WorldWideScience

Sample records for catalytic effects

  1. Shungite carbon catalytic effect on coal treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigorieva, E.N.; Rozhkova, N.N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Institute for High Temperature

    1999-07-01

    The catalytic ability of shungite carbon in reactions of coal organic matter models appeared to be due to its fullerene structure only. Transition metal sulphides present in shungite carbon are not active in the conditions of coal treatment. Shungite carbon was shown to exhibit an acceleration of thermolysis of coal and organic matter models, mainly dehydrogenation. 5 refs., 1 tabs.

  2. Effective function annotation through catalytic residue conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Richard A; Spriggs, Ruth V; Bartlett, Gail J; Gutteridge, Alex; MacArthur, Malcolm W; Porter, Craig T; Al-Lazikani, Bissan; Thornton, Janet M; Swindells, Mark B

    2005-08-30

    Because of the extreme impact of genome sequencing projects, protein sequences without accompanying experimental data now dominate public databases. Homology searches, by providing an opportunity to transfer functional information between related proteins, have become the de facto way to address this. Although a single, well annotated, close relationship will often facilitate sufficient annotation, this situation is not always the case, particularly if mutations are present in important functional residues. When only distant relationships are available, the transfer of function information is more tenuous, and the likelihood of encountering several well annotated proteins with different functions is increased. The consequence for a researcher is a range of candidate functions with little way of knowing which, if any, are correct. Here, we address the problem directly by introducing a computational approach to accurately identify and segregate related proteins into those with a functional similarity and those where function differs. This approach should find a wide range of applications, including the interpretation of genomics/proteomics data and the prioritization of targets for high-throughput structure determination. The method is generic, but here we concentrate on enzymes and apply high-quality catalytic site data. In addition to providing a series of comprehensive benchmarks to show the overall performance of our approach, we illustrate its utility with specific examples that include the correct identification of haptoglobin as a nonenzymatic relative of trypsin, discrimination of acid-d-amino acid ligases from a much larger ligase pool, and the successful annotation of BioH, a structural genomics target.

  3. Effect of praseodymium on catalytic graphitization of furan resin carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易守军; 陈金华; 肖雄; 刘露; 樊桢

    2010-01-01

    We introduced a new catalyst,rare earth element praseodymium,for the catalytic graphitization of furan resin carbon.The extent of graphitization of the furan resin carbon was examined by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy.The morphology of furan resin carbon was characterized by scanning electron microscopy.The effects of the praseodymium content and the heat-treatment temperature on the catalytic graphitization of furan resin carbon were also investigated.The results indicated that the praseodymium c...

  4. Catalytically and noncatalytically treated automobile exhaust: biological effects in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, G.P. (Univ. of Cincinnati); Lewkowski, J.P.; Hastings, L.; Malanchuk, M.

    1977-12-01

    Chronic exposure to catalytically treated or noncatalytically treated automobile exhaust significantly depressed the spontaneous locomotor activity (SLA) of rats. Exposure to H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ alone or CO at comparable levels did not alter the SLA. Exposure to noncatalytically treated exhaust resulted in significant reductions in growth rate and food and water intake. However, these effects were not evident in the exposure to catalytically treated exhaust or in the control H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and CO exposures. Blood acid-base analyses indicated that exposure to either catalytically treated exhaust or H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ elicits a metabolic alkalosis, while exposure to CO alone results in a metabolic acidosis. All acid-base parameters were within the normal range several weeks after the termination of exposure.

  5. Effect of Novel Supporter on Catalytic Combustion of Methane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A new catalyst support, Ce-Mg-O, was prepared in a novel way macromolecule surfactant modified method and was used as a catalyst support for low-temperature methane combustion. The results indicate that the new type of FeOx/Ce-Mg-O catalyst exhibits high activity in low-temperature methane combustion, such that the T90 at which 90% conversion of methane occurs can be obtained at 560 ℃. The structure of the catalyst and the effect of the supporter on catalytic activity were characterized by transmission electronic microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR). The results indicate that the high catalytic activity of FeOx/Ce-Mg-O over methane combustion is strongly dependent on the particle size, typical crystal phase of the Ce-Mg-O, and the interaction of FeOx and Ce-Mg-O.

  6. Catalytic effect of light illumination on bioleaching of chalcopyrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuang; Gan, Min; Zhu, Jianyu; Li, Qian; Jie, Shiqi; Yang, Baojun; Liu, Xueduan

    2015-04-01

    The influence of visible light exposure on chalcopyrite bioleaching was investigated using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. The results indicated, in both shake-flasks and aerated reactors with 8500-lux light, the dissolved Cu was 91.80% and 23.71% higher, respectively, than that in the controls without light. The catalytic effect was found to increase bioleaching to a certain limit, then plateaued as the initial chalcopyrite concentration increased from 2% to 4.5%. Thus a balanced mineral concentration is highly amenable to bioleaching via offering increased available active sites for light adsorption while eschewing mineral aggregation and screening effects. Using semiconducting chalcopyrite, the light facilitated the reduction of Fe(3+) to Fe(2+) as metabolic substrates for A.ferrooxidans, leading to better biomass, lower pH and redox potential, which are conducive to chalcopyrite leaching. The light exposure on iron redox cycling was further confirmed by chemical leaching tests using Fe(3+), which exhibited higher Fe(2+) levels in the light-induced system. PMID:25722073

  7. Effect of biomass ash in catalytic fast pyrolysis of pine wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yildiz, G.; Ronsse, F.; Venderbosch, R.H.; Duren, van R.; Kersten, S.R.A.; Prins, W.

    2015-01-01

    Fast pyrolysis experiments of pine wood have been performed in a continuously operated mechanically stirred bed reactor at 500 °C. The effects of the pine wood ash were studied by comparing non-catalytic and catalytic experiments (using a ZSM-5 based catalyst) with their ash-added counterparts. To s

  8. Effects of carrier and Mn loading on supported manganese oxide catalysts for catalytic combustion of methane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinyan Hu; Wei Chu; Limin Shi

    2008-01-01

    Supported manganese oxide catalysts were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation method for methane cat-alytic combustion, and effects of the support (Al2O3, SiO2 and TiO2) and Mn loading were investigated. These catalysts were characterized with N2 adsorption, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and temperature-programmed reduction techniques. Methane conversion varied in a large range depending on supports or Mn loading. Al2O3 supported 15% Mn cata-lyst exhibited better activity toward methane catalytic oxidation. The manganese state and oxygen species played an important role in the catalytic performance.

  9. Effect of Catalytic Layer Thickness on Diameter of Vertically Aligned Individual Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Kyung Jung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of catalytic thin film thickness on the diameter control of individual carbon nanotubes grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition was investigated. Individual carbon nanotubes were grown on catalytic nanodot arrays, which were fabricated by e-beam lithography and e-beam evaporation. During e-beam evaporation of the nanodot pattern, more catalytic metal was deposited at the edge of the nanodots than the desired catalyst thickness. Because of this phenomenon, carbon atoms diffused faster near the center of the dots than at the edge of the dots. The carbon atoms, which were gathered at the interface between the catalytic nanodot and the diffusion barrier, accumulated near the center of the dot and lifted the catalyst off. From the experiments, an individual carbon nanotube with the same diameter as that of the catalytic nanodot was obtained from a 5 nm thick catalytic nanodot; however, an individual carbon nanotube with a smaller diameter (~40% reduction was obtained from a 50 nm thick nanodot. We found that the thicker the catalytic layer, the greater the reduction in diameter of the carbon nanotubes. The diameter-controlled carbon nanotubes could have applications in bio- and nanomaterial scanning and as a contrast medium for magnetic resonance imaging.

  10. Catalytic hydroprocessing of chlorobenzene: the effect of thiophene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murena, F

    2000-07-10

    The catalytic hydrotreatment of chlorobenzene-thiophene mixtures has been studied using a Ni-Mo/gamma-Al(2)O(3) sulphided catalyst. Experimental runs were carried out in a batch reactor at constant temperature (T=300-320-340 degrees C) and hydrogen pressure (P=40 bar). The reaction medium was hexadecane. The experimental results show that chlorobenzene hydrodechlorination and thiophene hydrodesulphurization are not inhibited when chlorobenzene and thiophene are hydrotreated in admixture. The results that were obtained are of importance for the development of the hydrodechlorination (HDCl) process of chlorinated liquid wastes contaminated by other organic compounds. PMID:10828386

  11. Effects of Light Rare Earth on Acidity and Catalytic Performance of HZSM-5 Zeolite for Catalytic Cracking of Butane to Light Olefins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xiaoning; Zhao Zhen; Xu Chunming; Duan Aijun; Zhang Li; Jiang Guiyuan

    2007-01-01

    The effects of rare earth (RE) on the structure, acidity, and catalytic performance of HZSM-5 zeolite were investigated. A series of RE/HZSM-5 catalysts, containing 7.54% RE (RE=La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu or Gd), were prepared by the impregnation of the ZSM-5 type zeolites (Si/Al=64:1) with the corresponding RE nitrate aqueous solutions. The catalysts were characterized by means of FT-IR, UV-Vis, NH3-TPD, and IR spectroscopy of adsorbed pyridine. The catalytic performances of the RE/HZSM-5 for the catalytic cracking of mixed butane to light olefins were also measured with a fixed bed microreactor. The results revealed that the addition of light rare earth metal on the HZSM-5 catalyst greatly enhanced the selectivity to olefins, especially to propylene, thus increasing the total yield of olefins in the catalytic cracking of butane. Among the RE-modified HZSM-5 samples, Ce/HZSM-5 gave the highest yield of total olefins, and Nd/HZSM-5 gave the highest yield of propene at a reaction temperature of 600℃. The presence of rare earth metal on the HZSM-5 sample, not only modified the acidic properties of HZSM-5 including the amount of acid sites and acid type, that is, the ratio of L/B (Lewis acid/Bronsted acid), but also altered the basic properties of it, which in turn promoted the catalytic performance of HZSM-5 for the catalytic cracking of butane.

  12. A theoretical study on the catalytic effect of nanoparticle confined in carbon nanotube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wu; Li, Xin

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the catalytic effect of CuO nanoparticles confined in carbon nanotubes using molecular dynamics simulations and density functional theory calculations. Ozone decomposition and hydroxyl radical generation were used as the probe reactions to investigate the catalytic behavior of catalyst. The effects of the confined environment of carbon nanotubes induced more reactants into the channel. Interface interactions between reactants and CuO nanoparticles in the channel and charge transfer accelerated the decomposition of ozone into oxygen molecule and atomic oxygen species. The atomic oxygen species then interacted to water molecule to generate hydroxyl radicals, which were truly identified by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique.

  13. Effect of preparation parameters on catalytic properties of Pt/graphite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhengqian; MA Jun; ZHAO Lei

    2007-01-01

    Catalytic ozonation of aqueous solutions of oxalic acid was examined in the presence of graphite-supported platinum catalysts.The catalytic activity of graphite was significantly enhanced by loading platinum.The removal efficiency of oxalic acid was 3.0%,47.6% and 99.3% for ozonation alone,graphite catalytic ozonation and Pt/graphite catalytic ozonation in 30 min under the experimental condition,respectively.The influence of support pretreatment,solvent,impregnation time,platinum loading amount and reduction temperature on the activity of Pt/graphite catalyst was investigated.The pretreatment of graphite support had no effect on activity improvement of Pt/graphite catalyst.Solvent and impregnation time also had no great effect on the activity.Platinum loading amount and reduction temperature influenced the catalyst activity significantly.The optimal catalytic performance of Pt/graphite was obtained when 1.0% platinum loading and 623 K of reduction temperature was adopted.The Pt/graphite catalyst was used for five times with no significant decrease in its activity and more than 90% oxalic acid removal was obtained.

  14. Effects of Particle Size on the Gas Sensitivity and Catalytic Activity of In2O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoshui; Gu, Ruiqin; Zhao, Jinling; Jin, Guixin; Zhao, Mengke; Xue, Yongliang

    2015-10-01

    Nanosized In2O3 powders with different particle sizes were prepared by the microemulsion synthetic method. The effects of particle size on the gas-sensing and catalytic properties of the as-prepared In2O3 were investigated. Reductions in particle size to nanometer levels improved the sensitivity and catalytic activity of In2O3 to i-C4H10 and C2H5OH. The sensitivity of nanosized In2O3 (<42 nm) sensors to i-C4H10, H2 and C2H5OH was 2-4 times higher than that of chemically precipitated In2O3 (130 nm) sensor. A nearly linear relationship was observed between the catalytic activity and specific surface area of In2O3 for the oxidation of i-C4H10 and C2H5OH at 275 °C. The relationship between gas sensitivity and catalytic activity was further discussed. The results of this work reveal that catalytic activity plays a key role in enhancing the sensitivity of gas-sensing materials.

  15. Effect of BaO on Catalytic Activity of Pt-Rh TWC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The effects of BaO doping on the three-way catalytic activity of Pt-Rh catalyst and on water-gas shift were investigated. The results show that the light-off temperatures of hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides of the fresh catalysts slightly differ from those of the aged catalysts, and the catalysts containing CeO2-ZrO2-BaO have lower lightoff temperature and better catalytic activity than these containing BaO and CeO2-ZrO2 after hydrothermal aging for 5 h at 1000 C. The catalysts were characterized by means of the temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) in hydrogen and the temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) in oxygen. It is confirmed that the suggested route of CeO2-ZrO2-BaO by coprecipitation can improve the catalytic activity of catalysts.

  16. Catalytic Spectrophotometric Determination of Ultratrace Amounts of Silver with Solubilizing Effect of Nonionic Surfactant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO,Xiao-Jun(郭效军); DENG,Qi-Liang(邓启良); PENG,Bo(彭波); GAO,Jin-Zhang(高锦章); KANG,Jing-Wan(康敬万)

    2002-01-01

    The synthesis and analytical properties of 4,4'-bis(antipyrinyl 4-diazoamino) biphenyl (BAPDAB) were described for the first time. A catalytic kinetic method for the determination of silver was proposed. In the presence of Triton X-100 as a solubilizing agent and 2,2'-dipyridyl as an activator, silver has a very strong catalytic effect on oxidative decoloration of BAPDAB by persulfate in acetic acid medium. The reaction was followed spectrophotometrically by measuring the decrease of absorbance of BAPDAB at 478 nm and 50 ℃. The calibration graphs are of good linearity in the range of 8.0 ×10-10-1.0 × 10-6 mol/L by a fixed time method. The limit of detection is down to 5.0 × 10-10 mol/L. The catalytic reaction is pseudo-first-order with respect to silver, which in real samples was determined with satisfactory results.

  17. Effect of ultralow thermal neutron flow on catalytic cracking of n-hexane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of ultraweak thermal neutron fluxes on proceeding of heterogenous catalytic reaction of n-hexane cracking is studied. It is established that thermal neutron flux through the catalyst results either in significant growth of reaction rate, while temperature is constant in the reactor, or in temperature decrease in reactor at fixed heat supply to it. (author)

  18. Effect of current stress during thermal CVD of multilayer graphene on cobalt catalytic layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Kazuyoshi; Ichikawa, Hiroyasu; Uchida, Takaki

    2016-04-01

    To improve the crystallinity of multilayer graphene (MLG) by CVD at a low temperature, the effect of current stress during thermal CVD on a cobalt (Co) catalytic layer was investigated. The crystallinity of MLG obtained by CVD with current was higher than that without current at the same temperature. This indicates that current has effects besides the Joule heating effect. The current effects on the Co catalytic layer and the MLG growth reaction were investigated, and it was found that current had small effects on the grain size and crystal structure of the Co catalyst and large effects on the MLG growth reaction such as large grain growth and a low activation energy of 0.49 eV, which is close to the value reported for carbon surface diffusion on Co. It is considered that the enhancement of MLG growth reaction by current leads to the improved crystallinity of MLG at a relatively low temperature.

  19. Aged nano-structured platinum based catalyst: effect of chemical treatment on adsorption and catalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Wang Geun; Nahm, Seung Won; Park, Hyuk Ryeol; Yun, Hyung Sun; Seo, Seong Gyu; Kim, Sang Chai

    2011-02-01

    To examine the effect of chemical treatment on the adsorption and catalytic activity of nanostructured platinum based catalyst, the aged commercial Pt/AC catalyst was pretreated with sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and a cleaning agent (Hexane). Several reliable methods such as nitrogen adsorption, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) were employed to characterize the aged Pt/AC catalyst and its chemically pretreated Pt/AC catalysts. The catalytic and adsorption activities of nano-structured heterogeneous Pt/AC catalyst were investigated on the basis of toluene oxidation and adsorption isotherm data. In addition, the adsorption isotherms of toluene were used to calculate the adsorption energy distribution functions for the parent catalyst and its pre-treated nano-structured Pt/AC catalysts. It was found that sulfuric acid aqueous treatment can enhance the catalytic performance of aged Pt/AC catalyst toward catalytic oxidation of toluene. It was also shown that a comparative analysis of the energy distribution functions for nano-structured Pt/AC catalysts as well as the pore size distribution provides valuable information about their structural and energetic heterogeneity.

  20. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, C.; Saini, A.; Huang, L.; Wenzel, K.; Hatcher, P.G.; Schobert, H.H.

    1992-01-01

    Low-temperature catalytic pretreatment is a promising approach to the development of an improved liquefaction process. This work is a fundamental study on effects of pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. The main objectives of this project are to study the coal structural changes induced by low-temperature catalytic and thermal pretreatments by using spectroscopic techniques; and to clarify the pretreatment-induced changes in reactivity or convertibility of coals in the subsequent liquefaction. This report describes the progress of our work during the first quarterly period. Substantial progress has been made in the spectroscopic characterization of fresh and THF-extracted samples of two subbituminous coals and fresh samples of three bituminous coals using cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) solid state {sup 13}C NMR and pyrolysis-GC-MS techniques. CPMAS {sup 13}C NMR and pyrolysis-GC-MS provided important information on carbon distribution/functionality and molecular components/structural units, respectively, for these coal samples. Pyrolysis-GC-MS revealed that there are remarkable structural differences in structural units between the subbituminous coals and the bituminous coals. Furthermore, significant progress has been made in the pretreatments and spectroscopic characterization of catalytically and thermally pretreated as well as physically treated Wyodak subbituminous coal, and temperature-staged and temperature-programmed thermal and catalytic liquefaction of a Montana subbituminous coal.

  1. Effects of electric current upon catalytic steam reforming of biomass gasification tar model compounds to syngas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • ECR technique was proposed to convert biomass gasification tar model compounds. • Electric current enhanced the reforming efficiency remarkably. • The highest toluene conversion reached 99.9%. • Ni–CeO2/γ-Al2O3 exhibited good stability during the ECR performance. - Abstract: Electrochemical catalytic reforming (ECR) technique, known as electric current enhanced catalytic reforming technique, was proposed to convert the biomass gasification tar into syngas. In this study, Ni–CeO2/γ-Al2O3 catalyst was prepared, and toluene was employed as the major feedstock for ECR experiments using a fixed-bed lab-scale setup where thermal electrons could be generated and provided to the catalyst. Several factors, including the electric current intensity, reaction temperature and steam/carbon (S/C) ratio, were investigated to reveal their effects on the conversion of toluene as well as the composition of the gas products. Moreover, toluene, two other tar model compounds (benzene and 1-methylnaphthalene) and real tar (tar-containing wastewater) were subjected to the long period catalytic stability tests. All the used catalysts were analyzed to determine their carbon contents. The results indicated that the presence of electric current enhanced the catalytic performance remarkably. The toluene conversion reached 99.9% under the electric current of 4 A, catalytic temperature of 800 °C and S/C ratio of 3. Stable conversion performances of benzene, 1-methylnaphthalene and tar-containing wastewater were also observed in the ECR process. H2 and CO were the major gas products, while CO2 and CH4 were the minor ones. Due to the promising capability, the ECR technique deserves further investigation and application for efficient tar conversion

  2. Study of catalytic effect of ammonium molybdate on the bisphthalonitrile resins curing reaction with aromatic amine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Ting Li; Fang Zuo; Kun Jia; Xiao Bo Liu

    2009-01-01

    A kind of catalyst, ammonium molybdate was developed in this paper to promote the curing reaction of bisphthalonitrile resins with aromatic amine as curing agent, and the catalytic effect was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), rheometric measurements and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results indicated that the catalyst could improve the curing rate and increase the curing degree, which could be regulated by the content of the catalyst used in the reaction.

  3. Alloying effects on hydrogen permeability of V without catalytic Pd overlayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Y.; Yukawa, H.; Suzuki, A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan); Nambu, T. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Suzuka National College of Technology, Shiroko-cho, Suzuka, Mie 510-0294 (Japan); Matsumoto, Y. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Oita National College of Technology, Maki, Oita 870-0152 (Japan); Murata, Y. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • Air–treated V–based alloy membranes without catalytic Pd overlayer are found to possess excellent hydrogen permeability. • They also exhibit good durability at high temperature. • Alloying effects are discussed in view of the new description of hydrogen permeation based on hydrogen chemical potential. - Abstract: Hydrogen permeability of air–treated V–based alloy membranes without Pd coating have been investigated. The diffusion–limiting hydrogen permeation reaction takes place even without catalytic Pd overlayer on the surface. It is shown that pure V and its alloy membranes without Pd overlayer possess excellent hydrogen permeability and good durability at high temperature. The new description of hydrogen permeation based on hydrogen chemical potential has been applied and the hydrogen flux is analyzed in terms of the mobility of hydrogen atom and the PCT factor, f{sub PCT}.

  4. Effect of preparation conditions on physicochemical, surface and catalytic properties of cobalt ferrite prepared by coprecipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Shobaky, G.A., E-mail: elshobaky@yahoo.co [Physical Chemistry Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); Turky, A.M.; Mostafa, N.Y.; Mohamed, S.K. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41522 (Egypt)

    2010-03-18

    Cobalt ferrite nanoparticles were prepared via thermal treatment of cobalt-iron mixed hydroxides at 400-600 {sup o}C. The mixed hydroxides were coprecipitated from their nitrates solutions using NaOH as precipitating agent. The effects of pH and temperature of coprecipitation and calcination temperature on the physicochemical, surface and catalytic properties of the prepared ferrites were studied. The prepared systems were characterized using TG, DTG, DTA, chemical analysis, atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) as well as surface and texture properties based on nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. The prepared cobalt ferrites were found to be mesoporous materials that have crystallite size ranges between 8 and 45 nm. The surface and catalytic properties of the produced ferrite phase were strongly dependent on coprecipitation conditions of the mixed hydroxides and on their calcination temperature.

  5. Catalytic effects of trace ruthenium on oxidation of dimethyl yellow with bromate and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zhi-rong; WANG Qun; ZHANG Shu-yuan

    2008-01-01

    A spectrophotometric method for the determination of ruthenium(Ⅲ) is described, based on its catalytic effect on the oxidation reaction of dimethyl yellow (DMY) with potassium bromate in an acid solution medium and in the presence of an OP emulsifier (p-iso-octyl phenoxy polyethoxy ethanol) at 100 ℃. This reaction was followed spectrophotometrically by measuring the decrease in the absorbance at 530 nm of the catalytic reaction of DMY. The calibration curve for the recommended method was linear in the concentration range over 0.0-1.0 μg/Land the detection limit of the method for Ru(Ⅲ) was 0.01 μg/L. The method is highly sensitive, selective and very stable and has been successfully applied for the determination of trace amounts of ruthenium in some ores and metallurgy products with the relative standard deviations (RSD) over 1.6%-2.8% and a recovery over 98.7%-104.0%.

  6. Thermo-Catalytic Methane Decomposition for Hydrogen Production: Effect of Palladium Promoter on Ni-based Catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Irene Lock Sow Mei; S.S.M. Lock; Dai-Viet N. Vo; Bawadi Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen production from the direct thermo-catalytic decomposition of methane is a promising alternative for clean fuel production. However, thermal decomposition of methane can hardly be of any practical and empirical interest in the industry unless highly efficient and effective catalysts, in terms of both catalytic activity and operational lifetime have been developed. In this study, the effect of palladium (Pd) as a promoter onto Ni supported on alumina catalyst has been investigated by u...

  7. Effects of Calcination Temperature on the Acidity and Catalytic Performances of HZSM-5 Zeolite Catalysts for the Catalytic Cracking of n-Butane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiangyin Lu; Zhen Zhao; Chunming Xu; Aijun Duan; Pu Zhang

    2005-01-01

    The acidic modulations of a series of HZSM-5 catalysts were successfully made by calcination at different treatment temperatures, i.e. 500, 600, 650, 700 and 800 ℃, respectively. The results indicated that the total acid amounts, their density and the amount of B-type acid of HZSM-5 catalysts rapidly decreased, while the amounts of L-type acid had almost no change and thus the ratio of L/B was obviously enhanced with the increase of calcination temperature (excluding 800 ℃). The catalytic performances of modified HZSM-5 catalysts for the cracking of n-butane were also investigated. The main properties of these catalysts were characterized by means of XRD, N2 adsorption at low temperature, NH3-TPD, FTIR of pyridine adsorption and BET surface area measurements. The results showed that HZSM-5 zeolite pretreated at 800 ℃ had very low catalytic activity for n-butane cracking. In the calcination temperature range of 500-700 ℃, the total selectivity to olefins, propylene and butene were increased with the increase of calcination temperature, while, the selectivity for arene decreased with the calcination temperature.The HZSM-5 zeolite calcined at 700 ℃ produced light olefins with high yield, at the reaction temperature of 650 ℃ the yields of total olefins and ethylene were 52.8% and 29.4%, respectively. Besides, the more important role is that high calcination temperature treatment improved the duration stability of HZSM-5zeolites. The effect of calcination temperature on the physico-chemical properties and catalytic performance of HZSM-5 for cracking of n-butane was explored. It was found that the calcination temperature had large effects on the surface area, crystallinity and acid properties of HZSM-5 catalyst, which further affected the catalytic performance for n-butane cracking.

  8. Effects of a catalytic converter on PCDD/F, chlorophenol and PAH emissions in residential wood combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaivosoja, T; Virén, A; Tissari, J; Ruuskanen, J; Tarhanen, J; Sippula, O; Jokiniemi, J

    2012-07-01

    Catalytic converters can be used to decrease carbon monoxide, organic compounds and soot from small-scale wood-fired appliances. The reduction is based on the oxidation of gaseous and particulate pollutants promoted by catalytic transition metal surfaces. However, many transition metals have also strong catalytic effect on PCDD/F formation. In this study birch logs were burned in a wood-fired stove (18 kW) with and without a catalytic converter with palladium and platinum as catalysts. PCDD/F, chlorophenol and PAH concentrations were analyzed from three phases of combustion (ignition, pyrolysis and burnout) and from the whole combustion cycle. PCDD/F emissions without the catalytic converter were at a level previously measured for wood combustion (0.15-0.74 ng N m(-3)). PAH emissions without the catalytic converter were high (47-85 mg N m(-3)) which is typical for batch combustion of wood logs. Total PAH concentrations were lower (on average 0.8-fold), and chlorophenol and PCDD/F levels were substantially higher (4.3-fold and 8.7-fold, respectively) when the catalytic converter was used. Increase in the chlorophenol and PCDD/F concentrations was most likely due to the catalytic effect of the platinum and palladium. Platinum and palladium may catalyze chlorination of PCDD/Fs via the Deacon reaction or an oxidation process. The influence of emissions from wood combustion to human health and the environment is a sum of effects caused by different compounds formed in the combustion. Therefore, the usage of platinum and palladium based catalytic converters to reduce emissions from residential wood combustion should be critically evaluated before wide-range utilization of the technology. PMID:22397840

  9. Effect of protein S-nitrosylation on autolysis and catalytic ability of μ-calpain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Li, Yupin; Wang, Mengqin; Zhou, Guanghong; Zhang, Wangang

    2016-12-15

    The effect of S-nitrosylation on the autolysis and catalytic ability of μ-calpain in vitro in the presence of 50μM Ca(2 +) was investigated. μ-Calpain was incubated with different concentrations of nitric oxide donor S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) and subsequently reacted with purified myofibrils. Results showed that the amount of 80kDa μ-calpain subunit significantly decreased as GSNO increased from 0 to 300μM, but increases of GSNO to 300, 500 and 1000μM did not result in further inhibition. The catalytic ability of nitrosylated μ-calpain to degrade titin, nebulin, troponin-T and desmin was significantly reduced when the GSNO concentration was higher than 300μM. The cysteine residues of μ-calpain at positions 49, 351, 384, and 592 in the catalytic subunit and at 142 in small subunit were S-nitrosylated, which could be responsible for decreased μ-calpain activity. Thus, S-nitrosylation can negatively regulate the activation of μ-calpain resulting in decreased proteolytic ability on myofibrils. PMID:27451206

  10. Effects of Oxygen Transfer Limitation and Kinetic Control on Biomimetic Catalytic Oxidation of Toluene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗伟平; 刘大为; 孙俊; 邓伟; 盛文兵; 刘强; 郭灿城

    2014-01-01

    Under oxygen transfer limitation and kinetic control, liquid-phase catalytic oxidation of toluene over metalloporphyrin was studied. An improved technique of measuring dissolved oxygen levels for gas-liquid reaction at the elevated temperature and pressure was used to take the sequential data in the oxidation of toluene catalyzed by metalloporphyrin. By this technique the corresponding control step of toluene oxidation could be obtained by varying reaction conditions. When the partial pressure of oxygen in the feed is lower than or equal to 0.070 MPa at 463 K, the oxidation of toluene would be controlled by oxygen transfer, otherwise the reaction would be controlled by kinetics. The effects of both oxygen transfer and kinetic control on the toluene conversion and the selectivity of benzaldehyde and benzyl alcohol in biomimetic catalytic oxidation of toluene were systematically investigated. Three conclusions have been made from the experimental results. Firstly, under the oxygen transfer limitation the toluene conversion is lower than that under kinetic control at the same oxidation conditions. Secondly, under the oxygen transfer limitation the total selectivity of benzaldehyde and benzyl alcohol is lower than that under kinetic control with the same conversion of toluene. Finally, under the kinetics control the oxidation rate of toluene is zero-order with respect to oxygen. The experimental results are identical with the biomimetic catalytic mechanism of toluene oxidation over metalloporphyrins.

  11. Kinetics of Carbothermic Reduction of MnO2 and Catalytic Effect of La2O3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Kinetics of carbothermic reduction of manganese oxide and the catalytic effect of La2O3 on the reduction have been studied by the measurement of mass loss in N2 atmosphere at different temperatures and followed by SEM analysis. It is concluded that the kinetics of carbothermic reduction of manganese oxide is divided into three stages: gas diffusion controlling stage, carbon gasification controlling stage and solid state diffusion controlling stage. La2O3 has catalytic effect on the reduction. The catalytic effect of La2O3 increases with the added amount of La2O3. SEM analysis shows that the catalytic mechanism is that Laa2O3 promotes the transfer of oxygen ions so that carbon gasifying is catalyzed and thus carbothermic reduction of MnO3 is catalyzed.

  12. Effect of reaction time on the characteristics of catalytically grown boron nitride nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, Norani Muti, E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my, E-mail: pervaiz-pas@yahoo.com, E-mail: shuaib-penang@yahoo.com, E-mail: zainabh@petronas.com.my; Ahmad, Pervaiz, E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my, E-mail: pervaiz-pas@yahoo.com, E-mail: shuaib-penang@yahoo.com, E-mail: zainabh@petronas.com.my; Saheed, Mohamed Shuaib Mohamed, E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my, E-mail: pervaiz-pas@yahoo.com, E-mail: shuaib-penang@yahoo.com, E-mail: zainabh@petronas.com.my; Burhanudin, Zainal Arif, E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my, E-mail: pervaiz-pas@yahoo.com, E-mail: shuaib-penang@yahoo.com, E-mail: zainabh@petronas.com.my [Center of Innovative Nanostructures and Nanodevices (COINN), Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    The paper reports on the growth of boron nitride nanotube (BNNTs) on Si substrate by catalytic chemical vapor deposition technique and the effect of reaction time and temperature on the size and purity were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy image revealed the bamboo-like BNNTs of multiwalled type with interlayer spacing of 0.34 nm. EDX analysis described the presence of a small percentage of Mg in the sample, indicating the combination of base-tip growth model for the sample synthesized at 1200°C. The reaction time has an effect of extending the length of the BNNTs until the catalyst is oxidized or covered by growth precursor.

  13. Effects of Silylation on Zn-IM5 and Its Catalytic Activity for Butane Aromatization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Lei; Yi Dezhi; Lu Yannan; Shi Li; Chen Junwen; Meng Xuan

    2016-01-01

    Effects of silylation on surface properties and catalytic performance of Zn-IM5 for butane aromatization were studied in this paper. Collidine-IR and NH3-TPD analyses revealed that the silylation treatment not only decreased the quantity of both strong and weak acid sites but also led to a slightly reduced intensity of weak acidity. Silylation of the catalyst promoted the selec-tivity of BTX by narrowing the channel and cutting the acidity. The effect of temperature of silylation and amount of Si loading were evaluated. The best condition has speciifed a temperature of 50℃and a SiO2 loading of 4.0%.

  14. Effect of Metal Contamination on the Performance of Catalyst for Deep Catalytic Cracking Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zhigang

    2009-01-01

    The effect of different metal contamination levels of catalysts for Deep Catalytic Cracking (DCC) on the distribu-tion and selectivity of DCC products was investigated in a FCC pilot unit. The pilot test results showed that the effects of the metal contamination level of catalyst on the propylene yield, the coke yield, the LPG yield, the gasoline yield, the selectivity of low carbon olefins, and coke selectivity was significant, and that the influence of metal contamination level on the conversion and dry gas yield was minor.

  15. Relation between the structure and catalytic activity for automotive emissions. Use of x-ray anomalous dispersion effect

    CERN Document Server

    Mizuki, J; Tanaka, H

    2003-01-01

    The employment of the X-ray anomalous dispersion effect allows us to detect the change in structure of catalytic converters with the environment exposed. Here we show that palladium atoms in a perovskite crystal move into and out of the crystal by anomalous X-ray diffraction and absorption techniques. This movement of the precious metal plays an important role to keep the catalytic activity long-lived. (author)

  16. AuPd CATALYTIC NANOPARTICLE SIZE EFFECT ON THE FORMATION OF AMORPHOUS SILICON NANOWIRES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU ZU-QIN; SUN LIAN-FENG; TANG DONG-SHENG; ZHOU WEI-YA; LI YU-BAO; Zou XIAO-PING

    2000-01-01

    Amorphous silicon (a-Si) nanowires have been prepared on SiO2/Si substrates by AuPd nanoparticles / silane reaction method. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the samples. The typical a-Si nanowires we obtained are of a uniform diameter about 20 nm and length up to several micrometers. The growth mechanism of the nanowires seems to be the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism. The catalytic particle size effect on the formation of the nanowires and the cause of forming amorphous state Si nanowires are discussed.

  17. Catalytic Effect of SCN- on Electrodeposition of Zinc-Nickle Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The electrodeposition of zinc-nickle alloy was obtained on a copper cathode of 1 × lcm2. The deposited alloys are quantitatively analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. The morphology of the deposits was observed by means of scanning electron microscopy(SEM). We observed that the electrodeposition of zinc-nickle alloy is an anomalous codeposition. The catalytic effects of SCN- on the electrochemical behavior of Ni deposition and hydrogen discharge are obvious. SEM analysis shows that the surface morphology of the coating appears to be more compact and homogeneous with the increase of SCN- concentration.

  18. Effects of catalyst precursors on carbon nanowires by using ethanol catalytic combustion technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Jin; ZOU Xiao-ping; LI Fei; ZHANG Hong-dan; REN Peng-fei

    2006-01-01

    Iron nitrate,nickel nitrate and cobalt nitrate were used as catalyst precursors to study their effects on carbon nanowires synthesized by ethanol catalytic combustion (ECC) process. The as-grown carbon nanowires were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy,transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The results show that relatively uniform nanowires will be formed when the catalyst precursor is iron nitrate:while helical structure or disordered structure will be formed when the catalyst precursor is nickel nitrate or cobalt nitrate.

  19. Effect of antisense oligonucleotides targeting telomerase catalytic subunit on tumor cell proliferationin vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    To screen specific antitumor drugs targeting telomerase catalytic subunit (hEST2), 12 different hEST2 antisense oligonucleotides were designed based on hEST2 mRNA second structure and transfected into tumor cell lines by the lipofectin-mediated method. Cell growth activity was evaluated by MTT assay. hEST212 was picked out and its specificity, antitumor tree and continuous effect were analyzed. The results showed that hEST212 had promising antitumor activity in vitro, hEST2 can be used as a pratical target and an antisense drug candidate for cancer.

  20. Effects of Colloidal Silica Binder on Catalytic Activity and Adhesion of HZSM-5 Coatings for Structured Reactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guozhu Liu; Jinhua Guo; Fanxu Meng; Xiangwen Zhang; Li Wang

    2014-01-01

    HZSM-5 coating using three colloidal silica binders, acidic col oidal silica (ACS), neutral colloidal silica (NCS) and basic col oidal silica (BCS), was prepared to study the effect of binders on their adhesion and catalytic activity. Scanning electron microscopy characterization indicated that the zeolite coating using BCS shows the smoothest surface with higher homogeneity and adherence strength. The specific surface area, relative crystallization and acid site strength of zeolites are also dependent on the binder used. Catalytic cracking of supercritical n-dodecane over the series of zeolite coating with various binders indicated that HZSM-5 coating with BCS exhibits the highest and the most stable catalytic activity compared with other kinds of binders, and also exhibits a stable catalytic activity ascribed to its proper acid property and microstructure.

  1. Catalytic effect of transition metals on microwave-induced degradation of atrazine in mineral micropores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Erdan; Cheng, Hefa

    2014-06-15

    With their high catalytic activity for redox reactions, transition metal ions (Cu(2+) and Fe(3+)) were exchanged into the micropores of dealuminated Y zeolites to prepare effective microporous mineral sorbents for sorption and microwave-induced degradation of atrazine. Due to its ability to complex with atrazine, loading of copper greatly increased the sorption of atrazine. Atrazine sorption on iron-exchanged zeolites was also significantly enhanced, which was attributed to the hydrolysis of Fe(3+) polycations in mineral micropores and electrostatic interactions of protonated atrazine molecules with the negatively charged pore wall surface. Copper and iron species in the micropores also significantly accelerated degradation of the sorbed atrazine (and its degradation intermediates) under microwave irradiation. The catalytic effect was attributed to the easy reducibility and high oxidation activity of Cu(2+) and Fe(3+) species stabilized in the micropores of the zeolites. It was postulated that the surface species of transition metals (monomeric Cu(2+), Cu(2+)-O-Cu(2+) complexes, FeO(+), and dinuclear Fe-O-Fe-like species) in the mineral micropores were thermally activated under microwave irradiation, and subsequently formed highly reactive sites catalyzing oxidative degradation of atrazine. The transition metal-exchanged zeolites, particularly the iron-exchanged ones, were relatively stable when leached under acidic conditions, which suggests that they are reusable in sorption and microwave-induced degradation. These findings offer valuable insights on designing of effective mineral sorbents that can selectively uptake atrazine from aqueous solutions and catalyze its degradation under microwave irradiation.

  2. Effects of Gas Velocity and Temperature on Nitric Oxide Conversion in Simulated Catalytic Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathaporn Chuepeng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Gaseous emissions from gasoline engine such as carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxides were usually reduced in three-way catalytic converter simultaneously around theoretical fuel and air combustion. Engine speed and load and other parameters were varied over a wide range of operating conditions, resulting in different exhaust gas composition and condition intake into catalytic converter. This work was studied the conversion of Nitric Oxide (NO in exhaust gas catalytic converter affected by gas velocity and inlet temperature using numerical modeling. Approach: The simulation was based on a one-dimensional time-dependent model within a single monolith channel of the converter. Upon certain assumptions, the study was considered heterogeneous combustion reaction between gas and solid phases based on lumped kinetic reactions. In this study, constants and variables used for mass and heat transfers were dependent on gas or solid phase temperature and mole fraction. Finite difference scheme incorporated with the generated computer code was established for solving species and energy balances within gas and solid phases. Results: The NO conversion was increased with transient period in initial and reached steady state at different values. The lower inlet gas temperature was resulted in lesser NO conversion at the same inlet NO concentration and gas velocity. The light-off temperatures were up to 520 K and a sudden rise in NO conversion was from 550-605 K and decreasing onwards, generating working temperature window. NO conversion increased throughout the catalyst bed from the inlet and the conversion decreased as the gas velocity increased. Conclusion/Recommendations: Gas space velocity and gas temperature intake to the converter affected the NO conversion over the time and the axial distance from the catalyst bed inlet. The numerical results have summarily demonstrated a good approximation compared to experimental

  3. Modelling of an SCR catalytic converter for diesel exhaust after treatment: Dynamic effects at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tronconi, Enrico; Nova, Isabella; Ciardelli, Cristian [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica ' G. Natta' , Politecnico di Milano, P.zza L. Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Chatterjee, Daniel; Bandl-Konrad, Brigitte; Burkhardt, Thomas [DaimlerChrysler AG Abteilung RBP/C, HPC: 096-E220, D-70546 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2005-08-15

    As part of a fundamental and applied work on the development of an unsteady mathematical model of the NH{sub 3}-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) process for design and control of integrated after-treatment systems of heavy-duty engines, we present herein a transient kinetic analysis of the standard SCR NO+NH{sub 3} system which provides new insight in the catalytic kinetics and mechanism prevailing at low temperatures. Based on kinetic runs performed over a commercial powdered V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-WO{sub 3}-TiO{sub 2} catalyst in the 175-450{sup o}C T-range feeding NH{sub 3} and NO (1000ppm) in the presence of H{sub 2}O (1-10%, v/v) and O{sub 2} (2-6%, v/v), an original dual-site modified redox rate law is derived which effectively accounts for NH{sub 3} inhibition effects observed during transient reactive experiments at T<250{sup o}C. We also demonstrate that implementation of the novel modified redox kinetics into a fully predictive 1D+1D model of SCR monolith reactors can significantly improve simulations of SCR transient runs at different scales, including engine test bench experiments over full-scale SCR honeycomb catalysts.

  4. Catalytic effect of black liquor on the gasification reactivity of petroleum coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhan, Xiuli; Zhou, ZhiJie; Wang, Fuchen [Kay Laboratory of Coal Gasification of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2010-05-15

    CO{sub 2} gasification of petroleum coke using black liquor as a catalyst was performed in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) under temperatures 1223-1673 K at ambient pressure to evaluate the effect of black liquor loading on petroleum coke gasification. It was found that the gasification reactivity of petroleum coke was improved greatly by black liquor. The gasification reactivity was affected by different loading methods in the order: wet grinding > dry grinding > physical impregnation > dry mix. The catalytic activity of black liquor was higher than that of pure alkali metal. The effect of temperature on the gasification reactivity of petroleum coke was changed by black liquor. The reactivity reaches its maximum at 1573 K. The reactivity of petroleum coke was found higher than that of Shenfu coal when black liquor loading is 5 wt.% (of petroleum coke), clearly demonstrating that black liquor could be an effective catalyst for petroleum coke gasification. (author)

  5. Effect of substrate (ZnO morphology on enzyme immobilization and its catalytic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Xuelei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, zinc oxide (ZnO nanocrystals with different morphologies were synthesized and used as substrates for enzyme immobilization. The effects of morphology of ZnO nanocrystals on enzyme immobilization and their catalytic activities were investigated. The ZnO nanocrystals were prepared through a hydrothermal procedure using tetramethylammonium hydroxide as a mineralizing agent. The control on the morphology of ZnO nanocrystals was achieved by varying the ratio of CH3OH to H2O, which were used as solvents in the hydrothermal reaction system. The surface of as-prepared ZnO nanoparticles was functionalized with amino groups using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane and tetraethyl orthosilicate, and the amino groups on the surface were identified and calculated by FT-IR and the Kaiser assay. Horseradish peroxidase was immobilized on as-modified ZnO nanostructures with glutaraldehyde as a crosslinker. The results showed that three-dimensional nanomultipod is more appropriate for the immobilization of enzyme used further in catalytic reaction.

  6. Effect of substrate (ZnO) morphology on enzyme immobilization and its catalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Wu, Haixia; Huang, Xuelei; Zhang, Jingyan; Guo, Shouwu

    2011-07-01

    In this study, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocrystals with different morphologies were synthesized and used as substrates for enzyme immobilization. The effects of morphology of ZnO nanocrystals on enzyme immobilization and their catalytic activities were investigated. The ZnO nanocrystals were prepared through a hydrothermal procedure using tetramethylammonium hydroxide as a mineralizing agent. The control on the morphology of ZnO nanocrystals was achieved by varying the ratio of CH3OH to H2O, which were used as solvents in the hydrothermal reaction system. The surface of as-prepared ZnO nanoparticles was functionalized with amino groups using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane and tetraethyl orthosilicate, and the amino groups on the surface were identified and calculated by FT-IR and the Kaiser assay. Horseradish peroxidase was immobilized on as-modified ZnO nanostructures with glutaraldehyde as a crosslinker. The results showed that three-dimensional nanomultipod is more appropriate for the immobilization of enzyme used further in catalytic reaction.

  7. The effect of oxygen storage capacity on the dynamic characteristics of an automotive catalytic converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamim, Tariq [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Michigan-Dearborn, Dearborn, MI 48128-2406 (United States)

    2008-11-15

    Automotive catalytic converters, which are employed to reduce engine exhaust emissions, are subjected to highly transient conditions during a typical driving cycle. These transient conditions arise from changes in driving mode, the hysteresis and flow lags of the feedback control system, and result in fluctuations of air-fuel ratio, exhaust gas flow rates and temperatures. The catalyst performance is also strongly influenced by the oxygen storage capacity. This paper presents a computational investigation of the effect of oxygen storage capacity on the dynamic behavior of an automotive catalytic converter subjected to modulations in exhaust gases. The modulations are generated by forcing the temporal variations in exhaust gases air-fuel ratio, gas flow rates and temperatures. The study employs a single-channel based, one-dimensional, non-adiabatic model. The results show that the imposed modulations cause a significant departure in the catalyst behavior from its steady behavior, and the oxygen storage capacity plays an important role in determining the catalyst's response to the imposed modulations. Modulations and oxygen storage capacity are found to have relatively greater influence on the catalyst's performance near stoichiometric conditions. (author)

  8. Effect of torrefaction pretreatment and catalytic pyrolysis on the pyrolysis poly-generation of pine wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dengyu; Li, Yanjun; Deng, Minsi; Wang, Jiayang; Chen, Miao; Yan, Bei; Yuan, Qiqiang

    2016-08-01

    Torrefaction of pine wood was performed in a tube furnace at three temperatures (220, 250, and 280°C) for 30min. Then catalytic pyrolysis of raw and torrefied pine wood was performed using HZSM-5 catalyst in a fixed-bed pyrolysis reactor at 550°C for 15min. Torrefaction pretreatment and catalytic pyrolysis have an very important effect on the yield, property, and energy distribution of pyrolysis products. The results showed that the yield of biochar rapidly increased, while that of bio-oil decreased with increasing torrefaction temperature. The oxy-compound content of bio-oil, such as acids and aldehydes, sharply decreased. However, the aromatic hydrocarbon content not only increased but also further promoted by HZSM-5 catalyst. With highest mass yields and energy yields, biochar was also the very important product of pyrolysis. The oxygen content in biomass was mainly removed in the form of CO2 and H2O, leading to increasing CO2 content in non-condensable gas.

  9. Effect of torrefaction pretreatment and catalytic pyrolysis on the pyrolysis poly-generation of pine wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dengyu; Li, Yanjun; Deng, Minsi; Wang, Jiayang; Chen, Miao; Yan, Bei; Yuan, Qiqiang

    2016-08-01

    Torrefaction of pine wood was performed in a tube furnace at three temperatures (220, 250, and 280°C) for 30min. Then catalytic pyrolysis of raw and torrefied pine wood was performed using HZSM-5 catalyst in a fixed-bed pyrolysis reactor at 550°C for 15min. Torrefaction pretreatment and catalytic pyrolysis have an very important effect on the yield, property, and energy distribution of pyrolysis products. The results showed that the yield of biochar rapidly increased, while that of bio-oil decreased with increasing torrefaction temperature. The oxy-compound content of bio-oil, such as acids and aldehydes, sharply decreased. However, the aromatic hydrocarbon content not only increased but also further promoted by HZSM-5 catalyst. With highest mass yields and energy yields, biochar was also the very important product of pyrolysis. The oxygen content in biomass was mainly removed in the form of CO2 and H2O, leading to increasing CO2 content in non-condensable gas. PMID:27183238

  10. Study of catalytic effects of mineral matter level on coal reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzocco, Nestor J.; Klunder, Edgar B.; Krastman, Donald

    1981-03-01

    Coal liquefaction experiments using a 400-lb/day bubble-column reactor tested the catalytic effects of added mineral matter level on coal conversion, desulfurization, and distillate yields in continuous operation under recycle conditions, with specific emphasis on the use of a disposable pyrite catalyst indigenous to the feed coal. Western Kentucky No. 11 run-of-mine (ROM) and washed coals were used as feedstocks to determine the effects of levels of mineral matter, specifically iron compounds. Liquefaction reactivity as characterized by total distillate yield was lower for washed coal, which contained less mineral matter. Liquefaction reactivity was regained when pyrite concentrate was added as a disposable catalyst to the washed coal feed in sufficient quantity to match the feed iron concentration of the run-of-mine coal liquefaction test run.

  11. Size Effect of Gold Sol/γ-Alumina on the Catalytic Activities of CO Oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei-Hua; GAO Geng-Yu

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between particle size and catalytic activity of gold nanoparticle catalysts with γ-Al2O3 as support has been investigated. The catalysts were prepared via the gold sol with different particle sizes by micelle method, and their structures were characterized by HRTEM and XRD, respectively. Furthermore, the catalytic activities were tested by CO oxidation. Experimental results showed that the catalytic activity became much weaker when gold particles were increased from 3.2 to 6.6 nm. Additionally, the particle size was also a key factor to govern catalytic activity with regard to gold supported on TiO2 prepared by the methods of deposition-precipitation.

  12. Effect of citrate on Aspergillus niger phytase adsorption and catalytic activity in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezeli, Malika; Menezes-Blackburn, Daniel; Zhang, Hao; Giles, Courtney; George, Timothy; Shand, Charlie; Lumsdon, David; Cooper, Patricia; Wendler, Renate; Brown, Lawrie; Stutter, Marc; Blackwell, Martin; Darch, Tegan; Wearing, Catherine; Haygarth, Philip

    2015-04-01

    Current developments in cropping systems that promote mobilisation of phytate in agricultural soils, by exploiting plant-root exudation of phytase and organic acids, offer potential for developments in sustainable phosphorus use. However, phytase adsorption to soil particles and phytate complexion has been shown to inhibit phytate dephosphorylation, thereby inhibiting plant P uptake, increasing the risk of this pool contributing to diffuse pollution and reducing the potential benefits of biotechnologies and management strategies aimed to utilise this abundant reserve of 'legacy' phosphorus. Citrate has been seen to increase phytase catalytic efficiency towards complexed forms of phytate, but the mechanisms by which citrate promotes phytase remains poorly understood. In this study, we evaluated phytase (from Aspergillus niger) inactivation, and change in catalytic properties upon addition to soil and the effect citrate had on adsorption of phytase and hydrolysis towards free, precipitated and adsorbed phytate. A Langmuir model was fitted to phytase adsorption isotherms showing a maximum adsorption of 0.23 nKat g-1 (19 mg protein g-1) and affinity constant of 435 nKat gˉ1 (8.5 mg protein g-1 ), demonstrating that phytase from A.niger showed a relatively low affinity for our test soil (Tayport). Phytases were partially inhibited upon adsorption and the specific activity was of 40.44 nKat mgˉ1 protein for the free enzyme and 25.35 nKat mgˉ1 protein when immobilised. The kinetics of adsorption detailed that most of the adsorption occurred within the first 20 min upon addition to soil. Citrate had no effect on the rate or total amount of phytase adsorption or loss of activity, within the studied citrate concentrations (0-4mM). Free phytases in soil solution and phytase immobilised on soil particles showed optimum activity (>80%) at pH 4.5-5.5. Immobilised phytase showed greater loss of activity at pH levels over 5.5 and lower activities at the secondary peak at pH 2

  13. Effect of Catalytic Pyrolysis Conditions Using Pulse Current Heating Method on Pyrolysis Products of Wood Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sensho Honma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of catalysts on the compositions of char and pyrolysis oil obtained by pyrolysis of wood biomass with pulse current heating was studied. The effects of catalysts on product compositions were analyzed using GC-MS and TEM. The compositions of some aromatic compounds changed noticeably when using a metal oxide species as the catalyst. The coexistence or dissolution of amorphous carbon and iron oxide was observed in char pyrolyzed at 800°C with Fe3O4. Pyrolysis oil compositions changed remarkably when formed in the presence of a catalyst compared to that obtained from the uncatalyzed pyrolysis of wood meal. We observed a tendency toward an increase in the ratio of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis oil composition after catalytic pyrolysis at 800°C. Pyrolysis of biomass using pulse current heating and an adequate amount of catalyst is expected to yield a higher content of specific polyaromatic compounds.

  14. Condensation of glycylglycine to oligoglycines with trimetaphosphate in aqueous solution. II: catalytic effect of magnesium ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagata, Y; Inomata, K

    1997-08-01

    The previously reported condensation reaction of glycylglycine with trimetaphosphate (Yamanaka et al., 1988) was reinvestigated and shown to be catalyzed by magnesium ion. Aqueous solutions containing glycylglycine (0.5 M), trimetaphosphate (0.5 M) and magnesium chloride (0.5 M) were incubated at 38 degrees C at pH 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8. After incubation for ten days at pH 5, the maximum yields of tetraglycine and hexaglycine as condensation products were found to be about 12 and 1.4%, respectively. This result indicated the presence of a considerable catalytic effect of magnesium ion compared with the maximum yield of about 2% for tetraglycine and approximately 0% for hexaglycine in the absence of magnesium ion. PMID:11536827

  15. Effects of coordination number of Au catalyst on oxygen species and their catalytic roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Gen; Zhu, Kong-Jie; Zhang, Lei; Cui, Peng-Fei; Teng, Bo-Tao; Wen, Xiao-Dong

    2016-11-01

    To explore the effects of coordination number of Au nanoparticles on oxygen species and their catalytic roles is very important in gold catalysis. Based on the systematic study of oxygen adsorption on Au(997) by density functional theory calculation, the quantitative correlation for different oxygen species with coverage and Au coordination number is established in theory. The only O adatoms near step area with relatively low Au coordination numbers exist at low coverage (2/9 ML). The theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the experimental observations in TDS spectrum. On the basis of Langmuir-Hinschelwood and Eley-Rideal mechanisms for NO oxidation, the activities of the three different oxygen species also exhibit correlation with Au coordination number. The oxygen island shows the highest oxidation activity, followed by the O adatom at terrace surface; while the O adatom near step area has the lowest oxidative performance. This work will shed light into the understanding of gold catalysis.

  16. Effect of catalytic pyrolysis conditions using pulse current heating method on pyrolysis products of wood biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honma, Sensho; Hata, Toshimitsu; Watanabe, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    The influence of catalysts on the compositions of char and pyrolysis oil obtained by pyrolysis of wood biomass with pulse current heating was studied. The effects of catalysts on product compositions were analyzed using GC-MS and TEM. The compositions of some aromatic compounds changed noticeably when using a metal oxide species as the catalyst. The coexistence or dissolution of amorphous carbon and iron oxide was observed in char pyrolyzed at 800 °C with Fe3O4. Pyrolysis oil compositions changed remarkably when formed in the presence of a catalyst compared to that obtained from the uncatalyzed pyrolysis of wood meal. We observed a tendency toward an increase in the ratio of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis oil composition after catalytic pyrolysis at 800 °C. Pyrolysis of biomass using pulse current heating and an adequate amount of catalyst is expected to yield a higher content of specific polyaromatic compounds. PMID:25614894

  17. Electro-catalytic effect of manganese oxide on oxygen reduction at teflonbonded carbon electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Oxygen reduction(OR)on Teflon-bonded carbon electrodes with manganese oxide as catalyst in 6 mol/L KOH solution was investigated using AC impedance spectroscopy combined with other techniques. For OR at this electrode, the Tafel slope is-0.084V/dec and the apparent exchange current density is (1.02-3.0)×10-7 A/cm2. In the presence of manganese oxide on carbon electrode,the couple Mn3+/Mn4+ reacts with the O2 adsorbed on carbon sites forming O2- radicals and acceletes the dismutation of O2-, which contributes to the catalytic effect of manganese oxide for OR reaction.

  18. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, C.; Huang, L.; Wenzel, K.; Saini, A.K.; Burgess, C.; Hatcher, P.G.; Schobert, H.H.

    1992-12-01

    During this quarterly period progress has been made in the following three subjects related to the effects of low-temperature thermal and catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. First, the liquefaction behavior of three bituminous coals with a carbon content ranging from 77% to 85% was evaluated spectroscopically by [sup 13]C NMR and pyrolysis/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to delineate the structural changes that occur in the coal during liquefaction. Complementary data includes ultimate and proximate analysis, along with optical microscopy for maceral determinations. Even though these are all bituminous coals they exhibit quite different physical and chemical characteristics. The coals vary in rank, ranging from HvC b to HvA b, in petrographic composition, different maceral percentages, and in chemical nature, percent of carbon and of volatiles. It is these variations that govern the products, their distribution, and conversion percentages. Some of the products formed can be traced to a specific maceral group. Second, pyrolysis-GC-MS and FTIR techniques were used to characterize Wyodak coal before and after drying in vacuum and in air and the residues from its thermal and catalytic liquefactions. The analysis of the air-dried coal shows a decrease in the phenolic type structures in the coal network and increase in the carbonyl structures as the oxidative drying proceeds. An enhanced decrease in the carbonyl structure is observed in the liquefaction residues from the raw coal as compared to that of the vacuum dried coal. The analyses of the liquefaction residues of the air-dried coal show an increase in the ether linkages which may have a negative impact on liquefaction. The extent of the solvent adduction also increases during liquefaction with the extent of oxidation of the coal. Finally, the effects of reaction conditions were investigated on conversion of low-rank coals using a Texas subbituminous coal.

  19. Effect of zinc and copper additions on catalytic response of noble metal alloyed 304 SS in high temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) additions on the catalytic behavior of noble metal alloyed 304 stainless steel (SS) in 288 C water understoichiometric excess hydrogen was studied. It was observed that an increase in the Zn or Cu content of the water increased the electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP) of noble metal alloyed 304 SS by ∼ 30 to 50 mV and decreased the recombination efficiency of oxygen (O2)and hydrogen (H2) by ∼ 10%. The change in the ECP and recombination rate was correlated with incorporation of zinc and copper in the oxide film, which, by covering catalytic sites, would alter the redox reaction rate

  20. Ammonia Decomposition for Hydrogen Production in Catalytic Microchannels with Slip/Jump Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azad Qazi Zade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The rarefaction effects on the catalytic decomposition of NH3 in ruthenium–coated planar microchannels is numerically simulated in the Knudsen number range 0.015-0.03. A colocated finite–volume method is used to solve the governing equations. A concentration jump model derived from the kinetic theory of gases is employed to account for the concentration discontinuity at the reactive walls. A detailed surface reaction mechanism for ammonia decomposition on ruthenium along with a multi-component species diffusion model are used to study the effects of concentration jump coupled with velocity slip and temperature jump on the walls. The velocity-slip, temperature-jump and concentration-jump boundary conditions have miscellaneous effects on flow, temperature and species concentration fields. The results suggest that the velocity-slip boundary condition only slightly influences the species distribution at the edge of the Knudsen layer as well as inside the channel, while the temperature-jump boundary condition affects the heat and mass transfer characteristics the most. The concentration-jump effect, on the other hand, can counter balance the temperature-jump effects in some cases.

  1. Catalytic effects on methanol oxidation produced by cathodization of platinum electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Verónica; Zinola, Carlos F

    2007-09-01

    A catalytic effect is found for methanol oxidation after new active surface states are produced on polycrystalline platinum by potentiostatic cathodization in acid media at room temperature. This procedure originates surface states not available on the original polycrystalline electrodes with unexpected cyclic voltammetric responses; i.e., at least four new peaks below 0.9 V are observed. The cathodization process also induces a rearrangement of the bulk platinum oxide, showing a defined peak at 1.2 V. The appearance of these new states is also proven by open-circuit potential decays. The electrocatalytic activity of these new surfaces in methanol oxidation is compared with that of the untreated electrodes by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, chronoamperometry, and cyclic voltammetry. The cathodic procedure enhances the methanol oxidation voltammetric current peaks with charge density values higher than those on untreated platinum. The integration of chronoamperometric plots over 10 min in methanol acid media presents the largest difference between 0.6 and 0.7 V with respect to the original surface. Analysis of the impedance data shows that the values of polarization resistance for methanol oxidation on the cathodically treated platinum are lower than those of the original surface. According to the time constant values for methanol oxidation, the original surface can be considered less tolerant of the formation of catalytic poisons. A discussion of the most likely mechanism for the formation of the new active sites on platinum is presented here, assuming the presence of hydrogen subsurface states, ordered water clusters, and low-coordinated platinum atoms. PMID:17543323

  2. The deleterious effect of inorganic salts on hydrocarbon yields from catalytic pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass and its mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Alkali and alkali earth metals decreased hydrocarbon yields during catalytic pyrolysis of biomass. • The effect on reducing hydrocarbon yields followed the order: K+ > Na+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+. • Metals enhanced cracking and dehydration reactions increasing thermally-derived COx. • Both acid-infusion and acid-washing increased yields of aromatic hydrocarbons. - Abstract: The effect of alkali and alkali earth metals (AAEMs) on yields of hydrocarbons from catalytic pyrolysis of biomass was investigated. Experiments were performed in a tandem micro-reactor that segregates the biomass from the zeolite catalyst (ex-situ catalytic pyrolysis). It was found that even trace amounts of AAEMs added to cellulose as acetate salts dramatically reduced the yields of hydrocarbons. Both the concentration and types of AAEM salts impacted product distribution. The yield of aromatics and olefins decreased monotonically with increasing concentration of AAEMs. The effect of AAEMs on reducing hydrocarbon yields followed the order: K+ > Na+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+. Two pretreatments of biomass were investigated to alleviate the catalytic effects of AAEMs that naturally occurs in biomass: acid-washing and acid-infusion. It was found that pretreated biomass increased yields of hydrocarbons apparently by suppressing reactions that would otherwise convert carbohydrate to non-condensable gases and char

  3. The effect of oxygen storage capacity on the dynamic characteristics of an automotive catalytic converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamim, T. [Michigan-Dearborn Univ., Dearborn, MI (United states). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Automotive catalytic converters that reduce engine exhaust emissions are subject to transient conditions during a typical driving cycle. These conditions arise from changes in driving mode, the hysteresis and flow lags of the feedback control system, and result in fluctuations of air-fuel, exhaust gas flow rates and temperatures. The catalyst performance is also highly influenced by the oxygen storage capacity (OSC). This paper examined the influence of OSC on the catalyst dynamic behavior. The transient conditions were simulated by considering the catalyst subjected to temporal modulation in air-fuel ratio, exhaust gas composition and temperature. The paper presented the mathematical formulation including the development of governing equations. The governing equations were developed by considering the conservation of mass, energy and chemical species. It also presented the results and discussed the effect of sinusoidal modulation in the air-fuel ratio as well as the effect of sinusoidal modulation in exhaust composition. It was concluded that the presence of the OSC sensitivity influenced its response to the imposed modulation. The specific effect was dependent on the operating conditions and the type of the imposed modulations. 10 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  4. Effect of Operating Conditions on Catalytic Gasification of Bamboo in a Fluidized Bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanasit Wongsiriamnuay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic gasification of bamboo in a laboratory-scale, fluidized bed reactor was investigated. Experiments were performed to determine the effects of reactor temperature (400, 500, and 600°C, gasifying medium (air and air/steam, and catalyst to biomass ratio (0 : 1, 1 : 1, and 1.5 : 1 on product gas composition, H2/CO ratio, carbon conversion efficiency, heating value, and tar conversion. From the results obtained, it was shown that at 400°C with air/steam gasification, maximum hydrogen content of 16.5% v/v, carbon conversion efficiency of 98.5%, and tar conversion of 80% were obtained. The presence of catalyst was found to promote the tar reforming reaction and resulted in improvement of heating value, carbon conversion efficiency, and gas yield due to increases in H2, CO, and CH4. The presence of steam and dolomite had an effect on the increasing of tar conversion.

  5. Effects of Gas Velocity and Temperature on Nitric Oxide Conversion in Simulated Catalytic Converter

    OpenAIRE

    Sathaporn Chuepeng

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: Gaseous emissions from gasoline engine such as carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxides were usually reduced in three-way catalytic converter simultaneously around theoretical fuel and air combustion. Engine speed and load and other parameters were varied over a wide range of operating conditions, resulting in different exhaust gas composition and condition intake into catalytic converter. This work was studied the conversion of Nitric Oxide (NO) in exhaust...

  6. Effects of Dealumination and Desilication of Beta Zeolite on Catalytic Performance in n-Hexane Cracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic cracking of n-hexane to selectively produce propylene on Beta zeolite was carried out. The H-Beta (HB (Si/Al = 77 zeolite showed higher catalytic stability and propylene selectivity than the Al-rich HB (Si/Al = 12, due to its smaller number of acid sites, especially Lewis acid sites (LAS. However, catalytic stability and propylene selectivity in high n-hexane conversions were still not satisfactory. After dealumination with HNO3 treatment, catalytic stability was improved and propylene selectivity during high n-hexane conversions was increased. On the other hand, catalytic stability was not improved after desilication with NaOH treatment, although mesopores were formed. This may be related to the partially destroyed structure. However, propylene selectivity in high n-hexane conversions was increased after alkali treatment. We successfully found that the catalytic stability was improved and the propylene selectivity in high n-hexane conversions was further increased after the NaOH treatment followed by HNO3 treatment. This is due to the decrease in the number of acid sites and the increase in mesopores which are beneficial to the diffusion of coke precursor.

  7. [Effect of background constituents on the degradation of trace nitrobenzene in aqueous solution by catalytic ozonation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhi-zhong; Zhao, Lei; Ma, Jun

    2006-02-01

    Effect of background constituents on the catalytic ozonation of nitrobenzene was investigated. Degradation rates of ozonation alone, ceramic honeycomb and modified ceramic honeycomb-catalyzed ozonation in tap water increased by 4.90%, 2.47% and 5.12% than those in distilled water respectively. The removal rate of ozonation alone increased by 6.25% with the increase of the concentration of magnesium ion (0 to approximately 8 x mg x L(-1)), but those of other two processes decreased by 11.41% and 17.64%, respectively, under the same experimental condition. Degradation efficiency of ozonation alone, ceramic honeycomb and modified ceramic honeycomb-catalyzed ozonation decreased by 4.42%, 9.38% and 12.24%, respectively, with the increase of the concentration of chloride ion (0 to approximately 40 mg x L(-1)). At the lower concentration, humic acid could accelerate the degradation of nitrobenzene, however, the reaction was retarded at higher concentrations of humic acid. The experiment also studied the influences of the applied ozone and initial concentration of nitrobenzene.

  8. Catalytic effect of activated carbon on bioleaching of low-grade primary copper sulfide ores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The catalytic effect of activated carbon on the bioleaching of low-grade primary copper sulfide ores using mixture of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans was investigated. The results show that the addition of activated carbon can greatly accelerate the rate and efficiency of copper dissolution from low-grade primary copper sulfide ores. The solution with the concentration of 3.0 g/L activated carbon is most beneficial to the dissolution of copper. The resting time of the mixture of activated carbon and ores has an impact on the bioleaching of low-grade primary copper sulfide ores. The 2 d resting time is most favorable to the dissolution of copper. The enhanced dissolution rate and efficiency of copper can be attributed to the galvanic interaction between activated carbon and chalcopyrite. The addition of activated carbon obviously depresses the dissolution of iron and the bacterial oxidation of ferrous ions in solution. The lower redox potentials are more favorable to the copper dissolution than the higher potentials for low-grade primary copper sulfide ores in the presence of activated carbon.

  9. Effect of inlet temperature on the performance of a catalytic reactor. [air pollution control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D. N.

    1978-01-01

    A 12 cm diameter by 15 cm long catalytic reactor was tested with No. 2 diesel fuel in a combustion test rig at inlet temperatures of 700, 800, 900, and 1000 K. Other test conditions included pressures of 3 and 6 x 10 to the 5th power Pa, reference velocities of 10, 15, and 20 m/s, and adiabatic combustion temperatures in the range 1100 to 1400 K. The combustion efficiency was calculated from measurements of carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbon emissions. Nitrogen oxide emissions and reactor pressure drop were also measured. At a reference velocity of 10 m/s, the CO and unburned hydrocarbons emissions, and, therefore, the combustion efficiency, were independent of inlet temperature. At an inlet temperature of 1000 K, they were independent of reference velocity. Nitrogen oxides emissions resulted from conversion of the small amount (135 ppm) of fuel-bound nitrogen in the fuel. Up to 90 percent conversion was observed with no apparent effect of any of the test variables. For typical gas turbine operating conditions, all three pollutants were below levels which would permit the most stringent proposed automotive emissions standards to be met.

  10. Effect of Ionic Liquids on Catalytic Characteristics of Horse Liver Alcohol Dehydrogenase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Xian-Ai; ZONG Min-Hua; LOU Wen-Yong

    2006-01-01

    The catalytic characteristics of horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase (HLADH) in the systems involving ionic liquids (Ils) (BMIm·Cl, BMIm·Br, BMIm·pF6, BMIm·BF4 BMIm·Otf and EMIm·Cl) were examined. HLADH displayed higher oxidation activity towards ethanol in the systems containing BMIm·Cl, BMIm·Br, EMIm·Cl or BMIm·PF6 with proper content than that in the IL-free buffer. An excessive amount of these Ils in the reaction systems resulted in an obvious decline in enzymatic activity. BMIm·BF4 and BMIm·Otf of any content investigated could considerably inhibit the enzyme. The anions of Ils showed significant effect on the activity, kinetic parameters and activation energy of HLADH-mediated ethanol oxidation. Additionally, BMIm·Cl, BMIm·Br,EMIm·Cl and BMIm·pF6 boosted markedly the thermostability of HLADH, while the enzyme was less thermostable in BMIm·BF4 or BMIm·Otf-containing systems. The associated conformational changes in HLADH caused by Ils were examined by UV technique.

  11. Biomass Catalytic Pyrolysis on Ni/ZSM-5: Effects of Nickel Pretreatment and Loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yung, Matthew M.; Starace, Anne K.; Mukarakate, Calvin; Crow, Allison M.; Leshnov, Marissa A.; Magrini, Kimberly A.

    2016-07-21

    In this work, Ni/ZSM-5 catalysts with varied nickel loadings were evaluated for their ability to produce aromatic hydrocarbons by upgrading of pine pyrolysis vapors. The effect of catalyst pretreatment by hydrogen reduction was also investigated. Results indicate that the addition of nickel increases the yield of aromatic hydrocarbons while simultaneously increasing the conversion of oxygenates, relative to ZSM-5, and these effects are more pronounced with increasing nickel loading. Additionally, while initial activity differences were observed between the oxidized and reduced forms of nickel on ZSM-5 (i.e., NiO/ZSM-5 versus Ni/ZSM-5), the activity of both catalysts converges with increasing time on stream. These reaction results coupled with characterization of pristine and spent catalysts suggest that the catalysts reach similar active states during catalytic pyrolysis, regardless of pretreatment, as NiO undergoes in situ reduction to Ni by biomass pyrolysis vapors. This reduction of NiO to Ni was confirmed by reaction results and characterization by NH3 temperature-programmed desorption, temperature-programmed reduction, and X-ray diffraction. This finding is significant in that the ability to reduce or eliminate the need for a pre-reaction H2 reduction of Ni-modified zeolite catalysts could reduce process complexity and operating costs in a biorefinery-based vapor-phase upgrading process to produce biomass-derived fuels and chemicals. The ability to monitor catalyst activity in real time with a molecular beam mass spectrometer used to measure uncondensed, hot pyrolysis vapors allows for an improved understanding of the mechanism for improved activity with Ni addition to ZSM-5, which is attributed to the ability to prevent deactivation by deposition of coke and capping of zeolite micropores.

  12. Electrochemistry of Layered Graphitic Carbon Nitride Synthesised from Various Precursors: Searching for Catalytic Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yew, Ying Teng; Lim, Chee Shan; Eng, Alex Yong Sheng; Oh, Junghoon; Park, Sungjin; Pumera, Martin

    2016-02-16

    Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3 N4 ), synthesised by pyrolysis of different precursors (dicyandiamide, melamine and urea) under varying reaction conditions (air and nitrogen gas) is subjected to electrochemical studies for the elucidation of the inherent catalytic efficiency of the pristine material. Contrary to popular belief, pristine g-C3 N4 shows negligible, if any, enhancement in its electrochemical behaviour in this comprehensive study. Voltammetric analysis reveals g-C3 N4 to display similar catalytic efficiency to the unmodified glassy carbon electrode surface on which the bulk material was deposited. This highlights the non-catalytic nature of the pristine material and challenges the feasibility of using g-C3 N4 as a heterogeneous catalyst to deliver numerous promised applications.

  13. Effect of hierarchical porosity and phosphorus modification on the catalytic properties of zeolite Y

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenlin; Zheng, Jinyu; Luo, Yibin; Da, Zhijian

    2016-09-01

    The zeolite Y is considered as a leading catalyst for FCC industry. The acidity and porosity modification play important roles in determining the final catalytic properties of zeolite Y. The alkaline treatment of zeolite Y by dealumination and alkaline treatment with NaOH and NaOH&TBPH was investigated. The zeolites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, low-temperature adsorption of nitrogen, transmission electron microscope, NMR, NH3-TPD and IR study of acidity. Accordingly, the hierarchical porosity and acidity property were discussed systematically. Finally, the catalytic performance of the zeolites Y was evaluated in the cracking of 1,3,5-TIPB. It was found that desilication with NaOH&TBPH ensured the more uniform intracrystalline mesoporosity with higher microporosity, while preserving higher B/L ratio and moderate Brønsted acidities resulting in catalysts with the most appropriated acidity and then with better catalytic performance.

  14. Thermo-Catalytic Methane Decomposition for Hydrogen Production: Effect of Palladium Promoter on Ni-based Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Lock Sow Mei

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen production from the direct thermo-catalytic decomposition of methane is a promising alternative for clean fuel production. However, thermal decomposition of methane can hardly be of any practical and empirical interest in the industry unless highly efficient and effective catalysts, in terms of both catalytic activity and operational lifetime have been developed. In this study, the effect of palladium (Pd as a promoter onto Ni supported on alumina catalyst has been investigated by using co-precipitation technique. The introduction of Pd promotes better catalytic activity, operational lifetime and thermal stability of the catalyst. As expected, highest methane conversion was achieved at reaction temperature of 800 °C while the bimetallic catalyst (1 wt.% Ni -1wt.% Pd/Al2O3 gave the highest methane conversion of 70% over 15 min of time-on-stream (TOS. Interestingly, the introduction of Pd as promoter onto Ni-based catalyst also has a positive effect on the operational lifetime and thermal stability of the catalyst as the methane conversion has improved significantly over 240 min of TOS. Copyright © 2016 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved Received: 21st January 2016; Revised: 6th February 2016; Accepted: 6th March 2016 How to Cite: Mei, I.L.S., Lock, S.S.M., Vo, D.V.N., Abdullah, B. (2016. Thermo-Catalytic Methane Decomposition for Hydrogen Production: Effect of Palladium Promoter on Ni-based Catalysts. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 11 (2: 191-199 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.11.2.550.191-199 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.11.2.550.191-199

  15. Experimental Investigation on Combined Effect of EGR and Three-way Catalytic Converter for IDI Diesel Engine.

    OpenAIRE

    P Suresh Kumar; Ramesh Kumar Donga; Sahoo, P. K.

    2013-01-01

    In the past few decades, an alternate source of energy has been the growing concern with respect to environment and energy reserves utilization. Also the enhancement of industrialization and motorization at global level has strengthened further towards the alternate energy sources like bio fuels etc. The objective of the research work was to effectively reduce the nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions with the combination of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and three-way catalytic converter fuelled ...

  16. Effect of Alkali Treatment on the Structure and Catalytic Properties of ZSM-5 Zeolite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zi Yun LI; Xin SUN; Qiang XIAO; Shou He XIANG

    2005-01-01

    Catalytic properties of ZSM-5 zeolite samples pretreated with NaOH solution have been investigated. The samples are characterized by XRD, SEM, chemical analysis, and N2 adsorption.The results indicate that mesopores are created in ZSM-5 crystals under alkali treatment without change the microporous structure and acidic strength of the zeolite, but the crystallinity is greatly decreased under severe treatment. IR indicates that the concentration of silanol is greatly enriched by alkali treatment. The etherification activities of ZSM-5 zeolites are greatly increased by alkali-treatment. The noticeably improved catalytic activity of treated samples is ascribed to the formation of mesopores and greatly enriched silanol group.

  17. Effects of γ-irradiation and ageing on surface and catalytic properties of nano-sized Cu O/Mg O system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    0.2 Cu O/Mg O system prepared by impregnation method was calcined at 350 and 450 C. The effects of γ-rays (0.2-1.6 MGy) on its structure, surface and catalytic properties were investigated by using XRD, N2-adsorption at -196 C and catalytic conversion of isopropanol at 150-275 C using a flow technique. The results revealed that the investigated solids consisted of nano-sized Mg O as a major phase besides Cu O and trace amount of Cu2O. γ-Irradiation of the solids investigated exerted measurable changes in their surface and catalytic properties dependent on the calcination temperature and dose of irradiation. The catalysts investigated acted as active dehydrogenation solids. The five years-ageing of different solids showed limited changes of their surface and catalytic properties indicating a good catalytic stability of the irradiated prepared solids. (Author)

  18. Effects of {gamma}-irradiation and ageing on surface and catalytic properties of nano-sized Cu O/Mg O system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Molla, S. A. [Ain Shams University, Faculty of Education, Chemistry Deparment, Roxy, Heliopolis, 11757 Cairo (Egypt); Ismail, S. A.; Ibrahim, M. M., E-mail: saharelmolla@yahoo.com [National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Nasr City, P.O. Box 29, 11731 Cairo (Egypt)

    2011-07-01

    0.2 Cu O/Mg O system prepared by impregnation method was calcined at 350 and 450 C. The effects of {gamma}-rays (0.2-1.6 MGy) on its structure, surface and catalytic properties were investigated by using XRD, N{sub 2}-adsorption at -196 C and catalytic conversion of isopropanol at 150-275 C using a flow technique. The results revealed that the investigated solids consisted of nano-sized Mg O as a major phase besides Cu O and trace amount of Cu{sub 2}O. {gamma}-Irradiation of the solids investigated exerted measurable changes in their surface and catalytic properties dependent on the calcination temperature and dose of irradiation. The catalysts investigated acted as active dehydrogenation solids. The five years-ageing of different solids showed limited changes of their surface and catalytic properties indicating a good catalytic stability of the irradiated prepared solids. (Author)

  19. Experimental Investigation on Combined Effect of EGR and Three-way Catalytic Converter for IDI Diesel Engine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Suresh Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the past few decades, an alternate source of energy has been the growing concern with respect to environment and energy reserves utilization. Also the enhancement of industrialization and motorization at global level has strengthened further towards the alternate energy sources like bio fuels etc. The objective of the research work was to effectively reduce the nitrogen oxides (NOX emissions with the combination of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR and three-way catalytic converter fuelled with diesel, jatropha biodiesel (JBD and their blends at full load of indirect injection (IDI diesel engines. The engine was tested by diesel, 100% biodiesel (JB 100, blends of 80% diesel and 20% biodiesel (JB 20 and other blends like JB 40, JB 60 and JB 80. The engine characteristics with jatropha biodiesel were compared against those obtained using diesel fuel. From results it is observed that nitrogen oxide emissions of JBD are more than that diesel fuel. These high NOX emissions are due to the presence of unsaturated fatty acids and the advanced injection caused by the higher bulk modulus of JBD and their blends. A four stroke single cylinder water cooled IDI diesel engine was used for investigation. Nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and smoke were recorded and various engine performance parameters were also evaluated. The results and discussion based on the effect of emission controlling systems on engine performance and emission characteristics of JB 100, JB 80, JB 60, JB 40, JB 20 and diesel fuel without emission controlling systems. The performance parameters and nitrogen oxide emissions are measured and recorded for diesel fuel, JBD and their blends. The results showed that at 5% EGR + three way catalytic converter for JB 100, at 40% EGR + three way catalytic converter for JB 80, JB60 and JB 40. And at 35% EGR + three way catalytic converter for JB 20 and diesel fuels, the N0x emissions effectively reduced compared to without emission

  20. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF EFFECTS OF WALL THICKNESS AND CELL DENSITY ON THE THREE-WAY CATALYTIC CONVERTER PERFORMANCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Guojiang; Tan Song; Huang Zhen

    2005-01-01

    The transient symmetric mathematical model is established, and the effects of the wall thickness and cell density on the performance of a three-way catalytic converter are studied using numerical modeling. The conclusions show that the light-off time and the pressure drop through a converter are decreased, and the conversion efficiency during the warm-up period keeps almost invariant with reduction of the wall thickness of substrates, and that the pressure drop through a converter and a conversion efficiency during the warm-up state increases, and the light-off time almost keeps invariant when increasing cell density of substrates. Therefore, future catalytic converters should develop in the direction of thin wall thickness and high cell density substrates simultaneously.

  1. Synergistic effect of W and P on ZSM-5 and its catalytic performance in the cracking of heavy oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongmin Han; Nannan Sun; Jianwei Liu; Chunyi Li; Honghong Shan; Chaohe Yang

    2014-01-01

    In order to develop the conversion of heavy oil with a high yield of propylene in the catalytic cracking process, ZSM-5 zeolite was modified by tungsten and phosphorus, which was proved to be an effective method. Characterization results show that the improvement of catalytic performance could be correlated to the interaction of phosphorus and tungsten species on ZSM-5. P inhibited the aggregation of tungsten species on ZSM-5 and was conductive to convert the tungsten species with octahedral coordination into tetrahedral coordination. And this ultimately led to that more acid sites were reserved after hydrothermal treatment in the tungsten and phosphorus co-modified ZSM-5 catalyst. Phosphorus species played an important role to restrain the dehydrogenation activity of tungsten. In addition, a model reflecting the interaction between tungsten species and ZSM-5 framework was proposed.

  2. An FTIR study on the catalytic effect of water molecules on the reaction of CO successive hydrogenation at 3 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: This work highlights a selective catalytic action of water molecules on the reaction of CO hydrogenation at 3 K. Research highlights: → [CO/H2O] and [H/H2] are coinjected at 3 K. → H2 molecules condense rapidly at 3 K and screen the reaction mostly at the 1st step. → The observed catalytic effects on CO hydrogenation increase with water concentration. - Abstract: The reaction of successive CO hydrogenation has been performed at 3 K by coinjecting CO molecules and H atoms. The concentration of CO has been progressively reduced and replaced by water molecules to create two different environments where CO and H2O are successively the dominant species in the binary (CO/H2O) mixture. The catalytic effect of water molecules on CO hydrogenation appears clearly since the early times of the experiment and evolves with the formation of the CO/H2/H2O mixed-matrix. The process of CO hydrogenation, initially frozen at the first step of the reaction, is brought to completion through water influence. Water molecules guide the reaction toward the formation of CH3OH and promote different reaction steps depending on water concentration. Water molecules increase the probability of reactive to encounter H atoms either physically, by introducing structural changes in the matrix, or chemically, by raising the number of chemical pathways.

  3. Electrochemical characterization of praseodymia doped zircon. Catalytic effect on the electrochemical reduction of molecular oxygen in polar organic solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domenech, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.domenech@uv.es [Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Valencia, Dr. Moliner, 50, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Montoya, Noemi; Alarcon, Javier [Departament de Quimica Inorganica, Universitat de Valencia, Dr. Moliner, 50, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)

    2011-08-01

    Highlights: > Electrochemical characterization of Pr centers in praseodymia-doped zircon. > Study of the catalytic effect on the reduction of peroxide radical anion in nonaqueous solvents. > Assessment of non-uniform distribution of Pr centers in the zircon grains. - Abstract: The voltammetry of microparticles and scanning electrochemical microscopy methodologies are applied to characterize praseodymium centers in praseodymia-doped zircon (Pr{sub x}Zr{sub (1-y)}Si{sub (1-z)}O{sub 4}; y + z = x; 0.02 < x < 0.10) specimens prepared via sol-gel synthetic routes. In contact with aqueous electrolytes, two overlapping Pr-centered cathodic processes, attributable to the Pr (IV) to Pr (III) reduction of Pr centers in different sites are obtained. In water-containing, air-saturated acetone and DMSO solutions as solvent, Pr{sub x}Zr{sub (1-y)}Si{sub (1-z)}O{sub 4} materials produce a significant catalytic effect on the electrochemical reduction of peroxide radical anion electrochemically generated. These electrochemical features denote that most of the Pr centers are originally in its 4+ oxidation state in the parent Pr{sub x}Zr{sub (1-y)}Si{sub (1-z)}O{sub 4} specimens. The variation of the catalytic performance of such specimens with potential scan rate, water concentration and Pr loading suggests that Pr is not uniformly distributed within the zircon grains, being concentrated in the outer region of such grains.

  4. Investigation of Catalytic Finite-Size-Effects of Platinum Metal Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Lin; Larsen, Ask Hjorth; Romero, Nichols A.;

    2012-01-01

    . We find that the surface catalytic properties of the clusters converge to the single crystal limit for clusters with as few as 147 atoms (1.6 nm). Recently published results for gold (Au) clusters showed analogous convergence with size. However, this convergence happened at larger sizes, because...

  5. Novel catalytic effects of Mn3O4 for all vanadium redox flow batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Jae; Park, Min-Sik; Kim, Jae-Hun; Hwang, Uk; Lee, Nam Jin; Jeong, Goojin; Kim, Young-Jun

    2012-06-01

    A new approach for enhancing the electrochemical performance of carbon felt electrodes by employing non-precious metal oxides is designed. The outstanding electro-catalytic activity and mechanical stability of Mn(3)O(4) are advantageous in facilitating the redox reaction of vanadium ions, leading to efficient operation of a vanadium redox flow battery. PMID:22540132

  6. Novel catalytic effects of Mn3O4 for all vanadium redox flow batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Jae; Park, Min-Sik; Kim, Jae-Hun; Hwang, Uk; Lee, Nam Jin; Jeong, Goojin; Kim, Young-Jun

    2012-06-01

    A new approach for enhancing the electrochemical performance of carbon felt electrodes by employing non-precious metal oxides is designed. The outstanding electro-catalytic activity and mechanical stability of Mn(3)O(4) are advantageous in facilitating the redox reaction of vanadium ions, leading to efficient operation of a vanadium redox flow battery.

  7. Effect of BaO on catalytic performance of Pd-based catalysts for purification of gasoline-methanol exhaust

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雪乔; 赵明; 徐成华; 汪嘉扬; 陈耀强

    2014-01-01

    Barium oxide was developed successfully to modify palladium catalysts supported on CeO2-ZrO2-La2O3-Al2O3 (CZLA) compound oxides by impregnation method. N2 adsorption (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD), H2-temperature-programmed reduction (H2-TPR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were employed to characterize the influence of BaO on the physicochemical properties of catalyst. And catalytic activity tests for methanol, CO, C3H8 and NO conversion were evaluated. Catalytic activity re-sults showed that BaO had a positive effect on the conversion of all pollutants. H2-TPR results suggested that the addition of BaO in-creased the reductive ability of the palladium catalysts. The XPS results indicated that doping BaO also improved the dispersion of Pd species and increased the amounts of Ce3+on the Pd-Ba/CZLA catalyst surface, which led to a better redox property. The excellent redox property helped to improve the catalytic activities toward all the pollutants over Pd-based catalysts.

  8. Promotional Effect of Ce on Iron-Based Catalysts for Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO with NH3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A series of Fe–Ce–Ti catalysts were prepared via co-precipitation method to investigate the effect of doping Ce into Fe–Ti catalysts for selective catalytic reduction of NO with NH3. The NO conversion over Fe–Ce–Ti catalysts was considerably improved after Ce doping compared to that of Fe–Ti catalysts. The Fe(0.2–Ce(0.4–Ti catalysts exhibited superior catalytic activity to that of Fe(0.2–Ti catalysts. The obtained catalysts were characterized by N2 adsorption (BET, X-ray diffraction (XRD, temperature programmed reduction (H2-TPR, temperature programmed desorption (NH3-TPD, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectrophotometry, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The data showed that the introduction of Ce results in higher surface area and better dispersion of active components on the catalyst surface and enhances the amount of surface acid sites. The interactions between Fe and Ce species were found to improve the redox ability of the catalyst, which promotes catalytic performance at low temperature. The XPS results revealed that Fe3+/Fe2+ and Ce4+/Ce3+ coexisted on the catalyst surface and that Ti was in 4+ oxidation state on catalyst surface. Ce doping increased the atomic ratio of Fe/Ti and Ce/Ti and enhanced the surface adsorbed oxygen species. In addition, Fe(0.2–Ce(0.4–Ti catalyst also showed better tolerance to H2O and SO2 and up to 92% NO conversion at 270 °C with 200 ppm SO2 added over 25 h, which suggests that it is a promising industrial catalyst for mid-low temperature NH3–selective catalytic reduction (SCR reaction.

  9. On the effect of atomic structure on the deactivation of catalytic gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here we present atomic scale studies into the nature of both the internal structure and external surfaces of catalytic Au nanoparticles using aberration corrected in-situ electron microscopy. The activity of catalytic nanoparticles is thought to be highly sensitive to the particles' structure, meaning typical local atomic rearrangements are likely to significantly affect the overall performance of the catalyst. As-deposited Au nanoparticles are found to exhibit a variety of morphologies, with many being internally strained or highly stepped at the surface. Upon heating, surface atoms are observed to minimise the particles' surface energy by restructuring towards planar (111) facets, resulting in the removal of low co-ordinated sites thought to be crucial in catalysis by Au nanoparticles. These results suggest the process of surface energy minimisation made possible by heating may lead to a loss of active sites and consequently contribute to the deactivation of the catalyst.

  10. Effects of calcium substitute in LaMnO3 perovskites for NO catalytic oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Meiqing; ZHAO Zhen; CHEN Jiahao; SU Yugeng; WANG Jun; WANG Xinquan

    2013-01-01

    La1-xCaxMnO3 (x=0-0.3) perovskite-type oxides were synthesized by citrate sol-gel method.The physical and chemical properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD),Brumauer-Emmett-Teller method (BET),X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS),NO+O2-TPD (temperature-programmed desorption),activated oxygen evaluation and H2-TPR (temperature-programmed reduction) technologies.The results showed that NO catalytic oxidation activity was significantly improved by Ca substitution,especially for lower temperature activity.The La0.9Ca0.1UnO3 sample showed the maximum conversion of 82% at 300 ℃.The monodentate nitrates played a crucial role for the formation of NO2.The reducibility of Mn4+ ions and reactivity of activated oxygen were favorable for the catalytic performances of NO oxidation.

  11. Effect of dry torrefaction on kinetics of catalytic pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniyanto, Sutijan, Deendarlianto, Budiman, Arief

    2015-12-01

    Decreasing world reserve of fossil resources (i.e. petroleum oil, coal and natural gas) encourage discovery of renewable resources as subtitute for fossil resources. Biomass is one of the main natural renewable resources which is promising resource as alternate resources to meet the world's energy needs and raw material to produce chemical platform. Conversion of biomass, as source of energy, fuel and biochemical, is conducted using thermochemical process such as pyrolysis-gasification process. Pyrolysis step is an important step in the mechanism of pyrolysis - gasification of biomass. The objective of this study is to obtain the kinetic reaction of catalytic pyrolysis of dry torrified sugarcane bagasse which used Ca and Mg as catalysts. The model of kinetic reaction is interpreted using model n-order of single reaction equation of biomass. Rate of catalytic pyrolysis reaction depends on the weight of converted biomass into char and volatile matters. Based on TG/DTA analysis, rate of pyrolysis reaction is influenced by the composition of biomass (i.e. hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin) and inorganic component especially alkali and alkaline earth metallic (AAEM). From this study, it has found two equations rate of reaction of catalytic pyrolysis in sugarcane bagasse using catalysts Ca and Mg. First equation is equation of pyrolysis reaction in rapid zone of decomposition and the second equation is slow zone of decomposition. Value of order reaction for rapid decomposition is n > 1 and for slow decomposition is n<1. Constant and order of reactions for catalytic pyrolysis of dry-torrified sugarcane bagasse with presence of Ca tend to higher than that's of presence of Mg.

  12. An effective approach for modifying carbonaceous materials with niobium single sites to improve their catalytic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzi, A S; Lavall, R L; Souza, T E; Pereira, M C; de Souza, P P; De Abreu, H A; De Oliveira, A; Ortega, P F R; Paniago, R; Oliveira, L C A

    2015-12-14

    In this paper we show a very simple route for the incorporation of catalytically active niobium species on the surface of carbon materials, such as graphene oxide, carbon nanotubes and activated carbon. Some existing methods of incorporating a transition metal on a support have involved co-precipitation or wet impregnation, to obtain the corresponding oxides. These methods, however, cause reduction in the specific area of the support and can also form large metal oxide particles with loss of metal exposure. Therefore, here we present a novel way to add catalytically active species on the surfaces of different types of carbon through the formation of interaction complexes between the metal precursor and the functional groups of the carbon matrix. Because of the excellent catalytic properties exhibited by the niobium species we choose the NH4[NbO(C2O4)2(H2O)2]·2H2O salt as the model precursor. The characterization by XPS reveals the presence of the niobium species indicated by the displacement of the peaks between 206-212 eV related to the oxalate species according to the spectrum from pure niobium oxalate. Images obtained by TEM and SEM show the typical morphologies of carbonaceous materials without the niobium oxide formation signal, which indicates the presence of niobium complexes as isolated sites on the carbon surfaces. This new class of materials exhibited excellent properties as catalysts for pollutant oxidation. The presence of Nb promotes the catalytic activation of H2O2 generating hydroxyl radicals in situ, which allows their use in the organic compound oxidation processes. Tests for DBT oxidation indicate that Nb significantly improves the removal of such pollutants in biphasic reactions with removal around 90% under the tested conditions. Theoretical calculations showed that the most favorable adsorption model is an ionic complex presenting a ΔG = -108.7 kcal mol(-1) for the whole adsorption process. PMID:26514577

  13. Effect of diluent and reaction parameter on selective oxidation of propane over MoVTeNb catalyst using nanoflow catalytic reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Restu Kartiko Widi; Sharifah Bee Abdul Hamid; Robert Schl(o)gl

    2008-01-01

    The selective oxidation of propane to acrylic acid over an MoVTeNb mixed oxide catalyst, dried and calcined before reaction has been studied using high-throughput instrumentation, which is called nanoflow catalytic reactor. The effects of catalyst dilution on the catalytic performance of the MoVTeNb mixed oxide catalyst in selective oxidation of propane to acrylic acid were also investigated. The effects of some reaction parameters, such as gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) and reaction temperature, for selective oxidation of propane to acrylic acid over diluted MoVTeNb catalyst have also been studied. The configuration of the nanoflow is shown to be suitable for screen catalytic performance, and its operating conditions were mimicked closely to conventional laboratory as well as to industrial conditions. The results obtained provided very good reproducibility and it showed that preparation methods as well as reaction parameters can play significant roles in catalytic performance of these catalysts.

  14. Effects of Reduced Sulfur Compounds on Pd-catalytic Hydrodechlorination of TCE in Groundwater by Cathodic H2 under Electrochemically-induced Oxidizing Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Songhu; Chen, Mingjie; Mao, Xuhui; Alshawabkeh, Akram N.

    2013-01-01

    Reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs) poison Pd catalysts for catalytic hydrodechlorination of contaminants in anoxic groundwater. This study investigates the effects of RSCs on Pd-catalytic hydrodechlorination of trichloroethylene (TCE) in oxic groundwater. Water electrolysis in an undivided electrolytic cell is used to produce H2 for TCE hydrodechlorination under oxidizing conditions. TCE is efficiently hydrodechlorinated to ethane, with significant accumulation of H2O2 under acidic conditions. P...

  15. An effective route to improve the catalytic performance of SAPO-34 in the methanol-to-olefin reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangyu Liu; Peng Tian; Qinhua Xia; Zhongmin Liu

    2012-01-01

    An effective route to improve the catalytic performance of SAPO-34 in the methanol-to-olefin reaction by simple oxalic acid treatment was investigated.The samples were characterized by XRD,SEM,N2 adsorption-desorption,XRF,TG,29Si MAS NMR and NH3-TPD techniques.The results indicated that the external surface acidity of SAPO-34 was finely tuned by oxalic acid treatment,and the selectivity to C2H4 on SAPO-34 and the catalyst lifetime in the methanol-to-olefin reaction were greatly improved.

  16. Understanding Trends in Catalytic Activity: The Effect of Adsorbate-Adsorbate Interactions for CO Oxidation Over Transition Metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grabow, Lars; Larsen, Britt Hvolbæk; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2010-01-01

    Using high temperature CO oxidation as the example, trends in the reactivity of transition metals are discussed on the basis of density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Volcano type relations between the catalytic rate and adsorption energies of important intermediates are introduced...... and the effect of adsorbate-adsorbate interaction on the trends is discussed. We find that adsorbate-adsorbate interactions significantly increase the activity of strong binding metals (left side of the volcano) but the interactions do not change the relative activity of different metals and have a very small...... influence on the position of the top of the volcano, that is, on which metal is the best catalyst....

  17. Effect of Water Vapour on the Acidity of ZSM-5Zeolite Used for Catalytic Cracking of Naphtha to Manufacture Ethylene and Propylene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Guangwei; Xiao Jingxian; ZhangHuining; Xie Zaiku

    2008-01-01

    The change in acidity of the ZSM-5 zeolite was investigated after it was treated with water vapour,and its capability on ammonia adsorption was also studied after having adsorbed water vapour.The effect of water vapour on products distribution was studied during catalytic cracking of naphtha,the changes in the adsorption ability and catalytic performance of the ZSM-5 zeolite was investigated after the catalyst was loaded with phosphorus species.These results all indicated that water vapour could reduce the acid strength and acid density of ZSM-5 zeolite and affect the capability of ZSM-5 on adsorption of gases,therefore the activated energy contributed by the ZSM-5 zeolite to the catalytic cracking reaction would be low to prevent the feedstock from deepened catalytic cracking and coke formation.

  18. Polyvinylpyrrolidone adsorption effects on the morphologies of synthesized platinum particles and its catalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ooi, Mahayatun Dayana Johan [Nano - Optoelectronic Research and Technology Laboratory, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Minden, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Aziz, Azlan Abdul [Nano - Optoelectronic Research and Technology Laboratory, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Minden, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Nanobiotechnology Research and Innovation (NanoBRI), INFORMM, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Minden, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    Flower-like Platinum micro-structures were synthesized from different concentration of the PVP using solvothermal method. At 5.0×10{sup −3} mmol of PVP, well-defined flower-like pattern consists of triangular petals radiating from the centre were produced whereas larger flower network developed at higher PVP concentration. High degree of crystallinity was obtained upon each increment of PVP. The well defined flower like pattern synthesized using 5.0×10{sup −3} mmol PVP exhibit the highest catalytic activity and stability towards electro-oxidation of formic acid.

  19. Polyvinylpyrrolidone adsorption effects on the morphologies of synthesized platinum particles and its catalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Mahayatun Dayana Johan; Aziz, Azlan Abdul

    2015-04-01

    Flower-like Platinum micro-structures were synthesized from different concentration of the PVP using solvothermal method. At 5.0×10-3 mmol of PVP, well-defined flower-like pattern consists of triangular petals radiating from the centre were produced whereas larger flower network developed at higher PVP concentration. High degree of crystallinity was obtained upon each increment of PVP. The well defined flower like pattern synthesized using 5.0×10-3 mmol PVP exhibit the highest catalytic activity and stability towards electro-oxidation of formic acid.

  20. Anchoring and promotion effects of metal oxides on silica supported catalytic gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jingjie; Ersen, Ovidiu; Chu, Wei; Dintzer, Thierry; Petit, Pierre; Petit, Corinne

    2016-11-15

    The understanding of the interactions between the different components of supported metal doped gold catalysts is of crucial importance for selecting and designing efficient gold catalysts for reactions such as CO oxidation. To progress in this direction, a unique supported nano gold catalyst Au/SS was prepared, and three doped samples (Au/SS@M) were elaborated. The samples before and after test were characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). It is found that the doping metal species prefer to be located on the surface of gold nanoparticles and that a small amount of additional reductive metal leads to more efficient reaction. During the catalytic test, the nano-structure of the metal species transforms depending on its chemical nature. This study allows one to identify and address the contribution of each metal on the CO reaction in regard to oxidative species of gold, silica and dopants. Metal doping leads to different exposure of interface sites between Au and metal oxide, which is one of the key factors for the change of the catalytic activity. The metal oxides help the activation of oxygen by two actions: mobility inside the metal bulk and transfer of water species onto of gold nanoparticles.

  1. Biologic effects of auto emissions. I. Exhaust from engine with and without catalytic converter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S D; Malanchuk, M; Finelli, V N

    1976-05-01

    This paper relates to the efficacy of a catalytic converter in reducing the levels of certain pollutants emitted from an automobile engine and to the reduction and/or elimination of gross biologic damages in animals exposed to emissions from an exhaust system containing such catalysts. Groups of rats were exposed to diluted emissions from an automobile engine with and without catalyst. Concomitantly, a comparative experiment was conducted by exposing a group of rats to carbon monoxide alone (575 mg/m3). The parameters measured included hematocrit, serum LDH, GOT, and lysozyme. An elevation in hematocrit was observed in animals of the experiment run without catalyst and in those exposed to carbon monoxide; the use of the catalyst reduced the carbon monoxide levels in the exposure chambers by more than tenfold and prevented these bioeffects from occurring. Serum LDH activity was elevated in the groups of rats in the experiment conducted without catalyst, but no alternation was observed in the animals from the experiment utilizing the catalyst or in those exposed to carbon monoxide alone. The data obtained in this study showed that acute exposure to noncatalytic emissions caused significant alterations in certain biologic parameters. Conversely, the introduction of an oxidizing catalytic converter into the engine exhaust system reduced or prevented such biologic damage. PMID:58066

  2. CFD simulation of the effect of upstream flow distribution on the light-off performance of a catalytic converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Guojiang [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)]. E-mail: wugj@citiz.net; Song Tan [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2005-08-15

    This paper describes the evolutions of the distributions of temperature and concentration in the monolith during the cold-start period and the effects of the flow distributions in the monolith on the performance of a catalytic converter using numerical simulation. The effects of the flow distributions on the light-off, warm-up performance and the temporal variation of the solid temperature were studied through numerical simulation. The following conclusions were obtained from the predicted light-off curves and the steady conversion efficiency: (1) The light-off time increases and the total outlet conversion efficiency reduces as the flow uniformity index decreases, which is in good agreement with experimental results. (2) The conversion efficiency decreases due to the reduction of residence time caused by the increase of the velocity as the radius is reduced. The analyses on the distribution of temperature in the monolith show that the temperatures of the solid in the area near the front face of the substrate rise as the radius increases, and the radial gradient of the temperature of the solid becomes greater as the flow uniformity index decreases. An experiment on the flow distribution in a catalytic converter with a honeycomb spherical arc was conducted. Experimental results show that the flow distribution in the monolith can be improved greatly by installing the honeycomb spherical arc in the tapered inlet header with a penalty of a relatively small increase of pressure drop.

  3. Catalytic effect of Ti and Ni on dehydrogenation of AlH{sub 3}: A first principles investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, H.Z.; Dai, J.H.; Song, Y., E-mail: sy@hitwh.edu.cn

    2015-08-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ni doped in bulk and on the surface of AlH{sub 3} are unfavourable comparing to Ti. • Ti and Ni prefer to substitute for Al atom in both the bulk and surface doped systems. • Ti improves the dissociation properties of AlH{sub 3} by weakening the interactions between Al and H atoms, but the catalytic effect is weaker if Ti substitutes for Al than its interstitial doping. - Abstract: Ab initio calculations were performed for the M-doped (M = Ti or Ni) AlH{sub 3} to investigate influence of dopants Ti and Ni on the dehydrogenation properties of AlH{sub 3}. It was found that Ti and Ni prefer to substitute for Al atom in both the bulk phase and the slab surface. However a large amount of energy was needed for Ni to dope into AlH{sub 3} making that Ni might not a suitable catalyst for AlH{sub 3}. Mechanisms that Ti improved the dehydrogenation properties of AlH{sub 3} were clarified. Ti greatly decreased the dehydrogenation energy of AlH{sub 3} by weakening the interaction between Al and H atoms, its influence on the dehydrogenation of AlH3 was however sensitive to the occupation behavior. The calculations indicated that the catalytic effect of Ti was weaker if Ti substitutes for Al than its interstitial occupation.

  4. Effect of Calcination Temperature on Catalytic Activity and Textual Property of Cu/HMOR Catalysts in Dimethyl Ether Carbonylation Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Zhang; Yu-ping Li; Song-bai Qiu; Tie-jun Wang; Long-long Ma; Qi Zhang; Ming-yue Ding

    2013-01-01

    The effect of calcination temperature on the catalytic activity for the dimethyl ether (DME) carbonylation into methyl acetate (MA) was investigated over mordenite supported copper (Cu/HMOR) prepared by ion-exchange process.The results showed that the catalytic activity was obviously affected by the calcination temperature.The maximal DME conversion of 97.2% and the MA selectivity of 97.9% were obtained over the Cu/HMOR calcined at 430 ℃ under conditions of 210 ℃,1.5 MPa,and GSHV of 4883 h-1.The obtained Cu/HMOR catalysts were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction,N2 absorption,NH3 temperature program desorption,CO temperature program desorption,and Raman techniques.Proper calcination temperature was effective to promote copper ions migration and diffusion,and led the support HMOR to possess more acid activity sites,which exhibited the complete decomposing of copper nitrate,large surface area and optimum micropore structure,more amount of CO adsorption site and proper amount of weak acid centers.

  5. SIRT1 catalytic activity has little effect on tumor formation and metastases in a mouse model of breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine V Clark-Knowles

    Full Text Available The protein deacetylase SIRT1 has been implicated in the regulation of a large number of cellular processes that are thought to be required for cancer initiation and progression. There are conflicting data that make it unclear whether Sirt1 functions as an oncogene or tumor suppressor. To assess the effect of SIRT1 on the emergence and progression of mammary tumors, we crossed mice that harbor a point mutation that abolishes SIRT1 catalytic activity with mice carrying the polyoma middle T transgene driven by the murine mammary tumor virus promoter (MMTV-PyMT. The absence of SIRT1 catalytic activity neither accelerated nor blocked the formation of tumors and metastases in this model. There was a lag in tumor latency that modestly extended survival in Sirt1 mutant mice that we attribute to a delay in mammary gland development and not to a direct effect of SIRT1 on carcinogenesis. These results are consistent with previous evidence suggesting that Sirt1 is not a tumor promoter or a tumor suppressor.

  6. Effects of acido-basic support properties on the catalytic hydrogenation of acetylene on gold nano-particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manda, Abdullah Ahmed

    Metallic gold nanoparticles supported on gamma-Al2O 3 and magnesia-alumina mixed oxide, with different magnesia content have been prepared by sol-gel method and characterized by different techniques (inductive coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS), XRD, BET surface area analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), CO2 and NH 3 temperature programmed desorption (TPD), H2 temperature programmed reduction (TPR) and FTIR of adsorbed CO2). Such systems were found to produce catalysts with controllable acidity, varying from catalyst possessing large density of acidic and low density of basic sites, others with acidic and basic sites of equal strength and density, and others with large basic and low acid sites densities, respectively. The catalytic assessment of the generated acidity was carried out using 2-propanol decomposition as a test reaction. The results obtained indicate that the presence of magnesia and reduced gold nanopartilces has imparted the catalysts, 1%Au/4%Mg-Al 2O3 and 1%Au/8%Mg-Al2O3, with significant base-catalytic properties. Acetylene hydrogenation and formation of coke deposits were investigated on a gold catalyst supported on gamma-Al2O3 and gold supported on alumina-magnisia mixed oxide with different gold content; 1%Au/gamma-Al 2O3, 1%Au/15%Mg-Al2O3, 2%Au/15%Mg-Al 2O3 and 4%Au/15%Mg-Al2O3. The effect of the H2/C2H2 ratio was studied over a range of values. The catalytic activity and selectivity towards ethylene and other products were investigated at different reaction temperatures. Acetylene hydrogenation was investigated in the presence and absence of ethylene in stream. It is investigated that the adsorption of the triple bond is preferred over the double bond and during selective catalytic (SCR) of C2H2 the two hydrocarbons do not compete for the same adsorption sites. The deactivation of catalysts was studied by temperature programmed oxidation (TPO). Higher content of coke over 1%Au/Al2O3 catalyst was investigated in contrast to

  7. Catalytic Pyrolyses of Rayon and the Effect on Activated Carbon Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾凡龙; 潘鼎

    2004-01-01

    The catalytic pyrolyses of rayon have been studied respectively by thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) when rayon was treated with phosphoric acid (PA), three ammonium phosphate salts and ammonium sulfate (AS). The air is favorable to the catalysis of dibasic ammonium phosphate (DAP), but not to those of ADP, PA, AP, and AS obviously. It is put forward that a peak's shape character can be described with the ratio of height to half-height-width (H/W/2) of the peak on a differential thermo-gravimetric (DTG) curve. A flat cracking peak, presenting a more moderate dehydration reaction, has a smaller ratio and could lead to higher carbonization and activation yields. The experimental results prove this view. According to expectation, the order of catalysis is: DAP≥ADP>PA>AP(>>)AS(>>) no catalyst.

  8. Effect of Catalytic Cylinders on Autothermal Reforming of Methane for Hydrogen Production in a Microchamber Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfei Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new multicylinder microchamber reactor is designed on autothermal reforming of methane for hydrogen production, and its performance and thermal behavior, that is, based on the reaction mechanism, is numerically investigated by varying the cylinder radius, cylinder spacing, and cylinder layout. The results show that larger cylinder radius can promote reforming reaction; the mass fraction of methane decreased from 26% to 21% with cylinder radius from 0.25 mm to 0.75 mm; compact cylinder spacing corresponds to more catalytic surface and the time to steady state is decreased from 40 s to 20 s; alteration of staggered and aligned cylinder layout at constant inlet flow rates does not result in significant difference in reactor performance and it can be neglected. The results provide an indication and optimize performance of reactor; it achieves higher conversion compared with other reforming reactors.

  9. Catalytically upgraded landfill gas as a cost-effective alternative for fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, W.; Lohmann, H.; Gómez, J. I. Salazar

    The potential use of landfill gas as feeding fuel for the so-called molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) imposes the need for new upgrading technologies in order to meet the much tougher feed gas specifications of this type of fuel cells in comparison to gas engines. Nevertheless, MCFC has slightly lower purity demands than low temperature fuel cells. This paper outlines the idea of a new catalytic purification process for landfill gas conditioning, which may be supposed to be more competitive than state-of-the-art technologies and summarises some lab-scale results. This catalytic process transforms harmful landfill gas minor compounds into products that can be easily removed from the gas stream by a subsequent adsorption step. The optimal process temperature was found to be in the range 250-400 °C. After a catalyst screening, two materials were identified, which have the ability to remove all harmful minor compounds from landfill gas. The first material was a commercial alumina that showed a high activity towards the removal of organic silicon compounds. The alumina protects both a subsequent catalyst for the removal of other organic minor compounds and the fuel cell. Due to gradual deactivation caused by silica deposition, the activated alumina needs to be periodically replaced. The second material was a commercial V 2O 5/TiO 2-based catalyst that exhibited a high activity for the total oxidation of a broad spectrum of other harmful organic minor compounds into a simpler compound class "acid gases (HCl, HF and SO 2)", which can be easily removed by absorption with, e.g. alkalised alumina. The encouraging results obtained allow the scale-up of this LFG conditioning process to test it under real LFG conditions.

  10. Facile synthesis of TiN decorated graphene and its enhanced catalytic effects on dehydrogenation performance of magnesium hydride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Li, Li; An, Cuihua; Wang, Yijing; Chen, Chengcheng; Jiao, Lifang; Yuan, Huatang

    2014-06-21

    TiN@rGO nanohybrids were successfully synthesized by a simple "urea glass" technique. Experimental results demonstrated that TiN nanocrystals, with an average particle size of 20 nm, were uniformly anchored onto highly reduced graphene nanosheets. The as-synthesized TiN@rGO nanohybrids showed a porous planar-like structure, which had a large surface area of 177 m(2) g(-1). More importantly, the as-prepared TiN@rGO hybrids showed enhanced catalytic effects on the dehydrogenation of MgH2. The dehydrogenation thermodynamics and kinetics of the MgH2-TiN@rGO composites were systematically investigated and some significant improvements were confirmed. It was found that the 10 wt% TiN@rGO doped MgH2 sample started to release hydrogen at about 167 °C, and roughly 6.0 wt% hydrogen was released within 18 min when isothermally heated to 300 °C. In contrast, the onset dehydrogenation temperature of the pure MgH2 sample was about 307 °C, and only 3.5 wt% hydrogen was released even after 120 min of heating under identical conditions. In addition, the catalytic mechanism of TiN@rGO on the dehydrogenation of MgH2 was discussed using the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (JMA) model and X-ray diffraction equipment. PMID:24817573

  11. The variation of cationic microstructure in Mn-doped spinel ferrite during calcination and its effect on formaldehyde catalytic oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiaoliang; Liu, Peng; He, Hongping; Wei, Gaoling; Chen, Tianhu; Tan, Wei; Tan, Fuding; Zhu, Jianxi; Zhu, Runliang

    2016-04-01

    In this study, a series of Mn substituted spinel ferrites calcinated at different temperatures were used as catalysts for the oxidation of formaldehyde (HCHO). X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and H2 temperature-programmed reduction were conducted to characterize the structure and physico-chemical properties of catalysts, which were affected by calcination in the range of 200-600°C. Results show that all the ferrites were with spinel structure, and those calcinated in the range of 300-600°C were in the phase of maghemite. The calcination changed the valence and distribution of Mn and Fe on the ferrite surface, and accordingly the reducibility of ferrites. The HCHO catalytic oxidation test showed that with the increase of calcination temperature, the activity was initially improved until 400°C, but then decreased. The variation of HCHO conversion performance was well positively correlated to the variation of reduction temperature of surface Mn(4+) species. The remarkable effect of calcination on the catalytic activity of Mn-doped spinel ferrites for HCHO oxidation was discussed in view of reaction mechanism and variations in cationic microstructure of Mn-doped ferrites. PMID:26774985

  12. Effect of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on fine particle emission from two coal-fired power plants in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Jiang, Jingkun; Ma, Zizhen; Wang, Shuxiao; Duan, Lei

    2015-11-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission abatement of coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) requires large-scaled installation of selective catalytic reduction (SCR), which would reduce secondary fine particulate matter (PM2.5) (by reducing nitrate aerosol) in the atmosphere. However, our field measurement of two CFPPs equipped with SCR indicates a significant increase of SO42- and NH4+ emission in primary PM2.5, due to catalytic enhancement of SO2 oxidation to SO3 and introducing of NH3 as reducing agent. The subsequent formation of (NH4)2SO4 or NH4HSO4 aerosol is commonly concentrated in sub-micrometer particulate matter (PM1) with a bimodal pattern. The measurement at the inlet of stack also showed doubled primary PM2.5 emission by SCR operation. This effect should therefore be considered when updating emission inventory of CFPPs. By rough estimation, the enhanced primary PM2.5 emission from CFPPs by SCR operation would offset 12% of the ambient PM2.5 concentration reduction in cities as the benefit of national NOx emission abatement, which should draw attention of policy-makers for air pollution control.

  13. Promoting Effect of CeO2 Addition on Activity and Catalytic Stability in Steam Reforming of Methane over Ni/Al2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen production by steam reforming of methane was studied over Ni catalysts supported on CeO2, Al2O3 and CeO2-Al2O3. These catalysts were prepared using the impregnation method and characterized by XRD. The effect of CeO2 promoter on the catalytic performance of Ni/Al2O3 catalyst for methane steam reforming reaction was investigated. In fact, CeO2 had a positive effect on the catalytic activity in this reaction. Experimental results demonstrated that Ni/CeO2-Al2O3 catalyst showed excellent catalytic activity and high reaction performance. In addition, the effects of reaction temperature and metal content on the conversion of CH4 and H2/CO ratio were also investigated. Results indicated that CH4 conversion increased significantly with the increase of the reaction temperature and metal content. (author)

  14. Catalytic activity of nanostructured Au: Scale effects versus bimetallic/bifunctional effects in low-temperature CO oxidation on nanoporous Au

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-Cun Wang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic properties of nanostructured Au and their physical origin were investigated by using the low-temperature CO oxidation as a test reaction. In order to distinguish between structural effects (structure–activity correlations and bimetallic/bifunctional effects, unsupported nanoporous gold (NPG samples prepared from different Au alloys (AuAg, AuCu by selective leaching of a less noble metal (Ag, Cu were employed, whose structure (surface area, ligament size as well as their residual amount of the second metal were systematically varied by applying different potentials for dealloying. The structural and chemical properties before and after 1000 min reaction were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The catalytic behavior was evaluated by kinetic measurements in a conventional microreactor and by dynamic measurements in a temporal analysis of products (TAP reactor. The data reveal a clear influence of the surface contents of residual Ag and Cu species on both O2 activation and catalytic activity, while correlations between activity and structural parameters such as surface area or ligament/crystallite size are less evident. Consequences for the mechanistic understanding and the role of the nanostructure in these NPG catalysts are discussed.

  15. The catalytic diversity of zeolites: confinement and solvation effects within voids of molecular dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gounder, Rajamani; Iglesia, Enrique

    2013-05-01

    The ability of molecular sieves to control the access and egress of certain reactants and products and to preferentially contain certain transition states while excluding others based on size were captured as shape selectivity concepts early in the history of zeolite catalysis. The marked consequences for reactivity and selectivity, specifically in acid catalysis, have since inspired and sustained many discoveries of novel silicate frameworks and driven the engineering of hierarchical structures and void size to influence catalysis. The catalytic diversity of microporous voids is explored and extended here in the context of their solvating environments, wherein voids act as hosts and stabilize guests, whether reactive intermediates or transition states, by van der Waals forces. We use specific examples from acid catalysis, including activation of C-C and C-H bonds in alkanes, alkylation and hydrogenation of alkenes, carbonylation of dimethyl ether, and elimination and homologation reactions of alkanols and ethers, which involve transition states and adsorbed precursors of varying size and composition. Mechanistic interpretations of measured turnover rates enable us to assign precise chemical origins to kinetic and thermodynamic constants in rate equations and, in turn, to identify specific steps and intermediates that determine the free energy differences responsible for chemical reactivity and selectivity. These free energy differences reflect the stabilization of transition states and their relevant precursors via electrostatic interactions that depend on acid strength and van der Waals interactions that depend on confinement within voids. Their respective contributions to activation free energies are examined by Born-Haber thermochemical cycles by considering plausible transition states and the relevant precursors. These examples show that zeolite voids solvate transition states and precursors differently, and markedly so for guest moieties of different size and

  16. Catalytic behavior and synergistic effect of nanostructured mesoporous CuO-MnOx-CeO2 catalysts for chlorobenzene destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chi; Yu, Yanke; Shen, Qun; Chen, Jinsheng; Qiao, Nanli

    2014-04-01

    Mesoporous CuO-MnOx-CeO2 composite metal oxides with different copper and manganese loadings were prepared by a urea-assistant hydrothermal method, and were further adopted for the complete catalytic combustion of chlorobenzene. The effects of reaction conditions such as inlet reagent concentration and water feed concentration on chlorobenzene combustion were also studied. The structure and textural properties of the synthesized catalysts were characterized via the XRD, N2 adsorption/desorption, FE-SEM, TEM, H2-TPR, O2-TPD, and XPS techniques. The characterization results reveal that the presence of a small amount of Mn species can facilitate the incorporation of Cu and Mn ions into ceria lattice to form Cu-Mn-Ce-O solid solution. The synergistic effect of Cu and Mn species can reduce the redox potential of the composite catalysts, and produce large amounts of oxygen vacancies in the interface of CuOx, MnOx, and CeO2 oxides. The catalyst with Cu/Mn atomic ratio of 1/1 exhibits the best chlorobenzene elimination capability, oxidizing about 95% of the inlet chlorobenzene at 264 °C with CO2 selectivity higher than 99.5%. The concentration and mobility of the chemically adsorbed oxygen are vital for the effective removal of surface Cl species, which inhibits the dissociation of oxygen molecules and decreases the reducibility of the copper and manganese species. It can be rationally concluded that the superior catalytic performance and durability of the mesoporous CuO-MnOx-CeO2 composite oxides are primarily attributed to the higher surface oxygen concentration and better active oxygen mobility.

  17. Production of natural antioxidants from vegetable oil deodorizer distillates: effect of catalytic hydrogenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, María Ayelén; Baltanás, Miguel A

    2010-02-01

    Natural tocopherols are one of the main types of antioxidants found in living creatures, but they also have other critical biological functions. The biopotency of natural (+)-alpha-tocopherol (RRR) is 36% higher than that of the synthetic racemic mixture and 300% higher than the SRR stereoisomer. Vegetable oil deodorizer distillates (DD) are an excellent source of natural tocopherols. Catalytic hydrogenation of DD preconcentrates has been suggested as a feasible route for recovery of tocopherols in high yield. However, it is important to know whether the hydrogenation operation, as applied to these tocopherol-rich mixtures, is capable of preserving the chiral (RRR) character, which is critical to its biopotency. Fortified (i.e., (+)-alpha-tocopherol enriched) sunflower oil and methyl stearate, as well as sunflower oil DD, were fully hydrogenated using commercial Ni and Pd catalysts (120-180 degrees C; 20-60 psig). Products were analyzed by chiral HPLC. Results show that the desired chiral configuration (RRR) is fully retained. Thus, the hydrogenation route can be safely considered as a valid alternative for increasing the efficiency of tocopherol recovery processes from DDs while preserving their natural characteristics.

  18. Effect of Carbon Sources on the Catalytic Performance of Ni/β-Mo2C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Li-Zhen; Zhao, Shao-Fei; Li, Wei-Shan

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, Ni/β-Mo2C(S) and Ni/β-Mo2C(G) were prepared from solution-derived precursor with two different carbon sources (starch and glucose) and tested as anodic noble-metal-free catalysts in air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The carburized catalyst samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET). The activity of the electrocatalyst towards the oxidation of several common microbial fermentation products (formate, lactate, and ethanol) was studied for MFC based on Klebsiella pneumoniae conditions. The composite MFC anodes were fabricated, and their catalytic behavior was investigated. With different carbon sources, the crystalline structure does not change and the crystallinity and surface area increase. The electrocatalytic experiments show that the Ni/β-Mo2C(G) gives the better bio- and electrocatalytic performance than Ni/β-Mo2C(S) due to its higher crystallinity and BET surface area.

  19. A review on the performance of glycerol carbonate production via catalytic transesterification: Effects of influencing parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Utilization of glycerol to synthesize glycerol carbonate through various routes. • Different types of carbonates and catalysts used for glycerol carbonate production via transesterification are elucidated. • Important factors influencing glycerol carbonate production performances are detailed. • Future research needs of glycerol carbonate production are proposed. - Abstract: Driven by high energy demand and environmental concerns, biodiesel as a substitute for fossil fuels is recognized to be promising renewable and clean energy. The increase in the biodiesel plant dramatically leads to the oversupply of its by-product glycerol in the biodiesel industries. Developing new industrial uses for glycerol is essential to increase the net energy and sustainability of biodiesel. Moreover, glycerol has great potential to be converted into marketable and valuable chemicals. The conversion of glycerol to glycerol carbonate (GC) has been extensively studied and transesterification of glycerol to GC has been proven to be the most promising route. Aimed to reveal the underlying mechanism of this successful conversion path, this paper reviews the chemo- and biocatalytic transesterification of glycerol with different carbonates sources. Also, a detail elucidation of the influence of the catalysts and operating conditions on the GC yield is included to provide an insight into the process. In addition, the future direction of glycerol carbonate production via catalytic transesterification is provided in this review

  20. Spectrophotometric reaction rate method for the determination of osmium by its catalytic effect on the oxidation of gallocyanine by bromate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensafi, A A; Shamss-E-Sollari, E

    1994-10-01

    A simple kinetic spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of osmium. The method is based on the catalytic effect of osmium as osmium tetroxide on the oxidation of gallocyanine by bromate at pH 7. The reaction is monitored spectrophotometrically by measuring the decreasing absorbance of gallocyanine at 620 nm by the fixed-time method. A detection limit of 0.01 ng/ml and linear calibration curve from 0.1 to 100 and from 100 to 1200 ng/ml Os(VIII) is reported. The relative standard deviation for 0.0100 microg/ml Os(VIII) is 0.8% (N = 10). The method is free from most interferences. Osmium in synthetic samples is determined by this method, with satisfactory results. PMID:18966116

  1. Effect of Transition Metals on Catalytic Performance of Ru/Sepiolite Catalyst for Methanation of Carbon Dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laitao Luo; Songjun Li

    2004-01-01

    The effects of Mo, Mn and Zr transitional metals on the catalytic performance of Ru/sepiolite for CO2 methanation were investigated. The results indicated that addition of the transitional metals affected the activity of the Ru/sepiolite remarkably, and the activities of the catalysts were closely associated with the electronic state of the ruthenium surface. The addition of Mo increased the active surface area, the Ru dispersity, the number of active sites, and the resistance to poisoning. According to the Transition State Theory, when Mo is added into the Ru/sepiolite catalyst, the decrease in surface energy is at a cost of an increment in steric hindrance. When T ≤674 K, the energy factor was dominating, and resulted in a decreasing in the ratio of S(CH4)/S(CO). Otherwise, the steric factor dominated the reaction course.

  2. Effects of applied radio frequency power on low-temperature catalytic-free nanostructured carbon nitride films by rf PECVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritikos, Richard; Othman, Maisara; Abdul Rahman, Saadah

    2016-06-01

    Low-temperature catalytic-free carbon nitride, CN x nanostructured thin films were produced by using radio frequency (rf) plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition employing a parallel-plate electrode configuration. The effects of varying applied rf power, P rf (30-100 W), on the formation of these structures were studied. Aligned nanostructured CN x films were produced at P rf as low as 40 W, but uniform highly vertical-aligned CN x nanorods were produced at P rf of 60 and 80 W. This was induced by the presence of high ion bombardment on the growing films and the preferential bonding of isonitrile to aromatic bonds in the nanostructures. It was also observed that nitrogen incorporation is highest in this range and the structure and bonding in the nanostructure reflects those of typical polymeric/amorphous carbon nitride films.

  3. Promotional effect of CO pretreatment on CuO/CeO2 catalyst for catalytic reduction of NO by CO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾贤睿; 李昊; 刘礼晨; 汤常金; 高飞; 董林

    2014-01-01

    The CuO/CeO2 catalysts were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS), X-ray photoelectronic spectroscopy (XPS), temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and NO+CO reaction. The results revealed that the low temperature (<150 °C) catalytic performances were enhanced for CO pretreated samples. During CO pretreatment, the surface Cu+/Cu0 and oxygen vacancies on ceria surface were present. The low va-lence copper species activated the adsorbed CO and surface oxygen vacancies facilitated the NO dissociation. These effects in turn led to higher activities of CuO/CeO2 for NO reduction. The current study provided helpful understandings of active sites and reaction mechanism in NO+CO reaction.

  4. Flow Injection Determination of Oxalate Based on Its Catalytic Effect on the Oxidation of p-Chloride Aniline by Dichromate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In a sulfuric acid medium, oxalate exhibits a strong catalytic effect on the oxidation of p-chloride aniline (ClBN) by dichromate, and the red oxidation product of ClBN has a maximum absorbancy at 520 nm. Based on this founding, a new FI method for determining oxalate was developed. A calibration curve of oxalate in the range of 0. 40-17.0 tg/mL was obtained. The detection limit was 0. 10 μg/mL. Sampling rate was 103-samples/h. The possible interference by the co-existing substances or ions was examined. This new method was applied to the determination of micro amounts of oxalate in real samples with satisfactory results.

  5. Effects of hydrophobic carrier and packing on the mass transfer capabilities in hydrogen-water liquid phase catalytic exchange bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen-water liquid phase catalytic exchange bed was packed with 'sandwich' layers of the catalyst and the packing, and the effects of catalyst carrier, inert packing and their filled ratio on the overall mass transfer coefficient (Kya) were investigated experimentally. The results show that C-PTFE is suitable for hydrophobic catalyst. Kya of the bed with catalyst-stainless steel mini-spiral packing is better than that with stainless steel θ-packing, and the active Al2O3 is not suitable for the exchange bed. Moreover, if the stainless steel mini-spiral packing is etched in aqua regia, the operating flexibility and overall mass transfer capability of exchange bed are improved notably. The preferable packing ratio (catalyst/packing) is 1:4. (authors)

  6. Effect of hydrogen combustion reaction on the dehydrogenation of ethane in a fixed-bed catalytic membrane reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masoud Hasany; Mohammad Malakootikhah; Vahid Rahmanian; Soheila Yaghmaei

    2015-01-01

    A two-dimensional non-isothermal mathematical model has been developed for the ethane dehydrogenation reaction in a fixed-bed catalytic membrane reactor. Since ethane dehydrogenation is an equilibrium reaction, removal of produced hydrogen by the membrane shifts the thermodynamic equilibrium to ethylene production. For further displacement of the dehydrogenation reaction, oxidative dehydrogenation method has been used. Since ethane dehydrogenation is an endothermic reaction, the energy produced by the oxidative dehydrogena-tion method is consumed by the dehydrogenation reaction. The results show that the oxidative dehydrogenation method generated a substantial improvement in the reactor performance in terms of high conversions and significant energy saving. It was also established that the sweep gas velocity in the shell side of the reactor is one of the most important factors in the effectiveness of the reactor.

  7. Catalytic Combustion of Gasified Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusar, Henrik

    2003-09-01

    This thesis concerns catalytic combustion for gas turbine application using a low heating-value (LHV) gas, derived from gasified waste. The main research in catalytic combustion focuses on methane as fuel, but an increasing interest is directed towards catalytic combustion of LHV fuels. This thesis shows that it is possible to catalytically combust a LHV gas and to oxidize fuel-bound nitrogen (NH{sub 3}) directly into N{sub 2} without forming NO{sub x} The first part of the thesis gives a background to the system. It defines waste, shortly describes gasification and more thoroughly catalytic combustion. The second part of the present thesis, paper I, concerns the development and testing of potential catalysts for catalytic combustion of LHV gases. The objective of this work was to investigate the possibility to use a stable metal oxide instead of noble metals as ignition catalyst and at the same time reduce the formation of NO{sub x} In paper II pilot-scale tests were carried out to prove the potential of catalytic combustion using real gasified waste and to compare with the results obtained in laboratory scale using a synthetic gas simulating gasified waste. In paper III, selective catalytic oxidation for decreasing the NO{sub x} formation from fuel-bound nitrogen was examined using two different approaches: fuel-lean and fuel-rich conditions. Finally, the last part of the thesis deals with deactivation of catalysts. The various deactivation processes which may affect high-temperature catalytic combustion are reviewed in paper IV. In paper V the poisoning effect of low amounts of sulfur was studied; various metal oxides as well as supported palladium and platinum catalysts were used as catalysts for combustion of a synthetic gas. In conclusion, with the results obtained in this thesis it would be possible to compose a working catalytic system for gas turbine application using a LHV gas.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of amoxicillin derived silver nanoparticles: Its catalytic effect on degradation of some pharmaceutical antibiotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junejo, Y. [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh Jamshoro, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Department of Chemistry, Fatih University, Buyukcekmece, 34500 Istanbul (Turkey); Güner, A., E-mail: aguner@fatih.edu.tr [Department of Biology, Fatih University, Buyukcekmece, 34500 Istanbul (Turkey); Baykal, A. [Department of Chemistry, Fatih University, Buyukcekmece, 34500 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2014-10-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Amp-Ag (0) NPs were prepared by simple one-pot chemical reduction method. • Ampicillin as an antibiotic was used as both reducing and capping agents in this study. • Amp-Ag (0) NPs have proved as the remarkably efficient catalysts with enhanced rate of reduction for cefdinir, cefditoren, cefixime, ceftriaxone sodium and doxycycline. • Amp-Ag (0) NPs were showed excellent catalytic activity as catalyst for the 100% reduction of these antibiotics. - Abstract: We synthesized novel amoxicillin derived silver nanoparticles (Amp-Ag (0) NPs) in aqueous solution by one-pot simple synthetic method by reducing silver nitrate by the help of amoxicillin antibiotic as a reducing/capping agent and NaOH as the catalyst for reaction enhancement. The formation of the Amp-Ag (0) NPs was monitored using UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy which confirmed the formation of Amp-Ag (0) NPs by exciting the typical surface plasmon absorption maxima at 404 nm. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed the spherical morphology and monodispersed Amp-Ag (0) NPs with particle size 6.87 ± 2.2 nm. The antibacterial activities of the antibiotics were evaluated against Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive bacteria Streptococcus pneumonia, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus by the disk diffusion method. Whereas standard antibiotics showed normal zone of inhibition, the reduced ones with Amp-Ag (0) NPs showed no inhibition zone. The antimicrobial results therefore reveal that newly synthesized Amp-Ag (0) NPs had an excellent catalytic activity as catalyst for the 100% reduction of antibiotics i.e. cefdinir, cefditoren, cefiximee, ceftriaxone sodium and doxycycline, which was carried out in just 2–5 min. They were recovered easily from reaction medium and reused with enhanced catalytic potential five times. Based upon these results it has been concluded that Amp-Ag (0) NPs

  9. Synthesis and characterization of amoxicillin derived silver nanoparticles: Its catalytic effect on degradation of some pharmaceutical antibiotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Amp-Ag (0) NPs were prepared by simple one-pot chemical reduction method. • Ampicillin as an antibiotic was used as both reducing and capping agents in this study. • Amp-Ag (0) NPs have proved as the remarkably efficient catalysts with enhanced rate of reduction for cefdinir, cefditoren, cefixime, ceftriaxone sodium and doxycycline. • Amp-Ag (0) NPs were showed excellent catalytic activity as catalyst for the 100% reduction of these antibiotics. - Abstract: We synthesized novel amoxicillin derived silver nanoparticles (Amp-Ag (0) NPs) in aqueous solution by one-pot simple synthetic method by reducing silver nitrate by the help of amoxicillin antibiotic as a reducing/capping agent and NaOH as the catalyst for reaction enhancement. The formation of the Amp-Ag (0) NPs was monitored using UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy which confirmed the formation of Amp-Ag (0) NPs by exciting the typical surface plasmon absorption maxima at 404 nm. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed the spherical morphology and monodispersed Amp-Ag (0) NPs with particle size 6.87 ± 2.2 nm. The antibacterial activities of the antibiotics were evaluated against Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive bacteria Streptococcus pneumonia, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus by the disk diffusion method. Whereas standard antibiotics showed normal zone of inhibition, the reduced ones with Amp-Ag (0) NPs showed no inhibition zone. The antimicrobial results therefore reveal that newly synthesized Amp-Ag (0) NPs had an excellent catalytic activity as catalyst for the 100% reduction of antibiotics i.e. cefdinir, cefditoren, cefiximee, ceftriaxone sodium and doxycycline, which was carried out in just 2–5 min. They were recovered easily from reaction medium and reused with enhanced catalytic potential five times. Based upon these results it has been concluded that Amp-Ag (0) NPs

  10. Effect of Sb Segregation on Conductance and Catalytic Activity at Pt/Sb-Doped SnO2 Interface: A Synergetic Computational and Experimental Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Qiang; Colmenares Rausseo, Luis César; Martinez, Umberto;

    2015-01-01

    combined computational and experimental study. It was found that Sb-dopant atoms prefer to segregate toward the ATO/Pt interface. The deposited Pt catalysts, interestingly, not only promote Sb segregation, but also suppress the occurrence of Sb3+ species, a charge carrier neutralizer at the interface. The...... addition, the calculation results show that the presence of Sb dopants in ATO has little effect on the catalytic activity of deposited three-layer Pt toward the oxygen reduction reaction, although subsequent alloying of Pt and Sb could lower the corresponding catalytic activity. These findings help to...

  11. Synthesis and characterization of amoxicillin derived silver nanoparticles: Its catalytic effect on degradation of some pharmaceutical antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junejo, Y.; Güner, A.; Baykal, A.

    2014-10-01

    We synthesized novel amoxicillin derived silver nanoparticles (Amp-Ag (0) NPs) in aqueous solution by one-pot simple synthetic method by reducing silver nitrate by the help of amoxicillin antibiotic as a reducing/capping agent and NaOH as the catalyst for reaction enhancement. The formation of the Amp-Ag (0) NPs was monitored using UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy which confirmed the formation of Amp-Ag (0) NPs by exciting the typical surface plasmon absorption maxima at 404 nm. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed the spherical morphology and monodispersed Amp-Ag (0) NPs with particle size 6.87 ± 2.2 nm. The antibacterial activities of the antibiotics were evaluated against Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive bacteria Streptococcus pneumonia, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus by the disk diffusion method. Whereas standard antibiotics showed normal zone of inhibition, the reduced ones with Amp-Ag (0) NPs showed no inhibition zone. The antimicrobial results therefore reveal that newly synthesized Amp-Ag (0) NPs had an excellent catalytic activity as catalyst for the 100% reduction of antibiotics i.e. cefdinir, cefditoren, cefiximee, ceftriaxone sodium and doxycycline, which was carried out in just 2-5 min. They were recovered easily from reaction medium and reused with enhanced catalytic potential five times. Based upon these results it has been concluded that Amp-Ag (0) NPs are novel, rapid, and highly cost-effective for environmental safety against pollution by antibiotics in wastewater and extendable for control of other reducible contaminants as well.

  12. PILOT-SCALE STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION CATALYST ON MERCURY SPECIATION IN ILLINOIS AND POWDER RIVER BASIN COAL COMBUSTION FLUE GASES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst on mercury (Hg) speciation in bituminous and subbituminous coal combustion flue gases. Three different Illinois Basin bituminous coals (from high to low sulfur and chlorine) and one Po...

  13. A catalytic cracking process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degnan, T.F.; Helton, T.E.

    1995-07-20

    Heavy oils are subjected to catalytic cracking in the absence of added hydrogen using a catalyst containing a zeolite having the structure of ZSM-12 and a large-pore crystalline zeolite having a Constraint Index less than about 1. The process is able to effect a bulk conversion of the oil at the same time yielding a higher octane gasoline and increased light olefin content. (author)

  14. Effect of process parameters and injector position on the efficiency of NOx reduction by selective non catalytic reduction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental investigation has been performed to study the effect of atomizer pressure dilution of the reducing reagent and the injector position on the efficiency or the NOx reduction by a selective non-catalytic reduction technique using urea as a reducing agent. Experiments were performed with a flow reactor in which flue gas was generated by the combustion of methane in air at stoichiometric amount of oxygen and the desired levels of initial NOx (400-450 ppm) were achieved by doping the flame with ammonia. The work was directed to investigate the effect of atomizer pressure, dilution of urea reagent and the injector position. The atomizer pressure was varied from 1 to 3bar and 20-25% increase in efficiency was observed by decreasing the pressure. Effect of dilution of urea solution was investigated by varying the strength of the solution from the 8 to 32% and 40-45% increase in the efficiency was observed. Effects of injector position was investigated by injecting the urea solution both in co current and counter current direction of the flue gases and 20-25% increase in the efficiency was observed in counter current direction. (author)

  15. Bio-Diesel production and Effect of Catalytic Converter on Emission performance with Bio-Diesel Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Murali Manohar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Bio-Diesel the word itself defines almost all the features of the Bio-Diesel literary. In the Era of this Global Warming where the people are making their living more and more comfortable and they are deteriorating the environment also. The uses of the automobiles with the conventional source of fuel leads to the production of the toxic gaseous substances like carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, oxide of sulphur, hydro-carbons etc. The limitation comes with the rise in the price of the fuel as well as the produce of the green house gases as the exhaust gas. In the present study, a new method has been employed to produce Bio-Diesel in a homely basis. Theproduction of the Bio-Diesel is done by using Bio-Diesel processor. It requires the used vegetable oil, methanol and the lye with the accurate proportionate. Generally, emissions of regulated compounds changed linearly with the blend level. The objective is to detect any posit ive or negative effects depending on blend levels, because conventional diesel fuel and biodiesel can be blended in every ratio. The known positive and negative effects of biodiesel varied accordingly and investigate the effect of Catalytic Converter on emission performance with Bio- Diesel Blends.

  16. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. Technical progress report, October 1991--December 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, C.; Saini, A.; Huang, L.; Wenzel, K.; Hatcher, P.G.; Schobert, H.H.

    1992-01-01

    Low-temperature catalytic pretreatment is a promising approach to the development of an improved liquefaction process. This work is a fundamental study on effects of pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. The main objectives of this project are to study the coal structural changes induced by low-temperature catalytic and thermal pretreatments by using spectroscopic techniques; and to clarify the pretreatment-induced changes in reactivity or convertibility of coals in the subsequent liquefaction. This report describes the progress of our work during the first quarterly period. Substantial progress has been made in the spectroscopic characterization of fresh and THF-extracted samples of two subbituminous coals and fresh samples of three bituminous coals using cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) solid state {sup 13}C NMR and pyrolysis-GC-MS techniques. CPMAS {sup 13}C NMR and pyrolysis-GC-MS provided important information on carbon distribution/functionality and molecular components/structural units, respectively, for these coal samples. Pyrolysis-GC-MS revealed that there are remarkable structural differences in structural units between the subbituminous coals and the bituminous coals. Furthermore, significant progress has been made in the pretreatments and spectroscopic characterization of catalytically and thermally pretreated as well as physically treated Wyodak subbituminous coal, and temperature-staged and temperature-programmed thermal and catalytic liquefaction of a Montana subbituminous coal.

  17. Cooperative effect by monopodal silica-supported niobium com-plexes pairs enhancing catalytic cyclic carbonate production

    KAUST Repository

    D'Elia, Valerio

    2015-05-07

    Recent discoveries highlighted the activity and the intriguing mechanistic features of NbCl5 as a molecular catalyst for the cycloaddition of CO2 and epoxides under ambient conditions. This has inspired the preparation of novel silica supported Nb-species by reacting a molecular niobium precursor [NbCl5•OEt2] with silica dehydroxylated at 700 °C (SiO2-700) or at 200 oC (SiO2-200) to generate diverse surface complexes. The product of the reaction between SiO2-700 and [NbCl5•OEt2] was identified as a monopodal supported surface species [≡SiONbCl4•OEt2] (1a). The reactions of SiO2-200 with the niobium precursor, according to two different protocols, generated surface complexes 2a and 3a presenting significant, but different, populations of the monopodal surface complex along with bipodal [(≡SiO)2NbCl3•OEt2]. 93Nb SSNMR spectra of 1a-3a and 31P SSNMR on their PMe3 derivatives (1b-3b) led to the unambiguous assignment of 1a as a single site, monopodal Nb-species while 2a and 3a were found to present two distinct surface-supported components, with 2a being mostly monopodal [≡SiONbCl4•OEt2] and 3a being mostly bipodal [≡S ONbCl3•OEt2]. Double-quantum/single-quantum 31P NMR correlation experiment carried out on 2b supported the existence of vicinal Nb centers on the silica surface for this species. 1a-3a were active heterogeneous catalysts for the synthesis of propylene carbonate from CO2 and propylene oxide under mild catalytic conditions; the performance of 2a was found to significantly surpass that of 1a and 3a. With the support of a systematic DFT study carried out on model silica surfaces, the observed differences in catalytic efficiency were correlated with an unprece-dented cooperative effect between two neighboring Nb centers on the surface of 2a. This is in an excellent agreement with our previous discoveries regarding the mechanism of the NbCl5 catalyzed cycloaddition in the homogeneous phase.

  18. Promoting effect of Ir on the catalytic property of Ru/ZnO catalysts for selective hydrogenation of crotonaldehyde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of ZnO supported Ru–Ir bimetal catalysts were prepared and tested for vapor-phase selective hydrogenation of crotonaldehyde. The addition of Ir could effectively promote the catalytic performance, especially the catalyst stability. A Ru–0.5Ir/ZnO catalyst showed the highest activity (a conversion of 63.3%) and selectivity to crotyl alcohol (94.4%) after 30 h reaction. The enhanced stability was attributed to the modified electronic property of Ru by the formation of RuIr alloy as the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results showed charge transfer from Ru to Ir, as well as the weakened surface acidity in the Ru–Ir/ZnO catalyst as evidenced by NH3 temperature-programmed desorption technique. Besides, the deactivation of the catalysts was due to the strong chemisorption of CO on the metal surface via decarbonylation reaction and deposition of organic compounds on the catalyst surface, which was characterized by CO poisoning experiment, CO temperature-programmed desorption and temperature-programmed oxidation methods.

  19. Catalytic conversion of biomass-derived feedstocks into olefins and aromatics with ZSM-5: the hydrogen to carbon effective ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Huiyan; Cheng, Yu-Ting; Vispute, Tushar; Xiao, R; Huber, George W.

    2011-01-01

    Catalytic conversion of ten biomass-derived feedstocks, i.e.glucose, sorbitol, glycerol, tetrahydrofuran, methanol and different hydrogenated bio-oil fractions, with different hydrogen to carbon effective (H/C{sub eff}) ratios was conducted in a gas-phase flow fixed-bed reactor with a ZSM-5 catalyst. The aromatic + olefin yield increases and the coke yield decreases with increasing H/C{sub eff} ratio of the feed. There is an inflection point at a H/C{sub eff} ratio = 1.2, where the aromatic + olefin yield does not increase as rapidly as it does prior to this point. The ratio of olefins to aromatics also increases with increasing H/C{sub eff} ratio. CO and CO₂ yields go through a maximum with increasing H/C{sub eff} ratio. The deactivation rate of the catalyst decreases significantly with increasing H/C{sub eff} ratio. Coke was formed from both homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) for the ten feedstocks showed that the formation of coke from homogeneous reactions decreases with increasing H/C{sub eff} ratio. Feedstocks with a H/C{sub eff} ratio less than 0.15 produce large amounts of undesired coke (more than 12 wt%) from homogeneous decomposition reactions. This paper shows that the conversion of biomass-derived feedstocks into aromatics and olefins using zeolite catalysts can be explained by the H/C{sub eff} ratio of the feed.

  20. On the Catalytic Effect of Water in the Intramolecular Diels–Alder Reaction of Quinone Systems: A Theoretical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Soto-Delgado

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of the intramolecular Diels–Alder (IMDA reaction of benzoquinone 1, in the absence and in the presence of three water molecules, 1w, has been studied by means of density functional theory (DFT methods, using the M05-2X and B3LYP functionals for exploration of the potential energy surface (PES. The energy and geometrical results obtained are complemented with a population analysis using the NBO method, and an analysis based on the global, local and group electrophilicity and nucleophilicity indices. Both implicit and explicit solvation emphasize the increase of the polarity of the reaction and the reduction of activation free energies associated with the transition states (TSs of this IMDA process. These results are reinforced by the analysis of the reactivity indices derived from the conceptual DFT, which show that the increase of the electrophilicity of the quinone framework by the hydrogen-bond formation correctly explains the high polar character of this intramolecular process. Large polarization at the TSs promoted by hydrogen-bonds and implicit solvation by water together with a high electrophilicity-nucleophilicity difference consistently explains the catalytic effects of water molecules.

  1. Effects of inert species in the gas phase in a model for the catalytic oxidation of CO

    CERN Document Server

    Buendia, G M

    2011-01-01

    We study by kinetic Monte Carlo simulations the catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide on a surface in the presence of contaminants in the gas phase. The process is simulated by a Ziff-Gulari-Barshad (ZGB) model that has been modified to include the effect of the contaminants and to eliminate the unphysical oxygen-poisoned phase. The impurities can adsorb and desorb on the surface, but otherwise remain inert. We find that, if the impurities can not desorb, no matter how small their proportion in the gas mixture, the first order transition and the reactive window that characterize the ZGB model disappear. The coverages become continuous, and once the surface has reached a steady state there is no production of CO$_2$. This is quite different from the behavior of a system in which the surface presents a fixed percentage of impurities. When the contaminants are allowed to desorb, the reactive window appears again, and disappears at a value that depends on the proportion of contaminants in the gas and on their de...

  2. The effects of the catalytic converter and fuel sulfur level on motor vehicle particulate matter emissions: gasoline vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maricq, M Matti; Chase, Richard E; Xu, Ning; Podsiadlik, Diane H

    2002-01-15

    Scanning mobility and electrical low-pressure impactor particle size measurements conducted during chassis dynamometer testing reveal that neither the catalytic converter nor the fuel sulfur content has a significant effect on gasoline vehicle tailpipe particulate matter (PM) emissions. For current technology, port fuel injection, gasoline engines, particle number emissions are < or = 2 times higher from vehicles equipped with blank monoliths as compared to active catalysts, insignificant in contrast to the 90+% removal of hydrocarbons. PM mass emission rates derived from the size distributions are equal within the experimental uncertainty of 50-100%. Gravimetric measurements exhibit a 3-10-fold PM mass increase when the active catalyst is omitted, which is attributed to gaseous hydrocarbons adsorbing onto the filter medium. Both particle number and gravimetric measurements show that gasoline vehicle tailpipe PM emissions are independent (within 2 mg/mi) of fuel sulfur content over the 30-990 ppm concentration range. Nuclei mode sulfate aerosol is not observed in either test cell measurements or during wind tunnel testing. For three-way catalyst equipped vehicles, the principal sulfur emission is SO2; however a sulfur balance is not obtained over the drive cycle. Instead, sulfur is stored on the catalyst during moderate driving and then partially removed during high speed/load operation. PMID:11827063

  3. Physical and Electrical Characteristics of Carbon Nanotube Network Field-Effect Transistors Synthesized by Alcohol Catalytic Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Lung Cheng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs have been explored in nanoelectronics to realize desirable device performances. Thus, carbon nanotube network field-effect transistors (CNTNFETs have been developed directly by means of alcohol catalytic chemical vapor deposition (ACCVD method using Co-Mo catalysts in this work. Various treated temperatures, growth time, and Co/Mo catalysts were employed to explore various surface morphologies of carbon nanotube networks (CNTNs formed on the SiO2/n-type Si(100 stacked substrate. Experimental results show that most semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotube networks with 5–7 nm in diameter and low disorder-induced mode (D-band were grown. A bipolar property of CNTNFETs synthesized by ACCVD and using HfO2 as top-gate dielectric was demonstrated. Various electrical characteristics, including drain current versus drain voltage (Id-Vd, drain current versus gate voltage (Id-Vg, mobility, subthreshold slope (SS, and transconductance (Gm, were obtained.

  4. Effect of Surface Oxygen Containing Groups on the Catalytic Activity of Multi-walled Carbon Nanotube Supported Pt Catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    X Wang; N Li; J Webb; L Pfefferle; G Haller

    2011-12-31

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) supported platinum catalysts were employed to study the support functionalization on their catalytic performances. The MWNT were subjected to HNO{sub 3} functionalization, in which oxygen-containing-groups (OCGs) were introduced to improve Pt dispersion. The MWNT supports were characterized by nitrogen physisorption and NEXAFS, and the Pt supported on differently functionalized MWNT characterized by X-ray absorption, TEM and both hydrogen and CO chemisorption. Compared to the as received MWNT supports, Pt dispersion is improved on the HNO3 treated MWNT supports, but the turnover frequency (TOF) of aqueous phase reforming decreases by half. The TOF can be recovered by removing the OCGs via high temperature annealing. To further investigate the OCGs effect, different probe reactions, including both steam reforming and liquid phase reforming of hydrocarbon oxygenates and dehydrogenation of alkanes in the liquid and gas phases, have been performed on the MWNT supported catalysts with different OCGs. A comparison of these reaction results suggests that OCGs are only detrimental to reactions in a binary mixture with two components of different hydrophilicity due to their competitive adsorption on the catalyst supports.

  5. Kinetic spectrophotometric determination of Bi(III based on its catalytic effect on the oxidation of phenylfluorone by hydrogen peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOFIJA M. RANČIĆ

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A new reaction was suggested and a new kinetic method was elaborated for determination of Bi(III in solution, based on its catalytic effect on the oxidation of phenyl-fluorone (PF by hydrogen peroxide in ammonia buffer. By application of spectrophotometric technique, a limit of quantification (LQ of 128 ng cm-3 was reached, and the limit of detection (LD of 37 ng cm-3 was obtained, where LQ was defined as the ratio signal:noise = 10:1 and LD was defined as signal 3:1 against the blank. The RSD value was found to be in the range 2.8–4.8 % for the investigated concentration range of Bi(III. The influence of some ions upon the reaction rate was tested. The method was confirmed by determining Bi(III in a stomach ulcer drug (“Bicit HP”, Hemofarm A.D.. The obtained results were compared to those obtained by AAS and good agreement of results was obtained.

  6. Effect of Dimethyl Ether Co-feed on Catalytic Performance of Methane Dehydroaromatization over Mo/HZSM-5 Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huiying Chen; Yonggang Li; Wenjie Shen; Yide Xu; Xinhe Bao

    2004-01-01

    The effect of dimethyl ether (DME) co-feed on the catalytic performance of methane dehy droaromatization (MDA) over 6Mo/HZSM-5 catalyst was investigated as a function of DME concentration under reaction conditions of T=1023 K, p=101 kPa and SV=1500 ml/(g·h). A high benzene yield was obtained and the stability of the catalyst was improved by adding 1.5%DME to the CH4 feed. The C6H6 yield was as high as ca. 10% even after reaction for 6 h. The stability of the catalyst was further improved when DME concentration in the co-feed gas was increased to an appropriate value.TGA and TPO results of the used 6Mo/HZSM-5 catalyst showed that the amount of coke on the used catalyst was reduced and the chemical nature of the coke was changed. When 1.5%DME was added to the CH4 feed, the coke formed on the catalyst could be burned off more easily than that when only CH4 was used as reactant.It is supposed that the oxygen in DME may play a role in preventing the coke burnt off at lower temperature from transforming into the coke burnt off at higher temperature, which results in the improvement of the stability of the catalyst.

  7. Catalytic fast pyrolysis of pine wood: Effect of successive catalyst regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yildiz, Guray; Lathouwers, Tom; Toraman, Hilal Ezgi; Geem, van Kevin M.; Marin, Guy B.; Ronsse, Frederik; Duren, van Ruben; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Prins, Wolter

    2014-01-01

    The main product of biomass fast pyrolysis is a liquid mixture of numerous organic molecules with water that is usually called pyrolysis oil or bio-oil. The research discussed in this paper was meant (1) to validate a new, semicontinuously operated pyrolysis setup and (2) to investigate the effect o

  8. Simple relationships for estimating intraparticle transport effects for catalytically promoted endothermic reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.F.

    1998-06-16

    Relationships for estimating effectiveness factors for porous-solid-catalyzed fluid reactions can result from assuming approximations to temperature and concentration profiles. Approximations designed to simplify the outcome result in simple, explicit, analytic relationships for both isothermal and nonisothermal nth-order reaction systems. For isothermal systems, formulas developed predict effectiveness within 25% of the true isothermal effectiveness factors ({eta}`s) over the range 0.1 > {eta} > 0.99. For isothermal or endothermic reaction systems with {eta} > 0.65, errors are less than 10%. Even in the maximum-error region, estimates for endothermic systems are within a factor of two of those obtained by solution of the rigorous heat and mass transfer equations. For isothermal or endothermic systems with {eta} > 0.95, errors are less than 1%. Thus the formulas can also serve diagnostic uses that confirm presence or absence of significant internal heat or mass transport effects in porous reacting systems. Extension of the approach to non-nth-order reactions is possible; formulas are derived for simple isothermal and nonisothermal Langmuir-Hinshelwood reaction systems. Application of the work to exothermic reactions was not tested, but steeper gradients in such systems would tend to degrade accuracy of the relationships. The equations derived in this work are simpler and easier of application than any others proposed thus far.

  9. Effect of Phosphine Doping and the Surface Metal State of Ni on the Catalytic Performance of Ni/Al2O3 Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoru Li

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ni-based catalysts as replacement for noble metal catalysts are of particular interest in the catalytic conversion of biomass due to their cheap and satisfactory catalytic activity. The Ni/SiO2 catalyst has been studied for the hydrogenolysis of glycerol, and doping with phosphorus (P found to improve the catalytic performance significantly because of the formation of Ni2P alloys. However, in the present work we disclose a different catalytic phenomenon for the P-doped Ni/Al2O3 catalyst. We found that doping with P has a significant effect on the state of the active Ni species, and thus improves the selectivity to 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PDO significantly in the hydrogenolysis of glycerol, although Ni-P alloys were not observed in our catalytic system. The structure and selectivity correlations were determined from the experimental data, combining the results of X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, hydrogen temperature-programmed reduction (H2-TPR and ammonia temperature-programmed desorption (NH3-TPD. The presence of NiO species, formed from P-doped Ni/Al2O3 catalyst, was shown to benefit the formation of 1,2-PDO. This was supported by the results of the Ni/Al2O3 catalyst containing NiO species with incomplete reduction. Furthermore, the role the NiO species played in the reaction and the potential reaction mechanism over the P-doped Ni/Al2O3 catalyst is discussed. The new findings in the present work open a new vision for Ni catalysis and will benefit researchers in designing Ni-based catalysts.

  10. Diketopiperazine-mediated peptide formation in aqueous solution II. Catalytic effect of phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaoka, O.; Yamagata, Y.; Inomata, K.

    1991-05-01

    The previous paper (I) reported that DKP (glycine anhydride) spontaneously reacts with glycine (Gly) or oligoglycines (Gly n ) to produce longer oligoglycines (Gly n+2). This paper presents that phosphate catalyzes the condensation reaction quite effectively. Formation of Gly4 from DKP (0.1 M) and Gly2 (0.1 M) in phosphate solution of various concentrations was investigated at a neutral pH at 41 °C. The yields of Gly4 increased almost linearly with the concentration of phosphate from 0.06 M to 0.24 M. The yield in 0.24 M phosphate solution was approximately one hundred times as high as that in the absence of the phosphate, whereas in the case of Gly3 formation from DKP and Gly the effect of the phosphate was of ten times lower than in the former case. Orthophosphate was the most effective catalyst among the various kind of chemicals tried in the present investigation including polyphosphates.

  11. Effect of Catalytic Pyrolysis Conditions Using Pulse Current Heating Method on Pyrolysis Products of Wood Biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Sensho Honma; Toshimitsu Hata; Takashi Watanabe

    2014-01-01

    The influence of catalysts on the compositions of char and pyrolysis oil obtained by pyrolysis of wood biomass with pulse current heating was studied. The effects of catalysts on product compositions were analyzed using GC-MS and TEM. The compositions of some aromatic compounds changed noticeably when using a metal oxide species as the catalyst. The coexistence or dissolution of amorphous carbon and iron oxide was observed in char pyrolyzed at 800°C with Fe3O4. Pyrolysis oil compositions chan...

  12. Effects of external global noise on the catalytic CO oxidation on Pt(110).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodega, P S; Alonso, S; Rotermund, H H

    2009-02-28

    Oxidation reaction of CO on a single platinum crystal is a reaction-diffusion system that may exhibit bistable, excitable, and oscillatory behavior. We studied the effect of a stochastic signal artificially introduced into the system through the partial pressure of CO. First, the external signal is employed as a turbulence suppression tool, and second, it modifies the boundaries in the bistable transition between the CO and oxygen covered phases. Experiments using photoemission electron microscopy together with numerical simulations performed with the Krischer-Eiswirth-Ertl model are presented. PMID:19256616

  13. [Effect of inorganic ions on degradation of trace nitrobenzene in aqueous solution by catalytic ozonation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Ma, Jun; Sun, Zhi-zhong

    2006-05-01

    The experiment investigated the effects of general inorganic ions in natural source water on the three processes of ozonation alone, ceramic honeycomb and modified ceramic honeycomb-catalyzed ozonation for degradation of trace nitrobenzene in aqueous solution. The removal rate of ozonation alone and modified ceramic honeycomb-catalyzed ozonation increased by 5.0% and 8.6% with the increase of the concentration of calcium ion (0-4 mg x L(-1)), and that of ceramic honeycomb-catalyzed ozonation reached the climax at the concentration of calcium ion 0.5 mg x L(-1) under the same experimental condition. The degradation efficiency of ozonation alone, ceramic honeycomb and modified ceramic honeycomb-catalyzed ozonation enhanced by 10.9%, 11.6% and 9.6% with the increase of the concentration of manganese ion (0-4 mg x L(-1)), respectively, and decreased by 8.6%, 11.5% and 8.9% with the increase of the concentration of bicarbonate ion (0-200 mg x L(-1)). The concentration of nitrate and sulfate ion had no remarkable effect on ozonation alone, but the removal rate of other two processes decreased with the increase of the concentration of nitrate and sulfate ion.

  14. Ferroelectric polarization effect on surface chemistry and photo-catalytic activity: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. A.; Nadeem, M. A.; Idriss, H.

    2016-03-01

    The current efficiency of various photocatalytic processes is limited by the recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pairs in the photocatalyst as well as the back-reaction of intermediate species. This review concentrates on the use of ferroelectric polarization to mitigate electron-hole recombination and back-reactions and therefore improve photochemical reactivity. Ferroelectric materials are considered as wide band gap polarizable semiconductors. Depending on the surface polarization, different regions of the surface experience different extents of band bending and promote different carriers to move to spatially different locations. This can lead to some interesting interactions at the surface such as spatially selective adsorption and surface redox reactions. This introductory review covers the fundamental properties of ferroelectric materials, effect of an internal electric field/polarization on charge carrier separation, effect of the polarization on the surface photochemistry and reviews the work done on the use of these ferroelectric materials for photocatalytic applications such as dye degradation and water splitting. The manipulation of photogenerated charge carriers through an internal electric field/surface polarization is a promising strategy for the design of improved photocatalysts.

  15. Effects of sol-gel method and lanthanum addition on catalytic performances of nickel-based catalysts for methane reforming with carbon dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiancai; HU Quanhong; YANG Yifeng; CHEN Juanrong; LAI Zhihua

    2008-01-01

    The nickel-based catalysts were prepared by the sol-gel method and used for the CH4 reforming with CO2. The effects of the sol-gel method on the specific surface area, catalytic activity, desorption, and reduction performances of catalysts were investigated with BET, TPR, and TPD. Compared with the catalyst prepared by the impregnation method, the results indicated that the catalysts prepared by the sol-gel method had larger specific surface area, showing higher catalytic activities and exhibiting perfect desorption and reduction per-formances. In addition, the modification effects of adding La were studied, and it was found that the 0.75NLBT catalyst constituted of 5wt.%Ni-0.75wt.%La was optimal.

  16. Radiochemical methods and spectroscopical analyses for investigating the catalytic effects of 2-methyltetrahydro-anthraquinone and phenanthraquinone in wood pulp production using the soda additive method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studies were to show whether 2-methyltetrahydroanthraquinone or phenanthraquinone, two additives obtainable at low cost, will have a suitable catalytic effect on the delignification using the soda additive pulping method. For this purpose, soda cookings have been made in a 7 l rotary autoclave. The results have shown that 2-MeTHAQ is by far the better catalytic agent. Further experiments have been made to investigate the mode of action of the redox additives, intended to reveal further characteristics which can be correlated with the knowledge obtained from the preceding soda cookings. The analysis shows that there is a connection between the analytical lignin characteristics and the effectiveness of quinoid additives. (orig./PW)

  17. Effect of surface state properties of modified TiO2 powders on their photo-catalytic activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李芳柏; 李新军; 李湘中; 侯梅芳; 王良焱

    2002-01-01

    With an attempt to investigate the effect of gold impurity and tungsten oxide on the recombination and separation of electron-hole pairs, and disclose the effect of surface state on the photo-catalytic activity of TiO2, an innovative photo- catalyst 3%WO3/0.5%Au3+/TiO2 was prepared by means of sol-gel method. The photo- oxidation efficiency of photo-catalyst was evaluated by conducting a set of experiments to photo-degrade methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution. The surf ace state properties were examined by means of surface photovoltage spectra (SPS ) and electron-field-induced SPS (EFISPS). The experiments demonstrate that the strongest peak is attributed to electron excited from valence band to conduction band and the second strongest peak is attributed to electron excited from valence band to oxygen molecular for all samples. Electron is trapped by O2 absorbed o n the surface of TiO2. And the surface state of O-2 forms. For (1%, 3%)Au 3+/TiO2 sample, two new peaks that significantly present at 414 nm and 400 nm respectively s hould be attributable to gold impurity energy level. And for tungsten oxides doping samples, 4 peaks that significantly present in the region of 500~800 nm should be attributable to tungsten impurity energy level. The intensity of EFISPS dec reases with increasing the content of goldion or tungsten oxide when its content is no more than their optimal dosage. However, when the content of gold ion or tungsten oxide is more than their optimal dosage, impurity energy level becomes recombination center from separation center and the intensity of all peaks increases forthem.

  18. Synergistic Effect of Copper and Cobalt in Cu-Co-O Composite Nanocatalyst for Catalytic Ozonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Yuming; Wu, Lina; Wang, Guangli; Zhao, Hui; Jiang, Pingping; Feng, Cuiyun [Jiangnan Univ., Wuxi (China)

    2013-11-15

    A novel Cu-Co-O composite nanocatalyst was designed and prepared for the ozonation of phenol. A synergistic effect of copper and cobalt was observed over the Cu-Co-O composite nanocatalyst, which showed higher activity than either copper or cobalt oxide alone. In addition, the Cu-Co-O composite revealed good activity in a wide initial pH range (4.11-8.05) of water. The fine dispersion of cobalt on the surface of copper oxide boosted the interaction between catalyst and ozone, and the surface Lewis acid sites on the Cu-Co-O composite were determined as the active sites. The Raman spectroscopy also proved that the Cu-Co-O composite was quite sensitive to the ozone. The trivalent cobalt in the Cu-Co-O composite was proposed as the valid state.

  19. Catalytic activity of Au nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Britt Hvolbæk; Janssens, Ton V.W.; Clausen, Bjerne;

    2007-01-01

    Au is usually viewed as an inert metal, but surprisingly it has been found that Au nanoparticles less than 3–5 nm in diameter are catalytically active for several chemical reactions. We discuss the origin of this effect, focusing on the way in which the chemical activity of Au may change with par......Au is usually viewed as an inert metal, but surprisingly it has been found that Au nanoparticles less than 3–5 nm in diameter are catalytically active for several chemical reactions. We discuss the origin of this effect, focusing on the way in which the chemical activity of Au may change...... with particle size. We find that the fraction of low-coordinated Au atoms scales approximately with the catalytic activity, suggesting that atoms on the corners and edges of Au nanoparticles are the active sites. This effect is explained using density functional calculations....

  20. Fe Promotion Effect in Mn/USY for Low-temperature Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO with NH3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Chun LIN; Ji Ming HAO; Jun Hua LI

    2006-01-01

    A series of catalysts of Mn/USY and Mn-Fe/USY prepared by impregnation were studied for low-temperature selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO with NH3 in the presence of excess of oxygen. It was found that the addition of Fe enhanced the catalytic performance at low-temperature. Mn-Fe/USY catalyst yielded nearly 100% NO conversion in a range of manganese and iron oxides enhanced the dispersion of the supported oxides, no visible phase of the oxides can be observed on catalyst. The addition of Fe enhanced the number and strength of the Bronsted and Lewis acid sites on the surface of the catalyst, which might promote the absorption of NH3 to form active intermediate and enhance the catalytic performance at low-temperature.

  1. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. Technical progress report, July--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, C.; Saini, A.K.; Huang, L.; Schobert, H.H.; Hatcher, P.G.

    1994-01-01

    In this quarter, progress has been made in the following two aspects: (1) spectroscopic and chemical reaction studies on the effects of drying and mild oxidation of a Wyodak subbituminous coal on its structure and pretreatment/liquefaction at 350{degrees}C; and (2) effects of dispersed catalyst and solvent on conversion and structural changes of a North Dakota lignite. Drying and oxidation of Wyodak subbituminous coal at 100-150{degrees}C have been shown to have significant effects on its structure and on its catalytic and non-catalytic low-severity liquefaction at 350{degrees}C for 30 min under 6.9 MPa H{sub 2}. Spectroscopic analyses using solid-state {sup 13}C NMR, Pyrolysis-GC-MS, and FT-IR revealed that oxidative drying at 100-150{degrees}C causes the transformation of phenolics and catechol into other related structures (presumably via condensation) and high-severity air drying at 150{degrees}C for 20 h leads to disappearance of catechol-like structure. Increasing air drying time or temperature increases oxidation to form more oxygen functional groups at the expense of aliphatic carbons. Such a clearly negative impact of severe oxidation is considered to arise from significantly increased oxygen functionality which enhances the cross-link formation in the early stage of coal liquefaction. Physical, chemical, and surface physicochemical aspects of drying and oxidation and the role of water are also discussed. A North Dakota lignite (DECS-1) coal was studied for its behaviors in non-catalytic and catalytic liquefaction. Reactions were carried out at temperatures between 250 and 450{degrees}C. Regardless the reaction solvents and the catalyst being used, the optimum temperature was found to be 400{degrees}C. The donor solvent has a significant effect over the conversion especially at temperatures higher than 350{degrees}C.

  2. Effectiveness of replacing catalytic converters in LPG-fueled vehicles in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Xiaopu; Guo, Hai; Simpson, Isobel J.; Meinardi, Simone; Louie, Peter K. K.; Ling, Zhenhao; Wang, Yu; Liu, Ming; Luk, Connie W. Y.; Wang, Nan; Blake, Donald R.

    2016-05-01

    Many taxis and public buses are powered by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) in Hong Kong. With more vehicles using LPG, they have become the major contributor to ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Hong Kong. An intervention program which aimed to reduce the emissions of VOCs and nitrogen oxides (NOx) from LPG-fueled vehicles was implemented by the Hong Kong government in September 2013. Long-term real-time measurements indicated that the program was remarkably effective in reducing LPG-related VOCs, NOx and nitric oxide (NO) in the atmosphere. Receptor modeling results further revealed that propane, propene, i-butane, n-butane and NO in LPG-fueled vehicle exhaust emissions decreased by 40.8 ± 0.1, 45.7 ± 0.2, 35.7 ± 0.1, 47.8 ± 0.1 and 88.6 ± 0.7 %, respectively, during the implementation of the program. In contrast, despite the reduction of VOCs and NOx, O3 following the program increased by 0.40 ± 0.03 ppbv (˜ 5.6 %). The LPG-fueled vehicle exhaust was generally destructive to OH and HO2. However, the destruction effect weakened for OH and it even turned to positive contribution to HO2 during the program. These changes led to the increases of OH, HO2 and HO2 / OH ratio, which might explain the positive O3 increment. Analysis of O3-VOCs-NOx sensitivity in ambient air indicated VOC-limited regimes in the O3 formation before and during the program. Moreover, a maximum reduction percentage of NOx (i.e., 69 %) and the lowest reduction ratio of VOCs / NOx (i.e., 1.1) in LPG-fueled vehicle exhaust were determined to give a zero O3 increment. The findings are of great help to future formulation and implementation of control strategies on vehicle emissions in Hong Kong, and could be extended to other regions in China and around the world.

  3. Effect of Al and Ce on Zr-pillared bentonite and their performance in catalytic oxidation of phenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnasri-Ghnimi, Saida; Frini-Srasra, Najoua

    2016-09-01

    Catalysts based on pillared clays with Zr and/or Al and Ce-Zr and/or Al polycations have been synthesized from a Tunisian bentonite and tested in catalytic oxidation of phenol at 298 K. The Zr-pillared clay showed higher activity than the Al-one in phenol oxidation. Mixed Zr-Al pillars lead to an enhancement of the catalytic activity due to the modification of the zirconium properties. The clays modified with Ce showed high conversions of phenol and TOC thus showing to be very selective towards the formation of CO2 and H2O.

  4. [Effect of organic compounds on the degradation of nitrobenzene in aqueous solution by catalytic ozonation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Ma, Jun; Liu, Zheng-Qian; Sun, Zhi-Zhong; Hou, Yan-Jun

    2008-05-01

    We investigated the effects of organic compounds on the processes of ozonation alone and ceramic honeycomb-catalyzed ozonation for the degradation of nitrobenzene in aqueous solution, including formaldehyde, methanol, formic acid and dibutyl phthalate. The results indicated that degradation rate of ozonation alone and ceramic honeycomb-catalyzed ozonation decreased by 11.6% and 9.6% with the increase of the concentration of formaldehyde (0-12 mg x L(-1)). The degradation rates of the two processes both increased firstly and decreased subsequently with the increase of the concentration of methanol (0-16 mg x L(-1)). The degradation rate of ozonation alone reached the climax at the concentration of methanol 2 mg x L(-1), and that of ceramic honeycomb-catalyzed ozonation reached the culmination at the concentration of methanol 4 mg x L(-1) under the same experimental condition. With the increase of the concentration of formic acid (0-8 mg x L(-1)), the degradation rates also increased firstly and decreased subsequently, and those of ozonation alone and ceramic honeycomb-catalyzed ozonation reached the vertex, respectively, at the concentration of methanol 0.5 mg x L(-1) and 2 mg x L(-1). At the lower concentration, methanol and formic acid could accelerate the degradation of nitrobenzene, however, the reaction was retarded at higher concentrations of methanol and formic acid. The degradation rates of ozonation alone and ozonation/ceramic honeycomb both declined by 19.7% and 18.6% with the increase of the concentration of dibutyl phthalate (0-10 mg x L(-1)).

  5. The Effect of Mo2C Synthesis and Pretreatment on Catalytic Stability in Oxidative Reforming Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamont, David C.(8392); Gilligan, Andrew J.(Washington University); Darujati, Anna R S.(Washington State University); Chellappa, Anand S.(WASHINGTON STATE UNIV); Thomson, Wiliam J.(8392)

    2003-07-10

    The role of catalyst pretreatment on the stability of Mo2C catalysts in oxidative reforming environments has been studied. Catalysts were produced by both the temperature programmed reaction (TPR) and a solution-derived (SD) synthesis method, and compared to a low surface area commercial catalyst. Using a variety of techniques, including in situ dynamic X-ray diffraction (DXRD), the effects of various hydrogen pretreatment protocols were evaluated, including catalyst thermal stability, oxidation resistance and susceptibility to coking. The high surface areas produced by the SD synthesis is attributed to the presence of excess synthesis carbon and, whereas the presence of excess synthesis carbon enhances thermal stability, it also appears to accelerate coking. It is pointed out that the lowered oxidation resistance of the high surface area catalysts is due to a combination of smaller crystallite sizes and competitive oxidation of the excess synthesis carbon, which alters the oxidation mechanism. In addition, it was also found that incomplete carburization during TPR synthesis, forms an oxycarbide and its acidity also promotes coking. Hydrogen pretreatment at 700 .C not only removes all excess synthesis carbon, but it also reduces the oxycarbide to Mo, which is easily carburized under reforming conditions. Pretreatment at 600 .C, was largely ineffective and it is concluded that high temperature pretreatment is necessary to form the stoichiometric carbide, which is required for stability during reforming. Both the TPR and SD catalysts pretreated at 700 .C, were found to be stable over a 72 h period, whereas the commercial carbide had almost identical activity but slowly deactivated over the same period, probably because of its low surface area. Finally, labeled isotope experiments revealed that carbon exchange occurs readily with bulk Mo2C at temperatures above 550 .C, lending credence to a reforming redox mechanism.

  6. Visible light activated catalytic effect of iron containing soda-lime silicate glass characterized by 57Fe-Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A relationship between local structure and visible light activated catalytic effect of iron containing soda lime silicate glass with the composition of 15Na2O·15CaO·xFe2O3·(70-x)SiO2, x = 5-50 mass %, abbreviated as NCFSx was investigated by means of 57Fe-Moessbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry (XRD), small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and ultraviolet-visible light absorption spectroscopy (UV-Vis). Moessbauer spectra of NCFSx glass with 'x' being equal to or larger than 30 after isothermal annealing at 1,000 deg C for 100 min consisted of a paramagnetic doublet and a magnetic sextet. The former had isomer shift (δ) of 0.24 mm s-1 and quadrupole splitting (Δ) of 0.99 mm s-1 due to distorted FeIIIO4 tetrahedra, and the latter had δ of 0.36 mm s-1 and internal magnetic field (Hint) of 51.8 T due to hematite (α-Fe2O3). The absorption area (A) of α-Fe2O3 varied from 47.2 to 75.9, 93.1, 64.8 and 47.9 % with 'x' from 30 to 35, 40, 45 and 50, indicating that the amount of precipitated α-Fe2O3 varied with the Fe2O3 content of NCFSx glass. The precipitation of α-Fe2O3 was also confirmed by XRD study of annealed NCFS glass with 'x' larger than 30. A relaxed sexted with δ, Hint and Γ of 0.34 mm s-1 and 37.9 T and 1.32 mm s-1 was observed from the Moessbauer spectra of annealed NCFSx glass with 'x' of 45 and 50, implying that the precipitation of non-stoichiometric iron hydroxide oxide with the composition of Fe1.833(OH)0.5O2.5 having the similar structure of α-Fe2O3 and α-FeOOH. A remarkable decrease in the concentration of methylene blue (MB) from 10 to 0.0 μmol L-1 with the first-order rate constant (k) of 2.87 × 10-2 h-1 was observed for 10-day leaching test using annealed NCFS50 glass under visible light irradiation. ESI-MS study indicated that existence of fragments with m/z value of 129, 117 and 207 etc. originating from MB having m/z of 284. This result evidently showed that the MB concentration

  7. A novel route to synthesize diphenylene by the catalytic effect of GaP nanocrystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CU; I; Deliang

    2001-01-01

    [1]Corey, E. J., Bakshi, R. K., Shibata, S., Highly enantioselective borane reduction ketones catalyzed by chiral oxazaborolidines, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1987, 109:5551-5553.[2]Wallbaum, S., Martens, J., Asymmetric syntheses with chiral oxazaborolidines, Tetrahedron Asymmetry, 1992, 3: 1475-1504.[3]Deloux, L., Srebnik, M., Asymmetric borane-catalyzed reactions, Chem. Rev., 1993, 93: 763-784.[4]Togni, A., Venanzi, L. M., Nitrogen donors in organometallic chemistry and in homogeneous catalysis, Angew Chem. Int. Ed. Engl., 1994, 33: 497-562.[5]Ager, D. J., Prakash, I., Schaad, D. R., 1,2-amino alcohols and their heterocyclic derivatives as chiral auxiliaries in asymmetric synthesis, Chem. Rev., 1996, 96: 835-875.[6]Nevalainen, V., Quantum chemical modeling of chiral catalysis, Part 4. On the hydride transfer in ketone complexes of borane adducts of oxazaborolidines and regeneration of catalyst, Tetrahedron Asymmetry, 1991, 2:1133-1155.[7]Nevalainen, V., Quantum chemical modeling of chiral catalysis, Part 8. On the conformational freedom of the ketone of ketone-borane complexes of oxazaborolidines used as catalysts in the enantioselective reduction of ketones, Tetrahedron Asymmetry. 1992, 3: 1563-1572.[8]Nevalainen, V., Quantum chemical modeling of chiral catalysis, Part 7. On the effects controlling the coordination of borane to chiral oxazaborolidines used as catalysts in the enantioselective reduction of ketones, Tetrahedron Asymmetry,1992, 3: 1441-1453.[9]Nevalainen, V., Quantum chemical modeling of chiral catalysis, Part 12. On the influence of the nature of the ring system on binding in ketone-borane complexes of chiral oxazaborolidines used as catalysts in the enantioselective reduction of ketones. Tetrahedron Asymmetry, 1993, 4: 1597-1602.[10]Nevalainen, V., Quantum chemical modeling of chiral catalysis, Part 19. Strain and stability-oxazadiboretanes potentially involved in the enantioselective reduction of ketones promoted

  8. Effect of support on a catalytic converter for removing CO and HC emissions from a two-stroke motorcycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.H.; Chen, Y.W. [National Central Univ., Chungli (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1997-12-01

    The effect of support on the noble metal catalysts for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon oxidation was investigated. The reactions were performed under the stoichiometric and oxygen-deficient conditions. Under the stoichiometric point, the activities of the powder catalysts for CO and C{sub 3}H{sub 6} oxidation are in the order Pt/K{sub 2}O/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} > Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} > Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}, that is, the same as the order of basicity of these catalysts. Under an oxygen-deficient condition, Pt supported on an acidic support, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}, exhibits the higher C{sub 3}H{sub 6} conversion and the higher activity for the steam re-forming reaction. In contrast, Pt supported on a basic support, K{sub 2}O/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, exhibits the higher CO conversion and the higher activity for the water-gas shift reaction. The order of activity of the powder catalysts for the water-gas shift reaction is the same as the order of basicity of these catalysts. On the other hand, the testing results of the monolithic PtRh-containing catalysts by the simulative gases and the ECE-40 mode driving cycle also reveal the same trend as that of the Pt powder catalysts. Furthermore, the addition of K{sub 2}O on PtRh/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CeO{sub 2} not only increases the basicity of the catalyst but also significantly reduces the CO emission under the ECE-40 mode driving cycle test. Therefore, K{sub 2}O could be a promising additive to a catalytic converter of a two-stroke motorcycle since it can significantly enhance CO conversion.

  9. The Effect of Copper Loading on the Selective Catalytic Reduction of Nitric Oxide by Ammonia Over Cu-SSZ-13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Ja Hun; Tran, Diana N.; Szanyi, Janos; Peden, Charles HF; Lee, Jong H.

    2012-03-01

    The effect of Cu loading on the selective catalytic reduction of NOx by NH3 was examined over 20-80% ion-exchanged Cu-SSZ-13 zeolite catalysts. High NO reduction efficiency (80-95%) was obtained over all catalyst samples between 250 and 500°C, and the gas hourly space velocity of 200,000 h-1. Both NO reduction and NH3 oxidation activities under these conditions were found to increase slightly with increasing Cu loading at low temperatures. However, NO reduction activity was suppressed with increasing Cu loadings at high temperatures (>500oC) due to excess NH3 oxidation. The optimum Cu ion exchange level appears to be ~40-60% as higher than 80% NO reduction efficiency was obtained over 50% Cu ion-exchanged SSZ-13 up to 600oC. The NO oxidation activity of Cu-SSZ-13 was found to be low regardless of Cu loading, although it was somewhat improved with increasing Cu ion exchange level at high temperatures. During the “fast” SCR (i.e., NO/NO2 =1), only a slight improvement in NOx reduction activity was obtained for Cu-SSZ-13. Regardless of Cu loading, near 100% selectivity to N2 was observed; only a very small amount of N2O was produced even in the presence of NO2. Based on the Cu loading, the apparent activation energies for NO oxidation and NO SCR were estimated to be ~58 kJ/mol and ~41 kJ/mol, respectively.

  10. Effect of metal ions doping (M = Ti4+, Sn4+) on the catalytic performance of MnOx/CeO2 catalyst for low temperature selective catalytic reduction of NO with NH3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yan; Tang, Changjin; Dong, Lin

    2015-04-01

    Key Laboratory of Mesoscopic Chemistry of MOE, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, PR China The abatement of nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission from exhaust gases of diesel and stationary sources is a significant challenge for economic and social development. Ceria-based solid solutions were synthesized and used as supports to prepare MnOx/Ce0.8Ti0.2O2 and MnOx/Ce0.8Sn0.2O2 catalysts (Mn/CeTi and Mn/CeSn) for low temperature selective catalytic reduction of NO by NH3 (NH3-SCR). The effects of Ti or Sn doping on the catalytic performance of MnOx/CeO2 catalyst were investigated. Experimental results show that doping of Ti or Sn increases the NO removal efficiency of MnOx/CeO2. The NO conversion of Mn/CeTi catalyst is more than 90 % at temperature window of 175 ~ 300 °C under a gas hour space velocity of 60,000 mL.g-1.h-1. Modified catalysts are also found to exhibit greatly improved resistance to sulfur-poisoning. NH3-TPD results suggest that NH3 desorption on the catalysts is observed over a wide temperature range, due to the variability of adsorbed NH3 species with different thermal stabilities. Doping of Ti and Sn into Mn/CeO2 greatly increased the NH3 adsorption ability of the composites which could promote the SCR reaction. Characterization results also indicate that doping of Ti or Sn brings about catalysts with higher BET surface area, enhanced oxygen storage capacity and increased surface acidity.

  11. Effect of tourmaline additive on the crystal growth and activity of LaCoO3 for catalytic combustion of methane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王赛飞; 薛刚; 梁金生; 孟军平

    2014-01-01

    LaCoO3/tourmaline was prepared as catalysts on the methane catalytic combustion. As additive tourmaline, its effect on crystal growth and catalytic activity of LaCoO3, were investigated via X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), H2-temperature programmed reduction (H2-TPR) and catalyst evaluation techniques. SEM and TEM indicated that the spontaneous polarizability of tourmaline made LaCoO3 particles grow dispersedly on tourmaline, allevi-ated the agglomeration and exposed more reactive sites. It was a main influence leading to the improvement of catalysts activity, ex-posed via catalyst evaluation device. Among the different additive proportion of compound samples, the 2% tourmaline added La-CoO3 showed an obvious enhancement activity compared to non-tourmaline sample-the light-off temperature was 454 °C and CH4 reached the full conversion at 563 °C.

  12. Effect of the graphitic degree of carbon supports on the catalytic performance of ammonia synthesis over Ba-Ru-K/HSGC catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Jiang; Ying Li; Wenfeng Han; Yaping Zhou; Haodong Tang; Huazhang Liu

    2014-01-01

    A series of high surface area graphitic carbon materials (HSGCs) were prepared by ball-milling method. Effect of the graphitic degree of HSGCs on the catalytic performance of Ba-Ru-K/HSGC-x (x is the ball-milling time in hour) catalysts was studied using ammonia synthesis as a probe reaction. The graphitic degree and pore structure of HSGC-x supports could be successfully tuned via the variation of ball-milling time. Ru nanoparticles of different Ba-Ru-K/HSGC-x catalysts are homogeneously distributed on the supports with the particle sizes ranging from 1.6 to 2.0 nm. The graphitic degree of the support is closely related to its facile electron transfer capability and so plays an important role in improving the intrinsic catalytic performance of Ba-Ru-K/HSGC-x catalyst.

  13. Mutations in the catalytic core or the C-terminus of murine leukemia virus (MLV) integrase disrupt virion infectivity and exert diverse effects on reverse transcription

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding of the structures and functions of the retroviral integrase (IN), a key enzyme in the viral replication cycle, is essential for developing antiretroviral treatments and facilitating the development of safer gene therapy vehicles. Thus, four MLV IN-mutants were constructed in the context of a retroviral vector system, harbouring either a substitution in the catalytic centre, deletions in the C-terminus, or combinations of both modifications. IN-mutants were tested for their performance in different stages of the viral replication cycle: RNA-packaging; RT-activity; transient and stable infection efficiency; dynamics of reverse transcription and nuclear entry. All mutant vectors packaged viral RNA with wild-type efficiencies and displayed only slight reductions in RT-activity. Deletion of either the IN C-terminus alone, or in addition to part of the catalytic domain exerted contrasting effects on intracellular viral DNA levels, implying that IN influences reverse transcription in more than one direction

  14. The Effect of Nb Loading on Catalytic Properties of Ni/Ce0.75Zr0.25O2 Catalyst for Methane Partial Oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sitthiphong Pengpanich; Vissanu Meeyoo; Thirasak Rirksomboon; Johannes Schwank

    2007-01-01

    In this study,the effect of Nb loading on the catalytic activity of Ce0.75Zr0.25O2-supported Ni catalysts was studied for methane partial oxidation.The catalysts were characterized by BET,H2 chemisorption,XRD,TPR,TEM and tested for methane partial oxidation to syngas in the temperature range of 400-800 ℃ at atmospheric pressure.The results showed that the activity of methane partial oxidation on the catalysts was apparently dependent on Nb loading.It seemed that the addition of Nb lowered the catalytic activity for methane partial oxidation and increased the extent of carbon deposition.This might be due to the strong interaction between NiO and Nb-modified support and reduction of surfaceoxygen reducibility.

  15. Catalytic NO reduction with ammonia at low temperatures on V2O5/AC catalysts. Effect of metal oxides addition and SO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The catalytic behavior of the V-M/AC (M=W, Mo, Zr, and Sn) catalysts were studied for the NO reduction with ammonia at low temperatures, especially in the presence of SO2. The presence of the metal oxides does not increase the V2O5/AC activity but decreases it. Except V-Mo/AC, the other catalysts are promoted by SO2 at 250C, especially for V-Sn/AC. However, the promoting effect of SO2 is gradually depressed by catalyst deactivation. Changes in catalyst preparation method can improve the catalyst stability in short-term but cannot completely prevent the catalyst from a long-term deactivation. Mechanisms of the promoting effect and the deactivation of V-Sn/AC catalyst by SO2 were studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectra and measurement of catalyst surface area and pore volume. The results showed that both the SO2 promotion and deactivation are associated with the formation of sulfate species on the catalyst surface. In the initial period of the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) reaction in the presence of SO2, the formed sulfate species provide new acid sites to enhance ammonia adsorption and thus the catalytic activity. However, as the SCR reaction proceeds, excess amount of sulfate species and then ammonium-sulfate salts are formed which is stabilized by the presence of tin oxide, resulting in gradual plugging of the pore structures and the catalyst deactivation

  16. The Poisoning Effect of Na Doping over Mn-Ce/TiO2 Catalyst for Low-Temperature Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO by NH3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3, sodium nitrate (NaNO3, and sodium chloride (NaCl were chosen as the precursors to prepare the Na salts deposited Mn-Ce/TiO2 catalysts through an impregnation method. The influence of Na on the performance of the Mn-Ce/TiO2 catalyst for low-temperature selective catalytic reduction of NOx by NH3 was investigated. Experimental results showed that Na salts had negative effects on the activity of Mn-Ce/TiO2 and the precursors of Na salts also affected the catalytic activity. The precursor Na2CO3 had a greater impact on the catalytic activity, while NaNO3 had minimal effect. The characterization results indicated that the significant changes in physical and chemical properties of Mn-Ce/TiO2 were observed after Na was doped on the catalysts. The significant decreases in surface areas and NH3 adsorption amounts were observed after Na was doped on the catalysts, which could be considered as the main reasons for the deactivation of Na deposited Mn-Ce/TiO2.

  17. Active site mutants of Escherichia coli dethiobiotin synthetase: effects of mutations on enzyme catalytic and structural properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, G; Sandalova, T; Lohman, K; Lindqvist, Y; Rendina, A R

    1997-04-22

    Five active site residues, Thr11, Glu12, Lys15, Lys37, and Ser41, implicated by the protein crystal structure studies of Escherichia coli DTBS, were mutated to determine their function in catalysis and substrate binding. Nine mutant enzymes, T11V, E12A, E12D, K15Q, K37L, K37Q, K37R, S41A, and S41C, were overproduced in an E. coli strain lacking a functional endogenous DTBS gene and purified to homogeneity. Replacement of Thr11 with valine resulted in a 24,000-fold increase in the Km(ATP) with little or no change in the Kd(ATP), KM(DAPA) and DTBS k(cat), suggesting an essential role for this residue in the steady-state affinity for ATP. The two Glu12 mutants showed essentially wild-type DTBS activity (slightly elevated k(cat)'s). Unlike wild-type DTBS, E12A had the same apparent KM(DAPA) at subsaturating and saturating ATP concentrations, indicating a possible role for Glu12 in the binding synergy between DAPA and ATP. The mutations in Lys15 and Lys37 resulted in loss of catalytic activity (0.01% and cat) for K15Q and the Lys37 mutant enzymes, respectively) and higher KM's for both DAPA (40-fold and >100-fold higher than wild-type for the K15Q and Lys37 mutant enzymes, respectively) and ATP (1800-fold and >10-fold higher than wild-type for K15Q and the K37 mutant enzymes, respectively). These results strongly suggest that Lys15 and Lys37 are crucial to both catalysis and substrate binding. S41A and S41C had essentially the same k(cat) as wild-type and had moderate increases in the DAPA and ATP KM and Kd (ATP) values. Replacement of Ser41 with cysteine resulted in larger effects than replacement with alanine. These data suggest that the H-bond between N7 of DAPA and the Ser41 side chain is not very important for catalysis. The catalytic behavior of these mutant enzymes was also studied by pulse-chase experiments which produced results consistent with the steady-state kinetic analyses. X-ray crystallographic studies of four mutant enzymes, S41A, S41C, K37Q, and K37L

  18. Effect of cobalt and its adding sequence on the catalytic performance of MoO3/Al2O3 toward sulfur-resistant methanation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baowei; Wang; Yuqin; Yao; Minhong; Jiang; Zhenhua; Li; Xinbin; Ma; Shaodong; Qin; Qi; Sun

    2014-01-01

    The effect of promoter cobalt and the sequences of adding cobalt and molybdenum precursors on the performance of sulfur-resistant methanation were investigated. All these samples were prepared by impregnation method and characterized by N2-adsorption, X-ray diffraction(XRD), temperature-programmed reduction(TPR) and laser Raman spectroscopy(LRS). The conversions of CO for Mo-Co/Al, Co-Mo/Al and CoMo/Al catalysts were 59.7%, 54.3% and 53.9%, respectively. Among these catalysts, the Mo-Co/Al catalyst prepared stepwisely by impregnating Mo precursor firstly showed the best catalytic performance. Meanwhile, the conversions of CO were 48.9% for Mo/Al catalyst and 10.5% for Co/Al catalyst. The addition of cobalt species could improve the catalytic activity of Mo/Al catalyst. The N2-adsorption results showed that Co-Mo/Al catalyst had the smallest specific surface area among these catalysts. CoMoO4species in CoMo/Al catalyst were detected with XRD, TPR and LRS. Moreover, crystal MoS2which was reported to be less active than amorphous MoS2was found in both Co-Mo/Al and CoMo/Al catalysts. Mo-Co/Al catalyst showed the best catalytic performance as it had an appropriate surface structure, i.e., no crystal MoS2and very little CoMoO4species.

  19. The effect of copper valence on catalytic combustion of styrene over the copper based catalysts in the absence and presence of water vapor☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongyan Pan; Zhiyan He; Qian Lin; Fei Liu; Zhong Li

    2016-01-01

    Catalysts CuOx/γ-Al2O3-IH and CuOx/γ-Al2O3-IM were prepared, characterized, and tested for styrene combustion in the absence and presence of water vapor. The effect of copper valence of the catalysts on the catalytic activity for styrene combustion was discussed using the theory of hard soft acids and bases (HSAB). The results showed that the existence of water vapor in feed stream inhibited the catalytic activity for styrene combustion due to the competition adsorption of water molecule. HSAB theory confirmed that the local soft acidity of the catalyst CuOx/γ-Al2O3-IH was much stronger than that of the catalyst CuOx/γ-Al2O3-IM because of the higher content of soft acid Cu+on its surface, which increased the adsorption ability toward soft base of styrene and reduced the adsorption toward hard base of water vapor, and thus increased the catalytic activity for styrene combustion and weakened the negative influence of water vapor.

  20. Effects of support property on the catalytic performance of CeO2-ZrO2-CrOx for 1,2-dichloroethane oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶飞; 杨姗姗; 杨鹏; 石智男; 周仁贤

    2016-01-01

    HZSM-5, Al2O3, TiO2 and SiO2 supported CeO2-ZrO2-CrOx catalysts were prepared by deposition-precipitation method and tested for deep catalytic oxidation of 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE), as one of the common chlorinated organic pollutants. All the catalysts were characterized by means of N2adsorption-desorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ammonia-temperature- programmed desorption (NH3-TPD) and hydrogen temperature-programmed reduction (H2-TPR). The characterization results re-vealed that there was strongly synergistic effect between the oxidizability of CZCr species and the acidity of supports, which obvi-ously promoted the catalytic activity for DCE degradation. 20%CZCr/HZSM-5 showed the highest activity and good durability dur-ing the long-term continuous test. The catalytic activity decreased in the order: 20%CZCr/HZSM-5>CZCr>20%CZCr/TiO2> 20%CZCr/Al2O3>20%CZCr/SiO2.

  1. Effect of Manganese Additive on the Improvement of Low-Temperature Catalytic Activity of VO(x)-WO(x)/TiO2 Nanoparticles for Chlorobenzene Combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fei; Chen, Chunxiao; Liu, Shantang

    2016-06-01

    In this study, V-W/TiO2, Mn-V-W/TiO2 and Mn-W/TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared by homogeneous precipitation method and investigated for the catalytic combustion of chlorobenzene (CB), which was used as a model compound of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs). The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption-desorption, transmission electron microscope (TEM) and hydrogen temperature-programed reduction (H2-TPR). The average size of the nanoparticles was -20 nm. Manganese species were evenly distributed on the surface of the V-W/TiO2 catalyst, and a small amount of manganese addition did not affect the crystal form, crystallinity and morphology of the V-W/TiO2 catalyst. In addition, low-temperature catalytic activity of V-W/TiO2 catalysts could be effectively improved. When the molar ratio of Mn/(Mn + V) was 0.25 or 0.4, the catalyst displayed the highest low-temperature activity. This was possibly due to Mn (VO3)x formed by the reaction of manganese and vanadium species. Meanwhile, we also found that the addition of oxalic acid was benefit to the improvement of the catalytic activities. When manganese content was high, such as Mn (0.75) VW/Ti, the catalyst activity declined seriously, and the reason was also discussed. PMID:27427700

  2. Simple, chemoselective, catalytic olefin isomerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Steven W M; Barabé, Francis; Shenvi, Ryan A

    2014-12-01

    Catalytic amounts of Co(Sal(tBu,tBu))Cl and organosilane irreversibly isomerize terminal alkenes by one position. The same catalysts effect cycloisomerization of dienes and retrocycloisomerization of strained rings. Strong Lewis bases like amines and imidazoles, and labile functionalities like epoxides, are tolerated.

  3. Effect of the Sequence of the Thermoelectric Generator and the Three-Way Catalytic Converter on Exhaust Gas Conversion Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chuqi; Tong, Naiqiang; Xu, Yuman; Chen, Shan; Liu, Xun

    2013-07-01

    The potential for thermoelectric exhaust heat recovery in vehicles has increased with recent improvements in the efficiency of thermoelectric generators (TEGs). The problem with using thermoelectric generators for vehicle applications is whether the device is compatible with the original vehicle exhaust system, which determines the quality of the exhaust gas treatment and the realization of energy conservation and emission reduction. Based on ANSYS CFX simulation analysis of the impact of two positional relationships between the TEG and three-way catalytic converter in the exhaust system on the working efficiency of both elements, it is concluded that the layout with the front three-way catalytic converter has an advantage over the other layout mode under current conditions. New ideas for an improvement program are proposed to provide the basis for further research.

  4. Oxidative destruction of biomolecules by gasoline engine exhaust products and detoxifying effects of the three-way catalytic converter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaurock, B; Hippeli, S; Metz, N; Elstner, E F

    1992-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of engine exhaust condensation products were derived from cars powered by diesel or four-stroke gasoline engines (with and without three-way catalytic converter). The cars were operated on a static test platform. Samples of the different exhaust solutions accumulated in a Grimmer-type distillation trap (VDI 3872) during standard test programs (Federal Test Procedure) were incubated with important biomolecules. As indicators of reactive oxygen species or oxidative destruction, ascorbic acid, cysteine, glutathione, serum albumin, the enzymes glycerinaldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase and xanthine oxidase, and the oxygen free-radical indicator keto-methylthiobutyrate were used. During and after the incubations, oxygen activation (consumption) and oxidative destruction were determined. Comparison of the oxidative activities of the different types of exhaust condensates clearly showed that the exhaust condensate derived from the four-stroke car equipped with a three-way catalytic converter exhibited by far the lowest oxidative and destructive power. PMID:1283938

  5. Changes in Protein Domains outside the Catalytic Site of the Bacteriophage Qβ Replicase Reduce the Mutagenic Effect of 5-Azacytidine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanillas, Laura; Sanjuán, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The high genetic heterogeneity and great adaptability of RNA viruses are ultimately caused by the low replication fidelity of their polymerases. However, single amino acid substitutions that modify replication fidelity can evolve in response to mutagenic treatments with nucleoside analogues. Here, we investigated how two independent mutants of the bacteriophage Qβ replicase (Thr210Ala and Tyr410His) reduce sensitivity to the nucleoside analogue 5-azacytidine (AZC). Despite being located outside the catalytic site, both mutants reduced the mutation frequency in the presence of the drug. However, they did not modify the type of AZC-induced substitutions, which was mediated mainly by ambiguous base pairing of the analogue with purines. Furthermore, the Thr210Ala and Tyr410His substitutions had little or no effect on replication fidelity in untreated viruses. Also, both substitutions were costly in the absence of AZC or when the action of the drug was suppressed by adding an excess of natural pyrimidines (uridine or cytosine). Overall, the phenotypic properties of these two mutants were highly convergent, despite the mutations being located in different domains of the Qβ replicase. This suggests that treatment with a given nucleoside analogue tends to select for a unique functional response in the viral replicase. IMPORTANCE In the last years, artificial increase of the replication error rate has been proposed as an antiviral therapy. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms by which two substitutions in the Qβ replicase confer partial resistance to the mutagenic nucleoside analogue AZC. As opposed to previous work with animal viruses, where different mutations selected sequentially conferred nucleoside analogue resistance through different mechanisms, our results suggest that there are few or no alternative AZC resistance phenotypes in Qβ. Also, despite resistance mutations being highly costly in the absence of the drug, there was no sequential

  6. Selectivity, Compatibility, Downstream Functionalization, and Silver Effect in the Gold and Palladium Dual-Catalytic Synthesis of Lactones

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Amin, Mohammad; Johnson, Joel S.; Blum, Suzanne A.

    2014-01-01

    The chemo- and regioselectivity and functional group compatibility in gold and palladium cooperatively catalyzed cross-coupling reactions were determined in the synthesis of lactones; the selectivity in the gold and palladium dual-metal catalysis system was distinct from that available for the same class of substrates in systems with only gold catalysis or only palladium catalysis rather than dual catalysis. The dual-catalytic rearrangement reaction selectively promoted oxidative addition at ...

  7. The effect of noble metals on catalytic methanation reaction over supported Mn/Ni oxide based catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Wan Azelee Wan Abu Bakar; Rusmidah Ali; Nurul Shafeeqa Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) in sour natural gas can be removed using green technology via catalytic methanation reaction by converting CO2 to methane (CH4) gas. Using waste to wealth concept, production of CH4 would increase as well as creating environmental friendly approach for the purification of natural gas. In this research, a series of alumina supported manganese–nickel oxide based catalysts doped with noble metals such as ruthenium and palladium were prepared by wetness impregnation method. T...

  8. The effect of chelating/combustion agent on catalytic activity and magnetic properties of Dy doped Ni-Zn ferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samoila, P.; Slatineanu, T. [Faculty of Chemistry, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, 11 Carol I Boulevard 700506 (Romania); Postolache, P. [Faculty of Physics, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, 11 Carol I Boulevard 700506 (Romania); Iordan, A.R. [Faculty of Chemistry, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, 11 Carol I Boulevard 700506 (Romania); Palamaru, M.N., E-mail: palamaru@uaic.ro [Faculty of Chemistry, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, 11 Carol I Boulevard 700506 (Romania)

    2012-09-14

    The spinel ferrite Ni{sub 0.8}Zn{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 1.98}Dy{sub 0.02}O{sub 4} was prepared by sol-gel low temperature autocombustion method using four different chelating/combustion agents: citric acid, tartaric acid, urea and cellulose. Infrared spectroscopy (IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface area measurement, the catalytic H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decomposition and the magnetic behavior were employed to investigate the influence of the combustion agents on structural characteristics, catalytic activity and magnetic properties. Spinel-type phase in the nano-scale domain was accomplished during sol-gel synthesis and was confirmed by XRD and IR. The best catalytic activity is belonging to the sample obtained using urea, which shows the smallest grain size (SEM), the highest specific surface area (BET measurements) and DyFeO{sub 3} phase (XRD), while ferrimagnetic behavior prevails for all the samples independently of fuel agent. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ni-Zn ferrite doped with Dy as catalyst and magnetic material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Four chelating/combustion agents were used in sol-gel method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Citric acid and cellulose allowed spinel monophase formation confirmed by XRD. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Catalytic activity of ferrite samples is affected by synthesis conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic behavior is not changed significantly as a function of fuel agent.

  9. Polyurethane foams doped with stable silver nanoparticles as bactericidal and catalytic materials for the effective treatment of water

    OpenAIRE

    Domènech Garcia, Berta; Ziegler Benítez, Kharla; Vigués Frantzen, Núria; Olszewski, Wojciech; Marini, Carlo; Mas Gordi, Jordi; Muñoz Tapia, Maria; Muraviev, Dmitri N; Macanás de Benito, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    The development of reusable dual-purpose nanocomposite foams for catalytic and bactericidal water treatment is reported. Small non-aggregated silver nanoparticles were made using Intermatrix Synthesis inside a polyurethane foam, which was chosen as a suitable polymeric matrix due to its high chemical and mechanical stability and industrial applicability. The antibacterial activity of the obtained nanocomposites was evaluated against suspensions of Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli), showing ide...

  10. Effect of structure and surface properties on the catalytic activity of nanodiamond in the conversion of 1,2-dichloroethane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tveritinova, E. A.; Zhitnev, Yu. N.; Kulakova, I. I.; Maslakov, K. I.; Nesterova, E. A.; Kharlanov, A. N.; Ivanov, A. S.; Savilov, S. V.; Lunin, V. V.

    2015-04-01

    The catalytic activity of a detonation nanodiamond and its Ni-containing forms in the conversion of 1,2-dichloroethane is studied and compared with the activity of other carbon and nanocarbon materials: carbon nanotubes, "Dalan" synthetic diamond, and fluorinated graphite. The surface and structure of the carbon materials are characterized using XRD, diffuse reflectance IR spectroscopy, XPS, BET, and TPR. The catalytic properties of the materials are studied using the pulsed microcatalytic method. It is found that the synthetic diamond, the nanodiamond, and its Ni-containing forms are catalysts for dichloroethane conversion in a nitrogen atmosphere, where the main product is ethylene. It is noted that the catalytic activity of deactivated diamond catalysts is restored after hydrogen treatment. It is shown that the carbon structure of the nanodiamond and the "Dalan" synthetic diamond with hydrogen groups located on it plays a key role in the dichloroethane conversion. It is found that the nanodiamond acts simultaneously as a catalyst and an adsorbent of chlorine-containing products of dichloroethane conversion.

  11. Photo catalytic reduction of benzophenone on TiO{sub 2}: Effect of preparation method and reaction conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albiter E, E.; Valenzuela Z, M. A.; Alfaro H, S.; Flores V, S. O.; Rios B, O.; Gonzalez A, V. J.; Cordova R, I., E-mail: mavalenz@ipn.m [IPN, Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Quimica e Industrias Extractivas, Laboratorio de Catalisis y Materiales, Zacatenco, 07738 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    The photo catalytic reduction of benzophenone was studied focussing on improving the yield to benzhydrol. TiO{sub 2} was synthesized by means of a hydrothermal technique. TiO{sub 2} (Degussa TiO{sub 2}-P25) was used as a reference. Catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction and nitrogen physisorption. The photo catalytic reduction was carried out in a batch reactor at 25 C under nitrogen atmosphere, acetonitrile as solvent and isopropanol as electron donor. A 200 W Xe-Hg lamp ({lambda}= 360 nm) was employed as irradiation source. The chemical composition of the reaction system was determined by HPLC. Structural and textural properties of the synthesized TiO{sub 2} depended on the type of acid used during sol formation step. Using HCl, a higher specific surface area and narrower pore size distribution of TiO{sub 2} was obtained in comparison with acetic acid. As expected, the photochemical reduction of benzophenone yielded benzopinacol as main product, whereas, benzhydrol is only produced in presence of TiO{sub 2} (i.e. photo catalytic route). In general, the hydrothermally synthesized catalysts were less active and with a lower yield to benzhydrol. The optimal reaction conditions to highest values of benzhydrol yield (70-80%) were found at 2 g/L (catalyst loading) and 0.5 m M of initial concentration of benzophenone, using commercial TiO{sub 2}-P25. (Author)

  12. Catalytic pyrolysis of biomass: Effects of pyrolysis temperature, sweeping gas flow rate and MgO catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotton seed, as a biomass source, is pyrolysed in a tubular fixed-bed reactor under various sweeping gas (N2) flow rates at different pyrolysis temperatures. In the non-catalytic work, the maximum bio-oil yield was attained as 48.30% at 550 oC with a sweeping gas flow rate of 200 mL min-1. At the optimum conditions, catalytic pyrolysis of biomass samples was performed with various amounts of MgO catalyst (5, 10, 15, and 20 wt.% of raw material). Catalyst addition decreased the quantity of bio-oil yet increased the quality of bio-oil in terms of calorific value, hydrocarbon distribution and removal of oxygenated groups. It was observed that increasing the amount of catalyst used, decreased the oil yields while increased the gas and char yields. Bio-oils obtained at the optimum conditions were separated into aliphatic, aromatic and polar sub-fractions. After the application of column chromatography, bio-oils were subjected into elemental, FT-IR and 1H NMR analyses. Aliphatic sub-fractions of bio-oils were analyzed by GC-MS. It was deduced that the fuel obtained via catalytic pyrolysis mainly consisted of lower weight hydrocarbons in the diesel range. Finally, obtained results were compared with petroleum fractions and evaluated as a potential source for liquid fuels.

  13. Halogen poisoning effect of Pt-TiO2 for formaldehyde catalytic oxidation performance at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaofeng; Cheng, Bei; Yu, Jiaguo; Ho, Wingkei

    2016-02-01

    Catalytic decomposition of formaldehyde (HCHO) at room temperature is an important method for HCHO removal. Pt-based catalysts are the optimal catalyst for HCHO decomposition at room temperature. However, the stability of this catalyst remains unexplored. In this study, Pt-TiO2 (Pt-P25) catalysts with and without adsorbed halogen ions (including F-, Cl-, Br-, and I-) were prepared through impregnation and ion modification. Pt-TiO2 samples with adsorbed halogen ions exhibited reduced catalytic activity for formaldehyde decomposition at room temperature compared with the Pt-TiO2 sample; the catalytic activity followed the order of F-Pt-P25, Cl-Pt-P25, Br-Pt-P25, and I-Pt-P25. Characterization results (including XRD, TEM, HRTEM, BET, XPS, and metal dispersion) showed that the adsorbed halogen ions can poison Pt nanoparticles (NPs), thereby reducing the HCHO oxidation activity of Pt-TiO2. The poison mechanism is due to the strong adsorption of halogen ions on the surface of Pt NPs. The adsorbed ions form coordination bonds with surface Pt atoms by transferring surplus electrons into the unoccupied 5d orbit of the Pt atom, thereby inhibiting oxygen adsorption and activation of the Pt NP surface. Moreover, deactivation rate increases with increasing diameter of halogen ions. This study provides new insights into the fabrication of high-performance Pt-based catalysts for indoor air purification.

  14. Efeito do cromo nas propriedades catalíticas da MCM-41 The effect of chromium on the catalytic properties of MCM-41

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcineia Conceição Oliveira

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of chromium on the catalytic properties of MCM-41 was evaluated in order to develop new catalysts for the trimethylbenzene transalkylation with benzene to produce ethylbenzene, a high-value aromatic in the industry. It was found that chromium decreases the specific surface area but increases the acidity, turning MCM-41 into an active and selective catalyst for ethylbenzene and toluene production. The coke produced on the catalyst is hydrogenated and mainly located outside the pores and thus can be easily removed. The catalyst is more active and selective than mordenite, a commercial catalyst, and thus more promising for commercial applications.

  15. The Effect of a Three-Way Catalytic Converter on Particulate Matter from a Gasoline Direct-Injection Engine During Cold-Start

    OpenAIRE

    Whelan, Ian; Timoney, David; Smith, William; et al

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates the effect of a three-way catalytic converter and sampling dilution ratio on nano-scale exhaust particulate matter emissions from a gasoline direct-injection engine during cold-start and warm-up transients. Experimental results are presented from a four cylinder in-line, four stroke, wall-guided direct-injection, turbo-charged and inter-cooled 1.6 litre gasoline engine. A fast-response particulate spectrometer for exhaust nano-particle measurement up to 1000 nm was util...

  16. NaY zeolites modified by La~(3+) and Ba~(2+): the effect of synthesis details on surface structure and catalytic performance for lactic acid to acrylic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫婕; 余定华; 李恒; 孙鹏; 黄和

    2010-01-01

    Modified NaY zeolites have been widely studied and the modification metal element is normally single, while few researches have been conducted on NaY zeolites modified by two kinds of metals. In our study, a series of La3+ and Ba2+ modified NaY zeolites were synthesized through different impregnation procedures. Lactic acid dehydration to acrylic acid was selected as a probe reaction to test the catalytic performance of these zeolites synthesized. The effects of synthesis details on their pore structures an...

  17. Effect of surface structure on the catalytic behavior of Ni:Cu/Al and Ni:Cu:K/Al catalysts for methane decomposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.Tajammul Hussain; Sheraz Gul; Muhammed Mazhar; Dalaver H.Anjum; Faical Larachi

    2008-01-01

    Methane decomposition using nickel, copper, and aluminum (Ni:Cu/Al) and nickel, copper, potassium, and alu-minum (Ni:Cu:K/Al) modified nano catalysts has been investigated for carbon fibers, hydrogen and hydrocarbon production. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), static secondary ion mass spectrometry (SSIMS), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA),Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), secondary electron microscopy/X-ray energy dispersive (SEM-EDX), and temperature pro-grammed desorption (TPD) were used to depict the chemistry of the catalytic results. These techniques revealed the changes in surface morphology and structure of Ni, Cu, Al, and K, and formation of bimetallic and trimetallic surface cationic sites with sifferent cationic species, which resulted in the production of graphitic form of pure carbon on Ni:Cu/Al catalyst. The addition of K has a marked effect on the product selectivity and reactivity of the catalyst system. K addition restricts the formation of carbon on the surface and increases the production of hydrogen and C2, C3 hydrocarbons during the catalytic reaction whereas no hydrocarbons are produced on the sample without K. This study completely maps the modified surface structure and its re-lationship with the catalytic behavior of both systems. The process provides a flexible route for the production of carbon fibers and hydrogen on Ni:Cu/Al catalyst and hydrogen along with hydrocarbons on Ni:Cu:K/Al catalyst. The produced carbon fibers are imaged using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) for diameter size and wall structure determination. Hydrogen produced is COx free, which can be used directly in the fuel cell system. The effect of the addition of Cu and its transformation and interaction with Ni and K is responsible for the production of CO/CO2 free hydrogen, thus producing an environmental friendly clean energy.

  18. Effect of preparation method on the catalytic activity of Au/CeO_2 for VOCs oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李锦卫; 黎维彬

    2010-01-01

    The Au/CeO2 catalysts were synthesized by co-precipitation (CP), deposition-precipitation (DP) and metallic colloids deposition (MCD) method, and tested for oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). It was revealed that the Au/CeO2 catalyst prepared by DP method was the most efficient catalyst towards the total oxidation of toluene. The Au/CeO2 catalysts had obviously high catalytic activity, and the best results was obtained on 3 wt.% Au/CeO2 catalyst prepared by DP method. These catalysts were chara...

  19. EFFECT OF MORPHOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF AMINOMETHYL POLYSTYRENE RESIN ON THE CATALYTIC PROPERTIES OF POLYMER-SUPPORTED RUTHENIUM COMPLEXES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren-ren Wang; Jia-qin Wang; Ce Luo; Zhe Zhang; Bi-tao Su; Zi-qiang Lei

    2009-01-01

    Polymer-supported ruthenium complexes (p)-Phen-Ru-①,(p)-Phen-Ru-②,(P)-Phen-Ru-③,(p)-Phen-Ru-④,morphological structures as supports.A variety of alcohols were oxidized efficiently into the corresponding ketones,carboxylic acids or aldehydes with iodosylbenzene (PhIO) catalyzed by aminomethyl polystyrene-supported ruthenium complexes under mild reaction conditions in acetonitrile.The influences of morphological structure of the polymer supporters on the catalytic properties of these metal complexes were investigated in detail.

  20. Catalytic distillation structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.

    1984-01-01

    Catalytic distillation structure for use in reaction distillation columns, a providing reaction sites and distillation structure and consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and being present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consist of at least 10 volume % open space.

  1. Catalytic combustor for hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercea, J.; Grecu, E.; Fodor, T.; Kreibik, S.

    1982-01-01

    The performance of catalytic combustors for hydrogen using platinum-supported catalysts is described. Catalytic plates of different sizes were constructed using fibrous and ceramic supports. The temperature distribution as well as the reaction efficiency as a function of the fuel input rate was determined, and a comparison between the performances of different plates is discussed.

  2. The effect of CNTs on structures and catalytic properties of AuPd clusters for H2O2 synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hua-feng; Xie, Peng-yang; Yu, Hui-you; Li, Xiao-nian; Wang, Jian-guo

    2012-12-28

    The structures and catalytic properties of AuPd clusters supported on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for H(2)O(2) synthesis have been investigated by means of density functional theory calculations. Firstly, the structures of AuPd clusters are strongly influenced by CNTs, in which the bottom layers are mainly composed of Pd and the top layers are a mix of Au and Pd due to the stronger binding of Pd than Au on CNTs. Especially, it is found that O(2) adsorption on the Pd/CNTs interfacial sites is much weaker than that on the only Pd sites, which is in contrast to transition metal oxide (for example TiO(2), Al(2)O(3), CeO(2)) supported metal clusters. Furthermore, Pd ensembles on the interfacial sites have far superior catalytic properties for H(2)O(2) formation than those away from CNT supports due to the changes in electronic structures caused by the CNTs. Therefore, our study provides a physical insight into the enhanced role of carbon supports in H(2)O(2) synthesis over supported AuPd catalysts. PMID:23032860

  3. Effect of MnO2 morphology on the catalytic oxidation of toluene over Ag/MnO2 catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiamin; Qu, Zhenping; Qin, Yuan; Wang, Hui

    2016-11-01

    The Ag/MnO2 catalysts with different morphologies (wire-like, rod-like and tube-like) are used as toluene oxidation catalysts in an attempt to investigate how the structures of support affect the interaction of Ag and MnO2, and thus the toluene catalytic activity. Analysis by TEM, H2-TPR and XPS measurements reveals that the structures of MnO2 influence the particle size and dispersion of silver particles and the combination of silver particles with MnO2. Meanwhile, the addition of Ag regulates the performance of MnO2. The small particle size and hemispherically shaped Ag particles are easily to form and homogeneously dispersed on the surface of wire-like MnO2. And this specific form of Ag shows the strongest interaction with MnO2, which promotes the low-temperature reducibility of support and generated more lattice oxygen in metal oxides. The Ag/MnO2 nanowires sample exhibits the highest reactivity for toluene oxidation with a complete conversion at 220 °C. Therefore, the excellent catalytic performance of Ag/MnO2 nanowires catalyst for toluene oxidation is clearly connected with the interaction between the Ag and MnO2, which is determined by the morphology of MnO2 support.

  4. Pt nanoparticles modified by rare earth oxides: Electronic effect and influence to catalytic hydrogenation of 3-phenoxybenzaldehyde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The rare earths modified Pt/Al2O3 were prepared by colloidal deposition method. • Modification of Pt by the rare earth enhanced catalytic hydrogenation activity. • The activity improvement is due to electron interaction between Pt and rare earth. • The hydrogenation mechanism of rare earth modified Pt catalyst was proposed. - Abstract: The rare earth elements (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Pr, and Gd) modified Pt/Al2O3 catalysts were prepared by the colloidal deposition and chemical reduction methods, respectively. Pt nanoparticles with average size 3 ± 0.5 nm were uniformly dispersed on the surface of Al2O3 for the samples prepared by the colloidal deposition method, which exhibited higher activities in the hydrogenation of 3-phenoxybenzadehyde than the corresponding samples prepared by chemical reduction method. Moreover, except Gd, the catalysts modified by rare earth elements showed better catalytic performance than unmodified Pt/Al2O3. For Pt–Ce/Al2O3 catalyst, when the weight percent of Pt and Ce was 0.5 and 0.25, respectively, the hydrogenation conversion of 3-phenoxybenzaldehyde was 97.3% after 6 h reaction. This activity improvement is due to the electronic interaction between Pt and rare earth elements, which was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

  5. Catalytic activity and effect of modifiers on Ni-based catalysts for the dry reforming of methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barroso-Quiroga, Maria Martha; Castro-Luna, Adolfo Eduardo [Facultad de Ingenieria y Ciencias Economico-Sociales INTEQUI-CONICET-UNSL, Av. 25 de Mayo 384 (5730) Villa Mercedes (S.L.) (Argentina)

    2010-06-15

    Ni catalysts supported on different ceramic oxides (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CeO{sub 2}, La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ZrO{sub 2}) were prepared by wet impregnation. The catalytic behavior toward hydrogen production through the dry reforming of methane using a fixed-bed reactor was evaluated under certain experimental conditions, and the catalyst supported on ZrO{sub 2} showed the highest stable activity during the period of time studied. The catalyst supported on CeO{sub 2} has a relatively good activity, but shows signs of deactivation after a certain time during the reaction. This catalyst was chosen to be studied after the addition of 0.5 wt% Li and K as activity modifiers. The introduction of the alkaline metals produces a reduction of the catalytic activity but a better stability over the reactant conversion time. The reverse water-gas shift reaction influences the global system of reactions, and as the results indicate, should be considered near equilibrium. (author)

  6. Catalytic spectrophotometric determination of trace vanadium in fly ash and coal gangue by Triton X-100 enhancing effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Changbin; HUANG Niandong

    2004-01-01

    Trace V(V) catalyzes mightily the decolorization reaction of arsenazo Ⅲ (AsA Ⅲ) by oxidizing with H2O2 in a pH 4.0 HAc-NaAc buffer solution, and the addition of Triton X-100 can further increase the sensitivity of the reaction and its catalytic extent is linear with the content of V(V). A catalytic spectrophotometric procedure for determining trace V(V)was developed. The results show that the maximun absorption of the color solution is at 560 nm and the detection limit of the method for V(V) is 0.014 mg@L-1 Beer's law is obeyed for V(V) in the range of 0.00-0.20 mg.L-1. The recoveries are 99.0%-104.6%, and the relative standard deviations (RSD) are 2.7%-3.7%. Combined with ion-exchange resin, the method has been applied to the determination of trace vanadium in fly ash and coal gangue with satisfactory results.

  7. Study on Effect and Catalytic Mechanism of the Catalysts for Coal Oxidation in Alkaline Medium%Study on Effect and Catalytic Mechanism of the Catalysts for Coal Oxidation in Alkaline Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘怀有; 吕经康; 赵永刚; 周尉; 印仁和

    2011-01-01

    Coal electro-oxidation in sodium hydroxide solution with catalysts, K3Fe(CN)6, sodium hypochlorite and sup- ported FeS, were investigated, respectively. Gas produced from electro-analysis of coal slurry was collected by drainage-method and l-t curves were recorded to testify the catalysis of each catalyst for coal oxidation. The results show that the three kinds of catalysts can obviously improve the coal oxidation current. Furthermore, K3Fe(CN)6 and sodium hypochlorite played an indirect oxidation role in the electrolysis process. Catalysts bridge the coal par- ticles and the solid electrode surface, thus increase the coal oxidation rates. The changes of catalyst content during the electrolysis were further determined by quantitative titration to discuss the catalytic Mechanism. The dynamic transition of K3Fe(CN)6/K4Fe(CN)6 and ClO^-/Cl^- are proposed by iodometric method.

  8. Effect of Mole Percentage of Crosslinker of Silver-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid Hybrid Microgels on Catalytic Reduction of Nitrobenzene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahoor H. FAROOQI

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid microgels [P(NIPAM-co-AAc] with 2, 4, 6 and 8 mole percentage of N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide were used as micro-reactors for the fabrication of Ag nanoparticles using the in situ reduction method. The pure and hybrid microgels were characterized by Fourier transform infrared and Ultraviolet-Visible spectroscopies. Silver-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid hybrid microgels [Ag-P(NIPAM-co-AAc] with different crosslinker contents were used as catalysts for reduction of nitrobenzene (NB in aqueous medium in order to investigate the effect of crosslinker content on the value of apparent rate constant (kapp. 0.041, 0.146, 0.2388 and 0.255 min-1 were found as values of kapp for catalytic reduction of NB using hybrid microgels with 2, 4, 6 and 8 mole percentage of crosslinker, respectively. The effect of crosslinker feed content of hybrid microgels on catalytic activity for reduction of NB was compared to that of reduction of p-nitrophenol in aqueous medium.

  9. Improvement of catalytical properties of two invertases highly tolerant to sucrose after expression in Pichia pastoris. Effect of glycosylation on enzyme properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez de los Santos, Ara Itzel; Cayetano-Cruz, Maribel; Gutiérrez-Antón, Marina; Santiago-Hernández, Alejandro; Plascencia-Espinosa, Miguel; Farrés, Amelia; Hidalgo-Lara, María Eugenia

    2016-02-01

    Zymomonas mobilis genes encoding INVA and INVB were expressed in Pichia pastoris, under the control of the strong AOX1 promoter, and the recombinant enzymes were named INVAAOX1 and INVBAOX1. The expression levels of INVAAOX1 (1660 U/mg) and INVBAOX1 (1993 U/mg) in P. pastoris were 9- and 7-fold higher than those observed for the native INVA and INVB proteins in Z. mobilis. INVAAOX1 and INVBAOX1 displayed a 2- to 3-fold higher substrate affinity, and a 2- to 200-fold higher catalytic efficiency (kcat/KM) than that observed for native INVA and INVB from Z. mobilis. Positive Schiff staining of INVAAOX1 and INVBAOX1 suggested a glycoprotein nature of both invertases. After deglycosylation of these enzymes, denoted D-INVAAOX1 and D-INVBAOX1, they exhibited a 1.3- and 3-fold lower catalytic efficiency (107 and 164 s(-1) mM(-1), respectively), and a 1.3- to 5-fold lower thermal stability than the glycosylated forms at temperatures of 35-45 °C. After deglycosylation no effect was observed in optimal pH, being of 5.5 for INVAAOX1, INVBAOX1, D-INVAAOX1 and D-INVBAOX1. The invertase activity of both enzymes increased in 80% (INVAAOX1) and 20% (INVBAOX1) in the presence of Mn(2+) at 1 mM and 5 mM, respectively. INVAAOX1 and INVBAOX1 were highly active at sucrose concentrations of up to 400 and 300 mM, respectively; however, the tolerance to sucrose decreased to 300 mM for D-INVAAOX1. Our findings suggest that glycosylation of INVAAOX1 and INVBAOX1 plays an important role in their thermal stability, catalytic efficiency, and tolerance to sucrose. In conclusion, the expression of INVA and INVB from Z. mobilis in P. pastoris yields new catalysts with improved catalytic properties, making them suitable candidates for a number of industrial applications or for the improvement of ethanol production from cane molasses.

  10. Improvement of catalytical properties of two invertases highly tolerant to sucrose after expression in Pichia pastoris. Effect of glycosylation on enzyme properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez de los Santos, Ara Itzel; Cayetano-Cruz, Maribel; Gutiérrez-Antón, Marina; Santiago-Hernández, Alejandro; Plascencia-Espinosa, Miguel; Farrés, Amelia; Hidalgo-Lara, María Eugenia

    2016-02-01

    Zymomonas mobilis genes encoding INVA and INVB were expressed in Pichia pastoris, under the control of the strong AOX1 promoter, and the recombinant enzymes were named INVAAOX1 and INVBAOX1. The expression levels of INVAAOX1 (1660 U/mg) and INVBAOX1 (1993 U/mg) in P. pastoris were 9- and 7-fold higher than those observed for the native INVA and INVB proteins in Z. mobilis. INVAAOX1 and INVBAOX1 displayed a 2- to 3-fold higher substrate affinity, and a 2- to 200-fold higher catalytic efficiency (kcat/KM) than that observed for native INVA and INVB from Z. mobilis. Positive Schiff staining of INVAAOX1 and INVBAOX1 suggested a glycoprotein nature of both invertases. After deglycosylation of these enzymes, denoted D-INVAAOX1 and D-INVBAOX1, they exhibited a 1.3- and 3-fold lower catalytic efficiency (107 and 164 s(-1) mM(-1), respectively), and a 1.3- to 5-fold lower thermal stability than the glycosylated forms at temperatures of 35-45 °C. After deglycosylation no effect was observed in optimal pH, being of 5.5 for INVAAOX1, INVBAOX1, D-INVAAOX1 and D-INVBAOX1. The invertase activity of both enzymes increased in 80% (INVAAOX1) and 20% (INVBAOX1) in the presence of Mn(2+) at 1 mM and 5 mM, respectively. INVAAOX1 and INVBAOX1 were highly active at sucrose concentrations of up to 400 and 300 mM, respectively; however, the tolerance to sucrose decreased to 300 mM for D-INVAAOX1. Our findings suggest that glycosylation of INVAAOX1 and INVBAOX1 plays an important role in their thermal stability, catalytic efficiency, and tolerance to sucrose. In conclusion, the expression of INVA and INVB from Z. mobilis in P. pastoris yields new catalysts with improved catalytic properties, making them suitable candidates for a number of industrial applications or for the improvement of ethanol production from cane molasses. PMID:26777250

  11. Cis-and Trans-Cinnamic Acids Have Different Effects on the Catalytic Properties of Arabidopsis Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyases PAL1, PAL2, PAL4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-Jie CHEN; Veerappan VIJAYKUMAR; Bing-Wen LU; Bing XIA; Ning LI

    2005-01-01

    Cis-cinnamic acid (CA) is a naturally occurring compound, presumably converted from transCA in higher plants. To investigate the effect of cis-CA on the activity of Arabidopsis phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), AtPAL1, AtPAL2, and AtPAL4 genes were isolated using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. These genes were fused to a glutathione S-transferase gene and overexpressed in a heterologous prokaryotic system of Escherichia coli. The purified PAL1, PAL2 and PAL4 enzymes were characterized biochemically to determine the effects of cis-CA on the kinetic parameter Km. The results showed that cis-CA is a competitive inhibitor for PAL1, but not PAL2 and PAL4, whereas trans-CA acts as a competitive inhibitor for all three PAL isomers, suggesting that cis- and trans-CA have different effects on the catalytic activity of PAL.

  12. Effect of manufacturing methods of AgCl/Al2O3 catalyst on selective catalytic reduction of NOx

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Satoshi Kishida; Dong-Ying Ju; Hirofumi Aritani

    2011-01-01

    The AgCl/Al2O3 catalyst has potential for use in the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx. A compound hydrocarbon, following oxygenation is used as a type of reducing agent. In this experiment, the AgCl/Al2O3 catalyst was produced by four different methods,and the differences among their reduction catalysis of NOx were compared. Ethanol was used as a type of reducing agent. X-ray diffraction analysis was performed to study the crystalline structure and scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were applied to determine the microindentation. The results indicated that, in the range of 350-400℃, there was no significant difference on the NOx reduction rate; however, there was dispersion at high and low temperature ranges. The size of the AgCl particles was about 20-100 nm.

  13. The effect of microstructural properties of CoCr2O4 spinel oxides on catalytic combustion of dichloromethane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Di; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Jia, Ai-Pin; Luo, Meng-Fei; Lu, Ji-Qing

    2016-04-01

    It was found that a series of spinel CoCr2O4 oxides were very active and selective for dichloromethane combustion, and the best performance was obtained on a catalyst calcined at 600 °C (with a areal specific reaction rate of 3.41 × 10-8 molCH2Cl2 s-1 m-2 at 220 °C). Quantitative analyses revealed that Cr3+/Cr6+ cations could partially substitute Co3+ cations in the octahedral sites of the spinel oxide at high-temperature calcination and thus to enhanced reducibility and surface acidity of the oxide, which synergistically governed the observed catalytic behaviors. Moreover, it was found that high valent Cr species (Cr6+) played very important role in the reaction, with a much higher turnover frequency (2.2 × 10-3 s-1) than that of the Cr3+ (0.56 × 10-3 s-1).

  14. Effects of metal elements in catalytic growth of carbon nanotubes/graphene: A first principles DFT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jingde; Croiset, Eric; Ricardez-Sandoval, Luis, E-mail: laricard@uwaterloo.ca

    2014-10-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Role of metals in the catalytic growth of CNTs or graphene was studied using DFT. • The results explain why Ni-based catalyst is suitable for growing CNTs. • Cu based alloys, e.g. Cu{sub 8}Ni, are found appropriate catalyst for graphene synthesis. - Abstract: Role of metals in the catalytic Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) or graphene was investigated using DFT. Crucial processes involved in the growth of CNTs/graphene: methane dissociation to produce C, C diffusion and nucleation kinetics were studied on the (1 1 1) surface of different transition metals, i.e., Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu. Based on the DFT calculation results, the present study explains why Ni-based catalyst is a suitable CVD substrate for growing CNTs: it has a moderate reactivity towards methane dissociation; low energy barrier for C atom surface diffusion, which makes C to diffuse easily to the metal/CNTs edges and contribute to CNTs growth; relatively high nucleation barriers, making it more resistant for deactivation caused by the cover of carbon clusters. Meanwhile, this study also shows that Cu may be an appropriate catalyst for graphene synthesis due to the particularly low diffusion and nucleation barriers of C atoms on Cu, which suggest that C atoms tend to be more uniformly distributed and nucleate easily on the Cu surface. Key limitation of Cu is the low reactivity of this metal towards methane dissociation. Since Fe and Ni are very reactive towards C-H bond breaking, Cu based alloys, e.g. Cu{sub 8}Ni, were proposed as a suitable catalyst for graphene production.

  15. The effect of noble metals on catalytic methanation reaction over supported Mn/Ni oxide based catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Azelee Wan Abu Bakar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide (CO2 in sour natural gas can be removed using green technology via catalytic methanation reaction by converting CO2 to methane (CH4 gas. Using waste to wealth concept, production of CH4 would increase as well as creating environmental friendly approach for the purification of natural gas. In this research, a series of alumina supported manganese–nickel oxide based catalysts doped with noble metals such as ruthenium and palladium were prepared by wetness impregnation method. The prepared catalysts were run catalytic screening process using in-house built micro reactor coupled with Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR spectroscopy to study the percentage CO2 conversion and CH4 formation analyzed by GC. Ru/Mn/Ni(5:35:60/Al2O3 calcined at 1000 °C was found to be the potential catalyst which gave 99.74% of CO2 conversion and 72.36% of CH4 formation at 400 °C reaction temperature. XRD diffractogram illustrated that the supported catalyst was in polycrystalline with some amorphous state at 1000 °C calcination temperature with the presence of NiO as active site. According to FESEM micrographs, both fresh and used catalysts displayed spherical shape with small particle sizes in agglomerated and aggregated mixture. Nitrogen Adsorption analysis revealed that both catalysts were in mesoporous structures with BET surface area in the range of 46–60 m2/g. All the impurities have been removed at 1000 °C calcination temperature as presented by FTIR, TGA–DTA and EDX data.

  16. Investigation on the catalytic effects of AAEM during steam gasification and the resultant char reactivity in oxygen using Shengli lignite at different forms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianxin Mi; Ningbo Wang; Mingfeng Wang; Pengju Huo; Dan Liu

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the catalytic effects of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species (AAEM) on char conversion during the gasification in steam and the changes in ex-situ char reactivity in oxygen after the gasification in steam using different forms (i.e. H-form, Na-form) of Shengli brown coal. The surface area, AAEM concentration and carbon crystallite of chars were obtained to understand the change in char reactivity. It was found that not only Na concentration and carbon structure were the main factors governing the char reactivity in the atmosphere of steam and oxygen, but also they interacted each other. The presence of Na could facilitate the formation of disordering carbon structure in char, and the amorphous carbon structure would in turn affect the distribution of Na and thus its catalytic performance. The surface area and pore volume had very little relationship with the char’s reactivity. Addi-tionally, the morphology of chars from different forms of coals were observed using scanning electron microscope (SEM).

  17. Effects of Intermediate Metabolites of 37 Xenobiotics on the Catalytic Activities of Reconstituted Cytochrome P—450IIB1 and P—4501A1 Enzyme Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGMINGXUE; VANGLIE; 等

    1993-01-01

    Direct effects of intermediate metabolites of 37 different xenobiotics on the catalytic activities of bothn reconstitute cytochrome P-450ⅡP-45PIA1 enzyme systems were studied by determination of NADPH oxidation at various intervals after initiation of the reaction.The results showed that cytochrome P-4500ⅡB isozyme was much more likely than cytochrome P-450IA1 isozyme to be attacked by the reactive intermediates formed by some xenobiotics with smaller molecular weight and lose its catalytics activities.These xenobiotics were carbon tetrachloride,chloroform,carbon disulfide,benzene,parathion, methylparathion,methyldurshan and dimethylnitrosamine.In contrast,however,steadily increasing metabolic activities were observed toards benzo(a)pyrene,3-methylcholanthrene and polychlorinated biphenyls in reconstituted cytochrome P-450IA1 enzyme system as the reaction time prolonged within 4min.The method discussed in this paper could e be used as a simple and convenient way to observe directly the autocatalytic destruction of P-450 enzymes by soe chemical agents.

  18. Effect of preparation conditions on the catalytic performance of cobalt manganese oxide catalysts for conversion of synthesis gas to light olefins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirzaei, Ali A.; Faizi, Mostafa; Habibpour, Razieh [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan 98135-674 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2006-06-07

    Cobalt manganese oxides are prepared using a co-precipitation procedure and studied for the conversion of synthesis gas to light olefins. In particular, the effect of a range of preparation variables is investigated in detail. The variables investigated include the precipitate ageing time, pH and temperature of precipitation, the [Co]/[Mn] ratio of the precipitation solution and also reactor conditions such as reaction temperature and H{sub 2}/CO molar feed ratio. The effect of different supports on the activity and selectivity of catalysts are also studied. The optimum preparation conditions are identified with respect to catalytic performance for the conversion of synthesis gas to ethylene and propylene. The results are interpreted in terms of the structure of the active catalyst. Generally it has been concluded that catalysts containing cobalt manganese mixed phases are found to be the most active. (author)

  19. The poisoning effect of Na and K on Mn/TiO2 catalyst for selective catalytic reduction of NO with NH3: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rui-tang; Wang, Qing-shan; Pan, Wei-guo; Zhen, Wen-long; Chen, Qi-lin; Ding, Hong-lei; Yang, Ning-zhi; Lu, Chen-zi

    2014-10-01

    Mn/TiO2 catalyst is of high activity for low temperature selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO with NH3. And the deposition of alkali metal would lead to the deactivation of Mn/TiO2 catalyst. In this paper, the poisoning effect of Na and K on Mn/TiO2 was investigated based on experimental and theoretical study. It was found that K had a stronger poisoning effect than that of Na. The bad performance of K-Mn/TiO2 may be due to its small surface area, high crystallinity, weak surface acidity, low content of Mn4+ and chemisorbed oxygen, and bad redox ability. The interpretation of the experimental results is supported by DFT calculations.

  20. Catalytic distillation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.

    1982-01-01

    A method for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C.sub.4 feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

  1. Catalytic Functions of Standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Blind (Knut)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe three different areas and the examples have illustrated several catalytic functions of standards for innovation. First, the standardisation process reduces the time to market of inventions, research results and innovative technologies. Second, standards themselves promote the diffusi

  2. Catalytic behavior and synergistic effect of nanostructured mesoporous CuO-MnO{sub x}-CeO{sub 2} catalysts for chlorobenzene destruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Chi, E-mail: chi_he@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Yu, Yanke [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Shen, Qun [Research Center for Greenhouse Gases and Environmental Engineering, Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201210 (China); Chen, Jinsheng, E-mail: jschen@iue.ac.cn [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Qiao, Nanli [Department of Environmental Nano-materials, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2014-04-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Mesoporous CuO-MnO{sub x}-CeO{sub 2} oxides with enhanced reducibility and oxygen mobility. • Incorporation of Cu and Mn ions causes abundant crystal defects and oxygen vacancies. • Surface oxygen concentration and active oxygen mobility determine the catalytic efficiency. • Catalysts with conspicuous chlorobenzene low-temperature removal activity and durability. - Abstract: Mesoporous CuO-MnO{sub x}-CeO{sub 2} composite metal oxides with different copper and manganese loadings were prepared by a urea-assistant hydrothermal method, and were further adopted for the complete catalytic combustion of chlorobenzene. The effects of reaction conditions such as inlet reagent concentration and water feed concentration on chlorobenzene combustion were also studied. The structure and textural properties of the synthesized catalysts were characterized via the XRD, N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption, FE-SEM, TEM, H{sub 2}-TPR, O{sub 2}-TPD, and XPS techniques. The characterization results reveal that the presence of a small amount of Mn species can facilitate the incorporation of Cu and Mn ions into ceria lattice to form Cu-Mn-Ce-O solid solution. The synergistic effect of Cu and Mn species can reduce the redox potential of the composite catalysts, and produce large amounts of oxygen vacancies in the interface of CuO{sub x}, MnO{sub x}, and CeO{sub 2} oxides. The catalyst with Cu/Mn atomic ratio of 1/1 exhibits the best chlorobenzene elimination capability, oxidizing about 95% of the inlet chlorobenzene at 264 °C with CO{sub 2} selectivity higher than 99.5%. The concentration and mobility of the chemically adsorbed oxygen are vital for the effective removal of surface Cl species, which inhibits the dissociation of oxygen molecules and decreases the reducibility of the copper and manganese species. It can be rationally concluded that the superior catalytic performance and durability of the mesoporous CuO-MnO{sub x}-CeO{sub 2} composite

  3. Urea and methylamine effects on rabbit muscle phosphofructokinase. Catalytic stability and aggregation state as a function of pH and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, S C; Somero, G N

    1982-01-25

    The effects of urea and several methylamine solutes on the catalytic stability and aggregation properties of rabbit muscle phosphofructokinase were assessed at physiologically realistic concentrations of the solutes under several pH and temperature regimes. The loss of catalytic activity observed under conditions of pH-induced cold lability was significantly reduced in the presence of trimethylamine-N-oxide, N-trimethylglycine and N-methylglycine (order of decreasing effectiveness). The concentration-dependent methylamine stabilization of the enzyme, seen with as little as 50 mM trimethylamine-N-oxide, was accompanied by increased aggregation of the enzyme to molecular weights greater than the tetramer (polytetramer) as solute concentration was raised to 400 mM. At pH 6.5-6.7 and 25 degrees C, concentrations of urea greater than 25 mM promoted a time-dependent inactivation of the enzyme which was enhanced at lower temperatures. The urea sensitivity of the enzyme exhibited with 0.8 M urea for 1 h at pH 8.0 did not result in measurable inactivation. The fluorescence emission wavelength maximum of the enzyme was shifted to longer wavelengths and the fluorescence intensity was increased as pH was lowered to 7.0, suggesting the occurrence of a protein conformation change as specific amino acid residues of the tetramer became protonated. Measurements of enzyme light scattering indicated that perturbation by urea was correlated with tetramer dissociation, which was irreversible by dialysis at 25 degrees C. The urea and methylamine influences on phosphofructokinase activity and structure were not counteracting. The synergistic interactions among pH, temperature, and solutes observed with phosphofructokinase are compared to effects on other associating-dissociating protein systems in order to evaluate possible mechanisms of action of these low molecular weight solutes. PMID:6459323

  4. Catalytic ignition of light hydrocarbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. L. Hohn; C.-C. Huang; C. Cao

    2009-01-01

    Catalytic ignition refers to phenomenon where sufficient energy is released from a catalytic reaction to maintain further reaction without additional extemai heating. This phenomenon is important in the development of catalytic combustion and catalytic partial oxidation processes, both of which have received extensive attention in recent years. In addition, catalytic ignition studies provide experimental data which can be used to test theoretical hydrocarbon oxidation models. For these reasons, catalytic ignition has been frequently studied. This review summarizes the experimental methods used to study catalytic ignition of light hydrocarbons and describes the experimental and theoretical results obtained related to catalytic ignition. The role of catalyst metal, fuel and fuel concentration, and catalyst state in catalytic ignition are examined, and some conclusions are drawn on the mechanism of catalytic ignition.

  5. Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis of Lignin over High-Surface-Area Mesoporous Aluminosilicates: Effect of Porosity and Acidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodis, Victoria B F; Karakoulia, Stamatia A; Triantafyllidis, Kostas S; van Bokhoven, Jeroen A

    2016-05-23

    Catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) of lignin with amorphous mesoporous aluminosilicates catalysts yields a high fraction of aromatics and a relatively low amount of char/coke. The relationship between the acidity and porosity of Al-MCM-41, Al-SBA-15, and Al-MSU-J with product selectivity during lignin CFP is determined. The acid sites (mild Brønsted and stronger Lewis) are able to catalyze pyrolysis intermediates towards fewer oxygenated phenols and aromatic hydrocarbons. A generalized correlation of the product selectivity and yield with the aluminum content and acidity of the mesoporous aluminosilicates is hard to establish. Zeolitic strong acid sites are not required to achieve high conversion and selectivity to aromatic hydrocarbon because nanosized MCM-41 produces a high liquid yield and selectivity. The two most essential parameters are diffusion, which is influenced by pore and grain size, and the active site, which may be mildly acidic, but is dominated by Lewis acid sites. Nanosized grains and mild acidity are essential ingredients for a good lignin CFP catalyst. PMID:27079742

  6. A novel hydrolysis method to synthesize chromium hydroxide nanoparticles and its catalytic effect in the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Synthesis of Cr(OH)3 nanoparticles in Cr3+–F− aqueous solution. ► The F− ion tailors coagulated materials, Cr(OH)3 nanoparticles are obtained. ► Adding nanosized Cr(OH)3, AP thermal decomposition temperature decreases to 200 °C. ► The nanosized Cr(OH)3 catalyzes NH3 oxidation, accelerating AP thermal decomposition. - Abstract: A procedure for the preparation of spherical Cr(OH)3 nanoparticles was developed based on the aging of chromium nitrate aqueous solutions in the presence of sodium fluoride, urea, and polyvinylpyrrolidone. Using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy, the morphological characteristics of Cr(OH)3 were controlled by altering the molar ratio of fluoride ion to chromium ion, as well as the initial pH and chromium ion concentration. The prepared nanosized Cr(OH)3 decreased the temperature required to decompose ammonium perchlorate from 450 °C to about 250 °C as the catalyst. The possible catalytic mechanism of the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate was also discussed.

  7. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. Technical progress report, August 1992--November 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, C.; Huang, L.; Wenzel, K.; Saini, A.K.; Burgess, C.; Hatcher, P.G.; Schobert, H.H.

    1992-12-01

    During this quarterly period progress has been made in the following three subjects related to the effects of low-temperature thermal and catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. First, the liquefaction behavior of three bituminous coals with a carbon content ranging from 77% to 85% was evaluated spectroscopically by {sup 13}C NMR and pyrolysis/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to delineate the structural changes that occur in the coal during liquefaction. Complementary data includes ultimate and proximate analysis, along with optical microscopy for maceral determinations. Even though these are all bituminous coals they exhibit quite different physical and chemical characteristics. The coals vary in rank, ranging from HvC b to HvA b, in petrographic composition, different maceral percentages, and in chemical nature, percent of carbon and of volatiles. It is these variations that govern the products, their distribution, and conversion percentages. Some of the products formed can be traced to a specific maceral group. Second, pyrolysis-GC-MS and FTIR techniques were used to characterize Wyodak coal before and after drying in vacuum and in air and the residues from its thermal and catalytic liquefactions. The analysis of the air-dried coal shows a decrease in the phenolic type structures in the coal network and increase in the carbonyl structures as the oxidative drying proceeds. An enhanced decrease in the carbonyl structure is observed in the liquefaction residues from the raw coal as compared to that of the vacuum dried coal. The analyses of the liquefaction residues of the air-dried coal show an increase in the ether linkages which may have a negative impact on liquefaction. The extent of the solvent adduction also increases during liquefaction with the extent of oxidation of the coal. Finally, the effects of reaction conditions were investigated on conversion of low-rank coals using a Texas subbituminous coal.

  8. Turning goals into results: the power of catalytic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, J

    1999-01-01

    Most executives have a big, hairy, audacious goal. They write vision statements, formalize procedures, and develop complicated incentive programs--all in pursuit of that goal. In other words, with the best of intentions, they install layers of stultifying bureaucracy. But it doesn't have to be that way. In this article, Jim Collins introduces the catalytic mechanism, a simple yet powerful managerial tool that helps translate lofty aspirations into concrete reality. Catalytic mechanisms are the crucial link between objectives and performance; they are a galvanizing, nonbureaucratic means to turn one into the other. What's the difference between catalytic mechanisms and most traditional managerial controls? Catalytic mechanisms share five characteristics. First, they produce desired results in unpredictable ways. Second, they distribute power for the benefit of the overall system, often to the discomfort of those who traditionally hold power. Third, catalytic mechanisms have teeth. Fourth, they eject "viruses"--those people who don't share the company's core values. Finally, they produce an ongoing effect. Catalytic mechanisms are just as effective for reaching individual goals as they are for corporate ones. To illustrate how catalytic mechanisms work, the author draws on examples of individuals and organizations that have relied on such mechanisms to achieve their goals. The same catalytic mechanism that works in one organization, however, will not necessarily work in another. Catalytic mechanisms must be tailored to specific goals and situations. To help readers get started, the author offers some general principles that support the process of building catalytic mechanisms effectively. PMID:10539210

  9. The selective catalytic reduction of NO with NH3 over a novel Ce-Sn-Ti mixed oxides catalyst: Promotional effect of SnO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ming'e.; Li, Caiting; Zeng, Guangming; Zhou, Yang; Zhang, Xunan; Xie, Yin'e.

    2015-07-01

    A series of novel catalysts (CexSny) for the selective catalytic reduction of NO by NH3 were prepared by the inverse co-precipitation method. The aim of this novel design was to improve the NO removal efficiency of CeTi by the introduction of SnO2. It was found that the Ce-Sn-Ti catalyst was much more active than Ce-Ti and the best Ce:Sn molar ratio was 2:1. Ce2Sn1 possessed a satisfied NO removal efficiency at low temperature (160-280 °C), while over 90% NO removal efficiency maintained in the temperature range of 280-400 °C at the gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) of 50,000 h-1. Besides, Ce2Sn1 kept a stable NO removal efficiency within a wide range of GHSV and a long period of reacting time. Meanwhile, Ce2Sn1 exhibited remarkable resistance to both respectively and simultaneously H2O and SO2 poisoning due to the introduction of SnO2. The promotional effect of SnO2 was studied by N2 adsorption-desorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and H2 temperature programmed reduction (H2-TPR) for detail information. The characterization results revealed that the excellent catalytic performance of Ce2Sn1 was associated with the higher specific surface area, larger pore volume and poorer crystallization. Besides, the introduction of SnO2 could result in not only greater conversion of Ce4+ to Ce3+ but also the increase amount of chemisorbed oxygen, which are beneficial to improve the SCR activity. More importantly, a novel peak appearing at lower temperatures through the new redox equilibrium of 2Ce4+ + Sn2+ ↔ 2Ce3+ + Sn4+ and higher total H2 consumption can be obtained by the addition of SnO2. Finally, the possible reaction mechanism of the selective catalytic reduction over Ce2Sn1 was also proposed.

  10. Effects of catalytic mineral matter CO/CO[sub 2] ratio on temperature and burning time for char combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longwell, J.P.; Sarofim, A.F.; Tognotti, L.; Du, Zhiyou.

    1989-01-01

    The temperature of a char particle burning in an oxygen containing atmosphere is the product of a strongly coupled balance between particle size and physical properties, heat transfer from the particle, surface reactivity, CO/CO[sub 2] ratio and gas phase diffusion in the surrounding boundary layer and within the particle. The heat released by formation Of CO[sub 2] is a factor of 3.5 higher than for CO so the temperature of a particle will depend strongly on the CO/CO[sub 2] ratio produced. If gas diffusion through the boundary layer is fast, increased direct production of CO[sub 2] produces a higher temperature and a higher burning rate. If the supply of oxygen to the surface is limited by diffusion through the boundary layer, production of CO[sub 2] consumes half as much carbon as production of CO so carbon consumption rate is reduced even though temperature may be somewhat higher. Models of these complex interaction have been developed; however, the CO/CO[sub 2] ratio produced by the carbon-oxygen reaction must, at present be assumed or inferred from measurement of particle temperature. CO/CO[sub 2] rates can be strongly influenced by catalytic material in the carbon and by the char temperature. In this program we are measuring the CO/CO[sub 2] ratio for both catalyzed and uncatalyzed chars over a wide range of temperature. These results will then be used to develop predictive models for char temperature and burning rates.

  11. Effect of the L499M mutation of the ascomycetous Botrytis aclada laccase on redox potential and catalytic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipov, Evgeny; Polyakov, Konstantin; Kittl, Roman; Shleev, Sergey; Dorovatovsky, Pavel; Tikhonova, Tamara; Hann, Stephan; Ludwig, Roland; Popov, Vladimir

    2014-11-01

    Laccases are members of a large family of multicopper oxidases that catalyze the oxidation of a wide range of organic and inorganic substrates accompanied by the reduction of dioxygen to water. These enzymes contain four Cu atoms per molecule organized into three sites: T1, T2 and T3. In all laccases, the T1 copper ion is coordinated by two histidines and one cysteine in the equatorial plane and is covered by the side chains of hydrophobic residues in the axial positions. The redox potential of the T1 copper ion influences the enzymatic reaction and is determined by the nature of the axial ligands and the structure of the second coordination sphere. In this work, the laccase from the ascomycete Botrytis aclada was studied, which contains conserved Ile491 and nonconserved Leu499 residues in the axial positions. The three-dimensional structures of the wild-type enzyme and the L499M mutant were determined by X-ray crystallography at 1.7 Å resolution. Crystals suitable for X-ray analysis could only be grown after deglycosylation. Both structures did not contain the T2 copper ion. The catalytic properties of the enzyme were characterized and the redox potentials of both enzyme forms were determined: E0 = 720 and 580 mV for the wild-type enzyme and the mutant, respectively. Since the structures of the wild-type and mutant forms are very similar, the change in the redox potential can be related to the L499M mutation in the T1 site of the enzyme. PMID:25372682

  12. Catalytic coherence transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Kaifeng; Singh, Uttam; Wu, Junde

    2016-04-01

    Catalytic coherence transformations allow the otherwise impossible state transformations using only incoherent operations with the aid of an auxiliary system with finite coherence that is not being consumed in any way. Here we find the necessary and sufficient conditions for the deterministic and stochastic catalytic coherence transformations between a pair of pure quantum states. In particular, we show that the simultaneous decrease of a family of Rényi entropies of the diagonal parts of the states under consideration is a necessary and sufficient condition for the deterministic catalytic coherence transformations. Similarly, for stochastic catalytic coherence transformations we find the necessary and sufficient conditions for achieving a higher optimal probability of conversion. We thus completely characterize the coherence transformations among pure quantum states under incoherent operations. We give numerous examples to elaborate our results. We also explore the possibility of the same system acting as a catalyst for itself and find that indeed self-catalysis is possible. Further, for the cases where no catalytic coherence transformation is possible we provide entanglement-assisted coherence transformations and find the necessary and sufficient conditions for such transformations.

  13. Effect of CeO2 on the catalytic performance of Ni/Al2O3 for autothermal reforming of methane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiulan Cai; Xinfa Dong; Weiming Lin

    2008-01-01

    The effect of promoter Ce on the catalytic performance of N1/Al2O3 catalyst for autothermal reforming of methane to hydrogen was investigated. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicated that the catalytic performance of the catalysts was improved with the addition of Ce. Ni/Ce3oAl70Oδ showed the highest CH4 conversion in operation temperatures ranging from 650 ℃ to 850 ℃. At the same time, the decrease in H2/CO ratio with increasing reaction temperature was consistent with the fact that water-gas shift reaction was thermodynamically unfavorable at higher temperatures. The XRD result indicated that adding Ce to N1/AI2O3 catalyst prevented the formation of NiAl2O4 and facilitated the formation of NiO. The formation of NiO increased the number of active sites, resulting in higher activity. Comparing the TPR profiles of Ni/Ce30Al70Oδ with Ni/Al2O3, it could be clearly observed that with the addition of Ce, the total reduction peak areas in the middle and low temperatures increased. It was most probably that the addition of Ce inhibited the stronger interaction between Ni and Al2O3 to form the phase of NiAl2O4, and favored the formation of the strong interaction between NiO species and CeO2. Therefore, the addition of Ce to the N1/AI2O3 catalyst increased the active surface that promoted the activity of the catalyst.

  14. Effect of the L499M mutation of the ascomycetous Botrytis aclada laccase on redox potential and catalytic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osipov, Evgeny [A. N. Bach Institute of Biochemistry, Leninsky Prospect 33/2, Moscow 119071 (Russian Federation); Polyakov, Konstantin [A. N. Bach Institute of Biochemistry, Leninsky Prospect 33/2, Moscow 119071 (Russian Federation); Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology, Vavilova Str. 32, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Kittl, Roman [BOKU – University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Muthgasse 18, 1190 Wien (Austria); Shleev, Sergey [RSC ‘Kurchatov Institute’, Acad. Kurchatov Sq. 1, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Malmö University, 205 06 Malmö (Sweden); Dorovatovsky, Pavel [RSC ‘Kurchatov Institute’, Acad. Kurchatov Sq. 1, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Tikhonova, Tamara, E-mail: ttikhonova@inbi.ras.ru [A. N. Bach Institute of Biochemistry, Leninsky Prospect 33/2, Moscow 119071 (Russian Federation); Hann, Stephan; Ludwig, Roland [BOKU – University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Muthgasse 18, 1190 Wien (Austria); Popov, Vladimir [A. N. Bach Institute of Biochemistry, Leninsky Prospect 33/2, Moscow 119071 (Russian Federation); RSC ‘Kurchatov Institute’, Acad. Kurchatov Sq. 1, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-01

    The structures of the ascomycetous B. aclada laccase and its L499M T1-site mutant have been solved at 1.7 Å resolution. The mutant enzyme shows a 140 mV lower redox potential of the type 1 copper and altered kinetic behaviour. The wild type and the mutant have very similar structures, which makes it possible to relate the changes in the redox potential to the L499M mutation Laccases are members of a large family of multicopper oxidases that catalyze the oxidation of a wide range of organic and inorganic substrates accompanied by the reduction of dioxygen to water. These enzymes contain four Cu atoms per molecule organized into three sites: T1, T2 and T3. In all laccases, the T1 copper ion is coordinated by two histidines and one cysteine in the equatorial plane and is covered by the side chains of hydrophobic residues in the axial positions. The redox potential of the T1 copper ion influences the enzymatic reaction and is determined by the nature of the axial ligands and the structure of the second coordination sphere. In this work, the laccase from the ascomycete Botrytis aclada was studied, which contains conserved Ile491 and nonconserved Leu499 residues in the axial positions. The three-dimensional structures of the wild-type enzyme and the L499M mutant were determined by X-ray crystallography at 1.7 Å resolution. Crystals suitable for X-ray analysis could only be grown after deglycosylation. Both structures did not contain the T2 copper ion. The catalytic properties of the enzyme were characterized and the redox potentials of both enzyme forms were determined: E{sub 0} = 720 and 580 mV for the wild-type enzyme and the mutant, respectively. Since the structures of the wild-type and mutant forms are very similar, the change in the redox potential can be related to the L499M mutation in the T1 site of the enzyme.

  15. Catalytic Conversion of Biofuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Betina

    This thesis describes the catalytic conversion of bioethanol into higher value chemicals. The motivation has been the unavoidable coming depletion of the fossil resources. The thesis is focused on two ways of utilising ethanol; the steam reforming of ethanol to form hydrogen and the partial oxida...

  16. Catalytic Phosphination and Arsination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kwong Fuk Yee; Chan Kin Shing

    2004-01-01

    The catalytic, user-friendly phosphination and arsination of aryl halides and triflates by triphenylphosphine and triphenylarsine using palladium catalysts have provided a facile synthesis of functionalized aryl phosphines and arsines in neutral media. Modification of the cynaoarisne yielded optically active N, As ligands which will be screened in various asymmetric catalysis.

  17. Catalytic efficiency of designed catalytic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korendovych, Ivan V; DeGrado, William F

    2014-08-01

    The de novo design of catalysts that mimic the affinity and specificity of natural enzymes remains one of the Holy Grails of chemistry. Despite decades of concerted effort we are still unable to design catalysts as efficient as enzymes. Here we critically evaluate approaches to (re)design of novel catalytic function in proteins using two test cases: Kemp elimination and ester hydrolysis. We show that the degree of success thus far has been modest when the rate enhancements seen for the designed proteins are compared with the rate enhancements by small molecule catalysts in solvents with properties similar to the active site. Nevertheless, there are reasons for optimism: the design methods are ever improving and the resulting catalyst can be efficiently improved using directed evolution.

  18. Catalytic bioscavengers in nerve agent poisoning: A promising approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worek, Franz; Thiermann, Horst; Wille, Timo

    2016-02-26

    The repeated use of the nerve agent sarin against civilians in Syria in 2013 emphasizes the continuing threat by chemical warfare agents. Multiple studies demonstrated a limited efficacy of standard atropine-oxime treatment in nerve agent poisoning and called for the development of alternative and more effective treatment strategies. A novel approach is the use of stoichiometric or catalytic bioscavengers for detoxification of nerve agents in the systemic circulation prior to distribution into target tissues. Recent progress in the design of enzyme mutants with reversed stereo selectivity resulting in improved catalytic activity and their use in in vivo studies supports the concept of catalytic bioscavengers. Yet, further research is necessary to improve the catalytic activity, substrate spectrum and in vivo biological stability of enzyme mutants. The pros and cons of catalytic bioscavengers will be discussed in detail and future requirements for the development of catalytic bioscavengers will be proposed.

  19. High pressure effect on the luminescence spectra of Eu^3+ in catalytically active Eu(SO_4)_2·NH4 microcrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascales, C.; Sanchez-Benitez, J.; de Andres, A.; Monge, M. A.; Snejko, N.

    2003-03-01

    Nd(SO_4)_2·NH4 is a good hydrogenation catalyst, with high selectivity in the oxidation of organic sulfides. The isostructural Eu(SO_4)_2·NH4 has been chosen to study the effect of pressures up to 87 Kbar on the luminescent spectra, at room temperature, using afterward the observed shifts of the energy levels as a probe of the distortion of the crystalline environment of the Eu^3+ site. From the crystal-field CF analysis of optical transitions from ^5D0 to ^7F_0-4, a set of CF parameters has been deduced for each spectrum. The strong dependence between the applied pressure and CF parameters has been established, especially for B^2_q, whose magnitudes are directly related to the close-range coordination of the Eu^3+ ion. Parallel simulations of CF effects through the Simple Overlap Model have been performed for different possible distortions affecting the Eu^3+ crystal environment. The study of trends in the evolution of experimental CF parameters along with the comparison with the above calculated ones allow an evaluation of the kind of short-range deformation around Eu^3+, of interest regarding the potential enhancement of the catalytic activity of this series of new rare-earth sulfates.

  20. Catalytically favorable surface patterns in Pt-Au nanoclusters

    KAUST Repository

    Mokkath, Junais Habeeb

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by recent experimental demonstrations of novel PtAu nanoparticles with highly enhanced catalytic properties, we present a systematic theoretical study that explores principal catalytic indicators as a function of the particle size and composition. We find that Pt electronic states in the vicinity of the Fermi level combined with a modified electron distribution in the nanoparticle due to Pt-to-Au charge transfer are the origin of the outstanding catalytic properties. From our model we deduce the catalytically favorable surface patterns that induce ensemble and ligand effects. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013.

  1. The effect of soot on ammonium nitrate species and NO2 selective catalytic reduction over Cu-zeolite catalyst-coated particulate filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihai, Oana; Tamm, Stefanie; Stenfeldt, Marie; Olsson, Louise

    2016-02-28

    A selective catalytic reduction (SCR)-coated particulate filter was evaluated by means of dynamic tests performed using NH3, NO2, O2 and H2O. The reactions were examined both prior to and after soot removal in order to study the effect of soot on ammonium nitrate formation and decomposition, ammonia storage and NO2 SCR. A slightly larger ammonia storage capacity was observed when soot was present in the sample, which indicated that small amounts of ammonia can adsorb on the soot. Feeding of NO2 and NH3 in the presence of O2 and H2O at low temperature (150, 175 and 200°C) leads to a large formation of ammonium nitrate species and during the subsequent temperature ramp using H2O and argon, a production of nitrous oxides was observed. The N2O formation is often related to ammonium nitrate decomposition, and our results showed that the N2O formation was clearly decreased by the presence of soot. We therefore propose that in the presence of soot, there are fewer ammonium nitrate species on the surface due to the interactions with the soot. Indeed, we do observe CO2 production during the reaction conditions also at 150°C, which shows that there is a reaction with these species and soot. In addition, the conversion of NOx due to NO2 SCR was significantly enhanced in the presence of soot; we attribute this to the smaller amount of ammonium nitrate species present in the experiments where soot is available since it is well known that ammonium nitrate formation is a major problem at low temperature due to the blocking of the catalytic sites. Further, a scanning electron microscopy analysis of the soot particles shows that they are about 30-40 nm and are therefore too large to enter the pores of the zeolites. There are likely CuxOy or other copper species available on the outside of the zeolite crystallites, which could have been enhanced due to the hydrothermal treatment at 850°C of the SCR-coated filter prior to the soot loading. We therefore propose that soot is

  2. Effect of K{sub 2}O on a Pd-containing catalytic converter for removing CO and HC emissions from a two-stroke motorcycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.H.; Chen, Y.W. [National Central Univ., Chung-Li (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1998-04-01

    Noble metals (Pt, Pd, and Rh) supported on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, K{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CeO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and K{sub 2}O/CeO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were prepared and characterized with respect to surface area, pore volume, and temperature-programmed desorption of CO{sub 2}. The effects of K{sub 2}O on the noble-metal catalysts for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon oxidation were investigated. The reactions were carried out under the stoichiometric and oxygen-deficient conditions. Under the stoichiometric point, the Pd-containing catalysts exhibit higher activity than the Pt-containing catalysts for both CO and C{sub 3}H{sub 6} oxidation. Moreover, Pd/K{sub 2}O/CeO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is the most active catalyst among the powder catalysts in this study. Under the oxygen-deficient conditions and in the presence of water, the CO conversions on Pd/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Pd/CeO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} are significantly lower than those on Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Pt/CeO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, respectively. In contrast, the Pd-containing catalysts exhibit higher C{sub 3}H{sub 6} conversion than the Pt-containing catalysts. However, the CO conversions on the Pd-containing catalysts can be promoted by the addition of K{sub 2}O. On the other hand, the test results of the monolithic catalysts revealed that the CO conversion on PdRh/K{sub 2}O/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}--CeO{sub 2} is quite close to that on PtRh/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CeO{sub 2} under the simulative gases and the ECE-40 mode driving cycle test. PtRh/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CeO{sub 2} is the typical composition of catalytic converters for two-stroke motorcycles. It infers that PdRh/K{sub 2}O/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CeO{sub 2} is a promising catalytic converter for a two-stroke motorcycle.

  3. The effect of soot on ammonium nitrate species and NO2 selective catalytic reduction over Cu-zeolite catalyst-coated particulate filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihai, Oana; Tamm, Stefanie; Stenfeldt, Marie; Olsson, Louise

    2016-02-28

    A selective catalytic reduction (SCR)-coated particulate filter was evaluated by means of dynamic tests performed using NH3, NO2, O2 and H2O. The reactions were examined both prior to and after soot removal in order to study the effect of soot on ammonium nitrate formation and decomposition, ammonia storage and NO2 SCR. A slightly larger ammonia storage capacity was observed when soot was present in the sample, which indicated that small amounts of ammonia can adsorb on the soot. Feeding of NO2 and NH3 in the presence of O2 and H2O at low temperature (150, 175 and 200°C) leads to a large formation of ammonium nitrate species and during the subsequent temperature ramp using H2O and argon, a production of nitrous oxides was observed. The N2O formation is often related to ammonium nitrate decomposition, and our results showed that the N2O formation was clearly decreased by the presence of soot. We therefore propose that in the presence of soot, there are fewer ammonium nitrate species on the surface due to the interactions with the soot. Indeed, we do observe CO2 production during the reaction conditions also at 150°C, which shows that there is a reaction with these species and soot. In addition, the conversion of NOx due to NO2 SCR was significantly enhanced in the presence of soot; we attribute this to the smaller amount of ammonium nitrate species present in the experiments where soot is available since it is well known that ammonium nitrate formation is a major problem at low temperature due to the blocking of the catalytic sites. Further, a scanning electron microscopy analysis of the soot particles shows that they are about 30-40 nm and are therefore too large to enter the pores of the zeolites. There are likely CuxOy or other copper species available on the outside of the zeolite crystallites, which could have been enhanced due to the hydrothermal treatment at 850°C of the SCR-coated filter prior to the soot loading. We therefore propose that soot is

  4. Engineered materials as potential geocatalysts in deep geological nuclear waste repositories: A case study of the stainless steel catalytic effect on nitrate reduction by hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We demonstrate that stainless steels (316L and Hastelloy) can catalyse nitrate reduction in the presence of hydrogen. • Hydrogen is the sole electron donor. • The reaction proceeds via nitrate sorption at the steel surface up to pH = 9 following Langmuir–Hinshelwood mechanism. • The reaction is inhibited by the presence of phosphate anions which compete with nitrate for the steel sorption sites. - Abstract: The reduction of NO3- in natural waters is commonly promoted by biological activity. In the context of deep geological nuclear waste repositories with potentially high H2 pressure, abiotic redox reactions may be envisaged. Here, the catalytic effect of “inert” metallic surfaces, in part used for nuclear waste canisters, on NO3- reduction under H2 pressure is evaluated. The study is focused on stainless steels by testing the 316L and Hastelloy C276 steels. A parametric kinetic study (0 < P(H2) < 10 bar, 0.1 < [NO3-] < 10 mM, 90 < T° < 150 °C, 4 < pHin situ < 9) reveals that NO3- reduction, in the presence of stainless steel 316L and Hastelloy C276, proceeds via a pH-independent reaction requiring H2 as an electron donor. No corrosion of these steels is observed indicating a true catalytic process. The reaction is inhibited in the presence of PO43-. Activation energies assuming a first-order reaction in the 90–150 °C temperature range are found to be 46 kJ/mol for stainless steel 316L and 186 kJ/mol for Hastelloy C276, making the reaction efficient at lower temperature and on a human time scale. Nitrate sorption at the metallic surface being thought to be the limiting step, sorption and competitive sorption isotherms of several oxyanions were performed at 90 °C on 316L. Nitrate and PO43- are more strongly sorbed than SO42-, likely as inner sphere complexes, and in a large pH range, from acidic to pH 9. The Langmuir–Hinshelwood formalism best fits the kinetic data. The nature of the surface complex, and the competition for

  5. Effect of Co3O4 and Co3O4/CeO2 infiltration on the catalytic and electro-catalytic activity of LSM15/CGO10 porous cells stacks for oxidation of propene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ippolito, Davide; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of Co3O4 and Co3O4/CeO2 infiltration on the propene oxidation catalytic activity of a La0.85Sr0.15MnO3/Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 electrochemical porous cell stack (11 layers, 5 single cells in series). The effect of the infiltration of Co3O4 and Co3O4/CeO2...

  6. High-effective approach from amino acid esters to chiral amino alcohols over Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst and its catalytic reaction mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuangshuang; Yu, Jun; Li, Huiying; Mao, Dongsen; Lu, Guanzhong

    2016-09-01

    Developing the high-efficient and green synthetic method for chiral amino alcohols is an intriguing target. We have developed the Mg2+-doped Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst for hydrogenation of L-phenylalanine methyl ester to chiral L-phenylalaninol without racemization. The effect of different L-phenylalanine esters on this title reaction was studied, verifying that Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 is an excellent catalyst for the hydrogenation of amino acid esters to chiral amino alcohols. DFT calculation was used to study the adsorption of substrate on the catalyst, and showed that the substrate adsorbs on the surface active sites mainly by amino group (-NH2) absorbed on Al2O3, and carbonyl (C=O) and alkoxy (RO-) group oxygen absorbed on the boundary of Cu and Al2O3. This catalytic hydrogenation undergoes the formation of a hemiacetal intermediate and the cleavage of the C–O bond (rate-determining step) by reacting with dissociated H to obtain amino aldehyde and methanol ad-species. The former is further hydrogenated to amino alcohols, and the latter desorbs from the catalyst surface.

  7. High-effective approach from amino acid esters to chiral amino alcohols over Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst and its catalytic reaction mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuangshuang; Yu, Jun; Li, Huiying; Mao, Dongsen; Lu, Guanzhong

    2016-01-01

    Developing the high-efficient and green synthetic method for chiral amino alcohols is an intriguing target. We have developed the Mg(2+)-doped Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst for hydrogenation of L-phenylalanine methyl ester to chiral L-phenylalaninol without racemization. The effect of different L-phenylalanine esters on this title reaction was studied, verifying that Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 is an excellent catalyst for the hydrogenation of amino acid esters to chiral amino alcohols. DFT calculation was used to study the adsorption of substrate on the catalyst, and showed that the substrate adsorbs on the surface active sites mainly by amino group (-NH2) absorbed on Al2O3, and carbonyl (C=O) and alkoxy (RO-) group oxygen absorbed on the boundary of Cu and Al2O3. This catalytic hydrogenation undergoes the formation of a hemiacetal intermediate and the cleavage of the C-O bond (rate-determining step) by reacting with dissociated H to obtain amino aldehyde and methanol ad-species. The former is further hydrogenated to amino alcohols, and the latter desorbs from the catalyst surface. PMID:27619990

  8. The poisoning effect of potassium ions doped on MnOx/TiO2 catalysts for low-temperature selective catalytic reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liangjing; Cui, Suping; Guo, Hongxia; Ma, Xiaoyu; Luo, Xiaogen

    2015-11-01

    The poisoning of alkali metal on MnOx/TiO2 catalysts used for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx by NH3 was investigated. KNO3, KCl and K2SO4 were doped on MnOx/TiO2 catalysts by sol-gel method, respectively. The SCR activity of each catalyst was measured for the removal of NOx with NH3 in the temperature range 90-330 °C. The experimental results showed that catalyst with KNO3 have a stronger deactivation effect than other catalysts. The properties of the catalysts were characterized by XRD, BET, SEM, XPS, H2-TPR, NH3-TPD and in situ DRIFTS analyses. The characterized results indicated that KNO3, KCl and K2SO4 caused the similar decrease of specific surface area and pore volume, but the quantity of acid sites for KNO3-MnOx/TiO2 catalyst reduced sharply. The main reason for catalyst deactivation is attributed to two aspects: one was physical influences for the decrease of surface area and pore volume, another was chemical influences that the K+ ions decomposed by KNO3 neutralized Brønsted acid sites of catalyst and reduced their reducibility. The chemical influence played a leading role on the deactivation of catalysts.

  9. Effect of substituent on structures and catalytic properties of cobalt(II) isophthalate coordination polymers with a semi-rigid bis(benzimidazole)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Meng, Xiang-Li; Huang, Cui-Miao; Cui, Guang-Hua

    2015-11-01

    Three Co(II) coordination polymers based on flexible bis(2-dimethylbenzimidazole) and the derivatives of the familiar isophthalate co-ligands, namely [Co(L)(ip)]n (1), [Co2(L)2(nip)2]n (2) and [Co2(L)2(tbip)2·2H2O]n (3) (L = 1,2-bis(2-methylbenzimidazol-1-ylmethyl)benzene, H2ip = isophthalic acid, H2nip = 5-nitroisophthalic acid, H2tbip = 5-tert-butylisophthalic acid) have been synthesized by hydrothermal methods and characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectra, thermogravimetric analyses and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Both complexes 1 and 2 exhibit a 2-fold interpenetrating 3D network with 66-dia topology, whereas complex 3 is bridged by the L and tbip2- ligands to form a rarely tri-nodal (3,3,5) layer with 3,3,5L18 topology. The results indicate that Co(II) mixed coordination polymers structurally modulated by the substituent effect of isophthalate-involved co-ligands. In addition, the fluorescence and catalytic activity of the complexes for the degradation of methyl orange by the sodium persulfate in a Fenton-like process have been investigated.

  10. Effects of thermal treatment and fluoride ion doping on surface and catalytic properties of NiO–ZrO2 catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Fattah Reham M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ZrO2 and a series of NiO/ZrO2 hydrogels (5 to 25 wt.% NiO were co-precipitated with the aid of NaOH–Na2C2O4 solution. Two fluorinated hydrogels were also prepared by wet impregnation method. The samples were calcined in the temperature range of 550 to 850 °C. The surface properties of the samples were determined using DTA, XRD and nitrogen adsorption at −196 °C. The conversion of isopropanol was tested using microcatalytic pulse technique. DTA measurements showed that the addition of nickel oxide to zirconia influences the phase transition of ZrO2. XRD revealed that the tetragonal phase was formed at T ⩽ 650 °C, while a biphasic mixture was obtained at T ⩾ 750 °C. No spinel structure was detected by both DTA and XRD techniques and only traces of cubic NiO were detected for the samples containing ⩾ 15 wt.% nickel oxide and calcined at T ⩾ 750 °C. Significant changes in texture, surface acidity and catalytic activity were found as a result of the effects of thermal treatment and chemical composition. Incorporation of fluoride ions greatly increased the surface acidity and consequently enhanced the dehydration activity. It has been found that dehydration activity is related to the amount of surface acidity while the dehydrogenation of this alcohol is sensitive to NiO content.

  11. Roles of Promoters in V2O5/TiO2 Catalysts for Selective Catalytic Reduction of NOx with NH3: Effect of Order of Impregnation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Seunghee; Song, Inhak; Kim, Do Heui

    2016-05-01

    Recently, various promoters for commercial selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts are used to improve DeNOx activity at low temperature. We aimed at finding the optimum condition to prepare V2O5/TiO2 catalyst by changing promoters (W, Ce, Zr and Mn), not only for improving SCR reactivity, but also for reducing N2O formation at high temperature. In addition, we changed the order of impregnation between promoter and vanadium precursors on TiO2 support and observed its effect on activity and N2O selectivity. We utilized various analytical techniques, such as N2 adsorption-desorption, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, UV-visible Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS) and Temperature Programmed Reduction with hydrogen (H2-TPR) to investigate the physicochemical properties of V2O5/TiO2 catalysts. It was found that W and Ce added V2O5/TiO2 catalysts showed the most active DeNOx properties at low temperature. Additionally, the difference in impregnation order affected the SCR activity. The superiority of low temperature activity of the vanadium firstly added catalysts (W or Ce/V/TiO2) is attributed to the formation of more polymerized V2O5 on the sample. PMID:27483756

  12. Effect of CO{sub 2}-admixture on the catalytic performance of Ni-Nb-M-O catalysts in oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane to ethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao, A.; Kalevaru, V.N.; Martin, A. [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Leibniz-Institut fuer Katalyse e.V.; Hari Kumar, A. Sri; Lingaiah, N.; Prasad, P.S. Sai [Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad (India). Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Div.

    2012-07-01

    In this work, we report the synthesis, characterization and application of Ni-Nb-M-O catalysts with different promoters (M = Cr, Mo, W) for the oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) of ethane to ethylene. Ni:Nb:M ratio was kept at 1:0.176:0.1 (atomic ratio). The catalysts were calcined at 450 C/5h/air. Catalytic tests were carried out in a fixed bed quartz reactor in the temperature range from 300 to 450 C, with a fixed W/F (1.02 g/cm{sup 3} . s{sup -1}) but with changing mole ratios of C{sub 2}H{sub 6}:O{sub 2}:CO{sub 2}:N{sub 2} (1:0-1.4:1.4-0:2). The product analysis was made off-line using GC equipped with FID. It is evident that the CO{sub 2}-admixture to the reactant feed caused a slight decrease in the conversion of ethane but considerably improved the selectivity of ethylene. Among the three promoters of the same group applied, Cr exhibited superior performance compared to other two. This means increase in d-character of transition metal (i.e. from 3d to 5d) has shown an adverse effect on the conversion of ethane and selectivity of ethylene. (orig.)

  13. High-effective approach from amino acid esters to chiral amino alcohols over Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst and its catalytic reaction mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuangshuang; Yu, Jun; Li, Huiying; Mao, Dongsen; Lu, Guanzhong

    2016-01-01

    Developing the high-efficient and green synthetic method for chiral amino alcohols is an intriguing target. We have developed the Mg2+-doped Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst for hydrogenation of L-phenylalanine methyl ester to chiral L-phenylalaninol without racemization. The effect of different L-phenylalanine esters on this title reaction was studied, verifying that Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 is an excellent catalyst for the hydrogenation of amino acid esters to chiral amino alcohols. DFT calculation was used to study the adsorption of substrate on the catalyst, and showed that the substrate adsorbs on the surface active sites mainly by amino group (-NH2) absorbed on Al2O3, and carbonyl (C=O) and alkoxy (RO-) group oxygen absorbed on the boundary of Cu and Al2O3. This catalytic hydrogenation undergoes the formation of a hemiacetal intermediate and the cleavage of the C–O bond (rate-determining step) by reacting with dissociated H to obtain amino aldehyde and methanol ad-species. The former is further hydrogenated to amino alcohols, and the latter desorbs from the catalyst surface. PMID:27619990

  14. Catalytic thermal barrier coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Anand A.; Campbell, Christian X.; Subramanian, Ramesh

    2009-06-02

    A catalyst element (30) for high temperature applications such as a gas turbine engine. The catalyst element includes a metal substrate such as a tube (32) having a layer of ceramic thermal barrier coating material (34) disposed on the substrate for thermally insulating the metal substrate from a high temperature fuel/air mixture. The ceramic thermal barrier coating material is formed of a crystal structure populated with base elements but with selected sites of the crystal structure being populated by substitute ions selected to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a higher rate than would the base compound without the ionic substitutions. Precious metal crystallites may be disposed within the crystal structure to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a lower light-off temperature than would the ceramic thermal barrier coating material without the precious metal crystallites.

  15. Catalytic activities of platinum nanotubes: a density functional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Prajna; Gupta, Bikash C.; Jena, Puru

    2015-10-01

    In this work we investigate the catalytic properties of platinum nanotubes using density functional theory based calculations. In particular, we study the dissociation of hydrogen and oxygen molecules as well as oxidation of CO molecules. The results indicate that platinum nanotubes have good catalytic properties and can be effectively used in converting CO molecule to CO2.

  16. Including lateral interactions into microkinetic models of catalytic reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellman, Anders; Honkala, Johanna Karoliina

    2007-01-01

    In many catalytic reactions lateral interactions between adsorbates are believed to have a strong influence on the reaction rates. We apply a microkinetic model to explore the effect of lateral interactions and how to efficiently take them into account in a simple catalytic reaction. Three...

  17. Methanol-to-olefins process over zeolite catalysts with DDR topology: effect of composition and structural defects on catalytic performance

    OpenAIRE

    Yarulina, I.; J. Goetze; Gücüyener, C; Thiel, L.; Dikhtiarenko, A.; Ruiz-Martinez, J.; Weckhuysen, B. M.; Gascon, J; Kapteijn, F.

    2016-01-01

    A systematic study of the effect of physicochemical properties affecting catalyst deactivation, overall olefin selectivity and ethylene/propylene ratio during the methanol-to-olefins (MTO) reaction is presented for two zeolites with the DDR topology, namely Sigma-1 and ZSM-58. Both catalysts show high selectivity towards light olefins and completely suppress the formation of hydrocarbons bigger than C4, with selectivity to ethane not exceeding 1% and some traces of propane. By applying seeded...

  18. Effect of Sodium on the Catalytic Properties of VOx/CeO2 Catalysts for Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yan; Wei, Zhehao; Sun, Junming; Gao, Feng; Peden, Charles HF; Wang, Yong

    2013-03-21

    A series of VOx/CeO2 catalysts with various sodium loadings (Na/V ratio from 0 to 1) has been studied for oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) of methanol. The effect of sodium on the surface structure, redox properties, and surface acidity/basicity of VOx/CeO2 was investigated using hydrogen temperature-programmed reduction (H2-TPR), Raman spectroscopy, and Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform spectroscopy (DRIFT). The experimental results indicate that the effect of sodium on VOx/CeO2 is highly dependent on the Na/V ratio. At a low Na/V ratio (Na/V<0.25), sodium addition only slightly decreases the redox properties of VOx/CeO2 and has little effect on its activity and selectivity to formaldehyde, even though the Brönsted acidity is almost completely eliminated at a Na/V ratio of 0.25. At a high Na/V ratio (Na/V>0.25), sodium addition greatly alters the nature of the active sites by V-O-Ce bond cleavage and V-O-Na bond formation, leading to significantly reduced activity of the VOx/CeO2 catalysts. At Na/V>0.25, the selectivity to formaldehyde also decreases with increasing Na/V ratio due to: (1) the suppressed reducibility of VOx, and (2) increased basicity leading to increased CO2.

  19. Catalytic effect of free iron ions and heme-iron on chromophore oxidation of a polyene antibiotic amphotericin B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czernel, Grzegorz; Typek, Rafał; Klimek, Katarzyna; Czuryło, Aleksandra; Dawidowicz, Andrzej L.; Gagoś, Mariusz

    2016-05-01

    Owing to the presence of a chromophore in the amphotericin B (AmB) structure, the molecule can undergo the oxidation process. In this research, AmB chromophore oxidation was catalysed by iron ions (iron(III) chloride (FeCl3), pH 2.5) and by heme-iron (methemoglobin (HbFe(III)), and hemin (heme-Fe(III)) at pH 7.0). Additionally, we compared oxidation processes induced by the aforementioned oxidizing agents with autoxidation by dioxygen (O2) naturally occurring in a sample. The effects of the interaction of the oxidizing agents with AmB were analysed using molecular spectroscopies (electronic absorption (UV-Vis), fluorescence) and LC-MS. The use of a 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) chelator facilitated unambiguous determination of the oxidative effect of free iron(III) ions (FeIII) in an acidic solution on the AmB molecules. Also, the changes in the spectra of fluorescence emission centred at ∼470 nm indicate iron-catalysed processes of AmB chromophore oxidation. Unexpectedly, we found a similar spectroscopic effect for AmB induced by methemoglobin and hemin at pH 7.0. Methemoglobin and hemin at a concentration of 8 × 10-7 M (physiological) significantly increases the rate of the processes of AmB chromophore oxidation relative to the process of autoxidation.

  20. Combined promoting effects of low-Pd-containing and Cu-doped LaCoO3 perovskite supported on cordierite for the catalytic combustion of benzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y W; Li, B; Niu, Q; Li, L; Kan, J W; Zhu, S M; Shen, S B

    2016-08-01

    The catalytic activities for benzene oxidation and resistance to SO2 poisoning were tested for a series of Pd/La-Cu-Co-O/cordierite catalysts, which were prepared using a multiple-step impregnation method. The XRD, SEM, and IR characterization techniques were performed to investigate the relationship between the catalytic performance and its physicochemical properties. When Pd/La-Cu-Co-O/cordierite catalysts with Pd loadings of 0.06 and 0.08 % were prepared at a calcination temperature of 500 °C for 5 h, they exhibited similar catalytic activity and sulfur resistance. When the concentration of benzene was 1500 ppm and the GHSV was 20000 h(-1), the benzene conversion was above 95 % at a reaction temperature of 350 °C in SO2 existing at 100 ppm. These results were mainly attributed to the cooperation between La-Cu-Co-O perovskite and the noble metal Pd. Specifically, the addition of copper can strengthen the catalytic activity of La-Co-O/cordierite catalysts by decreasing the crystalline size of the active ingredients. A moderate Pd addition can drastically improve the sulfur resistance and further improve the catalytic activity of the La-Cu-Co-O/cordierite catalyst.

  1. The effects of the catalytic converter and fuel sulfur level on motor vehicle particulate matter emissions: light duty diesel vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maricq, M Matti; Chase, Richard E; Xu, Ning; Laing, Paul M

    2002-01-15

    Wind tunnel measurements and direct tailpipe particulate matter (PM) sampling are utilized to examine how the combination of oxidation catalyst and fuel sulfur content affects the nature and quantity of PM emissions from the exhaust of a light duty diesel truck. When low sulfur fuel (4 ppm) is used, or when high sulfur (350 ppm)fuel is employed without an active catalyst present, a single log-normal distribution of exhaust particles is observed with a number mean diameter in the range of 70-83 nm. In the absence of the oxidation catalyst, the high sulfur level has at most a modest effect on particle emissions (<50%) and a minor effect on particle size (<5%). In combination with the active oxidation catalyst tested, high sulfur fuel can lead to a second, nanoparticle, mode, which appears at approximately 20 nm during high speed operation (70 mph), but is not present at low speed (40 mph). A thermodenuder significantly reduces the nanoparticle mode when set to temperatures above approximately 200 degrees C, suggesting that these particles are semivolatile in nature. Because they are observed only when the catalyst is present and the sulfur level is high, this mode likely originates from the nucleation of sulfates formed over the catalyst, although the composition may also include hydrocarbons. PMID:11827064

  2. Catalytic Chemical Vapor Deposition of Methane to Carbon Nanotubes: Copper Promoted Effect of Ni/MgO Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ni/MgO and Ni-Cu/MgO catalysts were prepared by sol-gel method and used as the catalysts for synthesis of carbon nanotubes by thermal chemical vapor deposition. The effect of Cu on the carbon yield and structure was investigated, and the effects of calcination temperature and reaction temperature were also investigated. The catalysts and synthesized carbon materials were characterized by temperature programmed reduction (TPR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Results showed that the addition of Cu promoted the reduction of nickel species, subsequently improving the growth and yield of CNTs. Meanwhile, CNTs were synthesized by the Ni/MgO and Ni-Cu/MgO catalysts with various calcination temperatures and reaction temperatures, and results suggested that the obtained CNTs on Ni-Cu/MgO catalyst with the calcination temperature of 500°C and the reaction temperature of 650°C were of the greatest yield and quantity of 927%.

  3. Toward a catalytic site in DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Ulla; Rohr, Katja; Vogel, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    A number of functionalized polyaza crown ether building blocks have been incorporated into DNA-conjugates as catalytic Cu(2+) binding sites. The effect of the DNA-conjugate catalyst on the stereochemical outcome of a Cu(2+)-catalyzed Diels-Alder reaction will be presented....

  4. SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION MERCURY FIELD SAMPLING PROJECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    A lack of data still exists as to the effect of selective catalytic reduction (SCR), selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR), and flue gas conditioning on the speciation and removal of mercury (Hg) at power plants. This project investigates the impact that SCR, SNCR, and flue gas...

  5. Hydrogen Effect on Coke Removal and Catalytic Performance in Pre-Carburization and Methane Dehydro-Aromatization Reaction on Mo/HZSM-5

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongtao Ma; Ryoichi Kojima; Satoshi Kikuchi; Masaru Ichikawa

    2005-01-01

    In this study,the effects of pre-carburization of catalyst,hydrogen addition to methane feed and the space velocity of methane on the catalytic performance in methane to benzene (MTB) reaction were discussed in detail over Mo/HZSM-5 catalyst at 1023 K and 0.3 MPa. Compared with the non-precarburized catalyst,the Mo catalyst pre-carburized under the flow of CH4+4H2 at 973 K was found to have the higher activity and better stability. Further 6% H2 addition to the methane feed suppressed the aromatic type of coke formation effectively,and improved the stability of catalyst markedly,moreover gave a much longer reaction life of catalyst (53 h at 1023 K and 5400 ml/(g·h)) and much more formation amounts of benzene and hydrogen. With increase of methane space velocity,both the naphthalene formation selectivity and the coke formation selectivity were decreased by the shortened contact time;the benzene formation selectivity and total formation amount before the complete deactivation of catalyst were increased ly,while the total naphthalene and coke formation amounts did not change much.At high methane space velocity (≥5400 ml/(g·h)),a new middle temperature coke derived from the high temperature aromatic coke was formed on the catalyst; all the coke formed could be burnt off at lower temperature in oxygen,compared with those obtained at low space velocity. Considering the benzene formation amount and catalyst stability together,5400 ml/(g·h) was proved to be the most efficient methane space velocity for benzene production.

  6. Method and apparatus for effecting light-off of a catalytic converter in a hybrid powertrain system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, Bryan Nathaniel; Spohn, Brian L

    2013-07-02

    A powertrain system includes a hybrid transmission and an internal combustion engine coupled to an exhaust aftertreatment device. A method for operating the powertrain system includes operating the hybrid transmission to generate tractive torque responsive to an operator torque request with the internal combustion engine in an engine-off state so long as the tractive torque is less than a threshold. The internal combustion engine is operated in an engine-on state at preferred operating conditions to effect light-off of the exhaust aftertreatment device and the hybrid transmission is coincidentally operated to generate tractive torque responsive to the operator torque request when the operator torque request exceeds the threshold. The internal combustion engine is then operated in the engine-on state to generate tractive torque responsive to the operator torque request.

  7. Bio-oil production via catalytic pyrolysis of Anchusa azurea: Effects of operating conditions on product yields and chromatographic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aysu, Tevfik; Durak, Halil; Güner, Serkan; Bengü, Aydın Şükrü; Esim, Nevzat

    2016-04-01

    Pyrolysis of Anchusa azurea, a lignocellulosic gramineous plant, was carried out in a tubular, fixed-bed reactor in the presence of four catalysts (Ca(OH)2, Na2CO3, ZnCl2, Al2O3). The influences of pyrolysis parameters such as catalyst and temperature on the yields of products were studied. It was found that higher temperature resulted in lower liquid (bio-oil) and solid (bio-char) yields and higher gas yields. Catalysts effected the yields of products differently and the composition of bio-oils. Liquid yields were increased in the presence of Na2CO3, ZnCl2 and Al2O3 and decreased with Ca(OH)2. The highest bio-oil yield (34.05%) by weight including aqueous phase was produced with Na2CO3 catalyst at 450°C. The yields of products (bio-char, bio-oil and gas) and the compositions of the resulting bio-oils were determined by GC-MS, FT-IR and elemental analysis. GC-MS identified 124 and 164 different compounds in the bio-oils obtained at 350 and 550°C respectively.

  8. Effect of Temperature on Xylanase II from Trichoderma reesei QM 9414: A Calorimetric, Catalytic, and Conformational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria López

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The secondary structure of xylanase II from Trichoderma reesei is lost in an apparent irreversible cooperative process as temperature is increased with a midpoint transition of 58.8 ± 0.1°C. The shift of the spectral centre of mass above 50°C is also apparently cooperative with midpoint transition of 56.3 ± 0.2°C, but the existence of two isofluorescent points in the fluorescence emission spectra suggests a non-two-state process. Further corroboration comes from differential scanning calorimetry experiments. At protein concentrations ≤0.56 mg·mL−1 the calorimetric transition is reversible and the data were fitted to a non-two-state model and deconvoluted into six transitions, whereas at concentrations greater than 0.56 mg·mL−1 the calorimetric transition is irreversible with an exothermic contribution to the thermogram. The apparent Tm increased linearly with the scan rate according to first order inactivation kinetics. The effect of additives on the calorimetric transition of xylanase is dependent on their nature. The addition of sorbitol transforms reversible transitions into irreversible transitions while stabilizing the protein as the apparent Tm increases linearly with sorbitol concentration. d-Glucono-1,5-lactone, a noncompetitive inhibitor in xylanase kinetics, and soluble xylan change irreversible processes into reversible processes at high protein concentration.

  9. Bio-oil production via catalytic pyrolysis of Anchusa azurea: Effects of operating conditions on product yields and chromatographic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aysu, Tevfik; Durak, Halil; Güner, Serkan; Bengü, Aydın Şükrü; Esim, Nevzat

    2016-04-01

    Pyrolysis of Anchusa azurea, a lignocellulosic gramineous plant, was carried out in a tubular, fixed-bed reactor in the presence of four catalysts (Ca(OH)2, Na2CO3, ZnCl2, Al2O3). The influences of pyrolysis parameters such as catalyst and temperature on the yields of products were studied. It was found that higher temperature resulted in lower liquid (bio-oil) and solid (bio-char) yields and higher gas yields. Catalysts effected the yields of products differently and the composition of bio-oils. Liquid yields were increased in the presence of Na2CO3, ZnCl2 and Al2O3 and decreased with Ca(OH)2. The highest bio-oil yield (34.05%) by weight including aqueous phase was produced with Na2CO3 catalyst at 450°C. The yields of products (bio-char, bio-oil and gas) and the compositions of the resulting bio-oils were determined by GC-MS, FT-IR and elemental analysis. GC-MS identified 124 and 164 different compounds in the bio-oils obtained at 350 and 550°C respectively. PMID:26800388

  10. Promoting effect of Co addition on the catalytic partial oxidation of methane at short contact time over a Rh/MgO catalyst

    OpenAIRE

    Naito, Seiji; Tanaka, Hisanori; Kado, Shigeru; Miyao, Toshihiro; Naito, Shuichi; Okumura, Kazu; Kunimori, Kimio; Tomishige, Keiichi

    2008-01-01

    In catalytic partial oxidation of methane under isothermal conditions, a 0.3 wt% Rh/MgO catalyst modified with Co at a molar ratio of Co/Rh = 1 gave greater CH4 conversion and selectivity to CO and H2 than unmodified 0.3 wt% Rh/MgO. Characterization results using temperature-programmed reduction, extended X-ray absorption fine structure, and transmission electron microscopy demonstrated alloy formation between Rh and Co. In catalytic partial oxidation of methane without N2 dilution, the Rh–Co...

  11. Combined effects Na and SO2 in flue gas on Mn-Ce/TiO2 catalyst for low temperature selective catalytic reduction of NO by NH3 simulated by Na2SO4 doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Aiyi; Yu, Danqing; Yang, Liu; Sheng, Zhongyi

    2016-08-01

    A series of Mn-Ce/TiO2 catalysts were synthesized through an impregnation method and used for low temperature selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx with ammonia (NH3). Na2SO4 was added into the catalyst to simulate the combined effects of alkali metal and SO2 in the flue gas. Experimental results showed that Na2SO4 had strong and fluctuant influence on the activity of Mn-Ce/TiO2, because the effect of Na2SO4 included pore occlusion and sulfation effect simultaneously. When Na2SO4 loading content increased from 0 to 1 wt.%, the SCR activities of Na2SO4-doped catalysts decreased greatly. With further increasing amount of Na2SO4, however, the catalytic activity increased gradually. XRD results showed that Na2SO4 doping could induce the crystallization of MnOx phases, which were also confirmed by TEM and SEM results. BET results showed that the surface areas decreased and a new bimodal mesoporous structure formed gradually with the increasing amount of Na2SO4. XPS results indicated that part of Ce4+ and Mn3+ were transferred to Ce3+ and Mn4+ due to the sulfation after Na2SO4 deposition on the surface of the catalysts. When the doped amounts of Na2SO4 increased, NH3-TPD results showed that the Lewis acid sites decreased and the Brønsted acid sites of Mn-Ce/TiO2 increased quickly, which could be considered as another reason for the observed changes in the catalytic activity. The decreased Mn and Ce atomic concentration, the changes of their oxidative states, and the variation in acidic properties on the surface of Na2SO4-doped catalysts could be the reasons for the fluctuant changes of the catalytic activity.

  12. Designed hybrid nanostructure with catalytic effect: beyond the theoretical capacity of SnO2 anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye; Huang, Zhi Xiang; Shi, Yumeng; Wong, Jen It; Ding, Meng; Yang, Hui Ying

    2015-01-01

    Transition metal cobalt (Co) nanoparticle was designed as catalyst to promote the conversion reaction of Sn to SnO2 during the delithiation process which is deemed as an irreversible reaction. The designed nanocomposite, named as SnO2/Co3O4/reduced-graphene-oxide (rGO), was synthesized by a simple two-step method composed of hydrothermal (1st step) and solvothermal (2nd step) synthesis processes. Compared to the pristine SnO2/rGO and SnO2/Co3O4 electrodes, SnO2/Co3O4/rGO nanocomposites exhibit significantly enhanced electrochemical performance as the anode material of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The SnO2/Co3O4/rGO nanocomposites can deliver high specific capacities of 1038 and 712 mAh g−1 at the current densities of 100 and 1000 mA g−1, respectively. In addition, the SnO2/Co3O4/rGO nanocomposites also exhibit 641 mAh g−1 at a high current density of 1000 mA g−1 after 900 cycles, indicating an ultra-long cycling stability under high current density. Through ex-situ TEM analysis, the excellent electrochemical performance was attributed to the catalytic effect of Co nanoparticles to promote the conversion of Sn to SnO2 and the decomposition of Li2O during the delithiation process. Based on the results, herein we propose a new method in employing the catalyst to increase the capacity of alloying-dealloying type anode material to beyond its theoretical value and enhance the electrochemical performance. PMID:25776280

  13. Designed hybrid nanostructure with catalytic effect: beyond the theoretical capacity of SnO2 anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye; Huang, Zhi Xiang; Shi, Yumeng; Wong, Jen It; Ding, Meng; Yang, Hui Ying

    2015-03-01

    Transition metal cobalt (Co) nanoparticle was designed as catalyst to promote the conversion reaction of Sn to SnO2 during the delithiation process which is deemed as an irreversible reaction. The designed nanocomposite, named as SnO2/Co3O4/reduced-graphene-oxide (rGO), was synthesized by a simple two-step method composed of hydrothermal (1st step) and solvothermal (2nd step) synthesis processes. Compared to the pristine SnO2/rGO and SnO2/Co3O4 electrodes, SnO2/Co3O4/rGO nanocomposites exhibit significantly enhanced electrochemical performance as the anode material of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The SnO2/Co3O4/rGO nanocomposites can deliver high specific capacities of 1038 and 712 mAh g-1 at the current densities of 100 and 1000 mA g-1, respectively. In addition, the SnO2/Co3O4/rGO nanocomposites also exhibit 641 mAh g-1 at a high current density of 1000 mA g-1 after 900 cycles, indicating an ultra-long cycling stability under high current density. Through ex-situ TEM analysis, the excellent electrochemical performance was attributed to the catalytic effect of Co nanoparticles to promote the conversion of Sn to SnO2 and the decomposition of Li2O during the delithiation process. Based on the results, herein we propose a new method in employing the catalyst to increase the capacity of alloying-dealloying type anode material to beyond its theoretical value and enhance the electrochemical performance.

  14. Effect of Ni+2-substituted Fe2TiO5 on the H2-reduction and CO2 Catalytic Decomposition Reactions at 500℃

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.H.Khedr

    2006-01-01

    CO2 is a major component of the greenhouse gases, which causes the global warming. To reduce CO2 gas,high activity nanosized Ni+2 substituted Fe2TiO5 samples were synthesized by conventional ceramic method.The effect of the composition of the synthesized ferrite on the H2-reduction and CO2-catalytic decomposition was investigated. Fe2TiO5 (iron titanate) phase that has a nanocrystallite size of ~80 nm is formed as a result of heating Fe2O3 and TiO2 while the addition of NiO leads to the formation of new phases (~80 nm)NiTiO3 and NiFe2O4, but the mixed solid of NiO and Fe2O3 results in the formation of NiFe2O4 only.Samples with Ni+2=0 shows the lowest reduction extent (20%); as the extent of Ni+2 increases, the extent of reduction increases. The increase in the reduction percent is attributed to the presence of NiTiO3 and NiFe2O4 phases, which are more reducible phases than Fe2TiO5. The CO2 decomposition reactions were monitored by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) experiments. The oxidation of the H2-reduced Ni+2 substituted Fe2TiO5 at 500℃ was investigated. As Ni+2 increases, the rate of reoxidation increases. Samples with the highest reduction extents gave the highest reoxidation extent, which is attributed to the highly porous nature and deficiency in oxygen due to the presence of metallic Fe, Ni and/or FeNi alloy. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of oxidized samples show also the presence of carbon in the sample containing Ni+2>0, which appears in the form of nanotubes (25 nm).

  15. Identification of cyclohexanone derivatives that act as catalytic inhibitors of topoisomerase I: effects on tamoxifen-resistant MCF-7 cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Euphemia; Rewcastle, Gordon W; Joseph, Wayne R; Rosengren, Rhonda J; Larsen, Lesley; Baguley, Bruce C

    2012-12-01

    Breast cancer is commonly treated with anti-estrogens or aromatase inhibitors, but resistant disease eventually develops and new therapies for such resistance are of great interest. We have previously isolated several tamoxifen-resistant variant sub-lines of the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line and provided evidence that they arose from expansion of pre-existing minor populations. We have searched for therapeutic agents that exhibit selective growth inhibition of the resistant lines and here investigate 2,6-bis(pyridin-3-ylmethylene)-cyclohexanone (RL90) and 2,6-bis(pyridin-4-ylmethylene)-cyclohexanone (RL91). We found that two of the tamoxifen-resistant sub-lines (TamR3 and TamC3) unexpectedly showed increased sensitivity to RL90 and RL91. We utilized growth inhibition assays, flow cytometry and immunoblotting to establish a mechanistic basis for their action. Treated sensitive cells showed S-phase selective DNA damage, as detected by histone H2AX phosphorylation. Cellular responses were similar to those induced by the topoisomerase I poison camptothecin. Although IC(50) values of camptothecin, RL90, RL91 were correlated, studies with purified mammalian topoisomerase I suggested that RL90 and RL91 differed from camptothecin by acting as catalytic topoisomerase I inhibitors. These drugs provide a platform for the further development of DNA damaging drugs that have selective effects on tamoxifen resistant breast cancer cells. The results also raise the question of whether clinical topoisomerase I poisons such as irinotecan and topotecan might be active in the treatment of some types of tamoxifen-resistant cancer.

  16. Life Cycle Analysis of a Ceramic Three-Way Catalytic Converter

    OpenAIRE

    Belcastro, Elizabeth Lynn

    2012-01-01

    The life cycle analysis compares the environmental impacts of catalytic converters and the effects of not using these devices. To environmentally evaluate the catalytic converter, the emissions during extraction, processing, use of the product are considered. All relevant materials and energy supplies are evaluated for the catalytic converter. The goal of this life cycle is to compare the pollutants of a car with and without a catalytic converter. Pollutants examined are carbon monoxide (...

  17. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. Final technical report, Volume 1 - effects of solvents, catalysts and temperature conditions on conversion and structural changes of low-rank coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lili Huang; Schobert, H.H.; Chunshan Song

    1998-01-01

    The main objectives of this project were to study the effects of low-temperature pretreatments on coal structure and their impacts on subsequent liquefaction. The effects of pretreatment temperatures, catalyst type, coal rank, and influence of solvent were examined. Specific objectives were to identify the basic changes in coal structure induced by catalytic and thermal pretreatments, and to determine the reactivity of the catalytically and thermally treated coals for liquefaction. In the original project management plan it was indicated that six coals would be used for the study. These were to include two each of bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite rank. For convenience in executing the experimental work, two parallel efforts were conducted. The first involved the two lignites and one subbituminous coal; and the second, the two bituminous coals and the remaining subbituminous coal. This Volume presents the results of the first portion of the work, studies on two lignites and one subbituminous coal. The remaining work accomplished under this project will be described and discussed in Volume 2 of this report. The objective of this portion of the project was to determine and compare the effects of solvents, catalysts and reaction conditions on coal liquefaction. Specifically, the improvements of reaction conversion, product distribution, as well as the structural changes in the coals and coal-derived products were examined. This study targeted at promoting hydrogenation of the coal-derived radicals, generated during thermal cleavage of chemical bonds, by using a good hydrogen donor-solvent and an effective catalyst. Attempts were also made in efforts to match the formation and hydrogenation of the free radicals and thus to prevent retrogressive reaction.

  18. Catalytic Decomposition of Methylene Chloride by Sulfated Titania Catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Catalytic decomposition of methylene chloride in air below 300℃ was studied.Sulfated titania was very effective in converting 959ppm methylene chloride selectively to CO,CO2 and HCl.Complete decomposition of methylene chloride was achieved at low temperature(275℃).It was found that the acidic property of catalyst was a determinant factor for the catalytic activity.The presence of water vapor in the feed stream remarkably reduced the catalytic activity,which could be due to the blockage of acidic sites on the surface of catalyst by water molecules.A bifunctional catalyst comprising copper oxide was developed to improve the selectivity of catalytic oxidation,which indicated that copper oxide can promote the deep oxidation of methylene chloride.The crystal form of TiO2 imposes an important influence upon the catalytic oxidation.

  19. Novel Catalytic Membrane Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart Nemser, PhD

    2010-10-01

    There are many industrial catalytic organic reversible reactions with amines or alcohols that have water as one of the products. Many of these reactions are homogeneously catalyzed. In all cases removal of water facilitates the reaction and produces more of the desired chemical product. By shifting the reaction to right we produce more chemical product with little or no additional capital investment. Many of these reactions can also relate to bioprocesses. Given the large number of water-organic compound separations achievable and the ability of the Compact Membrane Systems, Inc. (CMS) perfluoro membranes to withstand these harsh operating conditions, this is an ideal demonstration system for the water-of-reaction removal using a membrane reactor. Enhanced reaction synthesis is consistent with the DOE objective to lower the energy intensity of U.S. industry 25% by 2017 in accord with the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and to improve the United States manufacturing competitiveness. The objective of this program is to develop the platform technology for enhancing homogeneous catalytic chemical syntheses.

  20. The effect of the synthetic route on the structural, textural, morphological and catalytic properties of iron(iii) oxides and oxyhydroxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulego, Paula; Villa-García, María A; Laca, Adriana; Diaz, Mario

    2016-06-21

    A variety of iron(iii) oxides and oxyhydroxides were synthesised and characterised using three distinct methods of preparation: microemulsion, precipitation and sol-gel. The results clearly showed that the structure, textural properties, crystal morphology and catalytic performance of the phases obtained were highly dependent on the chemical routes used for the synthesis. Precipitation and microemulsion methods allowed obtaining mesoporous nanostructured iron(iii) oxides with mean particle sizes of 4 nm (amorphous hematite) and 7 nm (ferrihydrite), which exhibited a high surface area (291.4 m(2) g(-1) and 192.3 m(2) g(-1), respectively) and a very good catalytic behaviour in the advanced oxidation of highly non-biodegradable wastewaters. The different conditions employed in the synthesis of these materials through the sol-gel method yielded two goethites with practically the same catalytic properties, but dissimilar morphologies and texture. When soft agitation and slow addition of the precipitating agent were used, the resulting material (G1) was made up of shorter and finer particles, markedly acicular, with an average length of 400 ± 50 nm and width of 15 ± 5 nm. However, vigorous agitation and rapid addition of the precipitating agent led to the formation of longer and coarser particles, moderately acicular, the average length and width being 950 ± 100 nm and 140 ± 20 nm, respectively. The use of the sol-gel technique also resulted in the formation of a solid consisting of a mixture of hematite as the main crystalline phase and goethite particles dispersed among the hematite particles. This solid presented a low specific surface area (13.2 m(2) g(-1)) and lower catalytic activity. Therefore, precipitation and microemulsion proved to be the most suitable techniques to synthesise catalytically active disordered iron(iii) oxide nanoparticles, due to the presence of highly reactive non-stoichiometric iron(iii) ions, a higher surface area and smaller particle

  1. Catalytic effect of nano-sized ScH{sub 2} on the hydrogen storage of mechanically milled MgH{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Xuanli, E-mail: Xuanli.Luo@nottingham.ac.uk; Grant, David M., E-mail: David.Grant@nottingham.ac.uk; Walker, Gavin S., E-mail: Gavin.Walker@nottingham.ac.uk

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • The ScH{sub 2} nanoparticles improved the MgH{sub 2} dehydrogenation kinetics. • Low activation energy of the dehydrogenation reaction (62 ± 5 kJ mol{sup −1}). • Optimal ScH{sub 2} catalyst content was ca. 12 mol.% to achieve lowest activation energy. • High cycling stability at relatively high temperature up to 450 °C. • The ScH{sub 2} nano-structure remained throughout cycling. - Abstract: The hydrogen storage properties of ball milled xMgH{sub 2}/(1 − x)ScH{sub 2} (x = 0.65-1) samples including capacity, kinetics, thermodynamics and cycling stability, were investigated. The effect of ScH{sub 2} catalyst content and ball milling duration on the kinetics of MgH{sub 2} dehydrogenation were studied. It was found that the optimal content of the catalyst ScH{sub 2} was ca. 12 mol.%, which gave an activation energy (E{sub a}) value of 62 ± 5 kJ mol{sup −1} and a hydrogen storage capacity of 5.8 ± 0.1 wt.% for the sample. There was no loss in kinetics in the ScH{sub 2} catalysed MgH{sub 2} system even after cycling at relatively high temperatures up to 450 °C, and the nano-sized ScH{sub 2} (ca. 70 nm) formed during ball milling remained after (de)hydrogenation cycling. Typical MgH{sub 2} dehydrogenation enthalpy (76 ± 1 kJ mol{sup −1} (H{sub 2})) and entropy (138 ± 2 J mol{sup −1} K{sup −1} (H{sub 2})) values observed by the 0.65MgH{sub 2}/0.35ScH{sub 2} sample demonstrated the effect of ScH{sub 2} was purely a catalytic improvement of the kinetics.

  2. HYDROGEN TRANSFER IN CATALYTIC CRACKING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Hydrogen transfer is an important secondary reaction of catalytic cracking reactions, which affects product yield distribution and product quality. It is an exothermic reaction with low activation energy around 43.3 kJ/mol. Catalyst properties and operation parameters in catalytic cracking greatly influence the hydrogen transfer reaction. Satisfactory results are expected through careful selection of proper catalysts and operation conditions.

  3. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. Final technical report, Volume 2 - hydrogenative and hydrothermal pretreatments and spectroscopic characterization using pyrolysis-GC-MS, CPMAS {sup 13}C NMR and FT-IR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chunshan Song; Hatcher, P.G.; Saini, A.K.; Wenzel, K.A.

    1998-01-01

    It has been indicated by DOE COLIRN panel that low-temperature catalytic pretreatment is a promising approach to the development of an improved liquefaction process. This work is a fundamental study on effects of pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. The main objectives of this project are to study the coal structural changes induced by low-temperature catalytic and thermal pretreatments by using spectroscopic techniques; and to clarify the pretreatment-induced changes in reactivity or convertibility of coals. As the second volume of the final report, here we summarize our work on spectroscopic characterization of four raw coals including two subbituminous coals and two bituminous coals, tetrahydrofuran (THF)-extracted but unreacted coals, the coals (THF-insoluble parts) that have been thermally pretreated. in the absence of any solvents and in the presence of either a hydrogen-donor solvent or a non-donor solvent, and the coals (THF-insoluble parts) that have been catalytically pretreated in the presence of a dispersed Mo sulfide catalyst in the absence of any solvents and in the presence of either a hydrogen-donor solvent or a non-donor solvent.

  4. CO2-enhanced dehydrogenation of ethane over sonochemically synthesized Cr/clinoptilolite-ZrO2 nanocatalyst: Effects of ultrasound irradiation and ZrO2 loading on catalytic activity and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Farhad; Haghighi, Mohammad; Mahboob, Salar

    2016-11-01

    CO2-enhanced oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane was investigated over sonochemically synthesized Cr/clinoptilolite-ZrO2 nanocatalyst with the aim of assessing the effect of composite support and ultrasonic irradiation on the nanocatalyst reactivity and stability. To this aim, ZrO2 promoted clinoptilolite supports varying in zirconia content (0, 25, 50wt%) were synthesized by hydrothermally precipitation method and impregnated with chromium nitrate under ultrasound irradiation. The samples were characterized by XRD, FESEM, EDX, TEM, ICP, BET, FTIR, TPR-H2 and TPD-NH3 techniques. The characterization results indicated that ultrasound irradiation could not only reduce the formation of Cr2O3 and decrease submicron particle size of chromium oxide to nanometer scale, but also promote the distribution of metallic particles and strengthen the chromium-support interaction. As a result, utilizing ultrasound irradiation in the synthesis of Cr/Clinoptilolite helped to maintain a high and stable catalytic activity. These features were more prominent in the presence of zirconia. It was found that the metal oxide nanoparticles with about 4-8nm are dispersed uniformly on the surface of composite support containing 25wt% ZrO2 (CLT-Z25). Moreover, the addition of ZrO2 resulted in the formation of new strong acid sites and a significant modification in the reducibility of chromium species, which alongside homogenous and small Cr nanoparticles account for the superior catalytic performance of ZrO2 containing samples. However, excessive loading of ZrO2 (50wt%) severely covered the surface of clinoptilolite, afforded the aggregations of metallic particles and thereupon, weakened the contact between clinoptilolite and ZrO2, which together with more acid strength seriously resulted in the deactivation of catalyst. In spite of superior initial activity of ZrO2-rich sample among the catalysts tested, ultrasonic synthesized Cr/CLT-Z25 nanocatalyst showed the best catalytic performance after

  5. Rapid Deployment of Rich Catalytic Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard S. Tuthill

    2004-06-10

    The overall objective of this research under the Turbines Program is the deployment of fuel flexible rich catalytic combustion technology into high-pressure ratio industrial gas turbines. The resulting combustion systems will provide fuel flexibility for gas turbines to burn coal derived synthesis gas or natural gas and achieve NO{sub x} emissions of 2 ppmvd or less (at 15 percent O{sub 2}), cost effectively. This advance will signify a major step towards environmentally friendly electric power generation and coal-based energy independence for the United States. Under Phase 1 of the Program, Pratt & Whitney (P&W) performed a system integration study of rich catalytic combustion in a small high-pressure ratio industrial gas turbine with a silo combustion system that is easily scalable to a larger multi-chamber gas turbine system. An implementation plan for this technology also was studied. The principal achievement of the Phase 1 effort was the sizing of the catalytic module in a manner which allowed a single reactor (rather than multiple reactors) to be used by the combustion system, a conclusion regarding the amount of air that should be allocated to the reaction zone to achieve low emissions, definition of a combustion staging strategy to achieve low emissions, and mechanical integration of a Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) combustor liner with the catalytic module.

  6. Bifunctional catalytic electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisar, Alan (Inventor); Murphy, Oliver J. (Inventor); Clarke, Eric (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention relates to an oxygen electrode for a unitized regenerative hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell and the unitized regenerative fuel cell having the oxygen electrode. The oxygen electrode contains components electrocatalytically active for the evolution of oxygen from water and the reduction of oxygen to water, and has a structure that supports the flow of both water and gases between the catalytically active surface and a flow field or electrode chamber for bulk flow of the fluids. The electrode has an electrocatalyst layer and a diffusion backing layer interspersed with hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions. The diffusion backing layer consists of a metal core having gas diffusion structures bonded to the metal core.

  7. Catalytic quantum error correction

    CERN Document Server

    Brun, T; Hsieh, M H; Brun, Todd; Devetak, Igor; Hsieh, Min-Hsiu

    2006-01-01

    We develop the theory of entanglement-assisted quantum error correcting (EAQEC) codes, a generalization of the stabilizer formalism to the setting in which the sender and receiver have access to pre-shared entanglement. Conventional stabilizer codes are equivalent to dual-containing symplectic codes. In contrast, EAQEC codes do not require the dual-containing condition, which greatly simplifies their construction. We show how any quaternary classical code can be made into a EAQEC code. In particular, efficient modern codes, like LDPC codes, which attain the Shannon capacity, can be made into EAQEC codes attaining the hashing bound. In a quantum computation setting, EAQEC codes give rise to catalytic quantum codes which maintain a region of inherited noiseless qubits. We also give an alternative construction of EAQEC codes by making classical entanglement assisted codes coherent.

  8. Additive effects of alkaline-earth metals and nickel on the performance of Co/γ-Al2O3 in methane catalytic partial oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changlin Yu; Weizheng Weng; Qing Shu; Xiangjie Meng; Bin Zhang; Xirong Chen; Xiaochun Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Nano-sized γ-alumina(γ-Al2O3)was first prepared by a precipitation method.Then,active component of cobalt and a series of alkalineearth metal promoters or nickel(Ni)with different contents were loaded on the γ-Al2O3 support.The catalysts were characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption,X-ray diffraction(XRD)and thermogravimetry analysis(TGA).The activity and selectivity of the catalysts in catalytic partial oxidation(CPO)of methane have been compared with Co/γ-Al2O3,and it is found that the catalytic activity,selectivity,and stability are enhanced by the addition of alkaline-earth metals and nickel.The optimal loadings of strontium(Sr)and Ni were 6 and 4 wt%,respectively.This finding will be helpful in designing the trimetallic Co-Ni-Sr/γ-Al2O3 catalysts with high performance in CPO of methane.

  9. Effect of Mg/Al atom ratio of support on catalytic performance of Co-Mo/MgO-Al2O3 catalyst for water gas shift reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yixin Lian; Huifang Wang; Quanxing Zheng; Weiping Fang; Yiquan Yang

    2009-01-01

    Co-Mo-based catalysts supported on mixed oxide supports MgO-Al2O3 with different Mg/Al atom ratios for water gas shift reaction were studied by means of TPR, Raman, XPS and ESR. It was found that the octahedral Mo species in oxidized Co-Mo/MgO(x)-Al2O3 catalyst and the contents of Mo5+, Mo4+, S2- and S2-2 species in the functioning catalysts increased with increasing the Mg/Al atom ratio of the support under the studied experimental conditions. This is favorable for the formation of the active Co-Mo-S phase of the catalysts. Catalytic performance testing results showed that the catalysts Co-Mo/MgO-Al2O3 with the Mg/Al atom ratio of the support in the range of 0.475-0.525 exhibited optimal catalytic activity for the reaction.

  10. Structural and catalytic effects of an invariant purine substitution in the hammerhead ribozyme: implications for the mechanism of acid-base catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Eric P; Vasquez, Ernesto E; Scott, William G

    2014-09-01

    The hammerhead ribozyme catalyzes RNA cleavage via acid-base catalysis. Whether it does so by general acid-base catalysis, in which the RNA itself donates and abstracts protons in the transition state, as is typically assumed, or by specific acid-base catalysis, in which the RNA plays a structural role and proton transfer is mediated by active-site water molecules, is unknown. Previous biochemical and crystallographic experiments implicate an invariant purine in the active site, G12, as the general base. However, G12 may play a structural role consistent with specific base catalysis. To better understand the role of G12 in the mechanism of hammerhead catalysis, a 2.2 Å resolution crystal structure of a hammerhead ribozyme from Schistosoma mansoni with a purine substituted for G12 in the active site of the ribozyme was obtained. Comparison of this structure (PDB entry 3zd4), in which A12 is substituted for G, with three previously determined structures that now serve as important experimental controls, allows the identification of structural perturbations that are owing to the purine substitution itself. Kinetic measurements for G12 purine-substituted schistosomal hammerheads confirm a previously observed dependence of rate on the pK(a) of the substituted purine; in both cases inosine, which is similar to G in pK(a) and hydrogen-bonding properties, is unexpectedly inactive. Structural comparisons indicate that this may primarily be owing to the lack of the exocyclic 2-amino group in the G12A and G12I substitutions and its structural effect upon both the nucleotide base and phosphate of A9. The latter involves the perturbation of a previously identified and well characterized metal ion-binding site known to be catalytically important in both minimal and full-length hammerhead ribozyme sequences. The results permit it to be suggested that G12 plays an important role in stabilizing the active-site structure. This result, although not inconsistent with the potential

  11. Could microwave induced catalytic oxidation (MICO) process over CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} effectively eliminate brilliant green in aqueous solution?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Yongming, E-mail: juyongming@scies.org [South China Institute of Environmental Science, Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP), Guangzhou 510655 (China); Wang, Xiaoyan [South China Institute of Environmental Science, Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP), Guangzhou 510655 (China); Qiao, Junqin [Center of Material Analysis, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, Jiangsu Province (China); Li, Guohua [South China Institute of Environmental Science, Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP), Guangzhou 510655 (China); Wu, You [Department of Urology, The Affiliated Hospital to Nantong University, Nantong University, Nantong 226001, Jiangsu Province (China); Li, Yuan, E-mail: liyuan@scies.org [South China Institute of Environmental Science, Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP), Guangzhou 510655 (China); Zhang, Xiuyu; Xu, Zhencheng; Qi, Jianying; Fang, Jiande [South China Institute of Environmental Science, Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP), Guangzhou 510655 (China); Dionysiou, Dionysios D., E-mail: dionysios.d.dionysiou@uc.edu [Environmental Engineering and Science Program, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0012 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • The elimination of BG over CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}(CP) was mainly due to the residue of NaOH. • Salicylic acid failed to capture hydroxyl radicals within MICO process. • This study indicated dim prospects for the MICO-based elimination of contaminants. -- Abstract: In this study, we adopted the chemical co-precipitation (CP) method and sol–gel method followed by calcination at temperatures of 100–900 °C for 12 h to synthesize CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} materials, which were further characterized by TEM, XRD and XPS techniques. The properties of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} materials were evaluated in a microwave (MW) induced catalytic oxidation (MICO) process for the elimination of brilliant green (BG). The results showed that: (1) the removal rates of BG gradually decreased over a series of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} materials prepared by CP method and calcinated with 100–700 °C (except 900 °C) for 12 h within three reuse cycles; for comparison, no removal of BG was obtained over CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} synthesized by sol–gel method and CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-900 (CP); (2) no hydroxyl radicals were captured with salicylic acid used as molecular probe in the MICO process; (3) MW irradiation enhanced the release of residual NaOH within the microstructure of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and further discolored BG, because BG is sensitive to pH; (4) granular activated carbon (GAC), an excellent MW-absorbing material possessing higher dielectric loss tangent compared to that of a series of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} materials, could not remove BG in suspensions at a higher efficiency, even if the loading amount was 20 g L{sup −1}. Accordingly, MICO process over CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} materials and GAC could not effectively eliminate BG in suspensions.

  12. Unsteady catalytic processes and sorption-catalytic technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalytic processes that occur under conditions of the targeted unsteady state of the catalyst are considered. The highest efficiency of catalytic processes was found to be ensured by a controlled combination of thermal non-stationarity and unsteady composition of the catalyst surface. The processes based on this principle are analysed, in particular, catalytic selective reduction of nitrogen oxides, deep oxidation of volatile organic impurities, production of sulfur by the Claus process and by hydrogen sulfide decomposition, oxidation of sulfur dioxide, methane steam reforming and anaerobic combustion, selective oxidation of hydrocarbons, etc.

  13. Unsteady catalytic processes and sorption-catalytic technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagoruiko, A N [G.K. Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2007-07-31

    Catalytic processes that occur under conditions of the targeted unsteady state of the catalyst are considered. The highest efficiency of catalytic processes was found to be ensured by a controlled combination of thermal non-stationarity and unsteady composition of the catalyst surface. The processes based on this principle are analysed, in particular, catalytic selective reduction of nitrogen oxides, deep oxidation of volatile organic impurities, production of sulfur by the Claus process and by hydrogen sulfide decomposition, oxidation of sulfur dioxide, methane steam reforming and anaerobic combustion, selective oxidation of hydrocarbons, etc.

  14. Heterogeneous catalytic materials solid state chemistry, surface chemistry and catalytic behaviour

    CERN Document Server

    Busca, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Heterogeneous Catalytic Materials discusses experimental methods and the latest developments in three areas of research: heterogeneous catalysis; surface chemistry; and the chemistry of catalysts. Catalytic materials are those solids that allow the chemical reaction to occur efficiently and cost-effectively. This book provides you with all necessary information to synthesize, characterize, and relate the properties of a catalyst to its behavior, enabling you to select the appropriate catalyst for the process and reactor system. Oxides (used both as catalysts and as supports for cata

  15. WO3/CeO2/TiO2 Catalysts for Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO(x) by NH3: Effect of the Synthesis Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalow-Mauke, Katarzyna A; Lu, Ye; Ferri, Davide; Graule, Thomas; Kowalski, Kazimierz; Elsener, Martin; Kröcher, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    WO3/CeO2/TiO2, CeO2/TiO2 and WO3/TiO2 catalysts were prepared by wet impregnation. CeO2/TiO2 and WO3/TiO2 showed activity towards the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO(x) by NH3, which was significantly improved by subsequent impregnation of CeO/TiO2 with WO3. Catalytic performance, NH3 oxidation and NH3 temperature programmed desorption of wet-impregnated WO3/CeO2/TiO2 were compared to those of a flame-made counterpart. The flame-made catalyst exhibits a peculiar arrangement of W-Ce-Ti-oxides that makes it very active for NH3-SCR. Catalysts prepared by wet impregnation with the aim to mimic the structure of the flame-made catalyst were not able to fully reproduce its activity. The differences in the catalytic performance between the investigated catalysts were related to their structural properties and the different interaction of the catalyst components.

  16. Effect of calcination temperature on structural properties and catalytic activity in oxidation reactions of LaNiO3 perovskite prepared by Pechini method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.Rida; M.A.Pe(n)a; E.Sastre; A.Martínez-Arias

    2012-01-01

    The study presented the preparation of the perovskite oxide LaNiO3 by the complex citrate method,paying particular attention to evolution of its formation from the amorphous precursor with varied calcination temperatures.The products obtained after heat treatment under air between 200 and 800 ℃ were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD),thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA),Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR),SBET measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).The results showed the formation of a single phase with perovskite structure from ca.550 ℃.Tests on the two catalytic oxidation reactions of C3H6 and CO over the system calcined between mentioned temperatures were examined on the basis of characterization results and showed that optimum catalytic properties for such reactions were achieved for the perovskite calcined at 600 ℃.In turn,correlations between redox and catalytic properties were established on the basis of thermogravimetric temperature programmed reduction (TPR) analysis.

  17. Effect of ZrO2-doping of nanosized Fe2O3/MgO system on its structural, surface and catalytic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Preparation and characterization nano-sized ZrO2-doped Fe2O3/MgO system. ► Pure and doped solids calcined at 500 and 700 °C are mesoporous adsorbents. ► ZrO2-doping increased the lattice constant “a” of MgO lattice to an extent proportional to the amount of ZrO2 added. ► The catalytic activity in H2O2 decomposition was found to increase as a function of dopant concentration. -- Abstract: Fe2O3/MgO system was prepared by wet impregnation method followed by treatment with different amounts of Zr-dopant salt then heating at 500 and 700 °C. The dopant concentrations were 0.48, 0.95 and 1.4 mol% ZrO2. Pure and variously doped solids were characterized using XRD, N2-adsorption isotherms carried out at −196 °C and catalytic decomposition of H2O2 in aqueous solution at 25–35 °C. The results revealed that the nanosized MgO phase was only detected in the diffractograms of pure and doped solids calcined at 500 °C. Heating pure and doped solids at 700 °C produced nanosized MgFe2O4 phase together with MgO phase. Pure and ZrO2-doped solids calcined at 500 and 700 °C are mesoporous adsorbents. The doping process brought about a measurable decrease in the SBET of Fe2O3/MgO system with subsequent increase in its catalytic activity. The catalytic activity of the investigated system toward H2O2 decomposition, expressed as reaction rate constant per unit surface area was found to increase as a function of dopant concentration. The maximum increase in the reaction rate constant per unit surface area measured for the reaction carried out at 30 °C attained 125% for the heavily doped samples. This significant increase was based on the catalytic activity of pure catalyst sample measured under the same conditions.

  18. Catalytic production of biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theilgaard Madsen, A.

    2011-07-01

    The focus of this thesis is the catalytic production of diesel from biomass, especially emphasising catalytic conversion of waste vegetable oils and fats. In chapter 1 an introduction to biofuels and a review on different catalytic methods for diesel production from biomass is given. Two of these methods have been used industrially for a number of years already, namely the transesterification (and esterification) of oils and fats with methanol to form fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), and the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of fats and oils to form straight-chain alkanes. Other possible routes to diesel include upgrading and deoxygenation of pyrolysis oils or aqueous sludge wastes, condensations and reductions of sugars in aqueous phase (aqueous-phase reforming, APR) for monofunctional hydrocarbons, and gasification of any type of biomass followed by Fischer-Tropsch-synthesis for alkane biofuels. These methods have not yet been industrialised, but may be more promising due to the larger abundance of their potential feedstocks, especially waste feedstocks. Chapter 2 deals with formation of FAME from waste fats and oils. A range of acidic catalysts were tested in a model fat mixture of methanol, lauric acid and trioctanoin. Sulphonic acid-functionalised ionic liquids showed extremely fast convertion of lauric acid to methyl laurate, and trioctanoate was converted to methyl octanoate within 24 h. A catalyst based on a sulphonated carbon-matrix made by pyrolysing (or carbonising) carbohydrates, so-called sulphonated pyrolysed sucrose (SPS), was optimised further. No systematic dependency on pyrolysis and sulphonation conditions could be obtained, however, with respect to esterification activity, but high activity was obtained in the model fat mixture. SPS impregnated on opel-cell Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and microporous SiO{sub 2} (ISPS) was much less active in the esterification than the original SPS powder due to low loading and thereby low number of strongly acidic sites on the

  19. Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO with Methane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Gao; Qi Yu; Limin Chen

    2003-01-01

    The removal of nitrogen oxides from exhaust gases has attracted great attention in recent years, and many approaches have been developed depending on the application. Methane, the main component of natural gas, has great potential as a NO reductant. In this paper, a number of catalysts previous reported for this catalytic reduction of NO have been reviewed, including a direct comparison of the relative activities and effective factors of the catalysts. Reaction mechanisms have also been explored preliminarily.

  20. Catalytic cracking of lignites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, M.; Nowak, S.; Naegler, T.; Zimmermann, J. [Hochschule Merseburg (Germany); Welscher, J.; Schwieger, W. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ. (Germany); Hahn, T. [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    A most important factor for the chemical industry is the availability of cheap raw materials. As the oil price of crude oil is rising alternative feedstocks like coal are coming into focus. This work, the catalytic cracking of lignite is part of the alliance ibi (innovative Braunkohlenintegration) to use lignite as a raw material to produce chemicals. With this new one step process without an input of external hydrogen, mostly propylene, butenes and aromatics and char are formed. The product yield depends on manifold process parameters. The use of acid catalysts (zeolites like MFI) shows the highest amount of the desired products. Hydrogen rich lignites with a molar H/C ratio of > 1 are to be favoured. Due to primary cracking and secondary reactions the ratio between catalyst and lignite, temperature and residence time are the most important parameter to control the product distribution. Experiments at 500 C in a discontinuous rotary kiln reactor show yields up to 32 wt-% of hydrocarbons per lignite (maf - moisture and ash free) and 43 wt-% char, which can be gasified. Particularly, the yields of propylene and butenes as main products can be enhanced four times to about 8 wt-% by the use of catalysts while the tar yield decreases. In order to develop this innovative process catalyst systems fixed on beads were developed for an easy separation and regeneration of the used catalyst from the formed char. (orig.)

  1. Catalytic Membrane Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyle, T.J.; Brinker, C.J.; Gardner, T.J.; Hughes, R.C.; Sault, A.G.

    1998-12-01

    The proposed "catalytic membrane sensor" (CMS) was developed to generate a device which would selectively identify a specific reagent in a complex mixture of gases. This was to be accomplished by modifying an existing Hz sensor with a series of thin films. Through selectively sieving the desired component from a complex mixture and identifying it by decomposing it into Hz (and other by-products), a Hz sensor could then be used to detect the presence of the select component. The proposed "sandwich-type" modifications involved the deposition of a catalyst layered between two size selective sol-gel layers on a Pd/Ni resistive Hz sensor. The role of the catalyst was to convert organic materials to Hz and organic by-products. The role of the membraneo was to impart both chemical specificity by molecukir sieving of the analyte and converted product streams, as well as controlling access to the underlying Pd/Ni sensor. Ultimately, an array of these CMS elements encompassing different catalysts and membranes were to be developed which would enable improved selectivity and specificity from a compiex mixture of organic gases via pattern recognition methodologies. We have successfully generated a CMS device by a series of spin-coat deposited methods; however, it was determined that the high temperature required to activate the catalyst, destroys the sensor.

  2. Catalytic gasification of biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertus, R. J.; Mudge, L. K.; Sealock, L. J., Jr.; Mitchell, D. H.; Weber, S. L.

    1981-12-01

    Methane and methanol synthesis gas can be produced by steam gasification of biomass in the presence of appropriate catalysts. This concept is to use catalysts in a fluidized bed reactor which is heated indirectly. The objective is to determine the technical and economic feasibility of the concept. Technically the concept has been demonstrated on a 50 lb per hr scale. Potential advantages over conventional processes include: no oxygen plant is needed, little tar is produced so gas and water treatment are simplified, and yields and efficiencies are greater than obtained by conventional gasification. Economic studies for a plant processing 2000 T/per day dry wood show that the cost of methanol from wood by catalytic gasification is competitive with the current price of methanol. Similar studies show the cost of methane from wood is competitive with projected future costs of synthetic natural gas. When the plant capacity is decreased to 200 T per day dry wood, neither product is very attractive in today's market.

  3. Effect of EtOH/MgCl2 Molar Ratios on the Catalytic Properties of MgCl2-SiO2/TiCl4 Ziegler-Natta Catalyst for Ethylene Polymerization

    OpenAIRE

    Piyasan Praserthdam; Supanan Patthamasang; Bunjerd Jongsomjit

    2011-01-01

    MgCl2-SiO2/TiCl4 Ziegler-Natta catalysts for ethylene polymerization were prepared by impregnation of MgCl2 on SiO2 in heptane and further treatment with TiCl4. MgCl2·nEtOH adduct solutions were prepared with various EtOH/MgCl2 molar ratios for preparation of the MgCl2-supported and MgCl2-SiO2-supported catalysts in order to investigate the effect on polymerization performance of both catalyst systems. The catalytic activities for ethylene polymerization decreased markedly with increased mola...

  4. Catalytic Behavior of CO Oxidization over Pd/ZrO2 - CeO2 Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Enguo; Mei Fang

    2004-01-01

    The effects of Pd loading, cerium content, the special surface area of the support and calcination temperature on the catalytic properties of Pd-loaded zirconia-ceria mixed oxide were studied.The results show that loading Pd and increasing cerium content in the mixed oxides can enhance the catalytic activity.There is a little effect of calcination temperature on catalytic activities, implying that these catalysts are effective with good thermal stability.

  5. Immigration process in catalytic medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The longtime behavior of the immigration process associated with a catalytic super-Brownian motion is studied. A large number law is proved in dimension d≤3 and a central limit theorem is proved for dimension d=3.

  6. Immigration process in catalytic medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪文明; 王梓坤

    2000-01-01

    The longtime behavior of the immigration process associated with a catalytic super-Brown-ian motion is studied. A large number law is proved in dimension d≤3 and a central limit theorem is proved for dimension d = 3.

  7. Graphene-based materials in catalytic wet peroxide oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Helder; Ribeiro, Rui; Pastrana-Martínez, Luisa; Figueiredo, José; Faria, Joaquim; Silva, Adrián

    2014-01-01

    In catalytic wet peroxide oxidation (CWPO),an advanced oxidation process, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is decomposed catalytically giving rise to hydroxyl radicals (HO•).These radicals, exhibiting high oxidizing potential, serve as effective and non selective species for the degradation of several organic pollutants in liquid phase. Since the report of Lücking et al. [1], carbon materials have been explored as catalysts for CWPO[2]. Recent reports address process intensification issues, br...

  8. Catalytic Ozonation of Phenolic Wastewater: Identification and Toxicity of Intermediates

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdi Farzadkia; Yousef Dadban Shahamat; Simin Nasseri; Amir Hossein Mahvi; Mitra Gholami; Ali Shahryari

    2014-01-01

    A new strategy in catalytic ozonation removal method for degradation and detoxification of phenol from industrial wastewater was investigated. Magnetic carbon nanocomposite, as a novel catalyst, was synthesized and then used in the catalytic ozonation process (COP) and the effects of operational conditions such as initial pH, reaction time, and initial concentration of phenol on the degradation efficiency and the toxicity assay have been investigated. The results showed that the highest catal...

  9. EFFECTS OF FEED CONCENTRATION AND WATER VAPOR ON CATALYTIC COMBUSTION OF ETHYL ACETATE AND BENZENE IN AIR OVER CR-ZSM-5 CATALYST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Zuhairi Abdullah

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic combustion of ethyl acetate (EAc and benzene (Bz over chromium exchanged ZSM-5 (Si/Al=240 is reported. An 11 mm i.d. fixed-bed catalytic reactor, operated at temperatures between 100 oC and 500 oC, and under excess oxygen condition, was used for the catalytic activity measurement. Apparent order of reaction and apparent activation energy were determined by operating the reactor differentially at a gas hourly space velocity (GHSV of 78,900 h-1 and feed concentrations between 3,500 ppm to 17,700 ppm and 3,700 to 12,400 ppm for ethyl acetate and benzene, respectively. Ethyl acetate was more reactive than benzene due to highly reactive carbonyl group in the molecule. The combustion process satisfactorily fitted pseudo first-order kinetics with respect to organic concentration and a zero-order dependence on the oxygen concentration. The presence of water vapor (9,000 ppm in the feed stream was found to weaken the reactivity of these organics which could also be demonstrated with increases in the activation energy from 23.1 kJ/mole to 37.6 kJ/mole for ethyl acetate and from 27.6 kJ/mole to 46.1 kJ/mole for benzene. Water vapor was found to play a positive role in the formation of carbon dioxide yield in ethyl acetate combustion. Deactivation of catalyst by water appeared to be only temporary and the activity reverted back to its original value once the source of water vapor was removed.

  10. Catalytic decarboxylations of fatty acids in immature oil source rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李哲; 张再龙; 孙燕华; 劳永新; 蔺五正; 吴卫芳

    2003-01-01

    Catalytic decarboxylations of fatty acids in immature oil source rock samples were examined in this study. The rock samples were obtained from seven oil fields in China. In order to clarify the effect of each mineral matter in the rock samples, both the Fe M?ssbauer effect and the X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to determine the relative content of each mineral in the rock samples, and the catalytic activities of several minerals like clays, carbonates and pyrite were determined. The Fe M?ssbauer effect and the XRD studies show that clays are the main mineral components in the rock samples except for the samples from Biyang and Jianghan in which the main mineral component is ankerite. The other mineral components include calcite, plagioclase, quartz, feldspar, siderite, aragonite, pyrite, analcime, pyroxene and anhydrite. The studies of the catalytic decarboxylations of fatty acids suggest that carbonates and pyrite can make much greater contributions to the catalytic activities of the rock samples than clays. It is found that the overall catalytic activities of the rock samples are well related to the relative contents and the catalytic activities of clays, carbonates and pyrite in the rock samples.

  11. Catalytic conversion of chloromethane to methanol and dimethyl ether over two catalytic beds: a study of acid strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, D.R.; Leite, T.C.M.; Mota, C.J.A. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica], e-mail: cmota@iq.ufrj.br

    2010-07-15

    The catalytic hydrolysis of chloromethane to methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) was studied over metal-exchanged Beta and Mordenite zeolites, acidic MCM-22 and SAPO-5. The use of a second catalytic bed with HZSM-5 zeolite increased the selectivity to DME, due to methanol dehydration on the acid sites. The effect was more significant on catalysts presenting medium and weak acid site distribution, showing that dehydration of methanol to DME is accomplished over sites of higher acid strength. (author)

  12. Effect of alcohol solvents treated ZrO(OH)2 hydrogel on properties of ZrO2 and its catalytic performance in isosynthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rongjun Zhang; Dehua He

    2012-01-01

    A series of ZrO2 catalysts were prepared by treating ZrO(OH)2 hydrogel with different alcohol solvents (C2-C4 alcohols) and calcining under N2 flow at 773 K for 3 h.The obtained ZrO2 catalysts were systematically characterized by the methods of N2 adsorption-desorption,powder X-ray diffraction,NH3 temperature-programmed desorption,and CO2 temperature-programmed desorption.The catalytic performance of each catalyst was evaluated in the selective synthesis of iso-C4 (isobutene and isobutane) and light olefins (C=2~C=4) from CO hydrogenation.The specific surface area increased for the ZrO2 catalysts obtained by treating ZrO(OH)2 hydrogel with different alcohol solvents.The amounts of both acidic and basic sites on the catalyst surface increased obviously.The catalytic activity (CO conversion) of ZrO2 catalysts also increased after the treatment with different alcohol solvents.The highest activity was obtained over the catalyst which was pretreated with isopropanol.However,alcohol solvent treatment retarded the transformation of ZrO2 crystal structure from tetragonal phase to monoclinic phase,and subsequently resulted in the decrease of monoclinic phase in ZrO2,which led to the decrease of olefin selectivity in corresponding hydrocarbon products (C=2~C=4/CH).

  13. Effect of the manufacturing parameters on the structure of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes produced by catalytic laser-induced chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morjan, Iuliana P., E-mail: iulianasoare@yahoo.com; Alexandrescu, Rodica; Morjan, Ion; Luculescu, Catalin [Plasma and Radiation Physics, National Institute for Lasers (Romania); Vasile, Eugeniu [METAV-R and D (Romania); Osiceanu, Petre [“Ilie Murgulescu” Institute of Physical Chemistry, Romanian Academy (Romania); Scarisoreanu, Monica [Plasma and Radiation Physics, National Institute for Lasers (Romania); Demian, Gabriela [University of Craiova, Faculty of Mechanics (Romania)

    2013-11-15

    Nitrogen-containing carbon nanotubes (CNx-NTs), with a relatively high level of nitrogen doping were prepared by the catalytic laser-induced CVD method. The nanotubes were catalytically grown directly on a silicon substrate from C{sub 2}H{sub 2}/NH{sub 3} gaseous precursors. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) give firm evidence for the nitrogen doping. As determined by XPS, the N concentration for the prepared CNx-NTs increases from 3.6 to 30.6 at.% with increasing ammonia concentration and pressure. TEM images indicate that the nanotubes are bamboo like. As the nitrogen content increases, there is a transition from the bamboo shape with few defects and little distortion to a corrugated structure with a much larger number of defects. Raman spectroscopy revealed that with increasing nitrogen concentration, there is more disorder and defects, together with an increase in I{sub D}/I{sub G} ratio. By energy-filtering TEM, a higher N concentration was found on the outer amorphous nanolayer than in the compartment core of the nanotubes.

  14. Effect of ions in water on the catalytic ozonation by pumice supported zinc%水中常见离子对锌改性浮石催化臭氧化有机物效能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁磊; 杨帆; 倪红伟

    2015-01-01

    采用锌改性浮石为催化剂,催化臭氧氧化难降解的硝基类卤代芳香族有机化合物-对氯硝基苯,对水中常见无机离子对催化臭氧氧化去除水中微量对氯硝基苯的效能进行了比较。实验结果表明,水中阳离子Na+和 K+对去除效能影响较小,Ca2+和 Mg2+对去除效能略有促进作用。阴离子对去除效能影响较为明显,均有一定抑制作用,NO3-和Cl-影响不明显,其中以SO42-和PO43-的抑制影响最大。%The catalytic ozonation of p-chloronitrobenzene (p-CNB) in an aqueous solution using modification pumice as the catalysts was investigated. The effects of NO3-, Na+, and K+ on the catalytic ozonation of p-CNB can be ignored. Degradation effi-ciency was slightly promoted in the presence of Ca2+ and Mg2+. The ozonation of p-CNB was slightly inhibited by the high con-centration of Cl-. The removal efficiency of p-CNB decreased in the presence of SO42-, given that the hydroxyl inhibitors PO43- can significantly inhibit the catalytic degradation of p-CNB.

  15. Catalytic Kinetic Spectrophotometric Determination of Trace Iron with Sensitization Effect of Nonionic Surfactant%非离子表面活性剂增敏催化动力学光度法测定痕量铁

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈慧敏; 林丝丝; 王帅; 应如梦; 郑云法

    2012-01-01

    Based on the catalytic effect of iron (M) on the oxidation of rhodamine B by hydrogen peroxid, in sulfuric acid medium with sensitization effect of nonionic surfactant tween-80, a catalytic kinetic spectrophotometric method for determination of trace iron was established. The result shows that the molar absorption coefficient is 1.06X105 L'mol"'"cm"'. When the iron concentration is in the range of 0-16'g/L, this is accord with lambert beer's law. Favorable results is achieved by this method in tea.%研究了在硫酸介质中,以非离子表面活性剂吐温-80为增敏剂,Fe(Ⅲ )催化过氧化氢氧化罗丹明B的褪色反应,以此建立了催化动力学光度法测定痕量铁.结果表明,Fe(Ⅲ )的质量浓度在0~16 μg/L范围内服从比尔定律,摩尔吸光系数为1.06×105 L.mol-1.cm-1.该法用于茶叶中痕量铁的分析,结果满意.

  16. Structure and Catalytic Behavior of CuO-ZrO-CeO2 Mixed Oxides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王恩过; 陈诵英

    2002-01-01

    The effect of doping CuO on the structure and properties of zirconia-ceria mixed oxide was studied. The results show that addition of CuO decreases the reduction temperature of ceria, and stabilizes the cubic structure of mixed oxides, and enhances catalytic activity of CuO-ZrO-CeO2 mixed oxides for CO oxidation. Increasing ceria content in the mixed oxides can enhance the catalytic activity, but some impurities such as sulfate make catalytic activity falling. There is little effect of calcination temperature on catalytic activities, implying that these catalysts are effective with good thermal stability.

  17. Solvent effect on catalytic properties of microstructures in metal-organic frameworks%溶剂化效应对金属-有机骨架材料界面微环境催化性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    应允攀; 曾凡平; 吴平易; 阳庆元; 刘大欢; 兰玲; 王少华; 张轶; 仲崇立

    2014-01-01

    The nanoporous structures of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) can be functionally regulated according to specific targets of interest, and thus such types of solids can be considered as promising industrial catalytic materials. Since interface microenvironments and catalytic properties of MOFs might be affected by the solvents, it is necessary to study the influence of solvent effects on their catalytic activities. Although MOFs with coordinatively unsaturated metal sites (CUMs) have shown promising applications in liquid-phase catalysis, the related solvent effects on the Lewis acid catalytic performance of these CUMs are seldom investigated. In this work, density functional theory calculations were conducted to investigate the solvent effects on the properties of the Lewis acid sites in two typical MOFs, Cu-BTC and MOP-15, where the COSMO (conductor-like solvent model) was used to mimic the dielectric response of the solvent environments. Different relative dielectric constants were considered, including in vacuum, toluene, ethyl acetate, 1, 2-dichloroethane and acetonitrile. Using CO as the probe molecule, the solvent effects were examined by exploring the geometry parameters, the Mulliken charges, and the vibrational frequency as well as the adsorption energy of CO molecule around those CUMs. The strengths of Lewis acid sites could be enhanced with the increase of the dielectric constant. Further, the solvent effects became more evident in CUMs when the organic linkers had higher electronegativity. These observations provide fundamental insights into the regulation of the liquid-phase catalytic activity of MOFs using specific solvents.%金属-有机骨架材料(metal-organic frameworks,MOFs)的纳微结构可根据特定需求进行功能化调控,有望成为良好的工业催化材料。由于溶剂环境可对其界面微环境及催化性能产生较大影响,因此研究溶剂化效应对于MOF材料的影响具有

  18. Highly sensitive catalytic spectrophotometric determination of ruthenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Radhey M.; Srivastava, Abhishek; Prasad, Surendra

    2008-01-01

    A new and highly sensitive catalytic kinetic method (CKM) for the determination of ruthenium(III) has been established based on its catalytic effect on the oxidation of L-phenylalanine ( L-Pheala) by KMnO 4 in highly alkaline medium. The reaction has been followed spectrophotometrically by measuring the decrease in the absorbance at 526 nm. The proposed CKM is based on the fixed time procedure under optimum reaction conditions. It relies on the linear relationship where the change in the absorbance (Δ At) versus added Ru(III) amounts in the range of 0.101-2.526 ng ml -1 is plotted. Under the optimum conditions, the sensitivity of the proposed method, i.e. the limit of detection corresponding to 5 min is 0.08 ng ml -1, and decreases with increased time of analysis. The method is featured with good accuracy and reproducibility for ruthenium(III) determination. The ruthenium(III) has also been determined in presence of several interfering and non-interfering cations, anions and polyaminocarboxylates. No foreign ions interfered in the determination ruthenium(III) up to 20-fold higher concentration of foreign ions. In addition to standard solutions analysis, this method was successfully applied for the quantitative determination of ruthenium(III) in drinking water samples. The method is highly sensitive, selective and very stable. A review of recently published catalytic spectrophotometric methods for the determination of ruthenium(III) has also been presented for comparison.

  19. Catalytic fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Changjun; Wang, Huamin; Karim, Ayman M.; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-11-21

    Increasing energy demand, especially in the transportation sector, and soaring CO2 emissions necessitate the exploitation of renewable sources of energy. Despite the large variety of new energy Q3 carriers, liquid hydrocarbon still appears to be the most attractive and feasible form of transportation fuel taking into account the energy density, stability and existing infrastructure. Biomass is an abundant, renewable source of energy; however, utilizing it in a cost-effective way is still a substantial challenge. Lignocellulose is composed of three major biopolymers, namely cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Fast pyrolysis of biomass is recognized as an efficient and feasible process to selectively convert lignocellulose into a liquid fuel—bio-oil. However bio-oil from fast pyrolysis contains a large amount of oxygen, distributed in hundreds of oxygenates. These oxygenates are the cause of many negative properties, such as low heating values, high corrosiveness, high viscosity, and instability; they also greatly Q4 limit the application of bio-oil particularly as transportation fuel. Hydrocarbons derived from biomass are most attractive because of their high energy density and compatibility with the existing infrastructure. Thus, converting lignocellulose into transportation fuels via catalytic fast pyrolysis has attracted much attention. Many studies related to catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass have been published. The main challenge of this process is the development of active and stable catalysts that can deal with a large variety of decomposition intermediates from lignocellulose. This review starts with the current understanding of the chemistry in fast pyrolysis of lignocellulose and focuses on the development of catalysts in catalytic fast pyrolysis. Recent progress in the experimental studies on catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass is also summarized with the emphasis on bio-oil yields and quality.

  20. Effects of vaccinia virus uracil DNA glycosylase catalytic site and deoxyuridine triphosphatase deletion mutations individually and together on replication in active and quiescent cells and pathogenesis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moss Bernard

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low levels of uracil in DNA result from misincorporation of dUMP or cytosine deamination. Vaccinia virus (VACV, the prototype poxvirus, encodes two enzymes that can potentially reduce the amount of uracil in DNA. Deoxyuridine triphosphatase (dUTPase hydrolyzes dUTP, generating dUMP for biosynthesis of thymidine nucleotides while decreasing the availability of dUTP for misincorporation; uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG cleaves uracil N-glycosylic bonds in DNA initiating base excision repair. Studies with actively dividing cells showed that the VACV UNG protein is required for DNA replication but the UNG catalytic site is not, whereas the dUTPase gene can be deleted without impairing virus replication. Recombinant VACV with an UNG catalytic site mutation was attenuated in vivo, while a dUTPase deletion mutant was not. However, the importance of the two enzymes for replication in quiescent cells, their possible synergy and roles in virulence have not been fully assessed. Results VACV mutants lacking the gene encoding dUTPase or with catalytic site mutations in UNG and double UNG/dUTPase mutants were constructed. Replication of UNG and UNG/dUTPase mutants were slightly reduced compared to wild type or the dUTPase mutant in actively dividing cells. Viral DNA replication was reduced about one-third under these conditions. After high multiplicity infection of quiescent fibroblasts, yields of wild type and mutant viruses were decreased by 2-logs with relative differences similar to those observed in active fibroblasts. However, under low multiplicity multi-step growth conditions in quiescent fibroblasts, replication of the dUTPase/UNG mutant was delayed and 5-fold lower than that of either single mutant or parental virus. This difference was exacerbated by 1-day serial passages on quiescent fibroblasts, resulting in 2- to 3-logs lower titer of the double mutant compared to the parental and single mutant viruses. Each mutant was more

  1. Effect of Copper Nanoparticles Dispersion on Catalytic Performance of Cu/SiO2 Catalyst for Hydrogenation of Dimethyl Oxalate to Ethylene Glycol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajing Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cu/SiO2 catalysts, for the synthesis of ethylene glycol (EG from hydrogenation of dimethyl oxalate (DMO, were prepared by ammonia-evaporation and sol-gel methods, respectively. The structure, size of copper nanoparticles, copper dispersion, and the surface chemical states were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, temperature-programmed reduction (TPR, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and N2 adsorption. It is found the structures and catalytic performances of the catalysts were highly affected by the preparation method. The catalyst prepared by sol-gel method had smaller average size of copper nanoparticles (about 3-4 nm, better copper dispersion, higher Cu+/C0 ratio and larger BET surface area, and higher DMO conversion and EG selectivity under the optimized reaction conditions.

  2. Numerical simulation of effect of catalyst wire-mesh pressure drop characteristics on flow distribution in catalytic parallel plate steam reformer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdsson, Haftor Örn; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2012-01-01

    Steam reforming of hydrocarbons using a catalytic plate-type-heat-exchanger (CPHE) reformer is an attractive method of producing hydrogen for a fuel cell-based micro combined-heat-and-power system. In this study the flow distribution in a CPHE reformer, which uses a coated wire-mesh catalyst, is...... with momentum source to account for the pressure drop. The numerical model is verified experimentally, numerical and experimental results are found to be in good agreement. The study shows that severe flow maldistribution exists in the current reformer stack. At nominal load some channels in the CPHE...... coefficients and at five different flow rates. Experiments are performed on a single CPHE reformer channel to evaluate the pressure drop characteristics of the catalyst wire-mesh in the current CPHE reformer design. The results are used in the numerical model where the catalyst zone is simulated as domains...

  3. Effect of Copper Nanoparticles Dispersion on Catalytic Performance of Cu/SiO2 Catalyst for Hydrogenation of Dimethyl Oxalate to Ethylene Glycol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cu/SiO2 catalysts, for the synthesis of ethylene glycol (EG) from hydrogenation of dimethyl oxalate (DMO), were prepared by ammonia-evaporation and sol-gel methods, respectively. The structure, size of copper nanoparticles, copper dispersion, and the surface chemical states were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and N2 adsorption. It is found the structures and catalytic performances of the catalysts were highly affected by the preparation method. The catalyst prepared by sol-gel method had smaller average size of copper nanoparticles (about 3-4 nm), better copper dispersion, higher Cu+/C0 ratio and larger BET surface area, and higher DMO conversion and EG selectivity under the optimized reaction conditions.

  4. Catalytic pyrolysis of waste rice husk over mesoporous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Catalytic fast pyrolysis of waste rice husk was carried out using pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry [Py-GC/MS]. Meso-MFI zeolite [Meso-MFI] was used as the catalyst. In addition, a 0.5-wt.% platinum [Pt] was ion-exchanged into Meso-MFI to examine the effect of Pt addition. Using a catalytic upgrading method, the activities of the catalysts were evaluated in terms of product composition and deoxygenation. The structure and acid site characteristics of the catalysts were analyzed by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area measurement and NH3 temperature-programmed desorption analysis. Catalytic upgrading reduced the amount of oxygenates in the product vapor due to the cracking reaction of the catalysts. Levoglucosan, a polymeric oxygenate species, was completely decomposed without being detected. While the amount of heavy phenols was reduced by catalytic upgrading, the amount of light phenols was increased because of the catalytic cracking of heavy phenols into light phenols and aromatics. The amount of aromatics increased remarkably as a result of catalytic upgrading, which is attributed to the strong Brönsted acid sites and the shape selectivity of the Meso-MFI catalyst. The addition of Pt made the Meso-MFI catalyst even more active in deoxygenation and in the production of aromatics. PMID:22221540

  5. Catalytic pyrolysis of car tire waste using expanded perlite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Y

    2011-08-01

    In this study, the non-catalytic and catalytic pyrolysis experiments were conducted on the sample of tire waste using expanded perlite as an additive material to determine especially the effect of temperature and catalyst-to-tire ratio on the products yields and the compositions and qualities of pyrolytic oils (NCPO and CPO). Non-catalytic studies, which were carried out under the certain conditions (a nitrogen flow of 100mL/min and a heating rate of 10°C/min), showed that the highest yield of pyrolytic oil (NCPO) was 60.02wt.% at 425°C. Then, the catalytic pyrolysis studies were carried out at catalyst-to-tire ratio range of 0.05-0.25 and the highest catalytic pyrolytic oil (CPO) yield was 65.11wt.% at the ratio of 0.10 with the yield increase of 8.48wt.% compared with the non-catalytic pyrolysis. Lastly, the pyrolytic oils were characterized with applying a various techniques such as elemental analyses and various chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques (GC-MS, (1)H NMR, FT-IR, etc.). The characterization results revealed that the pyrolytic oils which were complex mixtures of C(5)-C(15) organic compounds (predominantly aromatic compounds) and also the CPO compared to the NCPO was more similar to conventional fuels in view of the certain fuel properties.

  6. Catalytic distillation water recovery subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budininkas, P.; Rasouli, F.

    1985-01-01

    An integrated engineering breadboard subsystem for the recovery of potable water from untreated urine based on the vapor phase catalytic ammonia removal was designed, fabricated and tested. Unlike other evaporative methods, this process catalytically oxidizes ammonia and volatile hydrocarbons vaporizing with water to innocuous products; therefore, no pretreatment of urine is required. Since the subsystem is fabricated from commercially available components, its volume, weight and power requirements are not optimized; however, it is suitable for zero-g operation. The testing program consists of parametric tests, one month of daily tests and a continuous test of 168 hours duration. The recovered water is clear, odorless, low in ammonia and organic carbon, and requires only an adjustment of its pH to meet potable water standards. The obtained data indicate that the vapor phase catalytic ammonia removal process, if further developed, would also be competitive with other water recovery systems in weight, volume and power requirements.

  7. Engineering reactors for catalytic reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vivek V Ranade

    2014-03-01

    Catalytic reactions are ubiquitous in chemical and allied industries. A homogeneous or heterogeneous catalyst which provides an alternative route of reaction with lower activation energy and better control on selectivity can make substantial impact on process viability and economics. Extensive studies have been conducted to establish sound basis for design and engineering of reactors for practising such catalytic reactions and for realizing improvements in reactor performance. In this article, application of recent (and not so recent) developments in engineering reactors for catalytic reactions is discussed. Some examples where performance enhancement was realized by catalyst design, appropriate choice of reactor, better injection and dispersion strategies and recent advances in process intensification/ multifunctional reactors are discussed to illustrate the approach.

  8. Catalytic hydrogenation of carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayland, B.B.

    1992-12-01

    This project is focused on developing strategies to accomplish the reduction and hydrogenation of carbon monoxide to produce organic oxygenates at mild conditions. Our approaches to this issue are based on the recognition that rhodium macrocycles have unusually favorable thermodynamic values for producing a series of intermediate implicated in the catalytic hydrogenation of CO. Observations of metalloformyl complexes produced by reactions of H{sub 2} and CO, and reductive coupling of CO to form metallo {alpha}-diketone species have suggested a multiplicity of routes to organic oxygenates that utilize these species as intermediates. Thermodynamic and kinetic-mechanistic studies are used in constructing energy profiles for a variety of potential pathways, and these schemes are used in guiding the design of new metallospecies to improve the thermodynamic and kinetic factors for individual steps in the overall process. Variation of the electronic and steric effects associated with the ligand arrays along with the influences of the reaction medium provide the chemical tools for tuning these factors. Emerging knowledge of the factors that contribute to M-H, M-C and M-O bond enthalpies is directing the search for ligand arrays that will expand the range of metal species that have favorable thermodynamic parameters to produce the primary intermediates for CO hydrogenation. Studies of rhodium complexes are being extended to non-macrocyclic ligand complexes that emulate the favorable thermodynamic features associated with rhodium macrocycles, but that also manifest improved reaction kinetics. Multifunctional catalyst systems designed to couple the ability of rhodium complexes to produce formyl and diketone intermediates with a second catalyst that hydrogenates these imtermediates are promising approaches to accomplish CO hydrogenation at mild conditions.

  9. 微管内环己烷无催化氧化工艺条件对产物分布影响研究%Effects of Process Conditions on Products Distribution of Cyclohexane Non-Catalytic Oxidation in Microcapillary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘懿; 朱明乔; 王磊; 陈新志; 卢建刚

    2016-01-01

    环己醇、环己酮是生产己内酰胺的原料,环己烷通过氧化反应制备上述原料的反应过程在安全性和时空收率等方面仍有挑战。今利用微通道的优异的安全和传热传质性能,采用氧气作为氧化剂,考察内径1 mm,长度5 m的不锈钢微管内环己烷无催化氧化反应的性能,重点考察了不同工艺条件,包括反应温度、反应压力、气液摩尔比和反应停留时间对环己烷氧化性能的影响。在180℃,压力1.5 MPa,氧气与环己烷的摩尔比为0.3:1,停留时间为1.5 min时,环己烷的转化率为3.93%,环己醇的选择性为23.39%,环己酮的选择性为35.95%,己二酸的选择性为26.71%,环己基过氧化氢选择性为4.78%。实验表明,微管内环己烷无催化氧化是可行的,且有一定的效果,尤其是反应时间短且安全性高,为慢反应在微管内的反应提供了借鉴。%Cyclohexanone and cyclohexanol are important raw materials for caprolactam production, and their production from non-catalytic oxidation of cyclohexane still has problems in safety and time space yield. In this paper, non-catalytic oxidation of cyclohexane was investigated in a microcapillary reactor which was made by a stainless steel tube with diameter of 1 mm and length of 5 m. Such tubes have good safety records and excellent mass and heat transfer properties. Effects of temperature, pressure, gas-liquid molar ratio and residence time on catalytic performance were studied. When the reaction is couducted under conditions of temperature 180℃, pressure 1.5 MPa, gas-liquid molar ratio 0.3 and residence time 1.5 min, the results show that the conversion of the non-catalytic cyclohexane oxidation is 3.93%, and the selectivities of cyclohexanol, cyclohexanone, adipic acid and CHHP are 23.39%, 35.95%, 26.71% and 4.78%, respectively. This study indicates that cyclohexane non-catalytic oxidation in microcapillary tubes to produce KA oil is

  10. Catalytic properties of niobium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The catalytic activity and selectivity of niobium compounds including oxides, salts, organometallic compounds and others are outlined. The application of these compounds as catalysts to diversified reactions is reported. The nature and action of niobium catalysts are characteristic and sometimes anomalous, suggesting the necessity of basic research and the potential use as catalysts for important processes in the chemical industry. (Author)

  11. Electrochemical promotion of sulfur dioxide catalytic oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrushina, Irina; Bandur, Viktor; Cappeln, Frederik Vilhelm;

    2000-01-01

    The effect of electrochemical polarization on the catalytic SO2 oxidation in the molten V2O5-K2S2O7 system has been studied using a gold working electrode in the temperature range 400-460 degrees C. A similar experiment has been performed with the industrial catalyst VK-58. The aim of the present...... investigation was to study a possible non-Faradaic electrochemical promotion of the liquid-phase catalytic reaction. It has been shown that there are two negative potential promotion areas with maximum effects at approximately -0.1 and -0.2 V, and one positive potential promotion area with the maximum effect...... caused by the negative charge on the electrode. The Faradaic part of the promoting effect under positive polarization has been explained as the electrochemical pushing of the V(V) V(IV) equilibrium in the direction of V(V) formation. It has also been shown that when using the industrial VK-58 catalyst...

  12. Catalytic Pyrolysis of Olive Mill Wastewater Sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Abdellaoui, Hamza

    2015-01-01

    Olive mill wastewater sludge (OMWS) is the solid residue that remains in the evaporation ponds after evaporation of the majority of water in the olive mill wastewater (OMW). OMWS is a major environmental pollutant in the olive oil producing regions. Approximately 41.16 wt. % of the OMWS was soluble in hexanes (HSF). The fatty acids in this fraction consist mainly of oleic and palmitic acid. Catalytic pyrolysis of the OMWS over red mud and HZSM-5 has been demonstrated to be an effective techno...

  13. The catalytic residues of Tn3 resolvase

    OpenAIRE

    Olorunniji, F.J.; Stark, W M

    2009-01-01

    To characterize the residues that participate in the catalysis of DNA cleavage and rejoining by the site-specific recombinase Tn3 resolvase, we mutated conserved polar or charged residues in the catalytic domain of an activated resolvase variant. We analysed the effects of mutations at 14 residues on proficiency in binding to the recombination site ('site I'), formation of a synaptic complex between two site Is, DNA cleavage and recombination. Mutations of Y6, R8, S10, D36, R68 and R71 result...

  14. Effects of hydrogen bonds in association with flavin and substrate in flavoenzyme d-amino acid oxidase. The catalytic and structural roles of Gly313 and Thr317.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setoyama, Chiaki; Nishina, Yasuzo; Tamaoki, Haruhiko; Mizutani, Hisashi; Miyahara, Ikuko; Hirotsu, Ken; Shiga, Kiyoshi; Miura, Retsu

    2002-01-01

    According to the three-dimensional structure of a porcine kidney D-amino acid oxidase-substrate (D-leucine) complex model, the G313 backbone carbonyl recognizes the substrate amino group by hydrogen bonding and the side-chain hydroxyl of T317 forms a hydrogen bond with C(2)=O of the flavin moiety of FAD [Miura et al. (1997) J. Biochem. 122, 825-833]. We have designed and expressed the G313A and T317A mutants and compared their enzymatic and spectroscopic properties with those of the wild type. The G313A mutant shows decreased activities to various D-amino acids, but the pattern of substrate specificity is different from that of the wild type. The results imply that the hydrogen bond between the G313 backbone carbonyl and the substrate amino group plays important roles in substrate recognition and in defining the substrate specificity of D-amino acid oxidase. The T317A mutant shows a decreased affinity for FAD. The steady-state kinetic measurements indicate diminished activities of T317A to substrate D-amino acids. The transient kinetic parameters measured by stopped-flow spectroscopy revealed that T317 plays key roles in stabilizing the purple intermediate, a requisite intermediate in the oxidative half-reaction, and in enhancing the release of the product from the active site, thereby optimizing the overall catalytic process of D-amino acid oxidase. PMID:11754736

  15. The Effect of Time dealumination and Solvent Concentration in Synthesis of Zeolite Catalyst and Catalytic Test for DiEthyl Ether Production Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethanol is an alternative energy, but its has three distinct disadvantages as a transportation fuel. Its availability is currently limited, and it has a lower volumetric heating value and a lower Reid vapour pressure (RVP) than gasoline. This paper focuses for this disadvantages and to solve this problem can do with converts ethanol to DiEthyl Ether product. This research produced DiEthyl Ether by ethanol dehydration process with zeolite as catalyst. The catalyst synthesis from natural material from District Gunung Kidul, Indonesia. The catalyst produced with dealumination, neutralization, drying and calcination processes. The zeolite catalyst was analysed of Si/Al, X-ray Diffraction and specific surface area. The catalyst product then used for ethanol dehydration to produce DiEthyl Ether. The results shown the biggest surface area is 184,52 m2/gram at catalyst production at 10 hours for time dealumination. The crystallite of catalyst product is similar like shown at diffractogram of XRD analysis. The ratio Si/Al biggest is 313.7 that obtaining at catalyst production with 7 hours for time dealumination. The catalytic test use fixed bed reactor with 1 inci diameter and ethanol fermentation both as feed. The operation condition is 150 deg. C at temperature and atmosphere pressure. The compounds product in liquid phase are diethyl ether, methanol and water.

  16. Effect of ethanol-diesel blend fuels on emission and particle size distribution in a common-rail direct injection diesel engine with warm-up catalytic converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hwanam [Graduate School of Mechanical Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea); Choi, Byungchul [Graduate School of Mechanical Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea); School of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea)

    2008-10-15

    In this study, the exhaust gas from a common-rail direct injection diesel engine was investigated both upstream and downstream warm-up catalytic converters (WCC). Three different types of ultra-low sulfur fuels (ethanol-diesel blend, ethanol-diesel blend with cetane improver and pure diesel) were tested in this study. The objective of the work was to study the engine performance and the formation of THC (total hydro carbon), CO (carbon monoxide), NO{sub x} (nitrogen oxides), smoke and PM (particulate matters) when using these fuels. THC and CO emissions of the ethanol-diesel blend fuels were slightly increased, and about 50-80% mean conversion efficiencies of THC and CO on catalysts were achieved in the ECE R49 13-mode cycle. Smoke was decreased by more than 42% in the entire ECE 13-mode cycles. From the measurement of scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) for the particle size range of 10-385 nm, the total number and total mass of the PM of the ethanol-diesel blend fuels were decreased by about 11.7-15% and 19.2-26.9%, respectively. (author)

  17. Catalytic decomposition of gaseous PCDD/Fs over V2O5/TiO2-CNTs catalyst: Effect of NO and NH3 addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiulin; Hung, Pao Chang; Lu, Shengyong; Chang, Moo Been

    2016-09-01

    There is a strong need for a control technology that simultaneously achieving the abatement of PCDD/Fs (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions in waste incineration industry. TiO2 and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were used as composite carriers to support vanadium oxide as an innovative catalyst to simultaneously control PCDD/Fs and NO emissions. The removal efficiencies (RE) of PCDD/Fs by V2O5/TiO2-CNTs catalyst under a space velocity (SV) of 20,000 h(-1) reaches 99.9% at 150 °C and adsorption is supposed to be the main mechanism at this temperature. The influence of NONH3 reaction on PCDD/Fs catalytic reaction is investigated. The kinetics analysis exhibits that the addition of NO and NH3 reduces the activation energies for OCDD (octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) and OCDF (octachlorodibenzofuran) decomposition to 3.6 kJ/mol and 5.4 kJ/mol respectively. PMID:27285382

  18. Photo-catalytic inactivation of an Enterococcus biofilm: the anti-microbial effect of sulphated and europium-doped titanium dioxide nanopowders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworniczek, Ewa; Plesch, Gustav; Seniuk, Alicja; Adamski, Ryszard; Michal, Róbert; Čaplovičová, Mária

    2016-04-01

    The control and prevention of biofilm-related infections is an important public healthcare issue. Given the increasing antibiotic resistance among bacteria and fungi that cause serious infections in humans, promotion of new strategies combating microorganisms has been essential. One attractive approach to inactivate microorganisms is the use of semiconductor photo-catalysis, which has become the subject of extensive research. In this study, the bactericidal properties of four photo-catalysts, TiO₂, TiO₂-S, TiO₂-Eu and TiO₂-Eu-S, were investigated against established 24, 48, 72 and 96 h biofilms of Enterococcus The exposure of biofilms to the catalysts induced the production of superoxide radical anions. The best photo-catalytic inactivation was achieved with the TiO₂-Eu-S and TiO₂-S nanopowders and 24 h biofilms. Transmission electron microscopy images showed significant changes in the structure of the biofilm cells following photo-inactivation. The results suggest that doping with europium and modifying the surface with sulphate groups enhanced the bactericidal activity of the TiO₂ nanoparticles against enterococcal biofilms.

  19. Effects of potassium on Ni-K/Al2O3 catalysts in the synthesis of carbon nanofibers by catalytic hydrogenation of CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching S; Lin, Jarrn H; You, Jiann H; Yang, Kuo H

    2010-03-25

    Commercially available Ni/Al(2)O(3) samples containing various concentrations of potassium were used to achieve carbon deposition from CO(2) via catalytic hydrogenation. Experimental results show that K additives can induce the formation of carbon nanofibers or carbon deposition on Ni/Al(2)O(3) during the reverse water-gas shift reaction. This work proposes that the formation rate of carbon deposition depends closely on ensemble control, suggesting that the ensemble size necessary to form carbon may be approximately 0.5 potassium atoms. The results of CO(2) temperature-programmed desorption provide strong evidence that the new adsorption sites for CO(2) created on Ni-K/Al(2)O(3) closely depend upon the synthesis of carbon nanofibers. It is found that some potassium-related active phases obtained by calcination and reduction pretreatments can participate in the carbon deposition reaction. The formation pathway for carbon deposition suggests that the main source of carbon deposition is CO(2) and that the pathway is independent of the reaction products CO and CH(4) in the reverse water-gas shift reaction. PMID:19655780

  20. Advanced anticorrosive coatings prepared from electroactive polyimide/graphene nanocomposites with synergistic effects of redox catalytic capability and gas barrier properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Yeh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, electroactive polyimide (EPI/graphene nanocomposite (EPGN coatings were prepared by thermal imidization and then characterized by Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR and transmission electron microscope (TEM. The redox behavior of the as-prepared EPGN materials was identified by in situ monitoring for cyclic voltammetry (CV studies. Demonstrating that EPGN coatings provided advanced corrosion protection of cold-rolled steel (CRS electrodes as compared to that of neat EPI coating. The superior corrosion protection of EPGN coatings over EPI coatings on CRS electrodes could be explained by the following two reasons. First, the redox catalytic capabilities of amino-capped aniline trimer (ACAT units existing in the EPGN may induce the formation of passive metal oxide layers on the CRS electrode, as indicated by scanning electron microscope (SEM and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA studies. Moreover, the well-dispersed carboxyl-graphene nanosheets embedded in the EPGN matrix hinder gas migration exponentially. This would explain enhanced oxygen barrier properties of EPGN, as indicated by gas permeability analysis (GPA studies.

  1. The Effect of Time dealumination and Solvent Concentration in Synthesis of Zeolite Catalyst and Catalytic Test for DiEthyl Ether Production Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widayat, Widayat; Roesyadi, A.; Rachimoellah, M.

    2009-09-01

    Ethanol is an alternative energy, but its has three distinct disadvantages as a transportation fuel. Its availability is currently limited, and it has a lower volumetric heating value and a lower Reid vapour pressure (RVP) than gasoline. This paper focuses for this disadvantages and to solve this problem can do with converts ethanol to DiEthyl Ether product. This research produced DiEthyl Ether by ethanol dehydration process with zeolite as catalyst. The catalyst synthesis from natural material from District Gunung Kidul, Indonesia. The catalyst produced with dealumination, neutralization, drying and calcination processes. The zeolite catalyst was analysed of Si/Al, X-ray Diffraction and specific surface area. The catalyst product then used for ethanol dehydration to produce DiEthyl Ether. The results shown the biggest surface area is 184,52 m 2 / gram at catalyst production at 10 hours for time dealumination. The crystallite of catalyst product is similar like shown at diffractogram of XRD analysis. The ratio Si/Al biggest is 313.7 that obtaining at catalyst production with 7 hours for time dealumination. The catalytic test use fixed bed reactor with 1 inci diameter and ethanol fermentation borth as feed. The operation condition is 150° C at temperature and atmosphere pressure. The compounds product in liquid phase are diethyl ether, methanol and water.

  2. Effect of loading content of copper oxides on performance of Mn-Cu mixed oxide catalysts for catalytic combustion of benzene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Hongyan; LI Xiaoshuang; CHEN Yaoqiang; GONG Maochu; WANG Jianli

    2012-01-01

    A series of Mn-Cu mixed oxide catalysts were prepared by precipitation method.The catalysts were characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption,H2-TPR and XPS.When the loading ratio of manganese oxides to copper oxides was 8:2 or 7:3,the catalysts possessed better catalytic activity,and benzene was converted completely at 558 K.Results of H2-TPR showed that the loading of a small amount of copper oxides decreased the reduction temperature of catalysts.Results of XPS showed that the loading of a small amount of copper oxides increased the proportion of manganese and defective oxygen on the surface of catalysts,and stabilized manganese at higher oxidation state.And the catalyst with the loading ratio 7:3 was a little worse than 8:2,since the interaction between manganese oxides and copper oxides is too strong,copper oxides migrate to the surface of catalysts and manganese oxides in excess are immerged.

  3. The catalytic effect of Nb, NbO and Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} with different surface planes on dehydrogenation in MgH{sub 2}: Density functional theory study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Keisuke, E-mail: keisuke.takahashi@eng.hokudai.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N-13, W-8, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Isobe, Shigehito [Strategic Priority Project Research Division, Creative Research Institution, Hokkaido University (Japan); Ohnuki, Somei [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N-13, W-8, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: ► Dehydrogenation of MgH{sub 2} cluster on (1 0 0)(1 1 0)(1 1 1) of Nb, NbO and Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}. ► NbO(1 1 1) shows very high adsorption energy. ► MgO forms on all of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} planes. ► Density of state reveals that dehydrogenated Mg on NbO(1 1 1) is unstable and may be easy to rehydrogenate. -- Abstract: The catalytic effect of Nb, NbO and Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} with different surface planes on dehydrogenation of MgH{sub 2} clusters was investigated by using a density functional theory. The adsorption sites of Mg and H are different depending on different surface planes. In particular, NbO(1 1 1) shows very high adsorption energy which is considered to be due to electron pairing instead of a charge transfer. Electronic structure reveal that NbO(1 1 1) has a strong interaction between the s-state of H and d-state of Nb. This thermodynamically suggests a low dissociation barrier of Mg–H bond. Mg becomes fully oxide on a oxygen-rich planes of NbO(1 0 0) and all planes of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}. Those planes prevent rehydrogenation of MgH{sub 2}. These results should help understand the catalytic effects of Nb, NbO and Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} and develop a better catalyst for MgH{sub 2} systems.

  4. Catalytic behavior of Cu, Ag and Au nanoparticles. A comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lippits, Meindert Jan

    2010-01-01

    Clearly gold deposited as nanoparticles on a support is a very active catalyst in contrast to bulk gold which does not show any catalytic activity. The question arises if this particle size effect is exclusively valid for gold catalysis or can a similar effect be found in other metals? In the resear

  5. Degradation of Organic Pollutants in Water by Catalytic Ozonation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xin; YAO Jun-hai; QI Jing-yao

    2007-01-01

    Different series of transition metal catalysts supported on Al2O3 were prepared by the impregnation method. The catalytic activity was measured in a batch reactor with ozone as the oxidizing reagent. The experimental results indicate that Cu/Al2O3 has a very effective catalytic activity during the ozonation of organic pollutants in water. The optimum conditions for preparing Cu/Al2O3 were systematically investigated with the orthogonal testing method. Furthermore, the results also show that the surface properties of catalyst are not compulsory for effective oxidation.

  6. Reduction of nitrate from groundwater: powder catalysts and catalytic membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ying-xu; ZHANG Yan; LIU Hong-yuan

    2003-01-01

    The reduction of nitrate contaminant in groundwater has gained renewed and intensive attention due to the environmental problems and health risks. Catalytic denetrification presents one of the most promising approaches for the removal of nitrate from water. Catalytic nitrate reduction from water by powder catalysts and catalytic membrane in a batch reactor was studied. And the effects of the initial concentration, the amounts of catalyst, and the flux H2 on the nitrate reduction were also discussed. The results demonstrated that nitrate reduction activity and the selectivity to nitrogen gas were mainly controlled by diffusion limitations and the mass transfer of the reactants. The selectivity can improved while retaining a high catalytic activity under controlled diffusion condition or the intensification of the mass transfer, and a good reaction condition. The total nitrogen removal efficiency reached above 80%. Moreover, catalytic membrane can create a high effective gas/liquid/solid interface, and show a good selectivity to nitrogen in comparative with the powder catalyst, the selectivity to nitrogen was improved from 73.4% to 89.4%.

  7. Catalytic Polymer Multilayer Shell Motors for Separation of Organics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhihua; Wu, Zhiguang; Lin, Xiankun; He, Qiang

    2016-01-26

    A catalytic polymer multilayer shell motor has been developed, which effects fast motion-based separation of charged organics in water. The shell motors are fabricated by sputtering platinum onto the exposed surface of silica templates embedded in Parafilm, followed by layer-by-layer assembly of polyelectrolyte multilayers to the templates. The catalytic shell motors display high bubble propulsion with speeds of up to 260 μm s(-1) (13 body lengths per second). Moreover, the polyelectrolyte multilayers assembled at high pH (pH>9.0) adsorb approximately 89% of dye molecules from water, owing to the electrostatic interaction between the positively charged polymers and the anionic dye molecules, and subsequently release them at neutral pH in a microfluidic device. The efficient propulsion coupled with the effective adsorption behavior of the catalytic shell motors in a microfluidic device results in accelerated separation of organics in water and thus holds considerable promise for water analysis.

  8. Overexpression of the catalytically impaired Taspase1 T234V or Taspase1 D233A variants does not have a dominant negative effect in T(4;11 leukemia cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Bier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The chromosomal translocation t(4;11(q21;q23 is associated with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia of infants. The resulting AF4•MLL oncoprotein becomes activated by Taspase1 hydrolysis and is considered to promote oncogenic transcriptional activation. Hence, Taspase1's proteolytic activity is a critical step in AF4•MLL pathophysiology. The Taspase1 proenzyme is autoproteolytically processed in its subunits and is assumed to assemble into an αββα-heterodimer, the active protease. Therefore, we investigated here whether overexpression of catalytically inactive Taspase1 variants are able to interfere with the proteolytic activity of the wild type enzyme in AF4•MLL model systems. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: The consequences of overexpressing the catalytically dead Taspase1 mutant, Taspase1(T234V, or the highly attenuated variant, Taspase1(D233A, on Taspase1's processing of AF4•MLL and of other Taspase1 targets was analyzed in living cancer cells employing an optimized cell-based assay. Notably, even a nine-fold overexpression of the respective Taspase1 mutants neither inhibited Taspase1's cis- nor trans-cleavage activity in vivo. Likewise, enforced expression of the α- or β-subunits showed no trans-dominant effect against the ectopically or endogenously expressed enzyme. Notably, co-expression of the individual α- and β-subunits did not result in their assembly into an enzymatically active protease complex. Probing Taspase1 multimerization in living cells by a translocation-based protein interaction assay as well as by biochemical methods indicated that the inactive Taspase1 failed to assemble into stable heterocomplexes with the wild type enzyme. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our results demonstrate that inefficient heterodimerization appears to be the mechanism by which inactive Taspase1 variants fail to inhibit wild type Taspase1's activity in trans. Our work favours strategies targeting Taspase1's catalytic activity

  9. Catalytic combustion over high temperature stable metal oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, M. [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1996-12-31

    This thesis presents a study of the catalytic effects of two interesting high temperature stable metal oxides - magnesium oxide and manganese substituted barium hexa-aluminate (BMA) - both of which can be used in the development of new monolithic catalysts for such applications. In the first part of the thesis, the development of catalytic combustion for gas turbine applications is reviewed, with special attention to alternative fuels such as low-BTU gas, e.g. produced in an air blown gasifier. When catalytic combustion is applied for such a fuel, the primary advantage is the possibility of decreasing the conversion of fuel nitrogen to NO{sub x}, and achieving flame stability. In the experimental work, MgO was shown to have a significant activity for the catalytic combustion of methane, lowering the temperature needed to achieve 10 percent conversion by 270 deg C compared with homogeneous combustion.The reaction kinetics for methane combustion over MgO was also studied. It was shown that the heterogeneous catalytic reactions were dominant but that the catalytically initiated homogeneous gas phase reactions were also important, specially at high temperatures. MgO and BMA were compared. The latter showed a higher catalytic activity, even when the differences in activity decreased with increasing calcination temperature. For BMA, CO{sub 2} was the only product detected, but for MgO significant amounts of CO and C{sub 2}-hydrocarbons were formed. BMA needed a much lower temperature to achieve total conversion of other fuels, e.g. CO and hydrogen, compared to the temperature for total conversion of methane. This shows that BMA-like catalysts are interesting for combustion of fuel mixtures with high CO and H{sub 2} content, e.g. gas produced from gasification of biomass. 74 refs

  10. Effects of catalytic mineral matter CO/CO{sub 2} ratio on temperature and burning time for char combustion. Quarterly progress report No. 1, October--December 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longwell, J.P.; Sarofim, A.F.; Tognotti, L.; Du, Zhiyou

    1989-12-31

    The temperature of a char particle burning in an oxygen containing atmosphere is the product of a strongly coupled balance between particle size and physical properties, heat transfer from the particle, surface reactivity, CO/CO{sub 2} ratio and gas phase diffusion in the surrounding boundary layer and within the particle. The heat released by formation Of CO{sub 2} is a factor of 3.5 higher than for CO so the temperature of a particle will depend strongly on the CO/CO{sub 2} ratio produced. If gas diffusion through the boundary layer is fast, increased direct production of CO{sub 2} produces a higher temperature and a higher burning rate. If the supply of oxygen to the surface is limited by diffusion through the boundary layer, production of CO{sub 2} consumes half as much carbon as production of CO so carbon consumption rate is reduced even though temperature may be somewhat higher. Models of these complex interaction have been developed; however, the CO/CO{sub 2} ratio produced by the carbon-oxygen reaction must, at present be assumed or inferred from measurement of particle temperature. CO/CO{sub 2} rates can be strongly influenced by catalytic material in the carbon and by the char temperature. In this program we are measuring the CO/CO{sub 2} ratio for both catalyzed and uncatalyzed chars over a wide range of temperature. These results will then be used to develop predictive models for char temperature and burning rates.

  11. Toluene removal by sequential adsorption-plasma catalytic process: Effects of Ag and Mn impregnation sequence on Ag-Mn/γ-Al2O3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Caihong; Huang, Xuemin; Dang, Xiaoqing; Huang, Jiayu; Teng, Jingjing; Kang, Zhongli

    2016-11-01

    A series of Ag-Mn/γ-Al2O3 were prepared under different Ag/Mn impregnation sequence and tested in the sequential adsorption-plasma catalytic removal of toluene. When Mn was impregnated first, the resulting catalyst, Ag-Mn(F)/γ-Al2O3, had longer breakthrough time, gave less emission of toluene, had higher CO2 selectivity, and had better carbon balance and COx yield compared to catalysts prepared via other impregnation sequences. After 120 min of NTP treatment, the carbon balance of Ag-Mn(F)/γ-Al2O3 was 91%, with 87% as COx contributions. A Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results show that, the impregnation sequence impacts the BET surface area and the ratio and existing state of Ag on the surface of the catalysts. The longer breakthrough time when using Ag-Mn(F)/γ-Al2O3 as catalyst is attributed to the large amount of Ag(+) on the surface. Ag(+) is a new active site for toluene adsorption. When Ag was impregnated first (Ag(F)-Mn/γ-Al2O3) or Ag and Mn co-impregnated (Ag-Mn-C/γ-Al2O3), the predominant specie was Ag(+). Both Ag(0) and Ag(+) species were detected on Ag-Mn(F)/γ-Al2O3. Ag(0) cooperation with MnOx may promote the migration of surface active oxygen. This would facilitate the oxidation of adsorbed toluene with CC bond already weakened by Ag(+) and would result in higher CO2 selectivity and better carbon balance as seen in the Ag-Mn(F)/γ-Al2O3 system. PMID:27494312

  12. Abatement of phenolic mixtures by catalytic wet oxidation enhanced by Fenton's pretreatment: Effect of H2O2 dosage and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalytic wet oxidation (CWO) of a phenolic mixture containing phenol, o-cresol and p-cresol (500 mg/L on each pollutant) has been carried out using a commercial activated carbon (AC) as catalyst, placed in a continuous three-phase reactor. Total pressure was 16 bar and temperature was 127 deg. C. Pollutant conversion, mineralization, intermediate distribution, and toxicity were measured at the reactor outlet. Under these conditions no detoxification of the inlet effluent was found even at the highest catalyst weight (W) to liquid flow rate (QL) ratio used. On the other hand, some Fenton Runs (FR) have been carried out in a batch way using the same phenolic aqueous mixture previously cited. The concentration of Fe2+ was set to 10 mg/L. The influence of the H2O2 amount (between 10 and 100% of the stoichiometric dose) and temperature (30, 50, and 70 deg. C) on phenols conversion, mineralization, and detoxification have been analyzed. Phenols conversion was near unity at low hydrogen peroxide dosage but mineralization and detoxification achieved an asymptotic value at each temperature conditions. The integration of Fenton reagent as pretreatment of the CWO process remarkably improves the efficiency of the CWO reactor and allows to obtain detoxified effluents at mild temperature conditions and relatively low W/QL values. For a given phenolic mixture a temperature range of 30-50 deg. C in the Fenton pretreatment with a H2O2 dosage between 20 and 40% of the stoichiometric amount required can be proposed

  13. Effects of Coke Deposits on the Catalytic Performance of Large Zeolite H-ZSM-5 Crystals during Alcohol-to-Hydrocarbons Reactions as Investigated by a Combination of Optical Spectroscopy and Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordvang, Emily Catherine; Borodina, Elena; Ruiz-Martínez, Javier;

    2015-01-01

    The catalytic activity of large zeolite H-ZSM-5 crystals in methanol (MTO) and ethanol-to-olefins (ETO) conversions was investigated and, using operando UV/Vis measurements, the catalytic activity and deactivation was correlated with the formation of coke. These findings were related to in situ...

  14. Catalisador Pd/gama-Al2O3: efeito do tamanho de partícula na atividade catalítica para combustão do CH4 Pd/gamma-Al2O3 catalyst: particle size effect in the catalytic ativity for CH4 combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Marcos Dallago

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Methane, the main constituent of natural gas (> 85%, is employed in large scale as an energy source (thermoelectric power plants, automobiles, etc. However, significant quantities of this gas contribute to the greenhouse effect. The catalytic combustion of methane can minimize these emissions. Palladium is one of the metals that shows the highest activity, depending on the different active forms of the metal. In this article, we focus on the influence of particle size and pretreatment on the catalytic performance of palladium in the methane combustion reaction.

  15. The selective catalytic reduction of NO with NH{sub 3} over a novel Ce–Sn–Ti mixed oxides catalyst: Promotional effect of SnO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Ming’e [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Li, Caiting, E-mail: ctli@hnu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Zeng, Guangming; Zhou, Yang; Zhang, Xunan; Xie, Yin’e [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2015-07-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A novel catalyst was developed for selective catalytic reduction of NO with NH{sub 3}. • The NO removal efficiency of CeTi catalyst was improved by the addition of SnO{sub 2}. • The novel catalyst possessed remarkable resistance to H{sub 2}O and SO{sub 2}. • The promotional effects of SnO{sub 2} were investigated in detail. • Possible reaction mechanism over the novel catalyst was discussed. - Abstract: A series of novel catalysts (CexSny) for the selective catalytic reduction of NO by NH{sub 3} were prepared by the inverse co-precipitation method. The aim of this novel design was to improve the NO removal efficiency of CeTi by the introduction of SnO{sub 2}. It was found that the Ce–Sn–Ti catalyst was much more active than Ce–Ti and the best Ce:Sn molar ratio was 2:1. Ce2Sn1 possessed a satisfied NO removal efficiency at low temperature (160–280 °C), while over 90% NO removal efficiency maintained in the temperature range of 280–400 °C at the gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) of 50,000 h{sup −1}. Besides, Ce2Sn1 kept a stable NO removal efficiency within a wide range of GHSV and a long period of reacting time. Meanwhile, Ce2Sn1 exhibited remarkable resistance to both respectively and simultaneously H{sub 2}O and SO{sub 2} poisoning due to the introduction of SnO{sub 2}. The promotional effect of SnO{sub 2} was studied by N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and H{sub 2} temperature programmed reduction (H{sub 2}-TPR) for detail information. The characterization results revealed that the excellent catalytic performance of Ce2Sn1 was associated with the higher specific surface area, larger pore volume and poorer crystallization. Besides, the introduction of SnO{sub 2} could result in not only greater conversion of Ce{sup 4+} to Ce{sup 3+} but also the increase amount of chemisorbed oxygen, which are beneficial to improve the SCR

  16. Catalytic hot gas cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simell, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Gasification gas that contains particulates can be purified from tars and ammonia by using nickel monolith catalysts. Temperatures over 900 deg C are required at 20 bar pressure to avoid deactivation by H{sub 2}S and carbon. Dolomites and limestones are effective tar decomposing catalysts only when calcined. Tar decomposition in gasification conditions can take place by steam or dry (CO{sub 2}) reforming reactions. These reactions follow apparent first order kinetics with respect to hydrocarbons in gasification conditions. (author) (16 refs.)

  17. Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore Dickerson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic pyrolysis is a promising thermochemical conversion route for lignocellulosic biomass that produces chemicals and fuels compatible with current, petrochemical infrastructure. Catalytic modifications to pyrolysis bio-oils are geared towards the elimination and substitution of oxygen and oxygen-containing functionalities in addition to increasing the hydrogen to carbon ratio of the final products. Recent progress has focused on both hydrodeoxygenation and hydrogenation of bio-oil using a variety of metal catalysts and the production of aromatics from bio-oil using cracking zeolites. Research is currently focused on developing multi-functional catalysts used in situ that benefit from the advantages of both hydrodeoxygenation and zeolite cracking. Development of robust, highly selective catalysts will help achieve the goal of producing drop-in fuels and petrochemical commodities from wood and other lignocellulosic biomass streams. The current paper will examine these developments by means of a review of existing literature.

  18. Combined catalytic converter and afterburner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, T.T.-H.

    1994-11-30

    This patent describes the combined use of a catalytic converter and afterburner. An afterburner chamber and a catalyst matrix are disposed in series within a casing. A combustible premixed charge is ignited in the afterburner chamber before it enters the catalyst matrix. This invention overcomes the problem encountered in previous designs of some of the premixed charge passing unreacted through the device unless a very long afterburner chamber is used. (UK)

  19. Poisoning of bubble propelled catalytic micromotors: the chemical environment matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guanjia; Sanchez, Samuel; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Pumera, Martin

    2013-03-01

    Self-propelled catalytic microjets have attracted considerable attention in recent years and these devices have exhibited the ability to move in complex media. The mechanism of propulsion is via the Pt catalysed decomposition of H2O2 and it is understood that the Pt surface is highly susceptible to poisoning by sulphur-containing molecules. Here, we show that important extracellular thiols as well as basic organic molecules can significantly hamper the motion of catalytic microjet engines. This is due to two different mechanisms: (i) molecules such as dimethyl sulfoxide can quench the hydroxyl radicals produced at Pt surfaces and reduce the amount of oxygen gas generated and (ii) molecules containing -SH, -SSR, and -SCH3 moieties can poison the catalytically active platinum surface, inhibiting the motion of the jet engines. It is essential that the presence of such molecules in the environment be taken into consideration for future design and operation of catalytic microjet engines. We show this effect on catalytic micromotors prepared by both rolled-up and electrodeposition approaches, demonstrating that such poisoning is universal for Pt catalyzed micromotors. We believe that our findings will contribute significantly to this field to develop alternative systems or catalysts for self-propulsion when practical applications in the real environment are considered.

  20. Studies on catalytic reduction of nitrate in groundwater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GENG Bing; ZHU Yanfang; JIN Zhaohui; LI Tielong; KANG Haiyan; WANG Shuaima

    2007-01-01

    Catalytic reduction of nitrate in groundwater by sodium formate over the catalyst was investigated.Pd-Cu/γ-Al2O3 catalyst was prepared by impregnation and characterized by brunauer-emmett-teller (BET),inductive coupled plasma (ICP),X-ray diffraction (XRD),transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX).It was found that total nitrogen was effectively removed from the nitrate solution (100 mg/L) and the removal efficiency was 87%.The catalytic activity was affected by pH,catalyst amount used,concentration of sodium formate,and initial concentration of nitrate.As sodium formate was used as reductant,precise control in the initial pH was needed.Excessively high or low initial pH (7.0 or 3.0) reduced catalytic activity.At initial pH of 4.5,catalytic activity was enhanced by reducing the amount of catalyst,while concentrations of sodium formate increased with a considerable decrease in N2 selectivity.In which case,catalytic reduction followed the first order kinetics.

  1. Thermodynamics of catalytic nanoparticle morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwolak, Michael; Sharma, Renu; Lin, Pin Ann

    Metallic nanoparticles are an important class of industrial catalysts. The variability of their properties and the environment in which they act, from their chemical nature & surface modification to their dispersion and support, allows their performance to be optimized for many chemical processes useful in, e.g., energy applications and other areas. Their large surface area to volume ratio, as well as varying sizes and faceting, in particular, makes them an efficient source for catalytically active sites. These characteristics of nanoparticles - i.e., their morphology - can often display intriguing behavior as a catalytic process progresses. We develop a thermodynamic model of nanoparticle morphology, one that captures the competition of surface energy with other interactions, to predict structural changes during catalytic processes. Comparing the model to environmental transmission electron microscope images of nickel nanoparticles during carbon nanotube (and other product) growth demonstrates that nickel deformation in response to the nanotube growth is due to a favorable interaction with carbon. Moreover, this deformation is halted due to insufficient volume of the particles. We will discuss the factors that influence morphology and also how the model can be used to extract interaction strengths from experimental observations.

  2. Catalytic Synthesis of Nitriles in Continuous Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordvang, Emily Catherine

    The objective of this thesis is to report the development of a new, alternative process for the flexible production of nitrile compounds in continuous flow. Nitriles are an important class of compounds that find applications as solvents, chemical intermediates and pharmaceutical compounds......, alternative path to acetonitrile from ethanol via the oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylamine. The catalytic activity and product ratios of the batch and continuous flow reactions are compared and the effect of reaction conditions on the reaction is investigated. The effects of ammonia in the reaction...... dehydrogenation of ethylamine and post-reaction purging.Chapter 4 outlines the application of RuO2/Al2O3 catalysts to the oxidative dehydrogenation of benzylamine in air, utilizing a new reaction setup. Again, batch and continuous flow reactions are compared and the effects of reaction conditions, ammonia...

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH ACTIVITY, CATALYTIC SYSTEMS FOR NOx REDUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2001-12-01

    This project was directed at an investigation of catalytic NO{sub x} reduction on carbonaceous supports at low temperatures. The experimental work was conducted primarily in a packed bed reactor/gas flow system that was constructed for this work. The analytical techniques employed were mass spectrometry, NO{sub x} chemiluminescence, and gas chromatography. The experimental plan was focused on steady-state reactivity experiments, followed by temperature programmed desorption (TPD) of surface intermediates, and also selected temperature-programmed reaction (TPR) experiments. Both uncatalyzed and catalyzed (potassium-promoted) phenolic resin char, were investigated as well as the catalytic effect of additional CO in the gas phase.

  4. Catalytic wet Air Oxidation of o-Chlorophenol in Wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐新华; 汪大翬

    2003-01-01

    Catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) was investigated in laboratory-scale experiments for the treatment of o-chlorophenol in wastewater. Experimental results showed that wet air oxidation (WAO) process in the absence of catalyst was also effective for o-chlorophenol in wastewater treatment. Up to 80% of the initial CODCr was removed by wet air oxidation at 270℃ with twice amount of the required stoichiometric oxygen supply. At temperature of 150℃, the removal rate of CODCr was only 30%. Fe2(SO4)3, CuSO4, Cu(NO3)2 and MnSO4 exhibited high catalytic activity. Higher removal rate of CODCr was obtained by CWAO. More than 96% of the initial CODCr was removed at 270℃ and 84.6%-93.6% of the initial CODCr was removed at 150℃. Mixed catalysts had better catalytic activity for the degradation of o-chlorophenol in wastewater.

  5. Studies on Nitrogen Oxides Removal Using Plasma Assisted Catalytic Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V. Ravi; Young Sun Mok; B. S. Rajanikanth; Ho-Chul Kang

    2003-01-01

    An electric discharge plasma reactor combined with a catalytic reactor was studied for removing nitrogen oxides. To understand the combined process thoroughly, discharge plasma and catalytic process were separately studied first, and then the two processes were combined for the study. The plasma reactor was able to oxidize NO to NO2 well although the oxidation rate decreased with temperature. The plasma reactor alone did not reduce the NOx (NO+NO2)level effectively, but the increase in the ratio of NO2 to NO as a result of plasma discharge led to the enhancement of NOx removal efficiency even at lower temperatures over the catalyst surface (V2O5-WOa/TiO2). At a gas temperature of 100℃, the NOx removal efficiency obtained using the combined plasma catalytic process was 88% for an energy input of 36 eV/molecule or 30 J/1.

  6. Kinetic and catalytic performance of a BI-porous composite material in catalytic cracking and isomerisation reactions

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Khattaf, S.

    2012-01-10

    Catalytic behaviour of pure zeolite ZSM-5 and a bi-porous composite material (BCM) were investigated in transformation of m-xylene, while zeolite HY and the bi-porous composite were used in the cracking of 1,3,5-triisopropylbenzene (TIPB). The micro/mesoporous material was used to understand the effect of the presence of mesopores on these reactions. Various characterisation techniques, that is, XRD, SEM, TGA, FT-IR and nitrogen sorption measurements were applied for complete characterisation of the catalysts. Catalytic tests using CREC riser simulator showed that the micro/mesoporous composite catalyst exhibited higher catalytic activity as compared with the conventional microporous ZSM-5 and HY zeolite for transformation of m-xylene and for the catalytic cracking of TIPB, respectively. The outstanding catalytic reactivity of m-xylene and TIPB molecules were mainly attributed to the easier access of active sites provided by the mesopores. Apparent activation energies for the disappearance of m-xylene and TIPB over all catalysts were found to decrease in the order: EBCM>EZSM-5 and EBCM>EHY, respectively. © 2012 Canadian Society for Chemical Engineering.

  7. Catalytic activity of cerium-doped Ru/Al2O3 during ozonation of dimethyl phthalate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunrui ZHOU; Wanpeng ZHU; Xun CHEN

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, factors influencing the mineraliza-tion of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) during catalytic ozona-tion with a cerium-doped Ru/Al2O3 catalyst were studied. The catalytic contribution was calculated through the results of a companrison experiment. It showed that doping cerium significantly enhanced catalytic activity. The total organic carbon (TOC) removal over the doped catalyst at 100 rain reached 75.1%, 61.3% using Ru/Al2O3 catalyst and only 14.0% using ozone alone. Catalytic activity reached the maximum when 0.2% of ruthenium and 1.0% of cerium'were simultaneously loaded onto Al2O3 support. Results of experiments on oxidation by ozone alone, adsorption of the catalyst, Ce ion's and heterogeneous catalytic ozonation confirmed that the contribution of het-erogeneous catalytic ozonation was about 50%, which showed the obvious effect of Ru-Ce/Al2O3 on catalytic activity.

  8. Catalytic combustion in gas stoves - Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjelm, Anna-Karin [CATATOR AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2003-06-01

    Several independent studies show that gas stoves to some degree contribute to the indoor emissions of NO{sub x} especially in situations were the ventilation flow is poor. The peak-NO{sub x} concentrations can reach several hundred ppb but the integral concentration seldom exceeds about 20 - 50 ppb, which corresponds to an indoor-outdoor ratio of about 1 - 2.5. Epidemiological studies indicate increasing problems with respiratory symptoms in sensitive people at concentrations as low as 15 ppb of NO{sub 2}. Consequently, the NO{sub x}-concentration in homes where gas stoves are used is high enough to cause health effects. However, in situations where the ventilation flow is high (utilisation of ventilation hoods) the NO{sub x}-emissions are not likely to cause any health problems. This study has been aimed at investigating the possibilities to reduce the NO{sub x} emissions from gas stoves by replacing the conventional flame combustion with catalytic combustion. The investigation is requested by Swedish Gas Center, and is a following-up work of an earlier conducted feasibility study presented in April-2002. The present investigation reports on the possibility to use cheap and simple retro-fit catalytic design suggestions for traditional gas stoves. Experiments have been conducted with both natural and town gas, and parameters such as emissions of NO{sub x}, CO and unburned fuel gas and thermal efficiency, etc, have been examined and are discussed. The results show that it is possible to reduce the NO{sub x} emissions up to 80% by a simple retro-fit installation, without decreasing the thermal efficiency of the cooking plate. The measured source strengths correspond to indoor NO{sub x} concentrations that are below or equal to the average outdoor concentration, implying that no additional detrimental health effects are probable. The drawback of the suggested installations is that the concentration of CO and in some cases also CH{sub 4} are increased in the flue gases

  9. Demonstration of a Catalytic Converter Using a Lawn Mower Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Catalytic conversion is an important tool in environmental-remediation strategies and source removal of pollutants. Because a catalyst is regenerated, the chemistry can be extremely effective for conversion of undesirable pollutant species to less harmful products in situations where the pollutants have accumulated or are being continuously…

  10. Measuring the effects of platinum from catalytic converter equipped vehicles by means of plant indicators (food and fodder plants); Wirkungsmessungen von Platin aus katalysatorbetriebenen Kraftfahrzeugen mit pflanzlichen Bioindikatoren (Nahrungs- und Futterpflanzen)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier-Reiter, W.; Sommer, B. [TUEV Energie und Umwelt GmbH, Filderstadt (Germany). Niederlassung Stuttgart

    1997-12-31

    The essential aim of the present R and D project, titled ``Measuring the effects of platinum from catalytic converter equipped vehicles by means of plant indicators - food and fodder plants (VPT 02)``, was to obtain first orienting results on the potential effects of platinum pollution on plants by means of short-time, high-dose exposure experiments. The most important effect criterion in assessing potential hazards to humans and animals via the food chain, beside any outwardly visible changes (reaction), was the analytical detection of platinum accumulation in the plants. The project was also intended as a first contribution to the ecotoxicology of platinum, in particular the behaviour of metallic platinum and water-soluble platinum compounds in the soil-plant system. [Deutsch] Die wesentliche Zielsetzung des F and E-Vorhabens `Wirkungsmessungen von Platin und Platinverbindungen mit pflanzlichen Bioindikatoren - Nahrungs- und Futterpflanzen (VPT 02)` war es, im Rahmen von Kurzzeit-Belastungsexperimenten im hohen Dosisbereich erste orientierende Ergebnisse zu den moeglichen Auswirkungen von Platin-Belastungen auf Pflanzen abzuleiten. Neben aeusserlich sichtbaren Veraenderungen der Pflanzen (Reaktion) wurde als Wirkungskriterium insbesondere die chemisch-analytisch erfassbare Platin-Anreicherung in den Pflanzen (Akkumulation) betrachtet, die eine Abschaetzung moeglicher Gefaehrdungen von Mensch und Tier ueber die Nahrungskette ermoeglicht. Zudem sollte ein erster Beitrag zur Oekotoxikologie des Platins, insbesondere zum Verhalten von metallischem Platin und wasserloeslichen Platinverbindungen im System Boden-Pflanzen, erarbeitet werden. (orig.)

  11. Plastic catalytic degradation study of the role of external catalytic surface, catalytic reusability and temperature effects

    OpenAIRE

    Kpere-Daibo, T. S.

    2009-01-01

    Technological advancements over the last century have lead large and continuous growth in the output of plastic materials. This exponential growth has created public concern over the environmental impact caused by the polymeric waste produced. These have acted as driving forces for a lot of current research aimed at the development of plastic recycle processes. As a result, the conversion of plastic waste to useful products is gaining increasing attention. The aim of this work was to stu...

  12. Al2O3 Effect on the Catalytic Activity of Cu-ZnO-Al2O3-SiO2 Catalysts for Dimethyl Ether Synthesis from CO2 Hydrogenation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiyuan Wang; Chongyu Zeng

    2005-01-01

    by a pseudo sol-gel method has been investigated and these catalysts were characterized by XRD,H2-TPR,XPS,NH3-TPD and CO2-TPD techniques. As revealed by XRD and H2-TPR,the added alumina produces high dispersion of CuO and makes the reduction of CuO difficult. XPS analysis detects a remarkably high Al3+ enrichment at the surface of calcined samples,along with a decrease of Eb of Cu 2p3/2,which confirms the Cu-Al interaction.Another important role of Al2O3 would be to incorporate into the SiO2 structure to form the acid-base sites for ether formation. The reaction results shows that the addition of Al2O3 exhibits a promoting effect on the CO2 conversion only when its content is below 1.4%,and an optimal DME selectivity is obtained when 4.0%Al2O3 is added,indicating a better 'synergistic effect' is present between the methanol forming component and the acidic component in bifunctional catalysts. Possible relationship between the catalytic activity and the Cu-Al interaction as well as the surface acidity is discussed.

  13. THE VALENCE STATE OF VANADIUM AND ITS POISONOUS EFFECT ON CATALYSTS DURING CATALYTIC CRACKING PROCESS%钒在催化裂化过程中的价态及其对催化剂的毒害

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭丽; 汪燮卿; 朱玉霞; 王子军

    2013-01-01

    A review concerning the valence state of vanadium on catalysts during catalytic cracking process, factors affecting the variation of vanadium valence states, poisoning effect on catalysts caused by various vanadium oxides and mechanism of poisoning, as well as research methods, characterization tools and essential results, is presented.It can be concluded that the negative effect on the structure and performance of FCC catalysts by high valence state of vanadium species is much more serious than that of by low valence state vanadium species.%综述催化裂化过程中钒的价态、影响钒价态变化的因素、不同价态钒对催化剂的毒害及其原因,以及相关研究方法、表征手段和主要研究结果.从对催化剂结构和性能两方面的影响看,高价态钒对催化裂化的负面影响远远超过低价态钒.

  14. Kinetics of heterogeneous catalytic reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Boudart, Michel

    2014-01-01

    This book is a critical account of the principles of the kinetics of heterogeneous catalytic reactions in the light of recent developments in surface science and catalysis science. Originally published in 1984. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These paperback editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase acc

  15. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stock, L.M.; Yang, Shiyong [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This research, which is relevant to the development of new catalytic systems for the improvement of the quality of coal liquids by the addition of dihydrogen, is divided into two tasks. Task 1 centers on the activation of dihydrogen by molecular basic reagents such as hydroxide ion to convert it into a reactive adduct (OH{center_dot}H{sub 2}){sup {minus}} that can reduce organic molecules. Such species should be robust withstanding severe conditions and chemical poisons. Task 2 is focused on an entirely different approach that exploits molecular catalysts, derived from organometallic compounds that are capable of reducing monocyclic aromatic compounds under very mild conditions. Accomplishments and conclusions are discussed.

  16. Computational Introduction of Catalytic Activity into Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolani, Steve J; Carlin, Dylan Alexander; Siegel, Justin B

    2016-01-01

    Recently, there have been several successful cases of introducing catalytic activity into proteins. One method that has been used successfully to achieve this is the theozyme placement and enzyme design algorithms implemented in Rosetta Molecular Modeling Suite. Here, we illustrate how to use this software to recapitulate the placement of catalytic residues and ligand into a protein using a theozyme, protein scaffold, and catalytic constraints as input. PMID:27094294

  17. Estimating the temperature of a catalytic converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, T.T.-H.

    1994-11-02

    A method is described for estimating the temperature in a catalytic converter used in the exhaust system of an internal combustion engine. Pressure sensors monitor the flow resistance across the catalytic converter to provide an indication of the temperature inside. This feedback system allows heating devices to be switched off and thus avoid overheating, while maintaining the catalytic converter's efficiency by assuring that it does not operate below its light off temperature. (UK)

  18. Estimating the temperature of a catalytic converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, T.T.-H.

    1994-11-02

    A method of estimating the temperature of a catalytic converter used in the exhaust system of an internal combustion engine is described. Heated exhaust gas oxygen (HEGO) sensors are placed upstream and downstream of the catalytic converter. The temperature of the catalytic converter shortly after start-up is measured by monitoring the resistance of the HEGO sensor's heating element. The downstream sensor is used for mixture control and to double check results of the upstream sensor. (UK)

  19. Some Aspects of the Catalytic Organic Synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anil; K.Saikia

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Catalytic reactions are gaining importance due to its low cost, operational simplicity, high efficiency and selectivity. It is also getting much attention in green synthesis. Many useful organic reactions, including the acylation of alcohols and aldehydes, carbon-carbon, carbon-nitrogen, carbon-sulfur bond forming and oxidation reactions are carried out by catalyst. We are exploring the catalytic acylation of alcohols and aldehydes in a simple and efficient manner. Catalytic activation of unr...

  20. Nanostructured Catalytic Reactors for Air Purification Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I project proposes the development of lightweight compact nanostructured catalytic reactors for air purification from toxic gaseous organic...

  1. Nanostructured Catalytic Reactors for Air Purification Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase II project proposes the development of lightweight compact nanostructured catalytic reactors for air purification from toxic gaseous organic...

  2. Catalytic reforming feed characterisation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larraz Mora, R.; Arvelo Alvarez, R. [Univ. of La Laguna, Chemical Engineering Dept., La Laguna (Spain)

    2002-09-01

    The catalytic reforming of naphtha is one of the major refinery processes, designed to increase the octane number of naphtha or to produce aromatics. The naphtha used as catalytic reformer feedstock usually contains a mixture of paraffins, naphthenes, and aromatics in the carbon number range C{sub 6} to C{sub 10}. The detailed chemical composition of the feed is necessary to predict the aromatics and hydrogen production as well as the operation severity. The analysis of feed naphtha is usually reported in terms of its ASTM distillation curve and API or specific gravity. Since reforming reactions are described in terms of lumped chemical species (paraffins, naphthenes and aromatics), a feed characterisation technique should be useful in order to predict reforming operating conditions and detect feed quality changes. Unfortunately online analyzer applications as cromatography or recently introduced naphtha NMR [1] are scarce in most of refineries. This work proposes an algorithmic characterisation method focusing on its main steps description. The method could help on the subjects previously described, finally a calculation example is shown. (orig.)

  3. Catalytic conversion of light alkanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, J.E.

    1992-06-30

    The second Quarterly Report of 1992 on the Catalytic Conversion of Light Alkanes reviews the work done between April 1, 1992 and June 31, 1992 on the Cooperative Agreement. The mission of this work is to devise a new catalyst which can be used in a simple economic process to convert the light alkanes in natural gas to oxygenate products that can either be used as clean-burning, high octane liquid fuels, as fuel components or as precursors to liquid hydrocarbon uwspomdon fuel. During the past quarter we have continued to design, prepare, characterize and test novel catalysts for the mild selective reaction of light hydrocarbons with air or oxygen to produce alcohols directly. These catalysts are designed to form active metal oxo (MO) species and to be uniquely active for the homolytic cleavage of the carbon-hydrogen bonds in light alkanes producing intermediates which can form alcohols. We continue to investigate three molecular environments for the active catalytic species that we are trying to generate: electron-deficient macrocycles (PHASE I), polyoxometallates (PHASE II), and regular oxidic lattices including zeolites and related structures as well as other molecular surface structures having metal oxo groups (PHASE I).

  4. Studies on Catalytic Conversion of Ethylene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fuyu Liu; Chunyi Li; Xue Ding; Xinghua You

    2007-01-01

    FCC dry gas contains a large amount of ethylene.It is used by most of the refineries in China as fuel or simply burned in atmosphere.Few refineries make good use of the dry gas,so the precious ethylene resource in the dry gas is wasted.In this article,the possibility of catalytic conversion of ethylene to C3,C4,and some high molecular weight hydrocarbons in a fixed bed micro-reactor using LTB-1 catalyst,with pure ethylene as feedstock was studied.Effects of reaction temperature,reaction pressure,and feedstock flow rate,on the conversion of ethylene and the distribution of products were investigated to determine the proper reaction parameters to be used in practice.Good results indicate that this study may provide a new way of using the ethylene resource in the FCC dry gas.

  5. Scanning electrochemical microscopy of individual catalytic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tong; Yu, Yun; Zacher, Brian J; Mirkin, Michael V

    2014-12-15

    Electrochemistry at individual metal nanoparticles (NPs) can provide new insights into their electrocatalytic behavior. Herein, the electrochemical activity of single AuNPs attached to the catalytically inert carbon surface is mapped by using extremely small (≥3 nm radius) polished nanoelectrodes as tips in the scanning electrochemical microscope (SECM). The use of such small probes resulted in the spatial resolution significantly higher than in previously reported electrochemical images. The currents produced by either rapid electron transfer or the electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction at a single 10 or 20 nm NP were measured and quantitatively analyzed. The developed methodology should be useful for studying the effects of nanoparticle size, geometry, and surface attachment on electrocatalytic activity in real-world application environment. PMID:25332196

  6. Catalytic Acylation of Ethylidenecyclohexane over Zeolite Catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Some environmentally friendly catalysts such as HY and H-β zeolites,various cation-exchanged β zeolites,and some other solids have been used in the acylation reaction of ethylidenecyclohexane with acetic anhydride at room temperature to synthesize 3-(1-cyclohexenyl)-2-butanone instead of conventional catalysts.The effect of the amount of HY zeolite used on the acylation reaction was investigated.The yield of the acylated product was 72% in the case of n(ethylidenecyclohexane)∶n(acetic anhydride)∶m(HY zeolite)=1 mmol∶10 mmol∶0.100 g,reaction temperature:25 ℃,and reaction time:2 h.The regenerated HY zeolite showed almost the same catalytic activity as the fresh zeolite.

  7. Effect of Impregnation Solvent on Catalytic Performance of Pt-Sn/SBA-15 in Propane Dehydrogenation%浸渍溶剂对Pt-Sn/SBA-15催化剂丙烷脱氢性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯静; 张明森; 杨元一

    2013-01-01

    The effects of the preparation conditions of Pt-Sn/SBA-15 catalysts on their catalytic performance in propane dehydrogenation were investigated.The catalysts were prepared by dissolving the salts of active ingredients in distilled water or ethanol and then impregnating the SBA-15 molecular sieve support with the salt solutions.The results showed that the solvents affected the catalyst performance notably.The supports and catalysts were characterized by means of XRD,BET and CO pulse adsorption.The results showed that the catalysts had different structure and specific activity.The catalyst prepared by the impregnation with aqueous solutions of tin dichloride and chloroplatinic acid has the best catalytic performance.In the aqueous solutions,chloroplatinic acid can ionize into hydrions and chloroplatinic acid radical anions,and in the ethanol solutions,chloroplatinic acid still exists in the form of molecular,which leads to the very different metal dispersity on the Pt-Sn/SBA-15catalysts.%以乙醇和水为溶剂配制相应活性组分盐溶液作为浸渍液,研究了不同条件下制备的Pt-Sn/SBA-15催化剂用于丙烷脱氢时的催化性能;采用XRD、BET、TEM和CO脉冲吸附等方法对载体和催化剂进行了表征.实验结果表明,浸渍溶剂对Pt-Sn/SBA-15催化剂性能的影响显著,以氯化亚锡水溶液浸渍Sn、以氯铂酸水溶液浸渍Pt的催化剂性能最好.Sn浸渍液的溶剂对催化剂结构影响不明显,而Pt浸渍液的溶剂不同时催化剂的Pt分散度有显著差异.在水溶液中,氯铂酸可电离成氢阳离子和氯铂酸根阴离子,离子在水中分散存在;而在乙醇溶液中,由于乙醇极性比水差,氯铂酸不电离形成离子,仍以分子形式存在并容易团聚,从而导致氯铂酸水溶液和乙醇溶液浸渍后的Pt-Sn/SBA-15催化剂的Pt分散度有较大差异.

  8. Catalytic behavior of Ni/Zr{sub x}Ti{sub 1-x}O{sub 2} and the effect of SiO{sub 2} doping in oxidative steam reforming of n-butane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sago, Fumiaki [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Oita University, 700 Dannoharu, Oita City, Oita 870-1192 (Japan); KYOCERA Corporation (Japan); Fukuda, Sho; Nagaoka, Katsutoshi; Nishiguchi, Hiroyasu; Takita, Yusaku [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Oita University, 700 Dannoharu, Oita City, Oita 870-1192 (Japan); Sato, Katsutoshi [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Oita University, 700 Dannoharu, Oita City, Oita 870-1192 (Japan); Research Fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Washington, DC (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Catalytic behaviors of TiO{sub 2}-, Zr{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}O{sub 2}-, and ZrO{sub 2}-supported Ni catalysts were investigated for oxidative steam reforming of n-C{sub 4}H{sub 10} at 723 K. The composite oxide support, Zr{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}O{sub 2}, shows high specific surface area (136 m{sup 2}/g), leading to fine Ni particles. Thus, the Ni/Zr{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}O{sub 2} catalyst exhibits higher and more stable activity than that exhibited by other catalysts. However, relatively large amounts of coke are deposited on the catalyst during reaction. Thus, to retard carbon deposition, the influence of SiO{sub 2} additive was studied. Large amounts of SiO{sub 2} additive (5 or 10 mol%) decrease initial activity; at 10 mol%, degradation is also induced by oxidation of Ni{sup 0}. However, small amounts of SiO{sub 2} additive (1.5 mol%) effectively retard coking without lowering initial activity. The resultant Ni/Zr{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}O{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} (1.5 mol%) catalyst exhibits high and stable activity without coking. (author)

  9. The effect of additives on the reactivity of palladium surfaces for the chemisorption and hydrogenation of carbon monoxide: A surface science and catalytic study. [LaMO/sub 3/(M = Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Rh)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rucker, T.G.

    1987-06-01

    This research studied the role of surface additives on the catalytic activity and chemisorptive properties of Pd single crystals and foils. Effects of Na, K, Si, P, S, and Cl on the bonding of CO and H and on the cyclotrimerization of acetylene on the (111), (100) and (110) faces of Pd were investigated in addition to role of TiO/sub 2/ and SiO/sub 2/ overlayers deposited on Pd foils in the CO hydrogenation reaction. On Pd, only in the presence of oxide overlayers, are methane or methanol formed from CO and H/sub 2/. The maximum rate of methane formation is attained on Pd foil where 30% of the surface is covered with titania. Methanol formation can be achieved only if the TiO/sub x//Pd surface is pretreated in 50 psi of oxygen at 550/sup 0/C prior to the reaction. The additives (Na, K, Si, P, S, Cl) affect the bonding of CO and hydrogen and the cyclotrimerization of acetylene to benzene by structural and electronic interactions. In general, the electron donating additives increase the desorption temperature of CO and increase the rate of acetylene cyclotrimerization and the electron withdrawing additives decrease the desorption temperature of CO and decrease the rate of benzene formation from acetylene.

  10. Piezo-Catalytic Effect on the Enhancement of the Ultra-High Degradation Activity in the Dark by Single- and Few-Layers MoS2 Nanoflowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jyh Ming; Chang, Wei En; Chang, Yu Ting; Chang, Chih-Kai

    2016-05-01

    Single- and few-layer MoS2 nanoflowers are first discovered to have a piezo-catalyst effect, exhibiting an ultra-high degradation activity in the dark by introducing external mechanical strains. The degradation ratio of the Rhodamine-B dye solution reaches 93% within 60 s under ultrasonic-wave assistance in the dark.

  11. Preparation and Use of a Room-Temperature Catalytic Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Gareth; Mark, Bernard; Chen, Xijia; Furch, Toran; Singmaster, K. A.; Wagenknecht, Paul S.

    2001-12-01

    A solid-state catalyst that effectively converts a CO/air mixture to CO2 at room temperature is readily prepared. The catalyst, which is composed of metallic gold on iron(III) oxide, is loaded into a simple flow cell to test its catalytic activity. Mixtures of CO and air are run through the catalyst and subsequently analyzed by gas-phase infrared spectroscopy to determine the effectiveness of the catalyst.

  12. Highly Catalytic Nanodots with Renal Clearance for Radiation Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Jinxuan; Wang, Junying; Yang, Jiang; Chen, Jie; Shen, Xiu; Deng, Jiao; Deng, Dehui; Long, Wei; Sun, Yuan-Ming; Liu, Changlong; Li, Meixian

    2016-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (gamma and x-ray) is widely used in industry and medicine, but it can also pose a significant hazardous effect on health and induce cancer, physical deformity and even death, due to DNA damages and invasion of free radicals. There is therefore an urgent unmet demand in designing highly efficient radioprotectants with synergetic integration of effective renal clearance and low toxicity. In this study, we designed ultrasmall (sub-5 nm) highly catalytically active and cysteine...

  13. Acoustics of automotive catalytic converter assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, Nolan S.; Selamet, Ahmet; Parks, Steve J.; Tallio, Kevin V.; Miazgowicz, Keith D.; Radavich, Paul M.

    2003-10-01

    In an automotive exhaust system, the purpose of the catalytic converter is to reduce pollutant emissions. However, catalytic converters also affect the engine and exhaust system breathing characteristics; they increase backpressure, affect exhaust system acoustic characteristics, and contribute to exhaust manifold tuning. Thus, radiated sound models should include catalytic converters since they can affect both the source characteristics and the exhaust system acoustic behavior. A typical catalytic converter assembly employs a ceramic substrate to carry the catalytically active noble metals. The substrate has numerous parallel tubes and is mounted in a housing with swelling mat or wire mesh around its periphery. Seals at the ends of the substrate can be used to help force flow through the substrate and/or protect the mat material. Typically, catalytic converter studies only consider sound propagation in the small capillary tubes of the substrate. Investigations of the acoustic characteristics of entire catalytic converter assemblies (housing, substrate, seals, and mat) do not appear to be available. This work experimentally investigates the acoustic behavior of catalytic converter assemblies and the contributions of the separate components to sound attenuation. Experimental findings are interpreted with respect to available techniques for modeling sound propagation in ceramic substrates.

  14. Understanding catalytic biomass conversion through data mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J. Ras; B. McKay; G. Rothenberg

    2010-01-01

    Catalytic conversion of biomass is a key challenge that we chemists face in the twenty-first century. Worldwide, research is conducted into obtaining bulk chemicals, polymers and fuels. Our project centres on glucose valorisation via furfural derivatives using catalytic hydrogenation. We present her

  15. Catalytic destruction of tar in biomass derived producer gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to investigate catalytic destruction of tar formed during gasification of biomass, with the goal of improving the quality of the producer gas. This work focuses on nickel based catalysts treated with alkali in an effort to promote steam gasification of the coke that deposits on catalyst surfaces. A tar conversion system consisting of a guard bed and catalytic reactor was designed to treat the producer gas from an air blown, fluidized bed biomass gasifier. The guard bed used dolomite to crack the heavy tars. The catalytic reactor was used to evaluate three commercial steam reforming catalysts. These were the ICI46-1 catalyst from Imperial Chemical Industry and Z409 and RZ409 catalysts from Qilu Petrochemical Corp. in China. A 0.5-3 l/min slipstream from a 5 tpd biomass gasifier was used to test the tar conversion system. Gas and tar were sampled before and after the tar conversion system to evaluate the effectiveness of the system. Changes in gas composition as functions of catalytic bed temperature, space velocity and steam/TOC (total organic carbon) ratio are presented. Structural changes in the catalysts during the tests are also described

  16. The effect of lanthanum addition on the catalytic activity of ?-alumina supported bimetallic Co–Mo carbides for dry methane reforming

    OpenAIRE

    France, Liam J; Du, Xian; Almuqati, Naif; Vladimir L. Kuznetsov; Zhao, Yongxiang; Jiang, Zheng; Xiao, Tiancun; Bagabas, Abdulaziz; Almegren, Hamid; Edwards, Peter P.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of lanthanum addition to ?-alumina supported bimetallic carbides has been studied for the reaction of dry methane reforming using four different lanthanum loading levels of 1, 5, 10 and 15 wt% of lanthanum. It has been demonstrated that the addition of lanthanum to supported bimetallic carbides at low loading levels (1 wt%) results in smaller carbide crystallite sizes compared to catalysts containing either no lanthanum or higher lanthanum loading levels (5–15 wt%). Increased lanth...

  17. CATALYTIC HYDROGENATION OF ACRYLATE ASMMETRIC Dd(Ⅱ)—CHELATING RESINS CONTAINING AMINO ACID LIGANDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wangying; WangHongzuo; 等

    1995-01-01

    The catalytic hydrogenation of palladium chelating resins containing chiral amino acid ligands based on lower crosslinked poly(chloroethyl acrylate) and some effects on the rate of hydrogenation were studied.

  18. Silver nanocluster catalytic microreactors for water purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, B.; Habibi, M.; Ognier, S.; Schelcher, G.; Mostafavi-Amjad, J.; Khalesifard, H. R. M.; Tatoulian, M.; Bonn, D.

    2016-07-01

    A new method for the elaboration of a novel type of catalytic microsystem with a high specific area catalyst is developed. A silver nanocluster catalytic microreactor was elaborated by doping a soda-lime glass with a silver salt. By applying a high power laser beam to the glass, silver nanoclusters are obtained at one of the surfaces which were characterized by BET measurements and AFM. A microfluidic chip was obtained by sealing the silver coated glass with a NOA 81 microchannel. The catalytic activity of the silver nanoclusters was then tested for the efficiency of water purification by using catalytic ozonation to oxidize an organic pollutant. The silver nanoclusters were found to be very stable in the microreactor and efficiently oxidized the pollutant, in spite of the very short residence times in the microchannel. This opens the way to study catalytic reactions in microchannels without the need of introducing the catalyst as a powder or manufacturing complex packed bed microreactors.

  19. Selective catalytic oxidation of ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppaelahti, J.; Koljonen, T. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    In the combustion of fossil fuels, the principal source of nitrogen oxides is nitrogen bound in the fuel structure. In gasification, a large part of fuel nitrogen forms NH{sub 3}, which may form nitrogen oxides during gas combustion. If NH{sub 3} and other nitrogen species could be removed from hot gas, the NO emission could be considerably reduced. However, relatively little attention has been paid to finding new means of removing nitrogen compounds from the hot gasification gas. The possibility of selectively oxidizing NH{sub 3} to N{sub 2} in the hot gasification has been studied at VTT Energy. The largest NH{sub 3} reductions have been achieved by catalytic oxidation on aluminium oxides. (author) (4 refs.)

  20. Reducing catalytic converter pressure loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This article examines why approximately 30--40% of total exhaust-system pressure loss occurs in the catalytic converter and what can be done to reduce pressure loss. High exhaust-system backpressure is of concern in the design of power trains for passenger cars and trucks because it penalizes fuel economy and limits peak power. Pressure losses occur due to fluid shear and turning during turbulent flow in the converter headers and in entry separation and developing laminar-flow boundary layers within the substrate flow passages. Some of the loss mechanisms are coupled. For example, losses in the inlet header are influenced by the presence of the flow resistance of a downstream substrate. Conversely, the flow maldistribution and pressure loss of the substrate(s) depend on the design of the inlet header.

  1. Non-catalytic recuperative reformer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khinkis, Mark J.; Kozlov, Aleksandr P.; Kurek, Harry

    2015-12-22

    A non-catalytic recuperative reformer has a flue gas flow path for conducting hot flue gas from a thermal process and a reforming mixture flow path for conducting a reforming mixture. At least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path is embedded in the flue gas flow path to permit heat transfer from the hot flue gas to the reforming mixture. The reforming mixture flow path contains substantially no material commonly used as a catalyst for reforming hydrocarbon fuel (e.g., nickel oxide, platinum group elements or rhenium), but instead the reforming mixture is reformed into a higher calorific fuel via reactions due to the heat transfer and residence time. In a preferred embodiment, extended surfaces of metal material such as stainless steel or metal alloy that are high in nickel content are included within at least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path.

  2. Catalytic Graphitization of Phenolic Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu Zhao; Huaihe Song

    2011-01-01

    The catalytic graphitization of thermal plastic phenolic-formaldehyde resin with the aid of ferric nitrate (FN) was studied in detail. The morphologies and structural features of the products including onion-like carbon nanoparticles and bamboo-shaped carbon nanotubes were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy measurements. It was found that with the changes of loading content of FN and residence time at 1000℃, the products exhibited various morphologies. The TEM images showed that bamboo-shaped carbon nanotube consisted of tens of bamboo sticks and onion-like carbon nanoparticle was made up of quasi-spherically concentrically closed carbon nanocages.

  3. Catalytic combustion in small wood burning appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oravainen, H. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    There is over a million hand fired small heating appliances in Finland where about 5,4 million cubic meters of wood fuel is used. Combustion in such heating appliances is a batch-type process. In early stages of combustion when volatiles are burned, the formation of carbon monoxide (CO) and other combustible gases are difficult to avoid when using fuels that have high volatile matter content. Harmful emissions are formed mostly after each fuel adding but also during char burnout period. When the CO-content in flue gases is, say over 0.5 %, also other harmful emissions will be formed. Methane (CH{sub 4}) and other hydrocarbons are released and the amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)-compounds can be remarkable. Some PAH-compounds are very carcinogenic. It has been estimated that in Finland even more than 90 % of hydrocarbon and PAH emissions are due to small scale wood combustion. Emissions from transportation is excluded from these figures. That is why wood combustion has a net effect on greenhouse gas phenomena. For example carbon monoxide emissions from small scale wood combustion are two fold compared to that of energy production in power plants. Methane emission is of the same order as emission from transportation and seven fold compared with those of energy production. Emissions from small heating appliances can be reduced by developing the combustion techniques, but also by using other means, for example catalytic converters. In certain stages of the batch combustion, temperature is not high enough, gas mixing is not good enough and residence time is too short for complete combustion. When placed to a suitable place inside a heating appliance, a catalytic converter can oxidize unburned gases in the flue gas into compounds that are not harmful to the environment. (3 refs.)

  4. Plasma Catalytic Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yu-Tao; GUO Ying; MA Teng-Cai

    2011-01-01

    We present the experimental results of plasma catalytic synthesis of colloidal silver nanoparticles, using AgNO3 as the precursor, ethanol as the solvent and reducing agent, and poly vinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as the macromolecular surfactant. The plasma is generated by an atmospheric argon dielectric barrier discharge jet. Silver nanoparticles are produced instantly once the plasma is ignited. The system is not heated so it is necessary to use traditional chemical methods. The samples are characterized by UV-visible absorbance and transmission electron microscopy. For glow discharge mode no obvious silver nanoparticles are observed. For low voltage filamentary streamer discharge mode a lot of silver nanoparticles with the mean diameter of ~3.5nm are generated and a further increase of the voltage causes the occurrence of agglomeration.%We present the experimental results of plasma catalytic synthesis of colloidal silver nanoparticles,using AgNO3 as the precursor,ethanol as the solvent and reducing agent,and poly vinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as the macromolecular surfactant.The plasma is generated by an atmospheric argon dielectric barrier discharge jet.Silver nanoparticles are produced instantly once the plasma is ignited.The system is not heated so it is necessary to use traditional chemical methods.The samples are characterized by UV-visible absorbance and transmission electron microscopy.For glow discharge mode no obvious silver nanoparticles are observed.For low voltage filamentary streamer discharge mode a lot of silver nanoparticles with the mean diameter of ~3.5nm are generated and a further increase of the voltage causes the occurrence of agglomeration.The study of silver nanoparticles has been an extremely active area in recent years because of their important physical and chemical properties as a catalyst and antimicrobial reagent,for example.A number of methods for silver nanoparticle preparation have been developed,[1-3] among them chemical reduction is

  5. Catalytic converter with thermoelectric generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parise, R.J.

    1998-07-01

    The unique design of an electrically heated catalyst (EHC) and the inclusion of an ECO valve in the exhaust of an internal combustion engine will meet the strict new emission requirements, especially at vehicle cold start, adopted by several states in this country as well as in Europe and Japan. The catalytic converter (CC) has been a most useful tool in pollution abatement for the automobile. But the emission requirements are becoming more stringent and, along with other improvements, the CC must be improved to meet these new standards. Coupled with the ECO valve, the EHC can meet these new emission limits. In an internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV), approximately 80% of the energy consumed leaves the vehicle as waste heat: out the tail pipe, through the radiator, or convected/radiated off the engine. Included with the waste heat out the tail pipe are the products of combustion which must meet strict emission requirements. The design of a new CC is presented here. This is an automobile CC that has the capability of producing electrical power and reducing the quantity of emissions at vehicle cold start, the Thermoelectric Catalytic Power Generator. The CC utilizes the energy of the exothermic reactions that take place in the catalysis substrate to produce electrical energy with a thermoelectric generator. On vehicle cold start, the thermoelectric generator is used as a heat pump to heat the catalyst substrate to reduce the time to catalyst light-off. Thus an electrically heated catalyst (EHC) will be used to augment the abatement of tail pipe emissions. Included with the EHC in the exhaust stream of the automobile is the ECO valve. This valve restricts the flow of pollutants out the tail pipe of the vehicle for a specified amount of time until the EHC comes up to operating temperature. Then the ECO valve opens and allows the full exhaust, now treated by the EHC, to leave the vehicle.

  6. Study of TiO2 nanoparticle phase alteration and its catalytic effect on the chemoselective -sulphonylation of amines and urazoles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Davood Azarifar; Fatemeh Soleimanei; Babak Jaleh

    2013-07-01

    Anatase and rutile are the two major crystalline phases of TiO2. Heat treatment can change crystal structure and physical properties of TiO2 nanoparticles. The effect of particles size on anatase-rutile phase transformation has been studied for the -sulphonylation of amines and urazoles both under the conventional and ultrasound irradiation conditions. The main advantages allocated to this method are chemoselectivity, reduced reaction times, high yield, non-solvent green conditions and easy procedure. The catalyst can be easily recovered simply by filtration and reused with no significant loss in its reactivity.

  7. Effect of K promoter on the structure and catalytic behavior of supported iron-based catalysts in fischer-tropsch synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. E. M Farias

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Effects of K addition on the performance of supported Fe catalysts for Fischer - Tropsch synthesis (FTS were studied in a slurry reactor at 240 to 270ºC, 2.0 to 4.0 MPa and syngas H2/CO = 1.0. The catalysts were characterized by N2 adsorption, H2 temperature programmed reduction, X - ray diffraction, X - ray fluorescence, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and dispersive X - ray spectroscopy. A strong interaction was observed between Fe and K, which inhibited the reduction of Fe catalyst. Addition of potassium increased the production of heavy hydrocarbons (C20+.

  8. EFFECTS OF SOLVENT, BASE, AND TEMPERATURE IN THE OPTIMISATION OF A NEW CATALYTIC SYSTEM FOR SONOGASHIRA CROSS-COUPLING USING NCP PINCER PALLADACYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego S. Rosa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The optimisation of a new catalyst system using NCP pincer palladacycle 1 was investigated using the experimental design technique. NCP pincer palladacycle 1 was previously investigated in Suzuki-Miyaura and Heck-Mizoroki cross-couplings and found to be a highly efficient catalyst precursor. In this study, the effects of the type of base (K3PO4 or DABCO, solvent (DMF or dioxane and reaction temperature (130 or 150 ºC in the second step on the reactional yield in Sonogashira cross-coupling were assessed using the two-factor design. The results showed that temperature is statistically significant in relation to the reaction yield.

  9. Effect of oxygen partial pressure on the structure, surface morphology and photo catalytic activity of TiO2 films grown on silicone by PLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of oxygen partial pressure on the structure, surface morphology and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 films grown on silicone by PLD. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) films have been deposited on silicone (100) substrate of 248 nm at oxygen pressures of 5 to 90 mTorr and temperature of 500oC. The dependence of crystal structure, surface morphology and photocatalytic activity on oxygen partial pressure has been investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). When the oxygen partial pressure increased from 5 to 20 mTorr, the crystalline phase of the film changed from rutile to anatase and surface morphology became rough. Until the oxygen pressure of 50 mTorr, the formation of the rough surface and the transformation to the anatase phase resulted in a high photacatalytic activity. In this range of oxygen partial pressure, the effect of surface morpology on the photocatalytic activity is significant, However, at oxygen partial pressures over 50 mTorr, the photocatalytic activity was independent of surface morphology. In this range of oxygen pressure, the photocatalytic activity was probably controlled also by the electronic properties of the TiO2 films

  10. Combined effects of ankylosing spondylitis-associated ERAP1 polymorphisms outside the catalytic and peptide-binding sites on the processing of natural HLA-B27 ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Esteban, Adrian; Gómez-Molina, Patricia; Sanz-Bravo, Alejandro; López de Castro, José A

    2014-02-14

    ERAP1 polymorphism involving residues 528 and 575/725 is associated with ankylosing spondylitis among HLA-B27-positive individuals. We used four recombinant variants to address the combined effects of the K528R and D575N polymorphism on the processing of HLA-B27 ligands. The hydrolysis of a fluorogenic substrate, Arg-528/Asp-575 ERAP1 was a major determinant of the abundance of these peptides in vivo. The hydrolysis of fluorogenic and peptide substrates by an HLA-B27 ligand or a shorter peptide, respectively, was increasingly inhibited as a function of ERAP1 activity, indicating that residues 528 and 575 affect substrate inhibition of ERAP1 trimming. The significant and complex effects of co-occurring ERAP1 polymorphisms on multiple HLA-B27 ligands, and their potential to alter the immunological and pathogenetic features of HLA-B27 as a function of the ERAP1 context, explain the epistatic association of both molecules in ankylosing spondylitis. PMID:24352655

  11. A Au/Cu2O-TiO2 system for photo-catalytic hydrogen production. A pn-junction effect or a simple case of in situ reduction?

    KAUST Repository

    Sinatra, Lutfan

    2015-02-01

    Photo-catalytic H2 production from water has been studied over Au-Cu2O nanoparticle deposited on TiO2 (anatase) in order to probe into both the plasmon resonance effect (Au nanoparticles) and the pn-junction at the Cu2O-TiO2 interface. The Au-Cu2O composite is in the form of ∼10 nm Au nanoparticles grown on ∼475 nm Cu2O octahedral nanocrystals with (111) facets by partial galvanic replacement. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) Cu2p and Auger L3M4,5M4,5 lines indicate that the surface of Cu2O is mainly composed of Cu+. The rate for H2 production (from 95 water/5 ethylene glycol; vol.%) over 2 wt.% (Au/Cu2O)-TiO2 is found to be ∼10 times faster than that on 2 wt.% Au-TiO2 alone. Raman spectroscopy before and after reaction showed the disappearance of Cu+ lines (2Eu) at 220 cm-1. These observations coupled with the induction time observed for the reaction rate suggest that in situ reduction from Cu+ to Cu0 occurs upon photo-excitation. The reduction requires the presence of TiO2 (electron transfer). The prolonged activity of the reaction (with no signs of deactivation) despite the reduction to Cu0 indicates that the latter takes part in the reaction by providing additional sites for the reaction, most likely as recombination centers for hydrogen atoms to form molecular hydrogen. This phenomenon provides an additional route for enhancing the efficiency and lifetime of Cu2O-TiO2 photocatalytic systems, beyond the usually ascribed pn-junction effect.

  12. Catalytic hot gas cleaning of gasification gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simell, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1997-12-31

    The aim of this work was to study the catalytic cleaning of gasification gas from tars and ammonia. In addition, factors influencing catalytic activity in industrial applications were studied, as well as the effects of different operation conditions and limits. Also the catalytic reactions of tar and ammonia with gasification gas components were studied. The activities of different catalyst materials were measured with laboratory-scale reactors fed by slip streams taken from updraft and fluid bed gasifiers. Carbonate rocks and nickel catalysts proved to be active tar decomposing catalysts. Ammonia decomposition was in turn facilitated by nickel catalysts and iron materials like iron sinter and iron dolomite. Temperatures over 850 deg C were required at 2000{sup -1} space velocity at ambient pressure to achieve almost complete conversions. During catalytic reactions H{sub 2} and CO were formed and H{sub 2}O was consumed in addition to decomposing hydrocarbons and ammonia. Equilibrium gas composition was almost achieved with nickel catalysts at 900 deg C. No deactivation by H{sub 2}S or carbon took place in these conditions. Catalyst blocking by particulates was avoided by using a monolith type of catalyst. The apparent first order kinetic parameters were determined for the most active materials. The activities of dolomite, nickel catalyst and reference materials were measured in different gas atmospheres using laboratory apparatus. This consisted of nitrogen carrier, toluene as tar model compound, ammonia and one of the components H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, CO, CO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}+H{sub 2}O or CO+CO{sub 2}. Also synthetic gasification gas was used. With the dolomite and nickel catalyst the highest toluene decomposition rates were measured with CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. In gasification gas, however, the rate was retarded due to inhibition by reaction products (CO, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}). Tar decomposition over dolomite was modelled by benzene reactions with CO{sub 2}, H

  13. Catalytic Kinetics of the Schiff Base Metal Complexes Bearing Side Chain of Cyclic morpholine in Carboxylic Ester Hydrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG,Shu-Lin; LI,Min-Jiao; OU,Zhong-Wen; CHEN,Guo-Xu; LIU,Fu-An; XIE,Jia-Qing

    2007-01-01

    It has been reported that two Schiff base transition metal complexes bearing the side chain of the morpholine ring were synthesized and characterized, and two complexes with the same base agent but different metal ions were used as a simulant hydrolase in the catalytic hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl picolinate in this paper. The mechanism of PNPP catalytic hydrolysis is proposed and supported by the results of the spectral analysis and the kinetic calculation. A kinetic mathematical model, applied to the calculation of the kinetic and thermodynamics parameters of PNPP catalytic hydrolysis, has been established on the foundation of the mechanism proposed. The result of the study shows that the two complexes have a good catalytic activity in PNPP catalytic hydrolysis, and the rate of the PNPP catalytic hydrolysis was increased with the increase of the pH values in the buffer solution and affected by the polarization effect of metal ion of the complexes.

  14. Effects of Coke Deposits on the Catalytic Performance of Large Zeolite H-ZSM-5 Crystals during Alcohol-to-Hydrocarbon Reactions as Investigated by a Combination of Optical Spectroscopy and Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordvang, Emily C; Borodina, Elena; Ruiz-Martínez, Javier; Fehrmann, Rasmus; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    2015-11-23

    The catalytic activity of large zeolite H-ZSM-5 crystals in methanol (MTO) and ethanol-to-olefins (ETO) conversions was investigated and, using operando UV/Vis measurements, the catalytic activity and deactivation was correlated with the formation of coke. These findings were related to in situ single crystal UV/Vis and confocal fluorescence micro-spectroscopy, allowing the observation of the spatiotemporal formation of intermediates and coke species during the MTO and ETO conversions. It was observed that rapid deactivation at elevated temperatures was due to the fast formation of aromatics at the periphery of the H-ZSM-5 crystals, which are transformed into more poly-aromatic coke species at the external surface, preventing the diffusion of reactants and products into and out of the H-ZSM-5 crystal. Furthermore, we were able to correlate the operando UV/Vis spectroscopy results observed during catalytic testing with the single crystal in situ results. PMID:26463581

  15. Catalytic Potential of Nano-Magnesium Oxide on Degradation of Humic Acids From Aquatic Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorban Asgari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic ozonation is a new and promising process used to remove the contaminants from drinking water and wastewater. This study aimed to evaluate the catalytic potential of nano-magnesium oxide (nano-MgO for the removal of humic acids (HA from water. Mg (NO32 solution was used to prepare MgO powder by the calcination method. In a semi-batch reactor, the catalytic ozonation was carried out. The effects of the various operating parameters, including pH, reaction time, T-butyl alcohol (TBA and phosphate on HA degradation were evaluated. Experimental results indicated that degradation of HA was increased as the pH solution and reaction time were increased. Maximum HA degradation was obtained at pH = 10 and the reaction time of 10 minutes in the catalytic process. The calculated catalytic potential of nano-MgO on ozonation of HA was 60%. Moreover, catalytic ozonation process was not affected by TBA and the main reaction on HA degradation HA have effect take place on MgO surface. According to the results of this study, the developed MgO catalyst is the active and proficient catalyst in HA degradation using the catalytic ozonation process.

  16. Revolutionary systems for catalytic combustion and diesel catalytic particulate traps.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuecker, John Nicholas; Witze, Peter O.; Ferrizz, Robert Matthew; Cesarano, Joseph, III; Miller, James Edward

    2004-12-01

    This report is a summary of an LDRD project completed for the development of materials and structures conducive to advancing the state of the art for catalyst supports and diesel particulate traps. An ancillary development for bio-medical bone scaffolding was also realized. Traditionally, a low-pressure drop catalyst support, such as a ceramic honeycomb monolith, is used for catalytic reactions that require high flow rates of gases at high-temperatures. A drawback to the traditional honeycomb monoliths under these operating conditions is poor mass transfer to the catalyst surface in the straight-through channels. ''Robocasting'' is a unique process developed at Sandia National Laboratories that can be used to manufacture ceramic monoliths with alternative 3-dimensional geometries, providing tortuous pathways to increase mass transfer while maintaining low-pressure drops. These alternative 3-dimensional geometries may also provide a foundation for the development of self-regenerating supports capable of trapping and combusting soot particles from a diesel engine exhaust stream. This report describes the structures developed and characterizes the improved catalytic performance that can result. The results show that, relative to honeycomb monolith supports, considerable improvement in mass transfer efficiency is observed for robocast samples synthesized using an FCC-like geometry of alternating rods. Also, there is clearly a trade-off between enhanced mass transfer and increased pressure drop, which can be optimized depending on the particular demands of a given application. Practical applications include the combustion of natural gas for power generation, production of syngas, and hydrogen reforming reactions. The robocast lattice structures also show practicality for diesel particulate trapping. Preliminary results for trapping efficiency are reported as well as the development of electrically resistive lattices that can regenerate the structure

  17. Catalytic Radical Reduction in Aqueous Solution by a Ruthenium Hydride Intermediate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Htet, Yamin; Tennyson, Andrew G

    2016-07-18

    Some manganese complexes can catalyze both antioxidant and pro-oxidant reactions, whereby the disparate reactivity modes are determined by the catalyst environment and afford distinct therapeutic effects. We recently reported the reduction of radicals in buffered aqueous solution catalyzed by a ruthenium complex with biologically relevant non-tertiary alcohols as terminal reductants. Mechanistic evidence is presented, indicating that this catalytic radical reduction is achieved by a Ru-hydride intermediate formed by β-hydride elimination from a Ru-alkoxide species. A similar mechanism and Ru-hydride intermediate was previously reported to kill cancer cells with catalytic pro-oxidant effects. Therefore, our demonstration of catalytic antioxidant effects by the same type of intermediate reveals new potential therapeutic strategies and applications for catalytic systems that form Ru-hydride intermediates. PMID:27254303

  18. Catalytic converter applications for two stroke, spark-ignited marine engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, Hiroaki; Isogawa, Atsushi; Matsumoto, Naoto

    1995-12-31

    When catalytic converters are used for cleansing of exhaust gas from two-stroke marine engines, new issues must be brought up in combination with prior technology. Therefore, a study was made of V6, 2600cc engine having a large volume of hydrocarbon emissions with respect to three issues: (1) To what degree seawater effects catalytic converter performance and possible countermeasures; (2) Effects attained on cleansing level and catalyst temperature; (3) Finding abatement levels for catalyst deterioration and exhaust emission output in the marine mode. It was found that physical adsorption was a significant factor in catalytic degradation resulting from direct contact with seawater. The cleansing levels obtained when a marine engine is equipped with a catalyst converter were found by clarifying the extent of effects of catalyst volume, performance and temperature. The reduction obtained in exhaust emission allowing for a deterioration factor, is shown in a catalytic converter heated to the maximum temperature of 960 C.

  19. Catalytic combustion in environmental protection and energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlstroem-Silversand, F.

    1996-12-01

    This thesis is focused on three different areas of catalytic combustion: -Catalytic combustion of diesel soot, -Development of catalytically active wire meshes through thermal spraying, -Stabilisation and activation of {gamma}-alumina for methane combustion. Emissions of diesel soot may be trapped and combusted in a particulate trap coated with catalytically active materials. The soot particles must be combusted at temperatures prevailing in diesel exhausts, generally between 150 and 400 deg C. To facilitate effective combustion at these temperatures, the particulate trap should be coated with an oxide catalyst consisting of V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/CuO (V:Cu=0.9 on molar basis). Catalytically active wire meshes offer a number of advantages over pellets and monolith catalysts. They combine geometric flexibility with excellent mass- and heat- transfer characteristics and a low pressure drop. By using a modified thermal spray technique, it is possible to produce porous adhesive ceramic coatings on metal surfaces. The specific surface area can be increased through deposition of a high-surface-area material into the macro-porosity of the as-sprayed layer. The ceramic layer is finally activated through a conventional impregnation technique. Palladium dispersed onto a Si-stabilised {gamma}-alumina is an appropriate combustion catalyst at temperatures below 1000 deg C. Adding small amounts of rhodium or platinum to the palladium increases the catalyst activity but decreases the catalyst`s stability to thermal deactivation. The addition of rare-earth-metal oxides will lead to increased thermal stability but to a decreased activity. Long-term deactivation tests show that the activity for combustion of methane decreases to the same extent as the value of the specific surface area, thus indicating that the alumina surface may play an important role during the activation of adsorbed methane molecules. 29 refs, 14 figs

  20. Effect of Molar Ratio of Citric Acid to Metal Nitrate on the Structure and Catalytic Activity of NiO Nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Gang; TAN Xiao-yan; LI Gui-ying; HU Chang-wei

    2013-01-01

    NiO nanoparticles were prepared by means of sol-gel method via varying the ratio of citric acid to nickel nitrate.The samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction(XRD),Fourier transform infrared(FTIR) spectroscopy,transmission electron microscopy(TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS).It was found that the molar ratio of citric acid to nickel nitrate has a great effect on the crystal structure and particle size of NiO.The increase of the molar ratio of citric acid to nickel nitrate is favorable to the formation of NiO smaller particles within the range tested.Compared to bulk NiO obtained by thermal decomposition,NiO nanoparticles possess more surface oxygen species O-.The activity test indicates that surface oxygen species O-plays a crucial role in the hydroxylation of benzene to phenol with hydrogen peroxide as oxidant.The active site may be originated from Ni2+ on the surface of the samples,while Ni0 does not contribute to the hydroxylation reaction.

  1. Catalytic effect of heat-treated iron and copper phthalocyanines in non-aqueous electrolyte Li/air batteries. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Sheng S.; Ren, Xiaoming; Tran, Dat T.; Read, Jeffrey [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, RDRL-SED-C, Adelphi, MD (United States)

    2012-07-01

    In this review, we summarize our research on the characterization of FeCu/C catalyst and its effect in non-aqueous electrolyte Li/air cells. The catalyst is synthesized by impregnating metal phthalocyanine complex into a high surface area carbon, followed by pyrolyzing the complex-loaded carbon under argon atmosphere. High resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HR-XPS) results indicate that the metals in the catalyst are present in the form of a mixture of metal-nitrogen complexes (MN) and metal oxides (MO). Using coin-type Li/air cells as the testing vehicle, the FeCu/C is determined to affect the Li/air cells in three manners: (1) It catalyzes two-electron oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) to form Li{sub 2}O{sub 2}, which reduces discharge polarization of the Li/air cells, (2) It promotes chemical disproportionation of Li{sub 2}O{sub 2}, which leads to an apparent four-electron ORR, and (3) It induces reduction of electrolyte solvents, which adds a second lower discharge voltage plateau at {proportional_to} 1.7 V. In addition, the FeCu/C catalyst increases the open circle voltage (OCV) recovery rate of the Li/air cells as a result of the chemical disproportionation of Li{sub 2}O{sub 2}, which releases oxygen and the resulting oxygen participates in OCV recovery. (orig.)

  2. Effect of annealing temperature on the structure and coke-resistance of nickel–iron bimetallic catalytic layer for in situ methane steam reforming in SOFC operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • An intermediate FeNi3 phase forms in all Ni0.75Fe0.25 catalysts in present work. • The catalyst annealed at 705 °C has smallest calculated surface energy. • The catalyst annealed at 705 °C also exhibits the best coke resistance in methane. • The cell with catalyst layer annealed at 705 °C has the best stability in methane. - Abstract: In this paper, the effect on coke formation of adding a Ni0.75Fe0.25 catalyst layer to the anode side of a fuel cell running on methane is investigated. The formation of an intermediate FeNi3 phase can be observed in catalysts annealed at different temperatures. The catalyst annealed at 705 °C has the smallest calculated surface energy and grain size among all catalysts annealed at different temperatures. In addition, the O2-TPO profiles and Raman spectra of spent anode material reveal that the catalyst annealed at 705 °C has the best coke resistance among all catalysts. Moreover, the cell with catalyst layer annealed at 705 °C, under a current density of 600 mA cm−2 at 650 °C, experiences a decrease of 10% after operating in methane for 260 min, which is much more stable than that without catalyst layer (a decrease of 50%)

  3. Photo-catalytic activity of Plasmonic Ag@AgCl nanoparticles (synthesized via a green route) for the effective degradation of Victoria Blue B from aqueous phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Th Babita; Begum, Shamima; Ahmaruzzaman, M

    2016-07-01

    This study reports a green process for the fabrication of Ag@AgCl (silver@silver chloride) nanoparticles by using Aquilaria agallocha (AA) leaves juice without using any external reagents. The effect of various reaction parameters, such as reaction temperature, reaction time and concentration of Aquilaria agallocha leaves juice in the formation of nanoparticles have also been investigated. From the FTIR spectra of leaves juice and phytochemicals test, it was found that flavonoids present in the leaves are responsible for the reduction of Ag(+) ions to Ag(0) species and leads to the formation of Ag@AgCl NPs. The synthesized Ag@AgCl NPs were utilized for the removal of toxic and hazardous dyes, such as Victoria Blue B from aqueous phase. Approximately, 99.46% degradation of Victoria Blue B dye were observed with Ag@AgCl NPs. Furthermore, the photocatalytic activity of the Ag@AgCl nanoparticles was unchanged after 5cycles of operation. PMID:27152674

  4. Effect of annealing temperature on the structure and coke-resistance of nickel–iron bimetallic catalytic layer for in situ methane steam reforming in SOFC operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xuehua; Zhang, Hanqing; Zhao, DanDan; Tang, Dian; Zhang, Teng, E-mail: teng_zhang@fzu.edu.cn

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • An intermediate FeNi{sub 3} phase forms in all N{sub i0.75}Fe{sub 0.25} catalysts in present work. • The catalyst annealed at 705 °C has smallest calculated surface energy. • The catalyst annealed at 705 °C also exhibits the best coke resistance in methane. • The cell with catalyst layer annealed at 705 °C has the best stability in methane. - Abstract: In this paper, the effect on coke formation of adding a Ni{sub 0.75}Fe{sub 0.25} catalyst layer to the anode side of a fuel cell running on methane is investigated. The formation of an intermediate FeNi{sub 3} phase can be observed in catalysts annealed at different temperatures. The catalyst annealed at 705 °C has the smallest calculated surface energy and grain size among all catalysts annealed at different temperatures. In addition, the O{sub 2}-TPO profiles and Raman spectra of spent anode material reveal that the catalyst annealed at 705 °C has the best coke resistance among all catalysts. Moreover, the cell with catalyst layer annealed at 705 °C, under a current density of 600 mA cm{sup −2} at 650 °C, experiences a decrease of 10% after operating in methane for 260 min, which is much more stable than that without catalyst layer (a decrease of 50%)

  5. Multifaceted effects of HZSM-5 (Proton-exchanged Zeolite Socony Mobil-5) on catalytic cracking of pinewood pyrolysis vapor in a two-stage fixed bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yimeng; Wang, Jie

    2016-08-01

    The pinewood was pyrolyzed in the first reactor at a heating rate of 10°Cmin(-1) from room temperature to 700°C, and the vapor was allowed to be cracked through the second reactor in a temperature range of 450-750°C without and with HZSM-5. Attempts were made to determine a wide spectrum of gaseous and liquid products, as well as the mass and element partitions to gas, water, bio-oil, coke and char. HZSM-5 showed a preferential deoxygenation effect via the facilitated decarbonylation and decarboxylation with the inhibited dehydration at 550-600°C. This catalyst also displayed a high selectivity for the formations of aromatic hydrocarbons and olefins by the promoted hydrogen transfer to these products at 550-600°C. The bio-oil produced with HZSM-5 at 500-600°C had the yields of 14.5-16.8%, the high heat values of 39.1-42.4MJkg(-1), and the energy recoveries of 33-35% (all dry biomass basis). PMID:27209452

  6. Effect of the functional groups of carbon on the surface and catalytic properties of Ru/C catalysts for hydrogenolysis of glycerol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos-Suarez, E. [Departamento de Química Inorgánica y Técnica, Facultad de Ciencias, UNED, Paseo Senda del Rey n° 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Catálisis y Petroleoquímica, CSIC, Marie Curie n° 2, L-10, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Pérez-Cadenas, M. [Instituto de Catálisis y Petroleoquímica, CSIC, Marie Curie n° 2, L-10, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Guerrero-Ruiz, A. [Instituto de Catálisis y Petroleoquímica, CSIC, Marie Curie n° 2, L-10, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Unidad Asociada UNED ICP-CSIC, Group Design and Applied Heterogeneous Catalysis (Spain); Rodriguez-Ramos, I. [Departamento de Química Inorgánica y Técnica, Facultad de Ciencias, UNED, Paseo Senda del Rey n° 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Unidad Asociada UNED ICP-CSIC, Group Design and Applied Heterogeneous Catalysis (Spain); Arcoya, A., E-mail: aarcoya@icp.csic.es [Departamento de Química Inorgánica y Técnica, Facultad de Ciencias, UNED, Paseo Senda del Rey n° 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Unidad Asociada UNED ICP-CSIC, Group Design and Applied Heterogeneous Catalysis (Spain)

    2013-12-15

    Ruthenium catalysts supported on activated carbons, original (AC) and treated with nitric acid (AC-Ox) were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation from either chloride (Cl) or nitroxyl nitrate (n) precursors. These catalysts were characterized by TG, XPS, TEM, TPD-MS and CO adsorption microcalorimetry and evaluated in the hydrogenolysis of glycerol in the liquid phase, at 453 K and 8 MPa. Studies by TEM show that ruthenium particles supported on AC-Ox are larger than on AC, without any effect of the nature of the metal precursor. However, adsorption of CO on the ex-chloride catalysts is inhibited in comparison with that of the ex-nitroxyl nitrate catalysts. Catalysts characterization by TG, TPD-MS and XPS reveals that the nitric acid treatment and the nitroxyl nitrate precursor generate oxygenated groups on the carbon surface, which provide acid properties to the catalysts, although they are partly destroyed during the reduction treatment applied to the catalysts. The sequence of the overall TOF, Ru(Cl)/AC < Ru(n)/AC < Ru(Cl)/AC-Ox ≈ Ru(n)/AC-Ox, reasonably parallels the population increase of surface acid groups. Participation of the -COOH groups in the transformation of glycerol into 1,2-propanediol is verified by using the admixture Ru(Cl)/AC+AC-Ox as catalyst. In this case, since AC-Ox was not thermally treated and no loss of oxygenated groups occurred, TOF and selectivity toward 1,2-propanediol improve in comparison with those of the more active catalysts.

  7. Effect of the functional groups of carbon on the surface and catalytic properties of Ru/C catalysts for hydrogenolysis of glycerol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos-Suarez, E.; Pérez-Cadenas, M.; Guerrero-Ruiz, A.; Rodriguez-Ramos, I.; Arcoya, A.

    2013-12-01

    Ruthenium catalysts supported on activated carbons, original (AC) and treated with nitric acid (AC-Ox) were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation from either chloride (Cl) or nitroxyl nitrate (n) precursors. These catalysts were characterized by TG, XPS, TEM, TPD-MS and CO adsorption microcalorimetry and evaluated in the hydrogenolysis of glycerol in the liquid phase, at 453 K and 8 MPa. Studies by TEM show that ruthenium particles supported on AC-Ox are larger than on AC, without any effect of the nature of the metal precursor. However, adsorption of CO on the ex-chloride catalysts is inhibited in comparison with that of the ex-nitroxyl nitrate catalysts. Catalysts characterization by TG, TPD-MS and XPS reveals that the nitric acid treatment and the nitroxyl nitrate precursor generate oxygenated groups on the carbon surface, which provide acid properties to the catalysts, although they are partly destroyed during the reduction treatment applied to the catalysts. The sequence of the overall TOF, Ru(Cl)/AC < Ru(n)/AC < Ru(Cl)/AC-Ox ≈ Ru(n)/AC-Ox, reasonably parallels the population increase of surface acid groups. Participation of the sbnd COOH groups in the transformation of glycerol into 1,2-propanediol is verified by using the admixture Ru(Cl)/AC+AC-Ox as catalyst. In this case, since AC-Ox was not thermally treated and no loss of oxygenated groups occurred, TOF and selectivity toward 1,2-propanediol improve in comparison with those of the more active catalysts.

  8. Effect of the functional groups of carbon on the surface and catalytic properties of Ru/C catalysts for hydrogenolysis of glycerol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruthenium catalysts supported on activated carbons, original (AC) and treated with nitric acid (AC-Ox) were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation from either chloride (Cl) or nitroxyl nitrate (n) precursors. These catalysts were characterized by TG, XPS, TEM, TPD-MS and CO adsorption microcalorimetry and evaluated in the hydrogenolysis of glycerol in the liquid phase, at 453 K and 8 MPa. Studies by TEM show that ruthenium particles supported on AC-Ox are larger than on AC, without any effect of the nature of the metal precursor. However, adsorption of CO on the ex-chloride catalysts is inhibited in comparison with that of the ex-nitroxyl nitrate catalysts. Catalysts characterization by TG, TPD-MS and XPS reveals that the nitric acid treatment and the nitroxyl nitrate precursor generate oxygenated groups on the carbon surface, which provide acid properties to the catalysts, although they are partly destroyed during the reduction treatment applied to the catalysts. The sequence of the overall TOF, Ru(Cl)/AC < Ru(n)/AC < Ru(Cl)/AC-Ox ≈ Ru(n)/AC-Ox, reasonably parallels the population increase of surface acid groups. Participation of the -COOH groups in the transformation of glycerol into 1,2-propanediol is verified by using the admixture Ru(Cl)/AC+AC-Ox as catalyst. In this case, since AC-Ox was not thermally treated and no loss of oxygenated groups occurred, TOF and selectivity toward 1,2-propanediol improve in comparison with those of the more active catalysts.

  9. The catalytic effect of sodium and lithium ions on coupled sorption-reduction of chromate at the biotite edge-fluid interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilton, Eugene S.; Veblen, David R.; Moses, Carl O.; Raeburn, Stuart P.

    1997-09-01

    Large single crystals of biotite and near-endmember phlogopite were reacted with aqueous solutions bearing 20 μM Cr(VI) and different concentrations of NaCl, LiCl, RbCl, CsCl, NaClO 4, and Na 2SO 4. Solutions were maintained at 25 ± 0.5°C, 1 atm, and pH = 4.00 ± 0.02. Samples were extracted from the reaction chamber at 1, 3, 5, 10, and 20 h. The edges and basal planes of the reacted micas were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) for major elements and Cr. XPS analyses of biotite show trivalent chromium on edge surfaces but no detectable chromium on the basal plane. XPS analyses of near-endmember phlogopites that were reacted in the same experiments as biotite showed no detectable Cr on either the basal plane or edge surfaces. Increasing Na and Li salt concentrations increased the rate of coupled sorption-reduction of chromate at the biotite edge-fluid interface, where the order of effectiveness was NaCl ˜ NaClO 4 > Na 2SO 4 > LiCl. In contrast, no Cr was detected on mica edges after reaction in RbCl and CsCl solutions. Comparison of equimolar NaCl and LiCl experiments indicate that the active agent is Na and Li, not ionic strength or the anion. Sulfate tends to block the reaction more so than chloride. We conclude that it is the substitution of hydrated cations for interlayer K in biotite that enhances the heterogeneous reduction of chromate at the biotite edge-fluid interface.

  10. Biogas Catalytic Reforming Studies on Nickel-Based Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Gregory B.; Hjalmarsson, Per; Norrman, Kion;

    2016-01-01

    of experiments were performed to study catalytic activity and effect of sulfur poisoning: (i) CH4 and CO2 dissociation; (ii) biogas (60% CH4 and 40% CO2) temperature-programmed reactions (TPRxn); and (iii) steady-state biogas reforming reactions followed by postmortem catalyst characterization by temperature......-programmed oxidation and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. Results showed thatNi/ScYSZ/Pd-CGO was more active for catalytic dissociation of CH4 at 750°C and subsequent reactivity of deposited carbonaceous species. Sulfur deactivated most catalytic reactions except CO2 dissociation at 750°C. The presence...

  11. Effect of hydrothermal treatment on catalytic activity of amorphous mesoporous Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}–ZrO{sub 2} nanomaterials for ethanol oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoud, Hala R., E-mail: halamahmoud2@yahoo.com

    2015-07-15

    Mesoporous 0.25Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}–0.75ZrO{sub 2} binary oxide catalysts (CZ-H) with high specific surface areas were successfully synthesized by hydrothermal treatment. The effect of synthesis conditions, such as hydrothermal temperature and time of CZ-H nanomaterials were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopic (EDS), UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption measurements (BET). The XRD analysis indicated the formation of amorphous materials of binary oxides. The results showed that hydrothermal temperature and time of CZ-H nanomaterials had great influence on the average particle diameter and surface area. Under the optimum synthesis conditions, the best CZ-H nanomaterial synthesized at 210 °C for 3 h (i.e., CZ-H213), presented spherical structure with smallest average particle diameter found to be 1.5 nm and possessed highest surface area of 526.6 m{sup 2}/g. Optical studies by UV–vis spectroscopy for the different CZ-H nanomaterials exhibit slightly blue shift from 3.20 to 3.33 eV due to quantum confined exciton absorption. Moreover, hydrothermal synthesis leads to catalysts with higher surface area and with better acid–base properties than conventional co-precipitation method. Compared to the other nanomaterials, the CZ-H213 catalyst appears to be the best candidate for further application in acid–base catalysis and reusability. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Mesoporous 25%Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}–75%ZrO{sub 2} catalysts (CZ-H) were prepared by hydrothermal method. • The hydrothermal temperature and time modified the properties of CZ-H nanomaterials. • The best CZ-H nanomaterial synthesized at 210 °C for 3 h (i.e., CZ-H213). • A CZ-H213 nanomaterial had the highest S{sub BET} and smallest average particle diameter. • A mesoporous CZ-H213 used as a reusable active catalyst in the ethanol

  12. Effect of hydrothermal treatment on catalytic activity of amorphous mesoporous Cr2O3–ZrO2 nanomaterials for ethanol oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesoporous 0.25Cr2O3–0.75ZrO2 binary oxide catalysts (CZ-H) with high specific surface areas were successfully synthesized by hydrothermal treatment. The effect of synthesis conditions, such as hydrothermal temperature and time of CZ-H nanomaterials were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopic (EDS), UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and N2 adsorption–desorption measurements (BET). The XRD analysis indicated the formation of amorphous materials of binary oxides. The results showed that hydrothermal temperature and time of CZ-H nanomaterials had great influence on the average particle diameter and surface area. Under the optimum synthesis conditions, the best CZ-H nanomaterial synthesized at 210 °C for 3 h (i.e., CZ-H213), presented spherical structure with smallest average particle diameter found to be 1.5 nm and possessed highest surface area of 526.6 m2/g. Optical studies by UV–vis spectroscopy for the different CZ-H nanomaterials exhibit slightly blue shift from 3.20 to 3.33 eV due to quantum confined exciton absorption. Moreover, hydrothermal synthesis leads to catalysts with higher surface area and with better acid–base properties than conventional co-precipitation method. Compared to the other nanomaterials, the CZ-H213 catalyst appears to be the best candidate for further application in acid–base catalysis and reusability. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Mesoporous 25%Cr2O3–75%ZrO2 catalysts (CZ-H) were prepared by hydrothermal method. • The hydrothermal temperature and time modified the properties of CZ-H nanomaterials. • The best CZ-H nanomaterial synthesized at 210 °C for 3 h (i.e., CZ-H213). • A CZ-H213 nanomaterial had the highest SBET and smallest average particle diameter. • A mesoporous CZ-H213 used as a reusable active catalyst in the ethanol conversion

  13. Catalytic Effects Comparison of Several Catalysts Used to Synthesize Poly (Butylene Succinate)%几种合成聚丁二酸丁二酯用催化剂的催化效果比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高艳; 赖仕全; 刘兴南; 岳莉; 赵雪飞

    2014-01-01

    Poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) was synthesized respectively from 1,4-succinic acid and 1,4-butanediol using SnCl2,Sn(Oct)2,ZnCl2,Zn(OAc)2,Sb2O3 or SO42-/ZrO2 as catalyst by direct melt polycondensation method. The catalytic effects of the 6 kinds of catalysts in the polymerization reaction of PBS were compared by measuring liquid yield in the esterification reaction stage,yield and properties of PBS,such as intrinsic viscosity,molecular weight and melting temperature. Taking SnCl2 as example, the structure and thermal stability of PBS synthesized by SnCl2 were studied with FTIR and TG. The results show that the synthesized product is hydroxyl-capped PBS. The 6 kinds of catalysts all can promote dehydration esterification reaction of 1,4-succinic acid and 1,4-butanedio. Except for Sn(Oct)2,several other catalysts can effectively reduce the formation of tetrahydrofuran by-product. Overall,the catalytic effects of stannum compound are best among these catalyst and when SnCl2 is used as catalyst,the yield, intrinsic viscosity,number average molecular weight and original melting temperature of the synthesized PBS are best and it’s decomposition temperature is 280℃. Taking molecular weight of PBS as index,the order of the catalytic effects of the 6 catalysts is SnCl2>Sn(Oct)2>Sb2O3>SO42-/ZrO2>ZnCl2>Zn(OAc)2.%以1,4-丁二酸和1,4-丁二醇为原料,分别以SnCl2,异辛酸亚锡[Sn(Oct)2],ZnCl2,乙酸锌[Zn(OAc)2], Sb2O3和SO42-/ZrO2固体超强酸为催化剂,采用直接熔融缩聚法合成了聚丁二酸丁二酯(PBS)。通过测试酯化反应阶段的出液量、PBS的收率及其特性黏度、数均分子量和熔融温度等性质,比较了6种催化剂在PBS聚合反应中的催化效果。以SnCl2为例,利用傅立叶变换红外光谱和热重分析研究了由其催化合成的PBS的结构和热稳定性能。结果表明,实验合成的产物为羟基封端PBS;6种催化剂都能促进1,4-丁二酸和1,4-丁二醇分子间

  14. Effect of Nickel and Vanadium on Structure and Catalytic Performance of FCC Catalyst%镍、钒对 FCC催化剂结构和反应性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜晓辉; 张海涛; 高雄厚; 何志伟; 李志庆

    2015-01-01

    Nickel (Ni) and Vanadium (V) contaminated Y zeolite and FCC catalysts were prepared by impregnation method and cyclic contamination ,respectively .The effects of Ni and V on the crystallinity of zeolite in dry atmosphere and hydrothermal condition were investigated . The catalytic performance of FCC catalyst and rare earth element (RE ) modified FCC catalysts contaminated by Ni and V were tested in an advanced catalytic cracking evaluation (ACE) device . Results showed that the effect of V on crystallinity of Y zeolite was evident only when steam was present .For the rare earth containing zeolite ,Ni destroyed the zeolite structure slightly .A direct interaction existed between V and Ni in FCC catalyst . Compared with the FCC catalyst contaminated only by V ,the FCC catalyst contaminated by both Ni and V possessed more specific surface area and slightly more MAT value ,with the increase of reaction conversion from 72.14% up to 78.02% ,the decrease of heavy oil yield from 10.49% to 7.62% .The conversion and total liquid yield of FCC reaction were higher ,the heavy oil yield was lower over the RE modified FCC catalyst contaminated by both Ni and V than those over the Ni and V contaminated FCC catalyst ,meaning that the introduction of rare earth elements in FCC catalysts enhanced the tolerance to Ni and V and cracking performance of the catalyst .%分别通过浸渍法和循环污染法对Y型分子筛和 FCC催化剂进行镍、钒污染,考察了在干燥和水热条件下镍、钒对分子筛结晶度的影响,采用高级催化裂化评价装置(ACE)评价了镍、钒污染的 FCC催化剂及稀土改性FCC催化剂的催化性能。结果表明,只有在水蒸气存在条件下,钒会破坏分子筛的晶体结构;在REY分子筛中,镍的存在对分子筛结构的破坏略有影响。在FCC催化剂中,镍、钒之间存在相互作用,与单独钒污染的催化剂相比,镍、钒同时污染的催化剂的比表面积和微反活性略

  15. Development of Catalytic Cooking Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjelm, Anna-Karin; Silversand, Fredrik [CATATOR AB, Lund (Sweden); Tena, Emmanuel; Berger, Marc [Gaz de France (France)

    2004-04-01

    Gas catalytic combustion for gas stoves or cooking plates (closed catalytic burner system with ceramic plates) is a very promising technique in terms of ease of cleaning, power modulation and emissions. Previous investigations show that wire mesh catalysts, prepared and supplied by Catator AB (CAT), seem to be very well suited for such applications. Beside significantly reducing the NOx-emissions, these catalysts offer important advantages such as good design flexibility, low pressure drop and high heat transfer capacity, where the latter leads to a quick thermal response. Prior to this project, Gaz de France (GdF) made a series of measurements with CAT's wire mesh catalysts in their gas cooking plates and compared the measured performance with similar results obtained with theirs cordierite monolith catalysts. Compared to the monolith catalyst, the wire mesh catalyst was found to enable very promising results with respect to both emission levels (<10 mg NO{sub x} /kWh, <5 mg CO/kWh) and life-time (>8000 h vs. 700 h at 200 kW/m{sup 2}). It was however established that the radiation and hence, the thermal efficiency of the cooking plate, was significantly less than is usually measured in combination with the monolith (15 % vs. 32 %). It was believed that the latter could be improved by developing new burner designs based on CAT's wire mesh concept. As a consequence, a collaboration project between GdF, CAT and the Swedish Gas Technology AB was created. This study reports on the design, the construction and the evaluation of new catalytic burners, based on CAT's wire mesh catalysts, used for the combustion of natural gas in gas cooking stoves. The evaluation of the burners was performed with respect to key factors such as thermal efficiency, emission quality and pressure drop, etc, by the use of theoretical simulations and experimental tests. Impacts of parameters such as the the wire mesh number, the wire mesh structure (planar or folded), the

  16. The catalytic inactivation of cellulase enzyme components by palladium complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodward, J.; Gooch, M.G.; Shultz, M.D.

    1993-10-01

    It has been discovered that sodium hexachloropalladate is a strong inhibitor of cellobiohydrolase I (CBH I) from Trichoderma reesei having an I{sub 50} of <50 {mu}M with p-nitrophenylcellobioside (PNPC) as the substrate. Similar complexes of the metals platinum, osmium, iridium, and rhodium have little effect on CBH I. Other cellulase activities (Avicelase, {beta}-glucanase) are also inhibited by the palladium complex, suggesting that inhibition of two major types of catalytic activity in cellulase are affected. Preliminary data on the kinetics of inhibition of CBH I by sodium hexachloropalladate indicate that the inhibition is reversible and, possibly, uncompetitive. It is anticipated that sodium hexachloropalladate and other palladium complexes will be useful for determining the effect of the binding of catalytically inactivated CBH I and other cellulase components on the structure of cellulose fibers.

  17. Process design for wastewater treatment: catalytic ozonation of organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrouiche, S; Bourdin, D; Roche, P; Houssais, B; Machinal, C; Coste, M; Restivo, J; Orfão, J J M; Pereira, M F R; Marco, Y; Garcia-Bordeje, E

    2013-01-01

    Emerging micropollutants have been recently the target of interest for their potential harmful effects in the environment and their resistance to conventional water treatments. Catalytic ozonation is an advanced oxidation process consisting of the formation of highly reactive radicals from the decomposition of ozone promoted by a catalyst. Nanocarbon materials have been shown to be effective catalysts for this process, either in powder form or grown on the surface of a monolithic structure. In this work, carbon nanofibers grown on the surface of a cordierite honeycomb monolith are tested as catalyst for the ozonation of five selected micropollutants: atrazine (ATZ), bezafibrate, erythromycin, metolachlor, and nonylphenol. The process is tested both in laboratorial and real conditions. Later on, ATZ was selected as a target pollutant to further investigate the role of the catalytic material. It is shown that the inclusion of a catalyst improves the mineralization degree compared to single ozonation. PMID:24056437

  18. PARAMETRIC EVALUATION OF VOC CONVERSION VIA CATALYTIC INCINERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaskantzis Neto G.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - A pilot-scale catalytic incineration system was used to investigate the effectiveness of catalytic incineration as a means of reducing volatile organic compound (VOC air pollutants. The objectives of the study were: 1 to investigate the effects of operating and design variables on the reduction efficiency of VOCs; and 2 to evaluate reduction efficiencies for specific compounds in different chemical classes. The study results verified that the following factors affect the catalyst performance: inlet temperature, space velocity, compound type, and compound inlet concentration. Tests showed that reduction efficiencies exceeding 98% were possible, given sufficiently high inlet gas temperatures for the following classes of compounds: alcohols, acetates, ketones, hydrocarbons, and aromatics

  19. 添加剂对选择性非催化还原脱硝过程影响的研究进展%Research Progress of the Effects of Additives on Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction Denitrification Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周文安; 黄月英; 陈志明; 唐丽; 黄喜寿; 莫招育

    2015-01-01

    The reaction mechanisms and the primary influencing factors of selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR)denitrification are introduced.Research progress of the effects of various additives on SNCR denitrifi-cation process are reviewed.Although different additives has different mechanism to SNCR denitrification process,all additives can broaden the width of temperature window,lower the temperature window and increase the denitrification rate in the low-temperature phas of SNCR.Through analyzing the mechanism of the additives affecting SNCR denitrification process,theoretical basis for exploring better additives in the future is provided, so as to achieve higher denitrification rate and reduce the secondary pollution.%简介了选择性非催化还原(SNCR)脱硝的反应机理和主要影响因素,综述了各种添加剂对 SNCR 脱硝过程影响的研究进展。不同添加剂对 SNCR 脱硝过程影响的作用机理不同,但都能有效扩宽反应的温度窗口,使其往低温方向移动,提高 SNCR 在低温段的脱硝率。通过分析添加剂的作用机理,为研究脱硝效果更好的添加剂提供理论依据,以提高脱硝率、减少二次污染。

  20. Catalytic reaction in confined flow channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hassel, Bart A.

    2016-03-29

    A chemical reactor comprises a flow channel, a source, and a destination. The flow channel is configured to house at least one catalytic reaction converting at least a portion of a first nanofluid entering the channel into a second nanofluid exiting the channel. The flow channel includes at least one turbulating flow channel element disposed axially along at least a portion of the flow channel. A plurality of catalytic nanoparticles is dispersed in the first nanofluid and configured to catalytically react the at least one first chemical reactant into the at least one second chemical reaction product in the flow channel.

  1. Catalytic Partial Oxidation of Biomass/Oil Mixture

    OpenAIRE

    Veselý, V; Hanika, J. (Jiří); Tukač, V.; LEDERER, J.; Kovač, D.

    2013-01-01

    Investigation was focussed to application of waste POX (partial oxidation), e.g., meal rape in form of suspension in high boiling hydrocarbons from crude oil distillation. There is an opportunity for utilization of biomass waste resulted from fuels bio-components production. A decrease of oxygen and water steam demand in feed for POX process was observed in this variant. Catalytic effect of iron nanoparticles or nickel nitrate as catalysts in improvement of the pilot plant biomass/oil partial...

  2. Vacuum-insulated catalytic converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, David K. (Golden, CO)

    2001-01-01

    A catalytic converter has an inner canister that contains catalyst-coated substrates and an outer canister that encloses an annular, variable vacuum insulation chamber surrounding the inner canister. An annular tank containing phase-change material for heat storage and release is positioned in the variable vacuum insulation chamber a distance spaced part from the inner canister. A reversible hydrogen getter in the variable vacuum insulation chamber, preferably on a surface of the heat storage tank, releases hydrogen into the variable vacuum insulation chamber to conduct heat when the phase-change material is hot and absorbs the hydrogen to limit heat transfer to radiation when the phase-change material is cool. A porous zeolite trap in the inner canister absorbs and retains hydrocarbons from the exhaust gases when the catalyst-coated substrates and zeolite trap are cold and releases the hydrocarbons for reaction on the catalyst-coated substrate when the zeolite trap and catalyst-coated substrate get hot.

  3. Catalytic Chemistry on Oxide Nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asthagiri, Aravind; Dixon, David A.; Dohnalek, Zdenek; Kay, Bruce D.; Rodriquez, Jose A.; Rousseau, Roger J.; Stacchiola, Dario; Weaver, Jason F.

    2016-05-29

    Metal oxides represent one of the most important and widely employed materials in catalysis. Extreme variability of their chemistry provides a unique opportunity to tune their properties and to utilize them for the design of highly active and selective catalysts. For bulk oxides, this can be achieved by varying their stoichiometry, phase, exposed surface facets, defect, dopant densities and numerous other ways. Further, distinct properties from those of bulk oxides can be attained by restricting the oxide dimensionality and preparing them in the form of ultrathin films and nanoclusters as discussed throughout this book. In this chapter we focus on demonstrating such unique catalytic properties brought by the oxide nanoscaling. In the highlighted studies planar models are carefully designed to achieve minimal dispersion of structural motifs and to attain detailed mechanistic understanding of targeted chemical transformations. Detailed level of morphological and structural characterization necessary to achieve this goal is accomplished by employing both high-resolution imaging via scanning probe methods and ensemble-averaged surface sensitive spectroscopic methods. Three prototypical examples illustrating different properties of nanoscaled oxides in different classes of reactions are selected.

  4. Halogen Chemistry on Catalytic Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Maximilian; Pérez-Ramírez, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Halogens are key building blocks for the manufacture of high-value products such as chemicals, plastics, and pharmaceuticals. The catalytic oxidation of HCl and HBr is an attractive route to recover chlorine and bromine in order to ensure the sustainability of the production processes. Very few materials withstand the high corrosiveness and the strong exothermicity of the reactions and among them RuO2 and CeO2-based catalysts have been successfully applied in HCl oxidation. The search for efficient systems for HBr oxidation was initiated by extrapolating the results of HCl oxidation based on the chemical similarity of these reactions. Interestingly, despite its inactivity in HCl oxidation, TiO2 was found to be an outstanding HBr oxidation catalyst, which highlighted that the latter reaction is more complex than previously assumed. Herein, we discuss the results of recent comparative studies of HCl and HBr oxidation on both rutile-type (RuO2, IrO2, and TiO2) and ceria-based catalysts using a combination of advanced experimental and theoretical methods to provide deeper molecular-level understanding of the reactions. This knowledge aids the design of the next-generation catalysts for halogen recycling. PMID:27131113

  5. Catalytic Conversion of Cellulose to Levulinic Acid by Metal Chlorides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beixiao Zhang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic performance of various metal chlorides in the conversion of cellulose to levulinic acid in liquid water at high temperatures was investigated. The effects of reaction parameters on the yield of levulinic acid were also explored. The results showed that alkali and alkaline earth metal chlorides were not effective in conversion of cellulose, while transition metal chlorides, especially CrCl3, FeCl3 and CuCl2 and a group IIIA metal chloride (AlCl3, exhibited high catalytic activity. The catalytic performance was correlated with the acidity of the reaction system due to the addition of the metal chlorides, but more dependent on the type of metal chloride. Among those metal chlorides, chromium chloride was found to be exceptionally effective for the conversion of cellulose to levulinic acid, affording an optimum yield of 67 mol % after a reaction time of 180 min, at 200 °C, with a catalyst dosage of 0.02 M and substrate concentration of 50 wt %. Chromium metal, most of which was present in its oxide form in the solid sample and only a small part in solution as Cr3+ ion, can be easily separated from the resulting product mixture and recycled. Finally, a plausible reaction scheme for the chromium chloride catalyzed conversion of cellulose in water was proposed.

  6. The Investigation of Reducing PAHs Emission from Coal Pyrolysis by Gaseous Catalytic Cracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulong Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic cracking method of PAHs for the pyrolysis gaseous products is proposed to control their pollution to the environment. In this study, the Py-GC-MS is used to investigate in situ the catalytic effect of CaO and Fe2O3 on the 16 PAHs from Pingshuo coal pyrolysis under different catalytic temperatures and catalyst particle sizes. The results demonstrate that Fe2O3 is effective than that of CaO for catalytic cracking of 16 PAHs and that their catalytic temperature corresponding to the maximum PAHs cracking rates is different. The PAHs cracking rate is up to 60.59% for Fe2O3 at 600°C and is 52.88% at 700°C for CaO. The catalytic temperature and particle size of the catalysts have a significant effect on PAHs cracking rate and CaO will lose the capability of decreasing 16 PAHs when the temperature is higher than 900°C. The possible cracking process of 16 PAHs is deduced by elaborately analyzing the cracking effect of the two catalysts on 16 different species of PAHs.

  7. Metal hybrid nanoparticles for catalytic organic and photochemical transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyunjoon

    2015-03-17

    In order to understand heterogeneous catalytic reactions, model catalysts such as a single crystalline surface have been widely studied for many decades. However, catalytic systems that actually advance the reactions are three-dimensional and commonly have multiple components including active metal nanoparticles and metal oxide supports. On the other hand, as nanochemistry has rapidly been developed and been applied to various fields, many researchers have begun to discuss the impact of nanochemistry on heterogeneous catalysis. Metal hybrid nanoparticles bearing multiple components are structurally very close to the actual catalysts, and their uniform and controllable morphology is suitable for investigating the relationship between the structure and the catalytic properties in detail. In this Account, we introduce four typical structures of metal hybrid nanoparticles that can be used to conduct catalytic organic and photochemical reactions. Metal@silica (or metal oxide) yolk-shell nanoparticles, in which metal cores exist in internal voids surrounded by thin silica (or metal oxide) shells, exhibited extremely high thermal and chemical stability due to the geometrical protection of the silica layers against the metal cores. The morphology of the metal cores and the pore density of the hollow shells were precisely adjusted to optimize the reaction activity and diffusion rates of the reactants. Metal@metal oxide core-shell nanoparticles and inverted structures, where the cores supported the shells serving an active surface, exhibited high activity with no diffusion barriers for the reactants and products. These nanostructures were used as effective catalysts for various organic and gas-phase reactions, including hydrogen transfer, Suzuki coupling, and steam methane reforming. In contrast to the yolk- and core-shell structures, an asymmetric arrangement of distinct domains generated acentric dumbbells and tipped rods. A large domain of each component added multiple

  8. Catalytic models developed through social work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    The article develops the concept of catalytic processes in relation to social work with adolescents in an attempt to both reach a more nuanced understanding of social work and at the same time to develop the concept of catalytic processes in psychology. The social work is pedagogical treatment...... of adolescents placed in out-of-home care and is characterised using three situated cases as empirical data. Afterwards the concept of catalytic processes is briefly presented and then applied in an analysis of pedagogical treatment in the three cases. The result is a different conceptualisation of the social...... work with new possibilities of development of the work, but also suggestions for development of the concept of catalytic processes....

  9. Solubility of cerium in LaCoO3-influence on catalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, S A; Catlow, C R A; Oldman, R J; Rogers, S C; Axon, S A

    2002-11-21

    The recent interest in the catalytic properties of lanthanum perovskites for methane combustion and three way catalysis has led to considerable debate as to their structure and defect chemistry. We have investigated the doping of LaCoO3 with the tetravalent cerium cation using atomistic simulation techniques. We have compared three routes for cerium insertion and identified the favoured doping mechanism, which explain experimental observations relating to the effect of cerium on catalytic activity.

  10. CATALYTIC WET AIR OXIDATION OF INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS USING A Pt CATALIST SUPPORTED ON MULTIWALLED CARBON NANOTUBES

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Ovejero; José L. Sotelo; Araceli Rodríguez; Ana Vallet; Juan García

    2011-01-01

    In this work, catalytic wet air oxidation in a batch reactor was studied by catalytic wet air oxidation to treat industrial wastewater. Basic Yellow 11, a basic dye, was employed as a model compound and platinum supported over multi-walled nanotubes (Pt/MWNT) was used as catalyst. Additionally, two different industrial wastewaters were tested. The results prove the high effectivity of this treatment, showing high extents of total organic carbon and toxicity removal of the final effluent. We c...

  11. Investigation of polypyrrole/polyvinyl alcohol-titanium dioxide composite films for photo-catalytic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shaoqiang; Zhang, Hongyang; Song, Yuanqing; Zhang, Jianling; Yang, Haigang; Jiang, Long; Dan, Yi

    2015-07-01

    Polypyrrole/polyvinyl alcohol-titanium dioxide (PPy/PVA-TiO2) composite films used as photo-catalysts were fabricated by combining TiO2 sol with PPy/PVA solution in which PPy was synthesized by in situ polymerization of pyrrole (Py) in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix and loaded on glass. The prepared photo-catalysts were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflection spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra and photoluminescence (PL). The results indicate that the composites have same crystal structure as the TiO2 and extend the optic absorption from UV region to visible light region. By detecting the variation ratio, detected by ultraviolet-vis spectroscopy, of model pollutant rhodamine B (RhB) solution in the presence of the composite films under both UV and visible light irradiation, the photo-catalytic performance of the composite films was investigated. The results show that the PPy/PVA-TiO2 composite films show better photo-catalytic properties than TiO2 film both under UV and visible light irradiation, and the photo-catalytic degradation of RhB follows the first-order kinetics. The effects of the composition of composite films and the concentration of RhB on the photo-catalytic performance, as well as the possible photo-catalytic mechanism, were also discussed. By photo-catalytic recycle experiments, the structure stability of the PPy/PVA-TiO2 composite film was investigated and the results show that the photo-catalytic activity under both UV and visible light irradiation have no significant decrease after four times of recycle experiments, suggesting that the photo-catalyst film is stable during the photo-catalytic process, which was also confirmed by the XRD pattern and FT-IR spectra of the composite film before and after photo-catalytic.

  12. MOBILE COMPLEX FOR CATALYTIC THERMAL WASTE TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedi V.E.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The design and purpose of the basic units of the mobile waste processing complex “MPK” are described. Experimental data of catalytic purification of exhaust gases are presented. Experimental data on catalytic clearing of final gases of a designed mobile incinerator plant are shown. It is defined, that concentrating of parasitic bridging in waste gases of the complex are considerably smaller, rather than allowed by normative documents.

  13. MOBILE COMPLEX FOR CATALYTIC THERMAL WASTE TREATMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Vedi V.E.; Rovenskii A.I.

    2012-01-01

    The design and purpose of the basic units of the mobile waste processing complex “MPK” are described. Experimental data of catalytic purification of exhaust gases are presented. Experimental data on catalytic clearing of final gases of a designed mobile incinerator plant are shown. It is defined, that concentrating of parasitic bridging in waste gases of the complex are considerably smaller, rather than allowed by normative documents.

  14. Catalytic Radical Domino Reactions in Organic Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebren, Leanne J.; Devery, James J.; Stephenson, Corey R.J.

    2014-01-01

    Catalytic radical-based domino reactions represent important advances in synthetic organic chemistry. Their development benefits synthesis by providing atom- and step-economical methods to complex molecules. Intricate combinations of radical, cationic, anionic, oxidative/reductive, and transition metal mechanistic steps result in cyclizations, additions, fragmentations, ring-expansions, and rearrangements. This Perspective summarizes recent developments in the field of catalytic domino processes. PMID:24587964

  15. Catalytic ammonia oxidation to nitrogen (I) oxide

    OpenAIRE

    MASALITINA NATALIYA YUREVNA; SAVENKOV ANATOLIY SERGEEVICH

    2015-01-01

    The process of synthesis of nitrous oxide by low-temperature catalytical oxidation of NH has been investigated for organic synthesis. The investigation has been carried out by the stage separation approach with NH oxidation occurring in several reaction zones, which characterized by different catalytic conditions. The selectivity for N₂O was 92–92,5 % at the ammonia conversion of 98–99.5 % in the optimal temperature range.

  16. Temperature Modulation of a Catalytic Gas Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Eike Brauns; Eva Morsbach; Sebastian Kunz; Marcus Baeumer; Walter Lang

    2014-01-01

    The use of catalytic gas sensors usually offers low selectivity, only based on their different sensitivities for various gases due to their different heats of reaction. Furthermore, the identification of the gas present is not possible, which leads to possible misinterpretation of the sensor signals. The use of micro-machined catalytic gas sensors offers great advantages regarding the response time, which allows advanced analysis of the sensor response. By using temperature modulation, additi...

  17. Preparation and Catalytic Oxidation Activity on 2-mercaptoethanol of a Novel Catalytic Cellulose Fibres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Yu-yuan; LI Ying-jie; CHEN Wen-xing; Lü Wang-yang; Lü Su-fang; XU Min-hong; LIU Fan

    2007-01-01

    Cobalt tetra(N-carbonylacylic) aminophthalocyanine was supported on cellulose fibres by graft reaction to obtain a novel polymer catalyst, catalytic cellulose fibres (CCF),and the optimal supporting conditions were pH = 6, 80℃,t = 120 min. The catalytic oxidation activity of CCF towards oxidation of 2-mereaptoethanol (MEA) in aqueous solution was investigated. The experimental results demonstrated that CCF had good catalytic oxidation activity on MEA at room temperature, causing no secondary pollution and remaining efficient for the repetitive tests with no obvious decrease of catalytic activity.

  18. Low efficiency deasphalting and catalytic cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent describes a process for converting an asphaltene and metals containing heavy hydrocarbon feed to lighter, more valuable products the metals comprising Ni and V. It comprises: demetallizing the feed by deasphalting the feed in a solvent deasphalting means operating at solvent deasphalting conditions including a solvent: feed volume ratio of about 1:1 to 4:1, using a solvent selected from the group of C4 to 400 degrees F. hydrocarbons and mixtures thereof; recovering from the solvent rich fraction a demetallized oil intermediate product, having a boiling range and containing at least 10 wt.% of the asphaltenes, and 5 to 30% of the Ni and V, and at least 10 wt.% of the solvent present in the solvent rich phase produced in the deasphalting means; catalytically cracking the demetallized oil intermediate product in a catalytic cracking means operating at catalytic cracking conditions to produce a catalytically cracked product vapor fraction having a lower boiling range than the boiling range of the demetallized oil intermediate product; and fractionating the catalytically cracked product in a fractionation means to produce catalytically cracked product fractions

  19. Synthesis and characterization of type silicoaluminophosphates catalytic support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The refining processes, the catalytic hydrocracking is the future of diesel oil in Brazil and the first units are already scheduled to be inaugurated. Among the catalysts used in this process, silicoaluminophosphates (SAPO's) have considerable potential for use as they have been effective in the isomerization of n-alkanes, the isomerization of olefins and alkylation of aromatics. Because of this, the objective is to develop catalysts that will be used in hydrocracking reactions. The media like SAPO-5 were synthesized with different ratios silicon/aluminum, which is used as a catalytic support and have the function of crack organic molecules, since it has acidic character. The materials were characterized by techniques: X-ray diffraction, chemical analysis and textural by BET. After summarizing the media found that they had agreements with the crystalline phases presented in the literature.(author)

  20. Synthesis and Catalytic Asymmetric Reaction of Chiral Pyridine Prolinol Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiao; ZHANG Yong-Xin; DU Da-Ming; HUA Wen-Ting

    2003-01-01

    @@ The enantioselective reduction of prochiral ketones with borane in the presence of a chiral ligand leading to enantiomerically pure secondary alcohols has received considerable attention in recent years. [1] Enantiomerically pure secondary alcohols are important intermediates for the synthesis of various other organic compounds such as halides, esters, ethers, ketones and amines. To the best of our knowledge, the use of pyridine prolinol derivatives in the reduction of ketones has not been reported so far. Thus, it should be of interest to investigate the catalytic a bility of such ligands. We have an ongoing project in the synthesis and application of chiral pyridine derivatives in chiral molecular recognition[2] and we want to evaluate the effect resulting from the introduction of a pyridinyl moiety onto the catalysts. We expect that the cooperation of pyridine unit and chiral prolinol unit in new ligands may result in unique properties for catalytic reaction.

  1. MnO2/CeO2 for catalytic ultrasonic degradation of methyl orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, He; Zhang, Guangming; Zhang, Quanling

    2014-05-01

    Catalytic ultrasonic degradation of aqueous methyl orange was studied in this paper. Heterogeneous catalyst MnO2/CeO2 was prepared by impregnation of manganese oxide on cerium oxide. Morphology and specific surface area of MnO2/CeO2 catalyst were characterized and its composition was determined. Results showed big differences between fresh and used catalyst. The removal efficiency of methyl orange by MnO2/CeO2 catalytic ultrasonic process was investigated. Results showed that ultrasonic process could remove 3.5% of methyl orange while catalytic ultrasonic process could remove 85% of methyl orange in 10 min. The effects of free radical scavengers were studied to determine the role of hydroxyl free radical in catalytic ultrasonic process. Results showed that methyl orange degradation efficiency declined after adding free radical scavengers, illustrating that hydroxyl free radical played an important role in degrading methyl orange. Theoretic analysis showed that the resonance size of cavitation bubbles was comparable with the size of catalyst particles. Thus, catalyst particles might act as cavitation nucleus and enhance ultrasonic cavitation effects. Measurement of H2O2 concentration in catalytic ultrasonic process confirmed this hypothesis. Effects of pre-adsorption on catalytic ultrasonic process were examined. Pre-adsorption significantly improved methyl orange removal. The potential explanation was that methyl orange molecules adsorbed on catalysts could enter cavitation bubbles and undergo stronger cavitation. PMID:24369902

  2. Catalytic Ozonation of Phenolic Wastewater: Identification and Toxicity of Intermediates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Farzadkia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new strategy in catalytic ozonation removal method for degradation and detoxification of phenol from industrial wastewater was investigated. Magnetic carbon nanocomposite, as a novel catalyst, was synthesized and then used in the catalytic ozonation process (COP and the effects of operational conditions such as initial pH, reaction time, and initial concentration of phenol on the degradation efficiency and the toxicity assay have been investigated. The results showed that the highest catalytic potential was achieved at optimal neutral pH and the removal efficiency of phenol and COD is 98.5% and 69.8%, respectively. First-order modeling demonstrated that the reactions were dependent on the initial concentration of phenol, with kinetic constants varying from 0.038 min−1  ([phenol]o = 1500 mg/L to 1.273 min−1 ([phenol]o = 50 mg/L. Bioassay analysis showed that phenol was highly toxic to Daphnia magna (LC50 96 h=5.6 mg/L. Comparison of toxicity units (TU of row wastewater (36.01 and the treated effluent showed that TU value, after slightly increasing in the first steps of ozonation for construction of more toxic intermediates, severely reduced at the end of reaction (2.23. Thus, COP was able to effectively remove the toxicity of intermediates which were formed during the chemical oxidation of phenolic wastewaters.

  3. Catalytic Polymer Multilayer Shell Motors for Separation of Organics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhihua; Wu, Zhiguang; Lin, Xiankun; He, Qiang

    2016-01-26

    A catalytic polymer multilayer shell motor has been developed, which effects fast motion-based separation of charged organics in water. The shell motors are fabricated by sputtering platinum onto the exposed surface of silica templates embedded in Parafilm, followed by layer-by-layer assembly of polyelectrolyte multilayers to the templates. The catalytic shell motors display high bubble propulsion with speeds of up to 260 μm s(-1) (13 body lengths per second). Moreover, the polyelectrolyte multilayers assembled at high pH (pH>9.0) adsorb approximately 89% of dye molecules from water, owing to the electrostatic interaction between the positively charged polymers and the anionic dye molecules, and subsequently release them at neutral pH in a microfluidic device. The efficient propulsion coupled with the effective adsorption behavior of the catalytic shell motors in a microfluidic device results in accelerated separation of organics in water and thus holds considerable promise for water analysis. PMID:26632275

  4. Model catalytic oxidation studies using supported monometallic and heterobimetallic oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekerdt, J.G.

    1992-02-03

    This research program is directed toward a more fundamental understanding of the effects of catalyst composition and structure on the catalytic properties of metal oxides. Metal oxide catalysts play an important role in many reactions bearing on the chemical aspects of energy processes. Metal oxides are the catalysts for water-gas shift reactions, methanol and higher alcohol synthesis, isosynthesis, selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxides, and oxidation of hydrocarbons. A key limitation to developing insight into how oxides function in catalytic reactions is in not having precise information of the surface composition under reaction conditions. To address this problem we have prepared oxide systems that can be used to study cation-cation effects and the role of bridging (-O-) and/or terminal (=O) surface oxygen anion ligands in a systematic fashion. Since many oxide catalyst systems involve mixtures of oxides, we selected a model system that would permit us to examine the role of each cation separately and in pairwise combinations. Organometallic molybdenum and tungsten complexes were proposed for use, to prepare model systems consisting of isolated monomeric cations, isolated monometallic dimers and isolated bimetallic dimers supported on silica and alumina. The monometallic and bimetallic dimers were to be used as models of more complex mixed- oxide catalysts. Our current program was to develop the systems and use them in model oxidation reactions.

  5. Atmospheric methanol measurement using selective catalytic methanol to formaldehyde conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Solomon

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel atmospheric methanol measurement technique, employing selective gas-phase catalytic conversion of methanol to formaldehyde followed by detection of the formaldehyde product, has been developed and tested. The effects of temperature, gas flow rate, gas composition, reactor-bed length, and reactor-bed composition on the methanol conversion efficiency of a molybdenum-rich, iron-molybdate catalyst [Mo-Fe-O] were studied. Best results were achieved using a 1:4 mixture (w/w of the catalyst in quartz sand. Optimal methanol to formaldehyde conversion (>95% efficiency occurred at a catalyst housing temperature of 345°C and an estimated sample-air/catalyst contact time of <0.2 s. Potential interferences arising from conversion of methane and a number of common volatile organic compounds (VOC to formaldehyde were found to be negligible under most atmospheric conditions and catalyst housing temperatures. Using the new technique, atmospheric measurements of methanol were made at the University of Bremen campus from 1 to 15 July 2004. Methanol mixing ratios ranged from 1 to 5 ppb with distinct maxima at night. Formaldehyde mixing ratios, obtained in conjunction with methanol by periodically bypassing the catalytic converter, ranged from 0.2 to 1.6 ppb with maxima during midday. These results suggest that selective, catalytic methanol to formaldehyde conversion, coupled with existing formaldehyde measurement instrumentation, is an inexpensive and effective means for monitoring atmospheric methanol.

  6. Atmospheric methanol measurement using selective catalytic methanol to formaldehyde conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Solomon

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel atmospheric methanol measurement technique, employing selective gas-phase catalytic conversion of methanol to formaldehyde followed by detection of the formaldehyde product, has been developed and tested. The effects of temperature, gas flow rate, gas composition, reactor-bed length, and reactor-bed composition on the methanol conversion efficiency of a molybdenum-rich, iron-molybdate catalyst [Mo-Fe-O] were studied. Best results were achieved using a 1:4 mixture (w/w of the catalyst in quartz sand. Optimal methanol to formaldehyde conversion (>95% efficiency occurred at a catalyst housing temperature of 345°C and an estimated sample-air/catalyst contact time of <0.2 seconds. Potential interferences arising from conversion of methane and a number of common volatile organic compounds (VOC to formaldehyde were found to be negligible under most atmospheric conditions and catalyst housing temperatures. Using the new technique, atmospheric measurements of methanol were made at the University of Bremen campus from 1 to 15 July 2004. Methanol mixing ratios ranged from 1 to 5 ppb with distinct maxima at night. Formaldehyde mixing ratios, obtained in conjunction with methanol by periodically bypassing the catalytic converter, ranged from 0.2 to 1.6 ppb with maxima during midday. These results suggest that selective, catalytic methanol to formaldehyde conversion, coupled with existing formaldehyde measurement instrumentation, is an inexpensive and effective means for monitoring atmospheric methanol.

  7. Effect of metal doping into Ce0.5Zr0.5O2 on catalytic activity of MnOx/Ce0.5-xZr0.5-xM0.2xOy/Al2O3 for benzene combustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Shenghui; WANG Jianli; ZHONG Junbo; CHEN Yaoqiang; LIU Zhimin; CAO Hongyan; GONG Maochu

    2008-01-01

    The research investigated the effect of doping two metals separately or together into Ce0.5Zr0.5O2 on the catalytic activity of MnOx/Ce0.5-xZr0.5-xM0.2xOy/Al2O3 (M=Y, Mn, Y and Mn) for catalytic combustion of benzene. The prepared catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area analysis, oxygen storage capacity (OSC), and H2-temperature programmed reduction (H2-TPR). Cata-lytic test was performed on a conventional fixed bed flow reactor. The characterization results revealed that Y and Mn ions entered into the ceria-zirconia mixed oxides framework, which improved the textural properties and greatly promoted the MnOx dispersion on the support surface. The complete conversion temperature of benzene on MnOx/Ce0.4Zr0.4Y0.1Mn0.1Oy/Al2O3 was 563 K, and the selectivity of carbon dioxides was 99%. This catalyst could be applied in a wide range of GHSV and wide concentration condition, showing great potential for application.

  8. Catalytic production of conjugated fatty acids and oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippaerts, An; Goossens, Steven; Jacobs, Pierre A; Sels, Bert F

    2011-06-20

    The reactive double bonds in conjugated vegetable oils are of high interest in industry. Traditionally, conjugated vegetable oils are added to paints, varnishes, and inks to improve their drying properties, while recently there is an increased interest in their use in the production of bioplastics. Besides the industrial applications, also food manufactures are interested in conjugated vegetable oils due to their various positive health effects. While the isomer type is less important for their industrial purposes, the beneficial health effects are mainly associated with the c9,t11, t10,c12 and t9,t11 CLA isomers. The production of CLA-enriched oils as additives in functional foods thus requires a high CLA isomer selectivity. Currently, CLAs are produced by conjugation of oils high in linoleic acid, for example soybean and safflower oil, using homogeneous bases. Although high CLA productivities and very high isomer selectivities are obtained, this process faces many ecological drawbacks. Moreover, CLA-enriched oils can not be produced directly with the homogeneous bases. Literature reports describe many catalytic processes to conjugate linoleic acid, linoleic acid methyl ester, and vegetable oils rich in linoleic acid: biocatalysts, for example enzymes and cells; metal catalysts, for example homogeneous metal complexes and heterogeneous catalysts; and photocatalysts. This Review discusses state-of-the-art catalytic processes in comparison with some new catalytic production routes. For each category of catalytic process, the CLA productivities and the CLA isomer selectivity are compared. Heterogeneous catalysis seems the most attractive approach for CLA production due to its easy recovery process, provided that the competing hydrogenation reaction is limited and the CLA production rate competes with the current homogeneous base catalysis. The most important criteria to obtain high CLA productivity and isomer selectivity are (1) absence of a hydrogen donor, (2

  9. On the Structural Context and Identification of Enzyme Catalytic Residues

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Tung Chien; Shao-Wei Huang

    2013-01-01

    Enzymes play important roles in most of the biological processes. Although only a small fraction of residues are directly involved in catalytic reactions, these catalytic residues are the most crucial parts in enzymes. The study of the fundamental and unique features of catalytic residues benefits the understanding of enzyme functions and catalytic mechanisms. In this work, we analyze the structural context of catalytic residues based on theoretical and experimental structure flexibility. The...

  10. The progress of catalytic technologies in water purification:a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Dapeng; QU Jiuhui

    2009-01-01

    Catalytic technologies have been paid increasing attention in refractory pollutants abatement due to its practical and potential values in water purification.As effective and efficient approaches for water purification,Fenton's reagent,ozonation,electrochemical and photocatalytic methods have been widely studied and applied in different aspects and have been reviewed by several papers.In recent years,some novel catalytic processes based on above processes have been developed for enhancing the efficiency of removing the organics form water.This reviews emphasize on the recent development of heterogeneous catalytic ozonation,electrocatalysis in respect of novel electrodes and electro-Fenton method (EF),photoelectrocatalysis process (PEC) and photoelectron-Fenton (PEF) in water purification.It is also an attempt to propose general ideas about mechanism and principle enhancing the catalytic efficiency for degradation and mineralization of organics in water.

  11. Methane emission from automobile equipped with three-way catalytic converter while driving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takigawa, A. [Maebashi Inst. of Technology, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Matsunami, A.; Arai, N. [Nagoya Univ., Research Center for Advanced Energy Conversion, Nagoya (Japan)

    2005-03-01

    In this study, the hydrocarbon emission from a three-way catalytic converter with a gasoline engine was investigated experimentally. The results reveal that converters have lower catalytic oxidation activity for methane than the other hydrocarbons, and degradation of the catalyst with use results in a significant effect on methane emission. The maximum methane concentration in exhaust using a converter with 78,000 km use is about 100 ppm, which is 1.4 times that for a new converter. The light-off temperature of the catalytic converter for hydrocarbon oxidation also rises from 548 to 598 K with an increase in the operating age of catalytic converter from 0 to 78,000 km. The ratio of CH{sub 4} concentration to total hydrocarbon increases with increasing vehicle speed and methane emission from the fuel of regular grade is higher than that of the premium grade. (Author)

  12. (Gold core) at (ceria shell) nanostructures for plasmon-enhanced catalytic reactions under visible light

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jianfang

    2014-08-26

    Driving catalytic reactions with sunlight is an excellent example of sustainable chemistry. A prerequisite of solar-driven catalytic reactions is the development of photocatalysts with high solar-harvesting efficiencies and catalytic activities. Herein, we describe a general approach for uniformly coating ceria on monometallic and bimetallic nanocrystals through heterogeneous nucleation and growth. The method allows for control of the shape, size, and type of the metal core as well as the thickness of the ceria shell. The plasmon shifts of the Au@CeO2 nanostructures resulting from the switching between Ce(IV) and Ce(III) are observed. The selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde, one of the fundamental reactions for organic synthesis, performed under both broad-band and monochromatic light, demonstrates the visible-light-driven catalytic activity and reveals the synergistic effect on the enhanced catalysis of the Au@CeO2 nanostructures. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  13. Catalytic pyrolysis using UZM-39 aluminosilicate zeolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholas, Christpher P; Boldingh, Edwin P

    2013-12-17

    A new family of coherently grown composites of TUN and IMF zeotypes has been synthesized and show to be effective catalysts for catalytic pyrolysis of biomass. These zeolites are represented by the empirical formula. Na.sub.nM.sub.m.sup.n+R.sub.rQ.sub.qAl.sub1-xE.sub.xSi.sub.yO.s- ub.z where M represents zinc or a metal or metals from Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 or the lanthanide series of the periodic table, R is an A,.OMEGA.-dihalosubstituted paraffin such as 1,4-dibromobutane, Q is a neutral amine containing 5 or fewer carbon atoms such as 1-methylpyrrolidine and E is a framework element such as gallium. The process involves contacting a carbonaceous biomass feedstock with UZM-39 at pyrolysis conditions to produce pyrolysis gases comprising hydrocarbons. The catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction converting oxygenated hyrdocarbons into hydrocarbons removing the oxygen as carbon oxides and water. A portion of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to produce low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  14. Catalytic pyrolysis using UZM-39 aluminosilicate zeolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholas, Christopher P; Boldingh, Edwin P

    2014-10-07

    A new family of coherently grown composites of TUN and IMF zeotypes has been synthesized and shown to be effective catalysts for catalytic pyrolysis of biomass. These zeolites are represented by the empirical formula. Na.sub.nM.sub.m.sup.n+R.sub.rQ.sub.qAl.sub.1-xE.sub.xSi.sub.yO.s- ub.z where M represents zinc or a metal or metals from Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 or the lanthanide series of the periodic table, R is an A,.OMEGA.-dihalosubstituted paraffin such as 1,4-dibromobutane, Q is a neutral amine containing 5 or fewer carbon atoms such as 1-methylpyrrolidine and E is a framework element such as gallium. The process involves contacting a carbonaceous biomass feedstock with UZM-39 at pyrolysis conditions to produce pyrolysis gases comprising hydrocarbons. The catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction converting oxygenated hydrocarbons into hydrocarbons and removing the oxygen as carbon oxides and water. A portion of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to produce low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  15. Removal of Xylene fromWaste Air Stream Using Catalytic Ozonation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mokarami

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available "n "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives: Volatile organic compounds (VOCs are one of the common groups of contaminants encountered in the industrial activities, emitted through air stream into the atmosphere. To prevent the human and environmental health from the adverse effects of VOCs, air streams containing VOCs need to be treated before discharging to environment. This study was aimed at investigating the catalytic ozonation process for removing xylene from a contaminated air stream."nMaterials and Methods: In the present work, a bench scale experimental setup was constructed and used for catalytic ozonation of xylene. The performance of catalytic ozonation process was compared with that of single adsorption and ozonation in removal of several concentration of xylene under the similar experimental conditions."nResults: The results indicated that the efficiency of catalytic ozonation was higher than that of single adsorption and ozonation in removal of xylene. The emerging time and elimination capacity of xylene for inlet concentration of 300 ppm was 1.4 and 5.8 times of those in adsorption system. The activated carbon acted as catalyst in the presence of ozone and thus attaining the synergistic effect for xylene degradation."nConclusion: catalytic ozonation process is an efficient technique the treatment of air streams containing high concentrations of xylene. The adsorption systems can also be simply retrofitted to catalytic ozonation process and thereby improving their performance for treating VOCs.

  16. Catalytic Conversion of Glucose into 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural by Hf(OTf4 Lewis Acid in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of Lewis acidic metal salts were used for glucose dehydration to 5-hydroymethylfurfural (HMF in water. Effect of valence state, ionic radii of Lewis acidic cation, and the type of anions on the catalytic performance have been studied systematically. The experimental results showed that the valence state played an important role in determining catalytic activity and selectivity. It was found that a higher glucose conversion rate and HMF selectivity could be obtained over high valent Lewis acid salts, where the ionic radii of these Lewis acidic metal salts are usually relatively small. Analysis on the effect of the anions of Lewis acid salts on the catalytic activity and the selectivity suggested that a higher glucose conversion and HMF selectivity could be readily obtained with Cl−. Furthermore, the recyclability of high valence state Lewis acid salt was also studied, however, inferior catalytic performance was observed. The deactivation mechanism was speculated to be the fact that high valence state Lewis acid salt was comparatively easier to undergo hydrolysis to yield complicated metal aqua ions with less catalytic activity. The Lewis acidic activity could be recovered by introducing a stoichiometric amount of hydrochloric acid (HCl to the catalytic before the reaction.

  17. The Effect of Acidic and Redox Properties of V2O5/CeO2-ZrO2 Catalysts in Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO by NH3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putluru, Siva Sankar Reddy; Riisager, Anders; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    2009-01-01

    V2O5 supported ZrO2 and CeO2–ZrO2 catalysts were prepared and characterized by N2 physisorption, XRPD, TPR, and NH3-TPD methods. The influence of calcination temperature from 400 to 600 °C on crystallinity, acidic and redox properties were studied and compared with the catalytic activity in the s......V2O5 supported ZrO2 and CeO2–ZrO2 catalysts were prepared and characterized by N2 physisorption, XRPD, TPR, and NH3-TPD methods. The influence of calcination temperature from 400 to 600 °C on crystallinity, acidic and redox properties were studied and compared with the catalytic activity...

  18. Effect of HNO{sub 3} and NH{sub 3} treatment on the catalytic oxidation of carbon catalyses by Cu, Mo and their mixture at the eutectic composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palma, M.C.; Silva, I.F.; Lobo, L.S. [Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Monte de caparica (Portugal)

    1995-12-31

    The dispersion of the active phase on the carbon surface can be improved by chemical treatment of the surface. Functional groups can affect the carbon/metal interaction leading to changes on the catalytic behaviour. The aim of this work is to study, whether chemical surface treatments influences carbon reactivity as well as molybdenum and copper dispersion in charcoal gasification by air. Several catalyst preparation techniques were used. The modified carbons were analysed by XPS and FTIR.

  19. Catalytic coal liquefaction. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, S W

    1981-01-01

    Monolith catalysts of MoO/sub 3/-CoO-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ were prepared and tested for coal liquefaction in a stirred autoclave. In general, the monolith catalysts were not as good as particulate catalysts prepared on Corning alumina supports. Measurement of O/sub 2/ chemisorption and BET surface area has been made on a series of Co/Mo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalysts obtained from PETC. The catalysts were derived from Cyanamid 1442A and had been tested for coal liquefaction in batch autoclaves and continuous flow units. MoO/sub 3/-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalysts over the loading range 3.9 to 14.9 wt % MoO/sub 3/ have been studied with respect to BET surface (before and after reduction), O/sub 2/ chemisorption at -78/sup 0/C, redox behavior at 500/sup 0/C, and activity for cyclohexane dehydrogenation at 500/sup 0/C. In connection with the fate of tin catalysts during coal liquefaction, calculations have been made of the relative thermodynamic stability of SnCl/sub 2/, Sn, SnO/sub 2/, and SnS in the presence of H/sub 2/, HCl, H/sub 2/S and H/sub 2/O. Ferrous sulfate dispersed in methylnaphthalene has been shown to be reduced to ferrous sulfide under typical coal hydroliquefaction conditions (1 hour, 450/sup 0/C, 1000 psi initial p/sub H/sub 2//). This suggests that ferrous sulfide may be the common catalytic ingredient when either (a) ferrous sulfate impregnated on powdered coal, or (b) finely divided iron pyrite is used as the catalyst. Old research on impregnated ferrous sulfate, impregnated ferrous halides, and pyrite is consistent with this assumption. Eight Co/Mo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalysts from commercial suppliers, along with SnCl/sub 2/, have been studied for the hydrotreating of 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN) in a stirred autoclave at 450 and 500/sup 0/C.

  20. Effect of Fe2O3 Loading Amount on Catalytic Properties of Monolithic Fe2O3/Ce0.67Zr0.33O2-Al2O3 Catalyst for Methane Combustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Ce0.67Zr0.33O2-Al2O3 solid solution was prepared by the co-precipitation method. Fe2O3-based catalysts supported on the solid solution were obtained by the impregnation method. The article revealed that the optimal loading amount of Fe2O3 on Ce0.67Zr0.33O2-Al2O3 in our experimental condition for catalytic combustion of methane was 8%( mass fraction). The prepared catalysts were characterized by BET, TPR, XRD analyses, and their catalytic activity was investigated after being calcined at 873 K and after being aged in water gas at 1273 K. When the loading amount of Fe2O3 was 8%( mass fraction), the catalyst held the highest activity, and the best temperature speciality and thermal stability. The complete-conversion temperature of methane for fresh and aged sample was 788 and 838 K, respectively. The range between the light-off temperature and the complete-conversion temperature was only 15 K. The characterization results of XRD indicated that Fe2O3 was well dispersed on the Ce0.67Zr0.33O2-Al2O3 matrix. The results of BET and TPR were in good harmony with the catalytic activity results.

  1. Catalytic microwave pyrolysis of biomass for renewable phenols and fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Quan

    Bio-oil is an unstable intermediate and needs to be upgraded before its use. This study focused on improving the selectivity of bio-oilby catalytic pyrolysis of biomass using activated carbon (AC) catalysts. Firstly, the effects of process conditions on product quality and product yield were investigated by catalytic microwave pyrolysis of biomass using AC as a catalyst. The optimized reaction condition for bio-oil and volatile was determined. Chemical composition analysis by GC/MS showed that phenols rich bio-oils were obtained. Furthermore, the effects of different carbon sources based AC catalysts on products yield and chemical composition selectivity of obtained bio-oils were investigated during microwave pyrolysis of Douglas fir pellet. The catalysts recycling test of the selected catalysts indicated that the AC catalysts can be used for 3-4 times with high concentration of phenolic compounds. The individual surface polar/acidic oxygen functional groups analysis suggested the changes of functional groups in ACs explained the reaction mechanism of this process. In addition, the potential for production of renewable phenols and fuels by catalytic pyrolysis of biomass using lignin as a model compound was explored. The main chemical compounds of the obtained bio-oils were phenols, guaiacols, hydrocarbons and esters. The thermal decomposition behaviors of lignin and kinetics study were investigated by TGA. The change of functional groups of AC catalyst indicated the bio-oil reduction was related to the reaction mechanism of this process. Finally, the effects of Fe-modified AC catalyst on bio-oil upgrading and kintic study of biomass pyrolysis were investigated. The catalytic pyrolysis of biomass using the Fe-modified AC catalyst may promote the occurrence of the fragmentation of cellulose, rather than repolymerization as in the non-catalytic pyrolysis which leads to partial of guaiacols derived from furans. Results showed that the main chemical compounds of bio

  2. A novel liquid system of catalytic hydrogenation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    On the basis that endothermic aqueous-phase reforming of oxygenated hydrocarbons for H2 production and exothermic liquid phase hydrogenation of organic compounds are carried out under extremely close conditions of temperature and pressure over the same type of catalyst, a novel liquid system of catalytic hydrogenation has been proposed, in which hydrogen produced from aqueous-phase reforming of oxygenated hydrocarbons is in situ used for liquid phase hydrogenation of organic compounds. The usage of active hydrogen generated from aqueous-phase reforming of oxygenated hydrocarbons for liquid catalytic hydrogenation of organic compounds could lead to increasing the selectivity to H2 in the aqueous-phase reforming due to the prompt removal of hydrogen on the active centers of the catalyst. Meanwhile, this novel liquid system of catalytic hydrogenation might be a potential method to improve the selectivity to the desired product in liquid phase catalytic hydrogenation of organic compounds. On the other hand, for this novel liquid system of catalytic hydrogenation, some special facilities for H2 generation, storage and transportation in traditional liquid phase hydrogenation industry process are yet not needed. Thus, it would simplify the working process of liquid phase hydrogenation and increase the energy usage and hydrogen productivity.

  3. A review of liquid-phase catalytic hydrodechlorination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Nelly Ardila Arias

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This survey was aimed at introducing the effect of light organochlorinated compound emissions on the envi-ronment, particularly on water, air, soil, biota and human beings. The characteristics and advantages of liquid phase catalytic hydrodechlorination as a technology for degrading these chlorinated compounds is also outlined and the main catalysts used in the hydrodechlorination process are described. Special emphasis is placed on palladium catalysts, their activity, the nature of active species and deactivation. The effect of several parameters is introduced, such as HCl, solvent, base addition and type of reducing agent used. The main results of kinetic studies, reactors used and the most important survey conclusions are presented.

  4. Process of forming catalytic surfaces for wet oxidation reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagow, R. B. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A wet oxidation process was developed for oxidizing waste materials, comprising dissolved ruthenium salt in a reactant feed stream containing the waste materials. The feed stream is introduced into a reactor, and the reactor contents are then raised to an elevated temperature to effect deposition of a catalytic surface of ruthenium black on the interior walls of the reactor. The feed stream is then maintained in the reactor for a period of time sufficient to effect at least partial oxidation of the waste materials.

  5. Dimerization interface of 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase tunes the formation of its catalytic intermediate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingzhi Xu

    Full Text Available 3-Hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HAD, EC 1.1.1.35 is a homodimeric enzyme localized in the mitochondrial matrix, which catalyzes the third step in fatty acid β-oxidation. The crystal structures of human HAD and subsequent complexes with cofactor/substrate enabled better understanding of HAD catalytic mechanism. However, numerous human diseases were found related to mutations at HAD dimerization interface that is away from the catalytic pocket. The role of HAD dimerization in its catalytic activity needs to be elucidated. Here, we solved the crystal structure of Caenorhabditis elegans HAD (cHAD that is highly conserved to human HAD. Even though the cHAD mutants (R204A, Y209A and R204A/Y209A with attenuated interactions on the dimerization interface still maintain a dimerization form, their enzymatic activities significantly decrease compared to that of the wild type. Such reduced activities are in consistency with the reduced ratios of the catalytic intermediate formation. Further molecular dynamics simulations results reveal that the alteration of the dimerization interface will increase the fluctuation of a distal region (a.a. 60-80 that plays an important role in the substrate binding. The increased fluctuation decreases the stability of the catalytic intermediate formation, and therefore the enzymatic activity is attenuated. Our study reveals the molecular mechanism about the essential role of the HAD dimerization interface in its catalytic activity via allosteric effects.

  6. Catalytic nanoarchitectonics for environmentally compatible energy generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Abe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmentally compatible energy management is one of the biggest challenges of the 21st century. Low-temperature conversion of chemical to electrical energy is of particular importance to minimize the impact to the environment while sustaining the consumptive economy. In this review, we shed light on one of the most versatile energy-conversion technologies: heterogeneous catalysts. We establish the integrity of structural tailoring in heterogeneous catalysts at different scales in the context of an emerging paradigm in materials science: catalytic nanoarchitectonics. Fundamental backgrounds of energy-conversion catalysis are first provided together with a perspective through state-of-the-art energy-conversion catalysis including catalytic exhaust remediation, fuel-cell electrocatalysis and photosynthesis of solar fuels. Finally, the future evolution of catalytic nanoarchitectonics is overviewed: possible combinations of heterogeneous catalysts, organic molecules and even enzymes to realize reaction-selective, highly efficient and long-life energy conversion technologies which will meet the challenge we face.

  7. ADAR proteins: structure and catalytic mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Rena A; Macbeth, Mark R; Beal, Peter A

    2012-01-01

    Since the discovery of the adenosine deaminase (ADA) acting on RNA (ADAR) family of proteins in 1988 (Bass and Weintraub, Cell 55:1089-1098, 1988) (Wagner et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 86:2647-2651, 1989), we have learned much about their structure and catalytic mechanism. However, much about these enzymes is still unknown, particularly regarding the selective recognition and processing of specific adenosines within substrate RNAs. While a crystal structure of the catalytic domain of human ADAR2 has been solved, we still lack structural data for an ADAR catalytic domain bound to RNA, and we lack any structural data for other ADARs. However, by analyzing the structural data that is available along with similarities to other deaminases, mutagenesis and other biochemical experiments, we have been able to advance the understanding of how these fascinating enzymes function. PMID:21769729

  8. Catalytic Organic Transformations Mediated by Actinide Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabell S. R. Karmel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This review article presents the development of organoactinides and actinide coordination complexes as catalysts for homogeneous organic transformations. This chapter introduces the basic principles of actinide catalysis and deals with the historic development of actinide complexes in catalytic processes. The application of organoactinides in homogeneous catalysis is exemplified in the hydroelementation reactions, such as the hydroamination, hydrosilylation, hydroalkoxylation and hydrothiolation of alkynes. Additionally, the use of actinide coordination complexes for the catalytic polymerization of α-olefins and the ring opening polymerization of cyclic esters is presented. The last part of this review article highlights novel catalytic transformations mediated by actinide compounds and gives an outlook to the further potential of this field.

  9. Highly Dense Isolated Metal Atom Catalytic Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yaxin; Kasama, Takeshi; Huang, Zhiwei;

    2015-01-01

    -ray diffraction. A combination of electron microscopy images with X-ray absorption spectra demonstrated that the silver atoms were anchored on five-fold oxygen-terminated cavities on the surface of the support to form highly dense isolated metal active sites, leading to excellent reactivity in catalytic oxidation......Atomically dispersed noble-metal catalysts with highly dense active sites are promising materials with which to maximise metal efficiency and to enhance catalytic performance; however, their fabrication remains challenging because metal atoms are prone to sintering, especially at a high metal...... loading. A dynamic process of formation of isolated metal atom catalytic sites on the surface of the support, which was achieved starting from silver nanoparticles by using a thermal surface-mediated diffusion method, was observed directly by using in situ electron microscopy and in situ synchrotron X...

  10. Reactivity of organic compounds in catalytic synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minachev, Kh.M.; Bragin, O.V.

    1978-01-01

    A comprehensive review of 1976 Soviet research on catalysis delivered to the 1977 annual session of the USSR Academy of Science Council on Catalysis (Baku 6/16-20/77) covers hydrocarbon reactions, including hydrogenation and hydrogenolysis, dehydrogenation, olefin dimerization and disproportionation, and cyclization and dehydrocyclization (e.g., piperylene cyclization and ethylene cyclotrimerization); catalytic and physicochemical properties of zeolites, including cracking, dehydrogenation, and hydroisomerization catalytic syntheses and conversion of heterocyclic and functional hydrocarbon derivatives, including partial and total oxidation (e.g., of o-xylene to phthalic anhydride); syntheses of thiophenes from alkanes and hydrogen sulfide over certain dehydrogenation catalysts; catalytic syntheses involving carbon oxides ( e.g., the development of a new heterogeneous catalyst for hydroformylation of olefins), and of Co-MgO zeolitic catalysts for synthesis of aliphatic hydrocarbons from carbon dioxide and hydrogen, and fabrication of high-viscosity lubricating oils over bifunctional aluminosilicate catalysts.

  11. Catalytic microreactors for portable power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karagiannidis, Symeon [Paul Scherer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)

    2011-07-01

    ''Catalytic Microreactors for Portable Power Generation'' addresses a problem of high relevance and increased complexity in energy technology. This thesis outlines an investigation into catalytic and gas-phase combustion characteristics in channel-flow, platinum-coated microreactors. The emphasis of the study is on microreactor/microturbine concepts for portable power generation and the fuels of interest are methane and propane. The author carefully describes numerical and experimental techniques, providing a new insight into the complex interactions between chemical kinetics and molecular transport processes, as well as giving the first detailed report of hetero-/homogeneous chemical reaction mechanisms for catalytic propane combustion. The outcome of this work will be widely applied to the industrial design of micro- and mesoscale combustors. (orig.)

  12. Use catalytic combustion for LHV gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucci, E.R.

    1982-03-01

    This paper shows how low heating value (LHV) waste gases can be combusted to recover energy even when the gases won't burn in a normal manner. Significant energy and economic savings can result by adopting this process. Catalytic combustion is a heterogeneous surface-catalyzed air oxidation of fuel, gaseous or liquid, to generate thermal energy in a flameless mode. The catalytic combustion process is quite complex since it involves numerous catalytic surface and gas-phase chemical reactions. During low temperature surface-catalyzed combustion, as in start-up, the combustion stage is under kinetically controlled conditions. The discussion covers the following topics - combustor substrates; combustor washcoating and catalyzing; combustor operational modes (turbine or tabular modes); applications in coal gasification and in-situ gasification; waste process gases. 16 refs.

  13. Xylan-Degrading Catalytic Flagellar Nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Ágnes; Szabó, Veronika; Kovács, Mátyás; Patkó, Dániel; Tóth, Balázs; Vonderviszt, Ferenc

    2015-09-01

    Flagellin, the main component of flagellar filaments, is a protein possessing polymerization ability. In this work, a novel fusion construct of xylanase A from B. subtilis and Salmonella flagellin was created which is applicable to build xylan-degrading catalytic nanorods of high stability. The FliC-XynA chimera when overexpressed in a flagellin deficient Salmonella host strain was secreted into the culture medium by the flagellum-specific export machinery allowing easy purification. Filamentous assemblies displaying high surface density of catalytic sites were produced by ammonium sulfate-induced polymerization. FliC-XynA nanorods were resistant to proteolytic degradation and preserved their enzymatic activity for a long period of time. Furnishing enzymes with self-assembling ability to build catalytic nanorods offers a promising alternative approach to enzyme immobilization onto nanostructured synthetic scaffolds. PMID:25966869

  14. Electro Catalytic Oxidation (ECO) Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan Jones

    2011-03-31

    The power industry in the United States is faced with meeting many new regulations to reduce a number of air pollutants including sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, fine particulate matter, and mercury. With over 1,000 power plants in the US, this is a daunting task. In some cases, traditional pollution control technologies such as wet scrubbers and SCRs are not feasible. Powerspan's Electro-Catalytic Oxidation, or ECO{reg_sign} process combines four pollution control devices into a single integrated system that can be installed after a power plant's particulate control device. Besides achieving major reductions in emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NOx), fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and mercury (Hg), ECO produces a highly marketable fertilizer, which can help offset the operating costs of the process system. Powerspan has been operating a 50-MW ECO commercial demonstration unit (CDU) at FirstEnergy Corp.'s R.E. Burger Plant near Shadyside, Ohio, since February 2004. In addition to the CDU, a test loop has been constructed beside the CDU to demonstrate higher NOx removal rates and test various scrubber packing types and wet ESP configurations. Furthermore, Powerspan has developed the ECO{reg_sign}{sub 2} technology, a regenerative process that uses a proprietary solvent to capture CO{sub 2} from flue gas. The CO{sub 2} capture takes place after the capture of NOx, SO{sub 2}, mercury, and fine particulate matter. Once the CO{sub 2} is captured, the proprietary solution is regenerated to release CO{sub 2} in a form that is ready for geological storage or beneficial use. Pilot scale testing of ECO{sub 2} began in early 2009 at FirstEnergy's Burger Plant. The ECO{sub 2} pilot unit is designed to process a 1-MW flue gas stream and produce 20 tons of CO{sub 2} per day, achieving a 90% CO{sub 2} capture rate. The ECO{sub 2} pilot program provided the opportunity to confirm process design and cost estimates, and prepare for large

  15. PINGU: PredIction of eNzyme catalytic residues usinG seqUence information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyadarshini P Pai

    Full Text Available Identification of catalytic residues can help unveil interesting attributes of enzyme function for various therapeutic and industrial applications. Based on their biochemical roles, the number of catalytic residues and sequence lengths of enzymes vary. This article describes a prediction approach (PINGU for such a scenario. It uses models trained using physicochemical properties and evolutionary information of 650 non-redundant enzymes (2136 catalytic residues in a support vector machines architecture. Independent testing on 200 non-redundant enzymes (683 catalytic residues in predefined prediction settings, i.e., with non-catalytic per catalytic residue ranging from 1 to 30, suggested that the prediction approach was highly sensitive and specific, i.e., 80% or above, over the incremental challenges. To learn more about the discriminatory power of PINGU in real scenarios, where the prediction challenge is variable and susceptible to high false positives, the best model from independent testing was used on 60 diverse enzymes. Results suggested that PINGU was able to identify most catalytic residues and non-catalytic residues properly with 80% or above accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. The effect of false positives on precision was addressed in this study by application of predicted ligand-binding residue information as a post-processing filter. An overall improvement of 20% in F-measure and 0.138 in Correlation Coefficient with 16% enhanced precision could be achieved. On account of its encouraging performance, PINGU is hoped to have eventual applications in boosting enzyme engineering and novel drug discovery.

  16. The Catalytic Function of Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splittgerber, Allan G.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses: structure of the enzyme molecule; active site; reaction mechanism; transition state; factors affecting enzyme reaction rates, concentration of enzyme; concentration of substrate; product concentration; temperature effects and pH effects; factors causing a lowering of activation energy; proximity and orientation effects; substrate strain…

  17. WO3对碳载EMD催化氧还原活性的影响%Effect of WO3 to catalytic activity of carbon supported EMD for oxygen reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄幼菊; 林育丽; 莫烨强; 李伟善

    2012-01-01

    研究了助催化剂三氧化钨(WO3)对电解二氧化锰(EMD)催化性能的影响.通过球磨制备5种WO3含量的EMD复合催化剂,进行XRD、SEM和电化学性能测试.WO3影响了EMD的孔隙率,添加适量的WO3可改善EMD的催化性能.添加WO3催化剂的氧还原电位较未添加WO3催化剂提前0.02 V.当电压为-0.15 V时,EMD、( MnO2)33( WO3)0.7、(MnO2)33(WO3)1、( MnO2)33 (WO3)1.3及(MnO2 )33( WO3 )1.5的氧还原电流分别为:-0.21 mA、-0.35 mA、-0.85 mA、-0.53 mA和-0.08 mA,表明随着WO3添加量的增加,EMD的催化性能先提高,后下降.EMD、( MnO2)33( WO3 )0.7、( MnO2 )33( WO3)1、(MnO2)33 (WO3)1.3及(MnO2)33 (WO3)1.5制备的电池,放电平台分别为1.05 V、1.08 V、1.21 V、1.14 V和0.98 V;催化活性顺序为:(MnO2)33(WO3)1> (MnO2)33(WO3)1.3>(MnO2)33(WO3)0.7>EMD> (MnO2)33(WO3)1.5.%Effect of tungsten trioxide( WO3) additive to the electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD) catalyze oxygen reduction activity was studied. EMD composite catalysts with 5 kinds of WO3 content were prepared by ball-milling. XRD, SEM and linear voltage scanning and galvanostatic discharge tests were taken. Adding proper W03 could improve the catalytic activity of EMD, the porosity of EMD was affected by WO3. Compared with the catalyst without adding WO3 ,the oxygen reduction potential of catalyst added WO3 was 0.02 V in advance. When the voltage was - 0.15 V,oxygen reduction current of EMD, (MnO2)33( WO3)0.7, (MnO2)33(WO3)1,(MnO2)33(WO3)1.3 and (MnO2)33(WO3)1.5 was -0.21 mA, -0.35 mA, -0.85 mA, -0.53 mA and - 0.08 mA,respectively,indicated that with the increasing of WO3 adding amount,the oxygen reduction current increased firstly, then decreased. The discharge platform of cell prepared with EMD,(MnO2)33( WO3)o.7,(MnO2)33( WO3)MnO2)33(WO3)1.3 and (MnO2)33(WO3)1.5 was 1.05 V, 1.08 V, 1.21 V, 1.14 V and 0.98 V, respectively.The catalytic activity was in the following order:(MnO2)33(WO3)1 > (MnO2)33(WO3)1.3 > (MnO2)33(WO3)0.7 > EMD > (Mn

  18. Mutational analysis of a ras catalytic domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willumsen, B M; Papageorge, A G; Kung, H F;

    1986-01-01

    We used linker insertion-deletion mutagenesis to study the catalytic domain of the Harvey murine sarcoma virus v-rasH transforming protein, which is closely related to the cellular rasH protein. The mutants displayed a wide range of in vitro biological activity, from those that induced focal...... transformation of NIH 3T3 cells with approximately the same efficiency as the wild-type v-rasH gene to those that failed to induce any detectable morphologic changes. Correlation of transforming activity with the location of the mutations enabled us to identify three nonoverlapping segments within the catalytic...

  19. Thermal and catalytic pyrolysis of plastic waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Almeida

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The amount of plastic waste is growing every year and with that comes an environmental concern regarding this problem. Pyrolysis as a tertiary recycling process is presented as a solution. Pyrolysis can be thermal or catalytical and can be performed under different experimental conditions. These conditions affect the type and amount of product obtained. With the pyrolysis process, products can be obtained with high added value, such as fuel oils and feedstock for new products. Zeolites can be used as catalysts in catalytic pyrolysis and influence the final products obtained.

  20. A catalytic surface for amyloid fibril formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammarstroem, P; Ali, M M; Mishra, R; Tengvall, P; Lundstroem, I [Department of Physics, Biology and Chemistry, Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden); Svensson, S [Astra Zeneca R and D, SE-151 85 Soedertaelje (Sweden)], E-mail: ingemar@ifm.liu.se

    2008-03-15

    A hydrophobic surface incubated in a solution of protein molecules (insulin monomers) was made into a catalytic surface for amyloid fibril formation by repeatedly incubate, rinse and dry the surface. The present contribution describes how this unexpected transformation occurred and its relation to rapid fibrillation of insulin solutions in contact with the surface. A tentative model of the properties of the catalytic surface is given, corroborated by ellipsometric measurements of the thickness of the organic layer on the surface and by atomic force microscopy. The surfaces used were spontaneously oxidized silicon made hydrophobic through treatment in dichlorodimethylsilane.