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Sample records for catalytic diesel filter

  1. Catalytic diesel particulate filters reduce the in vitro estrogenic activity of diesel exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenger, Daniela; Gerecke, Andreas C.; Heeb, Norbert V. [Laboratory for Analytical Chemistry, Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Naegeli, Hanspeter [University of Zurich-Vetsuisse, Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Zurich (Switzerland); Zenobi, Renato [ETH Zurich, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2008-04-15

    An in vitro reporter gene assay based on human breast cancer T47D cells (ER-CALUX {sup registered}) was applied to examine the ability of diesel exhaust to induce or inhibit estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated gene expression. Exhaust from a heavy-duty diesel engine was either treated by iron- or copper/iron-catalyzed diesel particulate filters (DPFs) or studied as unfiltered exhaust. Collected samples included particle-bound and semivolatile constituents of diesel exhaust. Our findings show that all of the samples contained compounds that were able to induce ER-mediated gene expression as well as compounds that suppressed the activity of the endogenous hormone 17{beta}-estradiol (E2). Estrogenic activity prevailed over antiestrogenic activity. We found an overall ER-mediated activity of 1.63 {+-} 0.31 ng E2 CALUX equivalents (E2-CEQs) per m{sup 3} of unfiltered exhaust. In filtered exhaust, we measured 0.74 {+-} 0.07 (iron-catalyzed DPF) and 0.55 {+-} 0.09 ng E2-CEQ m{sup -3} (copper/iron-catalyzed DPF), corresponding to reductions in estrogenic activity of 55 and 66%, respectively. Our study demonstrates that both catalytic DPFs lowered the ER-mediated endocrine-disrupting potential of diesel exhaust. (orig.)

  2. Filtres à activité catalytique pour moteur Diesel Catalytic Activity Filters for Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldenberg E.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A partir de l'examen des normes actuelles et envisagées dans le futur pour limiter les émissions de particules Diesel, et en considérant les propriétés physico-chimiques de ces particules, cet article expose les problèmes posés par la filtration des suies Diesel et leur élimination par combustion sur les différents types de filtres actuellement retenus. La régénération des filtres par combustion catalytique du dépôt est plus particulièrement discutée. From an examination of present regulations and ones being considered for the future to limit particle emissions by diesel engines, and considering the physicochemical properties of such particles, this article describes the problems raised by filtering soot from diesel engines and eliminating it by various types of filters now used. Filter regeneration by catalytic combustion of the deposit is considered in particular.

  3. Novel Base Metal-Palladium Catalytic Diesel Filter Coating with NO2 Reducing Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, K.; Dahl, S.; Mogensen, G.;

    2007-01-01

    price structure. The novel base metal/palladium catalytic coat has been applied on commercial silicon carbide wall flow diesel filters and tested in an engine test bench. Results from engine bench tests concerning soot combustion, HC-, CO-, NO2- removal with the novel coat will are compared to present...

  4. Diesel emission control: Catalytic filters for particulate removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Fino

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The European diesel engine industry represents a vital sector across the Continent, with more than 2 million direct work positions and a turnover of over 400 billion Euro. Diesel engines provide large paybacks to society since they are extensively used to transport goods, services and people. In recent years increasing attention has been paid to the emissions from diesel engines which, like gasoline engine emissions, include carbon monoxide (CO, hydrocarbons (HC and oxides of nitrogen (NOx. Diesel engines also produce significant levels of particulate matter (PM, which consists mostly of carbonaceous soot and a soluble organic fraction (SOF of hydrocarbons that have condensed on the soot.

  5. Simultaneously catalytic removal of NOx and particulate matter on diesel particulate filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The simultaneous removal of NOx and particulate matter (PM) exhausted from diesel engine was studied with a diesel particulate filter (DPF) on which a mixed metal oxide catalyst, Cu0.95K0.05Fe2O4 was loaded. The NOx reduction was observed in the same temperature range of the CO2 formation, implying the occurrence of the simultaneous removal of NOx and PM in an oxidizing atmosphere. It was shown that SOF and soot in PM are attributed to the reduction of NOx at lower and higher temperatures, respectively. The oxidation of PM was enhanced by the coexistence of NO and O2. The ignition and exhaustion temperatures of PM decrease as the order NO>O2>NO+O2. This is a combined process of PM trapping as well as the catalytic reactions of soot oxidation and NOx reduction, promising the most desirable after-treatment of diesel exhausts.

  6. Evaluation of a catalyzed ceramic diesel particulate filter and catalytic converter on an underground mine vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickel, K.L.; Majewski, W.A. [Bureau of Mines, Minneapolis, MN (United States)]|[Diesel Controls, Ltd., Willowdale, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) and Diesel Controls Limited evaluated a new diesel emission control system on an underground mine vehicle. The system was a catalyzed ceramic wall-flow diesel particulate filter (CDPF) combined with an catalytic converter, or diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC). This paper describes the design and installation of the system on a load-haul-dump (LHD). The results of screening tests conducted by the USBM are also given. The screening tests were conducted to determine if the device`s particulate collection efficiency, regeneration temperature, and effect on gaseous hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions changed over the period it was being used. The system was removed from the LHD and evaluated in the laboratory after operating for 308 and 1200 hours. After 308 hours of operation, laboratory testing revealed its particulate collection efficiency varied from 41.0 to 93.5 percent, depending on engine operating conditions. Its regeneration temperature was about 415{degrees}C. It reduced HC emissions by up to 97.6 percent, and CO by up to 95.0 percent. When tested in the laboratory after operating for 1200 hours on the vehicle, no significant change in performance was observed.

  7. Combined Particle Filter and Selective Catalytic Reduction Catalyst for Diesel Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Jeanette

    for exhaust gas purification. By combining the particulate filtration application with the application as catalyst support for NOx reduction, the low emissions standards can be met. This project was initiated as a result of the need for new and improved filters with characteristics making it suitable...... them ideal for multiple applications like high power electronic devices, heating elements, abrasive materials and cutting tools. Porous silicon carbide is suitable for electrode and catalyst support material as well as hot gas filter units or a combination of these. The automotive industry demands new...... here. A new and improved filter was developed on the basis of the research results concerning copper as partner additive. In comparison to filters produced with aluminium as sole additive, these new filters exhibit enhanced mechanical stability, enhanced microstructure and controllable surface...

  8. Chemical speciation of PM emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles equipped with diesel particulate filter (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) retrofits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Subhasis; Verma, Vishal; Schauer, James J.; Sioutas, Constantinos

    Four heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) in six retrofitted configurations (CRT ®, V-SCRT ®, Z-SCRT ®, Horizon, DPX and CCRT ®) and a baseline vehicle operating without after--treatment were tested under cruise (50 mph), transient UDDS and idle driving modes. As a continuation of the work by Biswas et al. [Biswas, S., Hu, S., Verma, V., Herner, J., Robertson, W.J., Ayala, A., Sioutas, C., 2008. Physical properties of particulate matter (PM) from late model heavy-duty diesel vehicles operating with advanced emission control technologies. Atmospheric Environment 42, 5622-5634.] on particle physical parameters, this paper focuses on PM chemical characteristics (Total carbon [TC], Elemental carbon [EC], Organic Carbon [OC], ions and water-soluble organic carbon [WSOC]) for cruise and UDDS cycles only. Size-resolved PM collected by MOUDI-Nano-MOUDI was analyzed for TC, EC and OC and ions (such as sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, potassium, sodium and phosphate), while Teflon coated glass fiber filters from a high volume sampler were extracted to determine WSOC. The introduction of retrofits reduced PM mass emissions over 90% in cruise and 95% in UDDS. Similarly, significant reductions in the emission of major chemical constituents (TC, OC and EC) were achieved. Sulfate dominated PM composition in vehicle configurations (V-SCRT ®-UDDS, Z-SCRT ®-Cruise, CRT ® and DPX) with considerable nucleation mode and TC was predominant for configurations with less (Z-SCRT ®-UDDS) or insignificant (CCRT ®, Horizon) nucleation. The transient operation increases EC emissions, consistent with its higher accumulation PM mode content. In general, solubility of organic carbon is higher (average ˜5 times) for retrofitted vehicles than the baseline vehicle. The retrofitted vehicles with catalyzed filters (DPX, CCRT ®) had decreased OC solubility (WSOC/OC: 8-25%) unlike those with uncatalyzed filters (SCRT ®s, Horizon; WSOC/OC ˜ 60-100%). Ammonium was present predominantly in the

  9. Catalytic treatment of diesel engines, NOx emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some aspects of the operation of diesel engines are revised together with the pollutant emissions they produce, as well as the available catalytic technologies for the treatment of diesel emissions. Furthermore the performance of a catalyst developed in the environmental catalysis group for NOx reduction using synthetic gas mixtures simulating the emissions from diesel engines is presented

  10. Microwave-Regenerated Diesel Exhaust Particulate Filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nixdorf, Richard D. (Industrial Ceramic Solution, LLC); Green, Johney Boyd; Story, John M.; Wagner, Robert M. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory)

    2001-03-05

    Development of a microwave-regenerated particulate filter system has evolved from bench scale work to actual diesel engine experimentation. The filter system was initially evaluated on a stationary mounted 1.2-L diesel engine and was able to remove a significant amount of carbon particles from the exhaust. The ability of the microwave energy to regenerate or clean the filter was also demonstrated on this engine under idle conditions. Based on the 1.2-L experiments, improvements to the filter design and materials were implemented and the system was re-evaluated on a vehicle equipped with a 7.3-L diesel engine. The 7.3-L engine was selected to achieve heavy filter loading in a relatively short period of time. The purpose of these experiments was to evaluate filter-loading capacity, power requirements for regeneration, and filter regeneration efficiency. A more detailed evaluation of the filter was performed on a stationary mounted 1.9-L diesel engine. The effect of exhaust flow rate, loading, transients, and regeneration on filter efficiency was evaluated with this setup. In addition, gaseous exhaust emissions were investigated with and without an oxidation catalyst on the filter cartridge during loading and regeneration. (SAE Paper SAE-2001-01-0903 © 2001 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on-line, download this pdf file and print one copy of this paper at no cost for your use only. The downloaded pdf file and printout of this SAE paper may not be copied, distributed or forwarded to others or for the use of others.)

  11. Revolutionary systems for catalytic combustion and diesel catalytic particulate traps.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuecker, John Nicholas; Witze, Peter O.; Ferrizz, Robert Matthew; Cesarano, Joseph, III; Miller, James Edward

    2004-12-01

    This report is a summary of an LDRD project completed for the development of materials and structures conducive to advancing the state of the art for catalyst supports and diesel particulate traps. An ancillary development for bio-medical bone scaffolding was also realized. Traditionally, a low-pressure drop catalyst support, such as a ceramic honeycomb monolith, is used for catalytic reactions that require high flow rates of gases at high-temperatures. A drawback to the traditional honeycomb monoliths under these operating conditions is poor mass transfer to the catalyst surface in the straight-through channels. ''Robocasting'' is a unique process developed at Sandia National Laboratories that can be used to manufacture ceramic monoliths with alternative 3-dimensional geometries, providing tortuous pathways to increase mass transfer while maintaining low-pressure drops. These alternative 3-dimensional geometries may also provide a foundation for the development of self-regenerating supports capable of trapping and combusting soot particles from a diesel engine exhaust stream. This report describes the structures developed and characterizes the improved catalytic performance that can result. The results show that, relative to honeycomb monolith supports, considerable improvement in mass transfer efficiency is observed for robocast samples synthesized using an FCC-like geometry of alternating rods. Also, there is clearly a trade-off between enhanced mass transfer and increased pressure drop, which can be optimized depending on the particular demands of a given application. Practical applications include the combustion of natural gas for power generation, production of syngas, and hydrogen reforming reactions. The robocast lattice structures also show practicality for diesel particulate trapping. Preliminary results for trapping efficiency are reported as well as the development of electrically resistive lattices that can regenerate the structure

  12. Compact catalytic converter system for future diesel emissions standards; Kompaktes Katalysatorsystem fuer kuenftige Diesel-Emissionsnormen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harth, Klaus [BASF Corporation, Iselin, NJ (United States)

    2012-09-15

    The Euro 6 emissions standard for diesel passenger cars will broaden the application of exhaust aftertreatment systems that use selective catalytic reduction. This will mean a further increase in the volume and complexity of the exhaust aftertreatment system. BASF has developed a compact integrated catalytic converter that combines the functions of particulate filtration and NO{sub x} reduction in a single unit. (orig.)

  13. Evaluation of properties for lubricant filter in diesel engines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵新泽; 程天; 张彩香

    2004-01-01

    The properties of lubricant filters in diesel engines directly affect operation of the lubricant system,and lubricant filters are apt to be impacted by many factors. Therefore, scientific and sensible methods evaluating the properties for lubricant filter diesel engines are necessary to monitor filter properties on line and dynamically. This paper applies ferrographic techniques and adopts sampling methods that oil specimens are synchronously obtained in front of and behind filter elements to monitor the filters of ISUZU DA - 220 diesel engine in two FDS0 forklifts. Results show that the combination of ferrographic techniques and above sampling methods is effective in analyzing the whole operating process of filters used in diesel engines. The service life and ruined type of filter can be estimated through the relationship between ferrographic readings in front and behind of filter and operation time. Furthermore, through a great deal of tests, a series of experimental curves of readings and time and characteristic parameters for filters used in different machines can be gained, which has guiding significance to the selection and maintenance of the filters. But because of the limitation of the ferrographic technique, the debris on the substrate prevents determination of sizes. It is difficult to judge accurately the size of debris that a filter can filter.

  14. Advanced catalytic converter system for natural gas powered diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strots, V.O.; Bunimovich, G.A.; Matros, Y.S. [Matros Technologies Inc., Chesterfield, Missouri (United States); Zheng, M.; Mirosh, E.A. [Alternative Fuel Systems Inc., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    The paper discusses the development of catalytic converter for aftertreatment of exhaust gas from diesel engines powered with natural gas. The converter, operated with periodical reversals of the flow, ensures destruction of CO and hydrocarbons, including methane. Both computer simulation and engine testing results are presented. 8 refs.

  15. The effect of porosity on the mechanical properties of cordierite diesel particulate filter substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shyam, Amit [ORNL; Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL; Watkins, Thomas R [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Diesel particulate filter (DPF) technology depends on porous ceramic structures that trap the particulate matter in the diesel engine exhaust gas stream. The design of DPFs requires balancing the functional requirement of soot filtration with the mechanical properties and both are influenced by the porosity of the substrate. In addition, increasing the porosity of the substrate can assist with the catalytic washcoating, engine back pressure and engine efficiency. The effect of porosity on the elastic and fracture mechanical properties of cordierite based ceramic particulate filters was examined and will be described. Elastic modulus of DPF substrates was determined using resonant ultrasound spectroscopy while fracture toughness was characterized using the double-torsion test method. The interrelationships among specimen thickness, wall orientation, porosity and mechanical properties of the filter substrates will be discussed. A materials selection procedure to obtain filters with high thermal shock resistance and optimal mechanical properties will be described.

  16. Design Optimization of Diesel Particulate Filter Using CFD

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Y. Rajasekhar Reddy; Mr. K. Srinivasa Chalapathi

    2015-01-01

    The diesel particulate filter (DPF) is a device designed to remove diesel particulate matter or soot from the exhaust gas of a diesel engine. A series of tests have been performed on a downscaled DPF prototype. This prototype had high filtration efficiency. Then the next step is to study the soot and ash handling capacity of DPF system and perform tests on a full-scale prototype. In order to move forward to the next step the functionality of the filter should be investigated. More...

  17. Diesel Engine Emission Reduction Using Catalytic Nanoparticles: An Experimental Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajin C. Sajeevan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerium oxide being a rare earth metal with dual valance state existence has exceptional catalytic activity due to its oxygen buffering capability, especially in the nanosized form. Hence when used as an additive in the diesel fuel it leads to simultaneous reduction and oxidation of nitrogen dioxide and hydrocarbon emissions, respectively, from diesel engine. The present work investigates the effect of cerium oxide nanoparticles on performance and emissions of diesel engine. Cerium oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical method and techniques such as TEM, EDS, and XRD have been used for the characterization. Cerium oxide was mixed in diesel by means of standard ultrasonic shaker to obtain stable suspension, in a two-step process. The influence of nanoparticles on various physicochemical properties of diesel fuel has also been investigated through extensive experimentation by means of ASTM standard testing methods. Load test was done in the diesel engine to investigate the effect of nanoparticles on the efficiency and the emissions from the engine. Comparisons of fuel properties with and without additives are also presented.

  18. Rational design of a robust diesel particulate filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Gulijk, C.

    2002-09-19

    The primary goal is to develop a Diesel Particulate Filter that has the same characteristics as the diesel engine: robust, dependable, durable, and energy efficient. Sub-goals include: characterization of the fractal-nature of diesel soot; assess aerosol measuring instruments for the measurement of diesel soot; develop an experimental method to measure filtration efficiencies of soot in ceramic foams based on numbers of particles; and determine filtration mechanisms of ceramic foam filters. At the start of this work it was concluded that no accurate experimental procedures or standards were available for the determination of filtering mechanisms of diesel soot aerosols. Therefore, a reliable method had to be developed before the actual filtration measurements could start. Chapter 2 treats the experimental setup as a whole and evaluates the performance of two major components: the diesel setup, and the aerosol sampling setup. Chapter 3 evaluates the third major component of the experimental setup: the Electrical Low-Pressure Impactor (ELPI), a particle sizer. Evaluation of the instrument has shown several shortcomings that were improved during the course of this work. In chapter 4 the ELPI and the Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SNIPS) are compared with regard to accurate aerosol measurements. The comparison is important because the SMPS is the instrument of choice in industry. As part of the evaluation, diesel soot particles are characterized as fractal clusters, which give key insights in how to interpret the experimental results for particle size measurements and filtration efficiency. The second part of this thesis focuses on filter development. A novel filter is developed: the Modified Turbulent Precipitator. Firstly, a strategic blueprint is adopted for selection and development of the Diesel Particulate Filter in chapter 5. Secondly, the hydrodynamic behavior of the system is studied in chapter 6. In chapter 7 filtration of soot particles by ceramic foams

  19. Selective catalytic reduction of NOx from diesel engine exhaust using injection of urea. Doctoral thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hultermans, R.J.

    1995-09-25

    ;Contents: Diesel exhaust NOx formation and abatement (Diesel DeNOxing literature, System Considerations, Summary); Catalytic testing (Experimental facilities for testing catalysts, transport phenomena in steady state fixed bed reactors, Catalyst testing); Development of a urea injection system.

  20. Diesel NO{sub x} catalytic converter development: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heimrich, M.J. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1996-07-01

    This paper summarizes the findings of several technical articles on diesel NO{sub x} catalytic converter technology. Simplified theoretical reactions for NO{sub x} removal are discussed. Currently, development of catalytic NO{sub x} control technology for diesel engines is focused on systems that incorporate fuel hydrocarbons as the chemical reducing agent. Copper- and zeolite-based catalysts have been the predominant systems studied to date, but now catalysts containing precious metals are being investigated. Observed NO{sub x} reduction efficiencies typically ranged from 10 to 30 percent on actual engine exhaust systems when exhaust hydrocarbon enrichment strategies were used. Effects of carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and water on NO{sub x} reduction efficiencies are reviewed. Recommendations for future research include attempts to broaden the temperature range of efficient NO{sub x} reduction, improving hydrocarbon selectivity toward the NO{sub x} reduction reaction, and the development of a supplementary reductant delivery system suitable for transient diesel engine operation.

  1. Catalytic hydrotreating of waste cooking oil for renewable diesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezergianni, Stella; Dimitriadis, Athanasios [Centre for Research and Technology Hellas (CERTH), Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2013-06-01

    A new technology based on catalytic hydrotreating of Waste Cooking Oil (WCO) for biodiesel production has been developed in the Centre for Research and Technology Hellas (CERTH). The main premise of this process is the conversion of the WCO fatty acids into normal- and iso-paraffins. The technology was evaluated in hydroprocessing pilot plants of CERTH where feedstock origin as well as optimal catalysts and operating parameters where identified. The fractionated diesel product, called ''white'' diesel exhibits excellent fuel properties including higher heating value (over 49 MJ/kg), negligible acidity, higher oxidation stability and higher cetane number ({proportional_to}77) than conventional biodiesel. The overall product yield is {proportional_to}92% v/v. This new suggested technology is extremely appealing as it employs existing refinery infrastructure and expertise, offers feedstock flexibility, leaves no by-product and above all is economically attractive. (orig.)

  2. Zone heated diesel particulate filter electrical connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.

    2010-03-30

    An electrical connection system for a particulate filter is provided. The system includes: a particulate filter (PF) disposed within an outer shell wherein the PF is segmented into a plurality of heating zones; an outer mat disposed between the particulate filter and the outer shell; an electrical connector coupled to the outer shell of the PF; and a plurality of printed circuit connections that extend along the outer surface of the PF from the electrical connector to the plurality of heating zones.

  3. Particulate filter behaviour of a Diesel engine fueled with biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biodiesel is an alternative and renewable fuel made from plant and animal fat or cooked oil through a transesterification process to produce a short chain ester (generally methyl ester). Biodiesel fuels have been worldwide studied in Diesel engines and they were found to be compatible in blends with Diesel fuel to well operate in modern Common Rail engines. Also throughout the world the diffusion of biofuels is being promoted in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and the environmental impact of transport, and to increase security of supply. To meet the current exhaust emission regulations, after-treatment devices are necessary; in particular Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) are essential to reduce particulate emissions of Diesel engines. A critical requirement for the implementation of DPF on a modern Biodiesel powered engine is the determination of Break-even Temperature (BET) which is defined as the temperature at which particulate deposition on the filter is balanced by particulate oxidation on the filter. To fit within the exhaust temperature range of the exhaust line and to require a minimum of active regeneration during the engine running, the BET needs to occur at sufficiently low temperatures. In this paper, the results of an experimental campaign on a modern, electronic controlled fuel injection Diesel engine are shown. The engine was fuelled either with petroleum ultralow sulphur fuel or with Biodiesel: BET was evaluated for both fuels. Results show that on average, the BET is lower for biodiesel than for diesel fuel. The final goal was to characterize the regeneration process of the DPF device depending on the adopted fuel, taking into account the different combustion process and the different nature of the particulate matter. Overall the results suggest significant benefits for the use of biodiesel in engines equipped with DPFs. - Highlights: ► We compare Diesel Particulate Trap (DPF) performance with Biodiesel and Diesel fuel. ► The Break

  4. Mathematical model of straight run diesel catalytic hydroisomerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straight run diesel catalytic hydroisomerization mathematical model has been developed. There are the following steps for sequential accomplishment: assessment of thermodynamic possibility of spontaneous reactions under the existing technological conditions, development and formalization of hydrocarbon reaction network scheme, kinetic parameters evaluation, industrial verification of the model. The temperature impact within 345405 °C, the pressure impact in the range of 5-8 MPa and hydrogen bearing gas consumption impact within 3000-51000 m3/h on higher molecular n-alkanes conversion and i-alkanes yield as the basic components which determine diesel fuels low-temperature characteristics to the fullest extent, have been investigated using the developed model. It has been revealed that hydroisomerization process ought to be carried out under such temperature and pressure which do not lead to catalyst exploitation properties come-down in order to receive the product with the required low temperature characteristics. They are 355 °C and 6,7 MPa. The optimal hydrogen bearing gas consumption has been adopted as 39000 m3/h when the feed flow rate is 301 m3/h

  5. Deep desulfurization of diesel fuels by catalytic oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Guoxian; CHEN Hui; LU Shanxiang; ZHU Zhongnan

    2007-01-01

    Reaction feed was prepared by dissolving dibenzothiophene (DBT),which was selected as a model organosulfur compound in diesel fuels,in n-octane.The oxidant was a 30 wt-% aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide.Catalytic performance of the activated carbons with saturation adsorption of DBT was investigated in the presence of formic acid.In addition,the effects of activated carbon dosage,formic acid concentration,initial concentration of hydrogen peroxide,initial concentration of DBT and reaction temperature on the oxidation of DBT were investigated.Experimental results indicated that performic acid and the hydroxyl radicals produced are coupled to oxidize DBT with a conversion ratio of 100%.Catalytic performance of the combination of activated carbon and formic acid is higher than that ofouly formic acid.The concentration of formic acid,activated carbon dosage,initial concentration of hydrogen peroxide and reaction temperature affect the oxidative removal of DBT.The higher the initial concentration of DBT in the n-octane solution,the more difficult the deep desulfurization by oxidation is.

  6. Fuel Efficient Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) Modeling and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Mark L.; Gallant, Thomas R.; Kim, Do Heui; Maupin, Gary D.; Zelenyuk, Alla

    2010-08-01

    The project described in this report seeks to promote effective diesel particulate filter technology with minimum fuel penalty by enhancing fundamental understanding of filtration mechanisms through targeted experiments and computer simulations. The overall backpressure of a filtration system depends upon complex interactions of particulate matter and ash with the microscopic pores in filter media. Better characterization of these phenomena is essential for exhaust system optimization. The acicular mullite (ACM) diesel particulate filter substrate is under continuing development by Dow Automotive. ACM is made up of long mullite crystals which intersect to form filter wall framework and protrude from the wall surface into the DPF channels. ACM filters have been demonstrated to effectively remove diesel exhaust particles while maintaining relatively low backpressure. Modeling approaches developed for more conventional ceramic filter materials, such as silicon carbide and cordierite, have been difficult to apply to ACM because of properties arising from its unique microstructure. Penetration of soot into the high-porosity region of projecting crystal structures leads to a somewhat extended depth filtration mode, but with less dramatic increases in pressure drop than are normally observed during depth filtration in cordierite or silicon carbide filters. Another consequence is greater contact between the soot and solid surfaces, which may enhance the action of some catalyst coatings in filter regeneration. The projecting crystals appear to provide a two-fold benefit for maintaining low backpressures during filter loading: they help prevent soot from being forced into the throats of pores in the lower porosity region of the filter wall, and they also tend to support the forming filter cake, resulting in lower average cake density and higher permeability. Other simulations suggest that soot deposits may also tend to form at the tips of projecting crystals due to the axial

  7. Efficiency of Respirator Filter Media against Diesel Particulate Matter: A Comparison Study Using Two Diesel Particulate Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Kerrie A; Whitelaw, Jane L; Jones, Alison L; Davies, Brian

    2016-07-01

    Diesel engines have been a mainstay within many industries since the early 1900s. Exposure to diesel particulate matter (DPM) is a major issue in many industrial workplaces given the potential for serious health impacts to exposed workers; including the potential for lung cancer and adverse irritant and cardiovascular effects. Personal respiratory protective devices are an accepted safety measure to mitigate worker exposure against the potentially damaging health impacts of DPM. To be protective, they need to act as effective filters against carbon and other particulates. In Australia, the filtering efficiency of respiratory protective devices is determined by challenging test filter media with aerosolised sodium chloride to determine penetration at designated flow rates. The methodology outlined in AS/NZS1716 (Standards Australia International Ltd and Standards New Zealand 2012. Respiratory protective devices. Sydney/Wellington: SAI Global Limited/Standards New Zealand) does not account for the differences between characteristics of workplace contaminants like DPM and sodium chloride such as structure, composition, and particle size. This study examined filtering efficiency for three commonly used AS/NZS certified respirator filter models, challenging them with two types of diesel emissions; those from a diesel generator and a diesel engine. Penetration through the filter media of elemental carbon (EC), total carbon (TC), and total suspended particulate (TSP) was calculated. Results indicate that filtering efficiency assumed by P2 certification in Australia was achieved for two of the three respirator models for DPM generated using the small diesel generator, whilst when the larger diesel engine was used, filtering efficiency requirements were met for all three filter models. These results suggest that the testing methodology specified for certification of personal respiratory protective devices by Standards Australia may not ensure adequate protection for

  8. Efficiency of Respirator Filter Media against Diesel Particulate Matter: A Comparison Study Using Two Diesel Particulate Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Kerrie A; Whitelaw, Jane L; Jones, Alison L; Davies, Brian

    2016-07-01

    Diesel engines have been a mainstay within many industries since the early 1900s. Exposure to diesel particulate matter (DPM) is a major issue in many industrial workplaces given the potential for serious health impacts to exposed workers; including the potential for lung cancer and adverse irritant and cardiovascular effects. Personal respiratory protective devices are an accepted safety measure to mitigate worker exposure against the potentially damaging health impacts of DPM. To be protective, they need to act as effective filters against carbon and other particulates. In Australia, the filtering efficiency of respiratory protective devices is determined by challenging test filter media with aerosolised sodium chloride to determine penetration at designated flow rates. The methodology outlined in AS/NZS1716 (Standards Australia International Ltd and Standards New Zealand 2012. Respiratory protective devices. Sydney/Wellington: SAI Global Limited/Standards New Zealand) does not account for the differences between characteristics of workplace contaminants like DPM and sodium chloride such as structure, composition, and particle size. This study examined filtering efficiency for three commonly used AS/NZS certified respirator filter models, challenging them with two types of diesel emissions; those from a diesel generator and a diesel engine. Penetration through the filter media of elemental carbon (EC), total carbon (TC), and total suspended particulate (TSP) was calculated. Results indicate that filtering efficiency assumed by P2 certification in Australia was achieved for two of the three respirator models for DPM generated using the small diesel generator, whilst when the larger diesel engine was used, filtering efficiency requirements were met for all three filter models. These results suggest that the testing methodology specified for certification of personal respiratory protective devices by Standards Australia may not ensure adequate protection for

  9. Air quality benefits of universal particle filter and NOx controls on diesel trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, L.; Mcdonald, B. C.; Harley, R.

    2015-12-01

    Heavy-duty diesel trucks are a major source of black carbon/particulate matter and nitrogen oxide emissions on urban and regional scales. These emissions are relevant to both air quality and climate change. Since 2010 in the US, new engines are required to be equipped with emission control systems that greatly reduce both PM and NOx emissions, by ~98% relative to 1988 levels. To reduce emissions from the legacy fleet of older trucks that still remain on the road, regulations have been adopted in Califonia to accelerate the replacement of older trucks and thereby reduce associated emissions of PM and NOx. Use of diesel particle filters will be widespread by 2016, and universal use of catalytic converters for NOx control is required by 2023. We assess the air quality consequences of this clean-up effort in Southern California, using the Community Multiscale Air Quality model (CMAQ), and comparing three scenarios: historical (2005), present day (2016), and future year (2023). Emissions from the motor vehicle sector are mapped at high spatial resolution based on traffic count and fuel sales data. NOx emissions from diesel engines in 2023 are expected to decrease by ~80% compared to 2005, while the fraction of NOx emitted as NO2 is expected to increase from 5 to 18%. Air quality model simulations will be analyzed to quantify changes in NO2, black carbon, particulate matter, and ozone, both basin-wide and near hot spots such as ports and major highways.

  10. Reduction in (pro-)inflammatory responses of lung cells exposed in vitro to diesel exhaust treated with a non-catalyzed diesel particle filter

    OpenAIRE

    Steiner, Sandro; Czerwinski, Jan; Comte, Pierre; Müller, Loretta L.; Heeb, Norbert V.; Mayer, Andreas; Petri-Fink, Alke; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Increasingly stringent regulation of particulate matter emissions from diesel vehicles has led to the widespread use of diesel particle filters (DPFs), the effect of which on exhaust toxicity is so far poorly understood. We exposed a cellular model of the human respiratory epithelium at the air-liquid interface to non-catalyzed wall-flow DPF-filtered diesel exhaust and compared the resulting biological responses to the ones observed upon exposure to unfiltered exhaust. Filtered diesel exhaust...

  11. Bio-Diesel production and Effect of Catalytic Converter on Emission performance with Bio-Diesel Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Murali Manohar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Bio-Diesel the word itself defines almost all the features of the Bio-Diesel literary. In the Era of this Global Warming where the people are making their living more and more comfortable and they are deteriorating the environment also. The uses of the automobiles with the conventional source of fuel leads to the production of the toxic gaseous substances like carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, oxide of sulphur, hydro-carbons etc. The limitation comes with the rise in the price of the fuel as well as the produce of the green house gases as the exhaust gas. In the present study, a new method has been employed to produce Bio-Diesel in a homely basis. Theproduction of the Bio-Diesel is done by using Bio-Diesel processor. It requires the used vegetable oil, methanol and the lye with the accurate proportionate. Generally, emissions of regulated compounds changed linearly with the blend level. The objective is to detect any posit ive or negative effects depending on blend levels, because conventional diesel fuel and biodiesel can be blended in every ratio. The known positive and negative effects of biodiesel varied accordingly and investigate the effect of Catalytic Converter on emission performance with Bio- Diesel Blends.

  12. Resistive heater geometry and regeneration method for a diesel particulate filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Amanda; Kirby, Kevin W.; Gregoir, Daniel J.

    2011-10-25

    One embodiment of the invention includes a diesel particulate filter comprising a first face and a second face; a bottom electrode layer formed over the first face of the diesel particulate filter; a middle resistive layer formed over a portion of the bottom electrode layer; and a top electrode layer formed over a portion of the middle resistive layer.

  13. Diesel particle filter and fuel effects on heavy-duty diesel engine emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliff, Matthew A; Dane, A John; Williams, Aaron; Ireland, John; Luecke, Jon; McCormick, Robert L; Voorhees, Kent J

    2010-11-01

    The impacts of biodiesel and a continuously regenerated (catalyzed) diesel particle filter (DPF) on the emissions of volatile unburned hydrocarbons, carbonyls, and particle associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and nitro-PAH, were investigated. Experiments were conducted on a 5.9 L Cummins ISB, heavy-duty diesel engine using certification ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD, S ≤ 15 ppm), soy biodiesel (B100), and a 20% blend thereof (B20). Against the ULSD baseline, B20 and B100 reduced engine-out emissions of measured unburned volatile hydrocarbons and PM associated PAH and nitro-PAH by significant percentages (40% or more for B20 and higher percentage for B100). However, emissions of benzene were unaffected by the presence of biodiesel and emissions of naphthalene actually increased for B100. This suggests that the unsaturated FAME in soy-biodiesel can react to form aromatic rings in the diesel combustion environment. Methyl acrylate and methyl 3-butanoate were observed as significant species in the exhaust for B20 and B100 and may serve as markers of the presence of biodiesel in the fuel. The DPF was highly effective at converting gaseous hydrocarbons and PM associated PAH and total nitro-PAH. However, conversion of 1-nitropyrene by the DPF was less than 50% for all fuels. Blending of biodiesel caused a slight reduction in engine-out emissions of acrolein, but otherwise had little effect on carbonyl emissions. The DPF was highly effective for conversion of carbonyls, with the exception of formaldehyde. Formaldehyde emissions were increased by the DPF for ULSD and B20.

  14. Microwave-assisted in-situ regeneration of a perovskite coated diesel soot filter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Zhang-Steenwinkel; L.M. van der Zande; H.L. Castricum; A. Bliek; R.W. van den Brink; G.D. Elzinga

    2005-01-01

    Dielectric heating may be used as an in situ technique for the periodic regeneration of soot filters, as those used in Diesel engines. As generally the Diesel exhaust temperatures are below the soot light-off temperature, passive regeneration is not possible. Presently, we have investigated the diel

  15. Catalytic pleat filter bags for combined particulate separation and nitrogen oxides removal from flue gas streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of a high temperature catalytically active pleated filter bag with hybrid filter equipment for the combined removal of particles and nitrogen oxides from flue gas streams is presented. A special catalyst load in stainless steel mesh cartridge with a high temperature pleated filter bag followed by optimized catalytic activation was developed to reach the required nitrogen oxides levels and to maintain the higher collection efficiencies. The catalytic properties of the developed high temperature filter bags with hybrid filter equipment were studied and demonstrated in a pilot scale test rig and a demonstration plant using commercial scale of high temperature catalytic pleated filter bags. The performance of the catalytic pleated filter bags were tested under different operating conditions, such as filtration velocity and operating temperature. Moreover, the cleaning efficiency and residual pressure drop of the catalyst loaded cartridges in pleated filter bags were tested. As result of theses studies, the optimum operating conditions for the catalytic pleated filter bags are determined. (author)

  16. Adaptive Model Predictive Control of Diesel Engine Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, Thomas L.

    2009-01-01

    Selective catalytic reduction or SCR is coming into worldwide use for diesel engine emissions reduction for on- and off-highway vehicles. These applications are characterized by broad operating range as well as rapid and unpredictable changes in operating conditions. Significant nonlinearity, input and output constraints, and stringent performance…

  17. Emission reduction from a diesel engine fueled by pine oil biofuel using SCR and catalytic converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallinayagam, R.; Vedharaj, S.; Yang, W. M.; Saravanan, C. G.; Lee, P. S.; Chua, K. J. E.; Chou, S. K.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, we propose pine oil biofuel, a renewable fuel obtained from the resins of pine tree, as a potential substitute fuel for a diesel engine. Pine oil is endowed with enhanced physical and thermal properties such as lower viscosity and boiling point, which enhances the atomization and fuel/air mixing process. However, the lower cetane number of the pine oil hinders its direct use in diesel engine and hence, it is blended in suitable proportions with diesel so that the ignition assistance could be provided by higher cetane diesel. Since lower cetane fuels are prone to more NOX formation, SCR (selective catalyst reduction), using urea as reducing agent, along with a CC (catalytic converter) has been implemented in the exhaust pipe. From the experimental study, the BTE (brake thermal efficiency) was observed to be increased as the composition of pine oil increases in the blend, with B50 (50% pine oil and 50% diesel) showing 7.5% increase over diesel at full load condition. The major emissions such as smoke, CO, HC and NOX were reduced by 70.1%, 67.5%, 58.6% and 15.2%, respectively, than diesel. Further, the average emissions of B50 with SCR and CC assembly were observed to be reduced, signifying the positive impact of pine oil biofuel on atmospheric environment. In the combustion characteristics front, peak heat release rate and maximum in-cylinder pressure were observed to be higher with longer ignition delay.

  18. Development of microwave-heated diesel particulate filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janney, M.A.; Stinton, D.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Yonushonis, T.M.; McDonald, A.C.; Wiczynski, P.D.; Haberkamp, W.C.

    1996-06-01

    Diesel engines are a prime mover of freight in the United States. Because of legislated reductions in diesel engine emissions, considerable research has been focused on the reduction of these emissions while maintaining the durability, reliability, and fuel economy of diesel engines. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has found that particulate exhaust from diesel powered vehicles represents a potential health hazard. As a result, regulations have been promulgated limiting the allowable amounts of particulate from those vehicles. The 0.1 g/bhp/hr (gram per brake horsepower per hour) particulate standard that applies to heavy-duty diesels became effective in 1994. Engine manufacturers have met those requirements with engine modifications and/or oxidation catalysts. EPA has established more stringent standards for diesel-powered urban buses because of health concerns in densely populated urban areas.

  19. Diesel particulate agglomeration & removal using ultrasonic transducers with electrostatic precipitation filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Glynn; D. Bates; M. Clarke [CSIRO Exploration & Mining (Australia)

    2009-01-15

    The project was initially in three stages: Stage 1 - Bench test a diesel engine, measure diesel particulate emissions over the RPM spectrum and optimise engine operating parameters for lowest emissions; Stage 2 - Build file and optimise prototype diesel exhaust scrubber ultrasonic filter including miniature cyclone; Stage 3 - Build fit and optimise a second prototype diesel exhaust scrubber sized to a selected mine vehicle, measure diesel particulate emissions from selected mine vehicle. A fourth stage was added to correlate the measurements from a NIOSH diesel particulate exposure measuring instrument to the fundamental mass over time measurement used in the project. The outcome of the project at 92% particulate reduction came close to the 95% particulate reduction targeted at the beginning of the project.

  20. Synthesis and utilization of catalytically cracked cashew nut shell liquid in a diesel engine

    KAUST Repository

    Vedharaj, S.

    2015-09-30

    In this study, CNSL (Cashew nut shell liquid), an economically viable feedstock among the other contemporary resources, has been considered as an appropriate source of alternate fuel. Herein, CNSL was extracted from cashew nut outer shell, a waste product, through a unique approach of steam treatment process followed by mechanical crushing technique. In contrast to the past studies that have attempted to use unprocessed CNSL directly as substitute for diesel, this study has resorted to use processed CNSL by cracking it using zeolite catalyst. Thus, both the extraction of CNSL from cashew nut outer shell and processing of it through catalytic cracking process to help synthesize CC-CNSL (catalytically cracked CNSL) are different, which underscores the significance of the current work. In wake of adopting such distinct methodologies with fuel characterization, the properties of CC-CNSL such as viscosity and calorific value were figured out to be improved. Subsequently, CC-CNSL20 (20% CC-CNSL and 80% diesel) was tested at different fuel injection pressure such as 200 bar, 235 bar, 270 bar and 300 bar so as to optimize its use in a single cylinder diesel engine. From the engine experimental study, CC-CNSL20 was found to evince better engine performance than diesel and the composite emissions of CO (carbon monoxide), HC (hydrocarbon), NOX (oxides of nitrogen) and smoke, computed based on ISO 8178 D2 standard test cycle, were found to be better than diesel and incompliance with the legislative norms for genset.

  1. Simultaneous fast pyrolysis and catalytic upgrading of lignin to obtain a marine diesel fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Guofeng

    The topic of this Ph.D. project is to convert lignin, a by-product from a 2nd generation bio-ethanol plant, into a marine diesel fuel by fast pyrolysis followed with catalytic upgrading of the pyrolysis vapor. Lignin, a major component of lignocellulosic biomass, is underutilized in the 2nd...... generation bio-ethanol plants. Shipping industry on the other hand is looking for clean alternative fuels in order to meet stricter fuel quality and emission standards. To convert lignin into a renewable marine diesel fuel will both accelerate the development of modern bio-refinery and transfer the marine...

  2. Impacts of Biodiesel Fuel Blends Oil Dilution on Light-Duty Diesel Engine Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, M. J.; Alleman, T. L.; Luecke, J.; McCormick, R. L.

    2009-08-01

    Assesses oil dilution impacts on a diesel engine operating with a diesel particle filter, NOx storage, a selective catalytic reduction emission control system, and a soy-based 20% biodiesel fuel blend.

  3. Simultaneous catalytic removal of NOx and diesel soot particulate over perovskite-type oxides and supported Ag catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A series of perovskite-type oxides and supported Ag catalysts were prepared,and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Xray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).The catalytic activities of the catalysts as well as influencing factors on catalytic activity have been investigated for the simultaneous removal of NOx and diesel soot particulate.An increase in catalytic activity for the selective reduction of NOx was observed with Ag addition in these perovskite oxides,especially with 5% Ag loading.This catalyst could be a promising candidate of catalytic material for the simultaneous elimination of NOx and diesel soot.

  4. Mercury Oxidation via Catalytic Barrier Filters Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne Seames; Michael Mann; Darrin Muggli; Jason Hrdlicka; Carol Horabik

    2007-09-30

    In 2004, the Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory awarded the University of North Dakota a Phase II University Coal Research grant to explore the feasibility of using barrier filters coated with a catalyst to oxidize elemental mercury in coal combustion flue gas streams. Oxidized mercury is substantially easier to remove than elemental mercury. If successful, this technique has the potential to substantially reduce mercury control costs for those installations that already utilize baghouse barrier filters for particulate removal. Completed in 2004, Phase I of this project successfully met its objectives of screening and assessing the possible feasibility of using catalyst coated barrier filters for the oxidation of vapor phase elemental mercury in coal combustion generated flue gas streams. Completed in September 2007, Phase II of this project successfully met its three objectives. First, an effective coating method for a catalytic barrier filter was found. Second, the effects of a simulated flue gas on the catalysts in a bench-scale reactor were determined. Finally, the performance of the best catalyst was assessed using real flue gas generated by a 19 kW research combustor firing each of three separate coal types.

  5. Novel catalytic converter for natural gas powered diesel engines to meet stringent exhaust emission regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, M.; Mirosh, E.A. [Alternative Fuel Systems Inc. (Canada); Matros, Yu.S.; Bunimovich, G.A.; Strots, V.O. [Matros Technologies Inc. (United States); Sallamie, N.; Checkel, M.D. [Alberta Univ. (Canada); Windawi, H. [Johnson Matthey (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The implementation of stringent exhaust emission regulations has led to the development of natural gas powered dual fuel systems with electronic multiport injection. The high compression ratio of the baseline diesel engine was maintained to keep the high thermal efficiency of diesel cycles. The dual fuel system is mainly powered by natural gas and ignited by a diesel pilot. Extensive experimental results indicate that the diesel dual fuel system provides simultaneous reductions in NO{sub x} and particulate emissions. The system also has low exhaust THC and CO under heavy-duty operations. With the combined use of exhaust gas recirculation and catalytic converter, low emission operation has been extended to a larger range, from medium to full loads for all testing speeds. However, conventional converters exhibit poor conversion efficiency at low engine loads due to the low exhaust temperature levels. This leads to increased exhaust emissions during low load operations, especially for the non-reactive hydrocarbons, specifically, methane. To solve this problem, a novel automotive exhaust gas aftertreatment system - the reversing flow catalytic converter - has been developed. The prototype Reversing Flow Converter (RFC) consists of a diversion flow valve and a catalytic monolith converter. The diversion valve periodically re-directs the engine exhaust flow through the catalyst in alternative directions. The duration of flow in each direction is determined by engine operating conditions to obtain an ideal temperature profile along the axis of the monolith. The catalytic converter was designed to have high methane conversion efficiency. Associated techniques, such as retarding fuel injection, exhaust gas recirculation, and the variation of diesel pilot to natural gas ratio, can be used to raise exhaust temperature and bring the catalytic converter to light-off temperatures quicker. Engine dynamometer tests showed that CO conversion rate was above 95% and CH{sub 4

  6. Catalytic oxidative desulfurization of diesel utilizing hydrogen peroxide and functionalized-activated carbon in a biphasic diesel-acetonitrile system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haw, Kok-Giap; Bakar, Wan Azelee Wan Abu; Ali, Rusmidah; Chong, Jiunn-Fat [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Kadir, Abdul Aziz Abdul [Department of Petroleum Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor (Malaysia)

    2010-09-15

    This paper presents the development of granular functionalized-activated carbon as catalysts in the catalytic oxidative desulfurization (Cat-ODS) of commercial Malaysian diesel using hydrogen peroxide as oxidant. Granular functionalized-activated carbon was prepared from oil palm shell using phosphoric acid activation method and carbonized at 500 C and 700 C for 1 h. The activated carbons were characterized using various analytical techniques to study the chemistry underlying the preparation and calcination treatment. Nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms exhibited the characteristic of microporous structure with some contribution of mesopore property. The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy results showed that higher activation temperature leads to fewer surface functional groups due to thermal decomposition. Micrograph from Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope showed that activation at 700 C creates orderly and well developed pores. Furthermore, X-ray Diffraction patterns revealed that pyrolysis has converted crystalline cellulose structure of oil palm shell to amorphous carbon structure. The influence of the reaction temperature, the oxidation duration, the solvent, and the oxidant/sulfur molar ratio were examined. The rates of the catalytic oxidative desulfurization reaction were found to increase with the temperature, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/S molar ratio. Under the best operating condition for the catalytic oxidative desulfurization: temperature 50 C, atmospheric pressure, 0.5 g activated carbon, 3 mol ratio of hydrogen peroxide to sulfur, 2 mol ratio of acetic acid to sulfur, 3 oxidation cycles with 1 h for each cycle using acetonitrile as extraction solvent, the sulfur content in diesel was reduced from 2189 ppm to 190 ppm with 91.3% of total sulfur removed. (author)

  7. Dépollution des gaz d'échappement des moteurs diesel au moyen de pots catalytiques Depolluting Exhaust Gases from Diesel Engines by Catalytic Mufflers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldenberg E.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available On présente dans cet article les résultats d'une première série de recherches sur la dépollution des gaz d'échappement des moteurs diesel au moyen de pots catalytiques. L'efficacité des catalyseurs à base de platine pour l'oxydation du monoxyde de carbone et des hydrocarbures imbrûlés a pu être établie par des essais sur banc moteur et sur véhicule. L'emploi de certaines phases actives à base de métaux non nobles permet d'autre part d'abaisser la température de début d'oxydation des particules de suie de 380 à 250 °C environ, avec, entre 250 et 350 °C, élimination de 15 à 20 % des produits piégés. L'essai de divers media filtrants a mis en évidence l'importance des phénomènes d'adsorption des revêtements en alumine et a orienté la recherche vers de nouveaux supports pour filtres catalytiques. This article describes the results of a first series of research on the depollution of exhaust gases from diesel engines by catalytic mufflers. The effectiveness of platinum-base catalysts for the oxidation of carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons was determined by test on an engine test bed and on vehicles on the road. The use of some active non-noble metal phases reduced on the other hand the starting oxidation temperature of soot particulates from 380°C to about 250°C, eliminating 15 to 20% of the trapped products between 250 and 350° C. Tests of different filtering media revealed the importance of adsorption phenomena on alumina coatings and directed research toward new supports for catalytic filters.

  8. Impact of Cylinder Deactivation on Active Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration at Highway Cruise Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Xueting; Ding, Chuan; Ramesh, Aswin K.; Shaver, Gregory M.; Holloway, Eric; McCarthy, James; Ruth, Michael; Koeberlein, Edward; Nielsen, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Heavy-duty over-the-road trucks require periodic active diesel particulate filter regeneration to clean the filter of stored particulate matter. These events require sustained temperatures between 500 and 600°C to complete the regeneration process. Engine operation during typical 65 mile/h highway cruise conditions (1200 rpm/7.6 bar) results in temperatures of approximately 350°C, and can reach approximately 420°C with late fuel injection. This necessitates hydrocarbon fueling of a diesel oxi...

  9. Catalytic ring opening of cyclic hydrocarbons in diesel fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calemma, V.; Ferrari, M. [Eni S.p.A., San Donato Milanese (Italy). R and M Div.; Rabl, S.; Haas, A.; Santi, D.; Weitkamp, J. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Chemical Technology

    2013-11-01

    An approach for high-aromatic streams upgrading, allowing to meet future diesel quality standards, is saturation of the aromatic structures followed by the selective breaking of endocyclic C-C bonds of naphthenic structures so formed to produce alkanes with the same number of carbon atoms as the starting molecule ('selective ring opening, SRO'). Although theoretically, SRO is a promising route for upgrading low-value feeds to high-quality products, in practice, it continues to be a challenge owing to its complex chemistry. Product characteristics, do not only depend on the composition of the feed, but also on the operating conditions and the nature of the catalyst. Very recently, novel catalysts ('HIgh-PErformance Ring Opening Catalysts, HIPEROCs') were developed which allow a very selective ring opening of the model compound decalin to paraffins without degradation of the carbon number. The hydroconversion of dearomatized Light Cycle Oil (DeAr-LCO) over the abovementioned catalysts resulted in a remarkable change of the chemical structure of the feed with a strong decrease of naphthenic structures with two or more condensed rings and a concomitant increase of alkyl-substituted cyclohexanes and open-chain alkanes. The changes occurring in the chemical structures of feedstock during hydroconversion resulted in a remarkable increase of the Cetane Index of the products up to 11 units. In the present contribution, we examine the main factors affecting activity and selectivity of SRO catalysts in the light of the recent literature dealing with the subject and we report on the recent advances in hydroconversion of refinery cuts such as DeAr- LCO over HIPEROCs. (orig.)

  10. Reversing flow catalytic converter for a natural gas/diesel dual fuel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, E.; Checkel, M.D. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Hayes, R.E. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering; Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Zheng, M.; Mirosh, E. [Alternative Fuel Systems Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    An experimental and modelling study was performed for a reverse flow catalytic converter attached to a natural gas/diesel dual fuel engine. The catalytic converter had a segmented ceramic monolith honeycomb substrate and a catalytic washcoat containing a predominantly palladium catalyst. A one-dimensional single channel model was used to simulate the operation of the converter. The kinetics of the CO and methane oxidation followed first-order behaviour. The activation energy for the oxidation of methane showed a change with temperature, dropping from a value of 129 to 35 kJ/mol at a temperature of 874 K. The reverse flow converter was able to achieve high reactor temperature under conditions of low inlet gas temperature, provided that the initial reactor temperature was sufficiently high. (author)

  11. Experimental Investigation on Combined Effect of EGR and Three-way Catalytic Converter for IDI Diesel Engine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Suresh Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the past few decades, an alternate source of energy has been the growing concern with respect to environment and energy reserves utilization. Also the enhancement of industrialization and motorization at global level has strengthened further towards the alternate energy sources like bio fuels etc. The objective of the research work was to effectively reduce the nitrogen oxides (NOX emissions with the combination of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR and three-way catalytic converter fuelled with diesel, jatropha biodiesel (JBD and their blends at full load of indirect injection (IDI diesel engines. The engine was tested by diesel, 100% biodiesel (JB 100, blends of 80% diesel and 20% biodiesel (JB 20 and other blends like JB 40, JB 60 and JB 80. The engine characteristics with jatropha biodiesel were compared against those obtained using diesel fuel. From results it is observed that nitrogen oxide emissions of JBD are more than that diesel fuel. These high NOX emissions are due to the presence of unsaturated fatty acids and the advanced injection caused by the higher bulk modulus of JBD and their blends. A four stroke single cylinder water cooled IDI diesel engine was used for investigation. Nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and smoke were recorded and various engine performance parameters were also evaluated. The results and discussion based on the effect of emission controlling systems on engine performance and emission characteristics of JB 100, JB 80, JB 60, JB 40, JB 20 and diesel fuel without emission controlling systems. The performance parameters and nitrogen oxide emissions are measured and recorded for diesel fuel, JBD and their blends. The results showed that at 5% EGR + three way catalytic converter for JB 100, at 40% EGR + three way catalytic converter for JB 80, JB60 and JB 40. And at 35% EGR + three way catalytic converter for JB 20 and diesel fuels, the N0x emissions effectively reduced compared to without emission

  12. A nonlinear Kalman filtering approach to embedded control of turbocharged diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigatos, Gerasimos; Siano, Pierluigi; Arsie, Ivan

    2014-10-01

    The development of efficient embedded control for turbocharged Diesel engines, requires the programming of elaborated nonlinear control and filtering methods. To this end, in this paper nonlinear control for turbocharged Diesel engines is developed with the use of Differential flatness theory and the Derivative-free nonlinear Kalman Filter. It is shown that the dynamic model of the turbocharged Diesel engine is differentially flat and admits dynamic feedback linearization. It is also shown that the dynamic model can be written in the linear Brunovsky canonical form for which a state feedback controller can be easily designed. To compensate for modeling errors and external disturbances the Derivative-free nonlinear Kalman Filter is used and redesigned as a disturbance observer. The filter consists of the Kalman Filter recursion on the linearized equivalent of the Diesel engine model and of an inverse transformation based on differential flatness theory which enables to obtain estimates for the state variables of the initial nonlinear model. Once the disturbances variables are identified it is possible to compensate them by including an additional control term in the feedback loop. The efficiency of the proposed control method is tested through simulation experiments.

  13. Influence of sampling filter type on the mutagenicity of diesel exhaust particulate extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Charles R.; Truex, Timothy J.; Lee, Frank S. C.; Salmeen, Irving T.

    The effects of filter types on the mutagenicity and chemical characteristics of organic extracts of diesel engine particulate exhaust were studied by collecting exhaust particles in a dilution tube simultaneously on three different types of filters: Teflon membrane (Zefluor), Teflon impregnated glass fiber (Pallflex T60A20), and a quartz fiber (Pallflex 2500QAO). The particles were extracted with dichloromethane and subsequently with acetonitrile. The dichloromethane extracts were evaluated in the Salmonella reversion (Ames) assay using strains TA 98, TA 100 and TA 1538 and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. The filter loadings ranged from 0.3 to 0.7 mg cm -2, typical of loadings in studies of diesel engine particulate exhaust. No major differences in relative concentrations were observed in the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, oxygenated or transition fractions for the three filter types. Furthermore, no differences in the mutagenicity of the samples could be detected.

  14. Real world efficiency of retrofit partial-flow diesel particulate filters for trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Asch, R.; Verbeek, R.; Ligterink, N.; Kadijk, G.

    2009-11-15

    In 2006 the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment (VROM) introduced an incentive scheme for retrofitting diesel particulate filters on Euro II and Euro III trucks. This scheme involves both partial flow and full flow diesel particulate filters (also called semi-open or open respectively wall-flow or closed filters). In the period 2007 till January 2009 about 15,000 partial flow filters and 8,000 full flow diesel particulate filters were installed. The minimum filtration efficiency requirement for the partial flow diesel particulate filters is 50% during the type approval test. In 2008 an engine dynamometer test programme was conducted to measure the filtration efficiency of retrofit open particulates filters of heavy trucks. This led to somewhat disappointing results with average filtration efficiencies in the range of 5-20% during city and national motorway driving conditions up to 20-40% during long distance motorway driving. This result leads to two main questions: (1) Is this result also representative for medium heavy trucks used for delivery, and (2) do similar efficiencies show up also in tests on entire vehicles, tested under conditions as close as possible to their real world usage profile. To this end, an additional measurement programme was defined, which is reported here. The objective of the study reported here is to determine the real world filtration efficiency of retrofit partial flow particulate filters for a number of trucks under different driving conditions such as city and motorway driving. The emphasis should be on medium heavy trucks typically used for national delivery.

  15. Real world efficiency of retrofit partial-flow diesel particulate filters for trucks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2006 the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment (VROM) introduced an incentive scheme for retrofitting diesel particulate filters on Euro II and Euro III trucks. This scheme involves both partial flow and full flow diesel particulate filters (also called semi-open or open respectively wall-flow or closed filters). In the period 2007 till January 2009 about 15,000 partial flow filters and 8,000 full flow diesel particulate filters were installed. The minimum filtration efficiency requirement for the partial flow diesel particulate filters is 50% during the type approval test. In 2008 an engine dynamometer test programme was conducted to measure the filtration efficiency of retrofit open particulates filters of heavy trucks. This led to somewhat disappointing results with average filtration efficiencies in the range of 5-20% during city and national motorway driving conditions up to 20-40% during long distance motorway driving. This result leads to two main questions: (1) Is this result also representative for medium heavy trucks used for delivery, and (2) do similar efficiencies show up also in tests on entire vehicles, tested under conditions as close as possible to their real world usage profile. To this end, an additional measurement programme was defined, which is reported here. The objective of the study reported here is to determine the real world filtration efficiency of retrofit partial flow particulate filters for a number of trucks under different driving conditions such as city and motorway driving. The emphasis should be on medium heavy trucks typically used for national delivery.

  16. New Catalytic Materials for Meeting the Challenge of Clean Gasoline & Diesel Fuel Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zong Baoning; Min Enze; He Mingyuan; Li Dadong

    2000-01-01

    New catalytic materials, which may bring important improvement or technical breakthrough to the petroleum refining technology for producing reformulated gasoline and low sulfur and aromatics diesel fuel, are discussed. For the purpose of producing high octane number gasoline and light olefins for etherification and alkylation processes, major improvements are achieved by the use of high reactivity-stability MFI type ZRP and low cost beta zeolites. A solid P-W heteropolyacid supported on SiO2 for replacing currently used HF and H2SO4 in alkylation process of isobutane with butenes, is under the pilot trial. For the production of low sulfur and aromatics diesel fuel, high surface area supported metallic nitrides are under extensive studies.

  17. Impact of Cylinder Deactivation on Active Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration at Highway Cruise Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueting eLu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract—Heavy-duty over-the-road trucks require periodic active diesel particulate filter regeneration to clean the filter of stored particulate matter. These events require sustained temperatures between 500 and 600□C to complete the regeneration process. Engine operation during typical 65 mile/hour highway cruise conditions (1200 rpm/7.6 bar results in temperatures of approximately 350□C, and can reach approximately 420□C with late fuel injection. This necessitates hydrocarbon fueling of a diesel oxidation catalyst or burner located upstream of the diesel particulate filter to reach the required regeneration temperatures. These strategies require increased fuel consumption, and the presence of a fuel-dosed oxidation catalyst (or burner between the engine and particulate filter. This paper experimentally demonstrates that, at the highway cruise condition, deactivation of valve motions and fuel injection for two or three (of six cylinders can instead be used to reach engine outlet temperatures of 520-570□C, a 170-220□C increase compared to normal operation. This is primarily a result of a reduction in the air-to-fuel ratio realized by reducing the displaced cylinder volume through cylinder deactivation.

  18. [Diesel emission control technologies: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hong; Weng, Duan; Zi, Xin-Yun

    2007-06-01

    The authors reviewed the researches on diesel emission control for both new engine technologies and aftertreatment technologies. Emphases were focused on the recent advancements of the diesel particulate filter (DPF) and the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO(x). In addition, it was explored for the future development in this field.

  19. Influence of fuel properties, nitrogen oxides, and exhaust treatment by an oxidation catalytic converter on the mutagenicity of diesel engine emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buenger, Juergen; Bruening, Thomas [Ruhr University Bochum, Research Institute for Occupational Medicine of the Institutions for Statutory Accident Insurance and Prevention (BGFA), Bochum (Germany); Krahl, Juergen; Schroeder, Olaf [Federal Agricultural Research Centre, Institute of Biosystems Engineering, Braunschweig (Germany); Weigel, Andreas; Mueller, Michael; Hallier, Ernst; Westphal, Goetz [University of Goettingen, Department of Occupational and Social Medicine, Gottingen (Germany)

    2006-08-15

    Particle emissions of diesel engines (DEP) content polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) these compounds cause a strong mutagenicity of solvent extracts of DEP. We investigated the influence of fuel properties, nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and an oxidation catalytic converter (OCC) on the mutagenic effects of DEP. The engine was fuelled with common diesel fuel (DF), low-sulphur diesel fuel (LSDF), rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME), and soybean oil methyl ester (SME) and run at five different load modes in two series with and without installation of an OCC in the exhaust pipe. Particles from the cooled and diluted exhaust were sampled onto glass fibre filters and extracted with dichloromethane in a soxhlet apparatus. The mutagenicity of the extracts was tested using the Salmonella typhimurium/mammalian microsome assay with tester strains TA98 and TA100. Without OCC the number of revertant colonies was lower in extracts of LSDF than in extracts of DF. The lowest numbers of revertant colonies were induced by the plant oil derived fuels. In three load modes, operation with the OCC led to a reduction of the mutagenicity. However, direct mutagenic effects under heavy duty conditions (load mode A) were significantly increased for RME (TA98, TA100) and SME (TA98). A consistent but not significant increase in direct mutagenicity was observed for DF and LSDF at load mode A, and for DF at idling (load mode E) when emissions were treated with the OCC. These results raise concern over the use of oxidation catalytic converters with diesel engines. We hypothesise that the OCC increases formation of direct acting mutagens under certain conditions by the reaction of NO{sub x} with PAH resulting in the formation of nitrated-PAH. Most of these compounds are powerful direct acting mutagens. (orig.)

  20. Influence of fuel properties, nitrogen oxides, and exhaust treatment by an oxidation catalytic converter on the mutagenicity of diesel engine emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bünger, Jürgen; Krahl, Jürgen; Weigel, Andreas; Schröder, Olaf; Brüning, Thomas; Müller, Michael; Hallier, Ernst; Westphal, Götz

    2006-08-01

    Particle emissions of diesel engines (DEP) content polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) these compounds cause a strong mutagenicity of solvent extracts of DEP. We investigated the influence of fuel properties, nitrogen oxides (NO( x )), and an oxidation catalytic converter (OCC) on the mutagenic effects of DEP. The engine was fuelled with common diesel fuel (DF), low-sulphur diesel fuel (LSDF), rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME), and soybean oil methyl ester (SME) and run at five different load modes in two series with and without installation of an OCC in the exhaust pipe. Particles from the cooled and diluted exhaust were sampled onto glass fibre filters and extracted with dichloromethane in a soxhlet apparatus. The mutagenicity of the extracts was tested using the Salmonella typhimurium/mammalian microsome assay with tester strains TA98 and TA100. Without OCC the number of revertant colonies was lower in extracts of LSDF than in extracts of DF. The lowest numbers of revertant colonies were induced by the plant oil derived fuels. In three load modes, operation with the OCC led to a reduction of the mutagenicity. However, direct mutagenic effects under heavy duty conditions (load mode A) were significantly increased for RME (TA98, TA100) and SME (TA98). A consistent but not significant increase in direct mutagenicity was observed for DF and LSDF at load mode A, and for DF at idling (load mode E) when emissions were treated with the OCC. These results raise concern over the use of oxidation catalytic converters with diesel engines. We hypothesise that the OCC increases formation of direct acting mutagens under certain conditions by the reaction of NO( x ) with PAH resulting in the formation of nitrated-PAH. Most of these compounds are powerful direct acting mutagens. PMID:16555046

  1. Effect of ethanol-diesel blend fuels on emission and particle size distribution in a common-rail direct injection diesel engine with warm-up catalytic converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hwanam [Graduate School of Mechanical Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea); Choi, Byungchul [Graduate School of Mechanical Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea); School of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea)

    2008-10-15

    In this study, the exhaust gas from a common-rail direct injection diesel engine was investigated both upstream and downstream warm-up catalytic converters (WCC). Three different types of ultra-low sulfur fuels (ethanol-diesel blend, ethanol-diesel blend with cetane improver and pure diesel) were tested in this study. The objective of the work was to study the engine performance and the formation of THC (total hydro carbon), CO (carbon monoxide), NO{sub x} (nitrogen oxides), smoke and PM (particulate matters) when using these fuels. THC and CO emissions of the ethanol-diesel blend fuels were slightly increased, and about 50-80% mean conversion efficiencies of THC and CO on catalysts were achieved in the ECE R49 13-mode cycle. Smoke was decreased by more than 42% in the entire ECE 13-mode cycles. From the measurement of scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) for the particle size range of 10-385 nm, the total number and total mass of the PM of the ethanol-diesel blend fuels were decreased by about 11.7-15% and 19.2-26.9%, respectively. (author)

  2. FLOW CHARACTERISTICS OF WALL-FLOW DIESEL PARTICULATE FILTER SYSTEM WITH REVERSE PULSE AIR REGENERATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Chunde; Shao Yuping; Zhang Chunrun; Zi XinYun; Jiang Dahai; Deng Chenglin

    2005-01-01

    To simulate steady airflows inside of wall-flow diesel particulate filters (DPF) with different reverse blowing pipes collocation, a mathematical model of the flow in a DPF is established by an equivalent continuum approach. The experimental results agree well with the theoretical values calculated from the model. Simulation shows that the velocity and the pressure distribution of the filters in the regenerative process are key factors to the filter's regeneration. How to decrease the mal-distribution of the flow in the filter and how to achieve the better regenerative performance at the least cost of air consumption in the regenerative process are the ultimate goals of the study. Calculation and experiments show that the goals can be realized through adjusting the angle of two reverse blowing pipes and their relative location suitably.

  3. Oxidation of diesel-generated volatile organic compounds in the selective catalytic reduction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koebel, M.; Elsener, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland). Combustion Research

    1998-10-01

    The main part of the VOCs (volatile organic compounds) contained in diesel exhaust ({approx}80%) is oxidized to CO and CO{sub 2} over an SCR (selective catalytic reduction) catalyst. CO is the major product of this oxidation, representing about 50--70% of the formed products (CO + CO{sub 2}). This preferential formation of CO leads to a pronounced increase of CO emissions when an SCR process is added to a diesel engine. A small fraction of the VOCs is selectively oxidized to carboxylic acids over the SCR catalyst. This selectivity is due to the acidic properties of the catalyst causing the preferential desorption at the oxidation state of the acid. The main products of these oxidation reactions are the lower monocarboxylic acids and some dicarboxylic acids forming stable anhydrides, especially maleic and phthalic acid. The highest emissions of these acids are found at low temperatures; they decrease at higher temperatures. Formic acid is preferentially decomposed into carbon monoxide and water. It must therefore be assumed that the strong increase of CO mentioned above is due to a mechanism involving the thermal decomposition of formic acid formed from various primary VOCs.

  4. Oxidative Stress and Aromatic Hydrocarbon Response of Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells Exposed to Petro- or Biodiesel Exhaust Treated with a Diesel Particulate Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Hawley, Brie; L'Orange, Christian; Olsen, Dan B.; Marchese, Anthony J.; Volckens, John

    2014-01-01

    The composition of diesel exhaust has changed over the past decade due to the increased use of alternative fuels, like biodiesel, and to new regulations on diesel engine emissions. Given the changing nature of diesel fuels and diesel exhaust emissions, a need exists to understand the human health implications of switching to “cleaner” diesel engines run with particulate filters and engines run on alternative fuels like biodiesel. We exposed well-differentiated normal human bronchial epithelia...

  5. Sensing the soot load in automotive diesel particulate filters by microwave methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern vehicles with diesel engines need to be equipped with particulate filters (DPFs) to meet today's and tomorrow's stringent emission regulations. Such filters must be regenerated on a regular basis to burn off the soot adsorbed in the course of time. As the regeneration processes consume fuel, they must be kept to the bare minimum which requires a detailed knowledge of the actual soot load in the filter. We have investigated if the soot load can be determined in situ by the cavity perturbation method at operating frequencies in the low GHz range. We will show that, indeed, current microwave technology as used, for instance, in cellular phones is capable of detecting the soot load in a diesel particulate filter. Experimentally observed sensitivities of cavity resonance frequencies to soot load (adsorbed mass) were as high as 3 MHz g−1. This contribution reports on the measurement approach, experimental results obtained in industrial dynamometer test benches and the conclusions to be drawn from the results

  6. Evaluation of city buses installed diesel particulate filter systems on fleet test; Diesel particulate filter system wo tosaishita rosen bus no soko chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudo, H. [Japan Automobile Research Institute Inc., Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    An environmental air quality of suspended particulate matter is insufficient in the big city area. To reduce the particulate matter, improvement of engine and development of the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) system are carrying. The purpose of this report is to investigate a possibility of practical use of the city buses installed DPF systems. From March 1995, investigation for practical use of these DPF systems on a route buses was carried in regular service operation of the Tokyo and Yokohama Transportation Bureau. The investigation items are service situation, smoke density and preparation inspection. From the result for 2 years service operation, each DPF systems needed some failure correspondence. but these were not fatal problem on using the DPF system. Then the subject of relative to durability and reliability became clear, and the performance of a low particulate emission DPF system obtained the high value evaluation for users. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Controlling soot formation with filtered EGR for diesel and biodiesel fuelled engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, S S; Turner, D; Tsolakis, A; York, A P E

    2012-04-01

    Although exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is an effective strategy for controlling the levels of nitrogen oxides (NO(X)) emitted from a diesel engine, the full potential of EGR in NO(X)/PM trade-off and engine performance (i.e., fuel economy) has not fully been exploited. Significant work into the cause and control of particulate matter (PM) has been made over the past decade with new cleaner fuels and after-treatment devices emerging to comply with the current and forthcoming emission regulations. In earlier work, we demonstrated that engine operation with oxygenated fuels (e.g., biodiesel) reduces the PM emissions and extends the engine tolerance to EGR before it reaches smoke-limited conditions. The same result has also been reported when high cetane number fuels such as gas-to-liquid (GTL) are used. To further our understanding of the relationship between EGR and PM formation, a diesel particulate filter (DPF) was integrated into the EGR loop to filter the recirculated soot particulates. The control of the soot recirculation penalty through filtered EGR (FEGR) resulted in a 50% engine-out soot reduction, thus showing the possibility of extending the maximum EGR limit or being able to run at the same level of EGR with an improved NO(X)/soot trade-off.

  8. Low-emission diesel engine with catalytic converter. Schadstoffarmer Dieselmotor mit Katalysator; Verminderung der Schadstoffemissionen bei Nutzfahrzeugdieselmotoren durch motorische Massnahmen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, W.

    1994-01-01

    The report describes investigations for the purpose of reducing pollutant emissions in diesel engines. Subjects: State of the art; Experimental procedure; Fuel injection systems; Optimisation, mixing and combustion; Measures not involving engine reconstruction; Oxidative catalytic converters. (HW)

  9. Electrically resistive coating for remediation (regeneration) of a diesel particulate filter and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Amanda C.; Kirby, Kevin K.; Gregoire, Daniel J.

    2012-02-14

    A resistively heated diesel particulate filter (DPF). The resistively heated DPF includes a DPF having an inlet surface and at least one resistive coating on the inlet surface. The at least one resistive coating is configured to substantially maintain its resistance in an operating range of the DPF. The at least one resistive coating has a first terminal and a second terminal for applying electrical power to resistively heat up the at least one resistive coating in order to increase the temperature of the DPF to a regeneration temperature. The at least one resistive coating includes metal and semiconductor constituents.

  10. Development of regeneration technique for diesel particulate filter made of porous metal; Kinzoku takotai DPF no saisei gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoro, K.; Ban, S.; Ooka, T.; Saito, H.; Oji, M.; Nakajima, S.; Okamoto, S. [Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    We have developed the diesel particulate filter (DPF) in which porous metal is used for a filter because of its high thermal conductivity and a radiation heater is used for a regeneration device because of its uniform thermal distribution. In the case high trapping efficiency is required, filter thickness should be thick. The thicker filter has a disadvantage of difficulty in regeneration because of the thermal distribution in the direction of thickness. In order to improve regeneration efficiency, we designed the best filter-heater construction which achieves uniform thermal distribution by using computer simulation and we confirmed good regeneration efficiency in the experiment. 4 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  11. The Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels Program Evaluation of EC-Diesel and Diesel Particulate Filters in Southern California Vehicle Fleets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EC-Diesel and particulate filter combination greatly reduced the particulate matter, hydrocarbon, and carbon monoxide emissions of all vehicles tested in the program to date. Particulate matter reductions greater than 98% were achieved. For several vehicles tested, the PM and HC emissions were less than background levels. Based on preliminary statistical analysis, there is 95%+ confidence that EC-D and particulate filters reduced emissions from three different types of vehicles. A fuel consumption penalty was not detectable using the current test procedures and chassis dynamometer laboratory. Test vehicles equipped with the CRT and DPX particulate filters and fueled with EC-Diesel fuel have operated reliably during the program start-up period

  12. Toxicological characterization of diesel engine emissions using biodiesel and a closed soot filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooter, Ingeborg M.; van Vugt, Marcel A. T. M.; Jedynska, Aleksandra D.; Tromp, Peter C.; Houtzager, Marc M. G.; Verbeek, Ruud P.; Kadijk, Gerrit; Mulderij, Mariska; Krul, Cyrille A. M.

    2011-03-01

    This study was designed to determine the toxicity (oxidative stress, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity) in extracts of combustion aerosols. A typical Euro III heavy truck engine was tested over the European Transient Cycle with three different fuels: conventional diesel EN590, biodiesel EN14214 as B100 and blends with conventional diesel (B5, B10, and B20) and pure plant oil DIN51605 (PPO). In addition application of a (wall flow) diesel particulate filter (DPF) with conventional diesel EN590 was tested. The use of B100 or PPO as a fuel or the DPF reduced particulate matter (PM) mass and numbers over 80%. Similarly, significant reduction in the emission of chemical constituents (EC 90%, (oxy)-PAH 70%) were achieved. No significant changes in nitro-PAH were observed. The use of B100 or PPO led to a NOx increase of about 30%, and no increase for DPF application. The effects of B100, PPO and the DPF on the biological test results vary strongly from positive to negative depending on the biological end point. The oxidative potential, measured via the DTT assay, of the B100 and PPO or DPF emissions is reduced by 95%. The cytotoxicity is increased for B100 by 200%. The measured mutagenicity, using the Ames assay test with TA98 and YG1024 strains of Salmonella typhimurium indicate a dose response for the nitroarene sensitive YG1024 strain for B100 and PPO (fold induction: 1.6). In summary B100 and PPO have good potential for the use as a second generation biofuel resulting in lower PM mass, similar to application of a DPF, but caution should be made due to potential increased toxicity. Besides regulation via mass, the biological reactivity of exhaust emissions of new (bio)fuels and application of new technologies, needs attention. The different responses of different biological tests as well as differences in results between test laboratories underline the need for harmonization of test methods and international cooperation.

  13. Biofuel-Promoted Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxin/furan Formation in an Iron-Catalyzed Diesel Particle Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeb, Norbert V; Rey, Maria Dolores; Zennegg, Markus; Haag, Regula; Wichser, Adrian; Schmid, Peter; Seiler, Cornelia; Honegger, Peter; Zeyer, Kerstin; Mohn, Joachim; Bürki, Samuel; Zimmerli, Yan; Czerwinski, Jan; Mayer, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    Iron-catalyzed diesel particle filters (DPFs) are widely used for particle abatement. Active catalyst particles, so-called fuel-borne catalysts (FBCs), are formed in situ, in the engine, when combusting precursors, which were premixed with the fuel. The obtained iron oxide particles catalyze soot oxidation in filters. Iron-catalyzed DPFs are considered as safe with respect to their potential to form polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs). We reported that a bimetallic potassium/iron FBC supported an intense PCDD/F formation in a DPF. Here, we discuss the impact of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) biofuel on PCDD/F emissions. The iron-catalyzed DPF indeed supported a PCDD/F formation with biofuel but remained inactive with petroleum-derived diesel fuel. PCDD/F emissions (I-TEQ) increased 23-fold when comparing biofuel and diesel data. Emissions of 2,3,7,8-TCDD, the most toxic congener [toxicity equivalence factor (TEF) = 1.0], increased 90-fold, and those of 2,3,7,8-TCDF (TEF = 0.1) increased 170-fold. Congener patterns also changed, indicating a preferential formation of tetra- and penta-chlorodibenzofurans. Thus, an inactive iron-catalyzed DPF becomes active, supporting a PCDD/F formation, when operated with biofuel containing impurities of potassium. Alkali metals are inherent constituents of biofuels. According to the current European Union (EU) legislation, levels of 5 μg/g are accepted. We conclude that risks for a secondary PCDD/F formation in iron-catalyzed DPFs increase when combusting potassium-containing biofuels.

  14. Unregulated emissions from diesel engine with particulate filter using Fe-based fuel borne catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong; Ge, Yunshan; Zhang, Tiezhu; Zhang, Jipeng; Tan, Jianwei; Zhang, Hongxin

    2014-10-01

    The alteration and formation of toxic compounds and potential changes in the toxicity of emissions when using after-treatment technologies have gained wide attention. Volatile organic compound (VOC), carbonyl compound and particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions were tested at European Steady State Cycle (ESC) to study unregulated emissions from a diesel engine with a fuel-borne catalyst and diesel particulate filter (FBC-DPF). An Fe-based fuel-borne catalyst was used for this study. According to the results, brake specific emissions of total VOCs without and with DPF were 4.7 and 4.9mg/kWh, respectively, showing a 4.3% increase. Benzene and n-undecane emissions increased and toluene emission decreased, while other individual VOC emissions basically had no change. When retrofitted with the FBC-DPF, total carbonyl compound emission decreased 15.7%, from 25.8 to 21.8mg/kWh. The two highest carbonyls, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, were reduced from 20.0 and 3.7 to 16.5 and 3.3mg/kWh respectively. The specific reactivity (SR) with DPF was reduced from 6.68 to 6.64mg/kWh. Total particle-phase PAH emissions decreased 66.4% with DPF compared to that without DPF. However, the Benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) with DPF had increased from 0.016 to 0.030mg/kWh. Fluoranthene and Pyrene had the greatest decrease, 91.1% and 88.4% respectively. The increase of two- and three-ring PAHs with DPF indicates that the fuel-borne catalyst caused some gas-phase PAHs to adsorb on particles. The results of this study expand the knowledge of the effects of using a particulate filter and a Fe-based fuel-borne catalyst on diesel engine unregulated emissions.

  15. Effects of a combined Diesel particle filter-DeNOx system (DPN) on reactive nitrogen compounds emissions: a parameter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeb, Norbert V; Haag, Regula; Seiler, Cornelia; Schmid, Peter; Zennegg, Markus; Wichser, Adrian; Ulrich, Andrea; Honegger, Peter; Zeyer, Kerstin; Emmenegger, Lukas; Zimmerli, Yan; Czerwinski, Jan; Kasper, Markus; Mayer, Andreas

    2012-12-18

    The impact of a combined diesel particle filter-deNO(x) system (DPN) on emissions of reactive nitrogen compounds (RNCs) was studied varying the urea feed factor (α), temperature, and residence time, which are key parameters of the deNO(x) process. The DPN consisted of a platinum-coated cordierite filter and a vanadia-based deNO(x) catalyst supporting selective catalytic reduction (SCR) chemistry. Ammonia (NH₃) is produced in situ from thermolysis of urea and hydrolysis of isocyanic acid (HNCO). HNCO and NH₃ are both toxic and highly reactive intermediates. The deNO(x) system was only part-time active in the ISO8178/4 C1cycle. Urea injection was stopped and restarted twice. Mean NO and NO₂ conversion efficiencies were 80%, 95%, 97% and 43%, 87%, 99%, respectively, for α = 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2. HNCO emissions increased from 0.028 g/h engine-out to 0.18, 0.25, and 0.26 g/h at α = 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2, whereas NH₃ emissions increased from <0.045 to 0.12, 1.82, and 12.8 g/h with maxima at highest temperatures and shortest residence times. Most HNCO is released at intermediate residence times (0.2-0.3 s) and temperatures (300-400 °C). Total RNC efficiencies are highest at α = 1.0, when comparable amounts of reduced and oxidized compounds are released. The DPN represents the most advanced system studied so far under the VERT protocol achieving high conversion efficiencies for particles, NO, NO₂, CO, and hydrocarbons. However, we observed a trade-off between deNO(x) efficiency and secondary emissions. Therefore, it is important to adopt such DPN technology to specific application conditions to take advantage of reduced NO(x) and particle emissions while avoiding NH₃ and HNCO slip.

  16. Selective Catalytic Reduction of Nitric Oxide in Diesel Engine Exhaust over Monolithic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Zuhairi Abdullah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Selective catalytic reduction (SCR of nitric oxide (NO in diesel engine exhaust over Cu-Zn/ZSM-5 washcoated ceramic monolithic catalysts is reported. The washcoat component was prepared by ion-exchanging ZSM-5 (Si/Al=40 with zinc while copper was incorporated through impregnation. The dispersed washcoat component was then incorporated into 400 cpsi ceramic monolith through a dipping process with the final loadings between 19.6 wt. % and 31.4 wt. %. The SCR process was studied with a feed comprising of 900 ppm NO, 2,000 ppm iso butane and 3 % oxygen at gas hourly space velocities (GHSV between 5,000 and 13,000 h-1. NO conversion increased until a loading of 23.6 wt. % to give a conversion of 88 % at 400 °C. The activity dropped at higher loadings due to the partial blockage of cell openings and diffusion limitations while unstable washcoating adherence was also demonstrated. After an initial deactivation of about 10 % in the first 48 h, this catalyst showed stable residual activity. Between 325 and 375 °C, minimal effect on the activity was detected when the space time was reduced from 0.94 s to 0.24 s, suggesting the absence of external mass transfer limitations for up to a GHSV of 16,000 h-1.

  17. Bio-Diesel production and Effect of Catalytic Converter on Emission performance with Bio-Diesel Blends

    OpenAIRE

    R.Murali Manohar; M.Prabhahar; Dr.S.Sendil velan

    2010-01-01

    Bio-Diesel the word itself defines almost all the features of the Bio-Diesel literary. In the Era of this Global Warming where the people are making their living more and more comfortable and they are deteriorating the environment also. The uses of the automobiles with the conventional source of fuel leads to the production of the toxic gaseous substances like carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, oxide of sulphur, hydro-carbons etc. The limitation comes with the rise in the pr...

  18. Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels - Diesel Emissions Project (APBF-DEC): 2,000-Hour Performance of a NOx Adsorber Catalyst and Diesel Particle Filter System for a Medium-Duty, Pick-Up Diesel Engine Platform; Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-03-01

    Presents the results of a 2,000-hour test of an emissions control system consisting of a nitrogen oxides adsorber catalyst in combination with a diesel particle filter, advanced fuels, and advanced engine controls in an SUV/pick-up truck vehicle platform.

  19. Optimization on electrochemical synthesis of HKUST-1 as candidate catalytic material for Green diesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, W. W.; Nugraha, R. E.; Winarni, I. D.; Adreane, M.; Rahmawati, F.

    2016-04-01

    In the effort to support the discovery of new renewable energy sources in Indonesia, biofuel is one of promising options. The conversion of vegetable oil into ready-biofuel, especially green diesel, needs several steps, one of which is a hydrogenation or hydro-deoxygenation reaction. In this case, the catalyst plays a very important role regarding to its activity and selectivity, and Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) becoming a new generation of heterogeneous catalyst in this area. In this research, a preliminary study to optimize electrochemical synthesis of the catalytic material based on MOFs, namely HKUST-1 [Cu3(BTC)2], has been conducted. Some electrochemical reaction parameters were tested, for example by modifying the electrochemical synthetic conditions, i.e. by performing variation of voltages (12, 13, 14, and 15 Volt), temperatures (RT, 40, 60, and 80 °C) and solvents (ethanol, water, methanol and dimethyl-formamide (DMF)). Material characterization was carried out by XRD, SEM, FTIR, DTA/TG and SAA. The results showed that the optimum synthetic conditions of HKUST-1 are performed at room temperature in a solvent combination of water: ethanol (1: 1) and a voltage of 15 Volt for 2 hours. The XRD-analysis revealed that the resulted peaks are identical to the simulated powder pattern generated from single crystal data and comparable to the peaks of solvothermal method. However, the porosity of the resulting material through electrochemical method is still in the range of micro-pore according to IUPAC and 50% smaller than the porosity resulted from solvothermal synthesis. The corresponding compounds are thermally stable until 300 °C according to TG/DTA.

  20. Performance of diesel particulate filter catalysts in the presence of biodiesel ash species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Brian Brun; Jensen, Anker Degn; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2013-01-01

    The utilization of bio-fuels, such as biodiesel, is expected to contribute significantly towards the planned 10% of renewable energy within the EU transport sector by 2020. Increased biodiesel blend percentages may change engine exit flue gas ash composition and affect the long-term performance...... of cleaning technologies, such as oxidation catalysts and diesel particulate filters. In this work the performance of a commercial catalyst has been studied for conversion of diesel particulate matter (SRM 2975) at 10% O2, in the presence of salts simulating ash species derived from engine oil and biodiesel...... the temperature at which the oxidation rate peaked from 662 ± 1 °C to 526 ± 19 °C. The introduction of biodiesel ash species such as Na2CO3, K2CO3 or K3PO4 decreased the peak conversion temperature further (422 ± 12; 404 ± 4 and 423 ± 7 °C), with a limited dependence on ash concentration. A deterioration...

  1. NUMERICAL SIMULATION FOR AIR AND AIR-PM FLOW IN WALL FLOW DIESEL PARTICULATE FILTERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Binjuan; Yuan Shouqi; Seizo Kato; Akira Nishimura

    2005-01-01

    Numerical simulations are performed both for the single airflow and air-PM two-phase flow in wall flow diesel particulate filters (DPF) for the first time. The calculation domain is divided into two regions. In the inlet and outlet flow channels, the simulations are performed for the steady and laminar flow; In the porous filtration walls, the calculation model for flow in porous media is used. The Lagrange two-phase flow model is used to calculate the air-PM flow in DPF, for the dispersed phase (PM), its flow tracks are obtained by the integrating of the Lagrange kinetic equation. The calculated velocity, pressure distribution and PM flow tracks in DPF are obtained, which exhibits the main flow characteristics in wall flow DPF and will be help for the optimal design and performance prediction of wall flow DPF.

  2. Reducing diesel exhaust particulates by retrofitting tractors with particulate filters; Reduktion der Dieselrussemissionen von Traktoren durch die Nachruestung mit Partikelfiltern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landis, M.; Schiess, I.; Wolfensberger, U. [Forschungsanstalt Agroscope Reckenholz-Taenikon (Switzerland). Forschungsgruppe Agrartechnische Systeme

    2008-08-15

    Current knowledge indicates that the soot particles produced by diesel engines are among the constituents of PM-10 particulate, which are most detrimental to health. Although individual particles are so small - 0.1 mm on the average - they can penetrate the pulmonary alveoli. In Switzerland around 400 tonnes of diesel exhaust particulate are emitted by agricultural machinery every year [1]. Exhaust Gas Stage 3B will initiate more stringent mass-related particulate limits, but since it is not scheduled for introduction until 2011 and agricultural vehicles have a long service life, it seemed advisable to investigate retrofitting agricultural machinery with particulate filters. (orig.)

  3. EMISSION REDUCTION FROM A DIESEL ENGINE FUELED BY CERIUM OXIDE NANO-ADDITIVES USING SCR WITH DIFFERENT METAL OXIDES COATED CATALYTIC CONVERTER

    OpenAIRE

    B. JOTHI THIRUMAL; E, JAMES GUNASEKARAN; LOGANATHAN; C.G. Saravanan

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the results of experimental investigations on the influence of the addition of cerium oxide in nanoparticle form on the major physiochemical properties and the performance of diesel. The fuel is modified by dispersing the catalytic nanoparticle by ultrasonic agitation. The physiochemical properties of sole diesel fuel and modified fuel are tested with ASTM standard procedures. The effects of the additive nanoparticles on the individual fuel properties, the engine performanc...

  4. Synthesis of Rh/Macro-Porous Alumina Over Micro-Channel Plate and Its Catalytic Activity Tests for Diesel Reforming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Yeon Baek; Kim, Yong Sul; Park, No-Kuk; Lee, Tae Jin

    2015-11-01

    Macro-porous Al2O3 as the catalytic support material was synthesized using colloidal polystyrene spheres over a micro-channel plate. The colloidal polystyrene spheres were used as a template for the production of an ordered macro porous material using an alumina nitrate solution as the precursor for Al2O3. The close-packed colloidal crystal array template method was applied to the formulation of ordered macro-porous Al2O3 used as a catalytic support material over a micro-channel plate. The solvent in the mixture solution, which also contained the colloidal polystyrene solution, aluminum nitrate solution and the precursor of the catalytic active materials (Rh), was evaporated in a vacuum oven at 50 degrees C. The ordered polystyrene spheres and aluminum salt of the solid state were deposited over a micro channel plate, and macro-porous Al2O3 was formed after calcination at 600 degrees C to remove the polystyrene spheres. The catalytic activity of the Rh/macro-porous alumina supported over the micro-channel plate was tested for diesel reforming.

  5. Low-pollution operation of diesel engines. New catalytic converter system reduces all pollutant fractions; Dieselmotoren schadstoffarm betreiben. Neues Katalysatorsystem vermindert alle Schadstoffkomponenten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurer, B. [HJS Fahrzeugtechnik GmbH und Co., Menden (Germany). Bereich Entwicklung

    1998-07-01

    An exhaust treatment system for diesel engines is currently being developed which will reduce CO, HC, particulate and NO{sub x} emissions efficiently. For the first three (Ch, HC and particulates), the CRT particle filter system has been in use for three years now with good results. The CRT system combines a diesel particulate filter with an upstream high-efficiency oxidation catalyst. In order to account for nitric oxides as well, the soot filter system must be combined with a denox catalyst working b the SCR process in which nitric oxides are reacted with ammonia into nitrogen and water. The ammonia is generated in gaseous form by an onboard generator. The envisaged combination of a CRT system with an SCR catalytic converter will be called SCRT system. The SCRT system will be able to reduce all limited pollutant fractions at once. Results so far show that hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and particulates are reduced down to below the detection limit. Reduction of nitric oxides is in the 75% range, so that the Euro II engine will have nitric oxide emissions of less than 2 g/kWh in the 13-stage test. (orig.) [Deutsch] Fuer Fahrzeuge mit Dieselmotoren wird derzeit ein Abgasnachbehandlungssystem entwickelt, das die Schadstoffkomponenten CO, HC und Partikel sowie die Stickoxide (NO{sub x}) mit hohem Wirkungsgrad absenkt. Zur Verminderung der CO-, HC- und Partikelemissionen ist das seit drei Jahren eingesetzte CRT-Partikelfiltersystem geeignet. Das CRT-System ist die Kombination eines Dieselpartikelfilters mit einem vorgeschalteten hocheffizienten Oxidationskatalysator. Um gleichzeitig die Stickoxidemission zu vermindern, muss das Russfiltersystem mit einem Denox-Katalysator kombiniert werden. Die Umwandlung dieser Schadstoffe erfolgt nach dem SCR-Verfahren. Dabei werden die Stickoxide durch Zugabe von Ammoniak an einem SCR-Katalysator gezielt zu Stickstoff (N{sub 2}) und Wasser (H{sub 2}O) umgesetzt. Das Ammoniak wird in einem Generator an Bord des Fahrzeugs in

  6. Application of Rare Earth Oxides in Diesel Exhaust Purification Catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zhaoliang; Yu Pengfei; Wang Shilong; Li Chunfeng; Dai Hua

    2004-01-01

    Diesel oxide catalysts and soot combustion catalysts were reported in this paper.The former was manufactured in mass last year, and enhanced performance is under development now.The later is screened out and further research is under way.The best soot combustion catalyst could ignite soot combustion even at 350 ℃, which is within the range of temperatures reached in diesel exhaust, and shows the catalytic combustion velocity nearly one time faster compared with non-catalytic combustion of soot, which is of benefit to rapid regeneration of diesel particulate filter, thus it might be an excellent practicable catalyst.

  7. 催化裂化柴油颜色安定性研究%The Studies on Color Stability of Catalytically Cracked Diesel Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 王超; 刘晓瑞; 崔艳红; 田红丽

    2012-01-01

    The color of diesel oil quickly turned depth during storage process,and generated a lot of sediment,which seriously affected its usage performance.With appropriate separation methods,the type and structure of color materials of catalytic cracking diesel oil were analyzed by combined liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry(LC/MS) and gas chromatography and mass spectrometry(GC/MS).Through the contrast of hydrofining diesel oil and catalytic cracking diesel oil of non-hydrocarbon material structure,the main material may cause the catalytic cracking diesel oil color was proposed.%柴油在储存过程中颜色快速变深,有大量沉渣生成,严重影响其使用性能。本课题选择合适的分离方法对催化裂化柴油中的显色物质用液相色谱与质谱(LC/MS)、气相色谱与质谱(GC/MS)联用技术分析、鉴定柴油主要显色物质的类别、结构,对比加氢精制柴油和催化裂化柴油存在的非烃类物质的结构,提出了可能引起催化裂化柴油变色的主要物质。

  8. Numerical design of the diesel particulate filter for optimum thermal performances during regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang-Jin [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate School of Hanyang University, Seoul, 133-791 (Korea); Jeong, Soo-Jeong [Advanced Power and IT Research Center, Korea Automotive Technology Institute, Chonan, Chungnam 330-912 (Korea); Kim, Woo-Seung [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan, Gyunggi-do 425-791 (Korea)

    2009-07-15

    A minimization of the maximum diesel particulate filter (DPF) wall temperature and fast light-off during regeneration are targets for a high durability of the DPF and a high efficiency of soot regeneration. A one-channel numerical model has been adopted in order to predict the transient thermal response of the DPF. The effect of the ratio of the length to diameter (L/D), cell density, the amount of soot loading on the temporal thermal response and regeneration characteristics have been numerically investigated under two representative running conditions: city driving mode and high speed mode. The results indicated that the maximum wall temperature of the DPF increased with increasing 'L/D' in 'high speed mode'. On the contrary, the maximum wall temperature decreases with increasing 'L/D' in the range of 'L/D {>=} 0.6' in 'city driving mode'. The maximum temperature decreased with increasing cell density because heat conduction and heat capacity were increased. Before commencing soot regeneration, the maximum allowed soot loading for retaining DPF durability was about 140 g (5.03 kg/m{sup 3}) under 'city driving mode' and about 200 g (7.19 kg/m{sup 3}) under 'high speed mode' in this study. The effect of the amount of soot loading on light-off time was negligible. (author)

  9. Kinetic study of diesel soot oxidation: application to simulation of diesel particulate filter regeneration; Etude cinetique de la combustion des suies diesel: application a la modelisation de la regeneration du filtre a particule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huguet, Ch.

    2005-11-15

    Because of their toxicity, soot are considered as the most important pollutant from Diesel engines. The Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) is widely deployed in Europe to address the significant reductions in particulate emissions required by increasingly stringent emission standards, both for heavy duty vehicles and passenger cars. Such a DPF filtrates above 99% of soot emissions and must be regularly regenerated. The use of additive allows to decrease the soot oxidation temperature to values which can be reached by appropriate engine tuning. The soot addition is a dominant parameter for the development of regeneration strategies. Its influence must be correctly represented by models. This Ph-D was performed at IFP in collaboration with ADEME and was supported by the LCSR at Orleans. The aim of the present research is to develop a kinetic mechanism characteristic of Diesel soot oxidation, which can be integrated into a DPF regeneration model and used for engine control. The oxidation study was based on soot characterisation and reaction kinetics investigations. The samples of Diesel soot were collected, without and with Cerium/Iron additive, by using two engines points representative of two normalized European cycles (ECE and EUDC). Thermal and composition analyses with techniques such as XPS, XRD or TEM were used to determine their physical and chemical properties. Their oxidation kinetics was experimentally studied on a synthetic gas bench (SGB) with a fixed bed reactor. Different tests were performed: temperature-programmed oxidation (TPO), Isothermal oxidation (IO), and sequential oxidation. The results allowed to correlate Diesel soot physical and chemical properties with their oxidation rate. A kinetic model was developed, which is based on global carbon consummation law and distinguishes the oxidation of different soot components. The simulation results agree very well with the experimental results of Diesel soot oxidation. (author)

  10. Demonstration of lean NOx catalytic converter technology on a heavy-duty diesel engine. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heimrich, M.J.

    1996-05-01

    Experimental catalysts for the reduction of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) were evaluated on a 258-horsepower (192 kW) direct-injection heavy-duty diesel engine. An experimental reductant delivery system provided supplementary hydrocarbons for the reduction of NOx. A fuel economy penalty of five percent was measured for initial FTP experiments.

  11. Environmental risk of particulate and soluble platinum group elements released from gasoline and diesel engine catalytic converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moldovan, M.; Palacios, M.A.; Gomez, M.M. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040- Madrid (Spain); Morrison, G.; Rauch, S. [Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden); McLeod, C.; Ma, R. [University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Caroli, S.; Alimonti, A.; Petrucci, F.; Bocca, B. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); Schramel, P.; Zischka, M. [GSF National Research Centre for Environment and Health, Neuherberg (Germany); Pettersson, C. [Scandiaconsult Sverige AB, Gothenburg (Sweden); Wass, U. [Volvo Technological Development Corporation, Gothenburg (Sweden); Luna, M. [Ford, Madrid (Spain); Saenz, J.C. [INTA Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial, Madrid (Spain); Santamaria, J. [Seat, Barcelona (Spain)

    2002-09-16

    A comparison of platinum-group element (PGE) emission between gasoline and diesel engine catalytic converters is reported within this work. Whole raw exhaust fumes from four catalysts of three different types were examined during their useful lifetime, from fresh to 80000 km. Two were gasoline engine catalysts (Pt-Pd-Rh and Pd-Rh), while the other two were diesel engine catalysts (Pt). Samples were collected following the 91441 EUDC driving cycle for light-duty vehicle testing, and the sample collection device used allowed differentiation between the particulate and soluble fractions, the latter being the most relevant from an environmental point of view. Analyses were performed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) (quadrupole and high resolution), and special attention was paid to the control of spectral interference, especially in the case of Pd and Rh. The results obtained show that, for fresh catalysts, the release of particulate PGE through car exhaust fumes does not follow any particular trend, with a wide range (one-two orders of magnitude) for the content of noble metals emitted. The samples collected from 30000-80000 km present a more homogeneous PGE release for all catalysts studied. A decrease of approximately one order of magnitude is observed with respect to the release from fresh catalysts, except in the case of the diesel engine catalyst, for which PGE emission continued to be higher than in the case of gasoline engines. The fraction of soluble PGE was found to represent less than 10% of the total amount released from fresh catalysts. For aged catalysts, the figures are significantly higher, especially for Pd and Rh. Particulate PGE can be considered as virtually biologically inert, while soluble PGE forms can represent an environmental risk due to their bioavailability, which leads them to accumulate in the environment.

  12. Developments of DPF systems with mesh laminated structures. Performances of DPF systems which consist of the metal-mesh laminated filter combustion with the alumina-fiber mesh, and the combustion device of trapped diesel particles; Mesh taso kozo no DPF no kaihatsu. Kinzokusen to arumina sen`i mesh ni yoru fukugo filter to filter heiyo heater ni yoru DPF no seino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojima, T.; Tange, A.; Matsuda, K. [NHK Spring Co. Ltd., Yokohama (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    For the purpose of continuous run without any maintenance, new DPF (diesel particulate filter)systems laminated by both metal-wire mesh and alumina-fiber mesh alternately, are under the developments. The perfect combustion of trapped diesel particulate can be achieved by a couple of the resistance heating devices inserted into the filter. 5 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Green diesel production via catalytic hydrogenation/decarboxylation of triglycerides and fatty acids of vegetable oil and brown grease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Elvan

    than activated carbon itself for both decarboxylation of oleic acid and hydrogenation of alkenes. In an additional effort to reduce Pd amount in the catalyst, Pd2Co/C catalysts with various Pd content were prepared and the catalytic activity study showed that 0.5 wt% Pd2Co/C catalyst performs even better than a 5 wt% Pd/C catalyst. Pd and Co alloys were very well dispersed and formed fine clusters, which led to a higher active metal surface area and hence favored the decarboxylation of oleic acid. This study showed that an alloy of Pd on carbon with a significantly low Pd content is much more active and selective to diesel hydrocarbons production from an unsaturated fatty acid in super-critical water and may be regarded as a prospective feasible decarboxylation catalyst for the removal of oxygen from vegetable oil/animal fat without the need of additional hydrogen.

  14. Emission reduction efforts in Germany. First catalytic converter for diesel engines in industrial vehicles and cogeneration systems; Deutschland ist kein Russ-Land. Erster Diesel-Kat fuer Nutzfahrzeuge und Blockheizkraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lossau, N.

    1998-09-01

    Diesel engines still have too high emissions of nitric oxides and soot. Siemens engineers have developed a catalytic converter for large-volume diesel engines and were awarded the Philip Morris research award for it. The new catalytic converter will be installed in the Berlin Reichstag building to purify the emissions of the building`s cogeneration system. (orig.) [Deutsch] Noch geben die Dieselmotoren in Lastwagen und Blockheizkraftwerken zu viel Stickoxide und Russ ab. Um zu verhindern, dass Deutschland ein Russ-Land bleibt, haben Siemens-Forscher einen Katalysator fuer grossvolumige Dieselmotoren entwickelt und dafuer den Philip Morris Forschungspreis erhalten. Dieser Katalysator wird kuenftig sogar die Abgase des Blockheizkraftwerkes im Berliner Reichstagsgebaeude reinigen. (orig.)

  15. Experimental Study of Selective Catalytic Reduction System On CI Engine Fuelled with Diesel-Ethanol Blend for NOx Reduction with Injection of Urea Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Praveen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays exhaust emission control from internal combustion engines have become one of the most important challenges. Oxides of nitrogen (NOx are one of the major hazardous pollutants that come out from diesel engines. There are various techniques existing for NOx control but each techniques has its own advantages and disadvantages. Technologies available for NOx reductions either increase other polluting gas emission or increase fuel consumption. The objective of this paper is to determine the maximum reduction of NOx emissions by varying concentration of urea solution with reduction catalyst. An aqueous solution of urea was injected in engine exhaust pipe for reducing NOx emissions in single cylinder light duty stationery DI diesel engine fuelled with diesel and diesel- (10% ethanol blend. A concentration of urea solution varying from 30 to 35% by weight with constant flow rates and tested with fitting Titanium dioxide (TiO2 coated catalyst which controls by products of ammonia and water vapour. Results indicated that a maximum of 70 % of NOx reduction was achieved an engine fuelled with diesel-ethanol blend and constant flow rate of 0.75 lit/hr with an urea concentration of 35% and 66% NOx of reduced with neat diesel using Titanium dioxide catalyst in Selective Catalytic Reduction system.

  16. The impact of mass flow and masking on the pressure drop of air filter in heavy-duty diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorji-Bandpy Mofid

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a computational fluid dynamics (CFD calculation approach to predict and evaluate the impact of the mass-flow inlet on the pressure drop of turbocharger`s air filtfer in heavy-duty diesel engine. The numerical computations were carried out using a commercial CFD program whereas the inlet area of the air filter consisted of several holes connected to a channel. After entering through the channel, the air passes among the holes and enters the air filter. The effect of masking holes and hydraulic diameter is studied and investigated on pressure drop. The results indicate that pressure drop increase with decreasing of hydraulic diameter and masking of the holes has considerable affect on the pressure drop.

  17. The impact of mass flow and masking on the pressure drop of air filter in heavy-duty diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseeinzadeh, Sepideh; Gorji-Bandpy, Mofid

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculation approach to predict and evaluate the impact of the mass-flow inlet on the pressure drop of turbocharger`s air filtfer in heavy-duty diesel engine. The numerical computations were carried out using a commercial CFD program whereas the inlet area of the air filter consisted of several holes connected to a channel. After entering through the channel, the air passes among the holes and enters the air filter. The effect of masking holes and hydraulic diameter is studied and investigated on pressure drop. The results indicate that pressure drop increase with decreasing of hydraulic diameter and masking of the holes has considerable affect on the pressure drop.

  18. Rare earth metal doped CeO2-based catalytic materials for diesel soot oxidation at lower temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A Rangaswamy; Putla Sudarsanam; Benjaram M Reddy

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the influence of trivalent rare-earth dopants (Sm and La) on the structure-activity properties of CeO2 was thor-oughly studied for diesel soot oxidation. For this, an optimized 40%of Sm and La was incorporated into the CeO2 using a facile co-precipitation method from ultra-high dilute aqueous solutions. A systematic physicochemical characterization was carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Brumauer-Emmett-teller method (BET) surface area, X-ray pho-toelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman, and H2-temperature programmed reduction (TPR) techniques. The soot oxidation efficiency of the catalysts was investigated using a thermogravimetric method. The XRD results suggested the formation of nanocrystalline sin-gle phase CeO2-Sm2O3 and CeO2-La2O3 solid solutions. The Sm-and La-doped CeO2 materials exhibited smaller crystallite size and higher BET surface area compared with the pure CeO2. Owing to the difference in the oxidation states of the dopants (Sm3+and La3+) and the Ce4+, a number of oxygen vacancies were generated in CeO2-Sm2O3 and CeO2-La2O3 samples. The H2-TPR studies evidenced the improved reducible nature of the CeO2-Sm2O3 and CeO2-La2O3 samples compared with the CeO2. It was found that the addition of Sm and La to the CeO2 outstandingly enhanced its catalytic efficiency for the oxidation of diesel soot. The observed 50%soot con-version temperatures for the CeO2-Sm2O3, CeO2-La2O3 and CeO2 were~790, 843 and 864 K (loose contact), respectively, and similar activity order was also found under the tight contact condition. The high soot oxidation efficacy of the CeO2-Sm2O3 sample was at-tributed to numerous catalytically favourable properties, like smaller crystallite size, larger surface area, abundant oxygen vacancies, and superior reducible nature.

  19. Component Analysis of Deposits in Selective Catalytic Reduction System for Automotive Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Neng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, deposits in exhaust pipes for automotive diesel engines were studied by various chemical analysis methods and a kind of analysis process to determine the compositions of organic matter was proposed. Firstly, the elements of the deposits were determined through the element analysis method. Then using characteristic absorption properties of organic functional groups to the infrared spectrum, the functional groups in the deposits were determined. Finally, by GC-MS (gas chromatography - mass spectrometry test, the content of each main component was determined quantitatively. Element analysis results indicated that the deposits adsorbed metal impurities from fuel oil, lubricating oil, mechanical wear and urea water solution. The result of GC-MS test showed that the area percentage of cyanuric acid was the biggest (about 85%, the second was urea (about 4%, and the content of biuret and biurea was scarce.

  20. Performance Assessment of Sintered Metal Fiber Filters in Fluid Catalytic Cracking Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A long-term test was performed in a fluid catalytic cracking (FCC hot gas filtration facility using sintered metal candle filters. The operating temperature and pressure were maximum 55°C and 0.28 MPa, respectively. Specific particle sampling systems were used to measure the particle size and concentration directly at high temperature. The range of inlet particle concentration is from 150 to 165 mg/Nm3. The outlet particle concentration is in the range of 0.71–2.77 mg/Nm3 in stable operation. The filtration efficiency is from 98.23% to 99.55%. The inlet volume median diameter and the outlet volume median diameter of the particle are about 1 μm and 2.2 μm, respectively. The cake thickness is calculated based on the equation of Carman-Kozeny. The effects of operating parameters including face velocity, gas cleaning pressure, pulse duration, and maximum pressure drop were investigated. The optimal operating conditions and cleaning strategies were determined. The results show that sintered metal fiber filters are suitable for industrial application due to the good performance and high efficiency observed.

  1. Modelling of an SCR catalytic converter for diesel exhaust after treatment: Dynamic effects at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tronconi, Enrico; Nova, Isabella; Ciardelli, Cristian [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica ' G. Natta' , Politecnico di Milano, P.zza L. Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Chatterjee, Daniel; Bandl-Konrad, Brigitte; Burkhardt, Thomas [DaimlerChrysler AG Abteilung RBP/C, HPC: 096-E220, D-70546 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2005-08-15

    As part of a fundamental and applied work on the development of an unsteady mathematical model of the NH{sub 3}-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) process for design and control of integrated after-treatment systems of heavy-duty engines, we present herein a transient kinetic analysis of the standard SCR NO+NH{sub 3} system which provides new insight in the catalytic kinetics and mechanism prevailing at low temperatures. Based on kinetic runs performed over a commercial powdered V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-WO{sub 3}-TiO{sub 2} catalyst in the 175-450{sup o}C T-range feeding NH{sub 3} and NO (1000ppm) in the presence of H{sub 2}O (1-10%, v/v) and O{sub 2} (2-6%, v/v), an original dual-site modified redox rate law is derived which effectively accounts for NH{sub 3} inhibition effects observed during transient reactive experiments at T<250{sup o}C. We also demonstrate that implementation of the novel modified redox kinetics into a fully predictive 1D+1D model of SCR monolith reactors can significantly improve simulations of SCR transient runs at different scales, including engine test bench experiments over full-scale SCR honeycomb catalysts.

  2. Toxicological characterization of diesel engine emissions using biodiesel and a closed soot filter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooter, I.M.; Vugt, M.A.T.M. van; Jedynska, A.D.; Tromp, P.C.; Houtzager, M.M.G.; Verbeek, R.P.; Kadijk, G.; Mulderij, M.; Krul, C.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the toxicity (oxidative stress, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity) in extracts of combustion aerosols. A typical Euro III heavy truck engine was tested over the European Transient Cycle with three different fuels: conventional diesel EN590, biodiesel EN14214 as B100 and

  3. Toxicological characterization of diesel engine emissions using biodiesel and a closed soot filter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooter, Ingeborg M.; van Vugt, Marcel A. T. M.; Jedynska, Aleksandra D.; Tromp, Peter C.; Houtzager, Marc M. G.; Verbeek, Ruud P.; Kadijk, Gerrit; Mulderij, Mariska; Krul, Cyrille A. M.

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the toxicity (oxidative stress, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity) in extracts of combustion aerosols. A typical Euro Ill heavy truck engine was tested over the European Transient Cycle with three different fuels: conventional diesel EN590, biodiesel EN14214 as 8100 and

  4. Use of sugarcane filter cake and nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilization in the process of bioremediation of soil contaminated with diesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellechea, Fernando Reynel Fundora; Martins, Marco Antônio; da Silva, Alexsandro Araujo; da Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela Forestieri; Martins, Meire Lelis Leal

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluated the use of sugarcane filter cake and nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) fertilization in the bioremediation of a soil contaminated with diesel fuel using a completely randomized design. Five treatments (uncontaminated soil, T1; soil contaminated with diesel, T2; soil contaminated with diesel and treated with 15 % (wt) filter cake, T3; soil contaminated with diesel and treated with NPK fertilizer, T4; and soil contaminated with diesel and treated with 15 % (wt) filter cake and NPK fertilizer, T5) and four evaluation periods (1, 60, 120, and 180 days after the beginning of the experiment) were used according to a 4 × 5 factorial design to analyze CO2 release. The variables total organic carbon (TOC) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) remaining in the soil were analyzed using a 5 × 2 factorial design, with the same treatments described above and two evaluation periods (1 and 180 days after the beginning of the experiment). In T3 and T5, CO2 release was significantly higher, compared with the other treatments. Significant TPH removal was observed on day 180, when percent removal values were 61.9, 70.1, 68.2, and 75.9 in treatments T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively, compared with the initial value (T1). PMID:27255323

  5. Use of sugarcane filter cake and nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilization in the process of bioremediation of soil contaminated with diesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellechea, Fernando Reynel Fundora; Martins, Marco Antônio; da Silva, Alexsandro Araujo; da Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela Forestieri; Martins, Meire Lelis Leal

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluated the use of sugarcane filter cake and nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) fertilization in the bioremediation of a soil contaminated with diesel fuel using a completely randomized design. Five treatments (uncontaminated soil, T1; soil contaminated with diesel, T2; soil contaminated with diesel and treated with 15 % (wt) filter cake, T3; soil contaminated with diesel and treated with NPK fertilizer, T4; and soil contaminated with diesel and treated with 15 % (wt) filter cake and NPK fertilizer, T5) and four evaluation periods (1, 60, 120, and 180 days after the beginning of the experiment) were used according to a 4 × 5 factorial design to analyze CO2 release. The variables total organic carbon (TOC) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) remaining in the soil were analyzed using a 5 × 2 factorial design, with the same treatments described above and two evaluation periods (1 and 180 days after the beginning of the experiment). In T3 and T5, CO2 release was significantly higher, compared with the other treatments. Significant TPH removal was observed on day 180, when percent removal values were 61.9, 70.1, 68.2, and 75.9 in treatments T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively, compared with the initial value (T1).

  6. Development of a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for detection and quantification of urea thermal decomposition by-products in emission from diesel engine employing selective catalytic reduction technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassine, Mahmoud M; Dabek-Zlotorzynska, Ewa; Celo, Valbona

    2012-03-16

    The use of urea based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the reduction of NOx from the exhaust of diesel-powered vehicles has the potential to emit at least six thermal decomposition by-products, ammonia, and unreacted urea from the tailpipe. These compounds may include: biuret, dicyandiamine, cyanuric acid, ammelide, ammeline and melamine. In the present study, a simple, sensitive and reliable hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC)-electrospray ionization (ESI)/mass spectrometry (MS) method without complex sample pre-treatment was developed for identification and determination of urea decomposition by-products in diesel exhaust. Gradient separation was performed on a SeQuant ZIC-HILIC column with a highly polar zwitterionic stationary phase, and using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile (eluent A) and 15 mM ammonium formate (pH 6; eluent B). Detection and quantification were performed using a quadrupole ESI/MS operated simultaneously in negative and positive mode. With 10 μL injection volume, LODs for all target analytes were in the range of 0.2-3 μg/L. The method showed a good inter-day precision of retention time (RSD<0.5%) and peak area (RSD<3%). Satisfactory extraction recoveries from spiked blanks ranged between 96 and 98%. Analyses of samples collected during transient chassis dynamometer tests of a bus engine equipped with a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and urea based SCR technology showed the presence of five target analytes with cyanuric acid and ammelide the most abundant compounds in the exhaust. PMID:22318005

  7. In Vitro Exposures in Diesel Exhaust Atmospheres: Resuspension of PM from Filters Verses Direct Deposition of PM from Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtveld, Kim M.; Ebersviller, Seth M.; Sexton, Kenneth G.; Vizuete, William; Jaspers, Ilona; Jeffries, Harvey E.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most widely used in vitro particulate matter (PM) exposures methods is the collection of PM on filters, followed by resuspension in a liquid medium, with subsequent addition onto a cell culture. To avoid disruption of equilibria between gases and PM, we have developed a direct in vitro sampling and exposure method (DSEM) capable of PM-only exposures. We hypothesize that the separation of phases and post-treatment of filter-collected PM significantly modifies the toxicity of the PM compared to direct deposition, resulting in a distorted view of the potential PM health effects. Controlled test environments were created in a chamber that combined diesel exhaust with an urban-like mixture. The complex mixture was analyzed using both the DSEM and concurrently-collected filter samples. The DSEM showed that PM from test atmospheres produced significant inflammatory response, while the resuspension exposures at the same exposure concentration did not. Increasing the concentration of resuspended PM sixteen times was required to yield measurable IL-8 expression. Chemical analysis of the resuspended PM indicated a total absence of carbonyl compounds compared to the test atmosphere during the direct-exposures. Therefore, collection and resuspension of PM into liquid modifies its toxicity and likely leads to underestimating toxicity. PMID:22834915

  8. Bronchoalveolar inflammation after exposure to diesel exhaust: comparison between unfiltered and particle trap filtered exhaust

    OpenAIRE

    Rudell, B.; Blomberg, A; Helleday, R.; Ledin, M C; Lundback, B.; Stjernberg, N; Horstedt, P.; Sandstrom, T.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Air pollution particulates have been identified as having adverse effects on respiratory health. The present study was undertaken to further clarify the effects of diesel exhaust on bronchoalveolar cells and soluble components in normal healthy subjects. The study was also designed to evaluate whether a ceramic particle trap at the end of the tail pipe, from an idling engine, would reduce indices of airway inflammation. METHODS: The study comprised three exposures in all 10 ...

  9. EMISSION REDUCTION FROM A DIESEL ENGINE FUELED BY CERIUM OXIDE NANO-ADDITIVES USING SCR WITH DIFFERENT METAL OXIDES COATED CATALYTIC CONVERTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. JOTHI THIRUMAL

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of experimental investigations on the influence of the addition of cerium oxide in nanoparticle form on the major physiochemical properties and the performance of diesel. The fuel is modified by dispersing the catalytic nanoparticle by ultrasonic agitation. The physiochemical properties of sole diesel fuel and modified fuel are tested with ASTM standard procedures. The effects of the additive nanoparticles on the individual fuel properties, the engine performance, and emissions are studied, and the dosing level of the additive is optimized. Cerium oxide acts as an oxygen-donating catalyst and provides oxygen for the oxidation of CO during combustion. The active energy of cerium oxide acts to burn off carbon deposits within the engine cylinder at the wall temperature and prevents the deposition of non-polar compounds on the cylinder wall which results in reduction in HC emission by 56.5%. Furthermore, a low-cost metal oxide coated SCR (selective catalyst reduction, using urea as a reducing agent, along with different types of CC (catalytic converter, has been implemented in the exhaust pipe to reduce NOx. It was observed that a reduction in NOx emission is 50–60%. The tests revealed that cerium oxide nanoparticles can be used as an additive in diesel to improve complete combustion of the fuel and reduce the exhaust emissions significantly.

  10. 催化柴油氧化脱硫的研究%The Oxidative Desulfurization of Catalytic Diesel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫方远; 韩宏志; 李越

    2013-01-01

    考察了以H2O2为氧化剂,对催化柴油进行氧化脱硫.讨论了实验方法、催化剂及用量、破乳剂、氧化剂用量和萃取剂及用量等因素对反应的影响.实验结果表明,当选用一步法氧化萃取工艺,C6为催化剂,其用量为5%(质量比),破乳剂NP6的用量为4%(体积比),氧化剂H2O2的用量为10(氧硫物质的量比),萃取剂按B∶D=1∶1组成,萃取剂油比为1时,得脱硫率为45.90%,收率为99.50%.%The oxidative desulfurization of catalytic diesel with using H2O2 as oxidant is studied. The effects of experimental method, catalysts and its dosage, demulsifier, amount of oxidant and extracting agent and its dosage on the reaction are discussed. The results show that the desulfurization rate is up to 46.90% and the yield is 99.50% when the one-step extracting process is adopted, and using C6 as catalyst which mass ratio is 5%, the amount of demulsifier NP6 is 4%, the amount of oxidant is 10(ratio of oxygen to sulfur), the extracting agent composition is B and D (the ratio is 1:1), and the volume ratio of extracting agent to oil is 1:50.

  11. 直馏柴油催化氧化脱硫均相催化剂的制备与评价%Preparation and evaluation of desulfurization catalysts for homogeneous catalytic oxidation of straight-run diesel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐晓东; 刘亮; 税蕾蕾

    2005-01-01

    Large investment, high operating cost and severe operation condition exist in the technology of diesel hydrodesulfurization, and the technology of H2O2 oxidative desulfurization of diesel has such problems as high oxidizer cost, oxidizer not regenerable, and treatment of sour water. A new catalytic oxidative desulfurization method for straight-run diesel is presented in this paper. In order to produce lowsulfur diesel, the sulfide in diesel oil was oxidized and converted into sulfone-polar sulfide with homogeneous catalysts and air oxidizer, and then removed by extractant. The homogenous catalysts were prepared by compound decomposition. The catalysts selected could dissolve in diesel at a given temperature and separate out at a lower temperature. The effects of catalytic oxidation of zinc benzoate, manganese benzoate and manganese phthalate were tested. The desulfurization effect of zinc benzoate and manganese benzoate was much better and the sulfur content of the desulfurized diesel met the standard of Eu Ⅱ diesel (<300μg·g-1 ).

  12. The use of urea to combat nitrogen oxides; Selective catalytic denitrification of Diesel emissions. Mit Harnstoff gegen Stickoxide; Selektive katalytische Entstickung von Dieselabgasen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koebel, M.; Elsener, M.; Eicher, H. (Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland))

    1990-01-01

    Reports available deal with efforts to denitrify Diesel emissions by the use of urea instead of ammonia and applying an SCT (selective catalytic reduction) process. These efforts are pursued in a common project carried out by the Paul Scherrer Institute and the Eicher + Pauli AG, and promoted by the Federal Office of Energy. The Paul Scherrer Institute is dedicated mainly to basic research, and technique of analyzing and laboratory work, while Eicher + Pauli AG are responsible for the construction and operation of the pilot plant.

  13. Fluid Catalytic Cracking Feed Hydrotreatment and its Impact on Distribution of Sulfur and Nitrogen Compounds in FCC Diesel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Rui; Chai Yongming; Zhang Chengtao; Liu Chenguang

    2015-01-01

    The sulfides and nitrogen compounds in FCC diesel were analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with a pulsed lfame photometric detector (GC-PFPD) and gas chromatography coupled with nitrogen chemiluminescence detection (GC-NCD). And the variation of sulifdes and nitrogen compounds in FCC diesel produced from gas oil feed hydrotreated at different temperatures was investigated. The test results showed that two main types of sulfur compounds, i.e. benzothio-phenes (BTs) and dibenzothiophenes (DBTs) were found in diesel. Nitrogen compounds are mainly composed of non-basic nitrogen compounds, and indoles and carbazoles account for about 98% of the total nitrogen contents. The sulifdes in FCC diesel obtained from hydrotreated feed are mainly BTs with a small amount of 4-MDBT and 4,6-DMDBT. With the increase in FCC feed hydrotreating temperature, indoles content in FCC diesel increases, while carbazoles content decreases.

  14. The SINOx catalytic converter for diesel engines, the optimum exhaust purification system for industrial vehicles; Der SINOx-Dieselkatalysator - das zukunftsweisende Abgasreinigungssystem fuer Lkw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doelling, W.; Mathes, W. [Siemens AG, Redwitz (Germany)

    1997-07-01

    The SINOx catalytic converter system was developed by Siemens in cooperation with Iveco, Mercedes Benz and MAN. It removes nitric oxides and hydrocarbons from exhaust and reduces the number of particulate emissions. The SINOx catalytic converter system, which is currently being tested on the road, turns the diesel engine into an economical and clean drive system with good future prospects. (orig./AKF) [Deutsch] Das von Siemens in Zusammenarbeit mit Iveco, Mercedez Benz und MAN entwickelte SINOx-Katalysatorsystem beseitigt neben diesen Stickoxiden auch die Kohlenwasserstoffe aus dem Abgas und laesst die Partikelmasse sinken. Mit dem z.Z. im Strassentest befindlichen SINOx-Katalysator ist der Dieselmotor ein wirtschaftlicher und sauberer Antrieb fuer die Zukunft. (orig./AKF)

  15. 齿形木纤维柴油车尾气微粒捕集器过滤效率模型与试验%Filtering efficiency model and experiment of gear-shaped wood fiber diesel particle filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭秀荣; 杜丹丰; 亓占丰; 梁中钰; 刘跃雄

    2016-01-01

    Diesel engine is widely used in the fields of industrial and agricultural production and transportation for their good economy and dynamic performance. Unfortunately, diesel engines emit high quantities of particulate matter (PM) which is a potential risk to public health. Micron wood fiber is a kind of porous biological material that can be applied to filter PM emitted by diesel engine. In this paper, in order to increase the filtration efficiency and decrease filtration resistance, a wood fiber filter is developed, of which the internal structure is hollow and the external structure is like gear, and its advantages are low price, less requirement for diesel quality and large adsorption capacity for PM. In these respects, the gear-shaped wood fiber filter is promising in developing countries where the sulphur content is high in diesel oil. This gear-shaped wood fiber filter can be installed in a detachable DPF (diesel particle filter) whose temperature inside can be controlled below 220℃. First of all, based on the filter theory of fiber material, the filtration efficiency model of the gear-shaped wood fiber filter is established. Referring to the existing research and formula, the filtration efficiency of the gear-shaped wood fiber filter can be expressed by theoretical formula to be the function of wood fiber diameter, filling rate of wood fiber filter, thickness of filter and diameter of PM.Due to the diameter of PM ranging from 0.01 to 10μm and mainly concentrating at around 0.1μm, the recommended value of PMdiameter is 0.1μm. Then, through theoretical analysis and numerical calculation, the relationship curve between the filter efficiency and the influence factors is obtained. Lastly, a test bench of the filter performance is set up and used to verify the theoretical analysis results. In the test, we develope 10 gear-shaped wood fiber filters with different parameters according to the simulation results and set the speed and the load of the engine as 2

  16. Fluorescence spectroscopic characterization of DOM fractions isolated from a filtered river water after ozonation and catalytic ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Lu, Jinfeng; Ma, Jun; Qiang, Zhimin

    2008-03-01

    Fluorescence spectra were applied to investigate the structural changes of four dominant dissolved natural organic matter (DOM) fractions of a filtered river water before and after ozonation and catalytic ozonation. The ozonation and catalytic ozonation with synthetic goethite (FeOOH) and cerium dioxide (CeO(2)) were carried out under normal conditions, i.e. pH 7, reaction time of 10 min, and ozone/DOC ratio of about 1. The fluorescence spectra were recorded at both excitation-emission matrix (EEM) and synchronous scanning modes. EEM results reveal that ozonation of these DOM fractions causes a significant decrease of the aromaticity of humic-like structures and an increase of electron withdrawing groups, e.g., carboxylic groups. The catalysts can further improve the destruction of the humic-like structures in catalytic ozonation. Synchronous spectra reveal that ozonation of hydrophobic acid and hydrophilic acid (HIA) yields a significant amount of by-products with low aromaticity and low molecular weight. Catalytic ozonation enhances substantially the formation of these by-products from HIA and improves the destruction of highly polycyclic aromatic structures for all examined DOM fractions. PMID:18190948

  17. 77 FR 4736 - Nonconformance Penalties for On-Highway Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... fuel injection, diesel particulate filters), plus liquid urea based Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR...: Improving Regulation and Regulatory Review B. Paperwork Reduction Act C. Regulatory Flexibility Act D... eligibility of emission standards for nonconformance penalties in any given model year (50 FR 35374, August...

  18. Hydrocarbon Liquid Production from Biomass via Hot-Vapor-Filtered Fast Pyrolysis and Catalytic Hydroprocessing of the Bio-oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Wang, Huamin; French, Richard; Deutch, Steve; Iisa, Kristiina

    2014-08-14

    Hot-vapor filtered bio-oils were produced from two different biomass feedstocks, oak and switchgrass, and the oils were evaluated in hydroprocessing tests for production of liquid hydrocarbon products. Hot-vapor filtering reduced bio-oil yields and increased gas yields. The yields of fuel carbon as bio-oil were reduced by ten percentage points by hot-vapor filtering for both feedstocks. The unfiltered bio-oils were evaluated alongside the filtered bio-oils using a fixed bed catalytic hydrotreating test. These tests showed good processing results using a two-stage catalytic hydroprocessing strategy. Equal-sized catalyst beds, a sulfided Ru on carbon catalyst bed operated at 220°C and a sulfided CoMo on alumina catalyst bed operated at 400°C were used with the entire reactor at 100 atm operating pressure. The products from the four tests were similar. The light oil phase product was fully hydrotreated so that nitrogen and sulfur were below the level of detection, while the residual oxygen ranged from 0.3 to 2.0%. The density of the products varied from 0.80 g/ml up to 0.86 g/ml over the period of the test with a correlated change of the hydrogen to carbon atomic ratio from 1.79 down to 1.57, suggesting some loss of catalyst activity through the test. These tests provided the data needed to assess the suite of liquid fuel products from the process and the activity of the catalyst in relationship to the existing catalyst lifetime barrier for the technology.

  19. Heat and mass transfer in multi-scale porous structures: application to Diesel particulate filters modelling; Transferts de chaleur et de masse dans des structures poreuses multi-echelles: application a l'etude des filtres a particules Diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oxarango, L.

    2004-09-15

    Ceramic filters appear to be the most promising solution to deal with the future emission standard requirements for diesel powered vehicles. Indeed, this type of Diesel Particulate Filters provides suitable characteristics for high efficiency soot collection. However, this filtration process is characterised by a dramatic increase of the pressure drop imposed in the exhaust line. Thus, the filter has to be cleaned periodically to insure the proper engine operating conditions. This regeneration phase is based on the oxidation of the carbon particles within the apparatus. This complex thermal process is critical for the safety working of Diesel Particulate Filters. Indeed, thermal stresses induced by the heat released during soot oxidation are involved in most of the filter breaking scenario. Numerous geometrical parameters defining the complex multi-scale structure of the apparatus could influence its thermal response. Thus, the geometrical optimization of these filters is a major problematic for the development of new products. This study aims at modelling heat and mass transfer phenomenon within Diesel Particulate Filters. The studied geometrical configuration is based on a ceramic honeycomb with porous walls and alternately plugged channel known as wall-flow DPF. In a first part, the gas flow, particles transport and collection are considered. Given the apparatus particular structure, the problem has to be treated considering various spatial length-scales. The filtering walls are characterised by a micrometric porous structure. The flow modelling with the Darcy law requires determining a particular effective permeability. The laminar flow problem in millimetric channels with wall suction (or injection) is studied. The asymptotic solution for flow in two-dimensional channels is used to derive a one-dimensional system preserving mass and momentum balances. This approach is then extended to the square channel configuration using direct numerical simulations. The

  20. Test/QA plan for the verification testing of diesel exhaust catalysts, particulate filters and engine modification control technologies for highway and nonroad use diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    This ETV test/QA plan for heavy-duty diesel engine testing at the Southwest Research Institute’s Department of Emissions Research (DER) describes how the Federal Test Procedure (FTP), as listed in 40 CFR Part 86 for highway engines and 40 CFR Part 89 for nonroad engines, will be ...

  1. Diesel and gas engines: evolution facing new regulations; Moteurs diesel et gaz: evolution face aux nouvelles reglementations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daverat, Ph. [Bergetat Monnoyeur (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper analyzes the influence of new pollution regulations on the new design of diesel and gas engines with the example of Caterpillar`s experience, one of the leaders of diesel and gas engines manufacturers worldwide. The technical problems to solve are introduced first (reduction of NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, CO, unburned compounds and dusts), and then the evolution of engines and of exhaust gas treatment systems are described (fuel injection systems, combustion and ignition control, sensors, catalytic conversion and filtering systems). (J.S.)

  2. Diesel exhaust: current knowledge of adverse effects and underlying cellular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Sandro; Bisig, Christoph; Petri-Fink, Alke; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara

    2016-07-01

    Diesel engine emissions are among the most prevalent anthropogenic pollutants worldwide, and with the growing popularity of diesel-fueled engines in the private transportation sector, they are becoming increasingly widespread in densely populated urban regions. However, a large number of toxicological studies clearly show that diesel engine emissions profoundly affect human health. Thus the interest in the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying these effects is large, especially concerning the nature of the components of diesel exhaust responsible for the effects and how they could be eliminated from the exhaust. This review describes the fundamental properties of diesel exhaust as well as the human respiratory tract and concludes that adverse health effects of diesel exhaust not only emerge from its chemical composition, but also from the interplay between its physical properties, the physiological and cellular properties, and function of the human respiratory tract. Furthermore, the primary molecular and cellular mechanisms triggered by diesel exhaust exposure, as well as the fundamentals of the methods for toxicological testing of diesel exhaust toxicity, are described. The key aspects of adverse effects induced by diesel exhaust exposure described herein will be important for regulators to support or ban certain technologies or to legitimate incentives for the development of promising new technologies such as catalytic diesel particle filters. PMID:27165416

  3. Green diesel production via catalytic hydrogenation/decarboxylation of triglycerides and fatty acids of vegetable oil and brown grease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Elvan

    Increase in the petroleum prices, projected increases in the world's energy demand and environmental awareness have shifted the research interest to the alternative fuel technologies. In particular, green diesel, vegetable oil/animal fat/waste oil and grease derived hydrocarbons in diesel boiling range, has become an attractive alternative to biodiesel---a mixture of fatty acid methyl esters, particularly due to its superior fuel properties that are similar to petroleum diesel. Hence, green diesel can be used as a drop-in fuel in the current diesel engines. The current technology for production of green diesel-hydrodeoxygenation of triglycerides and fatty acids over conventional hydrotreating catalysts suffers from fast catalyst deactivation in the absence of hydrogen combined with high temperatures and high fatty acid content in the feedstock. Additionally, excess hydrogen requirement for hydrodeoxygenation technique leads to high production costs. This thesis proposes a new technology-selective decarboxylation of brown grease, which is a mixture of fats and oils collected from waste water trap and rich in fatty acids, over a supported noble metal catalyst that overcomes the green diesel production challenges. In contrast to other feedstocks used for liquid biofuel production, brown grease is inexpensive and non-food competing feedstock, therefore the process finds solution to waste management issues, reduces the renewable fuel production cost and does not add to the global food shortage problems. Special catalyst formulations were developed to have a high activity and stability in the absence of hydrogen in the fatty acid decarboxylation process. The study shows how catalyst innovations can lead to a new technology that overcomes the process challenges. First, the effect of reaction parameters on the activity and the selectivity of brown grease decarboxylation with minimum hydrogen consumption over an activated carbon supported palladium catalyst were

  4. Vacuum distillation: vapor filtered-catalytic oxidation water reclamation system utilizing radioisotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honegger, R. J.; Remus, G. A.; Kurg, E. K.

    1971-01-01

    The development of a functional model water reclamation system is discussed. The system produces potable water by distillation from the urine and respiration-perspiration condensate at the normal rate generated by four men. Basic processes employed are vacuum distillation, vapor filtration, vapor phase catalytic oxidation, and condensation. The system is designed to use four 75-watt isotope heaters for distillation thermal input, and one 45-watt isotope for the catalytic oxidation unit. The system is capable of collecting and storing urine, and provides for stabilizing the urine by chemical pretreatment. The functional model system is designed for operation in a weightless condition with liquid-vapor phase separators for the evaporator still, and centrifugal separators for urine collection and vapor condensation. The system provides for storing and dispensing reclaimed potable water. The system operates in a batch mode for 40 days, with urine residues accumulating in the evaporator. The evaporator still and residue are removed to storage and replaced with a fresh still for the next 40-day period.

  5. Gas cleaning, gas conditioning and tar abatement by means of a catalytic filter candle in a biomass fluidized-bed gasifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapagnà, Sergio; Gallucci, Katia; Di Marcello, Manuela; Matt, Muriel; Nacken, Manfred; Heidenreich, Steffen; Foscolo, Pier Ugo

    2010-09-01

    A bench-scale fluidized-bed biomass gasification plant, operating at atmospheric pressure and temperature within the range 800-820 degrees C, has been used to test an innovative gas cleaning device: a catalytic filter candle fitted into the bed freeboard. This housing of the gas conditioning system within the gasifier itself results in a very compact unit and greatly reduced thermal losses. Long term (22h) tests were performed on the gasifier both with and without the catalytic candle filter, under otherwise identical conditions. Analysis of the product gas for the two cases showed the catalytic filtration to give rise to notable improvements in both gas quality and gas yield: an increase in hydrogen yield of 130% and an overall increase in gas yield of 69% - with corresponding decreases in methane and tar content of 20% and 79%, respectively. HPLC/UV analysis was used to characterize the tar compounds.

  6. Catalytic oxidation degradation of marine diesel pollution by horseradish peroxidase%用辣根过氧化物酶催化降解海水中柴油污染的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚晓琳; 于晓彩; 季秋忆; 张健; 吴云英; 杨利

    2016-01-01

    为深入探索酶催化技术在海洋石油污染处理中的应用,以游离辣根过氧化物酶( HRP)催化降解海水中柴油污染,研究了酶用量、溶液pH值、柴油初始浓度和催化反应时间等因素对酶催化降解海水中柴油污染的影响,确定了HRP催化降解海水中柴油污染的优化工艺条件,同时考察了反应助剂对海水中柴油污染去除率的影响。结果表明: HRP能有效催化降解海水的柴油污染,当海水中柴油的质量浓度为1.2 g/L时,在温度为25℃、 HRP加入量为1.6 U/mL、 H2 O2为250 mg/L、溶液pH为5的条件下,催化降解3 h,柴油去除率可达90.77%;聚乙二醇( PEG)对HRP催化降解海水中的柴油污染有较显著的影响。%The influence of dosage, solution pH value, diesel initial concentration and catalytic period on free horseradish peroxidase ( HRP) degradation of marine diesel pollution were studied and optimized for the process conditions by orthogonal experiment to exploite utilization of horseradish peroxidase in the catalytic oxidation degra-dation of marine diesel pollution. The removal of marine diesel pollution by a reaction promoter was observed. The results showed that free horseradish peroxidase was shown to degradate the diesel pollution in the seawater effective-ly under the optimum conditions of diesel initial concentration of 1. 2 g/L, temperature of 25℃, HRP activity con-centration of 1. 6 U/mL, H2 O2 mass concentration of 250 mg/L, pH 7. 5 and reaction time of 3 h, with the diesel removal rate of 90. 77%. It was found that polyethylene glycol ( PEG) improved the efficiency for HRP catalytic oxidation in seawater diesel pollution.

  7. Experimental Investigation on Combined Effect of EGR and Three-way Catalytic Converter for IDI Diesel Engine.

    OpenAIRE

    P Suresh Kumar; Ramesh Kumar Donga; Sahoo, P. K.

    2013-01-01

    In the past few decades, an alternate source of energy has been the growing concern with respect to environment and energy reserves utilization. Also the enhancement of industrialization and motorization at global level has strengthened further towards the alternate energy sources like bio fuels etc. The objective of the research work was to effectively reduce the nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions with the combination of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and three-way catalytic converter fuelled ...

  8. Optimization on structural parameters of diesel SCR catalytic reactor%柴油机SCR催化器载体结构参数优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚金科; 张福杰; 鄂加强; 刘恒语; 杜佳; 陈韬; 江俊豪

    2012-01-01

    提出一种柴油机选择催化还原(SCR)催化器载体结构参数优化的设计方法,根据车用柴油机排量,将SCR催化器载体分为4类,选取载体体积、长度、目数、壁厚和涂层厚5个结构参数为设计变量,以高NO。转化率及低压力损失为优化目标,利用拉丁超立方实验设计选择样本点进行数值模拟,在构建的Kriging近似模型基础上,对载体结构参数采用改进的非支配排序遗传算法NSGA—II(non—dominatedsortinggeneticalgorithm—II)进行优化设计。结果表明:Kriging近似模型的拟合精度较高,结合NSGA—II算法对SCR催化器载体结构参数进行优化是可行的、有效的,不同排量下的优化结果均能够较好地满足设计要求。%The optimal design method of structural parameters for diesel urea-SCR was proposed. Accord- ing to the differences of diesel engine displacement, the urea-selective catalytic reactor can be divided into four subclasses. Taking high conversion ratio of NO and small pressure loss as the optimization goal, with monolith volume, length,cell per square inch,wall thickness and washcoat thickness as design variables, Latin Hypercube method was used to carry out sampling of parameters. The obtained samples were analyzed with numerical simula- tion. On this basis, the optimization was solved by NSGA-Ⅱ (non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-Ⅱ ) , using Kriging model as the approximate model. The results show that the Kriging model has high fitting accuracy,dem- onstrate the efficiency and applicability of the optimal design method. The optimization results of different diesel engine displacement show that the method can obtain structural parameters which meet design requirements.

  9. Production of bio-hydrogenated diesel by catalytic hydrotreating of palm oil over NiMoS2/γ-Al2O3 catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srifa, Atthapon; Faungnawakij, Kajornsak; Itthibenchapong, Vorranutch; Viriya-Empikul, Nawin; Charinpanitkul, Tawatchai; Assabumrungrat, Suttichai

    2014-04-01

    Catalytic hydrotreating of palm oil (refined palm olein type) to produce bio-hydrogenated diesel (BHD) was carried out in a continuous-flow fixed-bed reactor over NiMoS2/γ-Al2O3 catalyst. Effects of dominant hydrotreating parameters: temperature: 270-420°C; H2 pressure: 15-80 bar; LHSV: 0.25-5.0 h(-1); and H2/oil ratio: 250-2000 N(cm(3)/cm(3)) on the conversion, product yield, and a contribution of hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) and decarbonylation/decarboxylation (DCO/DCO2) were investigated to find the optimal hydrotreating conditions. All calculations including product yield and the contribution of HDO and DCO/DCO2 were extremely estimated based on mole balance corresponding to the fatty acid composition in feed to fully understand deoxygenation behaviors at different conditions. These analyses demonstrated that HDO, DCO, and DCO2 reactions competitively occurred at each condition, and had different optimal and limiting conditions. The differences in the hydrotreating reactions, liquid product compositions, and gas product composition were also discussed. PMID:24583218

  10. Insulated Piston Heads for Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricoire, A.; Kjellman, B.; Wigren, J.; Vanvolsem, M.; Aixala, L.

    2009-06-01

    Widely studied in the 1980s, the insulation of pistons in engines aimed at reducing the heat losses and thus increasing the indicated efficiency. However, those studies stopped in the beginning of the 1990s because of NO x emission legislation and also because of lower oil prices. Currently, with the improvement of exhaust after treatment systems (diesel particulate filter, selective catalytic reduction, and diesel oxidation catalyst) and engine technologies (exhaust gas recirculation), there are more trade-offs for NO x reduction. In addition, the fast rise of the oil prices tends to lead back to insulation technologies in order to save fuel. A 1 mm thick plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating with a graded transition between the topcoat and the bondcoat was deposited on top of a serial piston for heavy-duty truck engines. The effects of the insulated pistons on the engine performance are also discussed, and the coating microstructure is analyzed after engine test.

  11. The effects of the catalytic converter and fuel sulfur level on motor vehicle particulate matter emissions: light duty diesel vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maricq, M Matti; Chase, Richard E; Xu, Ning; Laing, Paul M

    2002-01-15

    Wind tunnel measurements and direct tailpipe particulate matter (PM) sampling are utilized to examine how the combination of oxidation catalyst and fuel sulfur content affects the nature and quantity of PM emissions from the exhaust of a light duty diesel truck. When low sulfur fuel (4 ppm) is used, or when high sulfur (350 ppm)fuel is employed without an active catalyst present, a single log-normal distribution of exhaust particles is observed with a number mean diameter in the range of 70-83 nm. In the absence of the oxidation catalyst, the high sulfur level has at most a modest effect on particle emissions (<50%) and a minor effect on particle size (<5%). In combination with the active oxidation catalyst tested, high sulfur fuel can lead to a second, nanoparticle, mode, which appears at approximately 20 nm during high speed operation (70 mph), but is not present at low speed (40 mph). A thermodenuder significantly reduces the nanoparticle mode when set to temperatures above approximately 200 degrees C, suggesting that these particles are semivolatile in nature. Because they are observed only when the catalyst is present and the sulfur level is high, this mode likely originates from the nucleation of sulfates formed over the catalyst, although the composition may also include hydrocarbons. PMID:11827064

  12. Combination of biodiesel-ethanol-diesel fuel blend and SCR catalyst assembly to reduce emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaoyan; Yu, Yunbo; He, Hong; Shuai, Shijin; Dong, Hongyi; Li, Rulong

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the efforts to reduce NOx and particulate matter (PM) emissions from a diesel engine using both ethanol-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx over an Ag/Al2O3 catalyst and a biodiesel-ethanol-diesel fuel blend (BE-diesel) on an engine bench test are discussed. Compared with diesel fuel, use of BE-diesel increased PM emissions by 14% due to the increase in the soluble organic fraction (SOF) of PM, but it greatly reduced the Bosch smoke number by 60%-80% according to the results from 13-mode test of European Stationary Cycle (ESC) test. The SCR catalyst was effective in NOx reduction by ethanol, and the NOx conversion was approximately 73%. Total hydrocarbons (THC) and CO emissions increased significantly during the SCR of NOx process. Two diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) assemblies were used after Ag/Al2O3 converter to remove CO and HC. Different oxidation catalyst showed opposite effect on PM emission. The PM composition analysis revealed that the net effect of oxidation catalyst on total PM was an integrative effect on SOF reduction and sulfate formation of PM. The engine bench test results indicated that the combination of BE-diesel and a SCR catalyst assembly could provide benefits for NOx and PM emissions control even without using diesel particle filters (DPFs).

  13. Review of state of the art technologies of selective catalytic reduction of NOx from diesel engine exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasingly stringent emission legislations, such as US 2010 and Euro VI, for NOx in mobile applications will require the use of intensification of NOx reduction aftertreatment technologies, such as the selective catalytic reduction (SCR). Due to the required higher deNOx efficiency, a lot of efforts have recently been concentrated on the optimization of the SCR systems for broadening the active deNOx temperature window as widely as possible, especially at low temperatures, enhancing the catalysts durability, and reducing the cost of the deNOx system. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art SCR technologies, including the alternative ammonia generation from the solid reductants, Vanadium-based, Cu-zeolite (CuZ) and Fe-zeolite (FeZ) based, and the novel chabazite zeolite with small pore size SCR catalysts. Furthermore, the progresses of the highly optimized hybrid approaches, involving combined CuZ and FeZ SCR, passive SCR, integration of DOC + (DPF, SCR), as well as SCR catalyst coated on DPF (referred as SCRF hereinafter) systems are well discussed. Even though SCR technology is considered as the leading NOx aftertreatment technology, attentions have been paid to the adverse by-products, such as NH3 and N2O. Relevant regulations have been established to address the issues. - Highlights: •The review of state of the art technologies of selective catalytic reduction of NOx. •The mainstream V-based, Cu- and Fe-zeolite, and chabazite catalysts are illustrated. •The development of highly optimized hybrid integration SCR systems are analyzed. •The by-products of SCR systems and the corresponding regulations are discussed. •The future perspectives of the advanced SCR technologies are described

  14. 重油催化裂解汽柴油二次裂解性能研究%Secondary Cracking of Gasoline and Diesel from Heavy Oil Catalytic Pyrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘植昌; 孟祥海; 徐春明; 高金森

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigated the secondary cracking of gasoline and diesel from the catalytic pyrolysis of Daqing atmospheric residue on catalyst CEP-1 in a fluidized bed reactor.The results show that the secondary cracking reactivity of gasoline and diesel is poor, and the yield of total light olefins is only about 10% (by mass).As reaction temperature increases, ethylene yield increases, butylene yield decreases, and propylene yield shows a maximum.The optimal reaction temperature is about 670 ℃ for the production of light olefins.With the enhancement of catalyst-to-oil mass ratio and steam-to-oil mass ratio, the yields of light olefins increase to some extent.About 6.30% of the mass of total aromatic rings is converted by secondary cracking, indicating that aromatic hydrocarbons are not easy to undergo ring-opening reactions under the present experimental conditions.

  15. Session 4: The Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O{sub 2} a catalytic system for the obtention of ultra low sulfur diesel by oxidative desulfurization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Gutierrez, J.L.; Jimenez Cruz, F.; Atocha Hernandez Cortazar, F. de; Cano Dominguez, J.L.; Ramirez Verduzco, L.F.; Murrieta Guevara, F.R. [Programa de Tratamiento de Crudo Maya. Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, D. F. (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    At present the production of transportation fuels free of polluting compounds is a matter of consequence worldwide. Particularly, sulfur compounds are undesirable in gasoline and diesel because they contribute to air pollution and acid rain. In this work, we present the results obtained in the development of some supported catalysts containing molybdenum and its evaluation in the desulfurization of several model sulfur systems and diesel by the oxidation-extraction process using hydrogen peroxide with the aim of produce ultra low sulfur diesel. The molybdenum catalysts were prepared by the equilibrium adsorption method. The oxidizing reagent was hydrogen peroxide (30 wt % solution in water) and the fuel was a Mexican diesel with 0.0320 wt % sulfur. The sulfur concentration in the samples was measured by a total sulfur analyzer equipped with a X-ray fluorescence detector, the accuracy is {+-} 5 %. The oxidation-extraction process of diesel was carried out in a batch reactor in presence of hydrogen peroxide, a solvent and the catalyst. The oxidation proceeds under mild conditions: temperature less than 373 K and atmospheric pressure. Oxidized sulfur compounds were separated from the diesel by extraction with the same solvent used in the oxidation process. The effect of the reaction variables, e. g.: time, temperature, hydrogen peroxide concentration, solvent and its concentration, molybdenum precursor, support, the stability of the catalytic activity, structure of the model sulfur compounds, were examined. The results show that the catalyst activity depends on the isoelectric point of the support. It was observed that the oxidation was carried out with good yield only in the presence of a polar solvent. A linear dependence was found between the electric density of the sulfur atom for the organosulfur compounds and its oxidation facility with the oxidation system in matter. This is in good agreement with the work reported by Otsuki. In the oxidation of diesel, it was

  16. Process for controlled effect on the properties of cylinder charges of two-stroke Diesel engines, particularly those with particle filters or catalysts. Verfahren zur geregelten Beeinflussung der Beschaffenheit der Zylinderladung von Zweitaktdieselmotoren, insbesondere solcher mit Partikelfilter oder Katalysator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, B.

    1992-02-27

    In Diesel engines, the automatic free combustion of a particle filter is only guaranteed near full load with sufficiently high exhaust gas temperatures. By the new process, the exhaust gas temperature of two-stroke Diesel engines is to be raised so far in the part load range that the automatic free combustion of a particle filter or the efficiency of a catalyst is guaranteed in all working conditions of the engine. The quantity of flushing air introduced into the cylinder per working cycle is controlled depending on the load by a control device, so that at full load and in the range near full load, the ratio of the volume of flushing air per working cycle to the cylinder swept space is greater than 1, but in the low part load range and at tickover it is appreciably less than 1. In the lower part load range, the flushing air is additionally increasing preheated with decreasing load in an exhaust gas flushing air heat exchanger after the particle filter or the catalyst. Apart from the automatic particle filter cleaning, an effect corresponding to exhaust gas feedback and a seris of other advantages are achieved. Two-stroke Diesel engines with frequent part-load operation, eg: for vehicles and working engines.

  17. Separation of combustion noise and piston-slap in diesel engine—Part I: Separation of combustion noise and piston-slap in diesel engine by cyclic Wiener filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badaoui, M. El.; Danière, J.; Guillet, F.; Servière, C.

    2005-11-01

    The main purpose of this study is to characterize the relative noise given out by a diesel engine, around the Top Dead Centre (TDC) by quantifying the proportions of "mechanical noise" originating mainly from piston-slap on the one hand and 'thermal noise" originating from combustion on the other hand. Two different approaches are described here to solve this problem. In the first part of the paper, the cylinder pressure is measured and used as a reference in order to reconstruct the thermal noise. Next, we propose a method based on applying a cyclic Wiener filter to the measured cylinder pressure in order to separate the noises of mechanical and thermal origins. The final result is to reduce the engine resulting noise. The second part of the paper is devoted to blind source separation (BSS) methods applied on signals issued from accelerometers placed on one of the cylinders. It develops a BSS method based on a convolutive model of non-stationary mixtures and introduces a new method based on the joint diagonalization of time varying spectral matrices of the observations. Both methods are then applied to real data and the estimated sources are finally validated by several physical arguments.

  18. Optimization of operating condition for process of catalytic oxidative adsorption desulfurization of coking diesel%焦化柴油催化氧化吸附脱硫工艺条件优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华军; 闫锋; 廖克俭; 兰艳

    2011-01-01

    以磷钼酸季铵盐为催化剂,三氟乙酸为氧化剂,糠醛为萃取剂,采用催化氧化-萃取吸附组合工艺对焦化柴油进行脱硫处理.结果表明,在反应温度为60℃,氧化剂用量(V(氧化剂)/V(焦化柴油))为0.2,催化剂用量(m(催化剂)/V(焦化柴油))为8 g/L,反应时间为60 min,萃取剂用量(V(萃取剂)/V(焦化柴油))为1.0,萃取时间为30 min的最佳工艺条件下,焦化柴油的硫质量分数可从1.05×10-3下降为42×10-6.%The deep desulfurization of coking diesel was investigated by catalytic oxidation -extraction- adsorption combination process with quaternary ammonium phosphomolybdate as catalyst,trifluoroacetic acid as oxidant, furfural as extractant.The results showed that under the optimal condition of reaction temperature of 60 ℃, volume ratio of oxidant to coking diesel of 0.2, catalyst mass concentration in coking diesel of 8 g/L, reaction time of 60 min,volume ratio of extractant to coking diesel of 1.0 and extraction time of 30 min, the mass fraction of sulfur in coking diesel could decrease from 1.05 × 10-3 to 42 × 10-6

  19. A Close Analysis of Developments in Diesel Engine Emission Reduction Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghav Ahuja

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Diesel engines have the potential to significantly increase vehicle fuel economy and decrease CO 2 emissions; however, efficient removal of NO x and particulate matter from the engine exhaust is required to meet stringent emission standards. Diesel aftertreatment systems being used consists of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC, a urea-based Selective Catalyst Reduction (SCR catalyst and a diesel particulate filter (DPF, and is widely used to meet the most recent NO x (nitrogen oxides comprising NO and NO 2 and particulate matter (PM emission standards for medium and heavy-duty sport utility and truck vehicles. The most efficient way and the best available technology (BAT to radically reduce the critical Diesel emission components particles (PM&NP and nitric oxides (NO x are combined exhaust gas aftertreatment systems (DPF+SCR. SCR (selective catalytic reduction is regarded as the most efficient deNO x -system, diesel particle filters are most efficient for soot abatement. Today, several suppliers offer combined systems for retrofitting of HD vehicles.

  20. Adaptive determination of cut-off frequencies for filtering the in-cylinder pressure in Diesel engines combustion analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Payri González, Francisco; Olmeda González, Pablo Cesar; Guardiola García, Carlos; Martín Díaz, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In-cylinder pressure analysis is a key tool for engine research and diagnosis and it has been object of study from the beginning of the internal combustion engines. One of its most useful application is combustion analysis on the basis of the First Law of Thermodynamics. However, heat release law calculations use the in-cylinder pressure derivative signal. Hence, the noise is increased and pressure filtering becomes necessary to remove high frequency noise, thus allowing f...

  1. Diesel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil ... Diesel oil ... Diesel oil poisoning can cause symptoms in many parts of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT Loss of ... most dangerous effects of hydrocarbon (such as diesel oil) poisoning are due to inhaling the fumes. NERVOUS ...

  2. SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION (SCR OF NO BY AMMONIA OVER V2O5/TiO2 CATALYST IN A CATALYTIC FILTER MEDIUM AND HONEYCOMB REACTOR: A KINETIC MODELING STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nahavandi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study addresses a numerical modeling and simulation based on the available knowledge of SCR kinetics for prediction of NO conversion over a V2O3/TiO3 catalyst through a catalytic filter medium and honeycomb reactor. After introducing the NH3-SCR system with specific operational criteria, a reactor model was developed to evaluate the effect of various operating parameters such as flue gas temperature, velocity, NH3/NO molar ratio, etc., on the SCR process. Computational investigations were performed based on the proposed model and optimum operational conditions were identified. Simulation results indicate that SCR performance is substantially under the effects of reactant concentration and operating temperature, so that the concentration of unreacted ammonia emitted from reactor discharge (ammonia slip increases significantly at NH3/NO ratios of more than 1.14 and operating temperatures less than 360 ºC and 300 ºC, respectively, in the catalytic filter medium and honeycomb reactor. The results also show that there are three sections in NO conversion variation versus changing temperature and the required conversion with a maximum of almost 87% and low level of ammonia slip can be achieved at the NH3/NO ratio of 1 and temperature range of 240–360 ºC in both reactors.

  3. A Review on Diesel Soot Emission, its Effect and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Prasad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The diesel engines are energy efficient, but their particulate (soot emissions are responsible of severe environmental and health problems. This review provides a survey on published information regarding diesel soot emission, its adverse effects on the human health, environment, vegetations, climate, etc. The legislations to limit diesel emissions and ways to minimize soot emission are also summarized. Soot particles are suspected to the development of cancer; cardiovascular and respiratory health effects; pollution of air, water, and soil; impact agriculture productivity, soiling of buildings; reductions in visibility; and global climate change. The review covers important recent developments on technologies for control of particulate matter (PM; diesel particulate filters (DPFs, summarizing new filter and catalyst materials and DPM measurement. DPF technology is in a state of optimization and cost reduction. New DPF regeneration strategies (active, passive and plasma-assisted regenerations as well as the new learning on the fundamentals of soot/catalyst interaction are described. Recent developments in diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC are also summarized showing potential issues with advanced combustion strategies, important interactions on NO2 formation, and new formulations for durability. Finally, systematic compilation of the concerned newer literature on catalytic oxidation of soot in a well conceivable tabular form is given. A total of 156 references are cited. ©2010 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved(Received: 2nd June 2010, Revised: 17th June 2010; Accepted: 24th June 2010[How to Cite: R. Prasad, V.R. Bella. (2010. Review on Diesel Soot Emission, its Effect and Control. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 5(2: 69-86. doi:10.9767/bcrec.5.2.794.69-86][DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.5.2.794.69-86 || or local:   http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/794 ]Cited by in: ACS 1 |

  4. 基于阻力的齿轮型木纤维尾气微粒捕集器滤芯设计及试验%Design and experiment of gear-shaped diesel offgas particulate filter based on resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭秀荣; 梁中钰; 杜丹丰; 亓占丰; 李明宝; 刘跃雄

    2015-01-01

    Micron wood fiber is a kind of porous biological materials that can be applied to filter PM emitted by diesel engine. In this paper in order to increase the filtration area and decrease filtration resistance, a wood fiber filter, of which the internal structure was hollow and external structure like gear was developed, the advantages of which were low price, less requirement for diesel quality and large adsorption capacity for PM. In these respects, the gear-shaped wood fiber filter was promising in developing countries where the sulphur content was high in diesel oil. This gear-shaped wood fiber filter can be installed in a detachable DPF case where the temperature inside can be controlled below 220℃ and after reaching the end of its estimated useful lifetime it can be replaced easily. First of all, the pressure loss and structural parameters model of the diesel particulate filter (DPF) based on resistance were built. Referring to the existing research and empirical formula, the filtration resistance of the gear-shaped filters can be expressed by theoretical formula about tooth height, nominal pressure angle and the filter thickness. By analyzing through software Matlab, the tooth height, filter thicknessand nominal pressure angle can be obtained. Furthermore, the tooth thickness and the teeth number can be obtained by some mathematic formula about gear. Then the optimal size of the gear-shaped wood fiber filter was figured out by numerical calculation and analysis. Lastly, the resistance changes of the gear-shaped wood fiber filter with different structural parameters were analyzed by the engine bench. In the test, we developed 8 gear-shaped filters with different structure parameters according to the simulation results and set the speed and the load of the engine kept at 2 200 r/min and 50%. The test results showed that when the diameter and height of the DPF case was 140 and 150 mm respectively, the parameters of the filter, whose tooth thickness was 23.27 mm

  5. Dusts, a pollutant from the past and future. Advancements in diesel particulate removal, and remaining issues; Les poussieres un polluant du passe et d`avenir. L`epuration des particules diesel le progres realise et les problemes a resoudre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevrier, M. [Renault S.A. (France)

    1996-12-31

    Major advancements have been realized for the reduction of particulate emissions from diesel engines, with better-designed engines, enhancement of injection and combustion, etc., but due to new European pollution regulations, developments of catalytic post-treatments such as the DeNOx catalysis (followed by an oxidation catalysis for the destruction of hydrocarbons necessitated by DeNOx catalysis), particulate filters with additive-assisted combustion, or even electrically assisted particulate combustion, are required. Optimized diesel fuels, such as the Swedish city fuel, could be an other solution

  6. Diesel/biodiesel soot oxidation with ceo2 and ceo2-zro2-modified cordierites: a facile way of accounting for their catalytic ability in fuel combustion processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo F. Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available CeO2 and mixed CeO2-ZrO2 nanopowders were synthesized and efficiently deposited onto cordierite substrates, with the evaluation of their morphologic and structural properties through XRD, SEM, and FTIR. The modified substrates were employed as outer heterogeneous catalysts for reducing the soot originated from the diesel and diesel/biodiesel blends incomplete combustion. Their activity was evaluated in a diesel stationary motor, and a comparative analysis of the soot emission was carried out through diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The analyses have shown that the catalyst-impregnated cordierite samples are very efficient for soot oxidation, being capable of reducing the soot emission in more than 60%.

  7. Roles of catalytic oxidation in control of vehicle exhaust emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalytic oxidation was initially associated with the early development of catalysis and it subsequently became a part of many industrial processes, so it is not surprising it was used to remove hydrocarbons and CO when it became necessary to control these emissions from cars. Later NOx was reduced in a process involving reduction over a Pt/Rh catalyst followed by air injection in front of a Pt-based oxidation catalyst. If over-reduction of NO to NH3 took place, or if H2S was produced, it was important these undesirable species were converted to NOx and SOx in the catalytic oxidation stage. When exhaust gas composition could be kept stoichiometric hydrocarbons, CO and NOx were simultaneously converted over a single Pt/Rh three-way catalyst (TWC). With modern TWCs car tailpipe emissions can be exceptionally low. NO is not catalytically dissociated to O2 and N2 in the presence of O2, it can only be reduced to N2. Its control from lean-burn gasoline engines involves catalytic oxidation to NO2 and thence nitrate that is stored and periodically reduced to N2 by exhaust gas enrichment. This method is being modified for diesel engines. These engines produce soot, and filtration is being introduced to remove it. The exhaust temperature of heavy-duty diesels is sufficient (250-400oC) for NO to be catalytically oxidised to NO2 over an upstream platinum catalyst that smoothly oxidises soot in the filter. The exhaust gas temperature of passenger car diesels is too low for this to take place all of the time, so trapped soot is periodically burnt in O2 above 550oC. Catalytic oxidation of higher than normal amounts of hydrocarbon and CO over an upstream catalyst is used to give sufficient temperature for soot combustion with O2 to take place. (author)

  8. Diesel Engine Idling Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Zirker; James Francfort; Jordon Fielding

    2006-02-01

    In support of the Department of Energy’s FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technology Program Office goal to minimize diesel engine idling and reduce the consumption of millions of gallons of diesel fuel consumed during heavy vehicle idling periods, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) conducted tests to characterize diesel engine wear rates caused by extended periods of idling. INL idled two fleet buses equipped with Detroit Diesel Series 50 engines, each for 1,000 hours. Engine wear metals were characterized from weekly oil analysis samples and destructive filter analyses. Full-flow and the bypass filter cartridges were removed at four stages of the testing and sent to an oil analysis laboratory for destructive analysis to ascertain the metals captured in the filters and to establish wear rate trends. Weekly samples were sent to two independent oil analysis laboratories. Concurrent with the filter analysis, a comprehensive array of other laboratory tests ascertained the condition of the oil, wear particle types, and ferrous particles. Extensive ferrogram testing physically showed the concentration of iron particles and associated debris in the oil. The tests results did not show the dramatic results anticipated but did show wear trends. New West Technologies, LLC, a DOE support company, supplied technical support and data analysis throughout the idle test.

  9. Test/QA plan for the verification testing of selective catalytic reduction control technologies for highway, nonroad use heavy-duty diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    This ETV test/QA plan for heavy-duty diesel engine testing at the Southwest Research Institute’s Department of Emissions Research (DER) describes how the Federal Test Procedure (FTP), as listed in 40 CFR Part 86 for highway engines and 40 CFR Part 89 for nonroad engines, will be ...

  10. Catalytic diesel oil processing route selection and economy analysis%催化柴油加工路线选择及经济性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张寒; 王吉云

    2015-01-01

    After the diesel quality upgrading to the national standard of grade III or superior to grade III ,hydrogenation processing is necessary for FCC diesel of WEPEC .By analyzing the compo‐nents of the diesel pool and selecting the available processing route of WEPEC ,the results showed that the hydrogen consumption ,energy consumption and processing costs of the process configuration were lower than those of the hydrocracking unit in 129 m3/t ,12 .5 × 104 kJ/t and RMB 47 .9 yuan/t u‐nits after the hydroprocessing of the diesel oil .Therefore ,in the premise of avoiding over‐temperature of the reactor bed ,the most economic route of WEPEC is to blend FCC diesel oil as much as possible .%在柴油质量升级为国Ⅲ或国Ⅲ以上标准后,催化裂化柴油都必须经过加氢处理。WEPEC对柴油池组分及催化裂化柴油可利用的加工路线进行了分析,结果表明,对于采用的加工流程配置,催化柴油经柴油加氢装置处理后,其氢耗、能耗和加工费分别低于加氢裂化装置129 m3/t、12.5×104 kJ/t和47.9元/t。因此,柴油加氢装置在确保反应器床层不超温的情况下,最大量的掺炼催化柴油是WEPEC首选的经济性途径。

  11. Impact of Fuel Metal Impurities on the Durability of a Light-Duty Diesel Aftertreatment System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, A.; Burton, J.; McCormick, R. L.; Toops, T.; Wereszczak, A. A.; Fox, E. E.; Lance, M. J.; Cavataio, G.; Dobson, D.; Warner, J.; Brezny, R.; Nguyen, K.; Brookshear, D. W.

    2013-04-01

    Alkali and alkaline earth metal impurities found in diesel fuels are potential poisons for diesel exhaust catalysts. A set of diesel engine production exhaust systems was aged to 150,000 miles. These exhaust systems included a diesel oxidation catalyst, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst, and diesel particulate filter (DPF). Four separate exhaust systems were aged, each with a different fuel: ultralow sulfur diesel containing no measureable metals, B20 (a common biodiesel blend) containing sodium, B20 containing potassium, and B20 containing calcium, which were selected to simulate the maximum allowable levels in B100 according to ASTM D6751. Analysis included Federal Test Procedure emissions testing, bench-flow reactor testing of catalyst cores, electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), and measurement of thermo-mechanical properties of the DPFs. EPMA imaging found that the sodium and potassium penetrated into the washcoat, while calcium remained on the surface. Bench-flow reactor experiments were used to measure the standard nitrogen oxide (NOx) conversion, ammonia storage, and ammonia oxidation for each of the aged SCR catalysts. Vehicle emissions tests were conducted with each of the aged catalyst systems using a chassis dynamometer. The vehicle successfully passed the 0.2 gram/mile NOx emission standard with each of the four aged exhaust systems.

  12. Development of a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for detection and quantification of urea thermal decomposition by-products in emission from diesel engine employing selective catalytic reduction technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassine, Mahmoud M; Dabek-Zlotorzynska, Ewa; Celo, Valbona

    2012-03-16

    The use of urea based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the reduction of NOx from the exhaust of diesel-powered vehicles has the potential to emit at least six thermal decomposition by-products, ammonia, and unreacted urea from the tailpipe. These compounds may include: biuret, dicyandiamine, cyanuric acid, ammelide, ammeline and melamine. In the present study, a simple, sensitive and reliable hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC)-electrospray ionization (ESI)/mass spectrometry (MS) method without complex sample pre-treatment was developed for identification and determination of urea decomposition by-products in diesel exhaust. Gradient separation was performed on a SeQuant ZIC-HILIC column with a highly polar zwitterionic stationary phase, and using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile (eluent A) and 15 mM ammonium formate (pH 6; eluent B). Detection and quantification were performed using a quadrupole ESI/MS operated simultaneously in negative and positive mode. With 10 μL injection volume, LODs for all target analytes were in the range of 0.2-3 μg/L. The method showed a good inter-day precision of retention time (RSDfilter (DPF) and urea based SCR technology showed the presence of five target analytes with cyanuric acid and ammelide the most abundant compounds in the exhaust.

  13. Isothermal Kinetics of Catalyzed Air Oxidation of Diesel Soot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Prasad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To comply with the stringent emission regulations on soot, diesel vehicles manufacturers more and more commonly use diesel particulate filters (DPF. These systems need to be regenerated periodically by burning soot that has been accumulated during the loading of the DPF. Design of the DPF requires rate of soot oxidation. This paper describes the kinetics of catalytic oxidation of diesel soot with air under isothermal conditions. Kinetics data were collected in a specially designed mini-semi-batch reactor. Under the high air flow rate assuming pseudo first order reaction the activation energy of soot oxidation was found to be, Ea = 160 kJ/ mol. ©2010 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved(Received: 14th June 2010, Revised: 18th July 2010, Accepted: 9th August 2010[How to Cite: R. Prasad, V.R. Bella. (2010. Isothermal Kinetics of Catalyzed Air Oxidation of Diesel Soot. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 5(2: 95-101. doi:10.9767/bcrec.5.2.796.95-101][DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.5.2.796.95-101 || or local:  http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/796]Cited by in: ACS 1 |

  14. GENERIC VERIFICATION PROTOCOL FOR DETERMINATION OF EMISSIONS REDUCTIONS FROM SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTIONS CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR HIGHWAY, NONROAD, AND STATIONARY USE DIESEL ENGINES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protocol describes the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program's considerations and requirements for verification of emissions reduction provided by selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technologies. The basis of the ETV will be comparison of the emissions and perf...

  15. Catalytic combustion of diesel soot over K2NiF4-type oxides La2-xKxCuO4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Ling; WANG Xuezhong; LIANG Cunzhen

    2008-01-01

    Nanostructure K2NiF4 type oxides La2-xKxCuO4 complex oxides were prepared using the Sol-Gel method, characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The catalytic activity for soot combustion was evaluated by the Temperature-Programmed Reaction (TPO) technique. The results demonstrated that the substitution quality of K+ for La3+ at the A-site would increase the catalytic activities of La2-xKxCuO4 for soot combustion greatly; the substitution quality affected the structure and catalytic activity obviously. The La1.8K0.2CuO4 complex oxides with tetrahedral structures had the best catalytic activity for soot combustion, and the ignition temperature of soot combustion was lowered from 490 to 320 °C.

  16. Catalytic control of diesel engine particulate emission: studies on model reactions over a EURO Pt-1 (Pt/SiO2) catalyst

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, E.; Seshan, K.; Ommen, van, B.; Ross, J.R.H.

    1993-01-01

    The catalytic oxidation of nitric oxide to nitrogen dioxide in the presence of sulphur dioxide over a standard Pt/SiO2 catalyst (EuroPt-1) was studied. The gas-phase reactions between nitric oxide, sulphur dioxide and oxygen were found to be insignificant under the experimental conditions concerned. The Pt/SiO2 catalyst was observed to be very active in catalyzing the reactions both of NO + O2 to NO2 and of SO2 + O2 to SO3. In the presence of sulphur dioxide, the catalytic activity for nitric...

  17. 季铵盐型表面活性剂催化氧化柴油脱硫研究%Study on catalytic oxidation desulfurization of diesel by quaternary ammonium gemini surfactant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵田红; 张燕; 夏吉佳; 黄晓川

    2014-01-01

    Catalytic oxidation desulfurization of diesel in the H2O2/acetate oxidative diesel des-ulfurization system by quaternary ammonium surfactants and quaternary ammonium Gemini sur-factants as phase transfer catalyst (PTC) was studied .The desulfurization effect of quaternary ammonium surfactants and quaternary ammonium Gemini surfactants with different carbon chain was compared .Furthermore ,the effects of [C12H25-N+-(CH2)2-N+-C12H25]· 2Br-dosage ,oxi-dant dosage ,reaction temperature and reaction time on the desulfurization performance were in-vestigated .The result showed that the desulfurization rate of diesel fuel could be up to 84 .76%and the diesel yield reached 94 .52% while the mass ratio of PTC and diesel fuel was 0.002 5 and volume ratio of oxidation system and diesel fuel was 0.2 after 1.5h in reaction at 70 ℃ ,taking [C12H25-N+-(CH2)2-N+-C12H25] · 2Br-as the phase transfer catalyst .%在H2 O2/醋酸氧化柴油体系中,采用季铵盐型表面活性剂和季铵盐型Gemini表面活性剂作为相转移催化剂(PTC),进行柴油的催化氧化脱硫研究。比较了不同碳链长度的季铵盐型表面活性剂和季铵盐型Gemini表面活性剂的脱硫效果,考察了双子表面活性剂[C12 H25-N+-(C H2)2-N+-C12 H25]·2Br -(C12-2-C12·2Br -)用量、氧化剂用量、反应温度以及反应时间对脱硫效果的影响。结果表明,以C12-2-C12·2Br -作为相转移催化剂,m(PTC)∶ m(柴油)=0.0025,V (氧化体系)∶V(柴油)=0.2,反应温度为70℃,反应时间为1.5 h 时,柴油脱硫率最高可达84.76%,柴油收率为94.52%。

  18. Toxicological effects of emission particles from fossil- and biodiesel-fueled diesel engine with and without DOC/POC catalytic converter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalava, Pasi I; Tapanainen, Maija; Kuuspalo, Kari; Markkanen, Ari; Hakulinen, Pasi; Happo, Mikko S; Pennanen, Arto S; Ihalainen, Mika; Yli-Pirilä, Pasi; Makkonen, Ulla; Teinilä, Kimmo; Mäki-Paakkanen, Jorma; Salonen, Raimo O; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta

    2010-12-01

    There is increasing demand for renewable energy and the use of biodiesel in traffic is a major option when implying this increment. We investigated the toxicological activities of particulate emissions from a nonroad diesel engine, operated with conventional diesel fuel (EN590), and two biodiesels: rapeseed methyl ester (RME) and hydrotreated fresh vegetable oil (HVO). The engine was operated with all fuels either with or without catalyst (DOC/POC). The particulate matter (PM(1)) samples were collected from the dilution tunnel with a high-volume cascade impactor (HVCI). These samples were characterized for ions, elements, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. Mouse RAW264.7 macrophages were exposed to the PM samples for 24 h. Inflammatory mediators, (TNF-α and MIP-2), cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and oxidative stress (reactive oxygen species [ROS]) were measured. All the samples displayed mostly dose-dependent toxicological activity. EN590 and HVO emission particles had larger inflammatory responses than RME-derived particles. The catalyst somewhat increased the responses per the same mass unit. There were no substantial differences in the cytotoxic responses between the fuels or catalyst use. Genotoxic responses by all the particulate samples were at same level, except weaker for the RME sample with catalyst. Unlike other samples, EN590-derived particles did not significantly increase ROS production. Catalyst increased the oxidative potential of the EN590 and HVO-derived particles, but decreased that with RME. Overall, the use of biodiesel fuels and catalyst decreased the particulate mass emissions compared with the EN590 fuel. Similar studies with different types of diesel engines are needed to assess the potential benefits from biofuel use in engines with modern technologies. PMID:21029031

  19. Influence of particulate trap oxidizers on emission of mutagenic compounds by diesel automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, R E; Devillez, G; Smith, L R

    1989-06-01

    Diesel exhaust particles are known to contain mutagenic and carcinogenic chemicals. The aim of this study was to determine whether, and to what extent, catalytic particulate trap oxidizers on light-duty diesel engines may reduce the emission of particle-associated mutagenic chemicals into the environment. Exhaust particles were collected from Mercedes Benz and Volkswagen diesel automobiles, equipped with or without the manufacturer's exhaust traps, while running on a chassis dynamometer under specified load conditions. Exhaust particles were collected from a dilution tunnel onto 20" X 20" Teflon-coated fiberglass filters. Mutagenesis tests of dichloromethane (DCM) extracts of the particles were conducted using the Ames Salmonella bacterial test system. The mutation rate was calculated in terms of histidine revertants per mile of travel during a set of standard test cycles. With both vehicles the traps produced an 87-92% reduction in the total amount of particulate material collected by the filters. There was no significant change in the specific mutagenic activity (revertants per microgram of DCM particle extract) with or without the traps. These studies support the notion that installation of exhaust traps which reduce particulate emission on diesel-powered vehicles will also reduce the emission of particle-associated mutagenic and carcinogenic materials into the environment. PMID:2473105

  20. Influence of particulate trap oxidizers on emission of mutagenic compounds by diesel automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, R E; Devillez, G; Smith, L R

    1989-06-01

    Diesel exhaust particles are known to contain mutagenic and carcinogenic chemicals. The aim of this study was to determine whether, and to what extent, catalytic particulate trap oxidizers on light-duty diesel engines may reduce the emission of particle-associated mutagenic chemicals into the environment. Exhaust particles were collected from Mercedes Benz and Volkswagen diesel automobiles, equipped with or without the manufacturer's exhaust traps, while running on a chassis dynamometer under specified load conditions. Exhaust particles were collected from a dilution tunnel onto 20" X 20" Teflon-coated fiberglass filters. Mutagenesis tests of dichloromethane (DCM) extracts of the particles were conducted using the Ames Salmonella bacterial test system. The mutation rate was calculated in terms of histidine revertants per mile of travel during a set of standard test cycles. With both vehicles the traps produced an 87-92% reduction in the total amount of particulate material collected by the filters. There was no significant change in the specific mutagenic activity (revertants per microgram of DCM particle extract) with or without the traps. These studies support the notion that installation of exhaust traps which reduce particulate emission on diesel-powered vehicles will also reduce the emission of particle-associated mutagenic and carcinogenic materials into the environment.

  1. Emissions of PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and PAHs from legacy on-road heavy-duty diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroo, Christopher A; Schenk, Charles R; Sanchez, L James; McDonald, Joseph; Smith, Peter L

    2012-11-01

    Exhaust emissions of seventeen 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/furan (PCDD/F) congeners, tetra-octa PCDD/F homologues, 12 WHO 2005 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, mono-nona chlorinated biphenyl homologues, and 19 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from three legacy diesel engines were investigated. The three engines tested were a 1985 model year GM 6.2J-series engine, a 1987 model year Detroit Diesel Corporation 6V92 engine, and a 1993 model year Cummins L10 engine. Results were compared to United States' mobile source inventory for on-road diesel engines, as well as historic and modern diesel engine emission values. The test fuel contained chlorine at 9.8 ppm which is 1.5 orders of magnitude above what is found in current diesel fuel and 3900 ppm sulfur to simulate fuels that would have been available when these engines were produced. Results indicate PCDD/F emissions of 13.1, 7.1, and 13.6 pg International Toxic Equivalency (I-TEQ)L(-1) fuel consumed for the three engines respectively, where non-detects are equal to zero. This compares with a United States' mobile source on-road diesel engine inventory value of 946 pg I-TEQL(-1) fuel consumed and 1.28 pg I-TEQL(-1) fuel consumed for modern engines equipped with a catalyzed diesel particle filter and urea selective catalytic reduction. PCB emissions are 2 orders of magnitude greater than modern diesel engines. PAH results are representative of engines from this era based on historical values and are 3-4 orders of magnitude greater than modern diesel engines.

  2. The effect of soot on ammonium nitrate species and NO2 selective catalytic reduction over Cu-zeolite catalyst-coated particulate filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihai, Oana; Tamm, Stefanie; Stenfeldt, Marie; Olsson, Louise

    2016-02-28

    A selective catalytic reduction (SCR)-coated particulate filter was evaluated by means of dynamic tests performed using NH3, NO2, O2 and H2O. The reactions were examined both prior to and after soot removal in order to study the effect of soot on ammonium nitrate formation and decomposition, ammonia storage and NO2 SCR. A slightly larger ammonia storage capacity was observed when soot was present in the sample, which indicated that small amounts of ammonia can adsorb on the soot. Feeding of NO2 and NH3 in the presence of O2 and H2O at low temperature (150, 175 and 200°C) leads to a large formation of ammonium nitrate species and during the subsequent temperature ramp using H2O and argon, a production of nitrous oxides was observed. The N2O formation is often related to ammonium nitrate decomposition, and our results showed that the N2O formation was clearly decreased by the presence of soot. We therefore propose that in the presence of soot, there are fewer ammonium nitrate species on the surface due to the interactions with the soot. Indeed, we do observe CO2 production during the reaction conditions also at 150°C, which shows that there is a reaction with these species and soot. In addition, the conversion of NOx due to NO2 SCR was significantly enhanced in the presence of soot; we attribute this to the smaller amount of ammonium nitrate species present in the experiments where soot is available since it is well known that ammonium nitrate formation is a major problem at low temperature due to the blocking of the catalytic sites. Further, a scanning electron microscopy analysis of the soot particles shows that they are about 30-40 nm and are therefore too large to enter the pores of the zeolites. There are likely CuxOy or other copper species available on the outside of the zeolite crystallites, which could have been enhanced due to the hydrothermal treatment at 850°C of the SCR-coated filter prior to the soot loading. We therefore propose that soot is

  3. The effect of soot on ammonium nitrate species and NO2 selective catalytic reduction over Cu-zeolite catalyst-coated particulate filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihai, Oana; Tamm, Stefanie; Stenfeldt, Marie; Olsson, Louise

    2016-02-28

    A selective catalytic reduction (SCR)-coated particulate filter was evaluated by means of dynamic tests performed using NH3, NO2, O2 and H2O. The reactions were examined both prior to and after soot removal in order to study the effect of soot on ammonium nitrate formation and decomposition, ammonia storage and NO2 SCR. A slightly larger ammonia storage capacity was observed when soot was present in the sample, which indicated that small amounts of ammonia can adsorb on the soot. Feeding of NO2 and NH3 in the presence of O2 and H2O at low temperature (150, 175 and 200°C) leads to a large formation of ammonium nitrate species and during the subsequent temperature ramp using H2O and argon, a production of nitrous oxides was observed. The N2O formation is often related to ammonium nitrate decomposition, and our results showed that the N2O formation was clearly decreased by the presence of soot. We therefore propose that in the presence of soot, there are fewer ammonium nitrate species on the surface due to the interactions with the soot. Indeed, we do observe CO2 production during the reaction conditions also at 150°C, which shows that there is a reaction with these species and soot. In addition, the conversion of NOx due to NO2 SCR was significantly enhanced in the presence of soot; we attribute this to the smaller amount of ammonium nitrate species present in the experiments where soot is available since it is well known that ammonium nitrate formation is a major problem at low temperature due to the blocking of the catalytic sites. Further, a scanning electron microscopy analysis of the soot particles shows that they are about 30-40 nm and are therefore too large to enter the pores of the zeolites. There are likely CuxOy or other copper species available on the outside of the zeolite crystallites, which could have been enhanced due to the hydrothermal treatment at 850°C of the SCR-coated filter prior to the soot loading. We therefore propose that soot is

  4. Emissions of PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and PAHs from a modern diesel engine equipped with catalyzed emission control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroo, Christopher A; Schenk, Charles R; Sanchez, L James; McDonald, Joseph

    2011-08-01

    Exhaust emissions of 17 2,3,7,8-substituted chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/furan (CDD/F) congeners, tetra-octa CDD/F homologues, 12 2005 WHO chlorinated biphenyls (CB) congeners, mono-nona CB homologues, and 19 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from a model year 2008 Cummins ISB engine were investigated. Testing included configurations composed of different combinations of aftertreatment including a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), catalyzed diesel particulate filter (CDPF), copper zeolite urea selective catalytic reduction (SCR), iron zeolite SCR, and ammonia slip catalyst. Results were compared to a baseline engine out configuration. Testing included the use of fuel that contained the maximum expected chlorine (Cl) concentration of U.S. highway diesel fuel and a Cl level 1.5 orders of magnitude above. Results indicate there is no risk for an increase in polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/furan and polychlorinated biphenyl emissions from modern diesel engines with catalyzed aftertreatment when compared to engine out emissions for configurations tested in this program. These results, along with PAH results, compare well with similar results from modern diesel engines in the literature. The results further indicate that polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/furan emissions from modern diesel engines both with and without aftertreatment are below historical values reported in the literature as well as the current inventory value.

  5. The catalytic behavior of La-Mn-O nanoparticle perovskite-type oxide catalysts for the combustion of the soot particle from the diesel engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hong; ZHAO Zhen; XU Chunming; LIU Jian; LU Zhixiao

    2005-01-01

    The La1-xMx MnO3(M=Li, Na, K, Rb, x=0, 0.10, 0.25) perovskite-type oxides whose sizes are nanoparticle have been prepared by the citric acid-ligated method. The characters of the catalysts were characterized by means of XRD, IR, SEM and BET surface area measurement. The catalytic activity for the combustion of soot particulate was evaluated by a technique of the temperature-programmed reaction. In the LaMnO3 catalyst, the partial substitution of alkali metal (Li, Na, K, Rb) into A-site enhanced the catalytic activity for the combustion of soot particle. The La0.75K0.25MnO3 oxides are good candidate catalysts for the soot particle removal reaction, and the combustion temperatures of soot particle are between 285℃ and 430℃ when the contact of catalysts and soot is loose, and their catalytic activities for the combustion of soot particle are as good as supported Pt catalysts, which is the best catalyst system so far reported for soot combustion under loose contact conditions.

  6. Simultaneous catalytic removal of NOx and diesel PM over La0.9 K0.1 CoO3 catalyst assisted by plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI Mei-xiang; LIN He; SHANGGUAN Wen-feng; HUANG Zhen

    2005-01-01

    The simultaneous removal of NOx and particulate matter(PM) from diesel exhaust is investigated over a mixed metal oxide catalyst of La0.9 K0.1 CoO3 loaded on γ-Al2O3 spherules with the assistant of plasma. It was found that NOx was reduced by PM in oxygen rich atmosphere, the CO2 and N2 were produced in the same temperature window without considering the N2 formed by plasma decomposition. As a result, the temperature for the PM combustion decreases and the reduction efficiency of NOx to N2 increases during the plasma process, which indicated that the activity of the catalyst can be improved by plasma. The NOx is decomposed by plasma at both low temperature and high temperature. Therefore, the whole efficiency of NOx conversion is enhanced.

  7. Variability in onset of ECG changes indicative of ischemia after exposure to whole vs filtered diesel exhaust in hypertensive rats. Insight on mechanism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesel exhaust (DE) is a complex mixture of gases including C02, O2, N02, CO, aldehydes, benzene, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as well as highly respirable particulate matter. DE is a significant component of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution, which its...

  8. Characteristics of particle number and mass emissions during heavy-duty diesel truck parked active DPF regeneration in an ambient air dilution tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seungju; Quiros, David C.; Dwyer, Harry A.; Collins, John F.; Burnitzki, Mark; Chernich, Donald; Herner, Jorn D.

    2015-12-01

    Diesel particle number and mass emissions were measured during parked active regeneration of diesel particulate filters (DPF) in two heavy-duty diesel trucks: one equipped with a DPF and one equipped with a DPF + SCR (selective catalytic reduction), and compliant with the 2007 and 2010 emission standards, respectively. The emission measurements were conducted using an ambient air dilution tunnel. During parked active regeneration, particulate matter (PM) mass emissions measured from a 2007 technology truck were significantly higher than the emissions from a 2010 technology truck. Particle number emissions from both trucks were dominated by nucleation mode particles having a diameter less than 50 nm; nucleation mode particles were orders of magnitude higher than accumulation mode particles having a diameter greater than 50 nm. Accumulation mode particles contributed 77.8 %-95.8 % of the 2007 truck PM mass, but only 7.3 %-28.2 % of the 2010 truck PM mass.

  9. 汽车尾气微粒过滤器喷油助燃再生控制策略研究%Study on regeneration strategy for a burner-type diesel particulate filter of automobiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚金科; 伏军; 龙罡; 刘湘玲; 贾国海; 余明果

    2011-01-01

    Diesel particulate filter (DPF) has been a current hot topic in paniculate emission control for diesel engine automobiles. To take burner-type DPF for example, regeneration control problem was studied. Based on method of exhaust back-pressure to judge DPF regeneration time, working principle of regeneration control system was introduced. To design the test-bed for diesel engine with a burner-type DPF, and gather the realtime fuel consumption and DPF back-pressure, the DPF regeneration exhaust back-pressure MAP was built with MATLAB. To control DPF regeneration by the MAP under random working condition, the changes of real-time exhaust back-pressure and regeneration temperature in the filter were studied and analyzed during the set time. The results show that with the regeneration control strategy, the DPF regeneration could be safely completed with high regeneration efficiency. It provides the academic instruction for DPF practicality.%微粒过滤器(DPF)已成为当前柴油机汽车尾气微粒排放控制技术的研究热点,以其喷油助燃再生方式为例,对再生控制问题进行有益探索。基于排气背压法判断DPF再生时机,阐述其再生控制原理。设计装有DPF及其喷油助燃再生装置的发动机实验台架,实时采集油耗与DPF背压数据,利用MATLAB建立DPF再生排气背压MAP。随机选取发动机工况应用该MAP图控制DPF再生,在规定的再生时间里,实时测取过滤体排气背压及再生温度变化情况,结果表明,按设计的控制策略来再生DPF具有较高的再生效率,整个再生能在规定的时间内安全完成,为DPF的实用化提供了一定的理论基础。

  10. Particle and gaseous emissions from individual diesel and CNG buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallquist, Å. M.; Jerksjö, M.; Fallgren, H.; Westerlund, J.; Sjödin, Å.

    2013-05-01

    In this study size-resolved particle and gaseous emissions from 28 individual diesel-fuelled and 7 compressed natural gas (CNG)-fuelled buses, selected from an in-use bus fleet, were characterised for real-world dilution scenarios. The method used was based on using CO2 as a tracer of exhaust gas dilution. The particles were sampled by using an extractive sampling method and analysed with high time resolution instrumentation EEPS (10 Hz) and CO2 with a non-dispersive infrared gas analyser (LI-840, LI-COR Inc. 1 Hz). The gaseous constituents (CO, HC and NO) were measured by using a remote sensing device (AccuScan RSD 3000, Environmental System Products Inc.). Nitrogen oxides, NOx, were estimated from NO by using default NO2/NOx ratios from the road vehicle emission model HBEFA3.1. The buses studied were diesel-fuelled Euro III-V and CNG-fuelled Enhanced Environmentally Friendly Vehicles (EEVs) with different after-treatment, including selective catalytic reduction (SCR), exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and with and without diesel particulate filter (DPF). The primary driving mode applied in this study was accelerating mode. However, regarding the particle emissions also a constant speed mode was analysed. The investigated CNG buses emitted on average a higher number of particles but less mass compared to the diesel-fuelled buses. Emission factors for number of particles (EFPN) were EFPN, DPF = 4.4 ± 3.5 × 1014, EFPN, no DPF = 2.1 ± 1.0 × 1015 and EFPN, CNG = 7.8 ± 5.7 ×1015 kg fuel-1. In the accelerating mode, size-resolved emission factors (EFs) showed unimodal number size distributions with peak diameters of 70-90 nm and 10 nm for diesel and CNG buses, respectively. For the constant speed mode, bimodal average number size distributions were obtained for the diesel buses with peak modes of ~10 nm and ~60 nm. Emission factors for NOx expressed as NO2 equivalents for the diesel buses were on average 27 ± 7 g (kg fuel)-1 and for the CNG buses 41 ± 26 g (kg

  11. Particle and gaseous emissions from individual diesel and CNG buses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Å. M. Hallquist

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study size-resolved particle and gaseous emissions from 28 individual diesel-fuelled and 7 compressed natural gas (CNG-fuelled buses, selected from an in-use bus fleet, were characterised for real-world dilution scenarios. The method used was based on using CO2 as a tracer of exhaust gas dilution. The particles were sampled by using an extractive sampling method and analysed with high time resolution instrumentation EEPS (10 Hz and CO2 with a non-dispersive infrared gas analyser (LI-840, LI-COR Inc. 1 Hz. The gaseous constituents (CO, HC and NO were measured by using a remote sensing device (AccuScan RSD 3000, Environmental System Products Inc.. Nitrogen oxides, NOx, were estimated from NO by using default NO2/NOx ratios from the road vehicle emission model HBEFA3.1. The buses studied were diesel-fuelled Euro III–V and CNG-fuelled Enhanced Environmentally Friendly Vehicles (EEVs with different after-treatment, including selective catalytic reduction (SCR, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR and with and without diesel particulate filter (DPF. The primary driving mode applied in this study was accelerating mode. However, regarding the particle emissions also a constant speed mode was analysed. The investigated CNG buses emitted on average a higher number of particles but less mass compared to the diesel-fuelled buses. Emission factors for number of particles (EFPN were EFPN, DPF = 4.4 ± 3.5 × 1014, EFPN, no DPF = 2.1 ± 1.0 × 1015 and EFPN, CNG = 7.8 ± 5.7 ×1015 kg fuel−1. In the accelerating mode, size-resolved emission factors (EFs showed unimodal number size distributions with peak diameters of 70–90 nm and 10 nm for diesel and CNG buses, respectively. For the constant speed mode, bimodal average number size distributions were obtained for the diesel buses with peak modes of ~10 nm and ~60 nm. Emission factors for NOx expressed as NO2 equivalents for the diesel buses were on average 27 ± 7 g (kg fuel−1 and for the CNG buses 41

  12. Catalytic combustion of diesel soot on Co,K/MgO catalysts. Effect of the potassium loading on activity and stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Querini, C.A.; Cornaglia, L.M.; Ulla, M.A.; Miro, E.E. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Catalisis y Petroquimica - INCAPE, FIQ, UNL-CONICET, Santiago del Estero 2829, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina)

    1999-03-08

    Co,K/MgO catalysts with 12wt% of Co and 1.5, 4.5 and 7.5wt% of K, calcined at 400C are active for the combustion of diesel soot. Among them, the one containing 4.5wt% of K is that which burns soot at the lowest temperature (378C). Coincidentally, this is the catalyst presenting the highest K/Mg and K/O surface ratios in XPS measurements. When the calcination temperature is increased at 500C, both the solid containing 4.5% of K and the one containing 1.5% as well as the unpromoted catalyst (Co/MgO) noticeably lose activity due to the formation of a solid solution (Co, Mg). However, the solid with the highest K content (7.5wt%) presents a similar activity at different calcination temperatures (400C, 500C and 700C). It has been found that the activity of these solids is directly related to the reducibility of cobalt, thus indicating that the reaction is carried out by a redox mechanism. Potassium plays different roles in these catalysts: (1) it increases the catalyst-soot contact by increasing surface mobility, (2) it preserves the reducibility and dispersion of cobalt by improving stability against thermal treatments, and (3) it favors the oxidation of soot by consuming the carbon to form carbonate species during soot combustion. It was also found that soot with a higher content of sulfur (1050ppm) is more efficiently burned than that containing low amounts of sulfur (70ppm). However, the severe sulfation of the catalyst leads to a noticeable loss of activity. In experiments of carbon monoxide oxidation, it was found that conversion is practically total between 400C and 500C under the conditions used in this work. The direct impregnation of the soot with either Co or Co and K, showed lower combustion temperatures if compared with the mechanical mixtures of soot and Co/MgO or Co,K/MgO, suggesting that the soot-catalyst contact poses a physical limitation on the oxidation activity. This important result suggests that the soot-catalyst contacting problem is the main

  13. Poly-Acrylic Acid Derivatives as Diesel Flow Improver for Paraffin-Based Daqing Diesel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cuiyu Jiang; Ming Xu; Xiaoli Xi; Panlun Qi; Hongyan Shang

    2006-01-01

    Since the diesel products from paraffin-based Daqing crude oil showed low sensitivity to certain commercial diesel pour point depressant (PPDs) that resulted from the high content of paraffin, certain poly-acrylic acid derivatives (PADE) with-COOR,-COOH,-CONHR, and -COO-NH3+R groups by molecular design on the mechanics of diesel; PPDs were synthesized and evaluated as cold flow improver for Daqing 0# diesel in this paper. The pure PADE was superior to the commercial PPDs and displayed a substantial ability of wax crystals dispersion. There was a synergistic effect among the PADE and T1804 and secondary amine. The synergism clearly improved the low temperature performance of Daqing diesel products and could reduce the cold filter plugging point of 0# diesel by 6-7 ℃.

  14. NH3选择性还原NOx技术在重型柴油车尾气净化中的应用%Selective catalytic reduction of NOx by NH3 for heavy-duty diesel vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘福东; 单文坡; 潘大伟; 李腾英; 贺泓

    2014-01-01

    基于实验室对柴油车用V2O5-WO3/TiO2催化剂配方以及涂覆成型技术的大量研究,设计了一条产量为6000只/月的NH3选择性催化还原NOx (NH3-SCR)催化剂中试生产线,并对生产的催化剂产品进行了发动机台架测试。结果表明,实验室制备的V2O5-WO3/TiO2粉体催化剂和生产线产品,在空速为50000 h-1和200-450°C条件下NOx转化率均可达80%以上;采用大尺寸堇青石载体涂覆后制备的V2O5-WO3/TiO2整体催化剂经实验室小样测试,在空速为10000-30000 h-1和250-450°C条件下NOx转化率也为80%以上。发动机台架测试结果表明,该催化剂产品可使重型柴油机NOx排放达到国IV标准中欧洲稳态循环(ESC)和欧洲瞬态循环(ETC)排放限值的要求。该生产线经适当调整后也可用于生产非钒基NH3-SCR整体催化剂,以满足未来钒基NH3-SCR催化剂更新换代的需求。%A catalyst production line with a production capacity of 6000 catalyst monoliths per month for the selective catalytic reduction of NOx by NH3 (NH3-SCR) for NOx abatement in diesel vehicle exhaust was set up based on a detailed laboratory study of the catalyst formulation and washcoating tech-nology for V2O5-WO3/TiO2 catalyst. The catalyst produced by this line was tested on a bench scale diesel engine. The V2O5-WO3/TiO2 powder catalyst prepared in the laboratory and production line both achieved>80%NOx conversion at 200-450 °C and a GHSV of 50000 h-1. The washcoated cata-lyst used a large cordierite support and gave>80%NOx conversion at 250-450 °C and GHSVs of 10000-30000 h-1. The engine bench tests showed that after treatment by the catalyst, the NOx emis-sion met the European steady-state cycle (ESC) and European transient cycle (ETC) limits of the China IV standard. The production line can also be used for the production of vanadium-free NH3-SCR catalysts to meet the required replacement of the present vanadium-based NH3-SCR cata-lyst in the future.

  15. Progress of Research on Selective Catalytic Reduction Technology for Vehicle Diesel Engine%车用柴油机选择性催化还原技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楼狄明; 张正兴; 谭丕强; 马滨

    2009-01-01

    Selective Catalyst Reduction Technology (SCR) is at present the unique technology which can improve the emission and reduce oil consumption simultaneously. And SCR technology using NH_3 as reductant (NH_3-SCR) is most maturely developed and has the brightest foreground In this paper, the chemical reaction mechanism of Selective Catalytic Reduction technology was expatiated,and the effect of temperature on NO_x conversion rate was analyzed: the function of main parts of SCR system was introduced, as well as the specifications of AdBlue: a summarization of open loop and closed loop control strategies was made, and the advantages and disadvantages of each were analyzed; then the two different modes for the integration of SCR and DPF in diesel aftertreatment system were referred and contrasted: finally, the problems which block the popularization ofSCR was put forward.%选择性催化还原技术(SCR)是目前唯一可以同时改善柴油机排放和燃油经济性的氮氧化物(NO_x)净化技术,而以NH_2作为还原剂的SCR技术(NH_3-SCR)又是目前最成熟,最具推广前景的SCR技术.文章详细阐述了用于车用柴油机的NH_3-SCR技术的反应机理,介绍了温度对SCR反应的影响;列举了典型SCR系统的主要部件并介绍了各部分的功能,以及法规中对车用尿素水溶液(AdBiue)主要指标的规定;总结了目前应用较多的开环、闭环两种控制策略的工作流程及特点,并且分析了各自的优缺点;在柴油机后处理系统集成的角度对SCR与颗粒捕集器(DPF)的两种整合方案进行了分析,对比了两种方案的优缺点;最后分析了SCR技术目前存在的几个问题.

  16. 大型柴油机水箱方便拆卸屏风式透风过滤网%Detachable drafty screen-type filter in large diesel tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨子平

    2015-01-01

    Water tanks of the large-scale diesel engines are jammed frequently due to bad working conditions,where the contamination will flew into the hole of the tank deeply when lack of timely cleaning,while the clean up to the side of the tank may damage the fans within. The ventilated filter net is a protective screen between the fan and the water tank that resists the pass of the contamination. It can keep water tanks clean easily through the regular cleaning on it.%在野外钻井等自然条件比较恶劣的工作环境中,柴油机的水箱会经常污堵,清理不及时会使污堵物由水箱的进风表面进入水箱散热孔隙内部,而长期对于水箱侧面的清洗会造成对水箱叶片的破坏.透风过滤网是在风扇和水箱之间设置了一道阻挡污堵的屏障.通过定时的清理可保护水箱的清洁.

  17. Ceramic fiber filter technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, B.L.; Janney, M.A.

    1996-06-01

    Fibrous filters have been used for centuries to protect individuals from dust, disease, smoke, and other gases or particulates. In the 1970s and 1980s ceramic filters were developed for filtration of hot exhaust gases from diesel engines. Tubular, or candle, filters have been made to remove particles from gases in pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and gasification-combined-cycle power plants. Very efficient filtration is necessary in power plants to protect the turbine blades. The limited lifespan of ceramic candle filters has been a major obstacle in their development. The present work is focused on forming fibrous ceramic filters using a papermaking technique. These filters are highly porous and therefore very lightweight. The papermaking process consists of filtering a slurry of ceramic fibers through a steel screen to form paper. Papermaking and the selection of materials will be discussed, as well as preliminary results describing the geometry of papers and relative strengths.

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in exhaust emissions from diesel engines powered by rapeseed oil methylester and heated non-esterified rapeseed oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojtisek-Lom, Michal; Czerwinski, Jan; Leníček, Jan; Sekyra, Milan; Topinka, Jan

    2012-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of exhaust emissions were studied in four direct-injection turbocharged four-cylinder diesel engines, with power ratings of 90-136 kW. The engines were operated on biodiesel (B-100), a blend of 30% biodiesel in diesel fuel (B-30), and heated rapeseed oil (RO) in two independent laboratories. Diesel particle filters (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems were used with B-30 and B-100. Concentrations of individual PAHs sampled in different substrates (quartz, borosilicate fiber and fluorocarbon membrane filters, polyurethane foam) were analyzed using different methods. Benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalents (BaP TEQ) were calculated using different sets of toxic equivalency factors (TEF). Operation on B-100 without aftertreatment devices, compared to diesel fuel, yielded a mean reduction in PAHs of 73%, consistent across engines and among TEF used. A lower PAH reduction was obtained using B-30. The BaP TEQ reductions on DPF were 91-99% using B-100, for one non-catalyzed DPF, and over 99% in all other cases. The BaP TEQ for heated RO were higher than those for B-100 and one half lower to over twice as high as that of diesel fuel. B-100 and RO samples featured, compared to diesel fuel, a relatively high share of higher molecular weight PAH and a relatively low share of lighter PAHs. Using different sets of TEF or different detection methods did not consistently affect the observed effect of fuels on BaP TEQ. The compilation of multiple tests was helpful for discerning emerging patterns. The collection of milligrams of particulate matter per sample was generally needed for quantification of all individual PAHs.

  19. Evaluation of carcinogenic hazard of diesel engine exhaust needs to consider revolutionary changes in diesel technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Roger O; Hesterberg, Thomas W; Wall, John C

    2012-07-01

    Diesel engines, a special type of internal combustion engine, use heat of compression, rather than electric spark, to ignite hydrocarbon fuels injected into the combustion chamber. Diesel engines have high thermal efficiency and thus, high fuel efficiency. They are widely used in commerce prompting continuous improvement in diesel engines and fuels. Concern for health effects from exposure to diesel exhaust arose in the mid-1900s and stimulated development of emissions regulations and research to improve the technology and characterize potential health hazards. This included epidemiological, controlled human exposure, laboratory animal and mechanistic studies to evaluate potential hazards of whole diesel exhaust. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (1989) classified whole diesel exhaust as - "probably carcinogenic to humans". This classification stimulated even more stringent regulations for particulate matter that required further technological developments. These included improved engine control, improved fuel injection system, enhanced exhaust cooling, use of ultra low sulfur fuel, wall-flow high-efficiency exhaust particulate filters, exhaust catalysts, and crankcase ventilation filtration. The composition of New Technology Diesel Exhaust (NTDE) is qualitatively different and the concentrations of particulate constituents are more than 90% lower than for Traditional Diesel Exhaust (TDE). We recommend that future reviews of carcinogenic hazards of diesel exhaust evaluate NTDE separately from TDE.

  20. Diesel/biodiesel soot oxidation with CeO{sub 2} and CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}- modified cordierites: a facile way of accounting for their catalytic ability in fuel combustion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Rodrigo F.; Oliveira, Edimar de; Sousa Filho, Paulo C. de; Neri, Claudio R.; Serra, Osvaldo A., E-mail: crneri@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (DQ/FFCLRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Quimica

    2011-07-01

    CeO{sub 2} and mixed CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} nanopowders were synthesized and efficiently deposited onto cordierite substrates, with the evaluation of their morphologic and structural properties through XRD, SEM, and FTIR. The modified substrates were employed as outer heterogeneous catalysts for reducing the soot originated from the diesel and diesel/biodiesel blends incomplete combustion. Their activity was evaluated in a diesel stationary motor, and a comparative analysis of the soot emission was carried out through diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The analyses have shown that the catalyst-impregnated cordierite samples are very efficient for soot oxidation, being capable of reducing the soot emission in more than 60%. (author)

  1. Biogas - Use in Dual Fuel Diesel Engines and Particulate Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustafi, Nirendra N.; Raine, Robert R.; Bansal, Pradeep K. [Univ. of Auckland (New Zealand). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2006-07-15

    Biogas is an alternative renewable gaseous fuel for diesel engines and could substitute a considerable amount of diesel fuel. The aims of this study are to review the published researches on biogas-diesel dual fuel engines and to identify future research needs. Of the engine work already published, most concerns spark-ignited engines. A detailed analysis of the previous studies on biogas-operated diesel engines is presented. Significant research gaps are noticed in the area of exhaust emissions, especially the particulate matter (PM) emissions for biogas-diesel dual fuel engines. A preliminary experiment is conducted to measure the PM emissions of a direct injection (DI) diesel engine. PM emissions are measured and analyzed by filter, light scattering photometer (LSP) and visual methods. Natural gas is used as a primary fuel. The Filter method imparts slightly higher PM emissions at high load than diesel operation. However, the LSP shows lower values for dual fuel operation. The filter appearance for dual fuel operation is found to be significantly different compared to diesel operation. This indicates a significant variation in the physical and chemical characteristics of the PM formed in both cases.

  2. Computer aided engineering in exhaust aftertreatment sytems design. Part 2: Diesel engines; Computergestuetzter Entwurf von Abgas-Nachbehandlungskonzepten. Teil 2: Dieselmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamatelos, A.M.; Koltsakis, G.C.; Kandylas, I.P. [Aristoteles Univ., Thessaloniki (Greece)

    1999-03-01

    In the field of diesel engines, there is growing interest in CAE methods for low-emission concepts, as newly developed mathematical models become more and more efficient. The design of diesel exhaust systems must take three general concepts into account: the oxidation catalyst, the particulate filter and the DeNO{sub x} catalyst. A CAE methodology developed at the Aristotle University in Thessaloniki, Greece, to aid engineers in designing exhaust systems is presented in this paper. The methodology is based on the following computational tools: a transient exhaust system heat transfer code, a transient oxidation and DeNO{sub x} catalytic converter code, a catalyst kinetics database for the various types of oxidation and DeNO{sub x} catalytic converters and a computational tool for calculating the loading and regeneration of diesel filters with and without catalytic support. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Bereich der Dieselmotoren nimmt das Interesse an computergestuetzten CAE-Methoden fuer Niedrigemissionskonzepte zu, da neu entwickelte mathematische Modelle immer leistungsfaehiger werden. Der Entwurf von Dieselabgassystemen muss drei allgemeine Konzepte beruecksichtigen: Oxidationskatalysator, Partikelfilter und DeNO{sub x}-Katalysator. Eine an der Aristoteles Universitaet Thessaloniki, Griechenland, entwickelte computergestuetzte Methode, die den Entwurf von Abgassystemen unterstuetzten kann, wird im Folgenden dargestellt. Die Methode basiert auf folgenden Rechenmodellen: ein Modell zur Berechnung des Waermeuebergangs im Abgassystem, ein Rechenmodell zur Bestimmung des Instationaerverhaltens des Oxidations- und des DeNO{sub x}-Katalysators, eine Datenbank mit den chemischen Kinetikdaten fuer die verschiedenen Typen von Oxidations- und DeNO{sub x}-Katalysatoren sowie ein Rechenmodell zur Berechnung der Beladung und Regenerierung von Dieselfiltern mit oder ohne katalytische Unterstuetzung. (orig.)

  3. Investigation of PCDD/F emissions from mobile source diesel engines: impact of copper zeolite SCR catalysts and exhaust aftertreatment configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z Gerald; Wall, John C; Barge, Patrick; Dettmann, Melissa E; Ottinger, Nathan A

    2011-04-01

    This study investigated the impact of copper zeolite selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts and exhaust aftertreatment configurations on the emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) from mobile source diesel engines. Emissions of PCDD/Fs, reported as the weighted sum of 17 congeners called the toxic equivalency quotient (TEQ), were measured using a modified EPA Method 0023A in the absence and presence of exhaust aftertreatment. Engine-out emissions were measured as a reference, while aftertreatment configurations included various combinations of diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), diesel particulate filter (DPF), Cu-zeolite SCR, Fe-zeolite SCR, ammonia oxidation catalyst (AMOX), and aqueous urea dosing. In addition, different chlorine concentrations were evaluated. Results showed that all aftertreatment configurations reduced PCDD/F emissions in comparison to the engine-out reference, consistent with reduction mechanisms such as thermal decomposition or combined trapping and hydrogenolysis reported in the literature. Similarly low PCDD/F emissions from the DOC-DPF and the DOC-DPF-SCR configurations indicated that PCDD/F reduction primarily occurred in the DOC-DPF with no noticeable contribution from either the Cu- or Fe-zeolite SCR systems. Furthermore, experiments performed with high chlorine concentration provided no evidence that chlorine content has an impact on the catalytic synthesis of PCDD/Fs for the chlorine levels investigated in this study.

  4. Diesel engines vs. spark ignition gasoline engines -- Which is ``greener``?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbanks, J.W. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Criteria emissions, i.e., NO{sub x}, PM, CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}, from recently manufactured automobiles, compared on the basis of what actually comes out of the engines, the diesel engine is greener than spark ignition gasoline engines and this advantage for the diesel engine increases with time. SI gasoline engines tend to get out of tune more than diesel engines and 3-way catalytic converters and oxygen sensors degrade with use. Highway measurements of NO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and CO revealed that for each model year, 10% of the vehicles produce 50% of the emissions and older model years emit more than recent model year vehicles. Since 1974, cars with SI gasoline engines have uncontrolled emission until the 3-way catalytic converter reaches operating temperature, which occurs after roughly 7 miles of driving. Honda reports a system to be introduced in 1998 that will alleviate this cold start problem by storing the emissions then sending them through the catalytic converter after it reaches operating temperature. Acceleration enrichment, wherein considerable excess fuel is introduced to keep temperatures down of SI gasoline engine in-cylinder components and catalytic converters so these parts meet warranty, results in 2,500 times more CO and 40 times more H{sub 2} being emitted. One cannot kill oneself, accidentally or otherwise, with CO from a diesel engine vehicle in a confined space. There are 2,850 deaths per year attributable to CO from SI gasoline engine cars. Diesel fuel has advantages compared with gasoline. Refinery emissions are lower as catalytic cracking isn`t necessary. The low volatility of diesel fuel results in a much lower probability of fires. Emissions could be improved by further reducing sulfur and aromatics and/or fuel additives. Reformulated fuel has become the term covering reducing the fuels contribution to emissions. Further PM reduction should be anticipated with reformulated diesel and gasoline fuels.

  5. Particle and gaseous emissions from individual diesel and CNG buses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Å. M. Hallquist

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study size-resolved particle and gaseous emissions from 28 individual diesel-fuelled and 7 compressed natural gas (CNG-fuelled buses, selected from an in-use bus fleet, were characterised for real-world dilution scenarios. The method used was based on using CO2 as a tracer of exhaust gas dilution. The particles were sampled by using an extractive sampling method and analysed with high time resolution instrumentation EEPS (10 Hz and CO2 with non-dispersive infrared gas analyser (LI-840, LI-COR Inc. 1 Hz. The gaseous constituents (CO, HC and NO were measured by using a remote sensing device (AccuScan RSD 3000, Environmental System Products Inc.. Nitrogen oxides, NOx, were estimated from NO by using default NO2/NOx ratios from the road vehicle emission model HBEFA 3.1. The buses studied were diesel-fuelled Euro II–V and CNG-fuelled Enhanced Environmental Friendly Vehicles (EEVs with different after-treatment, including selective catalytic reduction (SCR, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR and with and without diesel particulate filter (DPF. The primary driving mode applied in this study was accelerating mode. However, regarding the particle emissions also a constant speed mode was analysed. The investigated CNG buses emitted on average higher number of particles but less mass compared to the diesel-fuelled buses. Emission factors for number of particles (EFPN were EFPN, DPF = 8.0 ± 3.1 × 1014, EFPN, no DPF =2.8 ± 1.6 × 1015 and EFPN, CNG = 7.8 ± 5.7 × 1015 (kg fuel−1. In the accelerating mode size-resolved EFs showed unimodal number size distributions with peak diameters of 70–90 nm and 10 nm for diesel and CNG buses, respectively. For the constant speed mode bimodal average number size distributions were obtained for the diesel buses with peak modes of ~10 nm and ~60 nm.

    Emission

  6. Effects of After-Treatment Control Technologies on Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preble, C.; Dallmann, T. R.; Kreisberg, N. M.; Hering, S. V.; Harley, R.; Kirchstetter, T.

    2015-12-01

    Diesel engines are major emitters of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and the black carbon (BC) fraction of particulate matter (PM). Diesel particle filter (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control systems that target exhaust PM and NOx have recently become standard on new heavy-duty diesel trucks (HDDT). There is concern that DPFs may increase ultrafine particle (UFP) and total particle number (PN) emissions while reducing PM mass emissions. Also, the deliberate catalytic oxidation of engine-out NO to NO2 in continuously regenerating DPFs may lead to increased tailpipe emission of NO2 and near-roadway concentrations that exceed the 1-hr national ambient air quality standard. Increased NO2 emissions can also promote formation of ozone and secondary PM. We report results from ongoing on-road studies of HDDT emissions at the Port of Oakland and the Caldecott Tunnel in California's San Francisco Bay Area. Emission factors (g pollutant per kg diesel) were linked via recorded license plates to each truck's engine model year and installed emission controls. At both sites, DPF use significantly increased the NO2/NOx emission ratio. DPFs also significantly increased NO2 emissions when installed as retrofits on older trucks with higher baseline NOx emissions. While SCR systems on new trucks effectively reduce total NOx emissions and mitigate these undesirable DPF-related NO2 emissions, they also lead to significant emission of N2O, a potent greenhouse gas. When expressed on a CO2-equivalent basis, the N2O emissions increase offsets the fuel economy gain (i.e., the CO2 emission reduction) associated with SCR use. At the Port, average NOx, BC and PN emission factors from new trucks equipped with DPF and SCR were 69 ± 15%, 92 ± 32% and 66 ± 35% lower, respectively, than modern trucks without these emission controls. In contrast, at the Tunnel, PN emissions from older trucks retrofit with DPFs were ~2 times greater than modern trucks without DPFs. The difference

  7. Catalytic Converters Maintain Air Quality in Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    At Langley Research Center, engineers developed a tin-oxide based washcoat to prevent oxygen buildup in carbon dioxide lasers used to detect wind shears. Airflow Catalyst Systems Inc. of Rochester, New York, licensed the technology and then adapted the washcoat for use as a catalytic converter to treat the exhaust from diesel mining equipment.

  8. IMPACT OF OXYGENATED FUEL ON DIESEL ENGINE PERFORMANCE AND EMISSIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehman, Andre L.

    2000-08-20

    As evidenced by recent lawsuits brought against operators of large diesel truck fleets [1] and by the Consent Decree brought against the heavy-duty diesel manufacturers [2], the environmental and health effects of diesel engine emissions continue to be a significant concern. Reduction of diesel engine emissions has traditionally been achieved through a combination of fuel system, combustion chamber, and engine control modifications [3]. Catalytic aftertreatment has become common on modern diesel vehicles, with the predominant device being the diesel oxidation catalytic converter [3]. To enable advanced after-treatment devices and to directly reduce emissions, significant recent interest has focused on reformulation of diesel fuel, particularly the reduction of sulfur content. The EPA has man-dated that diesel fuel will have only 15 ppm sulfur content by 2007, with current diesel specifications requiring around 300 ppm [4]. Reduction of sulfur will permit sulfur-sensitive aftertreatment devices, continuously regenerating particulate traps, NOx control catalysts, and plasma assisted catalysts to be implemented on diesel vehicles [4]. Another method of reformulating diesel fuel to reduce emissions is to incorporate oxygen in the fuel, as was done in the reformulation of gasoline. The use of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in reformulated gasoline has resulted in contamination of water resources across the country [5]. Nonetheless, by relying on the lessons learned from MTBE, oxygenation of diesel fuel may be accomplished without compromising water quality. Oxygenation of diesel fuel offers the possibility of reducing particulate matter emissions significantly, even for the current fleet of diesel vehicles. The mechanism by which oxygen content leads to particulate matter reductions is still under debate, but recent evidence shows clearly that ''smokeless'' engine operation is possible when the oxygen content of diesel fuel reaches roughly 38% by

  9. WO3/ZrO2固体超强酸催化氧化柴油深度脱硫研究%Study on the Catalytic Oxidative Deep Desulfurization of Diesel with WO3/ZrO2 Solid Superacid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张存; 王洪娟; 刘涛; 刘晓勤

    2011-01-01

    Using WO3/ZrO2 solid superacid as catalyst, the performance of H2O2/WO3/ZrO2 system on the catalytic oxidative deep desulfurization of diesel were studied. The technical parameters,such as the amount of oxidant,the dosage of catalyst,the reaction temperature and the reaction time were investigated. Furthermore,the power ultrasound was introduced to enhance the process. The effects of ultrasonic frequency ,intensity and time on the desulfurization were investigated. The experiment results revealed that under the optimum oxidative desulfurization conditions of oxidation temperature 60 ℃ ,reaction time 90 min,the oxidant dosage V(H2O2): V(diesel) = 1:10 and the catalyst dosage 15 g/L diesel,after extraction of oxidized diesel the removal efficiency of sulfur compounds was up to 91.0%.The oxidation time with ultrasound were shortened to 40 min and the removal efficiency of sulfur compounds was increased to 95.6%.%采用WO3/ZrO2固体超强酸作为催化剂,研究了H2O2/WO3/ZrO2体系催化氧化柴油深度脱硫性能,考察了氧化剂用量、催化剂用量、反应温度、反应时间等工艺参数对脱硫率的影响;在此基础上,引入功率超声进一步强化反应,并考察了超声频率、超声功率、超声时间等因素对脱硫效果的影响.实验结果表明,在反应温度60℃,反应.时间90min,氧化剂加入量V(H2O2):V(柴油)=1:10,催化剂用量15g/L柴油的最佳氧化脱硫条件下,氧化柴油经萃取后脱硫率可达91.0%.超声强化后,氧化反应时间缩短为40min,柴油脱硫率提高至95.6%.

  10. N2O and NO2 Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks with Advanced Emission Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preble, C.; Harley, R.; Kirchstetter, T.

    2014-12-01

    Diesel engines are the largest source of nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions nationally, and also a major contributor to the black carbon (BC) fraction of fine particulate matter (PM). Recently, diesel particle filter (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control systems that target exhaust PM and NOx have become standard equipment on new heavy-duty diesel trucks. However, the deliberate catalytic oxidation of engine-out nitric oxide (NO) to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in continuously regenerating DPFs leads to increased tailpipe emission of NO2. This is of potential concern due to the toxicity of NO2 and the resulting increases in atmospheric formation of other air pollutants such as ozone, nitric acid, and fine PM. While use of SCR reduces emissions of both NO and NO2, it may lead to increased emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas. Here we report results from on-road measurements of heavy-duty diesel truck emissions conducted at the Port of Oakland and the Caldecott Tunnel in the San Francisco Bay Area. Emission factors (g pollutant per kg of diesel) were linked via recorded license plates to individual truck attributes, including engine model year and installed emission control equipment. Between 2009 and 2013, the fraction of DPF-equipped trucks at the Port of Oakland increased from 2 to 99%, and median engine age decreased from 11 to 6 years. Over the same period, fleet-average emission factors for black carbon and NOx decreased by 76 ± 22% and 53 ± 8%, respectively. However, direct emissions of NO2 increased, and consequently the NO2/NOx emission ratio increased from 0.03 ± 0.02 to 0.18 ± 0.03. Older trucks retrofitted with DPFs emitted approximately 3.5 times more NO2 than newer trucks equipped with both DPF and SCR. Preliminary data from summer 2014 measurements at the Caldecott Tunnel suggest that some older trucks have negative emission factors for N2O, and that for newer trucks, N2O emission factors have changed sign and

  11. Diesel emissions in Vienna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, H.; Kreiner, I.; Norek, C.; Preining, O.; Georgi, B.

    The aerosol in a non-industrial town normally is dominated by emissions from vehicles. Whereas gasoline-powered cars normally only emit a small amount of particulates, the emission by diesel-powered cars is considerable. The aerosol particles produced by diesel engines consist of graphitic carbon (GC) with attached hydrocarbons (HCs) including also polyaromatic HCs. Therefore the diesel particles can be carcinogenic. Besides diesel vehicles, all other combustion processes are also a source for GC; thus source apportionment of diesel emissions to the GC in the town is difficult. A direct apportionment of diesel emissions has been made possible by marking all the diesel fuel used by the vehicles in Vienna by a normally not occurring and easily detectable substance. All emitted diesel particles thus were marked with the tracer and by analyzing the atmospheric samples for the marking substance we found that the mass concentrations of diesel particles in the atmosphere varied between 5 and 23 μg m -3. Busy streets and calm residential areas show less difference in mass concentration than expected. The deposition of diesel particles on the ground has been determined by collecting samples from the road surface. The concentration of the marking substance was below the detection limit before the marking period and a year after the period. During the period when marked diesel fuel was used, the concentrations of the diesel particles settling to the ground was 0.012-0.07 g g -1 of collected dust. A positive correlation between the diesel vehicle density and the sampled mass of diesel vehicles exists. In Vienna we have a background diesel particle concentration of 11 μg m -3. This value increases by 5.5 μg m -3 per 500 diesel vehicles h -1 passing near the sampling location. The mass fraction of diesel particles of the total aerosol mass varied between 12.2 and 33%; the higher values were found in more remote areas, since diesel particles apparently diffuse easily

  12. Secondary organic aerosol production from diesel vehicle exhaust: impact of aftertreatment, fuel chemistry and driving cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, T. D.; Presto, A. A.; Nguyen, N. T.; Robertson, W. H.; Na, K.; Sahay, K. N.; Zhang, M.; Maddox, C.; Rieger, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Maldonado, H.; Maricq, M. M.; Robinson, A. L.

    2014-05-01

    Environmental chamber ("smog chamber") experiments were conducted to investigate secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production from dilute emissions from two medium-duty diesel vehicles (MDDVs) and three heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) under urban-like conditions. Some of the vehicles were equipped with emission control aftertreatment devices, including diesel particulate filters (DPFs), selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs). Experiments were also performed with different fuels (100% biodiesel and low-, medium- or high-aromatic ultralow sulfur diesel) and driving cycles (Unified Cycle,~Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule, and creep + idle). During normal operation, vehicles with a catalyzed DPF emitted very little primary particulate matter (PM). Furthermore, photooxidation of dilute emissions from these vehicles produced essentially no SOA (below detection limit). However, significant primary PM emissions and SOA production were measured during active DPF regeneration experiments. Nevertheless, under reasonable assumptions about DPF regeneration frequency, the contribution of regeneration emissions to the total vehicle emissions is negligible, reducing PM trapping efficiency by less than 2%. Therefore, catalyzed DPFs appear to be very effective in reducing both primary PM emissions and SOA production from diesel vehicles. For both MDDVs and HDDVs without aftertreatment substantial SOA formed in the smog chamber - with the emissions from some vehicles generating twice as much SOA as primary organic aerosol after 3 h of oxidation at typical urban VOC / NOx ratios (3 : 1). Comprehensive organic gas speciation was performed on these emissions, but less than half of the measured SOA could be explained by traditional (speciated) SOA precursors. The remainder presumably originates from the large fraction (~30%) of the nonmethane organic gas emissions that could not be speciated using traditional one-dimensional gas chromatography. The

  13. Pyrolysis oil as diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gros, S. [Wartsila Diesel International Ltd., Vaasa (Finland). Diesel Technology

    1996-12-31

    Wood waste pyrolysis oil is an attractive fuel alternative for diesel engine operation. The main benefit is the sustainability of the fuel. No fossil reserves are consumed. The fact that wood waste pyrolysis oil does not contribute to CO{sub 2} emissions is of utmost importance. This means that power plants utilising pyrolysis oil do not cause additional global warming. Equally important is the reduced sulphur emissions that this fuel alternative implies. The sulphur content of pyrolysis oil is extremely low. The high water content and low heating value are also expected to result in very low NO{sub x} emissions. Utilisation of wood waste pyrolysis oil in diesel engines, however, involves a lot of challenges and problems to be solved. The low heating value requires a new injection system with high capacity. The corrosive characteristics of the fluid also underline the need for new injection equipment materials. Wood waste pyrolysis oil contains solid particles which can clog filters and cause abrasive wear. Wood waste pyrolysis oil has proven to have extremely bad ignition properties. The development of a reliable injection system which is able to cope with such a fuel involves a lot of optimisation tests, redesign and innovative solutions. Successful single-cylinder tests have already been performed and they have verified that diesel operation on wood pyrolysis oil is technically possible. (orig.)

  14. Diesel Engine Light Truck Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-12-31

    The Diesel Engine Light Truck Application (DELTA) program consists of two major contracts with the Department of Energy (DOE). The first one under DE-FC05-97-OR22606, starting from 1997, was completed in 2001, and consequently, a final report was submitted to DOE in 2003. The second part of the contract was under DE-FC05-02OR22909, covering the program progress from 2002 to 2007. This report is the final report of the second part of the program under contract DE-FC05-02OR22909. During the course of this contract, the program work scope and objectives were significantly changed. From 2002 to 2004, the DELTA program continued working on light-duty engine development with the 4.0L V6 DELTA engine, following the accomplishments made from the first part of the program under DE-FC05-97-OR22606. The program work scope in 2005-2007 was changed to the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) soot layer characterization and substrate material assessment. This final report will cover two major technical tasks. (1) Continuation of the DELTA engine development to demonstrate production-viable diesel engine technologies and to demonstrate emissions compliance with significant fuel economy advantages, covering progress made from 2002 to 2004. (2) DPF soot layer characterization and substrate material assessment from 2005-2007.

  15. La{sub 1−x}Ce{sub x}Mn{sub 1−y}Co{sub y}O{sub 3} perovskite oxides: Preparation, physico-chemical properties and catalytic activity for the reduction of diesel soot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Shaohua; Song, Chonglin, E-mail: songchonglin@tju.edu.cn; Bin, Feng; Lv, Gang; Song, Jinou; Gong, Cairong

    2014-11-14

    La{sub 1−x}Ce{sub x}Mn{sub 1−y}Co{sub y}O{sub 3} catalysts were prepared by the “glucose method”. The structures and physico-chemical properties for these catalysts were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), H{sub 2}-temperature-programmed reduction (H{sub 2}-TPR) and O{sub 2}-tempreature-programmed desorption (O{sub 2}-TPD). Results showed that cerium substitution at the A-site in LaMnO{sub 3} produced a CeO{sub 2} phase. The cobalt can be introduced into the B-site in La{sub 0.8}Ce{sub 0.2}MnO{sub 3} at any substitution ratio because of the similar ionic radii between cobalt and manganese. The catalytic activity for soot combustion in air was evaluated using a TG/DTA analyzer. Cerium substitution at A-site enhances the catalytic activity, while cobalt substitution at B-site inhibits the catalytic activity. The activation energy for soot combustion was calculated using the Horowitz method. The activation energy for non-catalytic soot combustion was 164.1 kJ mol{sup −1}. The addition of catalysts decreased the activation energy by about 26–63 kJ mol{sup −1}. Among the applied catalysts, Ce20Mn exhibited the lowest activation energy (101.1 kJ mol{sup −1}). - Highlights: • Cerium substitution at A-site in Mn100 enhances the catalytic activity. • Cerium substitution leads to the formation of the CeO{sub 2} phase. • Cobalt substitution at B-site in Ce20Mn generally decreases the catalytic activity. • Cerium substitution increases the α-O{sub 2} amount and low-temperature reducibility. • Cobalt substitution decreases the α-O{sub 2} amount and low-temperature reducibility.

  16. Emissions of Transport Refrigeration Units with CARB Diesel, Gas-to-Liquid Diesel, and Emissions Control Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnitt, R. A.; Chernich, D.; Burnitzki, M.; Oshinuga, A.; Miyasato, M.; Lucht, E.; van der Merwe, D.; Schaberg, P.

    2010-05-01

    A novel in situ method was used to measure emissions and fuel consumption of transport refrigeration units (TRUs). The test matrix included two fuels, two exhaust configurations, and two TRU engine operating speeds. Test fuels were California ultra low sulfur diesel and gas-to-liquid (GTL) diesel. Exhaust configurations were a stock muffler and a Thermo King pDPF diesel particulate filter. The TRU engine operating speeds were high and low, controlled by the TRU user interface. Results indicate that GTL diesel fuel reduces all regulated emissions at high and low engine speeds. Application of a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions, sometimes almost entirely. The application of both GTL diesel and a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions at high engine speed, but showed an increase in oxides of nitrogen at low engine speed.

  17. Effect of Ce/Zr molar ratio on the performance of Cu–Ce{sub x}–Zr{sub 1−x}/TiO{sub 2} catalyst for selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} with NH{sub 3} in diesel exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xiaoliang [School of Material Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Gong, Cairong, E-mail: gcr@tju.edu.cn [School of Material Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Lv, Gang; Bin, Feng; Song, Chonglin [State Key Laboratory of Engines, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Graphical abstract: The Cu–Ce{sub 0.25}–Zr{sub 0.75}/TiO{sub 2} catalyst exhibited excellent SCR activity at 165–450 °C within the range of exhaust temperatures of diesel engines. - Highlights: • Cu–Ce{sub x}–Zr{sub 1−x}/TiO{sub 2} catalysts were prepared by a wet impregnation method. • The property for NH{sub 3}-selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} were investigated. • The Ce/Zr molar ratio had effects on the performance of Cu–Ce–Zr/TiO{sub 2} catalysts. • The Cu–Ce{sub 0.25}–Zr{sub 0.75}/TiO{sub 2} sample exhibited 100% NO{sub x} conversion between 165 °C and 450 °C. • The factors that govern the activity enhancement were extensively investigated. - Abstract: Copper–cerium–zirconium catalysts loaded on TiO{sub 2} prepared by a wet impregnation method were investigated for NH{sub 3}-selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}, aiming to study the effects of the Ce/Zr molar ratio on the performance of Cu–Ce–Zr/TiO{sub 2} catalysts. The Cu–Ce{sub 0.25}–Zr{sub 0.75}/TiO{sub 2} sample exhibited nearly 100% NO{sub x} conversion over a wide temperature range (165–450 °C), which is strikingly superior to that of Cu/TiO{sub 2} (210–389 °C) within the range of exhaust temperatures of diesel engines. The factors that govern the activity enhancement were extensively investigated by using a series of characterization techniques, namely X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and temperature-programmed reduction by hydrogen (H{sub 2}-TPR). The results showed that the addition of zirconium and/or cerium refined the copper dispersion, prevented copper crystallization and partially incorporated the copper ions into the zirconia (ceira) lattice, which led to enhance the redox abilities of Cu–Ce–Zr/TiO{sub 2} catalysts.

  18. Low temperature hydrogenolysis of waxes to diesel range gasoline and light alkanes: Comparison of catalytic properties of group 4, 5 and 6 metal hydrides supported on silica-alumina

    KAUST Repository

    Norsic, Sébastien

    2012-01-01

    A series of metal hydrides (M = Zr, Hf, Ta, W) supported on silica-alumina were studied for the first time in hydrogenolysis of light alkanes in a continuous flow reactor. It was found that there is a difference in the reaction mechanism between d 0 metal hydrides of group 4 and d 0 ↔ d 2 metal hydrides of group 5 and group 6. Furthermore, the potential application of these catalysts has been demonstrated by the transformation of Fischer-Tropsch wax in a reactive distillation set-up into typical gasoline and diesel molecules in high selectivity (up to 86 wt%). Current results show that the group 4 metal hydrides have a promising yield toward liquid fuels.

  19. The influence of propylene glycol ethers on base diesel properties and emissions from a diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Effect of propylene glycol ethers on diesel fuel properties. • Effect of these compounds on diesel engine performance and emissions. • Blends with ⩽4 wt.% of oxygen do not change substantially diesel fuel quality. • Blends with ⩽2.5 wt.% of oxygen reduce CO, HC and NOx emissions, but not smoke. • These compounds are helpful to reach a cleaner combustion in a diesel engine. - Abstract: The oxygenated additives propylene glycol methyl ether (PGME), propylene glycol ethyl ether (PGEE), dipropylene glycol methyl ether (DPGME) were studied to determine their influence on both the base diesel fuel properties and the exhaust emissions from a diesel engine (CO, NOx, unburnt hydrocarbons and smoke). For diesel blends with low oxygen content (⩽4.0 wt.%), the addition of these compounds to base diesel fuel decreases aromatic content, kinematic viscosity, cold filter plugging point and Conradson carbon residue. Also, each compound modifies the distillation curve at temperatures below the corresponding oxygenated compound boiling point, the distillate percentage being increased. The blend cetane number depends on the type of propylene glycol ether added, its molecular weight, and the oxygen content of the fuel. The addition of PGME decreased slightly diesel fuel cetane number, while PGEE and DPGME increased it. Base diesel fuel-propylene glycol ether blends with 1.0 and 2.5 wt.% oxygen contents were used in order to determine the performance of the diesel engine and its emissions at both full and medium loads and different engine speeds (1000, 2500 and 4000 rpm). In general, at full load and in comparison with base diesel fuel, the blends show a slight reduction of oxygen-free specific fuel consumption. CO emissions are reduced appreciably for 2.5 wt.% of oxygen blends, mainly for PGEE and DPGME. NOx emissions are reduced slightly, but not the smoke. Unburnt hydrocarbon emissions decrease at 1000 and 2500 rpm, but not at 4000 rpm. At medium load

  20. Regulated and unregulated emissions from modern 2010 emissions-compliant heavy-duty on-highway diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalek, Imad A; Blanks, Matthew G; Merritt, Patrick M; Zielinska, Barbara

    2015-08-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established strict regulations for highway diesel engine exhaust emissions of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) to aid in meeting the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. The emission standards were phased in with stringent standards for 2007 model year (MY) heavy-duty engines (HDEs), and even more stringent NOX standards for 2010 and later model years. The Health Effects Institute, in cooperation with the Coordinating Research Council, funded by government and the private sector, designed and conducted a research program, the Advanced Collaborative Emission Study (ACES), with multiple objectives, including detailed characterization of the emissions from both 2007- and 2010-compliant engines. The results from emission testing of 2007-compliant engines have already been reported in a previous publication. This paper reports the emissions testing results for three heavy-duty 2010-compliant engines intended for on-highway use. These engines were equipped with an exhaust diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), high-efficiency catalyzed diesel particle filter (DPF), urea-based selective catalytic reduction catalyst (SCR), and ammonia slip catalyst (AMOX), and were fueled with ultra-low-sulfur diesel fuel (~6.5 ppm sulfur). Average regulated and unregulated emissions of more than 780 chemical species were characterized in engine exhaust under transient engine operation using the Federal Test Procedure cycle and a 16-hr duty cycle representing a wide dynamic range of real-world engine operation. The 2010 engines' regulated emissions of PM, NOX, nonmethane hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide were all well below the EPA 2010 emission standards. Moreover, the unregulated emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitroPAHs, hopanes and steranes, alcohols and organic acids, alkanes, carbonyls, dioxins and furans, inorganic ions, metals and elements, elemental carbon, and particle number were substantially (90

  1. Trimode Power Converter optimizes PV, diesel and battery energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osullivan, George; Bonn, Russell; Bower, Ward

    1994-12-01

    Conservatively, there are 100,000 localities in the world waiting for the benefits that electricity can provide, and many of these are in climates where sunshine is plentiful. With these locations in mind a prototype 30 kW hybrid system has been assembled at Sandia to prove the reliability and economics of photovoltaic, diesel and battery energy sources managed by an autonomous power converter. In the Trimode Power Converter the same power parts, four IGBT's with an isolation transformer and filter components, serve as rectifier and charger to charge the battery from the diesel; as a stand-alone inverter to convert PV and battery energy to AC; and, as a parallel inverter with the diesel-generator to accommodate loads larger than the rating of the diesel. Whenever the diesel is supplying the load, an algorithm assures that the diesel is running at maximum efficiency by regulating the battery charger operating point. Given the profile of anticipated solar energy, the cost of transporting diesel fuel to a remote location and a five year projection of load demand, a method to size the PV array, battery and diesel for least cost is developed.

  2. A study to reduce DPM(Diesel Particulate Matter) emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bok Youn; Kang, Chang Hee; Jo, Young Do; Lim, Sang Taek [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    This research commenced in 1994 for the purpose of providing safety and environmental measures of underground mines where the mobile diesel equipment are operating. In this last research year, research on filtering of DPM(diesel particulate matter) has been carried out. Through the research, it was known that water scrubber is only one practical way to reduce DPM emission as of now. There are several kinds of the sophisticated DPM filters, but it is not practical yet to be used in underground equipment due to the many adverse effects of the devices such as tremendous increase of SOx, NOx and back pressure etc. (author). 1 tab., 3 figs.

  3. Review of the state-of-the-art of exhaust particulate filter technology in internal combustion engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Bin; Zhan, Reggie; Lin, He; Huang, Zhen

    2015-05-01

    The increasingly stringent emission regulations, such as US 2010, Tier 2 Bin 5 and beyond, off-road Tier 4 final, and Euro V/5 for particulate matter (PM) reduction applications, will mandate the use of the diesel particulate filters (DPFs) technology, which is proven to be the only way that can effectively control the particulate emissions. This paper covers a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art DPF technologies, including the advanced filter substrate materials, the novel catalyst formulations, the highly sophisticated regeneration control strategies, the DPF uncontrolled regenerations and their control methodologies, the DPF soot loading prediction, and the soot sensor for the PM on-board diagnostics (OBD) legislations. Furthermore, the progress of the highly optimized hybrid approaches, which involves the integration of diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) + (DPF, NOx reduction catalyst), the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst coated on DPF, as well as DPF in the high-pressure exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) loop systems, is well discussed. Besides, the impacts of the quality of fuel and lubricant on the DPF performance and the maintenance and retrofit of DPF are fully elaborated. Meanwhile, the high efficiency gasoline particulate filter (GPF) technology is being required to effectively reduce the PM and particulate number (PN) emissions from the gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines to comply with the future increasingly stricter emissions regulations.

  4. Review of the state-of-the-art of exhaust particulate filter technology in internal combustion engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Bin; Zhan, Reggie; Lin, He; Huang, Zhen

    2015-05-01

    The increasingly stringent emission regulations, such as US 2010, Tier 2 Bin 5 and beyond, off-road Tier 4 final, and Euro V/5 for particulate matter (PM) reduction applications, will mandate the use of the diesel particulate filters (DPFs) technology, which is proven to be the only way that can effectively control the particulate emissions. This paper covers a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art DPF technologies, including the advanced filter substrate materials, the novel catalyst formulations, the highly sophisticated regeneration control strategies, the DPF uncontrolled regenerations and their control methodologies, the DPF soot loading prediction, and the soot sensor for the PM on-board diagnostics (OBD) legislations. Furthermore, the progress of the highly optimized hybrid approaches, which involves the integration of diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) + (DPF, NOx reduction catalyst), the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst coated on DPF, as well as DPF in the high-pressure exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) loop systems, is well discussed. Besides, the impacts of the quality of fuel and lubricant on the DPF performance and the maintenance and retrofit of DPF are fully elaborated. Meanwhile, the high efficiency gasoline particulate filter (GPF) technology is being required to effectively reduce the PM and particulate number (PN) emissions from the gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines to comply with the future increasingly stricter emissions regulations. PMID:25743879

  5. Development of Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment System for Tier II Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, R. C.; Cole, A. S., Stroia, B. J.; Huang, S. C. (Cummins, Inc.); Howden, Kenneth C.; Chalk, Steven (U.S. Dept. of Energy)

    2002-06-01

    Due to their excellent fuel efficiency, reliability, and durability, compression ignition direct injection (CIDI) engines have been used extensively to power almost all highway trucks, urban buses, off-road vehicles, marine carriers, and industrial equipment. CIDI engines burn 35 to 50% less fuel than gasoline engines of comparable size, and they emit far less greenhouse gases (Carbon Dioxides), which have been implicated in global warming. Although the emissions of CIDI engines have been reduced significantly over the last decade, there remains concern with the Nitrogen Oxides (NOX) and Particulate Matter (PM) emission levels. In 2000, the US EPA proposed very stringent emissions standards to be introduced in 2007 along with low sulfur (< 15ppm) diesel fuel. The California Air Resource Board (CARB) has also established the principle that future diesel fueled vehicles should meet the same emissions standards as gasoline fueled vehicles and the EPA followed suit with its Tier II emissions regulations. Meeting the Tier II standards requires NOX and PM emissions to be reduced dramatically. Achieving such low emissions while minimizing fuel economy penalty cannot be done through engine development and fuel reformulation alone, and requires application of NOX and PM aftertreatment control devices. A joint effort was made between Cummins Inc. and the Department of Energy to develop the generic aftertreatment subsystem technologies applicable for Light-Duty Vehicle (LDV) and Light-Duty Truck (LDT) engines. This paper provides an update on the progress of this joint development program. Three NOX reduction technologies including plasmaassisted catalytic NOX reduction (PACR), active lean NOX catalyst (LNC), and adsorber catalyst (AC) technology using intermittent rich conditions for NOX reduction were investigated in parallel in an attempt to select the best NOX control approach for light-duty aftertreatment subsystem integration and development. Investigations included

  6. Ralphs Grocery EC-Diesel Truck Fleet Start-up Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NREL is conducting the DOE Truck Evaluation Project which includes testing new lower sulfur diesel fuels and exhaust filter technologies. Start-up experiences from one of the evaluations are hi-lighted in this report

  7. Fundamentals of Diesel Engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the fundamentals of diesel engine mechanics. Addressed in the three individual units of the course are the following topics: basic principles of diesel mechanics; principles, mechanics, and…

  8. Handbook of diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschoeke, Helmut (eds.) [Magdeburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Mobile Systems; Mollenhauer, Klaus

    2010-07-01

    The diesel engine continues to be the most cost effective internal combustion engine for motor vehicles as well as mobile and stationary machines. Given the discussion of CO2, the diesel engine is superior to all other drive engines in terms of flexibility, performance, emissions and ruggedness. The intensive search for alternative drive concepts, e. g. hybrid or purely electric drives, has revealed the advantages of the diesel engine for cost effective long distance use wherever high energy densities of energy carriers are indispensible, i. e. storage capacities are low. This English edition of the Handbook of Diesel Engines provides a comprehensive overview of diesel engines of every size from small single cylinder engines up through large two-stroke marine engines. Fifty-eight well-known experts from industry and academia collaborated on this handbook. In addition to the fundamentals and design of diesel engines, it specifically treats in detail the increasingly important subjects of energy efficiency, exhaust emission, exhaust gas aftertreatment, injection systems, electronic engine management and conventional and alternative fuels. This handbook is an indispensable companion in the field of diesel engines. It is geared toward both experts working in research and development and the industry and students studying engineering, mechatronics, electrical engineering or electronics. Anyone interested in learning more about technology and understanding the function and interaction of the complex system of the diesel engine will also find their questions answered. (orig.)

  9. Bio diesel- the Clean, Green Fuel for Diesel Engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural, renewable resources such as vegetable oils, animal fats and recycled restaurant greases can be chemically transformed into clean burning bio diesel fuels (1). Just like petroleum diesel, bio diesel operates in combustion-ignition engines. Blends of up to 20% bio diesel (mixed with petroleum diesel fuels) can be used in nearly all diesel equipment and are compatible with most storage and distribution equipment. Using bio diesel in a conventional diesel engine substantially reduces emissions of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, sulphates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. The use of bio diesel has grown dramatically during the last few years. Egypt has a promising experiment in promoting forestation by cultivation of Jatropha plant especially in luxor and many other sites of the country. The first production of the Egyptian Jatropha seeds oil is now under evaluation to produce a cost-competitive bio diesel fuel

  10. Catalytic production of biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theilgaard Madsen, A.

    2011-07-01

    The focus of this thesis is the catalytic production of diesel from biomass, especially emphasising catalytic conversion of waste vegetable oils and fats. In chapter 1 an introduction to biofuels and a review on different catalytic methods for diesel production from biomass is given. Two of these methods have been used industrially for a number of years already, namely the transesterification (and esterification) of oils and fats with methanol to form fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), and the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of fats and oils to form straight-chain alkanes. Other possible routes to diesel include upgrading and deoxygenation of pyrolysis oils or aqueous sludge wastes, condensations and reductions of sugars in aqueous phase (aqueous-phase reforming, APR) for monofunctional hydrocarbons, and gasification of any type of biomass followed by Fischer-Tropsch-synthesis for alkane biofuels. These methods have not yet been industrialised, but may be more promising due to the larger abundance of their potential feedstocks, especially waste feedstocks. Chapter 2 deals with formation of FAME from waste fats and oils. A range of acidic catalysts were tested in a model fat mixture of methanol, lauric acid and trioctanoin. Sulphonic acid-functionalised ionic liquids showed extremely fast convertion of lauric acid to methyl laurate, and trioctanoate was converted to methyl octanoate within 24 h. A catalyst based on a sulphonated carbon-matrix made by pyrolysing (or carbonising) carbohydrates, so-called sulphonated pyrolysed sucrose (SPS), was optimised further. No systematic dependency on pyrolysis and sulphonation conditions could be obtained, however, with respect to esterification activity, but high activity was obtained in the model fat mixture. SPS impregnated on opel-cell Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and microporous SiO{sub 2} (ISPS) was much less active in the esterification than the original SPS powder due to low loading and thereby low number of strongly acidic sites on the

  11. Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biddy, M.; Jones, S.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates the catalytic conversion of solubilized carbohydrate streams to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent efforts within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium (NABC) in collaboration with Virent, Inc. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for the catalytic conversion of sugars pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks have been identified.

  12. Impact of selective catalytic reduction on exhaust particle formation over excess ammonia events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanatidis, Stavros; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Giechaskiel, Barouch; Bergmann, Alexander; Samaras, Zissis

    2014-10-01

    The introduction of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) aftertreatment to meet stringent diesel NOx emission standards around the world increases exhaust ammonia. Further to the direct air quality and health implications of ammonia, this may also lead to particle formation in the exhaust. In this study, an ammonia SCR system was examined with respect to its impact on both solid and total exhaust particle number and size distribution, downstream of a diesel particulate filter (DPF). Fuel post-injection was conducted in some tests to investigate the effect of ammonia during active DPF regeneration. On average, the post-DPF solid >23 nm and total <23 nm particle number emissions were increased by 129% (range 80-193%) and by 67% (range 26-136%), respectively, when 100 ppm ammonia level was induced downstream of the SCR catalyst. This is a typical level during ammonia overdosing, often practiced for efficient NOx control. Ammonia did not have a significant additional effect on the high particle concentrations measured during DPF regeneration. Based on species availability and formation conditions, sulfate, nitrate, and chloride salts with ammonium are possible sources of the new particles formed. Ammonia-induced particle formation corresponds to an environmental problem which is not adequately addressed by current regulations.

  13. Diesel autothermal reforming with hydrogen peroxide for low-oxygen environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The concept of diesel reforming using hydrogen peroxide was newly proposed. • Characteristics of hydrogen peroxide was experimentally investigated. • Thermodynamically possible operating conditions were analyzed. • Catalytic performance of Ni–Ru/CGO for various diesel compounds was evaluated. • Long-term testing was successfully conducted using Korean commercial diesel. - Abstract: To operate fuel cells effectively in low-oxygen environments, such as in submarines and unmanned underwater vehicles, a hydrogen source with high hydrogen storage density is required. In this paper, diesel autothermal reforming (ATR) with hydrogen peroxide as an alternative oxidant is proposed as a hydrogen production method. Diesel fuel has higher hydrogen density than metal hydrides or other hydrocarbons. In addition, hydrogen peroxide can decompose into steam and oxygen, which are required for diesel ATR. Moreover, both diesel fuel and hydrogen peroxide are liquid states, enabling easy storage for submarine applications. Hydrogen peroxide exhibited the same characteristics as steam and oxygen when used as an oxidant in diesel reforming when pre-decomposition method was used. The thermodynamically calculated operating conditions were a steam-to-carbon ratio (SCR) of 3.0, an oxygen-to-carbon ratio (OCR) of 0.5, and temperatures below 700 °C to account for safety issues associated with hydrogen peroxide use and exothermic reactions. Catalytic activity and stability tests over Ni–Ru (19.5–0.5 wt.%)/Ce0.9Gd0.1O2−x were conducted using various diesel compounds. Furthermore, long-term diesel ATR tests were conducted for 200 h using Korean commercial diesel. The degradation rate was 3.67%/100 h without the production of ethylene

  14. Experimental Studies for CPF and SCR Model, Control System, and OBD Development for Engines Using Diesel and Biodiesel Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, John; Naber, Jeffrey; Parker, Gordon; Yang, Song-Lin; Stevens, Andrews; Pihl, Josh

    2013-04-30

    The research carried out on this project developed experimentally validated Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF), and Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) high‐fidelity models that served as the basis for the reduced order models used for internal state estimation. The high‐fidelity and reduced order/estimator codes were evaluated by the industrial partners with feedback to MTU that improved the codes. Ammonia, particulate matter (PM) mass retained, PM concentration, and NOX sensors were evaluated and used in conjunction with the estimator codes. The data collected from PM experiments were used to develop the PM kinetics using the high‐fidelity DPF code for both NO2 assisted oxidation and thermal oxidation for Ultra Low Sulfur Fuel (ULSF), and B10 and B20 biodiesel fuels. Nine SAE papers were presented and this technology transfer process should provide the basis for industry to improve the OBD and control of urea injection and fuel injection for active regeneration of the PM in the DPF using the computational techniques developed. This knowledge will provide industry the ability to reduce the emissions and fuel consumption from vehicles in the field. Four MS and three PhD Mechanical Engineering students were supported on this project and their thesis research provided them with expertise in experimental, modeling, and controls in aftertreatment systems.

  15. Low - temperature properties of rape seed oil biodiesel fuel and its blending with other diesel fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The properties of commercial bio diesel fuel depend upon the refining technique and the nature of the renewable lipids from which it is produced. The examined bio diesel fuel produced from rape seed oil by the Latvian SIA 'Delta Riga' has better low-temperature properties than many other bio diesels; but a considerably higher cloud point (-5,7 deg C), cold filter plugging point (-7 deg C) and pour point (-12 deg C) than the examined petrodiesel (grade C, LST EN 590:2000) from AB 'Mazeikiu nafta'. The low-temperature properties considerably improve if blending of these fuels is used. The blended fuels with bio diesel contents up to 90% have lower cold filter plugging points than petrodollar's. The estimated viscosity variations with temperature show that the blended fuels are Arrenius-type liquids, which lose this property near the cold filter plugging point. (authors)

  16. Ex-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biddy, M.; Dutta, A.; Jones, S.; Meyer, A.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates converting woody biomass using ex-situ catalytic fast pyrolysis followed by upgrading to gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for this pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived blendstocks have been identified.

  17. In-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biddy, M.; Dutta, A.; Jones, S.; Meyer, A.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates converting woody biomass using in-situ catalytic fast pyrolysis followed by upgrading to gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for this pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived blendstocks have been identified.

  18. Microwave Filters

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Jiafeng

    2010-01-01

    The general theory of microwave filter design based on lumped-element circuit is described in this chapter. The lowpass prototype filters with Butterworth, Chebyshev and quasielliptic characteristics are synthesized, and the prototype filters are then transformed to bandpass filters by lowpass to bandpass frequency mapping. By using immitance inverters ( J - or K -inverters), the bandpass filters can be realized by the same type of resonators. One design example is given to verify the theory ...

  19. Particulate matter in new technology diesel exhaust (NTDE) is quantitatively and qualitatively very different from that found in traditional diesel exhaust (TDE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesterberg, Thomas W; Long, Christopher M; Sax, Sonja N; Lapin, Charles A; McClellan, Roger O; Bunn, William B; Valberg, Peter A

    2011-09-01

    Diesel exhaust (DE) characteristic of pre-1988 engines is classified as a "probable" human carcinogen (Group 2A) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has classified DE as "likely to be carcinogenic to humans." These classifications were based on the large body of health effect studies conducted on DE over the past 30 or so years. However, increasingly stringent U.S. emissions standards (1988-2010) for particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) in diesel exhaust have helped stimulate major technological advances in diesel engine technology and diesel fuel/lubricant composition, resulting in the emergence of what has been termed New Technology Diesel Exhaust, or NTDE. NTDE is defined as DE from post-2006 and older retrofit diesel engines that incorporate a variety of technological advancements, including electronic controls, ultra-low-sulfur diesel fuel, oxidation catalysts, and wall-flow diesel particulate filters (DPFs). As discussed in a prior review (T. W. Hesterberg et al.; Environ. Sci. Technol. 2008, 42, 6437-6445), numerous emissions characterization studies have demonstrated marked differences in regulated and unregulated emissions between NTDE and "traditional diesel exhaust" (TDE) from pre-1988 diesel engines. Now there exist even more data demonstrating significant chemical and physical distinctions between the diesel exhaust particulate (DEP) in NTDE versus DEP from pre-2007 diesel technology, and its greater resemblance to particulate emissions from compressed natural gas (CNG) or gasoline engines. Furthermore, preliminary toxicological data suggest that the changes to the physical and chemical composition of NTDE lead to differences in biological responses between NTDE versus TDE exposure. Ongoing studies are expected to address some of the remaining data gaps in the understanding of possible NTDE health effects, but there is now sufficient evidence to conclude that health

  20. Temperature effects on particulate emissions from DPF-equipped diesel trucks operating on conventional and biodiesel fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two diesel trucks equipped with a particulate filter (DPF) were tested at two ambient temperatures (70oF and 20oF), fuels (ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and biodiesel (B20)) and operating loads (a heavy and light weight). The test procedure included three driving cycles, a cold ...

  1. Using Extractive FTIR to Measure N2O from Medium Heavy Duty Vehicles Powered with Diesel and Biodiesel Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer was used to measure N2O and other pollutant gases during an evaluation of two medium heavy-duty diesel trucks equipped with a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF). The emissions of these trucks were characterized under a variety of oper...

  2. Further theoretical studies of modified cyclone separator as a diesel soot particulate emission arrester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, N; Bose, P K

    2009-10-01

    Soot particulate emission reduction from diesel engine is one of the most emerging problems associated with the exhaust pollution. Diesel particulate filters (DPF) hold out the prospects of substantially reducing regulated particulate emissions but the question of the reliable regeneration of filters still remains a difficult hurdle to overcome. Many of the solutions proposed to date suffer from design complexity, cost, regeneration problem and energy demands. This study presents a computer aided theoretical analysis for controlling diesel soot particulate emission by cyclone separator--a non contact type particulate removal system considering outer vortex flow, inner vortex flow and packed ceramic fiber filter at the end of vortex finder tube. Cyclone separator with low initial cost, simple construction produces low back pressure and reasonably high collection efficiencies with reduced regeneration problems. Cyclone separator is modified by placing a continuous ceramic packed fiber filter placed at the end of the vortex finder tube. In this work, the grade efficiency model of diesel soot particulate emission is proposed considering outer vortex, inner vortex and the continuous ceramic packed fiber filter. Pressure drop model is also proposed considering the effect of the ceramic fiber filter. Proposed model gives reasonably good collection efficiency with permissible pressure drop limit of diesel engine operation. Theoretical approach is predicted for calculating the cut size diameter considering the effect of Cunningham molecular slip correction factor. The result shows good agreements with existing cyclone and DPF flow characteristics.

  3. 30 CFR 75.1909 - Nonpermissible diesel-powered equipment; design and performance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; and (xi) A water separator and fuel filter(s) must be provided. (4) A sensor to monitor the... been determined to be fire-resistant by the manufacturer; or metal; (vii) Fuel line piping must be... the brake activation device. (c) Self-propelled nonpermissible heavy-duty diesel-powered...

  4. A catalytic distillation process for light gas oil hydrodesulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas-Villamil, F.D.; Marroquin, J.O.; Paz, C. de la; Rodriguez, E. [Prog. de Matematicas Aplicadas y Computacion, Prog. de Tratamiento de Crudo Maya, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico City, DF (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    A light gas oil hydrodesulfurization process via catalytic distillation is developed and compared to a conventional process. By integrating the separation and reaction into a single unit, the catalytic distillation may produce a diesel with low concentration of sulfur compounds at a lower cost than the traditional reaction/separation process. The process proposed in this work is compared to an optimised conventional hydrodesulfurization unit which represents fairly well a plant that belongs to the National System of Refineries. During the optimisation of the conventional process, a compromise is established among the production of diesel and naphtha and the operating costs. The results show that the light gas oil hydrodesulfurization via catalytic distillation is as or more efficient than the conventional process. However, the removal of the sulfur compounds is carried out under less rigorous conditions. This design reduces the fix and operational costs. (author)

  5. Diesel and gas engines: evolution following new regulations; Moteurs diesel et gaz: evolution face aux nouvelles reglementations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deverat, Ph. [Bergerat Monnoyeur (France). Direction Industrie

    1997-12-31

    Engine emissions of CO, NMHC and ashes are easily lowered through a low-cost exhaust gas processing, while NOx processing in fumes is rather complex and environmentally hazardous; thus, engine manufacturers have emphasized their researches for NOx decrease on the engine design: lower combustion temperature in diesel engines through water cooling or air/air exchanger, lean mixture with excess air (open chamber or pre-chamber) in spark ignition gas engines. Examples of modifications in Caterpillar engines are given. Exhaust gas processing for CO, NMHC, NOx (3 way catalytic purifier, selective catalytic reduction) and ashes is also discussed

  6. Mastering the diesel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antila, E.; Kaario, O.; Lahtinen, T. (and others)

    2004-07-01

    This is the final report of the research project 'Mastering the Diesel Process'. The project has been a joint research effort of the Helsinki University of Technology, the Tampere University of Technology, the Technical Research Centre of Finland, and the Aabo Akademi University. Moreover, the contribution of the Michigan Technological University has been important. The project 'Mastering the Diesel Process' has been a computational research project on the physical phenomena of diesel combustion. The theoretical basis of the project lies on computational fluid dynamics. Various submodels for computational fluid dynamics have been developed or tested within engine simulation. Various model combinations in three diesel engines of different sizes have been studied. The most important submodels comprise fuel spray drop breakup, fuel evaporation, gas-fuel interaction in the spray, mixing model of combustion, heat transfer, emission mechanisms. The boundary conditions and flow field modelling have been studied, as well. The main simulation tool have been Star-CD. KIVA code have been used in the model development, as well. By the help of simulation, we are able to investigate the effect of various design parameters or operational parameters on diesel combustion and emission formation. (orig.)

  7. Water Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The Aquaspace H2OME Guardian Water Filter, available through Western Water International, Inc., reduces lead in water supplies. The filter is mounted on the faucet and the filter cartridge is placed in the "dead space" between sink and wall. This filter is one of several new filtration devices using the Aquaspace compound filter media, which combines company developed and NASA technology. Aquaspace filters are used in industrial, commercial, residential, and recreational environments as well as by developing nations where water is highly contaminated.

  8. Real-world activity, fuel use, and emissions of diesel side-loader refuse trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Gurdas S.; Frey, H. Christopher; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon; Jones, Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    Diesel refuse trucks have the worst fuel economy of onroad highway vehicles. The real-world effectiveness of recently introduced emission controls during low speed and low engine load driving has not been verified for these vehicles. A portable emission measurement system (PEMS) was used to measure rates of fuel use and emissions on six side-loader refuse trucks. The objectives were to: (1) characterize activity, fuel use, and emissions; (2) evaluate variability between cycles and trucks; and (3) compare results with the MOVES emission factor model. Quality assured data cover 210,000 s and 550 miles of operation during which the trucks collected 4200 cans and 50 tons of waste material. The average fuel economy was 2.6 mpg. Trash collection contributed 70%-80% of total fuel use and emissions. The daily activity Operating Mode (OpMode) distribution and cycle average fuel use and emissions is different from previously used cycles such as Central Business District (CBD), New York Garbage Truck (NYGT), and William H. Martin (WHM). NOx emission rates for trucks with selective catalytic reduction were over 90% lower than those for trucks without. Similarly, trucks with diesel particulate filters had over 90% lower particulate matter (PM) emissions than trucks without. Compared to unloaded trucks, loaded truck averaged 18% lower fuel economy while NOx and PM emissions were higher by 65% and 16%, respectively. MOVES predicted values are highly correlated to empirical data; however, MOVES estimates are 37% lower for NOx and 300% higher for PM emission rates. The data presented here can be used to develop more representative cycles and improve emission factors for side-loader refuse trucks, which in turn can improve the accuracy of refuse truck emission inventories.

  9. One-step hydrothermal synthesis of Cu-SAPO-34/cordierite and its catalytic performance on NO x removal from diesel vehicles%Cu-SAPO-34/堇青石的原位制备及其催化脱除柴油机车尾气中NO x

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建成; 陈影; 唐磊; 鲍卫仁; 常丽萍; 韩丽娜

    2013-01-01

    Cu-SAPO-34/cordierite catalysts were prepared via one-step hydrothermal synthesis method and their performances to remove NO x from the diesel vehicle exhaust were evaluated. The morphology, structure, Cu content and valence state were characterized by SEM, XRD, ICP and XPS, respectively. The experimental results show the active component Cu of the catalysts via in situ synthesis could significantly improve the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) activities of NOx and the optimal Cu content is in the range of 0.30%-0.40%(mass fraction). No N 2 O is detected by gas chromatograph (GC) during the evaluation process, which implies that NOx is almost entirely converted to N2 over Cu-SAPO-34/cordierite catalyst. The conversion rate of NOx to N2 by NH3 over catalyst could almost be up to 100%in the temperature range of 300-670 °C with a space velocity of 12000 h-1 and it is still more than 60% at 300-620 °C under 36000 h-1. The catalysts also show the good hydrothermal and chemical stability at the atmosphere with H 2 O.%利用水热合成技术将Cu-SAPO-34分子筛直接合成到蜂窝状堇青石上,研究模拟柴油机车尾气中选择性催化还原NO x的能力。采用SEM、XRD、ICP和XPS表征整体式催化剂的形貌、结构、Cu含量和价态变化。结果表明:原位制备技术制备的Cu-SAPO-34/堇青石整体催化剂中的活性金属Cu具有很高的选择性催化还原NO x的活性,Cu的最佳上载量质量分数为0.30%~0.40%。在12000 h-1的体积空速下,在400~670°C之间,可将大部分的NO x催化还原成N 2;在36000 h-1的空速下,在300~620°C之间,还能将60%的NO x转化成N 2。水热老化后的催化剂较好的保持催化活性,表明催化剂具有较好的水热稳定性。

  10. Lubrication and wear in diesel engine injection equipment fuelled by dimethyl ether (DME)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius

    2003-01-01

    Dimethyl ether (DME) has been recognised as an excellent fuel for diesel engines for over one decade now. DME fueled engines emit virtually no particulate matter even at low NOx levels. DME has thereby the potential of reducing the diesel engine emissions without filters or other devices that jeo......Dimethyl ether (DME) has been recognised as an excellent fuel for diesel engines for over one decade now. DME fueled engines emit virtually no particulate matter even at low NOx levels. DME has thereby the potential of reducing the diesel engine emissions without filters or other devices...... are the main concerns of the present study. The volatile fuel tribotester (VFTT) was developed, capable of testing material compatibility with DME. This apparatus has the potential of selecting new materials for future DME pumps. Two properties are important for describing these lubrication qualities...

  11. Diesel Engine Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foutes, William A.

    Written in student performance terms, this curriculum guide on diesel engine repair is divided into the following eight sections: an orientation to the occupational field and instructional program; instruction in operating principles; instruction in engine components; instruction in auxiliary systems; instruction in fuel systems; instruction in…

  12. Diesel Engine Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Diesel engine technicians maintain and repair the engines that power transportation equipment such as heavy trucks, trains, buses, and locomotives. Some technicians work mainly on farm machines, ships, compressors, and pumps. Others work mostly on construction equipment such as cranes, power shovels, bulldozers, and paving machines. This article…

  13. Diesel sisustab / Jenni Juurinen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juurinen, Jenni

    2007-01-01

    Renzo Rosso poolt 1978. a. Itaalias asutatud rõivafirma Diesel sisustas 2007. a. kevadel Stay Inn-projekti raames katusekorteri Helsingi kesklinnas. Diesili kujundaja Vesa Kemppainen. Sisustuses on kasutatud peamiselt soome mööblit ja seintel eksponeeritud soome noorte kunstnike taieseid. Autoreid: Harri Koskinen (voodi), Thomas Pedersen (Stingrey kiiktool), Jenni Hiltunen (maalid)

  14. Optimal filtering

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Brian D O

    2005-01-01

    This graduate-level text augments and extends beyond undergraduate studies of signal processing, particularly in regard to communication systems and digital filtering theory. Vital for students in the fields of control and communications, its contents are also relevant to students in such diverse areas as statistics, economics, bioengineering, and operations research.Topics include filtering, linear systems, and estimation; the discrete-time Kalman filter; time-invariant filters; properties of Kalman filters; computational aspects; and smoothing of discrete-time signals. Additional subjects e

  15. Impaired vascular function after exposure to diesel exhaust generated at urban transient running conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westerholm Roger

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traffic emissions including diesel engine exhaust are associated with increased respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Controlled human exposure studies have demonstrated impaired vascular function after inhalation of exhaust generated by a diesel engine under idling conditions. Objectives To assess the vascular and fibrinolytic effects of exposure to diesel exhaust generated during urban-cycle running conditions that mimic ambient 'real-world' exposures. Methods In a randomised double-blind crossover study, eighteen healthy male volunteers were exposed to diesel exhaust (approximately 250 μg/m3 or filtered air for one hour during intermittent exercise. Diesel exhaust was generated during the urban part of the standardized European Transient Cycle. Six hours post-exposure, vascular vasomotor and fibrinolytic function was assessed during venous occlusion plethysmography with intra-arterial agonist infusions. Measurements and Main Results Forearm blood flow increased in a dose-dependent manner with both endothelial-dependent (acetylcholine and bradykinin and endothelial-independent (sodium nitroprusside and verapamil vasodilators. Diesel exhaust exposure attenuated the vasodilatation to acetylcholine (P Conclusion Exposure to diesel exhaust generated under transient running conditions, as a relevant model of urban air pollution, impairs vasomotor function and endogenous fibrinolysis in a similar way as exposure to diesel exhaust generated at idling. This indicates that adverse vascular effects of diesel exhaust inhalation occur over different running conditions with varying exhaust composition and concentrations as well as physicochemical particle properties. Importantly, exposure to diesel exhaust under ETC conditions was also associated with a novel finding of impaired of calcium channel-dependent vasomotor function. This implies that certain cardiovascular endpoints seem to be related to general diesel

  16. Simulation of Air Quality over Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei Province of China with Application of Catalysts for Selective Catalytic Reduction of NOx to Diesel Exhaust and Natural Gas Boilers%脱硝技术与天然气应用情景下京津冀地区空气质量模拟评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李健; 安俊岭; 陈勇; 屈玉

    2013-01-01

    Three scenarios were designed in which catalysts for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx were applied to diesel exhaust (Scenario 1), catalysts for SCR were applied to both diesel exhaust and natural gas boilers according to the Chinese energy plan for 2015 (Scenario 2), and the catalysts were applied as in Scenario 2 but the Chinese energy plan for 2030 was used (Scenario 3). Simulations were performed with the WRF-CAMx model in Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei Province in China (the BTH region) for January, April, July, and October of 2007, representing winter, spring, summer, and autumn, respectively. The results indicate that Scenario 1 can reduce the surface NOx concentrations by 20% in Beijing and Tianjin and by 5%in Hebei Province, and decrease the PM2.5 (particulate matter with diameters less than or equal to 2.5μm) concentrations by 10%in the BTH region. Scenarios 2 and 3 lead to decreases of more than 20%and more than 30%, respectively, in the surface concentrations of NOx and PM2.5 over the BTH region. This suggests that decreases in the surface concentrations of NOx and PM2.5 depend significantly on the amount of the catalyst used for SCR in diesel exhaust and natural gas boilers over the BTH region. The chemical process plays a key role in the formation of nitrates, sulfates, and ammonium salts, which are major components of PM2.5 over the BTH region. The surface concentrations of nitrates, sulfates, and ammonium salts contribute more than 60%in winter, spring, and autumn, more than 70% in summer and autumn, and approximately 25% in all four seasons, respectively, to the surface PM2.5 concentration. This implies that a large reduction in the emissions of major precursors of PM2.5, e.g., NOx, SO2, NH3, volatile organic compounds, and CO, can effectively reduce surface concentrations of PM2.5.%  针对京津冀地区主要大气污染物NOx(氮氧化物)和PM2.5(大气中粒径小于或等于2.5μm的颗粒物),应用柴油车尾气净

  17. Diesel quality improvement through hydrotreatment reactor modifications; Melhorias na qualidade de diesel atraves de modificacoes em reator de hidrotratamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Nelmo F.; Machado, Silvio J. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The distribution of flow for the catalytic bed is directly responsible for the efficiency of the withdrawal of nitrogen- (N-) and sulfur (S-) compounds presented in petroleum feedstocks. With the arrangement of proportionate flow for the original project, occurred bad distribution of gas flow and liquid through the catalytic bed and low efficiency of removal of sulphur and nitrogen. The new distributor tray provides a flow of high dispersion and a total use of the catalytic bed allowing a bigger shipment of catalyst. With the best distribution of flow and greater amount of catalyst, the increase of the proportionate efficiency allows to reach minors concentrations of sulphur and nitrogen in diesel, remaining the same operational conditions of original temperature and pressure of the unit. These conclusions had been corroborated by determination of the flow of liquid in the catalytic bed of the reactor, looking at the distribution pattern of radiotracer through the reactor bed before and after the installation of the new distributor tray. The distribution of radiotracer through the packed bed is the best possible representation of the liquid traffic distribution in a hydrotreater bed. Another important profit with the new distributor tray was the increase of the processing of diesel. (author)

  18. Synthesis of cracked Calophyllum inophyllum oil using fly ash catalyst for diesel engine application

    KAUST Repository

    Muthukumaran, N.

    2015-04-16

    In this study, production of hydrocarbon fuel from Calophyllum inophyllum oil has been characterized for diesel engine application, by appraising essential fuel processing parameters. As opposed to traditional trans-esterification process, the reported oil was cracked using a catalyst, as the latter improves the fuel properties better than the former. In a bid to make the production process economically viable, a waste and cheap catalyst, RFA (raw fly ash), has been capitalized for the cracking process as against the conventional zeolite catalyst. The fuel production process, which is performed in a fixed bed catalytic reactor, was done methodologically after comprehensively studying the characteristics of fly ash catalyst. Significantly, fly ash characterization was realized using SEM and EDS, which demarcated the surface and internal structures of fly ash particles before and after cracking. After the production of hydrocarbon fuel from C. inophyllum oil, the performed compositional analysis in GC-MS revealed the presence of esters, parfins and olefins. Followed by the characterization of catalytically cracked C. inophyllum oil, suitable blends of it with diesel were tested in a single cylinder diesel engine. From the engine experimental results, BTE (brake thermal efficiency) of the engine for B25 (25% cracked C. inophyllum oil and 75% diesel) was observed to be closer to diesel, while it decreased for higher blends. On the other hand, emissions such as HC (hydrocarbon), CO (carbon monoxide) and smoke were found to be comparable for B25 with diesel. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of real-world engine load conditions on nanoparticle emissions from a DPF and SCR equipped heavy-duty diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiruvengadam, Arvind; Besch, Marc C; Carder, Daniel K; Oshinuga, Adewale; Gautam, Mridul

    2012-02-01

    The experiments aimed at investigating the effect of real-world engine load conditions on nanoparticle emissions from a Diesel Particulate Filter and Selective Catalytic Reduction after-treatment system (DPF-SCR) equipped heavy-duty diesel engine. The results showed the emission of nucleation mode particles in the size range of 6-15 nm at conditions with high exhaust temperatures. A direct result of higher exhaust temperatures (over 380 °C) contributing to higher concentration of nucleation mode nanoparticles is presented in this study. The action of an SCR catalyst with urea injection was found to increase the particle number count by over an order of magnitude in comparison to DPF out particle concentrations. Engine operations resulting in exhaust temperatures below 380 °C did not contribute to significant nucleation mode nanoparticle concentrations. The study further suggests the fact that SCR-equipped engines operating within the Not-To-Exceed (NTE) zone over a critical exhaust temperature and under favorable ambient dilution conditions could contribute to high nanoparticle concentrations to the environment. Also, some of the high temperature modes resulted in DPF out accumulation mode (between 50 and 200 nm) particle concentrations an order of magnitude greater than typical background PM concentrations. This leads to the conclusion that sustained NTE operation could trigger high temperature passive regeneration which in turn would result in lower filtration efficiencies of the DPF that further contributes to the increased solid fraction of the PM number count.

  20. Simultaneous removal of soot and nitrogen oxides from diesel engine exhausts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisarello, M.L.; Milt, V.; Peralta, M.A.; Querini, C.A.; Miro, E.E. [INCAPE, CONICET, Fac. Ingenieria Quimica, UNL, Santiago del Estero 2829, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina)

    2002-07-03

    In this paper, previously reported findings and new results presented here are discussed with the main objective of establishing the reaction mechanism for soot oxidation on different supports and catalysts formulations. Catalysts containing Co, K and/or Ba supported on MgO, La{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CeO{sub 2} have been studied for diesel soot catalytic combustion. Among them, K/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} and K/CeO{sub 2} showed the best activity and stability for the combustion of soot with oxygen. A reaction mechanism involving the redox sites and the surface-carbonate species takes place on these catalysts. On the other hand, Co,K/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Co,K/CeO{sub 2} catalysts display activity for the simultaneous removal of soot and nitric oxide. The soot-catalyst contacting phenomenon was also addressed. A synergic La-K effect was observed in which the mechanical mixtures of soot with K-La{sub 2}O{sub 3} showed higher combustion rates than those observed when K and La were directly deposited on the soot surface. The effect of the addition of Ba was explored with the aim of promoting the interaction of the solid with NO{sub 2}, thus combining the NO{sub x} catalytic trap concept with the soot combustion for filter regeneration. Ba/CeO{sub 2} and Ba,K/CeO{sub 2} were effective in NO{sub x} absorption as shown in the microbalance experiments. However, the formation of stable nitrate species inhibits the soot combustion reaction.

  1. Catalytic pyrolysis of palm kernel shell waste in a fluidized bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Won; Koo, Bon Seok; Lee, Dong Hyun

    2014-09-01

    The catalytic pyrolysis of palm kernel shell was investigated in a fluidized bed with zsm-5 and equilibrium FCC (Ecat) catalysts. Catalytic pyrolysis oil yields were remarkably reduced and gas yields were increased due to the higher catalytic reaction of primary volatiles compared to non-catalytic pyrolysis. Char yields were affected by temperature and the pore structure of the catalysts. The pyrolysis oil was characterized by lower H/C and O/C molar ratios due to aromatization and deoxygenation of volatiles by the catalysts. The catalytic pyrolysis oils contained more oxygen and nitrogen and less sulfur than petroleum oils. The oils had a high concentration of nitriles, with a carbon number distribution similar to fatty acids. The catalytic pyrolysis oils featured high nitriles yield with Ecat and high aromatics yield in the light fraction with zsm-5, due to characteristics of the catalyst. The catalytic pyrolysis oils showed potentials as feedstocks for bio-diesel and chemicals.

  2. Seasonality of Diesel Fuel Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Ibendahl, Gregg

    2012-01-01

    Diesel fuel is a major expense for most farmers. Diesel fuel prices do exhibit some seasonality so farmers can try to lower their fuel expenses by buying their fuel in months when prices are lower. However, purchasing fuel before it is needed results in a carrying charge to the farmer. This paper examines the optimal purchase month for diesel fuel for both spring planting and fall harvest. Both risk neutral and risk-averse farmers are considered. Higher interest rates discourage advance purch...

  3. A new method for obtaining ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel via ultrasound assisted oxidative desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hai Mei; B.W. Mei; Teh Fu Yen [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2003-03-01

    Due to the requirement of stringent rules for ultra-low sulfur content of diesel fuels, it is necessary to develop alternative methods for desulfurization of fossil fuel derived oil. Using appropriate oxidants and catalysts with the assistance of ultrasound irradiation, model compounds such as dibenzothiophene can be quantitatively oxidized in minutes. For diesel fuels containing various levels of sulfur content, and through the use of catalytic oxidation and ultrasonication followed by solvent extraction, removal efficiency of sulfur-bearing compounds can reach or exceed 99% in a short contact time at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure. This simple approach can be the basis for obtaining ultra-low sulfur-containing diesel oil. GC-PFPD, GC MS, and GC-SIMDIS were used to monitor the change of organic sulfur compounds and hydrocarbons in diesels during the process. 35 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Metals emitted from heavy-duty diesel vehicles equipped with advanced PM and NO X emission controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shaohua; Herner, Jorn D.; Shafer, Martin; Robertson, William; Schauer, James J.; Dwyer, Harry; Collins, John; Huai, Tao; Ayala, Alberto

    Emission factors for elemental metals were determined from several heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDV) of 1998-2007 vintage, operating with advanced PM and/or NO X emissions control retrofits on a heavy-duty chassis dynamometer, under steady state cruise, transient, and idle conditions. The emission control retrofits included diesel particulate filters (DPF): catalyzed and uncatalyzed, passive and active prototype vanadium- or zeolite-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems, and a catalyzed DPF fitted on a hybrid diesel electric drive vehicle. The prototype SCR systems in combination with DPF retrofits are of particular interest because they represent the expected emissions controls for compliance with PM and NO X regulations in 2010. PM samples from a full-exhaust dilution tunnel were collected on bulk filters, and on a Personal Cascade Impactor Sampler (PCIS) for total and water-soluble elemental analysis. All the DPFs significantly reduced emissions of total trace elements (>85% and >95% for cruise and for the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS), respectively). However, we observed differences in the post-retrofit metals emissions due to driving cycle effects (i.e., exhaust temperature) and type of retrofit. In general, the metals emissions over cruise conditions (which leads to higher exhaust temperatures) were substantially different from the emissions over a transient cycle or while idling. For instance, during cruise, we observed higher levels of platinum (1.1 ± 0.6-4.2 ± 3.6 ng km -1) for most of the retrofit-equipped vehicle tests compared to the baseline configuration (0.3 ± 0.1 ng km -1). The vanadium-based DPF + SCR vehicle during cruise operation exhibited emissions of vanadium (562 ± 265 ng km -1) and titanium (5841 ± 3050 ng km -1), suggesting the possible release of actual SCR wash-coat (V 2O 5/TiO 2) from the catalyst under the higher temperatures characteristic of cruise operation. The vanadium emissions exhibited a bi

  5. Investigation on the effect of heavy diesel fraction properties on product sulphur during ultra deep diesel hydrodesulphurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratiev, D.; Tzingov, T. [Research and Development Dept., Lukoil Neftochim Bourgas, Bourgas (Bulgaria); Galkin, V. [Future Development Dept., Lukoil Neftochim Bourgas, Bourgas (Bulgaria)

    2006-02-01

    This work investigates the hydrotreatment of heavy diesel fractions in order to achieve product sulphurs of 50 and 10 ppm. The heavy diesel fractions were obtained in the Lukoil Neftochim Bulgaria (LNB) crude distillation and vacuum distillation units (SRGO1, SRGO2, AGO, LVGO ASTM D-86 95%vol. of 360, 392 395, and 377 C respectively) by distillation of crude oil type ''Ural'', containing some quantities of naphtha, atmospheric residue, vacuum gas oil and low sulphur crude oil, in the mild hydrocracking unit (MHC diesel 95%vol. of 389 C) and in the fluid catalytic cracking unit - heavy cycle oil (FCC HCO; 95%vol. of 360 C). The diesel fractions were hydrotreated in a trickle bed pilot plant at following conditions: reactor inlet temperature range of 300-380 C; liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV) range of 0.5-3.0 h{sup -1}, total reactor pressure range of 3.5- 7.0 MPa; treating gas/feedstock ratio of 250 Nm{sup 3}/m{sup 3}. It was found that in the investigated range of operating conditions the product sulphur depended linearly on the LHSV. As a measure of the diesel hydrodesulphurization (HDS) reactivity the LHSV at 360 C reactor inlet temperature was interpolated at a constant product sulphur level of 50 ppm and extrapolated at 10 ppm sulphur. It was found that the most refractory feedstock was the diesel mixture 80%SRGO1 / 20%FCCHCO (LHSV of 0.4 h{sup -1} for 50 ppm and 0.2 h{sup -1} for 10 ppm sulphur). The catalyst volume increase required to reduce the product sulphur from 50 to 10 ppm was found to be as high as twice for all diesel fractions except the MHC diesel. This material required five times the catalyst volume for the product sulphur reduction from 50 to 10 ppm. The total reactor pressure was found to have less impact on the product sulphur than the LHSV. Doubling the reactor pressure from 3.5 to 7.0 MPa by hydrotreatment of LVGO reduced the product sulphur as low as twice while the reduction of the LHSV from 1 to 0.5 h{sup -1} at a

  6. Biofuel production from catalytic cracking of woody oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Junming; Jiang, Jianchun; Chen, Jie; Sun, Yunjuan

    2010-07-01

    The catalytic cracking reactions of several kinds of woody oils have been studied. The products were analyzed by GC-MS and FTIR and show the formation of olefins, paraffins and carboxylic acids. Several kinds of catalysts were compared. It was found that the fraction distribution of product was modified by using base catalysts such as CaO. The products from woody oils showed good cold flow properties compared with diesel used in China. The results presented in this work have shown that the catalytic cracking of woody oils generates fuels that have physical and chemical properties comparable to those specified for petroleum based fuels. PMID:20206508

  7. Alternate use of heavy hydrotreatment and visbreaker naphthas by incorporation into diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laredo, Georgina C.; Cano, Jose L.; Lopez, Carla R.; Martin, Ricardo Saint; Martinez, Maria C.; Marroquin, Jesus O. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152 Mexico D. F. 07730 (Mexico)

    2007-09-15

    In order to provide a solution for refineries having limited catalytic reforming capacity, a process scheme for incorporating most of the low octane heavy hydrotreatment and visbreaker naphthas into diesel is presented in this paper. This scheme involves blending the visbreaker naphtha with the feed to the diesel hydrotreatment units, processing this blend at the usual conditions for diesel hydrodesulfurization and changing the cut point in the diesel stabilizer. The proposed scheme was tested in a pilot plant, using blends of visbreaker naphtha and straight run gas oil as feedstock. The proportion of visbreaker naphtha was selected according to the production of this naphtha and of straight run gas oil in a typical refinery. The hydrotreated product was stabilized at different cut points and a target cut point was selected for maximum diesel production, meeting all the product specifications. This scheme was applied at a refinery having one visbreaking unit and two diesel hydrotreatment units, resulting in an increase of 6-7% in diesel production. (author)

  8. STRATEGY DETERMINATION FOR DIESEL INJECTION USING AVL ESE DIESEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrublevskiy, A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the design of research AVL FIRE ESE DIESEL environment they proposed to reduce noise and NOx emissions in the exhaust gases of the automobile diesel engine using two-stage injection. The parameters of the fuel for idling are determined.

  9. BEHAVIOUR OF ZEOLITE 4A IN THE EXTRACTION PROCESS OF THE DIESEL LIKE FUEL OBTAINED FROM WASTE ENGINE OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. KANNAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to recycle and reuse the WEO as an alternative fuel for compression ignition (CI engine. For this purpose the WEO was cracked in the catalytic fuel reformer by using the catalyst zeolite 4A. The output of the catalytic fuel reformer is in the gaseous form which is condensed using water cooled condenser. The oil obtained after condensing the reformulated gas is named as WEOZ. To know the suitability of using the WEOZ as alternate fuel for IC engines, the different properties of WEOZ were determined. The different properties include specific gravity, kinematic viscosity, flash and fire point, gross calorific value, pour point, density. The properties of WEOZ were compared to that of diesel fuel. All the fuel properties are closer to that of the neat diesel fuel. The FTIR analysis was also be conducted for diesel and WEOZ. The result of FTIR analysis was compared to that of diesel fuel. The FTIR result revealed that the major transmittance spectrums peak for diesel and WEOZ were alkanes and the presence of the hydrocarbon was clearly seen in the WEOZ. Based on this investigation, it was suggested that WEOZ has a potential to be used as alternate fuel for diesel engine. Hence an environmentally unfriendly WEO can be recycled into a useful resource and serves as an alternative source of fuel for diesel engine.

  10. Commercial Test of Flexible Dual-Riser Catalytic Cracking Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Haitao; Wang Longyan; Wang Guoliang; Zhang Lixin; Wei Jialu; Chen Zhenghong; Teng Tiancan; Sun Zhonghang

    2003-01-01

    The technical features and commercial test results of flexible dual-riser fluidized catalytic cracking(FDFCC) process are presented for refiners to choose an efficient process to upgrade FCC naphtha and boostpropylene production in a RFCC unit. The commercial test results indicate that the olefin content of catalyti-25% and RON increased by 0.5-2 units in a RFCC unit. In addition, propylene yield and the production ratioof diesel to gasoline can also be remarkably enhanced in the RFCC unit.

  11. INFORMATION-MEASURING TEST SYSTEM OF DIESEL LOCOMOTIVE HYDRAULIC TRANSMISSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Zhukovytskyy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The article describes the process of developing the information-measuring test system of diesel locomotives hydraulic transmission, which gives the possibility to obtain baseline data to conduct further studies for the determination of the technical condition of diesel locomotives hydraulic transmission. The improvement of factory technology of post-repair tests of hydraulic transmissions by automating the existing hydraulic transmission test stands according to the specifications of the diesel locomotive repair enterprises was analyzed. It is achieved based on a detailed review of existing foreign information-measuring test systems for hydraulic transmission of diesel locomotives, BelAZ earthmover, aircraft tug, slag car, truck, BelAZ wheel dozer, some brands of tractors, etc. The problem for creation the information-measuring test systems for diesel locomotive hydraulic transmission is being solved, starting in the first place from the possibility of automation of the existing test stand of diesel locomotives hydraulic transmission at Dnipropetrovsk Diesel Locomotive Repair Plant "Promteplovoz". Methodology. In the work the researchers proposed the method to create a microprocessor automated system of diesel locomotives hydraulic transmission stand testing in the locomotive plant conditions. It acts by justifying the selection of the necessary sensors, as well as the application of the necessary hardware and software for information-measuring systems. Findings. Based on the conducted analysis there was grounded the necessity of improvement the plant hydraulic transmission stand testing by creating a microprocessor testing system, supported by the experience of developing such systems abroad. Further research should be aimed to improve the accuracy and frequency of data collection by adopting the more modern and reliable sensors in tandem with the use of filtering software for electromagnetic and other interference. Originality. The

  12. Selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides with ammonia over microporous zeolite catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    VENNESTROM, PETER NICOLAI RAVNBORG

    2014-01-01

    With increasing legislative demands to remove nitrogen oxides (NOx) from automotive diesel exhaust, new catalyst systems are investigated and intensely studied in industry as well in academia. The most prevailing catalytic method of choice is the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) where non-toxic urea is used as a reductant for practical reasons. Usually urea is stored in a separate tank and once injected into the exhaust system it hydrolyses into the more aggressive reductant NH3 and CO2. ...

  13. Evaluation of Emissions Bio diesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The generation of energy from vegetal products is one of the possibilities to our reach in order to reduce the atmospheric pollution. Particularly, the use of bio diesel in internal combustion engines can be one of the best options. The finest particles emitted by the combustion engines are easily breathable and on them different substances can be absorbed presumably toxic, between which it is possible to emphasize the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), by its demonstrated carcinogen character. In this work, it is studied on the one hand, the characteristics that can present the aerosol of emission in a diesel engine with a maximum power of 97 kW, working without load to 600 rpm, using as combustible mixtures of bio diesel and diesel in different proportions. On the other hand, the evolution that takes place in the concentration of PAHs in emission particles, according to the percentage of bio diesel used in the combustible mixture. (Author) 9 refs

  14. Evaluation of Emissions Bio diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Maroto, J. J.; Dorronsoro Arenal, J. L.; Rojas Garcia, E.; Perez Pastor, R.; Garcia Alonso, S.

    2007-09-27

    The generation of energy from vegetal products is one of the possibilities to our reach in order to reduce the atmospheric pollution. Particularly, the use of bio diesel in internal combustion engines can be one of the best options. The finest particles emitted by the combustion engines are easily breathable and on them different substances can be absorbed presumably toxic, between which it is possible to emphasize the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), by its demonstrated carcinogen character. In this work, it is studied on the one hand, the characteristics that can present the aerosol of emission in a diesel engine with a maximum power of 97 kW, working without load to 600 rpm, using as combustible mixtures of bio diesel and diesel in different proportions. On the other hand, the evolution that takes place in the concentration of PAHs in emission particles, according to the percentage of bio diesel used in the combustible mixture. (Author) 9 refs.

  15. Catalytic combustion in environmental protection and energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlstroem-Silversand, F.

    1996-12-01

    This thesis is focused on three different areas of catalytic combustion: -Catalytic combustion of diesel soot, -Development of catalytically active wire meshes through thermal spraying, -Stabilisation and activation of {gamma}-alumina for methane combustion. Emissions of diesel soot may be trapped and combusted in a particulate trap coated with catalytically active materials. The soot particles must be combusted at temperatures prevailing in diesel exhausts, generally between 150 and 400 deg C. To facilitate effective combustion at these temperatures, the particulate trap should be coated with an oxide catalyst consisting of V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/CuO (V:Cu=0.9 on molar basis). Catalytically active wire meshes offer a number of advantages over pellets and monolith catalysts. They combine geometric flexibility with excellent mass- and heat- transfer characteristics and a low pressure drop. By using a modified thermal spray technique, it is possible to produce porous adhesive ceramic coatings on metal surfaces. The specific surface area can be increased through deposition of a high-surface-area material into the macro-porosity of the as-sprayed layer. The ceramic layer is finally activated through a conventional impregnation technique. Palladium dispersed onto a Si-stabilised {gamma}-alumina is an appropriate combustion catalyst at temperatures below 1000 deg C. Adding small amounts of rhodium or platinum to the palladium increases the catalyst activity but decreases the catalyst`s stability to thermal deactivation. The addition of rare-earth-metal oxides will lead to increased thermal stability but to a decreased activity. Long-term deactivation tests show that the activity for combustion of methane decreases to the same extent as the value of the specific surface area, thus indicating that the alumina surface may play an important role during the activation of adsorbed methane molecules. 29 refs, 14 figs

  16. 4-Nitrophenol, 1-nitropyrene, and 9-nitroanthracene emissions in exhaust particles from diesel vehicles with different exhaust gas treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, Satoshi; Fushimi, Akihiro; Sato, Kei; Fujitani, Yuji; Yamada, Hiroyuki

    2015-06-01

    The dependence of nitro-organic compound emissions in automotive exhaust particles on the type of aftertreatment used was investigated. Three diesel vehicles with different aftertreatment systems (an oxidation catalyst, vehicle-DOC; a particulate matter and NOx reduction system, vehicle-DPNR; and a urea-based selective catalytic reduction system, vehicle-SCR) and a gasoline car with a three-way catalyst were tested. Nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) and nitrophenols in the particles emitted were analyzed by thermal desorption gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The secondary production of nitro-organic compounds on the filters used to collect particles and the adsorption of gaseous nitro-organic compounds by the filters were evaluated. Emissions of 1-nitropyrene, 9-nitroanthracene, and 4-nitrophenol in the diesel exhaust particles were then quantified. The NOx reduction process in vehicle-DPNR appeared to remove nitro-hydrocarbons efficiently but not to remove nitro-oxygenated hydrocarbons efficiently. The nitro-PAH emission factors were lower for vehicle-DOC when it was not fitted with a catalyst than when it was fitted with a catalyst. The 4-nitrophenol emission factors were also lower for vehicle-DOC with a catalyst than vehicle-DOC without a catalyst, suggesting that the oxidation catalyst was a source of both nitro-PAHs and 4-nitrophenol. The time-resolved aerosol mass spectrometry data suggested that nitro-organic compounds are mainly produced when an engine is working under load. The presence of 4-nitrophenol in the particles was not confirmed statistically because of interference from gaseous 4-nitrophenol. Systematic errors in the estimated amounts of gaseous 1-nitropyrene and 9-nitroanthracene adsorbed onto the filters and the estimated amounts of volatile nitro-organic compounds that evaporated during sampling and during post-sampling conditioning could not be excluded. An analytical method

  17. Use of a Chamber to Comprehensively Characterise Emissions and Subsequent Processes from a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, J. D.; Alfarra, M. R. R.; Whitehead, J.; McFiggans, G.; Kong, S.; Harrison, R. M.; Alam, M. S.; Hamilton, J. F.; Pereira, K. L.; Holmes, R. E.

    2014-12-01

    Around 1 in 3 light duty vehicles in the UK use diesel engines, meaning that on-road emissions of particulates, NOx and VOCs and subsequent chemical processes are substantially different to countries where gasoline engines dominate. As part of the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) Com-Part project, emissions from a diesel engine dynamometer rig representative of the EURO 4 standard were studied. The exhaust was passed to the Manchester aerosol chamber, which consists of an 18 m3 teflon bag and by injecting a sample of exhaust fumes into filtered and chemically scrubbed air, a controllable dilution can be performed and the sample held in situ for analysis by a suite of instruments. The system also allows the injection of other chemicals (e.g. ozone, additional VOCs) and the initiation of photochemistry using a bank of halogen bulbs and a filtered Xe arc lamp to simulate solar light. Because a large volume of dilute emissions can be held for a period of hours, this permits a wide range of instrumentation to be used and relatively slow processes studied. Furthermore, because the bag is collapsible, the entire particulate contents can be collected on a filter for offline analysis. Aerosol microphysical properties are studied using a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and Centrifugal Particle Mass Analyser (CPMA); aerosol composition using a Soot Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (SP-AMS), Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2), Sunset Laboratories OC EC analyser and offline gas- and high performance liquid chromatography (employing advanced mass spectrometry such as ion trap and fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance); VOCs using comprehensive 2D gas chromatography; aerosol optical properties using a Cavity Attenuated Phase Shift Single Scattering Albedo monitor (CAPS-PMSSA), 3 wavelength Photoacoustic Soot Spectrometer (PASS-3) and Multi Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP); particle hygroscopcity using a Hygroscopicity Tandem Differential Mobility

  18. A study on the indirect urea dosing method in the Selective Catalytic Reduction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzeżański, M.; Sala, R.

    2016-09-01

    This article presents the results of studies on concept solution of dosing urea in a gas phase in a selective catalytic reduction system. The idea of the concept was to heat-up and evaporate the water urea solution before introducing it into the exhaust gas stream. The aim was to enhance the processes of urea converting into ammonia, what is the target reductant for nitrogen oxides treatment. The study was conducted on a medium-duty Euro 5 diesel engine with exhaust line consisting of DOC catalyst, DPF filter and an SCR system with a changeable setup allowing to dose the urea in liquid phase (regular solution) and to dose it in a gas phase (concept solution). The main criteria was to assess the effect of physical state of urea dosed on the NOx conversion ratio in the SCR catalyst. In order to compare both urea dosing methods a special test procedure was developed which consisted of six test steps covering a wide temperature range of exhaust gas generated at steady state engine operation condition. Tests were conducted for different urea dosing quantities defined by the a equivalence ratio. Based on the obtained results, a remarkable improvement in NOx reduction was found for gas urea application in comparison to the standard liquid urea dosing. Measured results indicate a high potential to increase an efficiency of the SCR catalyst by using a gas phase urea and provide the basis for further scientific research on this type of concept.

  19. The challenges of worldwide fuels on modern diesel common rail systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoeppe, D.; Hardouin, G.; Monnier, F.; Lacey, P.; Lafon, V.; Rossi, A.; Orlovic, A.; Zuelch, S. [Delphi Corporation (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Common Rail diesel fuel injection technology faces interesting perspectives outside Europe, the traditional market for Diesel passenger vehicles. As a consequence, the modern diesel engine will have to operate in extremely diverse markets with varying requirements in terms of emission legislation levels, fuel quality and customer expectations. Our paper focuses on the challenges related to fuel variability. Today we face two opposing sets of requirements. On one side, the introduction of existing diesel technology in emerging countries with challenging levels of consistency of key fuel characteristics, on the other, the launch of new and sophisticated technology in Europe and the USA with extremely low emission limits. An additional degree of freedom is related to the advent and expectations of bio-fuels worldwide. In this context we will show how our core components, including our filter technology, are developed and adapted to ensure optimal behaviour under these severe conditions. (orig.)

  20. An Investigation into the Effect of Hydrodynamic Cavitation on Diesel using Optical Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockett, R. D.; Fatmi, Z.; Kuti, O.; Price, R.

    2015-12-01

    A conventional diesel and paraffinic-rich model diesel fuel were subjected to sustained cavitation in a custom-built high-pressure recirculation flow rig. Changes to the spectral extinction coefficient at 405 nm were measured using a simple optical arrangement. The spectral extinction coefficient at 405 nm for the conventional diesel sample was observed to increase to a maximum value and then asymptotically decrease to a steady-state value, while that for the paraffinic-rich model diesel was observed to progressively decrease. It is suggested that this is caused by the sonochemical pyrolysis of mono-aromatics to form primary soot-like carbonaceous particles, which then coagulate to form larger particles, which are then trapped by the filter, leading to a steady-state spectral absorbance.

  1. Bio diesel production from algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algae appear to be an emerging source of biomass for bio diesel that has the potential to completely displace fossil fuel. Two thirds of earth's surface is covered with water, thus alga e would truly be renewable option of great potential for global energy needs. This study discusses specific and comparative bio diesel quantitative potential of Cladophora sp., also highlighting its biomass (after oil extraction), pH and sediments (glycerine, water and pigments) quantitative properties. Comparison of Cladophora sp., with Oedogonium sp., and Spirogyra sp., (Hossain et al., 2008) shows that Cladophora sp., produce higher quantity of bio diesel than Spirogyra sp., whereas biomass and sediments were higher than the both algal specimens in comparison to the results obtained by earlier workers. No prominent difference in pH of bio diesel was found. In Pakistan this is a first step towards bio diesel production from algae. Results indicate that Cladophora sp., provide a reasonable quantity of bio diesel, its greater biomass after oil extraction and sediments make it a better option for bio diesel production than the comparing species. (author)

  2. Diesel spray characterization; Dieselmoottorin polttoainesuihkujen ominaisuudet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitkaenen, J.; Turunen, R.; Paloposki, T.; Rantanen, P.; Virolainen, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Internal Combustion Engine Lab.

    1997-10-01

    Fuel injection of diesel engines will be studied using large-scale models of fuel injectors. The advantage of large-scale models is that the measurement of large-scale diesel sprays will be easier than the measurement of actual sprays. The objective is to study the break-up mechanism of diesel sprays and to measure drop size distributions in the inner part of the spray. The results will be used in the development of diesel engines and diesel fuels. (orig.)

  3. Variability of particle number emissions from diesel and hybrid diesel-electric buses in real driving conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonntag, Darrell B; Gao, H Oliver; Holmén, Britt A

    2008-08-01

    A linear mixed model was developed to quantify the variability of particle number emissions from transit buses tested in real-world driving conditions. Two conventional diesel buses and two hybrid diesel-electric buses were tested throughout 2004 under different aftertreatments, fuels, drivers, and bus routes. The mixed model controlled the confounding influence of factors inherent to on-board testing. Statistical tests showed that particle number emissions varied significantly according to the after treatment, bus route, driver, bus type, and daily temperature, with only minor variability attributable to differences between fuel types. The daily setup and operation of the sampling equipment (electrical low pressure impactor) and mini-dilution system contributed to 30-84% of the total random variability of particle measurements among tests with diesel oxidation catalysts. By controlling for the sampling day variability, the model better defined the differences in particle emissions among bus routes. In contrast, the low particle number emissions measured with diesel particle filters (decreased by over 99%) did not vary according to operating conditions or bus type but did vary substantially with ambient temperature.

  4. Emissions from a Diesel Engine using Fe-based Fuel Additives and a Sintered Metal Filtration System

    OpenAIRE

    Bugarski, Aleksandar D.; Hummer, Jon A.; Stachulak, Jozef S.; Miller, Arthur; Patts, Larry D.; Cauda, Emanuele G.

    2015-01-01

    A series of laboratory tests were conducted to assess the effects of Fe-containing fuel additives on aerosols emitted by a diesel engine retrofitted with a sintered metal filter (SMF) system. Emission measurements performed upstream and downstream of the SMF system were compared, for cases when the engine was fueled with neat ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) and with ULSD treated with two formulations of additives containing Fe-based catalysts. The effects were assessed for four steady-state eng...

  5. Investigation of engine performance and emissions of a diesel engine with a blend of marine gas oil and synthetic diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Md Nurun; Hustad, Johan Einar

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions with marine gas oil (MGO) and a blend of MGO and synthetic diesel fuel. Ten per cent by volume of Fischer-Tropsch (FT), a synthetic diesel fuel, was added to MGO to investigate its influence on the diesel engine performance and emissions. The blended fuel was termed as FT10 fuel, while the neat (100 vol%) MGO was termed as MGO fuel. The experiments were conducted with a fourstroke, six-cylinder, turbocharged, direct injection, Scania DC 1102 diesel engine. It is interesting to note that all emissions including smoke (filter smoke number), total particulate matter (TPM), carbon monoxide (CO), total unburned hydrocarbon (THC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and engine noise were reduced with FT10 fuel compared with the MGO fuel. Diesel fine particle number and mass emissions were measured with an electrical low pressure impactor. Like other exhaust emissions, significant reductions in fine particles and mass emissions were observed with the FT10 fuel. The reduction was due to absence of sulphur and aromatic compounds in the FT fuel. In-cylinder gas pressure and engine thermal efficiency were identical for both FT10 and MGO fuels.

  6. Investigation of engine performance and emissions of a diesel engine with a blend of marine gas oil and synthetic diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Md Nurun; Hustad, Johan Einar

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions with marine gas oil (MGO) and a blend of MGO and synthetic diesel fuel. Ten per cent by volume of Fischer-Tropsch (FT), a synthetic diesel fuel, was added to MGO to investigate its influence on the diesel engine performance and emissions. The blended fuel was termed as FT10 fuel, while the neat (100 vol%) MGO was termed as MGO fuel. The experiments were conducted with a fourstroke, six-cylinder, turbocharged, direct injection, Scania DC 1102 diesel engine. It is interesting to note that all emissions including smoke (filter smoke number), total particulate matter (TPM), carbon monoxide (CO), total unburned hydrocarbon (THC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and engine noise were reduced with FT10 fuel compared with the MGO fuel. Diesel fine particle number and mass emissions were measured with an electrical low pressure impactor. Like other exhaust emissions, significant reductions in fine particles and mass emissions were observed with the FT10 fuel. The reduction was due to absence of sulphur and aromatic compounds in the FT fuel. In-cylinder gas pressure and engine thermal efficiency were identical for both FT10 and MGO fuels. PMID:22519083

  7. Diesel Engine Tribology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Christian Kim

    emission requirements as well as attempting to minimise fuel expenses, the engine speed has been lowered together with an increase in the engine mean pressure which in terms lead to larger bearing loads. With worsened operating conditions from two sides, the encountered problems are understandable......Recent years have seen an increase in the wear rate of engine bearings, subsequently followed by bearing failure, for the large two-stroke diesel engines used for ship propulsion. Here, the engine bearings include main, big end and crosshead bearings, with the bearing type used being the journal...... bearing, belonging to the class of ‘hydrodynamic bearings’. This implies that the load carrying capacity is generated by a relative movement of the involved components, i.e. avelocity-driven operation. For the engine application, the velocity stems from the engine RPM. However, to comply with the latest...

  8. Catalytic pyrolysis of olive mill wastewater sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellaoui, Hamza

    From 2008 to 2013, an average of 2,821.4 kilotons/year of olive oil were produced around the world. The waste product of the olive mill industry consists of solid residue (pomace) and wastewater (OMW). Annually, around 30 million m3 of OMW are produced in the Mediterranean area, 700,000 m3 year?1 in Tunisia alone. OMW is an aqueous effluent characterized by an offensive smell and high organic matter content, including high molecular weight phenolic compounds and long-chain fatty acids. These compounds are highly toxic to micro-organisms and plants, which makes the OMW a serious threat to the environment if not managed properly. The OMW is disposed of in open air evaporation ponds. After evaporation of most of the water, OMWS is left in the bottom of the ponds. In this thesis, the effort has been made to evaluate the catalytic pyrolysis process as a technology to valorize the OMWS. The first section of this research showed that 41.12 wt. % of the OMWS is mostly lipids, which are a good source of energy. The second section proved that catalytic pyrolysis of the OMWS over red mud and HZSM-5 can produce green diesel, and 450 °C is the optimal reaction temperature to maximize the organic yields. The last section revealed that the HSF was behind the good fuel-like properties of the OMWS catalytic oils, whereas the SR hindered the bio-oil yields and quality.

  9. Experimental demonstration of a new model-based SCR control strategy for cleaner heavy-duty diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Cloudt, R.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is a promising diesel aftertreatment technology that enables low nitrogen oxides (NOx) tailpipe emissions with relatively low fuel consumption. Future emission legislation is pushing the boundaries for SCR control systems to achieve high NOx conversion within a ta

  10. Noise Optimization in Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Narayan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Euro 6 norms emphasize on reduction of emissions from the engines. New injection methods are being adopted for homogenous mixture formation in diesel engines. During steady state conditions homogenous combustion gave noise levels in lower frequencies. In this work noise produced in a 440 cc diesel engine has been investigated. The engine was run under various operating conditions varying various injection parameters.

  11. Diesel engine management systems and components

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This reference book provides a comprehensive insight into todays diesel injection systems and electronic control. It focusses on minimizing emissions and exhaust-gas treatment. Innovations by Bosch in the field of diesel-injection technology have made a significant contribution to the diesel boom. Calls for lower fuel consumption, reduced exhaust-gas emissions and quiet engines are making greater demands on the engine and fuel-injection systems. Contents History of the diesel engine.- Areas of use for diesel engines.- Basic principles of the diesel engine.- Fuels: Diesel fuel.- Fuels: Alternative fuels.- Cylinder-charge control systems.- Basic principles of diesel fuel-injection.- Overview of diesel fuel-injection systems.- Fuel supply to the low pressure stage.- Overview of discrete cylinder systems.- Unit injector system.- Unit pump system.- Overview of common-rail systems.- High pressure components of the common-rail system.- Injection nozzles.- Nozzle holders.- High pressure lines.- Start assist systems.-...

  12. Experimental Investigations on Conventional and Semi-Adiabatic Diesel Engine Using Simarouba Biodiesel as Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, M. U.; Reddy, C. P.; Ravindranath, K.

    2013-04-01

    In view of fast depletion of fossil fuels and the rapid rate at which the fuel consumption is taking place all over the world, scientists are searching for alternate fuels for maintaining the growth industrially and economically. Hence search for alternate fuel(s) has become imminent. Out of the limited options for internal combustion engines, the bio diesel fuel appears to be the best. Many advanced countries are implementing several biodiesel initiatives and developmental programmes in order to become self sufficient and reduce the import bills. Biodiesel is biodegradable and renewable fuel with the potential to enhance the performance and reduce engine exhaust emissions. This is due to ready usage of existing diesel engines, fuel distribution pattern, reduced emission profiles, and eco-friendly properties of biodiesel. Simarouba biodiesel (SBD), the methyl ester of Simarouba oil is one such alternative fuel which can be used as substitute to conventional petro-diesel. The present work involves experimental investigation on the use of SBD blends as fuel in conventional diesel engine and semi-adiabatic diesel engine. The oil was triple filtered to eliminate particulate matter and then transesterified to obtain biodiesel. The project envisaged aims at conducting analysis of diesel with SBD blends (10, 20, 30 and 40 %) in conventional engine and semi-adiabatic engine. Also it was decided to vary the injection pressure (180, 190 and 200 bar) and observe its effect on performance and also suggest better value of injection pressure. The engine was made semi adiabatic by coating the piston crown with partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ). Kirloskar AV I make (3.67 kW) vertical, single cylinder, water cooled diesel engine coupled to an eddy current dynamometer with suitable measuring instrumentation/accessories used for the study. Experiments were initially carried out using pure diesel fuel to provide base line data. The test results were compared based on the performance

  13. Generalised Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Friston

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a Bayesian filtering scheme for nonlinear state-space models in continuous time. This scheme is called Generalised Filtering and furnishes posterior (conditional densities on hidden states and unknown parameters generating observed data. Crucially, the scheme operates online, assimilating data to optimize the conditional density on time-varying states and time-invariant parameters. In contrast to Kalman and Particle smoothing, Generalised Filtering does not require a backwards pass. In contrast to variational schemes, it does not assume conditional independence between the states and parameters. Generalised Filtering optimises the conditional density with respect to a free-energy bound on the model's log-evidence. This optimisation uses the generalised motion of hidden states and parameters, under the prior assumption that the motion of the parameters is small. We describe the scheme, present comparative evaluations with a fixed-form variational version, and conclude with an illustrative application to a nonlinear state-space model of brain imaging time-series.

  14. Reactive nitrogen compounds (RNCs) in exhaust of advanced PM-NO x abatement technologies for future diesel applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeb, Norbert V.; Zimmerli, Yan; Czerwinski, Jan; Schmid, Peter; Zennegg, Markus; Haag, Regula; Seiler, Cornelia; Wichser, Adrian; Ulrich, Andrea; Honegger, Peter; Zeyer, Kerstin; Emmenegger, Lukas; Mosimann, Thomas; Kasper, Markus; Mayer, Andreas

    2011-06-01

    Long-term exposure to increased levels of reactive nitrogen compounds (RNCs) and particulate matter (PM) affect human health. Many cities are currently not able to fulfill European air quality standards for these critical pollutants. Meanwhile, promising new abatement technologies such as diesel particle filters (DPFs) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts are developed to reduce PM and RNC emissions. Herein, effects of a urea-based SCR system on RNC emissions are discussed and we quantified the highly reactive intermediates isocyanic acid (HNCO) and ammonia (NH 3), both potential secondary pollutants of the urea-based SCR chemistry. A diesel engine (3.0 L, 100 kW), operated in the ISO 8178/4 C1, cycle was used as test platform. A V 2O 5-based SCR catalyst was either applied as such or down-stream of a high oxidation potential-DPF (hox-DPF). With active SCR, nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) conversion efficiencies of 0.86-0.94 and 0.86-0.99 were obtained. On the other hand, mean HNCO and NH 3 emissions increased to 240-280 and 1800-1900 mg h -1. On a molar basis, HNCO accounted for 0.8-1.4% and NH 3 for 14-25% of the emitted RNCs. On roads, SCR systems will partly be inactive when exhaust temperatures drop below 220 °C. The system was active only during 75% of the test cycle, and urea dosing was stopped and restarted several times. Consequently, NO conversion stopped but interestingly, NO 2 was still converted. Such light-off and shutdown events are frequent in urban driving, compromising the overall deNO x efficiency. Another important effect of the SCR technology is illustrated by the NH 3/NO 2 ratio, which was >1 with active SCR, indicating that exhaust is basic rather than acidic after the SCR catalyst. Under these conditions, isocyanic acid is stable. The widespread use of various converter technologies already affected RNC release. Diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs) and hox-DPFs increased NO 2 emissions, three-way catalysts (TWCs

  15. Experimental exposure to diesel exhaust increases arterial stiffness in man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newby David E

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Exposure to air pollution is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity, although the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Vascular dysfunction reduces arterial compliance and increases central arterial pressure and left ventricular after-load. We determined the effect of diesel exhaust exposure on arterial compliance using a validated non-invasive measure of arterial stiffness. Methods In a double-blind randomized fashion, 12 healthy volunteers were exposed to diesel exhaust (approximately 350 μg/m3 or filtered air for one hour during moderate exercise. Arterial stiffness was measured using applanation tonometry at the radial artery for pulse wave analysis (PWA, as well as at the femoral and carotid arteries for pulse wave velocity (PWV. PWA was performed 10, 20 and 30 min, and carotid-femoral PWV 40 min, post-exposure. Augmentation pressure (AP, augmentation index (AIx and time to wave reflection (Tr were calculated. Results Blood pressure, AP and AIx were generally low reflecting compliant arteries. In comparison to filtered air, diesel exhaust exposure induced an increase in AP of 2.5 mmHg (p = 0.02 and in AIx of 7.8% (p = 0.01, along with a 16 ms reduction in Tr (p = 0.03, 10 minutes post-exposure. Conclusion Acute exposure to diesel exhaust is associated with an immediate and transient increase in arterial stiffness. This may, in part, explain the increased risk for cardiovascular disease associated with air pollution exposure. If our findings are confirmed in larger cohorts of susceptible populations, this simple non-invasive method of assessing arterial stiffness may become a useful technique in measuring the impact of real world exposures to combustion derived-air pollution.

  16. Increase of efficiency of purification of the exhaust gases in diesel engine

    OpenAIRE

    Васильев, Игорь Павлович

    2014-01-01

    Results of researches on investigation of exhausted gases cleaning of the dispersed particles in electric catalytic filter effectiveness have been presented. The aim of the investigation was identification of filter parameters impact on exhaust gases cleaning with the further use of cleaned of gases in modern neutralization systems. Practical peculiarity of filter work has been revealed. Effectiveness of cleaning is reducing with the temperature increase. It is offered to reduce NOx emissions...

  17. Hybrid-Electric Vehicle with Natural Gas-Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino Guzzella

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we demonstrate the potential of combining electric hybridization with a dual-fuel natural gas-Diesel engine. We show that carbon dioxide emissions can be reduced to 43 gram per kilometer with a subcompact car on the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC. The vehicle is operated in charge-sustaining mode, which means that all energy is provided by the fuel. The result is obtained by hardware-in-the-loop experiments where the engine is operated on a test bench while the rest of the powertrain as well as the vehicle are simulated. By static engine measurements we demonstrate that the natural gas-Diesel engine reaches efficiencies of up to 39.5%. The engine is operated lean at low loads with low engine out nitrogen oxide emissions such that no nitrogen oxide aftertreatment is necessary. At medium to high loads the engine is operated stoichiometrically, which enables the use of a cost-efficient three-way catalytic converter. By vehicle emulation of a non-hybrid vehicle on the Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP, we demonstrate that transient operation of the natural gas-Diesel engine is also possible, thus enabling a non-hybridized powertrain as well.

  18. Hydrogenation of diesel aromatic compounds in supercritical solvent environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.P. Martins

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Reactions under supercritical conditions have been employed in many processes. Furthermore, an increasing number of commercial reactions have been conducted under supercritical or near critical conditions. These reaction conditions offer several advantages when compared to conditions in conventional catalytic processes in liquid-phase, gas-liquid interface, or even some gas-phase reactions. Basically, a supercritical solvent can diminish the reactant’s transport resistance from the bulk region to the catalyst surface due to enhancement of liquid diffusivity values and better solubility than those in different phases. Another advantage is that supercritical solvents permit prompt and easy changes in intermolecular properties in order to modify reaction parameters, such as conversion or selectivity, or even proceed with the separation of reaction products. Diesel fractions from petroleum frequently have larger than desirable quantities of aromatic compounds. Diesel hydrogenation is intended to decrease these quantities, i.e., to increase the quantity of paraffin present in this petroleum fraction. In this work, the hydrogenation of tetralin was studied as a model reaction for the aromatic hydrogenation process. A conventional gas-liquid-solid catalytic process was compared with that of supercritical carbon dioxide substrate under similar conditions. Additionally, an equilibrium conversion diagram was calculated for this reaction in a wide range of temperature and reactant ratios, so as to optimize the operational conditions and improve the results of subsequent experiments. An increase in the rate of reaction at 493 K in supercritical fluid, as compared to that in the conventional process, was observed.

  19. Hydrogenation of diesel aromatic compounds in supercritical solvent environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, E.P.; Aranda, D.A.G.; Pessoa, F.L.P. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica. Dept. de Engenharia Quimica. E-mail: donato@h2o.eq.ufrj.br; pessoa@h2o.eq.ufrj.br; Zotin, J.L. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. E-mail: zotin@cenpes.petrobras.com.br

    2000-09-01

    Reactions under supercritical conditions have been employed in many processes. Furthermore, an increasing number of commercial reactions have been conducted under supercritical or near critical conditions. These reaction conditions offer several advantages when compared to conditions in conventional catalytic processes in liquid-phase, gas-liquid interface., or even some gas-phase reactions. basically, a supercritical solvent can diminish the reactant's transport resistance from the bulk region to the catalyst surface due to enhancement of liquid diffusivity values and better solubility than those in different phases. Another advantage is that supercritical solvents permit prompt and easy changes in intermolecular properties in order to modify reaction parameters, such as conversion or selectivity, or even proceed with the separation of reaction products. Diesel fractions from petroleum frequently have larger than desirable quantities of aromatic compounds. Diesel hydrogenation is intended to decrease these quantities, to increase the quantity of paraffin present in this petroleum fraction. In this work, the hydrogenation of tetralin was studied as a model reaction for the aromatic hydrogenation process. A conventional gas-liquid-solid catalytic process was compared with that of supercritical carbon dioxide substrate under similar conditions. Additionally, an equilibrium conversion diagram was calculated for this reaction in a wide range of temperature and reactant ratios, so as to optimize the operational conditions and improve the results of subsequent experiments. An increase in the rate of reaction at 493 K in supercritical fluid, as compared to that in the conventional process, was observed. (author)

  20. Catalytic distillation structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.

    1984-01-01

    Catalytic distillation structure for use in reaction distillation columns, a providing reaction sites and distillation structure and consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and being present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consist of at least 10 volume % open space.

  1. Catalytic combustor for hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercea, J.; Grecu, E.; Fodor, T.; Kreibik, S.

    1982-01-01

    The performance of catalytic combustors for hydrogen using platinum-supported catalysts is described. Catalytic plates of different sizes were constructed using fibrous and ceramic supports. The temperature distribution as well as the reaction efficiency as a function of the fuel input rate was determined, and a comparison between the performances of different plates is discussed.

  2. Research on application of mobile diesel equipment in underground mines (IV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This research commenced in 1994 for the purpose of providing safety and environmental measures of underground mines where the mobile diesel equipment are operating. In this last research year, researches on filtering of diesel particulate matter, design of underground layout and disaster prevention have been carried out. 1) A study to reduce DPM(Diesel Particulate Matter) emission: It was known that water scrubber is only one practical way to reduce DPM emission as of now. There are several kinds of the sophisticated DPM filters, but it is not practical yet to be used in underground equipment due to the many adverse effects of the devices such as tremendous increase of SOx, NOx and back pressure etc. 2) Design of underground layout and their maintenance: Layout of underground structure has to be designed based on rock mechanical analysis and the concept of active support has to be adopted considering the large openings are requested to accommodate heavy duty diesel equipment in underground. Rock bolt and shotcrete will be the most applicable method to support such a large dimensional tunnels. 3) A study for disaster prevention in the case of the underground fire: There are two categories of possible disaster or hazard in workings where diesel equipment are operating. One is the disasters by exhaust pollutants and the other is the underground fire. (author). 35 refs., 27 tabs., 56 figs.

  3. Water Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    A compact, lightweight electrolytic water sterilizer available through Ambassador Marketing, generates silver ions in concentrations of 50 to 100 parts per billion in water flow system. The silver ions serve as an effective bactericide/deodorizer. Tap water passes through filtering element of silver that has been chemically plated onto activated carbon. The silver inhibits bacterial growth and the activated carbon removes objectionable tastes and odors caused by addition of chlorine and other chemicals in municipal water supply. The three models available are a kitchen unit, a "Tourister" unit for portable use while traveling and a refrigerator unit that attaches to the ice cube water line. A filter will treat 5,000 to 10,000 gallons of water.

  4. Environmental Technology Verification Test Report of Mobile Source Selective Catalytic Reduction, Johnson Matthey SCCRT, Version 1, Selective Catalytic Reduction Technology with a Catalyzed Continuously Regenerating Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Johnson Matthey SCCRT, v.1 technology is a urea-based SCR system combined with a CCRT filter designed for on-highway light, medium, and heavy heavy-duty diesel, urban and non-urban, bus exhaust gas recirculation (EGR)-or non-EGR-equipped engines for use with commercial ultra-...

  5. Isuzu`s approach to small DI diesel engine; Joyoshayo kogata chokufun diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, S. [Isuzu Motors Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-09-01

    The paper introduced a low-fuel proto engine developed as diesel engine which is clean and low in fuel consumption. The low-fuel proto car equipped with Isuzu`s 17DIT proto engine which was on show in fall 1995 was reduced about 38% in fuel consumption from Opel`s Corsa equipped with Isuzu`s existing 15DIT diesel engine. Emission of the proto engine cleared Euro 2 regulation. To clear Euro 3 regulation, however, it is needed to make further reduction in emission. For it, technology for the following is necessary: electronic controlling of injection system and EGR, oxidation catalyst, improvement of combustion chamber, pilot injection for reduction of combustion noise, etc. For reduction of NOx and particulates, a lot of research institutes are making efforts for R and D of oxidation catalyst, particulate filter, and De-NOx catalyst. As to DI engines, of which exhaust gas temperature is low, a development is needed of a catalyst with low-temperature activity. 3 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Providing Eligibility Criteria On Turbocharger Filter Silencer Design Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem GÜLERYÜZ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Supply of ventilation air to either the engine room or diesel engine directly affects engine performances. Main criteria is supply of air volume and pressure into the cylinder. When Air starts to come until the cylinders, there many points which behave as restrictions. These are ventilation grills. ventilation fans, ventilation casings, misteliminators, manual or pneumatically adjusted fan dampers, number of bending of ventilation casing, cleanness of casings, air flow speed, air filters, turbocharger filter and silencers, engine’s scavenge air cooler restrictions. Here, we focused on optimum required air need through turbocharger for local diesel engine. While researching actual need, new turbocharger filter were designed and manufactured for engine manufacturer.

  7. Materials for High-Temperature Catalytic Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersson, Anders

    2003-04-01

    Catalytic combustion is an environmentally friendly technique to combust fuels in e.g. gas turbines. Introducing a catalyst into the combustion chamber of a gas turbine allows combustion outside the normal flammability limits. Hence, the adiabatic flame temperature may be lowered below the threshold temperature for thermal NO{sub X} formation while maintaining a stable combustion. However, several challenges are connected to the application of catalytic combustion in gas turbines. The first part of this thesis reviews the use of catalytic combustion in gas turbines. The influence of the fuel has been studied and compared over different catalyst materials. The material section is divided into two parts. The first concerns bimetallic palladium catalysts. These catalysts showed a more stable activity compared to their pure palladium counterparts for methane combustion. This was verified both by using an annular reactor at ambient pressure and a pilot-scale reactor at elevated pressures and flows closely resembling the ones found in a gas turbine combustor. The second part concerns high-temperature materials, which may be used either as active or washcoat materials. A novel group of materials for catalysis, i.e. garnets, has been synthesised and tested in combustion of methane, a low-heating value gas and diesel fuel. The garnets showed some interesting abilities especially for combustion of low-heating value, LHV, gas. Two other materials were also studied, i.e. spinels and hexa aluminates, both showed very promising thermal stability and the substituted hexa aluminates also showed a good catalytic activity. Finally, deactivation of the catalyst materials was studied. In this part the sulphur poisoning of palladium, platinum and the above-mentioned complex metal oxides has been studied for combustion of a LHV gas. Platinum and surprisingly the garnet were least deactivated. Palladium was severely affected for methane combustion while the other washcoat materials were

  8. Adiabatic turbocompound diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamo, R.; Bryzik, W.

    1984-02-01

    The research and development of an adiabatic turbocompound engine have shown that the concept is feasible. The ability to meet the performance and sociability goals of the future power plants has been demonstrated. Low brake specific fuel consumption, low smoke and particulates, better NO /SUB x/ -BSFC trade-off, excellent multifuel capability, white smoke suppression, and potentially lower maintenance and greater reliability and durability are some of the attributes. The absence of the water cooling system adds to its attractiveness because of lower installed weight, cost, and reduction in parasitic losses. The operating environment of an adiabatic engine is shown as the basis for analysis and designing of adiabatic components. The types of material which can satisfy the needs of an adiabatic engine are presented. These materials include high temperature metals, high performance ceramics, and glass ceramics. The use of a turbocompound system to utilize the increased exhaust energy of an adiabatic engine is covered. A minimum fuel consumption of 0.285 lb/bhp-hr was achieved at 200 psi BMEP. Although the technical feasibility and viability of an adiabatic engine was demonstrated, the adiabatic diesel engine has problems which must be solved before it becomes a commercially viable product. These problem areas where more work is required are discussed.

  9. An evaluation of criteria for selecting vehicles fueled with diesel or compressed natural gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hesterberg

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed selection criteria for diesel and compressed natural gas (CNG fueled vehicles, comparing engine emissions, fire and safety, toxicity, economics, and operations. Diesel- and CNG-fueled vehicles with the latest emission-control technology, including engine-exhaust aftertreatment, have very similar emissions of regulated and unregulated compounds, particles through all size ranges, and greenhouse gases. Although toxicity data are limited, no significant toxicity differences of engine emissions were reported. Operating and maintenance costs are variable, with no consistent difference between diesel- and CNG-fueled vehicles. The main operating concern with CNG vehicles is that they are less fuel efficient. Higher infrastructure costs are involved with implementing a CNG-fueled vehicle fleet, giving diesel vehicles a distinct cost advantage over CNG vehicles. For a given budget, greater emissions reductions can thus be achieved with diesel+filter vehicles. Finally, diesel vehicles have a significant fire-and-safety advantage over CNG vehicles. In summary, infrastructure costs and fire-and-safety concerns are much greater for CNG-fueled vehicles. These considerations should be part of the decision-making process when selecting a fuel for a transportation system.

  10. Performance evaluation of a diesel engine fueled with methyl ester of castor seed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.DURGA DEVI

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Diesel engines are widely used as power sources in medium and heavy-duty applications because of their lower fuel consumption and lower emissions of carbon monoxide (CO and unburned hydrocarbons (HC compared with gasoline engines. Rudolf Diesel, the inventor ofthe diesel engine, ran an engine on groundnut oil at the Paris Exposition of 1900. Since then, vegetable oils have been used as fuels when petroleum supplies were expensive or difficult to obtain. With the increased availability of petroleum in the 1940s, research into vegetable oils decreased. Since the oil crisis of the 1970s research interest has expanded in the area of alternative fuels. The difficulties associated with using raw vegetable oils in diesel engines identified in the literature are injector coking, severe engine deposits, filter gumming problems, piston ring sticking, and injector coking and thickening of the lubricating oil. The highviscosity and low volatility of raw vegetable oils are generally considered to be the major drawbacks for their utilization as fuels in diesel engines. Castor methyl ester (CME blends showed performance characteristics close to diesel. Therefore castor methylester blends can be used in CI engines in rural area for meeting energy requirement in various agricultural operations such as irrigation, threshing, indistries etc.

  11. OXIDATIVE DNA DAMAGE IN DIESEL BUS MECHANICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: Diesel exposure has been associated with adverse health effects, including susceptibility to asthma, allergy and cancer. Previous epidemiological studies demonstrated increased cancer incidence among workers exposed to diesel. This is likely due to oxid...

  12. Urea-SCR Temperature Investigation for NOx Control of Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available SCR (selective catalytic reduction system is continuously being analyzed by many researchers worldwide on various concerns due to the stringent nitrogen oxides (NOx emissions legislation for heavy-duty diesel engines. Urea-SCR includes AdBlue as urea source, which subsequently decomposes to NH3 (ammonia being the reducing agent. Reaction temperature is a key factor for the performance of urea-SCR system, as urea decomposition rate is sensitive to a specific temperature range. This particular study was directed to investigate the temperature of the SCR system in diesel engine with the objective to confirm that whether the appropriate temperature is attained for occurrence of urea based catalytic reduction or otherwise and how the system performs on the prescribed temperature range. Diesel engine fitted with urea-SCR exhaust system has been operated on European standard cycle for emission testing to monitor the temperature and corresponding nitrogen oxides (NOx values on specified points. Moreover, mathematical expressions for approximation of reaction temperature are also proposed which are derived by applying energy conservation principal and gas laws. Results of the investigation have shown that during the whole testing cycle system temperature has remained in the range where urea-SCR can take place with best optimum rate and the system performance on account of NOx reduction was exemplary as excellent NOx conversion rate is achieved. It has also been confirmed that selective catalytic reduction (SCR is the best suitable technology for automotive engine-out NOx control.

  13. Inhalation of diesel engine exhaust affects spermatogenesis in growing male rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, N.; Oonuki, Y

    1999-01-01

    We conducted experiments to determine whether diesel engine exhaust affects reproductive endocrine function in growing rats. The rats were assigned to three groups: a group exposed to total diesel engine exhaust containing 5.63 mg/m3 particulate matter, 4.10 ppm nitrogen dioxide, and 8.10 ppm nitrogen oxide; a group exposed to filtered exhaust without particulate matter; and a group exposed to clean air. Dosing experiments were performed for 3 months beginning at birth (6 hr/day for 5 days/we...

  14. The masculinization of the fetus during pregnancy due to inhalation of diesel exhaust.

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, N.; Kurita, M.

    2001-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the impact of diesel exhaust inhalation on the fetus. Seventy-two pregnant rats and 18 nonpregnant rats were divided into three groups: a group exposed to total diesel engine exhaust containing 5.63 mg/m(3) particulate matter, 4.10 ppm nitrogen dioxide, and 8.10 ppm nitrogen oxide; a group exposed to filtered exhaust without particulate matter; and a group exposed to clean air. The exposure period was from day 7 until day 20 of pregnancy. In addition, 15 ...

  15. Clean Coal Diesel Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Wilson

    2006-10-31

    A Clean Coal Diesel project was undertaken to demonstrate a new Clean Coal Technology that offers technical, economic and environmental advantages over conventional power generating methods. This innovative technology (developed to the prototype stage in an earlier DOE project completed in 1992) enables utilization of pre-processed clean coal fuel in large-bore, medium-speed, diesel engines. The diesel engines are conventional modern engines in many respects, except they are specially fitted with hardened parts to be compatible with the traces of abrasive ash in the coal-slurry fuel. Industrial and Municipal power generating applications in the 10 to 100 megawatt size range are the target applications. There are hundreds of such reciprocating engine power-plants operating throughout the world today on natural gas and/or heavy fuel oil.

  16. Digital filters

    CERN Document Server

    Hamming, Richard W

    1997-01-01

    Digital signals occur in an increasing number of applications: in telephone communications; in radio, television, and stereo sound systems; and in spacecraft transmissions, to name just a few. This introductory text examines digital filtering, the processes of smoothing, predicting, differentiating, integrating, and separating signals, as well as the removal of noise from a signal. The processes bear particular relevance to computer applications, one of the focuses of this book.Readers will find Hamming's analysis accessible and engaging, in recognition of the fact that many people with the s

  17. Soot temperature and KL factor for biodiesel and diesel spray combustion in a constant volume combustion chamber

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ji

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents measurements of the soot temperature and KL factor for biodiesel and diesel combustion in a constant volume chamber using a two-color technique. This technique uses a high-speed camera coupled with two narrowband filters (550. nm and 650. nm, 10. nm FWHM). After calibration, statistical analysis shows that the uncertainty of the two-color temperature is less than 5%, while it is about 50% for the KL factor. This technique is then applied to the spray combustion of biodiesel and diesel fuels under an ambient oxygen concentration of 21% and ambient temperatures of 800, 1000 and 1200. K. The heat release result shows higher energy utilization efficiency for biodiesel compared to diesel under all conditions; meanwhile, diesel shows a higher pressure increase due to its higher heating value. Biodiesel yields a lower temperature inside the flame area, a longer soot lift-off length, and a smaller soot area compared to diesel. Both the KL factor and the total soot with biodiesel are lower than with diesel throughout the entire combustion process, and this difference becomes larger as the ambient temperature decreases. Biodiesel shows approximately 50-100. K lower temperatures than diesel at the quasi-steady stage for 1000 and 1200. K ambient temperature, while diesel shows a lower temperature than biodiesel at 800. K ambient. This result may raise the question of how important the flame temperature is in explaining the higher NO. x emissions often observed during biodiesel combustion. Other factors may also play an important role in controlling NO. x emissions. Both biodiesel and diesel temperature measurements show a monotonic dependence on the ambient temperature. However, the ambient temperature appears to have a more significant effect on the soot formation and oxidation in diesel combustion, while biodiesel combustion soot characteristics shows relative insensitivity to the ambient temperature. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Catalytic distillation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.

    1982-01-01

    A method for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C.sub.4 feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

  19. Catalytic Functions of Standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Blind (Knut)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe three different areas and the examples have illustrated several catalytic functions of standards for innovation. First, the standardisation process reduces the time to market of inventions, research results and innovative technologies. Second, standards themselves promote the diffusi

  20. Vegetable oil as a diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Callaghan, C.

    1982-05-01

    There are a wide range of vegetable oils which may be used in the diesel engine such as palm oil, soyabean oil, sunflower oil and rapeseed oil. This paper reports on preliminary work with rapeseed oil as a possible alternative to diesel. The oil was degummed by hydration. Physical and chemical properties of the oil are compared to diesel fuel. Three types of fuel were tested in a tractor: (a) pure diesel oil; (b) a 50:50 mixture of diesel oil and rapeseed oil; and (c) pure rapeseed oil. Power-speed curves were constructed for each fuel type and observations on nozzle cooking and smoke emissions made.

  1. Pengaruh Magnetasi Bahan Bakar dan Penggunaan Katalitik Terhadap Emisi Gas Buang, Temperatur Air Pendingin dan Oli Pada Mesin Diesel Satu Silinder

    OpenAIRE

    Sinaga, Adi Martuah

    2016-01-01

    The highly emissions produced by diesel engines that adversely impact to the environment is the background for the emergence of this testing. For that, magnetation before fuel enters the combustion chamber and the exhaust catalytic additions become important. The purpose of research to determine the effect magnetation of fuel and catalytic converters to decreased levels of exhaust emissions. Magnetation conducted on channel (hose) of fuel before the fuel enters the combustion chamber and moun...

  2. Confirmation of Isolated Cu2+ Ions in SSZ-13 Zeolite as Active Sites in NH3-Selective Catalytic Reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deka, U.; Juhin, A.F.; Eilertsen, E.A.; Emerich, H.; Green, M.A.; Korhonen, S.T.; Weckhuysen, B.M.; Beale, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    NH3-Selective Catalytic Reduction (NH3-SCR) is a widely used technology for NOx reduction in the emission control systems of heavy duty diesel vehicles. Copper-based ion exchanged zeolites and in particular Cu-SSZ-13 (CHA framework) catalysts show both exceptional activity and hydrothermal stability

  3. Improvement of engine emissions with conventional diesel fuel and diesel-biodiesel blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabi, M.N.; Akhter, M.S.; Shahadat, M.M.Z. [Rajshahi Univ. of Engineering and Technology (Bangladesh). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2006-02-15

    In this report combustion and exhaust emissions with neat diesel fuel and diesel-biodiesel blends have been investigated. In the investigation, firstly biodiesel from non-edible neem oil has been made by esterification. Biodiesel fuel (BDF) is chemically known as mono-alkyl fatty acid ester. It is renewable in nature and is derived from plant oils including vegetable oils. BDF is non-toxic, biodegradable, recycled resource and essentially free from sulfur and carcinogenic benzene. In the second phase of this investigation, experiment has been conducted with neat diesel fuel and diesel-biodiesel blends in a four stroke naturally aspirated (NA) direct injection (DI) diesel engine. Compared with conventional diesel fuel, diesel-biodiesel blends showed lower carbon monoxide (CO), and smoke emissions but higher oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) emission. However, compared with the diesel fuel, NO{sub x} emission with diesel-biodiesel blends was slightly reduced when EGR was applied. (author)

  4. Improvement of engine emissions with conventional diesel fuel and diesel-biodiesel blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Md Nurun; Akhter, Md Shamim; Zaglul Shahadat, Mhia Md

    2006-02-01

    In this report combustion and exhaust emissions with neat diesel fuel and diesel-biodiesel blends have been investigated. In the investigation, firstly biodiesel from non-edible neem oil has been made by esterification. Biodiesel fuel (BDF) is chemically known as mono-alkyl fatty acid ester. It is renewable in nature and is derived from plant oils including vegetable oils. BDF is non-toxic, biodegradable, recycled resource and essentially free from sulfur and carcinogenic benzene. In the second phase of this investigation, experiment has been conducted with neat diesel fuel and diesel-biodiesel blends in a four stroke naturally aspirated (NA) direct injection (DI) diesel engine. Compared with conventional diesel fuel, diesel-biodiesel blends showed lower carbon monoxide (CO), and smoke emissions but higher oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission. However, compared with the diesel fuel, NOx emission with diesel-biodiesel blends was slightly reduced when EGR was applied.

  5. Catalytic ignition of light hydrocarbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. L. Hohn; C.-C. Huang; C. Cao

    2009-01-01

    Catalytic ignition refers to phenomenon where sufficient energy is released from a catalytic reaction to maintain further reaction without additional extemai heating. This phenomenon is important in the development of catalytic combustion and catalytic partial oxidation processes, both of which have received extensive attention in recent years. In addition, catalytic ignition studies provide experimental data which can be used to test theoretical hydrocarbon oxidation models. For these reasons, catalytic ignition has been frequently studied. This review summarizes the experimental methods used to study catalytic ignition of light hydrocarbons and describes the experimental and theoretical results obtained related to catalytic ignition. The role of catalyst metal, fuel and fuel concentration, and catalyst state in catalytic ignition are examined, and some conclusions are drawn on the mechanism of catalytic ignition.

  6. Evaluation of the impacts of biodiesel and second generation biofuels on NO(x) emissions for CARB diesel fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajbabaei, Maryam; Johnson, Kent C; Okamoto, Robert A; Mitchell, Alexander; Pullman, Marcie; Durbin, Thomas D

    2012-08-21

    The impact of biodiesel and second generation biofuels on nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) emissions from heavy-duty engines was investigated using a California Air Resources Board (CARB) certified diesel fuel. Two heavy-duty engines, a 2006 engine with no exhaust aftertreatment, and a 2007 engine with a diesel particle filter (DPF), were tested on an engine dynamometer over four different test cycles. Emissions from soy- and animal-based biodiesels, a hydrotreated renewable diesel, and a gas to liquid (GTL) fuel were evaluated at blend levels from 5 to 100%. NO(x) emissions consistently increased with increasing biodiesel blend level, while increasing renewable diesel and GTL blends showed NO(x) emissions reductions with blend level. NO(x) increases ranged from 1.5% to 6.9% for B20, 6.4% to 18.2% for B50, and 14.1% to 47.1% for B100. The soy-biodiesel showed higher NO(x) emissions increases compared to the animal-biodiesel. NO(x) emissions neutrality with the CARB diesel was achieved by blending GTL or renewable diesel fuels with various levels of biodiesel or by using di-tert-butyl peroxide (DTBP). It appears that the impact of biodiesel on NO(x) emissions might be a more important consideration when blended with CARB diesel or similar fuels, and that some form of NO(x) mitigation might be needed for biodiesel blends with such fuels.

  7. Problems diagnosis in diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leugner, L.

    1986-10-01

    Diagnosis of engine problems in diesel engines used in Western Canadian coal mines is discussed. Areas to which attention must be paid include the air cleaners, turbocharger, engine compression and the fuel system. Exhaust smoke should be analysed to help diagnose combustion related problems.

  8. Cleaning the Diesel Engine Emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Budde

    This paper examines how technologies for cleaning of diesel emission from road vehicles can be supported by facilitating a technology push in the Danish automotive emission control industry. The European commission is at present preparing legislation for the euro 5 emission standard (to be enforced...

  9. ALTERNATIVE FUELS FOR DIESEL ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Caban

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development and genesis of the use of alternative fuels in internal combustion ignition engines. Based on the analysis of the literature, this article shows various alternative fuels used in Poland and all over the world. Furthermore, this article describes the research directions for alternative fuels use in road transport powered by diesel engines.

  10. ALTERNATIVE FUELS FOR DIESEL ENGINES

    OpenAIRE

    Jacek Caban; Agata Gniecka; Lukáš Holeša

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the development and genesis of the use of alternative fuels in internal combustion ignition engines. Based on the analysis of the literature, this article shows various alternative fuels used in Poland and all over the world. Furthermore, this article describes the research directions for alternative fuels use in road transport powered by diesel engines.

  11. Penetration of diesel exhaust particles through commercially available dust half masks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penconek, Agata; Drążyk, Paulina; Moskal, Arkadiusz

    2013-04-01

    Half masks are certified by the competent, national institutions--National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in the USA and the respective European national institutions applying common European regulations. However, certification testing is conducted with particles of NaCl, paraffin oil, or dioctyl phthalate (DOP) and at the constant flow rate, whereas particles commonly found in workplaces may differ in size, shape, and morphology from these particles. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate filtration efficiency of commercially available filtering facepiece half masks under the condition of exposure to diesel fumes. In this study, we focused on the particulate phase [diesel exhaust particles (DEP)] of three (petroleum diesel, ecodiesel, and biodiesel) diesel fuel combustion types. Two types of European standard-certified half masks, FFP2 and FFP - Filtering Facepiece, and three types of popular diesel fuels were tested. The study showed that the filtration efficiencies for each examined half mask and for each of diesel exhaust fumes were lower than the minimum filtration efficiency required for the standard test aerosols by the European standards. For FFP2 and FFP3 particulate half masks, standard minimum filtration efficiency is 94 and 99%, respectively, whereas 84-89% of mass of DEP from various fuels were filtered by the tested FFP2 and only 75-86% by the FFP3. The study indicated that DEP is more penetrating for these filters than the standard salt or paraffin oil test aerosols. The study also showed that the most penetrating DEP are probably in the 30- to 300-nm size range, regardless of the fuel type and the half-mask model. Finally, the pressure drops across both half masks during the 80-min tests remained below an acceptable maximum of breathing resistance-regardless of the fuel types. The respiratory system, during 40-min test exposures, may be exposed to 12-16mg of DEP if a FFP2 or FFP3 particulate half mask is used. To

  12. Flame assisted synthesis of catalytic ceramic membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Johnny; Mosleh, Majid; Johannessen, Tue;

    2004-01-01

    will be spherical due to the fast coalescence at the high temperatures in the flame. The primary product from the flame pyrolysis is an aerosol of metal oxide nanoparticles. The aerosol gas from the flame can be utilized for several different purposes, depending on the precursors fed to the flame. With the present...... technology it is possible to make supported catalysts, composite metal oxides, catalytically active surfaces, and porous ceramic membranes. Membrane layers can be formed by using a porous substrate tube (or surface) as a nano-particle filter. The aerosol gas from the flame is led through a porous substrate...... tube, where a part of the gas is sucked through the wall of the substrate, thereby creating a thin filter cake on the inner surface of the substrate tube. The top-layer can be deposited directly on a coarse pore structure. Since the Brownian motion of the aerosol particles is fast compared to the fluid...

  13. Synthesis and characterization of type silicoaluminophosphates catalytic support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The refining processes, the catalytic hydrocracking is the future of diesel oil in Brazil and the first units are already scheduled to be inaugurated. Among the catalysts used in this process, silicoaluminophosphates (SAPO's) have considerable potential for use as they have been effective in the isomerization of n-alkanes, the isomerization of olefins and alkylation of aromatics. Because of this, the objective is to develop catalysts that will be used in hydrocracking reactions. The media like SAPO-5 were synthesized with different ratios silicon/aluminum, which is used as a catalytic support and have the function of crack organic molecules, since it has acidic character. The materials were characterized by techniques: X-ray diffraction, chemical analysis and textural by BET. After summarizing the media found that they had agreements with the crystalline phases presented in the literature.(author)

  14. Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biddy, Mary J.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2013-03-31

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This technology pathway case investigates the catalytic conversion of solubilized carbohydrate streams to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent efforts within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium (NABC) in collaboration with Virent, Inc.. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for the catalytic conversion of sugars pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range hydrocarbon blendstocks have been identified.

  15. Catalytic coherence transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Kaifeng; Singh, Uttam; Wu, Junde

    2016-04-01

    Catalytic coherence transformations allow the otherwise impossible state transformations using only incoherent operations with the aid of an auxiliary system with finite coherence that is not being consumed in any way. Here we find the necessary and sufficient conditions for the deterministic and stochastic catalytic coherence transformations between a pair of pure quantum states. In particular, we show that the simultaneous decrease of a family of Rényi entropies of the diagonal parts of the states under consideration is a necessary and sufficient condition for the deterministic catalytic coherence transformations. Similarly, for stochastic catalytic coherence transformations we find the necessary and sufficient conditions for achieving a higher optimal probability of conversion. We thus completely characterize the coherence transformations among pure quantum states under incoherent operations. We give numerous examples to elaborate our results. We also explore the possibility of the same system acting as a catalyst for itself and find that indeed self-catalysis is possible. Further, for the cases where no catalytic coherence transformation is possible we provide entanglement-assisted coherence transformations and find the necessary and sufficient conditions for such transformations.

  16. Effects of diesel and bio-diesel oils temperature on spray and performance of a diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekkachai Sutheerasak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Research paper is the spray and engine performance investigation from preheated diesel and biodiesel oils at fuel temperature from 60 to 90 o C by comparing with non-preheated oil. In the experiment, there are fuel injection modeling and diesel engine testing, which is direct injection, 4 stroke and 4 cylinders. Results of fuel spray show that preheated diesel oil increase 4.7degree of spray angle and decrease 4.30 % of fuel injection pressure, as preheated bio-diesel oil increase 7.6degree of spray angle and decrease 13.90 % of fuel injection pressure to compare with non-preheated oil. As engine preformance testing results, preheated diesel oil increase 26.20% of thermal efficiency and decrease 4.30 % of BSFC, as preheated bio-diesel oil increase 30% of thermal efficiency and decrease 29.90 % of BSFC to compare with non-preheated oil.

  17. Effect of photochemical aging on the ice nucleation properties of diesel and wood burning particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, C.; Stetzer, O.; Tritscher, T.; Chirico, R.; Heringa, M. F.; Kanji, Z. A.; Weingartner, E.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.; Lohmann, U.

    2012-06-01

    A measurement campaign (IMBALANCE) was conducted in 2009 and aimed at characterizing the physical and chemical properties of freshly emitted and photochemically aged combustion particles emitted from a log wood burner and diesel vehicles: a EURO3 Opel Astra with a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) but no particle filter and a EURO2 Volkswagen Transporter TDI Syncro with no emission after-treatment. Ice nucleation experiments in the deposition and condensation freezing modes were conducted with the Portable Ice Nucleation Chamber (PINC) at three nominal temperatures, -30 °C, -35 °C and -40 °C. Freshly emitted diesel particles showed ice formation only at -40 °C in the deposition mode at 137% relative humidity with respect to ice (RHi) and 92% relative humidity with respect to water (RHw), and photochemical aging did not play a role in modifying their ice nucleation behavior. Only one diesel experiment where α-pinene was added, showed an ice nucleation enhancement after the aging at -35 °C. Wood burning particles also act as ice nuclei (IN) at -40 °C in the deposition mode at the same conditions as for diesel particles and photochemical aging did also not alter the ice formation properties of the wood burning particles. Unlike diesel particles, wood burning particles form ice via condensation freezing at -35 °C with no ice nucleation observed at -30 °C for wood burning particles. Photochemical aging did not affect the ice nucleation ability of the diesel and wood burning particles at the three different temperatures investigated but a broader range of temperatures below -30 °C need to be investigated in order to draw an overall conclusion on the effect of photochemical aging on deposition/condensation ice nucleation across the entire temperature range relevant to cold clouds.

  18. Effect of photochemical aging on the ice nucleation properties of diesel and wood burning particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Chou

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A measurement campaign (IMBALANCE was conducted in 2009 and aimed at characterizing the physical and chemical properties of freshly emitted and photochemically aged combustion particles emitted from a log wood burner and diesel vehicles: a EURO3 Opel Astra with a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC but no particle filter and a EURO2 Volkswagen Transporter TDI Syncro with no emission after-treatment. Ice nucleation experiments in the deposition and condensation freezing modes were conducted with the Portable Ice Nucleation Chamber (PINC at three nominal temperatures, −30 °C, −35 °C and −40 °C. Freshly emitted diesel particles showed ice formation only at −40 °C in the deposition mode at 137% relative humidity with respect to ice (RHi and 92% relative humidity with respect to water (RHw, and photochemical aging did not play a role in modifying their ice nucleation behavior. Only one diesel experiment where α-pinene was added, showed an ice nucleation enhancement after the aging at −35 °C. Wood burning particles also act as ice nuclei (IN at −40 °C in the deposition mode at the same conditions as for diesel particles and photochemical aging did also not alter the ice formation properties of the wood burning particles. Unlike diesel particles, wood burning particles form ice via condensation freezing at −35 °C with no ice nucleation observed at −30 °C for wood burning particles. Photochemical aging did not affect the ice nucleation ability of the diesel and wood burning particles at the three different temperatures investigated but a broader range of temperatures below −30 °C need to be investigated in order to draw an overall conclusion on the effect of photochemical aging on deposition/condensation ice nucleation across the entire temperature range relevant to cold clouds.

  19. Effect of photochemical ageing on the ice nucleation properties of diesel and wood burning particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, C.; Kanji, Z. A.; Stetzer, O.; Tritscher, T.; Chirico, R.; Heringa, M. F.; Weingartner, E.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.; Lohmann, U.

    2013-01-01

    A measurement campaign (IMBALANCE) conducted in 2009 was aimed at characterizing the physical and chemical properties of freshly emitted and photochemically aged combustion particles emitted from a log wood burner and diesel vehicles: a EURO3 Opel Astra with a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) but no particle filter and a EURO2 Volkswagen Transporter TDI Syncro without emission aftertreatment. Ice nucleation experiments in the deposition and condensation freezing modes were conducted with the Portable Ice Nucleation Chamber (PINC) at three nominal temperatures, -30 °C, -35 °C and -40 °C. Freshly emitted diesel particles showed ice formation only at -40 °C in the deposition mode at 137% relative humidity with respect to ice (RHi) and 92% relative humidity with respect to water (RHw), and photochemical ageing did not play a role in modifying their ice nucleation behaviour. Only one diesel experiment where α-pinene was added for the ageing process, showed an ice nucleation enhancement at -35 °C. Wood burning particles also act as ice nuclei (IN) at -40 °C in the deposition mode at the same conditions as for diesel particles and photochemical ageing also did not alter the ice formation properties of the wood burning particles. Unlike diesel particles, wood burning particles form ice via condensation freezing at -35 °C whereas no ice nucleation was observed at -30 °C. Photochemical ageing did not affect the ice nucleation ability of the diesel and wood burning particles at the three different temperatures investigated but a broader range of temperatures below -40 °C need to be investigated in order to draw an overall conclusion on the effect of photochemical ageing on deposition/condensation ice nucleation across the entire temperature range relevant to cold clouds.

  20. Effect of photochemical ageing on the ice nucleation properties of diesel and wood burning particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Chou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A measurement campaign (IMBALANCE conducted in 2009 was aimed at characterizing the physical and chemical properties of freshly emitted and photochemically aged combustion particles emitted from a log wood burner and diesel vehicles: a EURO3 Opel Astra with a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC but no particle filter and a EURO2 Volkswagen Transporter TDI Syncro without emission aftertreatment. Ice nucleation experiments in the deposition and condensation freezing modes were conducted with the Portable Ice Nucleation Chamber (PINC at three nominal temperatures, −30 °C, −35 °C and −40 °C. Freshly emitted diesel particles showed ice formation only at −40 °C in the deposition mode at 137% relative humidity with respect to ice (RHi and 92% relative humidity with respect to water (RHw, and photochemical ageing did not play a role in modifying their ice nucleation behaviour. Only one diesel experiment where α-pinene was added for the ageing process, showed an ice nucleation enhancement at −35 °C. Wood burning particles also act as ice nuclei (IN at −40 °C in the deposition mode at the same conditions as for diesel particles and photochemical ageing also did not alter the ice formation properties of the wood burning particles. Unlike diesel particles, wood burning particles form ice via condensation freezing at −35 °C whereas no ice nucleation was observed at −30 °C. Photochemical ageing did not affect the ice nucleation ability of the diesel and wood burning particles at the three different temperatures investigated but a broader range of temperatures below −40 °C need to be investigated in order to draw an overall conclusion on the effect of photochemical ageing on deposition/condensation ice nucleation across the entire temperature range relevant to cold clouds.

  1. A new alternating copolymerized derivative as a cold flow improver for diesel fuel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Haikuan; LIU Hongyan; WANG Shujun

    2009-01-01

    Synthesis of a cold flow improver (MAVA-a) for diesel fuel and its effect on solidifying point (SP) and cold filter plugging point (CFPP) of diesel fuels were investigated. The cold flow improver was prepared by using maleic anhydride (MA) and vinyl acetate (VA) as raw materials, toluene as solvent, dibenzoyl peroxide (BPO) as initiator, through alternating polymerization under nitrogen to obtain a binary-polymer and then through aminolysis by using a higher carbon amine as aminating agent at a temperature of 80 ℃. A cold flow improver was designed and prepared for No. 0 diesel fuel from Zhang Jia-Gang Petrochemical Company according to the contents of n-paraffin and its carbon number distribution in the No. 0 diesel fuel. It was also used together with two kinds of ethene-vinyl acetate copolymer improvers (EVA) separately. The test result showed that the CFPP of the No.0 diesel fuel could be lowered by 3-5 ℃ when the improver MAVA-a was used.The CFPP was lowered by 8 ℃ when the improver MAVA-a was used together with EVA-2.

  2. Optimal Gaussian Filter for Effective Noise Filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Kopparapu, Sunil; Satish, M

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we show that the knowledge of noise statistics contaminating a signal can be effectively used to choose an optimal Gaussian filter to eliminate noise. Very specifically, we show that the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) contaminating a signal can be filtered best by using a Gaussian filter of specific characteristics. The design of the Gaussian filter bears relationship with the noise statistics and also some basic information about the signal. We first derive a relationship...

  3. Nano Catalysts for Diesel Engine Emission Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narula, Chaitanya Kumar [ORNL; Yang, Xiaofan [ORNL; Debusk, Melanie Moses [ORNL; Mullins, David R [ORNL; Mahurin, Shannon Mark [ORNL; Wu, Zili [ORNL

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this project was to develop durable zeolite nanocatalysts with broader operating temperature windows to treat diesel engine emissions to enable diesel engine based equipment and vehicles to meet future regulatory requirements. A second objective was to improve hydrothermal durability of zeolite catalysts to at least 675 C. The results presented in this report show that we have successfully achieved both objectives. Since it is accepted that the first step in NO{sub x} conversion under SCR (selective catalytic reduction) conditions involves NO oxidation to NO{sub 2}, we reasoned that catalyst modification that can enhance NO oxidation at low-temperatures should facilitate NO{sub x} reduction at low temperatures. Considering that Cu-ZSM-5 is a more efficient catalyst than Fe-ZSM-5 at low-temperature, we chose to modify Cu-ZSM-5. It is important to point out that the poor low-temperature efficiency of Fe-ZSM-5 has been shown to be due to selective absorption of NH{sub 3} at low-temperatures rather than poor NO oxidation activity. In view of this, we also reasoned that an increased electron density on copper in Cu-ZSM-5 would inhibit any bonding with NH{sub 3} at low-temperatures. In addition to modified Cu-ZSM-5, we synthesized a series of new heterobimetallic zeolites, by incorporating a secondary metal cation M (Sc{sup 3+}, Fe{sup 3+}, In{sup 3+}, and La{sup 3+}) in Cu exchanged ZSM-5, zeolite-beta, and SSZ-13 zeolites under carefully controlled experimental conditions. Characterization by diffuse-reflectance ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) does not permit conclusive structural determination but supports the proposal that M{sup 3+} has been incorporated in the vicinity of Cu(II). The protocols for degreening catalysts, testing under various operating conditions, and accelerated aging

  4. Materials Issues Related to Catalysts for Treatment of Diesel Exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narula, Chaitanya Kumar [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Hoard, John W. [Ford Motor Company; Hammer, T. [Siemens AG, Germany

    2005-01-01

    The driver for lean NO{sub x} treatment is the need to meet regulatory standards for diesel engines and gasoline direct injection spark-ignited engines that offer better fuel economy. Efforts over the last decade have been focused toward finding an active lean NO{sub x} catalyst that can reduce NO{sub x} under oxidizing conditions or strategies such as selective catalytic reduction (SCR), plasma-catalysis, plasma catalyst SCR, and lean NO{sub x} traps with varying degrees of success. At present, it appears that SCR with urea and lean NO{sub x} traps are the leading contender technologies for commercial deployment. Key issues that remain to be resolved for these two technologies include byproduct formation, dosing control, and durability. In this review, we summarize material-related issues that are unique to each of these technologies, and point out the improvements necessary to facilitate their deployment.

  5. Fuel and engine characterization study of catalytically cracked waste transformer oil

    KAUST Repository

    Prasanna Raj Yadav, S.

    2015-05-01

    This research work targets on the effective utilization of WTO (waste transformer oil) in a diesel engine and thereby, reducing the environmental problems caused by its disposal into open land. The novelty of the work lies in adoption of catalytic cracking process to chemically treat WTO, wherein waste fly ash has been considered as a catalyst for the first time. Interestingly, both the oil and catalyst used are waste products, enabling reduction in total fuel cost and providing additional benefit of effective waste management. With the considerable token that use of activated fly ash as catalyst requires lower reaction temperature, catalytic cracking was performed only in the range of 350-400°C. As a result of this fuel treatment process, the thermal and physical properties of CCWTO (catalytically cracked waste transformer oil), as determined by ASTM standard methods, were found to be agreeable for its use in a diesel engine. Further, FTIR analysis of CCWTO discerned the presence of essential hydrocarbons such as carbon and hydrogen. From the experimental investigation of CCWTO - diesel blends in a diesel engine, performance and combustion characteristics were shown to be improved, with a notable increase in BTE (brake thermal efficiency) and PHRR (peak heat release rate) for CCWTO 50 by 7.4% and 13.2%, respectively, than that of diesel at full load condition. In the same note, emissions such as smoke, HC (hydrocarbon) and CO (carbon monoxide) were noted to be reduced at the expense of increased NOx (nitrogen oxides) emission. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Miniaturized dielectric waveguide filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Muhammad Y.; Hunter, Ian C.

    2016-10-01

    Design techniques for a new class of integrated monolithic high-permittivity ceramic waveguide filters are presented. These filters enable a size reduction of 50% compared to air-filled transverse electromagnetic filters with the same unloaded Q-factor. Designs for Chebyshev and asymmetric generalised Chebyshev filter and a diplexer are presented with experimental results for an 1800 MHz Chebyshev filter and a 1700 MHz generalised Chebyshev filter showing excellent agreement with theory.

  7. Issues concerning the light-duty diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clusen, Ruth C.

    1979-09-01

    The current reasons for concern about the diesel engine for light-duty vehicles are explained, and an overview of the major issues impacting upon future diesel-related policy considerations is presented. Light-duty diesels are of immediate concern because proposed environmental legislation could impact upon their market future as early as model year 1981. The environmental issues affecting these vehicles also have implications for other categories of diesels (heavy-duty mobile and stationary application). Part I presents background and overview information on the reasons for the diesel's emergence as a major concern in the regulatory area and Part II summarizes the issues surrounding the diesel in three major areas: protecting health and the environment; fuel conservation; and broad economic and programmaic trade-offs arising from the previous two areas.

  8. Diesel auto-thermal reforming for solid oxide fuel cell systems: Anode off-gas recycle simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Diesel reformation with solid oxide fuel cell anode off-gas recycle simulation. • Thermodynamic modeling complemented experiments to optimize fuel reformation. • Comparisons of diesel reforming with anode off-gas recycle and direct water/air. • Single-tube reformer with Rh/CeO2–ZrO2 catalyst for diesel autothermal reforming. - Abstract: Diesel auto-thermal reformation (ATR) with solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack anode off-gas recycle (AOGR) has a reliable steam recycling supply to the reformer and improves overall system efficiency. For the lab-scale experiments, it is crucial to develop a cost-effective technique to simulate the AOGR effects on hydrocarbon catalytic reformation due to safety and cost considerations of providing the full recycle composition in the absence of fuel cell stack hardware. The present work combined thermodynamic modeling and experiments to compare diesel ATR performance with AOGR and with direct water/air inputs as recycle simulation (RS). Variations of input water and air flow were employed to simulate the effects of recycle gas on syngas production and to analyze the contribution of recycled CO2 dry reforming. A single-tube reformer with Rh/CeO2–ZrO2 catalyst was used for diesel ATR experiments with a photo-acoustic micro-soot meter to monitor carbon formation in the reformate effluent. Experimental results suggest water and air input flows are two key variables to simulate performance of diesel ATR with AOGR, whereas gas hourly space velocity and reforming temperature do not significantly affect the recycle simulation process in syngas production. The optimum AOGR ratio for an SOFC stack with 65% fuel utilization was identified as 45% for diesel ATR to achieve maximum syngas production and reforming efficiency with a given input air flow

  9. A Comparative Study of Diesel Oil and Soybean Oil as Oil-Based Drilling Mud

    OpenAIRE

    Okorie E. Agwu; Okon, Anietie N.; Udoh, Francis D.

    2015-01-01

    Oil-based mud (OBM) was formulated with soybean oil extracted from soybean using the Soxhlet extraction method. The formulated soybean mud properties were compared with diesel oil mud properties. The compared properties were rheological properties, yield point and gel strength, and mud density and filtration loss properties, fluid loss and filter cake. The results obtained show that the soybean oil mud exhibited Bingham plastic rheological model with applicable (low) yield point and gel stren...

  10. Biological effects in lung cells In vitro of exhaust aerosols from a gasoline passenger car with and without particle filter

    OpenAIRE

    Bisig, Christoph; Steiner, Sandro; Comte, Pierre; Czerwinski, Jan; Mayer, Andreas; Petri-Fink, Alke; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Exhaust aerosol from gasoline passenger cars is a complex mixture of a particulate fraction as well as volatile compounds. In contrary to the observed adverse effects of diesel exhaust particles the gasoline exhaust has, however, received little attention so far. The aim of this study was to perform a comparison of exhaust composition and biological responses from freshly produced non-filtered exhaust as well as from exhaust filtered with a noncoated gasoline particle filter (GPF). A 3D model...

  11. Oxidative desulfurization of synthetic diesel using supported catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cedeno Caero, Luis; Jorge, F.; Navarro, A.; Gutierrez-Alejandre, Aida [UNICAT, Depto. de Ing. Quimica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Cd. Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-09-15

    Oxidative desulfurization (ODS) of a synthetic diesel was carried out at mild conditions (atmospheric pressure and 60{sup o}C) in presence of V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/TiO{sub 2} catalysts. Two main aspects were studied: the effect of the oxidant reagent and the presence of nitrogen compounds on ODS of benzothiophenic compounds prevailing in diesel, such as benzothiophene, dibenzothiophene and alkyl substituted in positions 4 and 6. Results show that activity is improved when using hydrogen peroxide, as oxidant reagent, and V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, as catalyst. This result was attributed to the high decomposition of peroxide due to the presence of catalyst. In presence of nitrogen compounds, the ODS activity decreases in the order: quinoline>indole>carbazole. In order to explain this effect, successive chemisorption of DBT and quinoline on V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was evaluated by FT-IR, and the results show that DBT is displaced by quinoline, occupying the adsorption sites of catalyst. N-compound effect could be explained by strong adsorption of nitrogen compounds on catalytic sites. (author)

  12. Providing Eligibility Criteria On Turbocharger Filter Silencer Design Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Adem GÜLERYÜZ

    2013-01-01

    Supply of ventilation air to either the engine room or diesel engine directly affects engine performances. Main criteria is supply of air volume and pressure into the cylinder. When Air starts to come until the cylinders, there many points which behave as restrictions. These are ventilation grills. ventilation fans, ventilation casings, misteliminators, manual or pneumatically adjusted fan dampers, number of bending of ventilation casing, cleanness of casings, air flow speed, air filters, tur...

  13. Diesel fuel component contribution to engine emissions and performance. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erwin, J.; Ryan, T.W. III; Moulton, D.S. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1994-11-01

    Contemporary diesel fuel is a blend of several refinery streams chosen to meet specifications. The need to increase yield of transportation fuel from crude oil has resulted in converting increased proportions of residual oil to lighter products. This conversion is accomplished by thermal, catalytic, and hydrocracking of high molecular weight materials rich in aromatic compounds. The current efforts to reformulate California diesel fuel for reduced emissions from existing engines is an example of another driving force affecting refining practice: regulations designed to reduce exhaust emissions. Although derived from petroleum crude oil, reformulated diesel fuel is an alternative to current specification-grade diesel fuel, and this alternative presents opportunities and questions to be resolved by fuel and engine research. Various concerned parties have argued that regulations for fuel reformulation have not been based on an adequate data base. Despite numerous studies, much ambiguity remains about the relationship of exhaust parameters to fuel composition, particularly for diesel fuel. In an effort to gather pertinent data, the automobile industry and the oil refiners have joined forces in the Air Quality Improvement Research Program (AUTO/OIL) to address this question for gasoline. The objective of that work is to define the relationship between gasoline composition and the magnitude and composition of the exhaust emissions. The results of the AUTO/OEL program will also be used, along with other data bases, to define the EPA {open_quotes}complex model{close_quotes} for reformulated gasolines. Valuable insights have been gained for compression ignition engines in the Coordinating Research Council`s VE-1 program, but no program similar to AUTO/OIL has been started for diesel fuel reformulation. A more detailed understanding of the fuel/performance relationship is a readily apparent need.

  14. [Preparation of ethanol-diesel fuel blends and exhausts emission characteristics in diesel engine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Runduo; He, Hong; Zhang, Changbin; Shi, Xiaoyan

    2003-07-01

    The technology that diesel oil is partly substituted by ethanol can reduce diesel engine exhausts emission, especially fuel soot. This research is concentrated on preparation of ethanol-diesel blend fuel and exhausts emission characteristics using diesel engine bench. Absolute ethanol can dissolve into diesel fuel at an arbitrary ratio. However, a trace of water (0.2%) addition can lead to the phase separation of blends. Organic additive synthesized during this research can develop the ability of resistance to water and maintain the stability of ethanol-diesel-trace amounts of water system. The effects of 10%, 20%, and 30% ethanol-diesel fuel blends on exhausts emission, were compared with that of diesel fuel in direct injection (DI) diesel engine. The optimum ethanol percentage for ethanol-diesel fuel blends was 20%. Using 20% ethanol-diesel fuel blend with 2% additive of the total volume, bench diesel engine showed a large amount decrease of exhaust gas, e.g. 55% of Bosch smoke number, 70% of HC emission, and 45% of CO emission at 13 kW and 1540 r/min. Without the addition of additive, the blend of ethanol produced new organic compounds such as ethanol and acetaldehyde in tail gas. However, the addition of additive obviously reduced the emission of ethanol and acetaldehyde.

  15. Experimental investigation of the performance and emissions of diesel engines by a novel emulsified diesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A novel bio-fuel, glucose solution emulsified diesel fuel, is evaluated. • Emulsified diesel has comparable brake thermal efficiency. • NOX emissions decrease with emulsified fuel at all loads. • Soot emissions decrease with emulsified fuel except at a few operating points. - Abstract: The subject of this paper was to study the performance and emissions of two typical diesel engines using glucose solution emulsified diesel fuel. Emulsified diesel with a 15% glucose solution by mass fraction was used in diesel engines and compared with pure diesel. For the agricultural diesel engine, performance and emission characteristics were measured under various engine loads. The results showed that the brake thermal efficiencies were improved using emulsified diesel fuel. Emulsified fuel decreased NOx and soot emissions except at a few specific operating conditions. HydroCarbon (HC) and CO emissions were increased. For the automotive diesel engine, performance and emissions were measured using the 13-mode European Stationary Cycle (ESC). It was found that brake thermal efficiencies of emulsified diesel and pure diesel were comparable at 75% and 100% load. Soot emissions decreased significantly while NOx emissions decreased slightly. HC emissions increased while CO emissions decreased at some operating conditions

  16. Catalytic activity of MoS2 nanotubes in the hydrodesulphurization reaction of dibenzothiophene

    OpenAIRE

    F. Leonard-Deepak; R. Pérez-Hernández; Cruz-Reyes, J; Fuentes, S.; M.J. Yacaman

    2011-01-01

    In the need for developing better fuels and as a consequence better hydrodesulphurization catalysts (HDS), new generations of catalysts are necessary to reduce substantially the sulfur content in diesel and gasoline fuels. HDS are catalytic processes that involve Mo or W- based catalysts, often doped with other transition metals. We synthesized MoS 2 nanotubes by reacting MoO 3 with thiourea and used them as catalysts for the hydrodesulfurization of dibenzothiophene in a batch reactor. X-ray ...

  17. Study on Selective Catalytic Reduction Reaction Properties of LaCoO3 Perovskite Catalyst for Diesel NOx Emission Removal%LaCoO3钙钛矿型催化剂对柴油机NOx净化性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝斌; 杨铁皂; 吕刚; 宋崇林; 宾峰

    2012-01-01

    LaCoO3 perovskite catalyst was prepared by citric acid complex method and characterized for its physic - chemical properties. Catalytic performance in the SCR of NO, by NH3 was studied and results showed that: pure LaCoO3 granule has a certain ability of catalytic reduction of NOx, especially between 250 to 45℃. However, the undesired catalytic activity for the oxidation of NH3 was too high and could be even largely promoted by a higher temperature. When LaCoO3 was used as SCR catalyst, it showed a certain degree of purification ability of NOx, below 400℃ , but if the temperature was higher than 400℃ , NOx elimination is deteriorated. Moreover, LaCo03 perovskite catalyst was highly capable of enhancing the oxidation of HC and CO regardless of their gas compositions.%采用柠檬酸络合法制备了LaCoO3钙钛矿型催化剂.对其理化特性及NH3-选择性催化还原催化性能的研究结果表明:纯LaCoO3颗粒具有一定的NOx催化还原能力,在250~450℃活性较高;但该催化剂对NH3具有较高的氧化活性,且催化活性随反应温度的升高而提高;在SCR反应中,在400℃以下时,该催化剂显示出一定的NOx净化能力,但当温度超过400℃以后,还原剂的加入反而恶化了NOx排放.不管反应气组成如何,LaCoO3钙钛矿型催化剂对HC和CO都具有良好的催化性能.

  18. Catalytic Conversion of Biofuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Betina

    This thesis describes the catalytic conversion of bioethanol into higher value chemicals. The motivation has been the unavoidable coming depletion of the fossil resources. The thesis is focused on two ways of utilising ethanol; the steam reforming of ethanol to form hydrogen and the partial oxida...

  19. Catalytic Phosphination and Arsination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kwong Fuk Yee; Chan Kin Shing

    2004-01-01

    The catalytic, user-friendly phosphination and arsination of aryl halides and triflates by triphenylphosphine and triphenylarsine using palladium catalysts have provided a facile synthesis of functionalized aryl phosphines and arsines in neutral media. Modification of the cynaoarisne yielded optically active N, As ligands which will be screened in various asymmetric catalysis.

  20. Catalytic efficiency of designed catalytic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korendovych, Ivan V; DeGrado, William F

    2014-08-01

    The de novo design of catalysts that mimic the affinity and specificity of natural enzymes remains one of the Holy Grails of chemistry. Despite decades of concerted effort we are still unable to design catalysts as efficient as enzymes. Here we critically evaluate approaches to (re)design of novel catalytic function in proteins using two test cases: Kemp elimination and ester hydrolysis. We show that the degree of success thus far has been modest when the rate enhancements seen for the designed proteins are compared with the rate enhancements by small molecule catalysts in solvents with properties similar to the active site. Nevertheless, there are reasons for optimism: the design methods are ever improving and the resulting catalyst can be efficiently improved using directed evolution.

  1. Coal diesel combined-cycle project. Comprehensive report to Congress: Clean Coal Technology Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    One of the projects selected for funding is a project for the design, construction, and operation of a nominal 90 ton-per-day 14-megawatt electrical (MWe), diesel engine-based, combined-cycle demonstration plant using coal-water fuels (CWF). The project, named the Coal Diesel Combined-Cycle Project, is to be located at a power generation facility at Easton Utilities Commission`s Plant No. 2 in Easton, Talbot County, Maryland, and will use Cooper-Bessemer diesel engine technology. The integrated system performance to be demonstrated will involve all of the subsystems, including coal-cleaning and slurrying systems; a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit, a dry flue gas scrubber, and a baghouse; two modified diesel engines; a heat recovery steam generation system; a steam cycle; and the required balance of plant systems. The base feedstock for the project is bituminous coal from Ohio. The purpose of this Comprehensive Report is to comply with Public Law 102-154, which directs the DOE to prepare a full and comprehensive report to Congress on each project selected for award under the CCT-V Program.

  2. MnO{sub x}-CeO{sub 2} For The Low-Temperature Oxidation Of Diesel Soot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tikhomirov, K.; Kroecher, O.; Elsener, M.; Wokaun, A.

    2005-03-01

    MnO{sub x}-CeO{sub 2} was found to be a highly active catalyst for the low-temperature oxidation of Diesel soot. The catalytic activity could be traced to the storage of nitrates on the catalyst surface at low temperatures followed by the release of NO{sub 2} when heated over 280 C. The poor sulphur resistance of the catalyst poses the main problem for its practical application. (author)

  3. The organic composition of diesel particulate matter, diesel fuel and engine oil of a non-road diesel generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fuyan; Lu, Mingming; Keener, Tim C; Liu, Zifei; Khang, Soon-Jai

    2005-10-01

    Diesel-powered equipment is known to emit significant quantities of fine particulate matter to the atmosphere. Numerous organic compounds can be adsorbed onto the surfaces of these inhalable particles, among which polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are considered potential occupational carcinogens. Guidelines have been established by various agencies regarding diesel emissions and various control technologies are under development. The purpose of this study is to identify, quantify and compare the organic compounds in diesel particulate matter (DPM) with the diesel fuel and engine oil used in a non-road diesel generator. Approximately 90 organic compounds were quantified (with molecular weight ranging from 120 to 350), which include alkanes, PAHs, alkylated PAHs, alkylbenzenes and alkanoic acids. The low sulfur diesel fuel contains 61% alkanes and 7.1% of PAHs. The identifiable portion of the engine oil contains mainly the alkanoic and benzoic acids. The composition of DPM suggests that they may be originated from unburned diesel fuel, engine oil evaporation and combustion generated products. Compared with diesel fuel, DPM contains fewer fractions of alkanes and more PAH compounds, with the shift toward higher molecular weight ones. The enrichment of compounds with higher molecular weight in DPM may be combustion related (pyrogenic).

  4. Active Optical Lattice Filters

    OpenAIRE

    Gary Evans; MacFarlane, Duncan L.; Govind Kannan; Jian Tong; Issa Panahi; Vishnupriya Govindan; L. Roberts Hunt

    2005-01-01

    Optical lattice filter structures including gains are introduced and analyzed. The photonic realization of the active, adaptive lattice filter is described. The algorithms which map between gains space and filter coefficients space are presented and studied. The sensitivities of filter parameters with respect to gains are derived and calculated. An example which is relevant to adaptive signal processing is also provided.

  5. Size-Resolved Particle Number and Volume Emission Factors for On-Road Gasoline and Diesel Motor Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ban-Weiss, George A.; Lunden, Melissa M.; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Harley, Robert A.

    2009-04-10

    Average particle number concentrations and size distributions from {approx}61,000 light-duty (LD) vehicles and {approx}2500 medium-duty (MD) and heavy-duty (HD) trucks were measured during the summer of 2006 in a San Francisco Bay area traffic tunnel. One of the traffic bores contained only LD vehicles, and the other contained mixed traffic, allowing pollutants to be apportioned between LD vehicles and diesel trucks. Particle number emission factors (particle diameter D{sub p} > 3 nm) were found to be (3.9 {+-} 1.4) x 10{sup 14} and (3.3 {+-} 1.3) x 10{sup 15} kg{sup -1} fuel burned for LD vehicles and diesel trucks, respectively. Size distribution measurements showed that diesel trucks emitted at least an order of magnitude more particles for all measured sizes (10 < D{sub p} < 290 nm) per unit mass of fuel burned. The relative importance of LD vehicles as a source of particles increased as D{sub p} decreased. Comparing the results from this study to previous measurements at the same site showed that particle number emission factors have decreased for both LD vehicles and diesel trucks since 1997. Integrating size distributions with a volume weighting showed that diesel trucks emitted 28 {+-} 11 times more particles by volume than LD vehicles, consistent with the diesel/gasoline emission factor ratio for PM{sub 2.5} mass measured using gravimetric analysis of Teflon filters, reported in a companion paper.

  6. Impact of using automotive diesel fuel adulterated with heating diesel on the performance of a stationary diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalligeros, S. [Elinoil S.A., Athens (Greece). Research and Development Dept.; Zannikos, F.; Stournas, S.; Lois, E.; Anastopoulos, G. [National Technical University of Athens (Greece). School of Chemical Engineering

    2005-03-01

    Air quality improvement, especially in urban areas, is one of the major concerns. For this reason, car and equipment manufacturers and refiners have been exploring various avenues to comply with the increasingly severe anti-pollution requirements. Adulteration of fuels stands as a roadblock to this improvement. In this paper, fuel consumption, particulate matter and exhaust emission measurements from a single cylinder, stationary Diesel engine are presented. The engine was fuelled with automotive Diesel fuel, which was adulterated with domestic heating Diesel in proportions up to 100%. The four types of adulterated Diesel fuel investigated increased all types of emissions compared to automotive Diesel fuel. The only positive result was a slight decrease of the volumetric fuel consumption in some loads. (author)

  7. Combustion Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Using Propanol Diesel Fuel Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthaiyan, Pugazhvadivu; Gomathinayagam, Sankaranarayanan

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the work is to study the use of propanol diesel blends as alternative fuel in a single cylinder diesel engine. In this work, four different propanol diesel blends containing 10, 15, 20 and 25 % propanol in diesel by volume were used as fuels. Load tests were conducted on the diesel engine and the combustion parameters such as cylinder gas pressure, ignition delay, rate of heat release and rate of pressure rise were investigated. The engine performance and emission characteristics were also studied. The propanol diesel blends showed longer ignition delay, higher rates of heat release and pressure rise. The thermal efficiency of the engine decreased marginally with the use of fuel blends. The propanol diesel blends decreased the CO, NOX and smoke emissions of the engine considerably.

  8. Particulate emissions from diesel engines: correlation between engine technology and emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiebig, Michael; Wiartalla, Andreas; Holderbaum, Bastian; Kiesow, Sebastian

    2014-03-07

    particulate emissions without a negative impact on the particulate-size distribution towards smaller particles. The residual particles can be trapped in a diesel particulate trap independent of their size or the engine operating mode. The usage of a wall-flow diesel particulate filter leads to an extreme reduction of the emitted particulate mass and number, approaching 100%. A reduced particulate mass emission is always connected to a reduced particle number emission.

  9. Fate of SO{sub 2} During Plasma Treatment of Diesel Engine Exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brusasco, R.M.; Merritt, B.T.; Vogtlin, G.E.

    1999-10-25

    Several catalytic aftertreatment technologies rely on the conversion of NO to NO{sub 2} to achieve efficient reduction of NO{sub x} and particulates in diesel engine exhaust. These technologies require low sulfur fuel because the catalyst component that is active in converting NO to NO{sub 2} is also active in converting SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. A non-thermal plasma can be used for the selective partial oxidation of NO to NO{sub 2} in the gas-phase under diesel engine exhaust conditions. This paper discusses how a non-thermal plasma can efficiently oxidize NO to NO{sub 2} without oxidizing SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. It is shown that the presence of hydrocarbons in the plasma is essential for enhancing the selective partial oxidation of NO and suppressing the oxidation of SO{sub 2}.

  10. Methods of Reducing Emissions from Two-stroke low-speed Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela-Elena Mitu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide focus on fuels is generally increasing because of the focus on exhaust gas emissions. General awareness of environmental issues is increasing rapidly. Diesel engine makers were first involved in questions regarding exhaust gas emissions in the field of stationary applications. A study of the exhaust gas emissions from a diesel engine represents a challenge to both the engine designer and to makers of exhaust gas treatment equipment. It is also a valuable tool for reaching a deeper understanding of the engine combustion process. These emissions control technologies, like Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR, will help to reduce pollutants that impact our health and the health of our communities as well as reduce smog creation and other factors that contribute to climate change and global warming.

  11. Use of the fuel obtained from waste plastics as a mixture with diesel and biofuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiernicki, Z.; Zelazo, P. [Lublin Univ. of Technology (Poland)

    2013-06-01

    The researches concerning the use of fuel derived from waste plastics and biodiesel have been presented in the paper. The biodiesel and the fuel obtained from waste plastics were both used as fuel components. The bio-admixture in the fuel was FAME, STING and rape oil. The catalytic cracking of polyolefin's was the source of second fuel admixture. The physical properties of analyzed components of the fuel have been presented. The operational parameters of direct injection diesel engine fuelled with tested fuel blends have been set out. The principles of fuel mixture preparation has been also described. The concept of the diesel fuel which is made from the components of opposite physical properties could have a positive practical effect and could improve the use of biofuels. (orig.)

  12. Auxiliary power unit based on a solid oxide fuel cell and fuelled with diesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Jeremy; Boltze, Matthias

    An auxiliary power unit (APU) is presented that is fuelled with diesel, thermally self-sustaining, and based on a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The APU is rated at 1 kW electrical, and can generate electrical power after a 3 h warm-up phase. System features include a "dry" catalytic partial oxidation (CPOX) diesel reformer, a 30 cell SOFC stack with an open cathode, and a porous-media afterburner. The APU does not require a supply of external water. The SOFC stack is an outcome of a development partnership with H.C. Starck GmbH and Fraunhofer IKTS, and is discussed in detail in an accompanying paper.

  13. Diesel Technology: Engines. [Teacher and Student Editions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Dave; Miller, Roger; Kellum, Mary

    Competency-based teacher and student materials on diesel engines are provided for a diesel technology curriculum. Seventeen units of instruction cover the following topics: introduction to engine principles and procedures; engine systems and components; fuel systems; engine diagnosis and maintenance. The materials are based on the…

  14. Standardized Curriculum for Diesel Engine Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational education program in Mississippi: diesel engine mechanics I and II. The eight units in diesel engine mechanics I are as follows: orientation; shop safety; basic shop tools; fasteners; measurement; engine operating principles; engine components; and basic auxiliary…

  15. Biodiesel and Renewable Diesel: A Critical Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several types of fuels can be obtained from lipid feedstocks. These include biodiesel and what is termed renewable diesel. While biodiesel retains the ester moiety occurring in triacylglycerols in converted form as mono-alkyl esters, the composition of renewable diesel, hydrocarbons, emulates that ...

  16. Catalytic thermal barrier coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Anand A.; Campbell, Christian X.; Subramanian, Ramesh

    2009-06-02

    A catalyst element (30) for high temperature applications such as a gas turbine engine. The catalyst element includes a metal substrate such as a tube (32) having a layer of ceramic thermal barrier coating material (34) disposed on the substrate for thermally insulating the metal substrate from a high temperature fuel/air mixture. The ceramic thermal barrier coating material is formed of a crystal structure populated with base elements but with selected sites of the crystal structure being populated by substitute ions selected to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a higher rate than would the base compound without the ionic substitutions. Precious metal crystallites may be disposed within the crystal structure to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a lower light-off temperature than would the ceramic thermal barrier coating material without the precious metal crystallites.

  17. A catalytic cracking process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degnan, T.F.; Helton, T.E.

    1995-07-20

    Heavy oils are subjected to catalytic cracking in the absence of added hydrogen using a catalyst containing a zeolite having the structure of ZSM-12 and a large-pore crystalline zeolite having a Constraint Index less than about 1. The process is able to effect a bulk conversion of the oil at the same time yielding a higher octane gasoline and increased light olefin content. (author)

  18. Black Carbon Concentrations and Diesel Vehicle Emission FactorsDerived from Coefficient of Haze Measurements in California:1967-2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Aguiar, Jeffery; Tonse, Shaheen; Novakov, T.

    2007-10-01

    We have derived ambient black carbon (BC) concentrations and estimated emission factors for on-road diesel vehicles from archived Coefficient of Haze (COH) data that was routinely collected beginning in 1967 at 11 locations in the San Francisco Bay Area. COH values are a measure of the attenuation of light by particles collected on a white filter, and available data indicate they are proportional to BC concentrations measured using the conventional aethalometer. Monthly averaged BC concentrations are up to five times greater in winter than summer, and, consequently, so is the population's exposure to BC. The seasonal cycle in BC concentrations is similar for all Bay Area sites, most likely due to area-wide decreased pollutant dispersion during wintertime. A strong weekly cycle is also evident, with weekend concentrations significantly lower than weekday concentrations, consistent with decreased diesel traffic volume on weekends. The weekly cycle suggests that, in the Bay Area, diesel vehicle emissions are the dominant source of BC aerosol. Despite the continuous increase in diesel fuel consumption in California, annual Bay Area average BC concentrations decreased by a factor of {approx}3 from the late 1960s to the early 2000s. Based on estimated annual BC concentrations, on-road diesel fuel consumption, and recent measurements of on-road diesel vehicle BC emissions, diesel BC emission factors decreased by an order of magnitude over the study period. Reductions in the BC emission factor reflect improved engine technology, emission controls and changes in diesel fuel composition. A new BC monitoring network is needed to continue tracking ambient BC trends because the network of COH monitors has recently been retired.

  19. Black Carbon Concentrations and Diesel Vehicle Emission Factors Derived from Coefficient of Haze Measurements in California: 1967-2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tast, CynthiaL; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Aguiar, Jeffery; Tonse, Shaheen; Novakov, T.; Fairley, David

    2007-11-09

    We have derived ambient black carbon (BC) concentrations and estimated emission factors for on-road diesel vehicles from archived Coefficient of Haze (COH) data that was routinely collected beginning in 1967 at 11 locations in the San Francisco Bay Area. COH values are a measure of the attenuation of light by particles collected on a white filter, and available data indicate they are proportional to BC concentrations measured using the conventional aethalometer. Monthly averaged BC concentrations are up to five times greater in winter than summer, and, consequently, so is the population?s exposure to BC. The seasonal cycle in BC concentrations is similar for all Bay Area sites, most likely due to area-wide decreased pollutant dispersion during wintertime. A strong weekly cycle is also evident, with weekend concentrations significantly lower than weekday concentrations, consistent with decreased diesel traffic volume on weekends. The weekly cycle suggests that, in the Bay Area, diesel vehicle emissions are the dominant source of BC aerosol. Despite the continuous increase in diesel fuel consumption in California, annual Bay Area average BC concentrations decreased by a factor of ~;;3 from the late 1960s to the early 2000s. Based on estimated annual BC concentrations, on-road diesel fuel consumption, and recent measurements of on-road diesel vehicle BC emissions, diesel BC emission factors decreased by an order of magnitude over the study period. Reductions in the BC emission factor reflect improved engine technology, emission controls and changes in diesel fuel composition. A new BC monitoring network is needed to continue tracking ambient BC trends because the network of COH monitors has recently been retired.

  20. Characterization of particle size distribution from diesel engines fueled with palm-biodiesel blends and paraffinic fuel blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan-Chung; Lee, Chia-Fon; Fang, Tiegang

    Biodiesels are promoted as alternative fuels and their applications in diesel engines have been investigated by many researchers. However, the particle size distribution emitted from heavy-duty diesel engines fueled with palm-biodiesel blended with premium diesel fuel and paraffinic fuel blended with palm-biodiesel has seldom been addressed. Thus, five test fuels were used in this work to study the particle size distribution: D100 (premium diesel fuel), B100 (100% palm-biodiesel), B20 (20 vol% palm-biodiesel+80 vol% D100), BP9505 (95 vol% paraffinic fuel+5 vol% palm-biodiesel) and BP8020 (80 vol% paraffinic fuel+20 vol% palm-biodiesel). A Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) equipped with aluminum filters was used to collect size-resolved samples. Experimental results indicated that palm-biodiesel blends and paraffinic fuel blends could improve combustion efficiency in diesel engines, but pure palm-biodiesel could cause incomplete combustion. Adding palm-biodiesel to diesel fuel would slightly increase particles with diameter Energy efficiency also increases significantly by 12.3-15.1% with the introduction of paraffinic fuel blends into the engine. Nevertheless, paraffinic fuel blends also reduce the emission of particulate matters by 36.0-38.4%. Carbon monoxide was decreased by 36.8-48.5%. Total hydrocarbon is 39.6-41.7% less than diesel fuel combustion. Nitrogen oxides emission is about 5% lower for paraffinic fuel. These results show that paraffinic fuel can be very competitive and replaced diesel fuels in the future.

  1. Filter synthesis using Genesys S/Filter

    CERN Document Server

    Rhea, Randall W

    2014-01-01

    S/Filter includes tools beyond direct synthesis, including a wide variety of both exact and approximate equivalent network transforms, methods for selecting the most desirable out of potentially thousands of synthesized alternatives, and a transform history record that simplifies design attempts requiring iteration. Very few software programs are based on direct synthesis, and the additional features of S/Filter make it a uniquely effective tool for filter design.This resource presents a practical guide to using Genesys software for microwave and RF filter design and synthesis. The focus of th

  2. Hydrogenation Technology for Producing Clean Diesel Fuel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Shuiyin; Xiong Zhenlin; Gao Xiaodong; Nie Hong

    2004-01-01

    With the standard of environmental protection becoming increasingly strict, it is required to remove sulfur and aromatics in diesel deeply. RIPP has developed several new hydrogenation catalysts and flexible processes, by means of which clean diesel fuel with low sulfur and low aromatic contents can be produced. From SRGO (Straight Run Gas Oil), which has an aromatic content of less than 30m%, a low sulfur and low aromatic diesel fuel or ultra-low sulfur diesel can be obtained by adopting a new process operating on highly active RN-series catalysts. From a feed with higher aromatic content (A=30~80m%),such as FCC-LCO, a low sulfur and low aromatic diesel fuel can be obtained by the SSHT, MHUG and DDA processes.

  3. Performance of direct-injection off-road diesel engine on rapeseed oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labeckas, Gvidonas; Slavinskas, Stasys [Department of Transport and Power Machinery, Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Student Str. 15, P.O. Box LT-53067, Kaunas Academy (Lithuania)

    2006-05-15

    This article presents the comparative bench testing results of a naturally aspirated, four stroke, four cylinder, water cooled, direct injection Diesel engine operating on Diesel fuel and cold pressed rapeseed oil. The purpose of this research is to study rapeseed oil flow through the fuelling system, the effect of oil as renewable fuel on a high speed Diesel engine performance efficiency and injector coking under various loading conditions. Test results show that when fuelling a fully loaded engine with rapeseed oil, the brake specific fuel consumption at the maximum torque and rated power is correspondingly higher by 12.2 and 12.8% than that for Diesel fuel. However, the brake thermal efficiency of both fuels does not differ greatly and its maximum values remain equal to 0.37-0.38 for Diesel fuel and 0.38-0.39 for rapeseed oil. The smoke opacity at a fully opened throttle for rapeseed oil is lower by about 27-35%, however, at the easy loads its characteristics can be affected by white coloured vapours. Oil heating to the temperature of 60{sup o}C diminishes its viscosity to 19.5mm{sup 2}s{sup -1} ensuring a smooth oil flow through the fuel filter and reducing the brake specific energy consumption at light loads by 11.7-7.4%. Further heating to the temperature of 90{sup o}C offers no advantages in terms of performance. Special tests conducted with modified fuel injection pump revealed that coking of the injector nozzles depends on the engine performance mode. The first and second injector nozzles that operated on pure oil were more coated by carbonaceous deposits than control injector nozzles that operated simultaneously on Diesel fuel. (author)

  4. Strong mutagenic effects of diesel engine emissions using vegetable oil as fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buenger, Juergen; Bruening, Thomas [Institute of the Ruhr University Bochum, Research Institute for Occupational Medicine of the Institutions for Statutory Accident Insurance and Prevention (BGFA), Bochum (Germany); Krahl, Juergen [University of Applied Sciences Coburg, Coburg (Germany); Munack, Axel; Ruschel, Yvonne; Schroeder, Olaf [Institute for Technology and Biosystems Engineering, Federal Agricultural Research Centre (FAL), Braunschweig (Germany); Emmert, Birgit; Westphal, Goetz; Mueller, Michael; Hallier, Ernst [University of Goettingen, Department of Occupational and Social Medicine, Goettingen (Germany)

    2007-08-15

    Diesel engine emissions (DEE) are classified as probably carcinogenic to humans. In recent years every effort was made to reduce DEE and their content of carcinogenic and mutagenic polycyclic aromatic compounds. Since 1995 we observed an appreciable reduction of mutagenicity of DEE driven by reformulated or newly designed fuels in several studies. Recently, the use of rapeseed oil as fuel for diesel engines is rapidly growing among German transportation businesses and agriculture due to economic reasons. We compared the mutagenic effects of DEE from two different batches of rapeseed oil (RSO) with rapeseed methyl ester (RME, biodiesel), natural gas derived synthetic fuel (gas-to-liquid, GTL), and a reference diesel fuel (DF). The test engine was a heavy-duty truck diesel running the European Stationary Cycle. Particulate matter from the exhaust was sampled onto PTFE-coated glass fibre filters and extracted with dichloromethane in a soxhlet apparatus. The gas phase constituents were sampled as condensates. The mutagenicity of the particle extracts and the condensates was tested using the Salmonella typhimurium/mammalian microsome assay with tester strains TA98 and TA100. Compared to DF the two RSO qualities significantly increased the mutagenic effects of the particle extracts by factors of 9.7 up to 59 in tester strain TA98 and of 5.4 up to 22.3 in tester strain TA100, respectively. The condensates of the RSO fuels caused an up to factor 13.5 stronger mutagenicity than the reference fuel. RME extracts had a moderate but significant higher mutagenic response in assays of TA98 with metabolic activation and TA100 without metabolic activation. GTL samples did not differ significantly from DF. In conclusion, the strong increase of mutagenicity using RSO as diesel fuel compared to the reference DF and other fuels causes deep concern on future usage of this biologic resource as a replacement of established diesel fuels. (orig.)

  5. Strong mutagenic effects of diesel engine emissions using vegetable oil as fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bünger, Jürgen; Krahl, Jürgen; Munack, Axel; Ruschel, Yvonne; Schröder, Olaf; Emmert, Birgit; Westphal, Götz; Müller, Michael; Hallier, Ernst; Brüning, Thomas

    2007-08-01

    Diesel engine emissions (DEE) are classified as probably carcinogenic to humans. In recent years every effort was made to reduce DEE and their content of carcinogenic and mutagenic polycyclic aromatic compounds. Since 1995 we observed an appreciable reduction of mutagenicity of DEE driven by reformulated or newly designed fuels in several studies. Recently, the use of rapeseed oil as fuel for diesel engines is rapidly growing among German transportation businesses and agriculture due to economic reasons. We compared the mutagenic effects of DEE from two different batches of rapeseed oil (RSO) with rapeseed methyl ester (RME, biodiesel), natural gas derived synthetic fuel (gas-to-liquid, GTL), and a reference diesel fuel (DF). The test engine was a heavy-duty truck diesel running the European Stationary Cycle. Particulate matter from the exhaust was sampled onto PTFE-coated glass fibre filters and extracted with dichloromethane in a soxhlet apparatus. The gas phase constituents were sampled as condensates. The mutagenicity of the particle extracts and the condensates was tested using the Salmonella typhimurium/mammalian microsome assay with tester strains TA98 and TA100. Compared to DF the two RSO qualities significantly increased the mutagenic effects of the particle extracts by factors of 9.7 up to 59 in tester strain TA98 and of 5.4 up to 22.3 in tester strain TA100, respectively. The condensates of the RSO fuels caused an up to factor 13.5 stronger mutagenicity than the reference fuel. RME extracts had a moderate but significant higher mutagenic response in assays of TA98 with metabolic activation and TA100 without metabolic activation. GTL samples did not differ significantly from DF. In conclusion, the strong increase of mutagenicity using RSO as diesel fuel compared to the reference DF and other fuels causes deep concern on future usage of this biologic resource as a replacement of established diesel fuels.

  6. Carbonyl Emissions from Gasoline and Diesel Motor Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Destaillats, Hugo; Jakober, Chris A.; Robert, Michael A.; Riddle, Sarah G.; Destaillats, Hugo; Charles, M. Judith; Green, Peter G.; Kleeman, Michael J.

    2007-12-01

    Carbonyls from gasoline powered light-duty vehicles (LDVs) and heavy-duty diesel powered vehicles (HDDVs) operated on chassis dynamometers were measured using an annular denuder-quartz filter-polyurethane foam sampler with O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine derivatization and chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. Two internal standards were utilized based on carbonyl recovery, 4-fluorobenzaldehyde for_C8 compounds. Gas- and particle-phase emissions for 39 aliphatic and 20 aromatic carbonyls ranged from 0.1 ? 2000 ?g/L fuel for LDVs and 1.8 - 27000 mu g/L fuel for HDDVs. Gas-phase species accounted for 81-95percent of the total carbonyls from LDVs and 86-88percent from HDDVs. Particulate carbonyls emitted from a HDDV under realistic driving conditions were similar to concentrations measured in a diesel particulate matter (PM) standard reference material. Carbonyls accounted for 19percent of particulate organic carbon (POC) emissions from low-emission LDVs and 37percent of POC emissions from three-way catalyst equipped LDVs. This identifies carbonyls as one of the largest classes of compounds in LDV PM emissions. The carbonyl fraction of HDDV POC was lower, 3.3-3.9percent depending upon operational conditions. Partitioning analysis indicates the carbonyls had not achieved equilibrium between the gas- and particle-phase under the dilution factors of 126-584 used in the current study.

  7. CoMoP-EG/Al2O3催化剂的表征及其柴油加氢精制催化性能%Characterization of CoMoP-EG/Al2 O3 Catalyst and Its Catalytic Performance for Diesel Hydrogenation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张孔远; 昃彬; 张唯稚; 王宗波; 刘晨光

    2015-01-01

    在CoMoP共浸渍液中加入乙二醇(EG)制备CoMoP‐EG/γ‐Al2O3系列催化剂。采用 UV‐Vis、 TG/DTG、FT‐IR、低温N2吸附、H2‐TPR、HRTEM 等手段对其进行表征,并以直馏柴油为原料,采用高压微反装置评价催化剂的加氢脱硫和加氢脱氮活性。结果表明,浸渍液中的乙二醇未与活性金属离子形成新的配合物。乙二醇与载体发生相互作用形成Al—O—C键,减弱了活性组分与载体的相互作用,提高了活性组分的分散性。与未加乙二醇制备的硫化态CoMoP/γ‐Al2 O3相比,硫化态CoMoP‐EG/γ‐Al2 O3催化剂中MoS2晶粒的堆垛层数增加,片层长度减少,有利于Ⅱ型Co—M o—S活性相的形成。在反应温度350℃、氢分压6.0 M Pa、空速1.5 h-1、氢/油体积比400条件下,采用最佳乙二醇加入量制备的CoMoP‐EG/γ‐Al2 O3催化剂,可使直馏柴油的硫质量分数由13298μg/g降至6μg/g ,氮质量分数由169.7μg/g降至0.4μg/g。%CoMoP‐EG/γ‐Al2 O3 catalysts were prepared by adding ethylene glycol (EG ) to the CoMoP co‐impregnation solutions and characterized by means of UV‐Vis ,TG/DTG ,FT‐IR ,BET , H2‐TPR , HRTEM . The HDS and HDN performances of prepared CoMoP‐EG/γ‐Al2 O3 were evaluated in a high pressure microreactor with straight‐run diesel as feed .The results indicated that there was not any new Co or Mo complex formed in co‐impregnation solution when ethylene glycol was added .Ethylene glycol could interact with γ‐Al2 O3 to form Al—O—C bond ,weakening the interaction between metals and supports and promoting the dispersion of metals on the surface of supports .Compared to sulfide CoMoP/γ‐Al2 O3 ,the stacking number of MoS2 particles in sulfide CoMoP‐EG/γ‐Al2 O3 increased and the MoS2 slab length decreased , facilitating the formation of Co—Mo—S active phases of type Ⅱ .At the reaction conditions of θ=350℃ ,p(H2 )= 6.0 MPa

  8. Sensory Pollution from Bag Filters, Carbon Filters and Combinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Clausen, Geo; Weschler, Charles J.

    2008-01-01

    by an upstream pre-filter (changed monthly), an EU7 filter protected by an upstream activated carbon (AC) filter, and EU7 filters with an AC filter either downstream or both upstream and downstream. In addition, two types of stand-alone combination filters were evaluated: a bag-type fiberglass filter...

  9. Method of securing filter elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Erik P.; Haslam, Jeffery L.; Mitchell, Mark A.

    2016-10-04

    A filter securing system including a filter unit body housing; at least one tubular filter element positioned in the filter unit body housing, the tubular filter element having a closed top and an open bottom; a dimple in either the filter unit body housing or the top of the tubular filter element; and a socket in either the filter unit body housing or the top of the tubular filter element that receives the dimple in either the filter unit body housing or the top of the tubular filter element to secure the tubular filter element to the filter unit body housing.

  10. Combustion characteristics of a direct-injection diesel engine fueled with Fischer-Tropsch diesel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yongcheng; ZHOU Longbao; PAN Keyu

    2007-01-01

    Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) diesel fuel is characterized by a high cetane number, a near-zero sulphur content and a very low aromatic level. On the basis of the recorded incylinder pressures and injector needle lifts, the combustion characteristics of an unmodified single-cylinder directinjection diesel engine operating on F-T diesel fuel are analyzed and compared with those of conventional diesel fuel operation. The results show that F-T diesel fuel exhibits a slightly longer injection delay and injection duration, an average of 18.7% shorter ignition delay, and a comparable total combustion duration when compared to those of conventional diesel fuel. Meanwhile, F-T diesel fuel displays an average of 26.8% lower peak value of premixed burning rate and a higher peak value of diffusive burning rate. In addition, the F-T diesel engine has a slightly lower peak combustion pressure, a far lower rate of pressure rise, and a lower mechanical load and combustion noise than the conventional diesel engine. The brake specific fuel consumption is lower and the effective thermal efficiency is higher for F-T diesel fuel operation.

  11. 30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250... engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines that are continuously attended must be equipped...

  12. 30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section 250... engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines which are...

  13. Series 190 Diesel Engines Used in China's Oil Drilling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Qimin

    1996-01-01

    @@ Jinan Diesel Engine Works, located in Jinan,Shandong Province, was established more than 70 years ago. Now it produces series 190 diesel engines and diesel generating sets. Over 95 percent of land drilling power engines used in China are from Jinan Diesel Engine Works.

  14. Le moteur Diesel et son carburant. Principaux problèmes et solutions potentielles Diesel Engines and Their Fuel. The Leading Problems and Potential Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyzat P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Après avoir rappelé les tendances récentes françaises et européennes relatives au développement du moteur Diesel et à la demande en gazole, on examine les principales caractéristiques contraignantes : comportement à froid, indice de cétane, tendance à l'encrassement des injecteurs. On présente diverses techniques ou projets de procédure permettant de progresser dans une meilleure connaissance de certains incidents (blocage des filtres en hiver, accroissement des émissions de bruit et de polluants avec des injecteurs encrassés. On décrit enfin les possibilités et les contraintes du raffinage pour fournir un gazole susceptible de satisfaire les divers utilisateurs. L'emploi d'additifs et la distribution de deux qualités de gazole constituent des moyens d'action possibles. After reviewing recent French and European trends concerning the development of diesel engines and the demand for diesel oil, this article examines the leading constraints : cold behavior, cetane number, tendency of injector fouling. Different techniques or possible procedures are described for gaining a better understanding of various incidents (filter plugging in winter, increase in noise and pollutant emissions with fouled injectors. The article concludes by describing the possibilities and constraints of refining for supplying diesel oil capable of meeting the needs of different users. The use of additives and the distribution of two qualities of diesel oil are possible means of action.

  15. About sorption-catalytic air cleaning in premises for people habitation in megapolises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Cрechevichkin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic sources of pollution of the air environment in megapolises, and also of internal atmosphere of premises for people habitation, in respect of their possible clearing by sorption-catalytic methods are systematized. Design and principle of action of the room sorption-catalytic three-chambered filter for clearing of turnaround air of a thermo premise of gaseous ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide and organic substances are described.

  16. Catalytic glycerol steam reforming for hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan, Monica, E-mail: monica.dan@itim-cj.ro; Mihet, Maria, E-mail: maria.mihet@itim-cj.ro; Lazar, Mihaela D., E-mail: diana.lazar@itim-cj.ro [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 67-103 Donat Street, 400293 Cluj Napoca (Romania)

    2015-12-23

    Hydrogen production from glycerol by steam reforming combine two major advantages: (i) using glycerol as raw material add value to this by product of bio-diesel production which is obtained in large quantities around the world and have a very limited utilization now, and (ii) by implication of water molecules in the reaction the efficiency of hydrogen generation is increased as each mol of glycerol produces 7 mol of H{sub 2}. In this work we present the results obtained in the process of steam reforming of glycerol on Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The catalyst was prepared by wet impregnation method and characterized through different methods: N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption, XRD, TPR. The catalytic study was performed in a stainless steel tubular reactor at atmospheric pressure by varying the reaction conditions: steam/carbon ratio (1-9), gas flow (35 ml/min -133 ml/min), temperature (450-650°C). The gaseous fraction of the reaction products contain: H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO, CO{sub 2}. The optimum reaction conditions as resulted from this study are: temperature 550°C, Gly:H{sub 2}O ratio 9:1 and Ar flow 133 ml/min. In these conditions the glycerol conversion to gaseous products was 43% and the hydrogen yield was 30%.

  17. Catalytic glycerol steam reforming for hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Monica; Mihet, Maria; Lazar, Mihaela D.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrogen production from glycerol by steam reforming combine two major advantages: (i) using glycerol as raw material add value to this by product of bio-diesel production which is obtained in large quantities around the world and have a very limited utilization now, and (ii) by implication of water molecules in the reaction the efficiency of hydrogen generation is increased as each mol of glycerol produces 7 mol of H2. In this work we present the results obtained in the process of steam reforming of glycerol on Ni/Al2O3. The catalyst was prepared by wet impregnation method and characterized through different methods: N2 adsorption-desorption, XRD, TPR. The catalytic study was performed in a stainless steel tubular reactor at atmospheric pressure by varying the reaction conditions: steam/carbon ratio (1-9), gas flow (35 ml/min -133 ml/min), temperature (450-650°C). The gaseous fraction of the reaction products contain: H2, CH4, CO, CO2. The optimum reaction conditions as resulted from this study are: temperature 550°C, Gly:H2O ratio 9:1 and Ar flow 133 ml/min. In these conditions the glycerol conversion to gaseous products was 43% and the hydrogen yield was 30%.

  18. 500 Watt Diesel Fueled TPV Portable Power Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, W. E.; Morgan, M. D.; Sundaram, V. S.; Butcher, T.

    2003-01-01

    A test-bed 500 watt diesel fueled thermophotovoltaic (TPV) portable power supply is described. The goal of the design is a compact, rugged field portable unit weighing less than 15 pounds without fuel. The conversion efficiency goal is set at 15% fuel energy to electric energy delivered to an external load at 24 volts. A burner/recuperator system has been developed to meet the objectives of high combustion air preheat temperatures with a compact heat exchanger, low excess air operation, and high convective heat transfer rates to the silicon carbide emitter surface. The burner incorporates a air blast atomizer with 100% of the combustion air passing through the nozzle. Designed firing rate of 2900 watts at 0.07 gallons of oil per hour. This incorporates a single air supply dc motor/fan set and avoids the need for a system air compressor. The recuperator consists of three annular, concentric laminar flow passages. Heat from the combustion of the diesel fuel is both radiantly and convectively coupled to the inside wall of a cylindrical silicon carbide emitter. The outer wall of the emitter then radiates blackbody energy at the design temperature of 1400°C. The cylindrical emitter is enclosed in a quartz envelope that separates it from the photovoltaic (PV) cells. Spectral control is accomplished by a resonant mesh IR band-pass filter placed between the emitter and the PV array. The narrow band of energy transmitted by the filter is intercepted and converted to electricity by an array of GaSb PV cells. The array consists of 216 1-cm × 1-cm GaSb cells arranged into series and parallel arrays. An array of heat pipes couple the PV cell arrays to a heat exchanger which is cooled by forced air convection. A brief status of the key TPV technologies is presented followed by data characterizing the performance of the 500 watt TPV system.

  19. Zeolite-based SCR catalysts and their use in diesel engine emission treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Chaitanya K; Yang, Xiaofan

    2015-03-24

    A catalyst comprising a zeolite loaded with copper ions and at least one trivalent metal ion other than Al.sup.+3, wherein the catalyst decreases NO.sub.x emissions in diesel exhaust. The trivalent metal ions are selected from, for example, trivalent transition metal ions, trivalent main group metal ions, and/or trivalent lanthanide metal ions. In particular embodiments, the catalysts are selected from Cu--Fe-ZSM5, Cu--La-ZSM-5, Fe--Cu--La-ZSM5, Cu--Sc-ZSM-5, and Cu--In-ZSM5. The catalysts are placed on refractory support materials and incorporated into catalytic converters.

  20. Glidarc assisted reforming of gasoline and diesel oils into synthesis gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czernichowski, A. [Orleans Univ., Department of Physics, 45 - Orleans (France); Czernichowski, M. [Etudes Chimiques et Physiques (ECP), 45 - La Ferte Saint Aubin (France); Czernichowski, P. [with WESCO, Conroe (United States)

    2003-09-01

    Various commercial diesel oils (including logistic ones that contain up to 4% of Sulfur) and a gasoline are converted into synthesis gas using GlidArc-assisted Partial Oxidation reactors and atmospheric air. We produce up to 6.9 m3(n)/h of Nitrogen-diluted syngas containing up to 21% of H{sub 2} and up to 21% of CO. It corresponds to 8.4 kW of electric power when such syngas is converted in an ideal Fuel Cell (FC). Power requirement for GlidArc assistance of such non-catalytic reforming is below 2% of the FC output. (authors)

  1. Zeolite-based SCR catalysts and their use in diesel engine emission treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Yang, Xiaofan

    2016-08-02

    A catalyst comprising a zeolite loaded with copper ions and at least one trivalent metal ion other than Al.sup.+3, wherein the catalyst decreases NO.sub.x emissions in diesel exhaust. The trivalent metal ions are selected from, for example, trivalent transition metal ions, trivalent main group metal ions, and/or trivalent lanthanide metal ions. In particular embodiments, the catalysts are selected from Cu--Fe-ZSM5, Cu--La-ZSM-5, Fe--Cu--La-ZSM5, Cu--Sc-ZSM-5, and Cu--In-ZSM5. The catalysts are placed on refractory support materials and incorporated into catalytic converters.

  2. 40 CFR 80.522 - May used motor oil be dispensed into diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Conformity under 40 CFR part 86, 40 CFR part 89, or 40 CFR part 1039 and the certification of the vehicle or... diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? 80.522 Section 80.522 Protection of Environment... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel...

  3. Properties of mixtures of FAME and diesel fuels; Eigenschaften von Gemischen aus FAME und Dieselkraftstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loest, O. [AGIP Deutschland GmbH, Muenchen (Germany); Walther, D. [ARAL Forschung, Bochum (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    According to investigations and practical experience with fatty acid methyl esters as pure fuels, oxidation stability is viewed as an increasingly important parameter. There are many different damage patterns resulting from insufficient oxidation stability of FAME in modern injection systems, e.g. coke formation on injection valves, deposit formation inside the combustion chamber, corrosion of components in touch with FAME, clogging of the fuel filter, and disturbed function of the injection pump as a result of resin s. For a wider data base, e.g. on the influence of FAME on oxidation stability, different diesel/FAME mixtures were investigated systematically. In accordance with the goals stated in the EU directive 2003/30/EG concerning promotion of biofuels, both 5 percent and 20 percent diesel/FAME blends were investigated, also with regard to interactions between additives and blending components. In the investigations, combinations of diesel and FAME cold additives and using a FAME oxidation stabilizer were investigated in order to provide a basis for a future no-harm criteria catalogue for additives used in diesel/FAME blends. (orig.)

  4. NOx Reduction Technology in Diesel Engine Exhaust by the Plasmatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    completeness of the partial fuel oxidation reaction up to 100%. Nitrogen was found to be the most effective gas for the synthesis gas production by a plasmatron. The preliminary experiments of introducing the reformation products into a diesel engine resulted in ∼25% NOx cut in the exhaust gas flow. A simulation experiment with the pure hydrogen addition to the inlet of a diesel engine showed that both components of the synthesis gas H2 and CO fed into the engine play significant role in cutting NOx content in the engine's emission. The selective catalytic reduction (SCR) with propylene and decane as reductants in the presence of excess air over (Fe, Co-Pt)/ZSM-5 catalyst was conducted to remove NOx from Diesel exhaust gases. The SO2 effect and deactivation test over above catalyst were also executed. ZSM-5 supported Co, Pt, Fe mixed oxide catalyst showed about 80% of conversion in the presence of NO. However, the activity was decreased when the catalyst was wash coated onto the ceramic monolith. We found that the deNOx activity over the catalyst was strongly depended on the amount of reductant. Therefore, the amount reductant and how to feed the reductant into the system should be considered as important factors to remove NOx. In order to develop the high removal NOx activity at low temperature and maintain the stable activity at the real exhaust gases condition, metallosilicate and Pt/ZSM-5 catalysts have been used. In case of metallosilicate catalyst, the deNOx activity was low at the oxidation atmospheric condition. When the Pt was ion-exchanged with ZSM-5, the H-form of ZSM-5 catalyst showed high deNOx activity. The effect of reductant type on deNOx activity exhibited that the olefin system provided more higher activity than octane system. The methane conversion observed in the presence of NO and excess O2 over alumina supported Pt catalyst. In order to improve the activity and durability, the Co metal ion was added. The result showed that the Co-Pt catalyst gave high

  5. HEPA filter monitoring program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, K. N.; Johnson, C. M.; Aiken, W. F.; Lucerna, J. J.; Barnett, R. L.; Jensen, R. T.

    1986-07-01

    The testing and replacement of HEPA filters, widely used in the nuclear industry to purify process air, are costly and labor-intensive. Current methods of testing filter performance, such as differential pressure measurement and scanning air monitoring, allow determination of overall filter performance but preclude detection of incipient filter failure such as small holes in the filters. Using current technology, a continual in-situ monitoring system was designed which provides three major improvements over current methods of filter testing and replacement. The improvements include: cost savings by reducing the number of intact filters which are currently being replaced unnecessarily; more accurate and quantitative measurement of filter performance; and reduced personnel exposure to a radioactive environment by automatically performing most testing operations.

  6. Combustion and emissions of the diesel engine using bio-diesel fuel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The combustion and heat release of engines using diesel fuel and bio-diesel fuel have been investigated.The results illustrate that the combustion happens in advance and the ignition delay period is shortened.The initial heat release peak declines a little,the corresponding crankshaft angle changes in advance,and the combustion duration is prolonged.The economic performance and emission features of diesel engines using diesel fuel and bio-diesel fuel are compared.The results also show that the specific fuel consumption of bio-diesel increases by about 12% .The emissions,such as CO,HC,and particulate matter decrease remarkably whereas NOx increases a little.

  7. Energy and Exergy Analysis of a Diesel Engine Fuelled with Diesel and Simarouba Biodiesel Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahi, Nabnit; Mohanty, Mahendra Kumar; Mishra, Sruti Ranjan; Mohanty, Ramesh Chandra

    2016-08-01

    This article intends to determine the available work and various losses of a diesel engine fuelled with diesel and SB20 (20 % Simarouba biodiesel by volume blended with 80 % diesel by volume). The energy and exergy analysis were carried out by using first law and second law of thermodynamics respectively. The experiments were carried out on a 3.5 kW compression ignition engine. The analysis was conducted on per mole of fuel basis. The energy analysis indicates that about 37.23 and 37.79 % of input energy is converted into the capacity to do work for diesel and SB20 respectively. The exergetic efficiency was 34.8 and 35 % for diesel and Simarouba respectively. Comparative study indicates that the energetic and exergetic performance of SB20 resembles with that of diesel fuel.

  8. Novel Backup Filter Device for Candle Filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, B.; Goldsmith, R.; Dunham, G.; Henderson, A.

    2002-09-18

    The currently preferred means of particulate removal from process or combustion gas generated by advanced coal-based power production processes is filtration with candle filters. However, candle filters have not shown the requisite reliability to be commercially viable for hot gas clean up for either integrated gasifier combined cycle (IGCC) or pressurized fluid bed combustion (PFBC) processes. Even a single candle failure can lead to unacceptable ash breakthrough, which can result in (a) damage to highly sensitive and expensive downstream equipment, (b) unacceptably low system on-stream factor, and (c) unplanned outages. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized the need to have fail-safe devices installed within or downstream from candle filters. In addition to CeraMem, DOE has contracted with Siemens-Westinghouse, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) at the University of North Dakota, and the Southern Research Institute (SRI) to develop novel fail-safe devices. Siemens-Westinghouse is evaluating honeycomb-based filter devices on the clean-side of the candle filter that can operate up to 870 C. The EERC is developing a highly porous ceramic disk with a sticky yet temperature-stable coating that will trap dust in the event of filter failure. SRI is developing the Full-Flow Mechanical Safeguard Device that provides a positive seal for the candle filter. Operation of the SRI device is triggered by the higher-than-normal gas flow from a broken candle. The CeraMem approach is similar to that of Siemens-Westinghouse and involves the development of honeycomb-based filters that operate on the clean-side of a candle filter. The overall objective of this project is to fabricate and test silicon carbide-based honeycomb failsafe filters for protection of downstream equipment in advanced coal conversion processes. The fail-safe filter, installed directly downstream of a candle filter, should have the capability for stopping essentially all particulate

  9. MST Filterability Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Duignan, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-03-12

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently treating radioactive liquid waste with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). The low filter flux through the ARP has limited the rate at which radioactive liquid waste can be treated. Recent filter flux has averaged approximately 5 gallons per minute (gpm). Salt Batch 6 has had a lower processing rate and required frequent filter cleaning. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has a desire to understand the causes of the low filter flux and to increase ARP/MCU throughput. In addition, at the time the testing started, SRR was assessing the impact of replacing the 0.1 micron filter with a 0.5 micron filter. This report describes testing of MST filterability to investigate the impact of filter pore size and MST particle size on filter flux and testing of filter enhancers to attempt to increase filter flux. The authors constructed a laboratory-scale crossflow filter apparatus with two crossflow filters operating in parallel. One filter was a 0.1 micron Mott sintered SS filter and the other was a 0.5 micron Mott sintered SS filter. The authors also constructed a dead-end filtration apparatus to conduct screening tests with potential filter aids and body feeds, referred to as filter enhancers. The original baseline for ARP was 5.6 M sodium salt solution with a free hydroxide concentration of approximately 1.7 M.3 ARP has been operating with a sodium concentration of approximately 6.4 M and a free hydroxide concentration of approximately 2.5 M. SRNL conducted tests varying the concentration of sodium and free hydroxide to determine whether those changes had a significant effect on filter flux. The feed slurries for the MST filterability tests were composed of simple salts (NaOH, NaNO2, and NaNO3) and MST (0.2 – 4.8 g/L). The feed slurry for the filter enhancer tests contained simulated salt batch 6 supernate, MST, and filter enhancers.

  10. Oriented Fiber Filter Media

    OpenAIRE

    Bharadwaj, R; A. Patel, S. Chokdeepanich, Ph.D.; G.G. Chase, Ph.D.

    2008-01-01

    Coalescing filters are widely used throughout industry and improved performance will reduce droplet emissions and operating costs. Experimental observations show orientation of micro fibers in filter media effect the permeability and the separation efficiency of the filter media. In this work two methods are used to align the fibers to alter the filter structure. The results show that axially aligned fiber media improve quality factor on the order of 20% and cutting media on an angle from a t...

  11. Introduction to Kalman Filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Alazard, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    This document is an introduction to Kalman optimal Filtering applied to linear systems. It is assumed that the reader is already aware of linear servo-loop theory, frequency-domain Filtering (continuous and discrete-time) and state-space approach to represent linear systems. Generally, Filtering consists in estimating a useful information (signal) from a measurement (of this information) perturbed by a noise. Frequency-domain Filtering assumes that a frequency-domain separation exists between...

  12. Impact of fuels on diesel exhaust emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents an investigation of the emissions from eight diesel fuels with different sulphur and aromatic content. A bus and a truck were used in the investigation. Chemical analysis and biological testing have been performed. The aim of this project was to find a 'good' diesel fuel which can be used in urban areas. Seven of the fuels were meant to be such fuels. It has been confirmed in this study that there exists a quantifiable relationship between the variables of the diesel fuel blends and the variables of the chemical emissions and their biological effects. 119 figs., 12 tabs., approx. 100 refs

  13. UV-Shielding and Catalytic Characteristics of Nanoscale Zinc-Cerium Oxides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Fine particles of zinc-cerium oxides (ZCO) used as an ultraviolet filter were prepared via combustion synthesis route. The catalytic activity, UV-shielding performance, surface modification and application of ZCO in polyester varnish were discussed in detail. The experimental results indicate that the photo-catalytic activity of ZCO is much smaller than these of ZnO and TiO2; the oxidation catalytic activity of ZCO is far lower than that of CeO2; the ZCO has shown excellent ultraviolet absorption in the range of UV;addition modified ZCO (MZCO) into polyester will enhance the UV-shielding capability of polyester.

  14. EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF A DIESEL ENGINE WITH BLENDS OF DIESEL-PLASTIC PYROLYSIS OIL

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Rajesh Guntur,; Dr. M.L.S. Deva Kumar,; Dr.K.Vijaya Kumar Reddy

    2011-01-01

    Environmental degradation and depletion of oil reserves are matters of great concern around the globe. Developing countries like India depend heavily on crude oil import of about 125 Mt per annum (7:1diesel/gasoline). Diesel being the main transportation fuel in India, finding a suitable fuel alternative to diesel is an urgent need. In this context, pyrolysis of waste plastic solid is currently receiving renewed interest. Waste plastic pyrolysis oil is suitable for compression ignition engine...

  15. Diesel biodegradation capacities of indigenous bacterial species isolated from diesel contaminated soil

    OpenAIRE

    Palanisamy, Nandhini; Ramya, Jayaprakash; Kumar, Srilakshman; Vasanthi, NS; Chandran, Preethy; Khan, Sudheer

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum based products are the major source of energy for industries and daily life. Leaks and accidental spills occur regularly during the exploration, production, refining, transport, and storage of petroleum and petroleum products. In the present study we isolated the bacteria from diesel contaminated soil and screened them for diesel biodegradation capacity. One monoculture isolate identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis to be Acinetobacter baumannii was further studied for diesel...

  16. Narrow band flame emission from dieseline and diesel spray combustion in a constant volume combustion chamber

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Zengyang

    2016-08-18

    In this paper, spray combustion of diesel (No. 2) and diesel-gasoline blend (dieseline: 80% diesel and 20% gasoline by volume) were investigated in an optically accessible constant volume combustion chamber. Effects of ambient conditions on flame emissions were studied. Ambient oxygen concentration was varied from 12% to 21% and three ambient temperatures were selected: 800 K, 1000 K and 1200 K. An intensified CCD camera coupled with bandpass filters was employed to capture the quasi-steady state flame emissions at 430 nm and 470 nm bands. Under non-sooting conditions, the narrow-band flame emissions at 430 nm and 470 nm can be used as indicators of CH∗ (methylidyne) and HCHO∗ (formaldehyde), respectively. The lift-off length was measured by imaging the OH∗ chemiluminescence at 310 nm. Flame emission structure and intensity distribution were compared between dieseline and diesel at wavelength bands. Flame emission images show that both narrow band emissions become shorter, thinner and stronger with higher oxygen concentration and higher ambient temperature for both fuels. Areas of weak intensity are observed at the flame periphery and the upstream for both fuels under all ambient conditions. Average flame emission intensity and area were calculated for 430 nm and 470 nm narrow-band emissions. At a lower ambient temperature the average intensity increases with increasing ambient oxygen concentration. However, at the 1200 K ambient temperature condition, the average intensity is not increasing monotonically for both fuels. For most of the conditions, diesel has a stronger average flame emission intensity than dieseline for the 430 nm band, and similar phenomena can be observed for the 470 nm band with 800 K and 1200 K ambient temperatures. However, for the 1000 K ambient temperature cases, dieseline has stronger average flame emission intensities than diesel for all oxygen concentrations at 470 nm band. Flame emissions for the two bands have a

  17. Multi-stage selective catalytic reduction of NOx in lean burn engine exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penetrante, B.M.; Hsaio, M.C.; Merritt, B.T.; Vogtlin, G.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Many studies suggest that the conversion of NO to NO{sub 2} is an important intermediate step in the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO{sub x} to N{sub 2}. Some effort has been devoted to separating the oxidative and reductive functions of the catalyst in a multi-stage system. This method works fine for systems that require hydrocarbon addition. The hydrocarbon has to be injected between the NO oxidation catalyst and the NO{sub 2} reduction catalyst; otherwise, the first-stage oxidation catalyst will also oxidize the hydrocarbon and decrease its effectiveness as a reductant. The multi-stage catalytic scheme is appropriate for diesel engine exhausts since they contain insufficient hydrocarbons for SCR, and the hydrocarbons can be added at the desired location. For lean-burn gasoline engine exhausts, the hydrocarbons already present in the exhausts will make it necessary to find an oxidation catalyst that can oxidize NO to NO{sub 2} but not oxidize the hydrocarbon. A plasma can also be used to oxidize NO to NO{sub 2}. Plasma oxidation has several advantages over catalytic oxidation. Plasma-assisted catalysis can work well for both diesel engine and lean-burn gasoline engine exhausts. This is because the plasma can oxidize NO in the presence of hydrocarbons without degrading the effectiveness of the hydrocarbon as a reductant for SCR. In the plasma, the hydrocarbon enhances the oxidation of NO, minimizes the electrical energy requirement, and prevents the oxidation of SO{sub 2}. This paper discusses the use of multi-stage systems for selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. The multi-stage catalytic scheme is compared to the plasma-assisted catalytic scheme.

  18. Filtering in Finance.

    OpenAIRE

    Lautier, Delphine; Javaheri, Alireza; Galli, Alain

    2003-01-01

    In this article we present an introduction to various Filtering algorithms and some of their applications to the world of Quantitative Finance. We shall first mention the fundamental case of Gaussian noises where we obtain the well-known Kalman Filter. Because of common nonlinearities, we will be discussing the Extended Kalman Filter.

  19. Filter service system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Cheryl L.; Nordyke, Daniel S.; Crandell, Richard A.; Tomlins, Gregory; Fei, Dong; Panov, Alexander; Lane, William H.; Habeger, Craig F.

    2008-12-09

    According to an exemplary embodiment of the present disclosure, a system for removing matter from a filtering device includes a gas pressurization assembly. An element of the assembly is removably attachable to a first orifice of the filtering device. The system also includes a vacuum source fluidly connected to a second orifice of the filtering device.

  20. HEPA filter encapsulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates-Anderson, Dianne D.; Kidd, Scott D.; Bowers, John S.; Attebery, Ronald W.

    2003-01-01

    A low viscosity resin is delivered into a spent HEPA filter or other waste. The resin is introduced into the filter or other waste using a vacuum to assist in the mass transfer of the resin through the filter media or other waste.

  1. [Emission characteristics of a diesel car fueled with coal based Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) diesel and fossil diesel blends].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhi-Yuan; Cheng, Liang; Tan, Pi-Qiang; Lou, Di-Ming

    2012-11-01

    According to the first type test cycle of China national standard GB 18352.3-2005, the CO, NO(x), HC, PM and CO2 emission characteristics of a PASSAT diesel car fueled with Shanghai local IV diesel, coal based Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) diesel, and the blends of coal based F-T diesel and Shanghai local IV diesel up to 10% and 50% by volume were analyzed respectively. And the environmental impacts such as decreased air quality, health impact, photochemical ozone, global warming, and acidification that could be caused by CO, NO(x), HC, PM and CO2 emission of the diesel car were also assessed. The results showed that under GB 18352.3-2005 No. 1 test driving cycle, which consisted of four urban driving cycles and one extra urban driving cycle, the CO, HC, PM and CO2 emissions were released mainly in the urban driving cycles whereas the NO(x) emissions occurred mainly in the extra urban driving cycle. Compared with Shanghai local IV diesel, all of the CO, NO(x), HC, PM and CO2 emissions of the diesel car decreased to different extents when fueled with coal based F-T diesel blends. Moreover, the aerosol generation potential, global warming potential and acidification potential of F-T diesel fueled diesel car were also reduced. To sum up, coal based F-T diesel would be one of the alternative fuels to diesel in China. PMID:23323400

  2. EFFECTS OF ETHANOL BLENDED DIESEL FUEL ON EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM A DIESEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özer CAN

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Diesel engine emissions can be improved by adding organic oxygenated compounds to the No. 2 diesel fuel. In this study, effects of 10 % and 15 % (in volume ethanol addition to Diesel No. 2 on exhaust emissions from an indirect injection turbocharged diesel engine running at different engine speeds and loads were investigated. Experimental results showed that the ethanol addition reduced CO, soot and SO2 emissions, although it caused some increase in NOx emission and some power reductions due to lower heating value of ethanol. Improvements on emissions were more significant at full load rather than at partial loads.

  3. Emission testing of jatropha and pongamia mixed bio diesel fuel in a diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present investigation is based on the emission characteristics of mixed bio diesel fuel in a four stroke single cylinder compression ignition engine at constant speed. Refined oils of jatropha and pongamia are converted into bio diesel by acid catalyzed esterification and base catalyzed transesterification reactions. The jatropha and pongamia bio diesel were mixed in equal proportions with conventional mineral diesel fuel. Four samples of fuel were tested namely, diesel fuel, B10, B20 and B40. The emission analysis showed B20 mixed bio diesel fuel blend having better results as compared to other samples. There is 60% and 35% lower emission of carbon monoxide and in sulphur dioxide observed while consuming B20 blended fuel respectively. The test result showed NOx emissions were 10% higher from bio diesel fuel, as compared to conventional diesel fuel. However, these emissions may be reduced by EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) technology. Present research also revealed that that B20 mixed bio diesel fuel can be used, without any modification in a CI engine. (author)

  4. Novel Catalytic Membrane Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart Nemser, PhD

    2010-10-01

    There are many industrial catalytic organic reversible reactions with amines or alcohols that have water as one of the products. Many of these reactions are homogeneously catalyzed. In all cases removal of water facilitates the reaction and produces more of the desired chemical product. By shifting the reaction to right we produce more chemical product with little or no additional capital investment. Many of these reactions can also relate to bioprocesses. Given the large number of water-organic compound separations achievable and the ability of the Compact Membrane Systems, Inc. (CMS) perfluoro membranes to withstand these harsh operating conditions, this is an ideal demonstration system for the water-of-reaction removal using a membrane reactor. Enhanced reaction synthesis is consistent with the DOE objective to lower the energy intensity of U.S. industry 25% by 2017 in accord with the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and to improve the United States manufacturing competitiveness. The objective of this program is to develop the platform technology for enhancing homogeneous catalytic chemical syntheses.

  5. Development of a thermally self-sustaining kWe-class diesel reformer using hydrogen peroxide for hydrogen production in low-oxygen environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Gwangwoo; Lee, Kwangho; Ha, Sanghyeon; Bae, Joongmyeon

    2016-09-01

    A novel technology of a diesel reformer that uses hydrogen peroxide is developed to obtain the hydrogen required for fuel cell air-independent propulsion for underwater applications, such as submarines and unmanned underwater vehicles. Diesel fuel could be a promising hydrogen source for underwater applications due to its high hydrogen density and its globally well-equipped infrastructure. An alternative oxidant, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), is applied to supply not only oxygen but also the water required for diesel autothermal (ATR) reforming. The proposed reformer does not require an additional heating device to supply heat for the vaporization of diesel or oxidant due to the exothermic nature of the ATR reaction and the heat of decomposition of H2O2. The effects of H2O2 on diesel reforming were confirmed based on operating the engineering-scale (kWe-class) diesel-H2O2 reformer. Undecomposed H2O2 caused an excessively high temperature in the mixing zone and a corrosion effect in the reformer wall. To overcome these phenomena, we introduced a catalytic H2O2 decomposer to fully decompose hydrogen peroxide into steam and oxygen. From this important step, we essentially eliminate side effects from undecomposed H2O2 and retain a high reforming efficiency by utilizing the heat of decomposition of H2O2.

  6. Separation of Water from Ultralow Sulfur Diesel Using Novel Polymer Nanofiber-Coated Glass Fiber Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajgarhia, Stuti S; Jana, Sadhan C; Chase, George G

    2016-08-24

    Polymer nanofibers with interpenetrating network (IPN) morphology are used in this work for the development of composite, hydrophobic filter media in conjunction with glass fibers for removal of water droplets from ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD). The nanofibers are produced from hydrophobic polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) and hydrophilic polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) by spinning the polymer solutions using gas jet fiber (GJF) method. The nanofibers coat the individual glass fibers due to polar-polar interactions during the spinning process and render the filter media highly hydrophobic with a water contact angle approaching 150°. The efficiency of the resultant filter media is evaluated in terms of separation of water droplets of average size 20 μm from the suspensions in ULSD. PMID:27486993

  7. The catalytic converter - The all-purpose remedy for tractors?; Der Katalysator, ein Allheilmittel fuer den Traktor? Wirkung und Langzeitverhalten eines Abgaskatalysators an einem Obstbautraktor mit Dieselmotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadler, E. [Eigenoessische Forschungsanstalt fuer Agrarwirtschaft und Landtechnik (FAT), Taenikon (Switzerland)

    2001-07-01

    This illustrated report by the Swiss Federal Research Institute for Agricultural Economics and Engineering examines the effect and long-term behaviour of an exhaust catalytic-converter system for a tractor used in orchards. The problems posed by the emissions from diesel engines in 'off-road' use like oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, soot particles and obnoxious odours are discussed and attempts to solve these problems using catalytic converters are described. The report discusses the special health problems for personnel caused by diesel emissions in poorly ventilated workplaces such as orchards, vineyards and greenhouses. Details on a converter that was fitted experimentally to a tractor used in an orchard are given and results of measurements made on emissions, motor power and fuel consumption are presented and discussed in detail. The report is concluded with a summary of the main findings and recommends the installation of add-on catalytic converters for tractors used in poorly ventilated areas.

  8. Bias aware Kalman filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drecourt, J.-P.; Madsen, H.; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews two different approaches that have been proposed to tackle the problems of model bias with the Kalman filter: the use of a colored noise model and the implementation of a separate bias filter. Both filters are implemented with and without feedback of the bias into the model state...... are illustrated on a simple one-dimensional groundwater problem. The results show that the presented filters outperform the standard Kalman filter and that the implementations with bias feedback work in more general conditions than the implementations without feedback. 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  9. Molecular hydrogen (H2) emissions from gasoline and diesel vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, S W; Alvarez, R; Vollmer, M K; Steinbacher, M; Weilenmann, M; Reimann, S

    2010-08-01

    This study assesses individual-vehicle molecular hydrogen (H2) emissions in exhaust gas from current gasoline and diesel vehicles measured on a chassis dynamometer. Absolute H2 emissions were found to be highest for motorcycles and scooters (141+/-38.6 mg km(-1)), approximately 5 times higher than for gasoline-powered automobiles (26.5+/-12.1 mg km(-1)). All diesel-powered vehicles emitted marginal amounts of H2 ( approximately 0.1 mg km(-1)). For automobiles, the highest emission factors were observed for sub-cycles subject to a cold-start (mean of 53.1+/-17.0 mg km(-1)). High speeds also caused elevated H2 emission factors for sub-cycles reaching at least 150 km h(-1) (mean of 40.4+/-7.1 mg km(-1)). We show that H2/CO ratios (mol mol(-1)) from gasoline-powered vehicles are variable (sub-cycle means of 0.44-5.69) and are typically higher (mean for automobiles 1.02, for 2-wheelers 0.59) than previous atmospheric ratios characteristic of traffic-influenced measurements. The lowest mean individual sub-cycle ratios, which correspond to high absolute emissions of both H2 and CO, were observed during cold starts (for automobiles 0.48, for 2-wheelers 0.44) and at high vehicle speeds (for automobiles 0.73, for 2-wheelers 0.45). This finding illustrates the importance of these conditions to observed H2/CO ratios in ambient air. Overall, 2-wheelers displayed lower H2/CO ratios (0.48-0.69) than those from gasoline-powered automobiles (0.75-3.18). This observation, along with the lower H2/CO ratios observed through studies without catalytic converters, suggests that less developed (e.g. 2-wheelers) and older vehicle technologies are largely responsible for the atmospheric H2/CO ratios reported in past literature. PMID:20553937

  10. Commercial Test of Two Diesel Demulsifiers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xiaohong

    2003-01-01

    PetroChina Lanzhou Petrochemical Company conducted commercial tests for application of two types of diesel demulsifiers, the HPL-2 and GX-02 demulsifiers, in order to solve the emulsion problem arising from caustic washing of straight-run diesel fraction obtained from atmospheric and vacuum distillation unit at the Lanzhou refinery. After addition of each demulsifier into the diesel fraction the oil content in caustic residue was apparently decreased, and discharge of waste caustic was reduced, resulting in the elimination of emulsification and a significant increase of economic benefits. When 70 ppm of the HPL-2 demulsifier was added to diesel fraction, the oil content in waste caustic exiting the second-stage caustic wash settling tank was reduced to 2.45% from 7.90 %, whereas this value was reduced to 2.81% from 5.96% with addition of the GX-02 demulsifier.

  11. Changing ventilation filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A filter changing unit has a door which interlocks with the door of a filter chamber so as to prevent contamination of the outer surfaces of the doors by radioactive material collected on the filter element and a movable support which enables a filter chamber thereonto to be stored within the unit in such a way that the doors of the unit and the filter chamber can be replaced. The door pivots and interlocks with another door by means of a bolt, a seal around the periphery lip of the first door engages the periphery of the second door to seal the gap. A support pivots into a lower filter element storage position. Inspection windows and glove ports are provided. The unit is releasably connected to the filter chamber by bolts engaging in a flange provided around an opening. (author)

  12. Investigation of Nitro-Organic Compounds in Diesel Engine Exhaust: Final Report, February 2007 - April 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dane, J.; Voorhees, K. J.

    2010-06-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory upgraded its ReFUEL engine and vehicle testing facility to speciate unregulated gas-phase emissions. To complement this capability, the laboratory contracted with the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) to study the effects of soy biodiesel fuel and a diesel particle filter (DPF) on emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAH). CSM developed procedures to sample diesel particulate matter (PM) emissions from raw and diluted exhaust, with and without a DPF. They also developed improved procedures for extracting PAH and NPAH from the PM and quantifying them with a gas chromatograph-electron monochromator mass spectrometer. The study found the DPF generally reduced PAH emissions by 1 to 3 orders of magnitude. PAH conversion was lowest for B100, suggesting that PAHs were forming in the DPF. Orders of magnitude reductions were also found for NPAH emissions exiting the DPF.

  13. Characterization of beef tallow biodiesel and their mixtures with soybean biodiesel and mineral diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Leonardo S.G. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Campus Universitario de Ondina, 40.170-280, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil); INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40.170-280, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil); Couto, Marcelo B.; Filho, Miguel Andrade; Assis, Julio C.R.; Guimaraes, Paulo R.B.; Pontes, Luiz A.M.; Almeida, Selmo Q. [Departamento de Engenharia e Arquitetura, Universidade Salvador - UNIFACS, Av. Cardeal da Silva 132, 40.220-141, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil); Souza, Giancarlos S. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Campus Universitario de Ondina, 40.170-280, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil); Teixeira, Josanaide S.R. [Instituto Federal de Educacao Ciencia e Tecnologica da Bahia - IFBAHIA, Rua Emidio de Morais S/N, 40.625-650, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil)

    2010-04-15

    Tallow is a raw material for biodiesel production that, due to their highly centralized generation in slaughter/processing facilities and historically low prices, may have energy, environmental, and economic advantages that could be exploited. However beef tallow biodiesel have unfavorable properties due the presence of high concentration of saturated fatty esters. One way to overcome these inconveniences is using blending procedures. In this way, blends of beef tallow biodiesel with soybean biodiesel and with conventional mineral diesel fuel were prepared and the quality of the mixtures was monitored with the purpose to study ideal proportions of the fuels. By measurement of the viscosity, density, cold filter plugging point, and flash point, it was demonstrated that tallow biodiesel can be blended with both mineral diesel and soybean biodiesel to improve the characteristics of the blend fuels, over that of the tallow. (author)

  14. Analysis of noise emitted from diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, S.

    2015-12-01

    In this work combustion noise produced in diesel engines has been investigated. In order to reduce the exhaust emissions various injection parameters need to be studied and optimized. The noise has been investigated by mean of data obtained from cylinder pressure measurements using piezo electric transducers and microphones on a dual cylinder diesel engine test rig. The engine was run under various operating conditions varying various injection parameters to investigate the effects of noise emissions under various testing conditions.

  15. Dimethyl Ether in Diesel Fuel Injection Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorenson, Spencer C.; Glensvig, M.; Abata, D. L.

    1998-01-01

    A study of the behaviour of DME in diesel injection systems. A discussion of the effects of compressibility of DME on compression work and wave propagation.DME spray shapes and penetration rates......A study of the behaviour of DME in diesel injection systems. A discussion of the effects of compressibility of DME on compression work and wave propagation.DME spray shapes and penetration rates...

  16. Diesel fuel in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the 1970's, Diesel technology had a poor image in the United States owing to the inadequate performance and reliability observed in certain models. The 1990's brought increased awareness of greenhouse effect issues. Greater Diesel penetration of the American automobile market could represent a short-term solution for reducing CO2 emissions, along with the use of hybrid vehicles, but the impact on American refining plant would be substantial. (author)

  17. Experimental study on particulate and NOx emissions of a diesel engine fueled with ultra low sulfur diesel, RME-diesel blends and PME-diesel blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lei; Zhang, Wugao; Liu, Wei; Huang, Zhen

    2010-02-01

    Ultra low sulfur diesel and two different kinds of biodiesel fuels blended with baseline diesel fuel in 5% and 20% v/v were tested in a Cummins 4BTA direct injection diesel engine, with a turbocharger and an intercooler. Experiments were conducted under five engine loads at two steady speeds (1500 rpm and 2500 rpm). The study aims at investigating the engine performance, NO(x) emission, smoke opacity, PM composition, PM size distribution and comparing the impacts of low sulfur content of biodiesel with ULSD on the particulate emission. The results indicate that, compared to base diesel fuel, the increase of biodiesel in blends could cause certain increase in both brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency. Compared with baseline diesel fuel, the biodiesel blends bring about more NO(x) emissions. With the proportion of biodiesel increase in blends, the smoke opacity decreases, while total particle number concentration increases. Meanwhile the ULSD gives lower NO(x) emissions, smoke opacity and total number concentration than those of baseline diesel fuel. In addition, the percentages of SOF and sulfate in particulates increase with biodiesel in blends, while the dry soot friction decreases obviously. Compared with baseline diesel fuel, the biodiesel blends increase the total nucleation number concentration, while ULSD reduces the total nucleation number concentration effectively, although they all have lower sulfur content. It means that, for ULSD, the lower sulfur content is the dominant factor for suppressing nucleation particles formation, while for biodiesel blends, lower volatile, lower aromatic content and higher oxygen content of biodiesel are key factors for improving the nucleation particles formation. The results demonstrate that the higher NO(x) emission and total nucleation number concentration are considered as the big obstacles of the application of biodiesel in diesel engine. PMID:19913283

  18. Performance and emission evaluation of a CI engine fueled with preheated raw rapeseed oil (RRO)-diesel blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazar, Hanbey [Department of Automotive, Faculty of Technical Education, Firat University, Elazig 23119 (Turkey); Aydin, Hueseyin [Department of Automotive, Faculty of Technical Education, Batman University, Batman 72060 (Turkey)

    2010-03-15

    Many studies are still being carried out to find out surplus information about how vegetable based oils can efficiently be used in compression ignition engines. Raw rapeseed oil (RRO) was used as blended with diesel fuel (DF) by 50% oil-50% diesel fuel in volume (O50) also as blended with diesel fuel by 20% oil-80% diesel fuel in volume (O20). The test fuels were used in a single cylinder, four stroke, naturally aspirated, direct injection compression ignition engine. The effects of fuel preheating to 100 C on the engine performance and emission characteristics of a CI engine fueled with rapeseed oil diesel blends were clarified. Results showed that preheating of RRO was lowered RRO's viscosity and provided smooth fuel flow Heating is necessary for smooth flow and to avoid fuel filter clogging. It can be achieved by heating RRO to 100 C. It can also be concluded that preheating of the fuel have some positive effects on engine performance and emissions when operating with vegetable oil. (author)

  19. Effects of MTBE blended diesel fuel on diesel combustion and emissions; MTBE kongo keiyu ga diesel nensho haiki ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shundo, S.; Yokota, H.; Kakegawa, T. [Hino Motors, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The effects of MTBE (Methyl-t-butyl ether) blended diesel fuel on diesel combustion and emissions were studied. In conventional diesel combustion, the testing mode was carried out in conformity with the Japanese 13 mode. Furthermore, this fuel was applied to a new combustion system (Homogeneous Charge Intelligent Multiple Injection). MTBE blended diesel fuel is more effective in the case of new combustion system and very low NOx, PM capability is suggested. 6 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Performance and emission characteristics of double biodiesel blends with diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuthalingam Arun Balasubramanian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research on biodiesel focused on performance of single biodiesel and its blends with diesel. The present work aims to investigate the possibilities of the application of mixtures of two biodiesel and its blends with diesel as a fuel for diesel engines. The combinations of Pongamia pinnata biodiesel, Mustard oil biodiesel along with diesel (PMD and combinations of Cotton seed biodiesel, Pongamia pinnata biodiesel along with diesel (CPD are taken for the experimental analysis. Experiments are conducted using a single cylinder direct-injection diesel engine with different loads at rated 3000 rpm. The engine characteristics of the two sets of double biodiesel blends are compared. For the maximum load, the value of Specific Fuel consumption and thermal efficiency of CPD-1 blend (10:10:80 is close to the diesel values. CPD blends give better engine characteristics than PMD blends. The blends of CPD are suitable alternative fuel for diesel in stationary/agricultural diesel engines.

  1. HYDROGEN TRANSFER IN CATALYTIC CRACKING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Hydrogen transfer is an important secondary reaction of catalytic cracking reactions, which affects product yield distribution and product quality. It is an exothermic reaction with low activation energy around 43.3 kJ/mol. Catalyst properties and operation parameters in catalytic cracking greatly influence the hydrogen transfer reaction. Satisfactory results are expected through careful selection of proper catalysts and operation conditions.

  2. Compact planar microwave blocking filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    U-Yen, Kongpop (Inventor); Wollack, Edward J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A compact planar microwave blocking filter includes a dielectric substrate and a plurality of filter unit elements disposed on the substrate. The filter unit elements are interconnected in a symmetrical series cascade with filter unit elements being organized in the series based on physical size. In the filter, a first filter unit element of the plurality of filter unit elements includes a low impedance open-ended line configured to reduce the shunt capacitance of the filter.

  3. Noise and vibration reduction of diesel engine vehicle making use of the active control engine mount (ACM) system; Active control engine mount (ACM) wo mochiitaa diesel engine tosaisha no seishukusei kojo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MShikata, T.; Aihara, T.; Hyodo, Y.; Aoki, K.; Hirade, T.; Kawazoe, H.; Sato, S.; Kimuraa, T.; Yonekura, K. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-02-01

    The active control engine mount (ACM), adopted on `Presage` matched the newly developed direct-injection diesel engine called `NEO-Di YD25DDTi`, can reduce transmitted force to a body structure to almost zero in a wide variety of driving conditions by making use of an adaptive control method with synchronizes the filtered-X algorithm. The ACM system made great improvements in noise and vibration performance, so that fuel consumption, and quietness thanks to the ACM system. (author)

  4. Diesel Consumption of Agriculture in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shusen Gui

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As agricultural mechanization accelerates the development of agriculture in China, to control the growth of the resulting energy consumption of mechanized agriculture without negatively affecting economic development has become a major challenge. A systematic analysis of the factors (total power, unit diesel consumption, etc. influencing diesel consumption using the SECA model, combined with simulations on agricultural diesel flows in China between 1996 and 2010 is performed in this work. Seven agricultural subsectors, fifteen categories of agricultural machinery and five farm operations are considered. The results show that farming and transportation are the two largest diesel consumers, accounting for 86.23% of the total diesel consumption in agriculture in 2010. Technological progress has led to a decrease in the unit diesel consumption and an increase in the unit productivity of all machinery, and there is still much potential for future progress. Additionally, the annual average working hours have decreased rapidly for most agricultural machinery, thereby influencing the development of mechanized agriculture.

  5. Diesel power plants based on biomass gasification. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Staahlberg, P.; Solantausta, Y.; Wilen, C.

    1996-12-31

    The aim of the project was to assess the competitiveness and market potential of small-scale power plant concepts based on biomass gasification and on diesel/gas engines, and to study the effect of process parameters on the efficiency of the circulating fluidized-bed gasifier and on the formation of tarry impurities. Alternative diesel/gas engine power plant concepts based on gasification in scale 6-50 MW{sub e} were assessed. In the basic version, where the electricity is generated only by the a diesel/gas engine, the efficiency level of 37 % is achieved in power generation. When steam cycle is added to the process the efficiency of power generation increases to 44-48 %. The efficiencies achieved in the process are very high compared with those of biomass power plant processes on a commercial level or under development. The most significant potential of biomass-based power generation is made up by wastes of sugar industries in south and Central America and in Asia. There are also very extensive growth potentials of bioenergy use in the NAFTA countries (USA, Canada and Mexico) and in Europe. In Europe, the bioenergy use is expected to grow most sharply in Italy, Spain, Germany and Poland. Carbon conversion obtained in the gasifier was in the range of 99.0-99.9 % for sawdust and 96-98 % for forest residue chips. The tar content of the product gas 10-15 g/m- m{sup 3}{sub n}, for sawdust in the gasification temperature of 830-930 deg C and with sand as circulating fluid-bed. When dolomite was used as circulating fluid-bed, the tar contents were 2-3 g/m{sup 3}{sub n} at as low temperatures as 880-890 deg C. The tar content of gas can be reduced sharply by phasing of gasification air and by using catalytic circulating fluid-bed material Bioenergy Research Programme; LIEKKI 2 Research Programme. 26 refs., 40 figs.

  6. Bifunctional catalytic electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisar, Alan (Inventor); Murphy, Oliver J. (Inventor); Clarke, Eric (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention relates to an oxygen electrode for a unitized regenerative hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell and the unitized regenerative fuel cell having the oxygen electrode. The oxygen electrode contains components electrocatalytically active for the evolution of oxygen from water and the reduction of oxygen to water, and has a structure that supports the flow of both water and gases between the catalytically active surface and a flow field or electrode chamber for bulk flow of the fluids. The electrode has an electrocatalyst layer and a diffusion backing layer interspersed with hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions. The diffusion backing layer consists of a metal core having gas diffusion structures bonded to the metal core.

  7. Catalytic quantum error correction

    CERN Document Server

    Brun, T; Hsieh, M H; Brun, Todd; Devetak, Igor; Hsieh, Min-Hsiu

    2006-01-01

    We develop the theory of entanglement-assisted quantum error correcting (EAQEC) codes, a generalization of the stabilizer formalism to the setting in which the sender and receiver have access to pre-shared entanglement. Conventional stabilizer codes are equivalent to dual-containing symplectic codes. In contrast, EAQEC codes do not require the dual-containing condition, which greatly simplifies their construction. We show how any quaternary classical code can be made into a EAQEC code. In particular, efficient modern codes, like LDPC codes, which attain the Shannon capacity, can be made into EAQEC codes attaining the hashing bound. In a quantum computation setting, EAQEC codes give rise to catalytic quantum codes which maintain a region of inherited noiseless qubits. We also give an alternative construction of EAQEC codes by making classical entanglement assisted codes coherent.

  8. Clean Diesel Engine Component Improvement Program Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsner, N. B. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Bass, J. C. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Ghamaty, S. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Krommenhoek, D. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Kushch, A. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Snowden, D. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Marchetti, S. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    2005-03-16

    Hi-Z Technology, Inc. (Hi-Z) is currently developing four different auxiliary generator designs that are used to convert a portion (5 to 20%) of the waste heat from vehicle engines exhaust directly to electricity. The four designs range from 200 Watts to 10 kW. The furthest along is the 1 kW Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator (DTTEG) for heavy duty Class 8 Diesel trucks, which, under this program, has been subjected to 543,000 equivalent miles of bouncing and jarring on PACCAR's test track. Test experience on an earlier version of the DTTEG on the same track showed the need for design modifications incorporated in DTTEG Mod 2, such as a heavy duty shock mounting system and reinforcement of the electrical leads mounting system, the thermocouple mounting system and the thermoelectric module restraints. The conclusion of the 543,000 mile test also pointed the way for an upgrading to heavy duty hose or flex connections for the internal coolant connections for the TEG, and consideration of a separate lower temperature cooling loop with its own radiator. Fuel savings of up to $750 per year and a three to five year payback are believed to be possible with the 5 % efficiency modules. The economics are expected to improve considerably to approach a two year payback when the 5 kW to 10 kW generators make it to the market in a few years with a higher efficiency (20%) thermoelectric module system called Quantum Wells, which are currently under development by Hi-Z. Ultimately, as automation takes over to reduce material and labor costs in the high volume production of QW modules, a one year payback for the 5 kW to10 kW generator appears possible. This was one of the stated goals at the beginning of the project. At some future point in time, with the DTTEG becoming standard equipment on all trucks and automobiles, fuel savings from the 25% conversion of exhaust heat to useable electricity nationwide equates to a 10% reduction in the 12 to 15 million barrels per day of

  9. Ex-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biddy, Mary J.; Dutta, Abhijit; Jones, Susanne B.; Meyer, Pimphan A.

    2013-03-31

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This pathway case investigates converting woody biomass using ex-situ catalytic fast pyrolysis followed by upgrading to gasoline , diesel and jet range blendstocks . Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for this pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived blendstocks have been identified.

  10. In-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biddy, Mary J.; Dutta, Abhijit; Jones, Susanne B.; Meyer, Pimphan A.

    2013-03-31

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This pathway case investigates converting woody biomass using in-situ catalytic fast pyrolysis followed by upgrading to gasoline, diesel, and jet range blendstocks. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for this pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived blendstocks have been identified.

  11. Solar Reforming of Carbon Dioxide to Produce Diesel Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis Schuetzle; Robert Schuetzle

    2010-12-31

    This project focused on the demonstration of an innovative technology, referred to as the Sunexus CO2 Solar Reformer, which utilizes waste CO2 as a feedstock for the efficient and economical production of synthetic diesel fuel using solar thermal energy as the primary energy input. The Sunexus technology employs a two stage process for the conversion of CO2 to diesel fuel. A solar reforming system, including a specially designed reactor and proprietary CO2 reforming catalyst, was developed and used to convert captured CO2 rich gas streams into syngas (primarily hydrogen and carbon monoxide) using concentrated solar energy at high conversion efficiencies. The second stage of the system (which has been demonstrated under other funding) involves the direct conversion of the syngas into synthetic diesel fuel using a proprietary catalyst (Terra) previously developed and validated by Pacific Renewable Fuels and Chemicals (PRFC). The overall system energy efficiency for conversion of CO2 to diesel fuel is 74%, due to the use of solar energy. The results herein describe modeling, design, construction, and testing of the Sunexus CO2 Solar Reformer. Extensive parametric testing of the solar reformer and candidate catalysts was conducted and chemical kinetic models were developed. Laboratory testing of the Solar Reformer was successfully completed using various gas mixtures, temperatures, and gas flow rates/space velocities to establish performance metrics which can be employed for the design of commercial plants. A variety of laboratory tests were conducted including dry reforming (CO2 and CH{sub 4}), combination dry/steam reforming (CO2, CH{sub 4} & H{sub 2}O), and tri-reforming (CO2, CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}O & O{sub 2}). CH{sub 4} and CO2 conversions averaged 95-100% and 50-90% per reformer cycle, respectively, depending upon the temperatures and gas space velocities. No formation of carbon deposits (coking) on the catalyst was observed in any of these tests. A 16 ft. diameter

  12. Catalytic Combustion of Gasified Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusar, Henrik

    2003-09-01

    This thesis concerns catalytic combustion for gas turbine application using a low heating-value (LHV) gas, derived from gasified waste. The main research in catalytic combustion focuses on methane as fuel, but an increasing interest is directed towards catalytic combustion of LHV fuels. This thesis shows that it is possible to catalytically combust a LHV gas and to oxidize fuel-bound nitrogen (NH{sub 3}) directly into N{sub 2} without forming NO{sub x} The first part of the thesis gives a background to the system. It defines waste, shortly describes gasification and more thoroughly catalytic combustion. The second part of the present thesis, paper I, concerns the development and testing of potential catalysts for catalytic combustion of LHV gases. The objective of this work was to investigate the possibility to use a stable metal oxide instead of noble metals as ignition catalyst and at the same time reduce the formation of NO{sub x} In paper II pilot-scale tests were carried out to prove the potential of catalytic combustion using real gasified waste and to compare with the results obtained in laboratory scale using a synthetic gas simulating gasified waste. In paper III, selective catalytic oxidation for decreasing the NO{sub x} formation from fuel-bound nitrogen was examined using two different approaches: fuel-lean and fuel-rich conditions. Finally, the last part of the thesis deals with deactivation of catalysts. The various deactivation processes which may affect high-temperature catalytic combustion are reviewed in paper IV. In paper V the poisoning effect of low amounts of sulfur was studied; various metal oxides as well as supported palladium and platinum catalysts were used as catalysts for combustion of a synthetic gas. In conclusion, with the results obtained in this thesis it would be possible to compose a working catalytic system for gas turbine application using a LHV gas.

  13. Oxidative desulfurization of diesel fuel using amphiphilic quaternary ammonium phosphomolybdate catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Jianghua; Wang, Guanghui; Zeng, Danlin; Tang, Yan [College of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); Wang, Meng; Li, Yanjun [College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2009-12-15

    Phosphomolybdic acid (HPMo) modified respectively with tetramethyl ammonium chloride (TMAC), dodecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (DTAC) and hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (HTAC) as the catalysts were prepared and characterized by FT-IR, XRD and SEM. The catalysts were evaluated for the oxidative desulfurization of benzothiophene (BT), dibenzothiophene (DBT) and straight-run diesel using hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant. Results show that all of the catalysts keep the Keggin structures and are finely dispersed with mixing of quaternary ammonium salts. Hexadecyl chains are more favorable to wrap up DBT to the catalytic center and form stable emulsion system with higher conversion rates of DBT. The shorter dodecyl chains can wrap up BT more suitably and bring smaller steric hindrance, which display higher conversion rates of BT. The oxidative reactions fit apparent first-order kinetics, and the apparent activation energies of DBT are much lower than those of BT. The desulfurization rate of straight-run diesel can be up to 84.4% with the recovery rate of 98.1% catalyzed by [HPMo][HTAC]{sub 2} in 2 h. When increasing the extraction times, the desulfurization rates increase, but the recovery rates of diesel decrease significantly. (author)

  14. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XX, CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINE, MAINTENANCE SUMMARY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO PROVIDE A SUMMARY OF THE REASONS AND PROCEDURES FOR DIESEL ENGINE MAINTENANCE. TOPICS ARE WHAT ENGINE BREAK-IN MEANS, ENGINE BREAK-IN, TORQUING BEARINGS (TEMPLATE METHOD), AND THE NEED FOR MAINTENANCE. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING FILM "CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINE…

  15. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT I, GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO DIESEL ENGINES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    ONE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE DESIGNED TO UPGRADE THE JOB SKILLS AND TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE OF DIESEL MAINTENANCE MECHANICS, THIS MATERIAL WAS DEVELOPED BY INDUSTRIAL TRAINING AND SUBJECT-MATTER SPECIALISTS AND TESTED IN INDUSTRIAL TRAINING SITUATIONS. THE PURPOSE OF THIS FIRST UNIT IS TO PROVIDE AN INTRODUCTION TO DIESEL ENGINES BY DEVELOPING AN…

  16. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT VII, ENGINE TUNE-UP--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF TUNE-UP PROCEDURES FOR DIESEL ENGINES. TOPICS ARE SCHEDULING TUNE-UPS, AND TUNE-UP PROCEDURES. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING FILM "ENGINE TUNE-UP--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINE" AND OTHER MATERIALS. SEE VT 005 655 FOR FURTHER INFORMATION.…

  17. Combustion and emission characteristics of a diesel engine fuelled with jatropha and diesel oil blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elango Thangavelu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The depletion of oil resources as well as the stringent environmental regulations has led to the development of alternate energy sources. In this work the combustion, performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder diesel engine when fuelled with blends of jatropha and diesel oil are evaluated. Experiments were conducted with different blends of jatropha oil and diesel at various loads. The peak pressures of all the blends at full load are slightly lower than the base diesel. There is an increase in the ignition delay with biodiesel because of its high viscosity and density. The results show that the brake thermal efficiency of diesel is higher at all loads followed by blends of jatropha oil and diesel. The maximum brake thermal efficiency and minimum specific fuel consumption were found for blends up to B20. The specific fuel consumption, exhaust gas temperature, smoke opacity and NOx were comparatively higher. However there is an appreciable decrease in HC and CO2 emissions while the decrease in CO emission is marginal. It was observed that the combustion characteristics of the blends of esterified jatropha oil with diesel followed closely with that of the base line diesel.

  18. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbons: Dilute-Acid and Enzymatic Deconstruction of Biomass to Sugars and Catalytic Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.; Tao, L.; Scarlata, C.; Tan, E. C. D.; Ross, J.; Lukas, J.; Sexton, D.

    2015-03-01

    This report describes one potential conversion process to hydrocarbon products by way of catalytic conversion of lignocellulosic-derived hydrolysate. This model leverages expertise established over time in biomass deconstruction and process integration research at NREL, while adding in new technology areas for sugar purification and catalysis. The overarching process design converts biomass to die die diesel- and naphtha-range fuels using dilute-acid pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, purifications, and catalytic conversion focused on deoxygenating and oligomerizing biomass hydrolysates.

  19. Unsteady catalytic processes and sorption-catalytic technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalytic processes that occur under conditions of the targeted unsteady state of the catalyst are considered. The highest efficiency of catalytic processes was found to be ensured by a controlled combination of thermal non-stationarity and unsteady composition of the catalyst surface. The processes based on this principle are analysed, in particular, catalytic selective reduction of nitrogen oxides, deep oxidation of volatile organic impurities, production of sulfur by the Claus process and by hydrogen sulfide decomposition, oxidation of sulfur dioxide, methane steam reforming and anaerobic combustion, selective oxidation of hydrocarbons, etc.

  20. Unsteady catalytic processes and sorption-catalytic technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagoruiko, A N [G.K. Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2007-07-31

    Catalytic processes that occur under conditions of the targeted unsteady state of the catalyst are considered. The highest efficiency of catalytic processes was found to be ensured by a controlled combination of thermal non-stationarity and unsteady composition of the catalyst surface. The processes based on this principle are analysed, in particular, catalytic selective reduction of nitrogen oxides, deep oxidation of volatile organic impurities, production of sulfur by the Claus process and by hydrogen sulfide decomposition, oxidation of sulfur dioxide, methane steam reforming and anaerobic combustion, selective oxidation of hydrocarbons, etc.

  1. Generic Kalman Filter Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisano, Michael E., II; Crues, Edwin Z.

    2005-01-01

    The Generic Kalman Filter (GKF) software provides a standard basis for the development of application-specific Kalman-filter programs. Historically, Kalman filters have been implemented by customized programs that must be written, coded, and debugged anew for each unique application, then tested and tuned with simulated or actual measurement data. Total development times for typical Kalman-filter application programs have ranged from months to weeks. The GKF software can simplify the development process and reduce the development time by eliminating the need to re-create the fundamental implementation of the Kalman filter for each new application. The GKF software is written in the ANSI C programming language. It contains a generic Kalman-filter-development directory that, in turn, contains a code for a generic Kalman filter function; more specifically, it contains a generically designed and generically coded implementation of linear, linearized, and extended Kalman filtering algorithms, including algorithms for state- and covariance-update and -propagation functions. The mathematical theory that underlies the algorithms is well known and has been reported extensively in the open technical literature. Also contained in the directory are a header file that defines generic Kalman-filter data structures and prototype functions and template versions of application-specific subfunction and calling navigation/estimation routine code and headers. Once the user has provided a calling routine and the required application-specific subfunctions, the application-specific Kalman-filter software can be compiled and executed immediately. During execution, the generic Kalman-filter function is called from a higher-level navigation or estimation routine that preprocesses measurement data and post-processes output data. The generic Kalman-filter function uses the aforementioned data structures and five implementation- specific subfunctions, which have been developed by the user on

  2. Updating the OMERACT filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wells, George; Beaton, Dorcas E; Tugwell, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    The "Discrimination" part of the OMERACT Filter asks whether a measure discriminates between situations that are of interest. "Feasibility" in the OMERACT Filter encompasses the practical considerations of using an instrument, including its ease of use, time to complete, monetary costs, and inter......The "Discrimination" part of the OMERACT Filter asks whether a measure discriminates between situations that are of interest. "Feasibility" in the OMERACT Filter encompasses the practical considerations of using an instrument, including its ease of use, time to complete, monetary costs......, and interpretability of the question(s) included in the instrument. Both the Discrimination and Reliability parts of the filter have been helpful but were agreed on primarily by consensus of OMERACT participants rather than through explicit evidence-based guidelines. In Filter 2.0 we wanted to improve this definition...

  3. Conservative Noise Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona M.Jamjoom

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Noisy training data have a huge negative impact on machine learning algorithms. Noise-filtering algorithms have been proposed to eliminate such noisy instances. In this work, we empirically show that the most popular noise-filtering algorithms have a large False Positive (FP error rate. In other words, these noise filters mistakenly identify genuine instances as outliers and eliminate them. Therefore, we propose more conservative outlier identification criteria that improve the FP error rate and, thus, the performance of the noise filters. With the new filter, an instance is eliminated if and only if it is misclassified by a mutual decision of Naïve Bayesian (NB classifier and the original filtering criteria being used. The number of genuine instances that are incorrectly eliminated is reduced as a result, thereby improving the classification accuracy.

  4. Removal of Nox and Diesel Soot Particulates Catalyzed by Perovskite-type Oxide La0.9K0.1CoO3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The catalytic performance of perovskite composite oxide catalyst La0.9 K0.1 CoO3 coated on catalyst supports by trnditional solid state reaction method and sol-gel method were investigated by a series of experiments.The result shows that the catalytic performance of the La0.9 K0.1 CoO3 perovskite composite oxide catalyst synthesized by sol-gel method is superior to that synthesized by solid state reaction method, having lower ignition tem-perature of the diesel soot particulates, lower start temperature of NO x treatment, and lower concentration of byproduct CO.

  5. DeNOx Study in Diesel Engine Exhaust Using Barrier Discharge Corona Assisted by V2O5/TiO2 Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. S. Rajanikanth; V. Ravi

    2004-01-01

    A plasma-assisted catalytic reactor was used to remove nitrogen oxides (Nox) from diesel engine exhaust operated under different load conditions. Initial studies were focused on plasma reactor (a dielectric barrier discharge reactor) treatment of diesel exhaust at various temperatures. The nitric oxide (NO) removal efficiency was lowered when high temperature exhaust was treated using plasma reactor. Also, NO removal efficiency decreased when 45% load exhaust was treated. Studies were then made with plasma reactor combined with a catalytic reactor consisting of a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst, V2O5/TiO2. Ammonia was used as a reducing agent for SCR process in a ratio of 1:1 to Nox. The studies were focused on temperatures of the SCR catalytic reactor below 200 ℃. The plasma-assisted catalytic reactor was operated well to remove Nox under no-load and load conditions. For an energy input of 96 J/l, the Nox removal efficiencies obtained under no-load and load conditions were 90% and 72% respectively at an exhaust temperature of 100 ℃.

  6. DeNOx study in diesel engine exhaust using barrier discharge corona assisted by V2O5/TiO2 catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A plasma-assisted catalytic reactor was used to remove nitrogen oxides (NOx) from diesel engine exhaust operated under different load conditions. Initial studies were focused on plasma reactor (a dielectric barrier discharge reactor) treatment of diesel exhaust at various temperatures. The nitric oxide (NO) removal efficiency was lowered when high temperature exhaust was treated using plasma reactor. Also, NO removal efficiency decreased when 45% load exhaust was treated. Studies were then made with plasma reactor combined with a catalytic reactor consisting of a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst, V2O5/TiO2. Ammonia was used as a reducing agent for SCR process in a ratio of 1:1 to NOx. The studies were focused on temperatures of the SCR catalytic reactor below 200 degree C. The plasma-assisted catalytic reactor was operated well to remove NOx under no-load and load conditions. For an energy input of 96 J/1, the NOx removal efficiencies obtained under no-load and load conditions were 90% and 72% respectively at an exhaust temperature of 100 degree C. (authors)

  7. The effect of metal salts on quantification of elemental and organic carbon in diesel exhaust particles using thermal-optical evolved gas analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wang

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Thermal-optical evolved gas analysis (TOEGA is a conventional method for classifying carbonaceous aerosols as organic carbon (OC and elemental carbon (EC. Its main source of uncertainty arises from accounting for pyrolyzed OC (char, which has similar behavior to the EC originally present on the filter. Sample composition can also cause error, at least partly by complicating the charred carbon correction. In this study, lab generated metal salt particles, including alkali (NaCl, KCl, Na2SO4, alkaline-earth (MgCl2, CaCl2 and transition metal salts (CuCl2, FeCl2, FeCl3, CuCl, ZnCl2, MnCl2, CuSO4, Fe2(SO43, were deposited on a layer of diesel particles to investigate their effect on EC and OC quantification with TOEGA. Measurements show that metals reduce the oxidation temperature of EC and enhance the charring of OC. The split point used to determine classification of EC vs. OC is more dependent on changes in EC oxidation temperature than it was on charring. The resulting EC/OC ratio is reduced by 0–80% in the presence of most of the salts, although some metal salts increased reported EC/OC at low metal to carbon ratios. In general, transition metals are more active than alkali and alkaline-earth metals; copper is the most active. Copper and iron chlorides are more active than sulfates. The melting point of metal salts is strongly correlated with the increase of OC charring, but not with the reduction of EC oxidation temperature. Other chemistry, such as redox reactions, may affect the EC oxidation. A brief discussion of possible catalytic mechanisms for the metals is provided.

  8. Kalman Filter Neuron Training

    OpenAIRE

    Murase, Haruhiko; KOYAMA, Shuhei; HONAMI, Nobuo; Kuwabara, Takao

    1991-01-01

    An attempt of implementing Kalman filter algorithm in the procedure for training the neural network was made and evaluated. The Kalman filter neuron training program (KNT) was coded. The performance of Kalman filter in KNT was compared to commonly used neuron training algorithm. The study revealed that KNT requires much less calculation time to accomplish neuron training than commonly used other algorithms do. KNT also gave much smaller final error than any other algorithms tested in this study.

  9. Hybrid Filter Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laicer, Castro; Rasimick, Brian; Green, Zachary

    2012-01-01

    Cabin environmental control is an important issue for a successful Moon mission. Due to the unique environment of the Moon, lunar dust control is one of the main problems that significantly diminishes the air quality inside spacecraft cabins. Therefore, this innovation was motivated by NASA s need to minimize the negative health impact that air-suspended lunar dust particles have on astronauts in spacecraft cabins. It is based on fabrication of a hybrid filter comprising nanofiber nonwoven layers coated on porous polymer membranes with uniform cylindrical pores. This design results in a high-efficiency gas particulate filter with low pressure drop and the ability to be easily regenerated to restore filtration performance. A hybrid filter was developed consisting of a porous membrane with uniform, micron-sized, cylindrical pore channels coated with a thin nanofiber layer. Compared to conventional filter media such as a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter, this filter is designed to provide high particle efficiency, low pressure drop, and the ability to be regenerated. These membranes have well-defined micron-sized pores and can be used independently as air filters with discreet particle size cut-off, or coated with nanofiber layers for filtration of ultrafine nanoscale particles. The filter consists of a thin design intended to facilitate filter regeneration by localized air pulsing. The two main features of this invention are the concept of combining a micro-engineered straight-pore membrane with nanofibers. The micro-engineered straight pore membrane can be prepared with extremely high precision. Because the resulting membrane pores are straight and not tortuous like those found in conventional filters, the pressure drop across the filter is significantly reduced. The nanofiber layer is applied as a very thin coating to enhance filtration efficiency for fine nanoscale particles. Additionally, the thin nanofiber coating is designed to promote capture of

  10. Stationary engine test of diesel cycle using diesel oil and biodiesel (B100); Ensaio de motores estacionarios do ciclo diesel utilizando oleo diesel e biodiesel (B100)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Ednildo Andrade [Universidade Federal da Bahia (DEQ/DEM/EP/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Quimica], Email: ednildo@ufba.br; Santos, Danilo Cardoso [Universidade Federal da Bahia (PPEQ/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Quimica; Souza, Daniel Vidigal D.; Peixoto, Leonardo Barbosa; Franca, Tiago [Universidade Federal da Bahia (DEM/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2006-07-01

    This work objectified to test an engine stationary of the cycle diesel, having as combustible diesel fossil and bio diesel. The characteristic curves of power, torque and emissions versus rotation of the engine was elaborated. The survey of these curves was carried through in the Laboratorio de Energia e Gas da Escola Politecnica da UFBA, which makes use of two stationary dynamometers and the one of chassis and necessary instrumentation for you analyze of the exhaustion gases. The tested engine was of the mark AGRALE, M-85 model stationary type, mono cylinder, with power NF (NBRISO 1585) Cv/kw/rpm 10/7,4/2500. The assays had been carried through in a hydraulically dynamometer mark Schenck, D-210 model. The fuel consumption was measured in a scale marks Filizola model BP-6, and too much ground handling equipment such as: water reservoir, tubings, valves controllers of volumetric outflow, sensors and measurers of rotation, torque, mass, connected to a system of acquisition of data on line. The emissions of the gases (CO, CO{sub 2}, and NOx), were measured by the analytical Tempest mark, model 100. The engine operated with oil diesel and bio diesel of oils and residual fats (OGR). In the tests, the use of the fuel derived from oil and the gotten ones from OGR was not detected significant differences how much. In this phase already it can show to the immediate possibility of the substitution of the oil diesel for bio diesel as combustible in the stationary engines of low power (author)

  11. OPERATING SPECIFICATIONS OF CATALYTIC CLEANING OF GAS FROM BIOMASS GASIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lisý

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the theoretical description of the cleaning of syngas from biomass and waste gasification using catalytic methods, and on the verification of the theory through experiments. The main obstruction to using syngas from fluid gasification of organic matter is the presence of various high-boiling point hydrocarbons (i.e., tar in the gas. The elimination of tar from the gas is a key factor in subsequent use of the gas in other technologies for cogeneration of electrical energy and heat. The application of a natural or artificial catalyst for catalytic destruction of tar is one of the methods of secondary elimination of tar from syngas. In our experiments, we used a natural catalyst (dolomite or calcium magnesium carbonate from Horní Lánov with great mechanical and catalytic properties, suitable for our purposes. The advantages of natural catalysts in contrast to artificial catalysts include their availability, low purchase prices and higher resilience to the so-called catalyst poison. Natural calcium catalysts may also capture undesired compounds of sulphure and chlorine. Our paper presents a theoretical description and analysis of catalytic destruction of tar into combustible gas components, and of the impact of dolomite calcination on its efficiency. The efficiency of the technology is verified in laboratories. The facility used for verification was a 150 kW pilot gasification unit with a laboratory catalytic filter. The efficiency of tar elimination reached 99.5%, the tar concentration complied with limits for use of the gas in combustion engines, and the tar content reached approximately 35 mg/mn3. The results of the measurements conducted in laboratories helped us design a pilot technology for catalytic gas cleaning.

  12. Nanofiber Filters Eliminate Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    With support from Phase I and II SBIR funding from Johnson Space Center, Argonide Corporation of Sanford, Florida tested and developed its proprietary nanofiber water filter media. Capable of removing more than 99.99 percent of dangerous particles like bacteria, viruses, and parasites, the media was incorporated into the company's commercial NanoCeram water filter, an inductee into the Space Foundation's Space Technology Hall of Fame. In addition to its drinking water filters, Argonide now produces large-scale nanofiber filters used as part of the reverse osmosis process for industrial water purification.

  13. Oriented Fiber Filter Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bharadwaj

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Coalescing filters are widely used throughout industry and improved performance will reduce droplet emissions and operating costs. Experimental observations show orientation of micro fibers in filter media effect the permeability and the separation efficiency of the filter media. In this work two methods are used to align the fibers to alter the filter structure. The results show that axially aligned fiber media improve quality factor on the order of 20% and cutting media on an angle from a thick layered media can improve performance by about 40%. The results also show the improved performance is not monotonically correlated to the average fiber angle of the medium.

  14. Cooling of a Diesel Reformate Fuelled Solid Oxide Fuel Cell by Internal Reforming of Methane: A Modelling Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Xiaowei; Alexander Kromp

    2013-01-01

    In this paper a system combining a diesel reformer using catalytic partial oxidation (CPOX) with the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) for Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) applications is modeled with respect to the cooling effect provided by internal reforming of methane in anode gas channel.A model mixture consisting of 80% n-hexadecane and 20% 1-methylnaphthalin is used to simulate the commercial diesel.The modelling consists of several steps.First,equilibrium gas composition at the exit of CPOX reformer is modelled in terms oxygen to carbon (O/C) ratio,fuel utilization ratio and anode gas recirculation.Second,product composition,especially methane content,is determined for the methanation process at the operating temperatures ranging from 500 ℃ to 520 ℃.Finally,the cooling power provided by internal reforming of methane in SOFC fuel channel is calculated for two concepts to increase the methane content of the diesel reformate.The results show that the first concept,operating the diesel reformer at low O/C ratio and/or recirculation ratio,is not realizable due to high probability of coke formation,whereas the second concept,combining a methanation process with CPOX,can provide a significant cooling effect in addition to the conventional cooling concept which needs higher levels of excess air.

  15. Bio-diesel: uncertain future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biodiesel in a renewable source of energy. It is also less polluting in terms of emission of pollutants like CO2, CO, NO and particulate matter than the standard diesel. As it contains no sulfur, it emits no SO2. However its claim for environmental protection is disputed and its high production cost makes it economically unattractive. Present status of biodiesel production and research studies going on to cut the cost and to improve the quality of biodiesel are reviewed. Increasing yield of vegetable oils, using animal fats and frying oil wastes and improving the esterification process used for producing biodiesel from vegetable oils are some of the ways to cut the cost. To improve the quality of biodiesel, attempts are being made to produce biodiesel with a lower glycerin content so that clogging of injection nozzles during combustion is reduced and performance of biodiesel is improved. Biotechnological developments are in the direction of generically modifying oil plants to produce new types of oil to specifications. Controversy in the European Economic Community regarding giving subsidies to biofuel and exemption from fossil fuel taxes is described. (M.G.B.)

  16. The Euro 6 engines in the modular diesel engine system of Volkswagen; Die Euro-6-Motoren des modularen Dieselbaukastens von Volkswagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neusser, Heinz-Jakob; Kahrstedt, Joern; Dorenkamp, Richard; Jelden, Hanno [Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    Following the introduction of the Euro 5 engines in the Volkswagen modular diesel engine system, the next step will be to implement additional internal engine measures and to integrate the deNO{sub x} exhaust emissions aftertreatment for Euro 6 engines. The modular basis was already designed with the additional engine measures in mind and also permits the choice of using the NO{sub x} storage catalytic converter or SCR technology. (orig.)

  17. Performance, emission and economic assessment of clove stem oil-diesel blended fuels as alternative fuels for diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mbarawa, Makame [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)

    2008-05-15

    In this study the performance, emission and economic evaluation of using the clove stem oil (CSO)-diesel blended fuels as alternative fuels for diesel engine have been carried out. Experiments were performed to evaluate the impact of the CSO-diesel blended fuels on the engine performance and emissions. The societal life cycle cost (LCC) was chosen as an important indicator for comparing alternative fuel operating modes. The LCC using the pure diesel fuel, 25% CSO and 50% CSO-diesel blended fuels in diesel engine are analysed. These costs include the vehicle first cost, fuel cost and exhaust emissions cost. A complete macroeconomic assessment of the effect of introducing the CSO-diesel blended fuels to the diesel engine is not included in the study. Engine tests show that performance parameters of the CSO-diesel blended fuels do not differ greatly from those of the pure diesel fuel. Slight power losses, combined with an increase in fuel consumption, were experienced with the CSO-diesel blended fuels. This is due to the low heating value of the CSO-diesel blended fuels. Emissions of CO and HC are low for the CSO-diesel blended fuels. NO{sub x} emissions were increased remarkably when the engine was fuelled with the 50% CSO-diesel blended fuel operation mode. A remarkable reduction in the exhaust smoke emissions can be achieved when operating on the CSO-diesel blended fuels. Based on the LCC analysis, the CSO-diesel blended fuels would not be competitive with the pure diesel fuel, even though the environmental impact of emission is valued monetarily. This is due to the high price of the CSO. (author)

  18. The Daala Directional Deringing Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Valin, Jean-Marc

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the deringing filter used in the Daala royalty-free video codec. The filter is based on a non-linear conditional replacement filter and is designed for vectorization efficiency. It takes into account the direction of edges and patterns being filtered. The filter works by identifying the direction of each block and then adaptively filtering along the identified direction. In a second pass, the blocks are also filtered in a different direction, with more conservative thresho...

  19. Clearance of 59Fe3O4 particles from the lung of rats during exposure to coal mine dust and diesel exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments in rats were performed to investigate the influence of diesel/coal dust exposure on lung clearance of inert tracer particles. Four groups of 80 rats each were exposed as follows: (1) Coal mine dust, 2 mg/m3; (2) Diesel exhaust, 2 mg/m3); (3) Coal mine dust (1 mg/m3) plus diesel exhaust (1 mg/m3); (4) Filtered air (control). The exposure was for 7 hours per day, 5 days per week for a period of 6 months. Two months after commencement of the study, all animals were exposed in nose only exposure units to 59Fe3O4 dust for 2 hours. Lungs of serially killed animals were excised and their 59Fe activity measured. Biological half lives of long term clearance of Fe3O4 from the lung were 47 days (controls), 42 days (coal), 43 days (coal/diesel) and 37 days (diesel). 59Fe3O4 retention on day 120 was significantly lower in all exposure groups as compared to controls, with the diesel group showing the lowest retention (3O4 retention of day 1 was not significantly different between the groups. 11 references

  20. 30 CFR 75.1905 - Dispensing of diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... from other than safety cans must be dispensed by means of— (1) Gravity feed with a hose equipped with a...) An anti-siphoning device. (c) Diesel fuel must not be dispensed using compressed gas. (d) Diesel...

  1. Diesel exhaust exposures in port workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debia, Maximilien; Neesham-Grenon, Eve; Mudaheranwa, Oliver C; Ragettli, Martina S

    2016-07-01

    Exposure to diesel engine exhaust has been linked to increased cancer risk and cardiopulmonary diseases. Diesel exhaust is a complex mixture of chemical substances, including a particulate fraction mainly composed of ultrafine particles, resulting from the incomplete combustion of fuel. Diesel trucks are known to be an important source of diesel-related air pollution, and areas with heavy truck traffic are associated with higher air pollution levels and increased public health problems. Several indicators have been proposed as surrogates for estimating exposures to diesel exhaust but very few studies have focused specifically on monitoring the ultrafine fraction through the measurement of particle number concentrations. The aim of this study is to assess occupational exposures of gate controllers at the port of Montreal, Canada, to diesel engine emissions from container trucks by measuring several surrogates through a multimetric approach which includes the assessment of both mass and number concentrations and the use of direct reading devices. A 10-day measurement campaign was carried out at two terminal checkpoints at the port of Montreal. Respirable elemental and organic carbon, PM1, PM2.5, PMresp (PM4), PM10, PMtot (inhalable fraction), particle number concentrations, particle size distributions, and gas concentrations (NO2, NO, CO) were monitored. Gate controllers were exposed to concentrations of contaminants associated with diesel engine exhaust (elemental carbon GM = 1.6 µg/m(3); GSD = 1.6) well below recommended occupational exposure limits. Average daily particle number concentrations ranged from 16,544-67,314 particles/cm³ (GM = 32,710 particles/cm³; GSD = 1.6). Significant Pearson correlation coefficients were found between daily elemental carbon, PM fractions and particle number concentrations, as well as between total carbon, PM fractions and particle number concentrations. Significant correlation coefficients were found between particle number

  2. Solubility properties of blends of diesel fuel and FAME; Loeslichkeitsverhalten von Dieselkraftstoff/FAME-Mischungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludzay, Jan [Deutsche Wissenschaftliche Gesellschaft fuer Erdoel, Erdgas und Kohle e.V., Hamburg (Germany); Strojek, Wenzel [BP Europa SE, Bochum (Germany); Schmiedel, Hans-Peter

    2010-12-15

    During the last years, certain incidents were observed with diesel fuels, such as deposit formation in storage tanks in connection with corrosion and filter clogging at service stations. The phenomena occurred at various parts of the logistic chain, and they differ regionally and from company to company. In this project, it was investigated, whether the composition of diesel fuels and FAME, the concentration and oxidation stability of the FAME, the addition of antioxidants and the storage stability had any impact on the solubility properties of FAME containing fuels. The project was carried out in three parts in the time period from 2007 to 2009. In each of the project parts, blends of different basis diesel fuels and FAME were tested in concentrations of 5 or 7 to 20 % (v/v) during a storage period of eight weeks. During storage, visual assessments of all mixtures in part 1, 2 and 3 showed clouding, sediments or deposits, which partly decreased or totally disappeared. In part 1 and 2, selected blends were tested at the end of the storage time for their content of steryl glycosides in the filter residues in addition to their filterability according to IP 387. In almost all of the filter residues of the blends, steryl glucosides could be detected qualitatively. In addition, oxidation stability according to DIN 51627-2 was checked before and after storage. No distinct trends could be detected. In part 3, storage temperature was varied at the beginning and end of the storage time of eight weeks, and filterability according to IP 387, oxidation stability according to DIN 51627-2 and ASTM D 7545 and water content according to DIN EN ISO 12937 were determined. Altogether, a correlation between the FBT results and the visual assessment could be established: A negative visual assessment is accompanied by a poor filterability. As a tendency, the results of the analytical methods for determination of oxidation stability DIN 51627-2 and ASTM D 7545 show that the increase of

  3. Catalytic cracking of lignites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, M.; Nowak, S.; Naegler, T.; Zimmermann, J. [Hochschule Merseburg (Germany); Welscher, J.; Schwieger, W. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ. (Germany); Hahn, T. [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    A most important factor for the chemical industry is the availability of cheap raw materials. As the oil price of crude oil is rising alternative feedstocks like coal are coming into focus. This work, the catalytic cracking of lignite is part of the alliance ibi (innovative Braunkohlenintegration) to use lignite as a raw material to produce chemicals. With this new one step process without an input of external hydrogen, mostly propylene, butenes and aromatics and char are formed. The product yield depends on manifold process parameters. The use of acid catalysts (zeolites like MFI) shows the highest amount of the desired products. Hydrogen rich lignites with a molar H/C ratio of > 1 are to be favoured. Due to primary cracking and secondary reactions the ratio between catalyst and lignite, temperature and residence time are the most important parameter to control the product distribution. Experiments at 500 C in a discontinuous rotary kiln reactor show yields up to 32 wt-% of hydrocarbons per lignite (maf - moisture and ash free) and 43 wt-% char, which can be gasified. Particularly, the yields of propylene and butenes as main products can be enhanced four times to about 8 wt-% by the use of catalysts while the tar yield decreases. In order to develop this innovative process catalyst systems fixed on beads were developed for an easy separation and regeneration of the used catalyst from the formed char. (orig.)

  4. Catalytic Membrane Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyle, T.J.; Brinker, C.J.; Gardner, T.J.; Hughes, R.C.; Sault, A.G.

    1998-12-01

    The proposed "catalytic membrane sensor" (CMS) was developed to generate a device which would selectively identify a specific reagent in a complex mixture of gases. This was to be accomplished by modifying an existing Hz sensor with a series of thin films. Through selectively sieving the desired component from a complex mixture and identifying it by decomposing it into Hz (and other by-products), a Hz sensor could then be used to detect the presence of the select component. The proposed "sandwich-type" modifications involved the deposition of a catalyst layered between two size selective sol-gel layers on a Pd/Ni resistive Hz sensor. The role of the catalyst was to convert organic materials to Hz and organic by-products. The role of the membraneo was to impart both chemical specificity by molecukir sieving of the analyte and converted product streams, as well as controlling access to the underlying Pd/Ni sensor. Ultimately, an array of these CMS elements encompassing different catalysts and membranes were to be developed which would enable improved selectivity and specificity from a compiex mixture of organic gases via pattern recognition methodologies. We have successfully generated a CMS device by a series of spin-coat deposited methods; however, it was determined that the high temperature required to activate the catalyst, destroys the sensor.

  5. Catalytic gasification of biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertus, R. J.; Mudge, L. K.; Sealock, L. J., Jr.; Mitchell, D. H.; Weber, S. L.

    1981-12-01

    Methane and methanol synthesis gas can be produced by steam gasification of biomass in the presence of appropriate catalysts. This concept is to use catalysts in a fluidized bed reactor which is heated indirectly. The objective is to determine the technical and economic feasibility of the concept. Technically the concept has been demonstrated on a 50 lb per hr scale. Potential advantages over conventional processes include: no oxygen plant is needed, little tar is produced so gas and water treatment are simplified, and yields and efficiencies are greater than obtained by conventional gasification. Economic studies for a plant processing 2000 T/per day dry wood show that the cost of methanol from wood by catalytic gasification is competitive with the current price of methanol. Similar studies show the cost of methane from wood is competitive with projected future costs of synthetic natural gas. When the plant capacity is decreased to 200 T per day dry wood, neither product is very attractive in today's market.

  6. Complete modeling for systems of a marine diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahim, Hassan Moussa; Younes, Rafic; Nohra, Chadi; Ouladsine, Mustapha

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a simulator model of a marine diesel engine based on physical, semi-physical, mathematical and thermodynamic equations, which allows fast predictive simulations. The whole engine system is divided into several functional blocks: cooling, lubrication, air, injection, combustion and emissions. The sub-models and dynamic characteristics of individual blocks are established according to engine working principles equations and experimental data collected from a marine diesel engine test bench for SIMB Company under the reference 6M26SRP1. The overall engine system dynamics is expressed as a set of simultaneous algebraic and differential equations using sub-blocks and S-Functions of Matlab/Simulink. The simulation of this model, implemented on Matlab/Simulink has been validated and can be used to obtain engine performance, pressure, temperature, efficiency, heat release, crank angle, fuel rate, emissions at different sub-blocks. The simulator will be used, in future work, to study the engine performance in faulty conditions, and can be used to assist marine engineers in fault diagnosis and estimation (FDI) as well as designers to predict the behavior of the cooling system, lubrication system, injection system, combustion, emissions, in order to optimize the dimensions of different components. This program is a platform for fault simulator, to investigate the impact on sub-blocks engine's output of changing values for faults parameters such as: faulty fuel injector, leaky cylinder, worn fuel pump, broken piston rings, a dirty turbocharger, dirty air filter, dirty air cooler, air leakage, water leakage, oil leakage and contamination, fouling of heat exchanger, pumps wear, failure of injectors (and many others).

  7. Complete Modeling for Systems of a Marine Diesel Engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hassan Moussa Nahim; Rafic Younes; Chadi Nohra; Mustapha Ouladsine

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a simulator model of a marine diesel engine based on physical, semi-physical, mathematical and thermodynamic equations, which allows fast predictive simulations. The whole engine system is divided into several functional blocks: cooling, lubrication, air, injection, combustion and emissions. The sub-models and dynamic characteristics of individual blocks are established according to engine working principles equations and experimental data collected from a marine diesel engine test bench for SIMB Company under the reference 6M26SRP1. The overall engine system dynamics is expressed as a set of simultaneous algebraic and differential equations using sub-blocks and S-Functions of Matlab/Simulink. The simulation of this model, implemented on Matlab/Simulink has been validated and can be used to obtain engine performance, pressure, temperature, efficiency, heat release, crank angle, fuel rate, emissions at different sub-blocks. The simulator will be used, in future work, to study the engine performance in faulty conditions, and can be used to assist marine engineers in fault diagnosis and estimation (FDI) as well as designers to predict the behavior of the cooling system, lubrication system, injection system, combustion, emissions, in order to optimize the dimensions of different components. This program is a platform for fault simulator, to investigate the impact on sub-blocks engine’s output of changing values for faults parameters such as: faulty fuel injector, leaky cylinder, worn fuel pump, broken piston rings, a dirty turbocharger, dirty air filter, dirty air cooler, air leakage, water leakage, oil leakage and contamination, fouling of heat exchanger, pumps wear, failure of injectors (and many others).

  8. Industrial Fermentation of Auxenochlorella protothecoides for Production of Biodiesel and Its Application in Vehicle Diesel Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Yibo; Lu, Yue; Dai, Junbiao; Wu, Qingyu

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae-derived biodiesel has been regarded as a promising alternative for fossil diesel. However, the commercial production of microalgal biodiesel was halted due to its high cost. Here, we presented a pilot study on the industrial production of algal biodiesel. We began with the heterotrophic cultivation of Auxenochlorella protothecoides in a 60-m3 fermentor that produced biomass at 3.81 g L−1 day−1 with a neutral lipid content at 51%. Next, we developed plate-frame filter, natural dryin...

  9. Industrial fermentation of Auxenochlorella protothecoides for production of biodiesel and its application in vehicle diesel engines

    OpenAIRE

    Yibo eXiao; Yue eLu; Junbiao eDai; Qingyu eWu

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae-derived biodiesel has been regarded as a promising alternative for fossil diesel. However, the commercial production of microalgal biodiesel was halted due to its high cost. Here, we presented a pilot study on the industrial production of algal biodiesel. We began with the heterotrophic cultivation of Auxenochlorella protothecoides in a 60 m3 fermentor that produced biomass at 3.81 g L-1 day-1 with a neutral lipid content at 51%. Next, we developed plate-frame filter, natural dryin...

  10. Experimental Assessment of NOx Emissions from 73 Euro 6 Diesel Passenger Cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liuhanzi; Franco, Vicente; Mock, Peter; Kolke, Reinhard; Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; German, John

    2015-12-15

    Controlling nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions from diesel passenger cars during real-world driving is one of the major technical challenges facing diesel auto manufacturers. Three main technologies are available for this purpose: exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), lean-burn NOx traps (LNT), and selective catalytic reduction (SCR). Seventy-three Euro 6 diesel passenger cars (8 EGR only, 40 LNT, and 25 SCR) were tested on a chassis dynamometer over both the European type-approval cycle (NEDC, cold engine start) and the more realistic Worldwide harmonized light-duty test cycle (WLTC version 2.0, hot start) between 2012 and 2015. Most vehicles met the legislative limit of 0.08 g/km of NOx over NEDC (average emission factors by technology: EGR-only 0.07 g/km, LNT 0.04 g/km, and SCR 0.05 g/km), but the average emission factors rose dramatically over WLTC (EGR-only 0.17 g/km, LNT 0.21 g/km, and SCR 0.13 g/km). Five LNT-equipped vehicles exhibited very poor performance over the WLTC, emitting 7-15 times the regulated limit. These results illustrate how diesel NOx emissions are not properly controlled under the current, NEDC-based homologation framework. The upcoming real-driving emissions (RDE) regulation, which mandates an additional on-road emissions test for EU type approvals, could be a step in the right direction to address this problem. PMID:26580818

  11. Chemical speciation of vanadium in particulate matter emitted from diesel vehicles and urban atmospheric aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Martin M; Toner, Brandy M; Overdier, Joel T; Schauer, James J; Fakra, Sirine C; Hu, Shaohua; Herner, Jorn D; Ayala, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    We report on the development and application of an integrated set of analytical tools that enable accurate measurement of total, extractable, and, importantly, the oxidation state of vanadium in sub-milligram masses of environmental aerosols and solids. Through rigorous control of blanks, application of magnetic-sector-ICPMS, and miniaturization of the extraction/separation methods we have substantially improved upon published quantification limits. The study focused on the application of these methods to particulate matter (PM) emissions from diesel vehicles, both in baseline configuration without after-treatment and also equipped with advanced PM and NO(x) emission controls. Particle size-resolved vanadium speciation data were obtained from dynamometer samples containing total vanadium pools of only 0.2-2 ng and provide some of the first measurements of the oxidation state of vanadium in diesel vehicle PM emissions. The emission rates and the measured fraction of V(V) in PM from diesel engines running without exhaust after-treatment were both low (2-3 ng/mile and 13-16%, respectively). The V(IV) species was measured as the dominant vanadium species in diesel PM emissions. A significantly greater fraction of V(V) (76%) was measured in PM from the engine fitted with a prototype vanadium-based selective catalytic reductors (V-SCR) retrofit. The emission rate of V(V) determined for the V-SCR equipped vehicle (103 ng/mile) was 40-fold greater than that from the baseline vehicle. A clear contrast between the PM size-distributions of V(V) and V(IV) emissions was apparent, with the V(V) distribution characterized by a major single mode in the ultrafine (vanadium-containing fine-particle PM from the V-SCR identified V(2)O(5) as the dominant vanadium species. PMID:22050708

  12. Dual fuel diesel engine operation using LPG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirica, I.; Pana, C.; Negurescu, N.; Cernat, Al; Nutu, N. C.

    2016-08-01

    Diesel engine fuelling with LPG represents a good solution to reduce the pollutant emissions and to improve its energetic performances. The high autoignition endurance of LPG requires specialized fuelling methods. From all possible LPG fuelling methods the authors chose the diesel-gas method because of the following reasons: is easy to be implemented even at already in use engines; the engine does not need important modifications; the LPG-air mixture has a high homogeneity with favorable influences over the combustion efficiency and over the level of the pollutant emissions, especially on the nitrogen oxides emissions. This paper presents results of the theoretical and experimental investigations on operation of a LPG fuelled heavy duty diesel engine at two operating regimens, 40% and 55%. For 55% engine load is also presented the exhaust gas recirculation influence on the pollutant emission level. Was determined the influence of the diesel fuel with LPG substitution ratio on the combustion parameters (rate of heat released, combustion duration, maximum pressure, maximum pressure rise rate), on the energetic parameters (indicate mean effective pressure, effective efficiency, energetic specific fuel consumption) and on the pollutant emissions level. Therefore with increasing substitute ratio of the diesel fuel with LPG are obtained the following results: the increase of the engine efficiency, the decrease of the specific energetic consumption, the increase of the maximum pressure and of the maximum pressure rise rate (considered as criteria to establish the optimum substitute ratio), the accentuated reduction of the nitrogen oxides emissions level.

  13. Immigration process in catalytic medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The longtime behavior of the immigration process associated with a catalytic super-Brownian motion is studied. A large number law is proved in dimension d≤3 and a central limit theorem is proved for dimension d=3.

  14. Immigration process in catalytic medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪文明; 王梓坤

    2000-01-01

    The longtime behavior of the immigration process associated with a catalytic super-Brown-ian motion is studied. A large number law is proved in dimension d≤3 and a central limit theorem is proved for dimension d = 3.

  15. Combustion of Microalgae Oil and Ethanol Blended with Diesel Fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Saddam H. Al-lwayzy; Talal Yusaf

    2015-01-01

    Using renewable oxygenated fuels such as ethanol is a proposed method to reduce diesel engine emission. Ethanol has lower density, viscosity, cetane number and calorific value than petroleum diesel (PD). Microalgae oil is renewable, environmentally friendly and has the potential to replace PD. In this paper, microalgae oil (10%) and ethanol (10%) have been mixed and added to (80%) diesel fuel as a renewable source of oxygenated fuel. The mixture of microalgae oil, ethanol and petroleum diesel...

  16. The market for gasoline cars and diesel cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Europe the tax tariff is much lower for diesel fuel than for gasoline. This benefit is used by manufacturers to increase the price of diesel-fueled cars, which limits the possibility to control the use of diesel cars by means of a fiscal policy (tax incidence). Attention is paid to the impact of fiscal advantages for diesel cars on the purchasing behavior of the consumer and the pricing policy (price discrimination) of the car manufacturers. 1 ref

  17. Diesel spray penetration studied by simultaneous Mie and shadowgraphy measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bougie, B.; Tulej, M.; Beaud, P.; Knopp, G.; Radi, P.; Gerber, T.

    2003-03-01

    The influence of gas density and vaporization on penetration and dispersion of Diesel sprays were investigated in a High Temperature High Pressure Cell (HTDZ) within the range of typical Diesel engine injection parameters. The temporal evolution of cold and vaporizing Diesel sprays were probed simultaneously by laser elastic scattering- and shadowgraphy-techniques. The experimental results were used to verify recently proposed Diesel spray models. (author)

  18. Ni Catalysts Supported on Modified Alumina for Diesel Steam Reforming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonios Tribalis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nickel catalysts are the most popular for steam reforming, however, they have a number of drawbacks, such as high propensity toward coke formation and intolerance to sulfur. In an effort to improve their behavior, a series of Ni-catalysts supported on pure and La-, Ba-, (La+Ba- and Ce-doped γ-alumina has been prepared. The doped supports and the catalysts have been extensively characterized. The catalysts performance was evaluated for steam reforming of n-hexadecane pure or doped with dibenzothiophene as surrogate for sulphur-free or commercial diesel, respectively. The undoped catalyst lost its activity after 1.5 h on stream. Doping of the support with La improved the initial catalyst activity. However, this catalyst was completely deactivated after 2 h on stream. Doping with Ba or La+Ba improved the stability of the catalysts. This improvement is attributed to the increase of the dispersion of the nickel phase, the decrease of the support acidity and the increase of Ni-phase reducibility. The best catalyst of the series doped with La+Ba proved to be sulphur tolerant and stable for more than 160 h on stream. Doping of the support with Ce also improved the catalytic performance of the corresponding catalyst, but more work is needed to explain this behavior.

  19. Fast automotive diesel exhaust measurement using quantum cascade lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, J.; Brunner, R.; Lambrecht, A.

    2013-12-01

    Step by step, US and European legislations enforce the further reduction of atmospheric pollution caused by automotive exhaust emissions. This is pushing automotive development worldwide. Fuel efficient diesel engines with SCRtechnology can impede NO2-emission by reduction with NH3 down to the ppm range. To meet the very low emission limits of the Euro6 resp. US NLEV (National Low Emission Vehicle) regulations, automotive manufacturers have to optimize continuously all phases of engine operation and corresponding catalytic converters. Especially nonstationary operation holds a high potential for optimizing gasoline consumption and further reducing of pollutant emissions. Test equipment has to cope with demanding sensitivity and speed requirements. In the past Fraunhofer IPM has developed a fast emission analyzer called DEGAS (Dynamic Exhaust Gas Analyzer System), based on cryogenically cooled lead salt lasers. These systems have been used at Volkswagen AG`s test benches for a decade. Recently, IPM has developed DEGAS-Next which is based on cw quantum cascade lasers and thermoelectrically cooled detectors. The system is capable to measure three gas components (i.e. NO, NO2, NH3) in two channels with a time resolution of 20 ms and 1 ppm detection limits. We shall present test data and a comparison with fast FTIR measurements.

  20. EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF A DIESEL ENGINE WITH BLENDS OF DIESEL-PLASTIC PYROLYSIS OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Rajesh Guntur,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental degradation and depletion of oil reserves are matters of great concern around the globe. Developing countries like India depend heavily on crude oil import of about 125 Mt per annum (7:1diesel/gasoline. Diesel being the main transportation fuel in India, finding a suitable fuel alternative to diesel is an urgent need. In this context, pyrolysis of waste plastic solid is currently receiving renewed interest. Waste plastic pyrolysis oil is suitable for compression ignition engines and more attention is focused in India because of its potential to generate large-scale employment and relatively low environmental degradation. In the present work the performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder, constant speed, and direct injection diesel engine using waste plastic pyrolysis oil blends as an alternate fuel were evaluated and the results are compared with the standard diesel fuel operation. Results indicated that the brake thermal efficiency was highercompared to diesel at part load condition. Carbon monoxide, Carbon dioxide and hydrocarbon emissions were higher and oxygen emission was lower compared to diesel operation.

  1. Diesel biodegradation capacities of indigenous bacterial species isolated from diesel contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanisamy, Nandhini; Ramya, Jayaprakash; Kumar, Srilakshman; Vasanthi, Ns; Chandran, Preethy; Khan, Sudheer

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum based products are the major source of energy for industries and daily life. Leaks and accidental spills occur regularly during the exploration, production, refining, transport, and storage of petroleum and petroleum products. In the present study we isolated the bacteria from diesel contaminated soil and screened them for diesel biodegradation capacity. One monoculture isolate identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis to be Acinetobacter baumannii was further studied for diesel oil biodegradation. The effects of various culture parameters (pH, temperature, NaCl concentrations, initial hydrocarbon concentration, initial inoculum size, role of chemical surfactant, and role of carbon and nitrogen sources) on biodegradation of diesel oil were evaluated. Optimal diesel oil biodegradation by A. baumanii occurred at initial pH 7, 35°C and initial hydrocarbon concentration at 4%. The biodegradation products under optimal cultural conditions were analyzed by GC-MS. The present study suggests that A. baumannii can be used for effective degradation of diesel oil from industrial effluents contaminated with diesel oil. PMID:25530870

  2. Development of production technology for bio diesel fuel and feasibility test of bio diesel engine (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Y.J.; Ju, U.S.; Park, Y.C. [National Kyung Sang University (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-02-01

    At the beginning of the 21 st century two urgent tasks which our global countries would face with could be the security of the alternative energy source as a preparation against the fossil energy exhaustion and the development of the clean energy source to protect the environment from pollution. The above two problems should be solved together. The bio diesel oil which is made by methylesterfication of bio oil has very low sulfur content than does the diesel oil. Therefore, there is a great possibility to solve the pollution problem caused by the exhaust gas from diesel engine vehicles. So, bio oil has been attracted with attentions as an alternative and clean energy source. Advanced countries began early to develop the bio diesel oil suitable to their respective conditions. Recently their production stage have reached to the commercial level partially. The sudden increase of energy demand followed by a rapid growth of industry and the serious situation about the environmental pollution caused by the exhaust has from diesel engine vehicles occupying 42% of distribution among all vehicles have called attention of our government to consider the importance of alternative and clean energy sources for the future on the national scale. This study is consisted of three main parts; - The development of production technology for bio diesel oil. - The development of the atomization improvement method and nozzle for high viscous vegetable oils. - Feasibility test of bio diesel engine. (author) 119 refs., 52 tabs., 88 figs.

  3. Effects of Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuel on combustion and emissions of direct injection diesel engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongcheng HUANG; Shangxue WANG; Longbao ZHOU

    2008-01-01

    Effects of Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) diesel fuel on the combustion and emission characteristics of a single-cylinder direct injection diesel engine under different fuel delivery advance angles were investigated. The experi-mental results show that F-T diesel fuel exhibits shorter ignition delay, lower peak values of premixed burning rate, lower combustion pressure and pressure rise rate, and higher peak value of diffusion burning rate than con-ventional diesel fuel when the engine remains unmodified. In addition, the unmodified engine with F-T diesel fuel has lower brake specific fuel consumption and higher effective thermal efficiency, and presents lower HC, CO, NOx and smoke emissions than conventional diesel fuel. When fuel delivery advance angle is retarded by 3 crank angle degrees, the combustion duration is obviously shor-tened; the peak values of premixed burning rate, the com-bustion pressure and pressure rise rate are further reduced; and the peak value of diffusion burning rate is further increased for F-T diesel fuel operation, Moreover, the retardation of fuel delivery advance angle results in a further significant reduction in NOx emissions with no penalty on specific fuel consumption and with much less penalty on HC, CO and smoke emissions.

  4. Carbonaceous composition changes of heavy-duty diesel engine particles in relation to biodiesels, aftertreatments and engine loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Man-Ting; Chen, Hsun-Jung [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo-Kuang Road, Taichung 40254, Taiwan (China); Young, Li-Hao, E-mail: lhy@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Department of Occupational Safety and Health, China Medical University, 91 Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Yang, Hsi-Hsien [Department of Environmental Engineering and Management, Chaoyang University of Technology, 168, Jifeng E. Road, Wufeng District, Taichung 41349, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Ying I. [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, 60, Sec. 1, Erren Rd., Rende District, Tainan 71710, Taiwan (China); Wang, Lin-Chi [Department of Civil Engineering and Geomatics, Cheng Shiu University, 840, Chengcing Road, Niaosong District, Kaohsiung 83347, Taiwan (China); Lu, Jau-Huai [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo-Kuang Road, Taichung 40254, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chung-Bang [Fuel Quality and Engine Performance Research, Refining and Manufacturing Research Institute, Chinese Petroleum Corporation, 217, Minsheng S. Road, West District, Chiayi 60051, Taiwan (China)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • We study particulate OC and EC under 3 fuels, 2 aftertreatments and 4 engine loads. • Negligible to minor OC and EC changes with low, ultralow sulfur and 10% biodiesels. • Moderate reductions of EC and particularly OC from diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC). • Large reductions of OC and particularly EC from DOC plus diesel particulate filter. • Highest at idle, whereas OC decreases but EC increases from low to high load. - Abstract: Three biodiesels and two aftertreatments were tested on a heavy-duty diesel engine under the US FTP transient cycle and additional four steady engine loads. The objective was to examine their effects on the gaseous and particulate emissions, with emphasis given to the organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) in the total particulate matter. Negligible differences were observed between the low-sulfur (B1S50) and ultralow-sulfur (B1S10) biodiesels, whereas small reductions of OC were identified with the 10% biodiesel blend (B10). The use of diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC1) showed moderate reductions of EC and particularly OC, resulting in the OC/EC ratio well below unity. The use of DOC plus diesel particulate filter (DOC2+DPF) yielded substantial reductions of OC and particularly EC, resulting in the OC/EC ratio well above unity. The OC/EC ratios were substantially above unity at idle and low load, whereas below unity at medium and high load. The above changes in particulate OC and EC are discussed with respect to the fuel content, pollutant removal mechanisms and engine combustion conditions. Overall, the present study shows that the carbonaceous composition of PM could change drastically with engine load and aftertreatments, and to a lesser extent with the biodiesels under study.

  5. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Hoel, Håkon; Law, Kody J. H.; Tempone, Raul

    2015-01-01

    This work embeds a multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) sampling strategy into the Monte Carlo step of the ensemble Kalman filter (ENKF), thereby yielding a multilevel ensemble Kalman filter (MLENKF) which has provably superior asymptotic cost to a given accuracy level. The theoretical results are illustrated numerically.

  6. Internet Filtering in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zittrain, Jonathan L.

    2003-01-01

    We collected data on the methods, scope, and depth of selective barriers to Internet usage through networks in China. Tests conducted from May through November 2002 indicated at least four distinct and independently operable Internet filtering methods - Web server IP address, DNS server IP address, keyword, and DNS redirection with a quantifiable leap in filtering sophistication beginning in September 2002.

  7. Vena cava filter; Vena-cava-Filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmberger, T. [Klinikum Bogenhausen, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Muenchen (Germany)

    2007-05-15

    Fulminant pulmonary embolism is one of the major causes of death in the Western World. In most cases, deep leg and pelvic venous thrombosis are the cause. If an anticoagulant/thrombotic therapy is no longer possible or ineffective, a vena cava filter implant may be indicated if an embolism is threatening. Implantation of the filter is a simple and safe intervention. Nevertheless, it is necessary to take into consideration that the data base for determining the indications for this treatment are very limited. Currently, a reduction in the risk of thromboembolism with the use of filters of about 30%, of recurrences of almost 5% and fatal pulmonary embolism of 1% has been reported, with a risk of up to 20% of filter induced vena cava thrombosis. (orig.) [German] Die fulminante Lungenembolie zaehlt zu den Haupttodesursachen in der westlichen Welt. In der Mehrzahl der Faelle sind tiefe Bein- und Beckenvenenthrombosen ursaechlich verantwortlich. Ist eine antikoagulative/-thrombotische Therapie nicht (mehr) moeglich oder unwirksam, kann bei drohender Emboliegefahr die Vena-cava-Filterimplantation indiziert sein. Die Filterimplantation ist eine einfache und sehr sichere Intervention. Dennoch muss bei der Indikationsstellung beruecksichtigt werden, dass die Datenlage zur Wirksamkeit sehr limitiert ist. So wird aktuell ueber eine Reduktion des Thrombembolierisikos um 30% bei Embolierezidiven von knapp 5% und fatalen Lungenembolien von 1% unter Filterprophylaxe berichtet, bei einem Risiko von bis zu 20% fuer die filterinduzierte Vena-cava-Thrombose. (orig.)

  8. Effects of ethylene glycol ethers on diesel fuel properties and emissions in a diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Cuenca, F.; Gomez-Marin, M. [Compania Logistica de Hidrocarburos (CLH), Central Laboratory, Mendez Alvaro 44, 28045 Madrid (Spain); Folgueras-Diaz, M.B., E-mail: belenfd@uniovi.es [Department of Energy, University of Oviedo, Independencia 13, 33004 Oviedo (Spain)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Effect of ethylene glycol ethers on diesel fuel properties. {yields} Effect of ethylene glycol ethers on diesel engine specific consumption and emissions. {yields} Blends with {<=}4 wt.% of oxygen do not change substantially diesel fuel quality. {yields} Blends with 1 and 2.5 wt.% of oxygen reduce CO and HC emissions, but not smoke. - Abstract: The effect of ethylene glycol ethers on both the diesel fuel characteristics and the exhaust emissions (CO, NO{sub x}, smoke and hydrocarbons) from a diesel engine was studied. The ethers used were monoethylene glycol ethyl ether (EGEE), monoethylene glycol butyl ether (EGBE), diethylene glycol ethyl ether (DEGEE). The above effect was studied in two forms: first by determining the modification of base diesel fuel properties by using blends with oxygen concentration around 4 wt.%, and second by determining the emission reductions for blends with low oxygen content (1 wt.%) and with 2.5 wt.% of oxygen content. The addition of DEGEE enhances base diesel fuel cetane number, but EGEE and EGBE decrease it. For concentrations of {>=}4 wt.% of oxygen, EGEE and diesel fuel can show immiscibility problems at low temperatures ({<=}0 {sup o}C). Also, every oxygenated compound, according to its boiling point, modifies the distillation curve at low temperatures and the distillate percentage increases. These compounds have a positive effect on diesel fuel lubricity, and slightly decrease its viscosity. Blends with 1 and 2.5 wt.% oxygen concentrations were used in order to determine their influence on emissions at both full and medium loads and different engine speeds. Generally, all compounds help to reduce CO, and hydrocarbon emissions, but not smoke. The best results were obtained for blends with 2.5 wt.% of oxygen. At this concentration, the additive efficiency in decreasing order was EGEE > DEGEE > EGBE for CO emissions and DGEE > EGEE > EGBE for hydrocarbon emissions. For NO{sub x}, both its behaviour and the

  9. Potential of Sagittaria trifolia for Phytoremediation of Diesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinying; Wang, Jun; Liu, Xiaoyan; Gu, Lingfeng; Hou, Yunyun; He, Chiquan; Chen, Xueping; Liang, Xia

    2015-01-01

    The phytoremediation potential and responses of Sagittaria trifolia to diesel were investigated. In order to elucidate the biochemical and physiological responses of S. trifolia to diesel, the chlorophyll content, root vitality, soluble protein content and antioxidant enzymes activity (peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD)) were determined in the plant tissues after 50 d of diesel treatment. The results showed the presence of S. trifolia significantly improved the removal ratios of diesel, from 21∼36% in the control soils to 54∼85% in the planted soils. The chlorophyll content, root vitality and soluble protein content all increased at low diesel concentration, then decreased at high diesel concentration. The activities of CAT and POD exhibited peak values at 5 g·kg(-1) diesel treatment and declined at higher diesel concentrations. However, the activity of SOD kept stable at lower diesel concentration (1 and 5 g·kg(-1)), and also declined at higher diesel concentration. Collectively, S. trifolia had the ability to tolerate certain amount of diesel, but when the concentration was up to 10 g·kg(-1), the growth of S. trifolia would be restrained. The results also showed that variation of antioxidant enzyme activity was an important response in plants to diesel pollution.

  10. 40 CFR 86.336-79 - Diesel engine test cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel engine test cycle. 86.336-79... New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.336-79 Diesel engine test cycle. (a) The following 13-mode cycle shall be followed in dynamometer...

  11. 30 CFR 57.4561 - Stationary diesel equipment underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stationary diesel equipment underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4561 Stationary diesel equipment underground. Stationary diesel equipment underground shall be— (a) Supported on a noncombustible base; and...

  12. Desempenho comparativo de um motor de ciclo diesel utilizando diesel e misturas de biodiesel Comparative performance of a cycle diesel engine using diesel and biodiesel mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Leite Barbosa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Os atuais elevados preços do barril de petróleo no mercado internacional, a possibilidade de geração de postos de trabalho e renda com a conseqüente fixação do homem no campo, as excelentes e variadas condições climáticas e os tipos de relevo fazem com que o Brasil, com suas extensas áreas agricultáveis, destaque-se no cenário mundial em relação à sua grande potencialidade de geração de combustíveis alternativos. A situação ambiental faz com que o ser humano trabalhe no desenvolvimento de alternativas energéticas, destacando-se aquelas oriundas de fontes renováveis e biodegradáveis de caráter eminentemente sustentável. Assim, objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o desempenho de um motor ciclo diesel, funcionando em momentos distintos com diesel mineral e misturas deste com biodiesel nas proporções equivalentes a B2 (98% de diesel mineral e 2% de biodiesel, B5 (95% de diesel mineral e 5% de biodiesel, B20 (80% de diesel mineral e 20% de biodiesel e B100 (100% de biodiesel. Para a realização dos ensaios, foi utilizado um motor ciclo diesel de um trator VALMET 85 id, de 58,2kW (78 cv, de acordo com metodologia estabelecida pela norma NBR 5484 da ABNT (1985 que se refere ao ensaio dinamométrico de motores de ciclo Otto e Diesel. Concluiu-se que a potência do motor ao se utilizar biodiesel foi inferior àquela quando se utilizou diesel mineral. Observou-se que, em algumas rotações, as misturas B5 e B20 apresentaram potência igual ou até superior, em algumas situações, àquela quando se utilizou diesel mineral. A melhor eficiência térmica do motor foi verificada na rotação de 540 rpm da TDP equivalente a 1720 rpm do motor.It is considered that, in a close future, the petroleum reservations economically viable will tend to the shortage. Besides it, the exacerbated current price levels of the petroleum barrel in the international market, the possibility of employment generation and income with the consequent

  13. Filter cake breaker systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Marcelo H.F. [Poland Quimica Ltda., Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Drilling fluids filter cakes are based on a combination of properly graded dispersed particles and polysaccharide polymers. High efficiency filter cakes are formed by these combination , and their formation on wellbore walls during the drilling process has, among other roles, the task of protecting the formation from instantaneous or accumulative invasion of drilling fluid filtrate, granting stability to well and production zones. Filter cake minimizes contact between drilling fluid filtrate and water, hydrocarbons and clay existent in formations. The uniform removal of the filter cake from the entire interval is a critical factor of the completion process. The main methods used to breaking filter cake are classified into two groups, external or internal, according to their removal mechanism. The aim of this work is the presentation of these mechanisms as well their efficiency. (author)

  14. Filter Bank Fusion Frames

    CERN Document Server

    Chebira, Amina; Mixon, Dustin G

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we characterize and construct novel oversampled filter banks implementing fusion frames. A fusion frame is a sequence of orthogonal projection operators whose sum can be inverted in a numerically stable way. When properly designed, fusion frames can provide redundant encodings of signals which are optimally robust against certain types of noise and erasures. However, up to this point, few implementable constructions of such frames were known; we show how to construct them using oversampled filter banks. In this work, we first provide polyphase domain characterizations of filter bank fusion frames. We then use these characterizations to construct filter bank fusion frame versions of discrete wavelet and Gabor transforms, emphasizing those specific finite impulse response filters whose frequency responses are well-behaved.

  15. Implicit Kalman filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skliar, M.; Ramirez, W. F.

    1997-01-01

    For an implicitly defined discrete system, a new algorithm for Kalman filtering is developed and an efficient numerical implementation scheme is proposed. Unlike the traditional explicit approach, the implicit filter can be readily applied to ill-conditioned systems and allows for generalization to descriptor systems. The implementation of the implicit filter depends on the solution of the congruence matrix equation (A1)(Px)(AT1) = Py. We develop a general iterative method for the solution of this equation, and prove necessary and sufficient conditions for convergence. It is shown that when the system matrices of an implicit system are sparse, the implicit Kalman filter requires significantly less computer time and storage to implement as compared to the traditional explicit Kalman filter. Simulation results are presented to illustrate and substantiate the theoretical developments.

  16. Weighted guided image filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengguo; Zheng, Jinghong; Zhu, Zijian; Yao, Wei; Wu, Shiqian

    2015-01-01

    It is known that local filtering-based edge preserving smoothing techniques suffer from halo artifacts. In this paper, a weighted guided image filter (WGIF) is introduced by incorporating an edge-aware weighting into an existing guided image filter (GIF) to address the problem. The WGIF inherits advantages of both global and local smoothing filters in the sense that: 1) the complexity of the WGIF is O(N) for an image with N pixels, which is same as the GIF and 2) the WGIF can avoid halo artifacts like the existing global smoothing filters. The WGIF is applied for single image detail enhancement, single image haze removal, and fusion of differently exposed images. Experimental results show that the resultant algorithms produce images with better visual quality and at the same time halo artifacts can be reduced/avoided from appearing in the final images with negligible increment on running times. PMID:25415986

  17. Tertiary fatty amides as diesel fuel substitutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serdari, Aikaterini; Lois, Euripides; Stournas, Stamoulis [National Technical Univ. of Athens, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Athens (Greece)

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents experimental results regarding the impact of adding different tertiary amides of fatty acids to mineral diesel fuel; an assessment of the behaviour of these compounds as possible diesel fuel extenders is also included. Measurements of cetane number, cold flow properties (cloud point, pour point and CFPP), density, kinematic viscosity, flash point and distillation temperatures are reported, while initial experiments concerning the effects on particulate emissions are also described. Most of the examined tertiary fatty amides esters have very good performance and they can be easily prepared from fatty acids (biomass). Such compounds or their blends could be used as mineral diesel fuel or even fatty acid methylesters (FAME, biodiesel) substitutes or extenders. (Author)

  18. Desempenho de motor ciclo Diesel em bancada dinamométrica utilizando misturas diesel/biodiesel Performance of cycle Diesel engine in dynamometer using diesel/biodiesel mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Marcio Castellanelli; Samuel N. M. de Souza; Suedêmio L. Silva; Euro K. Kailer

    2008-01-01

    Diante da previsão de escassez do petróleo, o éster etílico (biodiesel) tem-se apresentado como excelente opção de combustível alternativo para motores ciclo Diesel. As características do biodiesel são semelhantes às do diesel em termos de viscosidade e poder calorífico, podendo ser utilizado sem adaptações nos motores. Para a realização deste trabalho, utilizou-se de motor ciclo Diesel, de injeção direta, com quatro cilindros, sem adaptações. O motor foi acoplado a um dinamômetro e sistemas ...

  19. Diesel vehicles shortage mobilizes the automotive industry; La penurie de diesel mobilise la filiere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocquet, P.Y.; Deheunynck, P.Y.; Demoulin, L.

    2000-12-01

    The infatuation for diesel vehicles in Europe has led to an unexpected growth of this market. The reason is linked with the improvements made in diesel engine technology and with the rise of automotive fuel prices. Car and vehicle equipment manufacturers and sub-contractors have to increase their production and manpower and to adopt new work schedules for a better exploitation of factories capacity. However, the development of the direct injection (common-rail) technology for diesel engines requires complex and precise machining procedures that are hardly compatible with an enhanced mass production. (J.S.)

  20. Performance and Emission Characteristics of Low Heat Rejection Diesel Engine Fueled with Biodiesel and High Speed Diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Gopinathan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Depleting petroleum reserves on the earth and increasing concerns about the environment leads to the question for fuels which are eco-friendly safer for human beings. The objective of present study was to investigate the effect of coating on cylinder head of a Diesel engine on the performance and emission characteristics of exhaust gases using Bio Diesel and High Speed Diesel (HSD as a fuel. In this study the effect of Tin and Hard Chrome coating on the performance and emission characteristics of diesel engine was investigated using Bio Diesel and High Speed Diesel as a fuel. For this purpose the cylinder head of the test engine were coated with a Tin and Hard Chrome of 100 µ thick by the Electroplating method. For comparing the performance of the engine with coated components with the base engine, readings were taken before and after coating. To make the diesel engine to work with Bio Diesel and High Speed Diesel a modification was done. The engine’s performance was studied for both Bio Diesel and High Speed Diesel with and without Tin, Hard Chrome coating. Also the emissions values are recorded to study the engine’s behavior on emissions. Satisfactory performance was obtained with Tin and Hard Chrome coating compared with a standard diesel engine. The brake thermal efficiency was increased up to 2.08% for High Speed Diesel with Tin coating and there was a significant reduction in the specific fuel consumption. The CO emission in the engine exhaust decreases with coating. Using Bio Diesel and High Speed Diesel fuel for a LHR diesel engine causes an improvement in the performance characteristics and significant reduction in exhaust emissions.