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Sample records for catalytic extraction processing

  1. Catalytic extraction processing of contaminated scrap metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, T.P.; Johnston, J.E.; Payea, B.M. [Molten Metal Technology, Inc., Waltham, MA (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy issued a Planned Research and Development Announcement (PRDA) in 1993, with the objective of identifying unique technologies which could be applied to the most hazardous waste streams at DOE sites. The combination of radioactive contamination with additional contamination by hazardous constituents such as those identified by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) pose an especially challenging problem. Traditional remediation technologies are increasingly becoming less acceptable to stakeholders and regulators because of the risks they pose to public health and safety. Desirable recycling technologies were described by the DOE as: (1) easily installed, operated, and maintained; (2) exhibiting superior environmental performance; (3) protective of worker and public health and safety; (4) readily acceptable to a wide spectrum of evaluators; and (5) economically feasible. Molten Metal Technology, Inc. (MMT) was awarded a contract as a result of the PRDA initiative to demonstrate the applicability of Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP), MMT`s proprietary elemental recycling technology, to DOE`s inventory of low level mixed waste. This includes DOE`s inventory of radioactively- and RCRA-contaminated scrap metal and other waste forms expected to be generated by the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of DOE sites.

  2. Development of wet-proofed catalyst and catalytic exchange process for tritium extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Myung Jae; Son, Soon Hwan; Chung, Yang Gun; Lee, Gab Bock [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center

    1995-12-31

    To apply a liquid phase catalytic exchange(LPCE) process for the tritium extraction from tritiated heavy water, the wet proofed catalyst to allow the hydrogen isotopic exchange reaction between liquid water and hydrogen gas was developed. A styrene divinyl benzene copolymer was selected as am effective catalyst support and prepared by suspension copolymerization. After post-treatment, final catalyst supports were dipped in chloroplatinic acid solution. The catalyst support had a good physical properties at a particular preparation condition. The catalytic performance was successfully verified through hydrogen isotopic exchange reaction in the exchange column. A mathematical model for the tritium removal process consisted of LPCE front-ended process and cryogenic distillation process was established using the NTU-HTU method for LPCE column and the FUG method for cryogenic distillation column, respectively. A computer program was developed using the model and then used to investigate optimum design variables which affect the size of columns and tritium inventory (author). 84 refs., 113 figs.

  3. Catalytic distillation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.

    1982-01-01

    A method for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C.sub.4 feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

  4. Catalytic distillation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1982-06-22

    A method is described for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C[sub 4] feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

  5. Catalytic hydrotreating process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karr, Jr., Clarence; McCaskill, Kenneth B.

    1978-01-01

    Carbonaceous liquids boiling above about 300.degree. C such as tars, petroleum residuals, shale oils and coal-derived liquids are catalytically hydrotreated by introducing the carbonaceous liquid into a reaction zone at a temperature in the range of 300.degree. to 450.degree. C and a pressure in the range of 300 to 4000 psig for effecting contact between the carbonaceous liquid and a catalytic transition metal sulfide in the reaction zone as a layer on a hydrogen permeable transition metal substrate and then introducing hydrogen into the reaction zone by diffusing the hydrogen through the substrate to effect the hydrogenation of the carbonaceous liquid in the presence of the catalytic sulfide layer.

  6. Immigration process in catalytic medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪文明; 王梓坤

    2000-01-01

    The longtime behavior of the immigration process associated with a catalytic super-Brown-ian motion is studied. A large number law is proved in dimension d≤3 and a central limit theorem is proved for dimension d = 3.

  7. Immigration process in catalytic medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The longtime behavior of the immigration process associated with a catalytic super-Brownian motion is studied. A large number law is proved in dimension d≤3 and a central limit theorem is proved for dimension d=3.

  8. Unsteady catalytic processes and sorption-catalytic technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagoruiko, A N [G.K. Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2007-07-31

    Catalytic processes that occur under conditions of the targeted unsteady state of the catalyst are considered. The highest efficiency of catalytic processes was found to be ensured by a controlled combination of thermal non-stationarity and unsteady composition of the catalyst surface. The processes based on this principle are analysed, in particular, catalytic selective reduction of nitrogen oxides, deep oxidation of volatile organic impurities, production of sulfur by the Claus process and by hydrogen sulfide decomposition, oxidation of sulfur dioxide, methane steam reforming and anaerobic combustion, selective oxidation of hydrocarbons, etc.

  9. Unsteady processes in catalytic reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matros, Yu.Sh.

    1985-01-01

    In recent years a realization has occurred that reaction and reactor dynamics must be considered when designing and operating catalytic reactors. In this book, the author has focussed on both the processes occurring on individual porous-catalyst particles as well as the phenomena displayed by collections of these particles in fixed-bed reactors. The major topics discussed include the effects of unsteady-state heat and mass transfer, the influence of inhomogeneities and stagnant regions in fixed beds, and reactor operation during forced cycling of operating conditions. Despite the title of the book, attention is also paid to the determination of the number and stability of fixed-bed steady states, with the aim of describing the possibility of controlling reactors at unstable steady states. However, this development is somewhat dated, given the recent literature on multiplicity phenomena and process control.

  10. Plasma Catalytic Extraction of Oxygen from the Martian Atmosphere Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Plasma catalytic techniques are proposed for the extraction of oxygen from the abundant carbon dioxide contained in the Martian atmosphere (95% CO2).. The Phase I...

  11. SOFC system with integrated catalytic fuel processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnerty, Caine; Tompsett, Geoff. A.; Kendall, Kevin; Ormerod, R. Mark

    In recent years, there has been much interest in the development of solid oxide fuel cell technology operating directly on hydrocarbon fuels. The development of a catalytic fuel processing system, which is integrated with the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power source is outlined here. The catalytic device utilises a novel three-way catalytic system consisting of an in situ pre-reformer catalyst, the fuel cell anode catalyst and a platinum-based combustion catalyst. The three individual catalytic stages have been tested in a model catalytic microreactor. Both temperature-programmed and isothermal reaction techniques have been applied. Results from these experiments were used to design the demonstration SOFC unit. The apparatus used for catalytic characterisation can also perform in situ electrochemical measurements as described in previous papers [C.M. Finnerty, R.H. Cunningham, K. Kendall, R.M. Ormerod, Chem. Commun. (1998) 915-916; C.M. Finnerty, N.J. Coe, R.H. Cunningham, R.M. Ormerod, Catal. Today 46 (1998) 137-145]. This enabled the performance of the SOFC to be determined at a range of temperatures and reaction conditions, with current output of 290 mA cm -2 at 0.5 V, being recorded. Methane and butane have been evaluated as fuels. Thus, optimisation of the in situ partial oxidation pre-reforming catalyst was essential, with catalysts producing high H 2/CO ratios at reaction temperatures between 873 K and 1173 K being chosen. These included Ru and Ni/Mo-based catalysts. Hydrocarbon fuels were directly injected into the catalytic SOFC system. Microreactor measurements revealed the reaction mechanisms as the fuel was transported through the three-catalyst device. The demonstration system showed that the fuel processing could be successfully integrated with the SOFC stack.

  12. SOFC system with integrated catalytic fuel processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finnerty, C.; Tompsett, G.A.; Kendall, K.; Ormerod, R.M. [Birchall Centre for Inorganic Chemistry and Materials Science, Keele Univ. (United Kingdom)

    2000-03-01

    In recent years, there has been much interest in the development of solid oxide fuel cell technology operating directly on hydrocarbon fuels. The development of a catalytic fuel processing system, which is integrated with the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power source is outlined here. The catalytic device utilises a novel three-way catalytic system consisting of an in situ pre-reformer catalyst, the fuel cell anode catalyst and a platinum-based combustion catalyst. The three individual catalytic stages have been tested in a model catalytic microreactor. Both temperature-programmed and isothermal reaction techniques have been applied. Results from these experiments were used to design the demonstration SOFC unit. The apparatus used for catalytic characterisation can also perform in situ electrochemical measurements as described in previous papers [C.M. Finnerty, R.H. Cunningham, K. Kendall, R.M. Ormerod, Chem. Commun. (1998) 915-916; C.M. Finnerty, N.J. Coe, R.H. Cunningham, R.M. Ormerod, Catal. Today 46 (1998) 137-145]. This enabled the performance of the SOFC to be determined at a range of temperatures and reaction conditions, with current output of 290 mA cm{sup -2} at 0.5 V, being recorded. Methane and butane have been evaluated as fuels. Thus, optimisation of the in situ partial oxidation pre-reforming catalyst was essential, with catalysts producing high H{sub 2}/CO ratios at reaction temperatures between 873 K and 1173 K being chosen. These included Ru and Ni/Mo-based catalysts. Hydrocarbon fuels were directly injected into the catalytic SOFC system. Microreactor measurements revealed the reaction mechanisms as the fuel was transported through the three-catalyst device. The demonstration system showed that the fuel processing could be successfully integrated with the SOFC stack. (orig.)

  13. Catalytic processes for space station waste conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonover, M. W.; Madsen, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    Catalytic techniques for processing waste products onboard space vehicles were evaluated. The goal of the study was the conversion of waste to carbon, wash water, oxygen and nitrogen. However, the ultimate goal is conversion to plant nutrients and other materials useful in closure of an ecological life support system for extended planetary missions. The resulting process studied involves hydrolysis at 250 C and 600 psia to break down and compact cellulose material, distillation at 100 C to remove water, coking at 450 C and atmospheric pressure, and catalytic oxidation at 450 to 600 C and atmospheric pressure. Tests were conducted with a model waste to characterize the hydrolysis and coking processes. An oxidizer reactor was sized based on automotive catalytic conversion experience. Products obtained from the hydrolysis and coking steps included a solid residue, gases, water condensate streams, and a volatile coker oil. Based on the data obtained, sufficient component sizing was performed to make a preliminary comparison of the catalytic technique with oxidation for processing waste for a six-man spacecraft. Wet oxidation seems to be the preferred technique from the standpoint of both component simplicity and power consumption.

  14. Catalytic process for formaldehyde oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielin, Erik J. (Inventor); Brown, Kenneth G. (Inventor); D'Ambrosia, Christine M. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    Disclosed is a process for oxidizing formaldehyde to carbon dioxide and water without the addition of energy. A mixture of formaldehyde and an oxidizing agent (e.g., ambient air containing formaldehyde) is exposed to a catalyst which includes a noble metal dispersed on a metal oxide which possesses more than one oxidation state. Especially good results are obtained when the noble metal is platinum, and the metal oxide which possesses more than one oxidation state is tin oxide. A promoter (i.e., a small amount of an oxide of a transition series metal) may be used in association with the tin oxide to provide very beneficial results.

  15. Northwestern University Facility for Clean Catalytic Process Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marks, Tobin Jay [Northwestern University

    2013-05-08

    Northwestern University with DOE support created a Facility for Clean Catalytic Process Research. This facility is designed to further strengthen our already strong catalysis research capabilities and thus to address these National challenges. Thus, state-of-the art instrumentation and experimentation facility was commissioned to add far greater breadth, depth, and throughput to our ability to invent, test, and understand catalysts and catalytic processes, hence to improve them via knowledge-based design and evaluation approaches.

  16. Extracting enzyme processivity from kinetic assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barel, Itay; Brown, Frank L. H. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Reich, Norbert O. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2015-12-14

    A steady-state analysis for the catalytic turnover of molecules containing two substrate sites is presented. A broad class of Markovian dynamic models, motivated by the action of DNA modifying enzymes and the rich variety of translocation mechanisms associated with these systems (e.g., sliding, hopping, intersegmental transfer, etc.), is considered. The modeling suggests an elementary and general method of data analysis, which enables the extraction of the enzyme’s processivity directly and unambiguously from experimental data. This analysis is not limited to the initial velocity regime. The predictions are validated both against detailed numerical models and by revisiting published experimental data for EcoRI endonuclease acting on DNA.

  17. A catalytic distillation process for light gas oil hydrodesulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas-Villamil, F.D.; Marroquin, J.O.; Paz, C. de la; Rodriguez, E. [Prog. de Matematicas Aplicadas y Computacion, Prog. de Tratamiento de Crudo Maya, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico City, DF (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    A light gas oil hydrodesulfurization process via catalytic distillation is developed and compared to a conventional process. By integrating the separation and reaction into a single unit, the catalytic distillation may produce a diesel with low concentration of sulfur compounds at a lower cost than the traditional reaction/separation process. The process proposed in this work is compared to an optimised conventional hydrodesulfurization unit which represents fairly well a plant that belongs to the National System of Refineries. During the optimisation of the conventional process, a compromise is established among the production of diesel and naphtha and the operating costs. The results show that the light gas oil hydrodesulfurization via catalytic distillation is as or more efficient than the conventional process. However, the removal of the sulfur compounds is carried out under less rigorous conditions. This design reduces the fix and operational costs. (author)

  18. Electrochemical process of titanium extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CH. RVS. NAGESH; C. S. RAMACHANDRAN

    2007-01-01

    A wide variety of processes are being pursued by researchers for cost effective extraction of titanium metal. Electrochemical processes are promising due to simplicity and being less capital intensive. Some of the promising electrochemical processes of titanium extraction were reviewed and the results of laboratory scale experiments on electrochemical reduction of TiO2 granules were brought out. Some of the kinetic parameters of the reduction process were discussed while presenting the quality improvements achieved in the experimentation.

  19. Hydrogen production via catalytic processing of renewable feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazim Muradov; Franklyn Smith; Ali T-Raissi [Florida Solar Energy Center, University of Central Florida, Cocoa, Florida, (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Landfill gas (LFG) and biogas can potentially become important feedstocks for renewable hydrogen production. The objectives of this work were: (1) to develop a catalytic process for direct reforming of CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2} gaseous mixture mimicking LFG, (2) perform thermodynamic analysis of the reforming process using AspenPlus chemical process simulator, (3) determine operational conditions for auto-thermal (or thermo-neutral) reforming of a model CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2} feedstock, and (4) fabricate and test a bench-scale hydrogen production unit. Experimental data obtained from catalytic reformation of the CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2}-O{sub 2} gaseous mixtures using Ni-catalyst were in a good agreement with the simulation results. It was demonstrated that catalytic reforming of LFG-mimicking gas produced hydrogen with the purity of 99.9 vol.%. (authors)

  20. Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using Capsicum annuum var. grossum pulp extract and its catalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chun-Gang; Huo, Can; Yu, Shuixin; Gui, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Biological synthesis approach has been regarded as a green, eco-friendly and cost effective method for nanoparticles preparation without any toxic solvents and hazardous bi-products during the process. This present study reported a facile and rapid biosynthesis method for gold nanoparticles (GNPs) from Capsicum annuum var. grossum pulp extract in a single-pot process. The aqueous pulp extract was used as biotic reducing agent for gold nanoparticle growing. Various shapes (triangle, hexagonal, and quasi-spherical shapes) were observed within range of 6-37 nm. The UV-Vis spectra showed surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak for the formed GNPs at 560 nm after 10 min incubation at room temperature. The possible influences of extract amount, gold ion concentration, incubation time, reaction temperature and solution pH were evaluated to obtain the optimized synthesis conditions. The effects of the experimental factors on NPs synthesis process were also discussed. The produced gold nanoparticles were characterized by transform electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray (EDS) and Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results demonstrated that the as-obtained GNPs were well dispersed and stable with good catalytic activity. Biomolecules in the aqueous extract were responsible for the capping and stabilization of GNPs.

  1. Integrated approach for the intensification of heterogeneous catalytic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiwi-Minsker, Lioubov; Crespo-Quesada, Micaela

    2011-01-01

    The integrated approach for the design of solid catalysts for process intensification is presented addressing simultaneously different levels of scale and complexity involved in the development starting from the molecular/nano-scale of the active phase optimization up to the macro-scale of the catalytic reactor design. The feasibility of this approach is demonstrated through case studies carried out in our group.

  2. Simulation for Synthesis of TAME with Catalytic Distillation Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Boxue; Deng Zhengyong; Weng Huixin; Gao Buliang

    2008-01-01

    The triangular matrixing modified relaxation model equation was established for the synthesis of TAME with catalytic distillation process, and a new accelerated convergence technique was adopted. The simulation on the synthesis of TAME showed that the calculated data agreed well with the experimental results.

  3. Artificial concurrent catalytic processes involving enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Valentin; Turner, Nicholas J

    2015-01-11

    The concurrent operation of multiple catalysts can lead to enhanced reaction features including (i) simultaneous linear multi-step transformations in a single reaction flask (ii) the control of intermediate equilibria (iii) stereoconvergent transformations (iv) rapid processing of labile reaction products. Enzymes occupy a prominent position for the development of such processes, due to their high potential compatibility with other biocatalysts. Genes for different enzymes can be co-expressed to reconstruct natural or construct artificial pathways and applied in the form of engineered whole cell biocatalysts to carry out complex transformations or, alternatively, the enzymes can be combined in vitro after isolation. Moreover, enzyme variants provide a wider substrate scope for a given reaction and often display altered selectivities and specificities. Man-made transition metal catalysts and engineered or artificial metalloenzymes also widen the range of reactivities and catalysed reactions that are potentially employable. Cascades for simultaneous cofactor or co-substrate regeneration or co-product removal are now firmly established. Many applications of more ambitious concurrent cascade catalysis are only just beginning to appear in the literature. The current review presents some of the most recent examples, with an emphasis on the combination of transition metal with enzymatic catalysis and aims to encourage researchers to contribute to this emerging field.

  4. Commercial Test of Flexible Dual-Riser Catalytic Cracking Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Haitao; Wang Longyan; Wang Guoliang; Zhang Lixin; Wei Jialu; Chen Zhenghong; Teng Tiancan; Sun Zhonghang

    2003-01-01

    The technical features and commercial test results of flexible dual-riser fluidized catalytic cracking(FDFCC) process are presented for refiners to choose an efficient process to upgrade FCC naphtha and boostpropylene production in a RFCC unit. The commercial test results indicate that the olefin content of catalyti-25% and RON increased by 0.5-2 units in a RFCC unit. In addition, propylene yield and the production ratioof diesel to gasoline can also be remarkably enhanced in the RFCC unit.

  5. Phoenix dactylifera L. leaf extract phytosynthesized gold nanoparticles; controlled synthesis and catalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, Mervat F; Eisa, Wael H

    2014-01-01

    A green synthesis route was reported to explore the reducing and capping potential of Phoenix dactylifera extract for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles. The processes of nucleation and growth of gold nanoparticles were followed by monitoring the absorption spectra during the reaction. The size and morphology of these nanoparticles was typically imaged using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The particle size ranged between 32 and 45 nm and are spherical in shape. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis suggests that the synthesized gold nanoparticles might be stabilized through the interactions of hydroxyl and carbonyl groups in the carbohydrates, flavonoids, tannins and phenolic acids present in P. dactylifera. The as-synthesized Au colloids exhibited good catalytic activity for the degradation of 4-nitrophenol.

  6. Green Synthesis and Catalytic Activity of Gold Nanoparticles Synthesized by Artemisia capillaris Water Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Soo Hyeon; Ahn, Eun-Young; Park, Youmie

    2016-10-01

    Gold nanoparticles were synthesized using a water extract of Artemisia capillaris (AC-AuNPs) under different extract concentrations, and their catalytic activity was evaluated in a 4-nitrophenol reduction reaction in the presence of sodium borohydride. The AC-AuNPs showed violet or wine colors with characteristic surface plasmon resonance bands at 534 543 nm that were dependent on the extract concentration. Spherical nanoparticles with an average size of 16.88 ± 5.47 29.93 ± 9.80 nm were observed by transmission electron microscopy. A blue shift in the maximum surface plasmon resonance was observed with increasing extract concentration. The face-centered cubic structure of AC-AuNPs was confirmed by high-resolution X-ray diffraction analysis. Based on phytochemical screening and Fourier transform infrared spectra, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, and amino acids present in the extract contributed to the reduction of Au ions to AC-AuNPs. The average size of the AC-AuNPs decreased as the extract concentration during the synthesis was increased. Higher 4-nitrophenol reduction reaction rate constants were observed for smaller sizes. The extract in the AC-AuNPs was removed by centrifugation to investigate the effect of the extract in the reduction reaction. Interestingly, the removal of extracts greatly enhanced their catalytic activity by up to 50.4 %. The proposed experimental method, which uses simple centrifugation, can be applied to other metallic nanoparticles that are green synthesized with plant extracts to enhance their catalytic activity.

  7. Process of forming catalytic surfaces for wet oxidation reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagow, R. B. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A wet oxidation process was developed for oxidizing waste materials, comprising dissolved ruthenium salt in a reactant feed stream containing the waste materials. The feed stream is introduced into a reactor, and the reactor contents are then raised to an elevated temperature to effect deposition of a catalytic surface of ruthenium black on the interior walls of the reactor. The feed stream is then maintained in the reactor for a period of time sufficient to effect at least partial oxidation of the waste materials.

  8. Catalytic arylation methods from the academic lab to industrial processes

    CERN Document Server

    Burke, Anthony J

    2014-01-01

    A current view of the challenging field of catalytic arylation reactions. Clearly structured, the chapters in this one-stop resource are arranged according to the reaction type, and focus on novel, efficient and sustainable processes, rather than the well-known and established cross-coupling methods.The entire contents are written by two authors with academic and industrial expertise to ensure consistent coverage of the latest developments in the field, as well as industrial applications, such as C-H activation, iron and gold-catalyzed coupling reactions, cycloadditions or novel methodologies

  9. Removal of ammonia solutions used in catalytic wet oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chang Mao; Lou, Jie Chung; Lin, Chia Hua

    2003-08-01

    Ammonia (NH(3)) is an important product used in the chemical industry, and is common place in industrial wastewater. Industrial wastewater containing ammonia is generally either toxic or has concentrations or temperatures such that direct biological treatment is unfeasible. This investigation used aqueous solutions containing more of ammonia for catalytic liquid-phase oxidation in a trickle-bed reactor (TBR) based on Cu/La/Ce composite catalysts, prepared by co-precipitation of Cu(NO(3))(2), La(NO(3))(2), and Ce(NO(3))(3) at 7:2:1 molar concentrations. The experimental results indicated that the ammonia conversion of the wet oxidation in the presence of the Cu/La/Ce composite catalysts was determined by the Cu/La/Ce catalyst. Minimal ammonia was removed from the solution by the wet oxidation in the absence of any catalyst, while approximately 91% ammonia removal was achieved by wet oxidation over the Cu/La/Ce catalyst at 230 degrees C with oxygen partial pressure of 2.0 MPa. Furthermore, the effluent streams were conducted at a liquid hourly space velocity of under 9 h(-1) in the wet catalytic processes, and a reaction pathway was found linking the oxidizing ammonia to nitric oxide, nitrogen and water. The solution contained by-products, including nitrates and nitrites. Nitrite selectivity was minimized and ammonia removal maximized when the feed ammonia solution had a pH of around 12.0.

  10. Non-equilibrium model for catalytic distillation process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng WANG; Ning ZHAO; Junping LI; Fukui XIAO; Wei WEI; Yuhan SUN

    2008-01-01

    A new improved tri-diagonal method was developed for the non-equilibrium stage model of the catalytic distillation by coupling consumptive reaction coefficient. The reactions in the distillation column were divided into generative reaction and consumptive reac-tion. The non-equilibrium stage model was introduced for the catalytic distillation process of the dimethyl car-bonate (DMC) synthesis by urea methanolysis over solid based catalyst, and the improved tri-diagonal method was used to solve the model equations. Comparison of pre-dicted results with experiment data shows that the mean relative error of the yield of DMC was 3.78% under dif-ferent conditions such as different operating pressures and reaction temperatures. The improved tri-diagonal matrix method could avoid the negative values of the liquid com-positions during the calculations and restrain the fluc-tuation of compositions by slowing down the variations of the values in the iteration. The modeling results show that the improved tri-diagonal method was appropriate for system containing a wide range of boiling point com-ponents and a different rate of reactions.

  11. Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Catalytic Processes Promoted by Organoactinides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Carol J.; Eisen, Moris S.

    During the last two decades, the chemistry of organoactinides has flourished, reaching a high level of sophistication. The use of organoactinide complexes as stoichiometric or catalytic compounds to promote synthetically important organic transformations has matured due to their rich, complex, and uniquely informative organometallic chemistry. Compared to early or late transition metal complexes, the actinides sometimes exhibit parallel and sometimes totally different reactivities for similar processes. In many instances the regiospecific and chemical selectivities displayed by organoactinide complexes are complementary to that observed for other transition metal complexes. Several recent review articles (Edelman et al., 1995; Edelmann and Gun'ko, 1997; Ephritikhine, 1997; Hitchcock et al., 1997; Berthet and Ephritikhine, 1998; Blake et al., 1998; Edelmann and Lorenz, 2000), dealing mostly with the synthesis of new actinide complexes, confirm the broad and rapidly expanding scope of this field.

  12. The plausible role of carbonate in photo-catalytic water oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornweitz, Haya; Meyerstein, Dan

    2016-04-28

    DFT calculations point out that the photo-oxidation of water on GaN is energetically considerably facilitated by adsorbed carbonate. As the redox potential of the couple CO3(˙-)/CO3(2-) is considerably lower than that of the couple OH˙/OH(-) but still enables the oxidation of water it is suggested that carbonate should be considered as a catalyst/co-catalyst in a variety of catalytic/photo-catalytic/electro-catalytic oxidation processes.

  13. Catalytic Therapy of Cancer with Ascorbate and Extracts of Medicinal Herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadejda Rozanova (Torshina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic therapy (CT is a cancer treatment modality based on the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS using a combination of substrate molecules and a catalyst. The most frequently used substrate/catalyst pair is ascorbate/Co phthalocyanine (PcCo. In the present work, herb extracts containing pigments have been studied as a catalyst in place of PcCo. Extracts from herbs are expected to have efficiency comparable with that of phthalocyanines but as natural products, to exhibit fewer side effects. The present studies demonstrate that a combined use of ascorbate and herbal extracts results in ROS production and a significant decrease in the number of cancer cells after a single in vitro treatment. Treatment with ascorbate in conjunction with extracts prepared from several medicinal herbs stimulated apoptosis and disrupted the cell cycle. The number of cells accumulating in the sub-G0/G1 stage of the cell cycle was increased 2- to 7-fold, and cells in G2/M increased 1.5- to 20-fold, indicating that the treatment protocol was highly effective in suppressing DNA synthesis and potentially reflecting DNA damage in the tumor cells. In addition, 20–40% of the cells underwent apoptosis within 24 h of completing treatment. Our results suggest that herbal extracts can function as CT catalysts in the treatment of cancer.

  14. Antitumour, antimicrobial and catalytic activity of gold nanoparticles synthesized by different pH propolis extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gatea, Florentina; Teodor, Eugenia Dumitra, E-mail: eu-teodor@yahoo.com [National Institute for Biological Sciences, Centre of Bioanalysis (Romania); Seciu, Ana-Maria [National Institute for Biological Sciences, Cellular and Molecular Biology Department (Romania); Covaci, Ovidiu Ilie [SARA Pharm Solutions (Romania); Mănoiu, Sorin [National Institute for Biological Sciences, Cellular and Molecular Biology Department (Romania); Lazăr, Veronica [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Biology (Romania); Radu, Gabriel Lucian [University “Politehnica” Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science (Romania)

    2015-07-15

    The Romanian propolis was extracted in five different media, respectively, in water (pH 6.8), glycine buffer (pH 2.5), acetate buffer (pH 5), phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) and carbonate buffer (pH 9.2). The extracts presented different amounts of flavonoids and phenolic acids, increasing pH leading to higher concentrations of active compounds. Five variants of gold nanoparticles suspensions based on different pH Romanian propolis aqueous extracts were successfully synthesized. The obtained nanoparticles presented dimensions between 20 and 60 nm in dispersion form and around 18 nm in dried form, and different morphologies (spherical, hexagonal, triangular). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy proved the attachment of organic compounds from propolis extracts to the colloidal gold suspensions and X-ray diffraction certified that the suspensions contain metallic gold. The obtained propolis gold nanoparticles do not exhibit any antibacterial or antifungal activity, but presented different catalytic activities and toxicity on tumour cells.

  15. Highlights of the Salt Extraction Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasalizadeh, Aida; Seetharaman, Seshadri; Teng, Lidong; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Grinder, Olle; Izumi, Yukari; Barati, Mansoor

    2013-11-01

    This article presents the salient features of a new process for the recovery of metal values from secondary sources and waste materials such as slag and flue dusts. It is also feasible in extracting metals such as nickel and cobalt from ores that normally are difficult to enrich and process metallurgically. The salt extraction process is based on extraction of the metals from the raw materials by a molten salt bath consisting of NaCl, LiCl, and KCl corresponding to the eutectic composition with AlCl3 as the chlorinating agent. The process is operated in the temperature range 973 K (700°C) to 1173 K (900°C). The process was shown to be successful in extracting Cr and Fe from electric arc furnace (EAF) slag. Electrolytic copper could be produced from copper concentrate based on chalcopyrite in a single step. Conducting the process in oxygen-free atmosphere, sulfur could be captured in the elemental form. The method proved to be successful in extracting lead from spent cathode ray tubes. In order to prevent the loss of AlCl3 in the vapor form and also chlorine gas emission at the cathode during the electrolysis, liquid aluminum was used. The process was shown to be successful in extracting Nd and Dy from magnetic scrap. The method is a highly promising process route for the recovery of strategic metals. It also has the added advantage of being environmentally friendly.

  16. Catalytic degradation of methylene blue by biosynthesised copper nanoflowers using F. benghalensis leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Meenakshi; Singh Bhadwal, Akhshay; Kumar, Nishant; Shrivastav, Archana; Raj Shrivastav, Braj; Pratap Singh, Manoj; Zafar, Fahmina; Mani Tripathi, Ravi

    2016-10-01

    This study reports the unprecedented, novel and eco-friendly method for the synthesis of three-dimensional (3D) copper nanostructure having flower like morphology using leaf extract of Ficus benghalensis. The catalytic activity of copper nanoflowers (CuNFs) was investigated against methylene blue (MB) used as a modal dye pollutant. Scanning electron micrograph evidently designated 3D appearance of nanoflowers within a size range from 250 nm to 2.5 μm. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectra showed the presence of copper elements in the nanoflowers. Fourier-transform infrared spectra clearly demonstrated the presence of biomolecules which is responsible for the synthesis of CuNFs. The catalytic activity of the synthesised CuNFs was monitored by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The MB was degraded by 72% in 85 min on addition of CuNFs and the rate constant (k) was found to be 0.77 × 10(-3) s(-1). This method adapted for synthesis of CuNFs offers a valuable contribution in the area of nanomaterial synthesis and in water research by suggesting a sustainable and an alternative route for removal of toxic solvents and waste materials.

  17. Hierarchical zeolites and their catalytic performance in selective oxidative processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, Manuel; Grau-Atienza, Aida; Campos, Rafael; Romero, Antonio A; Serrano, Elena; Maria Marinas, Jose; García Martínez, Javier; Luque, Rafael

    2015-04-24

    Hierarchical ZSM-5 zeolites prepared using a simple alkali treatment and subsequent HCl washing are found to exhibit unprecedented catalytic activities in selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol under microwave irradiation. The metal-free zeolites promote the microwave-assisted oxidation of benzyl alcohol with hydrogen peroxide in yields ranging from 45-35 % after 5 min of reaction under mild reaction conditions as well as the epoxidation of cyclohexene to valuable products (40-60 % conversion). The hierarchically porous systems also exhibited an interesting catalytic activity in the dehydration of N,N-dimethylformamide (25-30 % conversion), representing the first example of transition-metal free catalysts in this reaction.

  18. Supercritical fluid extraction and processing of foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumers are aware of the processing techniques used to manufacture food and health supplements and are concerned about the impact of those processes on their health and the environment. Processes that use supercritical fluids as an alternative to solvents that are used to extract nutrients and bio...

  19. Joint Processes of Heterogeneous Catalytic Oxidation and Cyclic Activated Sludge System (CASS) for Wastewater Treatment of Tea Polyphenol Extraction Production%多相催化氧化与周期循环活性污泥法(CASS)组合工艺处理茶多酚精制生产废水

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张波; 肖乾芬; 夏四清

    2011-01-01

    A joint system consisting of heterogeneous catalytic oxidization technology and cyclic activated sludge system (CASS) to treat wastewater from tea polyphenol extraction was studied. Pilot scale test proves that the treatment process is efficient and it's feasible to apply for industry. The results show when CODCr of influent is 2 900~4 100 mg/L and color of influent is 400~500, CODCr of effluent is less than 100 mg/L, the average removal rate of which is 98.0 %, color of effluent is less than 30, the average removal rate of which is 92.7 %. The effluent quality meets the integrated wastewater discharge standard of shanghai (DB 31/199-2009).%通过中试研究,探讨了多相催化氧化一周期循环活性污泥法(CASS)组合工艺处理茶多酚精制生产废水的可行性.试验结果表明:当进水CODCr为2 900-4 100 mg/L、色度为400~550倍,经组合工艺处理后,出水CODCr小于100 mg/L,平均去除率达98.0%;出水色度小于30倍,平均处理效率为92.7%.出水水质达到上海市污水综合排放标准(DB 31/199-2009)二级标准.

  20. Removal of Xylene fromWaste Air Stream Using Catalytic Ozonation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mokarami

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available "n "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives: Volatile organic compounds (VOCs are one of the common groups of contaminants encountered in the industrial activities, emitted through air stream into the atmosphere. To prevent the human and environmental health from the adverse effects of VOCs, air streams containing VOCs need to be treated before discharging to environment. This study was aimed at investigating the catalytic ozonation process for removing xylene from a contaminated air stream."nMaterials and Methods: In the present work, a bench scale experimental setup was constructed and used for catalytic ozonation of xylene. The performance of catalytic ozonation process was compared with that of single adsorption and ozonation in removal of several concentration of xylene under the similar experimental conditions."nResults: The results indicated that the efficiency of catalytic ozonation was higher than that of single adsorption and ozonation in removal of xylene. The emerging time and elimination capacity of xylene for inlet concentration of 300 ppm was 1.4 and 5.8 times of those in adsorption system. The activated carbon acted as catalyst in the presence of ozone and thus attaining the synergistic effect for xylene degradation."nConclusion: catalytic ozonation process is an efficient technique the treatment of air streams containing high concentrations of xylene. The adsorption systems can also be simply retrofitted to catalytic ozonation process and thereby improving their performance for treating VOCs.

  1. Chloride transference during electrochemical chloride extraction process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Chemical titration method and lab-made chloride probes were jointly adopted to investigate the effects of water-to-cement (W/C) ratio and the impressed current density on chloride transport for cement-based materials during electrochemical chloride extraction (ECE) process.The dissolution of bound chlorides and the effect of current density on dissolution were analyzed.The variations of chloride concentration at different depths and the chloride transference process were monitored.Test results show that W/C ratios adopted have slight influence on chloride extraction,while chloride extraction efficiency is mainly determined by the impressed current density.During ECE process a portion of bound chloride ions dissolved and the amount of bound chlorides released is directly proportional to current density.

  2. Stochastic simulation of supercritical fluid extraction processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizutani F. T.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Process simulation involves the evaluation of output variables by the specification of input variables and process parameters. However, in a real process, input data and parameters cannot be known without uncertainty. This fact may limit the utilization of simulation results to predict plant behavior. In order to achieve a more realistic analysis, the procedure of stochastic simulation can be conducted. This technique is based on a large set of simulation runs where input variables and parameters are randomly selected according to adequate probability density functions. The objective of this work is to illustrate the application of a stochastic simulation procedure to the process of fractionation of orange essential oil, using supercritical carbon dioxide in a multistage extraction column. Analysis of the proposed example demonstrates the importance of the stochastic simulation to develop more reliable designs and operating conditions for a supercritical fluid extraction process.

  3. Oxygen transport membrane system and method for transferring heat to catalytic/process reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Sean M.; Kromer, Brian R.; Litwin, Michael M.; Rosen, Lee J.; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie R.; Kosowski, Lawrence W.; Robinson, Charles

    2016-01-19

    A method and apparatus for producing heat used in a synthesis gas production process is provided. The disclosed method and apparatus include a plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements adapted to separate oxygen from an oxygen containing stream contacting the retentate side of the membrane elements. The permeated oxygen is combusted with a hydrogen containing synthesis gas stream contacting the permeate side of the tubular oxygen transport membrane elements thereby generating a reaction product stream and radiant heat. The present method and apparatus also includes at least one catalytic reactor containing a catalyst to promote the steam reforming reaction wherein the catalytic reactor is surrounded by the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements. The view factor between the catalytic reactor and the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements radiating heat to the catalytic reactor is greater than or equal to 0.5

  4. Theoretical study of catalytic efficiency of a Diels-Alderase catalytic antibody: an indirect effect produced during the maturation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí, Sergio; Andrés, Juan; Moliner, Vicent; Silla, Estanislao; Tuñón, Iñaki; Bertrán, Juan

    2008-01-01

    The Diels-Alder reaction is one of the most important and versatile transformations available to organic chemists for the construction of complex natural products, therapeutics agents, and synthetic materials. Given the lack of efficient enzymes capable of catalyzing this kind of reaction, it is of interest to ask whether a biological catalyst could be designed from an antibody-combining site. In the present work, a theoretical study of the different behavior of a germline catalytic antibody (CA) and its matured form, 39 A-11, that catalyze a Diels-Alder reaction has been carried out. A free-energy perturbation technique based on a hybrid quantum-mechanics/molecular-mechanics scheme, together with internal energy minimizations, has allowed free-energy profiles to be obtained for both CAs. The profiles show a smaller barrier for the matured form, which is in agreement with the experimental observation. Free-energy profiles were obtained with this methodology, thereby avoiding the much more demanding two-dimensional calculations of the energy surfaces that are normally required to study this kind of reaction. Structural analysis and energy evaluations of substrate-protein interactions have been performed from averaged structures, which allows understanding of how the single mutations carried out during the maturation process can be responsible for the observed fourfold enhancement of the catalytic rate constant. The conclusion is that the mutation effect in this studied germline CA produces a complex indirect effect through coupled movements of the backbone of the protein and the substrate.

  5. Developments in Plasma Processes for Extractive Metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauvin, W. H.; Drouet, M. G.; Munz, R. J.

    1987-12-01

    With the recent availability of commercial plasma-generating devices capable of reliable performance at powers as high as 30 MW, the applications of plasma technology in high-temperature extractive metallurgy are rapidly increasing. Some of the more promising process developments are reviewed in this paper, as are newer reactor designs.

  6. Extraction of subjective properties in image processing

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Most of the present digital images processing methods are related with objective characterization of external properties as shape, form or colour. This information concerns objective characteristics of different bodies and is applied to extract details to perform several different tasks. But in some occasions, some other type of information is needed. This is the case when the image processing system is going to be applied to some operation related with living bodies. In this case, some other...

  7. Development of catalytic microreactors by plasma processes: application to wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Da Silva, B.T.

    2015-01-01

    A key aspect in overcoming the energy and environmental challenges is to improve the efficiency of existing and new processes. Nowadays, almost all major chemicals are produced by catalytic processes. However, a better understanding of the reaction pathways and kinetics is needed. In the field of wa

  8. Object Extraction Based on Evolutionary Morphological Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bin; PAN Li

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel technique for object detection using genetic algorithms and morphological processing. The method employs a kind of object oriented structure element, which is derived by genetic algorithms. The population of morphological filters is iteratively evaluated according to a statistical performance index corresponding to object extraction ability, and evolves into an optimal structuring element using the evolution principles of genetic search. Experimental results of road extraction from high resolution satellite images are presented to illustrate the merit and feasibility of the proposed method.

  9. ADVANCED PROCESS CONTROL DEVELOPMENT IN RESIDUA CATALYTIC CRACKER CONTROL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Process calculations and rigorous dynamic model with detailed coke combustion kine-tics for two-stage regeneration FCC process were developed and integrated into the advanced process control(APC) context. The package was implemented in 6 SINOPEC commercial RFCCUs.Typical 0.5%~0.8% improvement of target product yields was achieved. Significant energy consumption was saved with tighter control over coke burning.

  10. Digital image processing for information extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billingsley, F. C.

    1973-01-01

    The modern digital computer has made practical image processing techniques for handling nonlinear operations in both the geometrical and the intensity domains, various types of nonuniform noise cleanup, and the numerical analysis of pictures. An initial requirement is that a number of anomalies caused by the camera (e.g., geometric distortion, MTF roll-off, vignetting, and nonuniform intensity response) must be taken into account or removed to avoid their interference with the information extraction process. Examples illustrating these operations are discussed along with computer techniques used to emphasize details, perform analyses, classify materials by multivariate analysis, detect temporal differences, and aid in human interpretation of photos.

  11. Final Report, "Molecular Design of Hydrocarbon Oxidation Catalytic Processes"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Professor Francisco Zaera

    2007-08-09

    production of small amounts of ethylene and water, most likely via the concerted decomposition or disproportionation of the adsorbed molecular species. The bulk of the 2-iodoethanol decomposes at about 150 K via an initial carbon-iodine scission to form –O(H)CH2CH2– (~80%) and 2-hydroxyethyl (~20%) intermediates. Two competing reactions are involved with the subsequent conversion of the 2-hydroxyethyl species around 160 K, a reductive elimination with surface hydrogen to yield ethanol, and a β-H elimination to surface vinyl alcohol. The –O(H)CH2CH2–, on the other hand, dehydrogenates to a –OCH2CH2– oxametallacycle species about the same temperature. Both 2-hydroxyethyl and oxametallacycle species tautomerize to acetaldehyde, around 210 K and above 250 K, respectively, and some of that acetaldehyde desorbs while the rest decomposes to hydrogen and carbon monoxide. We contend that a better understanding of the surface chemistry of oxygen-containing surfaces can lead to better selectivities in catalysis. This is arguably the most important issue in the field of catalysis in the near future, and one that impacts several technologies of interest to DOE such as the manufacturing of speciality chemicals and the control and removal of pollutants. Additional work was performed on the characterization of the chemistry of methyl and methylene adsorbed species on oxygen-treated nickel surfaces. Complex chemistry was observed involving not only hydrogenation and dehydrogenation steps, but also C-C couplings and methylene insertions to produce heavier hydrocarbons, and oxygen insertion reactions that yield oxygenates. Finally, a dual titration technique employing xenon and a chemically sensitive probe was developed to identify minority catalytic sites on oxide surfaces. In the case of oxygen-treated Ni(110) single crystals, it was found that both hydrogen transfer with adsorbed water or ammonia and certain hydrocarbon hydrogenation reactions take place at the end of the

  12. Process Intensification. Continuous Two-Phase Catalytic Reactions in a Table-Top Centrifugal Contact Separator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraai, Gerard N.; Schuur, Boelo; van Zwol, Floris; Haak, Robert M.; Minnaard, Adriaan J.; Feringa, Ben L.; Heeres, Hero J.; de Vries, Johannes G.; Prunier, ML

    2009-01-01

    Production of fine chemicals is mostly performed in batch reactors. Use of continuous processes has many advantages which may reduce the cost of production. We have developed the use of centrifugal contact separators (CCSs) for continuous two-phase catalytic reactions. This equipment has previously

  13. Thermodynamic analysis of a process for producing high-octane gasoline components from catalytic cracking gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismailova, Z. R.; Pirieva, Kh. B.; Kasimov, A. A.; Dzhamalova, S. A.; Gadzhizade, S. M.; Nuriev, Sh. A.; Zeinalova, S. Kh.; Dzhafarov, R. P.

    2016-03-01

    The results from a thermodynamic analysis of high-octane gasoline component production from catalytic cracking gases using zeolite catalyst OMNIKAT-210P modified with Ni, Co, Cr are presented. The equilibrium constants of the reactions assumed to occur in this process are calculated, along with the equilibrium yield of the reactions.

  14. Process analysis of syngas production by non-catalytic POX of oven gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fuchen WANG; Xinwen ZHOU; Wenyuan GUO; Zhenghua DAI; Xin GONG; Haifeng LIU; Guangsuo YU; Zunhong YU

    2009-01-01

    A non-catalytic POX of oven gas is proposed to solve the problem of secondary pollution due to solid wastes produced from the great amount of organic sulfur contained in oven gas in the traditional catalytic partial oxidation (POX) process. A study of the measurement of flow field and a thermodynamic analysis of the process characteristics were conducted. Results show that there exist a jet-flow region, a recirculation-flow region, a tube-flow region, and three corresponding reaction zones in the non-catalytic POX reformer. The combustion of oven gas occurs mainly in the jet-flow region, while the reformation of oven gas occurs mainly in the other two regions. Soot would not be formed by CH4 cracking at above 1200℃. Since there are very little C2+ hydrocarbons in oven gas, the soot produced would be very tiny, even if they underwent cracking reaction. The integrated model for entrained bed gasification process was applied to simulate a non-catalytic POX reformer. It indicated that the proper oxygen-to-oven gas ratio is 0.22-0.28 at differ-ent pressures in the oven gas reformation process.

  15. Electrochemical Investigation of The Catalytical Processes During Sulfuric Acid Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Niels; Petrushina, Irina; Berg, Rolf W.

    1995-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of molten K2S2O7 and its mixtures with V2O5 [2–20 mole percent (m/o) V2O5] was studiedat 440°C in argon, by using cyclic voltammetry on a gold electrode. The effect of the addition of sulfate and lithium ions onthe electrochemical processes in the molten potassium...

  16. A PROCESS FOR THE CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF HYDROCARBONS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    A process for producing an alcohol from a gaseous hydrocarbon, e.g. a lower alkane such as methane, via oxidative reaction of the hydrocarbon in a concentrated sulfuric acid medium in the presence of a catalyst employs an added catalyst comprising a substance selected from iodine, iodine compounds...

  17. Catalytic performance of heteroatom-modified carbon nanotubes in advanced oxidation processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    João Restivo; Raquel P. Rocha; Adrián M. T. Silva; José J. M. Órfão; Manuel F. R. Pereira; José L. Figueiredo

    2014-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were submitted to chemical and thermal treatments in or-der to incorporate different heteroatoms on the surface. O-, S-and N-containing groups were suc-cessfully introduced onto the CNTs without significant changes of the textural properties. The cata-lytic activity of these heteroatom-modified CNTs was studied in two liquid phase oxidation pro-cesses:catalytic ozonation and catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO), using oxalic acid and phenol as model compounds. In both cases, the presence of strongly acidic O-containing groups was found to decrease the catalytic activity of the CNTs. On the other hand, the introduction of S species (mainly sulfonic acids) enhanced the removal rate of the model compounds, particularly in the CWAO of phenol. Additional experiments were performed with a radical scavenger and sodium persulfate, in order to clarify the reaction mechanism. Nitrogen functionalities improve the catalytic performance of the original CNTs, regardless of the process or of the pollutant.

  18. Heterogeneous catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minahan, D.M.; Nagaki, D.A.

    1995-12-31

    This project is focused on the discovery and evaluation of novel heterogeneous catalyst for the production of oxygenated fuel enhancers from synthesis gas. Catalysts have been studied and optimized for the production of methanol and isobutanol mixtures which may be used for the downstream synthesis of MTBE or related oxygenates. Higher alcohols synthesis (HAS) from syngas was studied; the alcohols that are produced in this process may be used for the downstream synthesis of MTBE or related oxygenates. This work has resulted in the discovery of a catalyst system that is highly selective for isobutanol compared with the prior art. The catalysts operate at high temperature (400{degrees}C), and consist of a spinel oxide support (general formula AB{sub 2}O{sub 4}, where A=M{sup 2+} and B = M{sup 3+}), promoted with various other elements. These catalysts operate by what is believed to be an aldol condensation mechanism, giving a product mix of mainly methanol and isobutanol. In this study, the effect of product feed/recycle (methanol, ethanol. n-propanol, isopropanol, carbon dioxide and water) on the performance of 10-DAN-55 (spinel oxide based catalyst) at 400{degrees}C, 1000 psi, GHSV = 12,000 and syngas (H{sub 2}/CO) ratio = 1:2 (alcohol addition) and 1:1 (carbon dioxide and water addition) was studied. The effect of operation at high temperatures and pressures on the performance of an improved catalyst formulation was also examined.

  19. Feature extraction & image processing for computer vision

    CERN Document Server

    Nixon, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This book is an essential guide to the implementation of image processing and computer vision techniques, with tutorial introductions and sample code in Matlab. Algorithms are presented and fully explained to enable complete understanding of the methods and techniques demonstrated. As one reviewer noted, ""The main strength of the proposed book is the exemplar code of the algorithms."" Fully updated with the latest developments in feature extraction, including expanded tutorials and new techniques, this new edition contains extensive new material on Haar wavelets, Viola-Jones, bilateral filt

  20. Abroma augusta Linn bark extract-mediated green synthesis of gold nanoparticles and its application in catalytic reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Subhajit; Bag, Braja Gopal; Basu, Ranadhir

    2014-11-01

    The bark extract of Abroma augusta Linn is rich in medicinally important phytochemicals including antioxidants and polyphenols. First one step green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has been described utilizing the bark extract of Abroma augusta L. and chloroauric acid under very mild reaction conditions. The phytochemicals present in the bark extract acted both as a reducing as well as a stabilizing agent, and no additional stabilizing and capping agents were needed. Detailed characterizations of the stabilized AuNPs were carried out by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction studies. The catalytic activity of the freshly synthesized gold nanoparticles has been demonstrated for the sodium borohydride reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol, and the kinetics of the reduction reaction have been studied spectrophotometrically.

  1. Catalytic reactive distillation process development for 1,1 diethoxy butane production from renewable sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agirre, I; Barrio, V L; Güemez, B; Cambra, J F; Arias, P L

    2011-01-01

    Some acetals can be produced from renewable resources (bioalcohols) and seem to be good candidates for different applications such as oxygenated diesel additives. In the present case the production of 1,1 diethoxy butane from bioethanol and butanal is presented. Butanal can be obtained from biobutanol following a partial oxidation or a dehydrogenation process. In this paper innovative process development about the synthesis of the mentioned acetal including catalytic reactive distillation experimental and simulation results will be presented and discussed. Katapak SP modules containing Amberlyst 47 resin were used as structured catalytic packings. This reactive system allowed reaching higher conversions than the equilibrium ones at the same temperatures. All the experimental data gathered allowed to tune a simulation model for the reactive distillation operation which showed a fairly good behavior in order to perform initial 1,1 diethoxy butane production process design studies.

  2. Catalytic and thermal cracking processes of waste cooking oil for bio-gasoline synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewanto, Muhammad Andry Rizki; Januartrika, Aulia Azka; Dewajani, Heny; Budiman, Arief

    2017-03-01

    Non-renewable energy resources such as fossil fuels, and coal were depleted as the increase of global energy demand. Moreover, environmental aspect becomes a major concern which recommends people to utilize bio-based resources. Waste cooking oil is one of the economical sources for biofuel production and become the most used raw material for biodiesel production. However, the products formed during frying, can affect the trans-esterification reaction and the biodiesel properties. Therefore, it needs to convert low-quality cooking oil directly into biofuel by both thermal and catalytic cracking processes. Thermal and catalytic cracking sometimes are regarded as prospective bio-energy conversion processes. This research was carried out in the packed bed reactor equipped with 2 stages preheater with temperature of reactor was variated in the range of 450-550°C. At the same temperature, catalytic cracking had been involved in this experiment, using activated ZSM-5 catalyst with 1 cm in length. The organic liquid product was recovered by three stages of double pipe condensers. The composition of cracking products were analyzed using GC-MS instrument and the caloric contents were analyzed using Bomb calorimeter. The results reveal that ZSM-5 was highly selective toward aromatic and long aliphatic compounds formation. The percentage recovery of organic liquid product from the cracking process varies start from 8.31% and the optimal results was 54.08%. The highest heating value of liquid product was resulted from catalytic cracking process at temperature of 450°C with value of 10880.48 cal/gr and the highest product yield with 54.08% recovery was achieved from thermal cracking process with temperature of 450°C.

  3. Review of Catalytic Hydrogen Generation in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Chemical Processing Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, D. C.

    2004-12-31

    This report was prepared to fulfill the Phase I deliverable for HLW/DWPF/TTR-98-0018, Rev. 2, ''Hydrogen Generation in the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell'', 6/4/2001. The primary objective for the preliminary phase of the hydrogen generation study was to complete a review of past data on hydrogen generation and to prepare a summary of the findings. The understanding was that the focus should be on catalytic hydrogen generation, not on hydrogen generation by radiolysis. The secondary objective was to develop scope for follow-up experimental and analytical work. The majority of this report provides a summary of past hydrogen generation work with radioactive and simulated Savannah River Site (SRS) waste sludges. The report also includes some work done with Hanford waste sludges and simulants. The review extends to idealized systems containing no sludge, such as solutions of sodium formate and formic acid doped with a noble metal catalyst. This includes general information from the literature, as well as the focused study done by the University of Georgia for the SRS. The various studies had a number of points of universal agreement. For example, noble metals, such as Pd, Rh, and Ru, catalyze hydrogen generation from formic acid and formate ions, and more acid leads to more hydrogen generation. There were also some points of disagreement between different sources on a few topics such as the impact of mercury on the noble metal catalysts and the identity of the most active catalyst species. Finally, there were some issues of potential interest to SRS that apparently have not been systematically studied, e.g. the role of nitrite ion in catalyst activation and reactivity. The review includes studies covering the period from about 1924-2002, or from before the discovery of hydrogen generation during simulant sludge processing in 1988 through the Shielded Cells qualification testing for Sludge Batch 2. The review of prior studies is followed by a

  4. Investigation of the degradation mechanism of catalytic wires during oxidation of ammonia process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pura, Jarosław; Wieciński, Piotr; Kwaśniak, Piotr; Zwolińska, Marta; Garbacz, Halina; Zdunek, Joanna; Laskowski, Zbigniew; Gierej, Maciej

    2016-12-01

    The most common catalysts for the ammonia oxidation process are 80 μm diameter platinum-rhodium wires knitted or woven into the form of a gauze. In an aggressive environment and under extreme conditions (temperature 800-900 °C, intensive gas flow, high pressure) precious elements are drained from the surface of the wires. Part of this separated material quickly decomposes on the surface in the form of characteristic "cauliflower-shape protrusions". The rest of the platinum is captured by palladium-nickel catalytic-capture gauzes located beneath. In our investigation we focused on the effects of the degradation of gauzes from one industrial catalytic system. The aim of the study was to compare the degree and the mechanism of degradation of gauzes from a different part of the reactor. The study covered PtRh7 catalytic and PdNi5 catalytic-capture gauzes. X-ray computer microtomography investigation revealed that despite strong differences in morphology, each Pt-Rh wire has a similar specific surface area. This indicates that the oxidation process and morphological changes of the wires occur in a self-regulating balance, resulting in the value of the specific surface area of the catalyst. Microtomography analysis of Pd-Ni wires revealed strong redevelopment of the wires' surface, which is related to the platinum capture phenomenon. Scanning electron microscope observations also revealed the nanostructure in the cauliflower-shape protrusions and large grains in the wires' preserved cores. The high temperature in the reactor and the long-term nature of the process do not favor the occurrence of the nanostructure in this type of material. Further and detailed analysis of this phenomena will provide a better understanding of the precious metals etching and deposition processes during oxidation.

  5. Glycerol-based carbon materials for the catalytic wet peroxide oxidation process

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Rui S.; Silva, Adrián; Pinho, Maria; Figueiredo,José; Faria, Joaquim; Gomes, Helder

    2013-01-01

    It is known that metal-free carbon materials can act as catalysts for the catalytic wet peroxide oxidation (CWPO) process to treat organic pollutants in aqueous solutions [I]. On the other hand, crude glycerol, such as resulting from biodiesel production, is being offered as an abundant and low cost feedstock [2]. In the present work, glycerol-based carbon materials (OBCMs) with distinct properties were produced and tested as catalysts for CWPO, using 2-nitrophenol (2-NP) as a ...

  6. Selective catalytic reduction system and process using a pre-sulfated zirconia binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolevskiy, Anatoly; Rossin, Joseph A.

    2010-06-29

    A selective catalytic reduction (SCR) process with a palladium catalyst for reducing NOx in a gas, using hydrogen as a reducing agent is provided. The process comprises contacting the gas stream with a catalyst system, the catalyst system comprising (ZrO.sub.2)SO.sub.4, palladium, and a pre-sulfated zirconia binder. The inclusion of a pre-sulfated zirconia binder substantially increases the durability of a Pd-based SCR catalyst system. A system for implementing the disclosed process is further provided.

  7. Structural characterization, antibacterial and catalytic effect of iron oxide nanoparticles synthesised using the leaf extract of Cynometra ramiflora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groiss, Silvia; Selvaraj, Raja; Varadavenkatesan, Thivaharan; Vinayagam, Ramesh

    2017-01-01

    In the present investigation, the leaf extract of Cynometra ramiflora was used to synthesize iron oxide nanoparticles. Within minutes of adding iron sulphate to the leaf extract, iron oxide nanoparticles were formed and thus, the method is very simple and fast. UV-VIS spectra showed the strong absorption band in the visible region. SEM images showed discrete spherical shaped particles and EDS spectra confirmed the iron and oxygen presence. The XRD results depicted the crystalline structure of iron oxide nanoparticles. FT-IR spectra portrayed the existence of functional groups of phytochemicals which are probably involved in the formation and stabilization of nanoparticles. The iron oxide nanoparticles exhibited effective inhibition against E. coli and S. epidermidis which may find its applications in the antibacterial drug development. Furthermore, the catalytic activity of the nanoparticles as Fenton-like catalyst was successfully investigated for the degradation of Rhodamine-B dye. This outcome could play a prominent role in the wastewater treatment.

  8. Formic Acid Free Flowsheet Development To Eliminate Catalytic Hydrogen Generation In The Defense Waste Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, Dan P.; Stone, Michael E.; Newell, J. David; Fellinger, Terri L.; Bricker, Jonathan M.

    2012-09-14

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) processes legacy nuclear waste generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during production of plutonium and tritium demanded by the Cold War. The nuclear waste is first treated via a complex sequence of controlled chemical reactions and then vitrified into a borosilicate glass form and poured into stainless steel canisters. Converting the nuclear waste into borosilicate glass canisters is a safe, effective way to reduce the volume of the waste and stabilize the radionuclides. Testing was initiated to determine whether the elimination of formic acid from the DWPF's chemical processing flowsheet would eliminate catalytic hydrogen generation. Historically, hydrogen is generated in chemical processing of alkaline High Level Waste sludge in DWPF. In current processing, sludge is combined with nitric and formic acid to neutralize the waste, reduce mercury and manganese, destroy nitrite, and modify (thin) the slurry rheology. The noble metal catalyzed formic acid decomposition produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Elimination of formic acid by replacement with glycolic acid has the potential to eliminate the production of catalytic hydrogen. Flowsheet testing was performed to develop the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet as an alternative to the nitric-formic flowsheet currently being processed at the DWPF. This new flowsheet has shown that mercury can be reduced and removed by steam stripping in DWPF with no catalytic hydrogen generation. All processing objectives were also met, including greatly reducing the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product yield stress as compared to the baseline nitric/formic flowsheet. Ten DWPF tests were performed with nonradioactive simulants designed to cover a broad compositional range. No hydrogen was generated in testing without formic acid.

  9. Studies of Cyclohexane Catalytic Oxidation Processes over Titanium Silicate-1 Zeolite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Shibiao; Wu Wei; Sun Bin; Min Enze

    2003-01-01

    The catalytic oxidation processes for cyclohexane/H2O2/acetone system over the TS-1 zeolite was studied. Study results have revealed that the cyclohexane conversion was 27% after the reaction proceeded at 100C for 2 hours at a cyclohexane/H2O2 molar ratio of 0.8. The cyclohexanol/cyclohexanone molar ratio was 1.3along with a certain amount of organic acids and esters, the formation of which was closely associated with the oxidation of reaction solvent and deep oxidation of cyclohexanone and cyclohexanol contained in the reaction products. With respect to the catalytic oxidation of cyclohexane/H2O2 system the selection of appropriate solvent was critically important.

  10. Tannins in Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Rutledge

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study provides an up to date review of tannins, specifically quebracho, in mineral processing and metallurgical processes. Quebracho is a highly useful reagent in many flotation applications, acting as both a depressant and a dispersant. Three different types of quebracho are mentioned in this study; quebracho “S” or Tupasol ATO, quebracho “O” or Tupafin ATO, and quebracho “A” or Silvafloc. It should be noted that literature often refers simply to “quebracho” without distinguishing a specific type. Quebracho is most commonly used in industry as a method to separate fluorite from calcite, which is traditionally quite challenging as both minerals share a common ion—calcium. Other applications for quebracho in flotation with calcite minerals as the main gangue source include barite and scheelite. In sulfide systems, quebracho is a key reagent in differential flotation of copper, lead, zinc circuits. The use of quebracho in the precipitation of germanium from zinc ores and for the recovery of ultrafine gold is also detailed in this work. This analysis explores the wide range of uses and methodology of quebracho in the extractive metallurgy field and expands on previous research by Iskra and Kitchener at Imperial College entitled, “Quebracho in Mineral Processing”.

  11. Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1993-01-01

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid.

  12. Green synthesis of the Cu/ZnO nanoparticles mediated by Euphorbia prolifera leaf extract and investigation of their catalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni, Seyedeh Samaneh; Nasrollahzadeh, Mahmoud; Rustaiyan, Abdolhossein

    2016-06-15

    A green synthesis process was developed for the preparation of the Cu/ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) using Euphorbia prolifera leaf extract as a mild, renewable and non-toxic reducing agent and efficient stabilizer without using dangerous, hazardous and toxic materials. The approach of biosynthesis appears to be cost efficient eco-friendly and easy alternative to conventional methods of the Cu/ZnO NPs synthesis. The Cu/ZnO NPs were characterized by FESEM, EDS, elemental mapping, TEM and XRD. TEM micrograph has shown the formation of Cu NPs with the size in the range of 5-17 nm. In addition, the synthesized Cu/ZnO NPs presented excellent catalytic activity for the degradation of Methylene blue (MB) and Congo red (CR) in the presence of NaBH4 in water at room temperature.

  13. Dynamic Modeling and Simulation of a Commercial Naphtha Catalytic Reforming Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡永有; 徐巍华; 侯卫锋; 苏宏业; 褚健

    2005-01-01

    A first principles-based dynamic model for a continuous catalyst regeneration (CCR) platforming process, the UOP commercial naphtha catalytic reforming process, is developed in this paper. The lumping details of the naphtha feed and reaction scheme of the reaction model are given. The process model is composed of the reforming reaction model with catalyst deactivation, the furnace model and the separator model, which is capable of capturing the major dynamics that occurs in this process system. Dynamic simulations are performed based on Gear numerical algorithm and method of lines (MOL), a numerical technique dealing with partial differential equations (PDEs). The results of simulation are also presented. Dynamic responses caused by disturbances in the process system can be correctly predicted through simulations.

  14. Survey the Efficiency of Catalytic Ozonation Process with Carbosieve in the Removal of Benzene from Polluted Air Stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Samarghandi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Benzene is one of the most common volatile organic compounds in the indoor and outdoor environments that has always been considered as one of the causes of air pollution. Thus before being discharged to the environment, it must be treated from pol-luted air stream. The aim of this study was to determine the efficiency of catalytic ozonation process with carbosieve in the removal of benzene from polluted air stream. Materials & Methods: The study was experimental in which catalytic ozonation process with carbosieve was used in the removal of benzene from polluted air stream. The experiments were carried out in a reactor with continuous system and the results of catalytic ozonation were compared with the results of single ozonation and carbosieve adsorbent .The sampling, benzene analyzing and determining of ozone concentration in samples were done with 1501 NMAM method by GC equipped with FID detector and iodometry , respectively. Results: The results of this study showed that the removal effectiveness of single ozonation process is averagely less than 19%. Also the efficiency of absorbent decreased with the con-centration increase of benzene.The increase ratio of efficiency in catalytic ozonation process to efficiency of carbosieve adsorbent was averagely 45%. Conclusion: With regard to high efficiency of catalytic ozonation process and increasing the benzene removal , the catalytic ozonation process is suggested as a promising and alternative technology for elimination of VOCs from the polluted air stream. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2014; 20 (4:303-311

  15. Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater by a novel integration of heterogeneous catalytic ozonation and biological process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Haifeng; Han, Hongjun; Jia, Shengyong; Hou, Baolin; Zhao, Qian

    2014-08-01

    Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (CGW) was investigated employing heterogeneous catalytic ozonation integrated with anoxic moving bed biofilm reactor (ANMBBR) and biological aerated filter (BAF) process. The results indicated that catalytic ozonation with the prepared catalyst (i.e. MnOx/SBAC, sewage sludge was converted into sludge based activated carbon (SBAC) which loaded manganese oxides) significantly enhanced performance of pollutants removal by generated hydroxyl radicals. The effluent of catalytic ozonation process was more biodegradable and less toxic than that in ozonation alone. Meanwhile, ANMBBR-BAF showed efficient capacity of pollutants removal in treatment of the effluent of catalytic ozonation at a shorter reaction time, allowing the discharge limits to be met. Therefore, the integrated process with efficient, economical and sustainable advantages was suitable for advanced treatment of real biologically pretreated CGW.

  16. Biogenic synthesis of palladium nanoparticles using Pulicaria glutinosa extract and their catalytic activity towards the Suzuki coupling reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mujeeb; Khan, Merajuddin; Kuniyil, Mufsir; Adil, Syed Farooq; Al-Warthan, Abdulrahman; Alkhathlan, Hamad Z; Tremel, Wolfgang; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Siddiqui, Mohammed Rafiq H

    2014-06-28

    Green synthesis of nanomaterials finds the edge over chemical methods due to its environmental compatibility. Herein, we report a facile and eco-friendly method for the synthesis of palladium (Pd) nanoparticles (NPs) using an aqueous solution of Pulicaria glutinosa, a plant widely found in a large region of Saudi Arabia, as a bioreductant. The as-prepared Pd NPs were characterized using ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The hydroxyl groups of the plant extract (PE) molecules were found mainly responsible for the reduction and growth of Pd NPs. FT-IR analysis confirmed the dual role of the PE, both as a bioreductant as well as a capping ligand, which stabilizes the surface of Pd NPs. The crystalline nature of the Pd NPs was identified using XRD analysis which confirmed the formation of a face-centered cubic structure (JCPDS: 87-0641, space group: Fm3m (225)). Furthermore, the as-synthesized Pd NPs demonstrated excellent catalytic activity towards the Suzuki coupling reaction under aqueous and aerobic conditions. Kinetic studies of the catalytic reaction monitored using GC confirmed that the reaction completes in less than 5 minutes.

  17. Synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity of silver nanoparticles using Tribulus terrestris leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashokkumar, S; Ravi, S; Kathiravan, V; Velmurugan, S

    2014-01-01

    Biomediated silver nanoparticles were synthesized with the aid of an eco-friendly biomaterial, namely, aqueous Tribulus terrestris extract. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized using a rapid, single step, and completely green biosynthetic method employing aqueous T. terrestris leaf extracts as both the reducing and capping agent. Silver ions were rapidly reduced by aqueous T. terrestris leaf extracts, leading to the formation of highly crystalline silver nanoparticles. An attempt has been made and formation of the silver nanoparticles was verified by surface plasmon spectra using an UV-vis (Ultra violet), spectrophotometer. Morphology and crystalline structure of the prepared silver nanoparticles were characterized by TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope) and XRD (X-ray Diffraction), techniques, respectively. FT-IR (Fourier Transform Infrared), analysis suggests that the obtained silver nanoparticles might be stabilized through the interactions of carboxylic groups, carbonyl groups and the flavonoids present in the T. terrestris extract.

  18. Determination of trace uranium by resonance fluorescence method coupled with photo-catalytic technology and dual cloud point extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiekang; Li, Guirong; Han, Qian

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, two kinds of salophens (Sal) with different solubilities, Sal1 and Sal2, have been respectively synthesized, and they all can combine with uranyl to form stable complexes: [UO2(2+)-Sal1] and [UO2(2+)-Sal2]. Among them, [UO2(2+)-Sal1] was used as ligand to extract uranium in complex samples by dual cloud point extraction (dCPE), and [UO2(2+)-Sal2] was used as catalyst for the determination of uranium by photocatalytic resonance fluorescence (RF) method. The photocatalytic characteristic of [UO2(2+)-Sal2] on the oxidized pyronine Y (PRY) by potassium bromate which leads to the decrease of RF intensity of PRY were studied. The reduced value of RF intensity of reaction system (ΔF) is in proportional to the concentration of uranium (c), and a novel photo-catalytic RF method was developed for the determination of trace uranium (VI) after dCPE. The combination of photo-catalytic RF techniques and dCPE procedure endows the presented methods with enhanced sensitivity and selectivity. Under optimal conditions, the linear calibration curves range for 0.067 to 6.57ngmL(-1), the linear regression equation was ΔF=438.0 c (ngmL(-1))+175.6 with the correlation coefficient r=0.9981. The limit of detection was 0.066ngmL(-1). The proposed method was successfully applied for the separation and determination of uranium in real samples with the recoveries of 95.0-103.5%. The mechanisms of the indicator reaction and dCPE are discussed.

  19. Determination of trace uranium by resonance fluorescence method coupled with photo-catalytic technology and dual cloud point extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiekang; Li, Guirong; Han, Qian

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, two kinds of salophens (Sal) with different solubilities, Sal1 and Sal2, have been respectively synthesized, and they all can combine with uranyl to form stable complexes: [UO22 +-Sal1] and [UO22 +-Sal2]. Among them, [UO22 +-Sal1] was used as ligand to extract uranium in complex samples by dual cloud point extraction (dCPE), and [UO22 +-Sal2] was used as catalyst for the determination of uranium by photocatalytic resonance fluorescence (RF) method. The photocatalytic characteristic of [UO22 +-Sal2] on the oxidized pyronine Y (PRY) by potassium bromate which leads to the decrease of RF intensity of PRY were studied. The reduced value of RF intensity of reaction system (ΔF) is in proportional to the concentration of uranium (c), and a novel photo-catalytic RF method was developed for the determination of trace uranium (VI) after dCPE. The combination of photo-catalytic RF techniques and dCPE procedure endows the presented methods with enhanced sensitivity and selectivity. Under optimal conditions, the linear calibration curves range for 0.067 to 6.57 ng mL- 1, the linear regression equation was ΔF = 438.0 c (ng mL- 1) + 175.6 with the correlation coefficient r = 0.9981. The limit of detection was 0.066 ng mL- 1. The proposed method was successfully applied for the separation and determination of uranium in real samples with the recoveries of 95.0-103.5%. The mechanisms of the indicator reaction and dCPE are discussed.

  20. APPRECIATION AND UTILIZATION OF LACTIC SUB-PRODUCTS: PROTEIN EXTRACTION AND CATALYTIC HYDROGENATION OF THE LACTOSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Enrique Jeronimo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The cheese-producing industry has in its production cycle to generate a product very rich in protein and lactose, called cheese whey. The waste currently has some food applications, but that does not add value to the real nutritional content and economical product that leverages. In order, therefore, a greater appreciation of cheese whey, studies were conducted for the recovery of proteins and the catalytic conversion of lactose into a polyol of high economic value, called lactitol. The results showed high removal efficiency of proteins in the order of 93% and the conversion of commercial lactose around 90% in 150 minutes of reaction. The applicability of whey, however, requires further testing to remove the chloride ions present in serum.

  1. Comparison of lignin extraction processes: Economic and environmental assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, Juan C; Gómez, Álvaro; Cardona, Carlos A

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents the technical-economic and environmental assessment of four lignin extraction processes from two different raw materials (sugarcane bagasse and rice husks). The processes are divided into two categories, the first processes evaluates lignin extraction with prior acid hydrolysis step, while in the second case the extraction processes are evaluated standalone for a total analysis of 16 scenarios. Profitability indicators as the net present value (NPV) and environmental indicators as the potential environmental impact (PEI) are used through a process engineering approach to understand and select the best lignin extraction process. The results show that both economically and environmentally process with sulfites and soda from rice husk presents the best results; however the quality of lignin obtained with sulfites is not suitable for high value-added products. Then, the soda is an interesting option for the extraction of lignin if high quality lignin is required for high value-added products at low costs.

  2. Some problems in adsorption and calorimetric studies of the steps of catalytic processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Victor E. Ostrovskii

    2004-01-01

    Principal side factors as well as technical and procedural peculiarities capable of distorting the results of measurements of adsorbed and desorbed amounts, of falsifying the nature of the processes proceeding in the systems under study, and of promoting artifacts in calorimetric and other studies of gas chemisorption on powders are considered. Modified techniques and procedures allowing the elimination of sources of side phenomena and artifacts and freeing traditional glass static adsorption apparatuses and experimental procedures from undesirable factors and peculiarities are proposed.Some available chemisorption and calorimetric data representing artifacts and also some data that are not artifacts but,due to imperfections of chemisorption techniques, show up as artifacts are presented and discussed. Several applications of the improved techniques and procedures to calorimetric and adsorption studies of the steps of catalytic processes proceeding on the basis of natural gas and of products of its processing are presented and discussed.

  3. Mimusops elengi bark extract mediated green synthesis of gold nanoparticles and study of its catalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Rakhi; Bag, Braja Gopal; Ghosh, Pooja

    2016-04-01

    The bark extract of Mimusops elengi is rich in different types of plant secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, tannins, triterpenoids and saponins. The present study shows the usefulness of the bark extract of Mimusops elengi for the green synthesis of gold nanoparticles in water at room temperature under very mild conditions. The synthesis of the gold nanoparticles was complete within a few minutes without any extra stabilizing or capping agents and the polyphenols present in the bark extract acted as both reducing as well as stabilizing agents. The synthesized colloidal gold nanoparticles were characterized by HRTEM, surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction studies. The synthesized gold nanoparticles have been used as an efficient catalyst for the reduction of 3-nitrophenol and 4-nitrophenol to their corresponding aminophenols in water at room temperature.

  4. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR SEPARATING ACTINIDE AND LANTHANIDE METAL VALUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, R.A.; Hyman, H.H.; Vogler, S.

    1962-08-14

    A process of countercurrently extracting an aqueous mineral acid feed solution for the separation of actinides from lanthanides dissolved therern is described. The feed solution is made acid-defrcient with alkali metal hydroxide prior to.contact with acid extractant; during extraction, however, acid is transferred from organic to aqueous solution and the aqueous solution gradually becomes acid. The acid-deficient phase ' of the process promotes the extraction of the actinides, while the latter acid phase'' of the process improves retention of the lanthanides in the aqueous solution. This provides for an improved separation. (AEC)

  5. Integrated Automation System for Rare Earth Countercurrent Extraction Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴天佑; 杨辉

    2004-01-01

    Lower automation level in industrial rare-earth extraction processes results in high production cost, inconsistent product quality and great consumption of resources in China. An integrated automation system for extraction process of rare earth is proposed to realize optimal product indices, such as product purity,recycle rate and output. The optimal control strategy for output component, structure and function of the two-gradcd integrated automation system composed of the process management grade and the process control grade were discussed. This system is successfully applied to a HAB yttrium extraction production process and was found to provide optimal control, optimal operation, optimal management and remarkable benefits.

  6. Selective extraction and release using (EDTA-Ni)-layered double hydroxide coupled with catalytic oxidation of 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine for sensitive detection of copper ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Sheng; Chang, Yuepeng; Chia, Guo Hui; Lee, Hian Kee

    2015-07-23

    Copper is an important heavy metal in various biological processes. Many methods have been developed for detecting of copper ions (Cu(2+)) in aqueous samples. However, an easy, cheap, selective and sensitive method is still desired. In this study, a selective extraction-release-catalysis approach has been developed for sensitive detection of copper ion. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) chelated with nickel ion (Ni(2+)) were intercalated in a layered double hydroxide via a co-precipitation reaction. The product was subsequently applied as sorbent in dispersive solid-phase extraction for the enrichment of Cu(2+) at pH 6. Since Cu(2+) has a stronger complex formation constant with EDTA, Ni(2+) exchanged with Cu(2+) selectively. The resulting sorbent containing Cu(2+) was transferred to catalyze the 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine oxidation reaction, since Cu(2+) could be released by the sorbent effectively and has high catalytic ability for the reaction. Blue light emitted from the oxidation product was measured by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry for the determination of Cu(2+). The extraction temperature, extraction time, and catalysis time were optimized. The results showed that this method provided a low limit of detection of 10nM, a wide linear range (0.05-100μM) and good linearity (r(2)=0.9977). The optimized conditions were applied to environmental water samples. Using Cu(2+) as an example, this work provided a new and interesting approach for the convenient and efficient detection of metal cations in aqueous samples.

  7. HRI catalytic two-stage liquefaction (CTSL) process materials: chemical analysis and biological testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, C.W.; Later, D.W.

    1985-12-01

    This report presents data from the chemical analysis and biological testing of coal liquefaction materials obtained from the Hydrocarbon Research, Incorporated (HRI) catalytic two-stage liquefaction (CTSL) process. Materials from both an experimental run and a 25-day demonstration run were analyzed. Chemical methods of analysis included adsorption column chromatography, high-resolution gas chromatography, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, low-voltage probe-inlet mass spectrometry, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The biological activity was evaluated using the standard microbial mutagenicity assay and an initiation/promotion assay for mouse-skin tumorigenicity. Where applicable, the results obtained from the analyses of the CTSL materials have been compared to those obtained from the integrated and nonintegrated two-stage coal liquefaction processes. 18 refs., 26 figs., 22 tabs.

  8. Green Synthesis and Characterization of Palladium Nanoparticles Using Origanum vulgare L. Extract and Their Catalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Rafi Shaik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of Palladium (Pd nanoparticles by green methods has attracted remarkable attention in recent years because of its superiority above chemical approaches, owing to its low cost and ecological compatibility. In this present work, we describe a facile and environmentally friendly synthesis of Pd nanoparticles (Pd NPs using an aqueous extract of aerial parts of Origanum vulgare L. (OV as a bioreductant. This plant is available in many parts of the world as well as in Saudi Arabia and is known to be a rich source of phenolic components, a feature we fruitfully utilized in the synthesis of Pd NPs, using various concentrations of plant extracts. Moreover, the OV extract phytomolecules are not only accountable for the reduction and progression of nanoparticles, but they also act as stabilizing agents, which was confirmed by several characterization methods. The as-synthesized Pd nanoparticles (Pd NPs were analyzed using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA. Further, FT-IR study has proven that the OV not merely represents a bioreductant but also functionalizes the nanoparticles. Furthermore, the green synthesized metallic Pd NPs were successfully applied as catalysts for selective oxidation of alcohols.

  9. Integrated process for the catalytic conversion of biomass-derived syngas into transportation fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagle, Vanessa Lebarbier; Smith, Colin; Flake, Matthew; Albrecht, Karl O.; Gray, Michel J.; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Dagle, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Efficient synthesis of renewable fuels that will enable cost competitiveness with petroleum-derived fuels remains a grand challenge for U.S. scientists. In this paper, we report on an integrated catalytic approach for producing transportation fuels from biomass-derived syngas. The composition of the resulting hydrocarbon fuel can be modulated to meet specified requirements. Biomass-derived syngas is first converted over an Rh-based catalyst into a complex aqueous mixture of condensable C2+ oxygenated compounds (predominantly ethanol, acetic acid, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate). This multi-component aqueous mixture then is fed to a second reactor loaded with a ZnxZryOz mixed oxide catalyst, which has tailored acid-base sites, to produce an olefin mixture rich in isobutene. The olefins then are oligomerized using a solid acid catalyst (e.g., Amberlyst-36) to form condensable olefins with molecular weights that can be targeted for gasoline, jet, and/or diesel fuel applications. The product rich in long-chain olefins (C7+) is finally sent to a fourth reactor that is needed for hydrogenation of the olefins into paraffin fuels. Simulated distillation of the hydrotreated oligomerized liquid product indicates that ~75% of the hydrocarbons present are in the jet-fuel range. Process optimization for the oligomerization step could further improve yield to the jet-fuel range. All of these catalytic steps have been demonstrated in sequence, thus providing proof-of-concept for a new integrated process for the production of drop-in biofuels. This unique and flexible process does not require external hydrogen and also could be applied to non-syngas derived feedstock, such as fermentation products (e.g., ethanol, acetic acid, etc.), other oxygenates, and mixtures thereof containing alcohols, acids, aldehydes and/or esters.

  10. Degradation of remazol golden yellow dye wastewater in microwave enhanced ClO2 catalytic oxidation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xiaoyi; Wang, Peng; Jiao, Chunyan; Cao, Hailei

    2009-09-15

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the removal of remazol golden yellow dye in order to assess the effectiveness and feasibility of microwave enhanced chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)) catalytic oxidation process. The catalyst used in this process was CuO(n)-La(2)O(3)/gamma-Al(2)O(3). The operating parameters such as the ClO(2) dosage, catalyst dosage, and pH were evaluated. The results showed that microwave enhanced catalytic oxidation process could effectively degrade remazol golden yellow dye with low oxidant dosage in a short reaction time and extensive pH range compared to the conventional wet catalytic oxidation. Under the optimal condition (ClO(2) concentration 80 mg/L, microwave power 400 W, contacting time 1.5 min, catalyst dosage 70 g/L, and pH 7), color removal efficiency approached 94.03%, corresponding to 67.92% of total organic carbon removal efficiency. It was found that the fluorescence intensity in microwave enhanced ClO(2) catalytic oxidation system was about 500a.u. which was verified that there was much hydroxyl radical produced. Compared with different processes, microwave enhanced ClO(2) catalytic oxidation system could significantly enhance the degradation efficiency. It provides an effective technology for dye wastewater treatment.

  11. The top 50 commodity chemicals: Impact of catalytic process limitations on energy, environment, and economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonkovich, A.L.Y.; Gerber, M.A.

    1995-08-01

    The production processes for the top 50 U.S. commodity chemicals waste energy, generate unwanted byproducts, and require more than a stoichiometric amount of feedstocks. Pacific Northwest Laboratory has quantified this impact on energy, environment, and economics for the catalytically produced commodity chemicals. An excess of 0.83 quads of energy per year in combined process and feedstock energy is required. The major component, approximately 54%, results from low per-pass yields and the subsequent separation and recycle of unreacted feedstocks. Furthermore, the production processes, either directly or through downstream waste treatment steps, release more than 20 billion pounds of carbon dioxide per year to the environment. The cost of the wasted feedstock exceeds 2 billion dollars per year. Process limitations resulting from unselective catalysis and unfavorable reaction thermodynamic constraints are the major contributors to this waste. Advanced process concepts that address these problems in an integrated manner are needed to improve process efficiency, which would reduce energy and raw material consumption, and the generation of unwanted byproducts. Many commodity chemicals are used to produce large volume polymer products. Of the energy and feedstock wasted during the production of the commodity chemicals, nearly one-third and one-half, respectively, represents chemicals used as polymer precursors. Approximately 38% of the carbon dioxide emissions are generated producing polymer feedstocks.

  12. A thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) method to determine the catalytic conversion of cellulose from carbon-supported hydrogenolysis process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal, Glauco F. [Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), Brazilian Center for Research in Energy and Materials (CNPEM), C.P. 6192, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Institute of Chemistry of São Carlos (IQSC), University of São Paulo (USP), C.P. 780, CEP 13560-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Ramos, Luiz A. [Institute of Chemistry of São Carlos (IQSC), University of São Paulo (USP), C.P. 780, CEP 13560-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Barrett, Dean H. [Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), Brazilian Center for Research in Energy and Materials (CNPEM), C.P. 6192, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Curvelo, Antonio Aprígio S. [Institute of Chemistry of São Carlos (IQSC), University of São Paulo (USP), C.P. 780, CEP 13560-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory (CTBE), Brazilian Center for Research in Energy and Materials (CNPEM), C.P. 6179, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Rodella, Cristiane B., E-mail: cristiane.rodella@lnls.br [Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), Brazilian Center for Research in Energy and Materials (CNPEM), C.P. 6192, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2015-09-20

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A new method to determine the catalytic conversion of cellulose using TGA has been developed. • TGA is able to differentiate between carbon from cellulose and carbon from the catalyst. • Building an analytical curve from TGA results enables the accurate determination of cellulose conversion. - Abstract: The ability to determine the quantity of solid reactant that has been transformed after a catalytic reaction is fundamental in accurately defining the conversion of the catalyst. This quantity is also central when investigating the recyclability of a solid catalyst as well as process control in an industrial catalytic application. However, when using carbon-supported catalysts for the conversion of cellulose this value is difficult to obtain using only a gravimetric method. The difficulty lies in weighing errors caused by loss of the solid mixture (catalyst and non-converted cellulose) after the reaction and/or moisture adsorption by the substrate. These errors are then propagated into the conversion calculation giving erroneous results. Thus, a quantitative method using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) has been developed to determine the quantity of cellulose after a catalytic reaction by using a tungsten carbide catalyst supported on activated carbon. Stepped separation of TGA curves was used for quantitative analysis where three thermal events were identified: moisture loss, cellulose decomposition and CO/CO{sub 2} formation. An analytical curve was derived and applied to quantify the residual cellulose after catalytic reactions which were performed at various temperatures and reaction times. The catalytic conversion was calculated and compared to the standard gravimetric method. Results showed that catalytic cellulose conversion can be determined using TGA and exhibits lower uncertainty (±2%) when compared to gravimetric determination (±5%). Therefore, it is a simple and relatively inexpensive method to determine

  13. Modeling of catalytic ozonation process in a three-phase reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol, Funda; Ozbelge, Tülay A; Ozbelge, H Onder

    2009-02-15

    In this research, the main objective was to determine the flow characteristics of a three-phase reactor in order to use this knowledge in the modeling of catalytic ozonation of aqueous dye solutions. Therefore, the stimulus-response method was used in the tracer experiments; thus, the degree of liquid mixing in the reactor was estimated by means of residence time distribution, Peclet number and axial dispersion coefficient in the presence and the absence of the catalyst. Experimental data were obtained by performing the catalytic ozonation of aqueous Acid Red-151(AR-151) and Remazol Brilliant Blue-R (RBBR) dye solutions, in the presence of perfluorinated-octyl-alumina (PFOA) catalyst particles at different operating conditions. The chemical oxygen demand (COD), the dye and ozone concentrations in the liquid phase were measured at the steady state along the height of the column reactor and at the exit. According to the results, it was observed that the gas-liquid reactor without the catalyst particles showed a hydrodynamic behavior equivalent to two or three completely stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) in-series for the conventional ozonation process. The presence of catalyst particles caused the flow behavior of the three phase reactor to approach to one CSTR or two CSTRs in-series depending on the gas and liquid flow rates so that the modeling of the catalytic ozonation process was done satisfactorily on that basis. The modeling results showed satisfactory agreement with the experimental ones in the prediction of outlet dye and dissolved ozone concentrations from the reactor, especially at relatively high gas velocities (QG=150 and 200 L h(-1)) for AR-151, where the dissolved ozone concentration was not limited. However, the discrepancy was about 15% between the theory and experiment at the lower gas flow rates due to the limited ozone concentrations with respect to the dye concentrations at the high inlet dye concentration of AR-151 (CD,i=100 mg L(-1)). For RBBR, the

  14. Modeling and simulation of hydrodemetallation and hydrodesulfurization processes with transient catalytic efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M. Matos

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available A model is presented for the description of the concentration behavior of organometallic and sulfurated compounds in hydrodemetallation and hydrodesulfurization catalytic processes, where catalyst effectiveness decreases with time. Due to the complexity of the mixture, an approach based on pseudocomponents was adopted. The system is modeled as an isothermal tubular reactor with axial dispersion, where the gas phase (hydrogen in excess flows upward concurrently with the liquid phase (heavy oil while the solid phase (catalyst stays inside the reactor in an expanded (confined bed regime. The catalyst particles are very small and are assumed to be uniformly distributed in the reactor. The heavy oil fractions contain organometallics and sulfurated compounds, from which the metals and sulfur are to be removed, the metals as deposits in the catalyst pores and the sulfur as gas products. Simulations were carried out where the concentration profile inside the reactor was calculated for several residence times.

  15. Copper/bamboo fabric composite prepared via a silver catalytic electroless deposition process for electromagnetic shielding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Qian; Lu, Yinxiang [Fudan Univ., Shanghai (China). Dept. of Materials Science

    2013-09-15

    Copper/bamboo fabric composite prepared via a silver catalytic electroless plating process is reported. The microstructure of the composite was analyzed by means of scanning electron microscopy, which illustrated that the copper coating was composed of spherical particles and clusters. The composition and chemical state of the metal layer were measured using X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis spectra; copper and a small amount of nickel were detected. Mechanical properties were measured based on a standard (ISO 13934-1:1999) for the fabrics with and without copper coating. The breaking force for the composite was improved by about 16.8% compared to uncoated bamboo fabric. The electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness of the composite was more than 40 dB at frequencies ranging from 0.2 to 1000MHz. The copper coating on bamboo fabric passed the Scotch {sup registered} -tape test. (orig.)

  16. Hydrogen production by catalytic processing of renewable methane-rich gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muradov, Nazim; Smith, Franklyn; T-Raissi, Ali [Florida Solar Energy Center, University of Central Florida, Cocoa, FL 32922-5703 (United States)

    2008-04-15

    Biomass-derived methane-rich gases such as landfill gas (LFG), biogas and digester gas are promising renewable resources for near-future production of hydrogen. The technical and economical feasibility of hydrogen production via catalytic reforming of LFG and other methane-rich gases is evaluated in this paper. The thermodynamic equilibrium calculations and experimental measurements of reformation of methane-rich CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2} mixtures over Ni-based catalyst were conducted. The problems associated with the catalyst deactivation due to carbon lay down and effects of steam and oxygen on the process sustainability were explored. Two technological approaches distinguished by the mode of heat input to the endothermic process (i.e., external vs autothermal) were modeled using AspenPlus trademark chemical process simulator and validated experimentally. A 5 kW{sub th} pilot unit for hydrogen production from LFG-mimicking CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2} mixture was fabricated and operated. A preliminary techno-economic assessment indicates that the liquid hydrogen production costs are in the range of 3.00-7.00 per kilogram depending upon the plant capacity, the process heat input option and whether or not carbon sequestration is included in the process. (author)

  17. Vapour Treatment Method Against Other Pyro- and Hydrometallurgical Processes Applied to Recover Platinum From Used Auto Catalytic Converters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Agnieszka FORNALCZYK; Mariola SATERNUS

    2013-01-01

    Today more and more cars are produced every year.All of them have to be equipped with catalytic converters,the main role of which is to obtain substances harmless to the environment instead of exhausted gases.Catalytic converters contain platinum group metals (PGM) especially platinum,palladium and rhodium.The price of these metals and their increasing demand are the reasons why today it is necessary to recycle used auto catalytic converters.There are many available methods of recovering PGM metals from them,especially platinum.These methods used mainly hydrometallurgical processes; however pyrometallurgical ones become more and more popular.The article presents results of the research mainly concerning pyrometallurgical processes.Two groups of research were carried out.In the first one different metals such as lead,magnesium and copper were used as a metal collector.During the tests,platinum went to those metals forming an alloy.In other research metal vapours were blown through catalytic converter carrier (grinded or whole).In the tests metals such as calcium,magnesium,cadmium and zinc were applied.As a result white or grey powder (metal plus platinum) was obtained.The tables present results of the research.Processing parameters and conclusions are also shown.To compare efficiency of pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical methods catalytic converter carrier and samples of copper with platinum obtained from pyrometallurgical method were solved in aqua regia,mixture of aqua regia and fluoric acid.

  18. Process for the extraction of thick coal seams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barsi, K.; Salamon, H.; Solymos, A.; Takacs, J.; Toth, I.

    1983-08-23

    There is disclosed a process for the extraction of thick coal seams by means of which coal seams not extractable in one bank or slice and/or located at peripheral areas may also be extracted under improved mine safety conditions and with high productivity. According to the invention the thick coal seam is if required, divided horizontally and/or vertically into extraction blocks which are bounded and separated by stowing pillars arranged according to the direction of advance of the extraction. The cavity of the pillars is advanced at a level higher than the level of the roof of the extraction space, after which the cavity of the pillar is back-filled. Then the block is extracted by means of block caving in a manner known per se. In a preferred embodiment of the invention incombustible material that agglomerates under the effect of the static pressure of the rock is used for stowing. The utilization of the process for extraction according to the invention results in a considerable increase of intensity. Whether the extraction is in one or more slices and whether using individual self-advancing supports, using track-bound or independent loading/conveyor equipment, an economic extraction of coal seams is achieved.

  19. Extraction of Textual Causal Relationships based on Natural Language Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Jamshidi-Nejad

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural language processing is a highly important subcategory in the wide area of artificial intelligence. Employing appropriate computational algorithms on sophisticated linguistic operations is the aim of natural language processing to extract and create computational theories from languages. In order to achieve this goal, the knowledge of linguists is needed in addition to computer science. In the field of linguistics, the syntactic and semantic relation of words and phrases and the extraction of causation is very significant which the latter is an information retrieval challenge. Recently, there is an increased attention towards the automatic extraction of causation from textual data sets. Although, previous research extracted the casual relations from uninterrupted data sets by using knowledge-based inference technologies and manual coding. Recently, finding comprehensive approaches for detection and extractions of causal arguments is a research area in the field of natural language processing.In this paper, a three-stepped approach is established through which, the position of words with syntax trees is obtained by extracting causation from causal and non-causal sentences of Web text. The arguments of events were extracted according to the dependency tree of phrases implemented by Python packages. Then potential causal relations were extracted by the extraction of specific nodes of the tree. In the final step, a statistical model is introduced for measuring the potential causal relations. Experimental results and evaluations with Recall, Precision and F-measure metrics show the accuracy and efficiency of the suggested model.

  20. Synthesis characterization and catalytic action of hexagonal gold nanoparticles using essential oils extracted from Anacardium occidentale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheny, D. S.; Mathew, Joseph; Philip, Daizy

    2012-11-01

    A new phytochemical method for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles is reported. The essential oils extracted from the fresh leaves of Anacardium occidentale are used for the reduction of auric acid to Au nanoparticles (NPs). The formation and morphology of synthesized NPs are investigated with the help of UV-visible, TEM and FTIR spectroscopy. The NPs synthesized at room temperature are mono-dispersed and hexagonal in shape with an average size of 36 nm while those prepared at higher temperature are composed of a mixture of anisotropic particles. The UV-visible absorption spectra of these anisotropic NPs show asymmetry in the longer wavelength side. The quantity of oil is an important criterion modulating the shape of NPs. Possible biochemical mechanism leading to the formation of NPs is studied using FTIR spectroscopy. The potential of synthesized Au NPs as catalyst is explored for the hydrogenation of p-nitro phenol to p-amino phenol at room temperature.

  1. Extraction of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) Seeds: Process Optimization and Antioxidant Capacity of the Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the study on the extraction of bioactive substances from fennel seeds. The impact of the main process variables (solvent composition, liquid-to-solid ratio, temperature, contact time) on the concentration of the target substances (polyphenols and flavonoids) in the extracts is studied resulting in the selection of a set of operating parameters, at which their content is maximized. Extracts with higher concentration of target compounds demonstrate higher antioxidant capacit...

  2. Automation System in Rare Earths Countercurrent Extraction Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾江涛; 严纯华; 廖春生; 吴声; 王明文; 李标国

    2001-01-01

    Based on the countercurrent extraction theory for optimized designing and simulating, the rare earth separation processes, the selection of the detecting points (stages) and on-line analysis for elements, the simulation of open loop response and its response speed, the diagnosis and the regulative prescription for running the solvent extraction cascades were studied.

  3. Exxon catalytic coal-gasification process development program. Quarterly technical progress report, October-December 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Euker, Jr, C. A.

    1980-03-01

    Work continued on the catalyst recovery screening studies to evaluate the economic impacts of alternative processing approaches and solid-liquid separation techniques. Equipment specifications have been completed for two cases with countercurrent water washing using rotary-drum filters for the solid-liquid separations. Material and energy balances have been completed for an alternative methane recovery process configuration using low pressure stripping which requires 26% less horsepower than the Study Design system. A study has been initiated to identify trace components which might be present in the CCG gas loop and to assess their potential impacts on the CCG process. This information will be used to assist in planning an appropriate series of analyses for the PDU gasifier effluent. A study has been initiated to evaluate the use of a small conventional steam reformer operating in parallel with a preheat furnace for heat input to the catalytic gasifier which avoids the potential problem of carbon laydown. Preliminary replies from ten manufacturers are being evaluated as part of a study to determine the types and performance of coal crushing equipment appropriate for commercial CCG plants. A material and energy balance computer model for the CCG reactor system has been completed. The new model will provide accurate, consistent and cost-efficient material and energy balances for the extensive laboratory guidance and process definition studies planned under the current program. Other activities are described briefly.

  4. Tannins in Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This study provides an up to date review of tannins, specifically quebracho, in mineral processing and metallurgical processes. Quebracho is a highly useful reagent in many flotation applications, acting as both a depressant and a dispersant. Three different types of quebracho are mentioned in this study; quebracho “S” or Tupasol ATO, quebracho “O” or Tupafin ATO, and quebracho “A” or Silvafloc. It should be noted that literature often refers simply to “quebracho” without distinguishing a spe...

  5. Evaluation of Performance Catalytic Ozonation Process with Activated Carbon in the Removal of Humic Acids from Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Asgari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: In recent years, the use of alternative disinfectants and the control of natural organic matters are two approaches that are typically applied in water treatment utilities to reduce the formation of chlorinated disinfection by-products. Catalytic ozonation is a new technology used to promote the efficiency of ozonation. The goal of this study was to survey the feasibility application of activated carbon as a catalyst in ozonation process for removal of humic acids from aqueous solution. Materials & Methods: This experimental study has been done in laboratory of water and wastewater chemistry, Tarbiat Modarres University. The solid structure and chemical composition of activated carbon were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF. Ozonation and catalytic ozonation experiments were performed in a semi-batch reactor and the mass of ozone produced was measured by iodometric titration methods. Concentration changes of humic acid in samples with a concentration of 15 mg/l were determined by using spectrophotometer at an absorbance wavelength of 254 nm. To evaluate the performance of catalytic ozonation in humic acid removal, total organic carbon and trihalomethane formation potential were evaluated and the results were analyzed by Excel software. Results: Catalytic ozone results showed that using activated carbon as a catalyst increased humic acid decomposition up to 11 times and removal efficiency increased with increasing pH (4-12 and catalyst dosage (0.25-1.5 g/250cc. The experimental results showed that catalytic ozonation was most effective in less time (10 min with considerable efficiency (95% compared to the sole ozonation process (SOP. Conclusion: The results indicated that the catalytic ozonation process, compared to SOP, was less affected by radical scavenger, and total organic carbon, and trihalomethane formation potential removal achieved were 30% and 83%, respectively. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2011;17(4:25-33

  6. Applications of ultrasound in food technology: Processing, preservation and extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemat, Farid; Zill-e-Huma; Khan, Muhammed Kamran

    2011-07-01

    Ultrasound is well known to have a significant effect on the rate of various processes in the food industry. Using ultrasound, full reproducible food processes can now be completed in seconds or minutes with high reproducibility, reducing the processing cost, simplifying manipulation and work-up, giving higher purity of the final product, eliminating post-treatment of waste water and consuming only a fraction of the time and energy normally needed for conventional processes. Several processes such as freezing, cutting, drying, tempering, bleaching, sterilization, and extraction have been applied efficiently in the food industry. The advantages of using ultrasound for food processing, includes: more effective mixing and micro-mixing, faster energy and mass transfer, reduced thermal and concentration gradients, reduced temperature, selective extraction, reduced equipment size, faster response to process extraction control, faster start-up, increased production, and elimination of process steps. Food processes performed under the action of ultrasound are believed to be affected in part by cavitation phenomena and mass transfer enhancement. This review presents a complete picture of current knowledge on application of ultrasound in food technology including processing, preservation and extraction. It provides the necessary theoretical background and some details about ultrasound the technology, the technique, and safety precautions. We will also discuss some of the factors which make the combination of food processing and ultrasound one of the most promising research areas in the field of modern food engineering.

  7. RETRACTED: Synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity of silver nanoparticles using Tribulus terrestris leaf extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashokkumar, S.; Ravi, S.; Kathiravan, V.; Velmurugan, S.

    2014-03-01

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal. This article has been retracted at the request of the Editor. The article contains duplicate images (Fig. 5A and B as well as Fig. 5C and D) which differ only in magnification and orientation despite being described as different samples. Figure 3 displays duplicated data despite being described as different samples. The scientific community takes a very strong view on this scientific misbehavior and apologies are offered to readers of the journal that this was not detected during the submission process.

  8. Process Design for Separating C4 Mixtures by Extractive Distillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷志刚; 陈标华; 李建伟

    2003-01-01

    C4 components are useful in industry and should be separated as individuals. A new process was proposed to separate them by extractive distillation, with the advantages of low equipment investment, energy consumption and liquid load in the columns. One principle to improve the extractive distillation process was put forward. Moreover, the analysis of operation state of the new process was done. There were eight operation states found for the whole process, but only one operation state was desirable. This work provides a way to effectively separate C4 mixtures and helps the reasonable utilization of C4 resource.

  9. Sustainable Catalytic Process for Synthesis of Triethyl Citrate Plasticizer over Phosphonated USY Zeolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakasaheb Y. Nandiwaleand

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fruits wastage is harmful to health and environment concerning spreading diseases and soil pollution, respectively. To avoid this issue, use of citrus fruit waste for the production of citric acid (CA is one of viable mean to obtain value added chemicals. Moreover, synthesis of triethyl citrate (TEC, a non-toxic plasticizer by esterification of CA with ethanol over heterogeneous catalyst would be renewable and sustainable catalytic process. In this context, parent Ultrastable Y (USY and different percentage phosphonated USY (P-USY zeolites were used for the synthesis of TEC in a closed batch reactor, for the first time. The synthesized catalysts were characterized by N2-adsorption desorption isotherm, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD and NH3 temperature programmed desorption (TPD. Effect of reaction conditions, such as the molar ratio of ethanol to CA (5:1 - 20:1, the catalyst to CA ratio (0.05 - 0.25 and reaction temperature (363-403 K, were studied in view to maximizing CA conversion and TEC yield. Phosphonated USY catalysts were found to be superior in activity (CA conversion and TEC yield than parent USY, which is attributed to the increased in total acidity with phosphonation. Among the studied catalysts, the P2USY (2% phosphorous loaded on USY was found to be an optimum catalyst with 99% CA conversion and 82% TEC yield, which is higher than the reported values. This study opens new avenues of research demonstrating principles of green chemistry such as easy separable and reusable catalyst, non-toxic product, bio-renewable synthetic route, milder operating parameters and waste minimization. Copyright © 2016 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved Received: 12nd October 2015; Revised: 22nd December 2015; Accepted: 29th January 2016 How to Cite: Nandiwale, K.Y., Bokade, V.V. (2016. Sustainable Catalytic Process for Synthesis of Triethyl Citrate Plasticizer over Phosphonated USY Zeolite. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 11 (3: 292

  10. Design of a solvent extraction process for PAH-contaminated sediments : The WAU-acetone process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rulkens, W.H.; Bruning, H.; Hasselt, H.J. van; Rienks, J.; Veen, H.J. van; Terlingen, J.P.M.

    1998-01-01

    Solvent extraction is one of the possibilities to clean-up polluted sediments. It is especially attractive when the sediment mainly consists of clay particles polluted with contaminants which are not, or not easily, biodegradable. Using acetone as extracting agent the extraction process has been inv

  11. Modeling supercritical fluid extraction process involving solute-solid interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, M.; Roy, B. Kodama, A.; Hirose, T. [Kumamoto Univ., Kumamoto (Japan)

    1998-04-01

    Extraction or leaching of solute from natural solid material is a mass transfer process involving dissolution or release of solutes from a solid matrix. Interaction between the solute and solid matrix often influences the supercritical fluid extraction process. A model accounting for the solute-solid interaction as well as mass transfer is developed. The BET equation is used to incorporate the interaction and the solubility of solutes into the local equilibrium in the model. Experimental data for the supercritical extraction of essential oil and cuticular wax from peppermint leaves are successfully analyzed by the model. The effects of parameters on the extraction behavior are demonstrated to illustrate the concept of the model. 18 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Phyto-crystallization of silver and gold by Erigeron annuus (L. Pers flower extract and catalytic potential of synthesized and commercial nano silver immobilized on sodium alginate hydrogel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palanivel Velmurugan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A green, eco-friendly approach for the synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles (AgNPs and AuNPs using Erigeron annuus (L. pers flower extract as both the reducing and capping agent is reported for the first time. Optimal nanoparticle production was achieved by adjusting various parameters including pH, extract concentration, metal ion concentration, and time. Initial verification of AgNP and AuNP production was done by visual observation and measuring surface plasmon spectra at 434 and 537 nm, respectively. The synthesized AgNPs and AuNPs were characterized by high resolution-transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, energy dispersive spectrophotometry (EDS, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and zeta potential. The catalytic potential of E. annuus flower extract, silver ions, synthesized AgNPs, commercial grade AgNPs, and a mixture of flower extract and AgNPs immobilized on sodium alginate hydrogel beads (Na/Al HB was analyzed. The ability of these immobilized materials to degrade methylene blue was investigated. Commercial grade AgNPs immobilized with Na/Al HB 1.5 g/20 mL were observed to have good catalytic activity followed by a mixture of synthesized AgNPs immobilized with Na/Al HB and E. annuus flower extract immobilized with Na/Al HB at 1.5 g/20 mL.

  13. Solvent extraction of gold using ionic liquid based process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makertihartha, I. G. B. N.; Zunita, Megawati; Rizki, Z.; Dharmawijaya, P. T.

    2017-01-01

    In decades, many research and mineral processing industries are using solvent extraction technology for metal ions separation. Solvent extraction technique has been used for the purification of precious metals such as Au and Pd, and base metals such as Cu, Zn and Cd. This process uses organic compounds as solvent. Organic solvents have some undesired properties i.e. toxic, volatile, excessive used, flammable, difficult to recycle, low reusability, low Au recovery, together with the problems related to the disposal of spent extractants and diluents, even the costs associated with these processes are relatively expensive. Therefore, a lot of research have boosted into the development of safe and environmentally friendly process for Au separation. Ionic liquids (ILs) are the potential alternative for gold extraction because they possess several desirable properties, such as a the ability to expanse temperature process up to 300°C, good solvent properties for a wide range of metal ions, high selectivity, low vapor pressures, stability up to 200°C, easy preparation, environmentally friendly (commonly called as "green solvent"), and relatively low cost. This review paper is focused in investigate of some ILs that have the potentials as solvent in extraction of Au from mineral/metal alloy at various conditions (pH, temperature, and pressure). Performances of ILs extraction of Au are studied in depth, i.e. structural relationship of ILs with capability to separate Au from metal ions aggregate. Optimal extraction conditon in order to gain high percent of Au in mineral processing is also investigated.

  14. Oxygen transport membrane system and method for transferring heat to catalytic/process reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Sean M; Kromer, Brian R; Litwin, Michael M; Rosen, Lee J; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie R; Kosowski, Lawrence W; Robinson, Charles

    2014-01-07

    A method and apparatus for producing heat used in a synthesis gas production is provided. The disclosed method and apparatus include a plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements adapted to separate oxygen from an oxygen containing stream contacting the retentate side of the membrane elements. The permeated oxygen is combusted with a hydrogen containing synthesis gas stream contacting the permeate side of the tubular oxygen transport membrane elements thereby generating a reaction product stream and radiant heat. The present method and apparatus also includes at least one catalytic reactor containing a catalyst to promote the stream reforming reaction wherein the catalytic reactor is surrounded by the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements. The view factor between the catalytic reactor and the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements radiating heat to the catalytic reactor is greater than or equal to 0.5.

  15. Novel Catalytic Reactor for CO2 Reduction via Sabatier Process Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI) proposes to develop a novel, efficient, and lightweight catalytic Sabatier CO2 methanation unit, capable of converting a mixture of...

  16. Novel, Regenerable Microlith Catalytic Reactor for CO2 Reduction via Bosch Process Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI) proposes to develop an extremely compact, lightweight and regenerable MicrolithREG catalytic CO2 reduction reactor, capable of...

  17. Cytochrome c oxidase loses catalytic activity and structural integrity during the aging process in Drosophila melanogaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Jian-Ching; Rebrin, Igor [Department of Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States); Klichko, Vladimir; Orr, William C. [Department of Biological Sciences, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275 (United States); Sohal, Rajindar S., E-mail: sohal@usc.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States)

    2010-10-08

    Research highlights: {yields} Cytochrome c oxidase loses catalytic activity during the aging process. {yields} Abundance of seven nuclear-encoded subunits of cytochrome c oxidase decreased with age in Drosophila. {yields} Cytochrome c oxidase is specific intra-mitochondrial site of age-related deterioration. -- Abstract: The hypothesis, that structural deterioration of cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) is a causal factor in the age-related decline in mitochondrial respiratory activity and an increase in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} generation, was tested in Drosophila melanogaster. CcO activity and the levels of seven different nuclear DNA-encoded CcO subunits were determined at three different stages of adult life, namely, young-, middle-, and old-age. CcO activity declined progressively with age by 33%. Western blot analysis, using antibodies specific to Drosophila CcO subunits IV, Va, Vb, VIb, VIc, VIIc, and VIII, indicated that the abundance these polypeptides decreased, ranging from 11% to 40%, during aging. These and previous results suggest that CcO is a specific intra-mitochondrial site of age-related deterioration, which may have a broad impact on mitochondrial physiology.

  18. Oxidation of diesel-generated volatile organic compounds in the selective catalytic reduction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koebel, M.; Elsener, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland). Combustion Research

    1998-10-01

    The main part of the VOCs (volatile organic compounds) contained in diesel exhaust ({approx}80%) is oxidized to CO and CO{sub 2} over an SCR (selective catalytic reduction) catalyst. CO is the major product of this oxidation, representing about 50--70% of the formed products (CO + CO{sub 2}). This preferential formation of CO leads to a pronounced increase of CO emissions when an SCR process is added to a diesel engine. A small fraction of the VOCs is selectively oxidized to carboxylic acids over the SCR catalyst. This selectivity is due to the acidic properties of the catalyst causing the preferential desorption at the oxidation state of the acid. The main products of these oxidation reactions are the lower monocarboxylic acids and some dicarboxylic acids forming stable anhydrides, especially maleic and phthalic acid. The highest emissions of these acids are found at low temperatures; they decrease at higher temperatures. Formic acid is preferentially decomposed into carbon monoxide and water. It must therefore be assumed that the strong increase of CO mentioned above is due to a mechanism involving the thermal decomposition of formic acid formed from various primary VOCs.

  19. Selective catalytic two-step process for ethylene glycol from carbon monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Kaiwu; Elangovan, Saravanakumar; Sang, Rui; Spannenberg, Anke; Jackstell, Ralf; Junge, Kathrin; Li, Yuehui; Beller, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Upgrading C1 chemicals (for example, CO, CO/H2, MeOH and CO2) with C–C bond formation is essential for the synthesis of bulk chemicals. In general, these industrially important processes (for example, Fischer Tropsch) proceed at drastic reaction conditions (>250 °C; high pressure) and suffer from low selectivity, which makes high capital investment necessary and requires additional purifications. Here, a different strategy for the preparation of ethylene glycol (EG) via initial oxidative coupling and subsequent reduction is presented. Separating coupling and reduction steps allows for a completely selective formation of EG (99%) from CO. This two-step catalytic procedure makes use of a Pd-catalysed oxycarbonylation of amines to oxamides at room temperature (RT) and subsequent Ru- or Fe-catalysed hydrogenation to EG. Notably, in the first step the required amines can be efficiently reused. The presented stepwise oxamide-mediated coupling provides the basis for a new strategy for selective upgrading of C1 chemicals. PMID:27377550

  20. Problems in Catalytic Oxidation of Hydrocarbons and Detailed Simulation of Combustion Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Yuxuan

    This dissertation research consists of two parts, with Part I on the kinetics of catalytic oxidation of hydrocarbons and Part II on aspects on the detailed simulation of combustion processes. In Part I, the catalytic oxidation of C1--C3 hydrocarbons, namely methane, ethane, propane and ethylene, was investigated for lean hydrocarbon-air mixtures over an unsupported Pd-based catalyst, from 600 to 800 K and under atmospheric pressure. In Chapter 2, the experimental facility of wire microcalorimetry and simulation configuration were described in details. In Chapter 3 and 4, the oxidation rate of C1--C 3 hydrocarbons is demonstrated to be determined by the dissociative adsorption of hydrocarbons. A detailed surface kinetics model is proposed with deriving the rate coefficient of hydrocarbon dissociative adsorption from the wire microcalorimetry data. In Part II, four fundamental studies were conducted through detailed combustion simulations. In Chapter 5, self-accelerating hydrogen-air flames are studied via two-dimensional detailed numerical simulation (DNS). The increase in the global flame velocity is shown to be caused by the increase of flame surface area, and the fractal structure of the flame front is demonstrated by the box-counting method. In Chapter 6, skeletal reaction models for butane combustion are derived by using directed relation graph (DRG) and DRG-aided sensitivity analysis (DRGASA), and uncertainty minimization by polynomial chaos expansion (MUM-PCE) mothodes. The dependence of model uncertainty is subjected to the completeness of the model. In Chapter 7, a systematic strategy is proposed to reduce the cost of the multicomponent diffusion model by accurately accounting for the species whose diffusivity is important to the global responses of the combustion systems, and approximating those of less importance by the mixture-averaged model. The reduced model is validated in an n-heptane mechanism with 88 species. In Chapter 8, the influence of Soret

  1. Catalytic ozonation not relying on hydroxyl radical oxidation: A selective and competitive reaction process related to metal-carboxylate complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Catalytic ozonation following non-hydroxyl radical pathway is an important technique not only to degrade refractory carboxylic-containing organic compounds/matter but also to avoid catalyst deactivation caused by metal-carboxylate complexation. It is unknown whether this process is effective for all carboxylates or selective to special molecule structures. In this work, the selectivity was confirmed using O3/(CuO/CeO2) and six distinct ozone-resistant probe carboxylates (i.e., acetate, citrate, malonate, oxalate, pyruvate and succinate). Among these probe compounds, pyruvate, oxalate, and citrate were readily degraded following the rate order of oxalate>citrate>pyruvate, while the degradation of acetate, malonate, and succinate was not promoted. The selectivity was independent on carboxylate group number of the probe compounds and solution pH. Competitive degradation was observed for carboxylate mixtures following the preference order of citrate, oxalate, and finally pyruvate. The competitive degradation was ascribed to competitive adsorption on the catalyst surface. It was revealed that the catalytically degradable compounds formed bidentate chelating or bridging complexes with surface copper sites of the catalyst, i.e., the active sites. The catalytically undegradable carboxylates formed monodentate complexes with surface copper sites or just electrostatically adsorbed on the catalyst surface. The selectivity, relying on the structure of surface metal-carboxylate complex, should be considered in the design of catalytic ozonation process. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  2. Structure-process-yield interrelations in nanocrystalline cellulose extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamad, W.Y.; Hu, T.Q. [FPInnovations, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Paprican Div.

    2010-06-15

    An understanding of the effect of hydrolysis conditions on yields of extracted water-insoluble cellulose materials is needed in order to understand the full potential of the extracted materials and the extent of their applications. This study provided a detailed analysis of the extraction of highly crystalline water-insoluble cellulose nanomaterials from commercial bleached kraft pulps using a sulfuric acid hydrolysis process. The process-yield-structure interrelations of the extracted materials were evaluated. The reproducibility of the hydrolysis process was evaluated, and methods of optimizing the yield of the extracted nanomaterials were explored. A Ruland-Rietveld analysis was used to resolve X-ray diffraction patterns and characterize crystallite size, crystalline and amorphous areas, and to determine the crystallinity of the extracted materials. The study showed that sulfation determines the yield of the materials and imparts the unique solid-state characteristics of the nanomaterials. The nanomaterials possessed iridescent patterns typical of chiral nematic materials. 27 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs.

  3. Energy Efficient Catalytic Activation of Hydrogen peroxide for Green Chemical Processes: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Terrence J.; Horwitz, Colin

    2004-11-12

    A new, highly energy efficient approach for using catalytic oxidation chemistry in multiple fields of technology has been pursued. The new catalysts, called TAML® activators, catalyze the reactions of hydrogen peroxide and other oxidants for the exceptionally rapid decontamination of noninfectious simulants (B. atrophaeus) of anthrax spores, for the energy efficient decontamination of thiophosphate pesticides, for the facile, low temperature removal of color and organochlorines from pulp and paper mill effluent, for the bleaching of dyes from textile mill effluents, and for the removal of recalcitrant dibenzothiophene compounds from diesel and gasoline fuels. Highlights include the following: 1) A 7-log kill of Bacillus atrophaeus spores has been achieved unambiguously in water under ambient conditions within 15 minutes. 2) The rapid total degradation under ambient conditions of four thiophosphate pesticides and phosphonate degradation intermediates has been achieved on treatment with TAML/peroxide, opening up potential applications of the decontamination system for phosphonate structured chemical warfare agents, for inexpensive, easy to perform degradation of stored and aged pesticide stocks (especially in Africa and Asia), for remediation of polluted sites and water bodies, and for the destruction of chemical warfare agent stockpiles. 3) A mill trial conducted in a Pennsylvanian bleached kraft pulp mill has established that TAML catalyst injected into an alkaline peroxide bleach tower can significantly lower color from the effluent stream promising a new, more cost effective, energy-saving approach for color remediation adding further evidence of the value and diverse engineering capacity of the approach to other field trials conducted on effluent streams as they exit the bleach plant. 4) Dibenzothiophenes (DBTs), including 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene, the most recalcitrant sulfur compounds in diesel and gasoline, can be completely removed from model gasoline

  4. Supercritical fluid extraction of lycopene from tomato processing byproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozzi, N L; Singh, R K; Vierling, R A; Watkins, B A

    2002-04-24

    Tomato seeds and skins acquired from the byproduct of a local tomato processing facility were studied for supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of phytochemicals. The extracts were analyzed for lycopene, beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol, and delta-tocopherol content using high-performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection and compared to a chemically extracted control. SFEs were carried out using CO(2) at seven temperatures (32-86 degrees C) and six pressures (13.78-48.26 MPa). The effect of CO(2) flow rate and volume also was investigated. The results indicated that the percentage of lycopene extracted increased with elevated temperature and pressure until a maximum recovery of 38.8% was reached at 86 degrees C and 34.47 MPa, after which the amount of lycopene extracted decreased. Conditions for the optimum extraction of lycopene from 3 g of raw material were determined to be 86 degrees C, 34.47 MPa, and 500 mL of CO(2) at a flow rate of 2.5 mL/min. These conditions resulted in the extraction of 61.0% of the lycopene (7.19 microg lycopene/g).

  5. Sequential biological process for molybdenum extraction from hydrodesulphurization spent catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Shruti; Ting, Yen-Peng

    2016-10-01

    Spent catalyst bioleaching with Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans has been widely studied and low Mo leaching has often been reported. This work describes an enhanced extraction of Mo via a two stage sequential process for the bioleaching of hydrodesulphurization spent catalyst containing Molybdenum, Nickel and, Aluminium. In the first stage, two-step bioleaching was performed using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, and achieved 89.4% Ni, 20.9% Mo and 12.7% Al extraction in 15 days. To increase Mo extraction, the bioleached catalyst was subjected to a second stage bioleaching using Escherichia coli, during which 99% of the remaining Mo was extracted in 25 days. This sequential bioleaching strategy selectively extracted Ni in the first stage and Mo in the second stage, and is a more environmentally friendly alternative to sequential chemical leaching with alkaline reagents for improved Mo extraction. Kinetic modelling to establish the rate determining step in both stages of bioleaching showed that in the first stage, Mo extraction was chemical reaction controlled whereas in the subsequent stage, product layer diffusion model provided the best fit.

  6. Adjacent stage impurity ratio in rare earth countercurrent extraction process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Fuxiang; WU Sheng; LIAO Chunsheng; YAN Chunhua

    2013-01-01

    Impurity components decrease stage by stage in a cascade of rare earth (RE) extraction separation,and adjacent stage impurity ratio (ASIR) which is defined as the ratio of an impurity's contents in the aqueous/organic phase of two adjacent stages can be used to evaluate the capacity of impurity removal for the two stages.On the basis of extraction equilibrium and mass balance,the ASIR in a two-component extraction separation was deducted and its simplified expressions were given for different process sections according to reasonable assumptions.The calculation simulation was then carried out to obtain the ASIR distribution in the cascade.The results showed that in both the extraction and scrubbing sections the ASIR principally increased with the decrease of the molar proportion of the impurity but along with a flat appearing in the purification zone located in the middle of the cascade.The ASIR intuitively exhibits the nmning status of RE extraction separation and purification,which could provide a theoretic guide for investigating the influence factors of RE extraction separation process in practical industry.

  7. Non-catalytic alcoholysis process for production of biodiesel fuel by using bubble column reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, S.; Nabetani, H.; Nakajima, M.

    2015-04-01

    -edible lipids by use of the SMV reactor has not been examined yet. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the productivity of biodiesel produced from waste vegetable oils using the SMV reactor. Biodiesel fuel is a replacement for diesel as a fuel produced from biomass resources. It is generally produced as a FAME derived from vegetable oil by using alkaline catalyzed alcoholysis process. This alkaline method requires deacidification process prior to the reaction process and the alkaline catalyst removal process after the reaction. Those process increases the total cost of biodiesel fuel production. In order to solve the problems in the conventional alkaline catalyzed alcoholysis process, the authors proposed a non-catalytic alcoholysis process called the Superheated Methanol Vapor (SMV) method with bubble column reactor. So, this study aims to investigate the productivity of biodiesel produced from vegetable oils and other lipids using the SMV method with bubble column reactor.

  8. Catalytic oxidation with Al-Ce-Fe-PILC as a post-treatment system for coffee wet processing wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanabria, Nancy R; Peralta, Yury M; Montañez, Mardelly K; Rodríguez-Valencia, Nelson; Molina, Rafael; Moreno, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    The effluent from the anaerobic biological treatment of coffee wet processing wastewater (CWPW) contains a non-biodegradable compound that must be treated before it is discharged into a water source. In this paper, the wet hydrogen peroxide catalytic oxidation (WHPCO) process using Al-Ce-Fe-PILC catalysts was researched as a post-treatment system for CWPW and tested in a semi-batch reactor at atmospheric pressure and 25 °C. The Al-Ce-Fe-PILC achieved a high conversion rate of total phenolic compounds (70%) and mineralization to CO(2) (50%) after 5 h reaction time. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) of coffee processing wastewater after wet hydrogen peroxide catalytic oxidation was reduced in 66%. The combination of the two treatment methods, biological (developed by Cenicafé) and catalytic oxidation with Al-Ce-Fe-PILC, achieved a 97% reduction of COD in CWPW. Therefore, the WHPCO using Al-Ce-Fe-PILC catalysts is a viable alternative for the post-treatment of coffee processing wastewater.

  9. Valorization of Tomato Processing Waste for Lycopene Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rim Driouich

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Lycopene is one of the most powerful antioxidants and singlet oxygen quenching agents. It has been found to be of great medical importance with various anti cancer effects, cardiovascular diseases effective agent and with its ability to be an important carotenoid in preventive medicine. In Tunisia, we note a real consumption of tomato paste. With 28 production units for double and triple concentrated tomato, noting a significant production of waste (approximately 30000 Tonne/year consisting of skins pulp and seeds, which could be an important source of lycopene. Our study is concerned with three solid-phase extraction process: assisted by ultrasonic, by microwave and by homogenizer heating at moderate temperature. Their efficiency for the extraction of lycopene contained in the tomato waste was elaborated. The effect of the main process variables (including solvent polarity, solid-to-liquid ratio, temperature and time on lycopene recovery have been investigated. The yield of the isolated lycopene was determined using UV-Visible spectrophotometry and UPLC-DAD quantification methods. Lycopene-rich extract was obtained from the dried and milled tomatoes waste using ethanol as a food grade extraction solvent and employing microwave assisted extraction process. The optimum conditions were 30 min total extraction time at 50°C temperature and 1bar pressure. The degradation of extracted lycopene through air oxidation and day light effect were also tested. Lycopene is stable when mixed with olive oil as a natural antioxidant. Up to 80% of lycopene degradated when exposed for one month to day light at 25°C.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of palladium nanoparticles using Catharanthus roseus leaf extract and its application in the photo-catalytic degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaiselvi, Aasaithambi; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Madhumitha, Gunabalan; Ramalingam, C.; Elango, Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    The potential effect of Catharanthus roseus leaf extract for the formation of palladium nanoparticles and its application on dye degradation was discussed. The efficiency of C.roseus leaves are used as a bio-material for the first time as reducing agent. Synthesized palladium nanoparticles were supported by UV-vis spectrometry, XRD, FT-IR and TEM analysis. The secondary metabolites which are responsible for the formation of nanoparticles were identified by GC-MS. The results showed that effect of time was directly related to synthesized nanoparticles and functional groups has a critical role in reducing the metal ions and stabilizing the palladium nanoparticles in an eco-friendly process.

  11. Nonaqueous catalytic fluorometric trace determination of vanadium based on the pyronine B-hydrogen peroxide reaction and flow injection after cloud point extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paleologos, E K; Koupparis, M A; Karayannis, M I; Veltsistas, P G

    2001-09-15

    The catalytic effect of vanadium on the pyronine B-H2O2 system is examined. Enhancement of the catalytic reaction rate along with the efficiency and selectivity against vanadium is achieved in a formic acid environment in the presence of a nonionic surfactant (Triton X-114). Elimination of drastic interference caused by inorganic acids and aqueous matrix along with a 50-fold preconcentration of vanadium are facilitated through cloud point extraction of its neutral complex with 8-quinolinol in an acidic solution. Subsequent flow injection analysis (FIA) with fluorometric detection renders the proposed method ideal for selective and cost-effective determination of as little as 0.020 microng L(-1) vanadium in environmental, biological, and food substrates. The preconcentration step can be applied simultaneously to multiple samples, allowing for massive preparation prior to analysis, compensating, thus, for the time-consuming procedure.

  12. Enzyme-assisted extraction of lycopene from tomato processing waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuorro, Antonio; Fidaleo, Marcello; Lavecchia, Roberto

    2011-12-10

    A central composite design was used to optimize the enzyme-assisted extraction of lycopene from the peel fraction of tomato processing waste. Tomato skins were pretreated by a food-grade enzyme preparation with pectinolytic and cellulolytic activities and then subjected to hexane extraction. The factors investigated included extraction temperature (10-50 °C), pretreatment time (0.5-6.5 h), extraction time (0.5-4.5 h), enzyme solution-to-solid ratio (10-50 dm³/kg) and enzyme load (0-0.2 kg/kg). Overall, an 8- to 18-fold increase in lycopene recovery was observed compared to the untreated plant material. From a response surface analysis of the data, a second-degree polynomial equation was developed which provided the following optimal extraction conditions: T=30 °C, extraction time=3.18 h and enzyme load=0.16 kg/kg. The obtained results strongly support the idea of using cell-wall degrading enzymes as an effective means for recovering lycopene from tomato waste.

  13. Optimization and orthogonal design of an ultrasonic-assisted aqueous extraction process for extracting chlorogenic acid from dry tobacco leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Martin Tongai Mazvimba; YU Ying; CUI Zhi-Qin; ZHANG Ying

    2012-01-01

    Processing parameters for heat reflux and ultrasonic-assisted extraction techniques were optimized.Optimal operating conditions,extraction solvents and extraction yields for both methods were established.Although methanol showed high extraction efficiency in heat reflux extraction,residual amounts of methanol caused adulteration of extracts.To circumvent this drawback,a novel ultrasonic-assisted aqueous extraction process was optimized and orthogonally designed to pave the way for replacing the toxic organic solvent,methanol with water.A new approach which utilizes fractional volumes of an extraction solvent was developed to minimize solvent consumption,improve chlorogenic acid solubility in water and enhance its aqueous extraction from dried tobacco leaves.Desired trajectories for the new ultrasonic assisted aqueous extraction process were found.

  14. A compact process for the treatment of olive mill wastewater by combining wet hydrogen peroxide catalytic oxidation and biological techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azabou, Samia; Najjar, Wahiba; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Ghorbel, Abdelhamid; Sayadi, Sami

    2010-11-15

    A system based on combined actions of catalytic wet oxidation and microbial technologies for the treatment of highly polluted OMW containing polyphenols was studied. The wet hydrogen peroxide catalytic oxidation (WHPCO) process has been investigated in the semi-batch mode at atmospheric pressure, using aluminium-iron-pillared inter layer clay ((Al-Fe)PILC), under two different catalytic processes: ((Al-Fe)PILC/H(2)O(2)/ultraviolet radiations) at 25°C and ((Al-Fe)PILC/H(2)O(2)) at 50°C. The results show that raw OMW was resistant to the photocatalytic process. However ((Al-Fe)PILC/H(2)O(2)), system operating at 50°C reduced considerably the COD, colour and total phenolic contents, and thus decreased the inhibition of the marine photobacteria Vibrio fischeri luminescence by 70%. This study also examined the feasibility of coupling WHPCO and anaerobic digestion treatment. Biomethanisation experiments performed with raw OMW or pre-treated OMW proved that pre-treatments with ((Al-Fe)PILC/H(2)O(2)) system, for more than 2 h, resulted in higher methane production. Both untreated OMW as well as 2-h pre-treated OMW revealed as toxic to anaerobic bacteria.

  15. Developing a Steady-state Kinetic Model for Industrial Scale Semi-Regenerative Catalytic Naphtha Reforming Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seif Mohaddecy, R.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to the demand for high octane gasoline as a transportation fuel, the catalytic naphtha reformer has become one of the most important processes in petroleum refineries. In this research, the steady-state modelling of a catalytic fixed-bed naphtha reforming process to predict the momentous output variables was studied. These variables were octane number, yield, hydrogen purity, and temperature of all reforming reactors. To do such a task, an industrial scale semi-regenerative catalytic naphtha reforming unit was studied and modelled. In addition, to evaluate the developed model, the predicted variables i.e. outlet temperatures of reactors, research octane number, yield of gasoline and hydrogen purity were compared against actual data. The results showed that there is a close mapping between the actual and predicted variables, and the mean relative absolute deviation of the mentioned process variables were 0.38 %, 0.52 %, 0.54 %, 0.32 %, 4.8 % and 3.2 %, respectively.

  16. Multistage Extractive Reaction for Hydrogen Peroxide Production by Anthraquinone Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li; L(U) Shuxiang; WANG Yaquan; MI Zhentao

    2005-01-01

    The extractive reaction process of oxygen-working solution-water three-phase system for the production of hydrogen peroxide by the anthraquinone method was investigated in a sieve plate column of 50 mm in internal diameter. The oxidation reaction of anthrahydroquinone in the working solution with oxygen and the extraction of hydrogen peroxide from the working solution into aqueous phase occurred simultaneously in the countercurrent mode. The agitating effect caused by gaseous phase made the droplets of the dispersed phase become smaller, thus, increasing the liquid-liquid interfacial contact areas and resulting in the improvement of the mass transfer velocity. Results showed that the gas-agitation had a beneficial effect on the extraction of hydrogen peroxide from the working solution into the aqueous phase; the concentration of hydrogen peroxide in the raffinate decreased with the increase of the gaseous superficial velocities; and the concentration of H2O2 in the raffinate increased with the increase of the dispersed phase superficial velocity at the same superficial velocity of the gaseous phase. In the G-L-L extractive reaction process, with the increase of the gaseous superficial velocities, both the conversion of the anthrahydroquinone oxidation and the extraction efficiency of hydrogen peroxide first increased significantly, then increased gradually.

  17. A Systematic Synthesis Framework for Extractive Distillation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kossack, S.; Kraemer, K.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2008-01-01

    An effective extractive distillation process depends on the choice of the extractive agent. in this contribution, heuristic rules for entrainer selection and the design of entrainers through computer-aided molecular design are reviewed. The potential of the generated alternatives is then evaluated...... of alternative entrainers have already been eliminated, only a few optimizations are necessary. These steps form a framework which facilitates the systematic generation and evaluation of entrainer alternatives. The suggested synthesis framework is illustrated with a case study where acetone and methanol...

  18. Recovery of Pu,Np in 1BP of Dilute TBP Extraction Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>In the TBP extraction process, Np and Pu need to be recovered from effluents of the TBP extraction process. In this work, the recovery of Np and Pu from TBP extraction effluents is studied was investigated

  19. 77 FR 53236 - Proposed International Isotopes Fluorine Extraction Process and Depleted Uranium Deconversion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... COMMISSION Proposed International Isotopes Fluorine Extraction Process and Depleted Uranium Deconversion... International Isotopes Fluorine Extraction Process and Depleted Uranium Deconversion Plant (INIS) in Lea County... construction, operation, and decommissioning of a fluorine extraction and depleted uranium...

  20. Green synthesis of Pd nanoparticles at Apricot kernel shell substrate using Salvia hydrangea extract: Catalytic activity for reduction of organic dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadadi, Bahar; Bordbar, Maryam; Nasrollahzadeh, Mahmoud

    2017-03-15

    For the first time the extract of the plant of Salvia hydrangea was used to green synthesis of Pd nanoparticles (NPs) supported on Apricot kernel shell as an environmentally benign support. The Pd NPs/Apricot kernel shell as an effective catalyst was prepared through reduction of Pd(2+) ions using Salvia hydrangea extract as the reducing and capping agent and Pd NPs immobilization on Apricot kernel shell surface in the absence of any stabilizer or surfactant. According to FT-IR analysis, the hydroxyl groups of phenolics in Salvia hydrangea extract as bioreductant agents are directly responsible for the reduction of Pd(2+) ions and formation of Pd NPs. The as-prepared catalyst was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and UV-Vis spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Elemental mapping, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and transmittance electron microscopy (TEM). The synthesized catalyst was used in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP), Methyl Orange (MO), Methylene Blue (MB), Rhodamine B (RhB), and Congo Red (CR) at room temperature. The Pd NPs/Apricot kernel shell showed excellent catalytic activity in the reduction of these organic dyes. In addition, it was found that Pd NPs/Apricot kernel shell can be recovered and reused several times without significant loss of catalytic activity.

  1. Treatment of Sebacic Acid Industrial Wastewater by Extraction Process Using Castor Oil Acid as Extractant*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐航; 周全; 王金福

    2013-01-01

    Wastewater containing high concentrations of phenol and sodium sulfate is generated in sebacic acid (SA) industry. Castor oil acid, a raw material for producing SA, can be used to extract phenol from wastewater in order to reduce the amount of phenol used in the process and discharge of phenol. The results show that the extrac-tion mechanism is that hydroxyl group of phenol is linked to carboxyl group of castor oil acid by hydrogen bond. The extraction process approaches equilibrium in 30 min. Extraction ratio increases with the increase of sodium sulfate and castor oil acid, and decreases as phenol increases. When the oil-water ratio is 1︰3, the optimal distribu-tion coefficient of 40 is obtained. Phenol saturation concentration in castor oil acid is 1.03 mol·L−1 after extraction for 4 times. The equilibrium constant (Kex) at 25 °C is 8.41 and the endothermic enthalpy (ΔH) is 1.513 kJ·mol−1. The Gibbs free energy (ΔG) is−5.277 kJ·mol−1 and the value ofΔS is calculated to be 22.3 J·mol−1·K−1.

  2. Photo-catalytic reactors for in-building grey water reuse. Comparison with biological processes and market potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jefferson, B.; Murray, C.; Diaper, C.; Parsons, S.A.; Jeffrey, P. [School of Water Sciences, Cranfield Univ., Cranfield, Bedfordshire (United Kingdom); Bedel, C. [Dept. of Industrial Process, National Inst. of Applied Sciences (France); Centeno, C. [Dept. of the Faculty of Engineering, Univ. of Santo Tomas, Manila (Philippines)

    2003-07-01

    Photo catalytic reactors potentially have a market in the reuse of grey water as they do not suffer from problems associated with toxic shocks and can be compact. The process is dependant upon the ratio of TOC to TiO{sub 2} concentration such that a greater proportion of the feed is degraded when either are increased. Economic assessment of grey water recycling showed both scale of operation and regional location to be the two most important factors in deciding the financial acceptability of any reuse technology. Overall the assessment suggested that photo catalytic oxidation (PCO) technology was suitable for grey water recycling and that the technology should be marketed at large buildings such as residential accommodation and offices. (orig.)

  3. AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Osseo-Asare; X. Zeng

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this research project is to develop an aqueous biphase extraction process for the treatment of fine coals. Aqueous biphase extraction is an advanced separation technology that relies on the ability of an aqueous system consisting of a water-soluble polymer and another component, e.g., another polymer, an inorganic salt, or a nonionic surfactant, to separate into two immiscible aqueous phases. The principle behind the partition of solid particles in aqueous biphase systems is the physicochemical interaction between the solid surface and the surrounding liquid solution. In order to remove sulfur and mineral matter from fine coal with aqueous biphasic extraction, it is necessary to know the partitioning behavior of coal, as well as the inorganic mineral components. Therefore, in this research emphasis was placed on the partitioning behavior of fine coal particles as well as model fine inorganic particles in aqueous biphase systems.

  4. Extraction of lycopene from tomato processing waste: kinetics and modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poojary, Mahesha M; Passamonti, Paolo

    2015-04-15

    Lycopene, a nutraceutical compound, was extracted from tomato processing waste, an abundantly available food industry by-product in Italy. The extraction kinetics was mathematically described using the first order kinetic model, the mass transfer model and Peleg's model to understand the physicochemical behaviour of the extraction. Samples were extracted using acetone/n-hexane mixtures at different ratios (1:3, 2:2 and 3:1, v/v) and at different temperatures (30, 40 and 50 °C) and simultaneously analysed using UV-VIS spectrophotometry. The lycopene yield was in the range 3.47-4.03 mg/100g, which corresponds to a percentage recovery of 65.22-75.75. All kinetic models gave a good fit to the experimental data, but the best one was Peleg's model, having the highest RAdj(2) and the lowest RMSE, MBE and χ(2) values. All the models confirmed that a temperature of 30 °C and solvent mixture of acetone/n-hexane 1:3 (v/v) provided optimal conditions for extraction of lycopene.

  5. Investigation on preparation of CuO-SnO2-CeO2/γ-Al2O3 catalysts for catalytic wet air oxidation process and their catalytic activity for degradation of phenol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xiao-jun; ZHANG Mi-lin; WAN Jia-feng; XIA Zhi; LIU Xiao-hui; LIU hui

    2008-01-01

    Catalytic Wet Air Oxidation process is an efficient measure for treatment of wastewater with great strength which is not biodegradable. Heterocatalysts now become the key investigation subject of catalytic wet air oxidation process due to their good stability and easy separation. In the paper, CuO-SnOE-CeO2/γ-Al2O3 catalysts are prepared by impregnation method, with SnO2 as a doping component, CuO as an active component, CeO2 as a structure stabilizer, γ-Al2O3 as a substrate. XPS test is carried out to investigate the effect of Sn on the chemical surrounding of Cu and O element on the catalyst surface and their catalytic activity. It is shown that the right do-ping of Sn can increase Cu+ content on the catalyst surface, as a result the quantity of adsorption oxygen is also increased. It is found that Cu + content on the catalyst surface is one of the primary factors that determin catalytic activity of catalyst through analyzing the catalytic wet air oxidation process of phenol.

  6. Research of Hydrogen Preparation with Catalytic Steam-Carbon Reaction Driven by Photo-Thermochemistry Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment of hydrogen preparation from steam-carbon reaction catalyzed by K2CO3 was carried out at 700°C, which was driven by the solar reaction system simulated with Xenon lamp. It can be found that the rate of reaction with catalyst is 10 times more than that without catalyst. However, for the catalytic reaction, there is no obvious change for the rate of hydrogen generation with catalyst content range from 10% to 20%. Besides, the conversion efficiency of solar energy to chemical energy is more than 13.1% over that by photovoltaic-electrolysis route. An analysis to the mechanism of catalytic steam-carbon reaction with K2CO3 is given, and an explanation to the nonbalanced [H2]/[CO + 2CO2] is presented, which is a phenomenon usually observed in experiment.

  7. Catalytic oxidation for treatment of ECLSS and PMMS waste streams. [Process Material Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akse, James R.; Thompson, John; Scott, Bryan; Jolly, Clifford; Carter, Donald L.

    1992-01-01

    Catalytic oxidation was added to the baseline multifiltration technology for use on the Space Station Freedom in order to convert low-molecular weight organic waste components such as alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, amides, and thiocarbamides to CO2 at low temperature (121 C), thereby reducing the total organic carbon (TOC) to below 500 ppb. The rate of reaction for the catalytic oxidation of aqueous organics to CO2 and water depends primarily upon the catalyst, temperature, and concentration of reactants. This paper describes a kinetic study conducted to determine the impact of each of these parameters upon the reaction rate. The results indicate that a classic kinetic model, the Langmuir-Hinshelwood rate equation for heterogeneous catalysis, can accurately represent the functional dependencies of this rate.

  8. Direct in situ observations of single Fe atom catalytic processes and anomalous diffusion at graphene edges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiong; Deng, Qingming; Avdoshenko, Stanislav M; Fu, Lei; Eckert, Jürgen; Rümmeli, Mark H

    2014-11-01

    Single-atom catalysts are of great interest because of their high efficiency. In the case of chemically deposited sp(2) carbon, the implementation of a single transition metal atom for growth can provide crucial insight into the formation mechanisms of graphene and carbon nanotubes. This knowledge is particularly important if we are to overcome fabrication difficulties in these materials and fully take advantage of their distinct band structures and physical properties. In this work, we present atomically resolved transmission EM in situ investigations of single Fe atoms at graphene edges. Our in situ observations show individual iron atoms diffusing along an edge either removing or adding carbon atoms (viz., catalytic action). The experimental observations of the catalytic behavior of a single Fe atom are in excellent agreement with supporting theoretical studies. In addition, the kinetics of Fe atoms at graphene edges are shown to exhibit anomalous diffusion, which again, is in agreement with our theoretical investigations.

  9. RESEARCH ON CARBON PRODUCTS FROM COAL USING AN EXTRACTIVE PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo; Chong Chen; Brian Bland; David Fenton

    2002-03-31

    This report presents the results of a one-year effort directed at the exploration of the use of coal as a feedstock for a variety of industrially-relevant carbon products. The work was basically divided into three focus areas. The first area dealt with the acquisition of laboratory equipment to aid in the analysis and characterization of both the raw coal and the coal-derived feedstocks. Improvements were also made on the coal-extraction pilot plant which will now allow larger quantities of feedstock to be produced. Mass and energy balances were also performed on the pilot plant in an attempt to evaluate the scale-up potential of the process. The second focus area dealt with exploring hydrogenation conditions specifically aimed at testing several less-expensive candidate hydrogen-donor solvents. Through a process of filtration and vacuum distillation, viable pitch products were produced and evaluated. Moreover, a recycle solvent was also isolated so that the overall solvent balance in the system could be maintained. The effect of variables such as gas pressure and gas atmosphere were evaluated. The pitch product was analyzed and showed low ash content, reasonable yield, good coking value and a coke with anisotropic optical texture. A unique plot of coke yield vs. pitch softening point was discovered to be independent of reaction conditions or hydrogen-donor solvent. The third area of research centered on the investigation of alternate extraction solvents and processing conditions for the solvent extraction step. A wide variety of solvents, co-solvents and enhancement additives were tested with varying degrees of success. For the extraction of raw coal, the efficacy of the alternate solvents when compared to the benchmark solvent, N-methyl pyrrolidone, was not good. However when the same coal was partially hydrogenated prior to solvent extraction, all solvents showed excellent results even for extractions performed at room temperature. Standard analyses of the

  10. Catalytic Conversion of Pinus densiflora Over Mesoporous Catalysts Using Pyrolysis Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Sung Kyun; Lee, In-Gu; Lee, Hyung Won; Chea, Kwang-Seok; Jo, Tae Su; Jung, Sang-Chul; Kim, Sang Chai; Ko, Chang Hyun; Park, Young-Kwon

    2016-02-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis experiments were conducted to investigate the possibility of obtaining valuable chemicals from Pinus densiflora, a native Korean tree species occupying 21.4% of the total area under forests in South Korea. Two representative mesoporous catalysts, Al-MCM-41 and Al-MSU-F, as well as hierarchical mesoporous MFI (Meso-MFI) that has both mesopores and micropores, were used as catalysts. Compared to non-catalytic pyrolysis, catalytic pyrolysis was shown to reduce the fractions of levoglucosan, phenolics, and acids in bio-oil, while increasing the fractions of aromatics, PAHs, and furans. Meso-MFI with strong acid sites showed a high selectivity toward aromatics and PAHs, whereas Al-MCM-41 and Al-MSU-F with weak acid sites exhibited a high selectivity toward furanic compounds. The results of this study indicate that choosing a catalyst with an adequate quantity of acidic sites with the required strength is critical for enhancing the production of desired chemicals from Pinus densiflora.

  11. Extraction of Molybdenum from Molybdenite Concentrates with Hydrometallurgical Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Kaixi; Wang, Yufang; Zou, Xiaoping; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Sanping

    2012-11-01

    Molybdenite concentrates are usually treated by roasting, but low-concentration SO2 pollution is an associated problem. A hydrometallurgical process with pressure oxidation leaching (POX) and solvent extraction (SX) was developed in recent years. During POX, the oxidation of molybdenum (Mo) is above 98%. More than 95% of the rhenium (Re) and 15% to 20% of the Mo are leached into solution. The sulfur in the concentrate is converted to H2SO4, which results in high acidity of the solution. SX was used to recover the Re and Mo from the solution. The extraction of Re and Mo were above 98%. The loaded organic reagent is stripped with ammonia. More than 98% of the Mo can be stripped from the organic phase. Compared with the roasting process, the total recovery of Mo increased from 93% to 97% and that of Re from 60% to 90% when POX and SX are utilized.

  12. Effect of temperature and extraction process on antioxidant activity of various leaves crude extracts of Thymus vulgaris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad A Hossain; Zawan Hamood AL-Mijizy; Kawther Khalifa Al-Rashdi; Afaf M Weli; Qasim Al-Riyami

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of temperature and extraction process on the estimation of antioxidant activity of various organic crude extracts from the leaves of Thymus vulgaris (T.vulgaris ) species native to Sultanate of Oman. Methods: The dry powder samples of T. vulgaris were extracted with methanol using two different extraction methods. Both methanol crude extracts from the leaves of T. vulgaris were defatted with water and extracted successively with different polarities of solvents with increasing polarities, e.g., hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform and butanol.Results:The yield of methanol crude extract by Soxhlet extraction method is better than maceration method. The yield of extraction was increasing with increasing temperature. The antioxidant activity of different crude extracts from both extraction methods was measured by DPPH with modification. By Soxhlet extraction method, the activity result found in butanol crude extracts was highest and the lowest in hexane crude extract as the following order of butanol>methanol>ethyl acetate extract>chloroform>hexane extract. However, by maceration method, the activity was highest in ethyl acetate and lowest in chloroform as the order of ethyl aectate>methanol extract>butanol>hexane >chloroform.Conclusions:In conclusion, the maceration method is the best method for the evaluation of antioxidant activity.

  13. CATALYTIC INTERACTIONS OF RHODIUM, RUTHENIUM, AND MERCURY DURING SIMULATED DWPF CPC PROCESSING WITH HYDROGEN GENERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, D

    2008-10-09

    Simulations of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) vessels were performed as part of the ongoing investigation into catalytic hydrogen generation. Rhodium, ruthenium, and mercury have been identified as the principal elemental factors affecting the peak hydrogen generation rate in the DWPF Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) for a given acid addition. The primary goal of this study is to identify any significant interactions between the three factors. Noble metal concentrations were similar to recent sludge batches. Rh ranged from 0.0026-0.013% and Ru ranged from 0.010-0.050% in the dried sludge solids, while initial Hg ranged from 0.5-2.5 wt%. An experimental matrix was developed to ensure that the existence of statistically significant two-way interactions could be determined without confounding of the main effects with the two-way interaction effects. The nominal matrix design consisted of twelve SRAT cycles. Testing included: a three factor (Rh, Ru, and Hg) study at two levels per factor (eight runs), two duplicate midpoint runs, and two additional replicate runs to assess reproducibility away from the midpoint. Midpoint testing can identify potential quadratic effects from the three factors. A single sludge simulant was used for all tests. Acid addition was kept effectively constant except to compensate for variations in the starting mercury concentration. Six Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycles were performed to supplement the SME hydrogen generation database. Some of the preliminary findings from this study include: (1) Rh was linked to the maximum SRAT hydrogen generation rate in the first two hours after acid addition in preliminary statistical modeling. (2) Ru was linked conclusively to the maximum SRAT hydrogen generation rate in the last four hours of reflux in preliminary statistical modeling. (3) Increasing the ratio of Hg/Rh shifted the noble metal controlling the maximum SRAT hydrogen generation rate from

  14. MULTI LEVEL SEMANTIC EXTRACTION FOR CRICKET VIDEO BY TEXT PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. SUNITHA ABBURU

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Semantic video analysis, indexing and retrieval are necessary for effective utilization of video repositories. The semantics can be extracted from the semantic carriers such as voice and video text. Super imposed text is the proper source to extract semantics of the video which will increase the efficiency of retrieval system. This paper proposes a semiautomatic method to generate annotation for cricket videos and an automated tool- DLER, to extract the semantics of cricket video. The DLER tool provides a fast and robust approach for text Detection, Localization, Extraction, and Reorganization in video frames, which is flexible and customer friendly. The DLER integrates all the pre-processing steps and the OCR steps in to a single unit. The annotator can pick the ROI, increase or decrease the threshold, contrast, brightness or inverse the image based on the typeof the broadcasted video. The tool has been implemented and tested with cricket video and the results of the experiments are promising. Finally conclusion and future work has been discussed.

  15. Otostegia persica extraction on healing process of burn wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Ganjali

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate if the methanolic extract of the Otostegia persica can accelerating healing process of burn wound because of its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. METHODS:Forty eight male Wistar rats were randomized into three study groups of 16 rats each. Burn wounds were created on dorsal part of shaved rats using a metal rod. In group I the burn wound was left without any treatment. Group was treated with topical silver sulfadiazine pomade. In group III, ointment containing the OP extract was administered. Skin biopsies were harvested from burn area on the 3rd, 5th, 14th and 21st days after burn and examined histologically. RESULTS: Re-epithelialization in the control group and in group II was lower than in group III. Re-epithelialization in groups II and III was significantly different from that in the control group. On the 5th day of the experiment, we assessed lower inflammation in the burn area compared to control group. This means that the inflammation was suppressed by methanolic extract of OP. From day 5 to 14; the fibroblast proliferation peaked and was associated with increased collagen accumulation. It was obvious that angiogenesis improved more in the groups II and III, which facilitated re-epithelialisation. CONCLUSION:Methanolic extract of Otostegia persica exhibited significant healing activity when topically applied on rats. OP is an effective treatment for saving the burn site.

  16. Geometric feature extraction by a multimarked point process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafarge, Florent; Gimel'farb, Georgy; Descombes, Xavier

    2010-09-01

    This paper presents a new stochastic marked point process for describing images in terms of a finite library of geometric objects. Image analysis based on conventional marked point processes has already produced convincing results but at the expense of parameter tuning, computing time, and model specificity. Our more general multimarked point process has simpler parametric setting, yields notably shorter computing times, and can be applied to a variety of applications. Both linear and areal primitives extracted from a library of geometric objects are matched to a given image using a probabilistic Gibbs model, and a Jump-Diffusion process is performed to search for the optimal object configuration. Experiments with remotely sensed images and natural textures show that the proposed approach has good potential. We conclude with a discussion about the insertion of more complex object interactions in the model by studying the compromise between model complexity and efficiency.

  17. Generalized Temporal Acceleration Scheme for Kinetic Monte Carlo Simulations of Surface Catalytic Processes by Scaling the Rates of Fast Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybeck, Eric Christopher; Plaisance, Craig Patrick; Neurock, Matthew

    2017-02-14

    A novel algorithm has been developed to achieve temporal acceleration during kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations of surface catalytic processes. This algorithm allows for the direct simulation of reaction networks containing kinetic processes occurring on vastly disparate timescales which computationally overburden standard KMC methods. Previously developed methods for temporal acceleration in KMC have been designed for specific systems and often require a priori information from the user such as identifying the fast and slow processes. In the approach presented herein, quasi-equilibrated processes are identified automatically based on previous executions of the forward and reverse reactions. Temporal acceleration is achieved by automatically scaling the intrinsic rate constants of the quasi-equilibrated processes, bringing their rates closer to the timescales of the slow kinetically relevant non-equilibrated processes. All reactions are still simulated directly, although with modified rate constants. Abrupt changes in the underlying dynamics of the reaction network are identified during the simulation and the reaction rate constants are rescaled accordingly. The algorithm has been utilized here to model the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis reaction over ruthenium nanoparticles. This reaction network has multiple timescale-disparate processes which would be intractable to simulate without the aid of temporal acceleration. The accelerated simulations are found to give reaction rates and selectivities indistinguishable from those calculated by an equivalent mean-field kinetic model. The computational savings of the algorithm can span many orders of magnitude in realistic systems and the computational cost is not limited by the magnitude of the timescale disparity in the system processes. Furthermore, the algorithm has been designed in a generic fashion and can easily be applied to other surface catalytic processes of interest.

  18. Toward the automation of road networks extraction processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leymarie, Frederic; Boichis, Nicolas; Airault, Sylvain; Jamet, Olivier

    1996-12-01

    Syseca and IGN are working on various steps in the ongoing march from digital photogrammetry to the semi-automation and ultimately the full automation of data manipulation, i.e., capture and analysis. The immediate goals are to reduce the production costs and the data availability delays. Within this context, we have tackle the distinctive problem of 'automated road network extraction.' The methodology adopted is to first study semi-automatic solutions which probably increase the global efficiency of human operators in topographic data capture; in a second step, automatic solutions are designed based upon the gained experience. We report on different (semi-)automatic solutions for the road following algorithm. One key aspect of our method is to have the stages of 'detection' and 'geometric recovery' cooperate together while remaining distinct. 'Detection' is based on a local (texture) analysis of the image, while 'geometric recovery' is concerned with the extraction of 'road objects' for both monocular and stereo information. 'Detection' is a low-level visual process, 'reasoning' directly at the level of image intensities, while the mid-level visual process, 'geometric recovery', uses contextual knowledge about roads, both generic, e.g. parallelism of borders, and specific, e.g. using previously extracted road segments and disparities. We then pursue our 'march' by reporting on steps we are exploring toward full automation. We have in particular made attempts at tackling the automation of the initialization step to start searching in a valid direction.

  19. Effect of Metal Contamination on the Performance of Catalyst for Deep Catalytic Cracking Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zhigang

    2009-01-01

    The effect of different metal contamination levels of catalysts for Deep Catalytic Cracking (DCC) on the distribu-tion and selectivity of DCC products was investigated in a FCC pilot unit. The pilot test results showed that the effects of the metal contamination level of catalyst on the propylene yield, the coke yield, the LPG yield, the gasoline yield, the selectivity of low carbon olefins, and coke selectivity was significant, and that the influence of metal contamination level on the conversion and dry gas yield was minor.

  20. A new process for preparing dialdehyde by catalytic oxidation of cyclic olefins with aqueous hydrogen peroxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU, Hong-Kun; PANG, Zhen; HUANG, Zu-En; CAI, Rui-Fang

    2000-01-01

    A novel peroxo-nioboplosphate was synthesized for the first time and used as a catalyst in the oxidation reaction of cyclic olefins with aqueous hydrogen peroxide to prepare dialdehydes. The catalyst was characterized by elemental analysis,thermographic analyses, IR, UV/vis, 31P NMR and XPS ~ as [ π-C5H5N(CH2)i3CH3 ]2 [Nb406 (O2)2 (PO4)2] ·6H20 (PTNP). It showed high selectivity to glutaraldehyde in the catalytic oxidation of cyclopentene with aqueous hydrogen peroxide in ethanol.

  1. [Optimization of extraction process for tannins from Geranium orientali-tibeticum by supercritical CO2 method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Song; Tong, Zhi-Ping; Tan, Rui; Liu, Xiao-Zhen

    2014-08-01

    In order to optimize extraction process conditions of tannins from Geranium orientali-tibeticum by supercritical CO2, the content of tannins was determined by phosphomolybdium tungsten acid-casein reaction, with extraction pressure, extraction temper- ature and extraction time as factors, the content of tannins from extract of G. orientali-tibeticum as index, technology conditions were optimized by orthogonal test. Optimum technology conditions were as follows: extraction pressure was 25 MPa, extraction temperature was 50 °C, extracted 1.5 h. The content of tannins in extract was 12.91 mg x g(-1), extract rate was 3.67%. The method established could be used for assay the contents of tannin in G. orientali-tibeticum. The circulated extraction was an effective extraction process that was stable and feasible, and that provides a way of the extraction process conditions of tannin from G. orientali-tibeticum.

  2. Report of the technical review team on the Catalytic Extraction Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The TRT was impressed with the quality and volume of laboratory and pilot scale development work that had been conducted over the past year. Many of the doubts and questions raised by the TRP on technical details had been examined, either by theoretical calculations or in the pilot facility. Moreover, a more open and forthcoming attitude was evident among the MMT staff who either presented briefings or responded to the Team`s questions. Of special note to DOE, the TRP recognized a year ago that the pilot facility at Fall River was not designed for radioactive pilot tests. However, from the dialogue surrounding the TRP review, it was evident that not much thought had been given to the hazards, concerns, and special requirements incumbent with radioactive operations -- everything from doing pours of hot radioactive metal from a vessel to remote-handling equipment and operations. This year the TRT noticed a significant improvement in this respect.

  3. Extracting black-hole's rotational energy: the generalized Penrose process

    CERN Document Server

    Lasota, J -P; Abramowicz, M; Tchekhovskoy, A; Narayan, R

    2014-01-01

    In the case involving particles the necessary and sufficient condition for the Penrose process to extract energy from a rotating black hole is absorption of particles with negative energies and angular momenta. No torque at the black hole horizon occurs. In this article we consider the case of arbitrary fields or matter described by an unspecified, general energy-momentum tensor and show that the necessary and sufficient condition for extraction of black-hole's rotational energy is analogous to that in mechanical Penrose process: absorption of negative energy and negative angular momentum. We also show that a necessary condition for the Penrose process to occur is for the Noether current (the conserved energy-momentum density vector) to be spacelike or past-directed (timelike or null) on some part of the horizon. In the particle case our general criterion for the occurrence of a Penrose process reproduces the standard result. In the case of relativistic jet-producing "magnetically arrested disks" we show that...

  4. EXTRACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra

    2016-01-01

    The microbial and molecular ecology research communities have made substantial progress on developing standards for annotating samples with environment metadata. However, sample manual annotation is a highly labor intensive process and requires familiarity with the terminologies used. We have the...... and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15-25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.Database URL: https://extract.hcmr.gr/....

  5. Ultrasound assisted extraction of lycopene from tomato processing wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumcuoglu, Seher; Yilmaz, Tuncay; Tavman, Sebnem

    2014-12-01

    Tomato paste processing wastes, an important by-product of the paste industry, is rich in potentially health-promoting compounds such as lycopene. In this study, extraction yield of lycopene from tomato paste processing wastes by application of ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) was compared with conventional organic solvent extraction (COSE) method. BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene) 0.05 % (w/v) added hexane:acetone:ethanol (2:1:1) mixture was used as solvent. Three different solvent solid ratios; 50:1, 35:1 and 20:1, (v/w) were used in both COSE and UAE. COSE experiments were performed at 20 °C, 40 °C and 60 °C for 10, 20, 30 and 40 min. 50, 65 and 90 W of ultrasonic power were applied in UAE for 1, 2, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 min. Lycopene contents of the samples were determined by spectrophotometric method. The effects of different factors, including the temperature, solvent solid ratio and ultrasonic power on lycopene yield were investigated. It was determined that the most efficient application for COSE was extracting samples by 50:1 solvent solid ratio at 60 °C for 40 min run, for UAE, 35:1 (v/w) solvent solid ratio, 90 W ultrasonic power for 30 min run. It was showed that UAE of lycopene requires less time, lower temperature and lower solvent than COSE.

  6. Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL) process bench studies with bituminous coal. Final report, [October 1, 1988--December 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comolli, A.G.; Johanson, E.S.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Lee, L.K.; Stalzer, R.H.; Smith, T.O.

    1993-03-01

    Reported herein are the details and results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments using bituminous coal concluded at Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., under DOE contract during the period October 1, 1988 to December 31, 1992. The work described is primarily concerned with the application of coal cleaning methods and solids separation methods to the Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL) Process. Additionally a predispersed catalyst was evaluated in a thermal/catalytic configuration, and an alternative nickel molybdenum catalyst was evaluated for the CTSL process. Three coals were evaluated in this program: Bituminous Illinois No. 6 Burning Star and Sub-bituminous Wyoming Black Thunder and New Mexico McKinley Mine seams. The results from a total of 16 bench-scale runs are reported and analyzed in detail. The tests involving the Illinois coal are reported herein, and the tests involving the Wyoming and New Mexico coals are described in Topical Report No. 1. On the laboratory scale, microautoclave tests evaluating coal, start-up oils, catalysts, thermal treatment, CO{sub 2} addition and sulfur compound effects are reported in Topical Report No. 3. Other microautoclave tests, such as tests on rejuvenated catalyst, coker liquids, and cleaned coals, are described in the Bench Run sections to which they refer. The microautoclave tests conducted for modelling the CTSL process are described in the CTSL Modelling section of Topical Report No. 3 under this contract.

  7. Pretreated Landfill Gas Conversion Process via a Catalytic Membrane Reactor for Renewable Combined Fuel Cell-Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe Ziaka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new landfill gas-based reforming catalytic processing system for the conversion of gaseous hydrocarbons, such as incoming methane to hydrogen and carbon oxide mixtures, is described and analyzed. The exit synthesis gas (syn-gas is fed to power effectively high-temperature fuel cells such as SOFC types for combined efficient electricity generation. The current research work is also referred on the description and design aspects of permreactors (permeable reformers carrying the same type of landfill gas-reforming reactions. Membrane reactors is a new technology that can be applied efficiently in such systems. Membrane reactors seem to perform better than the nonmembrane traditional reactors. The aim of this research includes turnkey system and process development for the landfill-based power generation and fuel cell industries. Also, a discussion of the efficient utilization of landfill and waste type resources for combined green-type/renewable power generation with increased processing capacity and efficiency via fuel cell systems is taking place. Moreover, pollution reduction is an additional design consideration in the current catalytic processors fuel cell cycles.

  8. Treatment of fertilizer industry wastewater by catalytic peroxidation process using copper-loaded SBA-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Seema; Srivastava, Vimal Chandra; Mandal, Tapas Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The present study reports use of the catalytic peroxidation (CPO) method for treatment of actual fertilizer industry wastewater (FIW) by using copper-loaded Santa Barbara amorphous-15 (Cu/SBA-15) catalyst. FIW consists of toxic nitrogenous and phosphorus containing compounds that are not easily degraded by the conventional physicochemical and biological treatment methods. In the present study, Box-Behnken (BB) experimental design methodology was used for optimization of three independent parameters namely catalytic dose (m), initial pH (pHo), and H2O2 concentration. Maximum 83% COD removal was obtained at m = 4.5 g L(-1), pHo = 9.2 and H2O2 concentration = 2.0 mL L(-1). Wastewater and catalyst recovered at optimum treatment condition were characterized by various techniques. UV-visible and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) techniques were used for understanding the treatment mechanism. Textural and thermogravimetric (TGA/DTA) analysis were used for determining the characteristic of catalyst before and after treatment. The stability and performance of the Cu/SBA-15 catalyst was also determined by using the reusability tests.

  9. Development of the Chalmers Grouped Actinide Extraction Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halleröd Jenny

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Several solvents for Grouped ActiNide EXtraction (GANEX processes have been investigated at Chalmers University of Technology in recent years. Four different GANEX solvents; cyclo-GANEX (CyMe4- -BTBP, 30 vol.% tri-butyl phosphate (TBP and cyclohexanone, DEHBA-GANEX (CyMe4-BTBP, 20 vol.% N,N-di-2(ethylhexyl butyramide (DEHBA and cyclohexanone, hexanol-GANEX (CyMe4-BTBP, 30 vol.% TBP and hexanol and FS-13-GANEX (CyMe4-BTBP, 30 vol.% TBP and phenyl trifluoromethyl sulfone (FS-13 have been studied and the results are discussed and compared in this work. The cyclohexanone based solvents show fast and high extraction of the actinides but a somewhat poor diluent stability in contact with the acidic aqueous phase. FS-13-GANEX display high separation factors between the actinides and lanthanides and a good radiolytic and hydrolytic stability. However, the distribution ratios of the actinides are lower, compared to the cyclohexanone based solvents. The hexanol-GANEX is a cheap solvent system using a rather stable diluent but the actinide extraction is, however, comparatively low.

  10. Hemimorphite Ores: A Review of Processing Technologies for Zinc Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ailiang; Li, Mengchun; Qian, Zhen; Ma, Yutian; Che, Jianyong; Ma, Yalin

    2016-10-01

    With the gradual depletion of zinc sulfide ores, exploration of zinc oxide ores is becoming more and more important. Hemimorphite is a major zinc oxide ore, attracting much attention in the field of zinc metallurgy although it is not the major zinc mineral. This paper presents a critical review of the treatment for extraction of zinc with emphasis on flotation, pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical methods based on the properties of hemimorphite. The three-dimensional framework structure of hemimorphite with complex linkage of its structural units lead to difficult desilicification before extracting zinc in the many metallurgical technologies. It is found that the flotation method is generally effective in enriching zinc minerals from hemimorphite ores into a high-grade concentrate for recovery of zinc. Pure zinc can be produced from hemimorphite or/and willemite with a reducing reagent, like methane or carbon. Leaching reagents, such as acid and alkali, can break the complex structure of hemimorphite to release zinc in the leached solution without generation of silica gel in the hydrometallurgical process. For optimal zinc extraction, combing flotation with pyrometallurgical or hydrometallurgical methods may be required.

  11. A Mining Algorithm for Extracting Decision Process Data Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina-Claudia DOLEAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces an algorithm that mines logs of user interaction with simulation software. It outputs a model that explicitly shows the data perspective of the decision process, namely the Decision Data Model (DDM. In the first part of the paper we focus on how the DDM is extracted by our mining algorithm. We introduce it as pseudo-code and, then, provide explanations and examples of how it actually works. In the second part of the paper, we use a series of small case studies to prove the robustness of the mining algorithm and how it deals with the most common patterns we found in real logs.

  12. MnO2/CeO2 for catalytic ultrasonic decolorization of methyl orange: Process parameters and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, He; Zhang, Guangming; Chong, Shan; Zhang, Nan; Liu, Yucai

    2015-11-01

    MnO2/CeO2 catalyst was prepared and characterized by means of Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) method, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The characterization showed that MnO2/CeO2 had big specific surface area and MnO2 was dispersed homogeneously on the surface of CeO2. Excellent degradation efficiency of methyl orange was achieved by MnO2/CeO2 catalytic ultrasonic process. Operating parameters were studied and optimized. The optimal conditions were 10 min of ultrasonic irradiation, 1.0 g/L of catalyst dose, 2.6 of pH value and 1.3 W/ml of ultrasonic density. Under the optimal conditions, nearly 90% of methyl orange was removed. The mechanism of methyl orange degradation was further studied. The decolorization mechanism in the ultrasound-MnO2/CeO2 system was quite different with that in the ultrasound-MnO2 system. Effects of manganese and cerium in catalytic ultrasonic process were clarified. Manganese ions in solution contributed to generating hydroxyl free radical. MnO2/CeO2 catalyst strengthened the oxidation ability of ultrasound and realized complete decolorization of methyl orange.

  13. Calpain-Mediated Processing of Adenylate Cyclase Toxin Generates a Cytosolic Soluble Catalytically Active N-Terminal Domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kepa B Uribe

    Full Text Available Bordetella pertussis, the whooping cough pathogen, secretes several virulence factors among which adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT is essential for establishment of the disease in the respiratory tract. ACT weakens host defenses by suppressing important bactericidal activities of the phagocytic cells. Up to now, it was believed that cell intoxication by ACT was a consequence of the accumulation of abnormally high levels of cAMP, generated exclusively beneath the host plasma membrane by the toxin N-terminal catalytic adenylate cyclase (AC domain, upon its direct translocation across the lipid bilayer. Here we show that host calpain, a calcium-dependent Cys-protease, is activated into the phagocytes by a toxin-triggered calcium rise, resulting in the proteolytic cleavage of the toxin N-terminal domain that releases a catalytically active "soluble AC". The calpain-mediated ACT processing allows trafficking of the "soluble AC" domain into subcellular organella. At least two strategic advantages arise from this singular toxin cleavage, enhancing the specificity of action, and simultaneously preventing an indiscriminate activation of cAMP effectors throughout the cell. The present study provides novel insights into the toxin mechanism of action, as the calpain-mediated toxin processing would confer ACT the capacity for a space- and time-coordinated production of different cAMP "pools", which would play different roles in the cell pathophysiology.

  14. Removal of P4, PH3 and H2S from Yellow Phosphoric Tail Gas by a Catalytic Oxidation Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NingPing; Hans-JoergBart; MaLiping; WangXueqian

    2004-01-01

    Yellow phosphorus tail gas is a resource used to produce bulk chemicals, such as formates, oxalates, and methanol after its pretreatment and purification. In this study, catalytic oxidation of phosphorus and hydrogen sulfide in yellow phosphorus tail gas was investigated on an ordinary activated carbon (OAC) and a home-made catalyst KU2. The adsorption characteristics of phosphorus and hydrogen sulfide on the catalysts were studied in a fixed-bed system at different temperatures between 20℃ and 140℃ at atmospheric pressure. Both KU2 and OAC are proved to be effective catalysts in the catalytic oxidation process (COP) for H2S and PH3 removal. Purification efficiency increased with the increase of temperature and oxygen concentration in yellow phosphorus tail gases. Under optimized operation conditions, the product gases with a content of hydrogen sulfide <5mg/m3 and total phosphorus <5mg/m3 were obtained by using the COP process. Deactivated catalysts could be restored to the original activated state, even after several regenerations. A mathematical model was developed to simulate the experimental results and the mass transport coefficient from the experiment was evaluated. Good agreement between the experimental breakthrough curves and the model predictions was observed.

  15. Dynamic\tmodelling of catalytic three-phase reactors for hydrogenation and oxidation processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salmi T.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic modelling principles for typical catalytic three-phase reactors, batch autoclaves and fixed (trickle beds were described. The models consist of balance equations for the catalyst particles as well as for the bulk phases of gas and liquid. Rate equations, transport models and mass balances were coupled to generalized heterogeneous models which were solved with respect to time and space with algorithms suitable for stiff differential equations. The aspects of numerical solution strategies were discussed and the procedure was illustrated with three case studies: hydrogenation of aromatics, hydrogenation of aldehydes and oxidation of ferrosulphate. The case studies revealed the importance of mass transfer resistance inside the catalyst pallets as well as the dynamics of the different phases being present in the reactor. Reliable three-phase reactor simulation and scale-up should be based on dynamic heterogeneous models.

  16. Sensitivity analysis of a light gas oil deep hydrodesulfurization process via catalytic distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales-Quintero, A.; Vargas-Villamil, F.D. [Prog. de Matematicas Aplicadas y Computacion, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, Mexico, D.F. 07330 (Mexico); Arce-Medina, E. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, ESIQIE, Ed. 8 Col. Lindavista, Mexico, D.F. 07738 (Mexico)

    2008-01-30

    In this work, a sensitivity analysis of a light gas oil deep hydrodesulfurization catalytic distillation column is presented. The aim is to evaluate the effects of various parameters and operating conditions on the organic sulfur compound elimination by using a realistic light gas oil fraction. The hydrocarbons are modeled using pseudocompounds, while the organic sulfur compounds are modeled using model compounds, i.e., dibenzothiophene (DBT) and 4,6-dimethyl dibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT). These are among the most refractive sulfur compounds present in the oil fractions. A sensitivity analysis is discussed for the reflux ratio, bottom flow rate, condenser temperature, hydrogen and gas oil feed stages, catalyst loading, the reactive, stripping, and rectifying stages, feed disturbances, and multiple feeds. The results give insight into the qualitative effect of some of the operating variables and disturbances on organic sulfur elimination. In addition, they show that special attention must be given to the bottom flow rate and LGO feed rate control. (author)

  17. Solid-phase extraction of trace Au(Ⅲ) with SDG and determination by the catalytic spectrophotometric method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The new catalytic kinetic spectrophotometric method for Au(Ⅲ) determination was developed and validated.It was based on the catalytic effect of gold on the oxidation of sudan red Ⅲ by ammonium peroxodisulfate ((NH4)2S2O8) with nitrilo triaeetic acid as an activator in microemulsion and H2SO4 medium.Under optimum conditions,there was the linearity of the calibration curve in the concentration range from 0 to 20 μg/L Au(Ⅲ) at 520 nm.The relative standard deviation was 3.0% with a correlation coefficient of 0.9986.The detection limit achieved was 9.75×10-5 μg/mL.A new method using a column packed with sulfhydryl dextrose gel (SDG) as a solid-phase extraetant has been developed for the preeoncentration and separation of Au(Ⅲ) ions.The method has been applied to the determination of trace gold with satisfactory results.

  18. Toluene removal from waste air stream by the catalytic ozonation process with MgO/GAC composite as catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Fatemeh; Moussavi, Gholamreza; Bakhtiari, Alireza Riyahi; Yamini, Yadollah

    2016-04-05

    This paper investigates the catalytic potential of MgO/GAC composite for toluene elimination from waste air in the catalytic ozonation process (COP). The MgO/GAC composite was a micro-porous material with the BET surface area of 1082m(2)/g. Different functional groups including aromatic CC, saturated CO of anhydrates, hydroxyl groups and SH bond of thiols were identified on the surface of MgO/GAC. Effects of residence time (0.5-4s), inlet toluene concentration (100-400ppmv) and bed temperature (25-100°C) were investigated on degradation of toluene in COP. Impregnation of GAC with MgO increased the breakthrough time and removal capacity by 73.9% and 64.6%, respectively, at the optimal conditions. The catalytic potential of the GAC and MgO/GAC for toluene degradation was 11.1% and 90.6%, respectively, at the optimum condition. The highest removal capacity using MgO/GAC (297.9gtoulene/gMgO/GAC) was attained at 100°C, whereas the highest removal capacity of GAC (128.5mgtoulene/gGAC) was obtained at 25°C. Major by-products of the toluene removal in COP with GAC were Formic acid, benzaldehyde, O-nitro-p-cresol and methyl di-phenyl-methane. MgO/GAC could greatly catalyze the decomposition of toluene in COPand formic acid was the main compound desorbed from the catalyst. Accordingly, the MgO/GAC is an efficient material to catalyze the ozonation of hydrocarbon vapors.

  19. Quantification and evaluation of kinetic bio-catalytic pathway of horseradish peroxidase in an electron mediated reaction system and its applications in plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Honnur; Nagaraja, Padmarajaiah; Shivakumar, Anantharaman; Chamaraja, Nelligere A; Aradhana, Narayan

    2013-02-01

    The intermolecular coupling of 2,5-dimethoxyaniline (DMA) as mediated electron transfer reaction in presence of H(2)O(2) and peroxidase in acetate buffer of pH 4.2 resulting green colored product having maximum absorption at λ(max)=740 nm was investigated by spectrophotometer. Under optimum conditions, linearity range for the quantification of H(2)O(2) was 2.0-288.0 μM and for peroxidase were 0.59-9.46 and 0.443-9.46 nM by kinetic and fixed-time method, respectively. The catalytic efficiency and catalytic power were K(eff)(D)=2.354 × 10(5)M(-1)min(-1) and K(pow)(D)=4.59 × 10(-4)min(-1), respectively. From the plot of d(1/D(o)) vs d(1/V(o)) and d(1/H(o)) vs d(1/V(o)), Michaelis-Menten constants for DMA and H(2)O(2)were found that K(m)(D)=1,458 μM and [Formula: see text] =301 μM. Applicability of the method was tested for peroxidase activity in some plant extracts and compared with guaiacol/peroxidase system. Regarding superiority of the method, it is suggested that DMA/peroxidase system can be a better hydrogen donor for HRP assay than guaiacol system as evident from kinetic data.

  20. Quantification and evaluation of kinetic bio-catalytic pathway of horseradish peroxidase in an electron mediated reaction system and its applications in plant extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Honnur; Nagaraja, Padmarajaiah; Shivakumar, Anantharaman; Chamaraja, Nelligere A.; Aradhana, Narayan

    2013-02-01

    The intermolecular coupling of 2,5-dimethoxyaniline (DMA) as mediated electron transfer reaction in presence of H2O2 and peroxidase in acetate buffer of pH 4.2 resulting green colored product having maximum absorption at λmax = 740 nm was investigated by spectrophotometer. Under optimum conditions, linearity range for the quantification of H2O2 was 2.0-288.0 μM and for peroxidase were 0.59-9.46 and 0.443-9.46 nM by kinetic and fixed-time method, respectively. The catalytic efficiency and catalytic power were KeffD = 2.354 × 105 M-1 min-1 and KpowD = 4.59 × 10-4 min-1, respectively. From the plot of d(1/Do) vs d(1/Vo) and d(1/Ho) vs d(1/Vo), Michaelis-Menten constants for DMA and H2O2were found that KmD = 1458 μM and KmHO = 301 μM. Applicability of the method was tested for peroxidase activity in some plant extracts and compared with guaiacol/peroxidase system. Regarding superiority of the method, it is suggested that DMA/peroxidase system can be a better hydrogen donor for HRP assay than guaiacol system as evident from kinetic data.

  1. Suitability assessment of a continuous process combining thermo-mechano-chemical and bio-catalytic action in a single pilot-scale twin-screw extruder for six different biomass sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbossche, Virginie; Brault, Julien; Hernandez-Melendez, Oscar; Evon, Philippe; Barzana, Eduardo; Vilarem, Gérard; Rigal, Luc

    2016-07-01

    A process has been validated for the deconstruction of lignocellulose on a pilot scale installation using six types of biomass selected for their sustainability, accessibility, worldwide availability, and differences of chemical composition and physical structure. The process combines thermo-mechano-chemical and bio-catalytic action in a single twin-screw extruder. Three treatment phases were sequentially performed: an alkaline pretreatment, a neutralization step coupled with an extraction-separation phase and a bioextrusion treatment. Alkaline pretreatment destructured the wall polymers after just a few minutes and allowed the initial extraction of 18-54% of the hemicelluloses and 9-41% of the lignin. The bioextrusion step induced the start of enzymatic hydrolysis and increased the proportion of soluble organic matter. Extension of saccharification for 24h at high consistency (20%) and without the addition of new enzyme resulted in the production of 39-84% of the potential glucose.

  2. Numerical Study of Single Well Vapor Extraction Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Rahnema

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vapor extraction (Vapex is an emerging technology to produce heavy oil and bitumen from subsurface formations. Single well (SW Vapex technique uses the same concept of Vapex process but only with one horizontal well. In this process solvent is injected from the toe of the horizontal well with oil production at the heel section. The main advantage of SW-Vapex process lies in the economic saving and applicability in problematic reservoirs, where drilling of two horizontal wells is impractical. The performance of SW-Vapex seems to be comparable with dual horizontal Vapex process using proper optimization schemes. This study is grouped into two sections: (i a screening study of early time operating performance of SW-Vapex and (ii a sensitivity analysis of the effect of the reservoir and well completion parameters. Simulation results show that solvent injection rate can be optimized to improve oil production rate. Higher injection rates may not necessarily lead to increase in production. This study confirms that SW-Vapex process is very ineffective in reservoirs with high oil viscosity (more than 1,500 cp and thin formations (less than 10 m.

  3. Study on electrical current variations in electromembrane extraction process: Relation between extraction recovery and magnitude of electrical current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Turaj; Rahimi, Atyeh; Nojavan, Saeed

    2016-01-15

    This contribution presents an experimental approach to improve analytical performance of electromembrane extraction (EME) procedure, which is based on the scrutiny of current pattern under different extraction conditions such as using different organic solvents as supported liquid membrane, electrical potentials, pH values of donor and acceptor phases, variable extraction times, temperatures, stirring rates, different hollow fiber lengths and the addition of salts or organic solvents to the sample matrix. In this study, four basic drugs with different polarities were extracted under different conditions with the corresponding electrical current patterns compared against extraction recoveries. The extraction process was demonstrated in terms of EME-HPLC analyses of selected basic drugs. Comparing the obtained extraction recoveries with the electrical current patterns, most cases exhibited minimum recovery and repeatability at the highest investigated magnitude of electrical current. . It was further found that identical current patterns are associated with repeated extraction efficiencies. In other words, the pattern should be repeated for a successful extraction. The results showed completely different electrical currents under different extraction conditions, so that all variable parameters have contributions into the electrical current pattern. Finally, the current patterns of extractions from wastewater, plasma and urine samples were demonstrated. The results indicated an increase in the electrical current when extracting from complex matrices; this was seen to decrease the extraction efficiency.

  4. Emerging technologies in extraction and processing of metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Ramana G.

    2003-04-01

    The growing need to conserve energy and materials and prevent environmental pollution led to an increased demand for better understanding of potential as well as existing processes. In this context, thermodynamic and transport modeling of materials and processes provides a rapid and cost-effective means of conducting and minimizing the complexity of experimental investigations and developing innovative and environmentally friendly metallurgical processes. This presentation concentrates on some fundamentals on new technologies as extractive metallurgy of copper, lead, aluminum, and other nonferrous metals and processing of nanocomposites. The newer routes of copper smelting and modeling of impurities in copper and lead slags and mattes are reviewed. The copper smelting capacity increased by a factor of 10 during the last three decades, the smelting rate increased by a factor of 6, and the process fuel equivalent decreased by a factor of 2. The a priori prediction, with no adjustable parameters, of impurity capacities of S and As in copper slags and S in lead slags, based on the Reddy-Blander model, is reviewed. Excellent agreement between the model-predicted capacities data and laboratory experimental and industrial data was observed. The model is an invaluable tool for optimization of process parameters in the efficient removal of impurities from the nonferrous-metals smelting and refining processes. A new in-situ processing technology for the production of a lightweight alloy matrix with ceramic particle reinforcements such as SiC in aluminum alloy matrix composites by bubbling reactive gas is reviewed. Thermal plasma processing of a nanoscale aluminum alloy matrix with TiC and TiN composites is discussed. The in-situ formed reinforcements are thermodynamically stable, and the composite particles are of uniform size. The optimum process parameters for the production of composite powders by thermal plasma are discussed. A low-temperature aluminum production and

  5. Biodiesel production with continuous supercritical process: non-catalytic transesterification and esterification with or without carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yu-Ting; Lin, Ho-mu; Lee, Ming-Jer

    2013-10-01

    The non-catalytic transesterification of refined sunflower oil with supercritical methanol, in the presence of carbon dioxide, was conducted in a tubular reactor at temperatures from 553.2 to 593.2K and pressures up to 25.0 MPa. The FAME yield can be achieved up to about 0.70 at 593.2 K and 10.0 MPa in 23 min with methanol:oil of 25:1 in molar ratio. The effect of adding CO2 on the FAME yield is insignificant. The kinetic behavior of the non-catalytic esterification and transesterification of oleic acid or waste cooking oil (WCO) with supercritical methanol was also investigated. By using the supercritical process, the presence of free fatty acid (FFA) in WCO gives positive contribution to FAME production. The FAME yield of 0.90 from WCO can be achieved in 13 min at 573.2K. The kinetic data of supercritical transesterification and esterifaication were correlated well with a power-law model.

  6. PRODUCTION OF CARBON PRODUCTS USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dady Dadyburjor; Philip R. Biedler; Chong Chen; L. Mitchell Clendenin; Manoj Katakdaunde; Elliot B. Kennel; Nathan D. King; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2004-08-31

    This Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored project developed carbon products, using mildly hydrogenated solvents to extract the organic portion of coal to create synthetic pitches, cokes, carbon foam and carbon fibers. The focus of this effort was on development of lower cost solvents, milder hydrogenation conditions and improved yield in order to enable practical production of these products. This technology is needed because of the long-term decline in production of domestic feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. Currently, carbon products represents a market of roughly 5 million tons domestically, and 19 million tons worldwide. Carbon products are mainly derived from feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. The domestic supply of petroleum pitch is declining because of the rising price of liquid fuels, which has caused US refineries to maximize liquid fuel production. As a consequence, the long term trend has a decline in production of petroleum pitch over the past 20 years. The production of coal tar pitch, as in the case of petroleum pitch, has likewise declined significantly over the past two decades. Coal tar pitch is a byproduct of metallurgical grade coke (metcoke) production. In this industry, modern metcoke facilities are recycling coal tar as fuel in order to enhance energy efficiency and minimize environmental emissions. Metcoke production itself is dependent upon the production requirements for domestic steel. Hence, several metcoke ovens have been decommissioned over the past two decades and have not been replaced. As a consequence sources of coal tar are being taken off line and are not being replaced. The long-term trend is a reduction in coal tar pitch production. Thus import of feedstocks, mainly from Eastern Europe and China, is on the rise despite the relatively large transportation cost. To reverse this trend, a new process for producing carbon products is needed. The process must be

  7. Membrane contactor assisted extraction/reaction process employing ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yupo J.; Snyder, Seth W.

    2012-02-07

    The present invention relates to a functionalized membrane contactor extraction/reaction system and method for extracting target species from multi-phase solutions utilizing ionic liquids. One preferred embodiment of the invented method and system relates to an extraction/reaction system wherein the ionic liquid extraction solutions act as both extraction solutions and reaction mediums, and allow simultaneous separation/reactions not possible with prior art technology.

  8. Potential of antioxidant extracts produced by aqueous processing ofrenewable resources for the formulation of cosmetics

    OpenAIRE

    Elena M. Balboa; Soto, Maria Luisa; Daniele R. Nogueira; González-López, Noelia; Conde, Enma; Moure, Andrés; Vinardell Martínez-Hidalgo, Ma. Pilar; Mitjans Arnal, Montserrat; Domínguez, Herminia

    2014-01-01

    The performance of natural extracts obtained from underutilized and residual vegetal and macroalgal biomass processed with food-grade green solvents was compared with that of commercial antioxidants. Selected extracts were obtained from two terrestrial sources: winery byproducts concentrate (WBC) and chestnut burs hydrothermally fractionated extract (CBAE), and from two underutilized seaweeds: Sargassum muticum extracts, either extracted with ethanol (SmEE) or after alginate extraction and hy...

  9. Extraction and downstream processing of plant-derived recombinant proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyel, J F; Twyman, R M; Fischer, R

    2015-11-01

    Plants offer the tantalizing prospect of low-cost automated manufacturing processes for biopharmaceutical proteins, but several challenges must be addressed before such goals are realized and the most significant hurdles are found during downstream processing (DSP). In contrast to the standardized microbial and mammalian cell platforms embraced by the biopharmaceutical industry, there are many different plant-based expression systems vying for attention, and those with the greatest potential to provide inexpensive biopharmaceuticals are also the ones with the most significant drawbacks in terms of DSP. This is because the most scalable plant systems are based on the expression of intracellular proteins in whole plants. The plant tissue must therefore be disrupted to extract the product, challenging the initial DSP steps with an unusually high load of both particulate and soluble contaminants. DSP platform technologies can accelerate and simplify process development, including centrifugation, filtration, flocculation, and integrated methods that combine solid-liquid separation, purification and concentration, such as aqueous two-phase separation systems. Protein tags can also facilitate these DSP steps, but they are difficult to transfer to a commercial environment and more generic, flexible and scalable strategies to separate target and host cell proteins are preferable, such as membrane technologies and heat/pH precipitation. In this context, clarified plant extracts behave similarly to the feed stream from microbes or mammalian cells and the corresponding purification methods can be applied, as long as they are adapted for plant-specific soluble contaminants such as the superabundant protein RuBisCO. Plant-derived pharmaceutical proteins cannot yet compete directly with established platforms but they are beginning to penetrate niche markets that allow the beneficial properties of plants to be exploited, such as the ability to produce 'biobetters' with tailored

  10. 21 CFR 173.280 - Solvent extraction process for citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Solvent extraction process for citric acid. 173.280... extraction process for citric acid. A solvent extraction process for recovery of citric acid from conventional Aspergillus niger fermentation liquor may be safely used to produce food-grade citric acid...

  11. Catalytic hydroprocessing of fast pyrolysis oils: Impact of biomass feedstock on process efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, Daniel; Westover, Tyler; Howe, Daniel; Deutch, Steve; Starace, Anne; Emerson, Rachel; Hernandez, Sergio; Santosa, Daniel; Lukins, Craig; Kutnyakov, Igor

    2017-01-01

    We report here on an experimental study to produce refinery-ready fuel blendstocks via catalytic hydrodeoxygenation (upgrading) of pyrolysis oil using several biomass feedstocks and various blends. Blends were tested along with the pure materials to determine the effect of blending on product yields and qualities. Within experimental error, oil yields from fast pyrolysis and upgrading are shown to be linear functions of the blend components. Switchgrass exhibited lower fast pyrolysis and upgrading yields than the woody samples, which included clean pine, oriented strand board (OSB), and a mix of pinon and juniper (PJ). The notable exception was PJ, for which the poor upgrading yield of 18% was likely associated with the very high viscosity of the PJ fast pyrolysis oil (947 cp). The highest fast pyrolysis yield (54% dry basis) was obtained from clean pine, while the highest upgrading yield (50%) was obtained from a blend of 80% clean pine and 20% OSB (CP8OSB2). For switchgrass, reducing the fast pyrolysis temperature to 450 degrees C resulted in a significant increase to the pyrolysis oil yield and reduced hydrogen consumption during hydrotreating, but did not directly affect the hydrotreating oil yield. The water content of fast pyrolysis oils was also observed to increase linearly with the summed content of potassium and sodium, ranging from 21% for clean pine to 37% for switchgrass. Multiple linear regression models demonstrate that fast pyrolysis is strongly dependent upon the contents lignin and volatile matter as well as the sum of potassium and sodium.

  12. Improving flavonoid extraction from Ginkgo biloba leaves by prefermentation processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiahong; Cao, Fuliang; Su, Erzheng; Wu, Caie; Zhao, Linguo; Ying, Ruifeng

    2013-06-19

    This paper presents a prefermentation treatment method involving fungi to improve flavonoid extraction from the leaves of Ginkgo biloba . The fungi employed for this treatment were screened from the soil present under an ancient ginkgo tree. Seventy-six strains belonging to 23 genera were isolated and identified by a molecular identification method employing 18S rDNA sequences. Thirty-three strains grew well using ginkgo leaves as the growth medium. One strain, Gyx086, with higher extracted yield of flavonoids and more similar to the control, was finally selected for prefermentation processing. The major fermentation factors were optimized by response surface methodology. The optimal conditions for the highest total falvonoid yield were 27.8 °C for temperature, 64.2% for moisture content, and 61 h for fermentation time. Under the optimal condition, a actual total flavonoid yield of 27.59 ± 0.52 mg/g dry weight culture sample was obtained, which was about 70% higher than that of unfermented gingko leaf samples.

  13. Thermodynamics of catalytic nanoparticle morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwolak, Michael; Sharma, Renu; Lin, Pin Ann

    Metallic nanoparticles are an important class of industrial catalysts. The variability of their properties and the environment in which they act, from their chemical nature & surface modification to their dispersion and support, allows their performance to be optimized for many chemical processes useful in, e.g., energy applications and other areas. Their large surface area to volume ratio, as well as varying sizes and faceting, in particular, makes them an efficient source for catalytically active sites. These characteristics of nanoparticles - i.e., their morphology - can often display intriguing behavior as a catalytic process progresses. We develop a thermodynamic model of nanoparticle morphology, one that captures the competition of surface energy with other interactions, to predict structural changes during catalytic processes. Comparing the model to environmental transmission electron microscope images of nickel nanoparticles during carbon nanotube (and other product) growth demonstrates that nickel deformation in response to the nanotube growth is due to a favorable interaction with carbon. Moreover, this deformation is halted due to insufficient volume of the particles. We will discuss the factors that influence morphology and also how the model can be used to extract interaction strengths from experimental observations.

  14. Simulation of the ingot extraction in the continuous casting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szajnar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Cast ingot pulling speed is significantly affecting the nature of the resulting structure and the quality of the outer surface of the ingot. By introducing a variable algorithm for extraction of the ingot we may to some extent control the shape and location of the solid / liquid interface and temperature field in the cross-section of the ingot. The shape of the crystallization front, as well as its position relative to mold plays an important role in the process of continuous casting ingots of grey iron and affects the structure of the casting. In order to verify the impact of an algorithm on the shape and the location of solid / liquid interface, a number of simulations in ANSYS Fluent 12 were made, for determining the shape of crystallization front and temperature distribution on the cross-section of the ingot.

  15. A new extraction process of carbonaceous refractory gold concentrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Yu-qun

    2005-01-01

    A new hydrometallurgical process for a carbonaceous refractory gold concentrate at ambient temperature and pressure was presented, including grinding-leaching, intensified alkaline leaching(IAL), thiosulfate leaching and cementation by zinc powder. The experimental results show that the grinding-leaching and intensified alkaline leaching process result in the selective oxidation of arsenopyrite and pyrite. The oxidation ratio of As is 96.6%, and 46.7 % for S. The total consumption of NaOH in alkaline leaching is only 28 % of that theoretically calculated under the conditions of full oxidization for the same amount of arsenopyrite and pyrite transforming into arsenates and sulfates, and 83. 6 % of gold is synchro-dissoluted by thiosulfate self-generated during pretreatment. Since the carbonaceous matter in concentrate possesses a strong capability of preg robbing, the cyanidation process is not suitable for the extraction of gold after pretreatment. However, the gold leaching rate by thiosulfate leaching for 24 h is increased to 91.7% from 0 - 3.2% by ultra-fine grinding without the pretreatment. The recovery of gold by zinc cementation gets to 99.6 %. Due to the thiosulfate self-generated during alkaline leaching, the reagent addition in thiosulfate leaching afterwards is lower than the normal one.

  16. 烯烃歧化催化工艺进展%Advances in Catalytic Process of Olefin Metathesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白尔铮

    2001-01-01

    The latest advances of catalytic process of olefins metathesiswere reviewed. The preparation of supported tungsten, supported molybdenum, and supported rhenium catalysts by Phillips Petroleum, IFP and Shell Co. were introduced. It was pointed out that we should put emphasis on developing the technology producing propylene and amylene from betene or producing ethylene and hexene from butene in view of the domestic conditions.%综述了烯烃歧化催化工艺的进展,介绍了PhillipsPetroleum、IFP、Shell公司制备载钨、载钼及载铼催化剂的方法。针对我国国情,指出应重点开发丁烯制丙烯和戊烯或丁烯制乙烯和己烯生产技术。

  17. Process development of short-chain polyols synthesis from corn stover by combination of enzymatic hydrolysis and catalytic hydrogenolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Hong Fang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently short-chain polyols such as ethanediol, propanediol, and butanediol are produced either from the petroleum feedstock or from the starch-based food crop feedstock. In this study, a combinational process of enzymatic hydrolysis with catalytic hydrogenolysis for short-chain polyols production using corn stover as feedstock was developed. The enzymatic hydrolysis of the pretreated corn stover was optimized to produce stover sugars at the minimum cost. Then the stover sugars were purified and hydrogenolyzed into polyols products catalyzed by Raney nickel catalyst. The results show that the yield of short-chain polyols from the stover sugars was comparable to that of the corn-based glucose. The present study provided an important prototype for polyols production from lignocellulose to replace the petroleum- or corn-based polyols for future industrial applications.

  18. Solvent extractants for nickel and cobalt: New opportunities in aqueous processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaylov, Indje

    2003-07-01

    The last two decades have witnessed unprecedented growth in the development and implementation of solvent extraction technology in the extractive metallurgy of nickel and cobalt. Solvent extraction is proving to be a powerful tool, opening new opportunities for simpler, more cost-efficient and environmentally sound metal refining processes. This article provides an overview of some of the latest developments regarding the solvent extractants.

  19. Preliminary chemical analysis and biological testing of materials from the HRI catalytic two-stage liquefaction (CTSL) process. [Aliphatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Later, D.W.; Wilson, B.W.

    1985-01-01

    Coal-derived materials from experimental runs of Hydrocarbon Research Incorporated's (HRI) catalytic two-stage liquefaction (CTSL) process were chemically characterized and screened for microbial mutagenicity. This process differs from two-stage coal liquefaction processes in that catalyst is used in both stages. Samples from both the first and second stages were class-fractionated by alumina adsorption chromatography. The fractions were analyzed by capillary column gas chromatography; gas chromatography/mass spectrometry; direct probe, low voltage mass spectrometry; and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. Mutagenicity assays were performed with the crude and class fractions in Salmonella typhimurium, TA98. Preliminary results of chemical analyses indicate that >80% CTSL materials from both process stages were aliphatic hydrocarbon and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. Furthermore, the gross and specific chemical composition of process materials from the first stage were very similar to those of the second stage. In general, the unfractionated materials were only slightly active in the TA98 mutagenicity assay. Like other coal liquefaction materials investigated in this laboratory, the nitrogen-containing polycyclic aromatic compound (N-PAC) class fractions were responsible for the bulk of the mutagenic activity of the crudes. Finally, it was shown that this activity correlated with the presence of amino-PAH. 20 figures, 9 tables.

  20. Comparative analyses of diffusion coefficients for different extraction processes from thyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrovic Slobodan S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was aimed to analyze kinetics and mass transfer phenomena for different extraction processes from thyme (Thymus vulgaris L. leaves. Different extraction processes with ethanol were studied: Soxhlet extraction and ultrasound-assisted batch extraction on the laboratory scale as well as pilot plant batch extraction with mixing. The extraction processes with ethanol were compared to the process of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction performed at 10 MPa and 40°C. Experimental data were analyzed by mathematical model derived from the Fick’s second law to determine and compare diffusion coefficients in the periods of constant and decreasing extraction rate. In the fast extraction period, values of diffusion coefficients were one to three orders of magnitude higher compared to those determined for the period of slow extraction. The highest diffusion coefficient was reported for the fast extraction period of supercritical fluid extraction. In the case of extraction processes with ethanol, ultrasound, stirring and extraction temperature increase enhanced mass transfer rate in the washing phase. On the other hand, ultrasound contributed the most to the increase of mass transfer rate in the period of slow extraction.

  1. Factorial experimental design for the optimization of catalytic degradation of malachite green dye in aqueous solution by Fenton process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Elhalil

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the optimization of the catalytic degradation of malachite green dye (MG by Fenton process “Fe2+/H2O2”. A 24 full factorial experimental design was used to evaluate the effects of four factors considered in the optimization of the oxidative process: concentration of MG (X1, concentration of Fe2+ (X2, concentration of H2O2 (X3 and temperature (X4. Individual and interaction effects of the factors that influenced the percentage of dye degradation were tested. The effect of interactions between the four parameters shows that there is a dependency between concentration of MG and concentration of Fe2+; concentration of Fe2+ and concentration of H2O2, expressed by the great values of the coefficient of interaction. The analysis of variance proved that, the concentration of MG, the concentration of Fe2+ and the concentration of H2O2 have an influence on the catalytic degradation while it is not the case for the temperature. In the optimization, the great dependence between observed and predicted degradation efficiency, the correlation coefficient for the model (R2=0.986 and the important value of F-ratio proved the validity of the model. The optimum degradation efficiency of malachite green was 93.83%, when the operational parameters were malachite green concentration of 10 mg/L, Fe2+ concentration of 10 mM, H2O2 concentration of 25.6 mM and temperature of 40 °C.

  2. Ultrasound versus microwave as green processes for extraction of rosmarinic, carnosic and ursolic acids from rosemary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacotet-Navarro, M; Rombaut, N; Fabiano-Tixier, A-S; Danguien, M; Bily, A; Chemat, F

    2015-11-01

    Ultrasound and microwave as green processes are investigated in this study, focusing on the extraction selectivity towards antioxidant extraction from rosemary leaves. Due to its richness in valuable compounds such as rosmarinic, carnosic and ursolic acids, rosemary is a reference matrix for extraction study. In this work, six alternative processes are compared: ultrasound (bath, reactor and probe), microwave (reflux under microwave, microwave under nitrogen pressure and microwave under vapor pressure). The main result of this study is that selective extraction can be achieved according to extraction techniques and therefore to the extraction process.

  3. Inhibitory effects of seven components of danshen extract on catalytic activity of cytochrome P450 enzyme in human liver microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Furong; Zhang, Rong; Sun, Jianguo; Jiye, A; Hao, Haiping; Peng, Ying; Ai, Hua; Wang, Guangji

    2008-07-01

    The potential for herb-drug interactions has recently received greater attention worldwide, considering the fact that the use of herbal products becomes more and more widespread. The goal of this work was to examine the potential for the metabolism-based drug interaction arising from seven active components (danshensu, protocatechuic aldehyde, protocatechuic acid, salvianolic acid B, tanshinone I, tanshinone IIA, and cryptotanshinone) of danshen extract. Probe substrates of cytochrome P450 enzymes were incubated in human liver microsomes (HLMs) with or without each component of danshen extract. IC(50) and K(i) values were estimated, and the types of inhibition were determined. Among the seven components of danshen extract, tanshinone I, tanshinone IIA, and cryptotanshinone were potent competitive inhibitors of CYP1A2 (K(i) = 0.48, 1.0, and 0.45 microM, respectively); danshensu was a competitive inhibitor of CYP2C9 (K(i) = 35 microM), and cryptotanshinone was a moderate mixed-type inhibitor of CYP2C9 (K(i) = 8 microM); cryptotanshinone inhibited weakly and in mixed mode against CYP2D6 activity (K(i) = 68 microM), and tanshinone I was a weak inhibitor of CYP2D6 (IC(50) = 120 microM); and protocatechuic aldehyde was a weak inhibitor of CYP3A4 (IC(50) = 130 and 160 microM for midazolam and testosterone, respectively). These findings provided some useful information for safe and effective use of danshen preparations in clinical practice. Our data indicated that it was necessary to study the in vivo interactions between drugs and pharmaceuticals with danshen extract.

  4. Catalytic Process for the Conversion of Coal-derived Syngas to Ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Spivery; Doug Harrison; John Earle; James Goodwin; David Bruce; Xunhau Mo; Walter Torres; Joe Allison Vis Viswanathan; Rick Sadok; Steve Overbury; Viviana Schwartz

    2011-07-29

    The catalytic conversion of coal-derived syngas to C{sub 2+} alcohols and oxygenates has attracted great attention due to their potential as chemical intermediates and fuel components. This is particularly true of ethanol, which can serve as a transportation fuel blending agent, as well as a hydrogen carrier. A thermodynamic analysis of CO hydrogenation to ethanol that does not allow for byproducts such as methane or methanol shows that the reaction: 2 CO + 4 H{sub 2} {yields} C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH + H{sub 2}O is thermodynamically favorable at conditions of practical interest (e.g,30 bar, {approx}< 250 C). However, when methane is included in the equilibrium analysis, no ethanol is formed at any conditions even approximating those that would be industrially practical. This means that undesired products (primarily methane and/or CO{sub 2}) must be kinetically limited. This is the job of a catalyst. The mechanism of CO hydrogenation leading to ethanol is complex. The key step is the formation of the initial C-C bond. Catalysts that are selective for EtOH can be divided into four classes: (a) Rh-based catalysts, (b) promoted Cu catalysts, (c) modified Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, or (d) Mo-sulfides and phosphides. This project focuses on Rh- and Cu-based catalysts. The logic was that (a) Rh-based catalysts are clearly the most selective for EtOH (but these catalysts can be costly), and (b) Cu-based catalysts appear to be the most selective of the non-Rh catalysts (and are less costly). In addition, Pd-based catalysts were studied since Pd is known for catalyzing CO hydrogenation to produce methanol, similar to copper. Approach. The overall approach of this project was based on (a) computational catalysis to identify optimum surfaces for the selective conversion of syngas to ethanol; (b) synthesis of surfaces approaching these ideal atomic structures, (c) specialized characterization to determine the extent to which the actual catalyst has these structures, and (d) testing

  5. Improved Aeration Process - Catalytic Role Of The Iron Oxides In Arsenic Oxidation And Coprecipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowalski, Krysztof; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    2013-01-01

    an improved aeration process that can also help in developing better arsenic removal treatment. The results present advantages of arsenic oxidation in an aeration process in the presence of ferrihydrite surface that have been shown to adsorb arsenic simultaneously to its oxidation. The presence...... of precipitated (ferrihydrite surface) and dissolved iron enhanced arsenic oxidation in comparison to solution with absence of precipitated iron in laboratory scale experiments. However, in the pilot scale studies the adsorption of arsenite on ferrihydrite was found to be the main process occurring during...... implementation of the process in the waterworks that are struggling with arsenic related issues....

  6. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY, TOTAL PHENOLIC AND FLAVONOID CONTENT OF MORINDA CITRIFOLIA FRUIT EXTRACTS FROM VARIOUS EXTRACTION PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRAVEEN K. RAMAMOORTHY

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Soxhlet, Ultrasonic extract of Morinda citrifolia L. fruit and four extracts from high pressure extraction at 10 MPa using ethanol, ethyl acetate as solvent and dried by vacuum oven and spray dryer were analyzed for their antioxidant activity by peroxide value method and diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method. The five extracts along with the reference samples, butylated hydroxyl toluene and tannic acid were further analyzed to determine their total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteau method and total flavonoid content by Dowd method. The M. citrifolia extract by high pressure extraction with ethyl acetate as solvent and spray dried was found to exhibit highest antioxidant activity and total flavonoid content. High total phenolic content was determined in the high pressure extract using ethyl acetate as solvent and vacuum dried. It was interesting to note that ultrasonic extract exhibited significant antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content. High pressure extracted M. citrifolia in ethanol was found to express lesser values comparatively. The significant difference in activity among the high pressure extracts was found to be due to the polarity of the solvents used for extraction as M. citrifolia fruit contains relatively larger quantity of non-polar antioxidant compounds. It was also found that the drying methods had significant impact on the antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content of the extracts.

  7. DD3R zeolite membranes in separation and catalytic processes: Modelling and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Bergh, J.

    2010-01-01

    Around 2004 the annual energy consumption of the Dutch (petro-)chemical industry was estimated to be 460 PJ of which 200 PJ could be allocated to separation processes [1]. In 2009, 15% of the global energy consumption was required for separation and purification processes to produce commodities. Mor

  8. Production of hydrogen, liquid fuels, and chemicals from catalytic processing of bio-oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, George W; Vispute, Tushar P; Routray, Kamalakanta

    2014-06-03

    Disclosed herein is a method of generating hydrogen from a bio-oil, comprising hydrogenating a water-soluble fraction of the bio-oil with hydrogen in the presence of a hydrogenation catalyst, and reforming the water-soluble fraction by aqueous-phase reforming in the presence of a reforming catalyst, wherein hydrogen is generated by the reforming, and the amount of hydrogen generated is greater than that consumed by the hydrogenating. The method can further comprise hydrocracking or hydrotreating a lignin fraction of the bio-oil with hydrogen in the presence of a hydrocracking catalyst wherein the lignin fraction of bio-oil is obtained as a water-insoluble fraction from aqueous extraction of bio-oil. The hydrogen used in the hydrogenating and in the hydrocracking or hydrotreating can be generated by reforming the water-soluble fraction of bio-oil.

  9. Study on the in-situ coupling process of fermentation, extraction and distillation for biobutanol production: process analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Fuqiang; Zhang, Xiaodong; Hua, Dongliang; Xu, Haipeng; Li, Yan; Mu, Hui

    2017-01-01

    The transfer process of the in-situ coupling process of fermentation, extraction and distillation for biobutanol production was discussed from a theoretical point of view. The existence of temperature gradient in the extraction section was proved. The force of solute in the extracted liquid was discussed. And the mass transfer mechanism and impetus of the FEDIC process was analyzed. The theoretical analysis could provide a foundation for the following research.

  10. Catalytic Functions of Standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Blind (Knut)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe three different areas and the examples have illustrated several catalytic functions of standards for innovation. First, the standardisation process reduces the time to market of inventions, research results and innovative technologies. Second, standards themselves promote the diffusi

  11. Green synthesis of Pd/CuO nanoparticles by Theobroma cacao L. seeds extract and their catalytic performance for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol and phosphine-free Heck coupling reaction under aerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrollahzadeh, Mahmoud; Sajadi, S Mohammad; Rostami-Vartooni, Akbar; Bagherzadeh, Mojtaba

    2015-06-15

    We report the green synthesis of palladium/CuO nanoparticles (Pd/CuO NPs) using Theobroma cacao L. seeds extract and their catalytic activity for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol and Heck coupling reaction under aerobic conditions. The catalyst was characterized using the powder XRD, TEM, EDS, UV-vis and FT-IR. This method has the advantages of high yields, elimination of surfactant, ligand and homogeneous catalysts, simple methodology and easy work up. The catalyst can be recovered from the reaction mixture and reused several times without any significant loss of catalytic activity.

  12. X-ray Fluorescence Tomography of Aged Fluid-Catalytic-Cracking Catalyst Particles Reveals Insight into Metal Deposition Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalirai, Samanbir; Boesenberg, Ulrike; Falkenberg, Gerald; Meirer, Florian; Weckhuysen, Bert M.

    2015-01-01

    Microprobe X-ray fluorescence tomography was used to investigate metal poison deposition in individual, intact and industrially deactivated fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) particles at two differing catalytic life-stages. 3D multi-element imaging, at submicron resolution was achieved by using a large

  13. Oat (Avena sativa) seed extract as an antifungal food preservative through the catalytic activity of a highly abundant class I chitinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hans Peter; Madsen, Lone Søvad; Petersen, Jørgen;

    2010-01-01

    to prevent the formation of P. roqueforti colonies. Proteins in the oat seed extracts were fractionated by column chromatography and proteins in fractions containing antifungal activity were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and database searches. Identified antifungal......Extracts from different higher plants were screened for the ability to inhibit the growth of Penicillium roqueforti, a major contaminating species in industrial food processing. Oat (Avena sativa) seed extracts exhibited a high degree of antifungal activity and could be used directly on rye bread...... candidates included thaumatin-like proteins, 1,3-beta-glucanase, permatin precursor, pathogenesis-related protein type 1, and chitinases of class I and II. Class I chitinase could be specifically removed from the extracts and was found to be indispensable for 50% of the P. roqueforti inhibiting activity...

  14. Studies of properties of complex carbon-silica adsorbents used in sorption-desorption processes (solid-phase extraction)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudzinski, W. [Maria Curie-Sklodowska Univ., Lublin (Poland). Faculty of Chemistry; Gierak, A. [Maria Curie-Sklodowska Univ., Lublin (Poland). Faculty of Chemistry; Leboda, R. [Maria Curie-Sklodowska Univ., Lublin (Poland). Faculty of Chemistry; Dabrowski, A. [Maria Curie-Sklodowska Univ., Lublin (Poland). Faculty of Chemistry

    1995-08-01

    Adsorption properties of carbon and carbon-silica adsorbents, prepared by n-octanol and glucose pyrolysis and catalytic decomposition of n-butane, have been studied regarding their applicability for the extraction and concentration of phenol, its nitro- and chloro-derivatives and trihalomethanes [THM] from aqueous solutions in the concentration range of 2 to 20 mg/l. The adsorbents investigated have been subjected to various physico-chemical processes (hydrothermal treatment, oxidation, silanization) in order to improve their efficiency. The adsorption isotherms measured correspond well to the Freundlich equation. A good correlation have been observed between the values of the Freundlich constant k and the adsorbent efficiency. The investigation has been carried out using the ``off line`` method, and recovery rates for the compounds studied as high as 40-100% have been obtained. (orig.)

  15. Optimization of the Ocimum basilicum L. extraction process regarding the antioxidant activity

    OpenAIRE

    Vidović Senka S.; Zeković Zoran P.; Lepojević Žika D.; Radojković Marija M.; Jokić Stela D.; Anačkov Goran T.

    2012-01-01

    The levels of input variables (temperature and extraction solvent) that optimize a particular response (total phenols content, total flavonoids content and antioxidant activity) of the Ocimum basilicum L. extraction process were determined by the response surface methodology (RSM). The influence of theextraction temperature on extraction process was investigated in the range from 33.8ºC to 76.2ºC, as well as of extraction solvent ethanol, in the range of concentrations from 21.7% to 78....

  16. Relative influence of process variables during non-catalytic wet oxidation of municipal sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroutian, Saeid; Smit, Anne-Marie; Gapes, Daniel James

    2013-11-01

    Individual and interactive effects of process variables on the degradation of fermented municipal sludge were examined during wet oxidation. The process was carried out at 220-240°C using 1:1-2:1 oxygen to biomass ratio and 300-500 rpm stirring speed. Response surface methodology coupled with a faced-centred central composite design was used to evaluate the effect of these variables on total suspended solids, volatile suspended solids and total chemical oxygen demand. Multivariate analysis was conducted for the initial and near completion stages of reaction: 5 and 60 min treatments, respectively. Temperature had the most significant effect on degradation rate throughout. During the initial stage the effect of mixing intensity was less significant than that of oxygen ratio. Mixing intensity did not influence degradation rate at the later stage in the process. During the near completion stage, the interaction of temperature and oxygen ratio had significant effect on sludge degradation.

  17. Thermodynamic and kinetic study of phenol degradation by a non-catalytic wet air oxidation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, Sébastien; Boutin, Olivier; Ferrasse, Jean-Henry; Malleret, Laure; Faucherand, Rémy; Viand, Alain

    2011-08-01

    This work is dedicated to an accurate evaluation of thermodynamic and kinetics aspects of phenol degradation using wet air oxidation process. Phenol is a well known polluting molecule and therefore it is important having data of its behaviour during this process. A view cell is used for the experimental study, with an internal volume of 150 mL, able to reach pressures up to 30 MPa and temperatures up to 350°C. Concerning the thermodynamic phase equilibria, experimental and modelling results are obtained for different binary systems (water/nitrogen, water/air) and ternary system (water/nitrogen/phenol). The best model is the Predictive Soave Redlich Kwong one. This information is necessary to predict the composition of the gas phase during the process. It is also important for an implementation in a process simulation. The second part is dedicated to kinetics evaluation of the degradation of phenol. Different compounds have been detected using GC coupled with a MS. A kinetic scheme is deduced, taking into account the evolution of phenol, hydroquinones, catechol, resorcinol and acetic acid. The kinetic parameters are calculated for this scheme. These data are important to evaluate the evolution of the concentration of the different polluting molecules during the process. A simplified kinetic scheme, which can be easily implemented in a process simulation, is also determined for the direct degradation of phenol into H(2)O and CO(2). The Arrhenius law data obtained for the phenol disappearance are the following: k=1.8×10(6)±3.9×10(5)M(-1)s(-1) (pre-exponential factor) and E(a)=77±8 kJ mol(-1) (activation energy).

  18. Catalytic Hydrothermal Conversion of Wet Biomass Feedstocks and Upgrading – Process Design and Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Jessica; Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse

    Liquid biofuels will play a major role for a more sustainable energy system of the future. The CatLiq® process is a 2nd generation biomass conversion process that is based on hydrothermal liquefaction. Hydrothermal liquefaction offers a very efficient and feedstock flexible way of converting...... biomass to bio-oil. Bio-oils from hydrothermal liquefaction are characterised by their high feedstock flexibility. Upgrading of complete bio-oils derived from hydrothermal conversion has not yet been extensively studied. Purpose of this work is to reduce the oxygen content of the bio-oil to improve...

  19. Pilot plant development of a new catalytic process for improved electrostatic separation of fly-ash in coal fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivares del Valle, J.; Salvador Martinez, L.; Muniz Baum, B.; Cortes Galeano, V. [University of Seville, Seville (Spain). Chemical and Environmental Engineering Dept.

    1996-12-31

    A new catalytic process for flue gas conditioning in pulverized coal fired power plants is outlined. Vanadium and platinum catalysts specifically prepared on ceramic honeycomb monoliths to oxidize SO{sub 2} into SO{sub 3} have been tested and evaluated at pilot scale. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Heterogeneous catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dombek, B.D.

    1996-03-01

    The primary objective of this project has been the pursuit of a catalyst system which would allow the selective production from syngas of methanol and isobutanol. It is desirable to develop a process in which the methanol to isobutanol weight ratio could be varied from 70/30 to 30/70. The 70/30 mixture could be used directly as a fuel additive, while, with the appropriate downstream processing, the 30/70 mixture could be utilized for methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) synthesis. The indirect manufacture of MTBE from a coal derived syngas to methanol and isobutanol process would appear to be a viable solution to MTBE feedstock limitations. To become economically attractive, a process fro producing oxygenates from coal-derived syngas must form these products with high selectivity and good rates, and must be capable of operating with a low-hydrogen-content syngas. This was to be accomplished through extensions of known catalyst systems and by the rational design of novel catalyst systems.

  1. Polystyrene-catalytic indium-tin-oxide nanorods grown on green light-emitting diodes for enhancing light extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhina; Li, Qiang; Li, Yufeng; Xiong, Han; Liu, Hao; Wang, Shuai; Zhang, Ye; Guo, Maofeng; Yun, Feng

    2016-08-01

    A novel technique for fabricating indium-tin-oxide (ITO) nanorods (NRs) on hexagonal-pyramid-surface green vertical light-emitting diodes (VLEDs) is demonstrated using electron-beam deposition with polystyrene spheres catalysis. The ITO NRs have high optical transmittance (>90%) in green wavelength and good crystal quality with a cubic structure. The VLED with ITO NRs has a 31% enhancement of light output power at 200 mA, compared with those without ITO NRs. Finite-difference time-domain simulations suggest that the power enhancement is attributed to the gradient refractive indices of the ITO NRs, and that the light extraction enhancement is caused by changes in ITO NR heights.

  2. Saraca indica bark extract mediated green synthesis of polyshaped gold nanoparticles and its application in catalytic reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Shib Shankar; Majumdar, Rakhi; Sikder, Arun Kanti; Bag, Braja Gopal; Patra, Biplab Kumar

    2014-04-01

    The bark extract of the traditional ayurvedic medicinal plant Saraca indica containing redox active polyphenolic compounds has been utilized for the one-step synthesis of gold nanoparticles at room temperature. The polyphenolic compounds acted as the reducing agent as well as the stabilizing agent without any additional capping agent. The synthesis of the gold nanoparticles of 15-23 nm size was complete in several minutes and no photo irradiation or heat treatment was necessary. Surface plasmon resonance, HRTEM, AFM, X-ray diffraction, and FTIR studies have been carried out to characterize the nanoparticles. Gold nanoparticles synthesized were of triangular, tetragonal, pentagonal, hexagonal, and spherical shapes. The synthesized gold nanoparticles have been used as a catalyst for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol at room temperature and the kinetics of the reduction reaction has been studied spectrophotometrically.

  3. Bubbling bed catalytic hydropyrolysis process utilizing larger catalyst particles and smaller biomass particles featuring an anti-slugging reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, Terry L; Felix, Larry G; Linck, Martin B; Roberts, Michael J

    2014-09-23

    This invention relates to a process for thermochemically transforming biomass or other oxygenated feedstocks into high quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels. In particular, a catalytic hydropyrolysis reactor, containing a deep bed of fluidized catalyst particles is utilized to accept particles of biomass or other oxygenated feedstocks that are significantly smaller than the particles of catalyst in the fluidized bed. The reactor features an insert or other structure disposed within the reactor vessel that inhibits slugging of the bed and thereby minimizes attrition of the catalyst. Within the bed, the biomass feedstock is converted into a vapor-phase product, containing hydrocarbon molecules and other process vapors, and an entrained solid char product, which is separated from the vapor stream after the vapor stream has been exhausted from the top of the reactor. When the product vapor stream is cooled to ambient temperatures, a significant proportion of the hydrocarbons in the product vapor stream can be recovered as a liquid stream of hydrophobic hydrocarbons, with properties consistent with those of gasoline, kerosene, and diesel fuel. Separate streams of gasoline, kerosene, and diesel fuel may also be obtained, either via selective condensation of each type of fuel, or via later distillation of the combined hydrocarbon liquid.

  4. Micro-channel catalytic reactor integration in CAPER and research/development on highly tritiated water handling and processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demange, D.; Cristescu, I.; Fanghaenel, E.; Gramlich, N.; Le, T.L.; Michling, R.; Moosmann, H.; Simon, K.H.; Wagner, R.; Welte, S. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Technical Physics, Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Glugla, M.; Shu, W.M.; Willms, R.S. [ITER Organization, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2015-03-15

    The CAPER facility of the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe has demonstrated the technology for the tokamak exhaust processing. CAPER has been significantly upgraded to pursue research/development programs towards highly tritiated water (HTW) handling and processing. The preliminary tests using a metal oxide reactor producing HTW afterward de-tritiated with PERMCAT were successful. In a later stage, a micro-channel catalytic reactor was installed in view of long term research program on HTW. The integration of this new system in CAPER was carried out along with a careful safety analysis due to high risk associated with such experiments. First experiments using the μ-CCR were performed trouble free, and HTW up to 360 kCi/kg was produced at a rate of 0.5 g/h. Such HTW was collected into a platinum zeolite bed (2 g of HTW for 20 g of Pt-zeolite), and in-situ detritiation was performed via isotopic exchange with deuterium. These first experimental results with tritium confirmed the potential for the capture and exchange method to be used for HTW in ITER. (authors)

  5. Bubbling bed catalytic hydropyrolysis process utilizinig larger catalyst particles and small biomass particles featuring an anti-slugging reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marker, Terry L.; Felix, Larry G.; Linck, Martin B.; Roberts, Michael J.

    2016-12-06

    This invention relates to a process for thermochemically transforming biomass or other oxygenated feedstocks into high quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels. In particular, a catalytic hydropyrolysis reactor, containing a deep bed of fluidized catalyst particles is utilized to accept particles of biomass or other oxygenated feedstocks that are significantly smaller than the particles of catalyst in the fluidized bed. The reactor features an insert or other structure disposed within the reactor vessel that inhibits slugging of the bed and thereby minimizes attrition of the catalyst. Within the bed, the biomass feedstock is converted into a vapor-phase product, containing hydrocarbon molecules and other process vapors, and an entrained solid char product, which is separated from the vapor stream after the vapor stream has been exhausted from the top of the reactor. When the product vapor stream is cooled to ambient temperatures, a significant proportion of the hydrocarbons in the product vapor stream can be recovered as a liquid stream of hydrophobic hydrocarbons, with properties consistent with those of gasoline, kerosene, and diesel fuel. Separate streams of gasoline, kerosene, and diesel fuel may also be obtained, either via selective condensation of each type of fuel, or via later distillation of the combined hydrocarbon liquid.

  6. Catalytically Active Guanylyl Cyclase B Requires Endoplasmic Reticulum-mediated Glycosylation, and Mutations That Inhibit This Process Cause Dwarfism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, Deborah M; Edmund, Aaron B; Otto, Neil M; Chaffee, Thomas S; Robinson, Jerid W; Potter, Lincoln R

    2016-05-20

    C-type natriuretic peptide activation of guanylyl cyclase B (GC-B), also known as natriuretic peptide receptor B or NPR2, stimulates long bone growth, and missense mutations in GC-B cause dwarfism. Four such mutants (L658F, Y708C, R776W, and G959A) bound (125)I-C-type natriuretic peptide on the surface of cells but failed to synthesize cGMP in membrane GC assays. Immunofluorescence microscopy also indicated that the mutant receptors were on the cell surface. All mutant proteins were dephosphorylated and incompletely glycosylated, but dephosphorylation did not explain the inactivation because the mutations inactivated a "constitutively phosphorylated" enzyme. Tunicamycin inhibition of glycosylation in the endoplasmic reticulum or mutation of the Asn-24 glycosylation site decreased GC activity, but neither inhibition of glycosylation in the Golgi by N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I gene inactivation nor PNGase F deglycosylation of fully processed GC-B reduced GC activity. We conclude that endoplasmic reticulum-mediated glycosylation is required for the formation of an active catalytic, but not ligand-binding domain, and that mutations that inhibit this process cause dwarfism.

  7. Ligand exchange and redox processes in iridium triazolylidene complexes relevant to catalytic water oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petronilho, Ana; Llobet, Antoni; Albrecht, Martin

    2014-12-15

    Iridium(III) complexes containing a bidentate spectator ligand have emerged as powerful catalyst precursors for water oxidation. Here we investigate the initial steps of the transformation at the iridium center when using complex [IrCp*(pyr-trz)Cl] 1 (Cp* = pentamethylcyclopentadienyl, pyr-trz = 4-(2-pyridyl)-1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidene), a potent water oxidation catalyst precursor. Ligand exchange with water is facile and is reversed in the presence of chloride ions, while MeCN substitution is effective only from the corresponding aqua complex. A pKa of 8.3 for the aqua complex was determined, which is in agreement with strong electron donation from the triazolylidene ligand that is comparable to aryl anions. Evaluation of the pH-dependent oxidation process in aqueous media reveals two regimes (pH 4-8.5 and above pH 10.5) where proton-coupled electron transfer processes occur. These investigations will help to further optimize water oxidation catalysts and indicate that MeCN as a cosolvent has adverse effects for initiating water coordination in the oxidation process.

  8. Mitsunobu Reactions Catalytic in Phosphine and a Fully Catalytic System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonomo, Joseph A; Aldrich, Courtney C

    2015-10-26

    The Mitsunobu reaction is renowned for its mild reaction conditions and broad substrate tolerance, but has limited utility in process chemistry and industrial applications due to poor atom economy and the generation of stoichiometric phosphine oxide and hydrazine by-products that complicate purification. A catalytic Mitsunobu reaction using innocuous reagents to recycle these by-products would overcome both of these shortcomings. Herein we report a protocol that is catalytic in phosphine (1-phenylphospholane) employing phenylsilane to recycle the catalyst. Integration of this phosphine catalytic cycle with Taniguchi's azocarboxylate catalytic system provided the first fully catalytic Mitsunobu reaction.

  9. Heterogeneous catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas. Fourteenth quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The project objectives are: (1) To discover, study, and evaluate novel heterogeneous catalytic systems for the production of oxygenated fuel enhancers from synthesis gas. In particular, novel heterogeneous catalysts will be studied and optimized for the production of: (a) C{sub 1}-C{sub 5} alcohols using conventional methanol synthesis conditions, and (b) methanol and isobutanol mixtures which may be used for the downstream synthesis of MTBE or related oxygenates. (2) To explore, analytically and on the bench scale, novel reactor and process concepts for use in converting syngas to liquid fuel products. (3) To develop on the bench scale the best combination of chemistry, catalyst, reactor, and total process configuration to achieve the minimum product cost for the conversion of syngas to liquid products. The authors have prepared a comparative Zn/Cr spinel oxide support that contains excess ZnO and have looked at the catalytic performance of (a) the bare support, (b) a potassium traverse on the bare support to determine the effect of alkali addition in the absence of Pd and (c) a potassium traverse on the support impregnated with 6 wt% Pd. The bare support is an inefficient methanol catalyst. Alkali addition results in an increase in selectivity to total alcohols vs. the bare support and a dramatic increase higher alcohol synthesis. Pd addition results in further improvements in performance. Selectivities increase with K loading. The 5 wt% K, 5.9 wt% Pd catalyst produces > 100 g/kg-hr of isobutanol at 440 C and 1,000 psi, with 85% selectivity to total alcohols and with a methanol/isobutanol mole ratio of <2. The authors intend to continue formulation screening using K/Pd formulations on ZnO and ZnCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} prepared conventionally and via controlled pH precipitation. They will also examine the effect of Cs in place of K as the alkali promoter and the use of Rh instead of Pd as a promoter.

  10. Combined Extraction Processes of Lipid from Chlorella vulgaris Microalgae: Microwave Prior to Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Chemat

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Extraction yields and fatty acid profiles from freeze-dried Chlorella vulgaris by microwave pretreatment followed by supercritical carbon dioxide (MW-SCCO2 extraction were compared with those obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction alone (SCCO2. Work performed with pressure range of 20–28 Mpa and temperature interval of 40–70 °C, gave the highest extraction yield (w/w dry weight at 28 MPa/40 °C. MW-SCCO2 allowed to obtain the highest extraction yield (4.73% compared to SCCO2 extraction alone (1.81%. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of microalgae oil showed that palmitic, oleic, linoleic and α-linolenic acid were the most abundant identified fatty acids. Oils obtained by MW-SCCO2 extraction had the highest concentrations of fatty acids compared to SCCO2 extraction without pretreatment. Native form, and microwave pretreated and untreated microalgae were observed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM. SEM micrographs of pretreated microalgae present tearing wall agglomerates. After SCCO2, microwave pretreated microalgae presented several micro cracks; while native form microalgae wall was slightly damaged.

  11. Liquefaction of Lignocellulose in Fluid Catalytic Cracker Feed: A Process Concept Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shushil; Lange, Jean-Paul; Van Rossum, Guus; Kersten, Sascha R A

    2015-12-07

    We report a process concept for lignocellulose liquefaction in a refinery stream that will be coprocessed with the resulting biocrude and that, therefore, does not require the recovery and recycling of the liquefaction solvent. Light cycle oil and vacuum gas oil were found to be the two most promising solvents. Both refinery streams could provide a liquid yield of 58 C % (64 % energy yield). A techno-economic assessment indicates that the biocrude could be produced at an energy-equivalent crude oil price of 51-64 $ per barrel at a wood cost of 85 $ per dry ton.

  12. Green synthesis of CuO nanoparticles using aqueous extract of Thymus vulgaris L. leaves and their catalytic performance for N-arylation of indoles and amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrollahzadeh, Mahmoud; Sajadi, S Mohammad; Rostami-Vartooni, Akbar; Hussin, Sarbast Mamand

    2016-03-15

    Copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by biological method using aqueous extract of Thymus vulgaris L. leaves as a reducing and capping agent. The progress of the reaction was monitored using UV-visible spectroscopy. The advantages of this procedure are simple operation, use of cheap, natural, nontoxic and benign precursors, absence of toxic reagents and mild and environmentally friendly conditions. The green synthesized CuO NPs was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). More importantly, the green synthesized CuO NPs was found to be an excellent heterogeneous catalyst for ligand-free N-arylation of indoles and amines. The N-arylated products were obtained in good to excellent yield and the catalyst can be recovered and reused for further catalytic reactions with almost no loss in activity.

  13. Technology Roadmap: Energy and GHG reductions in the chemical industry via catalytic processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    The chemical industry is a large energy user; but chemical products and technologies also are used in a wide array of energy saving and/or renewable energy applications so the industry has also an energy saving role. The chemical and petrochemical sector is by far the largest industrial energy user, accounting for roughly 10% of total worldwide final energy demand and 7% of global GHG emissions. The International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA) has partnered with the IEA and DECHEMA (Society for Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology) to describe the path toward further improvements in energy efficiency and GHG reductions in the chemical sector. The roadmap looks at measures needed from the chemical industry, policymakers, investors and academia to press on with catalysis technology and unleash its potential around the globe. The report uncovers findings and best practice opportunities that illustrate how continuous improvements and breakthrough technology options can cut energy use and bring down greenhouse gas (GHG) emission rates. Around 90% of chemical processes involve the use of catalysts – such as added substances that increase the rate of reaction without being consumed by it – and related processes to enhance production efficiency and reduce energy use, thereby curtailing GHG emission levels. This work shows an energy savings potential approaching 13 exajoules (EJ) by 2050 – equivalent to the current annual primary energy use of Germany.

  14. Self-Catalytic Growth of Tin Oxide Nanowires by Chemical Vapor Deposition Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bongani S. Thabethe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on the synthesis of tin oxide (SnO2 nanowires by a chemical vapor deposition (CVD process. Commercially bought SnO nanopowders were vaporized at 1050°C for 30 minutes with argon gas continuously passing through the system. The as-synthesized products were characterized using UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM. The band gap of the nanowires determined from UV-visible absorption was around 3.7 eV. The SEM micrographs revealed “wool-like” structure which contains nanoribbons and nanowires with liquid droplets at the tips. Nanowires typically have diameter in the range of 50–200 nm and length 10–100 μm. These nanowires followed the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS growth mechanism.

  15. Catalytic effect of ultrananocrystalline Fe₃O₄ on algal bio-crude production via HTL process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Pérez, Arnulfo; Diaz-Diestra, Daysi; Frias-Flores, Cecilia B; Beltran-Huarac, Juan; Das, K C; Weiner, Brad R; Morell, Gerardo; Díaz-Vázquez, Liz M

    2015-11-14

    We report a comprehensive quantitative study of the production of refined bio-crudes via a controlled hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) process using Ulva fasciata macroalgae (UFMA) as biomass and ultrananocrystalline Fe3O4 (UNCFO) as catalyst. X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy were applied to elucidate the formation of the high-quality nanocatalysts. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) and CHNS analyses showed that the bio-crude yield and carbon/oxygen ratios increase as the amount of UNCFO increases, reaching a peak value of 32% at 1.25 wt% (a 9% increase when compared to the catalyst-free yield). The bio-crude is mainly composed of fatty acids, alcohols, ketones, phenol and benzene derivatives, and hydrocarbons. Their relative abundance changes as a function of catalyst concentration. FTIR spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry revealed that the as-produced bio-crudes are free of iron species, which accumulate in the generated bio-chars. Our findings also indicate that the energy recovery values via the HTL process are sensitive to the catalyst loading, with a threshold loading of 1.25 wt%. GC-MS studies show that the UNCFO not only influences the chemical nature of the resulting bio-crudes and bio-chars, but also the amount of fixed carbons in the solid residues. The detailed molecular characterization of the bio-crudes and bio-chars catalyzed by UNCFO represents the first systematic study reported using UFMA. This study brings forth new avenues to advance the highly-pure bio-crude production employing active, heterogeneous catalyst materials that are recoverable and recyclable for continuous thermochemical reactions.

  16. Effect of extraction conditions on lycopene extractions from tomato processing waste skin using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Devinder; Wani, Ali Abas; Oberoi, D P S; Sogi, D S

    2008-05-15

    Skin, rich in lycopene, is an important component of waste originating from tomato paste manufacturing plants. A central composite design with five independent variables, namely solvent/meal ratio (20:1, 30:1, 40:1, 50:1, and 60:1v/w); number of extractions (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5); temperature (20, 30, 40, 50 and 60°C); particle size (0.05, 0.15, 0.25, 0.35 and 0.43mm); extraction time (4, 8, 12, 16 and 20min) was used to study their effects on lycopene extraction. The experimental values of lycopene ranged between 0.639 and 1.98mg/100g. The second order model obtained for extracted lycopene revealed a coefficient of determination (R(2)) of 0.99 and a standard error of 0.03. Maximum lycopene (1.98mg/100g) was extracted when the solvent/meal ratio, number of extractions, temperature, particle size and extraction time were 30:1v/w, 4, 50°C, 0.15mm and 8min, respectively.

  17. ANTIOXIDANT PLANT EXTRACTS IN THE MEAT PROCESSING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The review highlights the role of antioxidants in minimizing oxidative changes that may adversely affect the quality of meat and meat products, cause changes in their testing and nutritional properties. This applies particularly to the use of natural antioxidants based on plant extracts, which can be a good alternative to traditional antioxidants, thanks to its high content of phenolic compounds. From the literature it can be concluded that extracts of broccoli, rosemary, mint, grape seed and green tea have a significant antioxidant effect in the meat products. Broccoli and grape seeds extracts have a pronounced antioxidant activity compared to synthetic antioxidants. Laminarin/fucoidan extracts have prooxidative effect on lipid perperoxidation. Essential oils of L. angustifolia and M. piperita effectively inhibit E. coli O157:H7 and S. aureus in the chopped beef meat. The alcoholic extract of the dried leaves of oregano has the highest content of total phenols, however, does not exhibit antioxidant properties. The extracts of rosemary, orange, lemon, mint and curry have positive effect on the color of the meat products. When choosing natural antioxidants it is necessary to pay attention to their impact on testing and qualitative characteristics of these food products.

  18. Experimental and modeling study of the effect of CH(4) and pulverized coal on selective non-catalytic reduction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanwen; Cai, Ningsheng; Yang, Jingbiao; Xu, Bo

    2008-10-01

    The reduction of nitric oxide using ammonia combined with methane and pulverized coal additives has been studied in a drop tube furnace reactor. Simulated flue gas with 1000 ppm NO(x) and 3.4% excess oxygen was generated by cylinder gas. Experiments were performed in the temperature range of 700-1200 degrees C to investigate the effects of additives on the DeNO(x) performance. Subsequently, a kinetic mechanism was modified and validated based on experimental results, and a computational kinetic modeling with CHEMKIN was conducted to analyze the secondary pollutants. For both methane and pulverized coal additives, the temperature window is shifted towards lower temperatures. The appropriate reaction temperature is shifted to about 900 and 800 degrees C, respectively with 1000 ppm methane and 0.051 g min(-1) pulverized lignite coal. The addition of methane and pulverized coal widens the temperature window towards lower temperature suggesting a low temperature application of the process. Furthermore, selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) reaction rate is accelerated evidently with additives and the residence time to complete the reaction is shortened distinctly. NO(x) reduction efficiency with 80% is achieved in about 0.3s without additive at 1000 degrees C. However, it is achieved in only about 0.2s with 100 ppm methane as additive, and only 0.07 and 0.05s are needed respectively for the cases of 500 and 1000 ppm methane. The modified kinetic modeling agrees well with the experimental results and reveals additional information about the process. Investigation on the byproducts where NO(2) and N(2)O were analyzed by modeling and the others were investigated by experimental means indicates that emissions would not increase with methane and pulverized coal additions in SNCR process and the efficacious temperature range of SNCR reaction is widened approximately with 100 degrees C.

  19. Science Letters: Structure relationship of nitrochlorobenzene catalytic degradation process in water over palladium-iron bimetallic catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Shao-feng; ZHOU Hong-yi; AO Xu-ping; XU Xin-hua; LOU Zhang-hua

    2006-01-01

    Two isomers of nitrochlorobenzene (o-, and p-NCB) were treated by a Pd/Fe catalyst in aqueous solutions through catalytic amination and dechlorination. Nitrochlorobenzenes are rapidly converted to form chloroanilines (CAN) first through an amination process, and then rapidly dechlorinated to become aniline (AN) and Cl-, without the involvement of any other intermediate reaction products. The amination and dechlorination reaction are believed to take place predominantly on the surface site of the Pd/Fe catalysts. The dechlorination rate of the reductive degradation of the two isomers of nitrochlorobenzene (o-, and p-NCB) in the presence of Pd/Fe as a catalyst was measured experimentally. In all cases, the reaction rate constants were found to increase with the decrease in the Gibbs free energy (correlation with the activation energy) of NCBs formation; the activation energy of each dechlorination reaction was measured to be 95.83 and 77.05 kJ/mol, respectively for o- and p-NCB. The results demonstrated that p-NCBs were reduced more easily than o-NCBs.

  20. Technical Process in Catalytic Cracking Reactor%催化裂化反应器研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵文斌; 朱丽云; 苏楷然; 王振波; 金有海

    2016-01-01

    论述了自提升管反应器诞生以来其结构变化的发展历程以及现代催化裂化工艺中使用的各类反应器,包括变径提升管反应器、多段进料提升管反应器、下行式反应器、组合式反应器以及其它类型的反应器。比较和归纳了各类反应器的特点和应用,阐述了组合式反应器的优点以及改进后的提升管反应器和组合式反应器在工业中的应用。在此基础上,提出了未来催化裂化反应器的研究方向。%The structure of riser reactor created and modern reactors of catalytic cracking process are introduced ,including diameter‐changing riser reactor ,multiple‐staged feeding riser reactor , downer reactor ,combined reactor and other reactors .The application and characteristics of vari‐ous reactors are compared and summarized ,the paper mainly elaborates the advantages of com‐bined reactor and application of improved riser reactor and combined reactor in industry .Using this as a foundation ,some suggestions for future research are described .

  1. A new combined nuclear magnetic resonance and Raman spectroscopic probe applied to in situ investigations of catalysts and catalytic processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camp, Jules C. J.; Mantle, Michael D. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3RA (United Kingdom); York, Andrew P. E. [Johnson Matthey Technology Centre, Blounts Court, Sonning Common, Reading RG4 9NH (United Kingdom); McGregor, James, E-mail: james.mcgregor@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-15

    Both Raman and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies are valuable analytical techniques capable of providing mechanistic information and thereby providing insights into chemical processes, including catalytic reactions. Since both techniques are chemically sensitive, they yield not only structural information but also quantitative analysis. In this work, for the first time, the combination of the two techniques in a single experimental apparatus is reported. This entailed the design of a new experimental probe capable of recording simultaneous measurements on the same sample and/or system of interest. The individual datasets acquired by each spectroscopic method are compared to their unmodified, stand-alone equivalents on a single sample as a means to benchmark this novel piece of equipment. The application towards monitoring reaction progress is demonstrated through the evolution of the homogeneous catalysed metathesis of 1‑hexene, with both experimental techniques able to detect reactant consumption and product evolution. This is extended by inclusion of magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR capabilities with a custom made MAS 7 mm rotor capable of spinning speeds up to 1600 Hz, quantified by analysis of the spinning sidebands of a sample of KBr. The value of this is demonstrated through an application involving heterogeneous catalysis, namely the metathesis of 2-pentene and ethene. This provides the added benefit of being able to monitor both the reaction progress (by NMR spectroscopy) and also the structure of the catalyst (by Raman spectroscopy) on the very same sample, facilitating the development of structure-performance relationships.

  2. Carbon to electricity in a solid oxide fuel cell combined with an internal catalytic gasification process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Konsolakis; G. E. Marnellos; A. Al-Musa; N. Kaklidis; I. Garagounis; V. Kyriakou

    2015-01-01

    This study explores strategies to develop highly efficient direct carbon fuel cells (DCFCs) by com‐bining a solid‐oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with a catalyst‐aided carbon‐gasification process. This system employs Cu/CeO2 composites as both anodic electrodes and carbon additives in a cell of the type:carbon|Cu‐CeO2/YSZ/Ag|air. The study investigates the impact on in situ carbon‐gasification and DCFC performance characteristics of catalyst addition and variation in the carrier gas used (inert He versus reactive CO2). The results indicate that cell performance is significantly improved by infusing the catalyst into the carbon feedstock and by employing CO2 as the carrier gas. At 800 °C, the maxi‐mum power output is enhanced by approximately 40% and 230% for carbon/CO2 and car‐bon/catalyst/CO2 systems, respectively, compared with that of the carbon/He configuration. The increase observed when employing the catalyst and CO2 as the carrier gas can be primarily at‐tributed to the pronounced effect of the catalyst on carbon‐gasification through the re‐verse‐Boudouard reaction, and the subsequent in situ electro‐oxidation of CO at the anode three‐phase boundary.

  3. Effects of ferric ions on the catalytic ozonation process on sanitary landfill leachates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messias Borges Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Leachates exhibiting an unstable ratio of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD and chemical oxygen demand (COD of approximately 0.45 are typical of new landfills in the City of Cachoeira Paulista, Brazil. Although the organic matter portion is bio-treatable, the presence of refractory leached organic material requires unconventional effluent-treatment processes. Leachate treatment with ozone oxidation, in the presence of ferric ions, acts as catalyst in the formation of hydroxyl radicals. Ozone was obtained by corona-discharge from high-purity O2 gas. The treatment was performed in natura in a jacketed borosilicate glass reactor containing 900 ml of leachate. The analyzed response variable was expressed as the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC. In order to determine the optimal proportions to produce the greatest degradation rate for organic materials, variations in experimental O2 flow-fed to the generator, the Fe(iii concentration, and the output of the ozonator were conducted over two experimental runs. Experimental models showed a DOC degradation on the order of 81.25%.

  4. Situation and Developing Trend of Rare-Earth Countercurrent Extraction Processes Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴天佑; 杨辉

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of the description of the rare-earth countercurrent extraction process, the on-line detecting method and equipments of rare-earth elements and the application in the process of the rare-earth countercurrent extraction are summarized. The procedure simulation of the computer, the automation control method and its current application are also mentioned in the process of rare-earth countercurrent extraction. The method of soft sensor is proposed. Optimal control method based on object-oriented rare-earth countercurrent extraction process and integrated automation system composed of process management system and process control system are presented, which are the developing direction of the automation of rare-earth countercurrent extraction process.

  5. Optimization of Process Parameters and Kinetic Model of Enzymatic Extraction of Polyphenols from Lonicerae Flos

    OpenAIRE

    Kong,Fansheng; Yu, Shujuan; Bi, Yongguang; Huang, Xiaojun; Huang, Mengqian

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To optimize and verify the cellulase extraction of polyphenols from honeysuckle and provide a reference for enzymatic extracting polyphenols from honeysuckle. Materials and Methods: The uniform design was used According to Fick's first law and kinetic model, fitting analysis of the dynamic process of enzymatic extracting polyphenols was conducted. Results: The optimum enzymatic extraction parameters for polyphenols from honeysuckle are found to be 80% (v/v) of alcohol, 35:1 (mL/g) ...

  6. Optimization of Enzymatic Process for Vanillin Extraction Using Response Surface Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Qinghuang Wang; Zhong Chu; Huasong Wu; Lehe Tan; Fei Xu; Fenglin Gu

    2012-01-01

    Vanillin was extracted from vanilla beans using pretreatment with cellulase to produce enzymatic hydrolysis, and response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the processing parameters of this extraction. The effects of heating time, enzyme quantity and temperature on enzymatic extraction of vanillin were evaluated. Extraction yield (mg/g) was used as the response value. The results revealed that the increase in heating time and the increase in enzyme quantity (within certain ran...

  7. Oat (Avena sativa) seed extract as an antifungal food preservative through the catalytic activity of a highly abundant class I chitinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Hans Peter; Madsen, Lone Søvad; Petersen, Jørgen; Andersen, Jesper Tapdrup; Hansen, Anne Maria; Beck, Hans Christian

    2010-03-01

    Extracts from different higher plants were screened for the ability to inhibit the growth of Penicillium roqueforti, a major contaminating species in industrial food processing. Oat (Avena sativa) seed extracts exhibited a high degree of antifungal activity and could be used directly on rye bread to prevent the formation of P. roqueforti colonies. Proteins in the oat seed extracts were fractionated by column chromatography and proteins in fractions containing antifungal activity were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and database searches. Identified antifungal candidates included thaumatin-like proteins, 1,3-beta-glucanase, permatin precursor, pathogenesis-related protein type 1, and chitinases of class I and II. Class I chitinase could be specifically removed from the extracts and was found to be indispensable for 50% of the P. roqueforti inhibiting activity. The purified class I chitinase has a molecular weight of approximately 34 kDa, optimal chitinase activity at pH 7, and exists as at least two basic isoforms (pI values of 7.6 and 8.0). Partial sequencing of the class I chitinase isoforms by LC-MS/MS revealed a primary structure with high similarity to class I chitinases of wheat (Triticum aestivum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), and rye (Secale cereale). Oat, wheat, barley, and rye seed extracts were compared with respect to the abundance of the class I chitinase and decrease in antifungal activity when class I chitinase is removed. We found that the oat seed class I chitinase is at least ten times more abundant than the wheat, barley, and rye homologs and that oat seed extracts are highly active toward P. roqueforti as opposed to extracts of other cereal seeds.

  8. Selective extraction of cesium: from compound to process; Extraction selective du cesium: de la molecule au procede

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, N.; Eymard, S.; Tournois, B.; Dozol, J.F. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Entreposage et de Stockage des Dechets (DCC/DESD/SEP), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2000-07-01

    Under the French law of 30 December 1991 on nuclear waste management, research is conducted to recover long-lived fission products from high-level radioactive effluents generated by spent fuel reprocessing, in order to destroy them by transmutation or encapsulate them in specific matrices. Cesium extraction with mono and bis-crown calix(4)arenes (Frame 1) is a candidate for process development. These extractants remove cesium from highly acidic or basic pH media even with high salinity. A real raffinate was treated in 1994 in a hot cell to extract cesium with a calix-crown extractant. The success of this one batch experiment confirmed the feasibility of cesium decontamination from high-level liquid waste. It was then decided to develop a process flowchart to extract cesium selectively from high-level raffinate, to be included in the general scheme of long-lived radionuclide partitioning. It was accordingly decided to develop a process based on liquid-liquid extraction and hence optimize a calixarene/diluent solvent according to: - hydraulic properties: density, viscosity, interfacial tension, - chemical criteria: sufficient cesium extraction (depending on the diluent), kinetics, third phase elimination... New mono-crown-calixarenes branched with long aliphatic groups (Frame 2) were designed to be soluble in aliphatic diluents. To prevent third phase formation associated with nitric acid extraction, the addition of modifiers (alcohol, phosphate and amide) in the organic phase was tested (Frame 3). Table 1 shows examples of calixarene/diluent systems suitable for a process flowchart, and Figure 2 provides data on cesium extraction with these new systems. Alongside these improvements, a system based on a modified 1,3-di(n-octyl-oxy)2,4-calix[4]arene crown and a modified diluent was also developed, considering a mixed TPH/NPHE system as the diluent, where TPH (hydrogenated tetra propylene) is a common aliphatic industrial solvent and NPHE is nitrophenyl

  9. Alveolar process reconstruction after tooth extraction by orthodontic indications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalev М.О.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to determine indications for alveolar bone reconstruction after tooth extraction according to orthodontic indications. Material and methods. 62 patients (first maturity level with dental arch asymmetry due to loss of a premolar on one side of the mouth were examined and treated. Frontal-diagonal coefficient of the dental arch was used to determine the correlation between tooth size and dental arch parameters. Results. It has been demonstrated that changes of the alveolar ridge following the extraction of the first premolars in patients of the experimental group were less significant as compared with the controls. Conclusion. It is reasonable to apply this method simultaneously with the removal of a tooth for orthodontic indications or when the alveolar ridge in the post-extraction socket leaves insufficient bone volume.

  10. System of extraction of volatiles from soil using microwave processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethridge, Edwin C. (Inventor); Kaukler, William F. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A device for the extraction and collection of volatiles from soil or planetary regolith. The device utilizes core drilled holes to gain access to underlying volatiles below the surface. Microwave energy beamed into the holes penetrates through the soil or regolith to heat it, and thereby produces vapor by sublimation. The device confines and transports volatiles to a cold trap for collection.

  11. PARTICULARITIES REGARDING THE OPERATING PROCESS OF THE CUTTING AND EXTRACTION DEVICE IN THE CANDU HORIZONTAL FUEL CHANNELS PRESSURE TUBE DECOMMISSIONING PART II: CUTTING AND EXTRACTING PRESSURE TUBE PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin POPESCU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some details of operation process for a Cutting and Extraction Device (CED in order to achieve the decommissioning of the horizontal fuel channels pressure tube in the CANDU 6 nuclear reactor. The most important characteristic of the Cutting and Extraction Device (CED is his capability of totally operator’s protection against the nuclear radiation during pressure tube decommissioning. The cutting and extracting pressure tube processes present few particularities due to special adopted technical solutions: a special module with three cutting rollers (system driven by an actuator, a guiding-extracting and connecting module (three fixing claws which are piloted by an actuator and block the device in the connecting position with extracting plugs. The Cutting and Extraction Device (CED is a train of modules equipped with special systems to be fully automated, connected with a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC and controlled by an operator panel type Human Machine Interface (HMI. All processes are monitored by video cameras. In case of error, the process is automatically stopped, the operator receiving an error message and the last sequence could be reinitialized or aborted due to safety reasons.

  12. Study on non-saponification extraction process for rare earth separation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Yanfei; LONG Zhiqi; HUANG Xiaowei; FENG Zongyu; CUI Dali; WANG Liangshi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to overcome the disadvantages of ammonia-nitrogen wastewater pollution and high cost of sodium saponification in rare earth separation process.The study focused on the non-saponification extraction technology with magnesia.The influences of the content and particle size of magnesia,reaction time,reaction temperature,and O/A on cerium extraction rate were also discussed.The results showed that the hydrogen ions of extractant were exchanged by rare earth ions when organic extractant and rare earth solution were mixed with magnesia powder,and then the exchanged hydrogen dissolved magnesia to make the acidity of the system stable.The magnesium ions were not participated in the extraction reaction.Non-saponification extraction process of rare earth had been realized.The cerium extraction rate could reach up to 99% in single stage within the optimal reaction conditions.

  13. Process Optimization of Ultrasonic Extraction of Puerarin Based on Support Vector Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Chen; Xiaoyi Huang; Yanlei Qi; Xin Qi; Qing Guo

    2014-01-01

    In ultrasonic extraction technology, optimization of technical parameters often considers extraction medium only, without including ultrasonic parameters. This paper focuses on controlling the ultrasonic extraction process of puerarin, investigating the influence of ultrasonic parameters on extraction rate, and empirical y analyzing the main components of Pueraria, i.e., isoflavone compounds. A method is presented combining orthogonal experi-mental design with a support vector machine and a predictive model is established for optimization of technical parameters. From the analysis with the predictive model, appropriate process parameters are achieved for higher extraction rate. With these parameters in the ultrasonic extraction of puerarin, the experimental result is satisfactory. This method is of significance to the study of extracting root-stock plant medicines.

  14. Optimization of TRPO Process Parameters for Americium Extraction from High Level Waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jing; WANG Jianchen; SONG Chongli

    2001-01-01

    The numerical calculations for Am multistage fractional extraction by trialkyl phosphine oxide (TRPO) were verified by a hot test.1750 L/t-U high level waste (HLW) was used as the feed to the TRPO process.The analysis used the simple objective function to minimize the total waste content in the TRPO process streams.Some process parameters were optimized after other parameters were selected.The optimal process parameters for Am extraction by TRPO are:10 stages for extraction and 2 stages for scrubbing;a flow rate ratio of 0.931 for extraction and 4.42 for scrubbing;nitric acid concentration of 1.35 mol/L for the feed and 0.5 mol/L for the scrubbing solution.Finally,the nitric acid and Am concentration profiles in the optimal TRPO extraction process are given.

  15. Catalytic Oxidation of Benzene Over LaCoO3 Perovskite-Type Oxides Prepared Using Microwave Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Won Young; Song, Young In; Lim, Kwon Taek; Lee, Gun Dae; Lee, Man Sig; Hong, Seong-Soo

    2015-01-01

    LaCoO3 perovskite type oxides were successfully prepared using microwave-assisted method, characterized by TG/DTA, XRD, XPS and H2-TPR and their catalytic activities for combustion of benzene were determined. Almost of catalyst showed perovskite crystalline phase and 13-84 nm particle size. LaCoO3 catalysts prepared by microwave-assisted method showed the highest activity and the conversion reached almost 100% at 360 degrees C. In the LaCoO3-type catalyst, the partial substitution of Sr into site A enhanced the catalytic activity on the combustion of benzene. The higher amount of the chemisorbed oxygen was, the better the performance of the combustion catalyst. The catalytic activity of perovskite-type oxides showed a good relationship with the results of H2-TPR and XPS measurement.

  16. Extracting Coherent Information from Noise Based Correlation Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    LONG-TERM GOALS The goal of this research is to establish methodologies to utilize ambient noise in the ocean and to determine what scenarios...None PUBLICATIONS [1] “ Monitoring deep-ocean temperatures using acoustic ambinet noise,”K. W. Woolfe, S. Lani, K.G. Sabra, W. A. Kuperman...Geophys. Res. Lett., 42,2878–2884, doi:10.1002/2015GL063438 (2015). [2] “Optimized extraction of coherent arrivals from ambient noise correlations in

  17. Image Processing for Planetary Limb/Terminator Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udomkesmalee, S.; Zhu, D. Q.; Chu, C. -C.

    1995-01-01

    A novel image segmentation technique for extracting limb and terminator of planetary bodies is proposed. Conventional edge- based histogramming approaches are used to trace object boundaries. The limb and terminator bifurcation is achieved by locating the harmonized segment in the two equations representing the 2-D parameterized boundary curve. Real planetary images from Voyager 1 and 2 served as representative test cases to verify the proposed methodology.

  18. Advanced applications of natural language processing for performing information extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Rodrigues, Mário

    2015-01-01

    This book explains how can be created information extraction (IE) applications that are able to tap the vast amount of relevant information available in natural language sources: Internet pages, official documents such as laws and regulations, books and newspapers, and social web. Readers are introduced to the problem of IE and its current challenges and limitations, supported with examples. The book discusses the need to fill the gap between documents, data, and people, and provides a broad overview of the technology supporting IE. The authors present a generic architecture for developing systems that are able to learn how to extract relevant information from natural language documents, and illustrate how to implement working systems using state-of-the-art and freely available software tools. The book also discusses concrete applications illustrating IE uses.   ·         Provides an overview of state-of-the-art technology in information extraction (IE), discussing achievements and limitations for t...

  19. Controllability of plutonium concentration for FBR fuel at a solvent extraction process in the PUREX process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enokida, Youichi; Kitano, Motoki; Sawada, Kayo [Nagoya University, 1 Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya-shi, Aichi-ken, 4630052 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    Typical Purex solvent extraction systems for the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel have a feed material containing dilute, 1% in weight, plutonium, along with uranium and fission products. Current reprocessing proposals call for no separation of the pure plutonium. The work described in this paper studied, by computer simulation, the fundamental feasibility of preparing a 20% concentrated plutonium product solution from the 1% feed by adjusting only the feed rates and acid concentrations of the incoming streams and without the addition of redox reagents for the plutonium. A set of process design flowsheets has been developed to realize a concentrated plutonium solution of a 20% stream from the dilute plutonium feed without using redox reagents. (authors)

  20. Treatment of phenol wastewater by microwave-induced ClO2-CuOx/Al2O3 catalytic oxidation process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The catalyst of CuOx/Al2O3 was prepared by the dipping-sedimentation method using γ-Al2O3 as a carrier. CuO and Cu2O were loaded on the surface of γ-Al2O3, characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In the presence of CuOx/Al2O3, the microwave-induced chlorine dioxide (ClO2) catalytic oxidation process was conducted for the treatment of synthetic wastewater containing 100 mg/L phenol. The relationships between removal percentage and initial ClO2 concentration, catalyst dosage, microwave power, contact time, initial phenol concentration and pH were investigated and the results showed that microwave-induced ClO2-CuOx/Al2O3 process could effectively degrade contaminants in a short reaction time with a low oxidant dosage, extensive pH range. Under a given condition (ClO2 concentration 80 mg/L, microwave power 50 W, contact time 5 min, catalyst dosage 50 g/L, pH 9), phenol removal percentage approached 92.24%, corresponding to 79.13% of CODCr removal. The removal of phenol by microwave-induced ClO2-CuOx/Al2O3 catalytic oxidation process was a complicated non-homogeneous solid/water reaction, which fitted pseudo-first-order by kinetics. Compared with traditional ClO2 oxidation, ClO2 catalytic oxidation and microwave-induced ClO2 oxidation, microwave-induced ClO2 catalytic oxidation system could significantly enhance the degradation efficiency. It provides an effective technology for the removal of phenol wastewater.

  1. Process optimization and analysis of microwave assisted extraction of pectin from dragon fruit peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirugnanasambandham, K; Sivakumar, V; Prakash Maran, J

    2014-11-01

    Microwave assisted extraction (MAE) technique was employed for the extraction of pectin from dragon fruit peel. The extracting parameters were optimized by using four-variable-three-level Box-Behnken design (BBD) coupled with response surface methodology (RSM). RSM analysis indicated good correspondence between experimental and predicted values. 3D response surface plots were used to study the interactive effects of process variables on extraction of pectin. The optimum extraction conditions for the maximum yield of pectin were power of 400 W, temperature of 45 °C, extracting time of 20 min and solid-liquid ratio of 24 g/mL. Under these conditions, 7.5% of pectin was extracted.

  2. Optimization of Enzymatic Process for Vanillin Extraction Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghuang Wang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Vanillin was extracted from vanilla beans using pretreatment with cellulase to produce enzymatic hydrolysis, and response surface methodology (RSM was applied to optimize the processing parameters of this extraction. The effects of heating time, enzyme quantity and temperature on enzymatic extraction of vanillin were evaluated. Extraction yield (mg/g was used as the response value. The results revealed that the increase in heating time and the increase in enzyme quantity (within certain ranges were associated with an enhancement of extraction yield, and that the optimal conditions for vanillin extraction were: Heating time 6 h, temperature 60 °C and enzyme quantity 33.5 mL. Calculated from the final polynomial functions, the optimal response of vanillin extraction yield was 7.62 mg/g. The predicted results for optimal reaction conditions were in good agreement with experimental values.

  3. Processing of Laser Scanner Data and Extraction of Structure Lines Using Methods of the Image Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUI Li-chun

    2004-01-01

    Airborne laser scanner data represents a new and independent technology for the highly automated generation of digital elevation models (DEM) and surface models. Airborne laser scanner raw data are unstructured and irregular points which need intensive post processing. The first step of a post processing is the separation of valuable points which lie on the ground surface (ground points) from outliners which are located above it (non-ground points). Another task is the extraction of structure lines from the separated ground points. Structure lines play an important role for the construction of precise DEM. The methods, based on mathematical morphology and robust parameter estimation, are explored for the detection of ground points and for the separation of ground points from non-ground points. The presented and developed method for the extraction of structure lines is based on the digital image processing methods and on the differential geometry of curves. This operator was initially developed for image processing and is now used in a new context. The developed and implemented methodology is open for further extension and compatibility. It is hence possible to use it in other fields of application. The presented work shows that image processing methods yield good results for the extraction of structure lines without the need of specific knowledge of objects.%激光扫描数据提供了一种新的手段用于获取高精度的数字地形表面模型. 原始的航空激光扫描数据表达的是一些非规则分布的"点云", 这些非规则分布的点需要进行有效的事后处理. 这种事后处理有2个目的:一是将那些分布在地表面上的点(即地面点)与分布在非地表面上的点(譬如树木、房屋或汽车上的点, 即非地面点)进行有效的分离;二是从分离后的地面点中提取结构线, 用于建立高精度的数字地面模型. 作者发展了一系列的基于数字形态学理论和稳健参数估计理论的

  4. Understanding leaf membrane protein extraction to develop a food-grade process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo Tenorio, Angelica; Boom, Remko M; van der Goot, Atze Jan

    2017-02-15

    Leaf membrane proteins are an underutilised protein fraction for food applications. Proteins from leaves can contribute to a more complete use of resources and help to meet the increasing protein demand. Leaf protein extraction and purification is applied by other disciplines, such as proteomics. Therefore, this study analysed proteomic extraction methods for membrane proteins as an inspiration for a food-grade alternative process. Sugar beet leaves were extracted with two proteomic protocols: solvent extraction and Triton X-114 phase partitioning method. Extraction steps contributed to protein purity and/or to selective fractionation, enabling the purification of specific proteins. It was observed that membrane proteins distributed among different solvents, buffers and solutions used due to their physicochemical heterogeneity. This heterogeneity does not allow a total membrane protein extraction by a unique method or even combinations of processing steps, but it enables the creation of different fractions with different physicochemical properties useful for food applications.

  5. Generalized model of synthesis quality monitoring system of extraction, processing and transportation of gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Леонид Иванович Нефедов

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The extraction and processing and gas transportation have been analyzed in the article. Decomposition of the process of monitoring is introduced based on that; allowing the hierarchical structure of the monitoring system is request. Scientific novelty consists in the fact that developed generalized synthesis quality model monitoring system to extract, processing and gas transportation, which allows solving the problem of synthesis of a unified system and criteria positions.

  6. The separation of extractants implemented in the DIAMEX-SANEX process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heres, Xavier [CEA-Marcoule, DEN/MAR/DRCP/SCPS, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze Cedex (France); Baron, P.; Hill, C.; Ameil, E.; Martinez, I. [CEA-Marcoule, DEN/MAR/DRCP/SCPS, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze Cedex (France); Rivalier, P. [CEA-Marcoule, DEN/MAR/DTEC/SGCS, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze Cedex (France)

    2008-07-01

    DIAMEX-SANEX is a process developed at the Cea to recover selectively the actinides(III) after a COEX{sup TM} or a PUREX process, in order to significantly decrease the radiotoxicity of the ultimate waste produced by the nuclear industry. This liquid-liquid extraction process is based on the DIAMEX process, using a malonamide supplemented by an acidic extractant. Besides an actinide extraction step and a lanthanide stripping step are implemented an actinide(III) stripping step and an extractant splitting step. The latter is carried out to avoid interactions between these two extractants during the first co-extraction step of the actinides and the lanthanides. This paper gives some results obtained with di-n-hexyl phosphoric acid (HDHP), which fulfills the required criteria for process development. Batch experiments or cold counter-current tests showed that it is possible to separate this extractant from DMDOHEMA. HDHP can moreover maintain the lanthanides(III) in the organic phase when the actinides(III) are back extracted from the organic phase. (authors)

  7. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbons: Dilute-Acid and Enzymatic Deconstruction of Biomass to Sugars and Catalytic Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tao, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scarlata, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tan, E. C. D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ross, J. [Harris Group Inc., New York, NY (United States); Lukas, J. [Harris Group Inc., New York, NY (United States); Sexton, D. [Harris Group Inc., New York, NY (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report describes one potential conversion process to hydrocarbon products by way of catalytic conversion of lignocellulosic-derived hydrolysate. This model leverages expertise established over time in biomass deconstruction and process integration research at NREL, while adding in new technology areas for sugar purification and catalysis. The overarching process design converts biomass to die die diesel- and naphtha-range fuels using dilute-acid pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, purifications, and catalytic conversion focused on deoxygenating and oligomerizing biomass hydrolysates.

  8. DNA extract characterization process for microbial detection methods development and validation

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Background Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays used in pathogen detection require rigorous methods development including characterizing DNA extraction products. A DNA extract characterization process is demonstrated using DNA extracted from five different cells types (two Gram-negatives: Escherichia coli, and Burkholderia thailandensis, spores and vegetative cells from the Gram-positive Bacillus cereus, and yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae) with six different methods. Results D...

  9. Electrochemical extraction of samarium from molten chlorides in pyrochemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castrillejo, Y., E-mail: ycastril@qa.uva.es [QUIANE/Dept Quimica Analitica, F. de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Prado de la Magdalena s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain); Fernandez, P. [QUIANE/Dept Quimica Analitica, F. de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Prado de la Magdalena s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain); Medina, J. [Dept Fisica Materia Condensada Cristalografia y Mineralogia, F. de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Prado de la Magdalena s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain); Hernandez, P. [Centro de Investigaciones Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Carr. Pachuca-Tulancingo Km. 4.5, C.P. 42076 Pachuca, Hidalgo (Mexico); Barrado, E. [QUIANE/Dept Quimica Analitica, F. de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Prado de la Magdalena s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain)

    2011-10-01

    This work concerns the electrochemical extraction of samarium from molten chlorides. In this way, the electrochemical behaviour of samarium ions has been investigated in the eutectic LiCl-KCl at the surface of tungsten, aluminium and aluminium coated tungsten electrodes. On a W inert electrode the electro-reduction of Sm(III) takes place in only one soluble-soluble electrochemical step Sm(III)/Sm(II). The electrochemical system Sm(II)/Sm(0) has not been observed within the electrochemical window, because of the prior reduction of Li(I) ions from the solvent, which inhibits the electro-extraction of Sm species from the salt on such a substrate. Sm metal in contact with the melt react to give Li(0) according to the reaction: Sm(0) + 2Li(I) {r_reversible} Sm(II) + 2Li(0). On the contrary, on reactive Al electrodes the electrochemical system Sm(II)/Sm(0) was observed within the electroactive range. The potential shift of the redox couple is caused by the decrease of Sm activity in the metal phase due to the formation of Sm-Al alloys at the interface. The formation mechanism of the intermetallic compounds was studied in a melt containing: (i) both Sm(III) and Al(III) ions, using W and Al coated tungsten electrodes, and (ii) Sm(III) ions using an Al electrode. Analysis of the samples after potentiostatic electrolysis by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), allowed the identification of Al{sub 3}Sm and Al{sub 2}Sm.

  10. Achillea millefolium L. extract mediated green synthesis of waste peach kernel shell supported silver nanoparticles: Application of the nanoparticles for catalytic reduction of a variety of dyes in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadadi, Bahar; Bordbar, Maryam; Nasrollahzadeh, Mahmoud

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are synthesized using Achillea millefolium L. extract as reducing and stabilizing agents and peach kernel shell as an environmentally benign support. FT-IR spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS), Thermo gravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize peach kernel shell, Ag NPs, and Ag NPs/peach kernel shell. The catalytic activity of the Ag NPs/peach kernel shell was investigated for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP), Methyl Orange (MO), and Methylene Blue (MB) at room temperature. Ag NPs/peach kernel shell was found to be a highly active catalyst. In addition, Ag NPs/peach kernel shell can be recovered and reused several times with no significant loss of its catalytic activity.

  11. Direct extraction of palladium and silver from waste printed circuit boards powder by supercritical fluids oxidation-extraction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kang; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Fu-Shen

    2016-11-15

    The current study was carried out to develop an environmental benign process for direct recovery of palladium (Pd) and silver (Ag) from waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) powder. The process ingeniously combined supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) and supercritical carbon dioxide (Sc-CO2) extraction techniques. SCWO treatment could effectively enrich Pd and Ag by degrading non-metallic component, and a precious metal concentrate (PMC) could be obtained, in which the enrichment factors of Pd and Ag reached 5.3 and 4.8, respectively. In the second stage, more than 93.7% Pd and 96.4% Ag could be extracted from PMC by Sc-CO2 modified with acetone and KI-I2 under optimum conditions. Mechanism study indicated that Pd and Ag extraction by Sc-CO2 was a complicated physiochemical process, involving oxidation, complexation, anion exchange, mass transfer and migration approaches. Accordingly, this study established a benign and effective process for selective recovery of dispersal precious metals from waste materials.

  12. Antiradical activities of Salvia officinalis and Viscum album L. extracts concentrated by ultrafiltration process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Lucian Radu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available   Background. In the present study the antioxidant properties were investigated of the medicinal plants Salvia officinalis L. (Labiaceae family and Viscum album L. (Loranthaceae, both of them known for a long time as a remedy in the traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to prove the efficiency of ultrafiltration process for the concentration of herbs extracts and to evaluate the concentrate’s antioxidant activity. Material and methods. The extracts were prepared by maceration, using different solvents. After filtering the extract through Isolab quantitative filter paper “medium”, each of the filtrates was processed by microfiltration (MF; Millipore filters with 45 μm, followed by ultrafiltration (UF. The regenerated cellulose (Millipore, polysulfone and polyacrylonitrile ultrafiltration membranes were used in the experiment. The initial extracts and samples of permeate and retentate after ultrafiltration of extracts have been characterized by determination of the protein total and total phenolic content. Standard methods like ABTS and DPPH assay are used to measure the antioxidant activity. Results. For the three types of tested membranes: Millipore, PSF and PAN, PAN membrane proves to have the greatest efficiency since it shows the highest permeate flux and the greatest retention degree for bioactive compounds. The concentrated extracts obtained after ultrafiltration with polyacrylonitrile membrane had the strongest scavenging activity for all extracts. Conclusions. The results of this study has revealed that the concentrated extracts have a very high radical scavenging activity (TEAC values for sage hydro-alcoholic concentrated extracts in range 351.87-479.04 μmol Trolox/mL extract and for mistletoe concentrated extract E2 in range 345.14-426.18 μmol Trolox/mL extract; the DPPH inhibition values was over 85% for S. officinalis concentrated extracts and ranges between 66.2% and 88.2% DPPH inhibition for V. album

  13. Evaluation of a sequential extraction process used for determining mercury binding mechanisms to coal combustion byproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, James D; Biswas, Pratim; Giammar, Daniel E

    2007-07-01

    Leaching of mercury from coal combustion byproducts is a concern because of the toxicity of mercury. Leachability of mercury can be assessed by using sequential extraction procedures. Sequential extraction procedures are commonly used to determine the speciation and mobility of trace metals in solid samples and are designed to differentiate among metals bound by different mechanisms and to different solid phases. This study evaluated the selectivity and effectiveness of a sequential extraction process used to determine mercury binding mechanisms to various materials. A six-step sequential extraction process was applied to laboratory-synthesized materials with known mercury concentrations and binding mechanisms. These materials were calcite, hematite, goethite, and titanium dioxide. Fly ash from a full-scale power plant was also investigated. The concentrations of mercury were measured using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) mass spectrometry, whereas the major elements were measured by ICP atomic emission spectrometry. The materials were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy. The sequential extraction procedure provided information about the solid phases with which mercury was associated in the solid sample. The procedure effectively extracted mercury from the target phases. The procedure was generally selective in extracting mercury. However, some steps in the procedure extracted mercury from nontarget phases, and others resulted in mercury redistribution. Iron from hematite and goethite was only leached in the reducible and residual extraction steps. Some mercury associated with goethite was extracted in the ion exchangeable step, whereas mercury associated with hematite was extracted almost entirely in the residual step. Calcium in calcite and mercury associated with calcite were primarily removed in the acid-soluble extraction step. Titanium in titanium dioxide and mercury adsorbed onto

  14. Real-time hypothesis driven feature extraction on parallel processing architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granmo, O.-C.; Jensen, Finn Verner

    2002-01-01

    Feature extraction in content-based indexing of media streams is often computational intensive. Typically, a parallel processing architecture is necessary for real-time performance when extracting features brute force. On the other hand, Bayesian network based systems for hypothesis driven feature......, rather than one-by-one. Thereby, the advantages of parallel feature extraction can be combined with the advantages of hypothesis driven feature extraction. The technique is based on a sequential backward feature set search and a correlation based feature set evaluation function. In order to reduce...

  15. Extraction of rare earth elements from hydrate-phosphate precipitates of apatite processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andropov, M. O.; Anufrieva, A. V.; Buynovskiy, A. S.; Makaseev, Y. N.; Mazov, I. N.; Nefedov, R. A.; Sachkov, V. I.; Stepanova, O. B.; Valkov, AV

    2016-01-01

    The features of extraction of rare earth elements (REE) were considered from hydrate-phosphate precipitates of REE of apatite processing by nitric acid technology. The preliminary purification of nitrate solution of REE from impurities of titanium, aluminum, iron, uranium and thorium was suggested to obtain stable solutions not forming precipitates. Washing the extract was recommended with the evaporated reextract that allows to obtain directly on the cascade of REE extraction the concentrated solutions suitable for the separation into groups by the extraction method. Technical decisions were suggested for the separation of REE in groups without the use of salting-out agent.

  16. Optimization of Extraction Process for Polysaccharide in Salvia Miltiorrhiza Bunge Using Response Surface Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanhua, Wang; Fuhua, Wu; Zhaohan, Guo; Mingxing, Peng; Yanan, Zhang; Ling, Pang Zhen; Minhua, Du; Caiying, Zhang; Zian, Liang

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to optimize the extraction process for Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge polysaccharide using response surface methodology The results showed that four operating parameters including microwave power, microwave time and the particle size had notable effects on the polysaccharide extraction of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. The effects could be ranked in decreasing order of importance as follows:. Microwave power > microwave time > the comminution degree. The optimal extraction parameters were determined as 573.83W of Microwave power and 8.4min of microwave time and 67.51mesh of the comminution degree, resulting in the yield of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge polysaccharide of 101.161mg / g. The established regression model describing polysaccharide extraction from as a function of the three extraction parameters was highly significant (R 2 = 0.9953). The predicted and experimental results were found to be in good agreement. Thus, the model can be applicable for the prediction of polysaccharide extraction from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge.

  17. Extracting Process and Mapping Management for Heterogennous Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagara, Igor; Tanuška, Pavol; Duchovičová, Soňa

    2013-12-01

    A lot of papers describe three common methods of data selection from primary systems. This paper defines how to select the correct method or combinations of methods for minimizing the impact of production system and common operation. Before using any method, it is necessary to know the primary system and its databases structures for the optimal use of the actual data structure setup and the best design for ETL process. Databases structures are usually categorized into groups, which characterize their quality. The classification helps to find the ideal method for each group and thus design a solution of ETL process with the minimal impact on the data warehouse and production system.

  18. An Extraction Process for Optimal Utilization of Naphtha Based on Molecule Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Tianxiao; Shen Benxian; Sun Hui

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the separation of aromatics from light naphtha by using extraction process was investigated for im-proving the utilization efficiency of naphtha. It is indicated that, using a mixture of propylene carbonate-diethylene glycol as the solvent, the optimal extraction conditions cover: a volume fraction of propylene carbonate in the mixed solvent of 0.3, a solvent to feed ratio of 8, and an extraction temperature of 308 K. Through the extraction process, the aromatics mass frac-tion increases from 10.05% in naphtha to 27.74% in extract oil. It is found that the aromatics yield of extract oil,RA, reaches 92.11%. As a result, in comparison with naphtha, the potential aromatics content of extract oil increases impressively by 18.03%. Meanwhile, the aromatics content of raffinate oil decreases to 1.33%, and the normal paraffin yield of raffinate oil, Rp, is 76.61%. Accordingly, higher total olefins yields can be obtained when using raffinate oil as the raw material for steam cracking. The present results show that the utilization efficiency of naphtha is improved through extraction process.

  19. Extraction of flavonoids from Tagetes patula: process optimization and screening for biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa M. Munhoz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The flowers of Tagetes patula L., Asteraceae, commonly known as French marigold, are used in folk medicine as an antiseptic, diuretic, blood purifier and insect repellent. This study was conducted to optimize the extraction process through the biomonitoring of flavonoids, using a statistical mixture simplex-centroid design, to evaluate the effect of the solvents water, ethanol and acetone, as well as mixtures of these solvents, assessed by the total flavonoid content. The extracts were tested for dry residue, radical scavenging activity, chromatographic profile, and larvicidal activity. The acetone extract had the highest total flavonoid content, 25.13 ± 1.02% (4.07%; and the best radical scavenging activity, with IC50 of 15.74 μg/ml ± 1.09 (6.92%, but with lower dry residue, 6.62 ± 1.33% (20.10%. The water extracts showed higher levels of dry residue, but lower total flavonoid content and radical scavenging activity than the acetone extract. The positive correlation between the total flavonoid content and radical scavenging activity of the extracts showed that flavonoids contribute significantly to the antioxidant capacity. The statistical mixture design allowed us to optimize the extraction of flavonoids from flowers of T. patula, with acetone as the best extraction solvent. Preliminary studies on the biological activity of the optimized extracts demonstrated a larvicidal effect of the acetone extract on Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.

  20. Microencapsulation and Storage Stability of Lycopene Extracted from Tomato Processing Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Ranveer,Rahul C.; Abhijeet A. Gatade; Harshwardhan A. Kamble; Akshya K. Sahoo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to optimize the encapsulation of lycopene using response surface methodology and to determine its stability. The lycopene was extracted from tomato processing industry waste. The extracted pigment was purified by crystallization method. The effect of different process parameters, viz, core to wall ratio, sucrose to gelatin and inlet temperature on encapsulation efficiency (EE) and encapsulation yield (EY) were studied. Structural study of encapsulated materi...

  1. Optimization of the Ocimum basilicum L. extraction process regarding the antioxidant activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidović Senka S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The levels of input variables (temperature and extraction solvent that optimize a particular response (total phenols content, total flavonoids content and antioxidant activity of the Ocimum basilicum L. extraction process were determined by the response surface methodology (RSM. The influence of theextraction temperature on extraction process was investigated in the range from 33.8ºC to 76.2ºC, as well as of extraction solvent ethanol, in the range of concentrations from 21.7% to 78.3%. For the preparation of basil dry extract, characterized with minimal IC50 value, the calculated optimal values of temperature and ethanol concentration were: 75.33ºC and 73.66% (w/w. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31013

  2. Water-enhanced solubility of carboxylic acids in organic solvents and its applications to extraction processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starr, J.N.; King, C.J.

    1991-11-01

    The solubilities of carboxylic acids in certain organic solvents increase remarkably with an increasing amount of water in the organic phase. This phenomenon leads to a novel extract regeneration process in which the co-extracted water is selectively removed from an extract, and the carboxylic acid precipitates. This approach is potentially advantageous compared to other regeneration processes because it removes a minor component of the extract in order to achieve a large recovery of acid from the extract. Carboxylic acids of interest include adipic acid, fumaric acid, and succinic acid because of their low to moderate solubilities in organic solvents. Solvents were screened for an increase in acid solubility with increased water concentration in the organic phase. Most Lewis-base solvents were found to exhibit this increased solubility phenomena. Solvents that have a carbonyl functional group showed a very large increase in acid solubility. 71 refs., 52 figs., 38 tabs.

  3. Computerized simulation of TRPO extraction process treating Chinese high level waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈靖; 王建晨; 等

    1996-01-01

    The dependence of main process parameters on each other in TRPO extraction process treating Chinese high level waste has been discussed by computer simulation.A group[ of satisfying process parameters has been obtained and the allowable change ranges have been determined.

  4. Interactive Digital Image Processing for Terrain Data Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    28 are illustrations of the subscenes as displayed on the cathode ray tube (CRT). The data are shown inverted to a negative. Geographic scene...LINE SEGEMENTS INTO THIS AREA (THEME PROCESSOR) Figure 52. Categorizing a Dry Gap By Width 78 OONOO. IP. *31O1101 II TS)O H NInit I IN . 4110V 1I| 0...minor change the program is recommended for general interactive use. e To date, processing of imagery data has been restricted to small geographical areas

  5. 工业催化重整过程动态建模与仿真%Dynamic Modeling and Simulation of a Commercial Naphtha Catalytic Reforming Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡永有; 徐巍华; 侯卫锋; 苏宏业; 褚健

    2005-01-01

    A first principles-based dynamic model for a continuous catalyst regeneration (CCR) platforming process, the UOP commercial naphtha catalytic reforming process, is developed in this paper. The lumping details of the naphtha feed and reaction scheme of the reaction model are given. The process model is composed of the reforming reaction model with catalyst deactivation, the furnace model and the separator model, which is capable of capturing the major dynamics that occurs in this process system. Dynamic simulations are performed based on Gear numerical algorithm and method of lines (MOL), a numerical technique dealing with partial differential equations (PDEs). The results of simulation are also presented. Dynamic responses caused by disturbances in the process system can be correctly predicted through simulations.

  6. Retinal vessel extraction using Lattice Neural Networks with Dendritic Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Roberto; Sanchez-Ante, Gildardo; Falcon-Morales, Luis E; Sossa, Humberto; Guevara, Elizabeth

    2015-03-01

    Retinal images can be used to detect and follow up several important chronic diseases. The classification of retinal images requires an experienced ophthalmologist. This has been a bottleneck to implement routine screenings performed by general physicians. It has been proposed to create automated systems that can perform such task with little intervention from humans, with partial success. In this work, we report advances in such endeavor, by using a Lattice Neural Network with Dendritic Processing (LNNDP). We report results using several metrics, and compare against well known methods such as Support Vector Machines (SVM) and Multilayer Perceptrons (MLP). Our proposal shows better performance than other approaches reported in the literature. An additional advantage is that unlike those other tools, LNNDP requires no parameters, and it automatically constructs its structure to solve a particular problem. The proposed methodology requires four steps: (1) Pre-processing, (2) Feature computation, (3) Classification and (4) Post-processing. The Hotelling T(2) control chart was used to reduce the dimensionality of the feature vector, from 7 that were used before to 5 in this work. The experiments were run on images of DRIVE and STARE databases. The results show that on average, F1-Score is better in LNNDP, compared with SVM and MLP implementations. Same improvement is observed for MCC and the accuracy.

  7. Ultrasonic Signal Processing Algorithm for Crack Information Extraction on the Keyway of Turbine Rotor Disk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hong Kyu; Seo, Won Chan; Park, Chan [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong O; Son, Young Ho [KIMM, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    An ultrasonic signal processing algorithm was developed for extracting the information of cracks generated around the keyway of a turbine rotor disk. B-scan images were obtained by using keyway specimens and an ultrasonic scan system with x-y position controller. The B-scan images were used as input images for 2-Dimensional signal processing, and the algorithm was constructed with four processing stages of pre-processing, crack candidate region detection, crack region classification and crack information extraction. It is confirmed by experiments that the developed algorithm is effective for the quantitative evaluation of cracks generated around the keyway of turbine rotor disk

  8. Interfacial Phenomena in Solvent Extraction and Its Influence on Process Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Solvent extraction is now finding applications in a broader range of fields than the past. Many of these applications require process equipment with shorter contact times, and in some cases to the point where the traditional equilibrium stage approach is not a good model for predicting performance. In addition,feed streams are becoming lower in concentration of the solute. This means greater feed to solvent flow ratios are being used and so loss of organics as entrainment in the feed is more of a concern both economically and environmentally. These trends mean that a greater emphasis is being placed on the kinetics of extraction and stripping in models to predict performance and on formation and coalescence of drops to control entrainment. This paper reviews recent advances in the tools for investigating kinetics and coalescence in solvent extraction processes and some of the insights that are being uncovered in these fundamental processes in solvent extraction technology.

  9. Intensification of microalgae drying and oil extraction process by vapor recompression and heat integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunfeng; Liu, Qingling; Ji, Na; Deng, Shuai; Zhao, Jun; Kitamura, Yutaka

    2016-05-01

    Reducing energy penalty caused by drying and oil extraction is the most critical challenge in microalgae biodiesel production. In this study, vapor recompression and heat integration are utilized to optimize the performance of wet microalgae drying and oil extraction. In the microalgae drying stage, the hot exhaust stream is recompressed and coupled with wet microalgae to recover the condensate heat. In the oil extraction stage, the exergy rate of recovered solvent is also elevated by compressor and then exchanged heat with feed and bottom stream in the distillation column. Energy and mass balance of the intensified process is investigated and compared with the conventional microalgae drying-extraction process. The simulation results indicated that the total energy consumption of the intensified process can be saved by 52.4% of the conventional route.

  10. Quantum chemical study on the catalytic mechanism of Na/K on NO-char heterogeneous reactions during the coal reburning process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng-cheng WEN; Zhi-hua WANG; Jun-hu ZHOU; Ke-fa CEN

    2009-01-01

    Quantum chemical simulation was used to investigate the catalytic mechanism of Na/K on NO-char heterogeneous reactions during the coal reburning process. Both NO-char and NO-NaYK reactions were considered as three-step processes in this calculation. Based on geometry optimizations made using the UB3LYP/6-31 G(d) method, the activation energies of NO-char and NO-Na/K reactions were calculated using the QC1SD(T)/6-3 i 1G(d, p) method; Results showed that the activation energy of the NO-Na/K reaction (107.9/82.0 kJ/mol) was much lower than that of the NO-char reaction (245.1 kJ/mol). The reactions of NaO/KO and Na2P/K2O reduced by char were also studied, and their thermodynamics were calculated using the UB3LYP/6-31G(d) method; Results showed that both Na and K can be refreshed easily and rapidly by char at high temperature during the coal rebuming process. Based on the calculations and analyses, the catalytic mechanism of Na/K on NO-char het-erogeneous reactions during the coal reburning process was clarified.

  11. Integrated microwave processing system for the extraction of organophosphorus pesticides in fresh vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lijie; Song, Ying; Hu, Mingzhu; Xu, Xu; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin; Ma, Qiang; Wang, Ziming

    2015-03-01

    A simple and efficient integrated microwave processing system (IMPS) was firstly assembled and validated for the extraction of organophosphorus pesticides in fresh vegetables. Two processes under microwave irradiation, dynamic microwave-assisted extraction (DMAE) and microwave-accelerated solvent elution (MASE), were integrated for simplifying the pretreatment of the sample. Extraction, separation, enrichment and elution were finished in a simple step. The organophosphorus pesticides were extracted from the fresh vegetables into hexane with DMAE, and then the extract was directly introduced into the enrichment column packed with active carbon fiber (ACF). Subsequently, the organophosphorus pesticides trapped on the ACF were eluted with ethyl acetate under microwave irradiation. No further filtration or cleanup was required before analysis of the eluate by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Some experimental parameters affecting extraction efficiency were investigated and optimized, such as microwave output power, kind and volume of extraction solvent, extraction time, amount of sorbent, elution microwave power, kind and volume of elution solvent, elution solvent flow rate. Under the optimized conditions, the recoveries were in the range of 71.5-105.2%, and the relative standard deviations were lower than 11.6%. The experiment results prove that the present method is a simple and effective sample preparation method for the determination of pesticides in solid samples.

  12. Simulation and analysis of multi-stage centrifugal fractional extraction process of 4-nitrobenzene glycine enantiomers☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Wen; Kewen Tang; Jicheng Zhou; Panliang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Based on the interfacial ligand exchange model and the law of conservation of mass, the multi-stage enantioselective liquid–liquid extraction model has been established to analyze and discuss on multi-stage centrifugal fractional extraction process of 4-nitrobenzene glycine (PGL) enantiomers. The influence of phase ratio, extractant concentra-tion, and PF6−concentration on the concentrations of enantiomers in the extract and raffinate was investigated by experiment and simulation. A good agreement between model and experiment was obtained. On this basis, the influence of many parameters such as location of stage, concentration levels, extractant excess, and number of stages on the symmetric separation performance was simulated. The optimal location of feed stage is the middle of fractional extraction equipment. The feed flow must satisfy a restricted relationship on flow ratios and the liquid throughout of centrifugal device. For desired purity specification, the required flow ratios decrease with extractant concentration and increase with PF6−concentration. When the number of stages is 18 stages at extractant excess of 1.0 or 14 stages at extractant excess of 2.0, the eeeq (equal enantiomeric excess) can reach to 99%.

  13. A new extraction process of refractory gold arsenosulfide concentrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuqun Meng; Tao Jin; Minjie Wu; Shaoling Su; Longbao Wang

    2003-01-01

    A new hydrometallurgical process for the refractory gold arsenosulfide concentrates under normal temperature and pressure was presented. The experimental results of a refractory gold concentrate show that the total consumption of NaOH in alkaline leaching is only 40% of those theoretically calculated under the conditions of full oxidization at the same oxidation of arsenic to arsenate and sulfur to sulfate. After alkaline leaching, cyanidation and adsorption were carried out for 24 h. The dissolution of gold by NaCN is increased to 95.3% from 12.8% before pretreatment, and meanwhile 99.3% of the adsorption of gold by activated charcoal.The consumption of NaCN for one ton ore is 10 kg, which is 1.2 times less than that before pretreatment. As it is carried out under normal temperature and pressure, the investment of installations is also decreased.

  14. Stable Isolation of Phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis Associated with High-Pressure Extraction Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yong Chang; Choi, Woo Seok; Park, Jong Ho; Park, Jin Oh; Jung, Kyung-Hwan; Lee, Hyeon Yong

    2013-01-01

    A method for stably purifying a functional dye, phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis was developed by a hexane extraction process combined with high pressure. This was necessary because this dye is known to be very unstable during normal extraction processes. The purification yield of this method was estimated as 10.2%, whose value is 3%–5% higher than is the case from another conventional separation method using phosphate buffer. The isolated phycocyanin from this process also showed the highest purity of 0.909 based on absorbance of 2.104 at 280 nm and 1.912 at 620 nm. Two subunits of phycocyanin namely α-phycocyanin (18.4 kDa) and β-phycocyanin (21.3 kDa) were found to remain from the original mixtures after being extracted, based on SDS-PAGE analysis, clearly demonstrating that this process can stably extract phycocyanin and is not affected by extraction solvent, temperature, etc. The stability of the extracted phycocyanin was also confirmed by comparing its DPPH (α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl) scavenging activity, showing 83% removal of oxygen free radicals. This activity was about 15% higher than that of commercially available standard phycocyanin, which implies that the combined extraction method can yield relatively intact chromoprotein through absence of degradation. The results were achieved because the low temperature and high pressure extraction effectively disrupted the cell membrane of Spirulina platensis and degraded less the polypeptide subunits of phycocyanin (which is a temperature/pH-sensitive chromoprotein) as well as increasing the extraction yield. PMID:23325046

  15. Stable Isolation of Phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis Associated with High-Pressure Extraction Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Hwan Jung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for stably purifying a functional dye, phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis was developed by a hexane extraction process combined with high pressure. This was necessary because this dye is known to be very unstable during normal extraction processes. The purification yield of this method was estimated as 10.2%, whose value is 3%–5% higher than is the case from another conventional separation method using phosphate buffer. The isolated phycocyanin from this process also showed the highest purity of 0.909 based on absorbance of 2.104 at 280 nm and 1.912 at 620 nm. Two subunits of phycocyanin namely α-phycocyanin (18.4 kDa and β-phycocyanin (21.3 kDa were found to remain from the original mixtures after being extracted, based on SDS-PAGE analysis, clearly demonstrating that this process can stably extract phycocyanin and is not affected by extraction solvent, temperature, etc. The stability of the extracted phycocyanin was also confirmed by comparing its DPPH (α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity, showing 83% removal of oxygen free radicals. This activity was about 15% higher than that of commercially available standard phycocyanin, which implies that the combined extraction method can yield relatively intact chromoprotein through absence of degradation. The results were achieved because the low temperature and high pressure extraction effectively disrupted the cell membrane of Spirulina platensis and degraded less the polypeptide subunits of phycocyanin (which is a temperature/pH-sensitive chromoprotein as well as increasing the extraction yield.

  16. Development of integrated, zero-G pneumatic transporter/rotating paddle incinerator/catalytic afterburner subsystem for processing human wastes on board spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, S. F.; Labak, L. J.; Honegger, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    A four component system was developed which consists of a particle size reduction mechanism, a pneumatic waste transport system, a rotating-paddle incinerator, and a catalytic afterburner to be integrated into a six-man, zero-g subsystem for processing human wastes on board spacecraft. The study included the development of different concepts or functions, the establishment of operational specifications, and a critical evaluation for each of the four components. A series of laboratory tests was run, and a baseline subsystem design was established. An operational specification was also written in preparation for detailed design and testing of this baseline subsystem.

  17. Extractive process for preparing high purity magnesium chloride hexahydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fezei Radouanne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper refers a method for the preparation of magnesium chloride hexahydrate (bischofite from Sebkha el Melah of Zarzis Tunisian natural brine. It is a five-stage process essentially based on crystallization by isothermal evaporation and chemical precipitation. The two first steps were dedicated to the crystallization of sodium chloride and potassiummagnesium double salts, respectively. Then, the resulting liquor was desulfated using calcium chloride solution. After that another isothermal evaporation stage was implemented in order to eliminate potassium ions in the form of carnallite, KCl.MgCl2.6H2O. At the end of this step, the recovered solution primarily composed of magnesium and chloride ions was treated by dioxan in order to precipitate magnesium chloride as MgCl2.6H2O.C4H8O2. This compound dried at constant temperature of 100°C gave good quality magnesium chloride hexahydrate. Besides this salt, the various by-products obtained from the different treatment stages are also useful.

  18. Advances in microbial leaching processes for nickel extraction from lateritic minerals - A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behra, Sunil Kumar; Mulaba-Bafubiandi, Antoine Floribert [Faculty of Engineering and the Built Environment, University of Johannesburg, (South Africa)

    2015-08-15

    Lateritic nickel minerals constitute about 80% of nickel reserves in the world, but their contribution for nickel production is about 40%. The obstacles in extraction of nickel from lateritic minerals are attributed to their very complex mineralogy and low nickel content. Hence, the existing metallurgical techniques are not techno-economically feasible and environmentally sustainable for processing of such complex deposits. At this juncture, microbial mineral processing could be a benevolent approach for processing of lateritic minerals in favor of nickel extraction. The microbial mineral processing route offers many advantages over conventional metallurgical methods as the process is operated under ambient conditions and requires low energy input; thus these processes are relatively simple and environment friendly. Microbial processing of the lateritic deposits still needs improvement to make it industrially viable. Microorganisms play the pivotal role in mineral bio-processing as they catalyze the extraction of metals from minerals. So it is inevitable to explore the physiological and bio-molecular mechanisms involved in this microbe-mineral interaction. The present article offers comprehensive information about the advances in microbial processes for extraction of nickel from laterites.

  19. Optimization of the ethanol recycling reflux extraction process for saponins using a design space approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xingchu; Zhang, Ying; Pan, Jianyang; Qu, Haibin

    2014-01-01

    A solvent recycling reflux extraction process for Panax notoginseng was optimized using a design space approach to improve the batch-to-batch consistency of the extract. Saponin yields, total saponin purity, and pigment yield were defined as the process critical quality attributes (CQAs). Ethanol content, extraction time, and the ratio of the recycling ethanol flow rate and initial solvent volume in the extraction tank (RES) were identified as the critical process parameters (CPPs) via quantitative risk assessment. Box-Behnken design experiments were performed. Quadratic models between CPPs and process CQAs were developed, with determination coefficients higher than 0.88. As the ethanol concentration decreases, saponin yields first increase and then decrease. A longer extraction time leads to higher yields of the ginsenosides Rb1 and Rd. The total saponin purity increases as the ethanol concentration increases. The pigment yield increases as the ethanol concentration decreases or extraction time increases. The design space was calculated using a Monte-Carlo simulation method with an acceptable probability of 0.90. Normal operation ranges to attain process CQA criteria with a probability of more than 0.914 are recommended as follows: ethanol content of 79-82%, extraction time of 6.1-7.1 h, and RES of 0.039-0.040 min-1. Most of the results of the verification experiments agreed well with the predictions. The verification experiment results showed that the selection of proper operating ethanol content, extraction time, and RES within the design space can ensure that the CQA criteria are met.

  20. Optimization of the ethanol recycling reflux extraction process for saponins using a design space approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingchu Gong

    Full Text Available A solvent recycling reflux extraction process for Panax notoginseng was optimized using a design space approach to improve the batch-to-batch consistency of the extract. Saponin yields, total saponin purity, and pigment yield were defined as the process critical quality attributes (CQAs. Ethanol content, extraction time, and the ratio of the recycling ethanol flow rate and initial solvent volume in the extraction tank (RES were identified as the critical process parameters (CPPs via quantitative risk assessment. Box-Behnken design experiments were performed. Quadratic models between CPPs and process CQAs were developed, with determination coefficients higher than 0.88. As the ethanol concentration decreases, saponin yields first increase and then decrease. A longer extraction time leads to higher yields of the ginsenosides Rb1 and Rd. The total saponin purity increases as the ethanol concentration increases. The pigment yield increases as the ethanol concentration decreases or extraction time increases. The design space was calculated using a Monte-Carlo simulation method with an acceptable probability of 0.90. Normal operation ranges to attain process CQA criteria with a probability of more than 0.914 are recommended as follows: ethanol content of 79-82%, extraction time of 6.1-7.1 h, and RES of 0.039-0.040 min-1. Most of the results of the verification experiments agreed well with the predictions. The verification experiment results showed that the selection of proper operating ethanol content, extraction time, and RES within the design space can ensure that the CQA criteria are met.

  1. Extraction process of chlorogenic acid in flos lonicerae by enzymatic treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘佳佳; 赵国玲; 王晖; 章晓骅

    2002-01-01

    A new method of extracting chlorogenic acid from flos lonicerae, and treating the materials with enzyme before being extracted by ethanol is developed, and the optimum conditions are also investigated in detail. Three important factors, enzyme dosage, treatment time and treatment temperature are adapted to optimize the extraction process. The experimental results show that the extract yield of flos lonicerae and chlorogenic acid can be obviously increased by the cellulase treatment, 61.5 mg chlorogenic acid is obtained from 1.00 g flos lonicerae at most. The optimal temperature of enzymatic treatment is 40-50 ℃. Compared with the use of single cellulase, the combined treatment of cellulase and pectinase increase the extract yield obviously but fail to improve that of chlorogenic acid.

  2. Liquid and Gaseous Fuel from Waste Plastics by Sequential Pyrolysis and Catalytic Reforming Processes over Indonesian Natural Zeolite Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochamad Syamsiro

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the performance of several differently treated natural zeolites in a sequential pyrolysis and catalytic reforming of plastic materials i.e. polypropylene (PP and polystyrene (PS were investigated. The experiments were carried out on two stage reactor using semi-batch system. The samples were degraded at 500°C in the pyrolysis reactor and then reformed at 450°C in the catalytic reformer. The results show that the mordenite-type natural zeolites could be used as efficient catalysts for the conversion of PP and PS into liquid and gaseous fuel. The treatment of natural zeolites in HCl solution showed an increase of the surface area and the Si/Al ratio while nickel impregnation increased the activity of catalyst. As a result, liquid product was reduced while gaseous product was increased. For PP, the fraction of gasoline (C5-C12 increased in the presence of catalysts. Natural zeolite catalysts could also be used to decrease the heavy oil fraction (>C20. The gaseous products were found that propene was dominated in all conditions. For PS, propane and propene were the main components of gases in the presence of nickel impregnated natural zeolite catalyst. Propene was dominated in pyrolysis over natural zeolite catalyst. The high quality of gaseous product can be used as a fuel either for driving gas engines or for dual-fuel diesel engine.

  3. Cogeneration of biodiesel and nontoxic cottonseed meal from cottonseed processed by two-phase solvent extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Junfeng [Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Fine Petrochemical Engineering, Jiangsu Polytechnic University, Changzhou 213016 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China); Yun, Zhi; Shi, Haixian [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2010-12-15

    In the present work, the preparation of biodiesel from cottonseed oil produced by two-phase solvent extraction (TSE) was studied. The experimental results of TSE process of cottonseed showed that the optimal extraction conditions were 30 g samples, 240 mL extraction solvent mixture and methanol/petroleum ether volume ratio 60:40, extraction temperature 30 C, extraction time 30 min. Under the extraction conditions, the extraction rate of cottonseed oil could achieve 98.3%, the free fatty acid (FFA) and water contents of cottonseed oil were reduced to 0.20% and 0.037%, respectively, which met the requirement of alkali-catalyzed transesterification. The free gossypol (FG) content in cottonseed meal produced from two-phase solvent extraction could reduce to 0.014% which was far below the FAO standard. And the nontoxic cottonseed meal could be used as animal protein feed resources. After the TSE process of cottonseed, the investigations were carried out on transesterification of methanol with oil-petroleum ether solution coming from TSE process in the presence of sodium hydroxide (CaO) as the solid base catalyst. The influences of weight ratio of petroleum ether to cottonseed oil, reaction temperature, molar ratio of methanol to oil, alkali catalyst amount and reaction time on cottonseed oil conversion were respectively investigated by mono-factor experiments. The conversion of cottonseed oil into fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) could achieve 98.6% with 3:1 petroleum ether/oil weight ratio, 65 C reaction temperature, 9:1 methanol/oil mole ratio, 4% (catalyst/oil weight ratio, w/w) solid base catalyst amount and 3 h reaction time. The properties of FAME product prepared from cottonseed oil produced by two-phase solvent extraction met the ASTM specifications for biodiesel. (author)

  4. Cogeneration of biodiesel and nontoxic cottonseed meal from cottonseed processed by two-phase solvent extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian Junfeng, E-mail: qianjunfeng80@126.co [Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Fine Petrochemical Engineering, Jiangsu Polytechnic University, Changzhou 213016 (China) and College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China); Yun Zhi; Shi Haixian [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2010-12-15

    In the present work, the preparation of biodiesel from cottonseed oil produced by two-phase solvent extraction (TSE) was studied. The experimental results of TSE process of cottonseed showed that the optimal extraction conditions were 30 g samples, 240 mL extraction solvent mixture and methanol/petroleum ether volume ratio 60:40, extraction temperature 30 deg. C, extraction time 30 min. Under the extraction conditions, the extraction rate of cottonseed oil could achieve 98.3%, the free fatty acid (FFA) and water contents of cottonseed oil were reduced to 0.20% and 0.037%, respectively, which met the requirement of alkali-catalyzed transesterification. The free gossypol (FG) content in cottonseed meal produced from two-phase solvent extraction could reduce to 0.014% which was far below the FAO standard. And the nontoxic cottonseed meal could be used as animal protein feed resources. After the TSE process of cottonseed, the investigations were carried out on transesterification of methanol with oil-petroleum ether solution coming from TSE process in the presence of sodium hydroxide (CaO) as the solid base catalyst. The influences of weight ratio of petroleum ether to cottonseed oil, reaction temperature, molar ratio of methanol to oil, alkali catalyst amount and reaction time on cottonseed oil conversion were respectively investigated by mono-factor experiments. The conversion of cottonseed oil into fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) could achieve 98.6% with 3:1 petroleum ether/oil weight ratio, 65 deg. C reaction temperature, 9:1 methanol/oil mole ratio, 4% (catalyst/oil weight ratio, w/w) solid base catalyst amount and 3 h reaction time. The properties of FAME product prepared from cottonseed oil produced by two-phase solvent extraction met the ASTM specifications for biodiesel.

  5. A method for separating water soluble organics from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaiko, David J.; Mego, William A.

    1997-12-01

    The present invention relates to a method for separating water-miscible organic species from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction. In particular, the method includes extracting the organic species into a polymer-rich phase of an aqueous biphase system in which the process stream comprises the salt-rich phase, and, next, separating the polymer from the extracted organic species by contacting the loaded, polymer-rich phase with a water-immiscible organic phase. Alternatively, the polymer can be separated from the extracted organic species by raising the temperature of the loaded, polymer-rich phase above the cloud point, such that the polymer and the water-soluble organic species separate into two distinct aqueous phases. In either case, a substantially salt-free, concentrated aqueous solution containing the organic species is recovered.

  6. CORROSION ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL COMPONENTS USED IN NUCLEAR MATERIALS EXTRACTION AND SEPARATION PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J.; Louthan, M.; Sindelar, R.

    2012-12-17

    This paper illustrated the magnitude of the systems, structures and components used at the Savannah River Site for nuclear materials extraction and separation processes. Corrosion issues, including stress corrosion cracking, pitting, crevice corrosion and other corrosion induced degradation processes are discussed and corrosion mitigation strategies such as a chloride exclusion program and corrosion release testing are also discussed.

  7. An Information Extraction Core System for Real World German Text Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Neumann, G; Baur, J; Becker, M; Braun, C

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes SMES, an information extraction core system for real world German text processing. The basic design criterion of the system is of providing a set of basic powerful, robust, and efficient natural language components and generic linguistic knowledge sources which can easily be customized for processing different tasks in a flexible manner.

  8. Characteristics of extraction and functionality of protein from tomato pomace produced with different industrial processing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    The seeds from tomato pomace, a by-product of tomato processing, contains valuable but underutilized protein with unique functional properties. The objectives of this research were to study the impact of industrial hot and cold break tomato processing on protein extraction from defatted tomato seeds...

  9. Post-processing of Deep Web Information Extraction Based on Domain Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PENG, T.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Many methods are utilized to extract and process query results in deep Web, which rely on the different structures of Web pages and various designing modes of databases. However, some semantic meanings and relations are ignored. So, in this paper, we present an approach for post-processing deep Web query results based on domain ontology which can utilize the semantic meanings and relations. A block identification model (BIM based on node similarity is defined to extract data blocks that are relevant to specific domain after reducing noisy nodes. Feature vector of domain books is obtained by result set extraction model (RSEM based on vector space model (VSM. RSEM, in combination with BIM, builds the domain ontology on books which can not only remove the limit of Web page structures when extracting data information, but also make use of semantic meanings of domain ontology. After extracting basic information of Web pages, a ranking algorithm is adopted to offer an ordered list of data records to users. Experimental results show that BIM and RSEM extract data blocks and build domain ontology accurately. In addition, relevant data records and basic information are extracted and ranked. The performances precision and recall show that our proposed method is feasible and efficient.

  10. Effect of Chitin Extraction Processes on Residual Antimicrobials in Shrimp Shells

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the influences of industrial chitin extraction processes on the residual oxytetracycline (OTC) and oxolinic acid (OA) in shrimp carapaces and shells. The drugs were orally administered by catheter to the kuruma shrimp (Penaeus japonicus) and vannamei shrimp (Penaeus vannamei). The shrimps were sampled at 6-h post-dosing and their carapaces and shells were collected and used as raw material in the chitin extraction. Residua...

  11. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands. Final report, July 1989--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1994-03-01

    Research and development of surface extraction and upgrading processes of western tar sands are described. Research areas included modified hot water, fluidized bed, and rotary kiln pyrolysis of tar sands for extraction of bitumen. Bitumen upgrading included solvent extraction of bitumen, and catalytic hydrotreating of bitumen. Characterization of Utah tar sand deposits is also included.

  12. Combined effect of ohmic heating and enzyme assisted aqueous extraction process on soy oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pare, Akash; Nema, Anurag; Singh, V K; Mandhyan, B L

    2014-08-01

    This research describes a new technological process for soybean oil extraction. The process deals with the combined effect of ohmic heating and enzyme assisted aqueous oil extraction process (EAEP) on enhancement of oil recovery from soybean seed. The experimental process consisted of following basic steps, namely, dehulling, wet grinding, enzymatic treatment, ohmic heating, aqueous extraction and centrifugation. The effect of ohmic heating parameters namely electric field strength (EFS), end point temperature (EPT) and holding time (HT) on aqueous oil extraction process were investigated. Three levels of electric field strength (i.e. OH600V, OH750V and OH900V), 3 levels of end point temperature (i.e. 70, 80 and 90 °C) and 3 levels of holding time (i.e. 0, 5 and 10 min.) were taken as independent variables using full factorial design. Percentage oil recovery from soybean by EAEP alone and EAEP coupled with ohmic heating were 53.12 % and 56.86 % to 73 % respectively. The maximum oil recovery (73 %) was obtained when the sample was heated and maintained at 90 °C using electric field strength of OH600V for a holding time of 10 min. The free fatty acid (FFA) of the extracted oil (i.e. in range of 0.97 to 1.29 %) was within the acceptable limit of 3 % (oleic acid) and 0.5-3 % prescribed respectively by PFA and BIS.

  13. Reuse of a dyehouse effluent after being treated with the combined catalytic wet peroxide oxidation process and the aerated constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D K; Kim, S C; Yoon, J H

    2007-01-01

    A catalytic wet peroxide oxidation process was combined with the aerated constructed wetland in order to treat the raw dyehouse wastewater to in acceptable level for reuse as washing process water. More than 90% of BOD and CODs could be removed with the wet peroxide oxidation reactor and the remaining pollutants in the treated water were transformed into biodegradable ones which could have been successfully treated at the following aerated constructed wetland. The highest values of BOD5, CODMn, CODCr, SS and T-N in the treated water were 1.6, 1.8, 2.1, 0.5 and 12.8 mg/L, respectively. These values were low enough for the treated water to be reused at the washing process.

  14. Developing novel one-step processes for obtaining food-grade O/W emulsions from pressurized fluid extracts: processes description, state of the art and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Tresinari SANTOS

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIn this work, a novel on-line process for production of food-grade emulsions containing oily extracts, i.e. oil-in-water (O/W emulsions, in only one step is presented. This process has been called ESFE, Emulsions from Supercritical Fluid Extraction. With this process, emulsions containing supercritical fluid extracts can be obtained directly from plant materials. The aim in the conception of this process is to propose a new rapid way to obtain emulsions from supercritical fluid extracts. Nowadays the conventional emulsion formulation method is a two-step procedure, i.e. first supercritical fluid extraction for obtaining an extract; secondly emulsion formulation using another device. Other variation of the process was tested and successfully validated originating a new acronymed process: EPFE (Emulsions from Pressurized Fluid Extractions. Both processes exploit the supercritical CO2-essential oils miscibility, in addition, EPFE process exploits the emulsification properties of saponin-rich pressurized aqueous plant extracts. The feasibility of this latter process was demonstrated using Pfaffia glomerata roots as source of saponin-rich extract, water as extracting solvent and clove essential oil, directly extracted using supercritical CO2, as a model dispersed phase. In addition, examples of pressurized fluid-based coupled processes applied for adding value to food bioactive compounds developed in the past five years are reviewed.

  15. New Coke Oven Facilities at Linhuan Coal Chemical Company Adopt LyondellBasell's Aromatics Extraction Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The new 80 kt/a coal chemical unit at the Linhuan Coal Chemical Company in Anhui province will adopt the aro-matics extraction process licensed by LyondellBasell Company. This unit is expected to come on stream by 2009.This technology is suitable for manufacture of high-purity aromatics with broad adaptability and large scale produc-tion capability. In the previous year LyondellBasell was awarded six patents on aromatics extraction process. It is told that the achievements to be adopted by the Linhuan Coal Chemical Company are partly a series of aromatics extrac-tion processes for recovery of coke oven light oil performed by LyondellBasell.

  16. Influence of the Siberian larch extract on the processes of peroxide oxidation of lipids in experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pateyuk Andrey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In modern conditions wood processing is one of the primary branches of production in Transbaikal region. In connection with big squares of logging the question of processing and utilizing waste products directly on the spot is particularly acute. We researched the activity of water extract from sawdust of Siberian larch "Ekstrapinus" on the power exchange and processes of peroxide oxidation of lipids against immobilized stress in experiment. The data provided in the article prove that the use of Ekstrapinus extract reduces the pathological violations arising under stress. So, Ekstrapinus extract restores energy potential of cages when modeling stress, restores energy potential of cells, normalizes balance in the system "peroxide oxidation of lipids – antioxidant protection" and supports the balance of tiol in an animal organism in the state of stress. Considering absence of toxicity in the recommended doses, it is possible to recommend their application under stress.

  17. White wine taste and mouthfeel as affected by juice extraction and processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawel, Richard; Day, Martin; Van Sluyter, Steven C; Holt, Helen; Waters, Elizabeth J; Smith, Paul A

    2014-10-15

    The juice used to make white wine can be extracted using various physical processes that affect the amount and timing of contact of juice with skins. The influence of juice extraction processes on the mouthfeel and taste of white wine and their relationship to wine composition were determined. The amount and type of interaction of juice with skins affected both wine total phenolic concentration and phenolic composition. Wine pH strongly influenced perceived viscosity, astringency/drying, and acidity. Despite a 5-fold variation in total phenolics among wines, differences in bitter taste were small. Perceived viscosity was associated with higher phenolics but was not associated with either glycerol or polysaccharide concentration. Bitterness may be reduced by using juice extraction and handling processes that minimize phenolic concentration, but lowering phenolic concentration may also result in wines of lower perceived viscosity.

  18. Optimization of the extraction process of polyphenols from cashew apple agro-industrial residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Araújo Milanez de Sena Andrade

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to determine the chemical composition of cashew apples agro-industrial residue and optimize the process of polyphenols extraction in this residue. The extraction process conditions were defined using a 24-1 fractional factorial experimental design using acetone and methanol as solvents. The independent variables were: time (30 to 90 min, temperature (30 to 50 °C, solvent concentrations (50% to 90%, agitation speed (100 to 300 rpm; the dependent variables were: total phenolic content and DPPH scavenging capacity. The optimized process was carried out by applying the Central Composite Rotational Design (CCRD considering the results obtained with the 24-1 fractional factorial experimental design. The residue presented bioactive compounds in its composition, with emphasis on the content of total phenolic compounds (1975.64 mg/ 100 g. The extraction process was not affected by methanol; however, acetone affected the amounts of extracted phytochemicals. Extracts with high levels of polyphenols and strong DPPH scavenging capacity (> 80% were obtained using 55% acetone, 30 minutes, 30 °C, and 150 rpm. The results showed that cashew apple residue is a potential natural source of bioactive compounds with strong antioxidant capacity. These compounds could be used partially or totally to replace synthetic antioxidants.

  19. Component content distribution profile control in rare earth countercurrent extraction process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Yang; Fangping Xu; Rongxiu Lu; Yongquan Ding

    2015-01-01

    Considering that the on-line measurement and automatic control of element component content (ECC) are dif-ficult to perform in rare earth cascade extraction process, the ECC distribution profile is dynamical y regulated at al stages to assess the effect of product purity control. Focusing on the theory of countercurrent extraction, the technology parameters and pre-setting flow-rates during the extract process are designed. Under varying process parameters, a novel step by step model is also proposed for each stage to analyze the impact on the distribution profile change. Combining the mass balance model and ECC changing trend at the monitoring stage, the ECC dis-tribution profile can be automatical y regulated by dynamical y compensating the related extract or scrubbing liquid flow-rate. To this end, the required product purity at the two outlets is achieved. Based on Wincc and Matlab dynamic simulators, a specific Pr/Nd cascade extraction process is used to illustrate and demonstrate the application of the present approach.

  20. HEHEHP fractional extraction process with three outlets for separation of Am from rare earths

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何培炯; 焦荣洲; 等

    1996-01-01

    Americium is similar to light rare earths in solvent extraction by HEHEHP.So the fractional extraction process with three outlets,which is widely used on rare earth industrial scale,can be applied to separate Am from La,Ce,Pr,Nd and Sm.The better process parameters can be calculated by the material and distribution balance equations stage by stage with given organic loading.In order to recover 0.99 mole fraction of Am and remove 0.90 mole fraction of light rare earths from the feed solution,in which the mole ratios of La Ce,Am,Pr,Nd,Sm are 0.140,0.199,0.005,0.109,0.487,0.060,the total number of stages needed is 43,that is the extraction sector 18,first scrubbing sector 2 and second scrubbing sector 23.The fractional extraction process with three outlets is simpler and more convenient than two fractional extraction processes with two outltes.

  1. Vaccinium meridionale Swartz Supercritical CO2 Extraction: Effect of Process Conditions and Scaling Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis López-Padilla

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vaccinium meridionale Swartz (Mortiño or Colombian blueberry is one of the Vaccinium species abundantly found across the Colombian mountains, which are characterized by high contents of polyphenolic compounds (anthocyanins and flavonoids. The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE of Vaccinium species has mainly focused on the study of V. myrtillus L. (blueberry. In this work, the SFE of Mortiño fruit from Colombia was studied in a small-scale extraction cell (273 cm3 and different extraction pressures (20 and 30 MPa and temperatures (313 and 343 K were investigated. Then, process scaling-up to a larger extraction cell (1350 cm3 was analyzed using well-known semi-empirical engineering approaches. The Broken and Intact Cell (BIC model was adjusted to represent the kinetic behavior of the low-scale extraction and to simulate the large-scale conditions. Extraction yields obtained were in the range 0.1%–3.2%. Most of the Mortiño solutes are readily accessible and, thus, 92% of the extractable material was recovered in around 30 min. The constant CO2 residence time criterion produced excellent results regarding the small-scale kinetic curve according to the BIC model, and this conclusion was experimentally validated in large-scale kinetic experiments.

  2. Foodborne Pathogens Prevention and Sensory Attributes Enhancement in Processed Cheese via Flavoring with Plant Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayel, Ahmed A; Hussein, Heba; Sorour, Noha M; El-Tras, Wael F

    2015-12-01

    Cheese contaminations with foodborne bacterial pathogens, and their health outbreaks, are serious worldwide problems that could happen from diverse sources during cheese production or storage. Plants, and their derivatives, were always regarded as the potential natural and safe antimicrobial alternatives for food preservation and improvement. The extracts from many plants, which are commonly used as spices and flavoring agents, were evaluated as antibacterial agents against serious foodborne pathogens, for example Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli O157:H7, using qualitative and quantitative assaying methods. Dairy-based media were also used for evaluating the practical application of plant extracts as antimicrobial agents. Most of the examined plant extracts exhibited remarkable antibacterial activity; the extracts of cinnamon, cloves, garden cress, and lemon grass were the most powerful, either in synthetic or in dairy-based media. Flavoring processed cheese with plant extracts resulted in the enhancement of cheese sensory attributes, for example odor, taste, color, and overall quality, especially in flavored samples with cinnamon, lemon grass, and oregano. It can be concluded that plant extracts are strongly recommended, as powerful and safe antibacterial and flavoring agents, for the preservation and sensory enhancement of processed cheese.

  3. Extraction of alumina and sodium oxide from red mud by a mild hydro-chemical process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Li; Zhang, Yifei; Zhang, Yi

    2009-12-30

    A mild hydro-chemical process to extract Al(2)O(3) in red mud to produce sodium aluminate hydrate was investigated, and the optimum conditions of Al(2)O(3) extraction were verified by experiments as leaching in 45% NaOH solution with CaO-to-red mud mass ratio of 0.25 and liquid-to-solid ratio of 0.9, under 0.8 MPa at 200 degrees C for 3.5h. Subsequent process of extracting Na(2)O from the residue of Al(2)O(3) extraction was carried out in 7% NaOH solution with liquid-to-solid ratio of 3.8 under 0.9 MPa at 170 degrees C for 2h. Overall, 87.8% of Al(2)O(3) and 96.4% of Na(2)O were extracted from red mud. The final residues with less than 1% Na(2)O could be utilized as feedstock in construction materials. The chemical reactions taking place in both Al(2)O(3) and Na(2)O extractions from red mud are proposed.

  4. Rare earth extraction from wet process phosphoric acid by emulsion liquid membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张利昌; 陈前林; 康超; 马昕; 杨尊良

    2016-01-01

    The recovery of rare earths (RE) during the wet processing of phosphoric acid is very important, the method of emul-sion liquid membrane (ELM) with di(2-ethylhexly) phosphate (D2EHPA) as carrier has the high selectivity while cannot provide a satisfactory extraction rate. Here novel method of emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) using Aniline as carrier to extract RE from the feed solution was proposed. The method could increase the extraction rate of RE in the real sample to 93%. The effects of dif-ferent parameters such as type and concentration of carrier and surfactant, hydrochloric acid concentration, organic to internal phase volume ratio, membrane to external phase volume ratio on extraction of RE3+ were investigated. Quantitative extraction (>93%) of RE3+ was observed with 6 vol.% Aniline and 4 vol.% T154 liquid membrane at external to internal phase volume ratio of 10 for the feed solution. The proposed method of ELM using Aniline as carrier can be expected to provide a practical, efficient, and economical method for extracting RE from phosphate leach solution with high acidity in the industry of wet process phospho-ric acid.

  5. 催化重整过程的多目标优化%Multiobjective Optimization of the Industrial Naphtha Catalytic Reforming Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯卫锋; 苏宏业; 牟盛静; 褚健

    2007-01-01

    In this article, a multiobjective optimization strategy for an industrial naphtha continuous catalytic reforming process that aims to obtain aromatic products is proposed. The process model is based on a 20-lumped kinetics reaction network and has been proved to be quite effective in terms of industrial application. The primary objectives include maximization of.yield of the aromatics and minimization of the yield of heavy aromatics. Four reactor inlet temperatures, reaction pressure, and hydrogen-to-oil molar ratio are selected as the decision variables. A genetic algorithm,which is proposed by the authors and named as the neighborhood and archived genetic algorithm (NAGA), is applied to solve this mulfiobjective optimization problem. The relations between each decision variable and the two objectives are also proposed and used for choosing a suitable solution from the obtained Pareto set.

  6. SArEM: A SPEM extension for software architecture extraction process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Abboud

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to maintain a system, it’s critical to understand its architecture. However even though every system has an architecture, not every system has a reliable representation of its architecture. To deal with this problem many researchers have engaged in software architecture extraction where the system’s architecture is recovered from its source code. While there is a plethora of approaches aiming at extracting software architectures, there is no mean or tool measurement for these approaches; which makes the comparison between the different approaches a hard task. To tackle this lack, we developed a meta-model, based on SPEM meta-model, that specifies the software architecture extraction process. Such meta-model serves as a tool to compare, analyze and evaluate research field approaches. In this paper we detail our meta-model called SArEM (Software Architecture Extraction Meta-model and clarify its concepts.

  7. Microemulsions and Aggregation Formation in Extraction Processes for Used Nuclear Fuel: Thermodynamic and Structural Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Mikael [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2016-05-04

    Advanced nuclear fuel cycles rely on successful chemical separation of various elements in the used fuel. Numerous solvent extraction (SX) processes have been developed for the recovery and purification of metal ions from this used material. However, the predictability of process operations has been challenged by the lack of a fundamental understanding of the chemical interactions in several of these separation systems. For example, gaps in the thermodynamic description of the mechanism and the complexes formed will make predictions very challenging. Recent studies of certain extraction systems under development and a number of more established SX processes have suggested that aggregate formation in the organic phase results in a transformation of its selectivity and efficiency. Aggregation phenomena have consistently been interfering in SX process development, and have, over the years, become synonymous with an undesirable effect that must be prevented. This multiyear, multicollaborative research effort was carried out to study solvation and self-organization in non-aqueous solutions at conditions promoting aggregation phenomena. Our approach to this challenging topic was to investigate extraction systems comprising more than one extraction reagent where synergy of the metal ion could be observed. These systems were probed for the existence of stable microemulsions in the organic phase, and a number of high-end characterization tools were employed to elucidate the role of the aggregates in metal ion extraction. The ultimate goal was to find connections between synergy of metal ion extraction and reverse micellar formation. Our main accomplishment for this project was the expansion of the understanding of metal ion complexation in the extraction system combining tributyl phosphate (TBP) and dibutyl phosphoric acid (HDBP). We have found that for this system no direct correlation exists for the metal ion extraction and the formation of aggregates, meaning that the

  8. Process design and economic evaluation of green extraction methods for recovery of astaxanthin from shrimp waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razi Parjikolaei, Behnaz; Errico, Massimiliano; El-Houri, Rime Bahij

    2017-01-01

    Sunflower oil (SF) and its methyl ester as well as supercritical fluid (SC-CO2+ 5 wt% EtOH) have recently been shown as potential green solvents which could substitute traditional organic solvents. This study investigates the economic feasibility of using these green solvents to extract astaxanthin...... (ASX) from shrimp processing waste. The feasibility of commercial use of the green solvents under plausible process conditions is compared to extraction with a mixture of hexane: isopropanol (Hex:IPA). The process flowsheets describing these processes were modelled by means of SuperPro Designer...... with SF and synthetic ASX yielded a shrimp feed production cost comparable to the current market price. The calculated feed price based on the ASX production cost of the other green processes, ME-SF and SCFE, resulted in a significantly higher production cost....

  9. Next Generation Solvent Performance in the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Process - 15495

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Tara E. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Scherman, Carl [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Martin, David [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Suggs, Patricia [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-01-14

    Changes to the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) flow-sheet were implemented in the facility. Implementation included changing the scrub and strip chemicals and concentrations, modifying the O/A ratios for the strip, scrub, and extraction contactor banks, and blending the current BoBCalixC6 extractant-based solvent in MCU with clean MaxCalix extractant-based solvent. During the successful demonstration period, the MCU process was subject to rigorous oversight to ensure hydraulic stability and chemical/radionuclide analysis of the key process tanks (caustic wash tank, solvent hold tank, strip effluent hold tank, and decontaminated salt solution hold tank) to evaluate solvent carryover to downstream facilities and the effectiveness of cesium removal from the liquid salt waste. Results indicated the extraction of cesium was significantly more effective with an average Decontamination Factor (DF) of 1,129 (range was 107 to 1,824) and that stripping was effective. The contactor hydraulic performance was stable and satisfactory, as indicated by contactor vibration, contactor rotational speed, and flow stability; all of which remained at or near target values. Furthermore, the Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) level and specific gravity was as expected, indicating that solvent integrity and organic hydraulic stability were maintained. The coalescer performances were in the range of processing results under the BOBCalixC6 flow sheet, indicating negligible adverse impact of NGS deployment. After the Demonstration period, MCU began processing via routine operations. Results to date reiterate the enhanced cesium extraction and stripping capability of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) flow sheet. This paper presents process performance results of the NGS Demonstration and continued operations of MCU utilizing the blended BobCalixC6-MaxCalix solvent under the NGS flowsheet.

  10. Process Optimization of Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Arabinogalactan from Dihydroquercetin Extracted Residues by Response Surface Methodology and Evaluation of Its Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaizhi Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound was used for the extraction of larch arabinogalactan from Larix gmelinii. The optimal conditions for ultrasound extraction were determined by response surface methodology. Specifically, the Box-Behnken design was employed to evaluate the effects of three independent variables: ultrasound time, temperature, and liquid-solid ratio. The highest arabinogalactan yield (11.18% was obtained under the optimal extraction condition (extraction temperature 41.5°C, extraction time 24.3 min, and liquid-solid ratio 40 mL/g. In addition, the antioxidant activity of arabinogalactan that was extracted from dihydroquercetin extraction residues exhibited a moderate and concentration-dependent hydroxyl radical-scavenging capacity, ferric-reducing power, and reducing power. The wood material was characterized before and after processing by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy.

  11. Application of sludge-based carbonaceous materials in a hybrid water treatment process based on adsorption and catalytic wet air oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julcour Lebigue, Carine; Andriantsiferana, Caroline; N'Guessan Krou; Ayral, Catherine; Mohamed, Elham; Wilhelm, Anne-Marie; Delmas, Henri; Le Coq, Laurence; Gerente, Claire; Smith, Karl M; Pullket, Suangusa; Fowler, Geoffrey D; Graham, Nigel J D

    2010-12-01

    This paper describes a preliminary evaluation of the performance of carbonaceous materials prepared from sewage sludges (SBCMs) in a hybrid water treatment process based on adsorption and catalytic wet air oxidation; phenol was used as the model pollutant. Three different sewage sludges were treated by either carbonisation or steam activation, and the physico-chemical properties of the resultant carbonaceous materials (e.g. hardness, BET surface area, ash and elemental content, surface chemistry) were evaluated and compared with a commercial reference activated carbon (PICA F22). The adsorption capacity for phenol of the SBCMs was greater than suggested by their BET surface area, but less than F22; a steam activated, dewatered raw sludge (SA_DRAW) had the greatest adsorption capacity of the SBCMs in the investigated range of concentrations (oxidation tests, the SBCMs demonstrated catalytic behaviour arising from their substrate adsorptivity and metal content. Recycling of SA_DRAW in successive oxidations led to significant structural attrition and a hardened SA_DRAW was evaluated, but found to be unsatisfactory during the oxidation step. In a combined adsorption-oxidation sequence, both the PICA carbon and a selected SBCM showed deterioration in phenol adsorption after oxidative regeneration, but a steady state performance was reached after 2 or 3 cycles.

  12. Catalytic Combustion of Gasified Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusar, Henrik

    2003-09-01

    This thesis concerns catalytic combustion for gas turbine application using a low heating-value (LHV) gas, derived from gasified waste. The main research in catalytic combustion focuses on methane as fuel, but an increasing interest is directed towards catalytic combustion of LHV fuels. This thesis shows that it is possible to catalytically combust a LHV gas and to oxidize fuel-bound nitrogen (NH{sub 3}) directly into N{sub 2} without forming NO{sub x} The first part of the thesis gives a background to the system. It defines waste, shortly describes gasification and more thoroughly catalytic combustion. The second part of the present thesis, paper I, concerns the development and testing of potential catalysts for catalytic combustion of LHV gases. The objective of this work was to investigate the possibility to use a stable metal oxide instead of noble metals as ignition catalyst and at the same time reduce the formation of NO{sub x} In paper II pilot-scale tests were carried out to prove the potential of catalytic combustion using real gasified waste and to compare with the results obtained in laboratory scale using a synthetic gas simulating gasified waste. In paper III, selective catalytic oxidation for decreasing the NO{sub x} formation from fuel-bound nitrogen was examined using two different approaches: fuel-lean and fuel-rich conditions. Finally, the last part of the thesis deals with deactivation of catalysts. The various deactivation processes which may affect high-temperature catalytic combustion are reviewed in paper IV. In paper V the poisoning effect of low amounts of sulfur was studied; various metal oxides as well as supported palladium and platinum catalysts were used as catalysts for combustion of a synthetic gas. In conclusion, with the results obtained in this thesis it would be possible to compose a working catalytic system for gas turbine application using a LHV gas.

  13. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction, Centrifugation and Ultrafiltration: Multistage Process for Polyphenol Recovery from Purple Sweet Potatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenzhou Zhu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This work provides an evaluation of an ultrasound-assisted, combined extraction, centrifugation and ultrafiltration process for the optimal recovery of polyphenols. A purple sweet potato (PSP extract has been obtained using ultrasonic circulating extraction equipment at a power of 840 W, a frequency of 59 kHz and using water as solvent. Extract ultrafiltration, using polyethersulfone (PES, was carried out for the recovery of polyphenol, protein and anthocyanin. Pre-treatment, via the centrifugation of purple sweet potato extract at 2500 rpm over 6 min, led to better polyphenol recovery, with satisfactory protein removal (reused for future purposes, than PSP extract filtration without centrifugation. Results showed that anthocyanin was efficiently recovered (99% from permeate. The exponential model fit well with the experimental ultrafiltration data and led to the calculation of the membrane’s fouling coefficient. The optimization of centrifugation conditions showed that, at a centrifugation speed of 4000 rpm (1195× g and duration of 7.74 min, the optimized polyphenol recovery and fouling coefficient were 34.5% and 29.5 m−1, respectively. The removal of proteins in the centrifugation process means that most of the anthocyanin content (90% remained after filtration. No significant differences in the intensities of the HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS2 peaks were found in the samples taken before and after centrifugation for the main anthocyanins; peonidin-3-feruloylsophoroside-5-glucoside, peonidin-3-caffeoyl-p-hydroxybenzoylsophoroside-5-glucoside, and peonidin-3-caffeoyl-feruloyl sophoroside-5-glucoside. This proves that centrifugation is an efficient method for protein removal without anthocyanin loss. This study considers this process an ultrasound-assisted extraction-centrifugation-ultrafiltration for purple sweet potato valorization in “green” technology.

  14. Satellite Imagery Cadastral Features Extractions using Image Processing Algorithms: A Viable Option for Cadastral Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Babawuro

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Satellite images are used for feature extraction among other functions. They are used to extract linear features, like roads, etc. These linear features extractions are important operations in computer vision. Computer vision has varied applications in photogrammetric, hydrographic, cartographic and remote sensing tasks. The extraction of linear features or boundaries defining the extents of lands, land covers features are equally important in Cadastral Surveying. Cadastral Surveying is the cornerstone of any Cadastral System. A two dimensional cadastral plan is a model which represents both the cadastral and geometrical information of a two dimensional labeled Image. This paper aims at using and widening the concepts of high resolution Satellite imagery data for extracting representations of cadastral boundaries using image processing algorithms, hence minimizing the human interventions. The Satellite imagery is firstly rectified hence establishing the satellite imagery in the correct orientation and spatial location for further analysis. We, then employ the much available Satellite imagery to extract the relevant cadastral features using computer vision and image processing algorithms. We evaluate the potential of using high resolution Satellite imagery to achieve Cadastral goals of boundary detection and extraction of farmlands using image processing algorithms. This method proves effective as it minimizes the human demerits associated with the Cadastral surveying method, hence providing another perspective of achieving cadastral goals as emphasized by the UN cadastral vision. Finally, as Cadastral science continues to look to the future, this research aimed at the analysis and getting insights into the characteristics and potential role of computer vision algorithms using high resolution satellite imagery for better digital Cadastre that would provide improved socio economic development.

  15. Modeling of extraction process of crude polysaccharides from Basil seeds (Ocimum basilicum l.) as affected by process variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Fakhreddin; Kashaninejad, Mahdi; Tadayyon, Ali; Arabameri, Fatemeh

    2015-08-01

    Basil seed (Ocimum basilicum L.) has practical amounts of gum with good functional properties. In this work, extraction of gum from Basil seed was studied. Effect of pH, temperature and water/seed ratio on the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters; entropy, enthalpy and free energy of extraction were investigated. The maximum gum yield was 17.95 % at 50 °C for pH=7 and water/seed ratio 30:1. In this study, the experimental data were fitted to a mathematical model of mass transfer and equations constants were obtained. The kinetic of Basil seed gum extraction was found to be a first order mass transfer model. Statistical results indicated that the model used in this study will be able to predict the gum extraction from Basil seed adequately. It also found that ΔH and ΔS were positive and ΔG was negative indicating that the extraction process was spontaneous, irreversible and endothermic. The ΔH, ΔS and ΔG values were 0.26-7.87 kJ/mol, 8.12-33.2 J/mol K and 1.62-4.42 kJ/mol, respectively.

  16. Potential for in situ chemical oxidation of acid extractable organics in oil sands process affected groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, V; Ross, M S; Martin, J W; Barker, J F

    2013-11-01

    The process of bitumen extraction from oil sands in Alberta, Canada leads to an accumulation of toxic acid-extractable organics (AEOs) in oil sands process water (OSPW). Infiltration of OSPW from tailings ponds and from their retaining sand dykes and subsequent transport towards surface water has occurred. Given the apparent lack of significant natural attenuation of AEOs in groundwater, remediation may be required. This laboratory study evaluates the potential use of unactivated persulfate and permanganate as in situ oxidation agents for remediation of AEOs in groundwater. Naphthenic acids (NAs; CnH2n+zO2), which are a component of the acutely toxic AEOs, were degraded by both oxidants in OSPW samples. Permanganate oxidation yielded some residual dissolved organic carbon (DOC) whereas persulfate mineralized the AEO compounds with less residual DOC. Acid-extractable organics from oxidized OSPW had essentially no Microtox toxicity.

  17. Commercial Light Water Reactor -Tritium Extraction Facility Process Waste Assessment (Project S-6091)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, R.H.; Delley, A.O.; Alexander, G.J.; Clark, E.A.; Holder, J.S.; Lutz, R.N.; Malstrom, R.A.; Nobles, B.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Carson, S.D. [Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, NM (United States); Peterson, P.K. [Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, NM (United States)

    1997-11-30

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has been tasked by the Department of Energy (DOE) to design and construct a Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF) to process irradiated tritium producing burnable absorber rods (TPBARs) from a Commercial Light Water Reactor (CLWR). The plan is for the CLWR-TEF to provide tritium to the SRS Replacement Tritium Facility (RTF) in Building 233-H in support of DOE requirements. The CLWR-TEF is being designed to provide 3 kg of new tritium per year, from TPBARS and other sources of tritium (Ref. 1-4).The CLWR TPBAR concept is being developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The TPBAR assemblies will be irradiated in a Commercial Utility light water nuclear reactor and transported to the SRS for tritium extraction and processing at the CLWR-TEF. A Conceptual Design Report for the CLWR-TEF Project was issued in July 1997 (Ref. 4).The scope of this Process Waste Assessment (PWA) will be limited to CLWR-TEF processing of CLWR irradiated TPBARs. Although the CLWR- TEF will also be designed to extract APT tritium-containing materials, they will be excluded at this time to facilitate timely development of this PWA. As with any process, CLWR-TEF waste stream characteristics will depend on process feedstock and contaminant sources. If irradiated APT tritium-containing materials are to be processed in the CLWR-TEF, this PWA should be revised to reflect the introduction of this contaminant source term.

  18. Simple synthesis of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} sphere composite from hybrid process with improved thermal stability for catalytic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Regina C.R., E-mail: reginaclaudiasantos@yahoo.com.br [Department of Analytical Chemistry and Physical Chemistry, Federal University of Ceará, Campus of Pici, Fortaleza, CE, CEP: 60440-554 (Brazil); Pinheiro, Antônio N.; Leite, Edson R. [Department of Chemistry, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, SP, CEP: 13560-905 (Brazil); Freire, Valder N. [Department of Physics, Federal University of Ceará, Campus of Pici, Fortaleza, CE, CEP: 60440-554 (Brazil); Longhinotti, Elisane; Valentini, Antoninho [Department of Analytical Chemistry and Physical Chemistry, Federal University of Ceará, Campus of Pici, Fortaleza, CE, CEP: 60440-554 (Brazil)

    2015-06-15

    Aluminium oxide spheres were synthesized by the hybrid process applying the biopolymer chitosan. After the calcination process the porous spheres were characterized by Chemical elemental analysis (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption isotherms, infrared spectroscopy (IR), and CO{sub 2} temperature programmed desorption (CO{sub 2}-TPD). The effect of thermal treatment on surface properties of the oxide spheres was also evaluated by the catalytic ethanol dehydration reaction. The hybrid method produced interesting results related to the thermal stability against sintering process and consequently low decreases of surface area. The hybrid spheres calcination at 900 and 1200 °C produced a metastable phases of alumina with a high surface area, and nanometric crystallites. Additionally, the spheres of mixed silica-alumina synthesized by this method reveal the formation of porous spheres with highly acidic OH groups, which was suggested by the catalytic performance. - Highlights: • Al and Si/Al oxide spheres with promising properties are synthesized by hybrid method. • Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} spheres show high thermal stability and resistance the loss surface area. • The SiO{sub 2} addition plays an important role in the structure and porosity of the spheres. • Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} spheres presented a good activity to conversion ethanol. • The activity is related to the surface area and density of OH groups on surface.

  19. Performance of Inclined Baffle Column for Pectin Continuous Extraction Process from Cocoa Peel (Theobromacacao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soemargono

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pectin from cocoa peel was successfully prepared by extraction method in the bubble column reactor. The process could be carried out in batch and continuous, with co-current or counter current flow. Bubble pipe reactor with inclined baffle is expected to reduce the problem from gas flow patterns, jagged sloping bulkhead serves as a bubble breaker that could replace mechanical stirrer. In this study the reactor column sloping bulkhead was used as extractor to recover pectin in the cocoa peel by citric acid (1 N solvent. Cocoa peel paste and citric acid were entered to the top of the column at 1 : 1 rate ratio by streamed using dosing pump. Nitrogen gas as a medium stirrer flowed counter current from the bottom of the column. Once extraction was completed, the liquid then precipitated by acid alcohol. Pectin solids were washed with alcohol (96%. The temperature of extraction process is maintained at 70° C. The residence time in the column material was determined by feed flow rate (cocoa paste and citric acid, and the volume of suspension that remains in the reactor (V. Residence time equation obtained is: t = (7045.86G-0.1275/L. The yield of yellowish white precipitate reached up to 5.2973% and methoxyl concentration reached 5,21% for 72 minutes. The experiment shows that the continuous extraction process of pectin in baffle columns is better than batch process.

  20. EPA SITE DEMONSTRATION OF THE TERRA VAC IN SITU VACUUM EXTRACTION PROCESS IN GROVELAND, MASSACHUSETTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper presents an EPA evaluation of the patented Terra Vac, Inc.'s in situ vacuum extraction process that was field-demonstrated on a trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminated soil in Groveland, MA, under the EPA Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program. he Terra...

  1. Influence of green solvent extraction on carotenoid yield from shrimp (Pandalus borealis) processing waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razi Parjikolaei, Behnaz; El-Houri, Rime Bahij; Fretté, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    In this work, sunflower oil (SF) and methyl ester of sunflower oil (ME-SF) were introduced as two green solvents for extracting astaxanthin (ASX) from shrimp processing waste. The effects of temperature (25, 45, 70 °C), solvent to waste ratio (3, 6, 9), waste particle size (0.6 and 2.5 mm) and mo...

  2. Integrated extraction and anaerobic digestion process for recovery of nutraceuticals and biogas from pomegranate marcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomegranate marc (PM), a by-product from pomegranate juice processing, has not been effectively utilized. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the yields and properties of antioxidants (henceforth referring to total phenolics in terms of tannic acid equivalent) and oil extracted from v...

  3. MODELING AND SIMULATION OF A BENZENE RECOVERY PROCESS BY EXTRACTIVE DISTILLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. B. Brondani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Extractive distillation processes with N-formylmorpholine (NFM are used industrially to separate benzene from six carbon non-aromatics. In the process studied in this work, the stream of interest consists of nearly 20 different hydrocarbons. A new set of NRTL parameters was correlated based on literature experimental data. Both vapor-liquid equilibrium as well as infinite dilution activity coefficient data were taken into account; missing parameters were estimated with the UNIFAC group contribution model. The extractive distillation process was simulated using ASPEN Plus®. Very good agreement with plant data was obtained. The influences of the main operational parameters, solvent to feed ratio and solvent temperature, were studied. Theoretical optimum operating values were obtained and can be implemented to improve the industrial process. Extreme static sensitivity with respect to reboiler heat was observed, indicating that this can be the source of instabilities.

  4. Effects of composting process on the dissipation of extractable sulfonamides in swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bei; Li, Yanxia; Zhang, Xuelian; Feng, Chenghong; Gao, Min; Shen, Qiu

    2015-01-01

    Effects of composting on the fate of sulfonamides (SAs) in the manure-straw mixture were explored through a simulation of aerobic composting process. Additionally, factors of temperature and coexistence of heavy metal Cu that might influence the removal efficiency were particularly investigated. As shown in the results, the extractable SAs dissipated rapidly during the composting process. The coexistence of Cu in the composting process might have delayed the decline of SAs, but the drugs could still be completely removed by the end of the composting. In contrast to the thermophilic aerobic composting, extractable SAs in air-temperature-placed mixture dissipated much slower and 1.12-1.56mg/kg could be detected after 35days of incubation. The results confirmed that temperature could influence the dissipation of SAs, which was identified as a more important factor than Cu-coexistence. Hence, thermophilic aerobic composting is an effective process to eliminate VAs before manure land application.

  5. Extraction of humic acid by coacervate: investigation of direct and back processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghouas, H; Haddou, B; Kameche, M; Derriche, Z; Gourdon, C

    2012-02-29

    The two aqueous phases extraction process is widely used in environmental clean up of industrial effluents and fine chemical products for their reuse. This process can be made by cloud point of polyethoxylated alcohols and micellar solubilization phenomenon. It is commonly called "coacervate extraction" and is used, in our case, for humic acid extraction from aqueous solution at 100mg/L. The surfactants used are alcohol polyethoxylate and alkylphenol polyethoxylate. Phase diagrams of binary water/surfactant and pseudo-binary are plotted. The extraction results are expressed by the following responses: percentage of solute extracted, E (%), residual concentrations of solute and surfactant in dilute phase (X(s,w), and X(t,w) respectively) and volume fraction of coacervate at equilibrium (ϕ). For each parameter, the experimental results are fitted to empirical equations in three dimensions. The aim of this study is to find out the best compromise between E and ϕC. The comparison between experimental and calculated values allows models validation. Sodium sulfate, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) addition and pH effect are also studied. Finally, the possibility of recycling the surfactant has been proved.

  6. Processing of copper anodic-slimes for extraction of valuable metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, A M

    2003-01-01

    This work focuses on processing of anodic slimes obtained from an Egyptian copper electrorefining plant. The anodic slimes are characterized by high concentrations of copper, lead, tin and silver. The proposed hydrometallurgical process consists of two leaching stages for the extraction of copper (H(2)SO(4)-O(2)) and silver (thiourea-Fe3+), and pyrometallurgical treatment of the remaining slimes for production of Pb-Sn soldering alloy. Factors affecting both the leaching and smelting stages were studied.

  7. Morphological studies on the healing process of tooth extraction wounds in whole body irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosokawa, Yoichiro (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Dentistry)

    1991-06-01

    The present studies were performed to investigate the healing process of the tooth extraction wound in whole body irradiated rats and to clarify the effect of irradiation on bone metabolism. One hundred and seven Wistar rats of about 100 g body weight were used and divided into 3 groups. Whole body irradiated rats were given single exposure with a dose of 8 Gy. The region of the left upper molars of local irradiated rats as controls, was exposed to 8 Gy. On the 7th day after irradiation, the left upper first molar of each rat was extracted. The rats were sacrificed at intervals of 1 to 14 days after extraction. Non-irradiated rats were sacrificed at the same intervals after extraction. The maxillary bone including the extraction wound was evaluated, histologically, histometrically and ultrastructurally. From the histological and histometrical findings, the difference of the healing process between non-irradiated rats and locally irradiated rats is not significant. In whole body irradiated rats, the healing process especially in the socket was disturbed. The osteoblastic new bone formation following production of granulation tissue was interfered with. Ultrastructurally, the cytoplasmic organellae were poorly developed in the osteoblast and osteoid formation was reduced in the socket. But periosteal new bone formation was the same as that of the locally irradiated rats. In whole body irradiated rats, the osteoclasts in the interradicular alveolar bone were decreased and have smaller nuclei, compared with non-irradiated and locally irradiated rats. Histometrically, the amount of bone loss was decreased in whole body irradiated rats. Ultrastructurally, the cyoplasmic organellae and ruffled border were poorly developed in the osteoclasts of whole body irradiated rats. The findings suggested that irradiation induced cytological changes not only in osteoblasts but in osteoclasts and these changes resulted in the delayed healing of extraction wound. (author) 106 refs.

  8. Selected bibliography for the extraction of uranium from seawater: chemical process and plant design feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binney, S.E.; Polkinghorne, S.T.; Jante, R.R.; Rodman, M.R.; Chen, A.C.T.; Gordon, L.I.

    1979-02-01

    A selected annotated bibliography of 521 references was prepared as a part of a feasibility study of the extraction of uranium from seawater. For the most part, these references are related to the chemical processes whereby the uranium is removed from the seawater. A companion docment contains a similar bibliography of 471 references related to oceanographic and uranium extraction plant siting considerations, although some of the references are in common. The bibliography was prepared by computer retrieval from Chemical Abstracts, Nuclear Science Abstracts, Energy Data Base, NTIS, and Oceanic Abstracts. References are listed by author, country of author, and selected keywords.

  9. Method for separating water soluble organics from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaiko, D.J.; Mego, W.A.

    1999-09-07

    A method for separating water-miscible organic species from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction is provided. An aqueous biphase system is generated by contacting a process stream comprised of water, salt, and organic species with an aqueous polymer solution. The organic species transfer from the salt-rich phase to the polymer-rich phase, and the phases are separated. Next, the polymer is recovered from the loaded polymer phase by selectively extracting the polymer into an organic phase at an elevated temperature, while the organic species remain in a substantially salt-free aqueous solution. Alternatively, the polymer is recovered from the loaded polymer by a temperature induced phase separation (cloud point extraction), whereby the polymer and the organic species separate into two distinct solutions. The method for separating water-miscible organic species is applicable to the treatment of industrial wastewater streams, including the extraction and recovery of complexed metal ions from salt solutions, organic contaminants from mineral processing streams, and colorants from spent dye baths.

  10. Method for separating water soluble organics from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaiko, David J. (Naperville, IL); Mego, William A. (Naperville, IL)

    1999-01-01

    A method for separating water-miscible organic species from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction is provided. An aqueous biphase system is generated by contacting a process stream comprised of water, salt, and organic species with an aqueous polymer solution. The organic species transfer from the salt-rich phase to the polymer-rich phase, and the phases are separated. Next, the polymer is recovered from the loaded polymer phase by selectively extracting the polymer into an organic phase at an elevated temperature, while the organic species remain in a substantially salt-free aqueous solution. Alternatively, the polymer is recovered from the loaded polymer by a temperature induced phase separation (cloud point extraction), whereby the polymer and the organic species separate into two distinct solutions. The method for separating water-miscible organic species is applicable to the treatment of industrial wastewater streams, including the extraction and recovery of complexed metal ions from salt solutions, organic contaminants from mineral processing streams, and colorants from spent dye baths.

  11. In vitro Anti-Thrombotic Activity of Extracts from Blacklip Abalone (Haliotis rubra Processing Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz Ansar Rasul Suleria

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Waste generated from the processing of marine organisms for food represents an underutilized resource that has the potential to provide bioactive molecules with pharmaceutical applications. Some of these molecules have known anti-thrombotic and anti-coagulant activities and are being investigated as alternatives to common anti-thrombotic drugs, like heparin and warfarin that have serious side effects. In the current study, extracts prepared from blacklip abalone (Haliotis rubra processing waste, using food grade enzymes papain and bromelain, were found to contain sulphated polysaccharide with anti-thrombotic activity. Extracts were found to be enriched with sulphated polysaccharides and assessed for anti-thrombotic activity in vitro through heparin cofactor-II (HCII-mediated inhibition of thrombin. More than 60% thrombin inhibition was observed in response to 100 μg/mL sulphated polysaccharides. Anti-thrombotic potential was further assessed as anti-coagulant activity in plasma and blood, using prothrombin time (PT, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT, and thromboelastography (TEG. All abalone extracts had significant activity compared with saline control. Anion exchange chromatography was used to separate extracts into fractions with enhanced anti-thrombotic activity, improving HCII-mediated thrombin inhibition, PT and aPTT almost 2-fold. Overall this study identifies an alternative source of anti-thrombotic molecules that can be easily processed offering alternatives to current anti-thrombotic agents like heparin.

  12. Session 4: The Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O{sub 2} a catalytic system for the obtention of ultra low sulfur diesel by oxidative desulfurization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Gutierrez, J.L.; Jimenez Cruz, F.; Atocha Hernandez Cortazar, F. de; Cano Dominguez, J.L.; Ramirez Verduzco, L.F.; Murrieta Guevara, F.R. [Programa de Tratamiento de Crudo Maya. Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, D. F. (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    At present the production of transportation fuels free of polluting compounds is a matter of consequence worldwide. Particularly, sulfur compounds are undesirable in gasoline and diesel because they contribute to air pollution and acid rain. In this work, we present the results obtained in the development of some supported catalysts containing molybdenum and its evaluation in the desulfurization of several model sulfur systems and diesel by the oxidation-extraction process using hydrogen peroxide with the aim of produce ultra low sulfur diesel. The molybdenum catalysts were prepared by the equilibrium adsorption method. The oxidizing reagent was hydrogen peroxide (30 wt % solution in water) and the fuel was a Mexican diesel with 0.0320 wt % sulfur. The sulfur concentration in the samples was measured by a total sulfur analyzer equipped with a X-ray fluorescence detector, the accuracy is {+-} 5 %. The oxidation-extraction process of diesel was carried out in a batch reactor in presence of hydrogen peroxide, a solvent and the catalyst. The oxidation proceeds under mild conditions: temperature less than 373 K and atmospheric pressure. Oxidized sulfur compounds were separated from the diesel by extraction with the same solvent used in the oxidation process. The effect of the reaction variables, e. g.: time, temperature, hydrogen peroxide concentration, solvent and its concentration, molybdenum precursor, support, the stability of the catalytic activity, structure of the model sulfur compounds, were examined. The results show that the catalyst activity depends on the isoelectric point of the support. It was observed that the oxidation was carried out with good yield only in the presence of a polar solvent. A linear dependence was found between the electric density of the sulfur atom for the organosulfur compounds and its oxidation facility with the oxidation system in matter. This is in good agreement with the work reported by Otsuki. In the oxidation of diesel, it was

  13. Estrogen-related receptor γ disruption of source water and drinking water treatment processes extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na Li; Weiwei Jiang; Kaifeng Rao; Mei Ma; Zijian Wang; Satyanarayanan Senthik Kumaran

    2011-01-01

    Environmental chemicals in drinking water can impact human health through nuclear receptors.Additionally, estrogen-related receptors (ERRs) are vulnerable to endocrine-disrupting effects.To date, however, ERR disruption of drinking water potency has not been reported.We used ERRγtwo-hybrid yeast assay to screen ERRγ disrupting activities in a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) located in north China and in source water from a reservoir, focusing on agonistic, antagonistic, and inverse agonisfic activity to 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT).Water treatment processes in the DWTP consisted of pre-chlorination, coagulation, coal and sand filtration, activated carbon filtration, and secondary chlorination processes.Samples were extracted by solid phase extraction.Results showed that ERRγ antagonistic activities were found in all sample extracts, but agonistic and inverse agonistic activity to 4-OHT was not found.When calibrated with the toxic equivalent of 4-OHT, antagonistic effluent effects ranged from 3.4 to 33.1 μg/L.In the treatment processes, secondary chlorination was effective in removing ERRγ antagonists, but the coagulation process led to significantly increased ERRγ antagonistic activity.The drinking water treatment processes removed 73.5% of ERRγ antagonists.To our knowledge,the occurrence of ERRγ disruption activities on source and drinking water in vitro had not been reported previously.It is vital, therefore,to increase our understanding of ERRγdisrupting activities in drinking water.

  14. Development of a Sustainable Process for the Solid-Liquid Extraction of Antioxidants from Oat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Orozco-Mena

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This research paper studies the development of a sustainable process for the extraction of antioxidants from oat. Experimentation covered two factorials to evaluate significance among temperature, time, particle size and solvent. Total polyphenolic content (TPC and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC were the response variables. ANOVA was applied to find significance among variables and predict optimum conditions though a regression model. Extractions at different solid/solvent ratios were developed to study solvents’ solubility. Process simulation in Aspen Process Developer was carried out to evaluate energy cost, raw material cost, campaign time, and process mass intensity. Solvent and particle size showed significance as main effects, whereas temperature and time presented significance as interactions. From an industrial and sustainable perspective, ethanol (EtOH in a 1/20 (w/v ratio was the best choice since it presented the lowest cost for energy and raw material. It also showed the lowest process mass intensity (PMI, short campaign time, highest g extract/g oat, and a considerable antioxidant capacity.

  15. 催化臭氧氧化处理难降解石化废水技术的研究进展%Research progress of catalytic ozonation process to treat refractory petrochemical wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白小霞; 杨庆; 丁昀; 魏巍; 丁洁; 钟莺莺

    2016-01-01

    The major categories of catalytic ozonation have been introduced in this paper. The catalytic mechanisms and existing applications in refractory petrochemical wastewater of homogeneous catalytic ozonation and heterogeneous catalytic ozonation were described respectively. A brief analysis of catalytic mechanism and the main functions of activated carbon in heterogeneous catalytic ozonation were given. The effects of pH,temperature,catalyst system,dosage and the mode of dosage of ozone and catalyst were discussed respectively. On the basis of existing research,the combination of catalytic ozonation with biochemical treatment was proposed and its feasibility was proved. Intending research direction of catalytic ozonation was predicted. According to the problems in the treatment of refractory petrochemical wastewater by activated carbon in catalytic ozonation process,we should strengthen the research on the modification of activated carbon,meanwhile,a thorough study of some process should be carried out in order to obtain a comprehensive grasp of the possible problems. Finally,we should put an effort to improve and perfect the catalytic mechanism.%介绍了催化臭氧氧化的主要类别,分述了均相与非均相催化臭氧氧化在难降解石化废水方面的已有应用和催化机理,探讨了非均相催化臭氧氧化中活性炭的主要作用;简述了pH值、温度、臭氧和催化剂投加方式与投加量、催化剂体系等因素在非均相催化臭氧氧化中的影响规律。在已有研究的基础上,提出了将催化臭氧氧化与生化处理相结合的建议并佐证了其可行性;预测了催化臭氧氧化未来的研究方向;针对活性炭在催化臭氧氧化处理难降解石化废水中存在的问题,提出应加强对活性炭的改性研究,同时对某些工艺进行深入研究,全面掌握可能存在的问题,为完善催化臭氧氧化的机理作出努力。

  16. Simulations to investigate the eect of circuit imperfections on the slow extraction process

    CERN Document Server

    Van De Pontseele, Wouter

    2016-01-01

    The Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) is a 400 GeV proton accelerator at CERN. Its main purpose is the last step in pre-acceleration of particles before injecting them into the Large Hadron Collider. Besides that, it is used for experiments directly connected to the SPS. For these xed target experiments, a steady slow extraction of the SPS beam is necessary over thousands of turns. The SPS slow extraction process makes use of the third-integer resonance in combination with an electrostatic septum. The stability of the extracted intensity and the losses at the septum are in uenced by the imperfections of the current circuit that drives the SPS quadrupoles. This report summarizes the studies that were carried out with MAD-X to simulate these imperfections.

  17. Hydrothermal extraction and micronization of polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum in a one-step process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyudiono

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum is a mushroom-forming white rot fungus that contains a wide variety of bioactive components (glucans. In this study, G. lucidum was utilized for the extraction of polysaccharides by hot compressed water at a temperature of 160oC and a pressure of 4.0 MPa using a semi-batch system. Under these conditions, thermal softening of G. lucidum occurred, allowing the removal of the polysaccharides protecting other constituents in G. lucidum via hydrolysis. Next, the extract was directly atomized by spray drying to remove the water. Scanning electron microscope (SEM images showed that the particles formed were spherical and dimpled or shriveled with diameters varying from 1 to 6 m. Based on these results it is proposed that this process is applicable to isolate polysaccharides from other types of biomass and may result in advances in extraction technology to obtain plant biomass components.

  18. Developing an Intelligent Automatic Appendix Extraction Method from Ultrasonography Based on Fuzzy ART and Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang Baek Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound examination (US does a key role in the diagnosis and management of the patients with clinically suspected appendicitis which is the most common abdominal surgical emergency. Among the various sonographic findings of appendicitis, outer diameter of the appendix is most important. Therefore, clear delineation of the appendix on US images is essential. In this paper, we propose a new intelligent method to extract appendix automatically from abdominal sonographic images as a basic building block of developing such an intelligent tool for medical practitioners. Knowing that the appendix is located at the lower organ area below the bottom fascia line, we conduct a series of image processing techniques to find the fascia line correctly. And then we apply fuzzy ART learning algorithm to the organ area in order to extract appendix accurately. The experiment verifies that the proposed method is highly accurate (successful in 38 out of 40 cases in extracting appendix.

  19. Heterogeneous catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas. Sixth quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    The principal objectives of this project are to discover and evaluate novel heterogeneous catalysts for conversion of syngas to oxygenates having use as fuel enhancers, to explore novel reactor and process concepts applicable in this process, and to develop the best total process for converting syngas to liquid fuels. The project is being pursued as two concurrent tasks. Task 1 involves catalyst research and development and is being largely conducted by catalyst chemists and analytical specialists. Task 2 is largely an engineering activity, and includes process conceptualization and economics and bench-scale process evaluation of systems developed in Task 1. Our current targets for isobutanol-producing catalysts are to produce a 50/50 split in selectivity between methanol and iso-butanol, a productivity for isobutanol of >50 g/Kg-hr and an overall process conversion of 40%. We have continued to study how preparation variables affect the catalysts` chemical and physical properties.

  20. Extracting business vocabularies from business process models: SBVR and BPMN standards-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skersys, Tomas; Butleris, Rimantas; Kapocius, Kestutis

    2013-10-01

    Approaches for the analysis and specification of business vocabularies and rules are very relevant topics in both Business Process Management and Information Systems Development disciplines. However, in common practice of Information Systems Development, the Business modeling activities still are of mostly empiric nature. In this paper, basic aspects of the approach for business vocabularies' semi-automated extraction from business process models are presented. The approach is based on novel business modeling-level OMG standards "Business Process Model and Notation" (BPMN) and "Semantics for Business Vocabularies and Business Rules" (SBVR), thus contributing to OMG's vision about Model-Driven Architecture (MDA) and to model-driven development in general.

  1. Extraction of green tea and drying with a high pressure spray process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meterc Darja

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Green tea is a beverage widely consumed throughout the world and is produced from non-fermented leaves of Camellia Sinensis. Traditionally, green tea leaves are extracted with water. To form solid products, these aqueous products have to be dried. The main focus of the investigation is how to avoid antioxidant degradation during solvent removal. The work was separated in two major sections, firstly investigation of the extraction process secondly, optimizing of the drying process. In the first experiments extractions with different solvents (H2O, EtOH and MeOH, at different temperatures (20, 40, 60 and 80 °C and extraction times (15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min were preformed to obtain optimum conditions for further processing. For further work extracts obtained with water extraction at 80°C for 15 min were used. In the PGSS (Particles from Gas Saturated Solutions drying process, extracts with up to 98 wt % water are mixed with preheated carbon dioxide in a static mixer in order to obtain a homogenous mixture. The mixture is led via a single path nozzle into a spray tower. Driven by the expansion of the gas, fine droplets are formed and the heated gas evaporates the solvent, which is exhausted together with CO^ by a blower. Fine powder is formed and collected in the spray tower. The amount of solvent which is to be removed and the residual humidity obtained in the product depend strongly on flow rate and temperature of the gas. From obtained results it can be seen, that high pre-expansion temperatures Tp (145 °C cause degradation of polyphenols (1.05 wt %. Maintaining Tp at approximately 130 °C and lower gave satisfying results; total amount of polyphenols in the obtained powders was between 4.97 and 8.77 wt %. Temperature in spray tower ranging from 33 to 65 °C has no significant effect on the amount of total polyphenols, but higher temperature results in lower water residue in the sample.

  2. Natural Language Processing Techniques for Extracting and Categorizing Finding Measurements in Narrative Radiology Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buurman, J.; Liu, P.; Peters, J.F.; Chang, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Accumulating quantitative outcome parameters may contribute to constructing a healthcare organization in which outcomes of clinical procedures are reproducible and predictable. In imaging studies, measurements are the principal category of quantitative para meters. Objectives The purpose of this work is to develop and evaluate two natural language processing engines that extract finding and organ measurements from narrative radiology reports and to categorize extracted measurements by their “temporality”. Methods The measurement extraction engine is developed as a set of regular expressions. The engine was evaluated against a manually created ground truth. Automated categorization of measurement temporality is defined as a machine learning problem. A ground truth was manually developed based on a corpus of radiology reports. A maximum entropy model was created using features that characterize the measurement itself and its narrative context. The model was evaluated in a ten-fold cross validation protocol. Results The measurement extraction engine has precision 0.994 and recall 0.991. Accuracy of the measurement classification engine is 0.960. Conclusions The work contributes to machine understanding of radiology reports and may find application in software applications that process medical data. PMID:26448801

  3. Options for nitriles removal from C{sub 4}-C{sub 5} cuts. 3. Catalytic hydrogenation using the swing reactive removal process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez-Corredores, M.M.; Hernandez, Z.; Guerra, J.; Alvarez, R.; Medina, J. [PDVSA Intevep, Refinacion y Petroquimica, Aptdo. 76343, Caracas 1070A (Venezuela)

    2003-05-15

    C{sub 4} and C{sub 5} cuts from FCC units can be useful in the preparation of oxygenates such as MTBE, ETBE, and TAME. However, these feedstocks typically contain nitriles and diolefins which poison the etherification catalyst. Albeit, in USA, strong concerns on oxygenate uses have given rise to prohibition within certain states, those concerns have not derived into such drastic decisions in Europe. Still, removing nitriles from reactive feedstocks or converting them into value-added products might be of interest. PDVSA Intevep has developed several methods for removing nitriles present in those feedstocks, which include one based on adsorption [M.M. Ramirez-Corredores, Z. Hernandez, J. Guerra, J. Medina, R. Alvarez. Submitted to Adsorption.], and two based on catalytic conversion. In the first part of this work [M.M. Ramirez-Corredores, Z. Hernandez, J. Guerra, J. Medina, R. Alvarez. Submitted to Adsorption.], both the adsorbent and the adsorption process were described. The details of the catalytic system for the simultaneous hydrogenation of nitriles and diolefins were given in the second part [M.M. Ramirez-Corredores, T. Romero, D. Djaouadi, Z. Hernandez, J. Guerra. Submitted to Ind. Eng. Chem. Res.]. The main features of the catalyst include its nitrile adsorption capabilities, the specific oxidation state of the metal active phase, and the strong early deactivation. In this work, we discuss the convenience of converting the nitriles and diolefins by using a swing mode of reaction between two (or more) reacting zones in order to overcome the drawbacks of the observed deactivation.

  4. Detoxification of Abrus precatorius L. seeds by Ayurvedic Shodhana process and anti-inflammatory potential of the detoxified extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar B Dhoble

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abrus precatorius seeds traditionally used for the treatment of sciatica and alopecia contains the toxic protein, abrin, a Type II Ribosome Inactivating Protein. Ayurveda recommends the use of Abrus seeds after the Shodhana process (detoxification. Objective: The current study was aimed at performing the Shodhana process, swedana (boiling of Abrus precatorius seeds using water as a medium and to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of seed extract post detoxification. Materials and Methods: Non-detoxified and detoxified extracts were prepared and subsequently subjected to various in vitro and in vivo assays. In hemagglutination assay, the non-detoxified extract shows higher agglutination of RBCs than detoxified extract indicating riddance of toxic hemagglutinating proteins by Shodhana. This was confirmed by the SDSPAGE analysis of detoxified extract revealing the absence of abrin band in detoxified extract when compared to non-detoxified extract. Results: The cytotoxicity assay in HeLa cell line expresses a higher reduction in growth percentage of the cells with non-detoxified extract as compared to detoxified extract indicating successful detoxification. Brine shrimp lethality test indicated the reduction in toxicity index of detoxified extract as compared to non-detoxified extract. Further, the whole body apoptosis assay in zebrafish revealed that percentage of viable cells were greater for detoxified extract than non-detoxified extract. The anti-inflammatory studies using carrageenan induced paw edema model in rats was carried out on the extracts with doses of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, per oral, where the detoxified extract exhibited significant inhibition of rat paw edema at both the doses comparable to that of Diclofenac sodium. Conclusion: Absence of toxicity and the retention of the anti-inflammatory activity of detoxified Abrus seed extract confirmed that the Swedana process is effective in carrying out the detoxification

  5. NONSTATIONARY CATALYTIC SYSTEMS FOR THE PROCESSES OF BIOGAS PRODUCTION Нестационарные каталитические системы для утилизации биогаза

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onychin E. M.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The new circuit-design solutions of catalytic systems for the processes of producing biogas from organic waste are proposed. They are based on the analysis of existent tech. solutions. The interaction features of the flow of reactants to the catalytic filler in the proposed catalytic systems allow us to intensify the process of reaction, as well as to optimize the design features of catalytic systems based on the technological process

  6. Sabah snake grass extract pre-processing: Preliminary studies in drying and fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solibun, A.; Sivakumar, K.

    2016-06-01

    Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. F.) Lindau which also known as ‘Sabah Snake Grass’ among Malaysians have been studied in terms of its medicinal and chemical properties in Asian countries which is used to treat various diseases from cancer to viral-related diseases such as varicella-zoster virus lesions. Traditionally, this plant has been used by the locals to treat insect and snake bites, skin rashes, diabetes and dysentery. In Malaysia, the fresh leaves of this plant are usually boiled with water and consumed as herbal tea. The objectives of this study are to determine the key process parameters for Sabah Snake Grass fermentation which affect the chemical and biological constituent concentrations within the tea, extraction kinetics of fermented and unfermented tea and the optimal process parameters for the fermentation of this tea. Experimental methods such as drying, fermenting and extraction of C.nutans leaves were conducted before subjecting them to analysis of antioxidant capacity. Conventional oven- dried (40, 45 and 50°C) and fermented (6, 12 and 18 hours) whole C.nutans leaves were subjected to tea infusion extraction (water temperature was 80°C, duration was 90 minutes) and the sample liquid was extracted for every 5th, 10th, 15th, 25th, 40th, 60th and 90th minute. Analysis for antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content (TPC) were conducted by using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-pycryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and Folin-Ciocaltheu reagent, respectively. The 40°C dried leaves sample produced the highest phenolic content at 0.1344 absorbance value in 15 minutes of extraction while 50°C dried leaves sample produced 0.1298 absorbance value in 10 minutes of extraction. The highest antioxidant content was produced by 50°C dried leaves sample with absorbance value of 1.6299 in 5 minutes of extraction. For 40°C dried leaves sample, the highest antioxidant content could be observed in 25 minutes of extraction with the absorbance value of 1.1456. The largest diameter of disc

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot B. Kennel; Quentin C. Berg; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Jason C. Hissam; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Abha Saddawi; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2006-03-07

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the development of carbon electrodes for Direct Carbon Fuel Cells (DCFC), and on carbon foam composites used in ballistic armor, as well as the hydrotreatment of solvents used in the basic solvent extraction process. A major goal is the production of 1500 pounds of binder pitch, corresponding to about 3000 pounds of hydrotreated solvent.

  8. The solvent absorption-extractive distillation (SAED) process for ethanol recovery from gas/vapor streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, M.C.

    1993-12-31

    A low energy system for ethanol recovery and dehydration has been developed. This system utilizes a solvent for (1) absorption of ethanol vapors, and then the same solvent for (2) extractive distillation. The ideal solvent for this process would have a high affinity for ethanol, and no affinity for water. Heavy alcohols such as dodecanol, and tridecanol, some phosphorals, and some fatty acids have been determined to meet the desired specifications. These solvents have the effect of making water more volatile than ethanol. Thus, a water stream is taken off initially in the dehydration column, and a near anhydrous ethanol stream is recovered from the ethanol/solvent stripper column. Thus the solvent serves dual uses (1) absorption media, and (2) dehydration media. The SAED process as conceptualized would use a solvent similar to solvents used for direct extractive separation of ethanol from aqueous ethanol solutions.

  9. Extraction of tree crowns from mobile laser scanning data using a marked point process model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jonathan; Yu, Yongtao; Guan, Haiyan; Gong, Zheng

    2016-03-01

    For the purpose of realistic visualisation in 3D city models, we present a marked point process based method for extracting tree-crowns from mobile laser scanning (MLS) data. First, we apply a modified IDW interpolation to generate a geo-referenced feature image, by which a histogram analysis is applied to separate high objects(e.g. trees and lightpoles) from low objects(e.g. road, ground, low vegetation). Next, we calculate grey differences of each pixel with its neighbors to find the local maxima as potential tree-crown seeds, and then use a grouping-and-centralizing procedure to remove the redundants from the seeds. Finally, we employ a marked point process to the generated geo-referenced image via the seeds. Two experiments have been conducted to test the efficiency and feasibility of our tree-extraction algorithm using RIEGL VMX-450 MLS data.

  10. Bicoid signal extraction with a selection of parametric and nonparametric signal processing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodsi, Zara; Silva, Emmanuel Sirimal; Hassani, Hossein

    2015-06-01

    The maternal segmentation coordinate gene bicoid plays a significant role during Drosophila embryogenesis. The gradient of Bicoid, the protein encoded by this gene, determines most aspects of head and thorax development. This paper seeks to explore the applicability of a variety of signal processing techniques at extracting bicoid expression signal, and whether these methods can outperform the current model. We evaluate the use of six different powerful and widely-used models representing both parametric and nonparametric signal processing techniques to determine the most efficient method for signal extraction in bicoid. The results are evaluated using both real and simulated data. Our findings show that the Singular Spectrum Analysis technique proposed in this paper outperforms the synthesis diffusion degradation model for filtering the noisy protein profile of bicoid whilst the exponential smoothing technique was found to be the next best alternative followed by the autoregressive integrated moving average.

  11. Bicoid Signal Extraction with a Selection of Parametric and Nonparametric Signal Processing Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zara Ghodsi; Emmanuel Sirimal Silva; Hossein Hassani

    2015-01-01

    The maternal segmentation coordinate gene bicoid plays a significant role during Drosophila embryogenesis. The gradient of Bicoid, the protein encoded by this gene, determines most aspects of head and thorax development. This paper seeks to explore the applicability of a variety of signal processing techniques at extracting bicoid expression signal, and whether these methods can outperform the current model. We evaluate the use of six different powerful and widely-used models representing both parametric and nonparametric signal processing techniques to determine the most efficient method for signal extraction in bicoid. The results are evaluated using both real and simulated data. Our findings show that the Singular Spectrum Analysis technique proposed in this paper outperforms the synthesis diffusion degradation model for filtering the noisy protein profile of bicoid whilst the exponential smoothing technique was found to be the next best alternative followed by the autoregressive integrated moving average.

  12. Application of neutron activation in hydrometallurgical process of lead chloride extraction from boulangerit

    OpenAIRE

    Zovko Emira; Islamović Safija

    2010-01-01

    In this work, a neutron activation analysis for the identification of radiochemical elements in the ore concentrate of zone Vareš, Bosnia and Hercegovina, has been applied. The possibility of dissolving ore concentrate from iron(III) chloride was examined. To follow the dissolving lead (II) sulphide yield from the ore concentrates, in addition to radioisotope labeling process, it is necessary to use a gravimetric analysis of the extracted lead(II) chloride. Based on kinetic measurements of di...

  13. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant and Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant phaseout/deactivation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, M.W. [Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Thompson, R.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The decision to cease all US Department of Energy (DOE) reprocessing of nuclear fuels was made on April 28, 1992. This study provides insight into and a comparison of the management, technical, compliance, and safety strategies for deactivating the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO) and the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant. The purpose of this study is to ensure that lessons-learned and future plans are coordinated between the two facilities.

  14. A Multi-Agent Approach for the Extract-Transform-Load Process Support in Data Warehouses

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Betancur-Calderón; Julián Moreno-Cadavid

    2012-01-01

    In order to provide an adequate solution in terms of robustness and automation in the process of Extract-Transform-Load (ETL) in data warehouses, in this article a multi-agent model that gathers the strengths of other approaches like wrappers and ad-hoc solutions is presented. Such a model considers the heterogeneity and availability of the data sources as well as their distributed nature. For its validation an experiment was performed using simulated and real data, which demonstrated not onl...

  15. Efficient point cloud data processing in shipbuilding: Reformative component extraction method and registration method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyu Sun

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To survive in the current shipbuilding industry, it is of vital importance for shipyards to have the ship components’ accuracy evaluated efficiently during most of the manufacturing steps. Evaluating components’ accuracy by comparing each component’s point cloud data scanned by laser scanners and the ship’s design data formatted in CAD cannot be processed efficiently when (1 extract components from point cloud data include irregular obstacles endogenously, or when (2 registration of the two data sets have no clear direction setting. This paper presents reformative point cloud data processing methods to solve these problems. K-d tree construction of the point cloud data fastens a neighbor searching of each point. Region growing method performed on the neighbor points of the seed point extracts the continuous part of the component, while curved surface fitting and B-spline curved line fitting at the edge of the continuous part recognize the neighbor domains of the same component divided by obstacles’ shadows. The ICP (Iterative Closest Point algorithm conducts a registration of the two sets of data after the proper registration’s direction is decided by principal component analysis. By experiments conducted at the shipyard, 200 curved shell plates are extracted from the scanned point cloud data, and registrations are conducted between them and the designed CAD data using the proposed methods for an accuracy evaluation. Results show that the methods proposed in this paper support the accuracy evaluation targeted point cloud data processing efficiently in practice.

  16. Effect of coffee reduction on constituent concentration in an energy-efficient process of ultrasonic extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Cheng-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Coffee is one of the popular beverage; its constituents include caffeine, oxidation resistant aromatic constituents, protein, tannin, and fat. It is indicated in literatures that a proper amount of coffee stimulates the brain and enhances memory, but excessive coffee causes negative results, such as coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, heart disease and kidney disease. This study used high-performance ultrasonic process to discuss the effect of pulverized coffee reduction on the constituent concentration. It further compared the constituent concentrations obtained in different extraction periods. The experimental results show that the coffee aroma constituents can be extracted effectively by ultrasonic process without any organic solvent, and the constituent concentration does not decrease with the addition of pulverized coffee. Therefore, the consumption of pulverized coffee can be reduced greatly by using the proposed. The time of extraction process can be shortened, so as to save energy. The most important point is to reduce the enterprises manufacturing cost and to increase the profit.

  17. 浊点萃取催化光度法测定蔬菜中的敌敌畏%Cloud Point Extraction Catalytic Spectrophotometric Determination of Dichlorvos in Vegetables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘正; 张晓霞; 宋天琳

    2013-01-01

    基于有机磷农药对过氧化氢氧化联苯胺反应的催化作用,以敌敌畏为例,用Triton X-114为萃取剂,研究了该浊点萃取体系用于敌敌畏检测的特性。在pH值为8.5的氨缓冲溶液中,过氧化氢与盐酸联苯胺在敌敌畏的催化作用下生成稳定的黄色配合物,经浊点萃取测定其含量。配合物的最大吸收波长为425 nm,在0μg~250μg范围内吸光值呈良好的线性关系,相关系数为0.9998,表观摩尔吸光系数ε为5.3×104 L· mol-1· cm-1,方法检出限为22.2μg/L。用于5种蔬菜中敌敌畏的残留量分析,平均加标回收率为82.3%~102%,RSD≤8.9%。%Based on the organophosphorus pesticides have a strong catalytic function on oxidization of hydro -gen peroxide and benzidine , one study investigating of dichlorvos was perforemed .With the Triton X-114 as ex-tractant, the characteristics of the cloud point extraction system in dichlorvos determination was studied .In pH 8 .5 ammonia buffer solution , a stable yellow complex was formed in the reaction of catalytic of dichlorvos on hy-drogen peroxide and benzidine .This complex was determined by cloud point extraction .The maximum absorp-tion wave length is 425 nm.In the range of 0 μg ~250 μg, the linear relationship of the absorbance values is good.The relation coefficient is 0.999 8.The molar absorbance coefficient is 5.3 ×104 L· mol-1 · cm-1 .The method detection limit of 22 .2 μg/L was measured .On determination for dichlorvos in five kinds of vegetables , the average spiked recoveries were 82.3% ~102%, RSD ≤8.9%.

  18. 生物质气化焦油催化裂解脱除过程的建模与优化%MODEL-BUILDING AND OPTIMIZATION FOR EXTRICATION PROCESS OF TAR PRODUCED IN GASIFICATION BY USING CATALYTIC CRACKING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李大中; 王卉; 韩璞

    2009-01-01

    Through analysis of factors affecting the catalytic cracking rate of tar produced in the process of biomass gasification,an optimizing model for extrication process of tar produced in rice straw gasifi-cation by using catalytic cracking has been established on the basis of least square supporting vector machine (SVM),and the validation being carried out. On this basis,a parameter optimizing calculation for the extrication process of tar by using catalytic cracking has been made, results show that the said model has better generalization ability and fitting effect, it can efficiently simulate the extrication process of tar produced in biomass gasification by using catalytic cracking.%通过对生物质气化过程中影响焦油催化裂解率因素的分析,依据最小二乘支持向量机建立了稻秆气化焦油催化裂解脱除过程的优化模型,并进行了验证,在此基础上对焦油催化裂解脱除过程做了参数优化计算.结果表明,该模型具有较好的泛化能力和拟合效果,可有效地模拟生物质气化焦油催化裂解脱除过程.

  19. Oxidative leaching process with cupric ion in hydrochloric acid media for recovery of Pd and Rh from spent catalytic converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, C.A., E-mail: carlos.nogueira@lneg.pt [Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia, I.P., Campus do Lumiar, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal); Paiva, A.P., E-mail: appaiva@fc.ul.pt [Centro de Química e Bioquímica, Departamento de Química e Bioquímica, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Oliveira, P.C. [Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia, I.P., Campus do Lumiar, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal); Costa, M.C., E-mail: mcorada@ualg.pt [Centro de Ciências do Mar, Departamento de Química e Farmácia, Faculdade de Ciências e de Tecnologia, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Costa, A.M. Rosa da, E-mail: amcosta@ualg.pt [Centro de Investigação em Química do Algarve, Departamento de Química e Farmácia, Faculdade de Ciências e de Tecnologia, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • A new leaching process based on Cu{sup 2+}/HCl media for recovering Pd and Rh from spent autocatalytic converters is presented. • Palladium and rhodium were efficiently leached, with attained maximum yields of 95% and 86%, respectively. • Temperature, time, and HCl and Cu{sup 2+} concentrations were found to be significant factors in the leaching of Pd and Rh. - Abstract: The recycling of platinum-group metals from wastes such as autocatalytic converters is getting growing attention due to the scarcity of these precious metals and the market pressure originated by increase of demand in current and emerging applications. Hydrometallurgical treatment of such wastes is an alternative way to the most usual pyrometallurgical processes based on smelter operations. This paper focuses on the development of a leaching process using cupric chloride as oxidising agent, in HCl media, for recovery of palladium and rhodium from a spent catalyst. The chloride media allows the adequate conditions for oxidising and solubilising the metals, as demonstrated by equilibrium calculations based on thermodynamic data. The experimental study of the leaching process revealed that Pd solubilisation is clearly easier than that of Rh. The factors temperature, time, and HCl and Cu{sup 2+} concentrations were significant regarding Pd and Rh leaching, the latter requiring higher factor values to achieve the same results. Leaching yields of 95% Pd and 86% Rh were achieved under optimised conditions (T = 80 °C, t = 4 h, [HCl] = 6 M, [Cu{sup 2+}] = 0.3 M)

  20. Mammalian Exo1 encodes both structural and catalytic functions that play distinct roles in essential biological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaetzlein, Sonja; Chahwan, Richard; Avdievich, Elena; Roa, Sergio; Wei, Kaichun; Eoff, Robert L; Sellers, Rani S; Clark, Alan B; Kunkel, Thomas A; Scharff, Matthew D; Edelmann, Winfried

    2013-07-02

    Mammalian Exonuclease 1 (EXO1) is an evolutionarily conserved, multifunctional exonuclease involved in DNA damage repair, replication, immunoglobulin diversity, meiosis, and telomere maintenance. It has been assumed that EXO1 participates in these processes primarily through its exonuclease activity, but recent studies also suggest that EXO1 has a structural function in the assembly of higher-order protein complexes. To dissect the enzymatic and nonenzymatic roles of EXO1 in the different biological processes in vivo, we generated an EXO1-E109K knockin (Exo1(EK)) mouse expressing a stable exonuclease-deficient protein and, for comparison, a fully EXO1-deficient (Exo1(null)) mouse. In contrast to Exo1(null/null) mice, Exo1(EK/EK) mice retained mismatch repair activity and displayed normal class switch recombination and meiosis. However, both Exo1-mutant lines showed defects in DNA damage response including DNA double-strand break repair (DSBR) through DNA end resection, chromosomal stability, and tumor suppression, indicating that the enzymatic function is required for those processes. On a transformation-related protein 53 (Trp53)-null background, the DSBR defect caused by the E109K mutation altered the tumor spectrum but did not affect the overall survival as compared with p53-Exo1(null) mice, whose defects in both DSBR and mismatch repair also compromised survival. The separation of these functions demonstrates the differential requirement for the structural function and nuclease activity of mammalian EXO1 in distinct DNA repair processes and tumorigenesis in vivo.

  1. Analysis of a reactive extraction process for biodiesel production using a lipase immobilized on magnetic nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussan, K J; Cardona, C A; Giraldo, O H; Gutiérrez, L F; Pérez, V H

    2010-12-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles were prepared by coprecipitating Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) ions in a sodium hydroxide solution and used as support for lipase. The lipase-coated particles were applied in a reactive extraction process that allowed separation of the products formed during transesterification. Kinetics data for triolein and ethanol consumption during biodiesel (ethyl oleate) synthesis together with a thermodynamic phase equilibrium model (liquid-liquid) were used for simulation of batch and continuous processes. The analysis demonstrated the possibility of applying this biocatalytic system in the reactive zone using external magnetic fields. This approach implies new advantages in efficient location and use of lipases in column reactors for producing biodiesel.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot B. Kennel; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-06-08

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the development of continuous processes for hydrogenation as well as continuous production of carbon foam and coke.

  3. A Multi-Agent Approach for the Extract-Transform-Load Process Support in Data Warehouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Betancur-Calderón

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to provide an adequate solution in terms of robustness and automation in the process of Extract-Transform-Load (ETL in data warehouses, in this article a multi-agent model that gathers the strengths of other approaches like wrappers and ad-hoc solutions is presented. Such a model considers the heterogeneity and availability of the data sources as well as their distributed nature. For its validation an experiment was performed using simulated and real data, which demonstrated not only its technical feasibility but also its effectiveness in terms of the percentage of processed data and the time to accomplish it.

  4. Extraction and purification methods in downstream processing of plant-based recombinant proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łojewska, Ewelina; Kowalczyk, Tomasz; Olejniczak, Szymon; Sakowicz, Tomasz

    2016-04-01

    During the last two decades, the production of recombinant proteins in plant systems has been receiving increased attention. Currently, proteins are considered as the most important biopharmaceuticals. However, high costs and problems with scaling up the purification and isolation processes make the production of plant-based recombinant proteins a challenging task. This paper presents a summary of the information regarding the downstream processing in plant systems and provides a comprehensible overview of its key steps, such as extraction and purification. To highlight the recent progress, mainly new developments in the downstream technology have been chosen. Furthermore, besides most popular techniques, alternative methods have been described.

  5. Close-coupled Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL{trademark}) process bench studies. Final report, [October 1, 1988--July 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comolli, A.G.; Johanson, E.S.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Lee, L.K.; Popper, G.A.; Stalzer, R.H.; Smith, T.O.

    1993-06-01

    This is the final report of a four year and ten month contract starting on October 1, 1988 to July 31, 1993 with the US Department of Energy to study and improve Close-Coupled Catalytic Two-Stage Direct Liquefaction of coal by producing high yields of distillate with improved quality at lower capital and production costs in comparison to existing technologies. Laboratory, Bench and PDU scale studies on sub-bituminous and bituminous coals are summarized and referenced in this volume. Details are presented in the three topical reports of this contract; CTSL Process Bench Studies and PDU Scale-Up with Sub-Bituminous Coal-DE-88818-TOP-1, CTSL Process Bench Studies with Bituminous Coal-DE-88818-TOP-2, and CTSL Process Laboratory Scale Studies, Modelling and Technical Assessment-DE-88818-TOP-3. Results are summarized on experiments and studies covering several process configurations, cleaned coals, solid separation methods, additives and catalysts both dispersed and supported. Laboratory microautoclave scale experiments, economic analysis and modelling studies are also included along with the PDU-Scale-Up of the CTSL processing of sub-bituminous Black Thunder Mine Wyoming coal. During this DOE/HRI effort, high distillate yields were maintained at higher throughput rates while quality was markedly improved using on-line hydrotreating and cleaned coals. Solid separations options of filtration and delayed coking were evaluated on a Bench-Scale with filtration successfully scaled to a PDU demonstration. Directions for future direct coal liquefaction related work are outlined herein based on the results from this and previous programs.

  6. HIGH HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE EXTRACTION OF ANTIOXIDANTS FROM MORINDA CITRIFOLIA FRUIT – PROCESS PARAMETERS OPTIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRAVEEN KUMAR

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A modified version of high hydrostatic pressure extraction has been performed for extraction of antioxidants from M. citrifolia fruit at 5, 15, 25 bar and temperature 30° to 70°C for time duration 1, 2, 4 and 6 hours. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined by di-phenylpicrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method. The process parameters were optimized for antioxidant activity by central composite design method of response surface methodology using the statistical package, design expert. The results are expressed as 3D surface graphs. The optimum antioxidant activity was achieved at 58°C and 5 hours for 25bar. The optimal result achieved was within the region of response surface methodology. The statistical results were compared with the experimental result at 25bar, 2hour and 30° to 70°C and were found to be in proximate. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were found to increase with increase in pressure. It was also found that the response surface methodology works effectively for shorter range of parameters considered.

  7. Biodiesel production from wet microalgae feedstock using sequential wet extraction/transesterification and direct transesterification processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Lung; Huang, Chien-Chang; Ho, Kao-Chia; Hsiao, Ping-Xuan; Wu, Meng-Shan; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2015-10-01

    Although producing biodiesel from microalgae seems promising, there is still a lack of technology for the quick and cost-effective conversion of biodiesel from wet microalgae. This study was aimed to develop a novel microalgal biodiesel producing method, consisting of an open system of microwave disruption, partial dewatering (via combination of methanol treatment and low-speed centrifugation), oil extraction, and transesterification without the pre-removal of the co-solvent, using Chlamydomonas sp. JSC4 with 68.7 wt% water content as the feedstock. Direct transesterification with the disrupted wet microalgae was also conducted. The biomass content of the wet microalgae increased to 56.6 and 60.5 wt%, respectively, after microwave disruption and partial dewatering. About 96.2% oil recovery was achieved under the conditions of: extraction temperature, 45°C; hexane/methanol ratio, 3:1; extraction time, 80 min. Transesterification of the extracted oil reached 97.2% conversion within 15 min at 45°C and 6:1 solvent/methanol ratio with simultaneous Chlorophyll removal during the process. Nearly 100% biodiesel conversion was also obtained while conducting direct transesterification of the disrupted oil-bearing microalgal biomass.

  8. Concentration of antioxidant polyphenols from Thymus capitatus extracts by membrane process technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achour, Sami; Khelifi, Eltaief; Attia, Yesmine; Ferjani, Ezzeddine; Noureddine Hellal, Ahmed

    2012-06-01

    Thymus capitatus is a Mediterranean plant characterized by its antioxidant polyphenols of which the most known are the carnosic and rosmarinic acids. In this way, this study aims to concentrate these acids by membrane processes. The thyme essential oil composition was established by capillary GC-MS and 27 components were identified representing 98.93%± 1.97% of total oils. The antioxidant test for permeate and retentate of methanolic and aqueous extract were determined using 3 types of membranes. The results showed that the synthetic NF membrane is able to trap and concentrate phenolic compounds in the retentate much better than the NF commercial and UF synthetic membrane. The results of the total phenolic content (TPC) showed a significant value of the polyphenol content present in the aqueous extract with 175.53 mg Gallic Acid Equivalents (GAE)/g of extract. The spectrum of the aqueous extract of Thymus capitatus showed the presence of 3 visible peaks, the 1st one at 217 nm corresponding to the carnosic acid, the 2nd one at 277 nm for essential oils, and the last one at 326 nm attributed to the rosmarinic acid. The commercial membrane NF-DK succeeded to concentrate rosmarinic acid and can be considered as a stage towards the concentration of this product with a high added value.

  9. High hydrostatic pressure processing: a method having high success potential in pollen protein extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murat Altuner, Ergin; Çeter, Talip; Alpas, Hami

    2012-06-01

    Even a single peptide that is present in the pollen wall and cytoplasm could cause pollen allergy. To produce skin-prick test kits, the first step is the extraction of these molecules. In this study, Cedrus atlantica pollens were subjected to 220 and 330 MPa for 10 and 30 min in order to extract these molecules. After high hydrostatic pressure processing (HHPP), the total amounts of proteins (TAPs) are measured and compared with the results of the conventional extraction method (CEM). As a result, the TAPs extracted by HHPP is 18.0210 μ g/mL at 220 MPa for 10 min, 22.5770 μ g/mL at 220 MPa for 30 min, 23.3810 μ g/mL at 330 MPa for 10 min and 25.9270 μ g/mL at 330 MPa for 30 min, while this is 1.9460 μ g/mL in 24 h by the CEM. In addition to these results, visual pollen deformation and eruption, pollen wall and surface damage have also been observed.

  10. Extraction of nano-silicon with activated carbons simultaneously from rice husk and their synergistic catalytic effect in counter electrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Waqar; Bahrani, Majid Raissan Al; Yang, Zhichun; Khan, Jahangeer; Jing, Wenkui; Jiang, Fan; Chu, Liang; Liu, Nishuang; Li, Luying; Gao, Yihua

    2016-12-01

    The extraction of renewable energy resources particularly from earth abundant materials has always been a matter of significance in industrial products. Herein, we report a novel simultaneous extraction of nano-silicon with activated carbons (nano-Si@ACs) from rice husk (RH) by chemical activation method. As-extracted nano-Si@ACs is then used as an energy harvesting materials in counter electrodes (CEs) of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The morphology, structure and texture studies confirm the high surface area, abundant active sites and porous structure of nano-Si@ACs. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry analyses reveal that the nano-Si@ACs is highly beneficial for fast I3‑ reduction and superior electrolyte diffusion capability. The nano-Si@ACs CE based DSSC exhibits enhanced power conversion efficiency of (8.01%) in contrast to pristine Pt CE (7.20%). These favorable results highlight the potential application of RH in low-cost, high-efficiency and Pt-free DSSCs.

  11. Integration of Methane Steam Reforming and Water Gas Shift Reaction in a Pd/Au/Pd-Based Catalytic Membrane Reactor for Process Intensification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Dominguez, Bernardo; Mardilovich, Ivan P; Ma, Liang-Chih; Ma, Rui; Dixon, Anthony G; Kazantzis, Nikolaos K; Ma, Yi Hua

    2016-09-19

    Palladium-based catalytic membrane reactors (CMRs) effectively remove H₂ to induce higher conversions in methane steam reforming (MSR) and water-gas-shift reactions (WGS). Within such a context, this work evaluates the technical performance of a novel CMR, which utilizes two catalysts in series, rather than one. In the process system under consideration, the first catalyst, confined within the shell side of the reactor, reforms methane with water yielding H₂, CO and CO₂. After reforming is completed, a second catalyst, positioned in series, reacts with CO and water through the WGS reaction yielding pure H₂O, CO₂ and H₂. A tubular composite asymmetric Pd/Au/Pd membrane is situated throughout the reactor to continuously remove the produced H₂ and induce higher methane and CO conversions while yielding ultrapure H₂ and compressed CO₂ ready for dehydration. Experimental results involving (i) a conventional packed bed reactor packed (PBR) for MSR, (ii) a PBR with five layers of two catalysts in series and (iii) a CMR with two layers of two catalysts in series are comparatively assessed and thoroughly characterized. Furthermore, a comprehensive 2D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to explore further the features of the proposed configuration. The reaction was studied at different process intensification-relevant conditions, such as space velocities, temperatures, pressures and initial feed gas composition. Finally, it is demonstrated that the above CMR module, which was operated for 600 h, displays quite high H₂ permeance and purity, high CH₄ conversion levels and reduced CO yields.

  12. The Effect of Time dealumination and Solvent Concentration in Synthesis of Zeolite Catalyst and Catalytic Test for DiEthyl Ether Production Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widayat, Widayat; Roesyadi, A.; Rachimoellah, M.

    2009-09-01

    Ethanol is an alternative energy, but its has three distinct disadvantages as a transportation fuel. Its availability is currently limited, and it has a lower volumetric heating value and a lower Reid vapour pressure (RVP) than gasoline. This paper focuses for this disadvantages and to solve this problem can do with converts ethanol to DiEthyl Ether product. This research produced DiEthyl Ether by ethanol dehydration process with zeolite as catalyst. The catalyst synthesis from natural material from District Gunung Kidul, Indonesia. The catalyst produced with dealumination, neutralization, drying and calcination processes. The zeolite catalyst was analysed of Si/Al, X-ray Diffraction and specific surface area. The catalyst product then used for ethanol dehydration to produce DiEthyl Ether. The results shown the biggest surface area is 184,52 m 2 / gram at catalyst production at 10 hours for time dealumination. The crystallite of catalyst product is similar like shown at diffractogram of XRD analysis. The ratio Si/Al biggest is 313.7 that obtaining at catalyst production with 7 hours for time dealumination. The catalytic test use fixed bed reactor with 1 inci diameter and ethanol fermentation borth as feed. The operation condition is 150° C at temperature and atmosphere pressure. The compounds product in liquid phase are diethyl ether, methanol and water.

  13. Oxidative leaching process with cupric ion in hydrochloric acid media for recovery of Pd and Rh from spent catalytic converters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, C A; Paiva, A P; Oliveira, P C; Costa, M C; da Costa, A M Rosa

    2014-08-15

    The recycling of platinum-group metals from wastes such as autocatalytic converters is getting growing attention due to the scarcity of these precious metals and the market pressure originated by increase of demand in current and emerging applications. Hydrometallurgical treatment of such wastes is an alternative way to the most usual pyrometallurgical processes based on smelter operations. This paper focuses on the development of a leaching process using cupric chloride as oxidising agent, in HCl media, for recovery of palladium and rhodium from a spent catalyst. The chloride media allows the adequate conditions for oxidising and solubilising the metals, as demonstrated by equilibrium calculations based on thermodynamic data. The experimental study of the leaching process revealed that Pd solubilisation is clearly easier than that of Rh. The factors temperature, time, and HCl and Cu(2+) concentrations were significant regarding Pd and Rh leaching, the latter requiring higher factor values to achieve the same results. Leaching yields of 95% Pd and 86% Rh were achieved under optimised conditions (T = 80 °C, t = 4h, [HCl] = 6M, [Cu(2+)] = 0.3M).

  14. Radiologic study of the healing process of the extracted socket of beagle dogs using cone beam CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Bong Won; Lee, Won; Lee, Byung Do [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, De Sok [Department of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    To longitudinally observe the healing process of extracted socket and the alterations of the residual ridge in healthy adult dogs using cone beam CT (CBCT). The mandibular premolars of two beagle dogs were removed and the extraction sites were covered with the gingival tissue. CBCTs (3D X-ray CT scanner, Alphard vega, Asahi Co.) were taken at baseline and at 1 week interval for 12 weeks. Radiographic density of extracted wounds was measured on normalized images with a custom-made image analysis program. The amount of alveolar crestal resorption after the teeth extraction was measured with a reformatted three-dimensional image using CBCT. Bony healing pattern of extracted wound of each group was also longitudinally observed and analyzed. Dimensional changes occurred during the first 6 weeks following the extraction of dogs' mandibular premolars. The reduction of the height of residual ridge was more pronounced at the buccal than at the lingual aspect of the extraction socket. Radiographic density of extracted wounds increased by week 4, but the change in density stabilized after week 6. New bone formation was observed at the floor and the peripheral side of extracted socket from week 1. The entrance of extracted socket was sealed by a hard-tissue bridge at week 5. The healing process of extracted wound involved a series of events including new bone formation and residual ridge resorption.

  15. Vanadium recovery from oil fly ash by leaching, precipitation and solvent extraction processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, R; Guzman, J; Saucedo, I; Revilla, J; Guibal, E

    2007-01-01

    In order to reduce the environmental impact due to land disposal of oil fly ash from power plants and to valorize this waste material, the removal of vanadium was investigated using leaching processes (acidic and alkaline treatments), followed by a second step of metal recovery from leachates involving either solvent extraction or selective precipitation. Despite a lower leaching efficiency (compared to sulfuric acid), sodium hydroxide was selected for vanadium leaching since it is more selective for vanadium (versus other transition metals). Precipitation was preferred to solvent extraction for the second step in the treatment since: (a) it is more selective; enabling complete recovery of vanadate from the leachate in the form of pure ammonium vanadate; and (b) stripping of the loaded organic phase (in the solvent extraction process) was not efficient. Precipitation was performed in a two-step procedure: (a) aluminum was first precipitated at pH 8; (b) then ammonium chloride was added at pH 5 to bring about vanadium precipitation.

  16. Heterogeneous catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas. Fifteenth quarterly technical progress report, July--September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The principal objectives of this project are to discover and evaluate novel heterogeneous catalysts for conversion of syngas to oxygenates having use as fuel enhancers, to explore novel reactor and process concepts applicable in this process, and to develop the best total process for converting syngas to liquid fuels. The previous best catalysts consisted of potassium-promoted Pd on a Zn/Cr spinel oxide prepared via controlled pH precipitation. The authors have now examined the effect of cesium addition to the Zn/Cr spinel oxide support. Surprisingly, cesium levels required for optimum performance are similar to those for potassium on a wt% basis. The addition of 3 wt% cesium gives isobutanol rates > 170 g/kg-hr at 440 C and 1,500 psi with selectivity to total alcohols of 77% and with a methanol/isobutanol mole ratio of 1.4: this performance is as good as their best Pd/K catalyst. The addition of both cesium and palladium to a Zn/Cr spinel oxide support gives further performance improvements. The 5 wt% cesium, 5.9 wt% Pd formulation gives isobutanol rates > 150 g/kg-hr at 440 C and only 1,000 psi with a selectivity to total alcohols of 88% and with a methanol/isobutanol mole ratio of 0.58: this is their best overall performance to date. The addition of both cesium and palladium to a Zn/Cr/Mn spinel oxide support that contains excess Zn has also been examined. This spinel was the support used in the synthesis of 10-DAN-54, the benchmark catalyst. Formulations made on this support show a lower overall total alcohol rate than those using the spinel without Mn present, and require less cesium for optimal performance.

  17. Heterogeneous catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas. Sixteenth quarterly technical progress report, October--December, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The principal objectives of this project are to discover and evaluate novel heterogeneous catalysts for conversion of syngas to oxygenates having use as fuel enhancers, to explore novel reactor and process concepts applicable in this process, and to develop the best total process for converting syngas to liquid fuels. Among our previous best catalysts was the family consisting of potassium-promoted Pd on a Zn/Cr spinel oxide prepared via controlled pH precipitation. We have now examined the effect of potassium promotion on (1) a Zn/Cr/O spinel and (2) on ZnO; these two individual components are used together to make our best support. The presence of excess zinc oxide has a beneficial effect on the performance of Zn/Cr spinel oxide catalysts (1) promoted with cesium and (2) promoted with both cesium and palladium. The presence of the excess zinc oxide results in a more active and selective catalyst to total alcohols and increased isobutanol rates, demonstrating the effectiveness of zinc oxide addition to the spinel support. Potassium addition promotes higher alcohol synthesis on a commercial Zn/Cr spinel oxide methanol synthesis catalyst. Incremental potassium levels (1, 3 and 5 wt%) result in an increase in total alcohol selectivity, while isobutanol. rates are maximized at 1 wt% potassium. The commercial catalyst promoted with potassium is slightly less active for isobutanol synthesis and less selective to total alcohols when compared with our spinel formulation promoted with potassium and containing excess ZnO. Surface science studies have shown that the surface of these catalysts is predominately ZnO and alkali. With use, the ZnO is reduced to Zn metal, and Cr migrates to the surface giving increased surface acidity. In addition tends to lower the overall acidity. Hydrogen can be observed on the catalyst surface by surface science studies. Hydrogen on the active catalyst is associated with the palladium.

  18. Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL{trademark}) process bench studies and PDU scale-up with sub-bituminous coal. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comolli, A.G.; Johanson, E.S.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Lee, L.K.T.; Stalzer, R.H.; Smith, T.O.

    1993-03-01

    Reported are the details and results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments using sub-bituminous coal conducted at Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-88PC88818 during the period October 1, 1988 to December 31, 1992. The work described is primarily concerned with testing of the baseline Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL{trademark}) process with comparisons with other two stage process configurations, catalyst evaluations and unit operations such as solid separation, pretreatments, on-line hydrotreating, and an examination of new concepts. In the overall program, three coals were evaluated, bituminous Illinois No. 6, Burning Star and sub-bituminous Wyoming Black Thunder and New Mexico McKinley Mine seams. The results from a total of 16 bench-scale runs are reported and analyzed in detail. The runs (experiments) concern process variables, variable reactor volumes, catalysts (both supported, dispersed and rejuvenated), coal cleaned by agglomeration, hot slurry treatments, reactor sequence, on-line hydrotreating, dispersed catalyst with pretreatment reactors and CO{sub 2}/coal effects. The tests involving the Wyoming and New Mexico Coals are reported herein, and the tests involving the Illinois coal are described in Topical Report No. 2. On a laboratory scale, microautoclave tests evaluating coal, start-up oils, catalysts, thermal treatment, CO{sub 2} addition and sulfur compound effects were conducted and reported in Topical Report No. 3. Other microautoclave tests are described in the Bench Run sections to which they refer such as: rejuvenated catalyst, coker liquids and cleaned coals. The microautoclave tests conducted for modelling the CTSL{trademark} process are described in the CTSL{trademark} Modelling section of Topical Report No. 3 under this contract.

  19. Energy efficient production of hydrogen and syngas from biomass: development of low-temperature catalytic process for cellulose gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadullah, Mohammad; Ito, Shin-ichi; Kunimori, Kimio; Yamada, Muneyoshi; Tomishige, Keiichi

    2002-10-15

    The Rh/CeO2/M (M = SiO2, Al2O3, and ZrO2) type catalysts with various compositions have been prepared and investigated in the gasification of cellulose, a model compound of biomass, in a fluidized bed reactor at 500-700 degrees C. The conventional nickel and dolomite catalysts have also been investigated. Among the catalysts, Rh/CeO2/SiO2 with 35% CeO2 has been found to be the best catalyst with respect to the carbon conversion to gas and product distribution. The steam addition contributed to the complete conversion of cellulose to gas even at 600 degrees C. Lower steam supply gave the syngas and higher steam supply gave the hydrogen as the major product. Hydrogen and syngas from cellulose or cellulosic biomass gasification are environmentally super clean gaseous fuels for power generation. Moreover, the syngas derived liquid fuels such as methanol, dimethyl ether, and synthetic diesels are also super clean transportation fuels. However, the use of cellulose or cellulosic biomass for energy source through the gasification is challenging because of the formation of tar and char during the gasification process. It is interesting that no tar or char was finally formed in the effluent gas at as low as 500-600 degrees C using Rh/CeO2/SiO2(35) catalyst in this process.

  20. Study of the extraction process and in vivo inhibitory effect of ganoderma triterpenes in oral mucosa cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Zhang, Ruhui; Zhang, Juan; Gao, Shang; Gao, Wenxin; Zhang, Haifeng; Wang, Haotian; Han, Bing

    2011-06-24

    The aim of the reported study was to optimize the extraction process for ganoderma triterpenes and to investigate the in vivo inhibitory effect of ganoderma triterpenes on the genesis and progression of oral cancer. Single-factor and orthogonal methods were used to investigate the effects of extraction solvent, solvent amount, extraction time, extraction temperature, and number of extractions, on the extraction rate for ganoderma triterpenes. A golden hamster model with cheek pouch dynamic canceration was established to receive oral treatment of ganoderma triterpenes water solution. Animals were continuously monitored, oral tissue samples were collected for histopathologic examination, and changes in the expression of VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) and Caspase-3 were detected by immunohistochemical methods. Optimization of the experimental conditions allowed the identification of the optimal extraction conditions: 90% ethanol as the extraction solvent, a solvent amount by the liquid-material ratio of 35 mL/g, extraction time of 2 h and extraction temperature of 80 °C. Under these conditions, the average extraction rate of ganoderma triterpenes was 1.09%. Tests in golden hamsters showed that compared with the model group during the same period, animals in the treatment group had better conditions, constantly larger number of normal cases shown by histopathologic results (P ganoderma triterpenes could be extracted with high efficiency, and the results of animal tests showed inhibitory effects of ganoderma triterpenes on oral mucosa cancer.

  1. Stepwise magma migration and accumulation processes and their effect on extracted melt chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urtson, Kristjan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerical and analogue models suggest that melt production, its segregation from the solid matrix and subsequent transport and accumulation are highly dynamic and stepwise processes exhibiting scale invariant patterns in both time and length scales, which is characteristic of self-organized critical systems. This phenomenon is also observed in migmatites at several localities, where the leucosome thickness statistics obey power laws. Stepwise melt transport and deformation-enhanced melt mobility affect melt production dynamics by determining the distribution of extracted melt batch sizes and residence times of melt pockets within the host rock, which in turn would influence the geochemistry of extracted melts. We introduce a numerical approach, which enables qualitative and quantitative assessment of the effects of stress-induced melt migration and accumulation on the chemistry of partial melts. The model suggests that apart from different sources and melting percentages, deformation can be an important factor in producing geochemical variations within and between intrusive/extrusive complexes.

  2. SELECTIVE SEPARATION AND RECOVERY PROCESS —Supercritical fluid extraction and fractionation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A selective separation and recovery process has been developed based on the supercritical fluid extraction and fractionation (SFEF) technology. The solvent used varies from C3 to C5, depending on process objective. Basic research work has been done on the phase behavior, phase equilibria and modeling of a number of systems including petroleum residue, polymers, waxes and lubricants with the light hydrocarbon solvents. Semi-batch pilot and continuous pilot experiments were performed to establish data base for the process design of industrial scale. The effects of operation para-meters, such as temperature, pressure, ratio of solvent to oil and residence time, on separation selectivity and yield of extracts were studied in a wide range. Industrial demonstration plant with a capacity of 15 kt/a was setup and has run for a sufficient long period of time to confirm the design and to obtain the energy cost and economic analysis data for further commercial scale up. It was found that the process offers high efficient products and solvent recovery.

  3. Digital processing considerations for extraction of ocean wave image spectra from raw synthetic aperture radar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahaie, I. J.; Dias, A. R.; Darling, G. D.

    1984-01-01

    The digital processing requirements of several algorithms for extracting the spectrum of a detected synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image from the raw SAR data are described and compared. The most efficient algorithms for image spectrum extraction from raw SAR data appear to be those containing an intermediate image formation step. It is shown that a recently developed compact formulation of the image spectrum in terms of the raw data is computationally inefficient when evaluated directly, in comparison with the classical method where matched-filter image formation is an intermediate result. It is also shown that a proposed indirect procedure for digitally implementing the same compact formulation is somewhat more efficient than the classical matched-filtering approach. However, this indirect procedure includes the image formation process as part of the total algorithm. Indeed, the computational savings afforded by the indirect implementation are identical to those obtained in SAR image formation processing when the matched-filtering algorithm is replaced by the well-known 'dechirp-Fourier transform' technique. Furthermore, corrections to account for slant-to-ground range conversion, spherical earth, etc., are often best implemented in the image domain, making intermediate image formation a valuable processing feature.

  4. Evaluation of the genotoxicity of process stream extracts from a coal gasification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, R W; Benson, J M; Li, A P; Henderson, R F; Brooks, A L

    1984-01-01

    Extracts of three complex organic environmental mixtures, two from an experimental coal gasifier (a raw gas and a clean gas sample) and one from a coke oven main, were examined for genotoxicity. Three short-term genotoxicity assay systems were used: Ames Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay, Chinese hamster ovary cell/hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (CHO/HGPRT) gene locus mutation assay, and the Chinese hamster lung primary culture/sister chromatid exchange (CHL/SCE) assay. Aroclor-1254-induced rat liver homogenate fraction (S-9) was required to observe genotoxicity in both gene locus mutation assays (CHO/HGPRT and Ames). The relative survival of CHO cells exposed to extracts was highest in cells exposed to clean gas samples, with the raw gas sample being the most cytotoxic either with or without the addition of S-9. All three complex mixtures induced sister chromatid exchanges in primary lung cell cultures without the addition of S-9. The relative genotoxicity ranking of the samples varied between the mammalian and prokaryotic assay systems. Coke oven main extract produced fewer revertants in bacteria than the raw gas sample. However, the coke oven main extract was more genotoxic in the two eukaryotic systems (CHL/SCE and CHO/HGPRT) than was the raw gas sample. The results of all three assays indicate that the cleanup process used in the experimental gasifier was effective in decreasing the genotoxic materials in the process stream. These data also reemphasize the necessity of evaluating genotoxicity of complex mixtures in a variety of short-term systems.

  5. Engineering reactors for catalytic reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vivek V Ranade

    2014-03-01

    Catalytic reactions are ubiquitous in chemical and allied industries. A homogeneous or heterogeneous catalyst which provides an alternative route of reaction with lower activation energy and better control on selectivity can make substantial impact on process viability and economics. Extensive studies have been conducted to establish sound basis for design and engineering of reactors for practising such catalytic reactions and for realizing improvements in reactor performance. In this article, application of recent (and not so recent) developments in engineering reactors for catalytic reactions is discussed. Some examples where performance enhancement was realized by catalyst design, appropriate choice of reactor, better injection and dispersion strategies and recent advances in process intensification/ multifunctional reactors are discussed to illustrate the approach.

  6. A comparison of essential oils obtained from lavandin via different extraction processes: Ultrasound, microwave, turbohydrodistillation, steam and hydrodistillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Périno-Issartier, Sandrine; Ginies, Christian; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Chemat, Farid

    2013-08-30

    A total of eight extraction techniques ranging from conventional methods (hydrodistillation (HD), steam distillation (SD), turbohydrodistillation (THD)), through innovative techniques (ultrasound assisted extraction (US-SD) and finishing with microwave assisted extraction techniques such as In situ microwave-generated hydrodistillation (ISMH), microwave steam distillation (MSD), microwave hydrodiffusion and gravity (MHG), and microwave steam diffusion (MSDf)) were used to extract essential oil from lavandin flowers and their results were compared. Extraction time, yield, essential oil composition and sensorial analysis were considered as the principal terms of comparison. The essential oils extracted using the more innovative processes were quantitatively (yield) and qualitatively (aromatic profile) similar to those obtained from the conventional techniques. The method which gave the best results was the microwave hydrodiffusion and gravity (MHG) method which gave reduced extraction time (30min against 220min for SD) and gave no differences in essential oil yield and sensorial perception.

  7. 工业级催化重整装置的全流程模拟与优化%Modeling, Simulation and Optimization of a Whole Industrial Catalytic Naphtha Reforming Process on Aspen Plus Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯卫锋; 苏宏业; 胡永有; 褚健

    2006-01-01

    A new 18-lump kinetic model for naphtha catalytic reforming reactions is discussed. By developing this model as a user module, a whole industrial continuous catalytic reforming process is simulated on Aspen plus plat form. The technique utilizes the strong databases, complete sets of modules, and flexible simulation tools of the Aspen plus system and retains the characteristics of the proposed kinetic model. The calculated results are in fair agreement with the actual operating data. Based on the model of the whole reforming process, the process is optimized and the optimization results are tested in the actual industrial unit for about two months. The test shows that the process profit increases about 1000yuan·h-1 averagely, which is close to the calculated result.

  8. Could microwave induced catalytic oxidation (MICO) process over CoFe2O4 effectively eliminate brilliant green in aqueous solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Yongming; Wang, Xiaoyan; Qiao, Junqin; Li, Guohua; Wu, You; Li, Yuan; Zhang, Xiuyu; Xu, Zhencheng; Qi, Jianying; Fang, Jiande; Dionysiou, Dionysios D

    2013-12-15

    In this study, we adopted the chemical co-precipitation (CP) method and sol-gel method followed by calcination at temperatures of 100-900°C for 12h to synthesize CoFe2O4 materials, which were further characterized by TEM, XRD and XPS techniques. The properties of CoFe2O4 materials were evaluated in a microwave (MW) induced catalytic oxidation (MICO) process for the elimination of brilliant green (BG). The results showed that: (1) the removal rates of BG gradually decreased over a series of CoFe2O4 materials prepared by CP method and calcinated with 100-700°C (except 900°C) for 12h within three reuse cycles; for comparison, no removal of BG was obtained over CoFe2O4 synthesized by sol-gel method and CoFe2O4-900 (CP); (2) no hydroxyl radicals were captured with salicylic acid used as molecular probe in the MICO process; (3) MW irradiation enhanced the release of residual NaOH within the microstructure of CoFe2O4 and further discolored BG, because BG is sensitive to pH; (4) granular activated carbon (GAC), an excellent MW-absorbing material possessing higher dielectric loss tangent compared to that of a series of CoFe2O4 materials, could not remove BG in suspensions at a higher efficiency, even if the loading amount was 20 g L(-1). Accordingly, MICO process over CoFe2O4 materials and GAC could not effectively eliminate BG in suspensions.

  9. Removal of salicylic acid on perovskite-type oxide LaFeO3 catalyst in catalytic wet air oxidation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min; Xu, Aihua; Du, Hongzhang; Sun, Chenglin; Li, Can

    2007-01-02

    It has been found that salicylic acid can be removal effectively at the lower temperature of 140 degrees C on perovskite-type oxide LaFeO3 catalyst in the catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) process. Under the same condition, the activities for the CWAO of phenol, benzoic acid and sulfonic salicylic acid have been also investigated. The results indicated that, with compared to the very poor activities for phenol and benzoic acid, the activities for salicylic acid and sulfonic salicylic acid were very high, which are attributed to their same intramolecular H-bonding structures. With the role of hard acidity of intramolecular H-bonding, salicylic acid and sulfonic salicylic acid can be adsorbed effectively on the basic center of LaFeO3 catalyst and are easy to take place the total oxidation reaction. However, at temperatures higher than 140 degrees C, the intramolecular H-bonding structure of salicylic acid was destroyed and the activities at 160 and 180 degrees C decreased greatly, which confirms further the key role of intramolecular H-bonding in the CWAO. Moreover, the LaFeO3 catalyst also indicated a superior stability of activity and structure in CWAO of salicylic acid.

  10. Dissecting the sterol C-4 demethylation process in higher plants. From structures and genes to catalytic mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahier, Alain

    2011-03-01

    Sterols become functional only after removal of the two methyl groups at C-4. This review focuses on the sterol C-4 demethylation process in higher plants. An intriguing aspect in the removal of the two C-4 methyl groups of sterol precursors in plants is that it does not occur consecutively as it does in yeast and animals, but is interrupted by several enzymatic steps. Each C-4 demethylation step involves the sequential participation of three individual enzymatic reactions including a sterol methyl oxidase (SMO), a 3β-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase/C4-decarboxylase (3βHSD/D) and a 3-ketosteroid reductase (SR). The distant location of the two C-4 demethylations in the sterol pathway requires distinct SMOs with respective substrate specificity. Combination of genetic and molecular enzymological approaches allowed a thorough identification and functional characterization of two distinct families of SMOs genes and two 3βHSD/D genes. For the latter, these studies provided the first molecularly and functionally characterized HSDs from a short chain dehydrogenase/reductase family in plants, and the first data on 3-D molecular interactions of an enzyme of the postoxidosqualene cyclase sterol biosynthetic pathway with its substrate in animals, yeast and higher plants. Characterization of these three new components involved in C-4 demethylation participates to the completion of the molecular inventory of sterol synthesis in higher plants.

  11. 石榴籽多酚类物质的提取工艺研究%Study on the extraction process of polyphenols extracted from pomegranate seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李白存

    2015-01-01

    采用乙醇提取石榴籽多酚类物质考察了乙醇浓度、温度、时间、料液比等对提取率的影响。结果表明,其最佳工艺条件是:提取温度60℃,提取时间1.5 h,料液比1∶12( g/mL),物料粒径60目,提取2次。此条件下平均提取率为0.97%。%The factors such as ethanol concentration ,temperature ,time and solid-liquid ratio were investi-gated.The extraction process was optimized by orthogonal tests .The result showed that the optimum ex-traction process were:extraction temperature 60 ℃, extraction time 1.5 h, the solid-liquid ratio 1∶12 (g/mL),material particle size 60 mesh,extracted 2 times.In these conditions,the average extraction rate was 0.97%.

  12. Synthesis and extraction studies with a rationally designed diamide ligand selective to actinide(iv) pertinent to the plutonium uranium redox extraction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shikha; Panja, Surajit; Bhattacharyya, Arunasis; Dhami, Prem S; Gandhi, Preetam M; Ghosh, Sunil K

    2016-05-04

    A new class of conformationally constrained oxa-bridged tricyclo-dicarboxamide (OTDA) ligand was rationally designed for the selective extraction of tetravalent actinides pertinent to the Plutonium Uranium Redox EXtraction (PUREX) process. Two of the designed diamide ligands were synthesized and extraction studies were performed for Pu(iv) from HNO3 medium. The mechanism of extraction was investigated by studying various parameters such as feed HNO3, NaNO3 and OTDA concentrations. The nature of the extracted species was found to be [Pu(NO3)4(OTDA)]. One of the OTDA ligands was elaborately tested and showed the selective extraction of Pu(iv) and Np(iv) over other actinide species, viz., U(vi), Np(v), Am(iii), lanthanides and fission products contained in a nuclear waste from the PUREX process. DFT calculations predicted the charge density on each of the coordinating 'O' atoms of OTDA supporting its high Pu(iv) selectivity over other ions studied and also provided the energy optimized structure of OTDA and its Pu(iv) complex.

  13. Low Energy Consumption Technique for Processing Rapeseed with Two—phase Extraction System without Ammonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShiMeiren; QinJinping; 等

    2000-01-01

    The mother liquid of methanol phase obtained from rapeseed two-phase extraction process can directly be reused in large amounts to process rapeseed again together with some fresh methanol phase,so long as it is treated with a litter of proper additives in advance.The ratio of the reused mother liquid may be more than 3/4 of the total amount of the methanol phase needed for processing rapeseed,so the energy consumption can be decreased tremendously.The meal obtained by use of the reused mother liquid keeps the quality as good as those obtained by use of totally fresh methanol phase with light color,weak taste,crispness,good palatability,high protein content,and a low level of glu-cosinolates much more less than that stipulated by the State for the fodder of grade A.

  14. Low Energy Consumption Technique for Processing Rapeseed with Two-phase Extraction System without Ammonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Meiren; Qin Jinping; SQian Renyuan

    2000-01-01

    the mother liquid of methanol phase obtained from rapeseed two-phase extraction process can directly be reused in large amounts to process rapeseed again together with some fresh methanol phase, so long as it is treated with a litter of proper additives in advance. The ratio of the reused mother liquid may be more than 3/ 4 of the total amount of the methanol phase needed for processing rapeseed, so the energy consumption can be decreased tremendously. The meal obtained by use of the reused mother liquid keeps the quality as good as those obtained by use of totally fresh methanol phase with light color, weak taste, crispness, good palatability, high protein content, and a low level of glucosinolates much more less than that stipulated by the State for the fodder of grade A.

  15. A rapid supercritical extraction process for the production of silica aerogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poco, J.F.; Coronado, P.R.; Pekala, R.W.; Hrubesh, L.W.

    1996-04-01

    Silica aerogels are a special class of porous materials in which both the pore size and interconnected particle size have nanometer dimensions. This structure imparts unique optical, thermal, acoustic, and electrical properties to these materials. Transmission electron microscopy and small angle x-ray scattering show that this nanostructure is sensitive to variations in processing conditions that influence crosslinking chemistry and growth processes prior to gelation. Recently, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has demonstrated that a Rapid Supercritical Extraction (RSCE) process can be used to prepare near-net shape silica aerogels in hours rather than days. Preliminary data from RSCE silica aerogels show that they have improved mechanical properties and slightly lower surface areas than their conventionally dried counterparts, while not compromising their optical and thermal performance.

  16. [Selection of optimal ultrasonic extraction process of Elaeagnus angustifolia L. by uniform design].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, F; Xie, J; Dan, J; Liu, J; Wang, H

    2001-12-01

    The influences of ultrasonic frequency, ultrasonic time and solvent content on the extraction rate of fat oil in Elaeagnus angustifolia L. were studied. The optimum extraction condition was obtained. The results showed that the ultrasonic extraction method of fat oil in Elaeagnus angustifolia L. could save time, improve extraction rate and need not be hot compared with traditional extraction method.

  17. Comparative of signal processing techniques for micro-Doppler signature extraction with automotive radar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Hervas, Berta; Maile, Michael; Flores, Benjamin C.

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, the automotive industry has experienced an evolution toward more powerful driver assistance systems that provide enhanced vehicle safety. These systems typically operate in the optical and microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum and have demonstrated high efficiency in collision and risk avoidance. Microwave radar systems are particularly relevant due to their operational robustness under adverse weather or illumination conditions. Our objective is to study different signal processing techniques suitable for extraction of accurate micro-Doppler signatures of slow moving objects in dense urban environments. Selection of the appropriate signal processing technique is crucial for the extraction of accurate micro-Doppler signatures that will lead to better results in a radar classifier system. For this purpose, we perform simulations of typical radar detection responses in common driving situations and conduct the analysis with several signal processing algorithms, including short time Fourier Transform, continuous wavelet or Kernel based analysis methods. We take into account factors such as the relative movement between the host vehicle and the target, and the non-stationary nature of the target's movement. A comparison of results reveals that short time Fourier Transform would be the best approach for detection and tracking purposes, while the continuous wavelet would be the best suited for classification purposes.

  18. Separation of ethanol and water by extractive distillation with salt and solvent as entrainer: process simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. D. Gil

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to simulate and analyze an extractive distillation process for azeotropic ethanol dehydration with ethylene glycol and calcium chloride mixture as entrainer. The work was developed with Aspen Plus® simulator version 11.1. Calculation of the activity coefficients employed to describe vapor liquid equilibrium of ethanol - water - ethylene glycol - calcium chloride system was done with the NRTL-E equation and they were validated with experimental data. The dehydration process used two columns: the main extractive column and the recovery column. The solvent to feed molar ratio S/F=0.3, molar reflux ratio RR=0.35, number of theoretical stages Ns=18, feed stage Sf=12, feed solvent stage SS=3, and feed solvent temperature TS=80 ºC, were determined to obtain a distillate with at least 99.5 % mole of ethanol. A substantial reduction in the energy consumption, compared with the conventional processes, was predicted by using ethylene glycol and calcium chloride as entrainer.

  19. Feature extraction from 3D lidar point clouds using image processing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ling; Shortridge, Ashton; Lusch, David; Shi, Ruoming

    2011-10-01

    Airborne LiDAR data have become cost-effective to produce at local and regional scales across the United States and internationally. These data are typically collected and processed into surface data products by contractors for state and local communities. Current algorithms for advanced processing of LiDAR point cloud data are normally implemented in specialized, expensive software that is not available for many users, and these users are therefore unable to experiment with the LiDAR point cloud data directly for extracting desired feature classes. The objective of this research is to identify and assess automated, readily implementable GIS procedures to extract features like buildings, vegetated areas, parking lots and roads from LiDAR data using standard image processing tools, as such tools are relatively mature with many effective classification methods. The final procedure adopted employs four distinct stages. First, interpolation is used to transfer the 3D points to a high-resolution raster. Raster grids of both height and intensity are generated. Second, multiple raster maps - a normalized surface model (nDSM), difference of returns, slope, and the LiDAR intensity map - are conflated to generate a multi-channel image. Third, a feature space of this image is created. Finally, supervised classification on the feature space is implemented. The approach is demonstrated in both a conceptual model and on a complex real-world case study, and its strengths and limitations are addressed.

  20. Co-processing Plant Extracts for Improvement of Their Pharmacotechnic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Gustmann

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The herbal Espinheira Santa (Maytenus ilicifolia can ingested in capsules for treatment of injuries from digestive tract, such as gastritis. However, the large amount of drug administered dose medication adherence difficult, so this study sought an alternative by formulating effervescent granules facilitating drug intake. The obtained granules made by wet and effervescent mixture of citric acid, sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate at different concentrations, totaling eight formulations, in addition to lactose as diluent and disintegrant in the composition. The granules were produced in sizes from 1 and 2mm. Rheological tests were compared against the dry extract, analyzed the average particle sizes of beads, mapped its surface by scanning electron microscopy and evaluated their behavior effervescent. The flow properties of the granules showed better values than the dry extract. The co-processed formulations showed average particle sizes distributed closed, where 1mm time effervescence had smaller, respecting all formulations, pharmacopeial limits of maximum 5 minutes. The preparation of effervescent granules Espinheira Santa proved to be a good alternativel, once that have easy preparation, low cost, excellent flow and rapid disintegration.Keywords: Espinheira Santa, effervescent granules, dry extract.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot B. Kennel; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-08-11

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the facility modifications for continuous hydrotreating, as well as developing improved protocols for producing synthetic pitches.

  2. Effect of radiation process on antinutrients and HCl extractability of calcium, phosphorus and iron during processing and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, ElShazali Ahmed; Abdelraheem Ali, Nahid; Ahmed, Salma Hashim; Mohamed Ahmed, Isam A.; Babiker, Elfadil E.

    2010-07-01

    Whole and dehulled flours of millet cultivars Ashana and Dembi were stored for 30 and 60 days before and after radiation and/or cooking. Phytic acid and polyphenols contents were assayed for all treatments. The results revealed that the storage period was found to have no effect on phytate and polyphenols contents. Moreover, dehulling of the grains reduced more than 50% of phytate and polyphenols of both cultivars. Cooking of the raw whole and dehulled flour significantly ( P≤0.05) reduced phytate and polyphenols contents for both cultivars. Radiation process alone had no effect on phytate and polyphenols contents but when followed by cooking significantly ( P≤0.05) reduced the level of such antinutrients for the whole and dehulled flour of both cultivars. Dehulling alone significantly ( P≤0.05) decreased Ca and P content but slightly decreased Fe content. Radiation alone or in combination with cooking was found to have slight effect on minerals content of the whole and dehulled raw flour for both cultivars. Cooking alone or in combination with radiation of whole or dehulled raw flour significantly ( P≤0.05) improved the extractable Ca but had no significant ( P≤0.05) effect on extractable P and Fe for both cultivars.

  3. Effect of radiation process on antinutrients and HCl extractability of calcium, phosphorus and iron during processing and storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, ElShazali Ahmed [Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Khartoum North 13314 Shambat (Sudan); Abdelraheem Ali, Nahid [Department of Food Science, Faculty of Applied Sciences, University of Juba (Sudan); Ahmed, Salma Hashim [Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Khartoum North 13314 Shambat (Sudan); Mohamed Ahmed, Isam A. [United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Tottori University, Tottori (Japan); Babiker, Elfadil E., E-mail: elfadilbabiker@yahoo.co [Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Khartoum North 13314 Shambat (Sudan)

    2010-07-15

    Whole and dehulled flours of millet cultivars Ashana and Dembi were stored for 30 and 60 days before and after radiation and/or cooking. Phytic acid and polyphenols contents were assayed for all treatments. The results revealed that the storage period was found to have no effect on phytate and polyphenols contents. Moreover, dehulling of the grains reduced more than 50% of phytate and polyphenols of both cultivars. Cooking of the raw whole and dehulled flour significantly (P<=0.05) reduced phytate and polyphenols contents for both cultivars. Radiation process alone had no effect on phytate and polyphenols contents but when followed by cooking significantly (P<=0.05) reduced the level of such antinutrients for the whole and dehulled flour of both cultivars. Dehulling alone significantly (P<=0.05) decreased Ca and P content but slightly decreased Fe content. Radiation alone or in combination with cooking was found to have slight effect on minerals content of the whole and dehulled raw flour for both cultivars. Cooking alone or in combination with radiation of whole or dehulled raw flour significantly (P<=0.05) improved the extractable Ca but had no significant (P<=0.05) effect on extractable P and Fe for both cultivars.

  4. Procedure for obtaining an extract rich in triterpenic acids from solutions from the process of preparation of table olives

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    [EN] Procedure for obtaining an extract having a high proportion of triterpenic acids, preferably of oleanolic and maslinic acids, from the solutions obtained in the process of preparation of table olives. Furthermore the invention refers to the extract obtained through said procedure and to application thereof in the food, cosmetic or pharmaceutical industries.

  5. Screening of genotoxicity and mutagenicity in extractable organics from oil sands process-affected water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetouni, Nikolas C; Siraki, Arno G; Weinfeld, Michael; Pereira, Alberto Dos Santos; Martin, Jonathan W

    2016-11-01

    Large volumes of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) are produced by the oil sands surface mining industry during alkaline hot-water extraction of bitumen. It is well documented that the acid extractable organics (AEOs) in OSPW, a highly complex mixture of acidic and polar neutral substances, are acutely toxic; but few studies have examined the genotoxicity or mutagenicity of this mixture. In the present study, the in vitro SOS Chromotest and the Ames test (TA98 and TA100 strains) were used to evaluate genotoxicity and mutagenicity for whole OSPW AEOs in the presence and absence of biotransformation by rat S9 liver enzymes. Two subfractions were also examined in the same assays: neutral extractable fraction (F1-NE), and the subsequent acid extractable fraction (F2-AE). In the SOS assay, whole AEO was cytotoxic when concentrated 2× (i.e., twice as concentrated as the environmental sample) and showed increasing genotoxic response above 6×. Co-exposure with S9 had a protective effect on the cell SOS-inducing factor and survival but did not eliminate genotoxicity above 6× concentrations. Most of the cytotoxicity was attributable to F2-AE, but both F1-NE and F2-AE had similar genotoxic dose-responses above 6×. In the Ames test without S9, whole AEO was mutagenic in both strains above 10× concentrations. Co-incubation with S9 had little effect on the TA100 strain but with TA98 resulted in bioactivation at midlevel doses (1.5-6.3×) and protection at higher doses (10-25×). The 2 subfractions were mutagenic in both strains but with different dose-responses. Further research in vivo or in more relevant cells is warranted to investigate the carcinogenic risks of OSPW. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;9999:1-8. © 2016 SETAC.

  6. A Natural Language Processing Tool for Large-Scale Data Extraction from Echocardiography Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha R.

    2016-01-01

    Large volumes of data are continuously generated from clinical notes and diagnostic studies catalogued in electronic health records (EHRs). Echocardiography is one of the most commonly ordered diagnostic tests in cardiology. This study sought to explore the feasibility and reliability of using natural language processing (NLP) for large-scale and targeted extraction of multiple data elements from echocardiography reports. An NLP tool, EchoInfer, was developed to automatically extract data pertaining to cardiovascular structure and function from heterogeneously formatted echocardiographic data sources. EchoInfer was applied to echocardiography reports (2004 to 2013) available from 3 different on-going clinical research projects. EchoInfer analyzed 15,116 echocardiography reports from 1684 patients, and extracted 59 quantitative and 21 qualitative data elements per report. EchoInfer achieved a precision of 94.06%, a recall of 92.21%, and an F1-score of 93.12% across all 80 data elements in 50 reports. Physician review of 400 reports demonstrated that EchoInfer achieved a recall of 92–99.9% and a precision of >97% in four data elements, including three quantitative and one qualitative data element. Failure of EchoInfer to correctly identify or reject reported parameters was primarily related to non-standardized reporting of echocardiography data. EchoInfer provides a powerful and reliable NLP-based approach for the large-scale, targeted extraction of information from heterogeneous data sources. The use of EchoInfer may have implications for the clinical management and research analysis of patients undergoing echocardiographic evaluation. PMID:27124000

  7. Hydrogen production with short contact time. Catalytic partial oxidation of hydrocarbons and oxygenated compounds: Recent advances in pilot- and bench-scale testing and process design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guarinoni, A.; Ponzo, R.; Basini, L. [ENI Refining and Marketing Div., San Donato Milanese (Italy)

    2010-12-30

    ENI R and D has been active for fifteen years in the development of Short Contact Time - Catalytic Partial Oxidation (SCT-CPO) technologies for producing Hydrogen/Synthesis Gas. From the beginning the experimental work addressed either at defining the fundamental principles or the technical and economical potential of the technology. Good experimental responses, technical solutions' simplicity and flexibility, favourable techno-economical evaluations promoted the progressive widening of the field of the investigations. From Natural Gas (NG) the range of ''processable'' Hydrocarbons extended to Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) and Gasoils, including those characterised by high levels of unsaturated and sulphurated molecules and, lately, to other compounds with biological origin. The extensive work led to the definition of different technological solutions, grouped as follows: Technology 1: Air Blown SCT-CPO of Gaseous Hydrocarbons and/or Light Compounds with biological origin Technology 2: Enriched Air/Oxygen Blown SCT-CPO of Gaseous Hydrocarbons and/or Light Compounds with biological origin Technology 3: Enriched Air/Oxygen Blown SCT-CPO of Liquid Hydrocarbons and/or Compounds with biological origin Recently, the licence rights on a non-exclusive basis for the commercialisation of SCT-CPO based processes for H{sub 2}/Synthesis gas production from light hydrocarbons with production capacity lower than 5,000 Nm{sup 3}/h of H{sub 2} or 7,500 Nm3/h of syngas have been assigned to two external companies. In parallel, development of medium- and large-scale plant solutions is progressing within the ENI group framework. These last activities are addressed to the utilisation of SCT-CPO for matching the variable Hydrogen demand in several contexts of oil refining operation. This paper will report on the current status of SCT-CPO with a focus on experimental results obtained, either at pilot- and bench- scale level. (orig.)

  8. Integration of Methane Steam Reforming and Water Gas Shift Reaction in a Pd/Au/Pd-Based Catalytic Membrane Reactor for Process Intensification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Dominguez, Bernardo; Mardilovich, Ivan P.; Ma, Liang-Chih; Ma, Rui; Dixon, Anthony G.; Kazantzis, Nikolaos K.; Ma, Yi Hua

    2016-01-01

    Palladium-based catalytic membrane reactors (CMRs) effectively remove H2 to induce higher conversions in methane steam reforming (MSR) and water-gas-shift reactions (WGS). Within such a context, this work evaluates the technical performance of a novel CMR, which utilizes two catalysts in series, rather than one. In the process system under consideration, the first catalyst, confined within the shell side of the reactor, reforms methane with water yielding H2, CO and CO2. After reforming is completed, a second catalyst, positioned in series, reacts with CO and water through the WGS reaction yielding pure H2O, CO2 and H2. A tubular composite asymmetric Pd/Au/Pd membrane is situated throughout the reactor to continuously remove the produced H2 and induce higher methane and CO conversions while yielding ultrapure H2 and compressed CO2 ready for dehydration. Experimental results involving (i) a conventional packed bed reactor packed (PBR) for MSR, (ii) a PBR with five layers of two catalysts in series and (iii) a CMR with two layers of two catalysts in series are comparatively assessed and thoroughly characterized. Furthermore, a comprehensive 2D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to explore further the features of the proposed configuration. The reaction was studied at different process intensification-relevant conditions, such as space velocities, temperatures, pressures and initial feed gas composition. Finally, it is demonstrated that the above CMR module, which was operated for 600 h, displays quite high H2 permeance and purity, high CH4 conversion levels and reduced CO yields. PMID:27657143

  9. Integration of Methane Steam Reforming and Water Gas Shift Reaction in a Pd/Au/Pd-Based Catalytic Membrane Reactor for Process Intensification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Castro-Dominguez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Palladium-based catalytic membrane reactors (CMRs effectively remove H2 to induce higher conversions in methane steam reforming (MSR and water-gas-shift reactions (WGS. Within such a context, this work evaluates the technical performance of a novel CMR, which utilizes two catalysts in series, rather than one. In the process system under consideration, the first catalyst, confined within the shell side of the reactor, reforms methane with water yielding H2, CO and CO2. After reforming is completed, a second catalyst, positioned in series, reacts with CO and water through the WGS reaction yielding pure H2O, CO2 and H2. A tubular composite asymmetric Pd/Au/Pd membrane is situated throughout the reactor to continuously remove the produced H2 and induce higher methane and CO conversions while yielding ultrapure H2 and compressed CO2 ready for dehydration. Experimental results involving (i a conventional packed bed reactor packed (PBR for MSR, (ii a PBR with five layers of two catalysts in series and (iii a CMR with two layers of two catalysts in series are comparatively assessed and thoroughly characterized. Furthermore, a comprehensive 2D computational fluid dynamics (CFD model was developed to explore further the features of the proposed configuration. The reaction was studied at different process intensification-relevant conditions, such as space velocities, temperatures, pressures and initial feed gas composition. Finally, it is demonstrated that the above CMR module, which was operated for 600 h, displays quite high H2 permeance and purity, high CH4 conversion levels and reduced CO yields.

  10. 臭氧催化氧化工艺深度处理印染废水%Advanced treatment of dyeing wastewater using catalytic ozonation process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆洪宇; 马文成; 张梁; 陈志强

    2013-01-01

    采用正交实验对催化剂NiO/γ-A12O3的制备条件进行优化,并探讨臭氧催化氧化法对于印染废水的深度处理效能.结果表明,最优的催化剂制备条件为:浸渍液浓度为3%、浸渍时间为4h、灼烧温度为450℃、灼烧时间为3h.臭氧催化氧化反应15 min时,COD浓度由84.22 mg/L降低至50.00 mg/L以下;氨氮浓度由10.88 mg/L降低至5.01 mg/L;色度去除率达到69%,明显高于单纯臭氧氧化的反应效率.%The preparation method of NiO/γ-Al2O3 as catalyst was optimized through orthogonal test and the advanced treatment efficiency of dyeing wastewater through catalytic ozonation process was also discussed.Results showed that the optimal catalyst preparation conditions are:impregnating solution concentration of 3%,immersion time of 4 h,burning temperature of 450℃ and burning time of 3 h.When kept ozone oxidation of 15 min,COD concentration decreased from 84.22 mg/L to 50.00 mg/L,the NH3-N concentration decreased from 10.88 mg/L to 5.01 mg/L,and the chromaticity removal rate reached to 69%,which showed higher reaction efficiency than that of single ozone oxidation process.

  11. Initiating events study of the first extraction cycle process in a model reprocessing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Renze; Zhang, Jian Gang; Zhuang, Dajie; Feng, Zong Yang [China Institute for Radiation Protection, Taiyuan (China)

    2016-06-15

    Definition and grouping of initiating events (IEs) are important basics for probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). An IE in a spent fuel reprocessing plant (SFRP) is an event that probably leads to the release of dangerous material to jeopardize workers, public and environment. The main difference between SFRPs and nuclear power plants (NPPs) is that hazard materials spread diffusely in a SFRP and radioactive material is just one kind of hazard material. Since the research on IEs for NPPs is in-depth around the world, there are several general methods to identify IEs: reference of lists in existence, review of experience feedback, qualitative analysis method, and deductive analysis method. While failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) is an important qualitative analysis method, master logic diagram (MLD) method is the deductive analysis method. IE identification in SFRPs should be consulted with the experience of NPPs, however the differences between SFRPs and NPPs should be considered seriously. The plutonium uranium reduction extraction (Purex) process is adopted by the technics in a model reprocessing plant. The first extraction cycle (FEC) is the pivotal process in the Purex process. Whether the FEC can function safely and steadily would directly influence the production process of the whole plant-production quality. Important facilities of the FEC are installed in the equipment cells (ECs). In this work, IEs in the FEC process were identified and categorized by FMEA and MLD two methods, based on the fact that ECs are containments in the plant. The results show that only two ECs in the FEC do not need to be concerned particularly with safety problems, and criticality, fire and red oil explosion are IEs which should be emphatically analyzed. The results are accordant with the references.

  12. Using a dual plasma process to produce cobalt--polypyrrole catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction in fuel cells -- part I: characterisation of the catalytic activity and surface structure

    CERN Document Server

    Walter, Christian; Vyalikh, Denis; Brüser, Volker; Quade, Antje; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; 10.1149/2.078208jes

    2012-01-01

    A new dual plasma coating process to produce platinum-free catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction in a fuel cell is introduced. The catalysts thus produced were analysed with various methods. Electrochemical characterisation was carried out by cyclic voltammetry, rotating ring- and rotating ring-disk electrode. The surface porosity of the different catalysts thus obtained was characterised with the nitrogen gas adsorption technique and scanning electron microscopy was used to determine the growth mechanisms of the films. It is shown that catalytically active compounds can be produced with this dual plasma process. Furthermore, the catalytic activity can be varied significantly by changing the plasma process parameters. The amount of H$_2$O$_2$ produced was calculated and shows that a 2 electron mechanism is predominant. The plasma coating mechanism does not significantly change the surface BET area and pore size distribution of the carbon support used. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy pictures o...

  13. Preliminary design and analysis of a process for the extraction of lithium from seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, M.; Dang, V.D.

    1975-09-01

    The U.S. demand for lithium by the industrial sector and by a fusion power economy in the future is discussed. For a one million MW(e) CTR (D-T fuel cycle) economy, growing into the beginning of the next century (the years 2000 to 2030), the cumulative demand for lithium is estimated to range from (0.55 to 4.7) x 10/sup 7/ to 1.0 x 10/sup 9/ kg. Present estimates of the available U.S. supply are 6.9 x 10/sup 8/ kg of lithium from mineral resources and 4.0 x 10/sup 9/ kg of lithium from concentrated natural brines. There is, however, a vast supply of lithium in seawater: 2.5 x 10/sup 14/ kg. A preliminary process design for the extraction of lithium from seawater is presented: seawater is first evaporated by solar energy to increase the concentration of lithium and to decrease the concentration of other cations in the bittern which then passes into a Dowex-50 ion exchange bed for cation adsorption. Lithium ions are then eluted with dilute hydrochloric acid forming an aqueous lithium chloride which is subsequently concentrated and electrolyzed. The energy requirement for lithium extraction varies between 0.08 and 2.46 kWh(e)/gm for a range of production rates varying between 10/sup 4/ and 10/sup 8/ kg/y; this is small compared to the energy produced from the use of lithium in a CTR having a value of 3400 kWh(e)/g Li. Production cost of the process is estimated to be in the range of 2.2 to 3.2 cents/g Li. As a basis for the process design, it is recommended that a phase equilibria study of the solid--liquid crystallization processes of seawater be conducted. Uncertainties exist in the operation of large solar ponds for concentrating large quantities of seawater. A search for a highly selective adsorbent or extractant for Li from low concentration aqueous solutions should be made. Other physical separation processes such as using membranes should be investigated. 9 tables. (DLC)

  14. Membrane processes application on the Symphytum officinale and Geranium robertianum extracts concentration to obtain high antioxidative activity compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paun Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports the successful application of membranes processes to obtain the good quality extracts with compounds of high antioxidative activity and therapeutic value. This study provided investigations on the phenolic compounds from two plant species used in Romanian ethno-medicine and evaluated the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. Three extracts prepared from Geranium robertianum and Symphytum officinale were concentrated by microfiltration and ultrafiltration. The levels of phenolic compounds and flavonoids were determined by UV-Vis spectroscopy and HPLC. The freeradical scavenging activity of concentrated extracts was determined by DPPH method. The preliminary tests of cytotoxic activity for the concentrated extracts have been carried out on human epidermoid laryngeal carcinoma cell line (Hep-2p and normal monkey kidneys cells (RM. The results showed that all concentrated extracts had a very low cytotoxicity against healthy cells, but a significant cytotoxic effect on Hep-2p tumor cells. The concentrated extracts have a high antioxidant activity (% DPPH inhibition > 80%.

  15. Microencapsulation and Storage Stability of Lycopene Extracted from Tomato Processing Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul C. Ranveer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to optimize the encapsulation of lycopene using response surface methodology and to determine its stability. The lycopene was extracted from tomato processing industry waste. The extracted pigment was purified by crystallization method. The effect of different process parameters, viz, core to wall ratio, sucrose to gelatin and inlet temperature on encapsulation efficiency (EE and encapsulation yield (EY were studied. Structural study of encapsulated material was carried by using scanning electron microscope (SEM. The samples with and without encapsulation were stored under different conditions such as the presence and absence of air, sunlight, at room temperature and under refrigeration. Highest EE (92.6 ± 0.86 and EY (82.2 ± 0.95 were observed when the core to wall ratio was 1:4, sucrose to gelatin ratio was 7:3 and inlet temperature was 1800C. The SEM analysis showed the encapsulated lycopene was of "bee-net" shaped, whereas lycopene without encapsulation was like "saw dust". More than 90% retention was recorded in microencapsulated sample stored in all storage conditions, whereas sample without encapsulation showed less than 5% retention with sample storage conditions after 42 days of storage. The optimization and storage study would be helpful to the lycopene producer to improve storage stability.

  16. Comparative assessment of various lipid extraction protocols and optimization of transesterification process for microalgal biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Shovon; Patnaik, Reeza; Singh, Amit Kumar; Mallick, Nirupama

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel, using microalgae as feedstocks, is being explored as the most potent form of alternative diesel fuel for sustainable economic development. A comparative assessment of various protocols for microalgal lipid extraction was carried out using five green algae, six blue-green algae and two diatom species treated with different single and binary solvents both at room temperature and using a soxhlet. Lipid recovery was maximum with chloroform-methanol in the soxhlet extractor. Pretreatments ofbiomass, such as sonication, homogenization, bead-beating, lyophilization, autoclaving, microwave treatment and osmotic shock did not register any significant rise in lipid recovery. As lipid recovery using chloroform-methanol at room temperature demonstrated a marginally lower value than that obtained under the soxhlet extractor, on economical point of view, the former is recommended for microalgal total lipid extraction. Transesterification process enhances the quality of biodiesel. Experiments were designed to determine the effects of catalyst type and quantity, methanol to oil ratio, reaction temperature and time on the transesterification process using response surface methodology. Fatty acid methyl ester yield reached up to 91% with methanol:HCl:oil molar ratio of 82:4:1 at 65 degrees C for 6.4h reaction time. The biodiesel yield relative to the weight of the oil was found to be 69%.

  17. Signal processing method and system for noise removal and signal extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chi Yung; Petrich, Loren

    2009-04-14

    A signal processing method and system combining smooth level wavelet pre-processing together with artificial neural networks all in the wavelet domain for signal denoising and extraction. Upon receiving a signal corrupted with noise, an n-level decomposition of the signal is performed using a discrete wavelet transform to produce a smooth component and a rough component for each decomposition level. The n.sup.th level smooth component is then inputted into a corresponding neural network pre-trained to filter out noise in that component by pattern recognition in the wavelet domain. Additional rough components, beginning at the highest level, may also be retained and inputted into corresponding neural networks pre-trained to filter out noise in those components also by pattern recognition in the wavelet domain. In any case, an inverse discrete wavelet transform is performed on the combined output from all the neural networks to recover a clean signal back in the time domain.

  18. Probing non-perturbative QCD through hadronic matrix elements extracted from exclusive hard processes

    CERN Document Server

    Pire, B

    2009-01-01

    QCD is the theory of strong interactions and non-perturbative methods have been developed to address the confinement property of QCD. Many experimental measurements probe the confining dynamics, and it is well-known that hard scattering processes allow the extraction of non perturbative hadronic matrix elements. To study exclusive hard processes, such as electromagnetic form factors and reactions like gamma* N -> gamma N', gamma* N -> pi N', gamma* gamma -> pi pi, antiproton proton ->gamma* pi in particular kinematics (named as generalized Bjorken regime), one introduces specific non-perturbative objects, namely generalized parton distributions (GPDs), distribution amplitudes (DA) and transition distribution amplitudes (TDA), which are Fourier transformed non-diagonal matrix elements of non-local operators on the light-cone. We review here a selected sample of exclusive amplitudes in which the quark and gluon content of hadrons is probed, and emphasize that much remains to be done to successfully compute thei...

  19. Mechanism of extractant loss in solvent extraction process (Ⅰ)——Transfer of saponified D2EHPA from organic phase to aqueous phase and its aggregation behaviour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王笃金; 吴瑾光; 李彦; 翁诗甫; 吴佩强; 徐光宪

    1995-01-01

    The phenomenon of the loss of saponified D2EHPA(di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid,HA)from organic phase to aqueous phase and its aggregation behaviour were studied with FT-IR and DLS(dynamic light scattering)techniques based on the fact that saponified extractant can form reversed micelles orw/o microemulsions in n-heptane,a non-polar diluent.The results indicate that "normal rnioelles" or o/wmicroemulsions are formed from acidic extractant and its sodium salt in aqueous phase,and the micelle ormicroemulsion drop has a non-polar core which can solubilize nheptane,so the equilibrated aqueous phasecontaining extractant is a complex fluid rather than a "real solution".Therefore,the aqueous aggregate for-mation leads to the extractant loss in solvent extraction process.Strong electrolytes can prevent or lessen theextractant loss.The results of this paper provide a theoretical possibility for solving the problem ofextractant and solvent loss in liquid-liquid extraction industry.

  20. Task 3.3: Warm Syngas Cleanup and Catalytic Processes for Syngas Conversion to Fuels Subtask 3: Advanced Syngas Conversion to Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebarbier Dagel, Vanessa M.; Li, J.; Taylor, Charles E.; Wang, Yong; Dagle, Robert A.; Deshmane, Chinmay A.; Bao, Xinhe

    2014-03-31

    activity was to develop methods and enabling materials for syngas conversion to SNG with readily CO2 separation. Suitable methanation catalyst and CO2 sorbent materials were developed. Successful proof-of-concept for the combined reaction-sorption process was demonstrated, which culminated in a research publication. With successful demonstration, a decision was made to switch focus to an area of fuels research of more interest to all three research institutions (CAS-NETL-PNNL). Syngas-to-Hydrocarbon Fuels through Higher Alcohol Intermediates There are two types of processes in syngas conversion to fuels that are attracting R&D interest: 1) syngas conversion to mixed alcohols; and 2) syngas conversion to gasoline via the methanol-to-gasoline process developed by Exxon-Mobil in the 1970s. The focus of this task was to develop a one-step conversion technology by effectively incorporating both processes, which is expected to reduce the capital and operational cost associated with the conversion of coal-derived syngas to liquid fuels. It should be noted that this work did not further study the classic Fischer-Tropsch reaction pathway. Rather, we focused on the studies for unique catalyst pathways that involve the direct liquid fuel synthesis enabled by oxygenated intermediates. Recent advances made in the area of higher alcohol synthesis including the novel catalytic composite materials recently developed by CAS using base metal catalysts were used.

  1. Evaluation and Optimization of Downstream Process Parameters for Extraction of Betulinic Acid from the Bark of Ziziphus jujubae L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashyap Kumar Dubey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Present work investigated an apposite and efficient method for extraction of betulinic acid (BA from the bark of Ziziphus jujubae. Various extraction methods like stirring extraction, soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic extraction, and microwave assisted extraction (MAE were evaluated for increasing recovery percentage of BA. From the raffinate so obtained, BA was isolated. Thin layer chromatography (TLC was used to analyze the extract and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC for quantification. The results revealed that the percentage extraction of BA from Z. jujubae by MAE was more proficient. As recovery percentage of BA by MAE technique turned out to be maximum, by using response surface methodology (RSM, three process parameters (pH, temperature, and time were optimized by MAE and it was observed that the optimum parameters (pH 6.5, temp. 70.23°C, and time 3.5 min gave the maximum recovery of BA (0.44% w/w. To validate the RSM model, experiments were performed and the highest recovery of BA was found to be 0.4% w/w which is ±0.04% to the predicted value. Henceforth the extraction efficiency and the substantial saving of time by MAE was more capable than the other extraction techniques.

  2. Evaluation and optimization of downstream process parameters for extraction of betulinic acid from the bark of Ziziphus jujubae L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Kashyap Kumar; Goel, Nitika

    2013-01-01

    Present work investigated an apposite and efficient method for extraction of betulinic acid (BA) from the bark of Ziziphus jujubae. Various extraction methods like stirring extraction, soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic extraction, and microwave assisted extraction (MAE) were evaluated for increasing recovery percentage of BA. From the raffinate so obtained, BA was isolated. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) was used to analyze the extract and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for quantification. The results revealed that the percentage extraction of BA from Z. jujubae by MAE was more proficient. As recovery percentage of BA by MAE technique turned out to be maximum, by using response surface methodology (RSM), three process parameters (pH, temperature, and time) were optimized by MAE and it was observed that the optimum parameters (pH 6.5, temp. 70.23°C, and time 3.5 min) gave the maximum recovery of BA (0.44% w/w). To validate the RSM model, experiments were performed and the highest recovery of BA was found to be 0.4% w/w which is ±0.04% to the predicted value. Henceforth the extraction efficiency and the substantial saving of time by MAE was more capable than the other extraction techniques.

  3. A novel cloud-point extraction process for preconcentrating selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, D.; Li, J.; Chen, S.B.; Chen, B.-H. [National University of Singapore (Singapore). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering

    2001-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) released in such processes as incomplete coal combustion and during the disposal of coal tar, are subject to strict emission controls in which the determination of PAHs has to be addressed. PAHs have low aqueous solubility which necessitates preconcentration prior to the analytical determination of PAHs. A novel but simple cloud-point extraction (CPE) process is developed to preconcentrate the trace of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with the use of the readily biodegradable nonionic surfactant of secondary ethyoxylated alcohol Tergitol 15-S-7 as extractant. The concentrations of PAHs, mixtures of naphthalene and phenanthrene as well as pyrene in the spiked samples were determined with the new CPE process at ambient temperature (23{degree}C) followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. More than 80% of phenanthrene and pyrene, respectively, and 96% of naphthalene initially present in the aqueous solutions with concentrations near or below their aqueous solubilities were recovered using this new CPE process. Importantly Tergitol 15-S-7 does not give any fluorometric signal to interfere with fluorescence detection of PAHs in the UV range. No special washing step is, thus, required to remove surfactant before HPLC analyses. Different experimental conditions were studied. The optimum conditions for the preconcentration and determination of these selected PAHs at ambient temperature have been established as the following: (1) 3 wt% surfactant; (2) addition of 0.5 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}; (3) 10 min for equilibration time; and (4) 3000 rpm for centrifugal speed with duration of 10 min. 50 refs., 7 figs.

  4. Extraction of water and solutes from argillaceous rocks for geochemical characterisation: Methods, processes and current understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchi, Elisa; Michelot, Jean-Luc; Pitsch, Helmut; Lalieux, Philippe; Aranyossy, Jean-François

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarises the results of a comprehensive critical review, initiated by the OECD/NEA "Clay Club," of the extraction techniques available to obtain water and solutes from argillaceous rocks. The paper focuses on the mechanisms involved in the extraction processes, the consequences on the isotopic and chemical composition of the extracted pore water and the attempts made to reconstruct its original composition. Finally, it provides some examples of reliable techniques and information, as a function of the purpose of the geochemical study. Résumé. Cet article résume les résultats d'une synthèse critique d'ensemble, lancée par le OECD/NEA "Clay Club", sur les techniques d'extraction disponibles pour obtenir l'eau et les solutés de roches argileuses. L'article est consacré aux mécanismes impliqués dans les processus d'extraction, aux conséquences sur la composition isotopique et chimique de l'eau porale extraite et aux tentatives faites pour reconstituer sa composition originelle. Finalement, il donne quelques exemples de techniques fiables et d'informations, en fonction du but de l'étude géochimique. Resúmen. Este artículo resume los resultados de una revisión crítica exhaustiva (iniciada por el "Clay Club" OECD/NEA) de las técnicas de extracción disponibles para obtener agua y solutos en rocas arcillosas. El artículo se centra en los mecanismos involucrados en los procesos extractivos, las consecuencias en la composición isotópica y química del agua intersticial extraída, y en los intentos realizados para reconstruir su composición original. Finalmente, se presentan algunos ejemplos de técnicas fiables e información, en función del propósito del estudio geoquímico.

  5. Could microwave induced catalytic oxidation (MICO) process over CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} effectively eliminate brilliant green in aqueous solution?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Yongming, E-mail: juyongming@scies.org [South China Institute of Environmental Science, Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP), Guangzhou 510655 (China); Wang, Xiaoyan [South China Institute of Environmental Science, Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP), Guangzhou 510655 (China); Qiao, Junqin [Center of Material Analysis, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, Jiangsu Province (China); Li, Guohua [South China Institute of Environmental Science, Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP), Guangzhou 510655 (China); Wu, You [Department of Urology, The Affiliated Hospital to Nantong University, Nantong University, Nantong 226001, Jiangsu Province (China); Li, Yuan, E-mail: liyuan@scies.org [South China Institute of Environmental Science, Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP), Guangzhou 510655 (China); Zhang, Xiuyu; Xu, Zhencheng; Qi, Jianying; Fang, Jiande [South China Institute of Environmental Science, Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP), Guangzhou 510655 (China); Dionysiou, Dionysios D., E-mail: dionysios.d.dionysiou@uc.edu [Environmental Engineering and Science Program, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0012 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • The elimination of BG over CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}(CP) was mainly due to the residue of NaOH. • Salicylic acid failed to capture hydroxyl radicals within MICO process. • This study indicated dim prospects for the MICO-based elimination of contaminants. -- Abstract: In this study, we adopted the chemical co-precipitation (CP) method and sol–gel method followed by calcination at temperatures of 100–900 °C for 12 h to synthesize CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} materials, which were further characterized by TEM, XRD and XPS techniques. The properties of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} materials were evaluated in a microwave (MW) induced catalytic oxidation (MICO) process for the elimination of brilliant green (BG). The results showed that: (1) the removal rates of BG gradually decreased over a series of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} materials prepared by CP method and calcinated with 100–700 °C (except 900 °C) for 12 h within three reuse cycles; for comparison, no removal of BG was obtained over CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} synthesized by sol–gel method and CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-900 (CP); (2) no hydroxyl radicals were captured with salicylic acid used as molecular probe in the MICO process; (3) MW irradiation enhanced the release of residual NaOH within the microstructure of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and further discolored BG, because BG is sensitive to pH; (4) granular activated carbon (GAC), an excellent MW-absorbing material possessing higher dielectric loss tangent compared to that of a series of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} materials, could not remove BG in suspensions at a higher efficiency, even if the loading amount was 20 g L{sup −1}. Accordingly, MICO process over CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} materials and GAC could not effectively eliminate BG in suspensions.

  6. Antimicrobial, free radical scavenging activities and catalytic oxidation of benzyl alcohol by nano-silver synthesized from the leaf extract of Aristolochia indica L.: a promenade towards sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, C.; Sivasubramanian, G.; Parthasarathi, Bera; Baskaran, K.; Balachander, R.; Parameswaran, V. R.

    2016-06-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) were synthesized from aqueous silver nitrate through a simple route using the leaf extract of Aristolochia indica L. (LAIL) which acted as a reducing as well as capping agent. X-ray diffraction confirmed that the synthesized silver particles have a face centred cubic structure. EDS predicted the presence of elemental silver. The SEM images showed the synthesis of spherically mono-dispersed particles, with nano dimensions accounted by the TEM images. Infra-red spectrum adopted to the different organic functionalities present at the surface of the particles. TGA indicated an overall 11 % weight loss up to 1000 °C, suggesting desorption of biomolecules from the surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis revealed the presence of metallic silver nanoparticles. The prepared material was utilized as catalyst in the oxidation of benzyl alcohol with molecular oxygen as the oxidant in methanol, under ambient conditions of temperature and pressure. Also Ag-NPs showed good to moderate anti-microbial activity employing the Agar disc diffusion method against various strains using Ciprofloxacin and Fluconazole as standard. Free radical scavenging activity of the nanoparticles were observed by modified 1,1-diphynyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, DPPH and 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), ABTS in vitro assays. The work presented here demonstrates the adaptability of the synthesized Ag-NPs in participating as a disinfectant agent, free radical scavenger and an effective oxidation catalyst. The basic premise of attaining sustainability through the green synthesis of smart multifaceted materials has been consciously addressed.

  7. A simple aloe vera plant-extracted microwave and conventional combustion synthesis: Morphological, optical, magnetic and catalytic properties of CoFe2O4 nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, A.; Sridhar, R.; Arul Antony, S.; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2014-11-01

    Nanocrystalline magnetic spinel CoFe2O4 was synthesized by a simple microwave combustion method (MCM) using ferric nitrate, cobalt nitrate and Aloe vera plant extracted solution. For the comparative study, it was also prepared by a conventional combustion method (CCM). Powder X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray and selected-area electron diffraction results indicate that the as-synthesized samples have only single-phase spinel structure with high crystallinity and without the presence of other phase impurities. The crystal structure and morphology of the powders were revealed by high resolution scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, show that the MCM products of CoFe2O4 samples contain sphere-like nanoparticles (SNPs), whereas the CCM method of samples consist of flake-like nanoplatelets (FNPs). The band gap of the samples was determined by UV-Visible diffuse reflectance and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The magnetization (Ms) results showed a ferromagnetic behavior of the CoFe2O4 nanostructures. The Ms value of CoFe2O4-SNPs is higher i.e. 77.62 emu/g than CoFe2O4-FNPs (25.46 emu/g). The higher Ms value of the sample suggest that the MCM technique is suitable for preparing high quality nanostructures for magnetic applications. Both the samples were successfully tested as catalysts for the conversion of benzyl alcohol. The resulting spinel ferrites were highly selective for the oxidation of benzyl alcohol and exhibit important difference among their activities. It was found that CoFe2O4-SNPs catalyst show the best performance, whereby 99.5% selectivity of benzaldehyde was achieved at close to 93.2% conversion.

  8. Post-treatment of biologically treated wastewater containing organic contaminants using a sequence of H2O2 based advanced oxidation processes: photolysis and catalytic wet oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda-Márquez, J J; Sillanpää, M; Pocostales, P; Acevedo, A; Manzano, M A

    2015-03-15

    In this paper the feasibility of a multi-barrier treatment (MBT) for the regeneration of synthetic industrial wastewater (SIWW) was evaluated. Industrial pollutants (orange II, phenol, 4-chlorophenol and phenanthrene) were added to the effluent of municipal wastewater treatment plant. The proposed MBT begins with a microfiltration membrane pretreatment (MF), followed by hydrogen peroxide photolysis (H2O2/UVC) and finishing, as a polishing step, with catalytic wet peroxide oxidation (CWPO) using granular activated carbon (GAC) at ambient conditions. During the microfiltration step (0.7 μm) the decrease of suspended solids concentration, turbidity and Escherichia coli in treated water were 88, 94 and 99%, respectively. Also, the effluent's transmittance (254 nm) was increased by 14.7%. Removal of more than 99.9% of all added pollutants, mineralization of 63% of organic compounds and complete disinfection of total coliforms were reached during the H2O2/UVC treatment step (H2O2:TOC w/w ratio = 5 and an UVC average dose accumulated by wastewater 8.80 WUVC s cm(-2)). The power and efficiency of the lamp, the water transmittance and photoreactor geometry are taken into account and a new equation to estimate the accumulated dose in water is suggested. Remaining organic pollutants with a higher oxidation state of carbon atoms (+0.47) and toxic concentration of residual H2O2 were present in the effluent of the H2O2/UVC process. After 2.3 min of contact time with GAC at CWPO step, 90 and 100% of total organic carbon and residual H2O2 were removed, respectively. Also, the wastewater toxicity was studied using Vibrio fischeri and Sparus aurata larvae. The MBT operational and maintenance costs (O&M) was estimated to be 0.59 € m(-3).

  9. Liquid-liquid extraction of biomolecules in downstream processing - A review paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Silva

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Economic analysis shows that protein separation and purification are a very important aspect of biomolecules production and processing. This is particularly true for protein processing which, because of the complexity of the starting material, often requires many steps to reach the levels of purity required for medical and food applications. The separation specialists' task is to develop safe and simple processes to achieve products with a high level of purity. On a large scale, chromatography of proteins is not an easily applied method, although on a laboratory scale it is very effective and relatively simple. When it is scaled up, shortcomings such as discontinuity in the process, slow protein diffusion and large pressure drops in the system are seen. For these reasons a substantial research effort has been directed toward the use of aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs to replace the initial steps in protein purification and chromatography. This article reviews the chronology and main ATPS fundamentals and discuss the broader applications of this type of system in the extraction and separation of biomolecules.

  10. Morphology study of nanofibers produced by extraction from polymer blend fibers using image processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehghan, Neda; Tavanaie, Mohammad Ali; Payvandy, Pedram [University of Yazd, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    The morphology of nanofibers extracted from the industrial-scale produced polypropylene/polybutylene terephthalate (PP/PBT) blend fibers was studied. To study the morphology and diameter measurements of the nanofibers, image processing method was used, and the results were compared with the results of a conventional visual method. Comparing these two methods indicated the good performance of image processing methods for the measuring of nanofiber diameter. Among the various applied image processing methods, the fuzzy c-means (FCM) method was determined as the best for image thresholding. Additionally, the distance transform method was determined as the best way for measuring nanofiber diameter. According to high regression coefficient (R=0.98) resulting between the draw ratio and nanofibers diameter, the high effectiveness of draw ratio to nanofiber diameter is concluded. The spherical (drop) shapes of the PBT dispersed phase particles were eventually deformed into very thin fibrils during the drawing process. The results of measuring the nanofiber diameters showed that the diameter means of nanofibers varied from 420 nm to 175 nm with the highest draw ratio. Good uniformity for diameter of nanofibers was observed, which had not been observed in previous works.

  11. Producing fuel alcohol by extractive distillation: Simulating the process with glycerol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Uyazán

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Downstream separation processes in biotechnology form part of the stages having most impact on a product’s final cost. The tendency throughout the world today is to replace fossil fuels with those having a renewable origin such as ethanol; this, in turn, produces a demand for the same and the need for optimising fermentation, treating vinazas and dehydration processes. The present work approaches the problem of dehydration through simulating azeotropic ethanol extractive distillation using glycerol as separation agent. Simulations were done on an Aspen Plus process simulator (Aspen Tech version 11.1. The simulated process involves two distillation columns, a dehydrator and a glycerol recuperation column. Simulation restrictions were ethanol’s molar composition in dehydrator column distillate and the process’s energy consumption. The effect of molar reflux ratio, solvent-feed ratio, solvent entry and feed stage and solvent entry temperature were evaluated on the chosen restrictions. The results showed that the ethanol-water mixture dehydration with glycerol as separation agent is efficient from the energy point of view.

  12. Effect of Some Operating Parameters on the Reversing Continuous Countercurrent Extraction Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waigoon RITTIRUT

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of some operating parameters on the reversing continuous countercurrent extraction process including the degree of inclination of the extractor and the percent forward progression by a screw conveyor was reported. Garcinia fruit was selected as model solid while sucrose was used as soluble solid for the diffusion system. The results showed that the degree of inclination provided certain effect on concentration profile, however was still ambiguous. For experimental purpose, 5, 7 or 10° can be used. Nevertheless, the solid and liquid phase were not in contact at the end point of the extraction unit in the case of 7° and 10° where the specified draft was 1.6. Based on the highest yield, a slope of 10° should be chosen. For a percent forward progression range of 10 - 20 %, the concentration profiles for both liquid and solid phase were almost identical. However, the lowest 5 % percent forward progression led to highest concentration profile for the liquid phase.Keywords:

  13. Recommended Guanidine Suppressor for the Next-Generation Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyer, Bruce A [ORNL; Delmau, Laetitia Helene [ORNL; Duncan, Nathan C [ORNL; Ensor, Dale [Tennessee Technological University; Hill, Talon G [ORNL; Lee, Denise L [ORNL; Roach, Benjamin D [ORNL; Sloop Jr, Frederick {Fred} V [ORNL; Williams, Neil J [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    The guanidine recommended for the Next-Generation Caustic-Side is N,N ,N -tris(3,7-dimethyloctyl)guanidine (TiDG). Systematic testing has shown that it is significantly more lipophilic than the previously recommended guanidine DCiTG, the active extractant in the commercial guanidine product LIX -79, while not otherwise changing the solvent performance. Previous testing indicated that the extent of partitioning of the DCiTG suppressor to the aqueous strip solution is significantly greater than expected, potentially leading to rapid depletion of the suppressor from the solvent and unwanted organic concentrations in process effluents. Five candidate guanidines were tested as potential replacements for DCiTG. The tests included batch extraction with simulated waste and flowsheet solutions, third-phase formation, emulsion formation, and partition ratios of the guanidine between the solvent and aqueous strip solution. Preliminary results of a thermal stability test of the TiDG solvent at one month duration indicated performance approximately equivalent to DCiTG. Two of the guanidines proved adequate in all respects, and the choice of TiDG was deemed slightly preferable vs the next best guanidine BiTABG.

  14. EEG artifact elimination by extraction of ICA-component features using image processing algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radüntz, T; Scouten, J; Hochmuth, O; Meffert, B

    2015-03-30

    Artifact rejection is a central issue when dealing with electroencephalogram recordings. Although independent component analysis (ICA) separates data in linearly independent components (IC), the classification of these components as artifact or EEG signal still requires visual inspection by experts. In this paper, we achieve automated artifact elimination using linear discriminant analysis (LDA) for classification of feature vectors extracted from ICA components via image processing algorithms. We compare the performance of this automated classifier to visual classification by experts and identify range filtering as a feature extraction method with great potential for automated IC artifact recognition (accuracy rate 88%). We obtain almost the same level of recognition performance for geometric features and local binary pattern (LBP) features. Compared to the existing automated solutions the proposed method has two main advantages: First, it does not depend on direct recording of artifact signals, which then, e.g. have to be subtracted from the contaminated EEG. Second, it is not limited to a specific number or type of artifact. In summary, the present method is an automatic, reliable, real-time capable and practical tool that reduces the time intensive manual selection of ICs for artifact removal. The results are very promising despite the relatively small channel resolution of 25 electrodes.

  15. Novel Regenerated Solvent Extraction Processes for the Recovery of Carboxylic Acids or Ammonia from Aqueous Solutions Part I. Regeneration of Amine-Carboxylic Acid Extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poole, L.J.; King, C.J.

    1990-03-01

    Two novel regenerated solvent extraction processes are examined. The first process has the potential to reduce the energy costs inherent in the recovery of low-volatility carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solutions. The second process has the potential for reducing the energy costs required for separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases (e.g. CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S) from industrial sour waters. The recovery of carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solution can be achieved by extraction with tertiary amines. An approach for regeneration and product recovery from such extracts is to back-extract the carboxylic acid with a water-soluble, volatile tertiary amine, such as trimethylamine. The resulting trimethylammonium carboxylate solution can be concentrated and thermally decomposed, yielding the product acid and the volatile amine for recycle. Experimental work was performed with lactic acid, succinic acid, and fumaric acid. Equilibrium data show near-stoichiometric recovery of the carboxylic acids from an organic solution of Alamine 336 into aqueous solutions of trimethylamine. For fumaric and succinic acids, partial evaporation of the aqueous back extract decomposes the carboxylate and yields the acid product in crystalline form. The decomposition of aqueous solutions of trimethylammonium lactates was not carried out to completion, due to the high water solubility of lactic acid and the tendency of the acid to self-associate. The separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases from sour waters can be achieved by combining steam-stripping of the acid gases with simultaneous removal of ammonia by extraction with a liquid cation exchanger. The use of di-2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinic acid as the liquid cation exchanger is explored in this work. Batch extraction experiments were carried out to measure the equilibrium distribution ratio of ammonia between an aqueous buffer solution and an organic solution of the phosphinic acid (0.2N) in Norpar 12. The concentration

  16. Catalytic models developed through social work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    The article develops the concept of catalytic processes in relation to social work with adolescents in an attempt to both reach a more nuanced understanding of social work and at the same time to develop the concept of catalytic processes in psychology. The social work is pedagogical treatment...... of adolescents placed in out-of-home care and is characterised using three situated cases as empirical data. Afterwards the concept of catalytic processes is briefly presented and then applied in an analysis of pedagogical treatment in the three cases. The result is a different conceptualisation of the social...... work with new possibilities of development of the work, but also suggestions for development of the concept of catalytic processes....

  17. Improvement of the flocculation process in water treatment by using moringa oleifera seeds extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sánchez-Martín

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity encourages researchers to keep working on natural coagulant agents such as Moringa oleifera seed extract, that could be used even in developing countries. With this scope, this investigation is focused on the optimization of certain parameters affecting the use of this coagulant product in the clarification of real surface water. Acidic pH levels seem to enhance the coagulation performance and the turbidity removal increases as the stirring period becomes longer (up to 95% with 40 min. The optimum stirring rate is identified as 80 rpm. Water clarified with this optimum coagulation and flocculation process is turbidity-competitive with other well known coagulants and flocculants and its quality is inside standard ranges for clarified water. No microbial growth is observed within the first 72 hours after the coagulant trials.

  18. Application of neutron activation in hydrometallurgical process of lead chloride extraction from boulangerit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zovko Emira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a neutron activation analysis for the identification of radiochemical elements in the ore concentrate of zone Vareš, Bosnia and Hercegovina, has been applied. The possibility of dissolving ore concentrate from iron(III chloride was examined. To follow the dissolving lead (II sulphide yield from the ore concentrates, in addition to radioisotope labeling process, it is necessary to use a gravimetric analysis of the extracted lead(II chloride. Based on kinetic measurements of dissolving concentrate efficiency it was observed that the optimum dissolving time was about 2 to 3 h, and that the one-time procedure can dissolve about 72±5% of marked components.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dady B. Dadyburjor; Mark E. Heavner; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; J. Joshua Maybury; Alfred H. Stiller; Joseph M. Stoffa; John W. Zondlo

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, and porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, hydrotreatment of solvent was completed in preparation for pitch fabrication for graphite electrodes. Coal digestion has lagged but is expected to be complete by next quarter. Studies are reported on coal dissolution, pitch production, foam synthesis using physical blowing agents, and alternate coking techniques.

  20. Process variables influence on microwave assisted extraction of pectin from waste Carcia papaya L. peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maran, J Prakash; Prakash, K Arun

    2015-02-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate and optimize the influence of process variables such as microwave power, pH, time and solid-liquid ratio on the extraction of pectin from waste Carcia papaya L peel. The experiments were carried out based on a four factors three level Box-Behnken response surface design. A quadratic model was developed from the experimental data in order to predict the pectin yield. The optimal condition was found to be: microwave power of 512 w, pH of 1.8, time of 140 s and solid-liquid ratio of 1:15 g/ml with maximum pectin yield (25.41%).

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot B. Kennel; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-07-13

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. The Hydrotreatment Facility is being prepared for trials with coal liquids. Raw coal tar distillate trials have been carried out by heating coal tar in the holding tank in the Hydrotreatment Facility. The liquids are centrifuged to warm the system up in preparation for the coal liquids. The coal tar distillate is then recycled to keep the centrifuge hot. In this way, the product has been distilled such that a softening point of approximately 110 C is reached. Then an ash test is conducted.

  2. Modeling and parameters optimizing for catalytic pyrolysis process of cotton shell%棉花壳催化热解气化过程建模与优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李大中; 朱红

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the model of cotton shell catalytic pyrolysis process has been established based on LS-SVM.The result shows that the LS-SVM model is effective.According to this, the constraints in the cotton shell pyrolysis process have been analyzed, and the objective function was established.It aimed at looking for the optimal control parameters for the maximum content of combustible gas component H2 and CO.The calculation result shows that the contents of H2 and CO can reach their maximum of 49.939 4% and 27.601 7% respectively when the dosage of Na2CO3and pyrolysis temperature are 27.849 3% and 1 087.158 4 K respectively; and he contents of H2 and CO can reach their maximum of 52.110 5% and 27.119 3% when the dosage of K2CO3 and pyrolysis temperature are 28.445 6% and 1 065.326 5 K respectively.%建立了棉花壳催化热解气化过程的最小二乘支持向量机模型,验证结果表明,该模型对棉花壳气化过程具有较好的模拟效果.在此基础上,进一步确立了棉花壳催化热解气化过程的约束条件,建立了该过程的优化目标函数,旨在寻找可燃气体组分H:和CO含量达到最大值时,气化温度和催化剂添加量应满足的优化目标值.优化计算表明:当Na2CO3添加量和气化温度优化目标值分别为27.8493%和1087.158 4 K时,H:和CO含量均达到最大值49.9394%和27.601 7%;当KZCO,添加量和气化温度优化目标值分别为28.4456%和1065.326 5 K时,H:和CO含量均达到最大值52.1105%和27.119 3%.

  3. Method of fabricating a catalytic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Harry W.; Petkovic, Lucia M.; Ginosar, Daniel M.

    2009-09-22

    A precursor to a catalytic structure comprising zinc oxide and copper oxide. The zinc oxide has a sheet-like morphology or a spherical morphology and the copper oxide comprises particles of copper oxide. The copper oxide is reduced to copper, producing the catalytic structure. The catalytic structure is fabricated by a hydrothermal process. A reaction mixture comprising a zinc salt, a copper salt, a hydroxyl ion source, and a structure-directing agent is formed. The reaction mixture is heated under confined volume conditions to produce the precursor. The copper oxide in the precursor is reduced to copper. A method of hydrogenating a carbon oxide using the catalytic structure is also disclosed, as is a system that includes the catalytic structure.

  4. Process variables in biomimetic synthesis of silver nanoparticles by aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathy, A. [VIT University, School of Biotechnology, Chemical and Biomedical Engineering (India); Raichur, Ashok M. [Indian Institute of Science, Department of Materials Engineering (India); Chandrasekaran, N.; Prathna, T. C.; Mukherjee, Amitava, E-mail: amit.mookerjea@gmail.co [VIT University, School of Biotechnology, Chemical and Biomedical Engineering (India)

    2010-01-15

    Owing to widespread applications, synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles is recently attracting considerable attention. Increasing environmental concerns over chemical synthesis routes have resulted in attempts to develop biomimetic approaches. One of them is synthesis using plant parts, which eliminates the elaborate process of maintaining the microbial culture and often found to be kinetically favourable than other bioprocesses. The present study deals with investigating the effect of process variables like reductant concentrations, reaction pH, mixing ratio of the reactants and interaction time on the morphology and size of silver nanoparticles synthesized using aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaves. The formation of crystalline silver nanoparticles was confirmed using X-ray diffraction analysis. By means of UV spectroscopy, Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy techniques, it was observed that the morphology and size of the nanoparticles were strongly dependent on the process parameters. Within 4 h interaction period, nanoparticles below 20-nm-size with nearly spherical shape were produced. On increasing interaction time (ageing) to 66 days, both aggregation and shape anisotropy (ellipsoidal, polyhedral and capsular) of the particles increased. In alkaline pH range, the stability of cluster distribution increased with a declined tendency for aggregation of the particles. It can be inferred from the study that fine tuning the bioprocess parameters will enhance possibilities of desired nano-product tailor made for particular applications.

  5. Extraction Factor Of Tungsten Sources From Tungsten Scraps By Zinc Decomposition Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pee J.-H.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Decomposition promoting factors and extraction process of tungsten carbide and tungstic acid powders in the zinc decomposition process of tungsten scraps which are composed mostly of tungsten carbide and cobalt were evaluated. Zinc volatility was suppressed by the enclosed graphite crucible and zinc volatilization pressure was produced in the reaction graphite crucible inside an electric furnace for ZDP (Zinc Decomposition Process. Decomposition reaction was done for 2hours at 650°, which 100% decomposed the tungsten scraps that were over 30 mm thick. Decomposed scraps were pulverized under 75μm and were composed of tungsten carbide and cobalt identified by the XRD (X-ray Diffraction. To produce the WC(Tungsten Carbide powder directly from decomposed scraps, pulverized powders were reacted with hydrochloric acid to remove the cobalt binder. Also to produce the tungstic acid, pulverized powders were reacted with aqua regia to remove the cobalt binder and oxidize the tungsten carbide. Tungsten carbide and tungstic acid powders were identified by XRD and chemical composition analysis.

  6. Metal Extraction Processes for Electronic Waste and Existing Industrial Routes: A Review and Australian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Khaliq

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The useful life of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE has been shortened as a consequence of the advancement in technology and change in consumer patterns. This has resulted in the generation of large quantities of electronic waste (e-waste that needs to be managed. The handling of e-waste including combustion in incinerators, disposing in landfill or exporting overseas is no longer permitted due to environmental pollution and global legislations. Additionally, the presence of precious metals (PMs makes e-waste recycling attractive economically. In this paper, current metallurgical processes for the extraction of metals from e-waste, including existing industrial routes, are reviewed. In the first part of this paper, the definition, composition and classifications of e-wastes are described. In the second part, separation of metals from e-waste using mechanical processing, hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical routes are critically analyzed. Pyrometallurgical routes are comparatively economical and eco-efficient if the hazardous emissions are controlled. Currently, pyrometallurgical routes are used initially for the segregation and upgrading of PMs (gold and silver into base metals (BMs (copper, lead and nickel and followed by hydrometallurgical and electrometallurgical processing for the recovery of pure base and PMs. For the recycling of e-waste in Australia, challenges such as collection, transportation, liberation of metal fractions, and installation of integrated smelting and refining facilities are identified.

  7. Methane gas generation from waste water extraction process of crude palm oil in experimental digesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, A.; Penafiel, R.; Garzón, P. V.; Ochoa, V.

    2015-12-01

    Industrial processes to extract crude palm oil, generates large amounts of waste water. High concentrations of COD, ST, SV, NH4 + and low solubility of O2, make the treatment of these effluents starts with anaerobic processes. The anaerobic digestion process has several advantages over aerobic degradation: lower operating costs (not aeration), low sludge production, methane gas generation. The 4 stages of anaerobic digestion are: hydrolysis, acidogenic, acetogenesis and methanogenesis. Through the action of enzymes synthesized by microbial consortia are met. The products of each step to serve as reagents is conducted as follows. The organic load times and cell hydraulic retention, solids content, nutrient availability, pH and temperature are factors that influence directly in biodigesters. The objectives of this presentation is to; characterize the microbial inoculum and water (from palm oil wasted water) to be used in biodigestores, make specific methanogenic activity in bioassays, acclimatize the microorganisms to produce methane gas using basal mineral medium with acetate for the input power, and to determine the production of methane gas digesters high organic load.

  8. Multi-response Optimization of Pectinase Processing Conditions on Blueberry Juice Extraction by Desirability Function Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueling Gao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Response Surface Methodology (RSM was employed to analyze the effect of pectinase processing on Juice Yield (JY, Total Anthocyanin content (TA, Total Phenol content (TP and Total Flavonoid content (TF of blueberry juice. The processing conditions included enzyme dosage, hydrolysis temperature and hydrolysis time. For resolving multi-response optimization, desirability function method was used to integrate JY, TA, TP and TF into a new target D (Desirability value. Predicted values of JY, TA, TP, TF and D were found to be in good agreement with experimental values as indicated by the high R2 values of 0.9963, 0.9217, 0.9586, 0.9901 and 0.9933, respectively. The optimum conditions were: enzyme dosage of 0.6 mg/g, hydrolysis temperature of 51.6°C and hydrolysis time of 2.36 h. At this optimum point, JY, TA, TP, TF and D were 71.406%, 420.367 mg/L, 2.784 g/L, 3.121 g/L and 0.9206, respectively. The study showed that RSM was an effective technique to model the effect of pectinase processing on blueberry juice parameters and desirability function method could be used for multi-response optimization of blueberry juice extraction.

  9. Avocado oil extraction processes: method for cold-pressed high-quality edible oil production versus traditional production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Costagli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the avocado fruit (Persea americana Mill. is widely regarded as an important fruit for its nutritional values, as it is rich in vital human nutrients. The avocado fruit is mainly sold fresh on the market, which however trades also a relevant quantity of second-grade fruits with a relatively high oil content. Traditionally, this oil is extracted from dried fruits by means of organic solvents, but a mechanical method is also used in general in locations where drying systems and/or solvent extraction units cannot be installed. These traditional processes yield a grade of oil that needs subsequent refining and is mainly used in the cosmetic industry. In the late 1990s, in New Zeland, a processing company with the collaboration of Alfa Laval began producing cold-pressed avocado oil (CPAO to be sold as edible oil for salads and cooking. Over the last fifteen years, CPAO production has increased in many other countries and has led to an expansion of the market which is set to continue, given the growing interest in highquality and healthy food. Avocado oil like olive oil is extracted from the fruit pulp and in particular shares many principles of the extraction process with extra-vergin olive oil. We conducted a review of traditional and modern extraction methods with particular focus on extraction processes and technology for CPAO production.

  10. Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni as a natural antioxidant/antimicrobial for high pressure processed fruit extract: processing parameter optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba, Francisco José; Criado, María Nieves; Belda-Galbis, Clara Miracle; Esteve, María José; Rodrigo, Dolores

    2014-04-01

    Response surface methodology was used to evaluate the optimal high pressure processing treatment (300-500 MPa, 5-15 min) combined with Stevia rebaudiana (Stevia) addition (0-2.5% (w/v)) to guarantee food safety while maintaining maximum retention of nutritional properties. A fruit extract matrix was selected and Listeria monocytogenes inactivation was followed from the food safety point of view while polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activities, total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity (TEAC and ORAC) were studied from the food quality point of view. A combination of treatments achieved higher levels of inactivation of L. monocytogenes and of the oxidative enzymes, succeeding in completely inactivating POD and also increasing the levels of TPC, TEAC and ORAC. A treatment of 453 MPa for 5 min with a 2.5% (w/v) of Stevia succeeded in inactivating over 5 log cycles of L. monocytogenes and maximizing inactivation of PPO and POD, with the greatest retention of bioactive components.

  11. Influence of pressure and time on extraction process using supercritical CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mićić V.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE by carbon dioxide (CO2 of Salvia officinalis L. was investigated. SFE by CO2 was performed at different pressure (80, 100, 150, 200 and 300 bar and constant temperature of 40ºC (all other extraction conditions, such are flow rate, particle diameter of Salvia officinalis, extraction time were kept constant. The GC-MS method was used for determination of qualitative and quantitative composition of obtained extracts and essential oils.

  12. Supramolecular organization of organic phases for DIAMEX solvent extraction process; Organisation supramoleculaire des phases organiques de malonamides du procede d'extraction DIAMEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinet, L

    2005-04-15

    In the frame of nuclear waste cycle, supramolecular organization of organic phases has been studied for DIAMEX solvent extraction process. A general methodology has been developed in order to determine surfactant properties of an extractant at high concentration. An illustration is given by a malonamide (DMDBTDMA) at 0.7 mol/L, in dodecane and contacted with water, at 23 deg C. The concentrations of monomers (0.3 mol/L) and aggregates (0.4 mol/L), c.m.c. (0.25 mol/L), aggregation number (4,4), aggregation constant (7.7) and finally aggregates interactions (U/kT = -1.6) are quantified. The method is based on simultaneous utilization of four experimental techniques (small X-ray and neutron scattering, vapour pressure osmometry and tensiometry) added to the model of Baxter. The structure of malonamide organic phase is depending on extractant concentration. (i) Below 0.2 mol/L, it is a quasi-molecular liquid fluid, extracting few amount of solutes. (ii) From 0.2 to 1 mol/L, it is a complex liquid fluid, containing small spherical aggregates of 5 extractant molecules in coexistence with monomers. This phase behaves like typical microemulsions with reverse micelles, through its stabilizing effect of penetrating oil and steric repulsion between extractants. (iii) Above 1 mol/L, the organic phase is able to extract huge amount of solutes. When HNO{sub 3} or Nd(NO{sub 3} ){sub 3} are extracted, a gel with a pseudo-lamellar structure is observed. With UO{sub 2} (NO{sub 3} ){sub 2} a solid crystal with a ratio DMDBTDMA/UO{sub 2} (NO{sub 3} ){sub 2} equal to 1/1 is characteristic of the organic phase. The 'third phase' due to attractive interactions between aggregates has exactly the same supramolecular structure than an 'unsplitted organic phase' of the same composition. Aggregates interactions are independent on the chemical affinity of the extractant for solutes. (author)

  13. Mutagenesis of the catalytic and cleavage site residues of the hypovirus papain-like proteases p29 and p48 reveals alternative processing and contributions to optimal viral RNA accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kenneth S; Nuss, Donald L

    2014-10-01

    The positive-stranded RNA genome of the prototypic virulence-attenuating hypovirus CHV-1/EP713 contains two open reading frames (ORF), each encoding an autocatalytic papain-like leader protease. Protease p29, derived from the N-terminal portion of ORF A, functions as a suppressor of RNA silencing, while protease p48, derived from the N-terminal portion of ORF B, is required for viral RNA replication. The catalytic and cleavage site residues required for autoproteolytic processing have been functionally mapped in vitro for both proteases but not confirmed in the infected fungal host. We report here the mutagenesis of the CHV-1/EP713 infectious cDNA clone to define the requirements for p29 and p48 cleavage and the role of autoproteolysis in the context of hypovirus replication. Mutation of the catalytic cysteine and histidine residues for either p29 or p48 was tolerated but reduced viral RNA accumulation to ca. 20 to 50% of the wild-type level. Mutation of the p29 catalytic residues caused an accumulation of unprocessed ORF A product p69. Surprisingly, the release of p48 from the ORF B-encoded polyprotein was not prevented by mutation of the p48 catalytic and cleavage site residues and was independent of p29. The results show that, while dispensable for hypovirus replication, the autocatalytic processing of the leader proteases p29 and p48 contributes to optimal virus RNA accumulation. The role of the predicted catalytic residues in autoproteolytic processing of p29 was confirmed in the infected host, while p48 was found to also undergo alternative processing independent of the encoded papain-like protease activities. Importance: Hypoviruses are positive-strand RNA mycoviruses that attenuate virulence of their pathogenic fungal hosts. The prototypic hypovirus CHV-1/EP713, which infects the chestnut bight fungus Cryphonetria parasitica, encodes two papain-like autocatalytic leader proteases, p29 and p48, that also have important functions in suppressing the RNA

  14. Influence of enzymes on the oil extraction processes in aqueous media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricochon Guillaume

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The methods of oil aqueous extraction process (AEP assisted by enzymes are, over the last 50 years, an alternative designed to replace traditional methods of extraction using organic solvents. To extract the oil using an AEP, the use of specific enzymes, able to hydrolyze some or all components of seeds, can significantly increase the yields of extraction. Hydrolyzing the different constituents of cell walls (cellulose, hemicellulose, pectins, proteins, etc., enzymes are able to enhance the liberation of the oil. A number of physico-chemical parameters must also be considered for the better expression of the enzymatic mixture, while maintaining the quality of oils and meals. This article presents the various factors influencing the release of oil in aqueous media and the main results obtained by this process on various substrates.

  15. Demonstration Plant Equipment Design and Scale-Up from Pilot Plant of a Leaching and Solvent Extraction Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Arroyo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Germanium recovery from coal fly ash by hydrometallurgical procedures was studied at the pilot scale (5 kg of fly ash/h. Results were used to design the equipment of a demonstration-sized plant (200 kg of fly ash/h. The process is based on hydrometallurgical operations: firstly a germanium extraction from fly ash by leaching and a consequent Ge separation from the other elements present in the solution by solvent extraction procedures. Based on the experimental results, mass balances and McCabe-Thiele diagrams were applied to determine the number of steps of the solvent extraction stage. Different arrangements have been studied and a countercurrent process with three steps in extraction and six steps in elution was defined. A residence time of 5 min was fixed in both the extraction and elution stages. Volumetric ratios in extraction and stripping were: aqueous phase/organic phase = 5 and organic phase/stripping phase = 5, so a concentration factor of 25 is achieved. Mixers and decanters were completely defined. The maximum extracted and eluted germanium was estimated and a global efficiency of 94% was achieved. The cost-effectiveness of the equipment was estimated using the Lang factors.

  16. Towards the industrial production of antioxidants from food processing by-products with ultrasound-assisted extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virot, Matthieu; Tomao, Valérie; Le Bourvellec, Carine; Renard, Catherine M C G; Chemat, Farid

    2010-08-01

    Apple pomace, a by-product of the cider production, has been studied as a potential source of polyphenols, compounds of great interest for the industry. Ultrasound has been used to improve extraction efficiency in terms of time needed and total polyphenol content. A preliminary study has been first investigated to optimize ethanol proportion of aqueous extractant (50%, v/v) and solid/liquid ratio (polyphenols extraction from apple pomace appears to be a relevant, rapid, sustainable alternative to conventional procedure, and that scale up of the process is possible.

  17. ASSESSMENT OF THE INFLUENCE OF PROCESSING CONDITIONS ON THE ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF EXTRACTS OBTAINED FROM OLIVE OIL INDUSTRY BYPRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad-Qasem Mateo, Margarita Hussam

    2015-01-01

    [EN] The main goal of this Thesis was to determine the influence of the main processing stages involved in obtaining natural extracts with high antioxidant potential from byproducts originating in the olive oil industry. Firstly, the effect of freezing and/or the drying methods applied to olive oil byproducts on the polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity of the extracts subsequently obtained was addressed. For this purpose, two byproducts were considered: olive leaves and olive pomace...

  18. Natural language processing to extract symptoms of severe mental illness from clinical text: the Clinical Record Interactive Search Comprehensive Data Extraction (CRIS-CODE) project.

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, R. G.; Patel, R.(Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, USA); Jayatilleke, N.; Kolliakou, A; Ball, M; Gorrell, G.; Roberts, A; Dobson, R. J.; Stewart, R.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We sought to use natural language processing to develop a suite of language models to capture key symptoms of severe mental illness (SMI) from clinical text, to facilitate the secondary use of mental healthcare data in research. DESIGN: Development and validation of information extraction applications for ascertaining symptoms of SMI in routine mental health records using the Clinical Record Interactive Search (CRIS) data resource; description of their distribution in a corpus of ...

  19. Extraction of alginate from Sargassum muticum: process optimization and study of its functional activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazumder, Anupriya; Holdt, Susan Løvstad; De Francisci, Davide;

    2016-01-01

    of solvent. Different interaction effect of three extraction factors of temperature (60–100 °C), alkali (1–5 %), and aqueous ethanol (70–100 %) were studied to reduce residual waste. The result showed that the optimum extraction yield (13.57 %) was obtained with 86 °C temperature, 3 % alkali, and 93...... extraction were evaluated for total polyphenols and its antioxidant capacity. The extracted alginate was further characterized using fluorescence spectrophotometer and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The 1H NMR data revealed that extracted alginate has an M/G ratio of 1.08 and η 

  20. Potential Applications of Concentrated Solar Thermal Technologies in the Australian Minerals Processing and Extractive Metallurgical Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eglinton, Thomas; Hinkley, Jim; Beath, Andrew; Dell'Amico, Mark

    2013-12-01

    The Australian minerals processing and extractive metallurgy industries are responsible for about 20% of Australia's total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This article reviews the potential applications of concentrated solar thermal (CST) energy in the Australian minerals processing industry to reduce this impact. Integrating CST energy into these industries would reduce their reliance upon conventional fossil fuels and reduce GHG emissions. As CST technologies become more widely deployed and cheaper, and as fuel prices rise, CST energy will progressively become more competitive with conventional energy sources. Some of the applications identified in this article are expected to become commercially competitive provided the costs for pollution abatement and GHG mitigation are internalized. The areas of potential for CST integration identified in this study can be classed as either medium/low-temperature or high-temperature applications. The most promising medium/low-grade applications are electricity generation and low grade heating of liquids. Electricity generation with CST energy—also known as concentrated solar power—has the greatest potential to reduce GHG emissions out of all the potential applications identified because of the 24/7 dispatchability when integrated with thermal storage. High-temperature applications identified include the thermal decomposition of alumina and the calcination of limestone to lime in solar kilns, as well as the production of syngas from natural gas and carbonaceous materials for various metallurgical processes including nickel and direct reduced iron production. Hybridization and integration with thermal storage could enable CST to sustain these energy-intensive metallurgical processes continuously. High-temperature applications are the focus of this paper.

  1. Partnew - New solvent extraction processes for minor actinides - final report; Partnew - Nouveaux procedes d'extraction par solvant pour les actinides mineurs - rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madic, C.; Testard, F.; Hudson, M.J.; Liljenzin, J.O.; Christiansen, B.; Ferrando, M.; Facchini, A.; Geist, A.; Modolo, G.; Gonzalez-Espartero, A.; Mendoza, J. de

    2004-07-01

    The objectives of the European project PARTNEW were to define solvent extraction processes for the partitioning of the minor actinides, Am and Cm, from the aqueous high active raffinate or high active concentrate issuing the reprocessing of nuclear spent fuels by the PUREX process. Eleven laboratories participated to the research: 1/ CEA-DEN (Marcoule), 2/ CEA-DSM (Saclay), 3/ UREAD (U.K.), 4/ CTU (Sweden), 5/ ITU (Germany), 6/ ENEA (Italy), 7/ PoliMi (Italy), 8/ FZK-INE (Germany), 9/ FZJ-ISR (Germany), 10/ CIEMAT (Spain) and 11/ UAM (Spain). The research was organised into eight work packages (WP): Basic and applied DIAMEX studies, using diamide extractants for the co-extraction of actinides(III) (An(III)) and lanthanides(III) (Ln(III)) nitrates (WP1 and WP2), Basic and applied SANEX studies based on the use of polydentate N-ligands for the An(III)/Ln(III) separation (WP3 and WP4), Basic and applied SANEX studies based on the use of synergistic mixtures made of bis-(chloro-phenyl)-di-thio-phosphinic acid + neutral O-bearing ligand, (WP5 and WP6), Basic SANEX studies for the An(III)/Ln(III) separation, based on the use of new S-bearing ligands, Basic and applied studies for the Am(III)/Cm(III) separation. The work done in the fundamental and applied domains was very fruitful. Several processes have been successfully tested with genuine high active raffinates and concentrate. (authors)

  2. Optimization of LiCoO2 powder extraction process from cathodes of lithium-ion batteries by chemical dissolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Evangelista Sita

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A chemical process has been applied to extract LiCoO2 powder from cathodes of spent lithium-ion batteries by dissolution of the binder that agglutinate the powder particle each other as well to the Al collector surface. As solvents dimethylformamide (DMF and N-methyilpirrolidone (NMP were employed and the variables, cathode area, solution temperature, ultrasound bath power and solution stirring were chosen to optimize the extraction process. NMP solutions presented best results for powder extraction than DMF solutions. At 100 oC and under mechanical stirring or low power ultrasound bath NMP solution optimizes the binder dissolution. Powder extractions under DMF solutions are slow and an increase in the powder extraction efficiency was observed for crushed cathodes on solutions under ultrasound bath, at medium power. Filtration processes can separate the decanted LiCoO2 powder extracted upon DMF dissolution while the powder in suspension in the NMP solutions is separated by centrifugation techniques.

  3. VOCs催化反应过程与反应机理研究现状%Research Status of Volatile Organic Compounds(VOCs)Catalytic Oxidation Process and Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳琳

    2014-01-01

    Reviews the research status of volatile organic compounds catalytic oxidation process and mechanism,such as catalyst characterization,research methods of catalytic process,and different research systems. In-situ technology and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) in catalyst characterization can preferably elucidate the catalytic process and mechanism. The research of catalytic oxidation process mainly include reaction kinetic models (the Power-rate Law, the Mars-van Krevelen Model, and the Langmuir-Hinshelwood), reaction monitoring technology (In-situ FTIR, In-situ NMR, transient technique, isotopic tracing) , quantum chemical calculation, et al. Generally, reaction kinetics is one of the most widely techniques for the mechanism research of catalytic oxidation. The reaction products can be directly detected,which adsorb more attention. The research of quantum chemical calculation is just used for proof.%论述了挥发性有机污染物(VOCs)催化反应过程机理研究的现状,包括催化剂的表征、催化过程研究方法以及不同的研究体系。催化剂表征使用原位技术以及X射线吸收精细结构(XAFS)方法可以更好地阐述催化剂在催化过程中的作用与机制。催化过程研究主要包括催化反应动力学模拟(Power-rate Law、Mars-van Krevelen Model、Langmuir-Hinshelwood),反应产物监测(原位红外技术、原位核磁技术、暂态技术、同位素示踪技术),量子化学计算等。其中,反应动力学是使用较为广泛的研究催化反应机制的技术之一。反应产物监测可以得到直观的认识,获得了广大学者的关注。量子化学计算只作为论证。

  4. High Accuracy Extraction of Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia with Statistical Processing using Normal Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Takashi; Ogawa, Yutaro; Yoshida, Lui; Kotani, Kiyoshi; Jimbo, Yasuhiko

    The autonomic nervous system is important in maintaining homeostasis by mediating the opposing effects of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous activity on organs. Although it is known that the amplitude of RSA (Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia) is an index of parasympathetic nervous activity, it is difficult to estimate that activity in real-time in everyday situations. It is partly caused by body motions and extrasystoles. Also, automatic recognition of the R-wave on electrocardiograms is required for real-time analysis of RSA amplitude, there is an unresolved problem of false recognition of the R-wave. In this paper, we propose a method to evaluate the amplitude of RSA accurately using statistical processing with probabilistic models. Then, we estimate parasympathetic nervous activity during body motion and isometric exercise to examine the validity of the method. As a result, using the proposed method, we demonstrate that the amplitude of RSA can be extracted with false recognition of the R-wave. In addition, an appropriate threshold for the estimate is one or five percent because waveforms of RSA amplitude do not follow the abrupt changes of the parasympathetic nervous activity evoked by isometric exercise with the threshold at ten percent. Furthermore, the method using normal distribution is found to be more appropriate than that of chi-square distribution for statistical processing. Therefore, we expect that the proposed method can evaluate parasympathetic nervous activity with high accuracy in everyday situations.

  5. Leveraging Terminology Services for Extract-Transform-Load Processes: A User-Centered Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Kevin J; Jiang, Guoqian; Brue, Scott M; Liu, Hongfang

    2016-01-01

    Terminology services serve an important role supporting clinical and research applications, and underpin a diverse set of processes and use cases. Through standardization efforts, terminology service-to-system interactions can leverage well-defined interfaces and predictable integration patterns. Often, however, users interact more directly with terminologies, and no such blueprints are available for describing terminology service-to-user interactions. In this work, we explore the main architecture principles necessary to build a user-centered terminology system, using an Extract-Transform-Load process as our primary usage scenario. To analyze our architecture, we present a prototype implementation based on the Common Terminology Services 2 (CTS2) standard using the Patient-Centered Network of Learning Health Systems (LHSNet) project as a concrete use case. We perform a preliminary evaluation of our prototype architecture using three architectural quality attributes: interoperability, adaptability and usability. We find that a design-time focus on user needs, cognitive models, and existing patterns is essential to maximize system utility.

  6. X-ray Microprobe Investigation of Iron During a Simulated Silicon Feedstock Extraction Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardis, Sarah; Fakra, Sirine C.; Dal Martello, Elena; Larsen, Rune B.; Newman, Bonna K.; Fenning, David P.; Di Sabatino, Marisa; Buonassisi, Tonio

    2016-12-01

    Elemental silicon is extracted through carbothermic reduction from silicon-bearing raw feedstock materials such as quartz and quartzites. We investigate the micron-scale distribution and valence state of iron, a deleterious impurity in several iron-sensitive applications, in hydrothermal quartz samples of industrial relevance during a laboratory-scale simulated reduction process. We use X-ray diffraction to inspect the quartz structural change and synchrotron-based microprobe techniques to monitor spatial distribution and oxidation state of iron. In the untreated quartz, most of the iron is embedded in foreign minerals, both as ferric (Fe3+, e.g., in muscovite) and ferrous (Fe2+, e.g., as in biotite) iron. Upon heating the quartz to 1273 K (1000 °C) under industrial-like conditions in a CO(g) environment, iron is found in ferrous (Fe2+) particles. At this temperature, its chemical state is influenced by mineral decomposition and melting processes, whereas at higher temperatures it is influenced by the silicate melts. As the quartz grains partially transform to cristobalite 1873 K (1600 °C), iron diffuses towards liquid-solid interfaces forming ferrous clusters. Silica is liquid at 2173 K (1900 °C) and the iron migrates towards the interfaces between gas phases and the silicate liquid.

  7. Catalytic production of aromatics and olefins from plant materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haag, W.O.; Rodewald, P.G.; Weisz, P.B.

    1980-08-01

    Hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon-like plant materials offer the possibility of relatively simple and energy-efficient processing to liquid fuels or petrochemicals. The use of such highly reduced photosynthesis products as potential fuels has been advocated by Calvin and coworkers, and Buchanan and coworkers have evaluated several hundred plant species for the presence of hydrocarbons. The yield of extracted oils may exceed 10 wt % of the plant dry weight. Some field growth studies of the most promising of these plants are underway, e.g., by Calvin in California, by Native Plants, Inc., and by the Diamond Shamrock Co., in conjunction with the University of Arizona, mostly with Euphorbia and related genera. Exploratory studies were performed to determine if direct catalytic upgrading of the hydrocarbon-like plant constituents could be carried out. A preliminary report has been published recently. A variety of plant materials were shown to be upgraded to liquid premium fuels by relatively simple catalytic processing over Mobil's shape selective zeolite, ZSM-5. The present paper contains additional information on the conversion of a variety of plant materials with special emphasis on the production of petrochemicals, and discusses key mechanistic aspects of the reactions. Feedstocks were chosen to represent different types of plant materials: corn oil, castor oil and jojoba seed oil; plant extracts from Euphorbia lathyrus and Grindelia squarrosa; and hydrocarbons obtained by tapping of trees such as copaiba oil and natural rubber latex.

  8. National information service in mining, mineral processing and extractive metallurgy. [MINTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romaniuk, A.S.; MacDonald, R.J.C.

    1979-03-01

    More than a dedade ago, CANMET management recognized the need to make better use of existing technological information in mining and extractive metallurgy, two fields basic to the economic well-being of Canada. There were at that time no indexes or files didicated to disseminating technical information for the many minerals mined and processed in Canada, including coal. CANMET, with the nation's largest research and library resources in the minerals field, was in a unique position to fill this need. Initial efforts were concentrated on building a mining file beginning with identification of world sources of published information, development of a special thesaurus of terms for language control and adoption of a manual indexing/retrieval system. By early 1973, this file held 8,300 references, with source, abstract and keywords given for each reference. In mid-1973, operations were computerized. Software for indexing and retrieval by batch mode was written by CANMET staff to utilize the hardware facilities of EMR's Computer Science Center. The resulting MINTEC file, one of the few files of technological information produced in Canada, is the basis for the national literature search service in mining offered by CANMET. Attention is now focussed on building a sister-file in extractive metallurgy using the system already developed. Published information sources have been identified and a thesaurus of terms is being compiled and tested. The software developed for CANMET's file-building operations has several features, including the selective dissemination of information and production from magnetic tape of photoready copy for publication, as in a bi-monthly abstracts journal.

  9. Study of the Extraction Process and In Vivo Inhibitory Effect of Ganoderma Triterpenes in Oral Mucosa Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Han

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the reported study was to optimize the extraction process for ganoderma triterpenes and to investigate the in vivo inhibitory effect of ganoderma triterpenes on the genesis and progression of oral cancer. Single-factor and orthogonal methods were used to investigate the effects of extraction solvent, solvent amount, extraction time, extraction temperature, and number of extractions, on the extraction rate for ganoderma triterpenes. A golden hamster model with cheek pouch dynamic canceration was established to receive oral treatment of ganoderma triterpenes water solution. Animals were continuously monitored, oral tissue samples were collected for histopathologic examination, and changes in the expression of VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor and Caspase-3 were detected by immunohistochemical methods. Optimization of the experimental conditions allowed the identification of the optimal extraction conditions: 90% ethanol as the extraction solvent, a solvent amount by the liquid-material ratio of 35 mL/g, extraction time of 2 h and extraction temperature of 80 °C. Under these conditions, the average extraction rate of ganoderma triterpenes was 1.09%. Tests in golden hamsters showed that compared with the model group during the same period, animals in the treatment group had better conditions, constantly larger number of normal cases shown by histopathologic results (P < 0.01, and consistently smaller numbers of cases with paraplasm (P < 0.05. Immunohistochemical results showed that compared with the model group, the treatment group had significantly lower (P < 0.05 rates of positive VEGF expression in the normal state, simple epithelial hyperplasia, epithelial dysplasia or squamous cell carcinoma disease stages. Caspase-3 expression showed a tendency toward a gradual increase with the worsening of disease severity in each group. Compared with the model group, the treatment group had significantly lower (P < 0.05 rates of positive

  10. Improvement of oleuropein extractability by optimising steam blanching process as pre-treatment of olive leaf extraction via response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatopoulos, Konstantinos; Katsoyannos, Evangelos; Chatzilazarou, Arhontoula; Konteles, Spyros J

    2012-07-15

    Impact of steam, hot water blanching and UV-C irradiation as pre-treatments on extraction of oleuropein and related biophenols from olive leaves (OLs), was investigated. Moreover, particle size effect of olive leaves and steam blanching duration were selected as independent variables to optimise steam blanching process in terms of oleuropein content (OC) and antioxidant activity (AC) of ethanolic extracts, by using response surface methodology. Optimum conditions for OC and AC were 10 min steam blanching of 20-11 and 3-1mm olive leaf fraction, respectively. Depending on the extraction procedure, at optimum conditions of steaming the results indicate that steam blanching of OL prior to extraction can significantly increase oleuropein yield from 25 to 35 times compared to non-steam blanched sample, whereas the antioxidant activity increased from 4 to 13 times. No significant UV-C effect was observed in OC and AC, while hot water blanched samples showed significantly higher oleuropein yields and antioxidant activity compared to untreated samples.

  11. Preparation of nitric humic acid by catalytic oxidation from Guizhou coal with catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Zhiyuan; Gong Liang; Ran Pan

    2012-01-01

    Nitric humic acid was prepared by catalytic oxidation between nitric acid and Guizhou coal,with added catalysts.We investigated catalytic oxidation processes and the factors that affect the reactions.The effects of different catalysts,including NiSO4 support on active carbon (AC-NiSO4),NiSO4 support on silicon dioxide (SiO2-NiSO4),composites of SO42-/Fe2O3,Zr-iron and vanadium-iron composite were studied.As well.we investigated nitric humic acid yields and the chemical structure of products by element analysis,FT-IR and E4/E6 (an absorbance ratio at wavelengths of 465 and 665 nm of humic acid alkaline extraction solutions).The results show that the catalytic oxidation reaction with added catalysts can increase humic acid yields by 18.7%,16.36%,12.94%,5.61% and 8.59%,respectively.The highest yield of humic acid,i.e.,36.0%,was obtained with AC-NiSO4 as the catalyst.The amounts of C and H decreased with the amount of nitrogen.The increase in the E4/E6 ratio in catalytic oxidation of (Guizhou) coal shows that small molecular weights and high yields of nitric humic acid can be obtained by catalytic oxidation reactions.

  12. Features extraction from the electrocatalytic gas sensor responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowski, Paweł; Woźniak, Łukasz; Stachowiak, Maria; Jasiński, Grzegorz; Jasiński, Piotr

    2016-11-01

    One of the types of gas sensors used for detection and identification of toxic-air pollutant is an electro-catalytic gas sensor. The electro-catalytic sensors are working in cyclic voltammetry mode, enable detection of various gases. Their response are in the form of I-V curves which contain information about the type and the concentration of measured volatile compound. However, additional analysis is required to provide the efficient recognition of the target gas. Multivariate data analysis and pattern recognition methods are proven to be useful tool for such application, but further investigations on the improvement of the sensor's responses processing are required. In this article the method for extraction of the parameters from the electro-catalytic sensor responses is presented. Extracted features enable the significant reduction of data dimension without the loss of the efficiency of recognition of four volatile air-pollutant, namely nitrogen dioxide, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide.

  13. Effect of extraction process on composition, oxidative stability and rheological properties of purslane seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfan-Hosseini, Sasan; Nayebzadeh, Kooshan; Mirmoghtadaie, Leila; Kavosi, Maryam; Hosseini, Seyede Marzieh

    2017-05-01

    Purslane seed oil could be considered as potential nutritious oil due to its desirable fatty acid composition and other biological active compounds. In this study the effect of three extraction procedure including solvent extraction, cold pressing and microwave pretreatment (MW) followed by cold pressing on oil yield, physicochemical properties, oxidative stability and rheological behaviors of oil was investigated. Solvent extracted oil had the highest extraction yield (72.31%). Pretreatment by microwave before cold press extraction resulted in an increase in extraction yield, total phenolic compound (TPC) and antioxidant activity. Cold press extracted oil had the lowest oxidative stability (4.64h). This property was greatly enhanced by microwave irradiation, so that the longest oxidative stability was found in MW-cold press extracted oil with 9.67h. Furthermore, all extracted oils demonstrated Newtonian flow behaviors. MW-cold press extracted oil had the greatest apparent viscosity and highest sensitivity to temperature changes (Ea=29.18kJ/mol(-1)).

  14. Pectin extraction from quince (Cydonia oblonga) pomace applying alternative methods: effect of process variables and preliminary optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Valeria Anahí; Lozano, Jorge E; Genovese, Diego Bautista

    2014-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to introduce alternative methods in the process of pectin extraction from quince pomace, to determine the effect of selected process variables (factors) on the obtained pectin, and to perform a preliminary optimization of the process. A fractional factorial experimental design was applied, where the factors considered were six: quince pomace pretreatment (washing vs blanching), drying method (hot air vs LPSSD), acid extraction conditions (pH, temperature, and time), and pectin extract concentration method (vacuum evaporation vs ultrafiltration). The effects of these factors and their interactions on pectin yield (Y: 0.2-34.2 mg/g), GalA content (44.5-76.2%), and DM (47.5-90.9%), were determined. For these three responses, extraction pH was the main effect, but it was involved in two and three factors interactions. Regarding alternative methods, LPSSD was required for maximum Y and GalA, and ultrafiltration for maximum GalA and DM. Response models were used to predict optimum process conditions (quince blanching, pomace drying by LPSSD, acid extraction at pH 2.20, 80 , 3 h, and concentration under vacuum) to simultaneously maximize Y (25.2 mg/g), GalA (66.3%), and DM (66.4%).

  15. Catalytic cracking of lignites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, M.; Nowak, S.; Naegler, T.; Zimmermann, J. [Hochschule Merseburg (Germany); Welscher, J.; Schwieger, W. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ. (Germany); Hahn, T. [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    A most important factor for the chemical industry is the availability of cheap raw materials. As the oil price of crude oil is rising alternative feedstocks like coal are coming into focus. This work, the catalytic cracking of lignite is part of the alliance ibi (innovative Braunkohlenintegration) to use lignite as a raw material to produce chemicals. With this new one step process without an input of external hydrogen, mostly propylene, butenes and aromatics and char are formed. The product yield depends on manifold process parameters. The use of acid catalysts (zeolites like MFI) shows the highest amount of the desired products. Hydrogen rich lignites with a molar H/C ratio of > 1 are to be favoured. Due to primary cracking and secondary reactions the ratio between catalyst and lignite, temperature and residence time are the most important parameter to control the product distribution. Experiments at 500 C in a discontinuous rotary kiln reactor show yields up to 32 wt-% of hydrocarbons per lignite (maf - moisture and ash free) and 43 wt-% char, which can be gasified. Particularly, the yields of propylene and butenes as main products can be enhanced four times to about 8 wt-% by the use of catalysts while the tar yield decreases. In order to develop this innovative process catalyst systems fixed on beads were developed for an easy separation and regeneration of the used catalyst from the formed char. (orig.)

  16. Catalytic combustor for hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercea, J.; Grecu, E.; Fodor, T.; Kreibik, S.

    1982-01-01

    The performance of catalytic combustors for hydrogen using platinum-supported catalysts is described. Catalytic plates of different sizes were constructed using fibrous and ceramic supports. The temperature distribution as well as the reaction efficiency as a function of the fuel input rate was determined, and a comparison between the performances of different plates is discussed.

  17. Spirulina chitosan gel induction on healing process of Cavia cobaya post extraction socket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rostiny Rostiny

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prominent residual ridge is necessary to gain retention and stabilility for succesful prosthodontic treatment such as removable, fixed or implant. Spirulina is a natural substance that can help tissue healing and chitosan also a natural substance that reported to have the ability to help bone remodelling. The combination gel of spirulina and chitosan could be considered as an alternative material to maintain residual ridge height after tooth extraction. Purpose: The aim of study was to examine the effect of combination gel of Spirulina and chitosan on healing process of Cavia cobaya post tooth extraction socket by counting the amount of osteoclast, osteoblast and colagen as an indicator. Methods: Twenty eight cavia cobaya were divided into 4 groups. Insisive mandible extraction was done and the sockets were filled with 3% CMCNa for control groups, 3% spirulina chitosan 200 mg for group 1, 6% spirulina chitosan 200 mg for group 2, 12% spirulina chitosan 200 mg for group 3. After 30 days, histopathology examination was done by using microscope to count the amount of osteoclast, osteoblast and collagen. Results: Data was analyzed by using Anova and Tukey HSD. For osteoclast, there was no significant different between every groups, while for osteoblast and collagen there was significant different between groups. The results showed that induction of combination gel spirulina chitosan was able to accumulate collagen fiber and resulting faster wound healing. Conclusion: Combination 12% gel spirulina chitosan 200 mg could be used as an alternative material for better bone remodeling after tooth extraction.Latar belakang: Residual ridge yang prominen sangat dibutuhkan untuk mendapatkan retensi dan stabilitas untuk menunjang keberhasilan perawatan di bidang prostodonsia seperti pada kasus removable, fixed atau implant. Tindakan pencabutan gigi dapat merusak jaringan periodontal, sementum dan tulang alveolar yang mengakibatkan resorbsi ridge

  18. 菜籽粕多酚提取工艺优化%Process optimization of polyphenol extraction conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗仓学; 史兰; 李振尧

    2013-01-01

    Use water by enzymatic and response surface methodology to optimize the polyphenol extraction process of rapeseed meal,selected on the basis of single-factor test pH,enzyme dosage,extraction temperature and extraction time to analysis by response surface,then established a quadratic polynomial mathematical model of polyphenol extraction.Finally,through the response surface methodology,the optimum conditions of rapeseed polyphenol extraction as follows:pH value of 4,amount of enzyme of 5.3%,extraction temperature of 56℃,extraction time of 45min,and the polyphenol rate is 10.279mg/g.%利用水酶法,在单因素试验的基础上选择了pH、加酶量、提取温度和提取时间进行响应面分析,建立了多酚提取的二次多项式数学模型,确定了菜籽多酚提取的最佳工艺条件为pH4.2,加酶量5.3%,提取温度56℃,提取时间45 min,多酚得率达到10.26mg/g.

  19. [Studies on extraction process of the main saponin constituents from the stem bark of Kalopanax septemlobus in Guangxi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yue; Yang, Xin-ping; Liu, Xiao-fu; Jiang, Xiao-jun

    2009-09-01

    Using orthogonal experiment design, the total saponin constituents were obtained by refluxing extraction with alcohol and separated by macroporous adsorption resin and n-Butyl alcohol from the stem bark of Kalopanax septemlobus. According to the purity analysis and the yield, the extraction process was optimized. The results showed that the main saponin constituents were gained with a yield of 1.32% by using macroporous adsorption resin but 1.05% by using n-Butyl alcohol. The former was more efficient than the latter on both yield and color. The optimal process with isolation by macroporous adsorption resin is cheap, simple and practical.

  20. Enzymatic process development for the extraction of ferulic from wheat bran [abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blecker, C.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The agro-industries generate thousands of tons of by-products, such as cereal bran or sugar beet pulps, each year. For instance, in the Walloon Region, wheat transformation industry produces about 200,000 t of bran annually. Most of those by-products are, at best, used for cattle feeding. Through biocracking, this biomass may however constitute a renewable source for various value-added molecules of interest. These include dietary fiber, proteins, antioxidants, etc. The Feruzyme project focuses on ferulic acid, a major example of the hydroxycinnamic acids. These phenolic compounds show excellent antioxidant ability, and are found in relative abundance in cereal bran (about 6.6 mg.g-1, dry basis, in wheat bran. Ferulic acid (along with other hydroxycinnamic acids is in majority (usually about 80% ester-linked to other constitutive elements of the cell wall, namely arabinoxylans. Its enzymatic release depends mainly on the breaking of its ester linkage by Ferulic Acid Esterases (FAE, EC 3.1.1.73, which works in synergy with arabinoxylan-degrading enzymes (hemicellulase, including xylanase. Cellulase and even protease may also help by "unweaving" further the complex, cross-linked structure of bran cell-wall. The aim of our project is to design a process, starting from raw wheat bran to obtain purified ferulic acid, either crystallized or in concentrated solution. Furthermore, this process should be feasible at pilot scale, as it is meant to commercial application. Bran pre-treatment may impact the efficiency of the enzymatic action, by facilitating the access of the enzymes to their substrate (grinding, micronisation, or by modifying cell-wall structure (extrusion, steam-explosion, etc. processes involving non-enzymatic hydrolysis. The composition of the bran may also be altered, for instance by destarching, but also by pearling, this process being able to separate richer layers within the bran. Simpler process, like fine sieving of ground bran, is