) had formed on the weathering steel, and theseoxides also contained chlorine and sulfur. In this area of theheat exchanger, weathering steel has not had the optimalwet/dry cycles required to achieve a protective oxide. Dueto the thick growing oxide on the rotor, the UNS S31600......bolts were under stress and this together with the presenceof accumulated chlorine between the sealing strips andbolts resulted in stress corrosion cracking and rupture. Inaddition, Zn-K-Cl deposits were agglomerated in the ductafter the DeNOx unit. Zn was also a constituent of corrosionproducts...

  2. Re-use of stabilised flue gas ashes from solid waste incineration in cement-treated base layers for pavements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Zuansi; Jensen, Dorthe Lærke; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2003-01-01

    Fly ash from coal-burning power plants has been used extensively as a pozzolan and fine filter in concrete for many years. Laboratory experiments were performed investigating the effect of substituting the coal-based fly ash with chemically stabilised flue gas ashes (FGA) from waste incineration...... more than 5 MPa after 7 days. The tank leaching tests revealed that leaching of heavy metals was not significantly affected by the use of chemically stabilised flue gas ashes from waste incineration. Assuming that diffusion controls the leaching process it was calculated that less than 1% of the metals...... would teach during a 100-year period from a 0.5 m thick concrete stab exposed to water on one side. Leaching of the common ions Ca, Cl, Na and SO4 was increased 3-20 times from the specimens with chemically stabilised flue gas ashes from waste incineration. However, the quantities leached were still...

  3. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth E. Baldrey

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, installation of a liquid flue gas conditioning system was completed at the American Electric Power Conesville Plant, Unit 3. This plant fires a bituminous coal and has opacity and particulate emissions performance issues related to fly ash re-entrainment. Two cohesivity-specific additive formulations, ADA-44C and ADA-51, will be evaluated. In addition, ammonia conditioning will also be compared.

  4. Study on the reaction activity of CuO/y-Al2O3 for dry flue gas desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan; ZHANG Chao; ZHENG Ying; ZHENG Chu-guang

    2004-01-01

    The copper oxide bed regenerable adsorber process can efficiently remove sulfur dioxide (SO2) and sulfur trioxide (SO3) and reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) from flue gas with no solid or liquid byproducts. This paper investigates the dry flue gas desulfurization activities of the CuO/γ-Al2O3 under different operation conditions finding that the dispersion degree of copper oxide can achieve a threshold value, which is 0.47mg/m2 carriers. The conclusion confirms that the sulfur capacity of desulfurizer is associated with flue gas' space velocity, reaction temperature, copper content and the structure of sorbent pellet, etc. And with the condition of the desulfurization reaction temperature 673 K, the space velocity 11 200 h-1 and the S/Cu mole ratio under 1, the sulfur removal efficiency can go upwards to 95%.

  5. Mercury speciation and its emissions from a 220 MW pulverized coal-fired boiler power plant in flue gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, X.H.; Zhuo, Y.Q.; Duan, Y.F.; Chen, L.; Yang, L.G.; Zhang, L.A.; Jiang, Y.M.; Xu, X.C. [Southeast University, Nanjing (China). Thermoenergy Engineering Research Institute

    2007-07-15

    Distributions of mercury speciation of Hg{sup 0}, Hg{sup 2+} and Hg{sup P} in flue gas and fly ash were sampled by using the Ontario Hydro Method in a 220 MW pulverized coal-fired boiler power plant in China. The mercury speciation was varied greatly when flue gas going through the electrostatic precipitator (ESP). The mercury adsorbed on fly ashes was found strongly dependent on unburnt carbon content in fly ash and slightly on the particle sizes, which implies that the physical and chemical features of some elemental substances enriched to fly ash surface also have a non-ignored effect on the mercury adsorption. The concentration of chlorine in coal, oxygen and NOx in flue gas has a positive correlation with the formation of the oxidized mercury, but the sulfur in coal has a positive influence on the formation of elemental mercury.

  6. Simultaneous removal of sulfur dioxide and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from incineration flue gas using activated carbon fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen-Shu; Li, Wen-Kai; Hung, Ming-Jui

    2014-09-01

    Incineration flue gas contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). The effects of SO2 concentration (0, 350, 750, and 1000 ppm), reaction temperature (160, 200, and 280 degrees C), and the type of activated carbon fibers (ACFs) on the removal of SO2 and PAHs by ACFs were examined in this study. A fluidized bed incinerator was used to simulate practical incineration flue gas. It was found that the presence of SO2 in the incineration flue gas could drastically decrease removal of PAHs because of competitive adsorption. The effect of rise in the reaction temperature from 160 to 280 degrees C on removal of PAHs was greater than that on SO2 removal at an SO2 concentration of 750 ppm. Among the three ACFs studied, ACF-B, with the highest microporous volume, highest O content, and the tightest structure, was the best adsorbent for removing SO2 and PAHs when these gases coexisted in the incineration flue gas. Implications: Simultaneous adsorption of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from incineration flue gas onto activated carbon fibers (ACFs) meant to devise a new technique showed that the presence of SO2 in the incineration flue gas leads to a drastic decrease in removal of PAHs because of competitive adsorption. Reaction temperature had a greater influence on PAHs removal than on SO2 removal. ACF-B, with the highest microporous volume, highest O content, and tightest structure among the three studied ACFs, was found to be the best adsorbent for removing SO2 and PAHs.

  7. Carbon Dioxide Removal from Flue Gas Using Microporous Metal Organic Frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesch, David A

    2010-06-30

    UOP LLC, a Honeywell Company, in collaboration with Professor Douglas LeVan at Vanderbilt University (VU), Professor Adam Matzger at the University of Michigan (UM), Professor Randall Snurr at Northwestern University (NU), and Professor Stefano Brandani at the University of Edinburgh (UE), supported by Honeywell's Specialty Materials business unit and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), have completed a three-year project to develop novel microporous metal organic frameworks (MOFs) and an associated vacuum-pressure swing adsorption (vPSA) process for the removal of CO{sub 2} from coal-fired power plant flue gas. The project leveraged the team's complementary capabilities: UOP's experience in materials development and manufacturing, adsorption process design and process commercialization; LeVan and Brandani's expertise in high-quality adsorption measurements; Matzger's experience in syntheis of MOFs and the organic components associated with MOFs; Snurr's expertise in molecular and other modeling; Honeywell's expertise in the manufacture of organic chemicals; and, EPRI's knowledge of power-generation technology and markets. The project was successful in that a selective CO{sub 2} adsorbent with good thermal stability and reasonable contaminant tolerance was discovered, and a low cost process for flue gas CO{sub 2} capture process ready to be evaluated further at the pilot scale was proposed. The team made significant progress toward the current DOE post-combustion research targets, as defined in a recent FOA issued by NETL: 90% CO{sub 2} removal with no more than a 35% increase in COE. The team discovered that favorable CO{sub 2} adsorption at more realistic flue gas conditions is dominated by one particular MOF structure type, M/DOBDC, where M designates Zn, Co, Ni, or Mg and DOBDC refers to the form of the organic linker in the resultant MOF structure, dioxybenzenedicarboxylate. The structure of the M/DOBDC MOFs

  8. Dynamic modeling of fixed-bed adsorption of flue gas using a variable mass transfer model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jehun; Lee, Jae W. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    This study introduces a dynamic mass transfer model for the fixed-bed adsorption of a flue gas. The derivation of the variable mass transfer coefficient is based on pore diffusion theory and it is a function of effective porosity, temperature, and pressure as well as the adsorbate composition. Adsorption experiments were done at four different pressures (1.8, 5, 10 and 20 bars) and three different temperatures (30, 50 and 70 .deg. C) with zeolite 13X as the adsorbent. To explain the equilibrium adsorption capacity, the Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm model was adopted, and the parameters of the isotherm equation were fitted to the experimental data for a wide range of pressures and temperatures. Then, dynamic simulations were performed using the system equations for material and energy balance with the equilibrium adsorption isotherm data. The optimal mass transfer and heat transfer coefficients were determined after iterative calculations. As a result, the dynamic variable mass transfer model can estimate the adsorption rate for a wide range of concentrations and precisely simulate the fixed-bed adsorption process of a flue gas mixture of carbon dioxide and nitrogen.

  9. Iron blast furnace slag/hydrated lime sorbents for flue gas desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chiung-Fang; Shih, Shin-Min

    2004-08-15

    Sorbents prepared from iron blast furnace slag (BFS) and hydrated lime (HL) through the hydration process have been studied with the aim to evaluate their reactivities toward SO2 under the conditions prevailing in dry or semidry flue gas desulfurization processes. The BFS/HL sorbents, having large surface areas and pore volumes due to the formation of products of hydration, were highly reactive toward SO2, as compared with hydrated lime alone (0.24 in Ca utilization). The sorbent reactivity increased as the slurrying temperature and time increased and as the particle size of BFS decreased; the effects of the liquid/solid ratio and the sorbent drying conditions were negligible. The structural properties and the reactivity of sorbent were markedly affected by the BFS/HL ratio; the sorbent with 30/70 ratio had the highest 1 h utilization of Ca, 0.70, and SO2 capture, 0.45 g SO2/g sorbent. The reactivity of a sorbent was related to its initial specific surface area (Sg0) and molar content of Ca (M(-1)); the 1 h utilization of Ca increased almost linearly with increasing Sg0/M. The results of this study are useful to the preparation of BFS/HL sorbents with high reactivity for use in the dry and semidry processes to remove SO2 from the flue gas.

  10. Effects of magnetic fields on improving mass transfer in flue gas desulfurization using a fluidized bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Gui, Keting; Wang, Xiaobo

    2016-02-01

    The effects of magnetic fields on improving the mass transfer in flue gas desulfurization using a fluidized bed are investigated in the paper. In this research, the magnetically fluidized bed (MFB) is used as the reactor in which ferromagnetic particles are fluidized with simulated flue gas under the influence of an external magnetic field. Lime slurry is continuously sprayed into the reactor. As a consequence, the desulfurization reaction and the slurry drying process take place simultaneously in the MFB. In this paper, the effects of ferromagnetic particles and external magnetic fields on the desulphurization efficiency are studied and compared with that of quartz particles as the fluidized particles. Experimental results show that the ferromagnetic particles not only act as a platform for lime slurry to precipitate on like quartz particles, but also take part in the desulfurization reaction. The results also show that the specific surface area of ferromagnetic particles after reaction is enlarged as the magnetic intensity increases, and the external magnetic field promotes the oxidation of S(IV), improving the mass transfer between sulphur and its sorbent. Hence, the efficiency of desulphurization under the effects of external magnetic fields is higher than that in general fluidized beds.

  11. Carbon Mineralization by Aqueous Precipitation for Beneficial Use of CO2 from Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devenney, Martin; Gilliam, Ryan; Seeker, Randy

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate an innovative process to mineralize CO2 from flue gas directly to reactive carbonates and maximize the value and versatility of its beneficial use products. The program scope includes the design, construction, and testing of a CO2 Conversion to Material Products (CCMP) Pilot Demonstration Plant utilizing CO2 from the flue gas of a power production facility in Moss Landing, CA. This topical report covers Subphase 2a which is the design phase of pilot demonstration subsystems. Materials of construction have been selected and proven in both lab scale and prototype testing to be acceptable for the reagent conditions of interest. The target application for the reactive carbonate material has been selected based upon small-scale feasibility studies and the design of a continuous fiber board production line has been completed. The electrochemical cell architecture and components have been selected based upon both lab scale and prototype testing. The appropriate quality control and diagnostic techniques have been developed and tested along with the required instrumentation and controls. Finally the demonstrate site infrastructure, NEPA categorical exclusion, and permitting is all ready for the construction and installation of the new units and upgrades.

  12. Land application uses for dry flue gas desulfurization by-products: Phase 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dick, W.; Bigham, J.; Forster, R.; Hitzhusen, F.; Lal, R.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.; Haefner, R.; Rowe, G.

    1999-01-31

    New flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbing technologies create a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction product that contains sulfate and sulfite, and coal fly ash. Generally, dry FGD by-products are treated as solid wastes and disposed in landfills. However, landfill sites are becoming scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing. Provided the environmental impacts are socially and scientifically acceptable, beneficial uses via recycling can provide economic benefits to both the producer and the end user of the FGD. A study titled ''Land Application Uses for Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products'' was initiated in December, 1990 to develop and demonstrate large volume, beneficial uses of FGD by-products. Phase 1 and Phase 2 reports have been published by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA. Phase 3 objectives were to demonstrate, using field studies, the beneficial uses of FGD by-products (1) as an amendment material on agricultural lands and on abandoned surface coal mine land, (2) as an engineering material for soil stabilization and raid repair, and (3) to assess the environmental and economic impacts of such beneficial uses. Application of dry FGD by-product to three soils in place of agricultural limestone increased alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and corn (Zea may L.) yields. No detrimental effects on soil and plant quality were observed.

  13. Potential Agricultural Uses of Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum in the Northern Great Plains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSutter, T.M.; Cihacek, L.J. [North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND (United States). Department of Soil Science

    2009-07-15

    Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) is a byproduct from the combustion of coal for electrical energy production. Currently, FGDG is being produced by 15 electrical generating stations in Alabama, Florida, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Ohio, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Wisconsin. Much of this byproduct is used in the manufacturing of wallboard. The National Network for Use of FGDG in Agriculture was initiated to explore alternative uses of this byproduct. In the northern Great Plains (North Dakota, South Dakota, and Montana), FGDG has the potential to be used as a Ca or S fertilizer, as an acid soil ameliorant, and for reclaiming or mitigating sodium-affected soils. Greater than 1.4 million Mg of FGDG could initially be used in these states for these purposes. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum can be an agriculturally important resource for helping to increase the usefulness of problem soils and to increase crop and rangeland production. Conducting beneficial use audits would increase the public awareness of this product and help identify to coal combustion electrical generating stations the agriculturally beneficial outlets for this byproduct.

  14. Effect of improving flue gas cleaning on characteristics and immobilisation of APC residues from MSW incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geysen, D. [Public Waste Agency of Flanders, OVAM, Stationsstraat 110, B-2800 Mechelen (Belgium)]. E-mail: daneel.geysen@ovam.be; Vandecasteele, C. [Department of Chemical Engineering, K.U. Leuven, de Croylaan 46, B-3001, Leuven (Belgium); Jaspers, M. [INDAVER, Dijle 17 a, B-2800 Mechelen (Belgium); Brouwers, E. [INDAVER, Dijle 17 a, B-2800 Mechelen (Belgium); Wauters, G. [INDAVER, Dijle 17 a, B-2800 Mechelen (Belgium)

    2006-01-16

    The flue gas cleaning system of a MSW incinerator with a capacity of 350 kt/year was changed to improve the HCl elimination efficiency. Instead of the semi-wet operating spray reactor and subsequent baghouse, a two-step wet flue gas cleaning was added behind the baghouse. Elemental composition, X-ray powder diffraction patterns and TGA measurements showed that the resulting APC residue was totally different from the former residue. As a consequence, leaching characteristics of both residues also differed and another treatment was required prior to disposal. For the former residue, mainly leaching of Pb (>100 mg/l), necessitated treatment prior to landfilling. The lower alkalinity of the new residue resulted in a leachate pH of 9.7 and a Pb concentration of 0.8 mg/l. The leachate pH of the former residue was 12.4. The leaching of Pb and Zn increased above 100 mg/l when immobilising the new residue with cement. Better results were obtained when immobilising with micro silica. The high CaCl{sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O content of the new residue brought along clogging of the bag filter system. Adding 1.4% of CaO (or 1.9% of Ca(OH){sub 2}) to the residue already improved these inconveniences but again significantly changed the leaching behaviour of the residue.

  15. Developing low-cost carbon-based sorbents for Hg capture from flue gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, R.; Lakatos, J.; Snape, C.E.; Sun, C. [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). Nottingham Fuel and Energy Centre

    2005-07-01

    To help reduce the cost of Hg capture from flue gas a number of low-cost carbons are being investigated, including activated tyre char and PFA carbon, in conjunction with some of the pre-treatments that have been found to be effective for commercial actived carbons. Experimental conditions for screening the sorbents have been selected to determine breakthrough capacities rapidly. The unactivated carbons have low breakthrough capacities under the test conditions employed (around 0.1 mg g{sup -1}) but these improve upon steam activation (around 0.25 mg g{sup -1}) but are still lower than those of non-impregnated commercial activated carbons (around 0.4-0.7 mg g{sup -1}), due to their lower surface areas. Comparable improvements to the commercial carbons have been achieved for impregnation treatments, including sulfur and bromine. However, certain gasification chars do have much higher breakthrough capacities than commercial carbons used for flue gas injection. Manganese oxide impregnation with low concentration is particularly effective for the activated and unactivated carbons giving breakthrough capacities comparable to the commercial carbons. Pointers for further increasing breakthrough and equilibrium capacities for carbon-based sorbents are discussed. 7 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  16. Theoretical prediction the removal of mercury from flue gas by MOFs

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Yang

    2016-07-19

    Removal of mercury from flue gas has been considered as one of the hot topics in both the scientific and industrial world. Adsorption of elemental mercury (Hg) and oxidized mercury species (HgCl, HgO, and HgS) on a novel metal organic framework (MOF) material, named Mg/DOBDC, with unsaturated metal centers was investigated using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The results show that Hg stably physi-sorbed on the unsaturated metal center (magnesium ion) of Mg/DOBDC with a binding energy (BE) of −27.5 kJ/mol. A direct interaction between Hg and magnesium ion was revealed by the partial density of state (PDOS) analysis. HgCl multi-interacts with two neighboring magnesium ions simultaneously by its Cl endings and thus resulted in strong adsorption strength (−89.0 kJ/mol). The adsorption energies of HgO and HgS on the Mg/DOBDC were as high as −117.0 kJ/mol and −169.7 kJ/mol, respectively, indicating a strong chemisorption. Theoretical calculations in this study reveal that Mg/DOBDC has the potential to serve as an efficient material for removal of mercury from flue gas.

  17. Experimental approach and techniques for the evaluation of wet flue gas desulfurization scrubber fluid mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strock, T.W. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (United States). Research and Development Div.; Gohara, W.F. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Barberton, OH (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The fluid mechanics within wet flue desulfurization (FGD) scrubbers involve several complex two-phase gas/liquid interactions. The fluid flow directly affects scrubber pressure drop, mist eliminator water removal, and the SO{sub 2} mass transfer/chemical reaction process. Current industrial efforts to develop cost-effective high-efficiency wet FGD scrubbers are focusing, in part, on optimizing the fluid mechanics. The development of an experimental approach and test facility for understanding and optimizing wet scrubber flow characteristics is discussed in this paper. Specifically, scaling procedures for downsizing a wet scrubber for the laboratory environment with field data comparisons are summarized. Furthermore, experimental techniques for the measurement of wet scrubber flow distribution, pressure drop, spray nozzle droplet size characteristics and wet scrubber liquid-to-gas ratio are discussed. Finally, the characteristics and capabilities of a new hydraulic test facility for wet FGD scrubbers are presented. (author)

  18. Removal of elemental Mercury from flue gas using wheat straw chars modified by K2FeO4 reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianfei; Liu, Yangxian; Pan, Jianfeng

    2017-02-17

    In this article, wheat straw (WS) char, a common agricultural waste and renewable biomass, was pyrolyzed and then modified by K2FeO4 reagent to develop an efficient sorbent for removal of Hg(0) from flue gas. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, scanning electron microscopy with energy spectrum and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were employed to characterize the sorbents. The effects of K2FeO4 loading, reaction temperature, Hg(0) inlet concentration and concentrations of gas mixtures O2, NO and SO2 in flue gas on Hg(0) removal were investigated in a fixed-bed reactor. The results show that K2FeO4-impregnation can improve pore structure of WS char and produce new active sites, which significantly enhance Hg(0) removal. Increasing Hg(0) inlet concentration significantly decreases Hg(0) removal efficiency. O2 in flue gas promotes Hg(0) oxidation by replenishing the oxygen groups on the surface of modified chars. The presence of NO obviously promotes Hg(0) removal since it can oxidize Hg(0) to Hg(NO3)2. SO2 in flue gas significantly decreases Hg(0) removal efficiency due to the competition adsorption between SO2 and Hg(0). The increase in reaction temperature has a dual impact on Hg(0) removal.

  19. Experimental study on the separation of CO{sub 2} from flue gas using hollow fiber membrane contactors without wetting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Shui-ping; Fang, Meng-Xiang; Zhang, Wei-Feng; Luo, Zhong-Yang; Cen, Ke-Fa [State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Wang, Shu-Yuan; Xu, Zhi-Kang [Institute of Polymer Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2007-05-15

    Experiments on CO{sub 2} removal from flue gas using polypropylene (PP) hollow fiber membrane contactors were conducted in this study. Absorbents including aqueous potassium glycinate (PG) solution, aqueous solutions of monoethanolamine (MEA) and methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) were used to absorb CO{sub 2} in the experiments. Based on the wetting experimental results, aqueous PG solution can offer a higher surface tension than water, aqueous MEA and MDEA solutions. Aqueous PG solution has a lower potential of membrane wetting after a continuously steady operation for 40 h to maintain CO{sub 2} removal efficiency of about 90%. Under moderate operating conditions, effects of the temperature, flow rate, and concentration of absorbents, and the flow rate of flue gas as well as the volumetric concentration of carbon dioxide in the flue gas on the mass transfer rate of CO{sub 2} were studied on a pilot-scale test facility. Unlike conventional absorbents, the mass transfer decreases with an increasing liquid temperature when using aqueous PG solution. Results show that CO{sub 2} removal efficiency was above 90% and the mass transfer rate was above 2.0 mol/(m{sup 2} h) using the PG aqueous solution. It indicates that the hollow fiber membrane contactor has a great potential in the area of CO{sub 2} separation from flue gas when absorbent's concentration and liquid-gas pressure difference are designed elaborately. (author)

  20. Reduction of NO2 in Flue Gas by CO and Propylene over CuO-CeO2/SiO2 in the Presence of O2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU,Mo-Hong; LI,Ming-Shi; SHAN,Yu-Hua; SESHAN,K.; LEFFERTS,Leon

    2008-01-01

    Catalytic reduction of NO2 with CO and/or propylene in the presence of NO and excess oxygen,a model mixture for flue gas,was studied over a series of CuO-CeO2/SiO2 catalysts between 120-260℃.The effect of HC1,an impurity in flue gas,on the activity of the catalysts was evaluated.It was found that a binary oxide catalyst,2% CuO-8% CeO2/SiO2,was active for the reduction of NO2 by CO and/or propylene.CO was effective for selective reduction of NO2 in the presence of NO and O2 in a temperature window between 160-200 ℃ while propylene was effective at temperature higher than 200 ℃.In the presence of HC1,the activity of the catalyst for reduction of NO2 with CO was irreversibly deactivated.However,the activity for reduction of NO2 with propylene was not influenced by HC1.

  1. Study on the decomposition of trace benzene over V2O5–WO3/TiO2-based catalysts in simulated flue gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trace levels (1 and 10 ppm) of gaseous benzene were catalytically decomposed in a fixed-bed catalytic reactor with monolithic oxides of vanadium and tungsten supported on titanium oxide (V2O5–WO3/TiO2) catalysts under conditions simulating the cooling of waste incineration flue g...

  2. Mercury removal from aqueous solution and flue gas by adsorption on activated carbon fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabais, João Valente; Carrott, P. J. M.; Carrott, M. M. L. Ribeiro; Belchior, Marisa; Boavida, Dulce; Diall, Tatiana; Gulyurtlu, Ibrahim

    2006-06-01

    The use of two activated carbon fibres, one laboratorial sample prepared from a commercial acrylic textile fibre and one commercial sample of Kynol ®, as prepared/received and modified by reaction with powdered sulfur and H 2S gas in order to increase the sulfur content were studied for the removal of mercury from aqueous solution and from flue gases from a fluidized bed combustor. The sulfur introduced ranged from 1 to 6 wt.% depending on the method used. The most important parameter for the mercury uptake is the type of sulfur introduced rather than the total amount and it was found that the H 2S treatment of ACF leads to samples with the highest mercury uptake, despite the lower sulfur amount introduced. The modified samples by both methods can remove HgCl 2 from aqueous solutions at pH 6 within the range 290-710 mg/g (ACF) which can be favourably compared with other studies already published. The use of a filter made with an activated carbon fibre modified by powdered sulfur totally removed the mercury species present in the flue gases produced by combustion of fossil fuel.

  3. Experimental Study on Demercurization Performance of Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO, Jingjing; YANG, Linjun; YAN, Jinpei

    2009-01-01

    The demercurization performance of wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) system was investigated by measuring mercury concentrations at the inlet and outlet of WFGD system with a QM201H mercury analyzer. The selected desulfurizer included NH_3·H_2O, NaOH, Na_2CO_3, Ca(OH)_2 and CaCO_3. The influences of adding oxidant and coagulant such as KMnO_4, Fenton reagent, K_2S_2O_8/CuSO_4 and Na_2S into desulfurization solutions were also studied.The results show that elemental mercury is the main component of gaseous mercury in coal-fired flue gas, and the proportion of oxidized mercury is less than 36%. Oxidized mercury could be removed by WFGD system efficiently,and the removal efficiency could amount to 81.1%-92.6%. However, the concentration of elemental mercury slightly increased at the outlet of WFGD as a result of its insolubility and re-emission. Therefore, the removal efficiency of gaseous mercury is only 13.3%-18.3%. The mercury removal efficiency of WFGD system increased with increasing the liquid-gas ratio. In addition, adding KMnO_4, Fenton reagent, K_2S_2O_8/CuSO_4 and Na_2S into desulfurization solutions could increase the mercury removal efficiency obviously. Various additives have different effects, and Na_2S is demonstrated to be the most efficient, in which a mercury removal efficiency of 67.2% can be reached.

  4. Laboratory Experiments on Environmental Friendly Means to Improve Coalbed Methane Production by Carbon Dioxide/Flue Gas Injection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazumder, S.; Wolf, K.H.A.A.; Van Hemert, P.; Busch, A.

    2008-01-01

    Scaled in situ laboratory core flooding experiments with CO2, N2 and flue gas were carried out on coal in an experimental high P,T device. These experiments will be able to give an insight into the design of the injection system, management, control of the operations and the efficiency of an ECBM pr

  5. Simultaneous microalgal biomass production and CO2 fixation by cultivating Chlorella sp. GD with aquaculture wastewater and boiler flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chiu-Mei; Jian, Jhong-Fu; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Chang, Yu-Bin; Wan, Xin-Hua; Lai, Jinn-Tsyy; Chang, Jo-Shu; Lin, Chih-Sheng

    2016-12-01

    A microalgal strain, Chlorella sp. GD, cultivated in aquaculture wastewater (AW) aerated with boiler flue gas, was investigated. When AW from a grouper fish farm was supplemented with additional nutrients, the microalgal biomass productivity after 7days of culture was 0.794gL(-1)d(-1). CO2 fixation efficiencies of the microalgal strains aerated with 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3vvm of boiler flue gas (containing approximately 8% CO2) were 53, 51, 38, and 30%, respectively. When the microalgal strain was cultured with boiler flue gas in nutrient-added AW, biomass productivity increased to 0.892gL(-1)d(-1). In semi-continuous cultures, average biomass productivities of the microalgal strain in 2-day, 3-day, and 4-day replacement cultures were 1.296, 0.985, and 0.944gL(-1)d(-1), respectively. These results demonstrate the potential of using Chlorella sp. GD cultivations in AW aerated with boiler flue gas for reusing water resources, reducing CO2 emission, and producing microalgal biomass.

  6. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth E. Baldrey

    2002-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, performance testing of flue gas conditioning was underway at the PacifiCorp Jim Bridger Power Plant. The product tested, ADA-43, was a combination resistivity modifier with cohesivity polymers. This represents the first long-term full-scale testing of this class of products. Modifications to the flue gas conditioning system at Jim Bridger, including development of alternate injection lances, was also undertaken to improve chemical spray distribution and to avoid spray deposition to duct interior surfaces. Also in this quarter, a firm commitment was received for another long-term test of the cohesivity additives. This plant fires a bituminous coal and has opacity and particulate emissions performance issues related to fly ash re-entrainment. Ammonia conditioning is employed here on one unit, but there is interest in liquid cohesivity additives as a safer alternative.

  7. The combined effect of thermodynamic promoters tetrahydrofuran and cyclopentane on the kinetics of flue gas hydrate formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daraboina, Nagu; von Solms, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) capture through hydrate crystallization is a promising method among the new approaches for mitigating carbon emissions into the atmosphere. In this work, we investigate a combination of tetrahydrofuran (THF) and cyclopentane (CP) on the kinetics of flue gas (CO2:20 mol %/N2) ...

  8. Mercury emission and plant uptake of trace elements during early stage of soil amendment using flue gas desulfurization materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A pilot-scale field study was carried out to investigate the distribution of Hg and other selected elements in the three potential mitigation pathways, i.e., emission to ambient air, uptake by surface vegetation (i.e., grass), and rainfall infiltration, after flue gas desulfurization (FGD) material ...

  9. Three annual flue gas desulfurization gypsum applications on macronutrient and micronutrient losses in runoff from bermudagrass fertilized with poultry litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considerable amounts of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum are being produced as a by-product of generating electricity. As a result, beneficial reuse of this by-product is being sought to reduce landfilling and its associated cost. The use of this byproduct as a low-cost soil amendment for suppl...

  10. Regenerable sorbents for mercury capture in simulated coal combustion flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Jorge; López-Antón, M Antonia; Díaz-Somoano, Mercedes; García, Roberto; Martínez-Tarazona, M Rosa

    2013-09-15

    This work demonstrates that regenerable sorbents containing nano-particles of gold dispersed on an activated carbon are efficient and long-life materials for capturing mercury species from coal combustion flue gases. These sorbents can be used in such a way that the high investment entailed in their preparation will be compensated for by the recovery of all valuable materials. The characteristics of the support and dispersion of gold in the carbon surface influence the efficiency and lifetime of the sorbents. The main factor that determines the retention of mercury and the regeneration of the sorbent is the presence of reactive gases that enhance mercury retention capacity. The capture of mercury is a consequence of two mechanisms: (i) the retention of elemental mercury by amalgamation with gold and (ii) the retention of oxidized mercury on the activated carbon support. These sorbents were specifically designed for retaining the mercury remaining in gas phase after the desulfurization units in coal power plants.

  11. Research progress of SO2 removal from flue gas by functionalized ionic liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinle SHI

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Functionalized ionic liquids are receiving increasing attention in the field of flue gas desulfurization due to its unique physical and chemical properties. Research progress on the field of SO2 removal by ionic liquids (ILs including guanidinium-based, amines-based and ether-based ILs is summarized. Industrial application of polymerization ILs and loaded ILs to desulfurization is reviewed. Relevant suggestions on industrial application of ionic liquids based on fundamental research are put forward. The first thing is to develop functional ionic liquid for desulfurization,and thus investigate and propose its desulfurization mechanism and model; the second is to carry out the research work on immobilized ionic liquid, and explore its recycling properties, thus prolonging its service life.

  12. Amino acid salt solutions as solvents in CO2 capture from flue gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Benedicte Mai; Thomsen, Kaj; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    solutions is their ability to form solid precipitates upon the absorption of CO2. The occurrence of crystallization offers the possibility of increasing the CO2 loading capacity of the solvent. However, precipitation can also have negative effect on the CO2 capture process. The chemical nature of the solid...... loading capacity of aqueous solutions of the potassium salts of selected amino-acids (glycine, taurine, lysine proline, and glutamic acid) were examined, and the relation between the initial amino acid salt concentration and precipitation ability of each solution were determined. Experiments were...... of glycine, taurine, and lysine, while in the case of proline, and glutamic acid, the precipitate was found to be bicarbonate. These results give an important contribution to further understanding the potential of amino acid salt solutions in CO2 capture from flue gas....

  13. Ni supported on activated carbon as catalyst for flue gas desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A series of Ni supported on activated carbon are prepared by excessive impregnation and the desulfurization activity is investigated. It has been shown that the activated carbon-supported Ni is an efficient solid catalyst for flue gas desulfurization. The activated carbon treated by HNO3 exhibits high desulfurization activity, and different amounts of loaded-Ni on activated carbon significantly influence the desulfurization activity. The catalysts are studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results of XRD and XPS indicate that the activated carbon treated by HNO3 can increase oxygen-containing functional groups. Ni on activated carbon after calcination at 800 °C shows major Ni phase and minor NiO phase, and with increasing Ni content on activated carbon, Ni phase increases and affects the desulfurization activity of the catalyst, which proves that Ni is the main active phase.

  14. Investigation of the gypsum quality at three full-scale wet flue gas desulphurisation plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Brian Brun; Kiil, Søren; Johnsson, Jan Erik

    2011-01-01

    In the present study the gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) quality at three full-scale wet flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) plants and a pilot plant were examined and compared. Gypsum quality can be expressed in terms of moisture content (particle size and morphology dependent) and the concentration of residual...... or accumulation of fly ash and impurities from the sorbent. The crystal morphology obtained in the pilot plant was columnar with distinct crystal faces as opposed to the rounded shapes found at the full-scale plants. All the investigated full-scale plants consistently produced high quality gypsum (High purity......, low moisture content and low impurity content). An episode concerning a sudden deterioration in the gypsum dewatering properties was furthermore investigated, and a change in crystal morphology, as well as an increased impurity content (aluminium, iron and fluoride), was detected....

  15. Optimized CO2-flue gas separation model for a coal fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arachchige, Udara S.P.R. [Telemark University College, Porsgrunn (Norway); Mohsin, Muhammad [Telemark University College, Porsgrunn (Norway); Melaaen, Morten C. [Telemark University College, Porsgrunn (Norway); Tel-Tek, Porsgrunn (Norway)

    2013-07-01

    The detailed description of the CO2 removal process using mono-ethylamine (MEA) as a solvent for coal-fired power plant is present in this paper. The rate based Electrolyte NRTL activity coefficient model was used in the Aspen Plus. The complete removal process with re-circulating solvent back to the absorber was implemented with the sequential modular method in Aspen Plus. The most significant cost related to CO2 capture is the energy requirement for re-generating solvent, i.e. re-boiler duty. Parameters’ effects on re-boiler duty were studied, resulting decreased re-boiler duty with the packing height and absorber packing diameter, absorber pressure, solvent temperature, stripper packing height and diameter. On the other hand, with the flue gas temperature, re-boiler duty is increased. The temperature profiles and CO2 loading profiles were used to check the model behavior.

  16. Removal of Nox from flue gas with radical oxidation combined with chemical scrubber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN He; GAO Xiang; LUO Zhong-yang; GUAN Shi-pian; CEN Kefa; HUANG Zhen

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, removal of NOx(namely DeNOx) from flue gas by radical injection combined with NaOH solution(26% by weight of NaOH in water) scrubbing was investigated. The experimental results showed that the steady streamer corona occurs through adjusting the flow rate of the oxygen fed into the nozzles electrode. The vapor in the oxygen has influence on the V-I characteristics of corona discharge. Both HNO2 and HNO3 come into being in the plasma reactor and the DeNOx efficiency in the plasma reactor is more than 60%. The overall DeNOx efficiency of the whole system reaches 81.7% when the NaOH solution scrubbing is collaborated.

  17. Industrial applications of electron beam flue gas treatment—From laboratory to the practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G.

    2007-08-01

    The electron beam technology for flue gas treatment (EBFGT) has been developed in Japan in the early 1980s. Later on, this process was investigated in pilot scale in the USA, Germany, Japan, Poland, Bulgaria and China. The new engineering and process solutions have been developed during the past two decades. Finally industrial plants have been constructed in Poland and China. The high efficiency of SO x and NO x removal was achieved (up to 95% for SO x and up to 70% for NO x) and by-product is a high quality fertilizer. Since the power of accelerators applied in industrial installation is over 1 MW and requested operational availability of the plant is equal to 8500 h in year, it is a new challenge for radiation processing applications.

  18. Pure Air`s advanced flue gas desulfurization clean coal project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J.R. [Pure Air Bailly Station, Chesterton, IN (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Pure Air`s Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Clean Coal Project successfully completed four and a half years of operation in December 1996 at Northern Indiana Public Service Company`s (NIPSCO) Bailly Generating Station. This project received a $60 million grant from the DOE Clean Coal II program. Included in this was a three year DOE demonstration period. The facility was designed, built and is owned and operated by Pure Air of Allentown, Pennsylvania, through its project company, Pure Air on the Lake, Limited Partnership. The project met or exceeded all performance criteria. It has averaged 95.3% SO{sub 2} removal, 99.9% availability and produced high quality commercial gypsum during this four and a half year period. It demonstrated many advanced technology features including a single, large absorber module serving two boilers, a wastewater evaporation system, an air rotary sparger for oxidation, and a new technology for agglomerating gypsum.

  19. Performance of a Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization Pilot Plant under Oxy-Fuel Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Brian Brun; Fogh, Folmer; Knudsen, Niels Ole

    2011-01-01

    vol % CO2, at a holding tank pH 5.4, reduced the limestone dissolution rate significantly and thereby increased the residual, particulate limestone concentration in the gypsum slurry from 3.2 to 5.0 g/L slurry relative to a base-case (air-firing) experiment with a flue gas CO2 concentration around 7......, but an additional increase in desulfurization degree, from 94 to 97%, was obtained. Using a holding tank pH 5.0 (no adipic acid) returned both parameters to the levels observed in the base-case experiment.......Oxy-fuel firing is a promising technology that should enable the capture and storage of anthropogenic CO2 emissions from large stationary sources such as power plants and heavy industry. However, this new technology has a high energy demand for air separation and CO2 compression and storage...

  20. Controllability analysis and decentralized control of a wet limestone flue gas desulfurization plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perales, A.L.V.; Ortiz, F.J.G.; Ollero, P.; Gil, F.M. [University of Seville, Seville (Spain)

    2008-12-15

    Presently, decentralized feedback control is the only control strategy used in wet limestone flue gas desulfurization (WLFGD) plants. Proper tuning of this control strategy is becoming an important issue in WLFGD plants because more stringent SO{sub 2} regulations have come into force recently. Controllability analysis is a highly valuable tool for proper design of control systems, but it has not been applied to WLFGD plants so far. In this paper a decentralized control strategy is designed and applied to a WLFGD pilot plant taking into account the conclusions of a controllability analysis. The results reveal that good SO{sub 2} control in WLFGD plants can be achieved mainly because the main disturbance of the process is well-aligned with the plant and interactions between control loops are beneficial to SO{sub 2} control.

  1. Optimized CO2-flue gas separation model for a coal fired power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udara S. P. R. Arachchige, Muhammad Mohsin, Morten C. Melaaen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The detailed description of the CO2 removal process using mono-ethylamine (MEA as a solvent for coal-fired power plant is present in this paper. The rate based Electrolyte NRTL activity coefficient model was used in the Aspen Plus. The complete removal process with re-circulating solvent back to the absorber was implemented with the sequential modular method in Aspen Plus. The most significant cost related to CO2 capture is the energy requirement for re-generating solvent, i.e. re-boiler duty. Parameters’ effects on re-boiler duty were studied, resulting decreased re-boiler duty with the packing height and absorber packing diameter, absorber pressure, solvent temperature, stripper packing height and diameter. On the other hand, with the flue gas temperature, re-boiler duty is increased. The temperature profiles and CO2 loading profiles were used to check the model behavior.

  2. 90`s for the 90`s: High efficiency dry flue gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, T.E.; Buschmann, J.C. [ABB Environmental Systems, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The promulgation of the Clean Air Act Amendments with additional State regulation have pushed the requirements for SO{sub 2} reduction on coal fired boiler emissions to 90% and above. The development and application of spray dryer reactors in the 1990`s to meet these increasingly difficult requirements has continued. This paper describes two spray dryer absorption processes which are capable of high efficiency. A cost benefit comparison between the two is included. Specific design features at several plants are presented. Full scale application and operation of spray dryer reactors with fabric filters on coal fired boilers has demonstrated that the dry flue gas desulfurization (DFGD) process is a proven technology for high SO{sub 2} removal. Low capital cost coupled with high SO{sub 2} removal makes the DFGD process attractive, competitive and proven for meeting the performance requirements in the 1990`s.

  3. INTERACTION BETWEEN SO2 FROM FLUE GAS AND SORBENT PARTICLES IN DRY FGD PROCESSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haiying; Qi; Changfu; You; Xuchang; Xu

    2005-01-01

    Among the technologies to control SO2 emission from coal-fired boilers, the dry flue gas desulphurization (FGD) method,with appropriate modifications, has been identified as a candidate for realizing high SO2 removal efficiency to meet both technical and economic requirements, and for making the best quality byproduct gypsum as a useful additive for improving alkali soil.Among the possible modifications two major factors have been selected for study:(1) favorable chemical reaction kinetics at elevated temperatures and the sorbent characteristics;(2) enhanced diffusion of SO2 to the surface and within the pores of sorbent particles that are closely related to gas-solid two-phase flow patterns caused by flue gas and sorbent particles in the reactor.To achieve an ideal pore structure, a sorbent was prepared through hydration reaction by mixing lime and fly ash collected from bag house of power plants to form a slurry, which was first dewatered and then dried. The dry sorbent was found capable of rapid conversion of 70% of its calcium content at 700 ℃, reaching a desulphurization efficiency of over 90% at a Ca/S ratio of 1.3.Experiments confirmed that the diffusion effect of SO2 is an important factor and that gas-solid two-phase flow plays a key role to mixing and contact between SO2 and sorbent particles. For designing the FDG reactor, a new theoretical drag model was developed by combination of CFD with the Energy Minimization Multi-Scale (EMMS) theory for dense fluidization systems. This new drag model was first verified by comparing calculated and measured drag values, and was then implemented in simulation of gas-solid two-phase flow in two circulating fluidized beds with different sizes and flow parameters. One riser has diameter and height of 0.15 m×3 m and another one 0.2 m×14.2 m. Their superficial gas velocities The results show that not only the static pressure drop along the riser height, but also radial distributions of particle volume fraction have

  4. Removal of mercury from flue gas using Ca-based sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, J.L.; Luo, Y.Y.; Xu, Z.; Zhong, Y.J. [Zhejiang Univ. of Technology, Hangzhou (China). MOE Key Laboratory of Mechanical Manufacture and Automation; Zhou, J.S. [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou, (China). Inst. of Thermal Power Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization

    2008-07-01

    Mercury (Hg) emissions from power plants raise environmental concerns, particularly in China's coal-fired power plants. Mercury is present mainly in the vapor form (Hg0) and cannot be captured effectively by existing particulate removal systems because of its high volatility and insolubility in water. It is therefore necessary to design and manufacture more cost-effective mercury sorbents to replace conventional sorbents already in use for mercury control. This paper reported on a study in which the characteristics of mercury sorption by 3 kinds of calcium (Ca)based sorbents were studied, notably lime, hydrated lime and a mixture of fly ash and hydrated lime (MFC). Adsorption experiments were performed in a bench-scale fixed-bed mercury sorption facility with a mercury permeation tube embedded in an isothermal water bath and simulated flue gas compositions. The effects of sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) on adsorption were investigated along with the adsorption mechanism. The study showed that the performance of Ca-based sorbents was better in the presence of SO{sub 2} than the baseline conditions. In the absence SO{sub 2}, the Hg0 adsorption effectiveness of the 3 kinds of Ca-based sorbents was lower. In the presence of SO{sub 2}, adsorption efficiency improved by 15 to 20 per cent and the adsorption capacity was more than 50 per cent at 30 minutes of exposure of sorbents to the flue gas. Higher temperature was found to be beneficial to the adsorption process. SO{sub 2} reacted with the Ca-based sorbents and produced active adsorption sites on the surface of the sorbents, thus oxidating Hg0 to Hg2+ and improving capture efficiency by chemisorption. 14 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

  5. Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) demonstration project: Volume 2, Project performance and economics. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-30

    The project objective is to demonstrate removal of 90--95% or more of the SO{sub 2} at approximately one-half the cost of conventional scrubbing technology; and to demonstrate significant reduction of space requirements. In this project, Pure Air has built a single SO{sub 2} absorber for a 528-MWe power plant. The absorber performs three functions in a single vessel: prequencher, absorber, and oxidation of sludge to gypsum. Additionally, the absorber is of a co- current design, in which the flue gas and scrubbing slurry move in the same direction and at a relatively high velocity compared to conventional scrubbers. These features all combine to yield a state- of-the-art SO{sub 2} absorber that is more compact and less expensive than conventional scrubbers. The project incorporated a number of technical features including the injection of pulverized limestone directly into the absorber, a device called an air rotary sparger located within the base of the absorber, and a novel wastewater evaporation system. The air rotary sparger combines the functions of agitation and air distribution into one piece of equipment to facilitate the oxidation of calcium sulfite to gypsum. Additionally, wastewater treatment is being demonstrated to minimize water disposal problems inherent in many high-chloride coals. Bituminous coals primarily from the Indiana, Illinois coal basin containing 2--4.5% sulfur were tested during the demonstration. The Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) process has demonstrated removal of 95% or more of the SO{sub 2} while providing a commercial gypsum by-product in lieu of solid waste. A portion of the commercial gypsum is being agglomerated into a product known as PowerChip{reg_sign} gypsum which exhibits improved physical properties, easier flowability and more user friendly handling characteristics to enhance its transportation and marketability to gypsum end-users.

  6. Pure Air`s Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization Clean Coal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J.R. [Pure Air Bailly Station, Chesterton, IN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Pure Air`s Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Clean Coal Project successfully completed four and a half years of operation in December 1996 at Northern Indiana Public Service Company`s (NIPSCO) Bailly Generation Station. Included in this was a three year DOE demonstration period. The project was built by a joint venture company of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries America, Inc., utilizing Mitsubishi`s wet limestone flue gas desulfurization technology. The project met or exceeded all performance criteria. It has averaged 95.3% SO{sub 2} removal, 99.9% availability and produced 936,000 metric tons of high quality commercial gypsum during this four and a half year period. It demonstrated many advanced technology features including a single, large absorber module serving two boilers, a wastewater evaporation system, an air rotary sparger for oxidation, and a new technology for agglomerating gypsum. The AFGD system was designed, built, owned and operated by Pure Air and will continue to serve NIPSCO`s Bailly Station for at least another 15{1/2} years under an Own and Operate contract. The project enabled NIPSCO to cost effectively achieve full system wide compliance with the Phase 2 emission requirements for SO{sub 2} of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 almost eight years before the target date. The project was the recipient of the Outstanding Engineering Achievement Award from the National Society of Professional Engineers in 1993 and the 1993 Powerplant Award from Power magazine. The data presented in this paper are based on performance during the first three years of operation.

  7. SOx-NOx-Rox Box{trademark} flue gas clean-up demonstration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The SNRB{trademark} Flue Gas Cleanup Demonstration Project was cooperatively funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO), B&W, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Ohio Edison, Norton Chemical Process Products Company and the 3M Company. The SNRB{trademark} technology evolved from the bench and laboratory pilot scale to be successfully demonstrated at the 5-MWe field scale. Development of the SNRB{trademark} process at B&W began with pilot testing of high-temperature dry sorbent injection for SO{sub 2} removal in the 1960`s. Integration of NO{sub x} reduction was evaluated in the 1970`s. Pilot work in the 1980`s focused on evaluation of various NO{sub x} reduction catalysts, SO{sub 2} sorbents and integration of the catalyst with the baghouse. This early development work led to the issuance of two US process patents to B&W - No. 4,309,386 and No. 4,793,981. An additional patent application for improvements to the process is pending. The OCDO was instrumental in working with B&W to develop the process to the point where a larger scale demonstration of the technology was feasible. This report represents the completion of Milestone M14 as specified in the Work Plan. B&W tested the SNRB{trademark} pollution control system at a 5-MWe demonstration facility at Ohio Edison`s R. E. Burger Plant located near Shadyside, Ohio. The design and operation were influenced by the results from laboratory pilot testing at B&W`s Alliance Research Center. The intent was to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of the SNRB{trademark} process. The SNRB{trademark} facility treated a 30,000 ACFM flue gas slipstream from Boiler No. 8. Operation of the facility began in May 1992 and was completed in May 1993.

  8. Evaluation of Synthetic Gypsum Recovered via Wet Flue-Gas Desulfurization from Electric Power Plants for Use in Foundries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Biernacki

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates possible use of waste gypsum (synthetic, recovered via flue-gas desulfurization from coal-fired electric powerplants, in foundries. Energy sector, which in Eastern Europe is mostly composed from coal-fired electric power plants, is one of the largestproducers of sulfur dioxide (SO2.In order to protect the environment and reduce the amount of pollution flue-gas desulfurization (FGD is used to remove SO2 fromexhaust flue gases of fossil-fuel power plants. As a result of this process gypsum waste is produced that can be used in practicalapplications.Strength and permeability tests have been made and also in-depth analysis of energy consumption of production process to investigateways of preparing the synthetic gypsum for casting moulds application. This paper also assesses the chemical composition, strength andpermeability of moulds made with synthetic gypsum, in comparison with moulds made with traditional GoldStar XL gypsum and withceramic molds. Moreover examination of structure of synthetic gypsum, the investigations on derivatograph and calculations of energyconsumption during production process of synthetic gypsum in wet flue-gas desulfurization were made.After analysis of gathered data it’s possible to conclude that synthetic gypsum can be used as a material for casting mould. There is nosignificant decrease in key properties, and on the other hand there is many additional benefits including low energy consumption,decreased cost, and decreased environmental impact.

  9. Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carl Richardson; Katherine Dombrowski; Douglas Orr

    2006-12-31

    This project Final Report is submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as part of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-03NT41987, 'Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas.' Sorbent injection technology is targeted as the primary mercury control process on plants burning low/medium sulfur bituminous coals equipped with ESP and ESP/FGD systems. About 70% of the ESPs used in the utility industry have SCAs less than 300 ft2/1000 acfm. Prior to this test program, previous sorbent injection tests had focused on large-SCA ESPs. This DOE-NETL program was designed to generate data to evaluate the performance and economic feasibility of sorbent injection for mercury control at power plants that fire bituminous coal and are configured with small-sized electrostatic precipitators and/or an ESP-flue gas desulfurization (FGD) configuration. EPRI and Southern Company were co-funders for the test program. Southern Company and Reliant Energy provided host sites for testing and technical input to the project. URS Group was the prime contractor to NETL. ADA-ES and Apogee Scientific Inc. were sub-contractors to URS and was responsible for all aspects of the sorbent injection systems design, installation and operation at the different host sites. Full-scale sorbent injection for mercury control was evaluated at three sites: Georgia Power's Plant Yates Units 1 and 2 [Georgia Power is a subsidiary of the Southern Company] and Reliant Energy's Shawville Unit 3. Georgia Power's Plant Yates Unit 1 has an existing small-SCA cold-side ESP followed by a Chiyoda CT-121 wet scrubber. Yates Unit 2 is also equipped with a small-SCA ESP and a dual flue gas conditioning system. Unit 2 has no SO2 control system. Shawville Unit 3 is equipped with two small-SCA cold-side ESPs operated in series. All ESP systems tested in this program had SCAs less than 250 ft2/1000 acfm. Short-term parametric tests were conducted on Yates

  10. Non-catalytic recuperative reformer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khinkis, Mark J.; Kozlov, Aleksandr P.; Kurek, Harry

    2015-12-22

    A non-catalytic recuperative reformer has a flue gas flow path for conducting hot flue gas from a thermal process and a reforming mixture flow path for conducting a reforming mixture. At least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path is embedded in the flue gas flow path to permit heat transfer from the hot flue gas to the reforming mixture. The reforming mixture flow path contains substantially no material commonly used as a catalyst for reforming hydrocarbon fuel (e.g., nickel oxide, platinum group elements or rhenium), but instead the reforming mixture is reformed into a higher calorific fuel via reactions due to the heat transfer and residence time. In a preferred embodiment, extended surfaces of metal material such as stainless steel or metal alloy that are high in nickel content are included within at least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path.

  11. Oxidation of elemental mercury by modified spent TiO2-based SCR-DeNOx catalysts in simulated coal-fired flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lingkui; Li, Caiting; Zhang, Xunan; Zeng, Guangming; Zhang, Jie; Xie, Yin'e

    2016-01-01

    In order to reduce the costs, the recycle of spent TiO2-based SCR-DeNOx catalysts were employed as a potential catalytic support material for elemental mercury (Hg(0)) oxidation in simulated coal-fired flue gas. The catalytic mechanism for simultaneous removal of Hg(0) and NO was also investigated. The catalysts were characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) method. Results indicated that spent TiO2-based SCR-DeNOx catalyst supported Ce-Mn mixed oxides catalyst (CeMn/SCR1) was highly active for Hg(0) oxidation at low temperatures. The Ce1.00Mn/SCR1 performed the best catalytic activities, and approximately 92.80% mercury oxidation efficiency was obtained at 150 °C. The inhibition effect of NH3 on Hg(0) oxidation was confirmed in that NH3 consumed the surface oxygen. Moreover, H2O inhibited Hg(0) oxidation while SO2 had a promotional effect with the aid of O2. The XPS results illustrated that the surface oxygen was responsible for Hg(0) oxidation and NO conversion. Besides, the Hg(0) oxidation and NO conversion were thought to be aided by synergistic effect between the manganese and cerium oxides.

  12. Impact of individual acid flue gas components on mercury capture by heat-treated activated carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-ming ZHENG; Jin-song ZHOU; Zhong-yang LUO; Ke-fa CEN

    2012-01-01

    Elemental mercury capture on heat-treated activated carbon (TAC) was studied using a laboratory-scale fixed bed reactor.The capability of TAC to perform Hg0 capture under both N2 and baseline gas atmospheres was studied and the effects of common acid gas constituents were evaluated individually to avoid complications resulting from the coexistence of multiple components.The results suggest that surface functional groups (SFGs) on activated carbon (AC) are vital to Hg0 capture in the absence of acid gases.Meanwhile,the presence of acid gas components coupled with defective graphitic lattices on TAC plays an important role in effective Hg0 capture.The presence of HCl,NO2,and NO individually in basic gases markedly enhances Hg0 capture on TAC due to the heterogeneous oxidation of Hg0 on acidic sites created on the carbon surface and catalysis by the defective graphitic lattices on TAC.Similarly,the presence of SO2 improves Hg0 capture by about 20%.This improvement likely results from the deposition of sulfur groups on the AC surface and oxidation of the elemental mercury by SO2 due to catalysis on the carbon surface.Furthermore,O2 exhibits a synergistic effect on Hg0 oxidation and capture when acid gases are present in the flue gases.

  13. Savings on natural gas consumption by doubling thermal efficiencies of balanced-flue space heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juanico, Luis E. [Conicet, and Centro Atomico Bariloche e Instituto Balseiro, Av. Bustillo 9500, 8400 Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina); Gonzalez, Alejandro D. [Grupo de Estudios Ambientales, Instituto de Investigaciones en Biodiversidad y Medio Ambiente (Inibioma-Conicet), 8400 Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina)

    2008-07-01

    Natural gas is a relatively clean fossil fuel for space heating. However, when it is not used efficiently high consumption can become an environmental problem. In Argentina, individual balanced-flue space heaters are the most extensively used in temperate and cold regions. This furnace is a simple device with a burner set into a metal chamber, separated from the indoor ambient by an enclosing cabinet, and both inlet and outgas chimneys are connected to the outdoor ambient. In previous studies, we measured the performance of these commercial devices, and found very low thermal efficiency (in the range of 39-63% depending on the chimney configuration). The extensive use of these devices is possible due to the availability of unlimited amount of subsidised natural gas to households and businesses. In the present work, we developed a prototype with simple and low cost modifications made on commercial models, and measured the improvements on the thermal efficiency. Findings showed better infrared radiation, enhanced indoor air convection, and passive chimney flow regulation leading to thermal efficiency in the range of 75-85%. These values represent an improvement of 100% when compared to marketed models, and hence, the specific cost of the heater per unit of useful heating power delivered was actually reduced. Considering the large market presence of these furnaces in both residential and business sectors in Argentina, the potential benefits related to gas consumption and environmental emissions are very significant. (author)

  14. A study on removal of elemental mercury in flue gas using fenton solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yangxian; Wang, Yan; Wang, Qian; Pan, Jianfeng [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013 (China); Zhang, Yongchun [Jiangsu Province Special Equipment Safety Supervision Inspection Institute (Branch of Wuxi), Wuxi 214000 (China); Zhou, Jianfei [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013 (China); Zhang, Jun [Key Laboratory of Energy Thermal Conversion and Control of Ministry of Education, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • A novel technique on oxidation of Hg{sup 0} using Fenton was proposed. • The effects of several process parameters on Hg{sup 0} removal were studied. • Products and ·OH in solution were detected. • Reaction mechanism of Hg{sup 0} removal was studied. • Simultaneous removal of Hg{sup 0}, NO and SO{sub 2} was also studied. - Abstract: A novel technique on oxidation-separation of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas using Fenton solution in a bubbling reactor was proposed. The effects of several process parameters (H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration, Hg{sup 0} inlet concentration, Fe{sup 2+} concentration, solution temperature, solution pH, gas flow) and several flue gas components (NO, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, inorganic ions and particulate matters on Hg{sup 0} removal were studied. The results indicate that H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration, Fe{sup 2+} concentration, solution pH and gas flow have great effects on Hg{sup 0} removal. Solution temperature, Hg{sup 0}, NO, SO{sub 2}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} and HCO{sub 3}{sup −} concentrations also have significant effects on Hg{sup 0} removal. However, Cl{sup −}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}, NO{sub 3}{sup −}, O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} concentrations only have slight effects on Hg{sup 0} removal. Furthermore, reaction mechanism of Hg{sup 0} removal and simultaneous removal process of Hg{sup 0}, NO and SO{sub 2} were also studied. Hg{sup 0} is removed by oxidation of ·OH and oxidation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The simultaneous removal efficiencies of 100% for SO{sub 2}, 100% for Hg{sup 0} and 88.3% for NO were obtained under optimal test conditions. The results demonstrated the feasibility of Hg{sup 0} removal and simultaneous removal of Hg{sup 0}, SO{sub 2} and NO using Fenton solution in a bubbling reactor.

  15. Flue gas desulfurization products as sulfur sources for alfalfa and soybean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, L.M.; Dick, W.A.; Nelson, S. [Ohio State University, Wooster, OH (US). School of Natural Resources

    2005-02-01

    Sulfur deficiencies in soil are expected to increase due to growth of high-yielding crop varieties, use of S-free fertilizers, and removal of S from industrial emissions. Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) products, created when coal is burned and SO{sub 2} is removed from the flue gases, may serve as efficient S sources. However, there are few reports on their use for the enhancement of crop growth. Agricultural gypsum and two types of FGD products, that contain either vermiculite or perlite, were applied at 0, 16, and 67 kg S ha{sup -1} to an agricultural soil (Wooster silt loam, Typic Fragiudalf). Dry weight of a new planting of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) was increased up to 40% by the treatments of FGD products or gypsum compared with the untreated control. Gypsum and FGD products were also applied at 0, 8,16, and 24 kg S ha{sup -1} to five established alfalfa stands in different Ohio regions. Mean alfalfa yield was significantly (P {le} 0.05) increased by approximately 5.0% in 2001 and 6.0% in 2002 with the S treatments of FGD products or gypsum compared with the untreated control. Alfalfa yields for FGD products and gypsum treatments were similar. A slight positive yield response was observed for soybean (Glycine max L.) when soils were treated with S-containing materials. Soil and plant analyses were made to assess potential adverse environmental impacts and none were observed. Thus, these FGD products can be safely applied to agricultural soils as S sources and can improve alfalfa yields in S-deficient soils.

  16. A plug flow model for chemical reactions and aerosol nucleation and growth in an alkali-containing flue gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, K. A.; Livbjerg, Hans

    2000-01-01

    multicomponent growth models are treated. The local gas phase composition is determined from a gas phase chemical equilibrium calculation combined with finite reaction rate kinetics for slower reactions. The model is useful in the analysis of boiler operation with respect to the formation of particles, HCl, SO2......The paper presents a numerical model for the simulation of gas to particle conversion and the chemical changes during cooling of a flue gas from the combustion of fuels rich in volatile alkali species. For the homogeneous nucleation of alkali species the model uses the classical theory modified...

  17. Handbook - Status assessment of polymeric materials in flue gas cleaning systems; Handbok - Statusbedoemning av polymera material i roekgassystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roemhild, Stefanie

    2011-01-15

    In today's flue gas cleaning systems with advanced energy recovery systems and improved flue gas cleaning, the use of polymeric materials has continuously increased in applications where the flue gas environment is to corrosive to be handled with metallic materials. Typical polymeric materials used are fibre reinforced plastics (FRP), glassflake-filled linings, polypropylene (PP) and fluoropolymers. Demands on increased profitability and efficiency at incineration plants involve that also polymeric materials have to face more demanding environments with increased temperature, temperature changes, changes in fuel composition and therewith fluegas composition and longer service intervals. The knowledge on how polymeric materials perform in general and how these service conditions influence them, is, however, poor and continuous status assessment is therefore necessary. The overall aim of this project has been to assess simple techniques for status assessment of polymeric materials in flue gas cleaning equipment and to perform an inventory of present experience and knowledge on the use of polymeric materials. The project consisted of an inventory of present experience, analysis of material from shut-down plants and plants still in service, field testing in a plant adding sulphur during combustion and the assessment of different non-destructive testing (NDT) methods by laboratory experiments. The results of the project are summarised in the form of a handbook which in the first place addresses plant owners and maintenance staff at incineration plants and within the pulp and paper industry. In the introductory chapter typical polymeric materials (FRP, flake linings, PP and fluoropolymers) used in flue gas cleaning equipment are described as well as the occurring corrosion mechanisms. The inventory of process equipment is divided into sections about scrubbers, flue gas ducts, stacks, internals and other equipment such as storage tanks. Typical damages are

  18. Retention of arsenic and selenium compounds using limestone in a coal gasification flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Somoano, Mercedes; Martinez-Tarazona, M Rosa

    2004-02-01

    Volatile arsenic and selenium compounds present in coals may cause environmental problems during coal combustion and gasification. A possible way to avoid such problems may be the use of solid sorbents capable of retaining these elements from flue gases in gas cleaning systems. Lime and limestone are materials that are extensively employed for the capture of sulfur during coal processing. Moreover, they have also proven to have good retention characteristics for arsenic and selenium during combustion. The aim of this work was to ascertain whether this sorbent is also useful for retaining arsenic and selenium species in gases produced in coal gasification. The study was carried out in a laboratory-scale reactor in which the sorbent was employed as a fixed bed, using synthetic gas mixtures. In these conditions, retention capacities for arsenic may reach 17 mg g(-1) in a gasification atmosphere free of H2S, whereas the presence of H2S implies a significant decrease in arsenic retention. In the case of selenium, H2S does not influence retention which may reach 65 mg g(-1). Post-retention sorbent characterization, thermal stability, and water solubility tests have shown that chemical reaction is one of the mechanisms responsible for the capture of arsenic and selenium, with Ca(AsO2)2 and CaSe being the main compounds formed.

  19. Effect of activated NH3 on SO2 removal by pulse coronadischarge plasma in flue gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    NH3-activated electrode is placed in front of the electrode system of pulse corona discharge plasma. There are nozzles on the electrode. Positive DC high-voltage is applied on the nozzle-plate gap. NH3 is injected into the reactor through nozzles, at the same time, activated and treated. Tbese nozzles were proposed in order to make the additional gas pass through corona discharge regions near the tip of nozzles and increase the mount of radicals. The aim is to improve the De-SO2 efficiency by pulse discharge plasma in flue gas. The following topics are investigated and discussed in the paper: De-SO2 effect of single NH3-activated electrode, De-SO2 effect of activated NH3, the relationship between stoichiometric ratio of NH3 to SO2 and De-SO2 effect of activated NH3, mechanism of activated NH3 De-SO2 effect. The experimental result indicates that the De-SO2 efficiency can be increased 5 %-10 96 by activated NH3 on the original base of De-SO2 efficiency.

  20. Simulation of mercury capture by activated carbon injection in incinerator flue gas. 2. Fabric filter removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scala, F

    2001-11-01

    Following a companion paper focused on the in-duct mercury capture in incinerator flue gas by powdered activated carbon injection, this paper is concerned with the additional mercury capture on the fabric filter cake, relevant to baghouse equipped facilities. A detailed model is presented for this process, based on material balances on mercury in both gaseous and adsorbed phases along the growing filter cake and inside the activated carbon particles,taking into account mass transfer resistances and adsorption kinetics. Several sorbents of practical interest have been considered, whose parameters have been evaluated from available literature data. The values and range of the operating variables have been chosen in order to simulate typical incinerators operating conditions. Results of simulations indicate that, contrary to the in-duct removal process, high mercury removal efficiencies can be obtained with moderate sorbent consumption, as a consequence of the effective gas/sorbent contacting on the filter. Satisfactory utilization of the sorbents is predicted, especially at long filtration times. The sorbent feed rate can be minimized by using a reactive sorbent and by lowering the filter temperature as much as possible. Minor benefits can be obtained also by decreasing the sorbent particle size and by increasing the cleaning cycle time of the baghouse compartments. Reverse-flow baghouses were more efficient than pulse-jet baghouses, while smoother operation can be obtained by increasing the number of baghouse compartments. Model results are compared with available relevant full scale data.

  1. Carbon Mineralization by Aqueous Precipitation for Beneficial Use of CO2 from Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devenney, Martin [Calera Corporation, Moss Landing, CA (United States); Gilliam, Ryan [Calera Corporation, Moss Landing, CA (United States); Seeker, Randy [Calera Corporation, Moss Landing, CA (United States)

    2015-06-30

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate an innovative process to mineralize CO2 from flue gas directly to reactive carbonates and maximize the value and versatility of its beneficial use products. The program scope includes the design, construction, and testing of a CO2 Conversion to Material Products (CCMP) Pilot Demonstration Plant utilizing CO2 from the flue gas of a power production facility in Moss Landing, CA as well as flue gas from coal combustion. This final report details all development, analysis, design and testing of the project. Also included in the final report are an updated Techno-Economic Analysis and CO2 Lifecycle Analysis. The subsystems included in the pilot demonstration plant are the mineralization subsystem, the Alkalinity Based on Low Energy (ABLE) subsystem, the waste calcium oxide processing subsystem, and the fiber cement board production subsystem. The fully integrated plant was proven to be capable of capturing CO2 from various sources (gas and coal) and mineralizing it into a reactive calcium carbonate binder and subsequently producing commercial size (4ftx8ft) fiber cement boards. The final report provides a description of the “as built” design of these subsystems and the results of the commissioning activities that have taken place to confirm operability. The report also discusses the results of the fully integrated operation of the facility. Fiber cement boards have been produced in this facility exclusively using reactive calcium carbonate from captured CO2 from flue gas. These boards meet all US and China appropriate acceptance standards. Use demonstrations for these boards are now underway.

  2. Electrospun metal oxide-TiO{sub 2} nanofibers for elemental mercury removal from flue gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Yuan; Zhao, Yongchun [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Li, Hailong [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); School of Energy Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Li, Yang [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, Liaoning 116024 (China); Gao, Xiang [State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310027 (China); Zheng, Chuguang [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Zhang, Junying, E-mail: jyzhang@hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Developed the metal oxides (CuO, In{sub 2}O{sub 3}, V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, WO{sub 3} and Ag{sub 2}O) doped TiO{sub 2} nanofibers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fibers are applied to control Hg{sup 0} from coal combustion flue gas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer WO{sub 3} doped TiO{sub 2} exhibited the highest Hg{sup 0} removal efficiency of 100% under UV irradiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer V{sub 2}O{sub 5} doped TiO{sub 2} greatly enhanced Hg{sup 0} removal under visible light irradiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TiO{sub 2}-Ag{sub 2}O showed a steady Hg{sup 0} removal efficiency of 95% without any light. - Abstract: Nanofibers prepared by an electrospinning method were used to remove elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) from simulated coal combustion flue gas. The nanofibers composed of different metal oxides (MO{sub x}) including CuO, In{sub 2}O{sub 3}, V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, WO{sub 3} and Ag{sub 2}O supported on TiO{sub 2} have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersing X-ray (EDX) and UV-vis spectra. The average diameters of these nanofibers were about 200 nm. Compared to pure TiO{sub 2}, the UV-vis absorption intensity for MO{sub x}-TiO{sub 2} increased significantly and the absorption bandwidth also expanded, especially for Ag{sub 2}O-TiO{sub 2} and V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-TiO{sub 2}. Hg{sup 0} oxidation efficiencies over the MO{sub x}-TiO{sub 2} nanofibers were tested under dark, visible light (vis) irradiation and UV irradiation, respectively. The results showed that WO{sub 3} doped TiO{sub 2} exhibited the highest Hg{sup 0} removal efficiency of 100% under UV irradiation. Doping V{sub 2}O{sub 5} into TiO{sub 2} enhanced Hg{sup 0} removal efficiency greatly from 6% to 63% under visible light irradiation. Ag{sub 2}O doped TiO{sub 2} showed a steady Hg{sup 0} removal efficiency of around 95% without any light due to the formation of silver amalgam. An extended experiment

  3. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Jean Bustard; Kenneth E. Baldrey; Richard Schlager

    2000-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions has begun a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the flyash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. Preliminary testing has identified a class of common deliquescent salts that effectively control flyash resistivity on a variety of coals. A method to evaluate cohesive properties of flyash in the laboratory has been selected and construction of an electrostatic tensiometer test fixture is underway. Preliminary selection of a variety of chemicals that will be screened for effect on flyash cohesion has been completed.

  4. Biological carbon fixation: A study of Isochrysis sp. growth under actual coal-fired power plant's flue gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    >Liyana Yahya, Muhammad Nazry Chik, Mohd Asyraf Mohd Azmir Pang,

    2013-06-01

    Preliminary study on the growth of marine microalgae Isochrysis sp. was carried out using actual flue gas from a coal-fired power station. The species was cultured using a 2×10-L customized bubble column photobioreactor skid under specified culture conditions. With an initial culture density of 0.459 Abs (optical density at 560 nm wavelength), the species was found able to survive - observed by increases in optical densities, number of cells and weights - in the presence of actual coal-fired flue gas containing on average 4.08 % O2, 200.21 mg/m3 SO2, 212.29 mg/m3 NOx, 4.73 % CO2 and 50.72 mg/m3 CO. Results thus add value to the potential and capability of microalgae, especially for Isochrysis sp., to be the biological carbon fixer in neutralizing carbon emissions from power plants.

  5. Experimental study of the mechanisms of steam reactivation of unreacted calcium-based sorbent for flue gas desulphurisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aijun Wang; Zhongchao Tan; Haiying Qi; Xuchang Xu [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States). Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering

    2008-07-01

    This paper reports an experimental investigation of the mechanisms of steam reactivation of spent sorbent for flue gas desulphurisation. Sulphated lime samples were reactivated by using steam to increase the conversion rate of sorbent for flue gas desulphurisation. Samples were characterised using mercury porosimeter, XRD, and SEM. Reactivation temperatures were in the range of 200-800{sup o}C. Retention times were 5, 10, and 20 min. For the conditions within this work, it was found that sorbent particles broke down when reactivated at 200{sup o}C, and migration of trapped CaO outward was the main mechanism when reactivation temperature was greater than 300{sup o}C.

  6. Investigations on removal of SO2 from flue gas by aerosol formation in pulsed corona discharge process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    The removal of SO2 from flue gas by pulsed coronadischarge in presence of ammonia was experimentally investigated.The results show that the SO2 removal mainly depend on thermalreaction of SO2 with NH3 and enhancement of 0%-25% by pulsed coronadischarge in the range of the specific energy 0-5 Wh/Nm3. Theaerosol mass concentration, mainly composed of ammonium sulfate,increases with specific energy dissipated into the reactor. With aninitial concentration of 2000-2100 ppmv SO2 and energy consumptionof 3 Wh/Nm3, when a stoichiometric amount of ammonia is injected,the removal efficiency of SO2 and percentage of ammonium sulfatesin reaction products are all ≥80%. The collection efficiency of thereactor for aerosol is about 74% at a flue gas temperature of 60 to65℃ and a water vapor content of 9% to 11% volume.

  7. Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Demonstration Project. Technical progress report No. 15, July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    The goal of this project is to demonstrate that, by combining state-of-the-art technology, highly efficient plant operation and maintenance capabilities and by-product gypsum sales, significant reductions of SO{sub 2} emissions can be achieved at approximately one-half the life cycle cost of a conventional Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system. Further, this emission reduction is achieved without generating solid waste and while minimizing liquid wastewater effluent. Basically, this project entails the design, construction and operation of a nominal 600 MWe AFGD facility to remove SO{sub 2} from coal-fired power plant flue gas at the Northern Indiana Public Service Company`s Bailly Generating Station.

  8. Aminosilane-grafted polymer/silica hollow fiber adsorbents for CO₂ capture from flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Fateme; Lively, Ryan P; Labreche, Ying; Chen, Grace; Fan, Yanfang; Koros, William J; Jones, Christopher W

    2013-05-01

    Amine/silica/polymer composite hollow fiber adsorbents are produced using a novel reactive post-spinning infusion technique, and the obtained fibers are shown to capture CO2 from simulated flue gas. The post-spinning infusion technique allows for functionalization of polymer/silica hollow fibers with different types of amines during the solvent exchange step after fiber spinning. The post-spinning infusion of 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APS) into mesoporous silica/cellulose acetate hollow fibers is demonstrated here, and the materials are compared with hollow fibers infused with poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI). This approach results in silica/polymer composite fibers with good amine distribution and accessibility, as well as adequate porosity retained within the fibers to facilitate rapid mass transfer and adsorption kinetics. The CO2 adsorption capacities for the APS-infused hollow fibers are shown to be comparable to those of amine powders with similar amine loadings. In contrast, fibers that are spun with presynthesized, amine-loaded mesoporous silica powders show negligible CO2 uptake and low amine loadings because of loss of amines from the silica materials during the fiber spinning process. Aminosilica powders are shown to be more hydrophilic than the corresponding amine containing composite hollow fibers, the bare polymer as well as silica support. Both the PEI-infused and APS-infused fibers demonstrate reduced CO2 adsorption upon elevating the temperature from 35 to 80 °C, in accordance with thermodynamics, whereas PEI-infused powders show increased CO2 uptake over that temperature range because of competing diffusional and thermodynamic effects. The CO2 adsorption kinetics as probed via TGA show that the APS-infused hollow fiber adsorbents have more rapid uptake kinetics than their aminosilica powder analogues. The adsorption performance of the functionalized hollow fibers is also assessed in CO2 breakthrough experiments. The breakthrough results show a

  9. Materials in flue gas condensation plants. Stage 2; Materialval vid roekgaskondensering. Etapp 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordling, Magnus; Bergman, Gunnar; Baeck, Gustaf; Jacobsson, Karin; Pahverk, Helen; Roemhild, Stefanie

    2004-12-01

    The corrosion resistance of some metallic and polymeric materials has been investigated in the flue gas scrubbers/condensers in the power plants at Igelsta using waste wood and Brista using bio fuel in the boilers. The materials were exposed inside the inlet part of the condenser and inside the flue gas duct after the condenser. In Brista, the polymeric materials were also exposed to the hot flue gases inside the duct before the condenser. The temperature of the gases before and after the condenser in Brista was 140 deg C and 50-60 deg C, respectively. In Igelsta, the flue gas temperature after the condenser was 45 deg C. The metallic coupons in the condenser were located in the spray-zone, both in Igelsta and Brista. That was true also for the polymeric material in Brista. In both plants, the wash-solution had a pH of 7-8, a temperature of 30 deg C, and a low content of chloride. The metallic materials investigated were stainless steels of the following grades: 17-12-2.5, 2205, SAF2507 and 254SMO. The major part of the polymeric materials investigated consisted of FRP laminates, which were made with different combinations of resin type of surface veil and type of chopped strand mat (CSM). Laminates with a new type of vinyl ester resin, Atlac E-Nova FW 1045, a new type of a stress-corrosion-resistant glass-fibre called Arcotex, and two types of surface reinforcement of carbon fibre have been compared to laminates of common type. Laminates with a special reinforcement of the type 3-D fabric were also included as well as five polypropylene materials (PP) with varying degree of stabilisation, two glass-flake materials applied on carbon steel and a butyl rubber. The corrosion resistance of the materials was evaluated after seven a months exposure at the different positions in the plants. The stainless steel materials were evaluated with respect to uniform corrosion, pitting and crevice attack. The corrosion resistance of the polymeric materials was evaluated with

  10. Materials in flue gas condensation plants. Stage 2; Materialval vid roekgaskondensering. Etapp 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordling, Magnus; Bergman, Gunnar; Baeck, Gustaf; Jacobsson, Karin; Pahverk, Helen; Roemhild, Stefanie

    2004-12-01

    The corrosion resistance of some metallic and polymeric materials has been investigated in the flue gas scrubbers/condensers in the power plants at Igelsta using waste wood and Brista using bio fuel in the boilers. The materials were exposed inside the inlet part of the condenser and inside the flue gas duct after the condenser. In Brista, the polymeric materials were also exposed to the hot flue gases inside the duct before the condenser. The temperature of the gases before and after the condenser in Brista was 140 deg C and 50-60 deg C, respectively. In Igelsta, the flue gas temperature after the condenser was 45 deg C. The metallic coupons in the condenser were located in the spray-zone, both in Igelsta and Brista. That was true also for the polymeric material in Brista. In both plants, the wash-solution had a pH of 7-8, a temperature of 30 deg C, and a low content of chloride. The metallic materials investigated were stainless steels of the following grades: 17-12-2.5, 2205, SAF2507 and 254SMO. The major part of the polymeric materials investigated consisted of FRP laminates, which were made with different combinations of resin type of surface veil and type of chopped strand mat (CSM). Laminates with a new type of vinyl ester resin, Atlac E-Nova FW 1045, a new type of a stress-corrosion-resistant glass-fibre called Arcotex, and two types of surface reinforcement of carbon fibre have been compared to laminates of common type. Laminates with a special reinforcement of the type 3-D fabric were also included as well as five polypropylene materials (PP) with varying degree of stabilisation, two glass-flake materials applied on carbon steel and a butyl rubber. The corrosion resistance of the materials was evaluated after seven a months exposure at the different positions in the plants. The stainless steel materials were evaluated with respect to uniform corrosion, pitting and crevice attack. The corrosion resistance of the polymeric materials was evaluated with

  11. OPERATING SPECIFICATIONS OF CATALYTIC CLEANING OF GAS FROM BIOMASS GASIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lisý

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the theoretical description of the cleaning of syngas from biomass and waste gasification using catalytic methods, and on the verification of the theory through experiments. The main obstruction to using syngas from fluid gasification of organic matter is the presence of various high-boiling point hydrocarbons (i.e., tar in the gas. The elimination of tar from the gas is a key factor in subsequent use of the gas in other technologies for cogeneration of electrical energy and heat. The application of a natural or artificial catalyst for catalytic destruction of tar is one of the methods of secondary elimination of tar from syngas. In our experiments, we used a natural catalyst (dolomite or calcium magnesium carbonate from Horní Lánov with great mechanical and catalytic properties, suitable for our purposes. The advantages of natural catalysts in contrast to artificial catalysts include their availability, low purchase prices and higher resilience to the so-called catalyst poison. Natural calcium catalysts may also capture undesired compounds of sulphure and chlorine. Our paper presents a theoretical description and analysis of catalytic destruction of tar into combustible gas components, and of the impact of dolomite calcination on its efficiency. The efficiency of the technology is verified in laboratories. The facility used for verification was a 150 kW pilot gasification unit with a laboratory catalytic filter. The efficiency of tar elimination reached 99.5%, the tar concentration complied with limits for use of the gas in combustion engines, and the tar content reached approximately 35 mg/mn3. The results of the measurements conducted in laboratories helped us design a pilot technology for catalytic gas cleaning.

  12. Performance testing of cross flow heat exchanger operating in the atmosphere of flue gas particulate with vapor condensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuntaphan, A.

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Performance testing of a cross flow heat exchanger operating under the atmosphere of flue gas particulate from combustion was carried out in this work. This heat exchanger exchanges heat between flue gas from the fuel oil combustion and cold water. The heat exchanger is composed of a spiral finned tube bank having 3 rows and 8 tubes per row with a staggered arrangement. The fin spacings considered are 2.85 and 6.10 mm. The theories of thermodynamics and heat transfer are used for analyzing the performance of this system.In this experiment, the flue gas temperature of 200ºC from combustion having 0.35 kg/s mass flow rate flows along outside surface of the heat exchanger and transfers heat to the 25ºC cooling water having 0.15 kg/s mass flow rate flowing in the tube side. Each experiment uses 750 hr for testing. During the testing, part of flue gas condenses on the heat transfer surface.From the experiment, it was found that the heat transfer rate of both heat exchangers tended to decrease with time while the airside pressure drop increased. These results come from the fouling on the heat transfer surface. Moreover, it is found that the heat exchanger having 2.85 mm fin spacing has an approximately 4 times higher fouling resistance than that of the 6.10 mm fin spacing.In this work a model for calculating the fouling resistance is also developed as a the function of time. The model is developed from that of Kern and Seaton and the mean deviation of the model is 0.789.

  13. JV Task 124 - Understanding Multi-Interactions of SO3, Mercury, Selenium, and Arsenic in Illinois Coal Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Zhuang; Christopher Martin; John Pavlish

    2009-03-31

    This project consisted of pilot-scale combustion testing with a representative Illinois basin coal to explore the multi-interactions of SO{sub 3}, mercury, selenium and arsenic. The parameters investigated for SO{sub 3} and mercury interactions included different flue gas conditions, i.e., temperature, moisture content, and particulate alkali content, both with and without activated carbon injection for mercury control. Measurements were also made to track the transformation of selenium and arsenic partitioning as a function of flue gas temperature through the system. The results from the mercury-SO{sub 3} testing support the concept that SO{sub 3} vapor is the predominant factor that impedes efficient mercury removal with activated carbon in an Illinois coal flue gas, while H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aerosol has less impact on activated carbon injection performance. Injection of a suitably mobile and reactive additives such as sodium- or calcium-based sorbents was the most effective strategy tested to mitigate the effect of SO{sub 3}. Transformation measurements indicate a significant fraction of selenium was associated with the vapor phase at the electrostatic precipitator inlet temperature. Arsenic was primarily particulate-bound and should be captured effectively with existing particulate control technology.

  14. Pilot-scale multistage membrane process for the separation of CO2 from LNG-fired flue gas

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Seung Hak

    2013-06-01

    In this study, a multistage pilot-scale membrane plant was constructed and operated for the separation of CO2 from Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)-fired boiler flue gas of 1000 Nm3/day. The target purity and recovery of CO2 were 99 vol.% and 90%, respectively. For this purpose, asymmetric polyethersulfone (PES) hollow fibers membranes has been developed in our previous work and has evaluated the effects of operating pressure and feed concentration of CO2 on separation performance. The operating and permeation data obtained were also analyzed in relation with the numerical simulation data using countercurrent flow model. Based on these results, in this study, four-staged membrane process including dehumidification process has been designed, installed, and operated to demonstrate the feasibility of multistage membrane systems for removing CO2 from flue gases. The operation results using this plant were compared to the numerical simulation results on multistage membrane process. The experimental results matched well with the numerical simulation data. The concentration and the recovery of CO2 in the permeate stream of final stage were ranged from 95-99 vol.% and 70-95%, respectively, depending on the operating conditions. This study demonstrated the applicability of the membrane-based pilot plant for CO2 recovery from flue gas. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Full scale calcium bromide injection with subsequent mercury oxidation and removal within wet flue gas desulphurization system: Experience at a 700 MW coal-fired power facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Mark Simpson

    The Environmental Protection Agency promulgated the Mercury and Air Toxics Standards rule, which requires that existing power plants reduce mercury emissions to meet an emission rate of 1.2 lb/TBtu on a 30-day rolling average and that new plants meet a 0.0002 lb/GWHr emission rate. This translates to mercury removals greater than 90% for existing units and greater than 99% for new units. Current state-of-the-art technology for the control of mercury emissions uses activated carbon injected upstream of a fabric filter, a costly proposition. For example, a fabric filter, if not already available, would require a 200M capital investment for a 700 MW size unit. A lower-cost option involves the injection of activated carbon into an existing cold-side electrostatic precipitator. Both options would incur the cost of activated carbon, upwards of 3M per year. The combination of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) reactors and wet flue gas desulphurization (wet FGD) systems have demonstrated the ability to substantially reduce mercury emissions, especially at units that burn coals containing sufficient halogens. Halogens are necessary for transforming elemental mercury to oxidized mercury, which is water-soluble. Plants burning halogen-deficient coals such as Power River Basin (PRB) coals currently have no alternative but to install activated carbon-based approaches to control mercury emissions. This research consisted of investigating calcium bromide addition onto PRB coal as a method of increasing flue gas halogen concentration. The treated coal was combusted in a 700 MW boiler and the subsequent treated flue gas was introduced into a wet FGD. Short-term parametric and an 83-day longer-term tests were completed to determine the ability of calcium bromine to oxidize mercury and to study the removal of the mercury in a wet FGD. The research goal was to show that calcium bromine addition to PRB coal was a viable approach for meeting the Mercury and Air Toxics Standards rule

  16. Carbon-supported ionic liquids as innovative adsorbents for CO₂ separation from synthetic flue-gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erto, Alessandro; Silvestre-Albero, Ana; Silvestre-Albero, Joaquín; Rodríguez-Reinoso, Francisco; Balsamo, Marco; Lancia, Amedeo; Montagnaro, Fabio

    2015-06-15

    Fixed-bed thermodynamic CO2 adsorption tests were performed in model flue-gas onto Filtrasorb 400 and Nuchar RGC30 activated carbons (AC) functionalized with [Hmim][BF4] and [Emim][Gly] ionic liquids (IL). A comparative analysis of the CO2 capture results and N2 porosity characterization data evidenced that the use of [Hmim][BF4], a physical solvent for carbon dioxide, ended up into a worsening of the parent AC capture performance, due to a dominating pore blocking effect at all the operating temperatures. Conversely, the less sterically-hindered and amino acid-based [Emim][Gly] IL was effective in increasing the AC capture capacity at 353 K under milder impregnation conditions, the beneficial effect being attributed to both its chemical affinity towards CO2 and low pore volume reduction. The findings derived in this work outline interesting perspectives for the application of amino acid-based IL supported onto activated carbons for CO2 separation under post-combustion conditions, and future research efforts should be focused on the search for AC characterized by optimal pore size distribution and surface properties for IL functionalization.

  17. Flue gas desulfurization by-products additions to acid soil: alfalfa productivity and environmental quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, L.; Dick, W.A.; Nelson, S.

    2001-07-01

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products are often alkaline and contain many plant nutrients. Land application of FGD by-products is encouraged but little information is available related to plant responses and environmental impacts concerning such use. Agricultural lime (ag-lime) and several new types of FGD by-products which contain either vermiculite or perlite were applied at 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 times the soil's lime requirement (LR) rate to an acidic soil (Wooster silt loam). The highest FGD by-products application rate was equivalent to 75.2 Mg ha{sup -1}. Growth of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) was significantly increased compared to the untreated control in the second year after treatment with yields for the 1 x LR rate of FGD approximately 7-8 times greater compared to the untreated control and 30% greater than for the commercial ag-lime. Concentrations of Mo in alfalfa were significantly increased by FGD by-products application, compared to the untreated control, while compared to the ag-lime treatment, concentrations of B increased and Ba decreased. No soil contamination problems were observed, even at the 2xLR rate, indicating these materials can be safely applied to agricultural soils.

  18. Statistical modelling and optimization of hydrolysis of urea to generate ammonia for flue gas conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahalik, K. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Kharagpur, P.O. Kharagpur Technology, West Bengal 721302 (India); Department of Chemical Engineering, Gandhi Institute of Engineering and Technology, Gunupur, Orissa (India); Sahu, J.N., E-mail: jay_sahu@yahoo.co.in [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Kharagpur, P.O. Kharagpur Technology, West Bengal 721302 (India); Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Patwardhan, Anand V. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology (ICT), Mumbai 400019 (India); Meikap, B.C. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Kharagpur, P.O. Kharagpur Technology, West Bengal 721302 (India); School of Chemical Engineering, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, King George V. Avenue, Durban 4041 (South Africa)

    2010-10-15

    The present study is concerned with the technique of producing a relatively small quantity of ammonia which can be used safely in a coal-fired thermal power plant to improve the efficiency of electrostatic precipitator by removing the suspended particulate material mostly fly ash, from the flue gas. In this work hydrolysis of urea has been conducted in a batch reactor at atmospheric pressure to study the different reaction variables such as reaction temperature, initial concentration and stirring speed on the conversion by using design expert software. A 2{sup 3} full factorial central composite design (CCD) has been employed and a quadratic model equation has been developed. The study reveals that conversion increases exponentially with an increase in temperature, stirring speed and feed concentration. However the stirring speed has the greatest effect on the conversion with concentration and temperature exerting least and moderate effect respectively. The values of equilibrium conversion obtained through the developed models are found to agree well with their corresponding experimental counterparts with a satisfactory correlation coefficient of 93%. The developed quadratic model was optimized using quadratic programming to maximize conversion of urea within experimental range studied. The optimum production condition has been found to be at the temperature of 130 {sup o}C, feed concentration of 4.16 mol/l and stirring speed of 400 rpm and the corresponding conversion, 63.242%.

  19. Characteristics and reactivity of rapidly hydrated sorbent for semidry flue gas desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; You, Changfu; Zhao, Suwei; Chen, Changhe; Qi, Haiying

    2008-03-01

    Semidry flue gas desulfurization with a rapidly hydrated sorbent was studied in a pilot-scale circulating fluidized bed (CFB) experimental facility. The desulfurization efficiency was measured for various operating parameters, including the sorbent recirculation rate and the water spray method. The experimental results show that the desulfurization efficiencies of the rapidly hydrated sorbent were 1.5-3.0 times higher than a commonly used industrial sorbent for calcium to sulfur molar ratios from 1.2 to 3.0, mainly due to the higher specific surface area and pore volume. The Ca(OH)2 content in the cyclone separator ash was about 2.9% for the rapidly hydrated sorbent and was about 0.1% for the commonly used industrial sorbent, due to the different adhesion between the fine Ca(OH)2 particles and the fly ash particles, and the low cyclone separation efficiency for the fine Ca(OH)2 particles that fell off the sorbent particles. Therefore the actual recirculation rates of the active sorbent with Ca(OH)2 particles were higher for the rapidly hydrated sorbent, which also contributed to the higher desulfurization efficiency. The high fly ash content in the rapidly hydrated sorbent resulted in good operating stability. The desulfurization efficiency with upstream water spray was 10-15% higher than that with downstream water spray.

  20. Adhesive carrier particles for rapidly hydrated sorbent for moderate-temperature dry flue gas desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; You, Changfu; Song, Chenxing

    2010-06-15

    A rapidly hydrated sorbent for moderate-temperature dry flue gas desulfurization was prepared by rapidly hydrating adhesive carrier particles and lime. The circulation ash from a circulating fluidized bed boiler and chain boiler ash, both of which have rough surfaces with large specific surface areas and specific pore volumes, can improve the adhesion, abrasion resistance, and desulfurization characteristics of rapidly hydrated sorbent when used as the adhesive carrier particles. The adhesion ability of sorbent made from circulation ash is 67.4% higher than that of the existing rapidly hydrated sorbent made from fly ash, the abrasion ratio is 76.2% lower, and desulfurization ability is 14.1% higher. For sorbent made from chain boiler ash, the adhesion ability is increased by 74.7%, the desulfurization ability is increased by 30.3%, and abrasion ratio is decreased by 52.4%. The abrasion ratios of the sorbent made from circulation ash having various average diameters were all about 9%, and their desulfurization abilities were similar (approximately 150 mg/g).

  1. Characteristics of fly ash from the dry flue gas desulfurization system for iron ore sintering plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Guanghong; Huang, Peng; Mou, Yaqin; Zhou, Chenhui

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of fly ash from the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system are important for its reuse and are mainly depend on the desulfurization process. The physical and chemical properties of DSF ash, which refers to fly ash from the dry FGD system for the iron ore sintering process, were investigated. Its mineralogical contents were determined by X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetry analysis, and its micro-morphology was studied by scanning electric micrograph analysis. The results show that DSF ash has a higher CaO and SO3 content, and the main sulfur form is sulfite, with only a part of it oxidized to sulfate. The major minerals present in DSF ash are hannebachite, anhydrite, calcite and portlandite; a minor constituent is calcium chloride. The particles of DSF ash are irregular, fragmentary and small, and hannebachite grows on their surfaces. Particle size is affected by the FGD process, and the ash size from the maximized emission reduction of the sintering-FGD process is lower than that from the circulating fluidized bed-FGD process. The particle size distribution of DSF ash follows the Rosin--Rammler-Bennet equation.

  2. Sodic soil properties and sunflower growth as affected by byproducts of flue gas desulfurization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinman Wang

    Full Text Available The main component of the byproducts of flue gas desulfurization (BFGD is CaSO(4, which can be used to improve sodic soils. The effects of BFGD on sodic soil properties and sunflower growth were studied in a pot experiment. The experiment consisted of eight treatments, at four BFGD rates (0, 7.5, 15 and 22.5 t ha(-1 and two leaching levels (750 and 1200 m(3 ha(-1. The germination rate and yield of the sunflower increased, and the exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP, pH and total dissolved salts (TDS in the soils decreased after the byproducts were applied. Excessive BFGD also affected sunflower germination and growth, and leaching improved reclamation efficiency. The physical and chemical properties of the reclaimed soils were best when the byproducts were applied at 7.5 t ha(-1 and water was supplied at 1200 m(3·ha(-1. Under these conditions, the soil pH, ESP, and TDS decreased from 9.2, 63.5 and 0.65% to 7.8, 2.8 and 0.06%, and the germination rate and yield per sunflower reached 90% and 36.4 g, respectively. Salinity should be controlled by leaching when sodic soils are reclaimed with BFGD as sunflower growth is very sensitive to salinity during its seedling stage.

  3. Growth of forage legumes and grasses in acidic soil amended with flue gas desulfurization products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, R.B.; Baligar, V.C. [USDA ARS, Beltsville, MD (USA)

    2003-07-01

    Large amounts of flue gas desulfurization products (FGDs) are produced when SO{sub 2} emissions are trapped in the coal burning process for generation of electricity. FGDs are normally discarded instead of being reused, and reuse on soils could be important in overall management of these products. Glasshouse experiments were conducted to determine effects of various levels of three FGDs (a FGD gypsum, an oxidized FGD + Mg, and a stabilized FGD) and the control compounds CaCO{sub 3}, CaSO{sub 3}, and CaSO{sub 4} on growth of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), white clover (Trifolium repens), orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata), tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), and eastern gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides) in acidic (pH 4) soil (Typic Hapludult). The FGDs enhanced growth of each plant species, with alfalfa, white clover, and tall fescue receiving greater increases than the other species, especially when grown in soil amended with FGD + Mg. FGD gypsum did not often enhance growth unless high amounts were added. FGDs containing high B and low levels of CaSO{sub 3} were detrimental to growth. Overall, FGDs improved growth responses of these forage plants grown in an infertile low pH soil.

  4. Activation of Rejected Fly Ash Using Flue Gas Desulphurization (FGD) Sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Xiu-chen; POON Chisun; LIN Zong-shou

    2003-01-01

    Low-grade fly ash ( rejected fly ash, rFA ), a significant portion of the pulverized fuel ash ( PFA ) produced from coal-fired power plauts and rejected from the ash classifying process, remains unused due to its high carbon content and large particle size ( > 45μm ). But it is thonght that the rejected ash may have potential uses in chemical stabilization/solidification ( S/S ) processes which need relatively lower strengths and a lower chemical reactivity. Flue Gas Desulphurisation ( FGD ) sludge is a by-product of air pollution control equipment in coal fired power plants whose chemical composition is mainly gypsum. As there is no effective usage of both of these two ntaterials , it is of interest to research on the possible octtivation of rFA using FGD . This paper presents experimental results of a study on the properties of rFA activated by the FGD in rFA-cement pastes. Different percetages of FGD were added into the mix to study the effects of the FGD on the reaction of the rFA blended cement pastes.The results show that FGD takes effect as an activator only at late curing ages. Adding Ca ( OH)2 enhances the effect of FGD on activating the hytration of rFA. Also, 10% FGD by weight of rFA is the optimal addition in the rFA-cement pastes. The results of the compressive strength measurements correlate well with the porosity results.

  5. Ternary System of Fe-based Ionic Liquid, Ethanol and Water for Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解美莹; 李沛沛; 郭惠锋; 高丽霞; 余江

    2012-01-01

    Fe-based ionic liquid (Fe-IL) was synthesized by mixing FeCl3·6H2O and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride [Bmim]C1 in this paper. The phase diagram of a ternary Fe-IL, ethanol and water system was investigated to construct a ternary desulfurization solution for wet flue gas desulfurization. The effects of flow rate and concentration of SO2, reaction temperature, pH and Fe-IL fraction in aqueous desulfurization solution on the desulfiariza- tion efficiency were investigated. The results shows that the best composition of ternary desulfurization solution of Fe-IL, ethanol and water is 1 : 1.5 : 3 by volume ratio, and pH should be controlled at 2.0. Under such conditions, a desulfurization rate greater than 90% could be obtained. The product of sulfuric acid had inhibition effect on the wet desulfurization process. With applying this new ternary desulfurization solution, not only the catalyst Fe-IL can be recycled and reused, but also the product sulfuric acid can be separated directly from the ternary desulfurization system.

  6. LIFAC flue gas desulfurization process an alternative SO{sub 2} control strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, J.G. [Tampella Power Corp., Atlanta, GA (United States); Vilala, J. [Tampella Power Inc., Tampere (Finland)

    1995-12-01

    This paper discusses the results from two recently completed LIFAC flue gas desulfurization plants - 300 MW Shand lignite powered station owned by Saskatchewan Power Corporation and 60 MW Whitewater Valley high sulfur coal fired station owned by Richmond Powerand Light. LIFACis a dry FGD process in which limestone is injected into the upper regions of the boiler furnace and an activation reactor is used to humidify the unreacted limestone to achieve additional sulfur capture. The performance in both plants indicates that 70 to 80% sulfur is removed at a Ca/S ratio of 2. Cost performance data from these plants has shown that LI FAC both on construction cost and $/ton SO{sub 2} removed basis is very cost competitive compared to other SO{sub 2} control technologies. The Richmond plant has been realized under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Clean Coal Technology program. The Shand plant is the first commercial installation in North America. The paper also discusses highlights of operating and maintenance experience, availability and handling of the solid waste product.

  7. UV-Enhanced NaClO Oxidation of Nitric Oxide from Simulated Flue Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-long Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A wet de-NOx technique based on an UV-enhanced NaClO oxidation process was investigated for simulated flue gas of a diesel engine using a bench-scale reaction chamber. The effects of UV irradiation time, initial pH value, and available chlorine concentration of NaClO solution were studied, respectively. The results showed that when the UV irradiation time was 17.5 min and the initial pH value of NaClO solution was 6, NO removal efficiency of UV/NaClO solution was increased by 19.6% compared with that of NaClO solution. Meanwhile, when the available chlorine concentration of NaClO solution decreased from 0.1 wt% to 0.05 wt%, the enhancement in NO removal efficiency of UV/NaClO solution increased from 19.6% to 24%, compared with that of NaClO solution. The reaction pathways of NaClO solution photolysis and NO removal by UV/NaClO process were preliminarily discussed. The results suggested that HOCl might be the most active species that released many UV-induced photooxidants through photolysis reactions, which played an important role in NO removal process.

  8. Investigation of Parameters Affecting Gypsum Dewatering Properties in a Wet Flue Gas Desulphurization Pilot Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Brian Brun; Kiil, Søren

    2012-01-01

    Wet flue gas desulphurization (FGD) plants with forced oxidation, installed at coal and oil fired power plants for removal of SO2(g), must produce gypsum of high quality. However, quality issues such as an excessive moisture content, due to poor gypsum dewatering properties, may occur from time...... to time. In this work, the particle size distribution, morphology, and filtration rate of wet FGD gypsum formed in a pilot-scale experimental setup, operated in forced oxidation mode, have been studied. The influence of holding tank residence time (10–408 h), solids content (30–169 g/L), and the presence...... of impurities (0.002 M Al2F6; 50 g quartz/L; 0.02 M Al3+, and 0.040 M Mg2+) were investigated. In addition, slurry from a full-scale wet FGD plant, experiencing formation of flat shaped crystals and poor gypsum dewatering properties, was transferred to the pilot plant to test if the plant would now start...

  9. Particulate emissions in the flue gas of flat glass production after electrostatic precipitators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasper, A.; Carduck, E.; Manges, M.; Stadelmann, H.; Klinkers, J. [Saint-Gobain Glass Deutschland GmbH, Herzogenrath (Germany)

    2004-08-01

    As a contribution to the current discussion about fine dust and fine quartz and cristobalite particulate emissions and immissions, the authors point out the role the flat glass industry plays in this context. The main part of the raw material used in this industry is quartz sand (about 60%), but the latter's granulometry is such that it contains practically no fine particles. This fact is inherent in undisturbed glass production because quartz sand particles with grain size below 80 {mu}m would cause bad glass quality. Also other possible sources for silicon dioxide in the flue gas are discussed. In order to show the composition of the dust escaped to the electrostatic precipitators (EPs), the filters exclusively used in flat glass production, a number of quartz glass fiber filters used to measure the dust content in various plants were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Only in one case a quartz or cristobalite grain was identified, but with 30 {mu}m it was bigger than the respiratory fraction (<10 {mu}m) under discussion. In summary, it can be said that the findings are not at all alarming. In order to finally prove that there is no need to worry about emissions of carcinogenic dust for the whole glass industry future cooperative research will be necessary. (orig.)

  10. Thermodynamic behaviors of polybrominated/chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins in flue gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, E.; Grabda, M.; Nakamura, T. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (JP). Inst. of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials (IMRAM); Li, X.W. [R and D Center, Baoshan Iron and Steel Co. Ltd., Resources and Environmental Engineering Labs

    2004-09-15

    The brominated dioxins apparently arise under thermal stress, because BFRs appear to be their main source in incinerators. However, the formation behaviours of brominated dioxin congeners from incinerators remain unclear. One of the reasons for our lack of understanding is that current analytical methods are able to detect, but not quantify, all of the mixed brominated/chlorinated congeners. Because of the complexity of analytical procedures and lack of reference standards, it has been possible to characterize and determine only a small number of polybrominated dibenzo-pdioxins and furans (PBDD/Fs) and polybrominated/chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PXDD/Fs) isomers. We recently reported the calculated heat capacities, standard enthalpies of formation and entropies for 75 PBDDs, 135 PBDFs and 339 PXDDs using the density functional theory (DFT). In the present study, we consider their formation and decomposition thermodynamically, by conducting equilibrium thermodynamic simulations of the flue gas of flame retardant combustion at various temperatures and at different bromine/chlorine ratios in the source.

  11. Adsorption of SO2 and NO from incineration flue gas onto activated carbon fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen-Shu

    2008-11-01

    Activated carbon fibers (ACFs) were used to remove SO2 and NO from incineration flue gas. Three types of ACFs in their origin state and after pretreatment with HNO3, NaOH, and KOH were investigated. The removal efficiencies of SO2 and NO were determined experimentally at defined SO2 and NO concentrations and at temperatures of 150, 200 and 260 degrees C. Experimental results indicated that the removal efficiencies of SO2 and NO using the original ACFs were < 56% and < 27%, respectively. All ACFs modified with HNO3, NaOH, and KOH solution could increase the removal efficiencies of SO(2) and NO. The mesopore volumes and functional groups of ACFs are important in determining the removal of SO2 and NO. When the mesopore volumes of the ACFs are insufficient for removing SO2 and NO, the functional groups on the ACFs are not important in determining the removal of SO2 and NO. On the contrary, the effects of the functional groups on the removal of SO2 and NO are more important than the mesopore volumes as the amount of mesopores on the ACFs is sufficient to remove SO2 and NO. Moreover, the removal efficiencies of SO2 and NO were greatest at 200 degrees C. When the inlet concentration of SO2 increased to 600 ppm, the removal efficiency of SO2 increased slightly and the removal efficiency of NO decreased.

  12. A catalytic distillation process for light gas oil hydrodesulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas-Villamil, F.D.; Marroquin, J.O.; Paz, C. de la; Rodriguez, E. [Prog. de Matematicas Aplicadas y Computacion, Prog. de Tratamiento de Crudo Maya, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico City, DF (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    A light gas oil hydrodesulfurization process via catalytic distillation is developed and compared to a conventional process. By integrating the separation and reaction into a single unit, the catalytic distillation may produce a diesel with low concentration of sulfur compounds at a lower cost than the traditional reaction/separation process. The process proposed in this work is compared to an optimised conventional hydrodesulfurization unit which represents fairly well a plant that belongs to the National System of Refineries. During the optimisation of the conventional process, a compromise is established among the production of diesel and naphtha and the operating costs. The results show that the light gas oil hydrodesulfurization via catalytic distillation is as or more efficient than the conventional process. However, the removal of the sulfur compounds is carried out under less rigorous conditions. This design reduces the fix and operational costs. (author)

  13. Wettability determination by contact angle measurements: hvbB coal-water system with injection of synthetic flue gas and CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojai Kaveh, Narjes; Rudolph, E Susanne J; Wolf, Karl-Heinz A A; Ashrafizadeh, Seyed Nezameddin

    2011-12-01

    Geological sequestration of pure carbon dioxide (CO(2)) in coal is one of the methods to sequester CO(2). In addition, injection of CO(2) or flue gas into coal enhances coal bed methane production (ECBM). The success of this combined process depends strongly on the wetting behavior of the coal, which is function of coal rank, ash content, heterogeneity of the coal surface, pressure, temperature and composition of the gas. The wetting behavior can be evaluated from the contact angle of a gas bubble, CO(2) or flue gas, on a coal surface. In this study, contact angles of a synthetic flue gas, i.e. a 80/20 (mol%) N(2)/CO(2) mixture, and pure CO(2) on a Warndt Luisenthal (WL) coal have been determined using a modified pendant drop cell in a pressure range from atmospheric to 16 MPa and a constant temperature of 318 K. It was found that the contact angles of flue gas on WL coal were generally smaller than those of CO(2). The contact angle of CO(2) changes from water-wet to gas-wet by increasing pressure above 8.5 MPa while the one for the flue gas changes from water-wet to intermediate-wet by increasing pressure above 10 MPa.

  14. Flue gas on-line monitoring techniques of continuous emission monitoring system.%烟气排放连续监测系统的烟气参数在线监测技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱卫东; 朱建平; 徐淮明; 范黎峰; 祖亮

    2011-01-01

    The flue gas monitoring techniques of continuous emission monitoring system are introduced briefly,including flue gas flow rate measurement, flue gas water content measurement and flue gas oxygen content measurement. The applications of the data obtained from flue gas monitoring and the future development of flue gas monitoring techniques are discussed.%简要介绍了烟气排放连续监测系统的烟气参数监测项目及技术要求,包括烟气流速、烟气水分含量、烟气含氧量在线监测技术.对烟气参数在线监测的应用与发展进行了探讨.

  15. Next Generation Pressurized Oxy-Coal Combustion: High Efficiency and No Flue Gas Recirculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rue, David

    2013-09-30

    The Gas Technology Institute (GTI) has developed a pressurized oxy-coal fired molten bed boiler (MBB) concept, in which coal and oxygen are fired directly into a bed of molten coal slag through burners located on the bottom of the boiler and fired upward. Circulation of heat by the molten slag eliminates the need for a flue gas recirculation loop and provides excellent heat transfer to steam tubes in the boiler walls. Advantages of the MBB technology over other boilers include higher efficiency (from eliminating flue gas recirculation), a smaller and less expensive boiler, modular design leading to direct scalability, decreased fines carryover and handling costs, smaller exhaust duct size, and smaller emissions control equipment sizes. The objective of this project was to conduct techno-economic analyses and an engineering design of the MBB project and to support this work with thermodynamic analyses and oxy-coal burner testing. Techno-economic analyses of GTI’s pressurized oxy-coal fired MBB technology found that the overall plant with compressed CO2 has an efficiency of 31.6%. This is a significant increase over calculated 29.2% efficiency of first generation oxy-coal plants. Cost of electricity (COE) for the pressurized MBB supercritical steam power plant with CO2 capture and compression was calculated to be 134% of the COE for an air-coal supercritical steam power plant with no CO2 capture. This compares positively with a calculated COE for first generation oxy-coal supercritical steam power plants with CO2 capture and compression of 164%. The COE for the MBB power plant is found to meet the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) target of 135%, before any plant optimization. The MBB power plant was also determined to be simpler than other oxy-coal power plants with a 17% lower capital cost. No other known combustion technology can produce higher efficiencies or lower COE when CO2 capture and compression are included. A thermodynamic enthalpy and exergy analysis

  16. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification Task 3: SOx/NOx/Hg Removal for Low Sulfur Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanfir, Monica; Solunke, Rahul; Shah, Minish

    2012-06-01

    The goal of this project was to develop a near-zero emissions flue gas purification technology for existing PC (pulverized coal) power plants that are retrofitted with oxycombustion technology. The objective of Task 3 of this project was to evaluate an alternative method of SOx, NOx and Hg removal from flue gas produced by burning low sulfur coal in oxy-combustion power plants. The goal of the program was to conduct an experimental investigation and to develop a novel process for simultaneously removal of SOx and NOx from power plants that would operate on low sulfur coal without the need for wet-FGD & SCRs. A novel purification process operating at high pressures and ambient temperatures was developed. Activated carbon's catalytic and adsorbent capabilities are used to oxidize the sulfur and nitrous oxides to SO{sub 3} and NO{sub 2} species, which are adsorbed on the activated carbon and removed from the gas phase. Activated carbon is regenerated by water wash followed by drying. The development effort commenced with the screening of commercially available activated carbon materials for their capability to remove SO{sub 2}. A bench-unit operating in batch mode was constructed to conduct an experimental investigation of simultaneous SOx and NOx removal from a simulated oxyfuel flue gas mixture. Optimal operating conditions and the capacity of the activated carbon to remove the contaminants were identified. The process was able to achieve simultaneous SOx and NOx removal in a single step. The removal efficiencies were >99.9% for SOx and >98% for NOx. In the longevity tests performed on a batch unit, the retention capacity could be maintained at high level over 20 cycles. This process was able to effectively remove up to 4000 ppm SOx from the simulated feeds corresponding to oxyfuel flue gas from high sulfur coal plants. A dual bed continuous unit with five times the capacity of the batch unit was constructed to test continuous operation and longevity. Full

  17. Development of catalytic gas cleaning in gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simell, P.; Kurkela, E.; Staahlberg, P.; Hepola, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Gasification gas containing dust can be efficiently purified from tars and ammonia with a nickel monolith catalyst. Temperatures of >900 deg C and a residence time of about 1 s (SV 2 500 1/h) were needed at 5 bar pressure to achieve complete tar decomposition and 80 % ammonia conversion. Catalyst deactivation was not observed during test runs of 100 h. At lower pressures dolomites and limestones can also be applied for tar removal at about 900 deg C temperatures. (orig.) 12 refs.

  18. Measurement of a gas-fired boiler flue gas condensate heat and water deep recycle and denitrification integration project%燃气锅炉烟气冷凝热和水深度回收与脱硝一体化工程实测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鹏; 朱爱明; 尹荣杰; 王随林; 禚玉群

    2015-01-01

    To solve the problems of high flue gas exhaust temperature,high nitrogen oxide content in flue gas and serious fog emissions in a gas-fired heating boiler room in Beijing,adopting the anti-corrosion high-efficient flue gas condensate heat and water recovery technology combined with catalytic oxidation denitrification technology,performs the reformation for the heating boiler and the field measurement.The results show that the temperature of exhaust gas can be reduced to 25 ~45 ℃,the efficiency of gas utilization can be increased by 6.7%~18%,and the system can recycle 10.3~28.8 t/d flue gas condensate water and decrease 43%~54% nitrogen oxide exhaust.%针对北京市某燃气供热锅炉房排烟温度高、氮氧化物等污染物排放量大和雾气大等问题,采用防腐高效烟气冷凝热和烟气冷凝水深度回收利用技术与氧化催化脱硝技术相结合,对锅炉进行了改造和跟踪实测。结果表明,改造后烟气温度降到25~45℃,节能率为6.7%~18%,回收烟气冷凝水10.3~28.8 t/d,氮氧化物减排43%~54%。

  19. Experimental Study on Mercury Reduction in Coal-fired Flue Gas Emissions%燃煤烟气中重金属汞减排的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何平; 吴江; 姜秀民; 潘卫国; 张艳艳; 刘倩雁; 沈敏强

    2011-01-01

    With good pore structure and catalytic properties,activated carbon is a popular mercury absorbent of flue gas.In this paper,flue gas mercury analyzer is used to evaluate the efficiency of activated carbon adsorption of mercury in flue gas.In the condition of simulated flue gas,the mercury adsorption efficiencies of native activated carbon by wooden and activated carbon made from coal are 63.38% and 58.65% respectively.After chemical modification with NaBr,the adsorption efficiency of modified activated carbon made from wood greatly increases and the flue gas mercury adsorption efficiency could reach up to 89.1%.The reason is that NaBr modification improves porous structure on AC particles surface,and Br shows oxidation effect to elemental mercury.%活性炭由于其良好的孔隙结构及催化特性,是一种较好的烟气汞吸附剂。采用燃煤烟气测汞仪,在自行开发的实验室规模的吸附剂评价试验台上对活性炭吸附烟气中汞的吸附效率进行了试验研究。结果表明,未改性的木质活性炭及煤质活性炭在模拟烟气条件下吸附烟气汞的效率分别达到63.38%和58.65%。采用NaBr化学改性后的木质活性炭吸附效率大大提高,对烟气汞的吸附效率可达到89.1%,表明NaBr改性提高了活性炭表面孔结构,同时Br元素对汞具有氧化作用。

  20. Development of Novel CO2 Adsorbents for Capture of CO2 from Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauth, D.J.; Filburn, T.P. (University of Hartford, West Hartford, CT); Gray, M.L.; Hedges, S.W.; Hoffman, J.; Pennline, H.W.; Filburn, T.

    2007-06-01

    Capturing CO2 emissions generated from fossil fuel-based power plants has received widespread attention and is considered a vital course of action for CO2 emission abatement. Efforts are underway at the Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory to develop viable energy technologies enabling the CO2 capture from large stationary point sources. Solid, immobilized amine sorbents (IAS) formulated by impregnation of liquid amines within porous substrates are reactive towards CO2 and offer an alternative means for cyclic capture of CO2 eliminating, to some degree, inadequacies related to chemical absorption by aqueous alkanolamine solutions. This paper describes synthesis, characterization, and CO2 adsorption properties for IAS materials previously tested to bind and release CO2 and water vapor in a closed loop life support system. Tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA), acrylonitrile-modified tetraethylenepentamine (TEPAN), and a single formulation consisting of TEPAN and N, N’-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine (BED) were individually supported on a poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) substrate and examined. CO2 adsorption profiles leading to reversible CO2 adsorption capacities were obtained using thermogravimetry. Under 10% CO2 in nitrogen at 25°C and 1 atm, TEPA supported on PMMA over 60 minutes adsorbed ~3.2 mmol/g{sorbent} whereas, TEPAN supported on PMMA along with TEPAN and BED supported on PMMA adsorbed ~1.7 mmol/g{sorbent} and ~2.3 mmol/g{sorbent} respectively. Cyclic experiments with a 1:1 weight ratio of TEPAN and BED supported on poly (methyl methacrylate) beads utilizing a fixed-bed flow system with 9% CO2, 3.5% O2, nitrogen balance with trace gas constituents were studied. CO2 adsorption capacity was ~ 3 mmols CO2/g{sorbent} at 40°C and 1.4 atm. No beneficial effect on IAS performance was found using a moisture-laden flue gas mixture. Tests with 750 ppmv NO in a humidified gas stream revealed negligible NO sorption onto the IAS. A high SO2

  1. CO{sub 2} Capture from Flue Gas Using Solid Molecular Basket Sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fillerup, Eric; Zhang, Zhonghua; Peduzzi, Emanuela; Wang, Dongxiang; Guo, Jiahua; Ma, Xiaoliang; Wang, Xiaoxing; Song, Chunshan

    2012-08-31

    The objective of this project is to develop a new generation of solid, regenerable polymeric molecular basket sorbent (MBS) for more cost-efficient capture and separation of CO{sub 2} from flue gas of coal-fired power plants. The primary goal is to develop a cost-effective MBS sorbent with better thermal stability. To improve the cost-effectiveness of MBS, we have explored commercially available and inexpensive support to replace the more expensive mesoporous molecular sieves like MCM-41 and SBA- 15. In addition, we have developed some advanced sorbent materials with 3D pore structure such as hexagonal mesoporous silica (HMS) to improve the CO{sub 2} working capacity of MBS, which can also reduce the cost for the whole CO{sub 2} capture process. During the project duration, the concern regarding the desorption rate of MBS sorbents has been raised, because lower desorption rate increases the desorption time for complete regeneration of the sorbent which in turn leads to a lower working capacity if the regeneration time is limited. Thus, the improvement in the thermal stability of MBS became a vital task for later part of this project. The improvement in the thermal stability was performed via increasing the polymer density either using higher molecular weight PEI or PEI cross-linking with an organic compound. Moreover, we have used the computational approach to estimate the interaction of CO{sub 2} with different MBSs for the fundamental understanding of CO{sub 2} sorption, which may benefit the development, design and modification of the sorbents and the process.

  2. Mechanism of flue gas simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification using the highly reactive absorbent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yi; SUN Xiaojun; XU Peiyao; MA Shuangchen; WANG Lidong; LIU Feng

    2005-01-01

    Fly ash, industry-grade lime and a few oxidizing manganese compound additive were used to prepare the "Oxygen-riched" highly reactive absorbent for simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification. Experiments of simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification were carried out using the highly reactive absorbent in the flue gas circulating fluidized bed (CFB) system. Removal efficiencies of 94.5% for SO2 and 64.2% for NO were obtained respectively. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) and accessory X-ray energy spectrometer were used to observe micro-properties of the samples, including fly ash, common highly reactive absorbent, "Oxygen-riched" highly reactive absorbent and spent absorbent. The white flake layers were observed in the SEM images about surfaces of the common highly reactive absorbent and "Oxygen- riched" one, and the particle surfaces of the spent absorbent were porous. The content of calcium on surface was higher than that of the average in the highly reactive absorbent. The manganese compound additive dispersed uniformly on the surfaces of the "Oxygen- riched" highly reactive absorbent. There was a sulfur peak in the energy spectra pictures of the spent absorbent. The component of the spent absorbent was analyzed with chemical analysis methods, and the results indicated that more nitrogen species appeared in the absorbent except sulfur species, and SO2 and NO were removed by chemical absorption according to the experimental results of X-ray energy spectrometer and the chemical analysis. Sulfate being the main desulfurization products, nitrite was the main denitrification ones during the process, in which NO was oxidized rapidly to NO2 and absorbed by the chemical reaction.

  3. Application of recovered magnesium hydroxide from a flue gas desulfurization system for wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, P.L.; Wu, Q.; Keener, T.; Zhuang, L.A.; Gurusamy, R.; Pehkonen, S.

    1999-07-01

    Magnesium hydroxide, reclaimed from the flue gas desulfurization system (FGD) at the Zimmer Power Plant, Cincinnati, Ohio, is a weak base, in the form of either a slurry or powder. It has many potential applications for wastewater treatment. The objectives of this research are (1) to characterize the reclaimed magnesium hydroxide, e.g., purity, particle size distribution, dissolution kinetics; (2) to evaluate neutralization capacity and buffering intensity of the reclaimed magnesium hydroxide; (3) to study the efficacy of the reclaimed magnesium hydroxide for nutrient removal in wastewater treatment processes; (4) to investigate whether and how the magnesium hydroxide influences the characteristics of the activated sludge floc; (5) to determine whether magnesium hydroxide improves the anaerobic sludge digestion process and associated mechanisms; and (6) to conduct a cost-benefit analysis for the application of the reclaimed magnesium hydroxide in wastewater treatment and the possibility of marketing this product. Research results to date show that the purity of the reclaimed magnesium hydroxide depends largely on the recovery hydroxide slurry. This product proved to be very effective for wastewater neutralization, compared with other commonly used chemicals, both for its neutralization capacity and its buffering intensity. Due to its relatively low solubility in water and its particle size distribution characteristics, magnesium hydroxide behaves like a weak base, which will be very beneficial for process control. The authors also found that nitrogen and phosphorus could be removed from the wastewater using magnesium hydroxide due to their complexation and precipitation as magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite). Magnesium hydroxide also greatly enhanced the settleability of the activated sludge. Intensive research on the mechanisms associated with these phenomena reveals that sweep flocculation and magnesium ion bridging between exopolymeric substances (EPS) of

  4. Cycle development and design for CO2 capture from flue gas by vacuum swing adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Webley, Paul A

    2008-01-15

    CO2 capture and storage is an important component in the development of clean power generation processes. One CO2 capture technology is gas-phase adsorption, specifically pressure (or vacuum) swing adsorption. The complexity of these processes makes evaluation and assessment of new adsorbents difficult and time-consuming. In this study, we have developed a simple model specifically targeted at CO2 capture by pressure swing adsorption and validated our model by comparison with data from a fully instrumented pilot-scale pressure swing adsorption process. The model captures nonisothermal effects as well as nonlinear adsorption and nitrogen coadsorption. Using the model and our apparatus, we have designed and studied a large number of cycles for CO2 capture. We demonstrate that by careful management of adsorption fronts and assembly of cycles based on understanding of the roles of individual steps, we are able to quickly assess the effect of adsorbents and process parameters on capture performance and identify optimal operating regimes and cycles. We recommend this approach in contrast to exhaustive parametric studies which tend to depend on specifics of the chosen cycle and adsorbent. We show that appropriate combinations of process steps can yield excellent process performance and demonstrate how the pressure drop, and heat loss, etc. affect process performance through their effect on adsorption fronts and profiles. Finally, cyclic temperature profiles along the adsorption column can be readily used to infer concentration profiles-this has proved to be a very useful tool in cyclic function definition. Our research reveals excellent promise for the application of pressure/vacuum swing adsorption technology in the arena of CO2 capture from flue gases.

  5. Effective NOx remediation from a surrogate flue gas using the US NRL Electra electron beam facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Tz. B.; Petrov, G. M.; Wolford, M. F.; Giuliani, J. L.; Ladouceur, H. D.; Hegeler, F.; Myers, M. C.; Sethian, J. D.

    2017-02-01

    Nitric oxide (NOx) emission is under restrictive federal regulations because of its negative impact on atmosphere, biosphere, and human health. Therefore, its removal has been a subject of extensive research to develop new efficient and cost effective techniques that can be applied on an industrial scale. In this work, we study both experimentally and theoretically an effective removal of NOx pollutants from a surrogate flue gas (SFG) using high power electron beam (e-beam) pulses. SFG is a simulant for exhaust from coal combustion power plants (82% N2, 6% O2, 12% CO2, and ˜100 ppm of NOx). The pulsed electron beam is generated using the United States Naval Research Laboratory Electra facility, which delivers e-beams with energies of ˜500 keV and a power pulse duration of ˜140 ns. During the e-beam irradiation, the energetic electrons generate a non-equilibrium plasma containing chemically active species, which then react with NOx to form harmless substances. A non-equilibrium time-dependent model is developed to describe NOx remediation from SFG. The model combines e-beam deposition rates obtained by solving the electron Boltzmann equation and extensive plasma chemistry modeling, which follows the species on a time scale from sub-nanoseconds to a few seconds. NOx decomposition as a function of electron beam parameters is studied. It is demonstrated experimentally that short (ns) pulses are the most efficient for NOx removal. A sharp reduction of NOx was measured with e-beam power deposition increasing, following the trend predicted by the model, achieving a 20 fold reduction to ˜5 ppm at energy deposition ˜20 J/l.

  6. Land application uses for dry flue gas desulfurization by-products. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dick, W.; Bigham, J.; Forster, R.; Hitzhusen, F.; Lal, R.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.; Haefner, R.; Rowe, G.

    1999-01-31

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbing technologies create several types of by-products. This project focused primarily on by-product materials obtained from what are commonly called ''dry scrubbers'' which produce a dry, solid material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction product that contains sulfate and sulfite, and coal fly ash. Prior to this project, dry FGD by-products were generally treated as solid wastes and disposed in landfills. However, landfill sites are becoming scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing; The major objective of this project was to develop beneficial uses, via recycling, capable of providing economic benefits to both the producer and the end user of the FGD by-product. It is equally important, however, that the environmental impacts be carefully assessed so that the new uses developed are not only technically feasible but socially acceptable. Specific objectives developed for this project were derived over an 18-month period during extensive discussions with personnel from industry, regulatory agencies and research institutions. These were stated as follows: Objective 1: To characterize the material generated by dry FGD processes. Objective 2: To demonstrate the utilization of dry FGD by-product as a soil amendment on agricultural lands and on abandoned and active surface coal mines in Ohio. Objective 3: To demonstrate the use of dry FGD by-product as an engineering material for soil stabilization. Objective 4: To determine the quantities of dry FGD by-product that can be utilized in each of these applications. Objective 5. To determine the environmental and economic impacts of utilizing the material. Objective 6. To calibrate environmental, engineering, and economic models that can be used to determine the applicability and costs of utilizing these processes at other sites.

  7. New rht-Type Metal-Organic Frameworks Decorated with Acylamide Groups for Efficient Carbon Dioxide Capture and Chemical Fixation from Raw Power Plant Flue Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiangyang; Zhou, Zhen; Chen, Cong; Bai, Junfeng; He, Cheng; Duan, Chunying

    2016-11-23

    The combination of carbon dioxide capture and chemical fixation in a one-pot process is attractive for both chemists and governments. The cycloaddition of carbon dioxide with epoxides to produce cyclic carbonates is an atomic economical reaction without any side products. By incorporating acylamide to enhance the binding affinity toward CO2, new rht-type metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with (3, 28) and (3, 24) connected units were constructed. Zn-NTTA with two types of dinuclear paddlewheel building blocks-{Zn2(OOC(-))4} and {Zn2(OOC(-))3}. The high uptake of CO2 (115.6 cm(3)·g(-1)) and selectivity over N2 (30:1) at 273 K indicated that these MOFs are excellent candidates for postcombustion CO2 isolation and capture. The MOFs feature high catalytic activity, rapid dynamics of transformation and excellent stability with turnover number (TON) values up to 110 000 per paddlewheel unit after 5 × 6 rounds of recyclability, demonstrating that they are promising heterogeneous catalysts for CO2 cyclo-addition to value-added cyclic carbonates. The cycloaddition of epoxides with wet gases demonstrated that the catalyst activity was not affected by moisture, and the indices of the PXRD patterns of the bulk samples filtered from the catalytic reaction revealed that the crystallinities were maintained. The combination of the selective capture and catalytic transformation in one-pot enables the use of a negative-cost feedstock-raw power plant flue gas without any separation and purification-revealing the broad prospects of such MOFs for practical CO2 fixation in industry.

  8. Research Progress in Flue Gas Desulfurization Technologies%烟气脱硫处理技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵鲁华; 黄冲; 潘一; 杨双春

    2013-01-01

      烟气脱硫是从废气中去除含硫物质如 SO2,SO3,H2S 的一种工艺,怎样脱除烟气中的含硫物质,减少含硫物质排放已逐步成为全球关注的热点。笔者主要介绍了国内外烟气脱硫处理技术研究现状及进展,包括醇胺类离子液体法、石灰石(石灰)/石膏法、双碱法、金属氧化物法、生物膜法、非生物膜法等,对各种方法进行了评价和比较,并对今后烟气脱硫处理技术的发展提出了建议。%The flue gas desulfurization is to remove sulfur substances from exhaust gas,such as SO2,SO3,H2S. It has gradually become the focus of global attention to remove sulfur containing materials in flue gas and reduce sulfur material discharge. In this paper,flue gas desulfurization treatment technologies at home and abroad were introduced, such as alcohol amine ion liquid method,lime method,dual alkali method,metal oxide method,biofilm process, non biofilm process,and so on. At last, above methods were compared and the future research suggestions were presented.

  9. HYBRID SELECTIVE NON-CATALYTIC REDUCTION (SNCR)/SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION (SCR) DEMONSTRATION FOR THE REMOVAL OF NOx FROM BOILER FLUE GASES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerry B. Urbas

    1999-05-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Pennsylvania Electric Energy Research Council, (PEERC), New York State Electric and Gas and GPU Generation, Inc. jointly funded a demonstration to determine the capabilities for Hybrid SNCR/SCR (Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction/Selective Catalytic Reduction) technology. The demonstration site was GPU Generation's Seward Unit No.5 (147MW) located in Seward Pennsylvania. The demonstration began in October of 1997 and ended in December 1998. DOE funding was provided through Grant No. DE-FG22-96PC96256 with T. J. Feeley as the Project Manager. EPRI funding was provided through agreements TC4599-001-26999 and TC4599-002-26999 with E. Hughes as the Project Manager. This project demonstrated the operation of the Hybrid SNCR/SCR NO{sub x} control process on a full-scale coal fired utility boiler. The hybrid technology was expected to provide a cost-effective method of reducing NO{sub x} while balancing capital and operation costs. An existing urea based SNCR system was modified with an expanded-duct catalyst to provide increased NO{sub x} reduction efficiency from the SNCR while producing increased ammonia slip levels to the catalyst. The catalyst was sized to reduce the ammonia slip to the air heaters to less than 2 ppm while providing equivalent NO{sub x} reductions. The project goals were to demonstrate hybrid technology is capable of achieving at least a 55% reduction in NO{sub x} emissions while maintaining less than 2ppm ammonia slip to the air heaters, maintain flyash marketability, verify the cost benefit and applicability of Hybrid post combustion technology, and reduce forced outages due to ammonium bisulfate (ABS) fouling of the air heaters. Early system limitations, due to gas temperature stratification, restricted the Hybrid NO{sub x} reduction capabilities to 48% with an ammonia slip of 6.1 mg/Nm{sup 3} (8 ppm) at the catalyst inlet. After resolving the stratification

  10. Life cycle assessment of selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) of nitrous oxides in a full-scale municipal solid waste incinerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jacob; Munk, Bjarne; Crillesen, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) of nitrous oxides in a full-scale municipal solid waste incinerator was investigated using LCA. The relationship between NOx-cleaning and ammonia dosage was measured at the plant. Un-reacted ammonia – the ammonia slip – leaving the flue-gas cleaning system......-removal in flue-gas cleaning from waste incineration....

  11. Confined zone dispersion flue gas desulfurization demonstration. Quarterly report No. 8, August 17, 1992--November 16, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-27

    The CZD process involves injecting a finely atomized slurry of reactive lime into the flue gas duct work of a coal-fired utility boiler. The principle of the confined zone is to form a wet zone of slurry droplets in the middle of the duct confined in an envelope of hot gas between the wet zone and the duct walls. The lime slurry reacts with part of the SO{sub 2} in the gas, and the reaction products dry to form solid particles. A solids collector, typically an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) downstream from the point of injection, captures the reaction products along with the fly ash entrained in the flue gas. The goal of this demonstration is to prove the technical and economic feasibility of the CZD technology on a commercial scale. The process is expected to achieve 50% SO{sub 2} removal at lower capital and O&M costs than other systems. To achieve its objectives, the project is divided into the following three phases: Phase 1: Design and Permitting, Phase 2: Construction and Start-up, Phase 3: Operation and Disposition. Phase 1 activities were completed on January 31, 1991. Phase 2 activities were essentially concluded on July 31, 1991, and Phase 3a, Parametric Testing, was initiated on July 1, 1991. This Quarterly Technical Progress Report covers Phase 3b activities from August 17, 1992 through November 16, 1992.

  12. Flue gas cleaning cyclone for a straw combustor. Technical part. Final report; Roegvasker til halmfyr. Teknisk del. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    In 1996 Linka Maskinfabrik was promised financial support for the development of a smoke scrubber system, capable of reducing the particle content in flue gases deriving from the combustion of straw till under 40 mg/Nm{sup 3}. Furthermore, the system was intended to increase the thermal efficiency in straw-fired plants by 15 to 20%. The design chosen for the smoke scrubber was a cyclone-type unit with subsequent smoke-tube cooler (cooling unit), using as cooling media water from the district heating network. The performance of the smoke-tube cooler with regard to cooling, separation of particles, operation and corrosion was demonstrated in a small-scale wood-chips fired district heating plant. The results were promising, and hence the experiences were applied directly to the smoke scrubber. The complete smoke scrubber system with integrated cooling unit was installed and tested in the district heating plant of Lohals, Denmark. As far as flue gas cooling, fouling and corrosion was concerned, the system functioned satisfactorily. However, the attemps to make the system function also as an efficient particle separator proved futile, and eventually the plant was dismounted. On basis of the project test results achieved, it may be concluded that the smoke scrubber system applied was suitable for the cooling of flue gases from wood-chips and straw-fired plants. Likewise, the system was able to separate particles in flue gases from straw-firing with a satisfactory result, whereas the system was less suited in straw-fired plants as far as particle separation was concerned. (au)

  13. Effective Biological DeNOx of Industrial Flue Gas by the Mixotrophic Cultivation of an Oil-Producing Green Alga Chlorella sp. C2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weixian; Zhang, Shanshan; Rong, Junfeng; Li, Xiang; Chen, Hui; He, Chenliu; Wang, Qiang

    2016-02-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are the components of fossil flue gas that result in the most serious environmental concerns. We previously showed that the biological removal of NOx by microalgae appears superior to traditional treatments. This study optimizes the strategy for the microalgal-based DeNOx of flue gas by fed-batch mixotrophic cultivation. By using actual flue gas fixed salts (FGFS) as the nitrogen supply, the mixotrophical cultivation of the green alga Chlorella sp. C2 with high NOx absorption efficiency was optimized in a stepwise manner in a 5 L bioreactor and resulted in a maximum biomass productivity of 9.87 g L(-1) d(-1). The optimized strategy was further scaled up to 50 L, and a biomass productivity of 7.93 g L(-1) d(-1) was achieved, with an overall DeNOx efficiency of 96%, along with an average nitrogen CR of 0.45 g L(-1) d(-1) and lipid productivity of 1.83 g L(-1) d(-1). With an optimized mixotrophical cultivation, this study further proved the feasibility of using Chlorella for the combination of efficient biological DeNOx of flue gas and microalgae-based products production. Thus, this study shows a promising industrial strategy for flue gas biotreatment in plants with limited land area.

  14. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification Task 2: SOx/Nox/Hg Removal for High Sulfur Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nick Degenstein; Minish Shah; Doughlas Louie

    2012-05-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a near-zero emissions flue gas purification technology for existing PC (pulverized coal) power plants that are retrofitted with oxy-combustion technology. The objective of Task 2 of this project was to evaluate an alternative method of SOx, NOx and Hg removal from flue gas produced by burning high sulfur coal in oxy-combustion power plants. The goal of the program was not only to investigate a new method of flue gas purification but also to produce useful acid byproduct streams as an alternative to using a traditional FGD and SCR for flue gas processing. During the project two main constraints were identified that limit the ability of the process to achieve project goals. 1) Due to boiler island corrosion issues >60% of the sulfur must be removed in the boiler island with the use of an FGD. 2) A suitable method could not be found to remove NOx from the concentrated sulfuric acid product, which limits sale-ability of the acid, as well as the NOx removal efficiency of the process. Given the complexity and safety issues inherent in the cycle it is concluded that the acid product would not be directly saleable and, in this case, other flue gas purification schemes are better suited for SOx/NOx/Hg control when burning high sulfur coal, e.g. this project's Task 3 process or a traditional FGD and SCR.

  15. Technical description of parameters influencing the pH value of suspension absorbent used in flue gas desulfurization systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Głomba, Michał

    2010-08-01

    As a result of the large limestone deposits available in Poland, the low cost of reagent acquisition for the largescale technological use and relatively well-documented processes of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technologies based on limestone sorbent slurry, wet scrubbing desulfurization is a method of choice in Poland for flue gas treatment in energy production facilities, including power plants and industrial systems. The efficiency of FGD using the above method depends on several technological and kinetic parameters, particularly on the pH value of the sorbent (i.e., ground limestone suspended in water). Consequently, many studies in Poland and abroad address the impact of various parameters on the pH value of the sorbent suspension, such as the average diameter of sorbent particles (related to the limestone pulverization degree), sorbent quality (in terms of pure calcium carbonate [CaCO3] content of the sorbent material), stoichiometric surfeit of CaCO3 in relation to sulfur dioxide (SO2) absorbed from flue gas circulating in the absorption node, time of absorption slurry retention in the absorber tank, chlorine ion concentration in sorbent slurry, and concentration of dissolved metal salts (Na, K, Mg, Fe, Al, and others). This study discusses the results of laboratory-scale tests conducted to establish the effect of the above parameters on the pH value of limestone slurry circulating in the SO2 absorption node. On the basis of the test results, a correlation equation was postulated to help maintain the desirable pH value at the design phase of the wet FGD process. The postulated equation displays good coincidence between calculated pH values and those obtained using laboratory measurements.

  16. Re-use of stabilised flue gas ashes from solid waste incineration in cement-treated base layers for pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zuansi; Jensen, Dorthe L; Christensen, Thomas H; Bager, Dirch H

    2003-02-01

    Fly ash from coal-burning power plants has been used extensively as a pozzolan and fine filler in concrete for many years. Laboratory experiments were performed investigating the effect of substituting the coal-based fly ash with chemically stabilised flue gas ashes (FGA) from waste incineration. Two types of FGA were treated by the Ferrox-process, which removes the majority of the easily soluble salts in the FGA and provides binding sites for heavy metals in terms of ferrihydrite. Cubes of cement treated base layer materials containing 5% stabilised FGA were cast, sealed and cured for two weeks. Cylinders (diameter 100 mm, length 150 mm) were drilled from these cubes for tank leaching experiments. Duplicate specimens were subject to compression strength testing and to tank leaching experiments. The compressive strength of the CTB fulfilled the Danish requirements for CTB, i.e. strength more than 5 MPa after 7 days. The tank leaching tests revealed that leaching of heavy metals was not significantly affected by the use of chemically stabilised flue gas ashes from waste incineration. Assuming that diffusion controls the leaching process it was calculated that less than 1% of the metals would leach during a 100-year period from a 0.5 m thick concrete slab exposed to water on one side. Leaching of the common ions Ca, Cl, Na and SO4 was increased 3-20 times from the specimens with chemically stabilised flue gas ashes from waste incineration. However, the quantities leached were still modest. These experiments suggest that FGA from waste incineration after Ferrox-treatment could be re-used in CTB without compromising the strength and leaching from the base layer.

  17. 燃煤烟气汞排放与控制研究进展%Review on the research progress of the mercury emission in flue gas in coal burning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈伯雄; 左琛

    2012-01-01

    This paper intends to make a review on the research progress of the mercury emission in flue gas in coal burning. As is known, mercury is known for its hypertoxicity, volatility and cumula-tiveness. To reduce and even get rid of such harmful effects of mercury on human body and environment, wide research has been done in the world in recent years, particularly in Asia, the most seriously polluted area in the world, for it is one of the continents fastest in accelerated industrialization. Mercury pollution and contamination can be summarized in the form of its distributions, such as Hg0, Hg2+ and Hgp in the coal fire flue gas, which can be determined by the relevant temperatures, Cl concentration, other contents in flue gas, coal chips, combustion devices, etc. The research results reveal that mercury can be removed by injecting adsorbents in the furnace. Since the commonly-used air pollution control systems can help to obtain different Hg removing results in various complicated ways, such as injection of adsorbents, the activated carbon or modified activated carbon absorption. Of all the ways, modified activated carbon absorption displays greatest efficiency on Hg removal though its cost is high. Catalytic oxidation technology by means of the action of SCR and other catalysts has also been tested to transfer Hg° to Hg2+ with a purpose to improve the Hg removal efficiency. Other novel mercury control methods are also under study, such as Low temperature plasma, ozone and UV irradiation, and so on. Comparing different technologies, we prefer to recommend the general integrated air pollution technology, such as bag-type dust collector with adsorbent injection or catalytic oxidation. The kinds of cheap Hg adsorbents, such as the modified fly ash should also be recommended. The next best available methods, just followed by flue gas desulfidation, are the catalysis, for example, SCR de-NOx, which can be used to oxidize Hg. Thus, it can be seen that the above review

  18. Hydrophobic Catalysts For Removal Of NOx From Flue Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pramod K.; Hickey, Gregory S.; Voecks, Gerald E.

    1995-01-01

    Improved catalysts for removal of nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2) from combustion flue gases formulated as composites of vanadium pentoxide in carbon molecular sieves. Promotes highly efficient selective catalytic reduction of NOx at relatively low temperatures while not being adversely affected by presence of water vapor and sulfur oxide gases in flue gas. Apparatus utilizing catalyst of this type easily integrated into exhaust stream of power plant to remove nitrogen oxides, generated in combustion of fossil fuels and contribute to formation of acid rain and photochemical smog.

  19. Influence of Chemical and Thermodynamic Parameters on the Flue Gas Desulphurization Efficiency in a Circulating Fluidized Bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baoguo FAN; Changfu YOU; Haiying QI; Guangming XIANG; Xuchang XU

    2001-01-01

    An experimental study has been performed systematically on flue gas desulphurization by using circulating fluidized bed. The relationship, between desulphurization efficiency and the parameters of thermodynamics and chemistry, was investigated basically. It is shown that the bed temperature and the vapor partial pressure in the bed are the important parameters that influence the desulphurization efficiency. The closer the bed temperature to the dew point and the higher the vapor partial pressure, the higher is the desulphurization efficiency. With increasing of Ca/S, the desulphurization efficiency ascends. Comparing with different operating methods, the optimum method has been found.

  20. Kinetics of pozzolanic reaction for preparation of flue gas desulfurizer from fly ash and Ca(OH)2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jingang; HU Jinbang; WANG Daobin; DUAN Zhenya

    2007-01-01

    A kinetic model of the pozzolanic reaction for the preparation of flue gas desulfurizers from fly ash and Ca(OH)2 was deduced on the basis of solid phase reaction kinetic theory.Kinetic expressions and parameters were obtained and verified by experiment.A comparison of calculated results with experimental results showed that precision in kinetic expressions was good.The apparent reaction rate constants of the pozzolanic reaction could be raised by increasing the specific surface area of fly ash and the hydration temperature,and by using a suitable additive.

  1. Foaming in wet flue gas desulfurization plants: Laboratory‐scale investigation of long‐term performance of antifoaming agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Siqiang; Hansen, Brian Brun; Kiil, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous foaming can cause a range of operational problems in industrial processes such as wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD). This work investigates the performance of selected antifoaming agents (Nalco FM‐37, Foamtrol 2290, and rapeseed oil) on foams generated by egg white albumin (protein......), sodium dodecyl sulfate, and adipic acid at conditions of relevance for wet FGD plants. The addition of antifoaming agents breaks any existing foam and causes an induction period without foaming, after which the foam gradually will begin to reappear. Foaming by egg white albumin (2 g/L) at 0.014 m/s could...

  2. The relationship between flue gas/fly ash compositions and dioxin level in fluidized-bed incinerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Ryuichi; Watanabe, Kazuaki [Ebara Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Environmental Plant Dept.; Buekens, A.G.; Huang, Haitao [Vrije Univ., Brussels (Belgium). Chemische Ingenieurstechniek en Industriele Scheikunde

    2000-04-01

    With the aim of minimizing dioxin formation in industrial-scale plants, incinerator facilities of the twin interchanging fluidized-bed type were studied for the major factors influencing the dioxin level. A statistical model was derived based on multiple regression analysis of experimental data. It was found that the toxic equivalency level of dioxins is strongly positively correlated with fly ash copper and moderately with flue gas O{sub 2} content, and strongly negatively correlated with fly ash chlorine and weakly with carbon content. (orig.)

  3. Direct gas-solid carbonation kinetics of steel slag and the contribution to in situ sequestration of flue gas CO(2) in steel-making plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Sicong; Jiang, Jianguo; Chen, Xuejing; Yan, Feng; Li, Kaimin

    2013-12-01

    Direct gas-solid carbonation of steel slag under various operational conditions was investigated to determine the sequestration of the flue gas CO2 . X-ray diffraction analysis of steel slag revealed the existence of portlandite, which provided a maximum theoretical CO2 sequestration potential of 159.4 kg CO 2 tslag (-1) as calculated by the reference intensity ratio method. The carbonation reaction occurred through a fast kinetically controlled stage with an activation energy of 21.29 kJ mol(-1) , followed by 10(3) orders of magnitude slower diffusion-controlled stage with an activation energy of 49.54 kJ mol(-1) , which could be represented by a first-order reaction kinetic equation and the Ginstling equation, respectively. Temperature, CO2 concentration, and the presence of SO2 impacted on the carbonation conversion of steel slag through their direct and definite influence on the rate constants. Temperature was the most important factor influencing the direct gas-solid carbonation of steel slag in terms of both the carbonation conversion and reaction rate. CO2 concentration had a definite influence on the carbonation rate during the kinetically controlled stage, and the presence of SO2 at typical flue gas concentrations enhanced the direct gas-solid carbonation of steel slag. Carbonation conversions between 49.5 % and 55.5 % were achieved in a typical flue gas at 600 °C, with the maximum CO2 sequestration amount generating 88.5 kg CO 2 tslag (-1) . Direct gas-solid carbonation of steel slag showed a rapid CO2 sequestration rate, high CO2 sequestration amounts, low raw-material costs, and a large potential for waste heat utilization, which is promising for in situ carbon capture and sequestration in the steel industry.

  4. Design, construction, and operation of a life-cycle test system for the evaluation of flue gas cleanup processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennline, H.W.; Yeh, James T.; Hoffman, J.S. [USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States); Longton, E.J.; Vore, P.A.; Resnik, K.P.; Gromicko, F.N. [Gilbert/Commonwealth, Inc., Library, PA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has designed, constructed, and operated a Life-Cycle Test Systems (LCTS) that will be used primarily for the investigation of dry, regenerable sorbent flue gas cleanup processes. Sorbent continuously cycles from an absorber reactor where the pollutants are removed from the flue gas, to a regenerator reactor where the activity of the spent sorbent is restored and a usable by-product stream of gas is produced. The LCTS will initially be used to evaluate the Moving-Bed Copper Oxide Process by determining the effects of various process parameters on SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removals. The purpose of this paper is to document the design rationale and details, the reactor/component/instrument installation, and the initial performance of the system. Although the Moving-Bed Copper Oxide Process will be investigated initially, the design of the LCTS evolved to make the system a multipurpose, versatile research facility. Thus, the unit can be used to investigate various other processes for pollution abatement of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, particulates, air toxics, and/or other pollutants.

  5. Hydroquinone and Quinone-Grafted Porous Carbons for Highly Selective CO2 Capture from Flue Gases and Natural Gas Upgrading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Krishna, Rajamani; Yang, Jiangfeng; Deng, Shuguang

    2015-08-04

    Hydroquinone and quinone functional groups were grafted onto a hierarchical porous carbon framework via the Friedel-Crafts reaction to develop more efficient adsorbents for the selective capture and removal of carbon dioxide from flue gases and natural gas. The oxygen-doped porous carbons were characterized with scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. CO2, CH4, and N2 adsorption isotherms were measured and correlated with the Langmuir model. An ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST) selectivity for the CO2/N2 separation of 26.5 (298 K, 1 atm) was obtained on the hydroquinone-grafted carbon, which is 58.7% higher than that of the pristine porous carbon, and a CO2/CH4 selectivity value of 4.6 (298 K, 1 atm) was obtained on the quinone-grafted carbon (OAC-2), which represents a 28.4% improvement over the pristine porous carbon. The highest CO2 adsorption capacity on the oxygen-doped carbon adsorbents is 3.46 mmol g(-1) at 298 K and 1 atm. In addition, transient breakthrough simulations for CO2/CH4/N2 mixture separation were conducted to demonstrate the good separation performance of the oxygen-doped carbons in fixed bed adsorbers. Combining excellent adsorption separation properties and low heats of adsorption, the oxygen-doped carbons developed in this work appear to be very promising for flue gas treatment and natural gas upgrading.

  6. Degradation mechanisms of organic rubber and glass flake/vinyl ester linings in flue gas desulphurization plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, R. [Allianz-Centre for Technology GmbH, Ismaning (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    In recent years, there have been reports in numerous publications about damage to rubber and glass flake coatings in flue gas desulphurization plants. The pattern of damage has been described and attempts have frequently been made to determine and explain the cause of the damage. Oxidation/hydrolytic changes were generally observed as the damage mechanisms. In addition, blistering occurs in both the chloroprene coatings in the absorbers and in the glass flake coatings in clean gas ducts. This blistering may be considered as the end of the useful life and leads to cost-intensive and time-intensive repair and restoration measures. The present state of knowledge suggests that the blistering is mainly due to osmotic processes preceded by permeation processes and with permeation processes superimposed on them. Among other things, the reports describe the permeation behaviour of water and other flue gas constituents; the blistering in chloroprene rubber coatings and glass flake coatings is explained by means of the knowledge gained. (au) 16 refs.

  7. Industrial Gas Turbine Engine Catalytic Pilot Combustor-Prototype Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etemad, Shahrokh [Precision Combustion, Inc., North Haven, CT (United States); Baird, Benjamin [Precision Combustion, Inc., North Haven, CT (United States); Alavandi, Sandeep [Precision Combustion, Inc., North Haven, CT (United States); Pfefferle, William [Precision Combustion, Inc., North Haven, CT (United States)

    2010-04-01

    PCI has developed and demonstrated its Rich Catalytic Lean-burn (RCL®) technology for industrial and utility gas turbines to meet DOE's goals of low single digit emissions. The technology offers stable combustion with extended turndown allowing ultra-low emissions without the cost of exhaust after-treatment and further increasing overall efficiency (avoidance of after-treatment losses). The objective of the work was to develop and demonstrate emission benefits of the catalytic technology to meet strict emissions regulations. Two different applications of the RCL® concept were demonstrated: RCL® catalytic pilot and Full RCL®. The RCL® catalytic pilot was designed to replace the existing pilot (a typical source of high NOx production) in the existing Dry Low NOx (DLN) injector, providing benefit of catalytic combustion while minimizing engine modification. This report discusses the development and single injector and engine testing of a set of T70 injectors equipped with RCL® pilots for natural gas applications. The overall (catalytic pilot plus main injector) program NOx target of less than 5 ppm (corrected to 15% oxygen) was achieved in the T70 engine for the complete set of conditions with engine CO emissions less than 10 ppm. Combustor acoustics were low (at or below 0.1 psi RMS) during testing. The RCL® catalytic pilot supported engine startup and shutdown process without major modification of existing engine controls. During high pressure testing, the catalytic pilot showed no incidence of flashback or autoignition while operating over a wide range of flame temperatures. In applications where lower NOx production is required (i.e. less than 3 ppm), in parallel, a Full RCL® combustor was developed that replaces the existing DLN injector providing potential for maximum emissions reduction. This concept was tested at industrial gas turbine conditions in a Solar Turbines, Incorporated high-pressure (17 atm.) combustion rig and in a modified Solar

  8. Study on the removal of NOx from simulated flue gas using acidic NaClO2 solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The study on the removal of NOx from simulated flue gas has been carried out in lab-scale bubbling reactor using acidic solutions of sodium chlorite. Experiments were performed at various pH values and inlet NO concentrations in absence as well as presence of SO2 gas at 45oC. The effect of SO2 on NO oxidation and NO2 absorption was critically examined. The oxidative ability of sodium chlorite was investigated at different pH values and it was found to be a better oxidant at a pH less than 4. In acidic medium, sodium chlorite decomposed into ClO2 gas, which is believed to participate in NO oxidation as well as in NO2 absorption. A plausible NOx removal mechanism using acidic sodium chlorite solution has been postulated. A maximum NOx removal efficiency of about 81% has been achieved.

  9. A dual-use of DBD plasma for simultaneous NO(x) and SO(2) removal from coal-combustion flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obradović, Bratislav M; Sretenović, Goran B; Kuraica, Milorad M

    2011-01-30

    Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) was investigated for the simultaneous removal of NO(x) and SO(2) from flue gas in a coal-combustion power plant. The DBD equipment was used in either a mode where flue gas was directed through the discharge zone (direct oxidation), or a mode where produced ozonized air was injected in the flue gas stream (indirect oxidation). Removal efficiencies of SO(2) and NO for both methods were measured and compared. Oxidation of NO is more efficient in the indirect oxidation, while oxidation of SO(2) is more efficient in the direct oxidation. Addition of NH(3), has lead to efficient removal of SO(2), due to thermal reaction, and has also enhanced NO removal due to heterogeneous reactions on the surface of ammonium salt aerosols. In the direct oxidation, concentration of CO increased significantly, while it maintained its level in the indirect oxidation.

  10. 烟气余热深度回收方法研究%Research Progress of Flue Gas Waste Heat Recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢正和; 陈鹏; 贾向东; 刘英杰; 朱迎春; 李洋

    2016-01-01

    To solve the current energy and environment problems,must be to increase rate of energy to achieve energy conservation and emission reduction.The depth of the flue gas waste heat recovery technology for energy conservation and emissions reduction has substantial significance.This paper expounds several typical flue gas waste heat recovery units and its research progress,technology of flue gas waste heat was predicated.%烟气余热深度回收技术是提高能源利用率的重要途径。本文阐述了几种具有代表性的烟气余热深度回收装置,介绍了技术研究进展情况,并在此基础上对烟气余热深度技术进行了展望。

  11. Study on method and mechanism for simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification of flue gas based on the TiO2 photocatalysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Based on the TiO2 photocatalysis mechanism, a new method of simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification from flue gas was proposed. Preparation of TiO2 photocatalyst, design of photocatalysis reactor and influencing factors for simul- taneous removal of SO2 and NO, and removal mechanism of SO2 and NO were studied. After the optimal values of concentration of O2 in flue gas, the relative humidity of flue gas and the irradiation time in the photocatalysis reactor were used, the efficiencies of removal for SO2 and NO can be achieved above 98% and about 67%, respectively. According to the results of removal products analysis, the re- moval mechanism of SO2 and NO based on TiO2 photocatlysis can be put forward, namely, SO2 was oxidized to SO3 partly, the bulk of NO was oxidized to NO2, and both were removed by resorbing finally.

  12. Study on method and mechanism for simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification of flue gas based on the TiO2 photocatalysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yi; ZHAO Li; HAN Jing; XU YongYi; WANG ShuQin

    2008-01-01

    Based on the TiO2 photocatalysis mechanism,a new method of simultaneous desuIfurizaUon and denitrification from flue gas was proposed. Preparation of TiO2 photocatalyst,design of photocatalysis reactor and influencing factors for simultaneous removal of SO2 and NO,and removal mechanism of SO2 and NO were studied. After the optimal values of concentration of O2 in flue gas,the relative humidity of flue gas and the irradiation time in the photocatalysis reactor were used,the efficiencies of removal for SO2 and NO can be achieved above 98% and about 67%,respectively. According to the results of removal products analysis,the removal mechanism of SO2 and NO based on TiO2 photocatlysis can be put forward,namely,SO2 was oxidized to SO2 partly,the bulk of NO was oxidized to NO2,and both were removed by resorbing finally.

  13. 烟气-蒸汽辅助重力泄油模拟技术%Numerical simulation technology of flue gas-steam assisted gravity drainage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林日亿; 李魏; 李兆敏; 杨立强; 杨建平

    2012-01-01

    采用加拿大CMG软件公司的CMG-STARS模拟器,对烟气-蒸汽辅助重力泄油技术中烟气在蒸汽腔中的运移规律进行数值模拟.研究烟气注入后蒸汽腔的扩展速度及形态变化规律,分析含油饱和度、黏度、压力、温度的变化规律.在优化的注入参数下,对烟气-蒸汽辅助重力泄油和常规蒸汽辅助重力泄油(SAGD)技术的开发效果进行对比.研究结果表明:优化的蒸汽注入温度为280 ℃、注入速度为150 m3/d、烟气与蒸汽比为1.0.在优化的注入参数下,烟气-蒸汽辅助重力泄油比SAGD的累积采油量提高2.0 kt,采收率提高7%,油气比增加0.7%.烟气-蒸汽辅助重力泄油技术的开发效果更好.%By using the CMG-STARS simulator, the migration laws of flue gas in the steam chamber at flue gas-steam assisted gravity drainage technology were researched. The speed of the steam chamber expanding and the variation of the shape of the steam chamber were studied after flue gas injected. The change rules of oil saturation, viscosity, pressure and temperature were analyzed. The injection parameters of flue gas were optimized by reservoir numerical simulation. With the optimized injection parameters, the development effects of flue gas-steam assisted gravity drainage technology and conventional SAGD were compared. The results show that the optimized steam injection temperature is 280℃ , the injection rate is 150 m /d, and the flue gas and steam ratio is 1.0. With the optimized injection parameters, the cumulative oil production increases by 2. 0 kt, and oil recovery efficiency increases by 7% using the flue gas-steam assisted gravity drainage technology compared with conventional SAGD. The development effect of flue gas-steam assisted gravity drainage technology is better.

  14. Construction and operation of the flue gas desulphurization plant at Altbach/Deizisau power station, unit no. 5. Experience from commissioning and initial operating period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, R.; Necker, P.; Strauss, J.; Hemming, H.; Landgraf, E.

    1987-04-01

    Since take-over the flue gas desulphurization plant has easily maintained the required level of desulphurisation. Caking-on and incrustation are substantially avoided. By redesigning the gypsum drying process an easily storable gypsum which can be used both in the gypsum and cement industry is produced. According to experience gained to date it is expected that the flue gas desulphurisation plant will not impair the availability of the power plant unit taking into account statutory regulations. In overall terms the plant has satisfactorily fulfilled the expectations of the operator.

  15. Experiences of membrane technique in flue gas condensate treatment applications; Utvaerdering av erfarenheter av membranteknik foer rening av roekgaskondensat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, Barbara; Ekdahl, Emma; Hellman, Mats

    2009-07-01

    Investing in a flue gas condensate treatment plant often turns out to be very profitable. The profitability comes from savings in energy and water consumption when treated waste water is recirculated, and also from savings in the NO{sub x} fee as condensate treatment allows for higher ammonia injection rates in the SNCR (NO{sub x} reduction) system. The membrane based technologies for flue gas treatment, which were investigated in this report, have proven to be successful and are operating well. However, they require that the project management is committed and acquaint themselves with the technology to avoid problems during commissioning and operation. In this project, experience with membrane based flue gas condensate treatment at ten different plants was investigated and evaluated. The ten plants are either biomass fired plants or co-combustion plants using a mixture of biomass and industrial waste. Membrane based flue gas condensate treatment is used by circa ten Swedish plants (Ultra Filtration membranes and/or Reverse Osmosis membranes, and at some plants also membranes for ammonia and carbon dioxide removal). All plants are biomass fired plants or co-combustion plants using a mixture of biomass and industrial waste. In Sweden, no plant firing municipal waste has yet been equipped with membrane based flue gas condensate treatment. These plants usually use precipitation and filtration technologies instead. Also the purpose of the condensation step is primarily to operate as a wet flue gas cleaning step. The heat recovery is of subordinate importance. Typical for these plants is also that they use condensation in several steps. The condensates from the different steps are often treated separately, as they may be of very different qualities. The RO unit is the main equipment in a membrane based water treatment plant. Pre-treatment and post-treatment of the RO water is adjusted to the incoming condensate quality, and to the requirements on the effluent. The

  16. Regenerable cobalt oxide loaded magnetosphere catalyst from fly ash for mercury removal in coal combustion flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianping; Zhao, Yongchun; Zhang, Junying; Zheng, Chuguang

    2014-12-16

    To remove Hg(0) in coal combustion flue gas and eliminate secondary mercury pollution of the spent catalyst, a new regenerable magnetic catalyst based on cobalt oxide loaded magnetospheres from fly ash (Co-MF) was developed. The catalyst, with an optimal loading of 5.8% cobalt species, attained approximately 95% Hg(0) removal efficiency at 150 °C under simulated flue gas atmosphere. O2 could enhance the Hg(0) removal activity of magnetospheres catalyst via the Mars-Maessen mechanism. SO2 displayed an inhibitive effect on Hg(0) removal capacity. NO with lower concentration could promote the Hg(0) removal efficiency. However, when increasing the NO concentration to 300 ppm, a slightly inhibitive effect of NO was observed. In the presence of 10 ppm of HCl, greater than 95.5% Hg(0) removal efficiency was attained, which was attributed to the formation of active chlorine species on the surface. H2O presented a seriously inhibitive effect on Hg(0) removal efficiency. Repeated oxidation-regeneration cycles demonstrated that the spent Co-MF catalyst could be regenerated effectively via thermally treated at 400 °C for 2 h.

  17. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth E. Baldrey

    2001-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, further laboratory-screening tests of additive formulations were completed. For these tests, the electrostatic tensiometer method was used for determination of fly ash cohesivity. Resistivity was measured for each screening test with a multi-cell laboratory fly ash resistivity furnace constructed for this project. Also during this quarter chemical formulation testing was undertaken to identify stable and compatible resistivity/cohesivity liquid products.

  18. Incineration of animal by-products--The impact of selected parameters on the flux of flue gas enthalpy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujak, Janusz; Sitarz, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents model analyses and tests of animal by-product waste thermal treatment plants. A schedule of tests was prepared, and 62,024 cases of system operation were analysed. A map/work field of the tested plant was drawn up on the basis thereof. Calculations were made following an algorithm described by Bujak (2015a) written in the VBA (Visual Basic for Application) language. The tests showed that when incinerating animal waste, the flux of physical enthalpy of the flue gas from the afterburner chamber depends on numerous design and operating parameters. The most important include the following: humidity and flux of the waste, concentration of oxygen in the flue gas in the afterburner chamber and loss of heat flux to the atmosphere through the external surfaces of the plant. Individual design and operating parameters can be selected so that the process of incineration is ensured without additional fuel. The performed analyses were verified against the actual object at the industrial scale using a meat plant that manufactures ham and processes beef, pork and poultry with a capacity of 150 tonnes/day. The production process waste included mainly bones and - in much smaller quantities - meat and bone meal, at 17 tonnes/day. The performed tests and analyses can be used to optimise the operation of the waste thermal treatment plant at the stages of design and operation.

  19. 湿法烟气脱硫技术进展%Technical Progress in Flue Gas Desulphurization with Wet Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丰琳; 王海芳

    2012-01-01

    The pollution of sulfur dioxide caused widespread concern in the world,through the comparative study of several major wet flue gas desulphurization(FGD) process,a wet flue gas desulfurization technology-cystine desulfurization technology was concluded from the ferrous cysteine solution of simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification technology.The situation of research,the reaction mechanism and the relative advantages and merits of cystine desulfurization were also described,which conformed to be a promising desulfurization method.%二氧化硫的污染情况已引起世界各国的广泛关注,通过对几种主要湿式脱硫工艺的对比研究,从半胱氨酸亚铁溶液同时脱硫脱氮工艺技术中归纳出一种湿法烟气脱硫技术———胱氨酸脱硫技术,阐述了胱氨酸脱硫技术的反应机理和国内外研究现状,并总结出此方法的优缺点,是一种很有潜力的脱硫方法。

  20. Potential application of aerobic denitrifying bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa PCN-2 in nitrogen oxides (NOx) removal from flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Maosheng; Li, Can; Liu, Shufeng; Gui, Mengyao; Ni, Jinren

    2016-11-15

    Conventional biological removal of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from flue gas has been severely restricted by the presence of oxygen. This paper presents an efficient alternative for NOx removal at varying oxygen levels using the newly isolated bacterial strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa PCN-2 which was capable of aerobic and anoxic denitrification. Interestingly, nitric oxide (NO), as the obligatory intermediate, was negligibly accumulated during nitrate and nitrite reduction. Moreover, normal nitrate reduction with decreasing NO accumulation was realized under O2 concentration ranging from 0 to 100%. Reverse transcription and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis revealed that high efficient NO removal was attributed to the coordinate regulation of gene expressions including napA (for periplasmic nitrate reductase), nirS (for cytochrome cd1 nitrite reductase) and cnorB (for NO reductase). Further batch experiments demonstrated the immobilized strain PCN-2 possessed high capability of removing NO and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) at O2 concentration of 0-10%. A biotrickling filter established with present strain achieved high NOx removal efficiencies of 91.94-96.74% at inlet NO concentration of 100-500ppm and O2 concentration of 0-10%, which implied promising potential applications in purifying NOx contaminated flue gas.

  1. Flue gas desulfurization technology of thermal power plant%热电厂烟气脱硫技术浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李斌

    2013-01-01

    当今社会,环境污染问题越来越严重,特别是火电厂排放的二氧化硫,使人类的生存环境受到很大的危害,因此,国家重新修订了《火电厂大气污染物排放标准》,利用法律来对火电厂排放的烟气采取强制措施,要求必须安装烟气脱硫装置来净化排放的烟气。%In modern society,the increasingly serious problem of environmental pollution,particularly sulfur dioxide emissions from thermal power plants,have greatly harmed the survival environment of human beings,therefore,Thermal Power Plant Air Pollutant E-mission Standards was revised to require thermal power plants to install flue gas desulfurization device in law,by which flue gas of thermal power plant will be purified before emission into the atmosphere.

  2. Study on the associated removal of pollutants from coal-firing flue gas using biomass activated carbon pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Cuiping; Yuan, Wanli [Qingdao Univ., Shandong (China). Electrical and Mechanical Engineering College; Qi, Haiying [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Thermal Engineering

    2013-07-01

    A pilot-scale multi-layer system was developed for the adsorption of SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x}/Hg from flue gas (real flue gases of an heating boiler house) at various operating conditions, including operating temperature and activated carbon materials. Excellent SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x}/Hg removal efficiency was achieved with the multi-layer design with carbons pellets. The SO{sub 2} removal efficiency achieved with the first layer adsorption bed clearly decreased as the operating temperature was increased due to the decrease of physisorption performance. The NO{sub x} removal efficiency measured at the second layer adsorption bed was very higher when the particle carbon impregnated with NH{sub 3}. The higher amounts of Hg absorbed by cotton-seed-skin activated carbon (CSAC) were mainly contributed by chlorinated congeners content. The simultaneously removal of SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x}/Hg was optimization characterized with different carbon layer functions. Overall, The alkali function group and chloride content in CSAC impelled not only the outstanding physisorption but also better chemisorptions. The system for simultaneously removal of multi-pollutant-gas with biomass activated carbon pellets in multi-layer reactor was achieved and the removal results indicated was strongly depended on the activated carbon material and operating temperature.

  3. Novel regenerable sorbent based on Zr-Mn binary metal oxides for flue gas mercury retention and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jiangkun; Qu, Zan; Yan, Naiqiang; Yang, Shijian; Chen, Wanmiao; Hu, Lingang; Huang, Wenjun; Liu, Ping

    2013-10-15

    To capture and recover mercury from coal-fired flue gas, a series of novel regenerable sorbents based on Zr-Mn binary metal oxides were prepared and employed at a relatively low temperature. PXRD, TEM, TPR, XPS, and N2-adsorption methods were employed to characterize the sorbents. The Hg(0) adsorption performance of the sorbents was tested, and the effects of the main operation parameters and the gas components on the adsorption were investigated. Zr significantly improved the sorbent's mercury capacity, which was nearly 5mg/g for Zr0.5Mn0.5Oy. Furthermore, the spent sorbent could be regenerated by heating to 350°C, and the highly concentrated elemental mercury released could be facilely recycled. Therefore, a much greener process for mercury capture and recovery could be anticipated based on this regenerable sorbent.

  4. Optimized design and revamp of flue gas expander%烟气轮机优化设计与改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹晖

    2011-01-01

    The flue gas expander in No. 2 FCCU in SINOPEC Maoming Company suffered from gas flow erosion, catalyst deposition and low operating efficiency, etc. The optimized design and revamp based upon associated cause analysis have improved the operating efficiency and ensured the long-term operation.%针对中国石油化工股份有限公司茂名分公司第二套催化裂化装置烟气轮机存在的气流冲刷、催化剂堆积、效率较低等问题,进行原因分析并加以优化设计与改造,以实现高效率和长周期稳定运行的目标.

  5. Mathematical Model of Two Phase Flow in Natural Draft Wet-Cooling Tower Including Flue Gas Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyhlík Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The previously developed model of natural draft wet-cooling tower flow, heat and mass transfer is extended to be able to take into account the flow of supersaturated moist air. The two phase flow model is based on void fraction of gas phase which is included in the governing equations. Homogeneous equilibrium model, where the two phases are well mixed and have the same velocity, is used. The effect of flue gas injection is included into the developed mathematical model by using source terms in governing equations and by using momentum flux coefficient and kinetic energy flux coefficient. Heat and mass transfer in the fill zone is described by the system of ordinary differential equations, where the mass transfer is represented by measured fill Merkel number and heat transfer is calculated using prescribed Lewis factor.

  6. PCDD/F adsorption and destruction in the flue gas streams of MWI and MSP via Cu and Fe catalysts supported on carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu Hao; Yeh, Jhy Wei; Chein, Hung Min; Hsu, Li Yeh; Chi, Kai Hsien; Chang, Moo Been

    2008-08-01

    Catalytic destruction has been applied to control polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/Fs) emissions from different facilities. The cost of carbon-based catalysts is considerably lower than that of the metal oxide or zeolite-based catalysts used in the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system. In this study, destruction and adsorption efficiencies of PCDD/Fs achieved with Cu/C and Fe/C catalysts from flue gas streams of a metal smelting plant (MSP) and a large-scale municipal waste incinerator (MWI), respectively, are evaluated via the pilot-scale catalytic reactor system (PCRS). The results indicate that Cu and Fe catalysts supported on carbon surface are capable of decomposing and adsorbing PCDD/ Fs from gas streams. In the testing sources of MSP and MWI, the PCDD/F removal efficiencies achieved with Cu/C catalyst at 250 degrees C reach 96%, however, the destruction efficiencies are negative (-1,390% and -112%, respectively) due to significant PCDD/F formation on catalyst promoted by copper. In addition, Fe/C catalyst is of higher removal and destruction efficiencies compared with Cu/C catalyst in both testing sources. The removal efficiencies of PCDD/Fs achieved with Fe/C catalyst are 97 and 94% for MSP and MWI, respectively, whereas the destruction efficiencies are both higher than 70%. Decrease of PCDD/F destruction efficiency and increase of adsorption efficiency with increasing chlorination of dioxin congeners is also observed in the test via three-layer Fe/C catalyst. Furthermore, the mass of 2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs retained on catalyst decreases on the order of first to third layer of catalyst. Each gram Fe/C catalyst in first layer adsorbs 10.9, 6.91, and 3.04 ng 2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs in 100 min testing duration as the operating temperature is controlled at 150, 200, and 250 degrees C, respectively.

  7. Low temperature catalytic combustion of natural gas - hydrogen - air mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newson, E.; Roth, F. von; Hottinger, P.; Truong, T.B. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    The low temperature catalytic combustion of natural gas - air mixtures would allow the development of no-NO{sub x} burners for heating and power applications. Using commercially available catalysts, the room temperature ignition of methane-propane-air mixtures has been shown in laboratory reactors with combustion efficiencies over 95% and maximum temperatures less than 700{sup o}C. After a 500 hour stability test, severe deactivation of both methane and propane oxidation functions was observed. In cooperation with industrial partners, scaleup to 3 kW is being investigated together with startup dynamics and catalyst stability. (author) 3 figs., 3 refs.

  8. CFD-based investigation of heat transfer characteristics of flue gas-water eat exchanger panels produced with a novel manufacturing proces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fukue, T.; Spitas, C.; Dwaikat, M.; Ishizuka, M.

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the characteristics of a panel geometry obtained by a novel manufacturing process for the development of ultra-compact flue gas-water condensing heat exchangers. In this process two stainless steel sheets are prepared and stacked and then brazed together in a special pattern out

  9. Advanced modelling and testing of a 13 MWth waste wood-fired grate boiler with recycled flue gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajh, Boštjan; Yin, Chungen; Samec, Niko;

    2016-01-01

    Numerical modelling is widely used in industry for detailed understanding of the combustion process and for appropriate design and optimization of biomass/waste-fired boilers. This paper presents a numerical study of a 13 MWth waste wood-fired grate boiler, based on the coupled in-bed fuel...... conversion modelling and freeboard combustion modelling methodology. A 1D model is developed for the conversion of the waste wood in the fuel bed on the grate, providing the appropriate grate inlet condition for the 3D simulation of the freeboard region. Since part of the flue gas is recycled into the boiler...... as an innovative attempt to improve the boiler performance, a refined weighted-sum-of-grey-gases-model of greater accuracy is developed to better address the impacts of the elevated CO2 and H2O vapour concentrations on radiative heat transfer in the boiler. The impacts of full buoyancy on the turbulent flow...

  10. Manufacture of ammonium sulfate fertilizer from gypsum-rich byproduct of flue gas desulfurization - A prefeasibility cost estimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, I.-Ming; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Lytle, J.M.; Achorn, F.P.

    1996-01-01

    Costs for constructing and operating a conceptual plant based on a proposed process that converts flue gas desulfurization (FGD)-gypsum to ammonium sulfate fertilizer has been calculated and used to estimate a market price for the product. The average market price of granular ammonium sulfate ($138/ton) exceeds the rough estimated cost of ammonium sulfate from the proposed process ($111/ ton), by 25 percent, if granular size ammonium sulfate crystals of 1.2 to 3.3 millimeters in diameters can be produced by the proposed process. However, there was at least ??30% margin in the cost estimate calculations. The additional costs for compaction, if needed to create granules of the required size, would make the process uneconomical unless considerable efficiency gains are achieved to balance the additional costs. This study suggests the need both to refine the crystallization process and to find potential markets for the calcium carbonate produced by the process.

  11. Robust C-C bonded porous networks with chemically designed functionalities for improved CO2 capture from flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirion, Damien; Lee, Joo S; Özdemir, Ercan; Yavuz, Cafer T

    2016-01-01

    Effective carbon dioxide (CO2) capture requires solid, porous sorbents with chemically and thermally stable frameworks. Herein, we report two new carbon-carbon bonded porous networks that were synthesized through metal-free Knoevenagel nitrile-aldol condensation, namely the covalent organic polymer, COP-156 and 157. COP-156, due to high specific surface area (650 m(2)/g) and easily interchangeable nitrile groups, was modified post-synthetically into free amine- or amidoxime-containing networks. The modified COP-156-amine showed fast and increased CO2 uptake under simulated moist flue gas conditions compared to the starting network and usual industrial CO2 solvents, reaching up to 7.8 wt % uptake at 40 °C.

  12. Robust C–C bonded porous networks with chemically designed functionalities for improved CO2 capture from flue gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirion, Damien; Lee, Joo S; Özdemir, Ercan

    2016-01-01

    Effective carbon dioxide (CO2) capture requires solid, porous sorbents with chemically and thermally stable frameworks. Herein, we report two new carbon–carbon bonded porous networks that were synthesized through metal-free Knoevenagel nitrile–aldol condensation, namely the covalent organic polymer, COP-156 and 157. COP-156, due to high specific surface area (650 m2/g) and easily interchangeable nitrile groups, was modified post-synthetically into free amine- or amidoxime-containing networks. The modified COP-156-amine showed fast and increased CO2 uptake under simulated moist flue gas conditions compared to the starting network and usual industrial CO2 solvents, reaching up to 7.8 wt % uptake at 40 °C. PMID:28144294

  13. Effects of foaming and antifoaming agents on the performance of a wet flue gas desulfurization pilot plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Siqiang; Hansen, Brian Brun; Kiil, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Foaming is a common phenomenon in industrial processes, including wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) plants. A systemic investigation of the influence of two foaming agents, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and egg white albumin (protein), and two commercial antifoams on a wet FGD pilot plant...... operation has been carried out. Foaming caused by 0.03 g SDS/(L slurry) reduced the desulfurization degree from 84 to 74% and the solids and limestone concentrations of the slurry from 58 to 48 g/(L slurry) and from 1.4 to 1.0 g/(L slurry), respectively. These effects were attributed to the foaming...... transferring small particles to the foam layer present on top of the slurry in the holding tank. The addition of 0.03 g antifoams/(L slurry) to SDS foam eliminated the foam, but the desulfurization degree remained low. Potential mechanisms for the observed behavior are analyzed. (c) 2014 American Institute...

  14. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Annual report, October 1994--September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S. [and others

    1995-10-01

    On September 30, 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy-Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled {open_quotes}Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines{close_quotes} (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues (CCBs) in abandoned coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground CCB placement. This report describes progress in the following areas: environmental characterization, mix development and geotechnical characterization, material handling and system economics, underground placement, and field demonstration.

  15. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Jean Bustard

    2003-12-01

    ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) has successfully completed a research and development program granted by the Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to develop a family of non-toxic flue gas conditioning agents to provide utilities and industries with a cost-effective means of complying with environmental regulations on particulate emissions and opacity. An extensive laboratory screening of potential additives was completed followed by full-scale trials at four utility power plants. The developed cohesivity additives have been demonstrated on a 175 MW utility boiler that exhibited poor collection of unburned carbon in the electrostatic precipitator. With cohesivity conditioning, opacity spiking caused by rapping reentrainment was reduced and total particulate emissions were reduced by more than 30%. Ammonia conditioning was also successful in reducing reentrainment on the same unit. Conditioned fly ash from the process is expected to be suitable for dry or wet disposal and for concrete admixture.

  16. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in flue gas emissions from municipal solid waste incinerators in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong CHEN; Yue-ling GU; Jian-hua YAN; Xiao-dong LI; Sheng-yong LU; Hui-fen DAI; Ke-fa CEN

    2008-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furalls(PCDD/Fs)emissions in flue gas from two types of municipal solid waste incinerators(MSWIs)most commonly used in China were investigated in this study.The selected incinerators include two grate-type MSWIs:MSWl-A(350 t/d)and MSWI-B(150 t/d),and two fluidized bed MSWIs:MSWI-C(400 t/d) and MSWI-D (400 t/d),which are all equipped with semi-dry lime scrubber and bag filter except MSWI-D equipped with cyclone and wet scrubber(WS)as air pollutant conffol device(APCD).Results indicated that the emission concentration and the international toxic equivalents(I-TEQs)of the PCDD/Fs from the stacks were in the range of 1.210~10.273 ng/Nm3 and 0.019~0.201 ngI-TEQ/Nm3,respectively.They were greatly lower than the emission regulation standard of PCDD/FS in China(1.0 ng I-TEQ/Nm3).However,only the PCDD/Fs emission Ievel from MSWI-C Was below 0.1 ng I-TEQ/Nm3.Although the homologue profiles were distinct,the contributions of the 2,3,7,8-subsituted congenem to the total I-TEQ were similar among all the investigated MSWIs.Two major 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners,2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF and 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD,account for 47% and 9%(average values)of the total I-TEQ values,respectively.The correlation between PCDD/Fs levels and composition of flue gas Was also discussed.

  17. Experimental study on SO2 recovery using a sodium-zinc sorbent based flue gas desulfurization technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Zhang; Tao Wang; Hairui Yang; Hai Zhang; Xuyi Zhang

    2015-01-01

    A sodium–zinc sorbent based flue gas desulfurization technology (Na–Zn-FGD) was proposed based on the experiments and analyses of the thermal decomposition characteristics of CaSO3 and ZnSO3·2.5H2O, the waste products of calcium-based semi-dry and zinc-based flue gas desulfurization (Ca–SD-FGD and Zn–SD-FGD) tech-nologies, respectively. It was found that ZnSO3·2.5H2O first lost crystal H2O at 100 °C and then decomposed into SO2 and solid ZnO at 260 °C in the air, while CaSO3 is oxidized at 450 °C before it decomposed in the air. The ex-perimental results confirm that Zn–SD-FGD technology is good for SO2 removal and recycling, but with problem in clogging and high operational cost. The proposed Na–Zn-FGD is clogging proof, and more cost-effective. In the new process, Na2CO3 is used to generate Na2SO3 for SO2 absorption, and the intermediate product NaHSO3 reacts with ZnO powders, producing ZnSO3·2.5H2O precipitate and Na2SO3 solution. The Na2SO3 solution is clogging proof, which is re-used for SO2 absorption. By thermal decomposition of ZnSO3·2.5H2O, ZnO is re-generated and SO2 with high purity is co-produced as well. The cycle consumes some amount of raw material Na2CO3 and a small amount of ZnO only. The newly proposed FGD technology could be a substitute of the traditional semi-dry FGD technologies.

  18. Flue-gas and direct-air capture of CO2 by porous metal-organic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, David G.; Scott, Hayley S.; Kumar, Amrit; Chen, Kai-Jie; Sanii, Rana; Bajpai, Alankriti; Lusi, Matteo; Curtin, Teresa; Perry, John J.; Zaworotko, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Sequestration of CO2, either from gas mixtures or directly from air (direct air capture), is a technological goal important to large-scale industrial processes such as gas purification and the mitigation of carbon emissions. Previously, we investigated five porous materials, three porous metal-organic materials (MOMs), a benchmark inorganic material, Zeolite 13X and a chemisorbent, TEPA-SBA-15, for their ability to adsorb CO2 directly from air and from simulated flue-gas. In this contribution, a further 10 physisorbent materials that exhibit strong interactions with CO2 have been evaluated by temperature-programmed desorption for their potential utility in carbon capture applications: four hybrid ultramicroporous materials, SIFSIX-3-Cu, DICRO-3-Ni-i, SIFSIX-2-Cu-i and MOOFOUR-1-Ni; five microporous MOMs, DMOF-1, ZIF-8, MIL-101, UiO-66 and UiO-66-NH2; an ultramicroporous MOM, Ni-4-PyC. The performance of these MOMs was found to be negatively impacted by moisture. Overall, we demonstrate that the incorporation of strong electrostatics from inorganic moieties combined with ultramicropores offers improved CO2 capture performance from even moist gas mixtures but not enough to compete with chemisorbents. This article is part of the themed issue 'Coordination polymers and metal-organic frameworks: materials by design'.

  19. Flue-gas and direct-air capture of CO2 by porous metal-organic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, David G; Scott, Hayley S; Kumar, Amrit; Chen, Kai-Jie; Sanii, Rana; Bajpai, Alankriti; Lusi, Matteo; Curtin, Teresa; Perry, John J; Zaworotko, Michael J

    2017-01-13

    Sequestration of CO2, either from gas mixtures or directly from air (direct air capture), is a technological goal important to large-scale industrial processes such as gas purification and the mitigation of carbon emissions. Previously, we investigated five porous materials, three porous metal-organic materials (MOMs), a benchmark inorganic material, ZEOLITE 13X: and a chemisorbent, TEPA-SBA-15: , for their ability to adsorb CO2 directly from air and from simulated flue-gas. In this contribution, a further 10 physisorbent materials that exhibit strong interactions with CO2 have been evaluated by temperature-programmed desorption for their potential utility in carbon capture applications: four hybrid ultramicroporous materials, SIFSIX-3-CU: , DICRO-3-NI-I: , SIFSIX-2-CU-I: and MOOFOUR-1-NI: ; five microporous MOMs, DMOF-1: , ZIF-8: , MIL-101: , UIO-66: and UIO-66-NH2: ; an ultramicroporous MOM, NI-4-PYC: The performance of these MOMs was found to be negatively impacted by moisture. Overall, we demonstrate that the incorporation of strong electrostatics from inorganic moieties combined with ultramicropores offers improved CO2 capture performance from even moist gas mixtures but not enough to compete with chemisorbents.This article is part of the themed issue 'Coordination polymers and metal-organic frameworks: materials by design'.

  20. Development of Fly Ash Derived Sorbents to Capture CO2 from Flue Gas of Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; John M. Andresen; Yinzhi Zhang; Zhe Lu

    2003-12-31

    This research program focused on the development of fly ash derived sorbents to capture CO{sub 2} from power plant flue gas emissions. The fly ash derived sorbents developed represent an affordable alternative to existing methods using specialized activated carbons and molecular sieves, that tend to be very expensive and hinder the viability of the CO{sub 2} sorption process due to economic constraints. Under Task 1 'Procurement and characterization of a suite of fly ashes', 10 fly ash samples, named FAS-1 to -10, were collected from different combustors with different feedstocks, including bituminous coal, PRB coal and biomass. These samples presented a wide range of LOI value from 0.66-84.0%, and different burn-off profiles. The samples also spanned a wide range of total specific surface area and pore volume. These variations reflect the difference in the feedstock, types of combustors, collection hopper, and the beneficiation technologies the different fly ashes underwent. Under Task 2 'Preparation of fly ash derived sorbents', the fly ash samples were activated by steam. Nitrogen adsorption isotherms were used to characterize the resultant activated samples. The cost-saving one-step activation process applied was successfully used to increase the surface area and pore volume of all the fly ash samples. The activated samples present very different surface areas and pore volumes due to the range in physical and chemical properties of their precursors. Furthermore, one activated fly ash sample, FAS-4, was loaded with amine-containing chemicals (MEA, DEA, AMP, and MDEA). The impregnation significantly decreased the surface area and pore volume of the parent activated fly ash sample. Under Task 3 'Capture of CO{sub 2} by fly ash derived sorbents', sample FAS-10 and its deashed counterpart before and after impregnation of chemical PEI were used for the CO{sub 2} adsorption at different temperatures. The sample FAS-10 exhibited a CO{sub 2

  1. Design of a low-cost, compact SRF accelerator for flue gas and wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciovati, Gianluigi [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Funding is being requested pursuant to a proposal that was submitted and reviewed through the Portfolio Analysis and Management System (PAMS). PAMS Proposal ID: 222439. The proposed project consists of the design of a novel superconducting continuous-wave accelerator capable of providing a beam current of ~1 A at an energy of 1-2 MeV for the treatment of flue gases and wastewater streams. The novel approach consists on studying the feasibility of using a single-cell Nb cavity coated with a thin Nb3Sn layer of the inner surface and conductively cooled by to 4.2 K by cryocoolers inside a compact cryomodule. The proposed study will include beam transport simulations, thermal and mechanical engineering analysis of the cryomodule and a cost analysis for both the fabrications costs and the operational and maintenance costs of such accelerator. The outcome of the project will be a report summarizing the analysis and results from the design study.

  2. Regeneration of Pt-catalysts deactivated in municipal waste flue gas with H2/N2 and the effect of regeneration step on the SCR catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due-Hansen, Johannes; Rasmussen, Søren Birk; Kustov, Arkadii;

    stream, i.e. by in situ treatment of the Pt-catalyst by reductive H2-gas. However, introduction of H2 gas in the gas stream could also affect other units in the tail pipe gas cleaning system. Of special interest here, is the effect of hydrogen gas on the performance of the deNOx + SCR catalytic process...

  3. Recovery of SO2 and MgO from By-Products of MgO Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Liyun; Lu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Quanhai; Guo, Qiang

    2014-11-01

    An industrial demonstration unit using natural gas as a heat source was built to calcine the by-products of MgO wet flue gas desulfurization from power plants; influencing factors on the SO2 content in calciner gas were comprehensively analyzed; and an advantageous recycling condition of MgO and SO2 from by-products was summarized. Results showed that the SO2 content in the calciner gas was increased by more than 10 times under a lower excess air coefficient, a higher feed rate, a lower crystal water in by-products, and a higher feed port position. For the tests conducted under the excess air coefficient above and below one, the effect of the furnace temperature on the SO2 content in the calciner gas was reversed. Results of activity analysis indicate that particles of MgO generated under the calcination temperature of 900-1,000°C had a high activity. In contrast, due to the slight sintering, MgO generated under the calcination temperature of 1,100°C had a low activity. To recycle SO2 as well as MgO, a temperature range of 900-927°C for TE103 is proposed. These studies will prompt the desulfurization market diversification, reduce the sulfur's dependence on imports for making sulfuric acid, be meaningful to balance the usage of the natural resource in China, and be regarded as a reference for the development of this technology for other similar developing countries.

  4. Flue gas cleaning for co-combustion of waste in biomass boilers 10-25 MW; Roekgasrening vid samfoerbraenning i biobraenslepannor i storleken 10-25 MW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyllenhammar, Marianne; Larsson, Sara [S.E.P. Scandinavian Energy Project AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2003-11-01

    Incineration of waste fuel in existing biomass boilers in the power range 10-25 MW is not very common in Sweden today. With increasing waste streams it will be interesting to use such fuel also in these types of boilers. This report gives a description of which regulations you have to comply with when you start to burn waste fuel, the increasing costs it will bring, and different types of flue gas cleaning equipment that are available. For existing boilers the EC-directive for incineration of waste will have to be implemented from 2005. Newly built boilers have to implement the directive from the start. The new requirements that have to be met for co-combustion plants are: The flue gas has to have a temperature of 850 deg C or more for at least two seconds in the combustion chamber. Exceptions can be allowed, but then the emission limit for CO for waste combustion must be met. The emission limit will then be 50 mg/Nm{sup 3} at 11 % O{sub 2}. Exceptions can be allowed for fluid-bed combustion if 100 mg/Nm{sup 3} at 11 % O{sub 2} as a hourly average can be met. There has to be a fuel handling system that automatically stops the waste flow if the temperature drops below 850 deg C, or when any of the emission limit values are exceeded. Some operating parameters have to be measured continuously. Emission limit values for dust, TOC, HCl, HF, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, CO, metals, dioxins and furans. Increased documentation, reporting and control. This report has been focusing on how to meet the regulations on emissions to air. Following conclusions have been drawn: To avoid exceeding the limit value for dust emission a bag filter or an electric precipitator will be needed. Multi-cyclones are not enough. If the limit value for dust is met, the limit value of metals will also be met. To avoid exceeding the limit value for chloride a flue gas condenser/scrubbing tower or a dry flue gas cleaning system is needed, if the waste fuel is not very low in chloride. With a low sulphur

  5. Determination of Arsenic Species in Flue Gas%烟气中的砷形态分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡卉

    2013-01-01

    介绍了应用离子色谱-原子吸收光谱法测定烟气中砷形态的分析方法以及应用实例。采用此方法对烟气中的4种砷系物As(Ⅲ)、As(Ⅴ)、MMA(一甲基砷酸)和DMA(二甲基砷酸)进行了分离。其检出限分别为:0.10、0.15、0.12和0.25μg/L,加标回收率可以达到90%~110%之间,具有较高的灵敏性和准确性。%This paper introduced an analytical method for the determination of arsenic species in fuel gas by ion-chromatography atomic absorption spectrometry and application examples. With this method, the detection limits of As (Ⅲ), As(Ⅴ), MMA and DMA were 0.10μg/L,0.15μg/L,0.12μg/L,and 0.25μg/L, respectively. The recovery of these arsenic species ranged 90%~110%. Results suggested that the method was suitable for the analysis of arsenic species in flue gas.

  6. Development of Superior Sorbents for Separation of CO2 from Flue Gas at a Wide Temperature range during Coal Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panagiotis Smirniotis

    2002-09-17

    A number basic sorbents based on CaO were synthesized, characterized with novel techniques and tested for sorption of CO{sub 2} and selected gas mixtures simulating flue gas from coal fired boilers. Our studies resulted in highly promising sorbents which demonstrated zero affinity for N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, and NO very low affinity for water, ultrahigh CO{sub 2} sorption capacities, and rapid sorption characteristics, CO{sub 2} sorption at a very wide temperature range, durability, and low synthesis cost. One of the 'key' characteristics of the proposed materials is the fact that we can control very accurately their basicity (optimum number of basic sites of the appropriate strength) which allows for the selective chemisorption of CO{sub 2} at a wide range of temperatures. These unique characteristics of this family of sorbents offer high promise for development of advanced industrial sorbents for the effective CO{sub 2} removal.

  7. Removal of NO from flue gas by aqueous chlorine-dioxide scrubbing solution in a lab-scale bubbling reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshwal, Bal Raj [Department of Chemistry, A.I.J.H.M. College, Rohtak 124001, Haryana (India); Jin, Dong Seop; Lee, Si Hyun; Moon, Seung Hyun [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejon 305 600 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Jong Hyeon [Department of Environmental Engineering, Sorabol College, Kyungbuk - 780 711 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyung Keun [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejon 305 600 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: hklee@kier.re.kr

    2008-02-11

    The present study attempts to clean up nitric oxide from the simulated flue gas using aqueous chlorine-dioxide solution in the bubbling reactor. Chlorine-dioxide is generated by chloride-chlorate process. Experiments are carried out to examine the effect of various operating variables like input NO concentration, presence of SO{sub 2}, pH of the solution and NaCl feeding rate on the NO{sub x} removal efficiency at 45 deg. C. Complete oxidation of nitric oxide into nitrogen dioxide occurred on passing sufficient ClO{sub 2} gas into the scrubbing solution. NO is finally converted into nitrate and ClO{sub 2} is reduced into chloride ions. A plausible reaction mechanism concerning NO{sub x} removal by ClO{sub 2} is suggested. DeNO{sub x} efficiency increased slightly with the increasing input NO concentration. The presence of SO{sub 2} improved the NO{sub 2} absorption but pH of solution showed marginal effect on NO{sub 2} absorption. NO{sub x} removal mechanism changed when medium of solution changed from acidic to alkaline. A constant NO{sub x} removal efficiency of about 60% has been achieved in the wide pH range of 3-11 under optimized conditions.

  8. Flue-gas carbon capture on carbonaceous sorbents: Toward a low-cost multifunctional Carbon Filter for 'Green' energy producers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radosz, M.; Hu, X.D.; Krutkramelis, K.; Shen, Y.Q. [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

    2008-05-15

    A low-pressure Carbon Filter Process (patent pending) is proposed to capture carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from flue gas. This filter is filled with a low-cost carbonaceous sorbent, such as activated carbon or charcoal, which has a high affinity (and, hence, high capacity) to CO{sub 2} but not to nitrogen (N{sub 2}). This, in turn, leads to a high CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity, especially at low pressures. The Carbon Filter Process proposed in this work can recover at least 90% of flue-gas CO{sub 2} of 90%+ purity at a fraction of the cost normally associated with the conventional amine absorption process. The Carbon Filter Process requires neither expensive materials nor flue-gas compression or refrigeration, and it is easy to heat integrate with an existing or grassroots power plant without affecting the cost of the produced electricity too much. An abundant supply of low-cost CO{sub 2} from electricity producers is good news for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and enhanced coal-bed methane recovery (ECBMR) operators, because it will lead to higher oil and gas recovery rates in an environmentally sensitive manner. A CO{sub 2}-rich mixture that contains some nitrogen is much less expensive to separate from flue-gas than pure CO{sub 2}; therefore, mixed CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2}-EOR and CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2}-ECBMR methods are proposed to maximize the overall carbon capture and utilization efficiency.

  9. Development of durable and reactive regenerable sorbents for high temperature flue gas desulphurisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cengiz, P.A.; Abbasian, J.; Khalili, N.R.; Slimane, R.B.; Ho, K.K. [Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2002-07-01

    One of the emerging technologies for combined SO{sub 2} and NOx removal from flue gases is the copper oxide process, which is based on the use of a regenerable sorbent. Sorbent properties such as SO{sub 2} sorption capacity, reactivity, crush strength, and long-term durability have significant impact on the overall process cost. In this study, a number of sorbents were prepared by using various modifications of the sol-gel techniques. Compared to the commercially available sorbent used for evaluation of the process, sorbents prepared by wet impregnation of sol-gel alumina exhibited comparable sulphur capacity and about seven times higher crush strength, while those prepared by incorporation of copper in the sol resulted in three times higher sulphur capacity and 55% higher crush strength. Significant improvement in long-term durability was also achieved with these sorbents. Preliminary economic evaluation indicates that these new sorbents have the potential to reduce the projected levelized process cost down to 3.17 mil/kWh, which is lower than the cost of current SO{sub 2} emission allowance. 46 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Utilization and mitigation of VAM/CMM emissions by a catalytic combustion gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, K.; Yoshino, Y.; Kashihara, H. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd., Hyougo (Japan); Kajita, S.

    2013-07-01

    A system configured with a catalytic combustion gas turbine generator unit is introduced. The system has been developed using technologies produced by Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., such as small gas turbines, recuperators and catalytic combustors, and catalytic oxidation units which use exhaust heat from gas turbines. The system combusts (oxidizes) ventilation air methane (less than 1% concentration) and low concentration coal mine methane (30% concentration or less) discharged as waste from coal mines. Thus, it cannot only reduce the consumption of high- quality fuel for power generation, but also mitigate greenhouse gas emissions.

  11. Highly Stable Porous Covalent Triazine-Piperazine Linked Nanoflower as a Feasible Adsorbent for Flue Gas CO2 Capture

    KAUST Repository

    Das, Swapan Kumar

    2016-02-11

    Here, we report a porous covalent triazine-piperazine linked polymer (CTPP) featuring 3D nanoflower morphology and enhanced capture/removal of CO2, CH4 from air (N2), essential to control greenhouse gas emission and natural gas upgrading. 13C solid-state NMR and FTIR analyses and CHN and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) elemental analyses confirmed the integration of triazine and piperazine components in the network. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analyses revealed a relatively uniform particle size of approximately 400 to 500 nm with 3D nanoflower microstructure, which was formed by the self-assembly of interwoven and slight bent nanoflake components. The material exhibited outstanding chemical robustness under acidic and basic medium and high thermal stability up to 773 K. The CTPP possess high surface area (779 m2/g) and single-component gas adsorption study exhibited enhanced CO2 and CH4 uptake of 3.48 mmol/g, 1.09 mmol/g, respectively at 273 K, 1 bar; coupled with high sorption selectivities for CO2/N2 and CH4/N2 of 128 and 17, respectively. The enriched Lewis basicity of the CTPP favors the interaction with CO2, which results in an enhanced CO2 adsorption capacity and high CO2/N2 selectivity. The binary mixture breakthrough study for the flue gas composition at 298 K showed a high CO2/N2 selectivity of 82. CO2 heats of adsorption for the CTPP (34 kJ mol−1) were realized at the borderline between strong physisorption and weak chemisorption (QstCO2; 25−50 kJ mol−1) and low Qst value for N2 (22.09 kJ mol−1), providing the ultimate validation for the high selectivity of CO2 over N2.

  12. Effect of flue gas CO2 on the growth, carbohydrate and fatty acid composition of a green microalga Scenedesmus obliquus for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Min-Kyu; Yun, Hyun-Shik; Hwang, Jae-Hoon; Salama, El-Sayed; Jeon, Byong-Hun; Choi, Jaeyoung

    2016-10-31

    Effect of various flue gas CO2 concentrations (5%, 10% and 14.1%) on growth rate and biochemical properties of a green microalga Scenedesmus obliquus was investigated. S. obliquus showed the highest biomass production and growth rate (0.36 g L(-1) and μmax = 1.00 day(-1)), total inorganic carbon removal (35.8 mg L(-1)), lipid productivity (9.9 mg L(-1) day) and carbohydrate productivity (10.3 mg L(-1) day) with 14.1% CO2 after 8 days of cultivation. Fatty acid methyl ester analysis revealed that the palmitic and oleic acid contents were increased up to 5% and 7% with 14.1% CO2, respectively. Application of flue gas CO2 enhanced the growth along with lipid and carbohydrate productivity of S. obliquus, which can be exploited for reducing the CO2 concentration.

  13. Fundamental mechanisms in flue gas conditioning. Topical report No. 2, Literature review and assembly of theories on the interactions of ash and conditioning agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, P.V.; Snyder, T.R.

    1992-01-09

    The overall goal of this research project is to formulate a mathematical model of flue gas conditioning. This model will be based on an understanding of why ask properties, such as cohesivity and resistivity, are changed by conditioning. Such a model could serve as a component of the performance models of particulate control devices where flue gas conditioning is used. There are two specific objectives of this research project, which divide the planned research into two main parts. One part of the project is designed to determine how ash particles are modified by interactions with sorbent injection processes and to describe the mechanisms by which these interactions affect fine particle collection. The objective of the other part of the project is to identify the mechanisms by which conditioning agents, including chemically active compounds, modify the key properties of fine fly ash particles.

  14. Preliminary Examination of the System Fly Ash-Bottom Ash-Flue Gas Desulphurization Gypsum-Portland Cement-Water for Road Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tokalic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an investigation into the use of three power plant wastes: fly ash, flue gas desulphurization gypsum, and bottom ash for subbase layers in road construction. Two kinds of mixtures of these wastes with Portland cement and water were made: first with fly ash consisting of coarser particles (<1.651 mm and second with fly ash consisting of smaller particles (<0.42 mm. The mass ratio of fly ash-Portland cement-flue gas desulphurization gypsum-bottom ash was the same (3 : 1 : 1 : 5 in both mixtures. For both mixtures, the compressive strength, the mineralogical composition, and the leaching characteristics were determined at different times, 7 and 28 days, after preparation. The obtained results showed that both mixtures could find a potential use for subbase layers in road construction.

  15. Analysis of waste heat recovery from coke oven waste gas flue%焦炉烟道气余热回收工艺分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘庆达; 丁震; 李昌胤; 刘云

    2014-01-01

    By comparison of old and new technologies in waste gas flue heat exchange,with descrip-tion of waste heat recovery unit and by analysis of economic benefit for the new technology,the waste heat recovery unit from coke oven waste gas flue is highlighted in this paper,which is characterized with lower investment,short payback period,lower operational & maintenance cost and a remarkable economic benefit.%对比了烟道废气换热新、旧工艺,介绍了废气余热回收装置。分析了新工艺的经济效益。焦炉烟道废气热回收装置投资省,见效快,运行、维护成本低,经济效益明显。

  16. Effectiveness Analysis of Flue Gas Desulfurization by Alumina Red Mud%氧化铝赤泥进行烟气脱硫有效性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾帅动; 董继业; 王博

    2013-01-01

    Based on desulfurization test platform, use Bayer-sintered joint red mud as raw material, and the mechanism and wet flue gas desulfurization desulfurization effect of red mud was analyzed, we got the idea that the flue gas desulfurization by red mud combined method was feasibility and superiority.%  在搭建的脱硫试验平台上采用拜耳-烧结联合法赤泥为原料,以电厂工业废气为脱硫对象,对赤泥进行湿法烟气脱硫的机理和脱硫的效果进行分析研究,认为使用联合法赤泥进行烟气脱硫具有可行性和优越性。

  17. FCC再生烟气中SO3的生成及应对措施%Formation of SO3 in FCC flue gas and countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐文义

    2011-01-01

    The formation mechanisms of SO3 in FCC flue gas, the impact factor and associated hazards are described. The effective measures to reduce SO3 in FCC flue gas are proposed, such as reducing regenerator main air flowrate, lowering the dosage of Pt-based CO combustion promoter, applying sulfur transfer catalyst and metal passivator and properly increasing unloading rate of catalysts.%论述了FCC再生烟气中SO的生成机理、影响因素以及所带来的危害;提出了降低FCC再生烟气中SO含量的应对措施:降低再生主风置、减少铂基CO助燃剂的使用量、使用硫转移助剂和金属钝化剂以及适当增加催化剂的卸剂量.

  18. Exploration of Comprehensive Treatment New Measurements of Sintering Flue Gas%浅谈烧结烟气综合治理新举措

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栾颖

    2015-01-01

    Sintering process is a big energy consumer and pollution maker. With emission reduction and collaborative treatment both focused on,sintering flue gas circulation process is adopted by combining with active coke flue gas purification technology,which possesses vast development potential and is worth to be popularized.%烧结工序是钢铁企业中的耗能和污染大户,将烧结烟气循环工艺与活性焦烟气净化技术配合使用,减量与协同治理并举,有着广阔的发展空间和推广意义。

  19. Study of flue gas condensers with reference to corrosion risks, biofuel quality, techniques and choice of material; Kartlaeggning av roekgaskondenseringsanlaeggningar med avseende paa korrosionsrisker, biobraenslekvaliteter, teknik och materialval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenqvist, Per-Aake

    2012-02-15

    Corrosion in flue gas appliances installed in small and medium sized biomass fired boiler plants has become a problem in an increasing number of sites around Sweden. A trend seems to be that the problems are greater in those plants that use so called terminal chips than those that utilize more homogeneous fuels. In pace with the increasing number of biomass power plants in the country, the demand for cheaper fuel is increased. Through the increasing number of fuel terminals the market is provided even with biofuel mixes in the form of traditional wood chips mixed with bark, forest residue, sawdust, willow, returned wood, etc. Both users and suppliers of boiler and flue gas systems, and fuel suppliers have currently no clear rules or guidelines for relationships between different chemical properties of fuels, technologies, operating data and material. In this report has experience in the form of questionnaires completed by field visits, interviews of operational personnel and literature studies been compiled from a number of plants using different types of flue gas condensers for increased energy output from various types of bio fuels. The purpose of this assignment is to survey the flue gas condensation plant in biomass fired boiler plants for the presence of corrosion damage made in relation to the use of technologies and fuel qualities. A milestone is that the report will be able to be used to support the selection of materials and appropriate techniques for both new facilities and for the repair and improvement of existing ones. Another objective is to compile existing experience and assessment criteria which are reported in the literature. This report describes some typical construction techniques, whenever applicable harmful images and links to various substances present in fuels, ash and condensate

  20. Aapplication of Activated Coke in Flue Gas Purification%活性焦在烟气净化中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李盼宋; 李建军; 张序; 贺尧祖; 余洋

    2016-01-01

    活性焦烟气净化技术具有流程简单、投资少、无二次污染等特点,很好地顺应了目前国家发展循环性经济、推广产物可资源化、干法节水和高性能的环保技术的现状。文章分析了活性焦烟气净化的机理、流程及影响其净化效率的因素,提出活性焦烟气净化技术作为目前比较前卫的烟气净化技术,具有广阔的应用前景。%With simple process, less investment and no secondary pollution etc,the flue gas purification technology used of activated coke was well complied with the countries’present situation, needing to develop circular economy and promoting environmental protection technology that whose product could recycle, saving water and high performance. The mechanism, process and factors which affected its purification efficiency of these technology were analyzed. It was found that flue gas purification technology used of activated coke as currently compares halfback flue gas purification technology had broad application prospects.

  1. An informatics-based analysis of developments to date and prospects for the application of microalgae in the biological sequestration of industrial flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xi; Rong, Junfeng; Chen, Hui; He, Chenliu; Hu, Wensheng; Wang, Qiang

    2016-03-01

    The excessive emission of flue gas contributes to air pollution, abnormal climate change, global warming, and sea level rises associated with glacial melting. With the ability to utilize NOx as a nitrogen source and to convert solar energy into chemical energy via CO2 fixation, microalgae can potentially reduce air pollution and relax global warming, while also enhancing biomass and biofuel production as well as the production of high-value-added products. This informatics-based review analyzes the trends in the related literature and in patent activity to draw conclusions and to offer a prospective view on the developments of microalgae for industrial flue gas biosequestration. It is revealed that in recent years, microalgal research for industrial flue gas biosequestration has started to attract increasing attention and has now developed into a hot research topic, although it is still at a relatively early stage, and needs more financial and policy support in order to better understand microalgae and to develop an economically viable process. In comparison with onsite microalgal CO2 capture, microalgae-based biological DeNOx appears to be a more realistic and attractive alternative that could be applied to NOx treatment.

  2. Volatilization behavior of Cd and Zn based on continuous emission measurement of flue gas from laboratory-scale coal combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J; Falcoz, Q; Gauthier, D; Flamant, G; Zheng, C Z

    2010-06-01

    The accumulation of toxic metals generated by coal-fired power stations presents a serious threat to the environment. The volatilization behavior of two representative metals (Cd and Zn), and the influence of temperature were investigated during coal combustion. An inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometric (ICP-AES) method was developed to continuously measure the heavy metal concentrations quantitatively in flue gas under combustion conditions in order to track the metal release process. This continuous heavy metal analysis system was implemented by coupling it to two types of high temperature reactors: a bubbling fluidized bed reactor and a fixed bed reactor with diameter of 0.1 m and 0.08 m respectively. For the two metals considered in this study (Cd and Zn), the experimental setup was successfully used to continuously monitor the metal vaporization process during coal combustion independent of reactor design, and at different temperatures. Cd is more easily vaporized than Zn during coal combustion. Temperature significantly influences the metal vaporization process. In general, the higher the temperature, the higher the metal vaporization, although the vaporization is not proportional to temperature. In addition to the experimental study, a thermodynamic calculation was carried out to simulate the heavy metal speciation during coal combustion process. The theoretical volatilization tendency is consistent with the experiment. The thermodynamic calculation identified the formation of binary oxides retarding heavy metal vaporization.

  3. Utilization of simulated flue gas containing CO2, SO2, NO and ash for Chlorella fusca cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Jessica Hartwig; Fanka, Letícia Schneider; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2016-08-01

    Microalgae can use the CO2 from coal power plants in their metabolic pathways. However, these microorganisms must be able to tolerate other residues produced from burning coal. This study evaluated the wastes addition (CO2, SO2, NO and ash) present in the flue gas from a coal power plant on the growth parameters during culture, CO2 biofixation and on the biomass characterization of Chlorella fusca LEB 111. The SO2 and NO injection (until 400ppm) in cultivations did not markedly affect CO2 biofixation by microalga. The best CO2 biofixation efficiency was obtained with 10% CO2, 200ppm SO2 and NO and 40ppm ash (50.0±0.8%, w w(-1)), showing a specific growth rate of 0.18±0.01 d(-1). The C. fusca LEB 111 biomass composition was similar in all experiments with around 19.7% (w w(-1)) carbohydrates, 15.5% (w w(-1)) lipids and 50.2% (w w(-1)) proteins.

  4. Experimental study on the reuse of spent rapidly hydrated sorbent for circulating fluidized bed flue gas desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Zheng, Kai; You, Changfu

    2011-11-01

    Rapidly hydrated sorbent, prepared by rapidly hydrating adhesive carrier particles and lime, is a highly effective sorbent for moderate temperature circulating fluidized bed flue gas desulfurization (CFB-FGD) process. The residence time of fine calcium-containing particles in CFB reactors increases by adhering on the surface of larger adhesive carrier particles, which contributes to higher sorbent calcium conversion ratio. The circulation ash of CFB boilers (α-adhesive carrier particles) and the spent sorbent (β and γ-adhesive carrier particles) were used as adhesive carrier particles for producing the rapidly hydrated sorbent. Particle physical characteristic analysis, abrasion characteristics in fluidized bed and desulfurization characteristics in TGA and CFB-FGD systems were investigated for various types of rapidly hydrated sorbent (α, β, and γ-sorbent). The adhesion ability of γ-sorbent was 50.1% higher than that of α-sorbent. The abrasion ratio of β and γ-sorbent was 16.7% lower than that of α-sorbent. The desulfurization abilities of the three sorbent in TGA were almost same. The desulfurization efficiency in the CFB-FGD system was up to 95% at the bed temperature of 750 °C for the β-sorbent.

  5. Mercury transportation in soil via using gypsum from flue gas desulfurization unit in coal-fired power plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kelin Wang; William Orndorff; Yan Cao; Weiping Pan

    2013-01-01

    The mercury flux in soils was investigated,which were amended by gypsums from flue gas desulphurization (FGD) units of coalfired power plants.Studies have been carried out in confined greenhouses using FGD gypsum treated soils.Major research focus is uptakes of mercury by plants,and emission of mercury into the atmosphere under varying application rates of FGD gypsum,simulating rainfall irrigations,soils,and plants types.Higher FGD gypsum application rates generally led to higher mercury concentrations in the soils,the increased mercury emissions into the atmosphere,and the increased mercury contents in plants (especially in roots and leaves).Soil properties and plant species can play important roles in mercury transports.Some plants,such as tall fescue,were able to prevent mercury from atmospheric emission and infiltration in the soil.Mercury concentration in the stem of plants was found to be increased and then leveled off upon increasing FGD gypsum application.However,mercury in roots and leaves was generally increased upon increasing FGD gypsum application rates.Some mercury was likely absorbed by leaves of plants from emitted mercury in the atmosphere.

  6. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, October--December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chugh, Y.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S.; Ghafoori, N.; Paul, B.; Sevim, H.; Thomasson, E.

    1995-01-01

    On September 30, 1993, the US Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative agreement entitled ``Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines`` (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues in abandoned coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground residues placement. The major event during the quarter was the demonstration of the SEEC, Inc. technology for loading and transporting coal combustion residues in the SEEC developed Collapsible Intermodal Containers (CIC). The demonstration was held on November 17, 1994, at the Illinois Power Company Baldwin power plant, and was attended by about eighty (80) invited guest. Also during the quarter meetings were held with Peabody Coal Company officials to finalize the area in the Peabody No. 10 mine to be used for the placement of coal combustion residues. Work under the Materials Handling and Systems Economics area continued, particularly in refining the costs and systems configuration and in economic evaluation of various systems using equipment leasing rather than equipment purchases. Likewise, work progressed on residues characterization, with some preparations being made for long-term testing.

  7. Mercury transportation in soil via using gypsum from flue gas desulfurization unit in coal-fired power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kelin; Orndorff, William; Cao, Yan; Pan, Weiping

    2013-09-01

    The mercury flux in soils was investigated, which were amended by gypsums from flue gas desulphurization (FGD) units of coal-fired power plants. Studies have been carried out in confined greenhouses using FGD gypsum treated soils. Major research focus is uptakes of mercury by plants, and emission of mercury into the atmosphere under varying application rates of FGD gypsum, simulating rainfall irrigations, soils, and plants types. Higher FGD gypsum application rates generally led to higher mercury concentrations in the soils, the increased mercury emissions into the atmosphere, and the increased mercury contents in plants (especially in roots and leaves). Soil properties and plant species can play important roles in mercury transports. Some plants, such as tall fescue, were able to prevent mercury from atmospheric emission and infiltration in the soil. Mercury concentration in the stem of plants was found to be increased and then leveled off upon increasing FGD gypsum application. However, mercury in roots and leaves was generally increased upon increasing FGD gypsum application rates. Some mercury was likely absorbed by leaves of plants from emitted mercury in the atmosphere.

  8. Mineral concentrations of forage legumes and grasses grown in acidic soil amended with flue gas desulfurization products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, R.B.; Baligar, V.C. [USDA ARS, Beltsville, MD (USA). Beltsville Agricultural Research Center West

    2003-07-01

    Considerable quantities of flue gas desulfurization products (FGDs) are generated when coal is burned for production of electricity, and these products have the potential to be reused rather than discarded. Use of FGDs as soil amendments could be important in overall management of these products, especially on acidic soils. Glasshouse studies were conducted to determine shoot concentrations of calcium (Ca), sulfur (S), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P), boron (B), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), aluminum (Al), sodium (Na), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), and lead (Pb) in alfalfa (Medicago sativa), white clover (Trifolium repens), orchardgrass (Dacrylis glomerata), tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), and eastern gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides) grown in acidic (pH 4) soil (Typic Hapludult) amended with various levels of three FGDs and the control compounds CaCO{sub 3}, CaSO{sub 3}, and CaSO{sub 4}. Shoot concentrations of Ca, S, Mg, and B generally increased as levels of soil applied FGD increased. Concentrations of Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu were lower in shoots, especially when soil pH was high ({gt}7). Shoot concentrations of the trace elements Mo, Ni, Cd, Cr, and Pb were not above those reported as normal for foliage. Overall concentrations of most minerals remained near normal for shoots when plants were grown in FGD amended acidic soil.

  9. Economic assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization processes. Final report. Volume 2. Appendices G, H, and I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierman, G. R.; May, E. H.; Mirabelli, R. E.; Pow, C. N.; Scardino, C.; Wan, E. I.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the results of a project sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The purpose of the study was to perform an economic and market assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes for application to coal-fired electric utility plants. The time period considered in the study is 1981 through 1990, and costs are reported in 1980 dollars. The task was divided into the following four subtasks: (1) determine the factors affecting FGD cost evaluations; (2) select FGD processes to be cost-analyzed; (3) define the future electric utility FGD system market; and (4) perform cost analyses for the selected FGD processes. The study was initiated in September 1979, and separate reports were prepared for the first two subtasks. The results of the latter two subtasks appear only in this final report, since the end-date of those subtasks coincided with the end-date of the overall task. The Subtask 1 report, Criteria and Methods for Performing FGD Cost Evaluation, was completed in October 1980. A slightly modified and condensed version of that report appears as Appendix B to this report. The Subtask 2 report, FGD Candidate Process Selection, was completed in January 1981, and the principal outputs of that subtask appear in Appendices C and D to this report.

  10. Energy requirements for CO2 capture from ambient air (DAC) competitive with capture from flue-gas (PCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinrenken, Christoph

    2015-03-01

    Capture of CO2, whether from a flue gas source (PCC) or from distributed sources via ambient air (DAC), is a key enabling technology to provide carbon for sustainable synthetic energy carriers such as solar fuels. Based on thermodynamic minimum considerations, DAC is often expected to require about 3 times more energy (per ton CO2 captured) than PCC because CO2 in ambient air is more dilute. Here, we calculate the energy required for a humidity swing-based DAC installation that uses an anionic exchange resin as sorbent. The calculation uses recently measured equilibrium CO2 loadings of the sorbent as function of partial CO2 pressure, temperature, and humidity. We calculate the installation's electricity consumption to be about 45 kJ per mole of pure CO2 at 1 bar (scenario-dependent). Furthermore, we estimate the amount of heat provided by ambient air and thus provide context of the overall energy and entropy balance and thermodynamic minimum views. The electricity consumption is competitive with typical parasitic loads of PCC-equipped coal-fired power plants (40-50 kJ per mole at same pressure) and significantly lower than predicted for other DAC installations such as Na(OH) sorbent-based systems. Our analyses elucidate why DAC is not always more energy-intensive that PCC, thus alleviating often cited concerns of significant cost impediments. Financial support by ABB for research presented herein is gratefully acknowledged.

  11. Study on Sulfation of CeO2/γ-Al2O3 Sorbent in Simulated Flue Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The sulfation of CeO2/γ-Al2O3 sorbent in simulated flue gas was studied. A series of CeO2/γ-Al2O3 sorbents with different CeO2 loadings were prepared by impregnation and characterized by X-ray diffraction. Thermogravimetric technique was used to study the sulfation of CeO2/γ-Al2O3 sorbents, mainly on the CeO2 loading, sulfation cycles, and intrinsic kinetics. The study revealed that monolayer coverage of CeO2 supported on γ-Al2O3 was 0.125 g CeO2/g (γ-Al2O3). Below monolayer coverage, CeO2 was highly dispersed on γ-Al2O3. The optimal CeO2 loading on sulfation was 0.03 g CeO2/g (γ-Al2O3). CeO2/γ-Al2O3 sorbent was recyclable by controlling sulfation time. Intrinsic kineticd equation was R=1.1394×10-4×exp (-1,508.39/T) mg·mg-1·s-1. Activation energy and reaction order were 12.54 kJ·mol-1 and first order, respectively.

  12. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Topical report, April 1, 1996--April 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Brackebusch, F.; Carpenter, J. [and others

    1998-12-31

    This report represents the Final Technical Progress Report for Phase II of the overall program for a cooperative research agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy - MORGANTOWN Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC). Under the agreement, SIUC will develop and demonstrate technologies for the handling, transport, and placement in abandoned underground coal mines of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products, such as fly ash, scrubber sludge, fluidized bed combustion by-products, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground placement. The overall program is divided into three (3) phases. Phase II of the program is primarily concerned with developing and testing the hardware for the actual underground placement demonstrations. Two technologies have been identified and hardware procured for full-scale demonstrations: (1) hydraulic placement, where coal combustion by-products (CCBs) will be placed underground as a past-like mixture containing about 70 to 75 percent solids; and (2) pneumatic placement, where CCBs will be placed underground as a relatively dry material using compressed air. 42 refs., 36 figs., 36 tabs.

  13. Metal catalysts supported on activated carbon fibers for removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from incineration flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chiou-Liang; Cheng, Yu-Hsiang; Liu, Zhen-Shu; Chen, Jian-Yuan

    2011-12-15

    The aim of this research was to use metal catalysts supported on activated carbon fibers (ACFs) to remove 16 species of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from incineration flue gas. We tested three different metal loadings (0.11 wt%, 0.29 wt%, and 0.34 wt%) and metals (Pt, Pd, and Cu), and two different pretreatment solutions (HNO(3) and NaOH). The results demonstrated that the ACF-supported metal catalysts removed the PAHs through adsorption and catalysis. Among the three metals, Pt was most easily adsorbed on the ACFs and was the most active in oxidation of PAHs. The mesopore volumes and density of new functional groups increased significantly after the ACFs were pretreated with either solutions, and this increased the measured metal loading in HNO(3)-0.48% Pd/ACFs and NaOH-0.52% Pd/ACFs. These data confirm that improved PAH removal can be achieved with HNO(3)-0.48% Pd/ACFs and NaOH-0.52% Pd/ACFs.

  14. Membrane loop process for separating carbon dioxide for use in gaseous form from flue gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijmans, Johannes G; Baker, Richard W; Merkel, Timothy C

    2016-09-06

    The invention is a process involving membrane-based gas separation for separating and recovering carbon dioxide emissions from combustion processes in partially concentrated form, and then transporting the carbon dioxide and using or storing it in a confined manner without concentrating it to high purity. The process of the invention involves building up the concentration of carbon dioxide in a gas flow loop between the combustion step and a membrane separation step. A portion of the carbon dioxide-enriched gas can then be withdrawn from this loop and transported, without the need to liquefy the gas or otherwise create a high-purity stream, to a destination where it is used or confined, preferably in an environmentally benign manner.

  15. Development of a Novel Gas Pressurized Stripping Process-Based Technology for CO₂ Capture from Post-Combustion Flue Gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shiaoguo

    2015-09-30

    A novel Gas Pressurized Stripping (GPS) post-combustion carbon capture (PCC) process has been developed by Carbon Capture Scientific, LLC, CONSOL Energy Inc., Nexant Inc., and Western Kentucky University in this bench-scale project. The GPS-based process presents a unique approach that uses a gas pressurized technology for CO₂ stripping at an elevated pressure to overcome the energy use and other disadvantages associated with the benchmark monoethanolamine (MEA) process. The project was aimed at performing laboratory- and bench-scale experiments to prove its technical feasibility and generate process engineering and scale-up data, and conducting a techno-economic analysis (TEA) to demonstrate its energy use and cost competitiveness over the MEA process. To meet project goals and objectives, a combination of experimental work, process simulation, and technical and economic analysis studies were applied. The project conducted individual unit lab-scale tests for major process components, including a first absorption column, a GPS column, a second absorption column, and a flasher. Computer simulations were carried out to study the GPS column behavior under different operating conditions, to optimize the column design and operation, and to optimize the GPS process for an existing and a new power plant. The vapor-liquid equilibrium data under high loading and high temperature for the selected amines were also measured. The thermal and oxidative stability of the selected solvents were also tested experimentally and presented. A bench-scale column-based unit capable of achieving at least 90% CO₂ capture from a nominal 500 SLPM coal-derived flue gas slipstream was designed and built. This integrated, continuous, skid-mounted GPS system was tested using real flue gas from a coal-fired boiler at the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC). The technical challenges of the GPS technology in stability, corrosion, and foaming of selected solvents, and environmental, health and

  16. Selective autocatalytic reduction of NO from sintering flue gas by the hot sintered ore in the presence of NH3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wangsheng; Luo, Jing; Qin, Linbo; Han, Jun

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the selective autocatalytic reduction of NO by NH3 combined with multi-metal oxides in the hot sintered ore was studied, and the catalytic activity of the hot sintered ore was investigated as a function of temperature, NH3/NO ratio, O2 content, H2O and SO2. The experimental results indicated that the hot sintered ore, when combined with NH3, had a maximum denitration efficiency of 37.67% at 450 °C, 3000 h(-1) gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) and a NH3/NO ratio of 0.4/1. Additionally, it was found that O2 played an important role in removing NOx. However, high O2 content had a negative effect on NO reduction. H2O was found to promote the denitration efficiency in the absence of SO2, while SO2 inhibited the catalytic activity of the sintered ore. In the presence of H2O and SO2, the catalytic activity of the sintered ore was dramatically suppressed.

  17. Experimental and numerical study on combustion of baled biomass in cigar burners and effects of flue gas re-circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erić Aleksandar M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of experimental and numerical investigation addressing combustion of baled agricultural biomass in a 50 kW experimental furnace equipped with cigar burners. Experiments performed included measurements of all parameters deemed important for mass and energy balance, as well as parameters defining quality of the combustion process. Experimental results were compared with results of numerical simulations performed with previously developed CFD model. The model takes into account complex thermo mechanical combustion processes occurring in a porous layer of biomass bales and the surrounding fluid. The combustion process and the corresponding model were deemed stationary. Comparison of experimental and numerical results obtained through research presented in this paper showed satisfactory correspondence, leading to the conclusion that the model developed could be used for analysis of different effects associated with variations in process parameters and/or structural modifications in industrial biomass facilities. Mathematical model developed was also utilized to examine the impact of flue gas recirculation on maximum temperatures in the combustion chamber. Gas recirculation was found to have positive effect on the reduction of maximum temperature in the combustion chamber, as well as on the reduction of maximum temperature zone in the chamber. The conclusions made provided valuable inputs towards prevention of biomass ash sintering, which occurs at higher temperatures and negatively affects biomass combustion process. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 42011: Development and improvement of technologies for energy efficient and environmentally sound use of several types of agricultural and forest biomass and possible utilization for cogeneration i br. TR33042: Fluidized bed combustion facility improvements as a step forward in developing energy efficient and environmentally sound waste combustion

  18. In-field experimental verification of cultivation of microalgae Chlorella sp. using the flue gas from a cogeneration unit as a source of carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastánek, Frantisek; Sabata, Stanislav; Solcová, Olga; Maléterová, Ywette; Kastánek, Petr; Brányiková, Irena; Kuthan, Karel; Zachleder, Vilém

    2010-11-01

    A complex treatment of agricultural waste including the following major steps: anaerobic fermentation of suitable waste, cogeneration of the obtained biogas and growth of microalgae consuming the CO(2) from biogas and flue gas was verified under field conditions in a pilot-scale photobioreactor. The growth kinetics of microalgae Chlorella sp. consuming mixture of air and carbon dioxide (2% (v/v) of CO(2)), or flue gas (8-10% (v/v) of CO(2)) was investigated. The results obtained in the pilot photobioreactor were compared with results previously measured in laboratory photobioreactors. The field tests were performed in a pilot-scale outdoor solar-bubbled photobioreactor located at a biogas station. The pilot-scale photobioreactor was in the shape of a flat and narrow vertical prism with a volume of 300 L. The microalgae growth rates were correlated with empirical formulas. Laboratory analyses of the produced microalgae confirmed that it meets the strict EU criteria for relevant contaminants level in foodstuffs. Utilization of flue gases from cogeneration therefore was not found to be detrimental to the quality of microalgal biomass, and may be used in these types of bioreactors.

  19. Effect of pore formers on properties of tape cast porous sheets for electrochemical flue gas purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Cristine Grings; Kammer Hansen, Kent; Andersen, Kjeld Bøhm

    2016-01-01

    permeability measurements, mercury porosimetry and pore orientation measurements, to investigate the role of the different pore formers on the properties after sintering at a temperature of 1250°C. Those tapes prepared from different non-spherical pore formers with comparable porosity of about 43%, showed...... significant differences in gas permeability which could be correlated to an increase in mean pore size and pore connectivity. The degree of pore orientation in the tape casting direction was determined by best-fit ellipse method and a modified linear intercept method and the obtained data were correlated...... with the corresponding gas permeability....

  20. Improved biomass and lipid production in a mixotrophic culture of Chlorella sp. KR-1 with addition of coal-fired flue-gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveenkumar, Ramasamy; Kim, Bohwa; Choi, Eunji; Lee, Kyubock; Park, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Jin-Suk; Lee, Young-Chul; Oh, You-Kwan

    2014-11-01

    Industrial CO2-rich flue-gases, owing to their eco-toxicity, have yet to be practically exploited for microalgal biomass and lipid production. In this study, various autotrophic and mixotrophic culture modes for an oleaginous microalga, Chlorella sp. KR-1 were compared for the use in actual coal-fired flue-gas. Among the mixotrophic conditions tested, the fed-batch feedings of glucose and the supply of air in dark cycles showed the highest biomass (561 mg/L d) and fatty-acid methyl-ester (168 mg/L d) productivities. This growth condition also resulted in the maximal population of microalgae and the minimal population and types of KR-1-associated-bacterial species as confirmed by particle-volume-distribution and denaturing-gradient-gel-electrophoresis (DGGE) analyses. Furthermore, microalgal lipid produced was assessed, based on its fatty acid profile, to meet key biodiesel standards such as saponification, iodine, and cetane numbers.

  1. Dynamic measurement of mercury adsorption and oxidation on activated carbon in simulated cement kiln flue gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuanjing; Jensen, Anker Degn; Windelin, Christian

    2012-01-01

    elemental mercury shows that when HCl is present with either SO2 or NOx the mercury measurement after the converter is unstable and lower than the elemental mercury inlet level. The conclusion is that red brass chips cannot fully reduce oxidized mercury to elemental mercury when simulated cement kiln gas...

  2. Optimizing the Performance of Porous Electrochemical Cells for Flue Gas Purification using the DOE method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kjeld Bøhm; Nygaard, Frederik Berg; He, Zeming;

    2011-01-01

    The DOE model was used to improve the performance of cells for electrochemical gas purification. Three factors were chosen: the amount of graphite, the Lanthanum Strontium Manganate/Gadolinium-doped Cerium oxide weight % ratio, and the Lanthanum Strontium Manganate pre-calcination temperature (with......, that a change in a factor not only changes the performance property that one would expect, but also influence other properties....

  3. 50t炼钢电弧炉烟气余热回收系统的设计应用%The Design and Application of Flue Gas Waste Heat Recovery System for 50 t Steelmaking EAF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶务纯; 杨波; 朱宝晶; 王宝

    2012-01-01

    以电弧炉炼钢过程烟气余热的回收利用及烟气净化除尘为主线,以热管蒸发器为换热元件,合理控制烟气流速,解决高温烟尘的沉降和蒸发器热管灰堵以及烟气温度波动大的难题,完成了50t电弧炉烟气余热回收净化系统设计与施工.对电弧炉炼钢过程中所产生的高温烟气直接进行余热回收,满足电弧炉炼钢流程VD真空处理对蒸汽的需求,实现了高温烟气余热回收利用和环境净化,为国内电弧炉节能降耗和清洁生产进行了有益的探索.%Taking the flue gas waste heat recovery utilization and flue gas cleaning dusting in the EAF steelmaking process as main line and taking heat pipe evaporator as heat transfer element and reasonable control flue gas flow rate, the high temperature dust precipitation and evaporator heat pipe ash plugging and large flue gas temperature fluctuation etc problem were fully solved. The design and construction of flue gas waste heat recovery cleaning system for 501 EAF were completed. High temperature flue gas waste heat produced by EAF under steelmaking process was directly recovered, in order to meet the needs of steam under the VD steel making. Thus high temperature flue gas waste heat recovery utilization and environmental cleaning were realized. For the purpose of energy saving and consumption reducing and clean production in domestic EAF, above-mentioned helpful discussion was carried out.

  4. Microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} as a means of by-product recovery/disposal from regenerable processes for the desulfurization of flue gas. Technical progress report, March 11, 1993--June 11, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sublette, K.L.

    1993-11-01

    There are two basic approaches to addressing the problem of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions: (1) desulfurize (and denitrogenate) the feedstock prior to or during combustion; or (2) scrub the resultant SO{sub 2} and oxides of nitrogen from the boiler flue gases. The flue gas processing alternative has been addressed in this project via microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} by sulfate-reducing bacteria

  5. Effects of properties of manganese oxide-impregnated catalysts and flue gas condition on multipollutant control of Hg{sup 0} and NO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, Chun-Hsiang [Institute of Environmental Engineering and Management, National Taipei University of Technology, No. 1, Sec. 3, Chung-Hsiao E. Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Hsi, Hsing-Cheng, E-mail: hchsi@ntu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 71, Chou-Shan Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Lin, Hong-Ping [Department of Chemistry, National Cheng-Kung University, No. 1, University Rd., Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Chang, Tien-Chin [Institute of Environmental Engineering and Management, National Taipei University of Technology, No. 1, Sec. 3, Chung-Hsiao E. Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2015-06-30

    Highlights: • MnO{sub x} impregnation caused changes in physical/chemical properties of catalyst. • Mn{sup 4+} was the main valence state of impregnated MnO{sub x}. • MnO{sub x} impregnation enhanced the removal of Hg{sup 0}/NO/SO{sub 2} with SCR catalyst. • HCl, O{sub 2}, and SO{sub 2} at ≤200 ppm and elevating temperature promoted Hg{sup 0} oxidation. • Increasing NO and NH{sub 3} concentrations reduced Hg{sup 0} oxidation. - Abstract: This research investigated the effects of manganese oxide (MnO{sub x}) impregnation on the physical/chemical properties and multi pollutant control effectiveness of Hg{sup 0} and NO using a V{sub 2}O{sub 5}–WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2}–SiO{sub 2} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst. Raw and MnO{sub x}-treated SCR samples were bean-shaped nanoparticles with sizes within 10–30 nm. Impregnating MnO{sub x} of ≤5 wt% caused limited changes in physical properties of the catalyst. The decrease in surface area when the impregnated MnO{sub x} amount was 10 wt% may stem from the pore blockage and particle growth or aggregation of the catalyst. Mn{sup 4+} was the main valence state of impregnated MnO{sub x}. Apparent crystallinity of MnO{sub x} was not observed based on X-ray diffraction. MnO{sub x} impregnation enhanced the Hg{sup 0} oxidation and NO/SO{sub 2} removal of SCR catalyst. The 5 and 10% MnO{sub x}-impregnated samples had the greatest multi pollutant control potentials for Hg{sup 0} oxidation and NO removal; however, the increasing SO{sub 2} removal that may be mainly due to SO{sub 2}–SO{sub 3} conversion should be cautioned. HCl and O{sub 2} greatly promoted Hg{sup 0} oxidation. SO{sub 2} enhanced Hg{sup 0} oxidation at ≤200 ppm while NO and NH{sub 3} consistently inhibited Hg{sup 0} oxidation. Elevating flue gas temperature enhanced Hg{sup 0} oxidation. Overall, MnO{sub x}-impregnated catalysts show stable and consistent multi pollutant removal effectiveness under the test conditions.

  6. Progress in catalytic membrane reactors for removing sulfur from natural gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Chang-yuan; LIU Zuo-hua; DU Jun; LIU Ren-long

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly high requirement driven by environmental concern leads to more rigorous standards for sulfur dosage in fuel. Natural gas desulfurization is an important unit for industrial natural gas process. Catalytic membrane reactor for sulfur compounds removal is a newly emerged and integrated membrane technology. We reviewed the current progress for desulfurization of natural gas with membrane process, and predicted that the process combined with catalytic membrane reactor and microwave irradiation for desulfurization of natural gas might be an integrated and promising unit for large scale desulfurization with high efficiency.

  7. Characteristics and settling behaviour of particles from blast furnace flue gas washing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiventerä, Jenni; Leiviskä, Tiina; Keski-Ruismäki, Kirsi; Tanskanen, Juha

    2016-05-01

    A lot of particles from iron-making are removed with blast furnace off-gas and routed to the gas cleaning system. As water is used for cleaning the gas, the produced wash water contains a large amount of particles such as valuable Fe and C. However, the presence of zinc prevents recycling. In addition, the high amount of calcium results in uncontrolled scaling. Therefore, the properties of the wash water from scrubber and sludge, from the Finnish metal industry (SSAB Raahe), were evaluated in this study. Size fractionation of wash water revealed that Fe, Zn, Al, Mn, V, Cr and Cd appeared mainly in the larger fractions (>1.2 μm) and Na, Mg, Si, Ni, K, Cu and As appeared mainly in the smaller fractions (<1.2 μm) or in dissolved form. Calcium was found both in the larger fractions and dissolved (∼60 mg/L). Most of the particles in wash water were included in the 1.2-10 μm particle size and were settled effectively. However, a clear benefit was observed when using a chemical to enhance particle settling. In comparison to 2.5 h of settling without chemical, the turbidity was further decreased by about 94%, iron 85% and zinc 50%. Coagulation-flocculation experiments indicated that both low and high molecular weight cationic polymers could provide excellent purification results in terms of turbidity. Calcium should be removed by other methods. The particles in sludge were mostly in the 2-4 μm or 10-20 μm fractions. Further sludge settling resulted in high solids removal.

  8. Effect of byproducts of flue gas desulfurization on the soluble salts composition and chemical properties of sodic soils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinman Wang

    Full Text Available The byproducts of flue gas desulfurization (BFGD are a useful external source of Ca(2+ for the reclamation of sodic soils because they are comparatively cheap, generally available and have high gypsum content. The ion solution composition of sodic soils also plays an important role in the reclamation process. The effect of BFGD on the soluble salts composition and chemical properties of sodic soils were studied in a soil column experiment. The experiment consisted of four treatments using two different sodic soils (sodic soil I and sodic soil II and two BFGD rates. After the application of BFGD and leaching, the soil soluble salts were transformed from sodic salts containing Na2CO3 and NaHCO3 to neutral salts containing NaCl and Na2SO4. The sodium adsorption ratio (SAR, pH and electrical conductivity (EC decreased at all soil depths, and more significantly in the top soil depth. At a depth of 0-40 cm in both sodic soil I and sodic soil II, the SAR, EC and pH were less than 13, 4 dS m(-1 and 8.5, respectively. The changes in the chemical properties of the sodic soils reflected the changes in the ion composition of soluble salts. Leaching played a key role in the reclamation process and the reclamation effect was positively associated with the amount of leaching. The soil salts did not accumulate in the top soil layer, but there was a slight increase in the middle and bottom soil depths. The results demonstrate that the reclamation of sodic soils using BFGD is promising.

  9. Effect of byproducts of flue gas desulfurization on the soluble salts composition and chemical properties of sodic soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinman; Bai, Zhongke; Yang, Peiling

    2013-01-01

    The byproducts of flue gas desulfurization (BFGD) are a useful external source of Ca(2+) for the reclamation of sodic soils because they are comparatively cheap, generally available and have high gypsum content. The ion solution composition of sodic soils also plays an important role in the reclamation process. The effect of BFGD on the soluble salts composition and chemical properties of sodic soils were studied in a soil column experiment. The experiment consisted of four treatments using two different sodic soils (sodic soil I and sodic soil II) and two BFGD rates. After the application of BFGD and leaching, the soil soluble salts were transformed from sodic salts containing Na2CO3 and NaHCO3 to neutral salts containing NaCl and Na2SO4. The sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), pH and electrical conductivity (EC) decreased at all soil depths, and more significantly in the top soil depth. At a depth of 0-40 cm in both sodic soil I and sodic soil II, the SAR, EC and pH were less than 13, 4 dS m(-1) and 8.5, respectively. The changes in the chemical properties of the sodic soils reflected the changes in the ion composition of soluble salts. Leaching played a key role in the reclamation process and the reclamation effect was positively associated with the amount of leaching. The soil salts did not accumulate in the top soil layer, but there was a slight increase in the middle and bottom soil depths. The results demonstrate that the reclamation of sodic soils using BFGD is promising.

  10. Effects of phosphoric acid sprayed into an incinerator furnace on the flue gas pressure drop at fabric filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Shigetoshi; Hwang, In-Hee; Matsuto, Toshihiko

    2016-06-01

    Fabric filters are widely used to remove dust from flue gas generated by waste incineration. However, a pressure drop occurs at the filters, caused by growth of a dust layer on the filter fabric despite regular cleaning by pulsed-jet air. The pressure drop at the fabric filters leads to energy consumption at induced draft fan to keep the incinerator on negative pressure, so that its proper control is important to operate incineration facility efficiently. The pressure drop at fabric filters decreased whenever phosphoric acid wastewater (PAW) was sprayed into an incinerator for treating industrial waste. Operational data obtained from the incineration facility were analyzed to determine the short- and long-term effects of PAW spraying on the pressure drop. For the short-term effect, it was confirmed that the pressure drop at the fabric filters always decreased to 0.3-1.2kPa within about 5h after spraying PAW. This effect was expected to be obtained by about one third of present PAW spraying amount. However, from the long-term perspective, the pressure drop showed an increase in the periods of PAW spraying compared with periods for which PAW spraying was not performed. The pressure drop increase was particularly noticeable after the initial PAW spraying, regardless of the age and type of fabric filters used. These results suggest that present PAW spraying causes a temporary pressure drop reduction, leading to short-term energy consumption savings; however, it also causes an increase of the pressure drop over the long-term, degrading the overall operating conditions. Thus, appropriate PAW spraying conditions are needed to make effective use of PAW to reduce the pressure drop at fabric filters from a short- and long-term point of view.

  11. Possible utilization of flue-gas desulfurization gypsum and fly ash for citrus production: Evaluation of crop growth response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alva, A.K. (Univ. of Florida, Lake Alfred, FL (United States). Citrus Research and Education Center)

    1994-01-01

    The application of industrial by-products to agricultural land has been a topic of considerable interest during recent years. For the industries, this is an attractive avenue to utilize the by-products rather than land filling. Agriculturists/horticulturists are faced with a new challenge to evaluate the potential advantages of this practice in terms of crop growth, production, and quality as well as effects of such practices on environmental quality. Fly ash and flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum are by-products produced from coal-fired electric power generation plants. There is a growing interest in evaluation of potential benefits of land application of coal combustion by products mixed with organic by-products. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of application of FGD gypsum, fly ash or chicken manure,, or application of the former two in combination with the latter, on soil properties as well as on growth and mineral nutrition of Cleopatra mandarin and Swingle citrumelo rootstock seedlings grown on a Myakka sand. The growth of seedlings of either rootstock improved significantly in soils amended with either FGD gypsum, fly ash, or chicken manure, individually or in combination of either by-product with chicken manure. However, the ranking of various amendments in relation to growth response differed between the two rootstocks. The combined application of all three amendments decreased the growth of both rootstock seedlings significantly as compared to that of seedlings in unamended soil. The application of either FGD gypsum, fly ash, or chicken manure each at 2 g/kg soil increased the concentration of Ca, Ca and K, and Ca and P in the leaves of seedlings, respectively.

  12. 吸附剂烟气脱砷的研究现状%Review on Sorbents for Arsenic Removal from Flue Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张淑会; 吕庆; 胡晓

    2011-01-01

    Atmosphere arsenic contamination has drawn increasingly attentions. Removal of arsenic and other harmful gas in flue gas by sorbents is becoming an attractive means to control arsenic content in flue gas and prevent arsenic contamination.Morphology and distribution of arsenic in flue gas were analyzed. New research progress of calcium oxide, activated carbon,fly ash and metal oxide as sorbents for arsenic removal from flue gas was summarized, with emphasis on analysis of arsenic capture mechanism and influence factors of arsenic removal process. It showed that chemistry adsorption is main adsorption reaction, and capture ability mainly depends on chemical composition of sorbents. Besides, temperature, sorbents' surface texture and other impurity gas also affect the adsorption process. The study on arsenic capture mechanism of different sorbents should be enhanced. Factors such as function, efficiency and cost should be considered, and modified study of the traditional sorbents should be emphasized as well.%大气砷污染问题日益引起人们的重视,吸附剂能够在去除烟气中砷的同时去除其他有害气体,是控制烟气砷含量、防止砷污染的有效途径.文章分析了砷在废气中的形态及分布,总结了近年来氧化钙、活性炭、飞灰和金属氧化物作为吸附剂用于烟气脱砷的最新研究进展,重点分析了各自的吸附机理及不同因素对脱砷过程的影响.指出吸附过程通常以化学吸附为主,吸附能力主要由吸附剂化学成分决定此外,温度、吸附剂表面结构特性及杂质气体等因素也会对吸附过程造成影响.建议应加强不同吸附剂砷吸附机理研究,固体吸附剂及吸附条件的选择应综合考虑功能、效率及成本等因素,同时着眼于传统吸附剂的改性研究.

  13. Discussion on Flue Gas Waste Heat Utilization technology of Heavy(F Class)Gas-steam Combined Cycle Power Plant%大型F级燃气蒸汽联合循环烟气余热利用探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章正传; 殷俊; 李懿靓

    2014-01-01

    本文探讨了大型F级联合循环机组利用烟气余热进行凝结水/给水加热、燃料气加热,进气冷却,以及利用烟气余热制冷和采暖方面的应用,分析表明,大型联合循环电厂烟气余热利用潜力较大,充分利用烟气余热,具有一定的节能意义。%This paper discusses flue gas waste heat utilization of Heavy(F Class)Gas- steam Combined Cycle Power Plant ,which used in condensed water /feed water heating, fuel gas heating, air cooling, and refrigeration and heating. Analysis shows that, the large combined cycle power plant flue gas waste heat utilization potential, make full use of the waste heat of the flue gas, has certain significance of energy saving.

  14. Field testing of a probe to measure fouling in an industrial flue gas stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohal, M.S.

    1990-11-01

    The US Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technology sponsors work in the area of measuring and mitigating fouling in heat exchangers. This report describes the design and fabrication of a gas-side fouling measuring device, and its testing in an industrial environment. The report gives details of the probe fabrication, material used, controllers, other instrumentation required for various measurements, and computer system needed for recording the data. The calibration constants for measuring the heat flux with the heat fluxmeter were determined. The report also describes the field test location, the tests performed, the data collected, and the data analysis. The conclusions of the tests performed were summarized. Although fouling deposits on the probe were minimal, the tests proved that the probe is capable of measuring the fouling in a harsh industrial environment. 17 refs., 19 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Important engineering issues in FCC regenerable wet flue gas scrubbing process%催化裂化可再生湿法烟气脱硫工艺应关注的工程问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡敏; 郭宏昶; 胡永龙; 汤红年; 王刻文; 谭忻; 朱雷鸣

    2012-01-01

    The two typical and industrialized FCC regenerable wet flue gas scrubbing processes I. E. LABSORB process of DuPont BELCO and CANSOLV process of Shell Global Solutions are introduced and the main technical indexes and technical features of the two processes are compared. The main characteristics of RASO process and associated engineering technologies developed by SINOPEC Luoyang Petrochemical Engineering Corporation are described, and the ion liquid recycle flue gas scrubbing process developed by Chengdu Huaxi Chemical Technology Co, Ltd. Are discussed. The impacts of application of regenerable wet flue gas scrubbing process in FCC units on the upstream flue gas expander, waste heat boiler or CO boiler and on operating parameters and capacity of the downstream sulfur recovery unit are studied in detail. It is pointed out that the absorbent ( scrubbing liquid) is the core technology of the regenerable wet flue gas scrubbing process, which determines the advance of the technology as well as capital investment and energy consumption of the flue gas scrubbing unit. The engineering technologies for application of regenerable wet flue gas scrubbing technology in FCC unit need to be further improved in respect of long-term operation, equipment layout & plot area requirement, capital vestment, energy consumption and operating costs, etc. When selecting the regenerable wet flue gas scrubbing for FCC unit, the impacts on upstream flue gas expander, waste heat boiler or CO boiler and the downstream sulfur recovery unit have to be considered to design FCC unit, flue gas scrubbing unit and sulfur recovery unit into an integrated complex.The two typical and industrialized FCC regenerable wet flue gas scrubbing processes I. E. LABSORB. Process of DuPont, BELCO, And CANSOLV, Process of Shell Global Solutions are introduced and the main technical indexes and technical features of the two processes are compared. The main characteristics of RASO process and associated engineering

  16. 面向NO_x脱除率优化的烟气脱硝CFD仿真研究%CFD Simulation of Flue Gas DeNO_x Process to Improve NO_x Removal Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁景淇; 宋善奎; 金强; 李雨

    2009-01-01

    烟气脱硝的技术关键是还原剂与烟气混合要尽可能均匀,混合气体通过催化剂层时速度分布要尽可能均匀.以600 MW超临界燃煤火力电站烟气脱硝(DeNO_x)系统为对象,对还原剂氨和烟气的混合过程进行了计算流体力学仿真,研究了关键导流板对喷氨格栅前烟气速度分布和催化剂入口处烟气速度分布的影响,并确定其尺寸及安装位置.为提高催化剂入口氨浓度分布的均匀性,根据喷氨格栅处烟道截面速度分布特点,通过仿真寻优,得到了非均匀喷氨流量设定值.%The problem of dentrification efficiency of the SCR-DeNO_x plant depending on the velocity and ammonia concentration distributions at the entrance of the catalyst layer is discussed Taking the flue gas DeNO_x of a 600 MW super-critical coal-fired power plant as an example,the flue gas/ammonia mixing is investigated with the CFD simulation software The gate leaf to manipulate the velocity distribution of the mixed gas at the inlet of the catalyst layer is designed,and the load of the catalytic reactor becomes more uniformly designated To achieve uniform distribution of the ammonia concentration in the mixed gas,the non-uniform ammonia injection is investigated and the set-points of the ammonia feeding rates at AIG-ammonia injection grids are determined Simudation results show that both velocity and ammonia concentration distributions are under well control without significant increase of the pressure drop

  17. 活性焦烟气脱硫技术及其应用前景%Desulfurization Technology for Flue Gas by Active Coke and Its Application Prospect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪家铭

    2012-01-01

    Desulfurization technology for flue gas by active coke was using its inherent functions of adsorption, catalysis and filtration,it was a dry purification treatment for the sulfur contained flue gas, in same one of reactor the three functions of desulfurization, de-nitride and de-dust were finished. Author hasintroduced the basic principle,process flow,technical feature,studying and developing situation taking coal as mainraw material to produce the active coke ; has compared the desulfurization hy active coke with the other some kinds of conventional desulfurization processes. Result indicates that the desulfurization technology of flue gas by active coke has an obvious superiority in the aspects of desulfurization rate,utilization of by-product,investment of plant and operating cost etc.%活性焦烟气脱硫技术利用活性焦特有的吸附、催化和过滤功能,对含硫烟气进行干法净化处理,在同1个反应器内完成脱硫、脱硝、除尘3种功能。介绍了以煤为主要原料生产活性焦的基本原理、工艺流程、技术特点和研发概况;将活性焦脱硫工艺与其他几种常用的脱硫工艺进行了对比,结果表明,活性焦烟气脱硫技术在脱硫率、副产品利用、装置投资及运行费用等方面均具有明显优势。

  18. The impact of co-firing sunflower husk pellets with coal in a boiler on the chemical composition of flue gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zajemska Monika

    2017-01-01

    The calculations showed that the most important influence on the composition of the flue gas from the co-firing process of coal with sunflower husk has a composition of biomass. It should be emphasized that the results of computer simulations obtained by the authors have an useful aspect and can be applied in practice, especially to the analysis of the mechanism of chloride corrosion which is possible to occur due to the chlorine content in the biomass. They may also be useful for evaluating the unburned hydrocarbons produced by combustion of rich mixtures (λ < 1.0.

  19. Comparative study on the corrosion behavior of the cold rolled and hot rolled low-alloy steels containing copper and antimony in flue gas desulfurization environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S. A.; Kim, J. G.; He, Y. S.; Shin, K. S.; Yoon, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    The correlation between the corrosion and microstructual characteristics of cold rolled and hot rolled low-alloy steels containing copper and antimony was established. The corrosion behavior of the specimens used in flue gas desulfurization systems was examined by electrochemical and weight loss measurements in an aggressive solution of 16.9 vol % H2SO4 + 0.35 vol % HCl at 60°C, pH 0.3. It has been shown that the corrosion rate of hot rolled steel is lower than that of cold rolled steel. The corrosion rate of cold rolled steel was increased by grain refinement, inclusion formation, and preferred grain orientation.

  20. Selective extraction of CO2 from simulated flue gas using polymeric ionic liquid sorbent coatings in solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qichao; Anderson, Jared L

    2010-07-02

    The CO2 selectivity of two polymeric task-specific ionic liquid sorbent coatings, poly(1-vinyl-3-hexylimidazolium) bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide [poly(VHIM-NTf2)] and poly(1-vinyl-3-hexylimidazolium) taurate [poly(VHIM-taurate)], was examined using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) for the determination of CO2 in simulated flue gas. For comparison purposes, a commercial SPME fiber, Carboxen-PDMS, was also studied. A study into the effect of humidity revealed that the poly(VHIM-taurate) fiber exhibited enhanced resistance to water, presumably due to the unique mechanism of CO2 capture. The effect of temperature on the performance of the PIL-based and Carboxen fibers was examined by generating calibration curves under various temperatures. The sensitivity, linearity, and linear range of the three fibers were evaluated. The extraction of CH4 and N2 was performed and the selectivities of the PIL-based and Carboxen fibers were compared. The poly(VHIM-NTf2) fiber was found to possess superior CO2/CH4 and CO2/N2 selectivities compared to the Carboxen fiber, despite the smaller film thicknesses of the PIL-based fibers. A scanning electron microscopy study suggests that the amine group of the poly(VHIM-taurate) is capable of selectively reacting with CO2 but not CH4 or N2, resulting in a significant surface morphology change of the sorbent coating.

  1. 基于VB的烟气余热锅炉设计%Design of Flue Gas Waste Heat Boilers Based on VB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程爱民

    2013-01-01

    根据焦炉烟气的流量、温度及组分,介绍了余热锅炉设计的热平衡计算及热管余热锅炉的热力计算,借助VB语言进行烟气、水及水蒸气的特征参数计算以及热管余热锅炉设计参数选取,对了解和掌握焦炉烟气热管余热锅炉设计有一定的参考价值.%According to the flue gas flow rate, temperature and component of coke even, the waste heat boiler design calculation of heat balance and heat pipe waste heat boiler thermodynamic calculation is introduced, and using VB language for the gas, water and water vapor characteristic parameter calculation and heat pipe waste heat boiler design parameter are selected, and to understand and master the coke oven flue gas heat pipe waste heat boiler.

  2. A Highly Stable Microporous Covalent Imine Network Adsorbent for Natural Gas Upgrading and Flue Gas CO2 Capture

    KAUST Repository

    Das, Swapan Kumar

    2016-06-06

    The feasible capture and separation of CO2 and N2 from CH4 is an important task for natural gas upgrading and the control of greenhouse gas emissions. Here, we studied the microporous covalent imine networks (CIN) material prepared through Schiff base condensation and exhibited superior chemical robustness under both acidic and basic conditions and high thermal stability. The material possesses a relatively uniform nanoparticle size of approximately 70 to 100 nm. This network featured permanent porosity with a high surface area (722 m2g-1) and micropores. A single-component gas adsorption study showed enhanced CO2 and CH4 uptakes of 3.32 mmol/g and 1.14 mmol/g, respectively, at 273 K and 1 bar, coupled with high separation selectivities for CO2/CH4, CH4/N2, and CO2/N2 of 23, 11.8 and 211, respectively. The enriched Lewis basicity in the porous skeletons favours the interaction of quadrupolar CO2 and polarizable CH4, resulting in enhanced CH4 and CO2 uptake and high CH4/N2, CO2/CH4 and CO2/N2 selectivities. Breakthrough experiments showed high CO2/CH4, CH4/N2 and CO2/N2 selectivities of 7.29, 40 and 125, respectively, at 298 K and 1 bar. High heats of adsorption for CH4 and CO2 (QstCH4; 32.61 kJ mol-1 and QstCO2; 42.42 kJ mol-1) provide the ultimate validation for the high selectivity. To the best of our knowledge, such a versatile adsorbent material that displays both enhanced uptake and selectivity for a variety of binary gas mixtures, including CO2/ CH4, CO2/N2 and CH4/N2, has not been extensively explored.

  3. Simultaneous removal of elemental mercury and NO from flue gas by V{sub 2}O{sub 5}–CeO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xunan [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Li, Caiting, E-mail: ctli@hnu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Zhao, Lingkui; Zhang, Jie; Zeng, Guangming; Xie, Yin’e; Yu, Ming’e [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • V{sub 2}O{sub 5}–CeO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} catalyst was developed for both NO and Hg{sup 0} removal from simulated flue gas. • The existence of the redox cycle of V{sup 4+} + Ce{sup 4+} ↔ V{sup 5+} + Ce{sup 3+} over V{sub 2}O{sub 5}–CeO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} catalyst could not only greatly improve the NO conversion, but also promote the oxidation of Hg{sup 0}. • The roles of NH{sub 3}/NO ratio, O{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O (g) in the flue gas on both NO conversion and Hg{sup 0} oxidation were well explored. • A feasible one step process for nitrogen oxides and mercury removal in the flue gas was proposed. - Abstract: A series of Ce-doped V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/TiO{sub 2} catalysts synthesized by an ultrasound assisted impregnation method were employed to investigate simultaneous removal of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) and NO in lab-scale experiments. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), X-ray diffractogram (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses were used to characterize the samples. Compared to TiO{sub 2} support, the catalytic performance of CeO{sub 2} doped on both TiO{sub 2} and V{sub 2}O{sub 5/}TiO{sub 2} catalysts have been improved. Remarkably, 1%V{sub 2}O{sub 5}–10% CeO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} (V1Ce10Ti) exhibited the highest Hg{sup 0} oxidation efficiency of 81.55% at 250 °C with a desired NO removal efficiency under the same condition. Both the NO conversion and Hg{sup 0} oxidation efficiency were enhanced in the presence of O{sub 2}. The activity was inhibited by the injection of NH{sub 3} with the increase of NH{sub 3}/NO. When in the presence of 400 ppm SO{sub 2}, Hg{sup 0} oxidation was slightly affected. Furthermore, Hg{sup 0} removal behavior under both oxidation and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) condition over V1Ce10Ti were well investigated to further probe into the feasibility of one single unit for multi-pollutants control in industry application. The existence of the

  4. Experimental research on influencing factors of wet removal of NO from coal-fired flue gas by UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Wet removal of NO from coal-fired flue gas by UV/H2O2 Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) were investigated in a self-designed UV-bubble reactor. Several main influencing factors (UV intensity, H2O2 initial concentration, initial pH value, solution temperature, NO initial concentration, liquid-gas ratio and O2 percentage content) on the NO removal efficiency were studied. The results showed that UV intensity, H2O2 initial concentration, NO initial concentration and liquid-gas ratio are the main influencing factors. In the best conditions, the highest NO removal efficiency by UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation process could reach 82.9%. Based on the experimental study, the influencing mechanism of the relevant influencing factors were discussed in depth.

  5. A Discussion on Advanced Wastewater Treatment Process for Sintering Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewater%烧结湿法烟气脱硫废水深度处理流程探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘莉; 陈亮; 董进

    2016-01-01

    钢铁企业烧结湿法烟气脱硫废水成分复杂,废水处理典型的工艺流程废水经处理后不能完全达标外排,也不能作为烟气脱硫系统的回用水,探讨烧结湿法烟气脱硫废水深度处理流程,势在必行.%As the composition of sintering wet flue gas desulfurization wastewater in steel enterprises is complicated, the treated wastewater by typical treatment processes cannot fully meet discharge standard, nor can it be used as reuse water in the flue gas desulfuriza-tion system. The necessity of advanced treatment process for sintering flue gas desulfurization wastewater is discussed.

  6. Development and test of a new catalytic converter for natural gas fuelled engine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M A Kalam; H H Masjuki; M Redzuan; T M I Mahlia; M A Fuad; M Mohibah; K H Halim; A Ishak; M Khair; A Shahrir; A Yusoff

    2009-06-01

    This paper presents characteristics of a new catalytic converter (catco) to be used for natural gas fuelled engine. The catco were developed based on catalyst materials consisting of metal oxides such as titanium dioxide (TiO2) and cobalt oxide (CoO) with wire mesh substrate. Both of the catalyst materials (such as TiO2 and CoO) are inexpensive in comparison with conventional catalysts (noble metals) such as palladium or platinum. In addition, the noble metals such as platinum group metals are now identified as human health risk due to their rapid emissions in the environment from various resources like conventional catalytic converter, jewelers and other medical usages. It can be mentioned that the TiO2/CoO based catalytic converter and a new natural gas engine such as compressed natural gas (CNG) direct injection (DI) engine were developed under a research collaboration program. The original engine manufacture catalytic conveter (OEM catco) was tested for comparison purposes. The OEM catco was based on noble metal catalyst with honeycomb ceramic substrate. It is experimentally found that the conversion efficiencies of TiO2/CoO based catalytic converter are 93%, 89% and 82% for NOx, CO and HC emissions respectively. It is calculated that the TiO2/CoO based catalytic converter reduces 24%, 41% and 40% higher NOx, CO and HC emissions in comparison to OEM catco respectively. The objective of this paper is to develop a low-cost three way catalytic converter to be used with the newly developed CNG-DI engine. Detailed review on catalytic converter, low-cost catalytic converter development characteristics and CNGDI engine test results have been presented with discussions.

  7. Determination of Polychlorinated Diben-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans in Flue Gas by High Resolution Gas Chromatography Coupled with High Resolution Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T.; Yan, J. H.; Li, X. D.; Cen, K. F.

    2007-06-01

    In 1988 the first municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator plant was built in Shenzhen, China. Since then Beijing, Shanghai and other big cities have built a few MSW incineration plants. MSW incineration has gradually been used in some cities of China due to its advantages such as significant volume reduction (about 90%), mass reduction (about 70%), and toxicity reduction of the waste and energy recovery. However, MSW incineration is sometimes considered to the general public as the secondary pollution source, because of concerns about is toxic combustion byproducts (TCBs). Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) are the most toxic compounds among the TCBs. In this paper, PCDD/Fs in flue gas produced from a MSW incinerator were isokinetically withdrawn and collected in a multi component sampling train. Then the PCDD/Fs samples were extracted, concentrated and cleaned up step by step. Finally, the determination of PCDD/Fs was carried out by high-resolution gas chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). The two PCDD/Fs emission levels were the similar, which was 0.115 and 0.096ng TEQ/Nm3 although different sampling time. The PCDD/Fs emission levels were lower than the PCDD/Fs emission regulation in China (1.0 ng TEQ / Nm3) and close to the developed countries' regulations, i.e., 0.1ng TEQ/Nm3. 2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF) was the dominant congener of the total TEQ.

  8. Process analysis of syngas production by non-catalytic POX of oven gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fuchen WANG; Xinwen ZHOU; Wenyuan GUO; Zhenghua DAI; Xin GONG; Haifeng LIU; Guangsuo YU; Zunhong YU

    2009-01-01

    A non-catalytic POX of oven gas is proposed to solve the problem of secondary pollution due to solid wastes produced from the great amount of organic sulfur contained in oven gas in the traditional catalytic partial oxidation (POX) process. A study of the measurement of flow field and a thermodynamic analysis of the process characteristics were conducted. Results show that there exist a jet-flow region, a recirculation-flow region, a tube-flow region, and three corresponding reaction zones in the non-catalytic POX reformer. The combustion of oven gas occurs mainly in the jet-flow region, while the reformation of oven gas occurs mainly in the other two regions. Soot would not be formed by CH4 cracking at above 1200℃. Since there are very little C2+ hydrocarbons in oven gas, the soot produced would be very tiny, even if they underwent cracking reaction. The integrated model for entrained bed gasification process was applied to simulate a non-catalytic POX reformer. It indicated that the proper oxygen-to-oven gas ratio is 0.22-0.28 at differ-ent pressures in the oven gas reformation process.

  9. FTIR analysis of flue gases - combined in-situ and dry extractive gas sampling; Kombination av in-situ och kallextraktiv roekgasmaetning med FTIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Christer; Soederbom, J. [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Aelvkarleby (Sweden)

    1996-10-01

    Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) spectroscopy is a promising and versatile technique for gas analysis which lately has moved from the laboratory to industrial applications such as emission monitoring of combustion plants. This has been made possible by recent developments of spectrometers and software. The single most important advantage of the FTIR is its capability to simultaneously analyse virtually all gas species of interest in flue gas applications. The project has studied the feasibility of using the technique as a multi-component emission monitoring system. A specific aim was to evaluate different implementations of the technique to flue gas analysis: in-situ, hot/dry and cold extraction or combinations of these. The goal was to demonstrate a system in which gas components that normally require hot extraction (NH{sub 3}, HCl, H{sub 2}O) could instead be measured in-situ. In this way potential sampling artefacts e.g. for ammonia monitoring, can be avoided. The remaining gas components are measured using cold extraction and thereby minimizing interference from water. The latter advantage can be crucial for the accuracy of e.g. NO{sub x} measurements. Prior to the project start in-situ monitoring using FTIR was, a to a large extent, an untried method. The fact that broad band IR radiation can not be guided through optical fibres, presented a major technical obstacle. An `in-situ probe` was developed to serve the purpose. The probe is equipped with a gold plated mirror at the end and is mounted on the support structure of the FTIR-spectrometer. The arrangement proved to be a robust solution without being unnecessary complex or cumbersome to use. 10 refs, 45 figs, 10 tabs

  10. Silicon carbide based sensor system for minimized emissions in flue gases; Kiselkarbidbaserat sensorsystem foer minimering av emissioner i roekgaser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloyd Spetz, Anita; Bjorklund, Robert

    2012-02-15

    Control of the combustion process is necessary in order to operate boilers in an economic and environmentally acceptable manner. Large power plants can afford expensive measurement instruments to continuously monitor the composition of flue gas. Smaller facilities often lack complete gas analysis systems and it would be to their advantage to have access to inexpensive measurement equipment which could be installed at several points in the flue gas channel. Since oxygen concentration is such an important parameter for describing the combustion process the lambdasond is currently being used as an oxygen sensor in flue gas. It has the advantage of usage for more than 30 years in the automobile industry. Experience from that application has aided its introduction in the power industry. Conditions are not the same in the two branches but the lambdasond is an established technology, produced in large volume, widely available and inexpensive. Vehicle manufacturers continue to develop sensor technology and monitoring capabilities have been extended to CO, NOx and NH3. The latter is the result of SCR (selective catalytic reduction) of NOx by addition of NH3 (from urea), which has been introduced as an exhaust gas aftertreatment technology in diesel powered vehicles. The power industry can be expected to follow this trend by incorporating sensors for monitoring and control of SCR and SNCR (non-catalytic selective reduction) in flue gas applications. This report describes evaluation of silicon carbide based transistors, which have previously been studied in diesel exhaust gas and small boiler flue gas, for applications in larger power plants

  11. Research Progress of Simultaneous Desulfurization and Denitrification Technologies of Flue Gas%燃煤烟气联合脱硫脱硝技术的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高续春; 代宏哲; 马亚军

    2015-01-01

    燃煤尾气进行脱硫脱硝处理是一种有效地控制大气污染的方法。联合脱硫脱硝技术因其具有明显的经济性而成为当前环保领域的研究热点。主要综述了相关的联合脱硫脱硝技术的研究进展,着重介绍了固体吸附催化法、等离子体法和化学湿法,简要说明了各种技术的特点。并对联合脱硫脱硝技术的发展进行了展望。%Desulfurization and denitrification technology of flue gas is an effective method to control tmospheric pollution. Simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification technology has become a research hotspot in environmental protection area because of its economy. In this paper, research progress of simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification technologies was reviewed.And solid adsorption catalytic method, PPCP and chemical wet method were introduced emphatically. Characteristics of various technologies were discussed. At last, development trend of simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification technologies was prospected.

  12. Desulfurization of chemical waste gases and flue gases with economic utilization of air pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, K.; Wischnewski, W.

    1983-09-01

    The technological state of recovery of sulfur dioxide from waste and flue gases in the GDR is discussed. Two examples of plants are presented: a pyrosulfuric acid plant in Coswig, recovering sulfur dioxide from gases by absorption with sodium hydroxide, followed by catalytic oxidation to sulfur trioxide, and a plant for waste sulfuric acid recovery from paraffin refining, where the diluted waste acid is sprayed into a furnace and recovered by an ammonium-sulfite-bisulfite solution from the combustion gas (with 4 to 10% sulfur dioxide content). Investment and operation costs as well as profits of both plants are given. Methods employed for power plant flue gas desulfurization in major industrial countries are further assessed: about 90% of these methods uses wet flue gas scrubbing with lime. In the USA flue gas from 25,000 MW of power plant capacity is desulfurized. In the USSR, a 35,000 m/sup 3//h trial plant at Severo-Donetzk is operating using lime, alkali and magnesite. At the 150 MW Dorogobush power plant in the USSR a desulfurization plant using a cyclic ammonia process is under construction.

  13. Effect of unburned carbon content in fly ash on the retention of 12 elements out of coal-combustion flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartonová, Lucie; Cech, Bohumír; Ruppenthalová, Lucie; Majvelderová, Vendula; Juchelková, Dagmar; Klika, Zdenek

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether unburned carbon particles present in fly ash can help in the retention of S, Cl, Br, As, Se, Cu, Ni, Zn, Ga, Ge, Rb, and Pb out of flue gas during the coal combustion at fluidised-bed power station where the coal was combusted along with limestone. The competitive influence of 10%-25% CaO in fly ashes on the distribution of studied elements was studied as well to be clear which factor governs behaviour of studied elements. Except of S (with significant association with CaO) and Rb and Pb (with major affinity to Al2O3) the statistically significant and positive correlation coefficients were calculated for the relations between unburned carbon content and Br (0.959), Cl (0.957), Cu (0.916), Se (0.898), Ni (0.866), As (0.861), Zn (0.742), Ge (0.717), and Ga (0.588) content. The results suggest that the unburned carbon is promising material in terms of flue gas cleaning even if contained in highly calcareous fly ashes.

  14. 燃煤烟气SO3检测及控制技术探讨%Discussion on SO3 Detection and Control Technology in Flue Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵媛; 徐劲松

    2016-01-01

    燃煤电厂烟气中SO3含量约为SO2含量的0�8%~3�5%,检测难度大,对人体危害极大。随着环保标准日益严格,电厂对SO3的管控应提上日程。文中研究了燃煤电厂烟气中SO3的生成途径,对SO3检测技术进行探讨,提出了SO3的控制方法。%The content of SO3 in coal-fired power plant flue gas is about 0�8%~3�5% of SO2 content, SO3 is very harmful and there are a lot of difficulties to detect. With increasingly stringent environmental standards, management and control of SO3 should be put on the agenda. By analyzing the formation of SO3 in the coal-fired power plant flue gas, SO3 detection techniques are discussed, SO3 con⁃trol methods are proposed.

  15. 炉膛出口烟气测温装置的分析与比较%Analysis and Comparisons of Furnace Outlet Flue Gas Temperature Measuring Device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋秋艳

    2013-01-01

    This paper using furnace outlet flue gas temperature measuring device as foothold, combined with the use of temperature measuring device and its development trend, analyzes the existing traditional temperature measurement device existing advantages and disadvantages, the principle and characteristics of new infrared and acoustic temperature measurement, and puts forward some solutions to the difficult problems for the powerplant that boiler outlet flue gas temperature can be measured in full load range and in long-term continuous scope.%  本文就炉膛出口烟温测量装置为立足点,结合近年来测温装置的使用情况及其发展趋势,分析了现有传统的测温装置存在的优势和弊端,新兴的红外和声波测温的原理及其各自的特点,提出了解决锅炉能够在全负荷范围内长期连续测量炉膛出口烟温装置困难问题的方案。

  16. Photocatalytic oxidation of nitric oxide from simulated flue gas by wet scrubbing using ultraviolet/TiO2/H2O2 process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张波; 仲兆平; 付宗明

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) from flue gas is hard to remove because of low solubility and reactivity. A new technology for photocatalytic oxidation of NO using ultraviolet (UV)/TiO2/H2O2 process is studied in an efficient laboratory-scale reactor. Effects of several key operational parameters on NO removal efficiency are studied, including TiO2 content, H2O2 initial concentration, UV lamp power, NO initial content, oxygen volume fraction and TiO2/H2O2 solution volume. The results illustrate that the NO removal efficiency increases with the increasing of H2O2 initial concentration or UV lamp power. Meanwhile, a lower NO initial content or a higher TiO2/H2O2 solution volume will result in higher NO removal efficiency. In addition, oxygen volume fraction has a little effect. The highest NO removal efficiency is achieved at the TiO2 content of 0.75 g/L, H2O2 initial concentration of 2.5 mol/L, UV lamp power of 36 W, NO initial content of 206×10−6 and TiO2/H2O2 solution volume of 600 mL. It is beneficial for the development and application of NO removal from coal-fired flue gas with UV/TiO2/H2O2 process.

  17. Dissimilatory reduction of FeIII (EDTA) with microorganisms in the system of nitric oxide removal from the flue gas by metal chelate absorption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Bi-yao; LI Wei; JING Guo-hua; SHI Yao

    2004-01-01

    In the system of nitric oxide removal from the flue gas by metal chelate absorption, it is an obstacle that ferrous absorbents are easily oxidized by oxygen in the flue gas to ferric counterparts, which are not capable of binding NO. By adding iron metal or electrochemical method, FeIII (EDTA) can be reduced to FeII (EDTA). However, there are various drawbacks associated with these techniques. The dissimilatory reduction of FeIII (EDTA) with microorganisms in the system of nitric oxide removal by metal chelate absorption was investigated. Ammonium salt instead of nitrate was used as the nitrogen source, as nitrates inhibited the reduction of FeIII due to the competition between the two electron acceptors. Supplemental glucose and lactate stimulated the formation of FeII more than ethanol as the carbon sources. The microorganisms cultured at 50℃ were not very sensitive to the other experimental temperature, the reduction percentage of FeIII varied little with the temperature range of 30~50℃. Concentrated Na2CO3 solution was added to adjust the solution pH to an optimal pH range of 6~7. The overall results revealed that the dissimilatory ferric reducing microorganisms present in the mix-culture are probably neutrophilic, moderately thermophilic FeIII reducers.

  18. Effect of unburned carbon content in fly ash on the retention of 12 elements out of coal-combustion flue gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lucie Barto(n)ová; Bohumír (C)ech; Lucie Ruppenthalová; Vendula Majvelderová; Dagmar Juchelková; Zdeněk Klika

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether unburned carbon particles present in fly ash can help in the retention of S,CI,Br,As,Se,Cu,Ni,Zn,Ga,Ge,Rb,and Pb out of flue gas during the coal combustion at fluidised-bed power station where the coal was combusted along with limestone.The competitive influence of 10%-25% CaO in fly ashes on the distribution of studied elements was studied as well to be clear which factor governs behaviour of studied elements.Except of S (with significant association with CaO) and Rb and Pb (with major affinity to Al2O3) the statistically significant and positive correlation coefficients were calculated for the relations between unburned carbon content and Br (0.959),Cl (0.957),Cu (0.916),Se (0.898),Ni (0.866),As (0.861),Zn (0.742),Ge (0.717),and Ga (0.588) content.The results suggest that the unburned carbon is promising material in terms of flue gas cleaning even if contained in highly calcareous fly ashes.

  19. 垃圾焚烧烟气汞的治理技术与评价%Control Technologies and Evaluation of Mercury in Flue Gas of Waste Incineration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杰儒; 罗津晶; 牛强

    2012-01-01

    The mercury speciation distribution in flue gas of waste incineration was introduced. The advantages and disadvantages of different ways on mercury controlling were analyzed, including using the existing equipment, Na2S injection and sorbent trapping. A laboratory-scale activated carbon adsorption-desorption system was developed, and the adsorption properties of different activated carbon in nitrogen atmosphere were compared to control gaseous mercury in flue gas of waste incineration.%介绍了当前垃圾焚烧烟气中汞形态分布,对利用现有设备脱汞、Na2S喷射、吸附剂捕集等方法在烟气脱汞运用中的优缺点进行分析,建立实验室规模的活性炭吸附-脱附系统,对比氮气氛围不同活性炭对气态汞的吸附性能,以更好地控制垃圾焚烧烟气中气态汞的排放行为.

  20. 转炉烟气余热回收系统工艺设计%Process Planning of Flue Gas Waste Heat Recovery System in Converter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江文豪; 姚群

    2014-01-01

    The recovery system can fully recover the waste heat resources of flue gas in converter, and produce steam that can be used, thus obtain remarkable economic benefit. The process planning of flue gas waste heat recovery system of a certain 120t converter has been introduced. Since the system put into operation, the whole production process is stable, and all indicators can reach the design requirements.%转炉烟气余热回收系统将转炉烟气的余热资源充分回收,使之转化为可以利用的蒸汽,经济效益显著。介绍了某钢铁厂120 t转炉烟气余热回收系统的工艺设计要点。该系统自投运以来,整个生产过程运行稳定,各项指标均达到设计要求。

  1. 电站烟气余热利用系统浅析%Initial Analysis on Flue Gas Waste Heat Utilization System in Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓文; 杜文智; 熊英莹; 谭厚章

    2014-01-01

    With the growing use of energy and awareness of environmental protection around the world, more and more attention has been attracted by the utilization of waste heat from flue gas. In order to provide theoretical guidance for cascade utilization of waste heat in power plant efficiently and reasonably by setting a flue gas waste heat utilization system for our country, this article not only showed the design criteria of the system, but also analyzed heat transfer equation, ways of heat transfer, types of cold source and setting locations of that.%随着全球范围内能源需求量持续增加,环保意识不断增强,电站烟气余热利用越来越受到重视。本文介绍了电站烟气余热利用系统的设计原则,并分析了烟气余热利用系统的换热方程、换热方式、冷源种类以及可设置位置,可以作为我国电站设置烟气余热利用系统、高效合理地梯级回收烟气余热过程的参考。

  2. Ultramicroband array electrode. 1. Analysis of mercury in contaminated soils and flue gas exposed samples using a gold-plated iridium portable system by anodic stripping voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Li; Dietze, William; Nyasulu, Frazier; Mibeck, Blaise A F

    2006-07-15

    The applicability of a gold-plated iridium Nano-Band array ultramicroelectrode (6 microm by 0.2 microm, 64-microm interspacing, 100 electrode bands) in the analysis of mercury using a portable system is demonstrated by anodic stripping voltammetry in real-life samples. Optimized measurement parameters, 0.1 M HCl electrolyte, plating potential of 0 mV, and staircase scan mode were identified. The dynamic linear range is 10-180 ppb at 5-s deposition time with 1.5 microC of gold plated. The experimental detection limit for Hg2+ in 0.1 M HCl was 0.5 ppb at a deposition time of 4 min and a scan rate of 10 V/s. Real-life samples, such as flue gas exposed samples from flue gas simulators could be analyzed within 5 min using the method of standard additions. We identified a field-portable extraction procedure for soil samples using 1:1 concentrated HNO3/30% H2O2 mixture, compatible with ASV and the iridium electrode. The detection limit for soils is 1 ppm. The results obtained using ASV are in good agreement with reference values using cold vapor atomic absorption for the sample matrixes studied here. To our knowledge, this is the first mercury application using a reusable iridium array ultramicroelectrode. The portable potentiostat is less than 500 g, and together with the portable digestion method, makes the Nano-Band Explorer system field applicable.

  3. Sulfur recovery from low H{sub 2}S content acid gas using catalytic partial oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, P.D.; Dowling, N.I.; Huang, M.

    2010-01-15

    The poster presentation discussed a new strategy for recovering sulfur from low hydrogen-sulphide-content acid gas using catalytic partial oxidation. In a new technology for dealing with BTX-contaminated lean acid gas, a catalytic reactor replaces the burner-furnace stage to achieve BTX conversion greater than 95 percent and control the hydrogen sulfide/sulfur dioxide ratio. The product gas is then sent to the Claus catalytic converters. The best catalysts for this process are alumina-supported Co-Mo and y-alumina. This process was compared with SELECTOX, another process that deals with poor acid gas with BTX conversion better than 95 percent. Catalytic oxidation can deal with a higher BTX feed content than SELECTOX, but the running temperature is higher. Both processes produce acceptable sulfur quality. To improve this process, the quality of the sulfur produced and the lifetime of the catalyst need to be increased, and an economic way to increase the heat to reach the running temperature needs to be found. The partial oxidation (POX) of CH{sub 4} solves both of these problems. The catalytic POX of acid gas is combined with the POX of fuel gas in the pre-heating zone. This process has the advantage that the burner-furnace stage of the Claus process can be replaced by a stream containing H{sub 2}S/SO{sub 2}=2; the reaction is performed at its adiabatic temperature requiring only a small amount of fuel gas; the presence of H{sub 2} and CO produced by the POX of fuel gas improves the quality of sulfur; the catalyst remains active for about 30 hours; and the process can tolerate high BTX content. 6 tabs., 2 figs.

  4. Mercury transformation and speciation in flue gases from anthropogenic emission sources: a critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Shuxiao; Wu, Qingru; Wang, Fengyang; Lin, Che-Jen; Zhang, Leiming; Hui, Mulin; Yang, Mei; Su, Haitao; Hao, Jiming

    2016-02-01

    Mercury transformation mechanisms and speciation profiles are reviewed for mercury formed in and released from flue gases of coal-fired boilers, non-ferrous metal smelters, cement plants, iron and steel plants, waste incinerators, biomass burning and so on. Mercury in coal, ores, and other raw materials is released to flue gases in the form of Hg0 during combustion or smelting in boilers, kilns or furnaces. Decreasing temperature from over 800 °C to below 300 °C in flue gases leaving boilers, kilns or furnaces promotes homogeneous and heterogeneous oxidation of Hg0 to gaseous divalent mercury (Hg2+), with a portion of Hg2+ adsorbed onto fly ash to form particulate-bound mercury (Hgp). Halogen is the primary oxidizer for Hg0 in flue gases, and active components (e.g., TiO2, Fe2O3, etc.) on fly ash promote heterogeneous oxidation and adsorption processes. In addition to mercury removal, mercury transformation also occurs when passing through air pollution control devices (APCDs), affecting the mercury speciation in flue gases. In coal-fired power plants, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system promotes mercury oxidation by 34-85 %, electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and fabric filter (FF) remove over 99 % of Hgp, and wet flue gas desulfurization system (WFGD) captures 60-95 % of Hg2+. In non-ferrous metal smelters, most Hg0 is converted to Hg2+ and removed in acid plants (APs). For cement clinker production, mercury cycling and operational conditions promote heterogeneous mercury oxidation and adsorption. The mercury speciation profiles in flue gases emitted to the atmosphere are determined by transformation mechanisms and mercury removal efficiencies by various APCDs. For all the sectors reviewed in this study, Hgp accounts for less than 5 % in flue gases. In China, mercury emission has a higher Hg0 fraction (66-82 % of total mercury) in flue gases from coal combustion, in contrast to a greater Hg2+ fraction (29-90 %) from non-ferrous metal smelting, cement and

  5. Mercury transformation and speciation in flue gases from anthropogenic emission sources: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Mercury transformation mechanisms and speciation profiles are reviewed for mercury formed in and released from flue gases of coal-fired boilers, non-ferrous metal smelters, cement plants, iron and steel plants, municipal solid waste incinerators, and biomass burning. Mercury in coal, ores and other raw materials is released to flue gases in the form of Hg0 during combustion or smelting in boilers, kilns or furnaces. Decreasing temperature from over 800 °C to below 300 °C in flue gases leaving boilers, kilns or furnaces promotes homogeneous and heterogeneous oxidation of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0 to gaseous divalent mercury (Hg2+, with a portion of Hg2+ adsorbed onto fly ash to form particulate-bound mercury (Hgp. Halogen is the primary oxidizer for Hg0 in flue gases, and active components (e.g.,TiO2, Fe2O3, etc. on fly ash promote heterogeneous oxidation and adsorption processes. In addition to mercury removal, mercury transformation also occurs when passing through air pollution control devices (APCDs, affecting the mercury speciation in flue gases. In coal-fired power plants, selective catalytic reduction (SCR system promotes mercury oxidation by 34–85 %, electrostatic precipitator (ESP and fabric filter (FF remove over 99 % of Hgp, and wet flue gas desulfurization system (WFGD captures 60–95 % of Hg2+. In non-ferrous metal smelters, most Hg0 is converted to Hg2+ and removed in acid plants (APs. For cement clinker production, mercury cycling and operational conditions promote heterogeneous mercury oxidation and adsorption. The mercury speciation profiles in flue gases emitted to the atmosphere are determined by transformation mechanisms and mercury removal efficiencies by various APCDs. For all the sectors reviewed in this study, Hgp accounts for less than 5 % in flue gases. In China, mercury emission has a higher fraction (66–82 % of total mercury in flue gases from coal combustion, in contrast to a greater Hg2+ fraction (29–90

  6. 工业烟气的赤泥脱硫研究%Study on Industrial Flue Gas Desulfurization(FGD) by Alumina Red Mud

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李惠萍; 靳苏静; 李雪平; 庞皓; 杨金姬; 张军

    2013-01-01

    氧化铝赤泥因排放量大、碱性强,很难被大宗利用;而工业烟气因含大量SO2必须经脱硫达标排放,在分析测试中铝河南分公司联合法赤泥的矿物组成、化学组成、粒径等基础上,采用正交试验法和单因素法在自行设计的吸收塔1 700 mm×60 mm及配套装置中,考察了赤泥的液固比、烟气流量、液气比等因素对烟气中SO2吸收率的影响,对比了各影响因素的显著性,获得了最佳工艺条件:液固比7:1,烟气流量3.6 m3/h,液气比12 L/m3.在此条件下,赤泥吸收烟气中SO,的效率高达95%以上,同时,与热电厂现行的石灰石-石膏湿法脱硫工艺对比,相同条件下赤泥脱硫的效果更好.%Alumina red mud has not been utilized effectively due to its high emission and strong alkaline.Industrial flue gas which has high SO2 should be desulfurized to meet up to the standards.The mineral component,chemical composition,grain size and microstructure of alumina red mud from Henan Branch of China Aluminum Co.were determined in this article.The orthogonal experiments and single factor experiments have been done in the self-designed 1700 × 60 mm glass absorption device which accessories were installed in the laboratory.The influential factors such as liquid-solid ratio,flue gas flow,and liquid-gas ratio were examined through the orthogonal tests.The optimal conditions:liquid-solid ratio is 7:1 (kg/kg),flue gas flow is 3.6m3/h liquid-gas ratio and 12 L/m3.Under these conditions,the maximum efficiency of FGD is more than 95%.At the same time,compared with the current limestone-gypsum wet method,under the same conditions red mud has a better absorption effects.

  7. Microbial reduction of SO[sub 2] and NO[sub x] as a means of by- product recovery/disposal from regenerable processes for the desulfurization of flue gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sublette, K.L.

    1992-01-01

    Based on the work described simultaneous SO[sub 2]/No[sub x] removal from flue gas based on direct contact of the gas with SRB and T. denitrificans co-cultures or cultures-in-series has been eliminated as a viable process concept at this time. The technical reasons are as follows: (1) NO inhibition of SO[sub 2] reduction by D. desulfuricans - Although the NO concentrations used in the experiments described above are somewhat higher than that found in a typical flue gas, it is quite possible that at lower NO concentrations (or partial pressures) the inhibiting effects will simply take longer to become apparent. (2) Nitrate suppression of NO removal - As noted previously, the cultivation of T. denitrificans in a microbial flue gas treatment system (either one or two stages) would require sulfide-limiting conditions. Therefore, the electron acceptor must be in excess, requiring nitrate in the T. denitrificans process culture. As shown in experiments described above, nitrate significantly suppresses the removal of NO from a feed gas making simultaneous SO[sub 2]/NO[sub x] removal impractical by microbial means. (3) O[sub 2] inhibition of SO[sub 2] and NO reduction - It has been demonstrated that D. desulfuricans working cultures are tolerant of up to 1.7% O[sub 2] in the feed gas. However, further increases in the O[sub 2] partial pressure in the feed gas resulted in O[sub 2] inhibition of SO[sub 2] reduction. These inhibiting levels of O[sub 2] are comparable to those concentrations found in flue gases (3). Therefore, in any process in which raw flue gas contacts a D. desulfuricans culture marginal stability at best can be expected.

  8. Microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} as a means of by- product recovery/disposal from regenerable processes for the desulfurization of flue gas. Technical progress report, June 11, 1992--September 11, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sublette, K.L.

    1992-12-31

    Based on the work described simultaneous SO{sub 2}/No{sub x} removal from flue gas based on direct contact of the gas with SRB and T. denitrificans co-cultures or cultures-in-series has been eliminated as a viable process concept at this time. The technical reasons are as follows: (1) NO inhibition of SO{sub 2} reduction by D. desulfuricans - Although the NO concentrations used in the experiments described above are somewhat higher than that found in a typical flue gas, it is quite possible that at lower NO concentrations (or partial pressures) the inhibiting effects will simply take longer to become apparent. (2) Nitrate suppression of NO removal - As noted previously, the cultivation of T. denitrificans in a microbial flue gas treatment system (either one or two stages) would require sulfide-limiting conditions. Therefore, the electron acceptor must be in excess, requiring nitrate in the T. denitrificans process culture. As shown in experiments described above, nitrate significantly suppresses the removal of NO from a feed gas making simultaneous SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal impractical by microbial means. (3) O{sub 2} inhibition of SO{sub 2} and NO reduction - It has been demonstrated that D. desulfuricans working cultures are tolerant of up to 1.7% O{sub 2} in the feed gas. However, further increases in the O{sub 2} partial pressure in the feed gas resulted in O{sub 2} inhibition of SO{sub 2} reduction. These inhibiting levels of O{sub 2} are comparable to those concentrations found in flue gases (3). Therefore, in any process in which raw flue gas contacts a D. desulfuricans culture marginal stability at best can be expected.

  9. Partial catalytic oxidation of CH{sub 4} to synthesis gas for power generation - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantzaras, I.; Schneider, A.

    2006-03-15

    The partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas over rhodium catalysts has been investigated experimentally and numerically in the pressure range of 4 to 10 bar. The methane/oxidizer feed has been diluted with large amounts of H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} (up to 70% vol.) in order to simulate new power generation cycles with large exhaust gas recycle. Experiments were carried out in an optically accessible channel-flow reactor that facilitated laser-based in situ measurements, and also in a subscale gas-turbine catalytic reactor. Full-elliptic steady and transient two-dimensional numerical codes were used, which included elementary hetero-/homogeneous chemical reaction schemes. The following are the key conclusions: a) Heterogeneous (catalytic) and homogeneous (gas-phase) schemes have been validated for the partial catalytic oxidation of methane with large exhaust gas recycle. b) The impact of added H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} has been elucidated. The added H{sub 2}O increased the methane conversion and hydrogen selectivity, while it decreased the CO selectivity. The chemical impact of CO{sub 2} (dry reforming) was minimal. c) The numerical model reproduced the measured catalytic ignition times. It was further shown that the chemical impact of H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} on the catalytic ignition delay times was minimal. d) The noble metal dispersion increased with different support materials, in the order Rh/{alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Rh/ZrO{sub 2}, and Rh/Ce-ZrO{sub 2}. An evident relationship was established between the noble metal dispersion and the catalytic behavior. (authors)

  10. Improvement of Sulphur Resistance of a Nickel-modified Catalytic Filter for Tar Removal from Biomass Gasification Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.; Draelants, D.J.; Engelen, K.; Baron, G.V.

    2002-09-19

    This work focuses on the development of catalytic candle filters for the simultaneous removal of tars and particles from the biomass gasification gas at high temperature. An improvement of sulphur resistance of the nickel-activated catalytic filter was developed by the addition of CaO. The influences of preparation procedure of catalytic filter, the ratio of Ni/CaO and the loading of Ni and CaO on the performance of the catalytic filter were investigated.

  11. Application of Heat Pipe Technology in Flue Gas Waste Heat Recycling of Organic Heat Carrier Boiler%热管技术在有机热载体锅炉烟气余热回收上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄云燕

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, more and more construction units use heat pipe technology to reduce exhaust gas temperature for reducing flue gas heat loss. Industrial managers should attach great importance to the application of heat pipe technology in the flue gas waste heat recycling of organic heat carrier boiler. From energy consumption situation of organic heat carrier boiler, this paper introduces the main purpose of flue gas waste heat recycling of organic heat carrier boiler, carries on a brief introduction for application of heat pipe technology in flue gas waste heat recycling of organic heat carrier boiler.%近些年来,越来越多建设单位采用热管技术降低排烟温度来减少烟气热损失,工业管理者应该高度重视热管技术在有机热载体锅炉烟气余热回收上的应用。本文从有机热载体锅炉能耗状况着手,介绍了有机热载体锅炉烟气余热回收的主要用途,对热管技术在有机热载体锅炉烟气余热回收上的应用做了简单介绍。

  12. Modeling of Single Lignite Particle Drying Process in Flue Gas%单颗粒褐煤烟气干燥过程模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝正虎; 吴玉新; 吕俊复; 张守玉; 王秀军; 彭定茂

    2012-01-01

    摘要:褐煤干燥对提高褐煤品质具有重要意义。为了深入研究高温烟气干燥褐煤的物理过程,在一维球坐标系下对单个球形褐煤颗粒的干燥脱水过程建立了数值模型。模型中以褐煤颗粒内的蒸发界面为基础,将褐煤颗粒分为干区和湿区,对湿区求解传热方程,对干区求解烟气传热和传质方程,模拟褐煤干燥中的水分蒸发过程。模型采用Crank-Nicolson隐式差分方法进行离散化,模拟得到单个褐煤颗粒动态蒸发的过程。利用该模型分析不同粒径褐煤干燥过程中的烟气温度、颗粒含水量、颗粒内部温度分布等变化规律。发现颗粒最高温度不超过烟气和颗粒的最终平衡温度。褐煤颗粒粒径和初始烟气温度对褐煤的干燥过程有重要影响,较高的初始烟气温度条件下所需的干燥时间短,干燥时间近似与褐煤颗粒粒径的平方成正比。%Lignite drying is very useful for improving lignite quality. In order to deeply understand lignite drying process in high temperature flue gas, a onedimensional spherical numerical model of a single lignite particle drying process in flue gas was proposed. In this model, lignite particle was divided into dry region and wet region by an evaporation interface. In the wet region, only heat transfer was considered. In the dry region, both heat transfer and mass transfer were involved to describe water evaporation. Crank-Nicolson scheme was adopted to describe the transport equations so that dynamic evaporation process can be correctly solved in a large time step. With the proposed model, gas temperature, moisture content and temperature distribution within the particle varying with the resident time were simulated during drying process. It is found that the maximum particle temperature during drying process is lower than the particleflue gas balance temperature. Particle diameter as well as initial flue gas temperature has an

  13. Utilization of the Recycle Reactor in Determining Kinetics of Gas-Solid Catalytic Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paspek, Stephen C.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Describes a laboratory scale reactor that determines the kinetics of a gas-solid catalytic reaction. The external recycle reactor construction is detailed with accompanying diagrams. Experimental details, application of the reactor to CO oxidation kinetics, interphase gradients, and intraphase gradients are discussed. (CS)

  14. Reclamation of acid, toxic coal spoils using wet flue gas desulfurization by-product, fly ash and sewage sludge. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kost, D.A.; Vimmerstedt, J.P.; Stehouwer, R.C.

    1997-03-01

    Establishment of vegetation on acid abandoned minelands requires modification of soil physical and chemical conditions. Covering the acid minesoil with topsoil or borrow soil is a common practice but this method may be restricted by availability of borrow soil and cause damage to the borrow site. An alternative approach is to use waste materials as soil amendments. There is a long history of using sewage sludge and fly ash as amendments for acid minesoils. Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products are newer materials that are also promising amendments. Most flue gas sludges are mixtures of Calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}), calcium sulfite (CaSO{sub 3}), calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}), calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH){sub 2}], and fly ash. Some scrubbing processes produce almost pure gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}2H{sub 2}O). The primary purpose of the project is to evaluate two wet FGD by-products for effects on vegetation establishment and surface and ground water quality on an acid minesoil. One by-product from the Conesville, OH power plant (American Electric Power Service Corporation) contains primarily calcium sulfite and fly ash. The other by-product (Mg-gypsum FGD) from an experimental scrubber at the Zimmer power plant (Cincinnati Gas and Electric Company) is primarily gypsum with 4% magnesium hydroxide. These materials were compared with borrow soil and sewage sludge as minesoil amendments. Combinations of each FGD sludge with sewage sludge were also tested. This report summarizes two years of measurements of chemical composition of runoff water, ground water at two depths in the subsoil, soil chemical properties, elemental composition and yield of herbaceous ground cover, and elemental composition, survival and height of trees planted on plots treated with the various amendments. The borrow soil is the control for comparison with the other treatments.

  15. 褐煤活性焦烟气脱汞的实验研究%Mercury removal from flue gas by lignite activated coke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白中华; 史亚微; 张旭辉; 杨文辉; 张向洲; 石长江; 赵玉冰

    2014-01-01

    Coal-fired power plant mercury pollution has attracted a growing concern, now the current mercury removal method which has an application prospect is the adsorption of mercury removal, and therefore the development of cost-effective mercury removal sorbent been studied extensively. An experiment was conducted to study the effects of lignite activated coke on the mercury adsorption using a bench-scale fixed bed,including the inlet concentration of mercury pollutants,the quality of adsorbent,the composition of flue gas and the type of adsorbent and so on.The results show that the lignite activated coke has some adsorption capacity for mercury in flue gas,the activated coke adsorption rate increases with the increase of entrance mercury concentration and the quality of activated coke.The SO2,NO in flue gas can improve mercury adsorption capacity of activated coke.Although the mercury adsorption capacity of activated coke is lower than activated carbon with S solution and activated carbon only for mercury adsorption,the improvement of activation way of activated coke can enhance the performance of its mercury adsorption.%燃煤电厂汞污染越来越受到关注,目前具有应用前景的脱汞方法为吸附脱汞,因此研发高效低成本的脱汞吸附剂被广泛研究。在搭建的固定床吸附反应系统上对自制的褐煤活性焦脱汞性能进行了实验研究,研究了汞污染物的入口浓度,吸附剂的量、烟气成分及吸附剂的种类对吸附汞的影响。结果表明:活性焦吸附剂对烟气中的气态汞均有一定的吸附能力,其吸附效果随着入口汞浓度和吸附剂量的增加而增加;烟气中的SO2、NO气体对活性焦吸附汞有一定的促进作用。活性焦脱汞效率与载硫活性炭、脱汞专用活性炭相比还存在一定差距,但可通过改进活性焦的活化方式提高脱汞性能。

  16. 烟气含氧量软测量方法研究%Research on the Soft Sensing Methods of Oxygen Content in Flue Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李健; 张彬文

    2016-01-01

    For solving some problems in detection process of the oxygen content in flue gas, the main factors influencing measurement of Zirconia analyzer are analyzed. Soft measurement technology provides a new measuring method for Oxygen content in flue gas. The common seen modeling methods for soft sensing of oxygen content in flue gas are given, and the key technologies including selection and processing of secondary variables, selection and processing of samples, calibration of dominant variable, and model updating and correction, etc. , are analyzed emphatically. The analysis shows that although the soft sensing model offers higher accuracy and higher dynamic response speed, some of the problems in direct measurement still cannot be resolved, such as big error, time lagging and so on. Because of hardware measurement is used as a reference of soft measurement model, the aspects of hardware should be firstly considered in improving measurement precision and speed accordingly.%针对火电厂烟气含氧量测量过程中存在的一些问题,分析了氧化锆氧分析器运行中的主要影响因素。软测量技术为烟气含氧量提供了新的测量手段。给出了常见的烟气含氧量软测量建模方法,并且重点分析了软测量建模过程中辅助变量的选取与处理、样本的选择与处理、主导变量的校准以及模型的更新校正等关键技术。分析表明,尽管软测量模型具有较高的精度和动态响应速度,但是现有的研究并不能完全解决直接测量结果误差大、滞后等问题。由于软测量模型以硬件测量作为参考,因此应首先考虑从硬件方面提升测量的精准度和响应速度。

  17. Appropriate conditions or maximizing catalytic reduction efficiency of nitrate into nitrogen gas in groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Xue; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Guang-Hao

    2003-05-01

    This study focused on the appropriate catalyst preparation and operating conditions for maximizing catalytic reduction efficiency of nitrate into nitrogen gas from groundwater. Batch experiments were conducted with prepared Pd and/or Cu catalysts with hydrogen gas supplied under specific operating conditions. It has been found that Pd-Cu combined catalysts prepared at a mass ratio of 4:1 can maximize the nitrate reduction into nitrogen gas. With an increase in the quantity of the catalysts, both nitrite intermediates and ammonia can be kept at a low level. It has also been found that the catalytic activity is mainly affected by the mass ratio of hydrogen gas to nitrate nitrogen, and hydrogen gas gauge pressure. Appropriate operating values of H(2)/NO(3)-N ratio, hydrogen gas gauge pressure, pH, and initial nitrate concentration have been determined to be 44.6g H(2)/g N, 0.15 atm, 5.2 (-), 100 mg x L(-1) for maximizing the catalytic reduction of nitrate from groundwater.

  18. Energy conservation by means of flue gas recirculation for drying; Rookgashergebruik voor droging levert aanzienlijke energiebesapring op

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meijer, H.J. [TNO Milieu, Energie en Procesinnovatie TNO-MEP, Apeldoorn (Netherlands)

    2002-07-01

    Amylum Netherlands in Koog aan de Zaan, Netherlands, produces amylum and glucose syrup. The amylum dryers consume a large amount of energy. Two dryers were modified and partly make use of hot flue gases from the cogeneration installation. The results of the modifications are discussed. [Dutch] AmyLum Nederland in Koog aan de Zaan produceert zetmeet en glucosestroop. De zetmeeldrogers zijn de grote energieverbruikers in het productieproces. Twee van deze drogers zijn gemodificeerd en gebruiken als droogmedium gedeeltelijk hete rookgassen uit de aanwezige WKK. De gevolgen van deze aanpassing voor de bedrijfsvoering van de drogers en de WKK passeren de revue.

  19. Catalytic and Gas-Solid Reactions Involving HCN over Limestone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anker; Johnsson, Jan Erik; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    1997-01-01

    In coal-fired combustion systems solid calcium species may be present as ash components or limestone added to the combustion chamber. In this study heterogeneous reactions involving HCN over seven different limestones were investigated in a laboratory fixed-bed quartz reactor at 873-1,173 K....... Calcined limestone is an effective catalyst for oxidation of HCN. Under conditions with complete conversion of HCN at O-2 concentrations above about 5,000 ppmv the selectivity for formation of NO and N2O is 50-70% and below 5%, respectively. Nitric oxide can be reduced by HCN to N-2 in the absence of O-2...... and to N-2 and N2O in the presence of O-2. At low O-2 concentrations or low temperatures. HCN may react with CaO, forming calcium cyanamide, CaCN2. The selectivities for formation of NO and N2O from oxidation of CaCN2 is 20-25% for both species. The catalytic activity of limestone for oxidation of HCN...

  20. System Study of Rich Catalytic/Lean burn (RCL) Catalytic Combustion for Natural Gas and Coal-Derived Syngas Combustion Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahrokh Etemad; Lance Smith; Kevin Burns

    2004-12-01

    Rich Catalytic/Lean burn (RCL{reg_sign}) technology has been successfully developed to provide improvement in Dry Low Emission gas turbine technology for coal derived syngas and natural gas delivering near zero NOx emissions, improved efficiency, extending component lifetime and the ability to have fuel flexibility. The present report shows substantial net cost saving using RCL{reg_sign} technology as compared to other technologies both for new and retrofit applications, thus eliminating the need for Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) in combined or simple cycle for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and natural gas fired combustion turbines.

  1. Development of Superior Sorbents for Separation of CO2 from Flue Gas at a Wide Temperature Range During Coal Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panagiotis G. Smirniotis

    2007-06-30

    In chapter 1, the studies focused on the development of novel sorbents for reducing the carbon dioxide emissions at high temperatures. Our studies focused on cesium doped CaO sorbents with respect to other major flue gas compounds in a wide temperature range. The thermo-gravimetric analysis of sorbents with loadings of CaO doped on 20 wt% cesium demonstrated high CO{sub 2} sorption uptakes (up to 66 wt% CO{sub 2}/sorbent). It is remarkable to note that zero adsorption affinity for N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O and NO at temperatures as high as 600 C was observed. For water vapor and nitrogen oxide we observed a positive effect for CO{sub 2} adsorption. In the presence of steam, the CO{sub 2} adsorption increased to the highest adsorption capacity of 77 wt% CO{sub 2}/sorbent. In the presence of nitrogen oxide, the final CO{sub 2} uptake remained same, but the rate of adsorption was higher at the initial stages (10%) than the case where no nitrogen oxide was fed. In chapter 2, Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} {center_dot} 4H{sub 2}O, CaO, Ca(OH){sub 2}, CaCO{sub 3}, and Ca(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2} {center_dot} H{sub 2}O were used as precursors for synthesis of CaO sorbents on this work. The sorbents prepared from calcium acetate (CaAc{sub 2}-CaO) resulted in the best uptake characteristics for CO{sub 2}. It possessed higher BET surface area and higher pore volume than the other sorbents. According to SEM images, this sorbent shows 'fluffy' structure, which probably contributes to its high surface area and pore volume. When temperatures were between 550 and 800 C, this sorbent could be carbonated almost completely. Moreover, the carbonation progressed dominantly at the initial short period. Under numerous adsorption-desorption cycles, the CaAc{sub 2}-CaO demonstrated the best reversibility, even under the existence of 10 vol % water vapor. In a 27 cyclic running, the sorbent sustained fairly high carbonation conversion of 62%. Pore size distributions indicate that their

  2. Development of Superior Sorbents for Separation of CO2 from Flue Gas at a Wide Temperature Range During Coal Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panagiotis G. Smirniotis

    2007-06-30

    In chapter 1, the studies focused on the development of novel sorbents for reducing the carbon dioxide emissions at high temperatures. Our studies focused on cesium doped CaO sorbents with respect to other major flue gas compounds in a wide temperature range. The thermo-gravimetric analysis of sorbents with loadings of CaO doped on 20 wt% cesium demonstrated high CO{sub 2} sorption uptakes (up to 66 wt% CO{sub 2}/sorbent). It is remarkable to note that zero adsorption affinity for N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O and NO at temperatures as high as 600 C was observed. For water vapor and nitrogen oxide we observed a positive effect for CO{sub 2} adsorption. In the presence of steam, the CO{sub 2} adsorption increased to the highest adsorption capacity of 77 wt% CO{sub 2}/sorbent. In the presence of nitrogen oxide, the final CO{sub 2} uptake remained same, but the rate of adsorption was higher at the initial stages (10%) than the case where no nitrogen oxide was fed. In chapter 2, Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} {center_dot} 4H{sub 2}O, CaO, Ca(OH){sub 2}, CaCO{sub 3}, and Ca(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2} {center_dot} H{sub 2}O were used as precursors for synthesis of CaO sorbents on this work. The sorbents prepared from calcium acetate (CaAc{sub 2}-CaO) resulted in the best uptake characteristics for CO{sub 2}. It possessed higher BET surface area and higher pore volume than the other sorbents. According to SEM images, this sorbent shows 'fluffy' structure, which probably contributes to its high surface area and pore volume. When temperatures were between 550 and 800 C, this sorbent could be carbonated almost completely. Moreover, the carbonation progressed dominantly at the initial short period. Under numerous adsorption-desorption cycles, the CaAc{sub 2}-CaO demonstrated the best reversibility, even under the existence of 10 vol % water vapor. In a 27 cyclic running, the sorbent sustained fairly high carbonation conversion of 62%. Pore size distributions indicate that their

  3. 燃煤烟气脱硝技术研究进展%Research Progress of Denitrification Technologies of Flue Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高续春; 代宏哲; 梁颖; 白小慧; 马亚军

    2016-01-01

    燃煤尾气脱硝处理是控制电厂氮氧化物排放的主要方法。本文主要综述了脱硝技术在国内外烟气的研究和发展状况,着重介绍了还原法、吸收法、等离子体法,简要说明了各种技术的特点,并对烟气脱硝技术的发展进行了展望。%Denitrification Technologies of flue gas is an effective method to control the emission of NOx. In this pa-per,research progress of denitrification technologies have been mainly reviewed,and reduction,absorption and PPCP have been introduced emphatically. The characters of the various technologies have been illustrated. Then, the paper finally looks into the future of denitrification technologies.

  4. Amine-tethered adsorbents based on three-dimensional macroporous silica for CO(2) capture from simulated flue gas and air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fa-Qian; Wang, Lei; Huang, Zhao-Ge; Li, Chao-Qin; Li, Wei; Li, Rong-Xun; Li, Wei-Hua

    2014-03-26

    New covalently tethered CO2 adsorbents are synthesized through the in situ polymerization of N-carboxyanhydride (NCA) of l-alanine from amine-functionalized three-dimensional (3D) interconnected macroporous silica (MPS). The interconnected macropores provide low-resistant pathways for the diffusion of CO2 molecules, while the abundant mesopores ensure the high pore volume. The adsorbents exhibit high molecular weight (of up to 13058 Da), high amine loading (more than 10.98 mmol N g(-1)), fast CO2 capture kinetics (t1/2 CO2 g(-1) in simulated flue gas and 2.65 mmol CO2 g(-1) in simulated ambient air under 1 atm of dry CO2), as well as good stability over 120 adsorption-desorption cycles, which allows the overall CO2 capture process to be promising and sustainable.

  5. 烟气在线分析数据远程传输%Flue Gas Online Analysis and Data Remote Transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯善刚; 刘忠连; 周长锁

    2011-01-01

    Microcontroller P89LPC938 monitoring data of flue gas online analysis system through the serial port and communicate with the Ethernet controller ENC28J60 through SPI port constituting a simple WebServer. The function of remotely view real-time data is implemented.%用单片机P89LPC938通过串口监听烟气在线分析系统数据,再通过SPI接口与以太网控制器ENC28J60通信,构成简易的WebServer,实现网络远程查看实时数据的功能。

  6. Study on Desulfurization Flue Gas Continuous Emission Monitoring System (CEMS) Renovation%脱硫烟气在线监测系统(CEMS)改造探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪朝阳; 姚瑛瑛

    2015-01-01

    The article introduces continuous emission monitoring system (CEMS) classification and all kinds of measurement systems’ characteristics. It also analyzes flue gas CEMS current situation and existing problems through advantages and disadvantages comparison of different type CEMS and puts forward renovation solution. Renovation improves CEMS equipment stable operation and achieves energy-saving and emission-reducing.%介绍了烟气在线监测系统(CEMS)的分类及各类测量系统的特点,对不同种类CEMS优缺点进行比较,分析了烟气在线监测系统(CEMS)的现状及存在的问题,并提出了改造提出方案,通过改造提高了CEMS设备运行的可靠性,实现了节能减排和环保双赢的目的。

  7. Catalytic Production of Ethanol from Biomass-Derived Synthesis Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trewyn, Brian G. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Smith, Ryan G. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Heterogeneous catalysts have been developed for the conversion of biomass-derived synthetic gas (syngas) to ethanol. The objectives of this project were to develop a clean synthesis gas from biomass and develop robust catalysts with high selectivity and lifetime for C2 oxygenate production from biomass-derived syngas and surrogate syngas. During the timeframe for this project, we have made research progress on the four tasks: (1) Produce clean bio-oil generated from biomass, such as corn stover or switchgrass, by using fast pyrolysis system, (2) Produce clean, high pressure synthetic gas (syngas: carbon monoxide, CO, and hydrogen, H2) from bio-oil generated from biomass by gasification, (3) Develop and characterize mesoporous mixed oxide-supported metal catalysts for the selective production of ethanol and other alcohols, such as butanol, from synthesis gas, and (4) Design and build a laboratory scale synthesis gas to ethanol reactor system evaluation of the process. In this final report, detailed explanations of the research challenges associated with this project are given. Progress of the syngas production from various biomass feedstocks and catalyst synthesis for upgrading the syngas to C2-oxygenates is included. Reaction properties of the catalyst systems under different reaction conditions and different reactor set-ups are also presented and discussed. Specifically, the development and application of mesoporous silica and mesoporous carbon supports with rhodium nanoparticle catalysts and rhodium nanoparticle with manganese catalysts are described along with the significant material characterizations we completed. In addition to the synthesis and characterization, we described the activity and selectivity of catalysts in our micro-tubular reactor (small scale) and fixed bed reactor (larger scale). After years of hard work, we are proud of the work done on this project, and do believe that this work will provide a solid

  8. 烟气同时脱硫脱硝工艺的研究进展%Research Process in Simultaneous Desulfurization and Denitrification of Flue Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立坤

    2014-01-01

    煤的燃烧会释放大量的 SO2和 NOx,它们是导致酸雨和光化学烟雾等污染现象的主要污染物。燃煤电厂是我国煤消耗的主要场所,因此,控制硫、氮的排放应从燃煤电厂烟气脱硫脱硝的研究开始。对目前存在的几种烟气同时脱硫脱硝工艺进行了简要概述,主要包括等离子体法、氧化法、吸收及吸附法三类,并为脱硫脱硝工艺未来的发展提出了几点建议,以期为相关研究提供参考。%SO2 and NOx , products of the coal combustion, are the main wastes which lead to acid rain and photo-chemical smog. Coal-fired power plants are the principal places of China's coal consumption, therefore, study on desulfurization and denitrification of coal-fired power plant flue gas is the key to control sulfur and nitrogen emission. In this paper, several simultaneous denitrification and desulfurization processes of flue gas were introduced, such as plasma method, oxidation method, and adsorption method. Finally, some suggestions on the future development of simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification process were put forward in order to provide reference for the related researches.

  9. Engineering Design of Flue Gas Desulfurization in Thermal Power Plant%火电厂烟气脱硫工程设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴锦宝

    2012-01-01

    在石灰石/石膏湿法脱硫工程实际应用中,影响脱硫效率的因素很多,主要问题包括结垢堵塞、设备和管道的腐蚀等正确处理这些问题是保证烟气脱硫(FGD)系统长期稳定可靠运行的关键。相应的技术措施需综合考虑技术上的可行性和经济上的合理性等诸多因素,设计、设备选型、营运等各个阶段各个因素之间互相影响。如何优化设方案,降低投资和运行检修费用,需要综合加以考虑。提出的方案是根据已运行项目的工程实际结果得出的结论,具有一定的实用和参考价值。%In practical application of limestone/gypsum wet flue gas desulfurization project, there are many influencing factors affecting desulfurization efficiency including scaling and clogging, equipment and pipeline corrosion and so on. properly treatments to these problems are key points to ensure years of stable and reliable run of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. The appropriate technical measures should take technical feasibility and economic ration',dity into account. Design, equipment selection, operation stages and other factors are interactional, so it should take all factors into consideration to optimize design, reduce investment and operation and maintenance cost. The scheme proposed in this paper is based on the conclusion draw from running project, and it has certain practical and referential value.

  10. 燃煤烟气中汞吸附技术的研发进展%Research Progress of Mercury Adsorption Technology for Coal-fired Flue Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建星; 邓双; 姚福德; 王琳琳; 陈小鹏; 张凡

    2013-01-01

    At present mercury sorbents technology is the special technology to remove mercury in coal-fired flue gas.The present research situation of mercury-removing sorbents used in coal-fired flue gas were summarized.The sorbents by carrier type could be divided into carbon-based sorbents,fly ash,mineral sorbents,metal sorbents,metal compound sorbents and complex sorbents.The mercury removal efficiencies,costs,and application conditions of various sorbents were summarized.The influence factors of adsorption process were especially analyzed.The influences of form distribution,smoke components,nature of the sorbents,temperature and evaluation device were also illustrated.And finally,the future research directions in this field were suggested.%指出了汞吸附剂脱汞技术是目前燃煤烟气专门脱汞技术,并概述了国内外燃煤烟气中脱汞吸附剂的研究现状.目前研发的汞吸附剂按载体类型可分为:碳基吸附剂、飞灰、矿物类吸附剂、金属类吸附剂、金属化合物类吸附剂和络合吸附剂.综合评述了不同种类吸附剂的脱汞效率、成本和适用条件等;尤其对吸附过程的影响因素进行了分析,阐明了汞的形态分布、吸附剂性质、烟气成分、温度和评价装置的影响,最后对该领域的研究方向做了展望.

  11. Reactors for Catalytic Methanation in the Conversion of Biomass to Synthetic Natural Gas (SNG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schildhauer, Tilman J; Biollaz, Serge M A

    2015-01-01

    Production of Synthetic Natural Gas (SNG) from biomass is an important step to decouple the use of bioenergy from the biomass production with respect to both time and place. While anaerobic digestion of wet biomass is a state-of-the art process, wood gasification to producer gas followed by gas cleaning and methanation has only just entered the demonstration scale. Power-to-Gas applications using biogas from biomass fermentation or producer gas from wood gasification as carbon oxide source are under development. Due to the importance of the (catalytic) methanation step in the production of SNG from dry biomass or within Power-to-Gas applications, the specific challenges of this step and the developed reactor types are discussed in this review.

  12. 湿法烟气脱硫系统 GGH 堵塞的原因分析及对策%Cause and Countermeasure of GGH Blockage in Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张磊

    2016-01-01

    The easily occurred problem of blockage of GGH ( rotary gas gas for heat exchanger) in wet flue gas desulfuriza-tion ( FGD) system during operation is introduced, and the reasons are analyzed and countermeasures are put forward to ef-fectively overcome the problems of the GGH blockage.The solution has some reference to similar power plant flue gas desul-furization system process.%介绍了湿法烟气脱硫( FGD)系统GGH(回转式气-气换热器)运行中易出现的堵塞等问题,并对其产生的原因进行了分析,提出了有效防止GGH堵塞的对策,对同类型电厂烟气脱硫系统工艺有一定的借鉴作用。

  13. Recent Development of Catalysts for Removal of Volatile Organic Compounds in Flue Gas by Combustion: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Tomatis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs emitted from anthropogenic sources pose direct and indirect hazards to both atmospheric environment and human health due to their contribution to the formation of photochemical smog and potential toxicity including carcinogenicity. Therefore, to abate VOCs emission, the catalytic oxidation process has been extensively studied in laboratories and widely applied in various industries. This report is mainly focused on the benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX with additional discussion about chlorinated VOCs. This review covers the recent developments in catalytic combustion of VOCs over noble metal catalysts, nonnoble metal catalysts, perovskite catalysts, spinel catalysts, and dual functional adsorbent-catalysts. In addition, the effects of supports, coke formation, and water effects have also been discussed. To develop efficient and cost-effective catalysts for VOCs removal, further research in catalytic oxidation might need to be carried out to strengthen the understanding of catalytic mechanisms involved.

  14. Flue gas dust composition and fouling tendency in recovery boilers; Flygaskans sammansaettning och nedsmutsande tendens i sodapannan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forssen, Mikael; Backman, Rainer; Wallen, Jonas; Hupa, Mikko [Aabo Akademi (Finland)

    2000-02-01

    In this work eight Swedish black liquors have been characterized for the following properties: Combustability and bed behavior; Dust formation tendency; Fouling tendency of dust; SO{sub 2} formation tendency; and, NO formation tendency. The research was made using; (i) chemical analysis of the samples, (ii) special laboratory scale combustion and pyrolysis tests and (iii) an advanced computer model (Recovery Boiler Chemistry Advisor) for calculating the chemical composition and melting properties of the flue gas dust (fly ash). All tests and analysis were successfully performed and the results were reproducible and reliable. The results were classified for each of the five properties from one to five, and summarised into a table. The liquors showed good or extremely good combustability, also the behavior of the bed was normal or extremely good. None of the liquors had extremely high or low values in their swelling tendency or in their total combustion times. The liquors showed bigger differences in their tendency to form dust. Most of the liquors were 'good' because of the lower than normal tendency to form dust during combustion. Only one of the liquors, liquor B, was rated as 'bad', one of the liquors, liquor E, was rated 'extremely good', in other words liquor B had the highest tendency to form dust whereas liquor E had the lowest tendency to form dust. The advanced computer modelling work gave the composition, and the melting properties for the two dust components, carry-over and the condensed dust. The fouling tendency of the liquors were extremely good (low), the differences were so small that no distinction could be made between the liquors. Compared to earlier studies, the sticky temperature, T{sub 15}, for the eight liquors were extremely high, for both modelling cases when the combustion was assumed to take place either in a 'cold' or in a 'hot' furnace. This is partly explained by the fact that the

  15. Impact of kiln thermal energy demand and false air on cement kiln flue gas CO2 capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arachchige, Udara S.P.R.; Kawan, Dinesh; Tokheim, Lars-Andre [Telemark University College, Porsgrunn (Norway); Melaaen, Morten C. [Telemark University College, Porsgrunn (Norway); (Tel-Tek, Porsgrunn (Norway)

    2013-07-01

    The present study is focused on the effect of the specific thermal energy demand and the false air factor on carbon capture applied to cement kiln exhaust gases. The carbon capture process model was developed and implemented in Aspen Plus. The model was developed for flue gases from a typical cement clinker manufacturing plant. The specific thermal energy demand as well as the false air factor of the kiln system were varied in order to determine the effect on CO2 capture plant performance, such as the solvent regeneration energy demand. In general, an increase in the mentioned kiln system factors increases the regeneration energy demand. The reboiler energy demand is calculated as 3270, 3428 and 3589 kJ/kg clinker for a specific thermal energy of 3000, 3400 and 3800 kJ/kg clinker, respectively. Setting the false air factor to 25, 50 or 70% gives a reboiler energy demand of 3428, 3476, 3568 kJ/kg clinker, respectively.

  16. Numerical analysis of CO{sub 2} concentration and recovery from flue gas by a novel vacuum swing adsorption cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, J.A.; Uguina, M.A.; Sotelo, J.L.; Agueda, V.I.; Sanz, A.; Gomez, P. [University of Complutense Madrid, Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2011-06-09

    The objective of this work is to study the feasibility of carbon dioxide concentration and recovery from flue gases using a novel VSA cycle without rinse step with the aid of mathematical modeling. A theoretical model based on conservation equations (following the one proposed by Da Silva and Rodrigues (2001)) is used for an initial evaluation of the process performance. Activated carbon is the adsorbent considered, simulating adsorption equilibrium and kinetics with the equations proposed by Kikkinides, Yang, and Cho (1993). According to the simulated results, it is possible to recover carbon dioxide with high purity (>93%) from a mixture with 13% carbon dioxide at 40{sup o}C, with higher recovery (>90%) and a lower power consumption (<0.12 kWh/kgCO{sub 2}) than other processes with rinse step reaching the same purity. Although these results are theoretical, they show the potential advantages of this process for CO{sub 2} capture.

  17. 基于夹点技术的烟气处理系统的优化与评价%Optimization and evaluation of flue gas processing systems based on pinch technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘中良; 王远亚; 张克舫; 李艳霞

    2014-01-01

    二氧化碳捕集系统节能技术受到了人们的广泛关注,但基本上集中在系统本身,鲜见有关烟气余热回收利用方面的研究报道,缺少具体的应用方案。然而,要进一步提高二氧化碳捕集系统的效率,就必须对烟气余热进行有效利用。为此,本文以某发电厂与660MW热电联产装置相配套的烟气处理系统为研究对象,首先采用问题表法确定了换热网络的夹点温度,然后通过冷、热物流间的“新”匹配对原换热网络进行改造,得出3种改造方案:烟气余热回收一级换热网络是高温烟气与胺补液之间进行匹配;烟气余热直接回收二级换热网络是高温烟气依次与富液、胺补液之间进行匹配;而烟气余热间接回收二级换热网络包括高温烟气与富液之间的间接换热。通过对以上3种改造方案投资费用的比较,发现烟气余热回收一级换热网络的投资成本最低,是最优改造方案。%Energy saving technologies for CO2 capture systems are receiving extensive attentions from both academic researchers and industries. However,most of these researches focused on the CO2 capture systems,instead of the waste heat utilization of the flue gas and practical recovery schemes. However,in order to improve the energy efficiency of the CO2 capture systems,it was very important to recover the thermal energy from the flue gas. This paper took the flue gas processing system coupled with a 660MW coal-fired power plant as an example,the temperature of pinch point was determined by use of“problem table”method. The initial heat exchanger network (HEN)was optimized by matching hot flows and cold flows. And three new retrofit schemes were obtained:The one-stage HEN for energy recovery of the flue gas was to use the flue gas to heat the makeup mono ethanol amine (MEA) solvent;the two-stage HEN could be further divided into two networks-the first one recovered the heat of the

  18. Packed-Bed Reactor Study of NETL Sample 196c for the Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Simulated Flue Gas Mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, James S.; Hammache, Sonia; Gray, McMahan L.; Fauth Daniel J.; Pennline, Henry W.

    2012-04-24

    An amine-based solid sorbent process to remove CO2 from flue gas has been investigated. The sorbent consists of polyethylenimine (PEI) immobilized onto silica (SiO2) support. Experiments were conducted in a packed-bed reactor and exit gas composition was monitored using mass spectrometry. The effects of feed gas composition (CO2 and H2O), temperature, and simulated steam regeneration were examined for both the silica support as well as the PEI-based sorbent. The artifact of the empty reactor was also quantified. Sorbent CO2 capacity loading was compared to thermogravimetric (TGA) results to further characterize adsorption isotherms and better define CO2 working capacity. Sorbent stability was monitored by periodically repeating baseline conditions throughout the parametric testing and replacing with fresh sorbent as needed. The concept of the Basic Immobilized Amine Sorbent (BIAS) Process using this sorbent within a system where sorbent continuously flows between the absorber and regenerator was introduced. The basic tenet is to manipulate or control the level of moisture on the sorbent as it travels around the sorbent circulation path between absorption and regeneration stages to minimize its effect on regeneration heat duty.

  19. 接触式烟气冷凝换热器的换热性能%Heat transfer performance of direct-contact flue-gas condensation heat exchanger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘华; 周贤; 付林

    2014-01-01

    Based on the analytical solution of heat-mass transfer fundamental formula between flue-gas and water surface,analyses the key influencing factors on heat transfer efficiency of flue-gas and water. The results show that the main influencing factors are the water-gas ratio,height of heat exchanger and sprayed water droplet diameter.However,velocity of gas influences less.Sets up the performance test-bed for boiler flue-gas heat recovery,and verifies the results of theoretical calculation.%通过求解烟气与水表面之间的热质交换基本方程,得出了烟气与水换热的解析解,并分析了接触式烟气与水处理过程热质交换性能的影响因素。结果表明,烟气与水换热效率的主要影响因素是水气比、换热器高度、喷水雾化粒径,而烟气流速的影响相对较小。搭建了锅炉烟气余热回收实验台,验证了理论计算结果的正确性。

  20. Postextraction Separation, On-Board Storage, and Catalytic Conversion of Methane in Natural Gas: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Dipendu; Grappe, Hippolyte A; Chakraborty, Amlan; Orkoulas, Gerassimos

    2016-10-12

    In today's perspective, natural gas has gained considerable attention, due to its low emission, indigenous availability, and improvement in the extraction technology. Upon extraction, it undergoes several purification protocols including dehydration, sweetening, and inert rejection. Although purification is a commercially established technology, several drawbacks of the current process provide an essential impetus for developing newer separation protocols, most importantly, adsorption and membrane separation. This Review summarizes the needs of natural gas separation, gives an overview of the current technology, and provides a detailed discussion of the progress in research on separation and purification of natural gas including the benefits and drawbacks of each of the processes. The transportation sector is another growing sector of natural gas utilization, and it requires an efficient and safe on-board storage system. Compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG) are the most common forms in which natural gas can be stored. Adsorbed natural gas (ANG) is an alternate storage system of natural gas, which is advantageous as compared to CNG and LNG in terms of safety and also in terms of temperature and pressure requirements. This Review provides a detailed discussion on ANG along with computation predictions. The catalytic conversion of methane to different useful chemicals including syngas, methanol, formaldehyde, dimethyl ether, heavier hydrocarbons, aromatics, and hydrogen is also reviewed. Finally, direct utilization of methane onto fuel cells is also discussed.

  1. Relation between the characteristics of the pitches produced on the basis of heavy gas-oil of catalytic cracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaeva, L.V.; Bulanova, V.V. [Rossiiskaya Akadeiya, Nauk (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    Mesophase pitches are often used to produce carbon fibers. Results of microanalysis and fiber-forming ability of the pitches are described. The pitches were obtained by the catalytic cracking of heavy gas-oil.

  2. Influence of SO2 in incineration flue gas on the sequestration of CO2 by municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianguo Jiang; Sicong Tian; Chang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    The influence of CO2 content and presence of SO2 on the sequestration of CO2 by municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash was studied by investigating the carbonation reaction of MSWI fly ash with different combinations of simulated flue gas.The reaction between fly ash and 100% CO2 was relatively fast; the uptake of CO2 reached 87 g CO2/kg ash,and the sequestered CO2 could be entirely released at high temperatures.When CO2 content was reduced to 12%,the reaction rate decreased; the uptake fell to 41 g CO2/kg ash,and 70.7% of the sequestered CO2 could be released.With 12% CO2 in the presence of SO2,the reaction rate significantly decreased; the uptake was just 17 g CO2/kg ash,and only 52.9% of the sequestered CO2 could be released.SO2 in the simulated gas restricted the ability of fly ash to sequester CO2 because it blocked the pores of the ash.

  3. The Application of Flue Gas Recirculation Technology in Capacity Increasing Revamp of Shagang Sintering System%烟气循环技术在沙钢烧结系统增产改造中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟颖

    2016-01-01

    阐述沙钢烧结增产改造思路,并指出面临的主要问题是对外排烟气的处理。应用烟气循环技术,既可提高烧结系统设备利用率,增加烧结矿产量,又不会给环保设施增加负担。介绍沙钢烧结烟气循环工艺具体内容,并沙钢3号烧结机为例对烟气循环技术的应用情况进行分析,为国内烧结系统改造提供了崭新的思路。%The paper describes the thinking of capacity increasing revamp of Shagang sintering,and points outthat the main problem is the treatment of the discharged flue gas. Using flue gas recirculation technology,it can improve the rate of equipment utilization of sintering system,increase the output of sinter,and it will not increase the burden of environmental protection facility. The paper also introduces the detailed content of Shagang sintering flue gas recirculation process,and analyzes the application of fule gas recirculation situation taking Shagang No.3 sintering machine as an example. It provides a new thinking for domestic sintering system improvement.

  4. Impact of kiln thermal energy demand and false air on cement kiln flue gas CO2 capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udara S. P. R. Arachchige, Dinesh Kawan, Lars-André Tokheim, Morten C. Melaaen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is focused on the effect of the specific thermal energy demand and the false air factor on carbon capture applied to cement kiln exhaust gases. The carbon capture process model was developed and implemented in Aspen Plus. The model was developed for flue gases from a typical cement clinker manufacturing plant. The specific thermal energy demand as well as the false air factor of the kiln system were varied in order to determine the effect on CO2 capture plant performance, such as the solvent regeneration energy demand. In general, an increase in the mentioned kiln system factors increases the regeneration energy demand. The reboiler energy demand is calculated as 3270, 3428 and 3589 kJ/kg clinker for a specific thermal energy of 3000, 3400 and 3800 kJ/kg clinker, respectively. Setting the false air factor to 25, 50 or 70% gives a reboiler energy demand of 3428, 3476, 3568 kJ/kg clinker, respectively.

  5. Intensified technology for microalgal CO2 fixation and conversion from flue gas%微藻固定转化烟气CO2强化技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜加伟; 程丽华; 徐新华; 张林; 陈欢林

    2014-01-01

    全球气候变暖和能源危机是21世纪影响人类生存发展的重要问题。微藻由于具有利用太阳能、固定CO2并转化为油脂等产物的能力以及环境适应性强、光合效率高、繁殖快等优势,微藻固碳技术有望成为缓解温室效应和能源危机的有效方法之一,但是该技术目前仍存在去除烟气 CO2转化油脂效率低的问题。本文分析了微藻固碳过程中碳传递转化途径,介绍了强化微藻固定与转化烟气 CO2的技术研究,包括微藻固碳与转化油脂的生物强化、微藻固定 CO2的反应器强化、微藻固定与转化 CO2技术的耦合,重点讨论了强化微藻固碳与转化的生物技术和膜技术研究现状及存在问题。最后指出微藻固碳的生物技术、膜技术及其他多技术的耦合有望进一步提升烟气CO2的高效固定与转化,是强化微藻固定转化烟气CO2的重要研究方向。%Microalgae has the strong ability to convert CO2 into cellular lipid product , better environmental adaptability , higher photosynthetic efficiency and the higher reproduction rate. Therefore,carbon dioxide fixation by microalgae has become one of the effective solutions to greenhouse effect and energy crisis. The bottle neck of this technology lies in the low efficiency of CO2 fixation and conversion into cellular lipid product. This paper introduced the process of CO2 fixation and conversion into organic carbon components of microalgae cell. The progresses on intensified fixation and conversion of CO2 from flue gas,including the stimulated CO2 fixation and conversion into lipid,the intensified CO2 fixation by membrane technology in a photobioreactor and the coupling of various technologies. The application of biotechnology and the membrane technology in microalgae field were elaborated and discussed. This paper also discussed the integration of microalgae biotechnology,membrane technology and the coupling of other technologies

  6. Numerical and experimental investigation on the performance of lean burn catalytic combustion for gas turbine application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Juan; Weng, Yi-wu; Zhu, Jun-qiang

    2015-04-01

    This manuscript presents our numerical and experimental results regarding the performance characteristics of lean burn catalytic combustion for gas turbine application. The reactant transport was assumed to be controlled by both bulk diffusion as well as surface kinetics, implemented by means of an approximate reaction rate equation and empirical coefficients to incorporate reaction mechanism. Experimental and numerical results were compared to examine the effects of methane mole fraction, inlet temperature, operating pressure, velocity and hydrogen species on combustion intensity. The results indicate that inlet temperature is the most significant parameter that impacts operation of the catalytic combustor and the most effective methods for improving the methane conversion are increasing the inlet temperature and increasing the methane mole fraction. Simulations from 1D heterogeneous plug flow model can capture the trend of