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Sample records for catalytic coal liquid

  1. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stock, L.M.; Yang, Shiyong [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This research, which is relevant to the development of new catalytic systems for the improvement of the quality of coal liquids by the addition of dihydrogen, is divided into two tasks. Task 1 centers on the activation of dihydrogen by molecular basic reagents such as hydroxide ion to convert it into a reactive adduct (OH{center_dot}H{sub 2}){sup {minus}} that can reduce organic molecules. Such species should be robust withstanding severe conditions and chemical poisons. Task 2 is focused on an entirely different approach that exploits molecular catalysts, derived from organometallic compounds that are capable of reducing monocyclic aromatic compounds under very mild conditions. Accomplishments and conclusions are discussed.

  2. Molecular catalytic hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons and hydrotreating of coal liquids.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shiyong; Stock, L.M.

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the results of research on the development of new catalytic pathways for the hydrogenation of multiring aromatic hydrocarbons and the hydrotreating of coal liquids at The University of Chicago under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-91PC91056. The work, which is described in three parts, is primarily concerned with the research on the development of new catalytic systems for the hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons and for the improvement of the quality of coal liquids by the addition of dihydrogen. Part A discusses the activation of dihydrogen by very basic molecular reagents to form adducts that can facilitate the reduction of multiring aromatic hydrocarbons. Part B examines the hydrotreating of coal liquids catalyzed by the same base-activated dihydrogen complexes. Part C concerns studies of molecular organometallic catalysts for the hydrogenation of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons under mild conditions.

  3. Production of Jet Fuels from Coal-Derived Liquids. Volume 8. Heteroatom Removal by Catalytic Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    mentioned previously, three liquid streams (rectisol naphtha, crude phenol, and tar oil) are produced at the GPGP as a result of coal gasification...oil stream is compared to the profiles of JP-4 and JP-8 in Figure 1. As recovered, the tar oil stream is somewhat variable, depending on coal ...insolubles (0.5 micron filter). phenols or cresylic acids. The remaining two-thirds of the tar oil stream could be hydrotreated to produce jet fuel

  4. Coal hydrogenation and deashing in ebullated bed catalytic reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huibers, Derk T. A.; Johanson, Edwin S.

    1983-01-01

    An improved process for hydrogenation of coal containing ash with agglomeration and removal of ash from an ebullated bed catalytic reactor to produce deashed hydrocarbon liquid and gas products. In the process, a flowable coal-oil slurry is reacted with hydrogen in an ebullated catalyst bed reaction zone at elevated temperature and pressure conditions. The upward velocity and viscosity of the reactor liquid are controlled so that a substantial portion of the ash released from the coal is agglomerated to form larger particles in the upper portion of the reactor above the catalyst bed, from which the agglomerated ash is separately withdrawn along with adhering reaction zone liquid. The resulting hydrogenated hydrocarbon effluent material product is phase separated to remove vapor fractions, after which any ash remaining in the liquid fraction can be removed to produce substantially ash-free coal-derived liquid products.

  5. Studies of coupled chemical and catalytic coal conversion methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stock, L.M.

    1990-01-01

    This report concerns our research on base-catalyzed coal solubilization and a new approach for hydrogen addition. The work on base-catalyzed, chemical solubilization is continuing. this report is focused on the hydrogenation research. Specifically it deals with the use of arene chromium carbonyl complexes as reagents for the addition of dideuterium to coal molecules. In one phase of the work, he has established that the aromatic hydrocarbons in a representative coal liquid can be converted in very good yield to arene chromium carbonyl compounds. In a second phase of the work directly related to our objective of improved methods for catalytic hydrogenation, he has established that the aromatic constituents of the same coal liquid add dideuterium in the presence of added napththalene chromium carbonyl.

  6. Hydrotreating of coal-derived liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lott, S.E.; Stohl, F.V.; Diegert, K.V. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    To develop a database relating hydrotreating parameters to feed and product quality by experimentally evaluating options for hydrotreating whole coal liquids, distillate cuts of coal liquids, petroleum, and blends of coal liquids with petroleum.

  7. Coal liquids -- Who needs them?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, D.; Tomlinson, G.

    1995-01-01

    The paper discusses the global energy demand situation as presented at the last World Energy Congress. The total energy demand was calculated for each country and projected to 2100. The paper then discusses the energy situation in the United States, especially the forecasted demand for crude oil and natural gas liquids. Imports will be needed to make up the shortfall in domestic production. The shortfall in conventional petroleum could be supplied by converting coal into liquid fuels. Currently the cost of high quality coal liquids is too high to compete with petroleum, but trends suggest that the price will be competitive in the year 2030 using current technology. Continuing research on coal liquefaction will reduce the price of coal liquids so that coal liquids could play a significant role sooner

  8. Liquid fuels from Canadian coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, G.W.

    1979-06-15

    In Canadian energy planning, the central issue of security of supply must be addressed by developing flexible energy systems that make the best possible use of available resources. For liquid fuel production, oil sands and heavy oil currently appear more attractive than coal or biomass as alternatives to conventional crude oil, but the magnitude of their economic advantage is uncertain. The existence of large resources of oil sands, heavy oils, natural gas and low-sulfur coals in Western Canada creates a unique opportunity for Canadians to optimize the yield from these resources and develop new technology. Many variations on the three basic liquefaction routes - hydroliquefaction, pyrolysis and synthesis - are under investigation around the world, and the technology is advancing rapidly. Each process has merit under certain circumstances. Surface-mineable subbituminous and lignite coals of Alberta and Saskatchewan appear to offer the best combination of favorable properties, deposit size and mining cost, but other deposits in Alberta, Nova Scotia and British Columbia should not be ruled out. The research effort in Canada is small by world standards, but it is unlikely that technology could be imported that is ideally suited to Canadian conditions. Importing technology is undesirable: innovation or process modification to suit Canadian coals and markets is preferred; coprocessing of coal liquids with bitumen or heavy oils would be a uniquely Canadian, exportable technology. The cost of synthetic crude from coal in Canada is uncertain, estimates ranging from $113 to $220/m/sup 3/ ($18 to $35/bbl). Existing economic evaluations vary widely depending on assumptions, and can be misleading. Product quality is an important consideration.

  9. Refining and end use study of coal liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Two direct coal liquids were evaluated by linear programming analysis to determine their value as petroleum refinery feedstock. The first liquid, DL1, was produced from bitiuminous coal using the Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc.(HTI) two-stage hydrogenation process in Proof of Concept Run No.1, POC-1. The second liquid, DL2,was produced from sub-bituminous coal using a three-stage HTI process in Proof of Concept Run No. 2, POC-2; the third stage being a severe hydrogenation process. A linear programming (LP) model was developed which simulates a generic 150,000 barrel per day refinery in the Midwest U.S. Data from upgrading tests conducted on the coal liquids and related petroleum fractions in the pilot plant testing phase of the Refining and End Use Study was inputed into the model. The coal liquids were compared against a generic petroleum crude feedstock. under two scenarios. In the first scenario, it was assumed that the refinery capacity and product slate/volumes were fixed. The coal liquids would be used to replace a portion of the generic crude. The LP results showed that the DL1 material had essentially the same value as the generic crude. Due to its higher quality, the DL2 material had a value of approximately 0.60 $/barrel higher than the petroleum crude. In the second scenario, it was assumed that a market opportunity exists to increase production by one-third. This requires a refinery expansion. The feedstock for this scenario could be either 100% petroleum crude or a combination of petroleum crude and the direct coal liquids. Linear programming analysis showed that the capital cost of the refinery expansion was significantly less when coal liquids are utilized. In addition, the pilot plant testing showed that both of the direct coal liquids demonstrated superior catalytic cracking and naphtha reforming yields. Depending on the coal liquid flow rate, the value of the DL1 material was 2.5-4.0 $/barrel greater than the base petroleum crude, while the DL2

  10. High temperature ceramic membrane reactors for coal liquid upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsotsis, T.T. (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Liu, P.K.T. (Aluminum Co. of America, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)); Webster, I.A. (Unocal Corp., Los Angeles, CA (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Membrane reactors are today finding extensive applications for gas and vapor phase catalytic reactions (see discussion in the introduction and recent reviews by Armor [92], Hsieh [93] and Tsotsis et al. [941]). There have not been any published reports, however, of their use in high pressure and temperature liquid-phase applications. The idea to apply membrane reactor technology to coal liquid upgrading has resulted from a series of experimental investigations by our group of petroleum and coal asphaltene transport through model membranes. Coal liquids contain polycyclic aromatic compounds, which not only present potential difficulties in upgrading, storage and coprocessing, but are also bioactive. Direct coal liquefaction is perceived today as a two-stage process, which involves a first stage of thermal (or catalytic) dissolution of coal, followed by a second stage, in which the resulting products of the first stage are catalytically upgraded. Even in the presence of hydrogen, the oil products of the second stage are thought to equilibrate with the heavier (asphaltenic and preasphaltenic) components found in the feedstream. The possibility exists for this smaller molecular fraction to recondense with the unreacted heavy components and form even heavier undesirable components like char and coke. One way to diminish these regressive reactions is to selectively remove these smaller molecular weight fractions once they are formed and prior to recondensation. This can, at least in principle, be accomplished through the use of high temperature membrane reactors, using ceramic membranes which are permselective for the desired products of the coal liquid upgrading process. An additional incentive to do so is in order to eliminate the further hydrogenation and hydrocracking of liquid products to undesirable light gases.

  11. Studies of coupled chemical and catalytic coal conversion methods. Tenth quarterly report, January--March 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stock, L.M.

    1990-12-31

    This report concerns our research on base-catalyzed coal solubilization and a new approach for hydrogen addition. The work on base-catalyzed, chemical solubilization is continuing. this report is focused on the hydrogenation research. Specifically it deals with the use of arene chromium carbonyl complexes as reagents for the addition of dideuterium to coal molecules. In one phase of the work, he has established that the aromatic hydrocarbons in a representative coal liquid can be converted in very good yield to arene chromium carbonyl compounds. In a second phase of the work directly related to our objective of improved methods for catalytic hydrogenation, he has established that the aromatic constituents of the same coal liquid add dideuterium in the presence of added napththalene chromium carbonyl.

  12. Assessment of coal liquids as refinery feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, P.

    1992-02-01

    The R&D of direct coal liquefaction has reached such a stage that current two-stage processes can produce coal liquids with high yields and improved quality at a reasonable cost. To fully realize the potential value, these coal liquids should be refined into high-value liquid transportation fuels. The purpose of this study is to assess coal liquids as feedstocks to be processed by modern petroleum refining technologies. After the introduction, Section 2.0 summarizes ASTM specifications for major transportation fuels: gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel fuel, which serve as a target for coal-liquid refining. A concise description of modern refining processes follows with an emphasis on the requirements for the raw materials. These provide criteria to judge the quality of coal liquids as a refinery feedstock for the production of marketable liquid fuels. Section 3.0 surveys the properties of coal liquids produced by various liquefaction processes. Compared with typical petroleum oils, the current two-stage coal liquids are: Light in boiling range and free of resids and metals; very low in sulfur but relatively high in oxygen; relatively low in hydrogen and high in cyclics content; and essentially toxicologically inactive when end point is lower than 650{degrees}F, particularly after hydroprocessing. Despite these characteristics, the coal liquids are basically similar to petroleum. The modern refining technology is capable of processing coal liquids into transportation fuels meeting all specifications, and hydroprocessinq is obviously the major tool. The important point is the determination of a reasonable product slate and an appropriate refining scheme.

  13. Assessment of coal liquids as refinery feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, P.

    1992-02-01

    The R D of direct coal liquefaction has reached such a stage that current two-stage processes can produce coal liquids with high yields and improved quality at a reasonable cost. To fully realize the potential value, these coal liquids should be refined into high-value liquid transportation fuels. The purpose of this study is to assess coal liquids as feedstocks to be processed by modern petroleum refining technologies. After the introduction, Section 2.0 summarizes ASTM specifications for major transportation fuels: gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel fuel, which serve as a target for coal-liquid refining. A concise description of modern refining processes follows with an emphasis on the requirements for the raw materials. These provide criteria to judge the quality of coal liquids as a refinery feedstock for the production of marketable liquid fuels. Section 3.0 surveys the properties of coal liquids produced by various liquefaction processes. Compared with typical petroleum oils, the current two-stage coal liquids are: Light in boiling range and free of resids and metals; very low in sulfur but relatively high in oxygen; relatively low in hydrogen and high in cyclics content; and essentially toxicologically inactive when end point is lower than 650[degrees]F, particularly after hydroprocessing. Despite these characteristics, the coal liquids are basically similar to petroleum. The modern refining technology is capable of processing coal liquids into transportation fuels meeting all specifications, and hydroprocessinq is obviously the major tool. The important point is the determination of a reasonable product slate and an appropriate refining scheme.

  14. Catalytic multi-stage liquefaction of coal at HTI: Bench-scale studies in coal/waste plastics coprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradhan, V.R.; Lee, L.K.; Stalzer, R.H. [Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc., Lawrenceville, NJ (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The development of Catalytic Multi-Stage Liquefaction (CMSL) at HTI has focused on both bituminous and sub-bituminous coals using laboratory, bench and PDU scale operations. The crude oil equivalent cost of liquid fuels from coal has been curtailed to about $30 per barrel, thus achieving over 30% reduction in the price that was evaluated for the liquefaction technologies demonstrated in the late seventies and early eighties. Contrary to the common belief, the new generation of catalytic multistage coal liquefaction process is environmentally very benign and can produce clean, premium distillates with a very low (<10ppm) heteroatoms content. The HTI Staff has been involved over the years in process development and has made significant improvements in the CMSL processing of coals. A 24 month program (extended to September 30, 1995) to study novel concepts, using a continuous bench scale Catalytic Multi-Stage unit (30kg coal/day), has been initiated since December, 1992. This program consists of ten bench-scale operations supported by Laboratory Studies, Modelling, Process Simulation and Economic Assessments. The Catalytic Multi-Stage Liquefaction is a continuation of the second generation yields using a low/high temperature approach. This paper covers work performed between October 1994- August 1995, especially results obtained from the microautoclave support activities and the bench-scale operations for runs CMSL-08 and CMSL-09, during which, coal and the plastic components for municipal solid wastes (MSW) such as high density polyethylene (HDPE)m, polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), and polythylene terphthlate (PET) were coprocessed.

  15. Biological upgrading of coal liquids. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    A large number of bacterial enrichments have been developed for their ability to utilize nitrogen and sulfur in coal liquids and the model compound naphtha. These bacteria include the original aerobic bacteria isolated from natural sources which utilize heteroatom compounds in the presence of rich media, aerobic nitrogen-utilizing bacteria and denitrifying bacteria. The most promising isolates include Mix M, a mixture of aerobic bacteria; ER15, a pyridine-utilizing isolate; ERI6, an aniline-utilizing isolate and a sewage sludge isolate. Culture optimization experiments have led to these bacteria being able to remove up to 40 percent of the sulfur and nitrogen in naphtha and coal liquids in batch culture. Continuous culture experiments showed that the coal liquid is too toxic to the bacteria to be fed without dilution or extraction. Thus either semi-batch operation must be employed with continuous gas sparging into a batch of liquid, or acid extracted coal liquid must be employed in continuous reactor studies with continuous liquid flow. Isolate EN-1, a chemical waste isolate, removed 27 percent of the sulfur and 19 percent of the nitrogen in fed batch experiments. Isolate ERI5 removed 28 percent of the nitrogen in coal liquid in 10 days in fed batch culture. The sewage sludge isolate removed 22.5 percent of the sulfur and 6.5 percent of the nitrogen from extracted coal liquid in continuous culture, and Mix M removed 17.5 percent of the nitrogen from medium containing extracted coal liquid. An economic evaluation has been prepared for the removal of nitrogen heteroatom compounds from Wilsonville coal liquid using acid extraction followed by fermentation. Similar technology can be developed for sulfur removal. The evaluation indicates that the nitrogen heteroatom compounds can be removed for $0.09/lb of coal liquid treated.

  16. Plasma-catalytic reforming of liquid hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedybaliuk, O.A.; Chernyak, V.Ya; Kolgan, V.V.; Iukhymenko, V.V.; Solomenko, O.V.; Fedirchyk, I.I.; Martysh, E.V.; Demchina, V.P.; Klochok, N.V.; Dragnev, S.V.

    2015-01-01

    The series of experiments studying the plasma-catalytic reforming of liquid hydrocarbons was carried out. The dynamic plasma-liquid system based on a low-power rotating gliding arc with solid electrodes was used for the investigation of liquid hydrocarbons reforming process. Conversion was done via partial oxidation. A part of oxidant flow was activated by the discharge. Synthesis-gas composition was analysed by means of mass-spectrometry and gas-chromatography. A standard boiler, which operates on natural gas and LPG, was used for the burning of synthesis-gas

  17. Catalytic processing of coal and biomass to carbon materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, B.N.; Shchipko, M.L.; Golovin, Y.G.; Ugay, M.Y. [Krasnoyarsk State University, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation). Inst. of Chemistry of Natural Organic Materials

    1996-12-31

    The synthesis of carbon materials is rather new and promising field of a catalyst application. The high potentialities of catalytic processes in the carbon materials production are connected with the catalyst ability to regulate the structure and some properties of carbon products, to increase the process affectivity and ecological safety. The new catalytic methods, developed by authors for the producing of different types of carbon products from coal and biomass raw materials, are described in the present paper. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Low and medium heating value coal gas catalytic combustor characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    Catalytic combustion with both low and medium heating value coal gases obtained from an operating gasifier was demonstrated. A practical operating range for efficient operation was determined, and also to identify potential problem areas were identified for consideration during stationary gas turbine engine design. The test rig consists of fuel injectors, a fuel-air premixing section, a catalytic reactor with thermocouple instrumentation and a single point, water cooled sample probe. The test rig included inlet and outlet transition pieces and was designed for installation into an existing test loop.

  19. CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dr. Yaw D. Yeboah; Dr. Yong Xu; Dr. Atul Sheth; Dr. Pradeep Agrawal

    2001-01-01

    The Gas Research Institute (GRI) estimates that by the year 2010, 40% or more of U.S. gas supply will be provided by supplements including substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. These supplements must be cost competitive with other energy sources. The first generation technologies for coal gasification e.g. the Lurgi Pressure Gasification Process and the relatively newer technologies e.g. the KBW (Westinghouse) Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, U-Gas Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, British Gas Corporation/Lurgi Slagging Gasifier, Texaco Moving-Bed Gasifier, and Dow and Shell Gasification Processes, have several disadvantages. These disadvantages include high severities of gasification conditions, low methane production, high oxygen consumption, inability to handle caking coals, and unattractive economics. Another problem encountered in catalytic coal gasification is deactivation of hydroxide forms of alkali and alkaline earth metal catalysts by oxides of carbon (CO(sub x)). To seek solutions to these problems, a team consisting of Clark Atlanta University (CAU, a Historically Black College and University, HBCU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) proposed to identify suitable low melting eutectic salt mixtures for improved coal gasification. The research objectives of this project were to: Identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; Assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; Evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; Determine catalyst dispersion at high carbon conversion levels; Evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; Evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and Conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process

  20. CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Yaw D. Yeboah; Dr. Yong Xu; Dr. Atul Sheth; Dr. Pradeep Agrawal

    2001-12-01

    The Gas Research Institute (GRI) estimates that by the year 2010, 40% or more of U.S. gas supply will be provided by supplements including substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. These supplements must be cost competitive with other energy sources. The first generation technologies for coal gasification e.g. the Lurgi Pressure Gasification Process and the relatively newer technologies e.g. the KBW (Westinghouse) Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, U-Gas Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, British Gas Corporation/Lurgi Slagging Gasifier, Texaco Moving-Bed Gasifier, and Dow and Shell Gasification Processes, have several disadvantages. These disadvantages include high severities of gasification conditions, low methane production, high oxygen consumption, inability to handle caking coals, and unattractive economics. Another problem encountered in catalytic coal gasification is deactivation of hydroxide forms of alkali and alkaline earth metal catalysts by oxides of carbon (CO{sub x}). To seek solutions to these problems, a team consisting of Clark Atlanta University (CAU, a Historically Black College and University, HBCU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) proposed to identify suitable low melting eutectic salt mixtures for improved coal gasification. The research objectives of this project were to: Identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; Assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; Evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; Determine catalyst dispersion at high carbon conversion levels; Evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; Evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and Conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process.

  1. Process to upgrade coal liquids by extraction prior to hydrodenitrogenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Abraham; Hollstein, Elmer J.; Janoski, Edward J.; Scheibel, Edward G.

    1982-01-01

    Oxygen compounds are removed, e.g., by extraction, from a coal liquid prior to its hydrogenation. As a result, compared to hydrogenation of such a non-treated coal liquid, the rate of nitrogen removal is increased.

  2. Evaluation of catalytic combustion of actual coal-derived gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, J. C.; Shisler, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    The combustion characteristics of a Pt-Pl catalytic reactor burning coal-derived, low-Btu gas were investigated. A large matrix of test conditions was explored involving variations in fuel/air inlet temperature and velocity, reactor pressure, and combustor exit temperature. Other data recorded included fuel gas composition, reactor temperatures, and exhaust emissions. Operating experience with the reactor was satisfactory. Combustion efficiencies were quite high (over 95 percent) over most of the operating range. Emissions of NOx were quite high (up to 500 ppm V and greater), owing to the high ammonia content of the fuel gas.

  3. Coal + Biomass → Liquids + Electricity (with CCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this presentation, Matt Aitken applies the MARKet ALlocation energy system model to evaluate the market potential for a class of technologies that convert coal and biomass to liquid fuels and electricity (CBtLE), paired with carbon capture and storage (CCS). The technology is ...

  4. HINDERED DIFFUSION OF COAL LIQUIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theodore T. Tsotsis; Muhammad Sahimi; Ian A. Webster

    1996-01-01

    It was the purpose of the project described here to carry out careful and detailed investigations of petroleum and coal asphaltene transport through model porous systems under a broad range of temperature conditions. The experimental studies were to be coupled with detailed, in-depth statistical and molecular dynamics models intended to provide a fundamental understanding of the overall transport mechanisms and a more accurate concept of the asphaltene structure. The following discussion describes some of our accomplishments.

  5. Enzymantic Conversion of Coal to Liquid Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Troiano

    2011-01-31

    The work in this project focused on the conversion of bituminous coal to liquid hydrocarbons. The major steps in this process include mechanical pretreatment, chemical pretreatment, and finally solubilization and conversion of coal to liquid hydrocarbons. Two different types of mechanical pretreatment were considered for the process: hammer mill grinding and jet mill grinding. After research and experimentation, it was decided to use jet mill grinding, which allows for coal to be ground down to particle sizes of 5 {mu}m or less. A Fluid Energy Model 0101 JET-O-MIZER-630 size reduction mill was purchased for this purpose. This machine was completed and final testing was performed on the machine at the Fluid Energy facilities in Telford, PA. The test results from the machine show that it can indeed perform to the required specifications and is able to grind coal down to a mean particle size that is ideal for experimentation. Solubilization and conversion experiments were performed on various pretreated coal samples using 3 different approaches: (1) enzymatic - using extracellular Laccase and Manganese Peroxidase (MnP), (2) chemical - using Ammonium Tartrate and Manganese Peroxidase, and (3) enzymatic - using the live organisms Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Spectral analysis was used to determine how effective each of these methods were in decomposing bituminous coal. After analysis of the results and other considerations, such as cost and environmental impacts, it was determined that the enzymatic approaches, as opposed to the chemical approaches using chelators, were more effective in decomposing coal. The results from the laccase/MnP experiments and Phanerochaete chrysosporium experiments are presented and compared in this final report. Spectra from both enzymatic methods show absorption peaks in the 240nm to 300nm region. These peaks correspond to aromatic intermediates formed when breaking down the coal structure. The peaks then decrease in absorbance over time

  6. Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL) process bench studies with bituminous coal. Final report, [October 1, 1988--December 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comolli, A.G.; Johanson, E.S.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Lee, L.K.; Stalzer, R.H.; Smith, T.O.

    1993-03-01

    Reported herein are the details and results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments using bituminous coal concluded at Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., under DOE contract during the period October 1, 1988 to December 31, 1992. The work described is primarily concerned with the application of coal cleaning methods and solids separation methods to the Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL) Process. Additionally a predispersed catalyst was evaluated in a thermal/catalytic configuration, and an alternative nickel molybdenum catalyst was evaluated for the CTSL process. Three coals were evaluated in this program: Bituminous Illinois No. 6 Burning Star and Sub-bituminous Wyoming Black Thunder and New Mexico McKinley Mine seams. The results from a total of 16 bench-scale runs are reported and analyzed in detail. The tests involving the Illinois coal are reported herein, and the tests involving the Wyoming and New Mexico coals are described in Topical Report No. 1. On the laboratory scale, microautoclave tests evaluating coal, start-up oils, catalysts, thermal treatment, CO{sub 2} addition and sulfur compound effects are reported in Topical Report No. 3. Other microautoclave tests, such as tests on rejuvenated catalyst, coker liquids, and cleaned coals, are described in the Bench Run sections to which they refer. The microautoclave tests conducted for modelling the CTSL process are described in the CTSL Modelling section of Topical Report No. 3 under this contract.

  7. Coal-to-liquids: Potential impact on U.S. coal reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milici, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    The production of liquid fuels from coal will very likely become an important part of the hydrocarbon energy mix of the future, provided that technical and environmental obstacles are overcome economically. The coal industry should be able to handle a coal-to-liquids (CTL) industry of modest size, using 60-70 million short tons or 54-64 million metric tonnes of coal per annum, without premature depletion of the country's coal reserves. However, attempts to use CTL technology to replace all petroleum imports would deplete the nation's coal reserves by the end of the century. ?? 2009 U.S. Government.

  8. COST OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION (SCR) APPLICATION FOR NOX CONTROL ON COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report provides a methodology for estimating budgetary costs associated with retrofit applications of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology on coal-fired boilers. SCR is a postcombustion nitrogen oxides (NOx) control technology capable of providing NOx reductions >90...

  9. Hydrogenation of coal liquid utilizing a metal carbonyl catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feder, Harold M.; Rathke, Jerome W.

    1979-01-01

    Coal liquid having a dissolved transition metal, catalyst as a carbonyl complex such as Co.sub.2 (CO.sub.8) is hydrogenated with hydrogen gas or a hydrogen donor. A dissociating solvent contacts the coal liquid during hydrogenation to form an immiscible liquid mixture at a high carbon monoxide pressure. The dissociating solvent, e.g. ethylene glycol, is of moderate coordinating ability, while sufficiently polar to solvate the transition metal as a complex cation along with a transition metal, carbonyl anion in solution at a decreased carbon monoxide pressure. The carbon monoxide pressure is reduced and the liquids are separated to recover the hydrogenated coal liquid as product. The dissociating solvent with the catalyst in ionized form is recycled to the hydrogenation step at the elevated carbon monoxide pressure for reforming the catalyst complex within fresh coal liquid.

  10. Catalytic coal liquefaction with treated solvent and SRC recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Diwakar; Givens, Edwin N.; Schweighardt, Frank K.

    1986-01-01

    A process for the solvent refining of coal to distillable, pentane soluble products using a dephenolated and denitrogenated recycle solvent and a recycled, pentane-insoluble, solvent-refined coal material, which process provides enhanced oil-make in the conversion of coal.

  11. Catalytic Alkene Metathesis in Ionic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischmeister, Cédric

    Olefin metathesis has found a tremendous number of application in the past 25 years. Immobilisation of olefin metathesis (pre)catalysts in room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) offers the opportunity to recover and reuse the catalyst and also to reduce the level of ruthenium (Ru) contaminants in the products.

  12. High temperature ceramic membrane reactors for coal liquid upgrading. Final report, September 21, 1989--November 20, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsotsis, T.T. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Liu, P.K.T. [Aluminum Co. of America, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Webster, I.A. [Unocal Corp., Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1992-12-31

    Membrane reactors are today finding extensive applications for gas and vapor phase catalytic reactions (see discussion in the introduction and recent reviews by Armor [92], Hsieh [93] and Tsotsis et al. [941]). There have not been any published reports, however, of their use in high pressure and temperature liquid-phase applications. The idea to apply membrane reactor technology to coal liquid upgrading has resulted from a series of experimental investigations by our group of petroleum and coal asphaltene transport through model membranes. Coal liquids contain polycyclic aromatic compounds, which not only present potential difficulties in upgrading, storage and coprocessing, but are also bioactive. Direct coal liquefaction is perceived today as a two-stage process, which involves a first stage of thermal (or catalytic) dissolution of coal, followed by a second stage, in which the resulting products of the first stage are catalytically upgraded. Even in the presence of hydrogen, the oil products of the second stage are thought to equilibrate with the heavier (asphaltenic and preasphaltenic) components found in the feedstream. The possibility exists for this smaller molecular fraction to recondense with the unreacted heavy components and form even heavier undesirable components like char and coke. One way to diminish these regressive reactions is to selectively remove these smaller molecular weight fractions once they are formed and prior to recondensation. This can, at least in principle, be accomplished through the use of high temperature membrane reactors, using ceramic membranes which are permselective for the desired products of the coal liquid upgrading process. An additional incentive to do so is in order to eliminate the further hydrogenation and hydrocracking of liquid products to undesirable light gases.

  13. In Situ Catalytic Pyrolysis of Low-Rank Coal for the Conversion of Heavy Oils into Light Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nadeem Amin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lighter tars are largely useful in chemical industries but their quantity is quite little. Catalytic cracking is applied to improve the yield of light tars during pyrolysis. Consequently, in situ upgrading technique through a MoS2 catalyst has been explored in this research work. MoS2 catalyst is useful for the conversion of high energy cost into low energy cost. The variations in coal pyrolysis tar without and with catalyst were determined. Meanwhile, the obtained tar was analyzed using simulated distillation gas chromatograph and Elemental Analyzer. Consequently, the catalyst reduced the pitch contents and increased the fraction of light tar from 50 to 60 wt.% in coal pyrolysis tar. MoS2 catalyst increased the liquid yield from 18 to 33 (wt.%, db and decreased gas yield from 27 to 12 (wt.%, db compared to coal without catalyst. Moreover, it increased H content and hydrogen-to-carbon ratio by 7.9 and 3.3%, respectively, and reduced the contents of nitrogen, sulphur, and oxygen elements by 8.1%, 15.2%, and 23.9%, respectively, in their produced tars compared to coal without catalyst.

  14. Catalytic Gasification of Coal using Eutectic Salt Mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atul Sheth; Pradeep Agrawal; Yaw D. Yeboah

    1998-12-04

    The objectives of this study are to: identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process. A review of the collected literature was carried out. The catalysts which have been used for gasification can be roughly classified under the following five groups: alkali metal salts; alkaline earth metal oxides and salts; mineral substances or ash in coal; transition metals and their oxides and salts; and eutectic salt mixtures. Studies involving the use of gasification catalysts have been conducted. However, most of the studies focused on the application of individual catalysts. Only two publications have reported the study of gasification of coal char in CO2 and steam catalyzed by eutectic salt mixture catalysts. By using the eutectic mixtures of salts that show good activity as individual compounds, the gasification temperature can be reduced possibly with still better activity and gasification rates due to improved dispersion of the molten catalyst on the coal particles. For similar metal/carbon atomic ratios, eutectic catalysts were found to be consistently more active than their respective single salts. But the exact roles that the eutectic salt mixtures play in these are not well understood and details of the mechanisms remain unclear. The effects of the surface property of coals and the application methods of eutectic salt mixture catalysts with coal chars on the reactivity of gasification will be studied. Based on our preliminary evaluation of the literature, a ternary

  15. Report of National Research Institute for Pollution and Resources for fiscal 1979. Research on conversion of coal to petroleum, research on coal liquefaction, high pressure liquid phase hydrogenation of coal by continuous test equipment, and manufacture of coal chemicals; 1979 nendo sekitan no yuka no kenkyu / sekitan no ekika no kenkyu / renzoku shiken sochi ni yoru sekitan no koatsu ekiso suisoka bunkai / coal chemicals no seizo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-07-01

    Research was conducted on conversion of coal to petroleum for the purpose of securing substitute liquid fuel. Recovery of hydrogen from the waste gas from the conversion process was explained, as were the conversion results from various coals produced in Japan. In coal liquefaction researches with the aim of manufacturing artificial petroleum, a report was made on each of the researches, i.e., the experiment results of coal liquefaction using various catalysts, manufacture of hydrogen by water gas reaction, catalytic action against coal paste, action of mixed oil and pressure against coal paste, result of hydrogen adding test for coal paste using an intermediate scale device, test result of secondary hydrogen addition for coal liquefied oil, and the test result of continuous secondary hydrogen addition for the liquefied oil. In the manufacture of fuel oil by hydro-cracking of coal or tar, a report was made on high pressure liquid phase hydrogenation of coal using a continuous testing device. Aromatic chemicals useful as chemical materials are supposed to be obtained by cutting inter-polymerized-unit bonding to make low molecules from the chemical structure of coal, removing surrounding radicals and simplifying it. A report was also made on the experiment of manufacturing coal chemicals by combination of high pressure liquid phase hydrogenation and hydro-dealkylation. (NEDO)

  16. Liquid CO2/Coal Slurry for Feeding Low Rank Coal to Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marasigan, Jose [Electric Power Research Institute, Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Goldstein, Harvey [Electric Power Research Institute, Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Dooher, John [Electric Power Research Institute, Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    This study investigates the practicality of using a liquid CO2/coal slurry preparation and feed system for the E-Gas™ gasifier in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) electric power generation plant configuration. Liquid CO2 has several property differences from water that make it attractive for the coal slurries used in coal gasification-based power plants. First, the viscosity of liquid CO2 is much lower than water. This means it should take less energy to pump liquid CO2 through a pipe compared to water. This also means that a higher solids concentration can be fed to the gasifier, which should decrease the heat requirement needed to vaporize the slurry. Second, the heat of vaporization of liquid CO2 is about 80% lower than water. This means that less heat from the gasification reactions is needed to vaporize the slurry. This should result in less oxygen needed to achieve a given gasifier temperature. And third, the surface tension of liquid CO2 is about 2 orders of magnitude lower than water, which should result in finer atomization of the liquid CO2 slurry, faster reaction times between the oxygen and coal particles, and better carbon conversion at the same gasifier temperature. EPRI and others have recognized the potential that liquid CO2 has in improving the performance of an IGCC plant and have previously conducted systemslevel analyses to evaluate this concept. These past studies have shown that a significant increase in IGCC performance can be achieved with liquid CO2 over water with certain gasifiers. Although these previous analyses had produced some positive results, they were still based on various assumptions for liquid CO2/coal slurry properties.

  17. Catalytic Unmixed Combustion of Coal with Zero Pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Rizeq; Parag Kulkarni; Raul Subia; Wei Wei

    2005-12-01

    GE Global Research is developing an innovative energy-based technology for coal combustion with high efficiency and near-zero pollution. This Unmixed Combustion of coal (UMC-Coal) technology simultaneously converts coal, steam and air into two separate streams of high pressure CO{sub 2}-rich gas for sequestration, and high-temperature, high-pressure vitiated air for producing electricity in gas turbine expanders. The UMC process utilizes an oxygen transfer material (OTM) and eliminates the need for an air separation unit (ASU) and a CO{sub 2} separation unit as compared to conventional gasification based processes. This is the final report for the two-year DOE-funded program (DE-FC26-03NT41842) on this technology that ended in September 30, 2005. The UMC technology development program encompassed lab- and pilot-scale studies to demonstrate the UMC concept. The chemical feasibility of the individual UMC steps was established via lab-scale testing. A pilot plant, designed in a related DOE funded program (DE-FC26-00FT40974), was reconstructed and operated to demonstrate the chemistry of UMC process in a pilot-scale system. The risks associated with this promising technology including cost, lifetime and durability OTM and the impact of contaminants on turbine performance are currently being addressed in detail in a related ongoing DOE funded program (DE-FC26-00FT40974, Phase II). Results obtained to date suggest that this technology has the potential to economically meet future efficiency and environmental performance goals.

  18. Modification of Coal Char-loaded TiO2 by Sulfonation and Alkylsilylation to Enhance Catalytic Activity in Styrene Oxidation with Hydrogen Peroxide as Oxidant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhamad Nurhadi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The modified coal char from low-rank coal by sulfonation, titanium impregnation and followed by alkyl silylation possesses high catalytic activity in styrene oxidation. The surface of coal char was undergone several steps as such: modification using concentrated sulfuric acid in the sulfonation process, impregnation of 500 mmol titanium(IV isopropoxide and followed by alkyl silylation of n-octadecyltriclorosilane (OTS. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, IR spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption, and hydrophobicity. The catalytic activity of the catalysts has been examined in the liquid phase styrene oxidation by using aqueous hydrogen peroxide as oxidant. The catalytic study showed the alkyl silylation could enhance the catalytic activity of Ti-SO3H/CC-600(2.0. High catalytic activity and reusability of the o-Ti-SO3H/CC-600(2.0 were related to the modification of local environment of titanium active sites and the enhancement the hydrophobicity of catalyst particle by alkyl silylation. Copyright © 2017 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved Received: 24th May 2016; Revised: 11st October 2016; Accepted: 18th October 2016 How to Cite: Nurhadi, M. (2017. Modification of Coal Char-loaded TiO2 by Sulfonation and Alkylsilylation to Enhance Catalytic Activity in Styrene Oxidation with Hydrogen Peroxide as Oxidant. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 12 (1: 55-61 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.12.1.501.55-61 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.12.1.501.55-61

  19. Catalytic Enhancement of Carbon Black and Coal-Fueled Hybrid Direct Carbon Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleebeeck, Lisa; Ippolito, Davide; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2015-01-01

    , Ce1-xREExO2-δ (REE = Pr, Sm)) and metal oxides (LiMn2O4, Ag2O). Materials showing the highest activity in carbon black (Mn2O3, CeO2, Ce0.6Pr0.4O2-δ, Ag2O) were subsequently tested for catalytic activity toward bituminous coal, as revealed by both I-V-P curves and electrochemical impedance...... spectroscopy (EIS). Catalytic activity was evaluated as a function of various physical characteristics of doped ceria and manganese-based materials....

  20. The analysis of heavy metal in leaching liquid of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hongmei; Li, Guanglou; Zhang, Lu

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, heavy metals in coal were extracted by pure water to simulate the leaching effect of natural precipitation or artificial rainfall on outdoor storage of coal. The results show that the leaching liquid pH was slightly declining, and Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd were in μg/L level, far less than the hazardous waste identification standard of GB5085.3-2007. It suggests that leaching liquid was less harmful to environment when coal was immersed by big amount of water. In the case of spray or precipitation less, the pH drop was more obvious, leaching of heavy metals more, and the general elution of the initial dissolution of the most obvious. Although the amount of small but more toxic, the relevant management should be alert to its harmful.

  1. Deashing of coal liquids with ceramic membrane microfiltration and diafiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, B.; Goldsmith, R. [CeraMem Corp., Waltham, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Removal of mineral matter from liquid hydrocarbons derived from the direct liquefaction of coal is required for product acceptability. Current methods include critical solvent deashing (Rose{sup {reg_sign}} process from Kerr-McGee) and filtration (U.S. Filter leaf filter as used by British Coal). These methods produce ash reject streams containing up to 15% of the liquid hydrocarbon product. Consequently, CeraMem proposed the use of low cost, ceramic crossflow membranes for the filtration of coal liquids bottoms to remove mineral matter and subsequent diafiltration (analogous to cake washing in dead-ended filtration) for the removal of coal liquid from the solids stream. The use of these ceramic crossflow membranes overcomes the limitations of traditional polymeric crossflow membranes by having the ability to operate at elevated temperature and to withstand prolonged exposure to hydrocarbon and solvent media. In addition, CeraMem`s membrane filters are significantly less expensive than competitive ceramic membranes due to their unique construction. With these ceramic membrane filters, it may be possible to reduce the product losses associated with traditional deashing processes at an economically attractive cost. The performance of these ceramic membrane microfilters is discussed.

  2. Catalytic activity of pyrite for coal liquefaction reaction; Tennen pyrite no shokubai seino ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirano, K.; Kozu, M.; Okada, T.; Kobayashi, M. [Nippon Coal Oil Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Since natural pyrite is easy to obtain and cheap as coal liquefaction catalyst, it is to be used for the 150 t/d scale NEDOL process bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant. NEDO and NCOL have investigated the improvement of catalytic activity of pulverized natural pyrite for enhancing performance and economy of the NEDOL process. In this study, coal liquefaction tests were conducted using natural pyrite catalyst pulverized by dry-type bowl mill under nitrogen atmosphere. Mechanism of catalytic reaction of the natural pyrite was discussed from relations between properties of the catalyst and liquefaction product. The natural pyrite provided an activity to transfer gaseous hydrogen into the liquefaction product. It was considered that pulverized pyrite promotes the hydrogenation reaction of asphaltene because pulverization increases its contact rate with reactant and the amount of active points on its surface. It was inferred that catalytic activity of pyrite is affected greatly by the chemical state of Fe and S on its surface. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Effect of Ni-Co Ternary Molten Salt Catalysts on Coal Catalytic Pyrolysis Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xin; Qi, Cong; Li, Liang; Li, Yimin; Li, Song

    2017-08-01

    In order to facilitate efficient and clean utilization of coal, a series of Ni-Co ternary molten salt crystals are explored and the catalytic pyrolysis mechanism of Datong coal is investigated. The reaction mechanisms of coal are achieved by thermal gravimetric analyzer (TGA), and a reactive kinetic model is constructed. The microcosmic structure and macerals are observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The catalytic effects of ternary molten salt crystals at different stages of pyrolysis are analyzed. The experimental results show that Ni-Co ternary molten salt catalysts have the capability to bring down activation energy required by pyrolytic reactions at its initial phase. Also, the catalysts exert a preferable catalytic action on macromolecular structure decomposition and free radical polycondensation reactions. Furthermore, the high-temperature condensation polymerization is driven to decompose further with a faster reaction rate by the additions of Ni-Co ternary molten salt crystal catalysts. According to pyrolysis kinetic research, the addition of catalysts can effectively decrease the activation energy needed in each phase of pyrolysis reaction.

  4. The influence of catalytic additives on kinetics of coal gasification process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubek Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic coal gasification is a process that has the potential to become one of the efficient industrial technology of energy production. For this reason, the subject of this study was to analyze the kinetics of catalytic gasification of ‘Janina’ coal with steam. Isothermal measurements were performed at 800 °C, 900 °C, 950 °C and 1000 °C at a pressure of 1 MPa using cations of sodium, potassium and calcium as catalysts. During examination the thermovolumetric method was used. This method allows to determine the formation rates of a gaseous product such as carbon monoxide, hydrogen, methane and carbon dioxide as well as their contribution to the resulting gas. Moreover, the influence of catalysts on the kinetics of CO and H2 formation at various temperatures was determined and the kinetics parameters were calculated with the use of isoconversional model, Random Pore Model and Grain Model. The obtained results confirmed the positive effect of catalysts on the coal gasification process. The catalytic measurements were characterized by higher reaction rate and shorter duration of the process, and the calculated values of the kinetic parameters were lower than for the gasification process without the addition of catalysts.

  5. The investigation of reducing PAHs emission from coal pyrolysis by gaseous catalytic cracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yulong; Zhao, Ruifang; Zhang, Chun; Li, Guanlong; Zhang, Jing; Li, Fan

    2014-01-01

    The catalytic cracking method of PAHs for the pyrolysis gaseous products is proposed to control their pollution to the environment. In this study, the Py-GC-MS is used to investigate in situ the catalytic effect of CaO and Fe2O3 on the 16 PAHs from Pingshuo coal pyrolysis under different catalytic temperatures and catalyst particle sizes. The results demonstrate that Fe2O3 is effective than that of CaO for catalytic cracking of 16 PAHs and that their catalytic temperature corresponding to the maximum PAHs cracking rates is different. The PAHs cracking rate is up to 60.59% for Fe2O3 at 600°C and is 52.88% at 700°C for CaO. The catalytic temperature and particle size of the catalysts have a significant effect on PAHs cracking rate and CaO will lose the capability of decreasing 16 PAHs when the temperature is higher than 900°C. The possible cracking process of 16 PAHs is deduced by elaborately analyzing the cracking effect of the two catalysts on 16 different species of PAHs.

  6. The Investigation of Reducing PAHs Emission from Coal Pyrolysis by Gaseous Catalytic Cracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulong Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic cracking method of PAHs for the pyrolysis gaseous products is proposed to control their pollution to the environment. In this study, the Py-GC-MS is used to investigate in situ the catalytic effect of CaO and Fe2O3 on the 16 PAHs from Pingshuo coal pyrolysis under different catalytic temperatures and catalyst particle sizes. The results demonstrate that Fe2O3 is effective than that of CaO for catalytic cracking of 16 PAHs and that their catalytic temperature corresponding to the maximum PAHs cracking rates is different. The PAHs cracking rate is up to 60.59% for Fe2O3 at 600°C and is 52.88% at 700°C for CaO. The catalytic temperature and particle size of the catalysts have a significant effect on PAHs cracking rate and CaO will lose the capability of decreasing 16 PAHs when the temperature is higher than 900°C. The possible cracking process of 16 PAHs is deduced by elaborately analyzing the cracking effect of the two catalysts on 16 different species of PAHs.

  7. Production of Jet Fuels from Coal-Derived Liquids. Volume 13. Evaluation of Storage and Thermal Stability of Jet Fuels Derived from Coal Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    coal liquids including the hydrotreated tar oil distillates from the GPGP. Thus, determination of the storage and thermal stabilities of jet fuel...AD-A224 576 AFWAL-TR-87-2042 Volume XIII PRODUCTION OF JET FUELS FROM COAL -DERIVED LIQUIDS VOL XIII - Evaluation of Storage and Thermal Stability of...Jet Fuels Derived from Coal Liquids G. P. Sturm, Jr., R. D. Grigsby, J. W. Goetzinger, J. B. Green, and R. P. Anderson lIT Research Institute National

  8. Fabricating highly catalytically active block copolymer/metal nanoparticle microstructures at the liquid/liquid interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Qi; Li, Xiaoyang; Diao, Mengxiao; Lee, Yong-Ill; Liu, Hong-Guo

    2018-03-22

    Our previous studies have shown that the metal nanoparticle/polymer composite structures fabricated at the liquid/liquid interface have good reusability but lower catalytic activity for heterogeneous reactions in aqueous solutions. This should be attributed to the poor water wettability and more compact structure of the polymer matrices. Therefore, it should be possible to improve the catalytic activity through designing and fabricating a porous composite structure with good water wettability. A modified liquid/liquid interface adsorption and fabrication method was used. An aqueous solution of copper acetate and a chloroform/DMF mixed solution of PS-b-PAA acted as the two phases. Through spontaneous emulsification, self-assembly of the polymer molecules with Cu 2+ ions in the droplets, and adsorption of the formed spherical micelles and nanofibers to the planar liquid/liquid interface, a porous composite microstructure was formed. This structure consisted of nanofiber-connected nanospheres which have a PS core and a PAA corona. Tiny and well-dispersed Cu nanoparticles were embedded in the hydrophilic corona and were adsorbed on the nanofibers surface as well. After physical cross-linking with 1,6-diaminohexane, the composite material exhibited high catalytic activity and good reusability for the reactions in aqueous solutions. For example, the rate constant for the reduction of p-nitroaniline reached 1965 s -1  g -1 . Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Liquid-metal MHD for solar and coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierson, E.S.; Cohen, D.; Grammel, S.J.

    1980-01-01

    The two-phase-generator, liquid-metal magnetohydrodynamic (LMMHD) energy conversion system has an inherently thermodynamic efficiency for the same heat source and sink temperatures and is better suited for cogeneration than other conversion systems. For solar applications, attractive efficiencies in comparison with alternative systems are calculated at approx. 580 K and approx. 1090 K, and cogeneration advantages are indicated. For coal applications, recent coal combustion gas-copper reaction results show that the copper can be used to control SO/sub 2/ emissions. The calculated cycle efficiencies are comparable to those for open-cycle plasma MHD at combustor temperatures of 2220 K or less.

  10. Symbiotic Nuclear—Coal Systems for Production of Liquid Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taczanowski, S.

    The notion of safety is not confined to the technological or non-proliferation aspects. It covers also the elements of energy policy: irrational reactions of societies, emotions, egoistic interests of more or less powerful pressure of economical and external political factors. One should be conscious that the country's privilege of being equipped by the Nature with rich resources of oil or gas is not solely economical, but even more a political one. Simultaneously, the gradual depletion of world hydrocarbons that draws behind irrevocable price increase has to be expected within the time scale of exploitation of power plants (now amounted to ~60 years). Therefore consequences of energy policy last much longer than the perspectives the political or economical decision makers are planning and acting within and the public is expecting successes and finally evaluating them. The world oil and gas resources are geopolitically very non-uniformly distributed, in contrast to coal and uranium. Since the level of energy self-sufficiency of the EU is highest for coal, the old idea of synfuels production from coal is recalled. Yet, in view of limits to the CO2 emissions in the EU another method has to be used here than the conventional coal liquefaction just applied in China. Simultaneously, an interesting evolution of energy prices was be observed, namely an increase in that of motor fuels in contrast to that of electricity remaining well stable. This fact suggests that the use of electricity (mainly the off-peak load), generated without emissions of CO2 for production of liquid fuels can prove reasonable. Thus, the essence of the presented idea of coal-nuclear symbiosis lies in the supply of energy in the form of H2, necessary for this process, from a nuclear reactor. Particularly, in the present option H2 is obtained by electrolytic water splitting supplying also O2 as a precious by-product in well mature and commercially available already since decades, Light Water Reactors

  11. Catalytic conversion of nonfood woody biomass solids to organic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Katalin; Ford, Peter C

    2014-05-20

    This Account outlines recent efforts in our laboratories addressing a fundamental challenge of sustainability chemistry, the effective utilization of biomass for production of chemicals and fuels. Efficient methods for converting renewable biomass solids to chemicals and liquid fuels would reduce society's dependence on nonrenewable petroleum resources while easing the atmospheric carbon dioxide burden. The major nonfood component of biomass is lignocellulose, a matrix of the biopolymers cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. New approaches are needed to effect facile conversion of lignocellulose solids to liquid fuels and to other chemical precursors without the formation of intractable side products and with sufficient specificity to give economically sustainable product streams. We have devised a novel catalytic system whereby the renewable feedstocks cellulose, organosolv lignin, and even lignocellulose composites such as sawdust are transformed into organic liquids. The reaction medium is supercritical methanol (sc-MeOH), while the catalyst is a copper-doped porous metal oxide (PMO) prepared from inexpensive, Earth-abundant starting materials. This transformation occurs in a single stage reactor operating at 300-320 °C and 160-220 bar. The reducing equivalents for these transformations are derived by the reforming of MeOH (to H2 and CO), which thereby serves as a "liquid syngas" in the present case. Water generated by deoxygenation processes is quickly removed by the water-gas shift reaction. The Cu-doped PMO serves multiple purposes, catalyzing substrate hydrogenolysis and hydrogenation as well as the methanol reforming and shift reactions. This one-pot "UCSB process" is quantitative, giving little or no biochar residual. Provided is an overview of these catalysis studies beginning with reactions of the model compound dihydrobenzofuran that help define the key processes occurring. The initial step is phenyl-ether bond hydrogenolysis, and this is followed by

  12. Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL{trademark}) process bench studies and PDU scale-up with sub-bituminous coal. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comolli, A.G.; Johanson, E.S.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Lee, L.K.T.; Stalzer, R.H.; Smith, T.O.

    1993-03-01

    Reported are the details and results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments using sub-bituminous coal conducted at Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-88PC88818 during the period October 1, 1988 to December 31, 1992. The work described is primarily concerned with testing of the baseline Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL{trademark}) process with comparisons with other two stage process configurations, catalyst evaluations and unit operations such as solid separation, pretreatments, on-line hydrotreating, and an examination of new concepts. In the overall program, three coals were evaluated, bituminous Illinois No. 6, Burning Star and sub-bituminous Wyoming Black Thunder and New Mexico McKinley Mine seams. The results from a total of 16 bench-scale runs are reported and analyzed in detail. The runs (experiments) concern process variables, variable reactor volumes, catalysts (both supported, dispersed and rejuvenated), coal cleaned by agglomeration, hot slurry treatments, reactor sequence, on-line hydrotreating, dispersed catalyst with pretreatment reactors and CO{sub 2}/coal effects. The tests involving the Wyoming and New Mexico Coals are reported herein, and the tests involving the Illinois coal are described in Topical Report No. 2. On a laboratory scale, microautoclave tests evaluating coal, start-up oils, catalysts, thermal treatment, CO{sub 2} addition and sulfur compound effects were conducted and reported in Topical Report No. 3. Other microautoclave tests are described in the Bench Run sections to which they refer such as: rejuvenated catalyst, coker liquids and cleaned coals. The microautoclave tests conducted for modelling the CTSL{trademark} process are described in the CTSL{trademark} Modelling section of Topical Report No. 3 under this contract.

  13. Refining effect of the liquid phase (in coal hydrogenation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupfer; Leonhardt

    1942-11-07

    Experiments were run in a 10-liter oven at 600 atm. on various starting materials to determine what percentage of the original content of nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur impurities were removed during liquid-phase processing. It was determined that the liquid phase removed most of these impurities, with nitrogen being affected to a lesser extent than the other two. In general, the raw materials which could most easily be hydrogenated had the greatest percentage of impurities removed. Also, in general, the more drastic the processing, the more effective the impurity-removal, especially in the case of nitrogen. Removal of oxygen as oxides of carbon happened in the case of brown coal to about twice the extent that it did in the case of bituminous coal, and happened to an even greater extent in the case of high-temperature tar. In the case of sulfur, the following percentages were removed in the following processes: 79% in processing low-temperature-carbonization tar to heavy oil, 75% to 87% in processing high-temperature-carbonization tar to heavy oil, 82% to 92% in processing high-temperature-carbonization tar to gasoline and middle oil, 80% to 97% in processing bituminous coal to gasoline and middle oil, and 86% to 89% in processing brown coal to gasoline and middle oil. In the case of oxygen, the corresponding figures (in the same order) were 73%, 36% to 70%, 44% to 70%, 86% to 91%, and 89% to 92%. In the case of nitrogen, they were 56%, 38% to 51%, 53% to 73%, 60% to 67%, and 64% to 79%. 1 table.

  14. Refining and end use study of coal liquids II - linear programming analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, C.; Tam, S.

    1995-12-31

    A DOE-funded study is underway to determine the optimum refinery processing schemes for producing transportation fuels that will meet CAAA regulations from direct and indirect coal liquids. The study consists of three major parts: pilot plant testing of critical upgrading processes, linear programming analysis of different processing schemes, and engine emission testing of final products. Currently, fractions of a direct coal liquid produced form bituminous coal are being tested in sequence of pilot plant upgrading processes. This work is discussed in a separate paper. The linear programming model, which is the subject of this paper, has been completed for the petroleum refinery and is being modified to handle coal liquids based on the pilot plant test results. Preliminary coal liquid evaluation studies indicate that, if a refinery expansion scenario is adopted, then the marginal value of the coal liquid (over the base petroleum crude) is $3-4/bbl.

  15. System Study of Rich Catalytic/Lean burn (RCL) Catalytic Combustion for Natural Gas and Coal-Derived Syngas Combustion Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahrokh Etemad; Lance Smith; Kevin Burns

    2004-12-01

    Rich Catalytic/Lean burn (RCL{reg_sign}) technology has been successfully developed to provide improvement in Dry Low Emission gas turbine technology for coal derived syngas and natural gas delivering near zero NOx emissions, improved efficiency, extending component lifetime and the ability to have fuel flexibility. The present report shows substantial net cost saving using RCL{reg_sign} technology as compared to other technologies both for new and retrofit applications, thus eliminating the need for Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) in combined or simple cycle for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and natural gas fired combustion turbines.

  16. Molybdenum-based additives to mixed-metal oxides for use in hot gas cleanup sorbents for the catalytic decomposition of ammonia in coal gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Raul E.

    1993-01-01

    This invention relates to additives to mixed-metal oxides that act simultaneously as sorbents and catalysts in cleanup systems for hot coal gases. Such additives of this type, generally, act as a sorbent to remove sulfur from the coal gases while substantially simultaneously, catalytically decomposing appreciable amounts of ammonia from the coal gases.

  17. Catalytic oxidative desulfurization of liquid hydrocarbon fuels using air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararaman, Ramanathan

    Conventional approaches to oxidative desulfurization of liquid hydrocarbons involve use of high-purity, expensive water soluble peroxide for oxidation of sulfur compounds followed by post-treatment for removal of oxidized sulfones by extraction. Both are associated with higher cost due to handling, storage of oxidants and yield loss with extraction and water separation, making the whole process more expensive. This thesis explores an oxidative desulfurization process using air as an oxidant followed by catalytic decomposition of sulfones thereby eliminating the aforementioned issues. Oxidation of sulfur compounds was realized by a two step process in which peroxides were first generated in-situ by catalytic air oxidation, followed by catalytic oxidation of S compounds using the peroxides generated in-situ completing the two step approach. By this technique it was feasible to oxidize over 90% of sulfur compounds present in real jet (520 ppmw S) and diesel (41 ppmw S) fuels. Screening of bulk and supported CuO based catalysts for peroxide generation using model aromatic compound representing diesel fuel showed that bulk CuO catalyst was more effective in producing peroxides with high yield and selectivity. Testing of three real diesel fuels obtained from different sources for air oxidation over bulk CuO catalyst showed different level of effectiveness for generating peroxides in-situ which was consistent with air oxidation of representative model aromatic compounds. Peroxides generated in-situ was then used as an oxidant to oxidize sulfur compounds present in the fuel over MoO3/SiO2 catalyst. 81% selectivity of peroxides for oxidation of sulfur compounds was observed on MoO3/SiO2 catalyst at 40 °C and under similar conditions MoO3/Al2O3 gave only 41% selectivity. This difference in selectivity might be related to the difference in the nature of active sites of MoO3 on SiO2 and Al2O 3 supports as suggested by H2-TPR and XRD analyses. Testing of supported and bulk Mg

  18. Production of High Energy Aviation Fuels from Advanced Coal Liquids. Phase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    percentages of those aromatic molecules and may become one of the prime sources of the feedstocks needed for production of advanced fuels. Coal tars ...HRS) was an automated pilot plant capable of studying the processing associated with feedstocks such as petroleum, heavy oils, tars , coal liquids... coal that is rich in aromatics , producing liquids from it under the proper conditions, hydrotreating the aromatics to naphthenes and concentrating

  19. Catalytic Graphitization of Coal-Based Carbon Materials with Light Rare Earth Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rongyan; Lu, Guimin; Qiao, Wenming; Yu, Jianguo

    2016-08-30

    The catalytic graphitization mechanism of coal-based carbon materials with light rare earth elements was investigated using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, selected-area electron diffraction, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The interface between light rare earth elements and carbon materials was carefully observed, and two routes of rare earth elements catalyzing the carbon materials were found: dissolution-precipitation and carbide formation-decomposition. These two simultaneous processes certainly accelerate the catalytic graphitization of carbon materials, and light rare earth elements exert significant influence on the microstructure and thermal conductivity of graphite. Moreover, by virtue of praseodymium (Pr), it was found that a highly crystallographic orientation of graphite was induced and formed, which was reasonably attributed to the similar arrangements of the planes perpendicular to (001) in both graphite and Pr crystals. The interface between Pr and carbon was found to be an important factor for the orientation of graphite structure.

  20. Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater by a novel integration of heterogeneous catalytic ozonation and biological process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Haifeng; Han, Hongjun; Jia, Shengyong; Hou, Baolin; Zhao, Qian

    2014-08-01

    Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (CGW) was investigated employing heterogeneous catalytic ozonation integrated with anoxic moving bed biofilm reactor (ANMBBR) and biological aerated filter (BAF) process. The results indicated that catalytic ozonation with the prepared catalyst (i.e. MnOx/SBAC, sewage sludge was converted into sludge based activated carbon (SBAC) which loaded manganese oxides) significantly enhanced performance of pollutants removal by generated hydroxyl radicals. The effluent of catalytic ozonation process was more biodegradable and less toxic than that in ozonation alone. Meanwhile, ANMBBR-BAF showed efficient capacity of pollutants removal in treatment of the effluent of catalytic ozonation at a shorter reaction time, allowing the discharge limits to be met. Therefore, the integrated process with efficient, economical and sustainable advantages was suitable for advanced treatment of real biologically pretreated CGW. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Thermodynamic and rheological properties of solid-liquid systems in coal processing. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabadi, V.N.

    1995-06-30

    The work on this project was initiated on September 1, 1991. The project consisted of two different tasks: (1) Development of a model to compute viscosities of coal derived liquids, and (2) Investigate new models for estimation of thermodynamic properties of solid and liquid compounds of the type that exist in coal, or are encountered during coal processing. As for task 1, a model for viscosity computation of coal model compound liquids and coal derived liquids has been developed. The detailed model is presented in this report. Two papers, the first describing the pure liquid model and the second one discussing the application to coal derived liquids, are expected to be published in Energy & Fuels shortly. Marginal progress is reported on task 2. Literature review for this work included compilation of a number of data sets, critical investigation of data measurement techniques available in the literature, investigation of models for liquid and solid phase thermodynamic computations. During the preliminary stages it was discovered that for development of a liquid or solid state equation of state, accurate predictive models for a number of saturation properties, such as, liquid and solid vapor pressures, saturated liquid and solid volumes, heat capacities of liquids and solids at saturation, etc. Most the remaining time on this task was spent in developing predictive correlations for vapor pressures and saturated liquid volumes of organic liquids in general and coal model liquids in particular. All these developments are discussed in this report. Some recommendations for future direction of research in this area are also listed.

  2. Search for a solvent using the UNIFAC method for separation of coal tar distillate by liquid-liquid extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egashira, R.; Watanabe, K. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    Firstly, the functional groups composing the solvent predicted to be appropriate for the separation of coal tar distillate were selected. Secondly, liquid-liquid equilibria between coal tar distillates and solvents containing fictitious components consisting of the above selected functional groups were estimated by UNIFAC to determine the effects of these groups on the distribution coefficients. Finally, according to these results, solvents containing real components were selected and compared. These results provide useful information for the selection of appropriate extracting solvents.

  3. Development of sustainable coal to liquid processes: Minimising process CO2 emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kauchali

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional coal-to-liquid (CTL plants are synonymous with the production of carbon dioxide. Coal may be gasified in the presence of steam and oxygen to produce gas comprising carbon dioxide (CO2, carbon monoxide (CO, methane (CH4, hydrogen (H2 and steam (H2O. The gases can be reacted to a myriad of chemicals and fuels via the Fischer-Tropsch (FT reaction. However, excess carbon dioxide is generated via the Water-Gas-Shift reaction during preparation of CO:H2 ratios for FT. Here, a process development is represented on a CHO phase diagram, where unique regions are identified for autothermal operations for coal conversion. Considerations are given to develop idealised processes for the production of liquid chemicals from coal which emit minimal process CO2, require minimal energy input and do not require steam. This is achieved by co-feeding coal with methane and identifying endothermic-exothermic process pairs for methane-coal dry reforming. Furthermore, it is shown that a preferred method to produce liquid fuels from coal is by first creating dimethyl ether (DME as an intermediate, followed by the dehydration of DME to liquid fuels (gasoline range. For this route, via DME, the CO2 emission was found to be four times less than idealised CTL processes. Keywords: Gasification, Reforming, Coal to liquid, Carbon dioxide, Autothermal, Fischer tropsch

  4. The come back of liquid coal; Le retour du charbon liquide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caulier, S

    2010-03-15

    The coal-to-liquid (CTL) process has made important progresses and is now perfectly mastered by the South-African company Sasol. At least 6 CTL facilities are under construction in China. Each will produce 80000 barrels/day of diesel fuel and the production is planned to start up by 2017 or 2018. The CTL process is profitable when the oil barrel price exceeds 100 US$ but it depends also of the coal price. However, the process itself is highly energy consuming and also highly polluting with strong CO{sub 2} emissions. A solution to these drawbacks would come from the implementation of poly-generation (separate generation of energy, electricity and heat), and from the use of a combined cycle with integrated gasification. (J.S.)

  5. Effect of coal-derived-liquid solvent on the hydrogenation and restrictive diffusion of nickel porphyrins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, C.H.; Massoth, F.E.; Lee, S.Y.; Seader, J.D. (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (USA). Dept. of Fuels Engineering)

    1991-12-01

    Hydrogenation of nickel porphyrins was carried out at 335{degree}C and 50 atm hydrogen pressure with two Ni-Mo/alumina catalysts of different pore sizes. Solvents employed were a triple-hydrotreated coal-derived-liquid and four pure hydrocarbons (n-decane, decalin, tetralin, and mesitylene). Reaction rates in the hydrotreated coal-derived-liquid solvent were higher than those in pure solvents with higher hydrogen solubilities. The results were attributed to the greater hydrogen-donor ability of the hydrotreated coal-derived-liquid solvent. Reaction rates of different catalyst particle sizes were used to calculate effective diffusivities under processing conditions. Reactivity was significantly affected by catalyst deactivation via coke buildup at catalyst pore mouths. Accounting for this additional diffusional constraint, restrictive diffusion in the coal-liquid solvent under processing conditions was found to be in reasonable agreement with approximate hydrodynamic theory for non-reactive conditions. 33 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Catalytic Destruction of a Surrogate Organic Hazardous Air Pollutant as a Potential Co-benefit for Coal-fired Selective Catalyst Reduction Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalytic destruction of benzene (C6H6), a surrogate for organic hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) produced from coal combustion, was investigated using a commercial selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst for evaluating the potential co-benefit of the SCR technology for reduc...

  7. The Influence Of Mass Fraction Of Dressed Coal On Ignition Conditions Of Composite Liquid Fuel Droplet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlegel Nikita E.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The laws of condition modification of inert heat and ignition in an oxidant flow of composite liquid fuel droplet were studied by the developed experimental setup. Investigations were for composite liquid fuel composition based on the waste of bituminous and nonbaking coal processing, appropriate carbon dust, water, used motor oil. The characteristics of boundary layer inertia heat of composite liquid fuel droplet, thermal decomposition of coal organic part, the yield of volatiles and evaporation of liquid combustion component, ignition of the gas mixture and coke residue were defined.

  8. Catalytic conversion of nonfood woody biomass solids to organic liquids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barta, Katalin; Ford, Peter C

    CONSPECTUS: This Account outlines recent efforts in our laboratories addressing a fundamental challenge of sustainability chemistry, the effective utilization of biomass for production of chemicals and fuels. Efficient methods for converting renewable biomass solids to chemicals and liquid fuels

  9. Dehydrogenation of liquid fuel in microchannel catalytic reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toseland, Bernard Allen [Allentown, PA; Pez, Guido Peter [Allentown, PA; Puri, Pushpinder Singh [Emmaus, PA

    2009-02-03

    The present invention is an improved process for the storage and delivery of hydrogen by the reversible hydrogenation/dehydrogenation of an organic compound wherein the organic compound is initially in its hydrogenated state. The improvement in the route to generating hydrogen is in the dehydrogenation step and recovery of the dehydrogenated organic compound resides in the following steps: introducing a hydrogenated organic compound to a microchannel reactor incorporating a dehydrogenation catalyst; effecting dehydrogenation of said hydrogenated organic compound under conditions whereby said hydrogenated organic compound is present as a liquid phase; generating a reaction product comprised of a liquid phase dehydrogenated organic compound and gaseous hydrogen; separating the liquid phase dehydrogenated organic compound from gaseous hydrogen; and, recovering the hydrogen and liquid phase dehydrogenated organic compound.

  10. Thermal processing of Khoot coal and characterization of obtained solid and liquid products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Batbileg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available On 21st January 2015, the abstract of this paper was replaced with the correct abstract.The coal of Khoot deposit have been investigated and determined the technical characteristics, elemental and petrographical maceral compositions. On the basis of proximate, ultimate, petrographic and IR analysis results have been confirmed that the Khoot coal is a sub-bituminous coal. The hard residue after pyrolysis have been activated by heated water steam and determined the iodine and methylene blue adsorption of initial coal and activated carbon samples from pyrolysis hard residue. The porosity structure of initial coal, activated carbon of pyrolysis hard residue and hard residue after thermolysis (thermal dissolution have been determined by SEM analysis. The liquid tar product of thermolysis of Khoot coal was investigated by FTIR, 13C and 1H NMR spectrometric analysis. The results of thermolysis of Khoot coal in tetralin with constant mass ratio between coal and tetralin (1:1.8 at 450°C show that 60.8% of liquid product can be obtained after thermolysis of the coal organic mass.DOI: http://doi.dx.org/10.5564/mjc.v15i0.326 Mongolian Journal of Chemistry 15 (41, 2014, p66-72

  11. Mono-, bi-, and tri-metallic Ni-based catalysts for the catalytic hydrotreatment of pyrolysis liquids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, Wang; Venderbosch, Robbie H.; He, Songbo; Bykova, Maria V.; Khromova, Sofia A.; Yakovlev, Vadim A.; Heeres, Hero J.

    Catalytic hydrotreatment is a promising technology to convert pyrolysis liquids into intermediates with improved properties. Here, we report a catalyst screening study on the catalytic hydrotreatment of pyrolysis liquids using bi- and tri-metallic nickel-based catalysts in a batch autoclave (initial

  12. Relevance of carbon structure to formation of tar and liquid alkane during coal pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Peng; Le, Jiawei; Wang, Lanlan; Pan, Tieying; Lu, Xilan; Zhang, Dexiang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Curve-fitting method was used to quantify the accurate contents of structural carbon. • Effect of carbon structure in coal with different rank on formation of pyrolysis tar was studied. • Numerical interrelation between carbon types in coal structure and tar yield is elaborated. • Effect of carbon structure on formation of liquid alkane during coal pyrolysis is discussed. - Abstract: The relevance of carbon structure to formation of tar and liquid alkane during coal pyrolysis were discussed extensively. The pyrolysis tests were carried out in a tube reactor at 873 K and keep 15 min. The carbon distribution in coals was investigated by solid state 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance (N.M.R.). The curve-fitting method was used to quantify the accurate contents of structural carbon. The alkanes in coal tar were analyzed by Gas Chromatograph–Mass Spectrometer (GC–MS). The results show that oxygen-linked aromatic carbon decreases with the increasing of coal rank. The aliphatic carbon contents of Huainan (HN) coal are 44.20%, the highest among the four coals. The carbon types in coal structure have a significant influence on the formation of tar and liquid alkane. The coal tar yields are related to the aliphatic substituted aromatic carbon, CH 2 /CH 3 ratio and oxygen-linked carbon in coal so that the increasing order of tar yield is Inner Mongolia lignite (IM, 6.30 wt.%) < Sinkiang coal (SK, 7.55 wt.%) < Shenmu coal (SM, 12.84 wt.%) < HN (16.29 wt.%). The highest contents of oxygen-linked aromatic carbon in IM lead to phenolic compound of 41.06% in IM-tar. The contents of alkane in SM-tar are the highest because the appropriate CH 2 /CH 3 ratio and the highest aliphatic side chains on aromatic rings in SM leading to generate aliphatic hydrocarbon with medium molecular weight easily. The mechanism on formation of tar and liquid alkane plays an important role in guiding the industrialization of pyrolysis-based poly-generation producing tar with high

  13. Gas cleaning and hydrogen sulfide removal for COREX coal gas by sorption enhanced catalytic oxidation over recyclable activated carbon desulfurizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tonghua; Shen, Yafei; Jia, Jinping

    2014-02-18

    This paper proposes a novel self-developed JTS-01 desulfurizer and JZC-80 alkaline adsorbent for H2S removal and gas cleaning of the COREX coal gas in small-scale and commercial desulfurizing devices. JTS-01 desulfurizer was loaded with metal oxide (i.e., ferric oxides) catalysts on the surface of activated carbons (AC), and the catalyst capacity was improved dramatically by means of ultrasonically assisted impregnation. Consequently, the sulfur saturation capacity and sulfur capacity breakthrough increased by 30.3% and 27.9%, respectively. The whole desulfurizing process combined selective adsorption with catalytic oxidation. Moreover, JZC-80 adsorbent can effectively remove impurities such as HCl, HF, HCN, and ash in the COREX coal gas, stabilizing the system pressure drop. The JTS-01 desulfurizer and JZC-80 adsorbent have been successfully applied for the COREX coal gas cleaning in the commercial plant at Baosteel, Shanghai. The sulfur capacity of JTS-01 desulfurizer can reach more than 50% in industrial applications. Compared with the conventional dry desulfurization process, the modified AC desulfurizers have more merit, especially in terms of the JTS-01 desulfurizer with higher sulfur capacity and low pressure drop. Thus, this sorption enhanced catalytic desulfurization has promising prospects for H2S removal and other gas cleaning.

  14. HTGR-INTEGRATED COAL TO LIQUIDS PRODUCTION ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastasia M Gandrik; Rick A Wood

    2010-10-01

    As part of the DOE’s Idaho National Laboratory (INL) nuclear energy development mission, the INL is leading a program to develop and design a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), which has been selected as the base design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant. Because an HTGR operates at a higher temperature, it can provide higher temperature process heat, more closely matched to chemical process temperatures, than a conventional light water reactor. Integrating HTGRs into conventional industrial processes would increase U.S. energy security and potentially reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), particularly CO2. This paper focuses on the integration of HTGRs into a coal to liquids (CTL) process, for the production of synthetic diesel fuel, naphtha, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The plant models for the CTL processes were developed using Aspen Plus. The models were constructed with plant production capacity set at 50,000 barrels per day of liquid products. Analysis of the conventional CTL case indicated a potential need for hydrogen supplementation from high temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), with heat and power supplied by the HTGR. By supplementing the process with an external hydrogen source, the need to “shift” the syngas using conventional water-gas shift reactors was eliminated. HTGR electrical power generation efficiency was set at 40%, a reactor size of 600 MWth was specified, and it was assumed that heat in the form of hot helium could be delivered at a maximum temperature of 700°C to the processes. Results from the Aspen Plus model were used to perform a preliminary economic analysis and a life cycle emissions assessment. The following conclusions were drawn when evaluating the nuclear assisted CTL process against the conventional process: • 11 HTGRs (600 MWth each) are required to support production of a 50,000 barrel per day CTL facility. When compared to conventional CTL production, nuclear integration decreases coal

  15. HTGR-Integrated Coal To Liquids Production Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandrik, Anastasia M.; Wood, Rick A.

    2010-01-01

    As part of the DOE's Idaho National Laboratory (INL) nuclear energy development mission, the INL is leading a program to develop and design a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), which has been selected as the base design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant. Because an HTGR operates at a higher temperature, it can provide higher temperature process heat, more closely matched to chemical process temperatures, than a conventional light water reactor. Integrating HTGRs into conventional industrial processes would increase U.S. energy security and potentially reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), particularly CO2. This paper focuses on the integration of HTGRs into a coal to liquids (CTL) process, for the production of synthetic diesel fuel, naphtha, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The plant models for the CTL processes were developed using Aspen Plus. The models were constructed with plant production capacity set at 50,000 barrels per day of liquid products. Analysis of the conventional CTL case indicated a potential need for hydrogen supplementation from high temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), with heat and power supplied by the HTGR. By supplementing the process with an external hydrogen source, the need to 'shift' the syngas using conventional water-gas shift reactors was eliminated. HTGR electrical power generation efficiency was set at 40%, a reactor size of 600 MWth was specified, and it was assumed that heat in the form of hot helium could be delivered at a maximum temperature of 700 C to the processes. Results from the Aspen Plus model were used to perform a preliminary economic analysis and a life cycle emissions assessment. The following conclusions were drawn when evaluating the nuclear assisted CTL process against the conventional process: (1) 11 HTGRs (600 MWth each) are required to support production of a 50,000 barrel per day CTL facility. When compared to conventional CTL production, nuclear integration decreases coal consumption by 66

  16. Liquid Tin Anode Direct Coal Fuel Cell Final Program Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Thomas

    2012-01-26

    This SBIR program will result in improved LTA cell technology which is the fundamental building block of the Direct Coal ECL concept. As described below, ECL can make enormous efficiency and cost contributions to utility scale coal power. This program will improve LTA cells for small scale power generation. As described in the Commercialization section, there are important intermediate military and commercial markets for LTA generators that will provide an important bridge to the coal power application. The specific technical information from this program relating to YSZ electrolyte durability will be broadly applicable SOFC developers working on coal based SOFC generally. This is an area about which very little is currently known and will be critical for successfully applying fuel cells to coal power generation.

  17. Plastic waste to liquid oil through catalytic pyrolysis using natural and synthetic zeolite catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miandad, R; Barakat, M A; Rehan, M; Aburiazaiza, A S; Ismail, I M I; Nizami, A S

    2017-11-01

    This study aims to examine the catalytic pyrolysis of various plastic wastes in the presence of natural and synthetic zeolite catalysts. A small pilot scale reactor was commissioned to carry out the catalytic pyrolysis of polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP), polyethylene (PE) and their mixtures in different ratios at 450°C and 75min. PS plastic waste resulted in the highest liquid oil yield of 54% using natural zeolite and 50% using synthetic zeolite catalysts. Mixing of PS with other plastic wastes lowered the liquid oil yield whereas all mixtures of PP and PE resulted in higher liquid oil yield than the individual plastic feedstocks using both catalysts. The GC-MS analysis revealed that the pyrolysis liquid oils from all samples mainly consisted of aromatic hydrocarbons with a few aliphatic hydrocarbon compounds. The types and amounts of different compounds present in liquid oils vary with some common compounds such as styrene, ethylbenzene, benzene, azulene, naphthalene, and toluene. The FT-IR data also confirmed that liquid oil contained mostly aromatic compounds with some alkanes, alkenes and small amounts of phenol group. The produced liquid oils have high heating values (HHV) of 40.2-45MJ/kg, which are similar to conventional diesel. The liquid oil has potential to be used as an alternative source of energy or fuel production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Separating liquid and solid products of liquefaction of coal or like carbonaceous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, John M.

    1979-06-26

    Slurryform products of coal liquefaction are treated with caustic soda in presence of H.sub.2 O in an inline static mixer and then the treated product is separated into a solids fraction and liquid fractions, including liquid hydrocarbons, by gravity settling preferably effected in a multiplate settling separator with a plurality of settling spacings.

  19. Direct Coal -to-Liquids (CTL) for Jet Fuel Using Biomass-Derived Solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauhan, Satya P. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States); Garbark, Daniel B. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States); Taha, Rachid [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States); Peterson, Rick [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2017-09-30

    Battelle has demonstrated a novel and potentially breakthrough technology for a direct coal-to-liquids (CTL) process for producing jet fuel using biomass-derived coal solvents (bio-solvents). The Battelle process offers a significant reduction in capital and operating costs and a substantial reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, without requiring carbon capture and storage (CCS). The results of the project are the advancement of three steps of the hybrid coal/biomass-to-jet fuel process to the technology readiness level (TRL) of 5. The project objectives were achieved over two phases. In Phase 1, all three major process steps were explored and refined at bench-scale, including: (1) biomass conversion to high hydrogen-donor bio-solvent; (2) coal dissolution in biomass-derived bio-solvent, without requiring molecular H2, to produce a synthetic crude (syncrude); and (3) two-stage catalytic hydrotreating/hydrogenation of syncrude to jet fuel and other distillates. In Phase 2, all three subsystems of the CTL process were scaled up to a pre-pilot scale, and an economic analysis was carried out. A total of over 40 bio-solvents were identified and prepared. The most unique attribute of Battelle’s bio-solvents is their ability to provide much-needed hydrogen to liquefy coal and thus increase its hydrogen content so much that the resulting syncrude is liquid at room temperature. Based on the laboratory-scale testing with bituminous coals from Ohio and West Virginia, a total of 12 novel bio-solvent met the goal of greater than 80% coal solubility, with 8 bio-solvents being as good as or better than a well-known but expensive hydrogen-donor solvent, tetralin. The Battelle CTL process was then scaled up to 1 ton/day (1TPD) at a pre-pilot facility operated in Morgantown, WV. These tests were conducted, in part, to produce enough material for syncrude-upgrading testing. To convert the Battelle-CTL syncrude into a form suitable as a blending stock for jet

  20. Catalytic cracking of bio-oil to organic liquid product (OLP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hew, K L; Tamidi, A M; Yusup, S; Lee, K T; Ahmad, M M

    2010-11-01

    The main objective of this paper is to find the optimum operating condition to upgrade the EFB-derived pyrolysis oil (bio-oil) to liquid fuel, mainly gasoline using Taguchi Method. From the analysis that has been done, it is found that the optimum operating condition for heterogeneous catalytic cracking process is at 400 degrees C, 15min of reaction time using 30g of catalyst weight where operating at this condition produced the highest yield of gasoline fraction which is 91.67 wt.%. This observation proves that EFB-derived pyrolysis oil could be upgraded via heterogeneous catalytic cracking to produce gasoline.

  1. Synthesis gas production via catalytic partial oxidation reforming of liquid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheekatamarla, P.K.; Finnerty, C.M. [NanoDynamics Energy Inc., 901 Fuhrmann Boulevard, Buffalo, NY 14203 (United States)

    2008-10-15

    This work deals with the performance of waterless catalytic partial oxidation (CPOX)-based catalytic reformer system fed by different liquid fuels including ethanol, isooctane, hexadecane, synthetic JP8, kerosene and diesel for solid oxide fuel cell applications. The effect of different fuel components on product composition was studied and the operational parameters were optimized to provide a stable reforming performance. The system provided negligible pressure drop combined with the simpler system design due to the lack of water requirement making the POX reformer an attractive choice. (author)

  2. Process for removal of mineral particulates from coal-derived liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, William J.

    1980-01-01

    Suspended mineral solids are separated from a coal-derived liquid containing the solids by a process comprising the steps of: (a) contacting said coal-derived liquid containing solids with a molten additive having a melting point of 100.degree.-500.degree. C. in an amount of up to 50 wt. % with respect to said coal-derived liquid containing solids, said solids present in an amount effective to increase the particle size of said mineral solids and comprising material or mixtures of material selected from the group of alkali metal hydroxides and inorganic salts having antimony, tin, lithium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, beryllium, aluminum, zinc, molybdenum, cobalt, nickel, ruthenium, rhodium or iron cations and chloride, iodide, bromide, sulfate, phosphate, borate, carbonate, sulfite, or silicate anions; and (b) maintaining said coal-derived liquid in contact with said molten additive for sufficient time to permit said mineral matter to agglomerate, thereby increasing the mean particle size of said mineral solids; and (c) recovering a coal-derived liquid product having reduced mineral solids content. The process can be carried out with less than 5 wt. % additive and in the absence of hydrogen pressure.

  3. Catalytic Oxidation and Depolymerization of Lignin in Aqueous Ionic Liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Lalitendu; Xu, Siquan; Shi, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Lignin is an integral part of the plant cell wall, which provides rigidity to plants, also contributes to the recalcitrance of the lignocellulosic biomass to biochemical and biological deconstruction. Lignin is a promising renewable feedstock for aromatic chemicals; however, an efficient and economic lignin depolymerization method needs to be developed to enable the conversion. In this study, we investigated the depolymerization of alkaline lignin in aqueous 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [C 2 C 1 Im][OAc] under oxidizing conditions. Seven different transition metal catalysts were screened in presence of H 2 O 2 as oxidizing agent in a batch reactor. CoCl 2 and Nb 2 O 5 proved to be the most effective catalysts in degrading lignin to aromatic compounds. A central composite design was used to optimize the catalyst loading, H 2 O 2 concentration, and temperature for product formation. Results show that lignin was depolymerized, and the major degradation products found in the extracted oil were guaiacol, syringol, vanillin, acetovanillone, and homovanillic acid. Lignin streams were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and gel permeation chromatography to determine effects of the experimental parameters on lignin depolymerization. The weight-average molecular weight (M w ) of liquid stream lignin after oxidation, for CoCl 2 and Nb 2 O 5 catalysts were 1,202 and 1,520 g mol −1 , respectively, lower than that of Kraft lignin. Polydispersity index of the liquid stream lignin increased as compared with Kraft lignin, indicating wide span of the molecular weight distribution as a result of lignin depolymerization. Results from this study provide insights into the role of oxidant and transition metal catalysts and the oxidative degradation reaction sequence of lignin toward product formation in presence of aqueous ionic liquid.

  4. Catalytic Oxidation and Depolymerization of Lignin in Aqueous Ionic Liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Lalitendu [Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Xu, Siquan [Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); College of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing (China); Shi, Jian, E-mail: j.shi@uky.edu [Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2017-08-10

    Lignin is an integral part of the plant cell wall, which provides rigidity to plants, also contributes to the recalcitrance of the lignocellulosic biomass to biochemical and biological deconstruction. Lignin is a promising renewable feedstock for aromatic chemicals; however, an efficient and economic lignin depolymerization method needs to be developed to enable the conversion. In this study, we investigated the depolymerization of alkaline lignin in aqueous 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [C{sub 2}C{sub 1}Im][OAc] under oxidizing conditions. Seven different transition metal catalysts were screened in presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as oxidizing agent in a batch reactor. CoCl{sub 2} and Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} proved to be the most effective catalysts in degrading lignin to aromatic compounds. A central composite design was used to optimize the catalyst loading, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration, and temperature for product formation. Results show that lignin was depolymerized, and the major degradation products found in the extracted oil were guaiacol, syringol, vanillin, acetovanillone, and homovanillic acid. Lignin streams were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and gel permeation chromatography to determine effects of the experimental parameters on lignin depolymerization. The weight-average molecular weight (M{sub w}) of liquid stream lignin after oxidation, for CoCl{sub 2} and Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} catalysts were 1,202 and 1,520 g mol{sup −1}, respectively, lower than that of Kraft lignin. Polydispersity index of the liquid stream lignin increased as compared with Kraft lignin, indicating wide span of the molecular weight distribution as a result of lignin depolymerization. Results from this study provide insights into the role of oxidant and transition metal catalysts and the oxidative degradation reaction sequence of lignin toward product formation in presence of aqueous ionic liquid.

  5. Catalytic Oxidation and Depolymerization of Lignin in Aqueous Ionic Liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalitendu Das

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Lignin is an integral part of the plant cell wall, which provides rigidity to plants, also contributes to the recalcitrance of the lignocellulosic biomass to biochemical and biological deconstruction. Lignin is a promising renewable feedstock for aromatic chemicals; however, an efficient and economic lignin depolymerization method needs to be developed to enable the conversion. In this study, we investigated the depolymerization of alkaline lignin in aqueous 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [C2C1Im][OAc] under oxidizing conditions. Seven different transition metal catalysts were screened in presence of H2O2 as oxidizing agent in a batch reactor. CoCl2 and Nb2O5 proved to be the most effective catalysts in degrading lignin to aromatic compounds. A central composite design was used to optimize the catalyst loading, H2O2 concentration, and temperature for product formation. Results show that lignin was depolymerized, and the major degradation products found in the extracted oil were guaiacol, syringol, vanillin, acetovanillone, and homovanillic acid. Lignin streams were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and gel permeation chromatography to determine effects of the experimental parameters on lignin depolymerization. The weight-average molecular weight (Mw of liquid stream lignin after oxidation, for CoCl2 and Nb2O5 catalysts were 1,202 and 1,520 g mol−1, respectively, lower than that of Kraft lignin. Polydispersity index of the liquid stream lignin increased as compared with Kraft lignin, indicating wide span of the molecular weight distribution as a result of lignin depolymerization. Results from this study provide insights into the role of oxidant and transition metal catalysts and the oxidative degradation reaction sequence of lignin toward product formation in presence of aqueous ionic liquid.

  6. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. Final technical report, Volume 1 - effects of solvents, catalysts and temperature conditions on conversion and structural changes of low-rank coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Lili [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Schobert, Harold H. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Song, Chunshan [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The main objectives of this project were to study the effects of low-temperature pretreatments on coal structure and their impacts on subsequent liquefaction. The effects of pretreatment temperatures, catalyst type, coal rank, and influence of solvent were examined. Specific objectives were to identify the basic changes in coal structure induced by catalytic and thermal pretreatments, and to determine the reactivity of the catalytically and thermally treated coals for liquefaction. In the original project management plan it was indicated that six coals would be used for the study. These were to include two each of bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite rank. For convenience in executing the experimental work, two parallel efforts were conducted. The first involved the two lignites and one subbituminous coal; and the second, the two bituminous coals and the remaining subbituminous coal. This Volume presents the results of the first portion of the work, studies on two lignites and one subbituminous coal. The remaining work accomplished under this project will be described and discussed in Volume 2 of this report. The objective of this portion of the project was to determine and compare the effects of solvents, catalysts and reaction conditions on coal liquefaction. Specifically, the improvements of reaction conversion, product distribution, as well as the structural changes in the coals and coal-derived products were examined. This study targeted at promoting hydrogenation of the coal-derived radicals, generated during thermal cleavage of chemical bonds, by using a good hydrogen donor-solvent and an effective catalyst. Attempts were also made in efforts to match the formation and hydrogenation of the free radicals and thus to prevent retrogressive reaction.

  7. Catalytic Process for the Conversion of Coal-derived Syngas to Ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Spivery; Doug Harrison; John Earle; James Goodwin; David Bruce; Xunhau Mo; Walter Torres; Joe Allison Vis Viswanathan; Rick Sadok; Steve Overbury; Viviana Schwartz

    2011-07-29

    The catalytic conversion of coal-derived syngas to C{sub 2+} alcohols and oxygenates has attracted great attention due to their potential as chemical intermediates and fuel components. This is particularly true of ethanol, which can serve as a transportation fuel blending agent, as well as a hydrogen carrier. A thermodynamic analysis of CO hydrogenation to ethanol that does not allow for byproducts such as methane or methanol shows that the reaction: 2 CO + 4 H{sub 2} {yields} C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH + H{sub 2}O is thermodynamically favorable at conditions of practical interest (e.g,30 bar, {approx}< 250 C). However, when methane is included in the equilibrium analysis, no ethanol is formed at any conditions even approximating those that would be industrially practical. This means that undesired products (primarily methane and/or CO{sub 2}) must be kinetically limited. This is the job of a catalyst. The mechanism of CO hydrogenation leading to ethanol is complex. The key step is the formation of the initial C-C bond. Catalysts that are selective for EtOH can be divided into four classes: (a) Rh-based catalysts, (b) promoted Cu catalysts, (c) modified Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, or (d) Mo-sulfides and phosphides. This project focuses on Rh- and Cu-based catalysts. The logic was that (a) Rh-based catalysts are clearly the most selective for EtOH (but these catalysts can be costly), and (b) Cu-based catalysts appear to be the most selective of the non-Rh catalysts (and are less costly). In addition, Pd-based catalysts were studied since Pd is known for catalyzing CO hydrogenation to produce methanol, similar to copper. Approach. The overall approach of this project was based on (a) computational catalysis to identify optimum surfaces for the selective conversion of syngas to ethanol; (b) synthesis of surfaces approaching these ideal atomic structures, (c) specialized characterization to determine the extent to which the actual catalyst has these structures, and (d) testing

  8. Catalytic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Hanafi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A series of dealuminated Y-zeolites impregnated by 0.5 wt% Pt catalysts promoted by different amounts of Ni, Pd or Cr (0.3 and 0.6 wt% were prepared and characterized as hydrocracking catalysts. The physicochemical and structural characterization of the solid catalysts were investigated and reported through N2 physisorption, XRD, TGA-DSC, FT-IR and TEM techniques. Solid catalysts surface acidities were investigated through FT-IR spectroscopy aided by pyridine adsorption. The solid catalytic activities were evaluated through hydroconversion of n-hexane and n-heptane employing micro-catalytic pulse technique directly connected to a gas chromatograph analyzer. The thermal stability of the solids was also investigated up to 800 °C. Crystallinity studies using the XRD technique of all modified samples proved analogous to the parent Y-zeolite, exhibiting nearly an amorphous and microcrystalline character of the second metal oxides. Disclosure of bimetallic catalysts crystalline characterization, through XRD, was not viable. The nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms for all samples concluded type I adsorption isotherms, without any hysteresis loop, indicating that the entire pore system is composed of micropores. TEM micrographs of the solid catalysts demonstrate well-dispersed Pt, Ni and Cr nanoparticles having sizes of 2–4 nm and 7–8 nm, respectively. The catalytic activity results indicate that the bimetallic (0.5Pt–0.3Cr/D18H–Y catalyst is the most active towards n-hexane and n-heptane isomerization while (0.5Pt–0.6Ni/D18H–Y catalyst can be designed as most suitable as a cracking catalyst.

  9. LIQUID COAL CHARACTERISTIC ANALYSIS WITH FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRA RED (FTIR AND DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETER (DSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ATUS BUKU

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify the value of compounds contained in liquid coal by using Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR and Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC. FTIR was used to analyse the components contained in liquid coal, while the DSC is done to observe the heat reaction to the environment. Based on the Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR test results it is shown that the compound contained in the liquid Coal consisting of alkanes, alkenes and alkyne. These compounds are similar compounds. The alkanes, alkenes and alkynes compounds undergo complete combustion reaction with oxygen and would produce CO2 and water vapour [H2O (g]. If incomplete combustion occurs, the reaction proceeds in the form of Carbon Monoxide CO gas or solid carbon andH2O. Combustion reaction that occurs in all these three compounds also produces a number of considerable energy. And if it has higher value of Carbon then the boiling point would be higher. From the Differential Scanning Calorimetric (DSC test results obtained some of the factors that affect the reaction speed, which are the temperature, the reaction mixture composition, and pressure. Temperature has a profound influence in coal liquefaction, because if liquid coal heated with high pressure, the carbon chain would break down into smaller chains consisting of aromatic chain, hydro-aromatic, or aliphatic. This then triggers a reaction between oil formation and polymerization reactions to form solids (char.

  10. Advanced Thermally Stable Coal-Based Jet Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    Description of Accomplishments 6 Project Overview 6 Fuel Production 6 Coal - tar Blending 6 Solvent Extraction of Coals 7 Co-coking 10 Fuel Stability 12...site source with a suitable refinery stream, followed by hydrotreating the blend and distilling; adding coal to the feed being sent to a delayed coker...followed by hydrotreating the coker liquids and distilling; and "co-processing," the catalytic hydrogenation of a slurry of coal in a petroleum stream

  11. Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    The international coal market trends are outlined and the place of Australian coal industry is discussed. It is shown that while the world supply and demand for coal has begun to tighten, the demand for coal is expected to remain strong in both Asia and Europe. Consequently, in 1991-1992 Australian black coal production and export returns are forecast to rise by 4% and 7% respectively. 1 fig

  12. Novel catalysts for upgrading coal-derived liquids. Final technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, L.T.; Savage, P.E.; Briggs, D.E.

    1995-03-31

    Research described in this report was aimed at synthesizing and evaluating supported Mo oxynitrides and oxycarbides for the selective removal of nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen from model and authentic coal-derived liquids. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-supported oxynitrides and oxycarbides were synthesized via the temperature programmed reaction of supported molybdenum oxides or hydrogen bronzes with NH{sub 3} or an equimolar mixture of CH{sub 4} and H{sub 2}. Phase constituents and composition were determined by X-ray diffraction, CHN analysis, and neutron activation analysis. Oxygen chemisorption was used to probe the surface structure of the catalysts. The reaction rate data was collected using specially designed micro-batch reactors. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-supported Mo oxynitrides and oxycarbides were competitively active for quinoline hydrodenitrogenation (HDN), benzothiophene hydrodesulfurization (HDS) and benzofuran hydrodeoxygenation (HDO). In fact, the HDN and HDO specific reaction rates for several of the oxynitrides and oxycarbides were higher than those of a commercial Ni-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} hydrotreatment catalyst. Furthermore, the product distributions indicated that the oxynitrides and oxycarbides were more hydrogen efficient than the sulfide catalysts. For HDN and HDS the catalytic activity was a strong inverse function of the Mo loading. In contrast, the benzofuran hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) activities did not appear to be affected by the Mo loading but were affected by the heating rate employed during nitridation or carburization. This observation suggested that HDN and HDS occurred on the same active sites while HDO was catalyzed by a different type of site.

  13. Kinetic Study on Catalytic Cracking of Rubber Seed (Hevea brasiliensis Oil to Liquid Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wara Dyah Pita Rengga

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Reaction kinetics of catalytic cracking of rubber seed oil to liquid fuels has been investigated. The reac-tion was performed with sulfuric acid as catalyst at temperatures of 350-450 oC and the ratio of oil-catalyst of 0-2 wt.% for 30-90 minutes. Kinetics was studied using the model of 6-lump parameters. The parameters were rubber seed oil, gasoline, kerosene, diesel, gas, and coke. Analysis of experimen-tal data using regression models to obtain reaction rate constants. Activation energies and pre-exponential factors were then calculated based on the Arrhenius equation. The simulation result illus-trated that the six-lump kinetic model can well predict the product yields of rubber seed oil catalytic cracking. The product has high selectivity for gasoline fraction as liquid fuel and the smallest amount of coke. The constant indicates that secondary reactions occurred in diesel products compared to gaso-line and kerosene. The predicted results indicate that catalytic cracking of rubber seed oil had better be conducted at 450 oC for 90 minutes using 0.5 wt.% catalyst. © 2015 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 3rd December 2013; Revised: 5th December 2014; Accepted: 7th December 2014How to Cite: Rengga, W.D.P., Handayani, P.A., Kadarwati, S., Feinnudin, A.(2015. Kinetic Study on Catalytic Cracking of Rubber Seed (Hevea brasiliensis Oil  to Liquid Fuels. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 10 (1: 50-60. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.10.1.5852.50-60Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.10.1.5852.50-60

  14. Prospects for production of synthetic liquid fuel from low-grade coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevyrev Sergei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, we compare the energy costs of steam and steam-oxygen gasification technologies for production of synthetic liquid fuel. Results of mathematic simulation and experimental studies on gasification of low-grade coal are presented.

  15. Pilot plant development of a new catalytic process for improved electrostatic separation of fly-ash in coal fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivares del Valle, J.; Salvador Martinez, L.; Muniz Baum, B.; Cortes Galeano, V. [University of Seville, Seville (Spain). Chemical and Environmental Engineering Dept.

    1996-12-31

    A new catalytic process for flue gas conditioning in pulverized coal fired power plants is outlined. Vanadium and platinum catalysts specifically prepared on ceramic honeycomb monoliths to oxidize SO{sub 2} into SO{sub 3} have been tested and evaluated at pilot scale. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Negative Effect of Calcination to Catalytic Performance of Coal Char-loaded TiO2 Catalyst in Styrene Oxidation with Hydrogen Peroxide as Oxidant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhamad Nurhadi

    2018-01-01

    How to Cite: Nurhadi, M., Kusumawardani, R., Nur, H. (2018. Negative Effect of Calcination to Catalytic Performance of Coal Char-loaded TiO2 Catalyst in Styrene Oxidation with Hydrogen Peroxide as Oxidant. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 13 (1: 113-118 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.13.1.1171.113-118

  17. Permeability evolution model and numerical analysis of coupled coal deformation, failure and liquid nitrogen cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhui ZHANG

    Full Text Available How to quantitatively evaluate the permeability change of coalbed subjected to liquid nitrogen cooling is a key issue of enhanced-permeability technology of coalbed. To analyze the evolution process of permeability of coupled coal deformation, failure and liquid introgen cooling, the coal is supposed as elastic, brittle and plastic material. Its deformation process includes elastic deformation stage, brittle strength degradation stage and residual plastic flow stage. Combined with strength degradation index, dilatancy index of the element and Mohr-Column strength criterion, the element scale constitutive model with the effects of confining pressure on peak-post mechanical behaviors is built. Based on the deformation process of coal rock, there exist two stages of permeability evolution of the element including decrease of permeability due to elastic contraction and increase due to coal rock element's failure. The relationships between the permeability and elastic deformation, shear failure and tension failure for coal are studied. The permeability will be influenced by the change of pore space due to elastic contraction or tension of element. Conjugate shear zones appear during the shear failure of the element, in which the flow follows so-called cubic law between smooth parallel plates. The calculation formulas of the permeability and the aperture of the fractures are given out based on the volumetric strain. When tension failure criterion is satisfied with the rock element fails and two orthogonal fractures appear. The calculation formulas of the permeability and the width of the fractures are given out based on the volumetric strain. Further, combined with the thermal conduction theory the permeability evolution model of coupled coal deformation, failure and liquid nitrogen cooling is presented. Then Fish function method in FLAC is employed to perform the model. The permeability's evolution process for coal bed cryogenically stimulated

  18. Non-catalytic co-gasification of sub-bituminous coal and biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyendu, Guevara Che

    Fluidization characteristics and co-gasification of pulverized sub-bituminous coal, hybrid poplar wood, corn stover, switchgrass, and their mixtures were investigated. Co-gasification studies were performed over temperature range from 700°C to 900°C in different media (N2, CO2, steam) using a bubbling fluidized bed reactor. In fluidization experiments, pressure drop (Delta P) observed for coal-biomass mixtures was higher than those of single coal and biomass bed materials in the complete fluidization regime. There was no systematic trend observed for minimum fluidization velocity ( Umf) with increasing biomass content. However, porosity at minimum fluidization (εmf) increased with increasing biomass content. Channeling effects were observed in biomass bed materials and coal bed with 40 wt.% and 50 wt.% biomass content at low gas flowrates. The effect of coal pressure overshoot reduced with increasing biomass content. Co-gasification of coal and corn stover mixtures showed minor interactions. Synergetic effects were observed with 10 wt.% corn stover. Coal mixed with corn stover formed agglomerates during co-gasification experiments and the effect was severe with increase in corn stover content and at 900°C. Syngas (H2 + CO) concentrations obtained using CO2 as co-gasification medium were higher (~78 vol.% at 700°C, ~87 vol.% at 800°C, ~93 vol.% at 900°C) than those obtained with N2 medium (~60 vol.% at 700°C, ~65 vol.% at 800°C, ~75 vol.% at 900°C). Experiments involving co-gasification of coal with poplar showed no synergetic effects. Experimental yields were identical to predicted yields. However, synergetic effects were observed on H2 production when steam was used as the co-gasification medium. Additionally, the presence of steam increased H2/CO ratio up to 2.5 with 10 wt.% hybrid poplar content. Overall, char and tar yields decreased with increasing temperature and increasing biomass content, which led to increase in product gas.

  19. Catalytic Conversion of Biomass to Fuels and Chemicals Using Ionic Liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wei; Zheng, Richard; Brown, Heather; Li, Joanne; Holladay, John; Cooper, Alan; Rao, Tony

    2012-04-13

    This project provides critical innovations and fundamental understandings that enable development of an economically-viable process for catalytic conversion of biomass (sugar) to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). A low-cost ionic liquid (Cyphos 106) is discovered for fast conversion of fructose into HMF under moderate reaction conditions without any catalyst. HMF yield from fructose is almost 100% on the carbon molar basis. Adsorbent materials and adsorption process are invented and demonstrated for separation of 99% pure HMF product and recovery of the ionic liquid from the reaction mixtures. The adsorbent material appears very stable in repeated adsorption/regeneration cycles. Novel membrane-coated adsorbent particles are made and demonstrated to achieve excellent adsorption separation performances at low pressure drops. This is very important for a practical adsorption process because ionic liquids are known of high viscosity. Nearly 100% conversion (or dissolution) of cellulose in the catalytic ionic liquid into small molecules was observed. It is promising to produce HMF, sugars and other fermentable species directly from cellulose feedstock. However, several gaps were identified and could not be resolved in this project. Reaction and separation tests at larger scales are needed to minimize impacts of incidental errors on the mass balance and to show 99.9% ionic liquid recovery. The cellulose reaction tests were troubled with poor reproducibility. Further studies on cellulose conversion in ionic liquids under better controlled conditions are necessary to delineate reaction products, dissolution kinetics, effects of mass and heat transfer in the reactor on conversion, and separation of final reaction mixtures.

  20. Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater by a novel integration of catalytic ultrasound oxidation and membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shengyong; Han, Hongjun; Zhuang, Haifeng; Xu, Peng; Hou, Baolin

    2015-01-01

    Laboratorial scale experiments were conducted to investigate a novel system integrating catalytic ultrasound oxidation (CUO) with membrane bioreactor (CUO-MBR) on advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater. Results indicated that CUO with catalyst of FeOx/SBAC (sewage sludge based activated carbon (SBAC) which loaded Fe oxides) represented high efficiencies in eliminating TOC as well as improving the biodegradability. The integrated CUO-MBR system with low energy intensity and high frequency was more effective in eliminating COD, BOD5, TOC and reducing transmembrane pressure than either conventional MBR or ultrasound oxidation integrated MBR. The enhanced hydroxyl radical oxidation, facilitation of substrate diffusion and improvement of cell enzyme secretion were the mechanisms for CUO-MBR performance. Therefore, the integrated CUO-MBR was the promising technology for advanced treatment in engineering applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teissie, J.; Bourgogne, D. de; Bautin, F.

    2001-12-01

    Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

  2. Investigation of Coal-biomass Catalytic Gasification using Experiments, Reaction Kinetics and Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaglia, Francine [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Agblevor, Foster [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Klein, Michael [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Sheikhi, Reza [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-12-31

    A collaborative effort involving experiments, kinetic modeling, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to understand co-gasification of coal-biomass mixtures. The overall goal of the work was to determine the key reactive properties for coal-biomass mixed fuels. Sub-bituminous coal was mixed with biomass feedstocks to determine the fluidization and gasification characteristics of hybrid poplar wood, switchgrass and corn stover. It was found that corn stover and poplar wood were the best feedstocks to use with coal. The novel approach of this project was the use of a red mud catalyst to improve gasification and lower gasification temperatures. An important results was the reduction of agglomeration of the biomass using the catalyst. An outcome of this work was the characterization of the chemical kinetics and reaction mechanisms of the co-gasification fuels, and the development of a set of models that can be integrated into other modeling environments. The multiphase flow code, MFIX, was used to simulate and predict the hydrodynamics and co-gasification, and results were validated with the experiments. The reaction kinetics modeling was used to develop a smaller set of reactions for tractable CFD calculations that represented the experiments. Finally, an efficient tool was developed, MCHARS, and coupled with MFIX to efficiently simulate the complex reaction kinetics.

  3. Potential for Coal-to-Liquids Conversion in the United States-Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patzek, Tad W.; Croft, Gregory D.

    2009-01-01

    The United States has the world's largest coal reserves and Montana the highest potential for mega-mine development. Consequently, a large-scale effort to convert coal to liquids (CTL) has been proposed to create a major source of domestic transportation fuels from coal, and some prominent Montanans want to be at the center of that effort. We calculate that the energy efficiency of the best existing Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process applied to average coal in Montana is less than 1/2 of the corresponding efficiency of an average crude oil refining process. The resulting CO 2 emissions are 20 times (2000%) higher for CTL than for conventional petroleum products. One barrel of the FT fuel requires roughly 800 kg of coal and 800 kg of water. The minimum energy cost of subsurface CO 2 sequestration would be at least 40% of the FT fuel energy, essentially halving energy efficiency of the process. We argue therefore that CTL conversion is not the most valuable use for the coal, nor will it ever be, as long as it is economical to use natural gas for electric power generation. This finding results from the low efficiency inherent in FT synthesis, and is independent of the monumental FT plant construction costs, mine construction costs, acute lack of water, and the associated environmental impacts for Montana

  4. Liquid hydrocarbon generation potential from Tertiary Nyalau Formation coals in the onshore Sarawak, Eastern Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakimi, Mohammed Hail; Abdullah, Wan Hasiah

    2013-01-01

    Tertiary coals exposed in the north-central part of onshore Sarawak are evaluated, and their depositional environments are interpreted. Total organic carbon contents (TOC) of the coals range from 58.1 to 80.9 wt. % and yield hydrogen index values ranging from 282 to 510 mg HC/g TOC with low oxygen index values, consistent with Type II and mixed Type II-III kerogens. The coal samples have vitrinite reflectance values in the range of 0.47-0.67 Ro %, indicating immature to early mature (initial oil window). T max values range from 428 to 436 °C, which are good in agreement with vitrinite reflectance data. The Tertiary coals are humic and generally dominated by vitrinite, with significant amounts of liptinite and low amounts of inertinite macerals. Good liquid hydrocarbons generation potential can be expected from the coals with rich liptinitic content (>35 %). This is supported by their high hydrogen index of up to 300 mg HC/g TOC and Py-GC ( S 2) pyrograms with n-alkane/alkene doublets extending beyond C30. The Tertiary coals are characterised by dominant odd carbon numbered n-alkanes ( n-C23 to n-C33), high Pr/Ph ratio (6-8), high T m / T s ratio (8-16), and predominant regular sterane C29. All biomarkers parameters clearly indicate that the organic matter was derived from terrestrial inputs and the deposited under oxic condition.

  5. Catalytic cracking of the top phase fraction of bio-oil into upgraded liquid oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunarno [Chemical Engineering Department, Riau University, Kampus Binawidya KM 12,5 Pekanbaru 28293 (Indonesia); Chemical Engineering Department, Gadjah Mada University, Jalan Grafika No. 2 Bulaksumur,Yogyakarta 55281 (Indonesia); Rochmadi,; Mulyono, Panut [Chemical Engineering Department, Gadjah Mada University, Jalan Grafika No. 2 Bulaksumur,Yogyakarta 55281 (Indonesia); Budiman, Arief, E-mail: abudiman@ugm.ac.id [Chemical Engineering Department, Gadjah Mada University, Jalan Grafika No. 2 Bulaksumur,Yogyakarta 55281(Indonesia); Center for Energy Studies, Gadjah Mada University, Sekip K1A, Yogyakarta 55281 (Indonesia)

    2016-06-03

    The energy consumption is increasing, while oil reserves as a primary energy resource are decreasing, so that is the reason seeking alternative energy source is inevitable. Biomass especially oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) which is abundant in Indonesia can be processed into bio-oil by pyrolysis process. The potential for direct substitution of bio-oil for petroleum may be limited due to the high viscosity, high oxygen content, low heating value, and corrosiveness. Consequently, upgrading of the bio-oil before use is inevitable to give a wider variety of applications of its liquid product. Furthermore, upgrading process to improve the quality of bio-oil by reduction of oxygenates involves process such as catalytic cracking. The objective of this research is to study the effect of operation temperature on yield and composition of upgraded liquid oil and to determine physical properties. Bio-oil derived from EFB was upgraded through catalytic cracking using series tubular reactor under atmospheric pressure on a silica-alumina catalyst. Results show that increasing temperature from 450 to 600 °C, resulting in decreasing of upgraded liquid oil (ULO) yield, decreasing viscosity and density of ULO, but increasing in calorimetric value of ULO. The increasing temperature of cracking also will increase the concentration of gasoline and kerosene in ULO.

  6. Catalytic cracking of the top phase fraction of bio-oil into upgraded liquid oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunarno, Rochmadi, Mulyono, Panut; Budiman, Arief

    2016-06-01

    The energy consumption is increasing, while oil reserves as a primary energy resource are decreasing, so that is the reason seeking alternative energy source is inevitable. Biomass especially oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) which is abundant in Indonesia can be processed into bio-oil by pyrolysis process. The potential for direct substitution of bio-oil for petroleum may be limited due to the high viscosity, high oxygen content, low heating value, and corrosiveness. Consequently, upgrading of the bio-oil before use is inevitable to give a wider variety of applications of its liquid product. Furthermore, upgrading process to improve the quality of bio-oil by reduction of oxygenates involves process such as catalytic cracking. The objective of this research is to study the effect of operation temperature on yield and composition of upgraded liquid oil and to determine physical properties. Bio-oil derived from EFB was upgraded through catalytic cracking using series tubular reactor under atmospheric pressure on a silica-alumina catalyst. Results show that increasing temperature from 450 to 600 °C, resulting in decreasing of upgraded liquid oil (ULO) yield, decreasing viscosity and density of ULO, but increasing in calorimetric value of ULO. The increasing temperature of cracking also will increase the concentration of gasoline and kerosene in ULO.

  7. Catalytic cracking of the top phase fraction of bio-oil into upgraded liquid oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunarno; Rochmadi,; Mulyono, Panut; Budiman, Arief

    2016-01-01

    The energy consumption is increasing, while oil reserves as a primary energy resource are decreasing, so that is the reason seeking alternative energy source is inevitable. Biomass especially oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) which is abundant in Indonesia can be processed into bio-oil by pyrolysis process. The potential for direct substitution of bio-oil for petroleum may be limited due to the high viscosity, high oxygen content, low heating value, and corrosiveness. Consequently, upgrading of the bio-oil before use is inevitable to give a wider variety of applications of its liquid product. Furthermore, upgrading process to improve the quality of bio-oil by reduction of oxygenates involves process such as catalytic cracking. The objective of this research is to study the effect of operation temperature on yield and composition of upgraded liquid oil and to determine physical properties. Bio-oil derived from EFB was upgraded through catalytic cracking using series tubular reactor under atmospheric pressure on a silica-alumina catalyst. Results show that increasing temperature from 450 to 600 °C, resulting in decreasing of upgraded liquid oil (ULO) yield, decreasing viscosity and density of ULO, but increasing in calorimetric value of ULO. The increasing temperature of cracking also will increase the concentration of gasoline and kerosene in ULO.

  8. A numerical model for the liquid flow in a Sputnik coal distributor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, B.Y.; Dong, K.; Chu, K.W.; Yu, A.B.; Vince, A.; Brake, I. [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). School for Material Science and Engineering

    2009-01-15

    Sputnik coal distributors are widely applied in coal separation plants and biased outputs are frequently encountered. The present paper aims to develop a numerical model for simulating the flow of the carrier liquid within a distributor chamber. The model uses simple homogeneous multi-phase flow model and performs well in terms of successfully predicting the important phenomena within the distributor chamber, such as the strong vortex in the upper chamber and channeling through the slots on the orifice plate, as observed experimentally. The model provides necessary information for particle flow modeling and offers a useful tool to trouble-shooting of operations and optimization of design for such type of devices.

  9. Parametric study on catalytic cracking of LDPE to liquid fuel over ZSM-5 zeolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, S.L.; Tuan Abdullah, T.A.; Ngadi, N.; Ahmad, A.; Inuwa, I.M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Catalytic cracking of low density polyethylene in fixed bed reactor was studied. • Full factorial design involving five parameters and two responses was used. • Regression models were developed for LDPE conversion and liquid product yield. • Liquid product at optimized run contained C4–C8 aliphatic compounds. • Alkyl radicals combine with minor amount of benzenes during cracking. - Abstract: Pyrolysis or cracking of plastic waste is considered as a potential solution to the environmental problems brought about by plastic waste, with the production of hydrocarbon fuel as a value added benefit. In order to explore the potentials of such process, parametric study have been conducted on the catalytic cracking of LDPE dissolved in benzene in a fixed bed reactor. The five factors studied were temperature (A), catalyst mass (B), feed flow rate (C), carrier gas flow rate (D), as well as concentration of LDPE solution (E), while the responses were LDPE conversion (Y 1 ) and liquid yield (Y 2 ). The parametric study showed that four out of five factors (A, B, C and D) have significant effects on Y 1 and Y 2 . The optimum conditions that produced maximum responses for Y 1 and Y 2 simultaneously are 600 °C (A), 0.10 g catalyst (B), 1 ml/s LDPE solution (C), 80 ml/min N 2 flow (D). The numerical values for Y 1 and Y 2 were 98.6% and 99.5%, respectively. Analysis on products composition indicated that catalytic cracking of LDPE in fixed bed reaction generally produced high amount of aliphatic branched-chain compounds, together with moderate amount of cyclic compounds. Aromatization of LDPE cracking products is less due to the short retention time of the compounds on the catalysts bed.

  10. Catalytic Alkylation of 2-Methylfuran with Formalin Using Supported Acidic Ionic Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hu; Shunmugavel, Saravanamurugan; Yang, Song

    2015-01-01

    Biphasic alkylation of 2-methylfuran (2-MF) with formalin was carried out with a series of SBA-15 supported acidic ionic liquid catalysts (acidic SILCs) under mild reaction conditions. Acidic SILC with sulfonic acid groups (SO3H) and long alkyl chains was observed to have higher catalytic activity...... than commercial sulfonic acid resin catalysts for the alkylation reaction in terms of TONs/TOFs as well as selectivity (90%) toward the C11 oxygenate bis(5-methylfuran-2-yl)methane (BMFM). The reaction product was easily separated by addition of the nonpolar solvent n-heptane and additional water...

  11. Process for minimizing solids contamination of liquids from coal pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickstrom, Gary H.; Knell, Everett W.; Shaw, Benjamin W.; Wang, Yue G.

    1981-04-21

    In a continuous process for recovery of liquid hydrocarbons from a solid carbonaceous material by pyrolysis of the carbonaceous material in the presence of a particulate source of heat, particulate contamination of the liquid hydrocarbons is minimized. This is accomplished by removing fines from the solid carbonaceous material feed stream before pyrolysis, removing fines from the particulate source of heat before combining it with the carbonaceous material to effect pyrolysis of the carbonaceous material, and providing a coarse fraction of reduced fines content of the carbon containing solid residue resulting from the pyrolysis of the carbonaceous material before oxidizing carbon in the carbon containing solid residue to form the particulate source of heat.

  12. Refining and end use study of coal liquids I - pilot plant studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erwin, J.; Moulton, D.S.

    1995-12-31

    The Office of Fossil Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center is examining the ways in which coal liquids may best be integrated into the refinery of the 2000-2015 time frame and what performance and emission properties will prevail among the slate of fuels produced. The study consists of a Basic Program administered by Bechtel Group, Inc. to build a linear programming refinery model and provide processing and fuel properties data through subcontractors Southwest Research Institute, Amoco Oil R&D, and M.W. Kellogg Company. The model will be used in an Option 1 to devise a slate of test fuels meeting advanced specifications, which will be produced and tested for physical ASTM-type properties, engine performance, and vehicle emissions. Three coal liquids will be included: a direct liquid from bituminous coal, another from subbituminous, and a Fischer-Tropsch indirect liquefaction product. This paper reports the work to date on fractions of the first direct liquid including naphtha hydrotreating, heavy distillate hydrotreating, FCC of the heavy distillate hydrotreater products. Also reported are the first stages of work on the indirect liquefaction wax including feed preparation and FCC tests of blends with petroleum FCC feed.

  13. Technogenic effect of liquidation of coal mines on earth’s entrails: hydrogeochemical aspect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenko, I. A.; Zinkov, A. V.; Chudaev, O. V.; Vetoshkina, A. V.; Holodilov, I. I.

    2017-10-01

    The authors of the paper have established the geochemical features of the composition of underground waters and regularities of their formation in the areas of the liquidated coal mines of Russia and Ukraine. It is shown that the mine flood resulted in the formation of technogenic waters which geochemical specificity originates in the feeding field and is transformed in the direction of the filtration flow. It depends on the geological structure of sedimentary basins and the presence in the coal and supra-coal beds of the marine, salt-bearing and freshwater groups of geological formations. The water types are distinguished characterizing the conditions and processes of their formation that may be the regional markers in the hydrochemical and geological constructions. The technogenic waters influenced the safety of the underground waters, sources of water supply of the regions, and surface water channels. The pollutions are of local character in space.

  14. Measurement of capacity coefficient of inclined liquid phase catalytic exchange column for tritiated water processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamai, Hideki; Konishi, Satoshi; Yamanishi, Toshihiko; Okuno, Kenji

    1994-01-01

    Liquid phase catalytic exchange (LPCE) is effective method for enrichment and removal of tritium from tritiated water. Capacity coefficients of operating LPCE column that are essential to evaluate column performance were measured. Experiments were performed with short catalyst packed columns and effect of inclination was studied. Method for evaluation of capacity coefficients was established from measurement of isotope concentration of liquid, vapor, gas phases at the two ends of the column. The capacity coefficients were measured under various superficial gas velocities. Feasibility study of helical columns with roughened inner surface was performed with short inclined columns. The column performance was not strongly affected by the inclination. The result indicates technological feasibility of helical LPCE column, that is expected to have operation stability and reduced height

  15. Solid-oxide fuel cell operated on in situ catalytic decomposition products of liquid hydrazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Hongxia; Ran, Ran; Zhou, Wei; Shao, Zongping; Jin, Wanqin; Xu, Nanping; Ahn, Jeongmin

    Hydrazine was examined as a fuel for a solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) that employed a typical nickel-based anode. An in situ catalytic decomposition of hydrazine at liquid state under room temperature and ambient pressure before introducing to the fuel cell was developed by applying a Ba 0.5Sr 0.5Co 0.8Fe 0.2O 3- δ (BSCF) oxide catalyst. Catalytic testing demonstrated that liquid N 2H 4 can be decomposed to gaseous NH 3 and H 2 at a favorable rate and at a temperature as low as 20 °C and H 2 selectivity reaching values as high as 10% at 60 °C. Comparable fuel cell performance was observed using either the in situ decomposition products of hydrazine or pure hydrogen as fuel. A peak power density of ∼850 mW cm -2 at 900 °C was obtained with a typical fuel cell composed of scandia-stabilized zirconia and La 0.8Sr 0.2MnO 3 cathode. The high energy and power density, easy storage and simplicity in fuel delivery make it highly attractive for portable applications.

  16. Liquid-metal MHD for solar and coal: system and component status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierson, E.S.; Grammel, S,J.; Cohen, D.; Frisardi, T.

    1980-01-01

    The motivations for using two-phase-generator liquid-metal MHD (LMMHD) energy-conversion systems with solar collectors and cyclone-type coal combustors are given. The solar LMMHD studies presented focus on two collector temperatures - approx. 590/sup 0/K (600/sup 0/F) with an LMMHD Rankine cycle, an attractive temperature for near-term use, and approx. 1090/sup 0/K (1500/sup 0/F) with an LMMHD Brayton cycle, typical of higher-performance long-range uses. The coal LMMHD studies emphasize the development of a new system model and its application to performance and optimization analysis, and reactions of liquid copper with coal combustion products (gas, slag) and the use of the copper to control environmental impacts. Cogeneration applications and retrofits of existing central-station electric plants are particularly-attractive options for LMMHD with both solar and coal. High-efficiency high-power-density, and high-temperature LMMHD generator data are summarized, because they indicate that large, high-efficiency generators can be built. The status of the two-phase mixer and separator is discussed.

  17. Pd(II-dissolved in ionic liquids: a recyclable catalytic system for the selective biphasic hydrogenation of dienes to monoenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dupont Jairton

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Palladium acetylacetonate dissolved in 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ionic liquid catalyses the selective two-phase hydrogenation of conjugated and non-conjugated (functionalized and non-functionalized dienes into the respective monoenes. The system does not require the use of organic solvents, the products are removed by simple decantation or distillation and the recovered ionic catalytic solution can be reused several times without any significant changes in its catalytic activity and selectivity.

  18. Bioconversion of coal derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, M. K.; Worden, R. M.; Grethlein, A.

    1994-07-01

    The overall objective of the project is to develop an integrated two-stage fermentation process for conversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to a mixture of alcohols. This is achieved in two steps. In the first step, Butyribacterium methylotrophicum converts carbon monoxide (CO) to butyric and acetic acids. Subsequent fermentation of the acids by Clostridium acetobutylicum leads to the production of butanol and ethanol. The tasks for this quarter were: development/isolation of superior strains for fermentation of syngas; evaluation of bioreactor configuration for improved mass transfer of syngas; recovery of carbon and electrons from H2-CO2; initiation of pervaporation for recovery of solvents; and selection of solid support material for trickle-bed fermentation. Technical progress included the following: butyrate production was enhanced during H2/CO2 (50/50) batch fermentation; isolation of CO-utilizing anaerobic strains is in progress; pressure (15 psig) fermentation was evaluated as a means of increasing CO availability; polyurethane foam packing material was selected for trickle bed solid support; cell recycle fermentation on syngas operated for 3 months. Acetate was the primary product at pH 6.8; trickle bed and gas lift fermentor designs were modified after initial water testing; and pervaporation system was constructed (No alcohol selectivity was shown with the existing membranes during initial start-up).

  19. Clean utilization of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yueruem, Y.

    1992-01-01

    This volume contains 23 lectures presented at the Advanced Study Institute on 'Chemistry and Chemical Engineering of Catalytic Solid Fuel Conversion for the Production of Clean Synthetic Fuels', which was held at Akcay, Edremit, Turkey, between 21 July and August 3, 1991. Three main subjects: structure and reactivity of coal; cleaning of coal and its products, and factors affecting the environmental balance of energy usage and solutions for the future, were discussed in the Institute and these are presented under six groups in the book: Part 1. Structure and reactivity of coal; Part 2. Factors affecting environmental balance; Part 3. Pre-usage cleaning operations and processes; Part 4. Upgrading of coal liquids and gases; Part 5. Oxygen enriched processes; and Part 6. Probable future solution for energy and pollution problems. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all the lectures

  20. Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    It is estimated that World coal trade remained strong during the second quarter of 1991, with contributing factors including unseasonally large shipments to Japan for power generation, sustained Japanese steel production at around 112 Mt and some buildup in stocks in that country. Purchases by North Asian and European consumers also remained high. At the same time Soviet output and exports declined because of strikes and political unrest. In addition, exportable supplies in Poland fell. As a result the demand for Indonesian coal increased, and Australia exported larger than previously expected quantities of coal. ills

  1. Coal catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroenig, W.

    1944-02-11

    Some considerations in the selection of a catalyst for the liquid phase of coal hydrogenation are discussed. Some of the previous history of such selections is mentioned. At one stage of the development, the principal catalyst had been iron sulfate (FeSO/sub 4/.7H/sub 2/O). Later, for reasons of cost and availability of large supplies, selections had turned to mixtures of iron sulfate and one or another of some iron oxide- and aluminum oxide-containing byproducts of aluminum manufacture, namely Bayermasse, Luxamsse, or Lautamasse. Much of the discussion centered on optimal proportions for such mixtures, particularly as related to pH values of resulting coal pastes. Upper Silesian coal was more alkaline than Ruhr coal, and Bayermasse, etc., were quite alkaline. Thus, since the iron sulfate served as a partial neutralizer for the coal as well as a catalyst, it seemed necessary to increase the proportions of iron sulfate in the catalyst mixture when processing coal of greater alkalinity. A further reason for a greater proportion of iron sulfate seemed to be that most of the catalytic activity of the iron came from the ferrous iron of iron sulfate rather than from the ferric iron of the other materials. Ferrous-ferric ratios also seemed to indicate that Luxmasse or Lautamasse might be better catalyst components than Bayermasse but their water content sometimes caused handling problems, so Bayermasse had been more widely used. Formation of deposits in the preheater was more likely due to the Bayermasse than to the iron sulfate; sodium sulfide could help to prevent them.

  2. Recent increases in nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired electric generating units equipped with selective catalytic reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNevin, Thomas F

    2016-01-01

    The most effective control technology available for the reduction of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from coal-fired boilers is selective catalytic reduction (SCR). Installation of SCR on coal-fired electric generating units (EGUs) has grown substantially since the onset of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) first cap and trade program for oxides of nitrogen in 1999, the Ozone Transport Commission (OTC) NOx Budget Program. Installations have increased from 6 units present in 1998 in the states that encompass the current Cross-State Air Pollution Rule (CSAPR) ozone season program to 250 in 2014. In recent years, however, the degree of usage of installed SCR technology has been dropping significantly at individual plants. Average seasonal NOx emission rates increased substantially during the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) program. These increases coincided with a collapse in the cost of CAIR allowances, which declined to less than the cost of the reagent required to operate installed SCR equipment, and was accompanied by a 77% decline in delivered natural gas prices from their peak in June of 2008 to April 2012, which in turn coincided with a 390% increase in shale gas production between 2008 and 2012. These years also witnessed a decline in national electric generation which, after peaking in 2007, declined through 2013 at an annualized rate of -0.3%. Scaling back the use of installed SCR on coal-fired plants has resulted in the release of over 290,000 tons of avoidable NOx during the past five ozone seasons in the states that participated in the CAIR program. To function as designed, a cap and trade program must maintain allowance costs that function as a disincentive for the release of the air pollutants that the program seeks to control. If the principle incentive for reducing NOx emissions is the avoidance of allowance costs, emissions may be expected to increase if costs fall below a critical value, in the absence of additional state or federal

  3. ARCHER HTR Technology in support of a Coal to Liquid Process – An Economic Feasibility View

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoker, P.W.; Fick, J.I.J.; Conradie, F.H.

    2014-01-01

    The paper considers the economics of coupling a European developed HTR (as conceptualized by project ARCHER) to a Coal-to-Liquid (CTL) process as typically used by Sasol, the biggest Coal-to-Liquid (CTL) producer in the world. The approach followed was to create a techno-economic baseline for an existing CTL process using mass and energy balances determined with Aspen Plus chemical modelling software. The economic performance of a typical 80,000 barrels per day synthetic crude oil plant was determined from first principles. The techno-economic baseline model was validated with reference to published product output data and audited financial results of a Sasol CTL plant located at Secunda, South Africa, as reported for the 2011 financial year. A number of schemes were identified to couple the European HTR plant to the CTL case study. Two schemes were studied in detail, while the remaining coupling schemes will be studied as part of the follow-on project NC2I-R (Nuclear Cogeneration Industrial Initiative – Research). Two Key Performance Indices were of interest, namely the Internal Rate of Return of a Nuclear supported CTL plant and the reduction of CO 2 emissions. The case where nuclear co-generation replaced electrical power bought from the grid, and also replaced all the steam currently produced by the burning coal with nuclear steam, yielded interesting conclusions: • The case study plant would need a total of 16 HTRs, each with a capacity of 265 MWth. • The coupling scheme would reduce CO 2 emissions by approximately 14.5 million ton/annum or 51 % of the current emissions of a 80,000 bbl/d plant. • The economic feasibility challenge for large scale deployment of nuclear energy in a Coal-to-Liquid application - where steam and electricity are to be generated from Nuclear energy, is to construct such a facility at an all -inclusive overnight cost not exceeding $3400/kWe. (author)

  4. Direct Catalytic Conversion of Cellulose to 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural Using Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanan Eminov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose is the single largest component of lignocellulosic biomass and is an attractive feedstock for a wide variety of renewable platform chemicals and biofuels, providing an alternative to petrochemicals and petrofuels. This potential is currently limited by the existing methods of transforming this poorly soluble polymer into useful chemical building blocks, such as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF. Ionic liquids have been used successfully to separate cellulose from the other components of lignocellulosic biomass and so the use of the same medium for the challenging transformation of cellulose into HMF would be highly attractive for the development of the biorefinery concept. In this report, ionic liquids based on 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium cations [C4C1im]+ with Lewis basic (X = Cl− and Brønsted acidic (X = HSO4− anions were used to investigate the direct catalytic transformation of cellulose to HMF. Variables probed included the composition of the ionic liquid medium, the metal catalyst, and the reaction conditions (temperature, substrate concentration. Lowering the cellulose loading and optimising the temperature achieved a 58% HMF yield after only one hour at 150 °C using a 7 mol % loading of the CrCl3 catalyst. This compares favourably with current literature procedures requiring much longer reactions times or approaches that are difficult to scale such as microwave irradiation.

  5. Innovative clean coal technology (ICCT): demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission from high-sulfur, coal-fired boilers - economic evaluation of commercial-scale SCR applications for utility boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, E.C.; Maxwell, J.D.; Hinton, W.S.

    1996-09-01

    This report presents the results of an economic evaluation produced as part of the Innovative Clean Coal Technology project, which demonstrated selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for reduction of NO x emissions from utility boilers burning U.S. high-sulfur coal. The document includes a commercial-scale capital and O ampersand M cost evaluation of SCR technology applied to a new facility, coal-fired boiler utilizing high-sulfur U.S. coal. The base case presented herein determines the total capital requirement, fixed and variable operating costs, and levelized costs for a new 250-MW pulverized coal utility boiler operating with a 60-percent NO x removal. Sensitivity evaluations are included to demonstrate the variation in cost due to changes in process variables and assumptions. This report also presents the results of a study completed by SCS to determine the cost and technical feasibility of retrofitting SCR technology to selected coal-fired generating units within the Southern electric system

  6. Small-Scale Coal-Biomass to Liquids Production Using Highly Selective Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangwal, Santosh K. [Southern Research Institute, Durham, NC (United States); McCabe, Kevin [Southern Research Institute, Durham, NC (United States)

    2015-04-30

    The research project advanced coal-to-liquids (CTL) and coal-biomass to liquids (CBTL) processes by testing and validating Chevron’s highly selective and active cobalt-zeolite hybrid Fischer-Tropsch (FT) catalyst to convert gasifier syngas predominantly to gasoline, jet fuel and diesel range hydrocarbon liquids, thereby eliminating expensive wax upgrading operations The National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) operated by Southern Company (SC) at Wilsonville, Alabama served as the host site for the gasifier slip-stream testing/demonstration. Southern Research designed, installed and commissioned a bench scale skid mounted FT reactor system (SR-CBTL test rig) that was fully integrated with a slip stream from SC/NCCC’s transport integrated gasifier (TRIGTM). The test-rig was designed to receive up to 5 lb/h raw syngas augmented with bottled syngas to adjust the H2/CO molar ratio to 2, clean it to cobalt FT catalyst specifications, and produce liquid FT products at the design capacity of 2 to 4 L/day. It employed a 2-inch diameter boiling water jacketed fixed-bed heat-exchange FT reactor incorporating Chevron’s catalyst in Intramicron’s high thermal conductivity micro-fibrous entrapped catalyst (MFEC) packing to efficiently remove heat produced by the highly exothermic FT reaction.

  7. Synthesis and utilization of catalytically cracked cashew nut shell liquid in a diesel engine

    KAUST Repository

    Vedharaj, S.

    2015-09-30

    In this study, CNSL (Cashew nut shell liquid), an economically viable feedstock among the other contemporary resources, has been considered as an appropriate source of alternate fuel. Herein, CNSL was extracted from cashew nut outer shell, a waste product, through a unique approach of steam treatment process followed by mechanical crushing technique. In contrast to the past studies that have attempted to use unprocessed CNSL directly as substitute for diesel, this study has resorted to use processed CNSL by cracking it using zeolite catalyst. Thus, both the extraction of CNSL from cashew nut outer shell and processing of it through catalytic cracking process to help synthesize CC-CNSL (catalytically cracked CNSL) are different, which underscores the significance of the current work. In wake of adopting such distinct methodologies with fuel characterization, the properties of CC-CNSL such as viscosity and calorific value were figured out to be improved. Subsequently, CC-CNSL20 (20% CC-CNSL and 80% diesel) was tested at different fuel injection pressure such as 200 bar, 235 bar, 270 bar and 300 bar so as to optimize its use in a single cylinder diesel engine. From the engine experimental study, CC-CNSL20 was found to evince better engine performance than diesel and the composite emissions of CO (carbon monoxide), HC (hydrocarbon), NOX (oxides of nitrogen) and smoke, computed based on ISO 8178 D2 standard test cycle, were found to be better than diesel and incompliance with the legislative norms for genset.

  8. Nonaqueous ionic liquids: superior reaction media for the catalytic Heck-vinylation of chloroarenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohm; Herrmann

    2000-03-17

    Nonaqueous ionic liquids, that is molten salts, constitute an activating and stabilizing noninnocent solvent for the palladium-catalyzed Heck-vinylation of all types of aryl halides. Especially with chloroarenes an improved activity and stability of almost any known catalyst system is observed as compared to conventional, molecular solvents (e.g. dimethylformamide (DMF), dimethylacetamide (DMAc), N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP), or dioxane). Thus, even catalytic amounts of ligand-free PdCl2 yield stilbene from technically interesting chlorobenzene and styrene in high yield (turnover number (TON) = 18) without the need for further promoting salt additives such as tetraphenylphosphonium chloride. The scope of the new reaction medium is outlined for the first time for the vinylation of various aryl halides using different mono- and disubstituted olefins as well as a variety of known palladium(0) and palladium(II) catalyst systems. Furthermore, a novel means of catalyst recycling is presented and its scope is evaluated.

  9. Methods for sulfate removal in liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification of biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Douglas C; Oyler, James

    2013-12-17

    Processing of wet biomass feedstock by liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification must address catalyst fouling and poisoning. One solution can involve heating the wet biomass with a heating unit to a pre-treatment temperature sufficient for organic constituents in the feedstock to decompose, for precipitates of inorganic wastes to form, for preheating the wet feedstock in preparation for subsequent removal of soluble sulfate contaminants, or combinations thereof. Processing further includes reacting the soluble sulfate contaminants with cations present in the feedstock material to yield a sulfate-containing precipitate and separating the inorganic precipitates and/or the sulfate-containing precipitates out of the wet feedstock. Having removed much of the inorganic wastes and the sulfate contaminants that can cause poisoning and fouling, the wet biomass feedstock can be exposed to the heterogenous catalyst for gasification.

  10. A Novel Acoustic Liquid Level Determination Method for Coal Seam Gas Wells Based on Autocorrelation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximing Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In coal seam gas (CSG wells, water is periodically removed from the wellbore in order to keep the bottom-hole flowing pressure at low levels, facilitating the desorption of methane gas from the coal bed. In order to calculate gas flow rate and further optimize well performance, it is necessary to accurately monitor the liquid level in real-time. This paper presents a novel method based on autocorrelation function (ACF analysis for determining the liquid level in CSG wells under intense noise conditions. The method involves the calculation of the acoustic travel time in the annulus and processing the autocorrelation signal in order to extract the weak echo under high background noise. In contrast to previous works, the non-linear dependence of the acoustic velocity on temperature and pressure is taken into account. To locate the liquid level of a coal seam gas well the travel time is computed iteratively with the non-linear velocity model. Afterwards, the proposed method is validated using experimental laboratory investigations that have been developed for liquid level detection under two scenarios, representing the combination of low pressure, weak signal, and intense noise generated by gas flowing and leakage. By adopting an evaluation indicator called Crest Factor, the results have shown the superiority of the ACF-based method compared to Fourier filtering (FFT. In the two scenarios, the maximal measurement error from the proposed method was 0.34% and 0.50%, respectively. The latent periodic characteristic of the reflected signal can be extracted by the ACF-based method even when the noise is larger than 1.42 Pa, which is impossible for FFT-based de-noising. A case study focused on a specific CSG well is presented to illustrate the feasibility of the proposed approach, and also to demonstrate that signal processing with autocorrelation analysis can improve the sensitivity of the detection system.

  11. Liquid hydrocarbons from coal beds – risk factor for the underground work environment - Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomescu Cristian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquid hydrocarbons from the coal bed and surrounding rocks, besides the stored gases, methane, carbon dioxide, carbon oxide, generate the increase of the risk factor from the occupational health and safety point of view. If for reducing the gas concentrations level and the methane emissions in order to increase the safety in exploitation exist well-known solutions and methods, the oxidation or self-oxidation of the hydrocarbons from the coal bed generate a series of compounds, reaction products over maximum admitted concentrations which give birth to a toxic atmosphere and which is hazardous for workers, at the same time inducing an error in noting the occurrence of a spontaneous combustion phenomena, a major risk for the workers and for the mineral resource. This paper represents a case study performed in one underground mine unit from Jiu Valley and presents the analysis for underground environment factors monitoring and for solutions for diminishing the OHS risk factors.

  12. Polystyrene Plastic Waste Conversion into Liquid Fuel with Catalytic Cracking Process Using Al2O3 as Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Kholidah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in energy consumption and an increase in the plastic waste generation are two major problems that arise along with economic growth and the increase in population. Styrofoam is one type of polystyrene plastic waste that can be processed into liquid fuels by cracking process. In this study, the cracking process of polystyrene plastic waste into liquid fuel carried by the catalytic cracking process using Al2O3 as a catalyst. This study aimed to determine the effect of the catalyst weight, length of cracking time and range of temperature in the catalytic cracking process of polystyrene plastic waste into liquid fuel toward the mass and characteristics of liquid fuels produced and to determine the composition of liquid fuels produced. The catalytic cracking process of polystyrene plastic waste with catalyst was done in the fixed bed type reactor by heating the reactor with a heater, where the process took place at temperature of 150°C, 200°C, 250°C and 300°C and the length of the process was varied into 20, 40, and 60 minutes and the catalyst weight was also varied, which were 4%, 6% and 8%, while the styrofoam weight was 250 grams. From the research, the highest mass of liquid fuel derived from polystyrene catalytic cracking process was in the amount of 48.8 grams and liquid yield percentage of 19.5% at temperature of  250°C, cracking time of 60 minutes and weight of 8% catalyst, while the characteristics of liquid fuel that were approaching the characteristics of gasoline was at temperatures of 250°C, cracking time of 60 minutes and weight of 6% catalyst, in which each value of density of 0.763 g/ml, specific gravity of 0.778 and oAPI gravity of 50.2. While other liquid fuels obtained from the cracking of polystyrene were still within the tolerance range characteristic properties of gasoline. Liquid fuels produced from the catalytic cracking process was analyzed using a GC-MS, in which the analysis results indicated that liquid

  13. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. Final technical report, Volume 2 - hydrogenative and hydrothermal pretreatments and spectroscopic characterization using pyrolysis-GC-MS, CPMAS {sup 13}C NMR and FT-IR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chunshan Song; Hatcher, P.G.; Saini, A.K.; Wenzel, K.A.

    1998-01-01

    It has been indicated by DOE COLIRN panel that low-temperature catalytic pretreatment is a promising approach to the development of an improved liquefaction process. This work is a fundamental study on effects of pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. The main objectives of this project are to study the coal structural changes induced by low-temperature catalytic and thermal pretreatments by using spectroscopic techniques; and to clarify the pretreatment-induced changes in reactivity or convertibility of coals. As the second volume of the final report, here we summarize our work on spectroscopic characterization of four raw coals including two subbituminous coals and two bituminous coals, tetrahydrofuran (THF)-extracted but unreacted coals, the coals (THF-insoluble parts) that have been thermally pretreated. in the absence of any solvents and in the presence of either a hydrogen-donor solvent or a non-donor solvent, and the coals (THF-insoluble parts) that have been catalytically pretreated in the presence of a dispersed Mo sulfide catalyst in the absence of any solvents and in the presence of either a hydrogen-donor solvent or a non-donor solvent.

  14. Continuous process for the pressure hydrogenation of coals, tars, and mineral oils in liquid phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1943-05-25

    In the continuous pressure hydrogenation of coals, tars, and mineral oils in liquid phase as, for example, of coal or oil pastes, the liquid together with the hydrogen required for the reaction was, at the time of this report, preheated under pressure in a special preheater and brought to the reaction temperature. At this temperature, the mixture then entered the reaction vessel. Here, due to the absorption of hydrogen by the hydrogenation feed, so much heat was generated that in practical operations, cooling had to be provided for. This report dealt with an investigation that solved this problem. In this process hydrogenation feed, together with hydrogen, entered at the bottom of one section of a reaction vessel which was divided by separating walls into two vertical sections, which were connected with each other at the top and the bottom, so that hydrogenation feed was given a circulating motion between the two sections of the vessel, whereby the greatest part of the hydrogen mass, together with the vaporous mass, and as a rule, also a part of the liquid, was drawn off at the top. A description of the operation and the equipment involved was given. A sketch containing six figures was also included showing the flow of the materials.

  15. Catalytic Conversion of Carbohydrates to Levulinate Ester over Heteropolyanion-Based Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Changhua; Liu, Sijie; Peng, Xinwen; Long, Jinxing; Lou, Wenyong; Li, Xuehui

    2016-12-08

    An efficient one-pot approach for the production of levulinate ester from renewable carbohydrates is demonstrated over heteropolyanion-based ionic liquid (IL-POM) catalysts with alcohols as the promoters and solvents. The relationships between the structure, acidic strength, and solubility of the IL-POM in methanol and the catalytic performance were studied intensively. A cellulose conversion of 100 % could be achieved with a 71.4 % yield of methyl levulinate over the catalyst [PyPS] 3 PW 12 O 40 [PyPS=1-(3-sulfopropyl)pyridinium] at 150 °C for 5 h. This high efficiency is ascribed to the reasonably high activity of the ionic liquid (IL) catalyst and reaction coupling with rapid in situ esterification of the generated levulinic acid with the alcohol promoter, which allows the insolubility of cellulose encountered in biomass conversion to be overcome. Furthermore, the present process exhibits high feedstock adaptability for typical carbohydrates and handy catalyst recovery by a simple self-separation procedure through temperature control. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Catalytic Ionic-Liquid Membranes: The Convergence of Ionic-Liquid Catalysis and Ionic-Liquid Membrane Separation Technologies.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Izák, Pavel; Bobbink, F.D.; Hulla, M.; Klepic, M.; Friess, K.; Hovorka, Š.; Dyson, P.J.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 1 (2018), s. 7-18 ISSN 2192-6506 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-00089S; GA ČR GA17-05421S Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : heterogeneous catalysis * ionic liquids * membranes Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering OBOR OECD: Chemical process engineering Impact factor: 2.797, year: 2016

  17. Catalytic Ionic-Liquid Membranes: The Convergence of Ionic-Liquid Catalysis and Ionic-Liquid Membrane Separation Technologies.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Izák, Pavel; Bobbink, F.D.; Hulla, M.; Klepic, M.; Friess, K.; Hovorka, Š.; Dyson, P.J.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 1 (2018), s. 7-18 ISSN 2192-6506 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-00089S; GA ČR GA17-05421S Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : heterogeneous catalysis * ionic liquid s * membranes Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering OBOR OECD: Chemical process engineering Impact factor: 2.797, year: 2016

  18. Low Temperature Selective Catalytic Reduction of Nitrogen Oxides in Production of Nitric Acid by the Use of Liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabljanac, Ž.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of low-temperature selective catalytic reduction of nitrous oxides in the tail gas of the dual-pressure process of nitric acid production. The process of selective catalytic reduction is carried out using the TiO2/WO3 heterogeneous catalyst applied on a ceramic honeycomb structure with a high geometric surface area per volume. The process design parameters for nitric acid production by the dual-pressure procedure in a capacity range from 75 to 100 % in comparison with designed capacity for one production line is shown in the Table 1. Shown is the effectiveness of selective catalytic reduction in the temperature range of the tail gas from 180 to 230 °C with direct application of liquid ammonia, without prior evaporation to gaseous state. The results of inlet and outlet concentrations of nitrous oxides in the tail gas of the nitric acid production process are shown in Figures 1 and 2. Figure 3 shows the temperature dependence of the selective catalytic reduction of nitrous oxides expressed as NO2in the tail gas of nitric acid production with the application of a constant mass flow of liquid ammonia of 13,0 kg h-1 and average inlet mass concentration of the nitrous oxides expressed as NO2of 800,0 mgm-3 during 100 % production capacity. The specially designed liquid-ammonia direct-dosing system along with the effective homogenization of the tail gas resulted in emission levels of nitrous oxides expressed as NO2 in tail gas ranging from 100,0 to 185,0 mg m-3. The applied low-temperature selective catalytic reduction of the nitrous oxides in the tail gases by direct use of liquid ammonia is shown in Figure 4. It is shown that low-temperature selective catalytic reduction with direct application of liquid ammonia opens a new opportunity in the reduction of nitrous oxide emissions during nitric acid production without the risk of dangerous ammonium nitrate occurring in the process of subsequent energy utilization of

  19. Use of a Nuclear High Temperature Gas Reactor in a Coal-To-Liquids Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert S. Cherry; Richard A. Wood

    2006-01-01

    AREVA's High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR) can potentially provide nuclear-generated, high-level heat to chemical process applications. The use of nuclear heat to help convert coal to liquid fuels is particularly attractive because of concerns about the future availability of petroleum for vehicle fuels. This report was commissioned to review the technical and economic aspects of how well this integration might actually work. The objective was to review coal liquefaction processes and propose one or more ways that nuclear process heat could be used to improve the overall process economics and performance. Shell's SCGP process was selected as the gasifier for the base case system. It operates in the range of 1250 to 1600 C to minimize the formation of tars, oil, and methane, while also maximizing the conversion of the coal's carbon to gas. Synthesis gas from this system is cooled, cleaned, reacted to produce the proper ratio of hydrogen to carbon monoxide and fed to a Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reaction and product upgrading system. The design coal-feed rate of 18,800 ton/day produces 26.000 barrels/day of FT products. Thermal energy at approximately 850 C from a HTGR does not directly integrate into this gasification process efficiently. However, it can be used to electrolyze water to make hydrogen and oxygen, both of which can be beneficially used in the gasification/FT process. These additions then allow carbon-containing streams of carbon dioxide and FT tail-gas to be recycled in the gasifier, greatly improving the overall carbon recovery and thereby producing more FT fuel for the same coal input. The final process configuration, scaled to make the same amount of product as the base case, requires only 5,800 ton/day of coal feed. Because it has a carbon utilization of 96.9%, the process produces almost no carbon dioxide byproduct Because the nuclear-assisted process requires six AREVA reactors to supply the heat, the capital cost is high. The conventional plant is

  20. Feasibilities of a Coal-Biomass to Liquids Plant in Southern West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, Debangsu [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); DVallance, David [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Henthorn, Greg [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Grushecky, Shawn [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2016-09-30

    This project has generated comprehensive and realistic results of feasibilities for a coal-biomass to liquids (CBTL) plant in southern West Virginia; and evaluated the sensitivity of the analyses to various anticipated scenarios and parametric uncertainties. Specifically the project has addressed economic feasibility, technical feasibility, market feasibility, and financial feasibility. In the economic feasibility study, a multi-objective siting model was developed and was then used to identify and rank the suitable facility sites. Spatial models were also developed to assess the biomass and coal feedstock availabilities and economics. Environmental impact analysis was conducted mainly to assess life cycle analysis and greenhouse gas emission. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis were also investigated in this study. Sensitivity analyses on required selling price (RSP) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of CBTL fuels were conducted according to feedstock availability and price, biomass to coal mix ratio, conversion rate, internal rate of return (IRR), capital cost, operational and maintenance cost. The study of siting and capacity showed that feedstock mixed ratio limited the CBTL production. The price of coal had a more dominant effect on RSP than that of biomass. Different mix ratios in the feedstock and conversion rates led to RSP ranging from $104.3 - $157.9/bbl. LCA results indicated that GHG emissions ranged from 80.62 kg CO2 eq to 101.46 kg CO2 eq/1,000 MJ of liquid fuel at various biomass to coal mix ratios and conversion rates if carbon capture and storage (CCS) was applied. Most of water and fossil energy were consumed in conversion process. Compared to petroleum-derived-liquid fuels, the reduction in GHG emissions could be between -2.7% and 16.2% with CBTL substitution. As for the technical study, three approaches of coal and biomass to liquids, direct, indirect and hybrid, were considered in the analysis. The process models including

  1. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, third and fourth quarters 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese, and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. Coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to form nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and European gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels; (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}; performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries, and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties are being explored by operating a series of small- scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. The demonstration is being performed at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 MW capacity) near Pensacola, Florida. The project is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Southern Company Services, Inc. (SCS on behalf of the entire Southern electric system), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and Ontario Hydro. SCS is the participant responsible for managing al aspects of this project. 1 ref., 69 figs., 45 tabs.

  2. Hindered diffusion of coal liquids. Quarterly report number 11, March 18--June 17, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsotsis, T.T.; Sahimi, M. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Webster, I.A. [UNOCAL Corp., Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The design of industrial catalysts requires that the diffusivity of the reacting species within the catalyst be accurately known. Nowhere is this more important than in the area of coal liquefaction and upgrading of coal liquids. In this area one is faced with the task of processing a number of heavy oils, containing metals and other contaminants, in a variety of process dependent solvents. It is important, therefore, on the basis of predicting catalyst activity, selectivity, and optimizing reactor performance, that the diffusivities of these oil species be accurately known. Contrary to laboratory reactors, where most of the studies of asphaltene`s chemical structure have taken place, most industrial reactors are continuous systems. The state of the asphaltene molecule therefore does not only depend on the temperature, pressure and polarity of the solvent but also on the reactor`s residence time. It is, therefore, very important to have a correct concept of the asphaltene`s structure and through careful experimentation, one can then decide whether such a concept has any practical implications at realistic upgrading conditions. It is the purpose of the project described here to provide such a correct concept of coal asphaltenes by careful and detailed investigations of asphaltenes transport through porous systems under realistic process temperature and pressure conditions. The experimental studies will be coupled with detailed, in-depth statistical and molecular dynamics models intended to provide a fundamental understanding of the overall transport mechanisms. 60 refs.

  3. Fractional distillation as a strategy for reducing the genotoxic potential of SRC-II coal liquids: a status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelroy, R.A.; Wilson, B.W.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents results of studies on the effects of fractional distillation on the genotoxic potential of Solvent Refined Coal (SRC-II) liquids. SRC-II source materials and distilled liquids were provided by Pittsburg and Midway Coal Mining Co. Fractional distillations were conducted on products from the P-99 process development unit operating under conditions approximating those anticipated at the SRC-II demonstration facility. Distillation cuts were subjected to chemical fractionation, in vitro bioassay and initial chemical analysis. Findings are discussed as they relate to the temperature at which various distillate cuts were produced. This document is the first of two status reports scheduled for 1981 describing these studies.

  4. Catalytic conversion of carbohydrates into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural over cellulose-derived carbonaceous catalyst in ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lei; Zhao, Geng; Tang, Xing; Wu, Zhen; Xu, Jiaxing; Lin, Lu; Liu, Shijie

    2013-11-01

    Three environmental-benign and low-cost carbon-based solid acid catalysts containing -SO3H, -COOH and phenolic -OH groups were prepared and used for the conversion of glucose into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl). The results demonstrated that cellulose-derived carbonaceous catalyst (CCC) possessed the highest catalytic activity, which resulted in 46.4% HMF yield at 160°C for only 15 min. In addition, the reaction kinetics for the conversion of glucose into HMF over CCC was fitted with the first-order rate equation. The slightly-deactivated CCC after four successive reaction runs could be easily regenerated by a simple carbonization and sulfonation process. More gratifyingly, the combination of CCC and [BMIM]Cl were confirmed to be suitable for converting other carbohydrates such as fructose, sucrose, maltose, cellobiose, starch and cellulose into HMF. Particularly, a plausible mechanism involving hydrolysis, isomerization and dehydration for the conversion of carbohydrates into HMF was also proposed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Enhancing catalytic performance of Au catalysts by noncovalent functionalized graphene using functional ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Shuwen; Guo, Shujing; Yang, Honglei; Gou, Galian; Ren, Ren; Li, Jing; Dong, Zhengping; Jin, Jun; Ma, Jiantai

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The new catalyst was fabricated by a facile and environment-friendly approach. • The catalyst has excellent activity and reusability due to the synergistic effect. • The approach provides a green way to synthesize low cost Au-based catalysts. - Abstract: New catalyst, prepared through Au nanoparticles anchored on the Ionic Liquid of 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic acid-noncovalent functionalized graphene (Au/PDIL-GS), was fabricated using a facile and environment-friendly approach. The information of the morphologies, sizes, dispersion of Au nanoparticles (NPs) and chemical composition for the as-prepared catalysts was verified by systematic characterizations, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Raman spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). As a new catalyst, the resulting Au/PDIL-GS exhibited excellent catalytic activity in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol because of the synergistic effect between the PDIL-GS and Au NPs. The facile and environment-friendly approach provides a green way to effectively synthesize low cost Au-based catalysts for 4-NP reduction and is promising for the development of other useful materials

  6. Ultra-fast catalytic reduction of dyes by ionic liquid recoverable and reusable mefenamic acid derived gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, Syeda Sara [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Sirajuddin, E-mail: drsiraj03@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Solangi, Amber Rehana [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Agheem, Mohammad Hassan [Center for Pure and Applied Geology, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Junejo, Yasmeen; Kalwar, Nazar Hussain; Tagar, Zulfiqar Ali [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: {yields} Gold nanoparticles (AuNps) have been fabricated by a simple chemical method. {yields} AuNps were capped successfully in one step by mefenamic acid (MA). {yields} MA capped AuNps catalytically reduced the mixture of 3 dyes in just 15 s. {yields} AuNps were recovered by ionic liquid and reused for dye(s) reduction effectively. - Abstract: We synthesized mefenamic acid (MA) derived gold nanoparticles (MA-AuNps) in aqueous solution (MA-Au sol). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) of the sol at 1, 5, 15 and 60 min showed changes in size and shape of formed AuNps. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy revealed the interaction between AuNps and MA. Each Au sol exhibited exceptional catalytic activity for the reduction of Methylene Blue (MB), Rose Bengal (RB) and Eosin B (EB) dye individually as well as collectively. However, complete reduction of dye(s) was accomplished by Au sol of 5 min in just 15 s. The catalytic performance of Ma-Au sol was far superior to that adsorbed on glass. AuNps were recovered with the help of water insoluble room temperature ionic liquid and reused with enhanced catalytic potential. This finding is a novel, rapid and highly economical alternative for environmental safety against pollution by dyes and extendable for control of other reducible contaminants as well.

  7. Achieving a production goal of 1 million B/D of coal liquids by 1990. [Impediments and constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Charles; LaRosa, Dr., P. J.; Coles, E. T.; Fein, H. L.; Petros, J. J.; Iyer, R. S.; Merritt, R. T.

    1980-03-01

    Under this contract, Bechtel analyzed the resource requirements and reviewed major obstacles to the daily production of several million barrels of synthetic coal liquids. Further, the study sought to identify the industry infrastructure needed to support the commercial readiness of the coal liquefaction process. A selected list of critical resource items and their domestic/international availability was developed and examined, and the impact of their supply on the various synthetic coal liquids programs was evaluated. The study approach was to develop representative, or generic, direct and indirect coal liquefaction conceptual designs from available technology and costs data. The generic processes were to employ technology that would be considered commercial by the mid- or late-1980s. The size of the generic construction mobilization was considered reasonable at the outset of the program. The product slate was directed toward unrefined liquid fuels rather than diesel oil or gasoline. The generic processes were to use a wide range of coals to permit siting in most coal-producing regions across the country. Because of the dearth of conceptual design data in the literature, Bechtel developed generic plant designs by using in-house design expertise. Bechtel assumed that because it is first generation technology, the indirect process will be used at the outset of the liquids program, and the direct process will be introduced two to four years later as a second generation technology. The products of either of these processes will be limited to boiler fuels and/or other liquid products which require further upgrading. Cost estimates were developed from equipment lists, as well as material and labor estimates, which enabled the determination of an order-of-magnitude cost estimate and target plant construction schedule for both processes.

  8. Literature survey of properties of synfuels derived from coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, T. W.; Niedzwiecki, R. W.; Clark, J. S.

    1980-02-01

    A literature survey of the properties of synfuels for ground-based gas turbine applications is presented. Four major concepts for converting coal into liquid fuels are described: solvent extraction, catalytic liquefaction, pyrolysis, and indirect liquefaction. Data on full range syncrudes, various distillate cuts, and upgraded products are presented for fuels derived from various processes, including H-coal, synthoil, solvent-refined coal, donor solvent, zinc chloride hydrocracking, co-steam, and flash pyrolysis. Some typical ranges of data for coal-derived low Btu gases are also presented.

  9. Literature survey of properties of synfuels derived from coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, T. W.; Niedzwiecki, R. W.; Clark, J. S.

    1980-01-01

    A literature survey of the properties of synfuels for ground-based gas turbine applications is presented. Four major concepts for converting coal into liquid fuels are described: solvent extraction, catalytic liquefaction, pyrolysis, and indirect liquefaction. Data on full range syncrudes, various distillate cuts, and upgraded products are presented for fuels derived from various processes, including H-coal, synthoil, solvent-refined coal, donor solvent, zinc chloride hydrocracking, co-steam, and flash pyrolysis. Some typical ranges of data for coal-derived low Btu gases are also presented.

  10. Driving forces and barriers in the development and implementation of coal-to-liquids (CtL) technologies in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallentin, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Because of a growing global energy demand and rising oil prices coal-abundant nations, such as China and the United States, are pursuing the application of technologies which could replace crude oil imports by converting coal to synthetic hydrocarbon fuels-so-called coal-to-liquids (CtL) technologies. The case of CtL is well suited to analyse techno-economic, resources-related, policy-driven and actor-related parameters, which are affecting the market prospects of a technology that eases energy security constraints but is hardly compatible with a progressive climate policy. This paper concentrates on Germany as an example-the European Union (EU)'s largest member state with considerable coal reserves. It shows that in Germany and the EU, CtL is facing rather unfavourable market conditions as high costs and ambitious climate targets offset its energy security advantage

  11. Retrofit of a coal-fired open-cycle liquid-metal MHD to steam power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierson, E.S.; Herman, H.; Petrick, M.; Grammel, S.J.; Dubey, G.

    1981-01-01

    The application of the new, coal-fired open-cycle liquid-metal MHD (OC-LMMHD) energy-conversion system to the retrofit of an existing, oil- or gas-fired conventional steam power plant is evaluated. The criteria used to evaluate the retrofit are the net plant efficiency and the cost benefit relative to other options, i.e., continuing to burn oil, a conventional retrofit to burn coal (if possible), and an over-the-fence gasifier for boilers that cannot burn coal directly. The efficiency and cost calculations are based on a specific existing steam plant, and a detailed description of the retrofit plant. The unique capability of the OC-LMMHD cycle to control the pollutants normally associated with burning coal is discussed.

  12. Combined gas-steam turbine cycle using coal derived liquid fuel - A viable alternative to direct combustion of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabi, R.; Mesko, J. E.

    An alternative to direct coal-combustion for electric power generation is liquefaction of coal prior to combustion in a combined gas-steam turbine plant. For optimization of the overall efficiency of the power plant, individual subsystem efficiencies must be analyzed, but the prevailing energy analysis based on the first law of thermodynamics is insufficient for this purpose and can be misleading. The paper presents a complete thermodynamic analysis of an 873 MWe combined gas-steam turbine cycle, which utilizes semiclean fuel from the H-Coal process.

  13. Retrofit of a coal-fired open-cycle liquid-metal MHD to steam power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierson, E.S.; Herman, H.; Petrick, M.; Grammel, S.J.; Dubey, G.

    1981-01-01

    The application of the new, coal-fired open-cycle liquid-metal MHD (OC-LMMHD) energy-conversion system to the retrofit of an existing, oil- or gas-fired conventional steam power plant is evaluated. The criteria used to evaluate the retrofit are the net plant efficiency and the cost benefit relative to other options. 7 refs.

  14. Effect of blending ratio to the liquid product on co-pyrolysis of low rank coal and oil palm empty fruit bunch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zullaikah Siti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of Indonesia low rank coal should be maximized, since the source of Indonesia law rank coals were abundant. Pyrolysis of this coal can produce liquid product which can be utilized as fuel and chemical feedstocks. The yield of liquid product is still low due to lower of comparison H/C. Since coal is non-renewable source, an effort of coal saving and to mitigate the production of greenhouse gases, biomass such as oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB would added as co-feeding. EFB could act as hydrogen donor in co-pyrolysis to increase liquid product. Co-pyrolysis of Indonesia low rank coal and EFB were studied in a drop tube reactor under the certain temperature (t= 500 °C and time (t= 1 h used N2 as purge gas. The effect of blending ratios of coal/EFB (100/0, 75/25, 50/50, 25/75 and 0/100%, w/w % on the yield and composition of liquid product were studied systematically. The results showed that the higher blending ratio, the yield of liquid product and gas obtained increased, while the char decreased. The highest yield of liquid product (28,62 % was obtained used blending ratio of coal/EFB = 25/75, w/w%. Tar composition obtained in this ratio is phenol, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkanes, acids, esters.

  15. Comparison of nickel molybdenum hydrous metal oxides with commercial catalysts for HDS/HDN of coal liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lott, S.E.; Gardner, T.J.; McLaughlin, L.I.; Oelfke, J.B.

    1994-06-01

    Improved efficiency in direct coal liquefaction processes can be obtained by developing catalysts with better activity, selectivity, and life. In previous exploratory research at Sandia National Laboratories, catalysts prepared via hydrous metal oxide (HMO) ion exchangers have been shown to have potential for application to a number of reactions associated with the conversion of coal to liquid fuels. In the present effort, one member of this class of catalysts, hydrous titanium oxide (HTO), has been used to develop catalysts for hydrodesulfurization (HDS) and hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) of coal liquids. For HYD of pyrone, unsupported NiMoHTO catalysts performed better than commercial benchmark catalysts on either a catalyst weight or active metals basis. In a side-by-side comparison of supported NiMoHTO catalysts with commercial counterparts, the supported NiMoHTO catalysts outperformed the Shell 324 and Amocat 1C catalysts for HYD of pyrene. For HDS/HDN of coal liquids, the supported and bulk forms of the NiMoHTO catalysts equaled the performance of the commercial catalysts at 500, 1000, and 1500 psig while containing less active metals. Possible reasons for the high activity of the NiMoHTO catalysts are a high dispersion of the active MoS{sub 2} phase and a high acidity of the bulk NiMoHTO.

  16. Synthetic liquid fuels development: assessment of critical factors. Volume III. Coal resource depletion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, E.M.; Yabroff, I.W.; Kroll, C.A.; White, R.K.; Walton, B.L.; Ivory, M.E.; Fullen, R.E.; Weisbecker, L.W.; Hays, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    While US coal resources are known to be vast, their rate of depletion in a future based predominantly on coal has not been examined analytically heretofore. The Coal Depletion Model inventories the coal resource on a regional basis and calculates the cost of coal extraction by three technologies - strip and underground mining and in-situ combustion. A plausible coal demand scenario extending from 1975 to the year 2050 is used as a basis in applying the model. In the year 2050, plants in operation include 285 syncrude plants, each producing 100,000 B/D; 312 SNG plants, each producing 250 million SCF/D and 722 coal-fired electric power plants, each of 1000 MW capacity. In addition, there is 890 million tons per year of industrial coal consumption. Such a high level of coal use would deplete US coal resources much more rapidly than most people appreciate. Of course, the actual amount of US coal is unknown, and if the coal in the hypothetical reliability category is included, depletion is delayed. Coal in this category, however, has not been mapped; it is only presumed to exist on the basis of geological theory. The coal resource depletion model shows that unilateral imposition of a severance tax by a state tends to shift production to other coal producing regions. Boom and bust cycles are both delayed and reduced in their magnitude. When several states simultaneously impose severance taxes, the effect of each is weakened.Key policy issues that emerge from this analysis concern the need to reduce the uncertainty of the magnitude and geographic distribution of the US coal resource and the need to stimulate interaction among the parties at interest to work out equitable and acceptable coal conversion plant location strategies capable of coping with the challenges of a high-coal future.

  17. Effects of Coal Fly Ash Particulate Matter on the Antimicrobial Activity of Airway Surface Liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Buonfiglio, Luis G.; Mudunkotuwa, Imali A.; Abou Alaiwa, Mahmoud H.; Vanegas Calderón, Oriana G.; Borcherding, Jennifer A.; Gerke, Alicia K.; Zabner, Joseph; Grassian, Vicki H.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Sustained exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) is a global cause of mortality. Coal fly ash (CFA) is a byproduct of coal combustion and is a source of anthropogenic PM with worldwide health relevance. The airway epithelia are lined with fluid called airway surface liquid (ASL), which contains antimicrobial proteins and peptides (AMPs). Cationic AMPs bind negatively charged bacteria to exert their antimicrobial activity. PM arriving in the airways could potentially interact with AMPs in the ASL to affect their antimicrobial activity. Objectives: We hypothesized that PM can interact with ASL AMPs to impair their antimicrobial activity. Methods: We exposed pig and human airway explants, pig and human ASL, and the human cationic AMPs β-defensin-3, LL-37, and lysozyme to CFA or control. Thereafter, we assessed the antimicrobial activity of exposed airway samples using both bioluminescence and standard colony-forming unit assays. We investigated PM-AMP electrostatic interaction by attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and measuring the zeta potential. We also studied the adsorption of AMPs on PM. Results: We found increased bacterial survival in CFA-exposed airway explants, ASL, and AMPs. In addition, we report that PM with a negative surface charge can adsorb cationic AMPs and form negative particle–protein complexes. Conclusion: We propose that when CFA arrives at the airway, it rapidly adsorbs AMPs and creates negative complexes, thereby decreasing the functional amount of AMPs capable of killing pathogens. These results provide a novel translational insight into an early mechanism for how ambient PM increases the susceptibility of the airways to bacterial infection. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP876 PMID:28696208

  18. Study of the Feasibility of a Coal-to-Liquids Plant in Interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    Syngas Treatment – Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Synthesis & Upgrading...200 MW of electricity to export – Export waste heat for district heating – Use of technologies that recover as much waste heat as possible in the...Separation Unit Coal Preparation Gasifier Syngas Treatment F-T and Upgrading Power Generation oxygen dried coal or slurried coal raw syngas syngas

  19. Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater by a novel integration of three-dimensional catalytic electro-Fenton and membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shengyong; Han, Hongjun; Hou, Baolin; Zhuang, Haifeng

    2015-12-01

    Laboratorial scale experiments were conducted to investigate a novel system three-dimensional catalytic electro-Fenton (3DCEF, catalyst of sewage sludge based activated carbon which loaded Fe3O4) integrating with membrane bioreactor (3DCEF-MBR) on advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater. The results indicated that 3DCEF-MBR represented high efficiencies in eliminating COD and total organic carbon, giving the maximum removal efficiencies of 80% and 75%, respectively. The integrated 3DCEF-MBR system significantly reduced the transmembrane pressure, giving 35% lower than conventional MBR after 30 days operation. The enhanced hydroxyl radical oxidation and bacteria self repair function were the mechanisms for 3DCEF-MBR performance. Therefore, the integrated 3DCEF-MBR was expected to be the promising technology for advanced treatment in engineering applications. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Deashing of coal liquids with ceramic membrane microfiltration and diafiltration. Final technical report, August 4, 1992--September 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Removal of mineral matter from liquid hydrocarbons derived from the direct liquefaction of coal is required for product acceptability. Current methods include critical solvent Deashing and filtration, both of which produce an ash reject stream containing up to 15% of the liquid hydrocarbon product. This program was directed towards development of an improved process for deashing and recovery of coal-derived residual oil: the use of ceramic membranes for high-temperature microfiltration and diafiltration. Using laboratory scale ceramic membrane modules, samples of a coal-derived residual oil containing ash were processed by crossflow microfiltration, followed by solvent addition and refiltration (diafiltration). Excellent recovery of deashed residual oil was demonstrated. Data from this program were used to develop preliminary estimates for production system capital and operating costs that will be used to assess economic feasibility. The first objective of this program was to demonstrate technical feasibility of crossflow microfiltration (MF) for removal of mineral matter from a coal derived residual oil. A second objective was to demonstrate technical feasibility of diafiltration of W concentrate using a hydrocarbon diluent.

  1. Denitration of medium level liquid radioactive wastes by catalytic destruction of nitrogen oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donato, A.; Ricci, G.

    1984-01-01

    The catalytic abatement by means of NH 3 of the NOsub(x) produced in the radwaste conditioning has been studied. With reference to the gas produced in a bituminization plant, the thermodynamics and the chemistry of the NOsub(x) catalytic reduction to nitrogen and H 2 O have been evaluated. The following operational parameters have been experimentally studied: the catalyst bed temperature; the gas residence time; the vapour concentration; the NOsub(x) concentration; the gas velocity; the catalyst grain size distribution; the catalyst time-life. Abatement yields of the order of 99,5% have been obtained following experimental conditions must be selected. In the case of a bituminization plant, a NOsub(x) catalytic reactor, if installed between the evaporator denitrator and the condenser, could reduce to less than 1/100 the volume of the NaNO 3 secondary wastes produced by the gas scrubbing

  2. Economic and environmental evaluation of coal-and-biomass-to-liquids-and-electricity plants equipped with carbon capture and storage (data for figures and tables)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data used in the manuscript's tables and figures. Most data represent the modeled optimal capacity of the coal-and-biomass-to-liquid fuels-and-electricity (CBTLE)...

  3. Unique self-assembly behavior of a triblock copolymer and fabrication of catalytically active gold nanoparticle/polymer thin films at the liquid/liquid interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shang, Ke; Geng, Yuanyuan; Xu, Xingtao [Key Laboratory for Colloid and Interface Chemistry of Education Ministry, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Wang, Changwei [Environmental Monitoring Center of Shandong Province, Jinan 250013 (China); Lee, Yong-Ill [Anastro Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Changwon National University, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Hao, Jingcheng [Key Laboratory for Colloid and Interface Chemistry of Education Ministry, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Liu, Hong-Guo, E-mail: hgliu@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Colloid and Interface Chemistry of Education Ministry, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2014-07-01

    Gold nanoparticle-doped poly(2-vinylpyridine)-block-polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (P2VP-b-PS-b-P2VP) thin films were prepared at the planar liquid/liquid interface between the chloroform solution of the polymer and aqueous solution of HAuCl{sub 4}. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) investigations revealed that foam films composed of microcapsules as well as one-dimensional belts were formed, and numerous Au nanoparticles were incorporated in the walls of the microcapsules and the nanobelts. The walls and the belts have layered structure. The formation mechanism of the foams and the belts was attributed to adsorption of the polymer molecules, combination of the polymer molecules with AuCl{sub 4}{sup −} ions, microphase separation and self-assembly of the composite molecules at the interface. This microstructure is different apparently from those formed in solutions, in casting or spin-coating thin films and at the air/water interface of this triblock copolymer, reflecting unique self-assembly behavior at the liquid/liquid interface. This microstructure is also different from those formed by homo-P2VP and P4VP-b-PS-b-P4VP at the liquid/liquid interface, indicating the effects of molecular structures on the self-assembly behaviors of the polymers. After further treatment by UV-light irradiation and KBH{sub 4} aqueous solution, the gold species were reduced completely, as indicated by UV–vis spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS). Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that the composite films have high thermal stability, and the content of gold was estimated to be about 9.1%. These composite films exhibited high catalytic activity for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol by KBH{sub 4} in aqueous solutions. - Highlights: • P2VP-b-PS-b-P2VP formed microcapsules and nanobelts at the liquid/liquid interface. • Its self-assembly behavior differs from P4VP-b-PS-b-P4VP at the interface. • This behavior also differs from those in solution, in film and

  4. Continuous thermodynamics and group contribution methods for coal liquids: Final report, October 1, 1986--October 1, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, D. T.; Behmanesh, N.; Vajdi, L. E.

    1989-01-01

    Structural profiles of narrow-boiling range fractions from three coal liquefaction processes were determined by identifying the major functional groups in the distillates and estimating their concentrations. The structural profiles were based on an extensive set of analytical data including results from elemental analysis, proton nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy and liquid chromatography. The functional group distributions were then interfaced with group contribution methods for property estimation. Heat capacities, critical constants, activity coefficients, hydrogen solubilities and vapor pressures were estimated for the narrow boiling fractions. The predictions have been compared to the predictions of more conventional property estimation methods and to experimental data. In addition, sensitivity analyses have been performed to determine which structural features in the coal derived liquids are most important in estimating the values of thermodynamic properties. 43 refs., 16 figs., 59 tabs.

  5. Soft-chemical synthesis and catalytic activity of Ni-Al and Co-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs intercalated with anions with different charge density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Takei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Co-Al and Ni-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs intercalated with three types of anionic molecules, dodecylsulfate (C12H25SO4−, DS, di-2-ethylsulfosuccinate ([COOC2H3EtBu]2C2H3SO3−, D2ES, and polytungstate (H2W12O4210−, HWO were prepared by means of ion-exchange and co-precipitation processes. With the use of DS and D2ES as intercalation agents, high crystallinity was maintained after intercalation into the LDHs. In the case of HWO, the intercalated LDHs could be obtained by ion-exchange as well as co-precipitation with a decline in the crystallinity; however, unreacted LDH was detected in the ion-exchange samples, and some unwanted phases such as hydroxide and pyrochlore were generated by the co-precipitation process. The maximum specific surface area and pore volume of the Ni-Al sample with intercalated HWO, prepared by the ion-exchange process were 74 m2/g and 0.174 mL/g, respectively. The occupancies of DS, D2ES, and HWO within the interlayer space were approximately 0.3–0.4, 0.5–0.6, and 0.1–0.2, respectively, in the Co-Al and Ni-Al LDHs. Analysis of the catalytic activity demonstrated that the DS-intercalated Ni-Al LDH sample exhibited relatively good catalytic activity for conversion of cyclohexanol to cyclohexanone.

  6. Liquid and Gaseous Fuel from Waste Plastics by Sequential Pyrolysis and Catalytic Reforming Processes over Indonesian Natural Zeolite Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochamad Syamsiro

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the performance of several differently treated natural zeolites in a sequential pyrolysis and catalytic reforming of plastic materials i.e. polypropylene (PP and polystyrene (PS were investigated. The experiments were carried out on two stage reactor using semi-batch system. The samples were degraded at 500°C in the pyrolysis reactor and then reformed at 450°C in the catalytic reformer. The results show that the mordenite-type natural zeolites could be used as efficient catalysts for the conversion of PP and PS into liquid and gaseous fuel. The treatment of natural zeolites in HCl solution showed an increase of the surface area and the Si/Al ratio while nickel impregnation increased the activity of catalyst. As a result, liquid product was reduced while gaseous product was increased. For PP, the fraction of gasoline (C5-C12 increased in the presence of catalysts. Natural zeolite catalysts could also be used to decrease the heavy oil fraction (>C20. The gaseous products were found that propene was dominated in all conditions. For PS, propane and propene were the main components of gases in the presence of nickel impregnated natural zeolite catalyst. Propene was dominated in pyrolysis over natural zeolite catalyst. The high quality of gaseous product can be used as a fuel either for driving gas engines or for dual-fuel diesel engine.

  7. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation: High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) of coal liquefaction process streams using normal-phase separation with uv diode array detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifford, D.J.; McKinney, D.E.; Hou, Lei; Hatcher, P.G. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1994-01-01

    This study demonstrated the considerable potential of using two-dimensional, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with normal-phase separation and ultraviolet (UV) diode array detection for the examination of filtered process liquids and the 850{degrees}F{sup {minus}} distillate materials derived from direct coal liquefaction process streams. A commercially available HPLC column (Hypersil Green PAH-2) provided excellent separation of the complex mixture of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) found in coal-derived process streams process. Some characteristics of the samples delineated by separation could be attributed to processing parameters. Mass recovery of the process derived samples was low (5--50 wt %). Penn State believes, however, that, improved recovery can be achieved. High resolution mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) also were used in this study to characterize the samples and the HPLC fractions. The GC/MS technique was used to preliminarily examine the GC-elutable portion of the samples. The GC/MS data were compared with the data from the HPLC technique. The use of an ultraviolet detector in the HPLC work precludes detecting the aliphatic portion of the sample. The GC/MS allowed for identification and quantification of that portion of the samples. Further development of the 2-D HPLC analytical method as a process development tool appears justified based on the results of this project.

  8. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation: Application of liquid chromatographic separation methods to THF-soluble portions of integrated two-stage coal liquefaction resids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, J.B.; Pearson, C.D.; Young, L.L.; Green, J.A. [National Inst. for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bartlesville, OK (United States)

    1992-05-01

    This study demonstrated the feasibility of using non-aqueous ion exchange liquid chromatography (NIELC) for the examination of the tetrahydrofuran (THF)-soluble distillation resids and THF-soluble whole oils derived from direct coal liquefaction. The technique can be used to separate the material into a number of acid, base, and neutral fractions. Each of the fractions obtained by NIELC was analyzed and then further fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The separation and analysis schemes are given in the accompanying report. With this approach, differences can be distinguished among samples obtained from different process streams in the liquefaction plant and among samples obtained at the same sampling location, but produced from different feed coals. HPLC was directly applied to one THF-soluble whole process oil without the NIELC preparation, with limited success. The direct HPLC technique used was directed toward the elution of the acid species into defined classes. The non-retained neutral and basic components of the oil were not analyzable by the direct HPLC method because of solubility limitations. Sample solubility is a major concern in the application of these techniques.

  9. Effects of complex organic mixtures of coal liquid on cardiovascular function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Springer, D.L.; Sasser, L.B.; Zangar, R.C.; Mahlum, D.D.

    1986-01-01

    The most common diseases in the US are those involving the cardiovascular system. Exposure to certain environmental chemicals and complex mixtures may be involved in some aspects of cardiovascular disease. They have previously reported that high-boiling coal liquids resulted in several affects related to the cardiovascular system of the rate when exposed via whole-body inhalation to the mixture. The most striking observation was a dose dependent elevation in arterial blood pressure for heavy distillate (HD) exposed rates compared to control animals at 2 weeks. They also noted an increase in heart rate and plasma and blood volume. Additional rats were evaluated 6 weeks after exposure, to determine whether these effects represented permanent changes in cardiovascular function, and the effects appeared to be reversible after this longer period. During the past year they have completed the assays of the studies initiated previously and have addressed some possible factors which could explain the effects that they observed. Electrolytes in plasma of rats exposed to the HD were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Plasma aldosterone and angiotensin were measured by radioimmunoassays, and plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein were evaluated with an Abbott VP bichromatic chemistry analyzer. In addition, a comparison of the blood pressure of control rats and rats fed a restricted diet were made, to determine if the anorexia which resulted from HD exposure could be responsible for the changes they observed in cardiovascular function

  10. Removal of selected nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds in biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (BPCGW) using the catalytic ozonation process combined with the two-stage membrane bioreactor (MBR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hao; Han, Yuxing; Ma, Wencheng; Han, Hongjun; Ma, Weiwei

    2017-12-01

    Three identical anoxic-aerobic membrane bioreactors (MBRs) were operated in parallel for 300 consecutive days for raw (R 1 ), ozonated (R 2 ) and catalytic ozonated (R 3 ) biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (BPCGW) treatment. The results demonstrated that catalytic ozonation process (COP) applied asa pretreatment remarkably improved the performance of the unsatisfactory single MBR. The overall removal efficiencies of COD, NH 3 -N and TN in R 3 were 92.7%, 95.6% and 80.6%, respectively. In addition, typical nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds (NHCs) of quinoline, pyridine and indole were completely removed in the integrated process. Moreover, COP could alter sludge properties and reshape microbial community structure, thus delaying the occurrence of membrane fouling. Finally, the total cost for this integrated process was estimated to be lower than that of single MBR. The results of this study suggest that COP is a good option to enhance pollutants removal and alleviate membrane fouling in the MBR for BPCGW treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Production of Jet Fuels from Coal Derived Liquids. Vol 16. Analysis of Phenolic Species in Coal Derived Aviation Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    streams from pyrolysis of lignite coal . The three by-product streams-- tar oil, crude phenol, and naphtha streams--have nominal production rates of 3,200...oxygen contents produced by hydrotreating the crude phenol stream (87-07-1 and 87-07-10) and one fuel produced by hydrotreating the tar oil stream (87-09-7...the Oxygenated Compounds Hydrotreating Fuel Sample from Phenols Fuel Sample Condition Stream from Tar Oil Stream 87-07-1 87-07-10 87-09-7 Temperature

  12. Coal-fired open-cycle liquid-metal magnetohydrodynamic topping cycle for retrofit of steam power plants. [Two-phase working fluid composed of coal combustion products and liquid copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierson, E. S.; Herman, H.; Petrick, M.; Boom, R. W.; Carlson, L.; Cohen, D.; Dubey, G.; Grammel, S. J.; Schreiner, F.; Snyder, B. K.; Zinneman, T.

    1980-12-01

    The application of the new, coal-fired open-cycle liquid-metal MHD (OC-LMMHD) energy-conversion system to the retrofit of an existing, oil- or gas-fired conventional steam power plant is evaluated. The criteria used to evaluate the retrofit are the new plant efficiency and the cost benefit relative to other options, i.e., continuing to burn oil, a conventional retrofit to burn coal (if possible), and an over-the-fence gasifier for boilers that cannot burn coal directly. The OC-LMMHD cycle and the existing steam plant used in the study are discussed, and a detailed description of the retrofit plant is presented. The latter includes plant drawings, description of the coupling of the OC-LMMHD topping cycle and the steam boiler, drawings and descriptions of the major components in the retrofit plant, and costs. The unique capability of the OC-LMMHD cycle to control the pollutants normally associated with burning coal is discussed. The net plant output powers and efficiencies are calculated, with allowances for the required auxiliary powers and component inefficiencies, and a plant lifetime economic analysis performed by an architect/engineer. The efficiency and cost results are compared with the values for the other options.

  13. Preparation, Characterization, and Activation of Co-Mo/Y Zeolite Catalyst for Coal Tar Conversion to Liquid Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didi Dwi Anggoro

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available One of many efforts to convert coal tar into alternative liquid fuel is by hydrocracking. This research aims to determine the impregnation of Co-Mo/Y zeolite, its characteristics, the effect of impregnation temperature and time, and also the best Co-Mo/Y zeolite impregnation condition for the conversion of coal tar. This research was conducted in several steps, impregnating Co from Co(NO32.6H2O and Mo from (NH46Mo7O24.4H2O into Zeolite Y in liquid media, drying at 100 °C for 24 hours, and calcination at 550 °C for 3 hours. Coal tar was then reacted with hydrogen gas (as a reactant, and Co-Mo/Zeolite Y (as a catalyst was conducted at 350 °C. Characteristic analysis showed that Co and Mo had impregnated into the Y zeolite, as well as it made no change of catalyst’s structure and increased the total acidity. The higher of impregnation temperature was increased the catalyst crystallinity, total acidity, and yield of gasoline. The longer impregnation time was reduced crystallinity value, but total acidity and yield were increased. GC analysis showed that products included into the gasoline product (C8, C9, and C10. Copyright © 2017 BCREC Group. All rights reserved Received: 13rd November 2016; Revised: 12nd February 2017; Accepted: 16th February 2017 How to Cite: Anggoro, D.D., Buchori, L., Silaen, G.C., Utami, R.N. (2017. Preparation, Characterization, and Activation of Co-Mo/Y Zeolite Catalyst for Coal Tar Conversion to Liquid Fuel. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 12 (2: 219-226 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.12.2.768.219-226 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.12.2.768.219-226

  14. Liquid-metal MHD energy conversion. Status report, March 1976--September 1977. [Coal combustion products are mixed with liquid copper and act as working fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrick, M; Dunn, P F; Pierson, E S; Dauzvardis, P V; Pollack, I

    1979-05-01

    A new open-cycle coal-fired liquid-metal MHD concept has been developed, in which the combustion products are mixed directly with liquid copper and the mixture is then passed through the MHD generator. This concept yields a system with an efficiency comparable to that of open-cycle plasma MHD at combustor temperatures as much as 1000 K lower and MHD generator temperatures more than 1000 K lower than is the case for open-cycle plasma MHD. Significantly, the liquid-metal system uses components that are close to or within present-day technology, and it appears that readily available containment materials are compatible with the fluids. The first commercial system studies for the liquid-metal Rankine-cycle concept show that it yields a higher conversion efficiency than conventional steam cycles for lower-temperature heat sources, such as a liquid-metal fast-breeder reactor, a light-water reactor, or solar collectors without any potential for hazardous reactions betweeen liquid metals (e.g., sodium) and water. Fabrication of the high-temperature liquid-metal MHD facility has been completed, and shakedown runs have been performed, using a substitute mixer-generator test section. Data obtained in this test section agreed well with existing single-phase and newly-developed two-phase correlations for the pressure gradient.

  15. Catalytic pyrolysis of microalgae to high-quality liquid bio-fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babych, Igor V.; van der Hulst, M.; Lefferts, Leonardus; Moulijn, J.A.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; O'Connor, P.

    2011-01-01

    The pyrolytic conversion of chlorella algae to liquid fuel precursor in presence of a catalyst (Na2CO3) has been studied. Thermal decomposition studies of the algae samples were performed using TGA coupled with MS. Liquid oil samples were collected from pyrolysis experiments in a fixed-bed reactor

  16. Catalytic hydrotreatment of pyrolysis liquids and fractions : Catalyst Development and Process Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, Wang

    2017-01-01

    The use of sustainable and renewable lignocellulosic biomass is of particular interest to (partly) replace fossil resources. Fast pyrolysis is a promising technology to convert lignocellulosic biomass to a liquid energy carrier. The products, also known as fast pyrolysis liquids (PLs), have a higher

  17. Green Synthesis of (R)-Terbutaline for Recyclable Catalytic Asymmetric Transfer Hydrogenation in Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchimoto, Hitomi; Ikeda, Miki; Tanida, Saori; Ohhashi, Kayo; Chihara, Yoshiko; Shigeta, Takashi; Arimitsu, Kenji; Yamashita, Masayuki; Nishide, Kiyoharu; Kawasaki, Ikuo

    2017-01-01

    We synthesize optically active (R)-terbutaline 2, which is an anti-asthmatic drug, through recyclable catalytic asymmetric transfer hydrogenation (RCATH). Various chloroketones 4 were prepared and RCATH was performed on them. The products exhibit moderate to high enantioselectivity. In particular, the hydrogenation of acyl substituted substrates 4c yields chiral secondary alcohols 5c in good yield and enantioselectivity. Furthermore, (R)-terbutaline 2 can be synthesized in one step from the resulting secondary alcohol 5 without racemization.

  18. Liquid-Phase Catalytic Transfer Hydrogenation of Furfural over Homogeneous Lewis Acid-Ru/C Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotopoulou, Paraskevi; Martin, Nickolas; Vlachos, Dionisios G

    2015-06-22

    The catalytic performance of homogeneous Lewis acid catalysts and their interaction with Ru/C catalyst are studied in the catalytic transfer hydrogenation of furfural by using 2-propanol as a solvent and hydrogen donor. We find that Lewis acid catalysts hydrogenate the furfural to furfuryl alcohol, which is then etherified with 2-propanol. The catalytic activity is correlated with an empirical scale of Lewis acid strength and exhibits a volcano behavior. Lanthanides are the most active, with DyCl3 giving complete furfural conversion and a 97 % yield of furfuryl alcohol at 180 °C after 3 h. The combination of Lewis acid and Ru/C catalysts results in synergy for the stronger Lewis acid catalysts, with a significant increase in the furfural conversion and methyl furan yield. Optimum results are obtained by using Ru/C combined with VCl3 , AlCl3 , SnCl4 , YbCl3 , and RuCl3 . Our results indicate that the combination of Lewis acid/metal catalysts is a general strategy for performing tandem reactions in the upgrade of furans. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Valorization of Waste Lipids through Hydrothermal Catalytic Conversion to Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels with in Situ Hydrogen Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dongwook; Vardon, Derek R.; Murali, Dheeptha; Sharma, Brajendra K.; Strathmann, Timothy J.

    2016-03-07

    We demonstrate hydrothermal (300 degrees C, 10 MPa) catalytic conversion of real waste lipids (e.g., waste vegetable oil, sewer trap grease) to liquid hydrocarbon fuels without net need for external chemical inputs (e.g., H2 gas, methanol). A supported bimetallic catalyst (Pt-Re/C; 5 wt % of each metal) previously shown to catalyze both aqueous phase reforming of glycerol (a triacylglyceride lipid hydrolysis coproduct) to H2 gas and conversion of oleic and stearic acid, model unsaturated and saturated fatty acids, to linear alkanes was applied to process real waste lipid feedstocks in water. For reactions conducted with an initially inert headspace gas (N2), waste vegetable oil (WVO) was fully converted into linear hydrocarbons (C15-C17) and other hydrolyzed byproducts within 4.5 h, and H2 gas production was observed. Addition of H2 to the initial reactor headspace accelerated conversion, but net H2 production was still observed, in agreement with results obtained for aqueous mixtures containing model fatty acids and glycerol. Conversion to liquid hydrocarbons with net H2 production was also observed for a range of other waste lipid feedstocks (animal fat residuals, sewer trap grease, dry distiller's grain oil, coffee oil residual). These findings demonstrate potential for valorization of waste lipids through conversion to hydrocarbons that are more compatible with current petroleum-based liquid fuels than the biodiesel and biogas products of conventional waste lipid processing technologies.

  20. Terrestrial fate of coal-liquid constituents: behavior of alkyl anilines in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felice, L.J.; Zachara, J.M.; Rogers, J.E.

    1982-07-01

    The low molecular weight aromatic amines (anilines) are important water soluble constituents of coal liquids. The impact of anilines released to the terrestrial environment will largely depend on their mobility and persistence. Studies were conducted to investigate those processes governing the mobility and persistence of the alkylanilines, namely, soil sorption and chemical/microbial degradation. Soil sorption measurements were conducted on aniline and several methyl substituted anilines on A and B horizons of a soil profile collected from Davies County, Kentucky. The magnitude of sorption was large in all horizons. Sorption in the B horizons was larger than in the A horizon for many of the anilines studied, indicating the importance of both the mineral matrix and organic carbon content of the soil in determining the magnitude of sorption. Results of these measurements indicate that movement of the anilines through the soil would be significantly attenuated by sorption reactions. Aniline sorption measurement in the A horizon after removal of the organic matter and in the B/sub 22/ horizon after removal of amorphous iron oxides and crystalline iron oxides indicate that organic matter largely controls aniline sorption in the A horizon, while crystalline iron oxides and phyllosilicates are important in the B horizons. The effects of pH on aniline sorption was also examined and shown to have significant effects on the magnitude of sorption in both A and B horizons. Soil degradation studies using /sup 14/C-3-methylaniline as a model for alkyl aniline degradation show that 3-methylaniline is readily metabolized by soil microorganisms during the 32-day period examined.

  1. Spin liquid in a single crystal of the frustrated diamond lattice antiferromagnet CoAl2O4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaharko, O.; Christensen, Niels Bech; Cervellino, A.

    2011-01-01

    We study the evidence for spin liquid in the frustrated diamond lattice antiferromagnet CoAl2O4 by means of single-crystal neutron scattering in zero and applied magnetic fields. The magnetically ordered phase appearing below T-N = 8 K remains nonconventional down to 1.5 K. The magnetic Bragg peaks...... at the q = 0 positions are broad and their line shapes have strong Lorentzian contributions. Additionally, the peaks are connected by weak diffuse streaks oriented along the directions. The observed short-range magnetic correlations are explained within the spiral spin-liquid model. The specific...... shape of the energy landscape of the system, with an extremely flat energy minimum around q = 0 and many low-lying excited spiral states with q = , results in thermal population of this manifold at finite temperatures. The agreement between the experimental results and the spiral spin-liquid model...

  2. Process and apparatus for coal hydrogenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruether, John A.; Simpson, Theodore B.

    1991-01-01

    In a coal liquefaction process an aqueous slurry of coal is prepared containing a dissolved liquefaction catalyst. A small quantity of oil is added to the slurry and then coal-oil agglomerates are prepared by agitation of the slurry at atmospheric pressure. The resulting mixture is drained of excess water and dried at atmospheric pressure leaving catalyst deposited on the agglomerates. The agglomerates then are fed to an extrusion device where they are formed into a continuous ribbon of extrudate and fed into a hydrogenation reactor at elevated pressure and temperature. The catalytic hydrogenation converts the extrudate primarily to liquid hydrocarbons in the reactor. The liquid drained in recovering the agglomerates is recycled.

  3. Catalytic hydrotreatment of pyrolysis liquids and fractions: Catalyst Development and Process Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Wang

    2017-01-01

    The use of sustainable and renewable lignocellulosic biomass is of particular interest to (partly) replace fossil resources. Fast pyrolysis is a promising technology to convert lignocellulosic biomass to a liquid energy carrier. The products, also known as fast pyrolysis liquids (PLs), have a higher energy density than solid biomass. The applications of PLs are limited due to a high water and oxygen content and limited storage stability. As such upgrading technologies are required to broaden ...

  4. Catalytic activity of hydrophobic Pt/C/PTFE catalysts of different PTFE content for hydrogen-water liquid exchange reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Sheng; Xiao Chengjian; Zhu Zuliang; Luo Shunzhong; Wang Heyi; Luo Yangming; Wang Changbin

    2007-01-01

    10%Pt/C catalysts were prepared by liquid reduction method. PTFE and Pt/ C catalysts were adhered to porous metal and hydrophobic Pt/C/PTFE catalysts were prepared. The structure and size of Pt crystal particles of Pt/C catalysts were analyzed by XRD, and their mean size was 3.1 nm. The dispersion state of Pt/C and PTFE was analyzed by SEM, and they had good dispersion mostly, but PTFE membrane could be observed on local parts of Pt/C/PTFE surface. Because of low hydrophobicity, Pt/C/ PTFE catalysts have low activity when the mass ratio of PTFE and Pt/C is 0.5: 1, and their catalytic activity increases markedly when the ratio is 1:1. When the ratio increases again, more Pt active sites would be covered by PTFE and interior diffusion effect would increase, which result in the decrease of catalytic activity of Pt/C/PTFE. By PTFE pretreatment of porous metal carrier, the activity of Pt/C/PTFE catalysts decreases when the mass ratio of PTFE and Pt/C is 0.5:1, and their activity decreases when the mass ratio is 1:1. (authors)

  5. Theoretical study on the alkylation of o-xylene with styrene in AlCl3-ionic liquid catalytic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Bobo; Du, Jiuyao; Cao, Ziping; Sun, Haitao; Sun, Xuejun; Fu, Hui

    2017-06-01

    To explore sustainable catalysts with innovative mechanisms, the alkylation mechanism of o-xylene with styrene was studied using DFT method in AlCl 3 -ionic liquid catalytic system. The reaction pathway was consisted of CC coupling and a hydrogen shift, in which two transition states were found and further discussed. The reactive energy catalyzed by superelectrophilic AlCl 2 + (12.6kcal/mol) was distinctly lower than AlCl 3 (43.0kcal/mol), which was determined as the rate-determining step. Mulliken charge along IRC gave a comprehensive understanding of charge distribution and electron transfer in dynamic progress. Bond orders and AIM theory were used to study the nature of chemical bonds and the driving forces in different reaction stages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Novel Fast Pyrolysis/Catalytic Technology for the Production of Stable Upgraded Liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyama, Ted; Agblevor, Foster; Battaglia, Francine; Klein, Michael

    2013-01-18

    The objective of the proposed research is the demonstration and development of a novel biomass pyrolysis technology for the production of a stable bio-oil. The approach is to carry out catalytic hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) and upgrading together with pyrolysis in a single fluidized bed reactor with a unique two-level design that permits the physical separation of the two processes. The hydrogen required for the HDO will be generated in the catalytic section by the water-gas shift reaction employing recycled CO produced from the pyrolysis reaction itself. Thus, the use of a reactive recycle stream is another innovation in this technology. The catalysts will be designed in collaboration with BASF Catalysts LLC (formerly Engelhard Corporation), a leader in the manufacture of attrition-resistant cracking catalysts. The proposed work will include reactor modeling with state-of-the-art computational fluid dynamics in a supercomputer, and advanced kinetic analysis for optimization of bio-oil production. The stability of the bio-oil will be determined by viscosity, oxygen content, and acidity determinations in real and accelerated measurements. A multi-faceted team has been assembled to handle laboratory demonstration studies and computational analysis for optimization and scaleup.

  7. Recent developments in the production of liquid fuels via catalytic conversion of microalgae: experiments and simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Fan; Wang, Pin; Duan, Yuhua; Link, Dirk; Morreale, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    Due to continuing high demand, depletion of non-renewable resources and increasing concerns about climate change, the use of fossil fuel-derived transportation fuels faces relentless challenges both from a world markets and an environmental perspective. The production of renewable transportation fuel from microalgae continues to attract much attention because of its potential for fast growth rates, high oil content, ability to grow in unconventional scenarios, and inherent carbon neutrality. Moreover, the use of microalgae would minimize ‘‘food versus fuel’’ concerns associated with several biomass strategies, as microalgae do not compete with food crops in the food chain. This paper reviews the progress of recent research on the production of transportation fuels via homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic conversions of microalgae. This review also describes the development of tools that may allow for a more fundamental understanding of catalyst selection and conversion processes using computational modelling. The catalytic conversion reaction pathways that have been investigated are fully discussed based on both experimental and theoretical approaches. Finally, this work makes several projections for the potential of various thermocatalytic pathways to produce alternative transportation fuels from algae, and identifies key areas where the authors feel that computational modelling should be directed to elucidate key information to optimize the process.

  8. Binary mixtures of ionic liquids: a joint approach to investigate their properties and catalytic ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Anna, Francesca; Marullo, Salvatore; Vitale, Paola; Noto, Renato

    2012-05-14

    The growing interest in the properties and applications of ionic liquids has recently led to research into the possibility of using their binary mixtures. This work reports on the effects of binary mixtures of ionic liquids on the outcome of organic reactions such as the mononuclear rearrangement of heterocycles and the solvatochromic behavior of Nile Red. Binary mixtures formed by ionic liquids differing in the structure of the cation and the anion are taken into account. In particular, ionic liquids such as 1-benzyl-3-butylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, 1-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)-3-butylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, and 1-benzyl-3-butylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, are studied. To achieve a deep understanding of the properties of ionic-liquid binary mixtures, their three-dimensional organization was analyzed by a combination of resonance light scattering, UV/Vis spectroscopy, and (1)H and (19)F NMR spectroscopy. Data collected herein evidence that the most significant changes in the ionic lattice structure, and consequently the most pronounced effects exerted as solvent media, occur when the studied system involves a blend of different anions. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Generalized correlation of latent heats of vaporization of coal liquid model compounds between their freezing points and critical points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivaraman, A.; Kobuyashi, R.; Mayee, J.W.

    1984-02-01

    Based on Pitzer's three-parameter corresponding states principle, the authors have developed a correlation of the latent heat of vaporization of aromatic coal liquid model compounds for a temperature range from the freezing point to the critical point. An expansion of the form L = L/sub 0/ + ..omega..L /sub 1/ is used for the dimensionless latent heat of vaporization. This model utilizes a nonanalytic functional form based on results derived from renormalization group theory of fluids in the vicinity of the critical point. A simple expression for the latent heat of vaporization L = D/sub 1/epsilon /SUP 0.3333/ + D/sub 2/epsilon /SUP 0.8333/ + D/sub 4/epsilon /SUP 1.2083/ + E/sub 1/epsilon + E/sub 2/epsilon/sup 2/ + E/sub 3/epsilon/sup 3/ is cast in a corresponding states principle correlation for coal liquid compounds. Benzene, the basic constituent of the functional groups of the multi-ring coal liquid compounds, is used as the reference compound in the present correlation. This model works very well at both low and high reduced temperatures approaching the critical point (0.02 < epsilon = (T /SUB c/ - T)/(T /SUB c/- 0.69)). About 16 compounds, including single, two, and three-ring compounds, have been tested and the percent root-mean-square deviations in latent heat of vaporization reported and estimated through the model are 0.42 to 5.27%. Tables of the coefficients of L/sub 0/ and L/sub 1/ are presented. The contributing terms of the latent heat of vaporization function are also presented in a table for small increments of epsilon.

  10. Catalytic Decomposition of Hydroxylammonium Nitrate Ionic Liquid: Enhancement of NO Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-24

    9 any NO formation was attributed to its possible formation from decomposition of HNO2 or HNO3. The addition of acetate anion retarded HAN...Boatz, J. A.; Vaghjiani, G. L.; Koh, C.; Kostko, O.; Golan, A.; Leone, S. R. Thermal Decomposition of 1- Ethyl -3-methylimidazolium Bromide Ionic Liquid

  11. Fundamentals of Hydrocarbon Upgrading to Liquid Fuels and Commodity Chemicals over Catalytic Metallic Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao

    Promising new technologies for biomass conversion into fuels and chemical feedstocks rely on the production of bio-oils, which need to be upgraded in order to remove oxygen-containing hydrocarbons and water. A high oxygen concentration makes bio-oils acidic and corrosive, unstable during storage, and less energetically valuable per unit weight than petroleum-derived hydrocarbons. Although there are efficient processes for the production of bio-oils, there are no efficient technologies for their upgrading. Current technologies utilize traditional petroleum refining catalysts, which are not optimized for biomass processing. New upgrading technologies are, therefore, urgently needed for development of sustainable energy resources. Development of such new technologies, however, is severely hindered by a lack of fundamental understanding of how oxygen and oxygen-containing hydrocarbons derived from biomass interact with promising noble-metal catalysts. In this study, kinetic reaction measurements, catalyst characterization and quantum chemical calculations using density functional theory were combined for determining adsorption modes and reaction mechanisms of hydrocarbons in the presence of oxygen on surfaces of catalytic noble-metal nanoparticles. The results were used for developing improved catalyst formulations and optimization of reaction conditions. The addition of molybdenum to platinum catalysts was shown to improve catalytic activity, stability, and selectivity in hydrodeoxygenation of acetic acid, which served as a model biomass compound. The fundamental results that describe interactions of oxygen and hydrocarbons with noble-metal catalysts were extended to other reactions and fields of study: evaluation of the reaction mechanism for hydrogen peroxide decomposition, development of improved hydrogenation catalysts and determination of adsorption modes of a spectroscopic probe molecule.

  12. A futuristic view of nuclear supported coal-to-liquid - 15400

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoker, P.W.; Conradie, F.H.

    2015-01-01

    The paper reports the outcomes of a study aimed at improving the carbon efficiency of the Fischer Tropsch synthesis process. It is assumed that nuclear energy is available to a Coal-to-Liquid (CTL) process through any combination of the following energy carriers: steam, electricity, hydrogen, oxygen and/or high temperature helium. Various High Temperature Reactor (HTR) Nuclear supported CTL (NCTL) process schemes were investigated with the aid of 'plug-and-play' process building blocks. The latter included CO 2 lean gasification, Plasma Arc Reforming (PAR) and nuclear hydrogen using a thermo-chemical water splitting process (hereinafter HyS). Alternative NCTL schemes were evaluated in terms of their carbon efficiency, capital intensity and economic feasibility. These solutions were then compared against an existing conventional 80.000 barrels (bbl) per day facility located in Secunda, South Africa. The study reached three important conclusions: First, although the capital intensity (overnight cost per barrel per hour) of a conventional CTL plant can be reduced from 6.8 m/bbl/h to 2.1 m/bbl/h (dollars) if nuclear hydrogen was available, this advantage is cancelled by the increase in capital intensity of the combined CTL/HTR/HyS system, to values far beyond that of a conventional CTL plant. As a consequence it was necessary to increase the selling price of synthesized products (by assuming a higher crude oil price) to make these configurations economically viable. Secondly, a HTR plant with temperature top-up to deliver heat to a HyS plant at 800 Celsius degrees, producing 1.46 kg/sec hydrogen in support of a CTL process, has a small economic viability window, even at oil prices in excess of 150 dollar/barrel. Hence it is not worth pursuing. Thirdly, a VHTR (Very High Temperature Reactor) plant capable of delivering heat to a HyS plant at 950 C. degrees, producing 2.2 kg/sec hydrogen in support of a CTL process, has a reasonable economic viability window

  13. Influence of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) installations on emission characteristics of PM2.5 from coal-fired power plants equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Jiang, Jingkun; Ma, Zizhen; Fajardo, Oscar A; Deng, Jianguo; Duan, Lei

    2017-11-01

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technologies have been widely used to control the emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrogen oxides (NO X ) from coal-fired power plants (CFPPs). Field measurements of emission characteristics of four conventional CFPPs indicated a significant increase in particulate ionic species, increasing PM 2.5 emission with FGD and SCR installations. The mean concentrations of PM 2.5 from all CFPPs tested were 3.79 ± 1.37 mg/m 3 and 5.02 ± 1.73 mg/m 3 at the FGD inlet and outlet, respectively, and the corresponding contributions of ionic species were 19.1 ± 7.7% and 38.2 ± 7.8%, respectively. The FGD was found to enhance the conversion of NH 3 slip from the SCR to NH 4 + in the PM 2.5 , together with the conversion of SO 2 to SO 4 2- , and increased the primary NH 4 + and SO 4 2- aerosol emissions by approximately 18.9 and 4.2 times, respectively. This adverse effect should be considered when updating the emission inventory of CFPPs and should draw the attention of policy-makers for future air pollution control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. NUMERICAL PREDICTION OF BUBBLE SIZE AND INTERFACIAL AREA CONCENTRATION IN THE LIQUID BATH OF AN ENTRAINED-FLOW COAL GASIFIER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Wu

    Full Text Available Abstract A CFD-ABND coupling model was used to study the flow characteristic of gas-liquid two-phase flow in the process of gas passing through the liquid bath of a water-coal-slurry entrained-flow gasifier. In this model, an average bubble number density (ABND approach was employed and merged with the two-fluid model. A two-phase version of the RNG k-ε turbulence model was used for the liquid and gas, respectively. Comparisons of computational results with experimental data are done. The results show that the gas gathers along the outer wall of the cooling pipe and rises. The higher turbulent kinetic energy of gas and liquid, the larger bubble and the higher interfacial area concentration exist mainly near the exit and outer wall of the cooling pipe. The existence of a separator inserter is very helpful to strengthen the turbulence between gas and liquid; this can reduce the bubble diameter and increase the interfacial area effectively.

  15. Efficient and recyclable Rh-catalytic system with involvement of phosphine-functionalized phosphonium-based ionic liquids for tandem hydroformylation–acetalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The phosphine-functionalized phosphonium-based ionic liquids (dppm-Q, dppe-Q, dppp-Q and dppb-Q as the bi-functional ligands enable the efficient one-pot tandem hydroformylation–acetalization. It was found that, in dppm-Q, dppe-Q, dppp-Q and dppb-Q, the incorporated phosphino-fragments were responsible for Rh-catalyzed hydroformylation and the phosphoniums were in charge of the subsequent acetalization as the Lewis acid catalysts. Moreover, the diphosphonium-based ionic liquid of dppb-DQ could be applied as a co-solvent to immobilize the Rh/dppb-Q catalytic system with the advantages of the improved catalytic performance, the available catalyst recyclability, and the wide generality for the substrates. Keywords: Phosphines, Phosphonium-based ionic liquids, Bi-functional ligands, Recyclability of homogeneous catalysts, Tandem hydroformylation–acetalization

  16. Combined production of synthetic liquid fuel and electricity from coal using H2S and CO2 removal systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina A. Tyurina

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the research is to continue the studies on promising technologies of coal conversion into synthetic liquid fuel (methanol. The object of study is the plants for combined production of electricity and synthetic liquid fuel (PCPs, which are eco-friendly and more efficient as compared to the plants for separate production. The previous studies on PCPs consider the systems for fine cleaning of gasification products in a simplified way. This study presents the detailed mathematical modeling of the aforementioned systems and determines the values of energy consumption and investment in them. The obtained values are used to carry out the optimization studies and find the optimal parameters of PCPs with different degree of CO2 removal from gasification products providing fine cleaning of gasification products from H2S.

  17. Hydrogen from catalytic reforming of biomass-derived hydrocarbons in liquid water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortright, R D; Davda, R R; Dumesic, J A

    2002-08-29

    Concerns about the depletion of fossil fuel reserves and the pollution caused by continuously increasing energy demands make hydrogen an attractive alternative energy source. Hydrogen is currently derived from nonrenewable natural gas and petroleum, but could in principle be generated from renewable resources such as biomass or water. However, efficient hydrogen production from water remains difficult and technologies for generating hydrogen from biomass, such as enzymatic decomposition of sugars, steam-reforming of bio-oils and gasification, suffer from low hydrogen production rates and/or complex processing requirements. Here we demonstrate that hydrogen can be produced from sugars and alcohols at temperatures near 500 K in a single-reactor aqueous-phase reforming process using a platinum-based catalyst. We are able to convert glucose -- which makes up the major energy reserves in plants and animals -- to hydrogen and gaseous alkanes, with hydrogen constituting 50% of the products. We find that the selectivity for hydrogen production increases when we use molecules that are more reduced than sugars, with ethylene glycol and methanol being almost completely converted into hydrogen and carbon dioxide. These findings suggest that catalytic aqueous-phase reforming might prove useful for the generation of hydrogen-rich fuel gas from carbohydrates extracted from renewable biomass and biomass waste streams.

  18. Hydrogen from catalytic reforming of biomass-derived hydrocarbons in liquid water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortright, R. D.; Davda, R. R.; Dumesic, J. A.

    2002-08-01

    Concerns about the depletion of fossil fuel reserves and the pollution caused by continuously increasing energy demands make hydrogen an attractive alternative energy source. Hydrogen is currently derived from nonrenewable natural gas and petroleum, but could in principle be generated from renewable resources such as biomass or water. However, efficient hydrogen production from water remains difficult and technologies for generating hydrogen from biomass, such as enzymatic decomposition of sugars, steam-reforming of bio-oils and gasification, suffer from low hydrogen production rates and/or complex processing requirements. Here we demonstrate that hydrogen can be produced from sugars and alcohols at temperatures near 500K in a single-reactor aqueous-phase reforming process using a platinum-based catalyst. We are able to convert glucose-which makes up the major energy reserves in plants and animals-to hydrogen and gaseous alkanes, with hydrogen constituting 50% of the products. We find that the selectivity for hydrogen production increases when we use molecules that are more reduced than sugars, with ethylene glycol and methanol being almost completely converted into hydrogen and carbon dioxide. These findings suggest that catalytic aqueous-phase reforming might prove useful for the generation of hydrogen-rich fuel gas from carbohydrates extracted from renewable biomass and biomass waste streams.

  19. Incorporation of catalytic dehydrogenation into fischer-tropsch synthesis to significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Gerald P.

    2012-11-13

    A new method of producing liquid transportation fuels from coal and other hydrocarbons that significantly reduces carbon dioxide emissions by combining Fischer-Tropsch synthesis with catalytic dehydrogenation is claimed. Catalytic dehydrogenation (CDH) of the gaseous products (C1-C4) of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) can produce large quantities of hydrogen while converting the carbon to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). Incorporation of CDH into a FTS-CDH plant converting coal to liquid fuels can eliminate all or most of the CO.sub.2 emissions from the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction that is currently used to elevate the H.sub.2 level of coal-derived syngas for FTS. Additionally, the FTS-CDH process saves large amounts of water used by the WGS reaction and produces a valuable by-product, MWCNT.

  20. A Gas–Solid–Liquid Coupling Model of Coal Seams and the Optimization of Gas Drainage Boreholes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuexia Chen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available For a gas–solid–liquid coupling model of coal seams, previous permeability models basically supposed uniaxial strains as the boundary condition for coal reservoirs without considering the deformation caused by changes in humidity. The permeability model varies under different boundary conditions. According to the true triaxial stress state of coal reservoirs, a permeability model considering the effective stress, sorption and desorption, and wet strain was established. Based on the permeability model, the continuity equation of gas and water and the stress field equation were coupled. Then, the model was incorporated in the COMSOL suite to simulate gas drainage from boreholes in floor roadways passing through seams in a coal mine. By comparing with the measured gas flow on site, the model was verified as being reliable. Moreover, the spacing and layout shape of boreholes in floor roadways were simulated. To achieve the aim of eliminating regional outburst within 180 days and decreasing the number of boreholes so as to reduce the cost, the spacing and shape of boreholes were optimized. When the superimposed effect of the boreholes was not considered, the optimal spacing of boreholes was 3 r; if the superimposed effect was taken into account, the spacing could be set to within 3 r ≤ L ≤ R, where r and R represent the effective gas drainage radius and the influence radius of gas drainage, respectively. The borehole spacing could be appropriately increased when the boreholes were arranged in rhomboidal form. To achieve the same range of outburst elimination, the rhomboidal layout can decrease the number of boreholes to reduce cost, thus realizing the objective of this optimization process.

  1. SUBTASK 3.12 – GASIFICATION, WARM-GAS CLEANUP, AND LIQUID FUELS PRODUCTION WITH ILLINOIS COAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanislowski, Joshua; Curran, Tyler; Henderson, Ann

    2014-06-30

    The goal of this project was to evaluate the performance of Illinois No. 6 coal blended with biomass in a small-scale entrained-flow gasifier and demonstrate the production of liquid fuels under three scenarios. The first scenario used traditional techniques for cleaning the syngas prior to Fischer–Tropsch (FT) synthesis, including gas sweetening with a physical solvent. In the second scenario, the CO2 was not removed from the gas stream prior to FT synthesis. In the third scenario, only warm-gas cleanup techniques were used, such that the feed gas to the FT unit contained both moisture and CO2. The results of the testing showed that the liquid fuels production from the FT catalyst was significantly hindered by the presence of moisture and CO2 in the syngas. Further testing would be needed to determine if this thermally efficient process is feasible with other FT catalysts. This subtask was funded through the EERC–U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Joint Program on Research and Development for Fossil Energy-Related Resources Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-08NT43291. Nonfederal funding was provided by the Illinois Clean Coal Institute.

  2. The comparison of chemical liquid deposition and acid dealumination modified ZSM-5 for catalytic pyrolysis of pinewood using pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiyan; Shao, Shanshan; Luo, Mengmeng; Xiao, Rui

    2017-11-01

    Catalyst deactivation is the main reason for low petrochemical yield in catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) of biomass. ZSM-5 catalysts modified by chemical liquid deposition (CLD) and acid dealumination (AD) were prepared to improve petrochemical yields for CFP of pinewood. The results showed that CLD by SiO 2 led to the coverage of strong acid sites, while AD favored the removal of superficial acid sites. CFP of pinewood showed that the relative area ratio of BTX was boosted by 37.2% and 30.4% over modified ZSM-5 catalysts by CLD and AD, respectively. The yield of indenes and naphthalenes which were important precursors of heavy coke decreased sharply. Considering environmental cost and catalytic performance, CLD seems to be a preferable modification method over ZSM-5 in the catalytic pyrolysis of biomass for petrochemicals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Commercial liquid-metal MHD conversion systems coupled to LMFBR and coal-fired fluidized bed combustors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amend, W.E.; Brunsvold, A.; Pierson, E.S.

    1975-01-01

    The constraints imposed on two-phase liquid-metal MHD (LMMHD) when employed in commercial power plants with practical heat sources have not previously been studied. The coupling of a LMMHD power system with an LMFBR and a coal-fired fluidized bed combustor are considered. Two MHD systems are considered. The first is a dual cycle where heat is added to both the liquid metal and the gas, and the gas may expand through a gas turbine after the MHD generator. The second system, a binary cycle, differs in that a significant portion of the sensible heat in the gas entering the compression loop is converted to useful power in a steam bottoming cycle. The effect of liquid-metal vapor carry-over into the gas loop is included. The couplings of the LMMHD system with the heat sources and with the steam plants were studied in depth. The results of the study of each interface are presented parametrically for each heat source and energy conversion system. Operating points have been selected and the complete schematic of each system considered is presented along with all thermodynamic state points and fluid flow rates. All system parameters and component efficiencies were selected to be consistent with near term technology and good engineering design principles. These criteria yielded a system performance of 37 percent for an LMFBR operating with a maximum reactor coolant temperature of 1200 0 F when the pure LMMHD energy converter was used. A LMMHD/steam binary cycle is shown to be capable of achieving a thermal efficiency of 44.8 percent when used with the same heat source. Results with the coal fluidized bed combustor as a heat source show even higher performance levels (about 50 percent efficiency) since the maximum cycle temperature is increased

  4. Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, first and second quarters 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involve injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in a boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to form nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels; (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}; and (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties are being explored by operating a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. The project is being conducted in the following three phases: permitting, environmental monitoring plan and preliminary engineering; detailed design engineering and construction; and operation, testing, disposition and final report. The project was in the operation and testing phase during this reporting period. Accomplishments for this period are described.

  5. Model Catalytic Studies of Novel Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carriers: Indole, Indoline and Octahydroindole on Pt(111).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Matthias; Bachmann, Philipp; Silva, Thais Nascimento; Mohr, Susanne; Scheuermeyer, Marlene; Späth, Florian; Bauer, Udo; Düll, Fabian; Steinhauer, Johann; Hohner, Chantal; Döpper, Tibor; Noei, Heshmat; Stierle, Andreas; Papp, Christian; Steinrück, H-P; Wasserscheid, Peter; Görling, Andreas; Libuda, Jörg

    2017-10-20

    Indole derivatives were recently proposed as potential liquid organic hydrogen carriers (LOHC) for storage of renewable energies. In this work, we have investigated the adsorption, dehydrogenation and degradation mechanisms in the indole/indoline/octahydroindole system on Pt(111). We have combined infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and DFT calculations. Indole multilayers show a crystallization transition at 200 K, in which the molecules adopt a strongly tilted orientation, before the multilayer desorbs at 220 K. For indoline, a less pronounced restructuring transition occurs at 150 K and multilayer desorption is observed at 200 K. Octahydroindole multilayers desorb already at 185 K, without any indication for restructuring. Adsorbed monolayers of all three compounds are stable up to room temperature and undergo deprotonation at the NH bond above 300 K. For indoline, the reaction is followed by partial dehydrogenation at the 5-membered ring, leading to the formation of a flat-lying di-σ-indolide in the temperature range from 330-390 K. Noteworthy, the same surface intermediate is formed from indole. In contrast, the reaction of octahydroindole with Pt(111) leads to the formation of a different intermediate, which originates from partial dehydrogenation of the 6-membered ring. Above 390 K, all three compounds again form the same strongly dehydrogenated and partially decomposed surface species. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Bimetallic promotion of cooperative hydrogen transfer and heteroatom removal in coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisch, J.J.

    1991-10-01

    The ultimate objective of this research is to uncover new catalytic processes for the liquefaction of coal and for upgrading coal-derived fuels by removing undesirable organosulfur, organonitrogen and organooxygen constituents. Basic to both the liquefaction of coal and the purification of coal liquids is the transfer of hydrogen from such sources as dihydrogen, metal hydrides or partially reduced aromatic hydrocarbons to the extensive aromatic rings in coal itself or to aromatic sulfides, amines or ethers. Accordingly, this study is exploring how such crucial hydrogen-transfer processes might be catalyzed by soluble, low-valent transition metal complexes and/or Lewis acids under moderate conditions of temperature and pressure. By learning the mechanism whereby H{sub 2}, metal hydrides or partially hydrogenated aromatics do transfer hydrogen to model aromatic compounds, with the aid of homogeneous, bimetallic catalysts, we hope to identify new methods for producing superior fuels from coal.

  7. Innovative clean coal technology (ICCT): demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emission from high-sulfur, coal-fired boilers - economic evaluation of commercial-scale SCR applications for utility boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Healy, E.C.; Maxwell, J.D.; Hinton, W.S.

    1996-09-01

    This report presents the results of an economic evaluation produced as part of the Innovative Clean Coal Technology project, which demonstrated selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for reduction of NO{sub x} emissions from utility boilers burning U.S. high-sulfur coal. The document includes a commercial-scale capital and O&M cost evaluation of SCR technology applied to a new facility, coal-fired boiler utilizing high-sulfur U.S. coal. The base case presented herein determines the total capital requirement, fixed and variable operating costs, and levelized costs for a new 250-MW pulverized coal utility boiler operating with a 60-percent NO{sub x} removal. Sensitivity evaluations are included to demonstrate the variation in cost due to changes in process variables and assumptions. This report also presents the results of a study completed by SCS to determine the cost and technical feasibility of retrofitting SCR technology to selected coal-fired generating units within the Southern electric system.

  8. Production of Jet Fuels from Coal Derived Liquids. Volume 4. GPGP Jet Fuels Production Program-Feed Analyses Compilation and Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    naphtha, crude phenol, and tar oil. Participants in the Jet Fuel from Coal Derived Liquids Prugram have analyzed samples of these by-product liquids...caustic-extracted tar oil they prepared for hydrotreating tests. UNDEMRC has performed detailed analyses on the whole tar oil as well as acid, base...previously mentioned, WRI performed a caustic extraction on the tar oil in order to prepare material for hydrotreating tests. Although intent here was to

  9. Influence of the fineness of grinding coal on the results in liquid-phase hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rank, V.

    1944-02-08

    This short note reported older results of experiments on brown coal from Boehlen, of which two different samples were hydrogenated at 250 atm, with each sample ground to a different degree of fineness. In sieving with a sieve of 16,900 mesh, 76.8% of one sample went through, whereas only 63.4% of the other sample went through. The more finely ground sample gave better values of coal decomposition (98.8% vs. 97.7%), yield of gasoline and middle oil (0.30 kg/liter/hr vs. 0.26), and losses to gas formation (19.3% vs. 20.7%). The experiments were carried out in a 10-liter oven.

  10. Renewable liquid fuels from catalytic reforming of biomass-derived oxygenated hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Christopher J.

    Diminishing fossil fuel reserves and growing concerns about global warming require the development of sustainable sources of energy. Fuels for use in the transportation sector must have specific physical properties that allow for efficient distribution, storage, and combustion; these requirements are currently fulfilled by petroleum-derived liquid fuels. The focus of this work has been the development of two new biofuels that have the potential to become widely used transportation fuels from carbohydrate intermediates. Our first biofuel has cetane numbers ranging from 63 to 97 and is comprised of C7 to C15 straight chain alkanes. These alkanes can be blended with diesel like fuels or with P-series biofuel. Production involves a solid base catalyzed aldol condensation with mixed Mg-Al-oxide between furfural or 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and acetone, followed by hydrogenation over Pd/Al2O3, and finally hydrogenation/dehydration over Pt/SiO2-Al2O3. Water was the solvent for all process steps, except for the hydrogenation/dehydration stage where hexadecane was co-fed to spontaneously separate out all alkane products and eliminate the need for energy intensive distillation. A later optimization identified Pd/MgO-ZrO2 as a hydrothermally stable bifunctional catalyst to replace Pd/Al2O3 and the hydrothermally unstable Mg-Al-oxide catalysts along with optimizing process parameters, such as temperature and molar ratios of reactants to maximize yields to heavier alkanes. Our second biofuel involved creating an improved process to produce HMF through the acid-catalyzed dehydration of fructose in a biphasic reactor. Additionally, we developed a technique to further convert HMF into 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF) by hydrogenolysis of C-O bonds over a copper-ruthenium catalyst. DMF has many properties that make it a superior blending agent to ethanol: it has a high research octane number at 119, a 40% higher energy density than ethanol, 20 K higher boiling point, and is insoluble in

  11. Advanced catalysts for coal-derived liquids hydrotreating via acidic supports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cambra, J.F.; Arias, P.L.; Guemez, M.B. [Escuela de Ingenieros, Bilbao (Spain)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Advanced hydrotreating catalysts combine metal and acid active sites. The acid function is usually provided by the carrier in which active metals are supported. This function must be tailored to avoid coking deactivation. In this work two types of CoMo and NiMo catalysts on two different acid carriers (fluorinated {gamma}-alumina and ultrastable Y zeolite) will be compared in terms of acidity and catalytic activities correlations.

  12. Deashing of coal liquids with ceramic membrane microfiltration and diafiltration. Final quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Diafiltration experiments were done to determine how much particulate- free oil could be extracted from the solids-containing stream. The 0. 05 {mu}m titania membrane was used for the concentration/diafiltration process runs at 270 C, 80 psig inlet pressure, and 6 gpm crossflow. Five concentration process runs were conducted. After the initial run, the concentrated material was diluted with hydrotreated start-up oil from the final solids back to 10% solids. The concentration was limited by increased pressure drop with increased solids content and plugged membrane module channels. Solids retention was greater than 99.5% for all samples. Attempts to clean membranes with solvent failed due to lack of time. Samples of the permeate and concentrate streams were taken for analysis; the diluent had a similar bp range to the coal liquids in the atmospheric bottoms; thus, distillation could not be used to separate the bottoms from the diluent.

  13. Chemistry and structure of coal derived asphaltenes and preasphaltenes. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, T. F.

    1979-01-01

    It is the objective of this project to isolate the asphaltene and preasphaltene fractions from coal liquids from a number of liquefaction processes. These processes consist of in general: catalytic hydrogenation, staged pyrolysis and solvent refining. The asphaltene fractions may be further separated by both gradient elution through column chromatography, and molecular size distribution through gel permeation chromatography. These coal-derived asphaltene and preashpaltene fractions will then be investigated by various chemical and physical methods for characterization of their structures. After the parameters are obtained, these parameters will be correlated with the refining and conversion variables which control a given type of liquefaction process. The effects of asphaltene in catalysis, ash or metal removal, desulfurization and denitrification will also be correlated. It is anticipated that understanding the role of asphaltenes in liquefaction processes will enable engineers to both improve existing processes, and to make recommendations for operational changes in planned liquefaction units. The objective of Phase 1 was to complete the isolation and separation of coal liquid fractions and to initiate their characterization. The objective of Phase 2 is to continue the characterization of coal asphaltenes and other coal liquid fractions by use of physical and instrumental methods. The structural parameters obtained will be used to postulate hypothetical average structures for coal liquid fractions.The objective of Phase 3 is to concentrate on the characterization of the preasphaltene (benzene insoluble fraction) of coal liquid fraction by the available physical and chemical methods to obtain a number of structural parameters.

  14. Utilization of coal fly ash in solidification of liquid radioactive waste from research reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmanlioglu, Ahmet Erdal

    2014-05-01

    In this study, the potential utilization of fly ash was investigated as an additive in solidification process of radioactive waste sludge from research reactor. Coal formations include various percentages of natural radioactive elements; therefore, coal fly ash includes various levels of radioactivity. For this reason, fly ashes have to be evaluated for potential environmental implications in case of further usage in any construction material. But for use in solidification of radioactive sludge, the radiological effects of fly ash are in the range of radioactive waste management limits. The results show that fly ash has a strong fixing capacity for radioactive isotopes. Specimens with addition of 5-15% fly ash to concrete was observed to be sufficient to achieve the target compressive strength of 20 MPa required for near-surface disposal. An optimum mixture comprising 15% fly ash, 35% cement, and 50% radioactive waste sludge could provide the solidification required for long-term storage and disposal. The codisposal of radioactive fly ash with radioactive sludge by solidification decreases the usage of cement in solidification process. By this method, radioactive fly ash can become a valuable additive instead of industrial waste. This study supports the utilization of fly ash in industry and the solidification of radioactive waste in the nuclear industry.

  15. Production of High-Hydrogen Content Coal-Derived Liquids [Part 3 of 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Bergin

    2011-03-30

    The primary goal of this project has been to evaluate and compare the effect of the intrinsic differences between cobalt (Co) and iron (Fe) catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis using coal-derived syngas. Crude oil, especially heavy, high-sulfur crude, is no longer the appropriate source for the additional, or marginal, amounts of middle-distillate fuels needed to meet growing US and world demand for diesel and jet fuels. Only about 1/3 of the marginal crude oil barrel can be made into diesel and jet fuels. The remaining 2/3 contributes further to global surpluses of by-products. FT can produce these needed marginal, low-sulfur middle-distillate fuels more efficiently, with less environmental impact, and from abundant US domestic resources. Cobalt FT catalyst is more efficient, and less expensive overall, than iron FT catalyst. Mechanisms of cobalt FT catalyst functioning, and poisoning, have been elucidated. Each of these primary findings is amplified by several secondary findings, and these are presented, and verified in detail. The most effective step the United States can take to begin building toward improved long-term national energy security, and to reduce dependence, over time, on imported crude oil from unfriendly and increasingly unstable areas of the world, is to begin producing additional, or marginal amounts of, middle-distillate-type fuels, such as ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) and jet fuel (not gasoline) from US domestic resources other than petroleum. FT synthesis of these middle distillate fuels offers the advantage of being able to use abundant and affordable US coal and biomass as the primary feedstocks. Use of the cobalt FT catalyst system has been shown conclusively to be more effective and less expensive than the use of iron FT catalyst with syngas derived from coal, or from coal and biomass combined. This finding is demonstrated in detail for the initial case of a relatively small FT plant of about 2000 barrels per day based upon coal

  16. Production of High-Hydrogen Content Coal-Derived Liquids [Part 1 of 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Bergin

    2011-03-30

    The primary goal of this project has been to evaluate and compare the effect of the intrinsic differences between cobalt (Co) and iron (Fe) catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis using coal-derived syngas. Crude oil, especially heavy, high-sulfur crude, is no longer the appropriate source for the additional, or marginal, amounts of middle-distillate fuels needed to meet growing US and world demand for diesel and jet fuels. Only about 1/3 of the marginal crude oil barrel can be made into diesel and jet fuels. The remaining 2/3 contributes further to global surpluses of by-products. FT can produce these needed marginal, low-sulfur middle-distillate fuels more efficiently, with less environmental impact, and from abundant US domestic resources. Cobalt FT catalyst is more efficient, and less expensive overall, than iron FT catalyst. Mechanisms of cobalt FT catalyst functioning, and poisoning, have been elucidated. Each of these primary findings is amplified by several secondary findings, and these are presented, and verified in detail. The most effective step the United States can take to begin building toward improved long-term national energy security, and to reduce dependence, over time, on imported crude oil from unfriendly and increasingly unstable areas of the world, is to begin producing additional, or marginal amounts of, middle-distillate-type fuels, such as ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) and jet fuel (not gasoline) from US domestic resources other than petroleum. FT synthesis of these middle distillate fuels offers the advantage of being able to use abundant and affordable US coal and biomass as the primary feedstocks. Use of the cobalt FT catalyst system has been shown conclusively to be more effective and less expensive than the use of iron FT catalyst with syngas derived from coal, or from coal and biomass combined. This finding is demonstrated in detail for the initial case of a relatively small FT plant of about 2000 barrels per day based upon coal

  17. Production of High-Hydrogen Content Coal-Derived Liquids [Part 2 of 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Bergin

    2011-03-30

    The primary goal of this project has been to evaluate and compare the effect of the intrinsic differences between cobalt (Co) and iron (Fe) catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis using coal-derived syngas. Crude oil, especially heavy, high-sulfur crude, is no longer the appropriate source for the additional, or marginal, amounts of middle-distillate fuels needed to meet growing US and world demand for diesel and jet fuels. Only about 1/3 of the marginal crude oil barrel can be made into diesel and jet fuels. The remaining 2/3 contributes further to global surpluses of by-products. FT can produce these needed marginal, low-sulfur middle-distillate fuels more efficiently, with less environmental impact, and from abundant US domestic resources. Cobalt FT catalyst is more efficient, and less expensive overall, than iron FT catalyst. Mechanisms of cobalt FT catalyst functioning, and poisoning, have been elucidated. Each of these primary findings is amplified by several secondary findings, and these are presented, and verified in detail. The most effective step the United States can take to begin building toward improved long-term national energy security, and to reduce dependence, over time, on imported crude oil from unfriendly and increasingly unstable areas of the world, is to begin producing additional, or marginal amounts of, middle-distillate-type fuels, such as ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) and jet fuel (not gasoline) from US domestic resources other than petroleum. FT synthesis of these middle distillate fuels offers the advantage of being able to use abundant and affordable US coal and biomass as the primary feedstocks. Use of the cobalt FT catalyst system has been shown conclusively to be more effective and less expensive than the use of iron FT catalyst with syngas derived from coal, or from coal and biomass combined. This finding is demonstrated in detail for the initial case of a relatively small FT plant of about 2000 barrels per day based upon coal

  18. Nonsolvent application of ionic liquids: organo-catalysis by 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium cation based room-temperature ionic liquids for chemoselective N-tert-butyloxycarbonylation of amines and the influence of the C-2 hydrogen on catalytic efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Anirban; Roy, Sudipta Raha; Parikh, Naisargee; Chakraborti, Asit K

    2011-09-02

    1-Alkyl-3-methylimidazolium cation based ionic liquids efficiently catalyze N-tert-butyloxycarbonylation of amines with excellent chemoselectivity. The catalytic role of the ionic liquid is envisaged as "electrophilic activation" of di-tert-butyl dicarbonate (Boc(2)O) through bifurcated hydrogen bond formation with the C-2 hydrogen of the 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium cation and has been supported by a downfield shift of the imidazolium C-2 hydrogen of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([bmim][NTf(2)]) from δ 8.39 to 8.66 in the presence of Boc(2)O in the (1)H NMR and a drastic reduction of the catalytic efficiency with 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium ionic liquids that are devoid of the C-2 hydrogen. The differential time required for reaction with aromatic and aliphatic amines has offered means for selective N-t-Boc formation during inter and intramolecular competitions. Preferential N-t-Boc formation with secondary aliphatic amine has been achieved in the presence of primary aliphatic amine. Comparison of the catalytic efficiency for N-t-Boc formation with a common substrate revealed that [bmim][NTf(2)] is superior to the reported Lewis acid catalysts.

  19. Preparation and Characterization of Mesoporous Nickel derived from Liquid crystalline Template and Evaluation of its Electro catalytic activity towards Methanol Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanapriya, S.; Renuka devi, R.; Raj, V.

    2018-02-01

    Mesoporous Nickel has been prepared by electrodeposition using non-ionic surfactant based liquid crystalline template under optimized processing conditions. Physico-chemical properties of mesoporous nickel is systematically characterized through XRD, SEM and AFM analyses. Comparison of electrocatalytic activity of mesoporous nickel with smooth nickel was interrogated using cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analyses. Distinctly enhanced electrocatalytic activity with improved surface poisoning resistance related to mesoporous nickel electrode towards methanol oxidation stems from unique mesoporous morphology. This mesoporous morphology with high surface to volume ratio is highly beneficial to promote active catalytic centers to offer readily accessible Pt catalytic sites for MOR, through facilitating mass and electron transports.

  20. Study of the composition of tars produced from blends of coal and polyethylene wastes using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, M A; Alvarez, R; Gayo, F; Barriocanal, C; Moinelo, S R

    2002-02-01

    Tars produced at semi-industrial scale in a coke oven of 6 x 10(3) kg capacity were used to investigate the effect of using polyethylene waste as an additive in the carbonization process with coal. The polyethylene wastes used were low-density polyethylene from the agriculture greenhouses and high-density polyethylene from domestic sources. The high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the soluble fractions in toluene and carbon disulfide, using two polystyrene-divinylbenzene columns and a mixture of dichloromethane-methanol as a mobile phase, provides useful information on the composition of tars and their derived pitches in terms of the substitution and molecular topology of polynuclear aromatic compounds (PACs). Differences in composition of tars produced with polyethylene waste at 1% (w/w) have been found to be negligible, while a higher amount of the waste (3%, w/w) promoted the formation of peri-condensed PACs at the expense of the substituted cata-condensed PACs. This behaviour is due to more extensive secondary reactions of tar precursors via dealkylation and aromatic condensation taking place during the carbonization process as a consequence of a more viscous co-carbonizing system. Changes in tar composition caused by this amount of polyethylene waste addition were comparable to those promoted by an increase in the carbonization temperature at semi-industrial and industrial ovens and by the coal preheating before the carbonization process. The characteristic features in tar composition were also found for the derived pitches from tars obtained with the polyethylene waste addition.

  1. Chemical characterization and genotoxic potential related to boiling point for fractionally distilled SRC-I coal liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, B.W.; Pelroy, R.A.; Mahlum, D.D.

    1982-07-01

    This report summarizes selected research efforts oriented toward ameliorating the genotoxic potential of direct coal liquefaction materials through modification or optimization of process conditions. The studies described were conducted to evaluate the utility of optimized distillation for coal liquids from the SRC-I process. SRC-I process solvent was distilled into 50/sup 0/F-range boiling point (bp) cuts. Analysis of amino-PAH (APAH) showed that mutagenic APAHs containing 3 or more rings were found primarily in fractions boiling above 750/sup 0/F. Three microbial tester strains were used to screen for genetically active agents in the SRC-I distillate bp cuts. Reverse mutation with the Ames tester strain TA98 demonstrated that mutagens were concentrated in the bp cuts boiling above 700/sup 0/F. For this tester strain most of the genetic activity in these distillates was attributable to chemical fractions enriched in APAH having 3 or more rings. Mutagenicity data obtained with TA98 was in good agreement with sk in carcinogenesis results from the mouse-skin initiation/promotion (in vivo) test system. The strongest response in the forward mutation assay did not occur in the most carcinogenically active fractions. Results of initiation/promotion experiments used to measure the relative potency of bp cuts as initiators of mouse skin carcinogenesis again showed that fractions boiling above 750/sup 0/F. Compounds reaching their highest concentrations in the highest boiling and most carcinogenically active cut included known carcinogens such as benzo(a)pyrene and dimethyl benzanthracene. Thus, all biomedical test results indicate that consideration should be given to conducting distillation so as to minimize, in the distillate product, the concentrations of those biologically active compounds found in cuts boiling above 700/sup 0/C.

  2. Bimetallic promotion of cooperative hydrogen transfer and heteroatom removal in coal liquefaction. Quarterly summary, June 1, 1991--August 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisch, J.J.

    1991-10-01

    The ultimate objective of this research is to uncover new catalytic processes for the liquefaction of coal and for upgrading coal-derived fuels by removing undesirable organosulfur, organonitrogen and organooxygen constituents. Basic to both the liquefaction of coal and the purification of coal liquids is the transfer of hydrogen from such sources as dihydrogen, metal hydrides or partially reduced aromatic hydrocarbons to the extensive aromatic rings in coal itself or to aromatic sulfides, amines or ethers. Accordingly, this study is exploring how such crucial hydrogen-transfer processes might be catalyzed by soluble, low-valent transition metal complexes and/or Lewis acids under moderate conditions of temperature and pressure. By learning the mechanism whereby H{sub 2}, metal hydrides or partially hydrogenated aromatics do transfer hydrogen to model aromatic compounds, with the aid of homogeneous, bimetallic catalysts, we hope to identify new methods for producing superior fuels from coal.

  3. Concurrent growth of InSe wires and In2O3 tulip-like structures in the Au-catalytic vapour-liquid-solid process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taurino, A; Signore, M A

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the concurrent growth of InSe and In 2 O 3 nanostructures, obtained by thermal evaporation of InSe powders on Au-covered Si substrates, has been investigated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy techniques. The vapour-solid and Au catalytic vapour-liquid-solid growth mechanisms, responsible of the simultaneous development of the two different types of nanostructures, i.e. InSe wires and In 2 O 3 tulip-like structures respectively, are discussed in detail. The thermodynamic processes giving rise to the obtained morphologies and materials are explained. (paper)

  4. Concurrent growth of InSe wires and In2O3 tulip-like structures in the Au-catalytic vapour-liquid-solid process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taurino, A.; Signore, M. A.

    2015-06-01

    In this work, the concurrent growth of InSe and In2O3 nanostructures, obtained by thermal evaporation of InSe powders on Au-covered Si substrates, has been investigated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy techniques. The vapour-solid and Au catalytic vapour-liquid-solid growth mechanisms, responsible of the simultaneous development of the two different types of nanostructures, i.e. InSe wires and In2O3 tulip-like structures respectively, are discussed in detail. The thermodynamic processes giving rise to the obtained morphologies and materials are explained.

  5. Comparison of in-vitro and in-vivo studies with coal liquids from the SRC-II process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahlum, D.D.; Frazier, M.E.; Pelroy, R.A.; Renne, R.A.

    1983-09-01

    Coal liquids obtained from the SRC-II process and fractions prepared from these liquids have been assayed in a number of in vivo and in vitro systems for biological activity. The in vitro systems includes: (1) the standard Ames Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay, (2) the S. typhimurium fluctuation test; (3) forward mutation assay in S. typhimurium (8-Ag) test; (4) prophage induction (INDUCTEST); (5) Syrian hamster ovary (SHE) cell transformation assay; and (6) Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell mutation assay. In addition, both initiation/promotion (I/P) and chronic skin-painting assays were used as measures of tumorigenesis. In general, materials shown to be carcinogenic in the chronic skin-painting assay were also positive in the other assays. The failure of the Ames assay to respond to the neutral polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) fraction of SRC-II heavy distillate (HD) was a notable exception. Quantitatively, the Ames assay was more sensitive to nitrogen-containing compounds (particularly primary aromatic amines) and less sensitive to mixtures of PAH. The mammalian systems, both in vitro and in vivo, showed greater responses to the neutral PAH than to the nitrogen-containing compounds. Activity in all biological systems increased with increasing boiling point of the material tested. The I/P assay ranked the materials studied in the same order as did the chronic skin-painting assay; however, the results of the two assays diverged quantitatively, particularly for certain distillate cuts. Despite the lack of quantitative agreement between the in vitro microbial and in vivo skin-painting assays, the in vitro assays remain valuable screening tools for complex mixtures. Sufficient information now exists to qualify the use of the in vitro assays for complex mixtures and to increase their reliability.

  6. Session 6: Water depollution from aniline and phenol by air oxidation and adsorptive-catalytic oxidation in liquid phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrynkin, N.M.; Batygina, M.V.; Noskov, A.S. [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Pr. Ak. Lavrentieva (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    This paper is devoted to development of carbon catalysts and application of catalytic wet air oxidation for deep cleaning of polluted waters. The described catalysts and method are solving the problem of development environmentally reliable method for fluids treatment and allow carrying out the adsorption of pollutants on carbon CAPM (catalytically active porous material) with following regeneration of the CAPM without the loss of adsorptive qualities. The experiments have shown a principal capability simultaneously to use carbon CAPM as adsorbent and either as catalyst, or as a catalyst support for oxidation of aniline and phenol in water solutions. (authors)

  7. Process analysis of pressurized oxy-coal power cycle for carbon capture application integrated with liquid air power generation and binary cycle engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aneke, Mathew; Wang, Meihong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We model a 573 MW pressurized oxy-coal combustion with supercritical steam cycle. • A 126 MW liquid air power plant was integrated to utilize the nitrogen stream. • We used organic Rankine cycle to recover heat from compressors. • The model was analysed for with and without carbon capture consideration. • Efficiency increase of 12–15% was achieved due to integration and heat recovery. - Abstract: In this paper, the thermodynamic advantage of integrating liquid air power generation (LAPG) process and binary cycle waste heat recovery technology to a standalone pressurized oxy-coal combustion supercritical steam power generation cycle is investigated through modeling and simulation using Aspen Plus® simulation software version 8.4. The study shows that the integration of LAPG process and the use of binary cycle heat engine which convert waste heat from compressor exhaust to electricity, in a standalone pressurized oxy-coal combustion supercritical steam power generation cycle improves the thermodynamic efficiency of the pressurized oxy-coal process. The analysis indicates that such integration can give about 12–15% increase in thermodynamic efficiency when compared with a standalone pressurized oxy-coal process with or without CO 2 capture. It was also found that in a pressurized oxy-coal process, it is better to pump the liquid oxygen from the cryogenic ASU to a very high pressure prior to vapourization in the cryogenic ASU main heat exchanger and subsequently expand the gaseous oxygen to the required combustor pressure than either compressing the atmospheric gaseous oxygen produced from the cryogenic ASU directly to the combustor pressure or pumping the liquid oxygen to the combustor pressure prior to vapourization in the cryogenic ASU main heat exchanger. The power generated from the compressor heat in the flue gas purification, carbon capture and compression unit using binary cycle heat engine was also found to offset about 65% of the

  8. Pilot plant development of a new catalytic process for improved electrostatic separation of fly ash in coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivares del Valle, J.; Martinez, L.S.; Baum, B.M.; Galeano, V.C. [Universidad de Sevilla (Spain)

    1995-12-31

    The design and operation of pulverized-coal-fired power plants (PCFPP) are usually regarded as fuel range in terms of sulphur and ash contents. These units may give severe environmental problems of fly ash emissions as a result of lower SO{sub 3} contents in the flue gas (FG) because the electrical resistivity of the solid particles is correspondingly lower, with consequent adverse effects on electrostatic precipitator (ESP) efficiency. More stringent air pollution laws cause many power companies to burn lower sulphur coal under boilers in plants that formerly burned higher S coal or ran with abnormal operational conditions (only remediable by shutdown and repairs). This presentation of the GASOX process is a contribution to the improvement of existing technology for flue gas conditioning (FGC), which is defined as a control system for (ESP) efficiency in PCFPP.

  9. Characterisation of dense non-aqueous phase liquids of coal tar using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauchotte-Lindsay, Caroline; McGregor, Laura; Richards, Phil; Kerr, Stephanie; Glenn, Aliyssa; Thomas, Russell; Kalin, Robert

    2013-04-01

    Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC) is a recently developed analytical technique in which two capillary columns with different stationary phases are placed in series enabling planar resolution of the analytes. The resolution power of GCxGC is one order of magnitude higher than that of one dimension gas chromatography. Because of its high resolution capacity, the use of GCxGC for complex environmental samples such as crude oils, petroleum derivatives and polychlorinated biphenyls mixtures has rapidly grown in recent years. We developed a one-step method for the forensic analysis of coal tar dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) from former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) sites. Coal tar is the by-product of the gasification of coal for heating and lighting and it is composed of thousands of organic and inorganic compounds. Before the boom of natural gases and oils, most towns and cities had one or several manufactured gas plants that have, in many cases, left a devastating environmental print due to coal tar contamination. The fate of coal tar DNAPLs, which can persist in the environment for more than a hundred years, is therefore of crucial interest. The presented analytical method consists of a unique clean-up/ extraction stage by pressurized liquid extraction and a single analysis of its organic chemical composition using GCxGC coupled with time of flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS). The chemical fingerprinting is further improved by derivatisation by N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) of the tar compounds containing -OH functions such as alcohols and carboxylic acids. We present here how, using the logical order of elution in GCxGC-TOFMS system, 1) the identification of never before observed -OH containing compounds is possible and 2) the isomeric selectivity of an oxidation reaction on a DNAPL sample can be revealed. Using samples collected at various FMGP sites, we demonstrate how this GCxGC method enables the simultaneous

  10. Life-Cycle Analysis of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Water Consumption – Effects of Coal and Biomass Conversion to Liquid Fuels as Analyzed with the GREET Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qianfeng [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cai, Hao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Han, Jeongwoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The vast reserves of coal in the U.S. provide a significant incentive for the development of processes for coal conversion to liquid fuels (CTL). Also, CTL using domestic coal can help move the U.S. toward greater energy independence and security. However, current conversion technologies are less economically competitive and generate greater greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions than production of petroleum fuels. Altex Technologies Corporation (Altex, hereinafter) and Pennsylvania State University have developed a hybrid technology to produce jet fuel from a feedstock blend of coal and biomass. Collaborating with Altex, Argonne National Laboratory has expanded and used the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET®) model to assess the life-cycle GHG emissions and water consumption of this hybrid technology. Biomass feedstocks include corn stover, switchgrass, and wheat straw. The option of biomass densification (bales to pellets) is also evaluated in this study. The results show that the densification process generates additional GHG emissions as a result of additional biomass process energy demand. This process coproduces a large amount of char, and this study investigates two scenarios to treat char: landfill disposal (Char-LF) and combustion for combined heat and power (CHP). Since the CHP scenarios export excess heat and electricity as coproducts, two coproduct handling methods are used for well-to-wake (WTWa) analysis: displacement (Char-CHP-Disp) and energy allocation (Char-CHP-EnAllo). When the feedstock contains 15 wt% densified wheat straw and 85 wt% lignite coal, WTWa GHG emissions of the coal-and-biomass-to-liquid pathways are 116, 97, and 137 gCO2e per megajoule (MJ) under the Char-LF, Char-CHP-Disp, and Char-CHP-EnAllo scenarios, respectively, as compared to conventional jet fuel production at 84 gCO2e/MJ. WTWa water consumption values are 0.072, -0.046, and 0.044 gal/MJ for Char-LF, Char-CHP-Disp, and Char

  11. CATALYTIC HYDROCRACKING OF WASTE LUBRICANT OIL INTO LIQUID FUEL FRACTION USING ZnO, Nb2O5, ACTIVATED NATURAL ZEOLITE AND THEIR MODIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wega Trisunaryanti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic hydrocracking of waste lubricant oil into liquid fuel fraction using ZnO, Nb2O5, activated natural zeolite (ZAAH and their modification has been investigated. The zeolite was produced in Wonosari, Yogyakarta. Activation of the zeolite was carried out by refluxing with HCl 3M for 30 min, produced the activated natural zeolite (ZAAH. The ZnO/ZAAH catalyst was prepared by impregnation of Zn onto the ZAAH by ion exchange method using salt precursor of Zn(NO32.4H2O. The Nb2O5/ZAAH catalyst was prepared by mixing the ZAAH sample with Nb2O5 and oxalic acid solution until the paste was formed. The impregnation of Zn onto Nb2O5/ZAAH was carried out using the same method to that of the ZnO/ZAAH catalyst resulted ZnO/Nb2O5-ZAAH catalyst. Characterization of catalyst includes determination of Zn metal by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS, acidity by gravimetric method and catalyst porosity by Surface Area Analyzer (NOVA-1000. Catalytic hydrocracking was carried out in a semi-batch reactor system using ZnO, ZAAH, ZnO/ZAAH and ZnO/Nb2O5-ZAAH catalysts at 450 oC under the H2 flow rate of 15 mL/min. and the ratio of catalyst/feed = 1/5. The composition of liquid products was analyzed by Gas Chromatograpy (GC.The results showed that impregnation of ZnO and/or Nb2O5 on the ZAAH increased the acidity and specific surface area of catalyst. The products of the hydrocracking process were liquid, coke and gas. Conversion of liquid products was increased by the increase of catalyst acidity. The highest liquid product was produced by ZnO/Nb2O5-ZAAH catalyst, 52.97 wt-%, consist of gasoline, 38.87 wt-% and diesel, 14.10 wt-%.   Keywords: hydrocracking, waste lubricant oil, liquid fuel fraction

  12. Deashing of coal liquids with ceramic membrane microfiltration and diafiltration. Final quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    Removal of mineral matter from liquid hydrocarbons derived from the direct liquefaction of coal is required for product acceptability. Current methods include critical solvent de-ashing and filtration, both of which produce an ash reject stream containing up to 15% of the liquid hydrocarbon product. This program is directed towards development of an improved process for de-ashing and recovery of coal-derived residual oil: the use of ceramic membranes for high-temperature microfiltration and diafiltration. Using laboratory-scale ceramic membrane modules, samples of a coal-derived residual oil containing ash will be processed by crossflow microfiltration, followed by solvent addition and refiltration (diafiltration). Recovery of de-ashed residual oil will be demonstrated. Data from this program will be used to develop a preliminary engineering design and cost estimate for a demonstration pilot plant incorporating full-scale membrane modules. In addition, estimates for production system capital and operating costs will be developed to assess process economic feasibility. The five program tasks include (1) ceramic membrane fabrication, (2) membrane test system assembly, (3) testing of the ceramic membranes, (4) design of a demonstration system using full scale membrane modules, and (5) development of estimates for microfiltration capital and operating costs and assessment of process economic feasibility.

  13. Kinetics of liquid-phase catalytic heterogeneous protium-tritium isotope exchange with participation of gaseous hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akulov, G.P.; Snetkova, E.V.; Kayumov, V.G.; Kaminskij, Yu.L.

    1990-01-01

    Reaction rate constants of catalytic (PdO/BaSO 4 (Al 2 O 3 ) catalyst) heterogeneous protium - tritium isotopic exchange D - [1- 3 H] of carbohydrates and gaseous oxygen have been measured. It is ascertained that the rate of isotopic exchange depends on the nature of carbohydrate, catalyst, buffer and medium acidity. The value of concentration of carbohydrate acyclic forms plays the determining role in the process

  14. Influence of different preparation conditions on catalytic activity of ag /gama-al/sub 2/o/sub 3/ for hydrogenation of coal slime pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Z.; Rong, C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper, introducing variable conditional factors with Ag/AL/sub 2/O/sub 3/ as catalyst, selects five variables to investigate the influences of experimental conditions on Ag/Al2O/sub 3/ catalytic activity and define the optimal process conditions. These variables include Ag loading amount, calcinations temperature, calcinations time, reduction temperature, reduction time. X ray diffraction (XRD), hydrogen temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), X ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were utilized to characterize the catalytic activity of Ag/-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, active center structure and state and those of carrier were emphatically studied, In the meantime the effects of active center and carrier on catalytic activity are studied. The results showed that: (1) In the range of 600 degree C-900 degree C, the catalytic activity of Ag/-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ with different loading showed little difference when changing loading amount, in the range of 900 degree C-1100 degree C, when the loading was 5%, the catalytic activity was very high; From the XRD and SEM characterizations, when the loading was 5%, it showed strong intensity diffraction peak of Ag crystal, crystal Ag is the most important activity center to promote hydrogen yield. (2) the catalytic activity of Ag/-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ at 450 degree C was considerably higher than that at 400 degree C and 500 degree C. By BET, XRD and SEM characterization, it can be seen, the diffraction peaks intensity of Ag crystal at 450 degree C is higher and sharper than that at 400 degree C and 500 degree C and with the increase of calcinations temperature, the specific surface area of catalysts also increased. (3) In the range of 600 degree C - 1000 degree C, the effects of calcinations time can be negligible, while, with temperature higher than 1000 degree C, 4-hour-calcinations-time catalyst exhibits a more noticeable catalytic activity than 3-hour and 5-hour catalyst do; From the XRD

  15. Process intensification of catalytic liquid-liquid solid processes : Continuous biodiesel production using an immobilized lipase in a centrifugal contactor separator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ilmi, M.; Kloekhorst, A.; Winkelman, J. G. M.; Euverink, G. J. W.; Hidayat, C.; Heeres, H. J.

    Biodiesel or fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) synthesis from sunflower oil and methanol using an immobilized lipase, an example of a liquid-liquid solid reaction, was studied in batch and various continuous reactor set-ups including the use of a centrifugal contactor separator (CCCS). The latter is an

  16. Clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslanyan, G.S.

    1993-01-01

    According to the World Energy Council (WEC), at the beginning of the next century three main energy sources - coal, nuclear power and oil will have equal share in the world's total energy supply. This forecast is also valid for the USSR which possesses more than 40% of the world's coal resources and continuously increases its coal production (more than 700 million tons of coal are processed annually in the USSR). The stringent environmental regulations, coupled with the tendency to increase the use of coal are the reasons for developing different concepts for clean coal utilization. In this paper, the potential efficiency and environmental performance of different clean coal production cycles are considered, including technologies for coal clean-up at the pre-combustion stage, advanced clean combustion methods and flue gas cleaning systems. Integrated systems, such as combined gas-steam cycle and the pressurized fluidized bed boiler combined cycle, are also discussed. The Soviet National R and D program is studying new methods for coal utilization with high environmental performance. In this context, some basic research activities in the field of clean coal technology in the USSR are considered. Development of an efficient vortex combustor, a pressurized fluidized bed gasifier, advanced gas cleaning methods based on E-beam irradiation and plasma discharge, as well as new catalytic system, are are presented. In addition, implementation of technological innovations for retrofitting and re powering of existing power plants is discussed. (author)

  17. A Combined Density Functional Theory and Monte Carlo Approach for Quantifying Catalytic Energies in a Liquid Environment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary goals of this project are to develop a method for determining the equilibrium concentration of metal catalysts under actual conditions of liquid phase...

  18. Comparative Study of Graphite-Supported LDI- and ESI-FT-ICR-MS of a Pyrolysis Liquid from a German Brown Coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathsack, Philipp; Wolf, Bianca; Kroll, Marius M; Otto, Matthias

    2015-08-04

    Pyrolysis liquids from coal are complex mixtures of organic compounds with low to high molecular mass and low to high polarity. Compared to low-molecular-weight compounds, little information is available regarding high-molecular-weight compounds in pyrolysis liquids, although their characterization is important for the elucidation of degradation pathways. In this study, laser desorption ionization (LDI) using graphite powder as the support material has been used in conjunction with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) for the analysis of a pyrolysis liquid from brown coal. The acquired data is compared to previous results of the same sample using electrospray ionization (ESI). Using LDI, compounds with masses between 300 and 900 Da were detected by LDI. An evaluation of the spectra was based on the frequency of molecular formulas with a different number of heteroatoms. Hydrocarbon compounds and heteroatomic compounds containing oxygen and sulfur were found. A comparison to ESI results shows that the numbers of observed molecular formulas are virtually the same, but a higher quantity of molecular formulas with a low number of oxygen can be detected by LDI. The observation of molecular formulas without oxygen is a unique feature of the LDI spectra. A more detailed investigation was possible by the utilization of double bond equivalent plots versus carbon number, which revealed a prevalence of LDI for the ionization of compounds with higher DBE.

  19. Mechanochemical hydrogenation of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ralph T.; Smol, Robert; Farber, Gerald; Naphtali, Leonard M.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrogenation of coal is improved through the use of a mechanical force to reduce the size of the particulate coal simultaneously with the introduction of gaseous hydrogen, or other hydrogen donor composition. Such hydrogen in the presence of elemental tin during this one-step size reduction-hydrogenation further improves the yield of the liquid hydrocarbon product.

  20. Production of Jet Fuels from Coal Derived Liquids. Volume 9. Results of Bench-Scale and Pilot Plant Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant in Beulah, North Dakota. Experiments show that the hydroprocessing conditions recommended in Task 1 are not severe...50 REFERENCES. ............................ 51 APPENDIX A: LCI Test Report on Expanded-Bed Al Hydroprocessing of 300*F+ Great Plains Tar ...recovered by gravity separation. The heaviest portion of the tar oil, which contains about 20 percent coal dust, is recycled to the gasifiers. The recycle

  1. Novel approach for extinguishing large-scale coal fires using gas-liquid foams in open pit mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinxiao; Wang, Deming; Qin, Botao; Tian, Fuchao; Shi, Guangyi; Dong, Shuaijun

    2015-12-01

    Coal fires are a serious threat to the workers' security and safe production in open pit mines. The coal fire source is hidden and innumerable, and the large-area cavity is prevalent in the coal seam after the coal burned, causing the conventional extinguishment technology difficult to work. Foams are considered as an efficient means of fire extinguishment in these large-scale workplaces. A noble foam preparation method is introduced, and an original design of cavitation jet device is proposed to add foaming agent stably. The jet cavitation occurs when the water flow rate and pressure ratio reach specified values. Through self-building foaming system, the high performance foams are produced and then infused into the blast drilling holes at a large flow. Without complicated operation, this system is found to be very suitable for extinguishing large-scale coal fires. Field application shows that foam generation adopting the proposed key technology makes a good fire extinguishment effect. The temperature reduction using foams is 6-7 times higher than water, and CO concentration is reduced from 9.43 to 0.092‰ in the drilling hole. The coal fires are controlled successfully in open pit mines, ensuring the normal production as well as the security of personnel and equipment.

  2. PYROLYSIS OF BROWN COAL USING A CATALYST BASED ON W–Ni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Jílková

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Tars from pyrolysis of brown coal can be refined to obtain compounds suitable for fuel production. However, it is problematic to refine the liquids from brown coal pyrolysis, because high molecular compounds are produced, and the sample solidifies. Therefore we decided to investigate the possibility of treating the product in the gas phase during pyrolysis, using a catalyst. A two-step process was investigated: thermal-catalytic refining. In the first step, alumina was used as the filling material, and in the second step a catalyst based on W-Ni was used. These materials were placed in two separate layers above the coal, so the volatile products passed through the alumina and catalyst layers. Pyrolysis tests showed that using the catalyst has no significant effect on the mass balance, but it improves the properties of the gas and the properties of the organic part of the liquid pyrolysis products, which will then be processed further.

  3. Effect of properties of iron compounds on the catalytic activity in direct coal liquefaction; Tetsu kagobutsu no keitai to sekitan ekika kassei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, T.; Tazawa, K. [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Shimasaki, K. [Kobe Steel Ltd. (Japan)

    1998-08-20

    When considering merchandising scale of the coal liquefaction process, it is a preliminary condition that metal used for its catalyst is rich in resource volume, cheap in production cost, without pollution, and so forth, and application of cheap iron ore and ferrous compounds to disposable catalyst is desired. As liquefaction activity of the iron ore was hitherto improved by its micro crushing, its mechanical crush had a limit of about 2 {mu}m in mean particle diameter. However, together with recent crushing technique, crushers with high performance were developed, and then micro crushing by sub-micron became possible industri8ally even for iron ore. In this study, three kinds of Australian iron ores such as limonite of ferric hydroxide type iron ore, pyrite of ferrous sulfide type, and hematite of ferric oxide type were micro crushed to examine coal liquefaction activity and hydrogenation reaction activity of 1-methyl naphthalene (1-MN) and also relationship between properties and activity of catalyst for the latter before and after reaction. 11 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Influence of catalytic activity and reaction conditions on the product distribution in coal liquefaction; Sekitan ekikayu no seiseibutsu bunpu ni taisuru shokubai kassei oyobi hanno joken no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasuo, H.; Sakanishi, K.; Mochida, I. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Institute of Advanced Material Study

    1996-10-28

    The NiMo sulfide supported on Ketjen Black (KB) was more effective and yielded lighter oil products containing light fractions with their boiling point below 300{degree}C during the two stage liquefaction combining low temperature and high temperature hydrogenation the conventional NiMo/alumina catalyst and FeS2 catalyst. Although the NiMo/alumina yielded increased oil products during the two stage liquefaction, the lighter oil fractions did not increase and the heavier fractions increased mainly. This suggests that the hydrogenation of aromatic rings and successive cleavage of the rings are necessary for producing the light oil, which is derived from the sufficient hydrogenation of aromatic rings using catalysts. For the two stage reaction with NiMo/KB catalyst, it was considered that sufficient hydrogen was directly transferred to coal molecules at the first stage of the low temperature reaction, which promoted the solubilization of coal and the successive hydrogenation at the high temperature reaction. Thus, high activity of the catalyst must be obtained. It is expected that further high quality distillates can be produced through the optimization of catalysts and solvents at the two stage reaction. 1 ref., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Biogas production from various coal types using beef cattle rumen's liquid as a source of microorganisms consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnani, Tubagus Benito Achmad; Harlia, Ellin; Hidayati, Yuli Astuti; Marlina, Eulis Tanti; Sugiarto, A. N.; Rahmah, K. N.; Joni, I. M.

    2018-02-01

    Nowadays, Indonesia is developing Coal-Bed Methane (CBM) production, but its production is not sufficient yet. Basically, CBM is produced naturally along with coal formation, i.e. through the activity of indigenous microorganisms. In this regard, to increase the production of CBM, adding a consortium of microorganisms into the coal deposit can be an option. One source of a consortium of bacteria available in nature is the rumen contents of ruminant livestock such as beef cattle. The purpose of this research was to know the capability of bacteria in rumen contents of beef cattle to produce CBM from various types of coal. In addition, to get a better concentration of bacteria than previous research so that it can be used as a reference for CBM production in the future. This explorative research used an experimental method with descriptive explanation. CBM production was performed using Hungate tube as a digester with three coal substrates, namely lignite, sub-bituminous and bituminous. This experiment also used 10-7 diluted rumen content of beef cattle as a source. The parameters measured were bacterial density, the amount of CBM, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide on day 2, 5, 10 and 14. The treatment and parameters measurement were carried out in triplicates. This study finding showed that the highest bacterial density in all three types of coal was obtained on day 10 as well as the amount of CBM, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide. These results are higher than the results from previous research therefore, this treatment can be used as an inoculant in a solid form for easy distribution.

  6. ANALYSIS OF COAL TAR COMPOSITIONS PRODUCED FROM SUB-BITUMINOUS KALIMANTAN COAL TAR

    OpenAIRE

    Dewi Selvia Fardhyanti; Astrilia Damayanti

    2016-01-01

    Coal tar is a liquid by-product of coal pyrolysis processes. This liquid oil mixture contains various kinds of useful compounds such as benzoic aromatic compounds and phenolic compounds. These compounds are widely used as raw material for insecticides, dyes, medicines, perfumes, coloring matters, and many others. The coal tar was collected by pyrolysis process of coal obtained from PT Kaltim Prima Coal and Arutmin-Kalimantan. The experiments typically occurred at the atmo...

  7. Coal geopolitics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, P.N.; Suissa, A.; Coiffard, J.; Cretin, D.

    1991-01-01

    This book divided into seven chapters, describes coal economic cycle. Chapter one: coals definition; the principle characteristics and properties (origin, calorific power, international classification...) Chapter two: the international coal cycle: coal mining, exploration, coal reserves estimation, coal handling coal industry and environmental impacts. Chapter three: the world coal reserves. Chapter four: the consumptions, productions and trade. Chapter five: the international coal market (exporting mining companies; importing companies; distributors and spot market operators) chapter six: the international coal trade chapter seven: the coal price formation. 234 refs.; 94 figs. and tabs [fr

  8. Catalytic bioreactors and methods of using same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worden, Robert Mark; Liu, Yangmu Chloe

    2017-07-25

    Various embodiments provide a bioreactor for producing a bioproduct comprising one or more catalytically active zones located in a housing and adapted to keep two incompatible gaseous reactants separated when in a gas phase, wherein each of the one or more catalytically active zones may comprise a catalytic component retainer and a catalytic component retained within and/or thereon. Each of the catalytically active zones may additionally or alternatively comprise a liquid medium located on either side of the catalytic component retainer. Catalytic component may include a microbial cell culture located within and/or on the catalytic component retainer, a suspended catalytic component suspended in the liquid medium, or a combination thereof. Methods of using various embodiments of the bioreactor to produce a bioproduct, such as isobutanol, are also provided.

  9. Clean coal initiatives in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, B.H.; Irwin, M.W.; Sparrow, F.T.; Mastalerz, Maria; Yu, Z.; Kramer, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - Indiana is listed among the top ten coal states in the USA and annually mines about 35 million short tons (million tons) of coal from the vast reserves of the US Midwest Illinois Coal Basin. The implementation and commercialization of clean coal technologies is important to the economy of the state and has a significant role in the state's energy plan for increasing the use of the state's natural resources. Coal is a substantial Indiana energy resource and also has stable and relatively low costs, compared with the increasing costs of other major fuels. This indigenous energy source enables the promotion of energy independence. The purpose of this paper is to outline the significance of clean coal projects for achieving this objective. Design/methodology/approach - The paper outlines the clean coal initiatives being taken in Indiana and the research carried out at the Indiana Center for Coal Technology Research. Findings - Clean coal power generation and coal for transportation fuels (coal-to-liquids - CTL) are two major topics being investigated in Indiana. Coking coal, data compilation of the bituminous coal qualities within the Indiana coal beds, reducing dependence on coal imports, and provision of an emissions free environment are important topics to state legislators. Originality/value - Lessons learnt from these projects will be of value to other states and countries.

  10. Economic and environmental evaluation of coal-and-biomass-to-liquids-and-electricity plants equipped with carbon capture and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Among various clean energy technologies, one innovative option for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions involves pairing carbon capture and storage (CCS) with the production of synthetic fuels and electricity from co-processed coal and biomass. With a relatively pure CO2 strea...

  11. Oil from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurlow, G.G.

    1978-10-01

    Our great-grandchildren will view the petroleum age as a brief perturbation in the life-style of mankind, less than a hundred years in which we discovered, exploited, squandered and exhausted the natural resource of liquid petroelum laid down over many million years of pre-history. What the sources of energy in common use in our great-grandchildren's day will be is something we cannot know. By then, the need for liquid hydrocarbon fuels may have passed. What is more sure, however, is that for a while, man will want to continue to use the equipment and the methods familiar to him from this petroleum-product dominated age beyond the time when natural petroleum sources become scarce. During these decades there will be a need to produce liquid hydrocarbons from other sources and one of these sources, abundantly available at this time, will be coal. Converting coal to liquid basically entails accomplishing two steps: (1) the separation of the coal substance from the ash and impurities associated with the coal, and (2) breaking down the complex coal molecules into simpler molecules and increasing the hydrogen-to-carbon ratio. It is also necessary, of course, to develop processes which will lead to the production of a range of liquid products to meet the demands of the commerical market, whether as fuels or as chemical feedstocks. Converting coal to a liquid needs energy, both heat and power, and hydrogen; if all these have to be generated starting from coal, their production may use approaching half of the Btu value of the coal fed to the plant. The economic advantage of one process over another will be mainly dependent on the products required and the price assigned to them and on the effectiveness with which the plant can be engineered to minimize energy loss and to operate effectively.

  12. Influences of Different Preparation Conditions on Catalytic Activity of Ag2O-Co3O4/γ-Al2O3 for Hydrogenation of Coal Pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of catalysts of Ag2O-Co3O4/γ-Al2O3 was prepared by equivalent volume impregnation method. The effects of the metal loading, calcination time, and calcination temperatures of Ag and Co, respectively, on the catalytic activity were investigated. The optimum preparing condition of Ag2O-Co3O4/γ-Al2O3 was decided, and then the influence of different preparation conditions on catalytic activity of Ag2O-Co3O4/γ-Al2O3 was analyzed. The results showed the following: (1 at the same preparation condition, when silver loading was 8%, the Ag2O-Co3O4/γ-Al2O3 showed higher catalyst activity, (2 the catalyst activity had obviously improved when the cobalt loading was 8%, while it was weaker at loadings 5% and 10%, (3 the catalyst activity was influenced by different calcination temperatures of silver, but the influences were not marked, (4 the catalyst activity can be influenced by calcination time of silver, (5 different calcination times of cobalt can also influence the catalyst activity of Ag2O-Co3O4/γ-Al2O3, and (6 the best preparation conditions of the Ag2O-Co3O4/γ-Al2O3 were silver loading of 8%, calcination temperature of silver of 450°C, and calcinations time of silver of 4 h, while at the same time the cobalt loading was 8%, the calcination temperature of cobalt was 450°C, and calcination time of cobalt was 4 h.

  13. Design and construction of coal/biomass to liquids (CBTL) process development unit (PDU) at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placido, Andrew [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Liu, Kunlei [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Challman, Don [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Andrews, Rodney [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Jacques, David [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2015-10-30

    This report describes a first phase of a project to design, construct and commission an integrated coal/biomass-to-liquids facility at a capacity of 1 bbl. /day at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) – specifically for construction of the building and upstream process units for feed handling, gasification, and gas cleaning, conditioning and compression. The deliverables from the operation of this pilot plant [when fully equipped with the downstream process units] will be firstly the liquid FT products and finished fuels which are of interest to UK-CAER’s academic, government and industrial research partners. The facility will produce research quantities of FT liquids and finished fuels for subsequent Fuel Quality Testing, Performance and Acceptability. Moreover, the facility is expected to be employed for a range of research and investigations related to: Feed Preparation, Characteristics and Quality; Coal and Biomass Gasification; Gas Clean-up/ Conditioning; Gas Conversion by FT Synthesis; Product Work-up and Refining; Systems Analysis and Integration; and Scale-up and Demonstration. Environmental Considerations - particularly how to manage and reduce carbon dioxide emissions from CBTL facilities and from use of the fuels - will be a primary research objectives. Such a facility has required significant lead time for environmental review, architectural/building construction, and EPC services. UK, with DOE support, has advanced the facility in several important ways. These include: a formal EA/FONSI, and permits and approvals; construction of a building; selection of a range of technologies and vendors; and completion of the upstream process units. The results of this project are the FEED and detailed engineering studies, the alternate configurations and the as-built plant - its equipment and capabilities for future research and demonstration and its adaptability for re-purposing to meet other needs. These are described in

  14. Catalytic pyrolysis of Alcea pallida stems in a fixed-bed reactor for production of liquid bio-fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aysu, Tevfik

    2015-09-01

    Pyrolysis of Alcea pallida stems was performed in a fixed-bed tubular reactor with and without catalyst at three different temperatures. The effects of pyrolysis parameters including temperature and catalyst on the product yields were investigated. It was found that higher temperature resulted in lower liquid (bio-oil) and solid (bio-char) yields and higher gas yields. Catalysts had different effects on product yields and composition of bio-oils. Liquid yields were increased in the presence of zinc chloride and alumina but decreased with calcium hydroxide, tincal and ulexite. The highest bio-oil yield (39.35%) by weight including aqueous phase was produced with alumina catalyst at 500 °C. The yields of bio-char, bio-oil and gas produced, as well as the compositions of the resulting bio-oils were determined by elemental analysis, TGA, FT-IR and GC-MS. 160 different compounds were identified by GC-MS in the bio-oils obtained at 500 °C. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Two-dimensional nature of the active Brownian motion of catalytic microswimmers at solid and liquid interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Kilian; Renggli, Damian; Zanini, Michele; Volpe, Giovanni; Buttinoni, Ivo; Isa, Lucio

    2017-06-01

    Colloidal particles equipped with platinum patches can establish chemical gradients in H2O2-enriched solutions and undergo self-propulsion due to local diffusiophoretic migration. In bulk (3D), this class of active particles swim in the direction of the surface heterogeneities introduced by the patches and consequently reorient with the characteristic rotational diffusion time of the colloids. In this article, we present experimental and numerical evidence that planar 2D confinements defy this simple picture. Instead, the motion of active particles both on solid substrates and at flat liquid-liquid interfaces is captured by a 2D active Brownian motion model, in which rotational and translational motion are constrained in the xy-plane. This leads to an active motion that does not follow the direction of the surface heterogeneities and to timescales of reorientation that do not match the free rotational diffusion times. Furthermore, 2D-confinement at fluid-fluid interfaces gives rise to a unique distribution of swimming velocities: the patchy colloids uptake two main orientations leading to two particle populations with velocities that differ up to one order of magnitude. Our results shed new light on the behavior of active colloids in 2D, which is of interest for modeling and applications where confinements are present.

  16. Conversion of Low-Rank Wyoming Coals into Gasoline by Direct Liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyakov, Oleg

    2013-12-31

    Under the cooperative agreement program of DOE and funding from Wyoming State’s Clean Coal Task Force, Western Research Institute and Thermosolv LLC studied the direct conversion of Wyoming coals and coal-lignin mixed feeds into liquid fuels in conditions highly relevant to practice. During the Phase I, catalytic direct liquefaction of sub-bituminous Wyoming coals was investigated. The process conditions and catalysts were identified that lead to a significant increase of desirable oil fraction in the products. The Phase II work focused on systematic study of solvothermal depolymerization (STD) and direct liquefaction (DCL) of carbonaceous feedstocks. The effect of the reaction conditions (the nature of solvent, solvent/lignin ratio, temperature, pressure, heating rate, and residence time) on STD was investigated. The effect of a number of various additives (including lignin, model lignin compounds, lignin-derivable chemicals, and inorganic radical initiators), solvents, and catalysts on DCL has been studied. Although a significant progress has been achieved in developing solvothermal depolymerization, the side reactions – formation of considerable amounts of char and gaseous products – as well as other drawbacks do not render aqueous media as the most appropriate choice for commercial implementation of STD for processing coals and lignins. The trends and effects discovered in DCL point at the specific features of liquefaction mechanism that are currently underutilized yet could be exploited to intensify the process. A judicious choice of catalysts, solvents, and additives might enable practical and economically efficient direct conversion of Wyoming coals into liquid fuels.

  17. Cleaning and dewatering fine coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Roe-Hoan; Eraydin, Mert K.; Freeland, Chad

    2017-10-17

    Fine coal is cleaned of its mineral matter impurities and dewatered by mixing the aqueous slurry containing both with a hydrophobic liquid, subjecting the mixture to a phase separation. The resulting hydrophobic liquid phase contains coal particles free of surface moisture and droplets of water stabilized by coal particles, while the aqueous phase contains the mineral matter. By separating the entrained water droplets from the coal particles mechanically, a clean coal product of substantially reduced mineral matter and moisture contents is obtained. The spent hydrophobic liquid is separated from the clean coal product and recycled. The process can also be used to separate one type of hydrophilic particles from another by selectively hydrophobizing one.

  18. Thermal and chemical modifications on a low rank coal by iron addition in swept fixed by hydropyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastral, A.M.; Perez-Surio, M.J.; Palacios, J.M. [CSIC, Zaragoza (Spain). Inst. de Carboquimica

    1998-05-01

    The paper discusses the thermal and chemical changes taking place on a low rank coal when it is subjected to hydropyrolysis conditions with Red Mud as the catalytic precursor. For each run, 5 g of coal were pyrolysed in a swept fixed bed reactor at 40 kg/cm{sup 2} hydrogen pressure. The variables of the process were: temperatures ranging from 400 to 600{degree}C; 0.5 and 2 l/min of hydrogen flow; 10 and 30 min residence time; and in the presence and absence of Red Mud. Conversion products distribution and a wide battery of complementary analyses allow information to be gathered regarding the changes undergone by the coal structure, both in its organic and inorganic components, in its conversion into liquids and chars. From the data obtained, it can be deduced that: (1) at 400{degree}C the iron catalyst is not active; (2) at higher temperatures iron catalytic cracking is observed more than hydrogenating activity, due to the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} transformation into (Fe{sub 3}S{sub 4}) crystallographically as spinel; (3) in this coal hydropyrolysis one third of the coal is converted into liquids; and (4) Red Mud helps to reduce sulfur emissions by H{sub 2}S fixation as Fe{sub 3}S{sub 4}. 10 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Phase Behaviour of 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium Thiocyanate Ionic Liquid with Catalytic Deactivated Compounds and Water at Several Temperatures: Experiments and Theoretical Predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramalingam Anantharaj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Density, surface tension and refractive index were determined for the binary mixture of catalytic deactivated compounds with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate {[EMIM][SCN]} at temperature of (298.15 to 323.15 K. For all the compounds with ILs, the densities varied linearly in the entire mole fraction with increasing temperature. From the obtained data, the excess molar volume and deviation of surface tension and refractive index have been calculated. A strong interaction was found between similar (cation-thiophene or cation-pyrrole compounds. The interaction of IL with dissimilar compounds such as indoline and quinoline and other multiple ring compounds was found to strongly depend on the composition of IL at any temperatures. For the mixtures, the surface tension decreases in the order of: thiophene > quinoline > pyridine > indoline > pyrrole > water. In general from the excess volume studies, the IL-sulphur/nitrogen mixture has stronger interaction as compared to IL-IL, thiophene-thiophene or pyrrole-pyrrole interaction. The deviation of surface tension was found to be inversely proportional to deviation of refractive index. The quantum chemical based COSMO-RS was used to predict the non-ideal liquid phase activity coefficient for all mixtures. It indicated an inverse relation between activity coefficient and excess molar volumes.

  20. Two-dimensional nature of the active Brownian motion of catalytic microswimmers at solid and liquid interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, Kilian; Renggli, Damian; Zanini, Michele; Buttinoni, Ivo; Isa, Lucio; Volpe, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Colloidal particles equipped with platinum patches can establish chemical gradients in H 2 O 2 -enriched solutions and undergo self-propulsion due to local diffusiophoretic migration. In bulk (3D), this class of active particles swim in the direction of the surface heterogeneities introduced by the patches and consequently reorient with the characteristic rotational diffusion time of the colloids. In this article, we present experimental and numerical evidence that planar 2D confinements defy this simple picture. Instead, the motion of active particles both on solid substrates and at flat liquid–liquid interfaces is captured by a 2D active Brownian motion model, in which rotational and translational motion are constrained in the xy -plane. This leads to an active motion that does not follow the direction of the surface heterogeneities and to timescales of reorientation that do not match the free rotational diffusion times. Furthermore, 2D-confinement at fluid–fluid interfaces gives rise to a unique distribution of swimming velocities: the patchy colloids uptake two main orientations leading to two particle populations with velocities that differ up to one order of magnitude. Our results shed new light on the behavior of active colloids in 2D, which is of interest for modeling and applications where confinements are present. (paper)

  1. Industrial coal utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    The effects of the National Energy Act on the use of coal in US industrial and utility power plants are considered. Innovative methods of using coal in an environmentally acceptable way are discussed: furnace types, fluidized-bed combustion, coal-oil-mixtures, coal firing in kilns and combustion of synthetic gas and liquid fuels. Fuel use in various industries is discussed with trends brought about by uncertain availability and price of natural gas and fuel oils: steel, chemical, cement, pulp and paper, glass and bricks. The symposium on Industrial Coal Utilization was sponsored by the US DOE, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, April 3 to 4, 1979. Twenty-one papers have been entered individually into the EDB. (LTN)

  2. [Morphological verification problems of Chernobyl factor influence on the testis of coal miners of Donbas-liquidators of Chernobyl accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danylov, Iu V; Motkov, K V; Shevchenko, T I

    2013-01-01

    Problem of a diagnostic of Chernobyl factor influences on different organs and systems of Chernobyl accident liquidators are remain actually until now. Though morbidly background which development at unfavorable work conditions in underground coalminers prevents from objective identification features of Chernobyl factor influences. The qualitative and quantitative histological and immunohistochemical law of morphogenesis changes in testis of Donbas's coalminer - non-liquidators Chernobyl accident in comparison with the group of Donbas's coalminers-liquidators Chernobyl accident, which we were stationed non determined problem. This reason stipulates to development and practical use of mathematical model of morphogenesis of a testis changes.

  3. Bioprocessing of lignite coals using reductive microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, D.L.

    1992-03-29

    In order to convert lignite coals into liquid fuels, gases or chemical feedstock, the macromolecular structure of the coal must be broken down into low molecular weight fractions prior to further modification. Our research focused on this aspect of coal bioprocessing. We isolated, characterized and studied the lignite coal-depolymerizing organisms Streptomyces viridosporus T7A, Pseudomonas sp. DLC-62, unidentified bacterial strain DLC-BB2 and Gram-positive Bacillus megaterium strain DLC-21. In this research we showed that these bacteria are able to solubilize and depolymerize lignite coals using a combination of biological mechanisms including the excretion of coal solublizing basic chemical metabolites and extracellular coal depolymerizing enzymes.

  4. A novel oxidative method for the absorption of Hg0 from flue gas of coal fired power plants using task specific ionic liquid scrubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnea, Zach; Sachs, Tatyana; Chidambaram, Mandan; Sasson, Yoel

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ionic liquid used as absorption media due to negligible vapor pressure. ► Formation of a stable complex between the oxidation agent and the absorption liquid prevents its sublimation. ► Remarkable concentration factor of six orders of magnitude of mercury/IL unlike active carbon injection that absorb ppb of Hg from flue. ► Reduced metallic mercury swiftly precipitated from the solution and could be quantitatively separated and collected. -- Abstract: A simple continuous process is described for the removal of mercury from gas streams (such as flue gas of a coal fired power stations) using imidazolium based Task Specific Ionic Liquids [TSILs] with the general structure ([RMIM][XI 2 − ]) where X = Cl, Br or I. The latter are formed by blending dialkylimidazolium halide salts with iodine. When applied in a gas/liquid scrubber, these salts were shown to absorb >99% of elemental mercury originally present in a gas stream in concentration of 75–400 ppb. The mercury abatement is attained by oxidating the mercury to HgI 2 which is bound as a stable IL complex ([RMIM + ][XHgI 2 − ]. The novel absorption system exhibits a remarkable mercury concentration factor of seven orders of magnitude. The final solution obtained contains up to 50% (w/w) mercury in the IL. Upon exposure to sodium formate, directly added to the saturated IL at 45 °C, reduced metallic mercury swiftly precipitated from the solution and could be quantitatively separated and collected. The free IL could be fully recycled

  5. A study of the surfacing bubbles speed in a physical model representing a layer of liquid coal pitch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begunov, A.I.; Yakovleva, A.A. [Irkutsk State Technical Univ. (Russian Federation)

    1996-10-01

    The authors investigated the motion characteristics of the gas bubbles originating in the baked part of Soderberg anodes and barbotating through the liquid layer of the anodic paste. This study was conducted sing a physical model with paraffin representing the column of anodic paste. The column height of the model liquid was changed from 0.2 to 0.5 m, which corresponds to the liquid layer heights in a real anode. The dependence of the vertical gas bubble speed on the liquid layer height above the level on which the bubble was formed was studied and an empirical equation was found to describe this dependence in terms of mathematical powers. The numerical values of the hydrodynamic resistance coefficients for surfacing bubbles were determined, which vary from 1 {center_dot} 10{sup {minus}5} to 6 {center_dot} 10{sup {minus}5}.

  6. A viscosity model for fully liquid coal ash slags in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CaO-'FeO'-MgO-SiO{sub 2} system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Kondratiev; P.C. Hayes; E. Jak [University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld. (Australia). Pyrometallurgy Research Centre

    2005-07-01

    A general viscosity model for fully liquid coal ash slags in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CaO-'FeO'-MgO-SiO{sub 2} system in reducing conditions has been developed. The present model links the coal ash slag viscosity with the internal structure of the molten slags described by the thermodynamic quasi-chemical model. The model describes slag viscosities over the whole compositional range, including all unary, binary, ternary and higher-order sub-systems. The overall agreement between the critically assessed experimental data in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CaO-'FeO'-MgO-SiO{sub 2} slag system at metallic iron saturation and the quasi-chemical viscosity model is within 19.5 per cent. The present viscosity model can now be used to assist in a number of coal industrial issues such as analysis of coal suitability for different slagging gasifiers, coal fluxing and blending, modelling of slag flow in slagging gasifiers and adhesion of ash particles to reactor walls etc. The application of the model in the coal gasification field will be demonstrated in the paper. 24 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Deashing of coal liquids with ceramic membrane microfiltration and diafiltration. Final quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-31

    This program is directed towards development of an improved process for de-ashing and recovery of coal-derived residual oil by the use of ceramic membranes for high-temperature microfiltration and diafiltration. Using laboratory-scale ceramic membrane modules, samples of a coal-derived residual oil containing ash will be processed by crossflow microfiltration, followed by solvent addition and refiltration (diafiltration). Recovery of de-ashed residual oil will be demonstrated. Data from this program will be used to develop a preliminary engineering design and cost estimate for a demonstration pilot plant incorporating full-scale membrane modules. In addition, estimates for production system capital and operating costs will be developed to assess process economic feasibility. The five program tasks include (1) ceramic membrane fabrication, (2) membrane test system assembly, (3) testing of the ceramic membranes, (4) design of a demonstration system using full scale membrane modules, and (5) development of estimates for microfiltration capital and operating costs and assessment of process economic feasibility.

  8. The new deal of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalaydjian, F.; Cornot-Gandolphe, S.

    2008-01-01

    While coal appears as an inescapable resource to answer the energy needs of the 21. century, its highly CO 2 emitting combustion represents a major risk with respect to the requirements of the fight against climate change. In the first part of this book, the basic aspects of energy markets are explained and in particular the role that coal is going to play in the world's energy supplies. In the second part, the new coal usages are presented, which, combined with CO 2 capture and sequestration techniques, should allow to conciliate a massive use of coal and the respect of environmental constraints. This book is based on the works presented in February 2008 by the French institute of petroleum (IFP) about the new outlets of coal and the risks for climate change. Content: 1 - coal, energy of the 21. century: abundant and well distributed reserves; growing up world production; exponential world demand; international trade: still limited but in full expansion; 2 - Technologies for a CO 2 -free coal: CO 2 capture and sequestration technologies; towards poly-generation; production of coal-derived liquid fuels; 3 - Appendices: coals formation; coal in China: status and perspectives; coal in the USA: status and perspectives; coal in India: status and perspectives; COACH: an ambitious European project; CBM - E-CBM, status and perspectives. (J.S.)

  9. Bioconversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, M.K.; Worden, R.M.; Grethlein, H.

    1993-07-16

    The overall objective of the project is to develop two stage fermentation process for conversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to a mixture of alcohols. This is achieved in two steps. In the first step, B .methylotrophicum converts carbon monoxide (CO) to butyric and acetic acids. Subsequent fermentation of the acids by Clostridium acetobutylicum leads to the production of butanol and ethanol. The tasks for this quarter were: Development/isolation of superior strains for fermentation of syn gas; optimization of process conditions for fermentation of syn gas; evaluation of bioreactor configuration for improved mass transfer of syn gas; and optimization of process conditions for reducing carbon and electron loss by H{sub 2}-CO{sub 2} fermentation.

  10. Liquid phase sintering of dense and porous glass-ceramics from coal fly-ash and waste glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bossert J.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Glass-ceramics were produced utilizing fly-ash from coal power stations and waste glass of TV monitors, windows and flask glass. The powder technology route was employed. The mixture of 50% fly ash and 50% waste TV glass increases the bending strength from 12±1 to 56±4 MPa and E-modulus from 6±1 to 26±3 GPa. Using polyurethane foam and C-fibers as pore creators porosity of 70±4 and 55±5 %, respectively, can be obtained-modulus and bending strength of the porous systems obtained by polyurethane foam and C-fibers was 2.7±0.5 GPa and 4.5±1 MPa and 7.1±1 GPa and 9.3±2 MPa respectively.

  11. The Charfuel coal refining process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, L.G.

    1991-01-01

    The patented Charfuel coal refining process employs fluidized hydrocracking to produce char and liquid products from virtually all types of volatile-containing coals, including low rank coal and lignite. It is not gasification or liquefaction which require the addition of expensive oxygen or hydrogen or the use of extreme heat or pressure. It is not the German pyrolysis process that merely 'cooks' the coal, producing coke and tar-like liquids. Rather, the Charfuel coal refining process involves thermal hydrocracking which results in the rearrangement of hydrogen within the coal molecule to produce a slate of co-products. In the Charfuel process, pulverized coal is rapidly heated in a reducing atmosphere in the presence of internally generated process hydrogen. This hydrogen rearrangement allows refinement of various ranks of coals to produce a pipeline transportable, slurry-type, environmentally clean boiler fuel and a slate of value-added traditional fuel and chemical feedstock co-products. Using coal and oxygen as the only feedstocks, the Charfuel hydrocracking technology economically removes much of the fuel nitrogen, sulfur, and potential air toxics (such as chlorine, mercury, beryllium, etc.) from the coal, resulting in a high heating value, clean burning fuel which can increase power plant efficiency while reducing operating costs. The paper describes the process, its thermal efficiency, its use in power plants, its pipeline transport, co-products, environmental and energy benefits, and economics

  12. Bottrop coal oil plant. Final report. Kohleoelanlage Bottrop. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-03-01

    The production of liquid hydrocarbons from local hard coal was one major point in the master program 'energy research' of the Federal Government and the technology program of the Government of the Federal State of North-Rhine Westphalia in 1974. On the basis of the experience made by the IG-Farbenindustrie AG with coal hydrogenation during World War II., catalytic hydrogenation under pressure was adjusted to the present state-of-the-art of plant and process engineering. In contrast to 700 bar in the IG process, process pressure now is 300 bar, coal throughput has increased by about 50%, and the mechanical thermal processes of residue processing were replaced by modern distillation processes. The coal liquefaction plant in Bottrop with a daily throughput of 200 t is the result of these developments. In 1981 it was officially put into operation and during the experimental operation lasting 5 1/2 years there have been numerous modifications as regards its profitability, operational reliability, and environmental compatibility. In this connection special attention was focused on the system of feed material heating, the reactor concept, the integration of the refining stage and the processing of the hydrogenation residue. (RB).

  13. Bioconversion of coal derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels. Final quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, M.K.; Worden, R.M.; Grethlein, H.

    1993-10-25

    The overall objective of the project is to develop an integrated two stage fermentation process for conversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to a mixture of alcohols. This is achieved in two steps. In the first step, Butyribacterium methylotrophicum converts carbon monoxide (CO) to butyric and acetic acids. Subsequent fermentation of the acids by Clostridium acetobutylicum leads to the production of butanol and ethanol. The tasks for this quarter were: (1) development/isolation of superior strains for fermentation of syngas, (2) optimization of process conditions for fermentation of syngas, (3) evaluation of bioreactor configuration for improved mass transfer of syngas, (4) development of a membrane-based pervaporation system, (5) optimization of process conditions for reducing carbon and electron loss by H{sub 2}-CO{sub 2} fermentation, and (6) synthesis gas fermentation in single-stage by co-culture. Progress is reported in isolation of CO utilizing anaerobic strains; investigating the product profile for the fermentation of syngas by B. methylotrophicum; and determining the effect of carbon monoxide on growth of C. acetobutylicum.

  14. Bioconversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels. Annual report, September 29, 1992--September 28, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, M.K.; Worden, R.M.; Grethlein, H.E.

    1993-10-21

    The overall objective of the project is to develop and optimize a two-stage fermentation process for the conversion of coal derived synthesis gas in an mixture of alcohols. The goals include the development of superior strains with high product tolerance and productivity, optimization of process conditions for high volumetric productivity and product concentrations, integration and optimization of two stage syngas fermentation, evaluation of bioreactor configurations for enhanced mass transfer, evaluation of syngas conversion by a culture of Butyribacterium methyltrophicum and Clostridium acetobutylicum, development of a membrane based pervaporation system for in situ removal of alcohols, and development of a process for reduction of carbon and electron loss. The specific goals for year one (September 1992 - September 1993) were (1) development of a project work plan, (2) development of superior CO-utilizing strains, (3) optimization of process conditions for conversion of synthesis gas to a mixture of acids in a continuously stirred reactor (CSTR), (4) evaluation of different bioreactor configurations for maximization of mass transfer of synthesis gas, (5) development of a membrane based pervaporation system, and (6) reduction of carbon and electron loss via H{sub 2}CO{sub 2} fermentation. Experimentation and progress toward these goals are described in this report.

  15. Degradation and stabilization of coal derived liquid. (IV). ; Effect of alcohol on coloration of coal derived light oil. Sekitan ekikayu no anteika. (IV). ; Sekitan ekikayu no chakushoku yokusei ni oyobosu alcohol no tenka koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ukegawa, K.; Matsumura, A.; Kondo, T. (National Research Institute for Pollution and Resources, Tsukuba (Japan)); TAhara, N. (Nitto Denko Corp., Osaka (Japan)); Nakamura, E. (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)); Niki, E. (The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Research Center for ADvanced Science and Technology)

    1990-01-20

    In order to improve the color stability of a coal derived light oil, the effect of hydrotreating and various additives has been studied. The color stability has been evaluated through measuring changes in absorbance by flow-cell spectrophotometer. Following results have been obtained: The color stabilities of hydrotreated coal derived light oils were improved remarkably with increasing hydrotreating temperature and pressure. Mild hydrotreating made the color stability of the coal derived light oil much better than the fuel oil, even though the nitrogen removal was very small. Phenolic compounds additives could not improve the color stability of the coal derived light oil. Alcohol, especially methanol, made the coloration rate of the coal derived light oil small to a great extent, on account of hydrogen bonding between methanol and nitrogen compounds in the fuel oil. 4 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Coal-92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillring, B.; Sparre, C.

    1992-11-01

    Swedish consumption of coal and coke during 1991 and trends in technology, environment and market aspects of coal use are reported. Steam coal use in the heating sector was unchanged from 1991, 1.2 Mtons. Reduced consumption in smaller district heating units (due to conversion to biofuels and gas) was compensated by increased use for power generation in cogeneration plants. Coal consumption in industry fell 0.10 Mton to 0.84 Mton due to lower production in one industry branch. Import of steam coal was 1.1 Mton (down 0.5 Mton from 1990) since new rules for strategic reserves allowed a reduction of stocks. During the last five years stocks have been reduced by 2 Mtons. Import of metallurgical coal was 1.6 Mton, unchanged from 1990. The report also gives statistics for the coal using plants in Sweden, on coal R and D, and on emission laws for coal firing. (9 tabs., 2 figs.)

  17. Bioconversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels. Final report, September 29, 1992--December 27, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, M.K.; Worden, R.M.; Grethlein, H.E.

    1995-01-15

    The proposed research project consists of an integrated, two-stage fermentation and a highly energy-efficient product separation scheme. In the first fermentation, Butyribacterium methylotrophicum converts carbon monoxide (CO) into butyric acid and acetic acids which are then converted into butanol, ethanol, and a small amount of acetone in the second stage fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum. An advanced separation system process, based on pervaporation, removes the alcohols from the fermentation broth as they are formed, along with some of the hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), to minimize possible inhibition of the fermentations. This bioconversion process offers a critical advantage over conventional, catalytic processes for synthesis gas conversion: the microorganisms are several orders of magnitude more sulfur tolerant than metallic catalysts. The catalysts require sulfur removal to the parts per million level, while the microorganisms are unaffected by H{sub 2}S and carbonyl sulfide (COS) at one part per hundred--roughly the composition of sulfur in raw synthesis gas. During the two-year course of this project, the following major objectives have been accomplished: demonstrated long-term cell recycle of continuous fermentation of synthesis gas; demonstrated cell immobilization of Butyribacterium methylotrophicum; identified trickle-bed reactor as a viable alternative fermentation method; modulated metabolic pathways to increase C4 formation during synthesis gas fermentation; recovered carbon and electrons from H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} with pathway modulation for increased C4 production; developed bacterial strains with improved selectivity for butyrate fermentation; demonstrated two-stage CO to alcohol fermentation; and concentrated alcohol from solventogenic fermentation by pervaporation.

  18. Green-House-Gas-Reduced Coal-and-Biomass-to-Liquid-Based Jet Fuel (GHGR-CBTL) Process - Final Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lux, Kenneth [Altex Technologies Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Imam, Thamina [Altex Technologies Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Chevanan, Nehru [Altex Technologies Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Namazian, Mehdi [Altex Technologies Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Wang, Xiaoxing [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Song, Chunshan [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2017-11-03

    This Final Technical Report describes the work and accomplishments of the project entitled, “Green-House-Gas-Reduced Coal-and-Biomass-to-Liquid-Based Jet Fuel (GHGR-CBTL) Process”. The main objective of the project was to raise the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of the GHGR-CBTL fuel-production technology from TRL 4 to TRL 5 by producing a drop-in synthetic Jet Propellant 8 (JP-8) with a greenhouse-gas footprint less than or equal to petroleum-based JP-8 by utilizing mixtures of coal and biomass as the feedstock. The system utilizes the patented Altex fuel-production technology, which incorporates advanced catalysts developed by Pennsylvania State University. While the system was not fabricated and tested, major efforts were expended to design the 1-TPD and a full-scale plant. The system was designed, a Block-Flow Diagram (BFD), a Process-Flow Diagram (PFD), and Piping-and-Instrumentation Diagrams (P&IDs) were produced, a Bill of Materials (BOM) and associated spec sheets were produced, commercially available components were selected and procured, custom components were designed and fabricated, catalysts were developed and screened for performance, and permitting activities were conducted. Optimization tests for JP-8 production using C2 olefin as the feed were performed over a range of temperatures, pressures and WHSVs. Liquid yields of between 63 to 65% with 65% JP-8 fraction (41-42% JP-8 yield) at 50 psig were achieved. Life-Cycle Analysis (LCA) was performed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and a GHGR-CBTL module was added to the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET®) model. Based upon the experimental results, the plant design was reconfigured for zero natural-gas imports and minimal electricity imports. The LCA analysis of the reconfigured process utilizing the GREET model showed that if the char from the process was utilized to produce combined heat and power (CHP) then a feed containing 23 wt% biomass and

  19. The future of coal trading. Part 1: obstacles to coal trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schafer, W.; Vaninetti, J.

    1998-01-01

    'Trading' as used in this article means routine buying and selling of futures contracts or options and other derivatives of future contracts. The variable nature of coal, lack of liquidity, and the coal industry's understanding and acceptance of commodity trading concepts are identified as three major barriers to successful trading of a coal futures contract. The article discusses these obstacles

  20. Coal liquefaction processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, N.R.; Blazek, C.F.; Tison, R.R.

    1979-07-01

    Coal liquefaction is an emerging technology receiving great attention as a possible liquid fuel source. Currently, four general methods of converting coal to liquid fuel are under active development: direct hydrogenation; pyrolysis/hydrocarbonization; solvent extraction; and indirect liquefaction. This work is being conducted at the pilot plant stage, usually with a coal feed rate of several tons per day. Several conceptual design studies have been published recently for large (measured in tens of thousands of tons per day coal feed rate) commercial liquefaction plants, and these reports form the data base for this evaluation. Products from a liquefaction facility depend on the particular method and plant design selected, and these products range from synthetic crude oils up through the lighter hydrocarbon gases, and, in some cases, electricity. Various processes are evaluated with respect to product compositions, thermal efficiency, environmental effects, operating and maintenance requirements, and cost. Because of the large plant capacities of current conceptual designs, it is not clear as to how, and on what scale, coal liquefaction may be considered appropriate as an energy source for Integrated Community Energy Systems (CES). Development work, both currently under way and planned for the future, should help to clarify and quantify the question of applicability.

  1. Fluidised bed gasification of low grade South African coals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    North, BC

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available -going investigation into one potential Clean Coal Technology (CCT), namely fluidised bed gasification. Coal gasification holds the potential benefits of increased efficiency, reduced water consumption and co-production of liquid and gaseous fuels and chemicals...

  2. Catalytic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ming; Zhang, Xiang

    2018-01-23

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to catalytic devices. In one aspect, a device includes a substrate, an electrically insulating layer disposed on the substrate, a layer of material disposed on the electrically insulating layer, and a catalyst disposed on the layer of material. The substrate comprises an electrically conductive material. The substrate and the layer of material are electrically coupled to one another and configured to have a voltage applied across them.

  3. Indian coal industry: Growth perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachdev, R.K.

    1993-01-01

    Growth perspective of Indian coal industry and their environmental aspects, are discussed. The complete coal chain comprises of mining including preparation and processing, transport, usage and disposal of solid, liquid and gaseous wastes. Proper environmental protection measures are therefore, required to be integrated at every stage. At mining stage, land reclamation, restoration of surface damaged by subsidence and proper treatment of effluents are the minimum requirement for effective environmental protection. Since coal will continue to be the major source of commercial energy in coming decades initiative will have to be taken in making coal a clean fuel from the point of view of its usage in different industries. Washing of high ash coals for reducing the ash content will go a long way in reducing the atmospheric pollution through better plant performance and reduced environmental pollution at the power plants. (author)

  4. Surfactant-Assisted Coal Liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Gregory S.; Sharma, Pramod K.

    1993-01-01

    Obtaining liquid fuels from coal which are economically competitive with those obtained from petroleum based sources is a significant challenge for the researcher as well as the chemical industry. Presently, the economics of coal liquefaction are not favorable because of relatively intense processing conditions (temperatures of 430 degrees C and pressures of 2200 psig), use of a costly catalyst, and a low quality product slate of relatively high boiling fractions. The economics could be made more favorable by achieving adequate coal conversions at less intense processing conditions and improving the product slate. A study has been carried out to examine the effect of a surfactant in reducing particle agglomeration and improving hydrodynamics in the coal liquefaction reactor to increase coal conversions...

  5. Catalytic and thermal cracking processes of waste cooking oil for bio-gasoline synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewanto, Muhammad Andry Rizki; Januartrika, Aulia Azka; Dewajani, Heny; Budiman, Arief

    2017-03-01

    Non-renewable energy resources such as fossil fuels, and coal were depleted as the increase of global energy demand. Moreover, environmental aspect becomes a major concern which recommends people to utilize bio-based resources. Waste cooking oil is one of the economical sources for biofuel production and become the most used raw material for biodiesel production. However, the products formed during frying, can affect the trans-esterification reaction and the biodiesel properties. Therefore, it needs to convert low-quality cooking oil directly into biofuel by both thermal and catalytic cracking processes. Thermal and catalytic cracking sometimes are regarded as prospective bio-energy conversion processes. This research was carried out in the packed bed reactor equipped with 2 stages preheater with temperature of reactor was variated in the range of 450-550°C. At the same temperature, catalytic cracking had been involved in this experiment, using activated ZSM-5 catalyst with 1 cm in length. The organic liquid product was recovered by three stages of double pipe condensers. The composition of cracking products were analyzed using GC-MS instrument and the caloric contents were analyzed using Bomb calorimeter. The results reveal that ZSM-5 was highly selective toward aromatic and long aliphatic compounds formation. The percentage recovery of organic liquid product from the cracking process varies start from 8.31% and the optimal results was 54.08%. The highest heating value of liquid product was resulted from catalytic cracking process at temperature of 450°C with value of 10880.48 cal/gr and the highest product yield with 54.08% recovery was achieved from thermal cracking process with temperature of 450°C.

  6. Coal - 96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1996-09-01

    The report deals mainly with coal consumption, but also gives some information about technology, environmental aspects and markets. Data have been collected by questionnaires or via telephone. The use of steam coal for heating was 0.8 Mtons (down 20% from 1994). Cogeneration plants were the main users. Taxes and environmental reasons cause a reduction of the coal use that will probably continue the next years. Use of steam coal in industry has been constant at a level of 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal rests constant at a level of 1.6 Mtons. 1.2 Mtons of coke was produced, and 0.3 Mtons imported. The PFBC-plant at Vaertan, Stockholm used 0.13 Mtons of coal, while some coal fired power plants have been converted to peat and wood fuels. The average price of steam coal imported to Sweden in 1995 was 333 SEK/ton, 6% higher than in 1994. The contract prices for delivery 1996 are about the same as at the end of 1995. All cogeneration plants have some sort of SO 2 removal system, mostly wet-dry. The largest plant, at Vaesteraas, has recently invested in a SCR system for NO x removal. Most other plants are using low NO x burners or SNCR systems, based on ammonia or urea, which reduce the emissions 50 - 70%. Some statistic about the world coal market is also given in the report

  7. Clean coal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelson, P.H.

    1990-01-01

    One of the major technology challenges in the next decade will be to develop means of using coal imaginatively as a source of chemicals and in a more energy-efficient manner. The Clean Air Act will help to diminish the acid rain but will not reduce CO 2 emissions. The Department of Energy (DOE) is fostering many innovations that are likely to have a positive effect on coal usage. Of the different innovations in the use of coal fostered by DOE, two are of particular interest. One is the new pressurized fluid bed combustion (PFBC) combined-cycle demonstration. The PFBC plant now becoming operational can reduce SO 2 emissions by more than 90% and NO x emissions by 50-70%. A second new technology co-sponsored by DOE is the Encoal mild coal gasification project that will convert a sub-bituminous low-BTU coal into a useful higher BTU solid while producing significant amounts of a liquid fuel

  8. Investigation on characterization of Ereen coal deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jargalmaa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Ereen coal deposit is located 360 km west from Ulaanbaatar and 95 km from Bulgan town. The coal reserve of this deposit is approximately 345.2 million tons. The Ereen coal is used directly for the Erdenet power plant for producing of electricity and heat. The utilization of this coal for gas and liquid product using gasification and pyrolysis is now being considered. The proximate and ultimate analysis show that the Ereen coal is low rank D mark hard coal, which corresponds to subbituminous coal. The SEM images of initial coal sample have compact solid pieces. The SEM image of carbonized and activated carbon samples are hard material with high developed macro porosity structure. The SEM images of hard residue after thermal dissolution in autoclave characterizes hard pieces with micro porous structure in comparison with activated carbon sample. The results of the thermal dissolution of Ereen coal in tetralin with constant weight ratio between coal and tetralin (1:1.8 at the 450ºC show that 38% of liquid product can be obtained by thermal decomposition of the COM (coal organic matter.Mongolian Journal of Chemistry 16 (42, 2015, 18-21

  9. Flotation and flocculation chemistry of coal and oxidized coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somasundaran, P.; Ramesh, R.

    1989-01-01

    This project is designed to develop an understanding of the fundamentals involved in flotation and flocculation of coal, and of coal in various states of oxidation. The main objective of this study is to accurately characterize the coal surface and elucidate mechanisms by which surface interactions between coal and various reagents enhance beneficiation of coals. Effects of oxidation on the modification of surface characteristics of coal by various reagents will also be studied. This quarter, the following studies were conducted in order to further develop our understanding of the role of heterogeneity in interfacial phenomena. (1) Since surface characterization is an important aspect in this project, ESCA (Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis) study of the coal surface was conducted. Surface derivatization, a technique often used in the preparation of organic compounds for gas-liquid chromatography, uses site specific molecular tags'' that bond to key chemical groups on the surface. Application of derivatization in conjunction with ESCA is a relatively new technique for quantifying functional groups on the surface which has not been possible till now. (2) A distribution of contact angles on the surface of coal (pseudo theta map) is presented based on our earlier results and other published information. The role of heterogeneity in contact angle studies is also examined. 14 refs., 2 tabs.

  10. Synthesis of a nano-crystalline solid acid catalyst from fly ash and its catalytic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chitralekha Khatri; Ashu Rani [Government P.G. College, Kota (India). Environmental Chemistry Laboratory

    2008-10-15

    The synthesis of nano-crystalline activated fly ash catalyst (AFAC) with crystallite size of 12 nm was carried out by chemical and thermal treatment of fly ash, a waste material generated from coal-burning power plants. Fly ash was chemically activated using sulfuric acid followed by thermal activation at 600{sup o}C. The variation of surface and physico-chemical properties of the fly ash by activation methods resulted in improved acidity and therefore, catalytic activity for acid catalyzed reactions. The AFAC was characterized by X-ray diffraction, FT-IR spectroscopy, N{sub 2}-adsorption-desorption isotherm, scanning electron microscopy, flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry and sulfur content by CHNS/O elemental analysis. It showed amorphous nature due to high silica content (81%) and possessed high BET surface area (120 m{sup 2}/g). The catalyst was found to be highly active solid acid catalyst for liquid phase esterification of salicylic acid with acetic anhydride and methanol giving acetylsalicylic acid and methyl salicylate respectively. A maximum yield of 97% with high purity of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) and a very high conversion 87% of salicylic acid to methyl salicylate (oil of wintergreen) was obtained with AFAC. The surface acidity and therefore, catalytic activity in AFAC was originated by increased silica content, hydroxyl content and higher surface area as compared to fly ash. The study shows that coal generated fly ash can be converted into potential solid acid catalyst for acid catalyzed reactions. Furthermore, this catalyst may replace conventional environmentally hazardous homogeneous liquid acids making an ecofriendly; solvent free, atom efficient, solid acid based catalytic process. 27 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Chemistry and structure of coal-derived asphaltenes, Phase III. Quarterly progress report, July--September 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, T. F.

    1978-01-01

    Preparative scale GPC separation of Synthoil asphaltene was carried out on styrene-divinyl benzene packing (Bio-Beads S-X8). The elution took place in the order of high to low molecular weight. Analyses indicate that aromatic ring systems with large saturated substituents elute first followed by more aromatic molecules with less saturated substituents. Infrared measurements on coal-derived asphaltenes were carried out with a large path cell (1 cm) in order to measure absorbance as a function of concentration in dilute solution down to 0.3 g/l where association between asphaltenes is not significant. VPO molecular weight studies indicate that coal-derived oils and resins undergo very little association in the solvent THF in the range 4 to 30 g/l in contrast to coal-derived asphaltenes and benzene insolubles. Thermal treatment of a Synthoil Coal liquid solvent fraction (oil + resin), in tetralin (1:2 wt. ratio) at 232/sup 0/C for 20 h resulted in the transformation of 3 to 10% of the oil + resin into asphaltene. These results support the proposed reversibility of coal liquefaction steps. Pryolysis of coal-derived asphaltenes has been shown to produce residues that are characteristic of coalesced mesophase. Asphaltenes from three liquefaction processes, Catalytic Incorporatd SRC, Synthoil, and FMC-COED, were pyrolyzed under a nitrogen atmosphere at 20/sup 0/C/h to 360/sup 0/C and at 5/sup 0/C/h to 420/sup 0/C. Crossed polarized light reflection micrographs showed a coarse deformed structure for Synthoil asphaltene, a course, but not deformed structure for Catalytic Inc. asphaltne, and a fine isotropic structure for FMC-COED asphaltene.

  12. Coal: Energy for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This report was prepared in response to a request by the US Department of energy (DOE). The principal objectives of the study were to assess the current DOE coal program vis-a-vis the provisions of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), and to recommend the emphasis and priorities that DOE should consider in updating its strategic plan for coal. A strategic plan for research, development, demonstration, and commercialization (RDD and C) activities for coal should be based on assumptions regarding the future supply and price of competing energy sources, the demand for products manufactured from these sources, technological opportunities, and the need to control the environmental impact of waste streams. These factors change with time. Accordingly, the committee generated strategic planning scenarios for three time periods: near-term, 1995--2005; mid-term, 2006--2020; and, long-term, 2021--2040. The report is divided into the following chapters: executive summary; introduction and scope of the study; overview of US DOE programs and planning; trends and issues for future coal use; the strategic planning framework; coal preparation, coal liquid mixtures, and coal bed methane recovery; clean fuels and specialty products from coal; electric power generation; technology demonstration and commercialization; advanced research programs; conclusions and recommendations; appendices; and glossary. 174 refs.

  13. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-03-01

    CONSOL R D is conducting a three-year program to characterize process and product streams from direct coal liquefaction process development projects. The program objectives are two-fold: (1) to obtain and provide appropriate samples of coal liquids for the evaluation of analytical methodology, and (2) to support ongoing DOE-sponsored coal liquefaction process development efforts. The two broad objectives have considerable overlap and together serve to provide a bridge between process development and analytical chemistry.

  14. Hydrothermal pretreatment of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, D.S.

    1989-12-21

    We have examined changes in Argonne Premium samples of Wyodak coal following 30 min treatment in liquid water at autogenous pressures at 150{degrees}, 250{degrees}, and 350{degrees}C. In most runs the coal was initially dried at 60{degrees}C/1 torr/20 hr. The changes were monitored by pyrolysis field ionization mass spectrometry (py-FIMS) operating at 2.5{degrees}C/min from ambient to 500{degrees}C. We recorded the volatility patterns of the coal tars evolved over that temperature range, and in all cases the tar yields were 25%--30% of the starting coal on mass basis. There was essentially no change after the 150{degrees}C treatment. Small increases in volatility were seen following the 250{degrees}C treatment, but major effects were seen in the 350{degrees} work. The tar quantity remained unchanged; however, the volatility increased so the temperature of half volatility for the as-received coal of 400{degrees}C was reduced to 340{degrees}C. Control runs with no water showed some thermal effect, but the net effect from the presence of liquid water was clearly evident. The composition was unchanged after the 150{degrees} and 250{degrees}C treatments, but the 350{degrees} treatment brought about a 30% loss of oxygen. The change corresponded to loss of the elements of water, although loss of OH'' seemed to fit the analysis data somewhat better. The water loss takes place both in the presence and in the absence of added water, but it is noteworthy that the loss in the hydrothermal runs occurs at p(H{sub 2}O) = 160 atm. We conclude that the process must involve the dehydration solely of chemically bound elements of water, the dehydration of catechol is a specific, likely candidate.

  15. Catalytic hydrotreatment of fast pyrolysis liquids in batch and continuous set-ups using a bimetallic Ni-Cu catalyst with a high metal content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, Wang; Kloekhorst, Arjan; Venderbosch, Robertus H.; Bykova, Maria V.; Khromova, Sofia A.; Yakovlev, Vadim A.; Heeres, Hero J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an experimental study on the hydrotreatment of fast pyrolysis liquids is reported in both batch and continuous set-ups using a novel bimetallic Ni-Cu based catalyst with high Ni loading (up to 50%) prepared by a sol-gel method. The experiments were carried out in a wide temperature

  16. [Study on Microwave Co-Pyrolysis of Low Rank Coal and Circulating Coal Gas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Yang, Zhe; Liu, Xiao-feng; Wu, Lei; Tian, Yu-hong; Zhao, Xi-cheng

    2016-02-01

    The pyrolysis of low rank coal to produce bluecoke, coal tar and gas is considered to be the optimal method to realize its clean and efficient utilization. However, the current mainstream pyrolysis production technology generally has a certain particle size requirements for raw coal, resulting in lower yield and poorer quality of coal tar, lower content of effective components in coal gas such as H₂, CH₄, CO, etc. To further improve the yield of coal tar obtained from the pyrolysis of low rank coal and explore systematically the effect of microwave power, pyrolysis time and particle size of coal samples on the yield and composition of microwave pyrolysis products of low rank coal through the analysis and characterization of products with FTIR and GC-MS, introducing microwave pyrolysis of low rank coal into the microwave pyrolysis reactor circularly was suggested to carry out the co-pyrolysis experiment of the low rank coal and coal gas generated by the pyrolysis of low rank coal. The results indicated that the yield of the bluecoke and liquid products were up to 62.2% and 26.8% respectively when the optimal pyrolysis process conditions with the microwave power of 800W, pyrolysis time of 40 min, coal samples particle size of 5-10 mm and circulating coal gas flow rate of 0.4 L · min⁻¹ were selected. The infrared spectrogram of the bluecoke under different microwave power and pyrolysis time overlapped roughly. The content of functional groups with -OH, C==O, C==C and C−O from the bluecoke through the pyrolysis of particle size coal samples had a larger difference. To improve microwave power, prolonging pyrolysis time and reducing particle size of coal samples were conducive to converting heavy component to light one into coal tar.

  17. Coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, July-September 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    The status of coal liquefaction pilot plants supported by US DOE is reviewed under the following headings: company involved, location, contract, funding, process name, process description, flowsheet, history and progress during the July-September 1979 quarter. Supporting projects such as test facilities, refining and upgrading coal liquids, catalyst development, and gasification of residues from coal gasification plants are discussed similarly. (LTN)

  18. Simultaneous Determination of Metals in Coal with Low-Resolution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    1, pyrocoated graphite tube; 2, graphite filter; 3, ring cavity (empty for the slurries or filled with carbon fibre for liquid samples); 4, sampling port; 5, light beam. Table 1 Certified content of major inorganic components in the reference materials. Analyte. Content/% mass. Coal SARM 18. Coal SARM 19. Coal SARM 20.

  19. The economic production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugler, E.L.; Dadyburjor, D.B.; Yang, R.Y.K. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of this project are to discover, (1) study and evaluate novel heterogeneous catalytic systems for the production of oxygenated fuel enhancers from synthesis gas. Specifically, alternative methods of preparing catalysts are to be investigated, and novel catalysts, including sulfur-tolerant ones, are to be pursued. (Task 1); (2) explore, analytically and on the bench scale, novel reactor and process concepts for use in converting syngas to liquid fuel products. (Task 1); (3) simulate by computer the most energy efficient and economically efficient process for converting coal to energy, with primary focus on converting syngas to fuel alcohols. (Task 2); (4) develop on the bench scale the best holistic combination of chemistry, catalyst, reactor and total process configuration integrated with the overall coal conversion process to achieve economic optimization for the conversion of syngas to liquid products within the framework of achieving the maximum cost effective transformation of coal to energy equivalents. (Tasks 1 and 2); and (5) evaluate the combustion, emission and performance characteristics of fuel alcohols and blends of alcohols with petroleum-based fuels. (Task 2)

  20. Dicationic ionic liquid mediated fabrication of Au@Pt nanoparticles supported on reduced graphene oxide with highly catalytic activity for oxygen reduction and hydrogen evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ya-Cheng; Chen, Sai-Sai; Feng, Jiu-Ju; Lin, Xiao-Xiao; Wang, Weiping; Wang, Ai-Jun

    2018-05-01

    Ionic liquids as templates or directing agents have attracted great attention for shaping-modulated synthesis of advanced nanomaterials. In this work, reduced graphene oxide supported uniform core-shell Au@Pt nanoparticles (Au@Pt NPs/rGO) were fabricated by a simple one-pot aqueous approach, using N-methylimidazolium-based dicationic ionic liquid (1,1-bis(3-methylimadazoilum-1-yl)butylene bromide, [C4(Mim)2]2Br) as the shape-directing agent. The morphology evolution, structural information and formation mechanism of Au@Pt NPs anchored on rGO were investigated by a series of characterization techniques. The obtained nanocomposites displayed superior electrocatalytic features toward hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) compared with commercial Pt/C catalyst. This approach provides a novel route for facile synthesis of nanocatalysts in fuel cells.

  1. Catalytic cracking of lignites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, M.; Nowak, S.; Naegler, T.; Zimmermann, J. [Hochschule Merseburg (Germany); Welscher, J.; Schwieger, W. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ. (Germany); Hahn, T. [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    A most important factor for the chemical industry is the availability of cheap raw materials. As the oil price of crude oil is rising alternative feedstocks like coal are coming into focus. This work, the catalytic cracking of lignite is part of the alliance ibi (innovative Braunkohlenintegration) to use lignite as a raw material to produce chemicals. With this new one step process without an input of external hydrogen, mostly propylene, butenes and aromatics and char are formed. The product yield depends on manifold process parameters. The use of acid catalysts (zeolites like MFI) shows the highest amount of the desired products. Hydrogen rich lignites with a molar H/C ratio of > 1 are to be favoured. Due to primary cracking and secondary reactions the ratio between catalyst and lignite, temperature and residence time are the most important parameter to control the product distribution. Experiments at 500 C in a discontinuous rotary kiln reactor show yields up to 32 wt-% of hydrocarbons per lignite (maf - moisture and ash free) and 43 wt-% char, which can be gasified. Particularly, the yields of propylene and butenes as main products can be enhanced four times to about 8 wt-% by the use of catalysts while the tar yield decreases. In order to develop this innovative process catalyst systems fixed on beads were developed for an easy separation and regeneration of the used catalyst from the formed char. (orig.)

  2. Catalytic detritiation of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, M.L.; Lamberger, P.H.; Ellis, R.E.; Mills, T.K.

    1977-01-01

    A pilot-scale system has been used at Mound Laboratory to investigate the catalytic detritiation of water. A hydrophobic, precious metal catalyst is used to promote the exchange of tritium between liquid water and gaseous hydrogen at 60 0 C. Two columns are used, each 7.5 m long by 2.5 cm ID and packed with catalyst. Water flow is 5-10 cm 3 /min and countercurrent hydrogen flow is 9,000-12,000 cm 3 /min. The equipment, except for the columns, is housed in an inert atmosphere glovebox and is computer controlled. The hydrogen is obtained by electrolysis of a portion of the water stream. Enriched gaseous tritium is withdrawn for further enrichment. A description of the system is included along with an outline of its operation. Recent experimental data are discussed

  3. Coal competitiveness?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogeaux, B.

    2006-01-01

    Will coal electrical plants be more competitive in the coming years? Answering this one cannot be limited to merely comparing estimates based on reference electricity production costs. The competitiveness of coal will indeed depend on the final product marketed, as the MWhs are not equal: is the purpose to produce base, half-base MWh? Does the electrical equipment structure require flexible MWh (for instance in the event of significant intermittent renewable energy amounts), and therefore plants able to adjust their power rapidly? But the competitiveness of coal will also depend on many factors that will correct reference cost estimates: uncertainties, risks, externalities. These factors will need to be appreciated on a case by case basis. We introduce some of the reasoning used to better appreciate the future competitiveness of coal, and the main factors conditioning it in three contrasting regions of the world: Europe, USA, china. (author)

  4. Behavior of different mash oils during coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholze, S.; Schmiers, H.; Rast, A.; Teubel, J. (Bergakademie, Freiberg (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Chemie)

    1989-01-01

    Studies application of brown coal oil, brown coal tar, black coal anthracene oil, heating oil and petroleum residue tar as coal mixing liquid in brown coal liquefaction. Chemical properties of liquids are listed; oil yield, carbon conversion and gasification degree obtained during experiments in laboratory reactors are given. Differences are outlined between single application and multiple application by recirculation. Highest liquefaction oil yield of 57% was clearly obtained using anthracene oil. However, use of brown coal oil was further studied, which showed that the several times recycled fraction of 250 to 350 C performed as well as anthracene oil. Performance test results of this fraction, recovery degree and chemical characterization are given. It contains 25 to 30% creosotes, which act as an efficient dispersing agent, maintaining polar coal in the oil phase. Further technological advantages of this brown coal oil quality are outlined. 15 refs.

  5. Groundwater and underground coal gasification in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluszka, A.; MacMillan, G.; Maev, S.

    2010-01-01

    Underground coal gasification has potential in Alberta. This presentation provided background information on underground coal gasification and discussed groundwater and the Laurus Energy demonstration project. A multi-disciplined approach to project assessment was described with particular reference to geologic and hydrogeologic setting; geologic mapping; and a hydrogeologic numerical model. Underground coal gasification involves the conversion of coal into synthesis gas or syngas. It can be applied to mined coal at the surface or applied to non-mined coal seams using injection and production wells. Underground coal gasification can effect groundwater as the rate of water influx into the coal seams influences the quality and composition of the syngas. Byproducts created include heat as well as water with dissolved concentrations of ammonia, phenols, salts, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and liquid organic products from the pyrolysis of coal. A process overview of underground coal gasification was also illustrated. It was concluded that underground coal gasification has the potential in Alberta and risks to groundwater could be minimized by a properly designed project. refs., figs.

  6. Catalytic and Gas-Solid Reactions Involving HCN over Limestone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anker; Johnsson, Jan Erik; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    1997-01-01

    In coal-fired combustion systems solid calcium species may be present as ash components or limestone added to the combustion chamber. In this study heterogeneous reactions involving HCN over seven different limestones were investigated in a laboratory fixed-bed quartz reactor at 873-1,173 K....... The results indicate that heterogeneous oxidation of HCN is important in calciners and fluidized-bed combustors with limestone addition or when burning coals with an ash with a high catalytic activity....

  7. CoalVal-A coal resource valuation program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbacher, Timothy J.; McIntosh, Gary E.

    2010-01-01

    ; operating cost per ton; and discounted cash flow cost per ton to mine and process the resources. Costs are calculated as loaded in a unit train, free-on-board the tipple, at a rate of return prescribed by the evaluator. The recoverable resources (in short tons) may be grouped by incremental cost over any range chosen by the user. For example, in the Gillette coalfield evaluation, the discounted cash flow mining cost (at an 8 percent rate of return) and its associated tonnage may be grouped by any applicable increment (for example, $0.10 per ton, $0.20 per ton, and so on) and using any dollar per ton range that is desired (for example, from $4.00 per ton to $15.00 per ton). This grouping ability allows the user to separate the coal reserves from the nonreserve resources and to construct cost curves to determine the effects of coal market fluctuations on the availability of coal for fuel whether for the generation of electricity or for coal-to-liquids processes. Coking coals are not addressed in this report.

  8. Coal -98

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1998-01-01

    The following report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1997. Some information about technic, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from SCB have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1997 was 730 000 tons and about 500 000 tons lower than in 1996. The extremely high figures of 1996 were due to twice the production of electricity because of lack of hydro power. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generating plants. Some foreign analysts, however, estimate a doubled use of coal for energy use after 2020 because of the plans to phase out the nuclear power. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water plants and 11 co-generation plants. 1997 these figures are 2 and 8. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1997 was 1.6 mill tons like the year before. 1.2 mill tons coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1.5 Mill tons. 0.3 mill tons of coke were imported. Several other plants have plans to replace the coal with forest fuels, waste fuels and NG. Even the biggest plant, Vaesteraas, has plans to build a block for bio fuels. Helsingborg has started to use wood pellets. The pellets replace most of the coal for the heat production in the co-generation plant. Norrkoeping Kraft AB has taken a fluid bed boiler for different fuels in operation, leading to more than half the coal consumption compared with previous years. They have also rebuilt one of their travelling grates for bio fuels. Stockholm

  9. PLASTIC WASTE CONVERSION TO LIQUID FUELS OVER MODIFIED-RESIDUAL CATALYTIC CRACKING CATALYSTS: MODELING AND OPTIMIZATION USING HYBRID ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK – GENETIC ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istadi Istadi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The plastic waste utilization can be addressed toward different valuable products. A promising technology for the utilization is by converting it to fuels. Simultaneous modeling and optimization representing effect of reactor temperature, catalyst calcinations temperature, and plastic/catalyst weight ratio toward performance of liquid fuel production was studied over modified catalyst waste. The optimization was performed to find optimal operating conditions (reactor temperature, catalyst calcination temperature, and plastic/catalyst weight ratio that maximize the liquid fuel product. A Hybrid Artificial Neural Network-Genetic Algorithm (ANN-GA method was used for the modeling and optimization, respectively. The variable interaction between the reactor temperature, catalyst calcination temperature, as well as plastic/catalyst ratio is presented in surface plots. From the GC-MS characterization, the liquid fuels product was mainly composed of C4 to C13 hydrocarbons.KONVERSI LIMBAH PLASTIK MENJADI BAHAN BAKAR CAIR DENGAN METODE PERENGKAHAN KATALITIK MENGGUNAKAN KATALIS BEKAS YANG TERMODIFIKASI: PEMODELAN DAN OPTIMASI MENGGUNAKAN GABUNGAN METODE ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK DAN GENETIC ALGORITHM. Pemanfaatan limbah plastik dapat dilakukan untuk menghasilkan produk yang lebih bernilai tinggi. Salah satu teknologi yang menjanjikan adalah dengan mengkonversikannya menjadi bahan bakar. Permodelan, simulasi dan optimisasi simultan yang menggambarkan efek dari suhu reaktor, suhu kalsinasi katalis, dan rasio berat plastik/katalis terhadap kinerja produksi bahan bakar cair telah dipelajari menggunakan katalis bekas termodifikasi Optimisasi ini ditujukan untuk mencari kondisi operasi optimum (suhu reaktor, suhu kalsinasi katalis, dan rasio berat plastik/katalis yang memaksimalkan produk bahan bakar cair. Metode Hybrid Artificial Neural Network-Genetic Algorithm (ANN-GA telah digunakan untuk permodelan dan optimisasi simultan tersebut. Inetraksi antar variabel

  10. Catalytic conversion of cellulose to liquid hydrocarbon fuels by progressive removal of oxygen to facilitate separation processes and achieve high selectivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumesic, James A [Verona, WI; Ruiz, Juan Carlos Serrano [Madison, WI; West, Ryan M [Madison, WI

    2012-04-03

    Described is a method to make liquid chemicals, such as functional intermediates, solvents, and liquid fuels from biomass-derived cellulose. The method is cascading; the product stream from an upstream reaction can be used as the feedstock in the next downstream reaction. The method includes the steps of deconstructing cellulose to yield a product mixture comprising levulinic acid and formic acid, converting the levulinic acid to .gamma.-valerolactone, and converting the .gamma.-valerolactone to pentanoic acid. Alternatively, the .gamma.-valerolactone can be converted to a mixture of n-butenes. The pentanoic acid so formed can be further reacted to yield a host of valuable products. For example, the pentanoic acid can be decarboxylated yield 1-butene or ketonized to yield 5-nonanone. The 5-nonanone can be hydrodeoxygenated to yield nonane, or 5-nonanone can be reduced to yield 5-nonanol. The 5-nonanol can be dehydrated to yield nonene, which can be dimerized to yield a mixture of C.sub.9 and C.sub.18 olefins, which can be hydrogenated to yield a mixture of alkanes. Alternatively, the nonene may be isomerized to yield a mixture of branched olefins, which can be hydrogenated to yield a mixture of branched alkanes. The mixture of n-butenes formed from .gamma.-valerolactone can also be subjected to isomerization and oligomerization to yield olefins in the gasoline, jet and Diesel fuel ranges.

  11. Conformation and Catalytic Properties Studies of Candida rugosa Lip7 via Enantioselective Esterification of Ibuprofen in Organic Solvents and Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Enantioselective esterification of ibuprofen was conducted to evaluate the enzyme activity and ees of lipase from Candida rugosa (CRL7 in ten conventional organic solvents and three ionic liquids. Different alcohols were tested for selecting the most suitable acyl acceptor due to the fact that the structure of alcohols (branch and length of carbon chains; location of –OH functional group could affect the enzyme activity and ees. The results of alcohol and solvent selection revealed that 1-isooctanol and isooctane were the best substrate and reaction medium, respectively, because of the highest enzyme activity and ees. Compared with the control, conformational studies via FT-IR indicate that the variations of CRL7’s secondary structure elements are probably responsible for the differences of enzyme activity and ees in the organic solvents and ionic liquids. Moreover, the effects of reaction parameters, such as molar ratio, water content, temperature, and reaction time, in the selected reaction medium, were also examined.

  12. Coal 95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1995-01-01

    The report deals with the use of coal and coke in Sweden during 1994. Some information about technology, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from Statistics Sweden have also been used.The use of steam coal for heating purposes has been unchanged during 1994 at a level of 1 Mtons. The production in the cogeneration plants has been constant, but has increased for electricity production. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. The use of steam coal will probably go down in the next years both for heat and cogeneration plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water and 11 cogeneration plants. 1994 these figures are 3 and 12. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in industry has been constant at the level 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal in 1993 was 1.6 Mtons, like 1992. Import of 0.3 Mtons of coke gives the total consumption of coke in industry as 1.5 Mtons. the average price of steam coal imported to Sweden was 317 SEK/ton, 3% higher than 1993. All Swedish plants meet their emission limit of dust, SO 2 and NO x as given by county administrations or concession boards. The cogeneration plants all have some SO 2 removal system. The biggest cogeneration plant (Vaesteraas) has recently invested in a SCR NO x cleaning system. Most other plants use low NO x burners or SNR injection systems based on ammonia or urea. 2 figs, 13 tabs

  13. Exploratory Research on Novel Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winschel, R.A.; Brandes, S.D.

    1998-05-01

    The report presents the findings of work performed under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22 -95PC95050, Task 3 - Flow Sheet Development. A novel direct coal liquefaction technology was investigated in a program being conducted by CONSOL Inc. with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and LDP Associates. The process concept explored consists of a first-stage coal dissolution step in which the coal is solubilized by hydride ion donation. In the second stage, the products are catalytically upgraded to refinery feedstocks. Integrated first-stage and solids-separation steps were used to prepare feedstocks for second-stage catalytic upgrading. An engineering and economic evaluation was conducted concurrently with experimental work throughout the program. Parameters were established for a low-cost, low-severity first-stage reaction system. A hydride ion reagent system was used to effect high coal conversions of Black Thunder Mine Wyoming subbituminous coal. An integrated first-stage and filtration step was successfully demonstrated and used to produce product filtrates with extremely low solids contents. High filtration rates previously measured off-line in Task 2 studies were obtained in the integrated system. Resid conversions of first-stage products in the second stage were found to be consistently greater than for conventional two-stage liquefaction resids. In Task 5, elementally balanced material balance data were derived from experimental results and an integrated liquefaction system balance was completed. The economic analysis indicates that the production of refined product (gasoline) via this novel direct liquefaction technology is higher than the cost associated with conventional two-stage liquefaction technologies. However, several approaches to reduce costs for the conceptual commercial plant were recommended. These approaches will be investigated in the next task (Task 4) of the program.

  14. Coal preparation and coal cleaning in the dry process; Kanshiki sentaku to coal cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Z.; Morikawa, M.; Fujii, Y. [Okayama University, Okayama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-09-01

    Because the wet process has a problem such as waste water treatment, coal cleaning in the dry process was discussed. When a fluidized bed (using glass beads and calcium carbonate) is utilized instead of the heavy liquid, the fluidized bed will have apparent density as the liquid does, whereas the relative relationship therewith determines whether a substance having been put into the fluidized bed will float or sink. This is utilized for coals. In addition, two powder constituents of A and B may be wanted to be separated using the fluidized extraction process (similar to the liquid-liquid extraction process). In such a case, a fluidized bed in which both constituents are mixed is added with a third constituent C (which will not mix with A, but mix well with B), where the constituents are separated into A and (B + C), and the (B + C) constituent is separated further by using a sieve. If coal has the coal content mixed with ash content and pulverized, it turns into particle groups which have distributions in grain size and density. Groups having higher density may contain more ash, and those having lower density less ash. In addition, the ash content depends also on the grain size. The ash content may be classified by using simultaneously wind classification (for density and grain size) and a sieve (for grain size). This inference may be expanded to consideration of constructing a multi-stage fluidized bed classification tower. 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Novel Fuel Cells for Coal Based Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Tao

    2011-12-31

    The goal of this project was to acquire experimental data required to assess the feasibility of a Direct Coal power plant based upon an Electrochemical Looping (ECL) of Liquid Tin Anode Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (LTA-SOFC). The objective of Phase 1 was to experimentally characterize the interaction between the tin anode, coal fuel and cell component electrolyte, the fate of coal contaminants in a molten tin reactor (via chemistry) and their impact upon the YSZ electrolyte (via electrochemistry). The results of this work will provided the basis for further study in Phase 2. The objective of Phase 2 was to extend the study of coal impurities impact on fuel cell components other than electrolyte, more specifically to the anode current collector which is made of an electrically conducting ceramic jacket and broad based coal tin reduction. This work provided a basic proof-of-concept feasibility demonstration of the direct coal concept.

  16. Catalytic gasification of oil-shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapidus, A.; Avakyan, T. [I.M. Gubkin Russian State Univ. of Oil and Gas, Moscow (Russian Federation); Strizhakova, Yu. [Samara State Univ. (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    Nowadays, the problem of complex usage of solid fossil fuels as raw materials for obtaining of motor fuels and chemical products is becoming increasingly important. A one of possible solutions of the problem is their gasification with further processing of gaseous and liquid products. In this work we have investigated the process of thermal and catalytic gasification of Baltic and Kashpir oil-shales. We have shown that, as compared with non-catalytic process, using of nickel catalyst in the reaction increases the yield of gas, as well as hydrogen content in it, and decreases the amount of liquid products. (orig.)

  17. Catalytic conversion of cellulose to liquid hydrocarbon fuels by progressive removal of oxygen to facilitate separation processes and achieve high selectivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumesic, James A.; Ruiz, Juan Carlos Serrano; West, Ryan M.

    2015-06-30

    Described is a method to make liquid chemicals. The method includes deconstructing cellulose to yield a product mixture comprising levulinic acid and formic acid, converting the levulinic acid to .gamma.-valerolactone, and converting the .gamma.-valerolactone to pentanoic acid. Alternatively, the .gamma.-valerolactone can be converted to a mixture of n-butenes. The pentanoic acid can be decarboxylated yield 1-butene or ketonized to yield 5-nonanone. The 5-nonanone can be hydrodeoxygenated to yield nonane, or 5-nonanone can be reduced to yield 5-nonanol. The 5-nonanol can be dehydrated to yield nonene, which can be dimerized to yield a mixture of C.sub.9 and C.sub.18 olefins, which can be hydrogenated to yield a mixture of alkanes.

  18. Catalytic conversion of cellulose to liquid hydrocarbon fuels by progressive removal of oxygen to facilitate separation processes and achieve high selectivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumesic, James A [Verona, WI; Ruiz, Juan Carlos Serrano [Madison, WI; West, Ryan M [Madison, WI

    2014-01-07

    Described is a method to make liquid chemicals. The method includes deconstructing cellulose to yield a product mixture comprising levulinic acid and formic acid, converting the levulinic acid to .gamma.-valerolactone, and converting the .gamma.-valerolactone to pentanoic acid. Alternatively, the .gamma.-valerolactone can be conveted to a mixture of n-butenes. The pentanoic acid can be decarboxylated yield 1-butene or ketonized to yield 5-nonanone. The 5-nonanone can be hydrodeoxygenated to yield nonane, or 5-nonanone can be reduced to yield 5-nonanol. The 5-nonanol can be dehydrated to yield nonene, which can be dimerized to yield a mixture of C.sub.9 and C.sub.18 olefins, which can be hydrogenated to yield a mixture of alkanes.

  19. Silica-supported boric acid with ionic liquid: a novel recyclable catalytic system for one-pot three-component Mannich reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vishal; Sharma, Upendra; Verma, Praveen Kumar; Kumar, Neeraj; Singh, Bikram

    2011-01-01

    A rapid and efficient silica-supported boric acid/ionic liquid ([bmim][PF₆]), catalyzed, one-pot three-component Mannich reaction has been carried out to synthesize β-amino carbonyl compounds at room temperature. The reaction afforded desired products in excellent yields with moderate to good diastereoselectivity. The method provides a novel modification of three-component Mannich reaction in terms of mild reaction conditions, clean reaction profiles, low amount of catalyst, recyclability of catalyst and a simple workup procedure. The present report first time describes the preparation of H₃BO₃-SiO₃ catalyst and its use with [bmim][PF₆], to synthesize Mannich products. The catalyst can be reused at least seven times.

  20. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, May 1, 1993--October 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, G.P. [ed.

    1994-07-01

    This report summarizes progress in four areas of research under the general heading of Coal Liquefaction. Results of studies concerning the coliquefaction of coal with waste organic polymers or chemical products of these polymers were reported. Secondly, studies of catalytic systems for the production of clean transportation fuels from coal were discussed. Thirdly, investigations of the chemical composition of coals and their dehydrogenated counterparts were presented. These studies were directed toward elucidation of coal liquefaction processes on the chemical level. Finally, analytical methodologies developed for in situ monitoring of coal liquefaction were reported. Techniques utilizing model reactions and methods based on XAFS, ESR, and GC/MS are discussed.

  1. ANALYSIS OF COAL TAR COMPOSITIONS PRODUCED FROM SUB-BITUMINOUS KALIMANTAN COAL TAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Selvia Fardhyanti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Coal tar is a liquid by-product of coal pyrolysis processes. This liquid oil mixture contains various kind of useful compounds such as benzoic aromatic compounds and phenolic compounds. These compounds are widely used as raw material for insecticides, dyes, medicines, perfumes, coloring matters, and many others. The coal tar was collected by pyrolysis process of coal obtained from PT Kaltim Prima Coal and Arutmin-Kalimantan. The experiments typically occurred at the atmospheric pressure in a laboratory furnace at temperatures ranging from 300 to 550oC with a heating rate of 10oC/min and a holding time of 1 hour at the pyrolysis temperature. The Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GCMS was used to analyze the coal tar components. The obtained coal tar has the viscosity of 3.12 cp, the density of 2.78 g/cm3, the calorific value of 11,048.44 cal/g, and the molecular weight of 222.67. The analysis result showed that the coal tar contained more than 78 chemical compounds such as benzene, cresol, phenol, xylene, naphtalene, etc. The total phenolic compounds contained in coal tar is 33.25% (PT KPC and 17.58% (Arutmin-Kalimantan. The total naphtalene compounds contained in coal tar is 14.15% (PT KPC and 17.13% (ArutminKalimantan.

  2. Gas-to-liquids : who cares?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakobson, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of gas-to-liquids (GTL) technology was presented along with its capital costs, economics and market niche. GTL technology is a process developed by Fischer-Tropsch in the 1920s, in which carbonaceous feedstock is catalytically converted into synthetic oil. The feedstock can be natural gas, coal, or refinery bottoms, bitumen, Orimulsion TM or biomass. The process involves the making of a gaseous mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide and then feeding that mixture into a reactor containing a catalyst. The last step involves the processing of the synthetic oil into fractions for sale. The issue of whether GTL will compete with refinery production or supplement it was also raised. The potential for GTL projects in North America were reviewed. The five companies which have matured GTL technologies are Exxon, Rentech, Sasol, Shell and Syntroleum

  3. A catalytic spectrophotometric method for determination of nanomolar manganese in seawater using reverse flow injection analysis and a long path length liquid waveguide capillary cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Sichao; Yuan, Dongxing; Huang, Yongming; Lin, Kunning; Zhu, Yong; Ma, Jian

    2018-02-01

    A sensitive and precise method for determination of nanomolar manganese in seawater was developed, using reverse flow injection analysis, a long path length liquid waveguide capillary cell, and spectrophotometric detection. The reaction was based on manganese catalyzed oxidation of leucomalachite green with sodium periodate. Various experimental parameters were investigated and optimized. Foreign trace metal ions of iron, copper, zinc, nickel and aluminum did not cause obvious interference with manganese detection. Low manganese seawater was prepared and used as the blank and standards' matrix, to eliminate the seawater matrix effect. The method detection limit was 0.20nmolL -1 , and the quantification range was 0.50-10.00nmolL -1 , which should be sensitive enough and suitable for open ocean seawater analysis. The seawater certified reference material NASS-6 was used to test the accuracy, and good agreement was obtained. The proposed method was applied to analyze seawater samples collected at the SEATS station in the South China Sea. The vertical profile of the total dissolvable manganese is reported and discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Catalytic Dehydrogenative Coupling of Hydrosilanes with Alcohols for the Production of Hydrogen On-demand: Application of a Silane/Alcohol Pair as a Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura-Espinosa, David; Carretero-Cerdán, Alba; Baya, Miguel; García, Hermenegildo; Mata, Jose A

    2017-08-10

    The compound [Ru(p-cym)(Cl) 2 (NHC)] is an effective catalyst for the room-temperature coupling of silanes and alcohols with the concomitant formation of molecular hydrogen. High catalyst activity is observed for a variety of substrates affording quantitative yields in minutes at room temperature and with a catalyst loading as low as 0.1 mol %. The coupling reaction is thermodynamically and, in the presence of a Ru complex, kinetically favourable and allows rapid molecular hydrogen generation on-demand at room temperature, under air, and without any additive. The pair silane/alcohol is a potential liquid organic hydrogen carrier (LOHC) for energy storage over long periods in a safe and secure way. Silanes and alcohols are non-toxic compounds and do not require special handling precautions such as high pressure or an inert atmosphere. These properties enhance the practical applications of the pair silane/alcohol as a good LOHC in the automotive industry. The variety and availability of silanes and alcohols permits a pair combination that fulfils the requirements for developing an efficient LOHC. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Application of Fischer–Tropsch Synthesis in Biomass to Liquid Conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Yongwu Lu; Fei Yu; Jin Hu

    2012-01-01

    Fischer–Tropsch synthesis is a set of catalytic processes that can be used to produce fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas (mixture of CO and H2), which can be derived from natural gas, coal, or biomass. Biomass to Liquid via Fischer–Tropsch (BTL-FT) synthesis is gaining increasing interests from academia and industry because of its ability to produce carbon neutral and environmentally friendly clean fuels; such kinds of fuels can help to meet the globally increasing energy demand and to me...

  6. Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility, Wilsonville, Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This report presents the results of Run 260 performed at the Advanced Coal Liquefaction R D Facility in Wilsonville. The run was started on July 17, 1990 and continued until November 14, 1990, operating in the Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction mode processing Black Thunder mine subbituminous coal (Wyodak-Anderson seam from Wyoming Powder River Basin). Both thermal/catalytic and catalytic/thermal tests were performed to determine the methods for reducing solids buildup in a subbituminous coal operation, and to improve product yields. A new, smaller interstage separator was tested to reduce solids buildup by increasing the slurry space velocity in the separator. In order to obtain improved coal and resid conversions (compared to Run 258) full-volume thermal reactor and 3/4-volume catalytic reactor were used. Shell 324 catalyst, 1/16 in. cylindrical extrudate, at a replacement rate of 3 lb/ton of MF coal was used in the catalytic stage. Iron oxide was used as slurry catalyst at a rate of 2 wt % MF coal throughout the run. (TNPS was the sulfiding agent.)

  7. Hydrogenation balances for bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelscher

    1944-02-11

    This report was intended to set up predictive curves concerning how certain variables involved in coal hydrogenation output would change in response to changes in certain operational or input variables, for hydrogenation of Gelsenberg coal. The particular dependences investigated in the article were the following: (1) for liquid phase, the dependence of oil output, amount of product to be distilled, and hydrogen use upon the ash content of the coal, the carbon content of the coal, and the percentage of formation of gases, and (2) for vapor phase, the dependence of gasoline yield, hydrogen use, and excess hydrocarbon gas products on the percentage of gasification in the 6434 step. Within certain limits of validity, these dependences seemed mostly to be linear and were illustrated in graphs in the report (most of which were very hard to read on the microfilm image). The limits of validity were 2 to 8% ash content, 80 to 86.2% carbon content, 20 to 25% gasification in liquid phase, and 17 to 25% gasification in the 6434 vapor phase. As an example of the data and calculations, it was observed that at 2% ash content, there was 628 kg of oil output in the liquid phase, at 4% ash content, there was 621 kg oil output, and at 8% ash content, there was 607 kg oil output, so it was calculated that oil output would decrease by 0.56% for each percent increase in ash content between 2% and 8%. 7 tables, 2 graphs.

  8. Preliminary experimental studies of waste coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, S.; Jin, Y.G.; Yu, X.X.; Worrall, R. [CSIRO, Brisbane, QLD (Australia). Advanced Coal Technology

    2013-07-01

    Coal mining is one of Australia's most important industries. It was estimated that coal washery rejects from black coal mining was approximately 1.82 billion tonnes from 1960 to 2009 in Australia, and is projected to produce another one billion tonnes by 2018 at the current production rate. To ensure sustainability of the Australian coal industry, we have explored a new potential pathway to create value from the coal waste through production of liquid fuels or power generation using produced syngas from waste coal gasification. Consequently, environmental and community impacts of the solid waste could be minimized. However, the development of an effective waste coal gasification process is a key to the new pathway. An Australian mine site with a large reserve of waste coal was selected for the study, where raw waste coal samples including coarse rejects and tailings were collected. After investigating the initial raw waste coal samples, float/sink testing was conducted to achieve a desired ash target for laboratory-scale steam gasification testing and performance evaluation. The preliminary gasification test results show that carbon conversions of waste coal gradually increase as the reaction proceeds, which indicates that waste coal can be gasified by a steam gasification process. However, the carbon conversion rates are relatively low, only reaching to 20-30%. Furthermore, the reactivity of waste coal samples with a variety of ash contents under N{sub 2}/air atmosphere have been studied by a home-made thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) apparatus that can make the sample reach the reaction temperature instantly.

  9. Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility, Wilsonville, Alabama. Run 260 with Black Thunder Mine subbituminous coal: Technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This report presents the results of Run 260 performed at the Advanced Coal Liquefaction R&D Facility in Wilsonville. The run was started on July 17, 1990 and continued until November 14, 1990, operating in the Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction mode processing Black Thunder mine subbituminous coal (Wyodak-Anderson seam from Wyoming Powder River Basin). Both thermal/catalytic and catalytic/thermal tests were performed to determine the methods for reducing solids buildup in a subbituminous coal operation, and to improve product yields. A new, smaller interstage separator was tested to reduce solids buildup by increasing the slurry space velocity in the separator. In order to obtain improved coal and resid conversions (compared to Run 258) full-volume thermal reactor and 3/4-volume catalytic reactor were used. Shell 324 catalyst, 1/16 in. cylindrical extrudate, at a replacement rate of 3 lb/ton of MF coal was used in the catalytic stage. Iron oxide was used as slurry catalyst at a rate of 2 wt % MF coal throughout the run. (TNPS was the sulfiding agent.)

  10. Development of a New Type of Alkali-Free Liquid Accelerator for Wet Shotcrete in Coal Mine and Its Engineering Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to address issues such as large rebound rate, high dust concentration, and low compressive strength of shotcrete when adding liquid accelerator during wet spraying, the factors influencing the efficiency of liquid accelerator were experimentally analyzed. The single-admixture, combination, and orthogonal tests were conducted on the five fundamental raw materials required to develop the new liquid accelerator. The WT-1 type liquid accelerator, which had better adaptability to different kinds of cement, was developed with the mass concentration ratio of 55% aluminum sulfate octadecahydrate, 4% sodium fluoride, 2.5% triethanolamine, 0.5% polyacrylamide, 5% bentonite, and 33% water. Experimental investigation showed that the initial setting time of the reference cement with 6% mass content of this liquid accelerator was 2 minutes and 15 seconds, and the final setting time was 7 minutes and 5 seconds. The compressive strength after 1 day of curing was 13.6 MPa and the strength ratio after 28 days of curing was 94.8%, which met the first grade product requirements of the China National Standard. Compared with the conventional type liquid accelerator, the proposed type WT-1 accelerator is capable of effectively reducing the rebound rate and dust concentration while significantly increasing the compressive strength of the shotcrete.

  11. Prospect of coal liquefaction in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartiniati; Dasuki, A.S.; Artanto, Yu.; Sulaksono, D.; Gunanjar

    1997-01-01

    With the current known oil reserves of about 11 billion barrel and annual production of approximately 500 million barrel, the country's oil reserves will be depleted by 2010, and Indonesia would have become net oil importer if no major oil fields be found somewhere in the archipelago. Under such circumstances the development of new sources of liquid fuel becomes a must, and coal liquefaction can be one possible solution for the future energy problem in Indonesia, particularly in the transportation sector due to the availability of coal in huge amount. This paper present the prospect of coal liquefaction in Indonesia and look at the possibility of integrating the process with HTR as a heat supplier. Evaluation of liquidability of several low grade Indonesian coals will also be presented. Coal from South Banko-Tanjung Enim is found to be one of the most suitable coal for liquefaction. Several studies show that an advanced coal liquefaction technology recently developed has the potential to reduce not only the environmental impact but also the production cost. The price of oil produced in the year 2000 is expected to reach US $ 17.5 ∼ 19.2/barrel and this will compete with the current oil price. Not much conclusion can be drawn from the idea of integrating HTR with coal liquefaction plant due to limited information available. (author). 7 figs, 3 tabs

  12. Coal at the crossroads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaroni, A.W.; Davis, A.; Schobert, H.; Gordon, R.L.; Ramani, R.V.; Frantz, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Worldwide coal reserves are very large but coal suffers from an image of being an environmentally unfriendly and inconvenient fuel. Aspects discussed in the article include: coal's poor image; techniques for coal analysis, in particular instrumented techniques; developments in clean coal technology e.g. coal liquefaction, fluidized bed combustion, co-generation and fuel slurries; the environmental impact of mining and land reclamation; and health aspects. It is considered that coal's future depends on overcoming its poor image. 6 photos

  13. Role of the resid solvent in catalytic coprocessing with finely divided catalysts. Quarterly report, January--March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, C.W.

    1995-07-01

    The research reported in this progress report describes the continuation of coal-resid coprocessing reactions that were discussed in the July to September 1994 Quarterly Report. During previous quarters, Maya and FHC-623 resids were evaluated in noncatalytic and catalytic reactions at 400{degrees}C with Pittsburgh No. 8 and DECS-17 Blind Canyon coals. From the complete reaction matrix containing the two coals and two resids, it was found that the influence of resids on coprocessing depended on the type of coal used; for example, under catalytic reaction conditions, the hexane solubles of Maya resid increased coal conversion of Pittsburgh No. 8 coal but decreased that of DECS-17. In order to observe the intrinsic behavior of resids during coprocessing, another resid, Manji, and another coal, Illinois No. 6, are being tested. These reactions were begun this quarter. The results obtained are reported in this report.

  14. Coal biodegradation study; Estudio de Biodegradacion del Carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    A screening procedure has been set up for isolating microorganisms capable of liquefying coal. Spanish coals were used in the tests, namely a brown lignite from Galicia, sub-bituminous coal from Teruel and hard coal from MINAS DE FIGAREDO, S.A. (ASTURIAS). Among the isolated strains several microorganisms proved of liquefying untreated lignite. When lignites were pretreated a more intense and rapid liquefaction was achieved, chelating agents being among the best pretreatments. None of the isolated microorganisms could satisfactorily liquefy sub-bituminous and hard coals in solid media. On the other hand, some fungi grew specifically on the untreated coals, engulfing them and in many cases a soft and slurry was obtained. Several of the isolated microorganisms were able to solubilized all three untreated Spanish coals in liquid media. Coal solubilization was measured spectrophotometrically at 300, 400 and 450 nm.

  15. Microbiological desulfurization and conversion of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigley, D.R.; Stoner, D.L.; Dugan, P.R.

    1991-01-01

    Bio processing of coal is a young and emerging technology. Until the early 1980's it consisted primarily of coal depyritization using Thiobacillus ferro oxidans to either oxidize pyritic sulfur or to alter particle wettability or floatation properties by binding to exposed pyrite inclusions. Since then, other major avenues of research have been pursued. One of these is the microbiologically mediated liquefaction of coal. Initial work indicated that microorganisms were able to transform low rank coal into a black liquid that was later identified as water solubilized by alkaline substances produced by the microbes and could be enhanced by the removal of multi valent cations from coal. Current work at the INEL involves of the identification and characterization of microorganisms that are able to alter the structure of polymeric desulfurization of coal. This work initially focused on the ability of microorganisms to oxidatively remove organic sulfur from model compounds that were representative of those sulfur containing moieties identified as being in coals (e.g., dibenzo thiophene). The work also focused on those organisms that were could remove the organic sulfur without degrading the carbon structure. While some organisms that are able to perform such these reactions will effectively remove organo sulfur from coal. These concerns stem from steric hindrance considerations and the thermodynamically unfavourable nature of reaction. Current work at the INEL involves the isolation and biochemical characterization of microorganisms that are able to desulfurize and solubilized coals that have high organic sulfur contents. (author)

  16. Coal industry annual 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs

  17. Coal industry annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  18. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

  19. Coal industry annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  20. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995

  1. Coal and the competition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morey, M. [RDI Consulting, Arlington, VA (United States). FT Energy

    2000-07-01

    24 overheads/viewgraphs outline a presentation on competition in the US coal industry. It discussed four main subjects: key factors driving coal demand (environmental regulations, electric utility deregulation; competition with natural gas, inter-regional coal competition, supply availability and pricing; and the export market and competition from off-shore coal sources); coal's ability to boost market share; shifts in coal distribution and the risk of more branded coal; and attempts to keep more regional sources of coal in business. State tax incentives for coal use in Arizona, Ohio, Oklahoma, Virginia and Alabama were discussed.

  2. Coal industry annual 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs

  3. EVALUATION AND MITIGATION OF VISIBLE ACIDIC AEROSOL PLUMES FROM COAL FIRED POWER BOILERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The formation of sulfur trioxide during the combustion of coal can increase significantly following the installation and operation of selective catalytic reduction systems for reduction of nitrogen oxides. This can in turn lead to adverse environmental impacts, including visible...

  4. Fluidized bed selective pyrolysis of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, J.Y.; Cha, C.Y.; Merriam, N.W.

    1992-12-15

    The present invention discloses a process for the pyrolysis of coal which comprises the effective utilization of two zonal inclined fluidized beds, where said zones can be selectively controlled as to temperature and heating rate. The first zonal inclined fluidized bed serves as a dryer for crushed coal and additionally is controlled to selectively pyrolyze said coal producing substantially carbon dioxide for recycle use. The second zonal inclined fluidized bed further pyrolyses the coal to gaseous, liquid and char products under controlled temperature and heating rate zones designed to economically integrate the product mix. The gas and liquid products are recovered from the gaseous effluent stream while the char which remains can be further treated or utilized in a subsequent process step. 9 figs.

  5. Novel electrochemical process for coal conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farooque, M.

    1989-07-01

    The feasibility of two distinctly different routes to coal conversion at low severity conditions was investigated. An electrochemical approach utilizing both the electro-oxidation and electro-reduction routes was employed. The electro-oxidation route consists of an electrochemical reaction involving H{sub 2}O and coal, leading to the breakup of coal molecules. The observed reaction rate has been explained as a combination of the coal and pyrite electro-oxidation currents. Organic sulfur has been identified as the contributing factor for the observation of more than 100% H{sub 2} production current efficiency with several coal samples. Also, an attractive coal pre-treatment process has been identified which results in production of useful products and simultaneous upgrading of the coal. Electrochemical oxidation of coal with H{sub 2}O leads to the production of hydrogen, CO{sub 2}, simultaneous removal of pyritic sulfur, and significant reduction of ash content. There is also indirect evidence that the organic sulfur may be removed in the process. A preliminary economic evaluation of this process has projected a cost advantage of > $8 per ton of Illinois {number sign}2 coal. A lab-scale cell has been successfully employed in this study for generating process data useful for future design calculations. This study also explored the electro-reduction route of coal conversion and has successfully demonstrated production of liquid products from different coal types at low severity conditions. A variety of aliphatic and aromatic compounds have been identified in the products. Coal type appeared to be the most important parameter affecting the product spectrum. 32 refs., 26 figs., 19 tabs.

  6. Recent trend in coal utilization technology. Coal utilization workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chon Ho; Son, Ja Ek; Lee, In Chul; Jin, Kyung Tae; Kim, Seong Soo [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    The 11th Korea-U.S.A. joint workshop on coal utilization technology was held in somerset, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. from october 2 to 3, 1995. In the opening ceremony, Dr.C. Low-el Miller, associate deputy assistant secretary of office of clean coal technology, U.S.DOE, gave congratulatory remarks and Dr. Young Mok Son, president of KIER, made a keynote address. In this workshop, 30 papers were presented in the fields of emission control technology, advanced power generation systems, and advanced coal cleaning and liquid fuels. Especially, from the Korean side, not only KIER but also other private research institutes and major engineering companies including KEPCO, Daewoo Institute of Construction Technology, Jindo Engineering and Construction Co. Daewoo Institute for Advanced Engineering and universities participated in this workshop, reflecting their great interests. Attendants actively discussed about various coal utilization technologies and exchanged scientific and technical information on the state-of-art clean coal technologies under development. (author)

  7. Sumpor u ugljenu (Sulphur in Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović, A.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of sulphur in coal possesses important environmetal problems in its usage. The sulphur dioxide (S02 emissions produced during coal combustion account for a significant proportion of the total global output of anthropogenic SO2. The extent of sulphur separation depends on several variables such as the form of sulphur in coal, intimacy of contact between minerals and the products of devolatilization. The total sulphur in coal varies in the range of 0.2 - 11 wt %, although in most cases it is beetwen 1 and 3 wt %. Sulphur occurs in a variety of both inorganic and organic forms. Inorganic sulphur is found mainly as iron pyrite, marcasite, pyrrhotite, sphalerite, galena, chalcopirite and as sulphates (rarely exceeds w = 0,1 %. Organic sulphur is found in aromatic rings and aliphatic functionalities usually as mercaptans, aliphatic and aryl sulfides, disulfides and thiophenes. Organic and pyritic sulphur quantities depend on coal rank. Higher rank coals tend to have a high proportion of labile sulphur. All the organic sulphur is bivalent and it is spread throughout the organic coal matrix. Sulphur occurs in all the macerals and most minerals. Vitrinite contains the major part of organic sulphur and metals. Elemental sulphur is produced during coal weathering. The depolymerization methods as pyrolysis and hydrogenation are very drastic methods wich change the structure of the coal and the sulphur groups. In the case of pyrolysis, high levels of desulphurization, in chars and additional production of liquid hydrocarbon can be achieved. Thiophenes and sulphides were the major sulphur components of tars from coal pyrolysis. Hyrdogen sulphide and the lower mercaptans and sulphides were found in the volatile matters. Hydrogen sulphide and thiophenes are practically the only sulphur products of coal hydrogenation. H2S is produced in char hydrodesulphurization. A number of options are available for reducing sulphur emissions including the

  8. Bioprocessing of lignite coals using reductive microorganisms. Final technical report, September 30, 1988--March 29, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, D.L.

    1992-03-29

    In order to convert lignite coals into liquid fuels, gases or chemical feedstock, the macromolecular structure of the coal must be broken down into low molecular weight fractions prior to further modification. Our research focused on this aspect of coal bioprocessing. We isolated, characterized and studied the lignite coal-depolymerizing organisms Streptomyces viridosporus T7A, Pseudomonas sp. DLC-62, unidentified bacterial strain DLC-BB2 and Gram-positive Bacillus megaterium strain DLC-21. In this research we showed that these bacteria are able to solubilize and depolymerize lignite coals using a combination of biological mechanisms including the excretion of coal solublizing basic chemical metabolites and extracellular coal depolymerizing enzymes.

  9. Effects of microelement content on reactivity of semicoke and brown coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egorov, A.P.; Petrovskaya, L.K.; Laktionova, N.V.

    1987-06-01

    Effects of trace amounts of selected elements in brown coal from Czechoslovakia, GDR, Poland and USSR on coal reactivity during gasification at 900 C using carbon dioxide were analyzed under laboratory conditions. Catalytic effects of trace amounts of the following elements were investigated: manganese, barium, beryllium, boron, lead, gallium, cobalt, chromium, nickel, vanadium, copper and yttrium. Manganese, barium, beryllium and lead were best catalysts. Catalytic effects of individual trace elements and their mixtures were also determined. Regression analysis was used. 7 refs.

  10. Coal plasticity at high heating rates and temperatures. Final technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerjarusak, S.; Peters, W.A.; Howard, J.B.

    1995-05-01

    Plastic coals are important feedstocks in coke manufacture, coal liquefaction, gasification, and combustion. During these processes, the thermoplastic behavior of these coals is also important since it may contribute to desirable or undesirable characteristics. For example, during liquefaction, the plastic behavior is desired since it leads to liquid-liquid reactions which are faster than solid-liquid reactions. During gasification, the elastic behavior is undesired since it leads to caking and agglomeration of coal particles which result in bed bogging in fixed or fluidized bed gasifiers. The plastic behavior of different coals was studied using a fast-response plastometer. A modified plastometer was used to measure the torque required to turn at constant angular speed a cone-shaped disk embedded in a thin layer of coal. The coal particles were packed between two metal plates which are heated electrically. Heating rates, final temperatures, pressures, and durations of experiment ranged from 200--800 K/s, 700--1300 K, vacuum-50 atm helium, and 0--40 s, respectively. The apparent viscosity of the molten coal was calculated from the measured torque using the governing equation of the cone-and-plate viscometer. Using a concentrated suspension model, the molten coal`s apparent viscosity was related to the quantity of the liquid metaplast present during pyrolysis. Seven coals from Argonne National Laboratory Premium Coal Sample Bank were studied. Five bituminous coals, from high-volatile to low-volatile bituminous, were found to have very good plastic behavior. Coal type strongly affects the magnitude and duration of plasticity. Hvb coals were most plastic. Mvb and lvb coals, though the maximum plasticity and plastic period were less. Low rank coals such as subbituminous and lignite did not exhibit any plasticity in the present studies. Coal plasticity is moderately well correlated with simple indices of coal type such as the elemental C,O, and H contents.

  11. Coal -94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1994-05-01

    This report deals with use of coal and coke during 1993; information about techniques, environmental questions and markets are also given. Use of steamcoal for heating purposes has been reduced about 3 % during 1993 to 1,0 mill tons. This is the case especially for the heat generating boilers. Production in co-generation plants has been constant and has increased for electricity production. Minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels, LPG and NG. Use of steamcoal will probably go down in the immediate years both in heat generating and co-generating plants. Coal-based electricity has been imported from Denmark during 1993 corresponding to about 400 000 tons of coal, when several of our nuclear plants were stopped. Use of steamcoal in the industry has been constant at 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1993 was 1,6 mill tons like the year before. 1,2 mill tons coke were produced. Coke consumption in industry was 1,4 mill tons. 0,2 mill tons of coke were imported. Average price of steamcoal imported to Sweden in 1993 was 308 SEK/ton or 13 % higher than in 1992; this can be explained by the dollar price level increasing 34% in 1993. For the world, the average import price was 50,0 USD/ton, a decrease of 6 %. The coal market during 1993 was affected by less consumption in Europe, shut downs of European mines and decreasing prices. High freight price raises in Russia has affected the Russian export and the market in northern Europe. The prices have been stabilized recently. All Swedish plants meet emission limits of dust, SO 2 and NO x . Co-generation plants all have some sort of SO 2 -removal system; the wet-dry method is mostly used. A positive effect of the recently introduced NO x -duties is a 40% reduction

  12. REGULATION OF COAL POLYMER DEGRADATION BY FUNGI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John A. Bumpus

    1998-11-30

    A variety of lignin degrading fungi mediate solubilization and subsequent biodegradation of coal macromolecules (a.k.a. coal polymer) from highly oxidized low rank coals such as leonardites. It appears that oxalate or possibly other metal chelators (i.e., certain Krebs Cycle intermediates) mediate solubilization of low rank coals while extracellular oxidases have a role in subsequent oxidation of solubilized coal macromolecule. These processes are under nutritional control. For example, in the case of P. chrysosporium, solubilization of leonardite occurred when the fungi were cultured on most but not all nutrient agars tested and subsequent biodegradation occurred only in nutrient nitrogen limited cultures. Lignin peroxidases mediate oxidation of coal macromolecule in a reaction that is dependent on the presence of veratryl alcohol and hydrogen peroxide. Kinetic evidence suggests that veratryl alcohol is oxidized to the veratryl alcohol cation radical which then mediates oxidation of the coal macromolecule. Results by others suggest that Mn peroxidases mediate formation of reactive Mn{sup 3+} complexes which also mediate oxidation of coal macromolecule. A biomimetic approach was used to study solubilization of a North Dakota leonardite. It was found that a concentration {approximately}75 mM sodium oxalate was optimal for solubilization of this low rank coal. This is important because this is well above the concentration of oxalate produced by fungi in liquid culture. Higher local concentrations probably occur in solid agar cultures and thus may account for the observation that greater solubilization occurs in agar media relative to liquid media. The characteristics of biomimetically solubilized leonardite were similar to those of biologically solubilized leonardite. Perhaps our most interesting observation was that in addition to oxalate, other common Lewis bases (phosphate/hydrogen phosphate/dihydrogen phosphate and bicarbonate/carbonate ions) are able to mediate

  13. Coal industry annual 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-06

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

  14. Coal industry annual 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993

  15. Characterization of organic nitrogen in IBCSP coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruge, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    The overall objective of this study was to determine the content and distribution of organic nitrogen in a series of IBCSP coals and their isolated macerals. The specific objectives were: to determine the bulk nitrogen contents for coals, isolated macerals, oxidation products and residues, solvent extracts and their liquid chromatographic fractions, and pyrolyzates; to determine the distribution of organic nitrogen in all coal derivatives enumerated in Objective 1 which are Gas Chromatography (GC)-amenable. This will be accomplished by GC-Thermionic Specific Detectors; to determine the molecular structure of the major nitrogen compounds detected in Objective 2, using mass spectrometry.

  16. Rationale for continuing R&D in indirect coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, D.; Tomlinson, G. [MITRE Corp., McLean, VA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this analysis is to use the world energy demand/supply model developed at MITRE to examine future liquid fuels supply scenarios both for the world and for the United States. This analysis has determined the probable extent of future oil resource shortages and the likely time frame in which the shortages will occur. The role that coal liquefaction could play in helping to alleviate this liquid fuels shortfall is also examined. The importance of continuing R&D to improve process performance and reduce the costs of coal-derived transportation fuel is quantified in terms of reducing the time when coal liquids will become competitive with petroleum.

  17. Microelement composition of the products of coal hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egorov, A.P.; Laktionova, N.V.; Titova, T.A.; Tsehdehvsuren, Ts.

    1983-11-01

    Content of microelements in the liquid products of coal hydrogenation was studied by a method developed by the Fossil Fuel Institute utilizing emission spectral analysis. The content of microelements and the limits of their variations in the liquid hydrogenation products were one order lower than in the starting coals. The basic mass of the microelements in the starting coals was concentrated in the solid residue of hydrogenation. The liquid products contained lead, nickel, cobalt, copper, manganese and gallium within the same limits as in Soviet crude oil, but a higher content of barium and lower content of vanadium were observed. (11 refs.) (In Russian)

  18. Incorporation of catalytic dehydrogenation into Fischer-Tropsch synthesis to lower carbon dioxide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Gerald P

    2012-09-18

    A method for producing liquid fuels includes the steps of gasifying a starting material selected from a group consisting of coal, biomass, carbon nanotubes and mixtures thereof to produce a syngas, subjecting that syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) to produce a hyrdrocarbon product stream, separating that hydrocarbon product stream into C1-C4 hydrocarbons and C5+ hydrocarbons to be used as liquid fuels and subjecting the C1-C4 hydrocarbons to catalytic dehydrogenation (CDH) to produce hydrogen and carbon nanotubes. The hydrogen produced by CDH is recycled to be mixed with the syngas incident to the FTS reactor in order to raise the hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio of the syngas to values of 2 or higher, which is required to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This is accomplished with little or no production of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas. The carbon is captured in the form of a potentially valuable by-product, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT), while huge emissions of carbon dioxide are avoided and very large quantities of water employed for the water-gas shift in traditional FTS systems are saved.

  19. Catalytic conversion of light alkanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, J.E.

    1992-06-30

    The second Quarterly Report of 1992 on the Catalytic Conversion of Light Alkanes reviews the work done between April 1, 1992 and June 31, 1992 on the Cooperative Agreement. The mission of this work is to devise a new catalyst which can be used in a simple economic process to convert the light alkanes in natural gas to oxygenate products that can either be used as clean-burning, high octane liquid fuels, as fuel components or as precursors to liquid hydrocarbon uwspomdon fuel. During the past quarter we have continued to design, prepare, characterize and test novel catalysts for the mild selective reaction of light hydrocarbons with air or oxygen to produce alcohols directly. These catalysts are designed to form active metal oxo (MO) species and to be uniquely active for the homolytic cleavage of the carbon-hydrogen bonds in light alkanes producing intermediates which can form alcohols. We continue to investigate three molecular environments for the active catalytic species that we are trying to generate: electron-deficient macrocycles (PHASE I), polyoxometallates (PHASE II), and regular oxidic lattices including zeolites and related structures as well as other molecular surface structures having metal oxo groups (PHASE I).

  20. Catalytic Oligopeptide Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zijian; Noda, Hidetoshi; Shibasaki, Masakatsu; Kumagai, Naoya

    2018-02-02

    Waste-free catalytic assembly of α-amino acids is fueled by a multiboron catalyst that features a characteristic B 3 NO 2 heterocycle, providing a versatile catalytic protocol wherein functionalized natural α-amino acid units are accommodated and commonly used protecting groups are tolerated. The facile dehydrative conditions eliminate the use of engineered peptide coupling reagents, exemplifying a greener catalytic alternative for peptide coupling. The catalysis is sufficiently robust to enable pentapeptide synthesis, constructing all four amide bond linkages in a catalytic fashion.

  1. Study of mobilization and speciation of trace elements in coal pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting, B.T.G.

    1979-01-01

    Various types of coal contain high levels of a number of trace elements. Little is known of the fates of these trace elements during the conversion of coal to liquid and gaseous products. Studies were undertaken of mobilization and speciation of trace elements in coal pyrolysis, one of the major coal conversion processes. The bituminous coal was pyrolyzed to produce liquid and gaseous products. The pyrolysis products were collected in traps in an inert gas stream. In addition mildly hydrogenated coal was prepared by mixing with tetralin, a hydrogen donor solvent, at boiling temperature. In order to characterize each element specifically during pyrolysis, base samples of coal and mildly hydrogenated coal (H-coal) were spiked with heavy metal sulfides, trace metals bound to partially oxidized coal (coal humates), and halide salts prior to carrying out pyrolysis. Eight elements were investigated in this research. They are As, Br, Cl, Co, Cr, Mn, Se, and V. Pre-spiked hydrogenated coal, i.e., pulverized coal spiked with halide salts and heavy metal sulfides then hydrogenated with tetralin, was prepared and studied for the fates of these elements during pyrolysis. Chlorinated and brominated coals were also prepared to compare the volatility differences between organically and inorganically bound halogens during the pyrolysis reaction. These products and the coal char residues were analyzed for the spiked elements mainly by neutron activation analysis for the spiked elements to determine their degree of volatility. Volatility and recovery (mass balance) will be discussed for those elements that appeared highly volatile during pyrolysis. In order to understand the halogenated compounds in the pyrolysis products, gas chromatograms were taken to the collected pyrolysis products of coal, hydrogenated coal, NaCl spiked coal, NaBr spiked coal, chlorinated coal, and brominated coal

  2. Microwave-induced co-processing of coal and biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Jie-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Pyrolysis is an attractive alternative for the conversion of solid fuels to valuable chemicals and bio-fuels. In order to obtain more H2 and syngas from pyrolysis of coal and biomass, microwave has been adopted to enhance the co-pyrolysis of coal and biomass, which has been investigated systematically in this study. Firstly, conventional pyrolysis of coal and biomass was carried out using a vertical tube furnace. Characterizations of pyrolytic gas, liquid and solid products were conducted...

  3. A new South Africa: coal exports in transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botha, R.F. [Ministry of Mineral and Energy Affairs (South Africa)

    1995-11-01

    Discusses aspects of the coal industry in South Africa particularly in the light of the recent political changes i.e. the ending of apartheid and the election of the South African Government of National Unity. Areas covered include: increased foreign investment; the Government`s Reconstruction and Development Programme; improved health and safety; production of coal based liquid fuels; coal reserves; power generation; and exports and terminal facilities.

  4. Component Development to Accelerate Commercial Implementation of Ultra-Low Emissions Catalytic Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarty, Jon; Berry, Brian; Lundberg, Kare; Anson, Orris

    2003-03-31

    This final report describes a 2000-2003 program for the development of components and processes to enhance the commercialization of ultra-low emissions catalytic combustion in industrial gas turbines. The range of project tasks includes: development of more durable, lower-cost catalysts and catalytic combustor components; development and design of a catalytic pre-burner and a catalytic pilot burner for gas turbines, and on-site fuel conversion processing for utilization of liquid fuel.

  5. Catalytic production of biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theilgaard Madsen, A.

    2011-07-01

    The focus of this thesis is the catalytic production of diesel from biomass, especially emphasising catalytic conversion of waste vegetable oils and fats. In chapter 1 an introduction to biofuels and a review on different catalytic methods for diesel production from biomass is given. Two of these methods have been used industrially for a number of years already, namely the transesterification (and esterification) of oils and fats with methanol to form fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), and the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of fats and oils to form straight-chain alkanes. Other possible routes to diesel include upgrading and deoxygenation of pyrolysis oils or aqueous sludge wastes, condensations and reductions of sugars in aqueous phase (aqueous-phase reforming, APR) for monofunctional hydrocarbons, and gasification of any type of biomass followed by Fischer-Tropsch-synthesis for alkane biofuels. These methods have not yet been industrialised, but may be more promising due to the larger abundance of their potential feedstocks, especially waste feedstocks. Chapter 2 deals with formation of FAME from waste fats and oils. A range of acidic catalysts were tested in a model fat mixture of methanol, lauric acid and trioctanoin. Sulphonic acid-functionalised ionic liquids showed extremely fast convertion of lauric acid to methyl laurate, and trioctanoate was converted to methyl octanoate within 24 h. A catalyst based on a sulphonated carbon-matrix made by pyrolysing (or carbonising) carbohydrates, so-called sulphonated pyrolysed sucrose (SPS), was optimised further. No systematic dependency on pyrolysis and sulphonation conditions could be obtained, however, with respect to esterification activity, but high activity was obtained in the model fat mixture. SPS impregnated on opel-cell Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and microporous SiO{sub 2} (ISPS) was much less active in the esterification than the original SPS powder due to low loading and thereby low number of strongly acidic sites on the

  6. Coal Tar and Coal-Tar Pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about coal-tar products, which can raise your risk of skin cancer, lung cancer, and other types of cancer. Examples of coal-tar products include creosote, coal-tar pitch, and certain preparations used to treat skin conditions such as eczema, psoriasis, and dandruff.

  7. The new deal of coal; La nouvelle donne du charbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalaydjian, F.; Cornot-Gandolphe, S

    2008-07-01

    While coal appears as an inescapable resource to answer the energy needs of the 21. century, its highly CO{sub 2} emitting combustion represents a major risk with respect to the requirements of the fight against climate change. In the first part of this book, the basic aspects of energy markets are explained and in particular the role that coal is going to play in the world's energy supplies. In the second part, the new coal usages are presented, which, combined with CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration techniques, should allow to conciliate a massive use of coal and the respect of environmental constraints. This book is based on the works presented in February 2008 by the French institute of petroleum (IFP) about the new outlets of coal and the risks for climate change. Content: 1 - coal, energy of the 21. century: abundant and well distributed reserves; growing up world production; exponential world demand; international trade: still limited but in full expansion; 2 - Technologies for a CO{sub 2}-free coal: CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration technologies; towards poly-generation; production of coal-derived liquid fuels; 3 - Appendices: coals formation; coal in China: status and perspectives; coal in the USA: status and perspectives; coal in India: status and perspectives; COACH: an ambitious European project; CBM - E-CBM, status and perspectives. (J.S.)

  8. Microelement composition of coal hydrogasification products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egorov, A.P.; Laktionova, N.V.; Titova, T.A.; Tsehdehvsuren, Ts.

    1983-01-01

    A study was made of the micro-elements present in the liquid products of coal hydrogenation using emission spectrum analysis. The micro-element contents and their variation are one order lower than those of the original coals. The majority of micro-elements concentrate in the solid hydrogenation residue. Liquid hydrogenation products contain Pb, Ni, Co, Cu, Mn and Ga within the same range as in Soviet petroleum, but tend to have a higher Ba content and an appreciably lower V content.

  9. Characterization of coal-derived liquids and other fossil-fuel-related materials employing mass spectrometry. Final report, September 30, 1976-September 29, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheppele, S E

    1982-05-01

    A document was prepared which assessed the state-of-the art in the mass spectrometric characterization of fossil fuel materials and the relevance of these data to the fossil fuel industry. A Kratos DS50 SM data system was successfully interfaced to a CEC 21-110B mass spectrometer. Communications between the NOVA 3/12 computer in the data system and the OSU central computer were established. A Grant Comparator/Microdensitometer was acquired and made operational. Plans were developed and hardware acquired for interfacing the densitometer to the NOVA 3/12 computer. A quartz direct introduction probe was acquired for the CEC 21-110B. A temperature controller for the probe was acquired and interfaced to the slow speed ADC on the auxillary board in the data system/mass spectrometer interface. The combined FI/EI source was modified to operate in the FD mode and an apparatus was fabricated for conditioning FD emitters. A CSI supergrater 3 was interfaced to the PE 3920 gas chromatograph. The upgraded facility was used to develop mass spectrometric methods for the characterization of fossil fuel materials and to apply methods to the characterization of these materials. Activities included: (1) initial development of field-ionization mass spectrometry for the characterization of saturated hydrocarbons, (2) computerization of the technique of probe microdistillation/mass spectrometry, (3) initation of the development of a new method for the computer assisted assignment of formulas to ion masses, (4) characterization of neutral fractions from a hydrotreated tar-sands oil, and (5) characterization of coal-derived oils and asphaltenes.

  10. Westmin Resources signs multi-million dollar coal lease. [Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-11-01

    This paper gives details of a 40-year coal lease encompassing 971 hectares containing 120 million tonnes of coal near Lake Wabamun signed by Westmin Resources Limited with Transalta Utilities Corporation. A map is included. The agreement also makes provision whereby Westmin can join with Transalta in future development of liquid hydrocarbon extraction projects.

  11. Liquefaction and desulfurization of coal using synthesis gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yuan C.

    1977-03-08

    A process for desulfurizing and liquefying coal by heating said coal at a temperature of 375.degree.-475.degree. C in the presence of a slurry liquid, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, steam, and a catalyst comprising a desulfurization catalyst and an alkali metal salt.

  12. Formation and behaviour of coal free radicals in relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Significant changes in radical concentration and in the chemical nature of the coals are observed as pyrolysis temperature is increased. The implications of free radicals in coal liquefaction are examined. A gradual reduction in the number of free radicals over the temperature range (370 – 4200C) was observed in the liquid ...

  13. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques. Volume 2, appendices. Final technical report, October 1, 1991--September 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, C.W. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Chander, S. [Pennsylvania State Univ., College Park, PA (United States); Gutterman, C.

    1995-04-01

    Liquefaction experiments were undertaken using subbituminous Black Thunder mine coal to observe the effects of aqueous SO{sub 2} coal beneficiation and the introduction of various coal swelling solvents and catalyst precursors. Aqueous SO{sub 2} beneficiation of Black Thunder coal removed alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, increased the sulfur content and increased the catalytic liquefaction conversion to THF solubles compared to untreated Black Thunder coal. The liquefaction solvent had varying effects on coal conversion, depending upon the type of solvent added. The hydrogen donor solvent, dihydroanthracene, was most effective, while a coal-derived Wilsonville solvent promoted more coal conversion than did relatively inert 1-methylnaphthalene. Swelling of coal with hydrogen bonding solvents tetrahydrofuran (THF), isopropanol, and methanol, prior to reaction resulted in increased noncatalytic conversion of both untreated and SO{sub 2} treated Black Thunder coals, while dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), which was absorbed more into the coal than any other swelling solvent, was detrimental to coal conversion. Swelling of SO{sub 2} treated coal before liquefaction resulted in the highest coal conversions; however, the untreated coal showed the most improvements in catalytic reactions when swelled in either THF, isopropanol, or methanol prior to liquefaction. The aprotic solvent DMSO was detrimental to coal conversion.

  14. Comprehensive Fractal Description of Porosity of Coal of Different Ranks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jiangang; Zhang, Guocheng; Song, Zhimin; Liu, Gaofeng; Li, Bing

    2014-01-01

    We selected, as the objects of our research, lignite from the Beizao Mine, gas coal from the Caiyuan Mine, coking coal from the Xiqu Mine, and anthracite from the Guhanshan Mine. We used the mercury intrusion method and the low-temperature liquid nitrogen adsorption method to analyze the structure and shape of the coal pores and calculated the fractal dimensions of different aperture segments in the coal. The experimental results show that the fractal dimension of the aperture segment of lignite, gas coal, and coking coal with an aperture of greater than or equal to 10 nm, as well as the fractal dimension of the aperture segment of anthracite with an aperture of greater than or equal to 100 nm, can be calculated using the mercury intrusion method; the fractal dimension of the coal pore, with an aperture range between 2.03 nm and 361.14 nm, can be calculated using the liquid nitrogen adsorption method, of which the fractal dimensions bounded by apertures of 10 nm and 100 nm are different. Based on these findings, we defined and calculated the comprehensive fractal dimensions of the coal pores and achieved the unity of fractal dimensions for full apertures of coal pores, thereby facilitating, overall characterization for the heterogeneity of the coal pore structure. PMID:24955407

  15. COAL Conference Poster

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Taylor Alexander; McGibbney, Lewis John

    2017-01-01

    COAL Conference Poster This archive contains the COAL conference poster for the AGU Fall Meeting 2017 by Taylor Alexander Brown. The Inkscape SVG source is available at https://github.com/capstone-coal/coal-conference-poster/ under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International license.

  16. Novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for temperature-programmed coal liquefaction. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chunshan Song; Schobert, H.H.; Parfitt, D.P. [and others

    1997-11-01

    Development of new catalysts is a promising approach to more efficient coal liquefaction. It has been recognized that dispersed catalysts are superior to supported catalysts for primary liquefaction of coals, because the control of initial coal dissolution or depolymerization requires intimate contact between the catalyst and coal. This research is a fundamental and exploratory study on catalytic coal liquefaction, with the emphasis on exploring novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for coal liquefaction and the effectiveness of temperature-programmed liquefaction using dispersed catalysts. The primary objective of this research was to explore novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts from organometallic molecular precursors, that could be used in low concentrations but exhibit relatively high activity for efficient hydroliquefaction of coals under temperature-programmed conditions. We have synthesized and tested various catalyst precursors in liquefaction of subbituminous and bituminous coals and in model compound studies to examine how do the composition and structure of the catalytic precursors affect their effectiveness for coal liquefaction under different reaction conditions, and how do these factors affect their catalytic functions for hydrogenation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons, for cleavage of C-C bonds in polycyclic systems such as 4-(1-naphthylmethyl)bibenzyl, for hydrogenolysis of C-O bond such as that in dinaphthylether, for hydrodeoxygenation of phenolic compounds and other oxygen-containing compounds such as xanthene, and for hydrodesulfurization of polycyclic sulfur compounds such as dibenzothiophene. The novel bimetallic and monometallic precursors synthesized and tested in this project include various Mo- and Fe-based compounds.

  17. Coal liquefaction and gas conversion: Proceedings. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    Volume I contains papers presented at the following sessions: AR-Coal Liquefaction; Gas to Liquids; and Direct Liquefaction. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  18. A X-ray diffraction analysis on graphene layers of Assam coal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    ing to its utilizations. The technological use of the factors such as structure, mineral matter associated with coal is of more practical importance because it creates new opportunities both for widening this raw material in coke making and conversion of coal in order to obtain liquid fuel as well as coal base chemical products.

  19. Design of generic coal conversion facilities: Process release---Direct coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    The direct liquefaction portion of the PETC generic direct coal liquefaction process development unit (PDU) is being designed to provide maximum operating flexibility. The PDU design will permit catalytic and non-catalytic liquefaction concepts to be investigated at their proof-of-the-concept stages before any larger scale operations are attempted. The principal variations from concept to concept are reactor configurations and types. These include thermal reactor, ebullating bed reactor, slurry phase reactor and fixed bed reactor, as well as different types of catalyst. All of these operating modes are necessary to define and identify the optimum process conditions and configurations for determining improved economical liquefaction technology.

  20. Catalytic multi-stage liquefaction (CMSL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comolli, A.G.; Ganguli, P.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Lee, T.L.K.; Pradhan, V.R.; Popper, G.; Smith, T.; Stalzer, R.H.

    1996-11-01

    Reported herein are the details and the results of laboratory and bench scale experiments that were conducted at Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-93PC92147 during the period of October 1, 1992, to December 31, 1995. The program results described herein build on the previous technology base and investigating additional methods to improve the economics of producing transportation fuels from coal. This included purely physical parameters, coal treatment and variation in solvent to coal ratio, the use of syngas to replace part of the hydrogen as the reducing gas, the use of dispersed catalyst in addition to and replacing the supported catalyst, and the co-processing of coal with plastic waste material. The overall objective of this program is to produce liquid fuels from direct coal liquefaction at a cost that is competitive with conventional fuels. The report includes the results of an economic assessment of the various process strategies that were evaluated during this program. A summary of the technical/economic evaluations is given in Volume I, Section II of this report. The experimental details of the eleven run of the program are given in Volume I, Section III and Volume II of this report. The details of the technical evaluations are given in the Volume III of the report.

  1. Low-temperature catalytic conversion of carbonaceous materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabakaev Roman B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Laws of the rate of carbon conversion in steam atmosphere at a temperature in modes of the catalytic low-temperature treatment of peat, brown coal, semi-coke from peat and brown coal are obtained by experiments. Increasing of the rate of carbon conversion in temperature range up to 500 °C is achieved by using of catalysts. The possibility of using results is associated with the burners, a working zone of which is porous filling from carbonaceous particles.

  2. Coal data: A reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    This report, Coal Data: A Reference, summarizes basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the US. This report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Supplemental Figures and Tables`` contains statistics, graphs, maps, and other illustrations that show trends, patterns, geographic locations, and similar coal-related information. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces some new terms. The last edition of Coal Data: A Reference was published in 1991. The present edition contains updated data as well as expanded reviews and additional information. Added to the text are discussions of coal quality, coal prices, unions, and strikes. The appendix has been expanded to provide statistics on a variety of additional topics, such as: trends in coal production and royalties from Federal and Indian coal leases, hours worked and earnings for coal mine employment, railroad coal shipments and revenues, waterborne coal traffic, coal export loading terminals, utility coal combustion byproducts, and trace elements in coal. The information in this report has been gleaned mainly from the sources in the bibliography. The reader interested in going beyond the scope of this report should consult these sources. The statistics are largely from reports published by the Energy Information Administration.

  3. The Hydrodynamic Characteristics of Cocurrent Downflow and Cocurrent Upflow Gas-Liquid-Solid Catalytic Fixed Bed Reactors: the Effect of Pressure Les caractéristiques hydrodynamiques des réacteurs gaz-liquide-solide à lit de catalyseur fixe à écoulement cocourant montant et descendant : l'influence de la pression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wild G.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available While most catalytic fixed bed gas-liquid reactors of the petrol industry work at quite high pressures, the academic scientific work in this field concerned itself almost exclusively with the domain of approximatively atmospheric pressures. The authors present the results of some years of experimental investigations on the hydrodynamic characteristics of trickle bed reactors and lately of cocurrent upflow reactors. During the last years, results were also obtained under pressures up to 8 MPa. The measurements were made in a small scale cold flow equipment (diameter 23 mm. Different aqueous and organic more or less viscous, eventually coalescence inhibiting liquids, four gases and a number of non porous more or less wettable particles were used. The liquid holdup was determined in all cases by measuring liquid phase residence time distribution by different tracers. The following conclusions may be drawn:(a In the high interaction regime, it is the inertia of the gas and the liquid phases which is the main cause of the dissipation of mechanical energy. In this regime, results obtained in cocurrent upflow and downflow are approximately equal. (b Most correlations of literature are unable to predict the effect of pressure on the pressure drop or the liquid holdup. (c The gas viscosity has no influence on the hydrodynamics. It is therefore possible to simulate for example hydrogen under high pressure conditions by another gas of the same density (at a much lower pressures. A critical evaluation of the correlations and/or models of literature is presented, concerning their ability to represent the different characteristics as a function of pressure. Tandis que la plupart des réacteurs industriels gaz-liquide à lit de catalyseur fixe fonctionnent à assez hautes pressions, les travaux scientifiques académiques sont, dans ce domaine, presque exclusivement consacrés aux pressions avoisinant la pression atmosphérique. Les auteurs présentent les r

  4. Partial oxidation of methane to methanol over catalyst ZSM-5 from coal fly ash and rice husk ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirda Yanti Fusia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Methane is one of the greenhouse gases that can be converted into liquid fuels such as methanol to retain most of the energy of methane and produce a cleaner environment. The conversion of methane to methanol using ZMS-5 represents a breakthrough in the utilization of methane. However, material sources for zeolite synthesis as catalyst usually are pro-analysis grade materials, which are expensive. Therefore, in this research, coal fly ash and rice husk ash were used as raw materials for mesoporous ZSM-5 zeolite synthesis. First, coal fly ash and rice husk were subjected to pre-treatment to extract silicate (SiO44− and aluminate (AlO45− and impurities separation. The ZSM-5 zeolite was synthesized through hydrothermal treatment using two types of templates. After ZSM-5 was synthesized, it was modified with Cobalt through impregnation method. The catalytic activity of both ZSM-5 and Co/ZSM-5 zeolites as heterogeneous catalysts in partial oxidation of methane were preliminary tested and compared with that commercial one. The result showed that the zeolite catalyst ZSM-5 from fly ash coal and rice husk ash has the potential to be used as catalysts in the partial oxidation of methane to methanol.

  5. Heterogeneously catalyzed coal hydroliquefaction: screening of catalysts and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legarreta, J.; Arias, P.L.; Marco, I. de; Chomon, M.J.; Caballero, B.; Cambra, J.F.; Guemez, B.; Fierro, J.L.G. (Universidad del Pais Vasco, Bilbao (Spain). Escuel de Ingenieros de Bilbao)

    1994-03-01

    This project is centred upon the study of the activities of different catalysts in one-step coal liquefaction processes. A series of alumina supported catalysts was prepared by multistep impregnation, including a conventional CoMo/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] and other preparations containing Zn as a second promoter, and the alumina was acidified with different fluorine contents. These catalysts were extensive physicochemically characterized and their hydrodesulphurization (HDS) and hydrogenation (HYD) activities were tested using a model compound (thiophene). The results obtained indicate that partial substitution of Co by Zn does not affect the HDS and HYD activities and that fluorination diminishes these activities because of textural changes of the carrier. The prepared catalysts were tested in coal liquefaction and their activities were compared to those of cheap iron containing dispersion catalysts such as red mud, Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3] aerosol, and Cottrell and pyrite ashes (by-products of the sulphur acid industry). Prior to the study and comparison of the catalyst activities and exploration of the influence of various operating conditions (temperature, tetralin/coal ratio, type of solvent and operating pressure) on catalytic and non-catalytic coal liquefaction was performed. The coal used in most of the experiments was a Spanish subbituminous A coal. Additionally, a comparison of all the catalysts was carried out with a standard high volatile bituminous coal. Supported catalysts present higher activities than iron-based catalysts. Among these catalysts, red mud proved to be the most active. Catalytic experiments using anthracene oil as solvent and CoZnMo/fluorinated alumina catalysts present maximum yields indicating that Zn as second promoter and carrier acidification to be beneficial in coal liquefaction with solvents similar to those used in real plants. 41 refs., 9 figs., 13 tabs.

  6. Technology assessment of various coal-fuel options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coenen, R.; Findling, B.; Klein-Vielhauer, S.; Nieke, E.; Paschen, H.; Tangen, H.; Wintzer, D.

    1991-01-01

    The technology assessment (TA) study of coal-based fuels presented in this report was performed for the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology. Its goal was to support decision-making of the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology in the field of coal conversion. Various technical options of coal liquefaction have been analyzed on the basis of hard coal as well as lignite -- direct liquefaction of coal (hydrogenation) and different possibilities of indirect liquefaction, that is the production of fuels (methanol, gasoline) by processing products of coal gasification. The TA study takes into consideration the entire technology chain from coal mining via coal conversion to the utilization of coal-based fuels in road transport. The analysis focuses on costs of the various options, overall economic effects, which include effects on employment and public budgets, and on environmental consequences compared to the use of liquid fuels derived from oil. Furthermore, requirements of infrastructure and other problems of the introduction of coal-based fuels as well as prospects for the export of technologies of direct and indirect coal liquefaction have been analyzed in the study. 14 figs., 10 tabs

  7. Co-Processing Coal and Natural Gas by the Hynol Process for Enhanced Methanol Production and Reduced CO2 Emissions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steinberg, Meyer

    1997-01-01

    ...) catalytic methanol synthesis. The Hynol Process is a total recycle process. Using a process simulation computer program, mass and energy balances and yields and efficiency data have been obtained for a range of natural gas to coal feedstock ratios...

  8. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aden, Nathaniel; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina

    2009-07-01

    future coal consumption is likely to come from the burgeoning coal-liquefaction and chemicals industries. If coal to chemicals capacity reaches 70 million tonnes and coal-to-liquids capacity reaches 60 million tonnes, coal feedstock requirements would add an additional 450 million tonnes by 2025. Even with more efficient growth among these drivers, China's annual coal demand is expected to reach 3.9 to 4.3 billion tonnes by 2025. Central government support for nuclear and renewable energy has not reversed China's growing dependence on coal for primary energy. Substitution is a matter of scale: offsetting one year of recent coal demand growth of 200 million tonnes would require 107 billion cubic meters of natural gas (compared to 2007 growth of 13 BCM), 48 GW of nuclear (compared to 2007 growth of 2 GW), or 86 GW of hydropower capacity (compared to 2007 growth of 16 GW). Ongoing dependence on coal reduces China's ability to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions growth. If coal demand remains on a high growth path, carbon dioxide emissions from coal combustion alone would exceed total US energy-related carbon emissions by 2010. Within China's coal-dominated energy system, domestic transportation has emerged as the largest bottleneck for coal industry growth and is likely to remain a constraint to further expansion. China has a low proportion of high-quality reserves, but is producing its best coal first. Declining quality will further strain production and transport capacity. Furthermore, transporting coal to users has overloaded the train system and dramatically increased truck use, raising transportation oil demand. Growing international imports have helped to offset domestic transport bottlenecks. In the long term, import demand is likely to exceed 200 million tonnes by 2025, significantly impacting regional markets.

  9. Fuel production from coal by the Mobil Oil process using nuclear high-temperature process heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, G.

    1982-01-01

    Two processes for the production of liquid hydrocarbons are presented: Direct conversion of coal into fuel (coal hydrogenation) and indirect conversion of coal into fuel (syngas production, methanol synthesis, Mobil Oil process). Both processes have several variants in which nuclear process heat may be used; in most cases, the nuclear heat is introduced in the gas production stage. The following gas production processes are compared: LURGI coal gasification process; steam reformer methanation, with and without coal hydrogasification and steam gasification of coal. (orig./EF) [de

  10. Alkaloid-derived molecules in low rank Argonne premium coals.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winans, R. E.; Tomczyk, N. A.; Hunt, J. E.

    2000-11-30

    Molecules that are probably derived from alkaloids have been found in the extracts of the subbituminous and lignite Argonne Premium Coals. High resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LCMS) have been used to characterize pyridine and supercritical extracts. The supercritical extraction used an approach that has been successful for extracting alkaloids from natural products. The first indication that there might be these natural products in coals was the large number of molecules found containing multiple nitrogen and oxygen heteroatoms. These molecules are much less abundant in bituminous coals and absent in the higher rank coals.

  11. Catalytic Conversion of Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Luque

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum, natural gas and coal supply most of the energy consumed worldwide and their massive utilization has allowed our society to reach high levels of development in the past century.[...

  12. New catalysts for coal processing: Metal carbides and nitrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Ted Oyama; David F. Cox

    1999-12-03

    The subject of this research project was to investigate the catalytic properties of a new class of materials, transition metal carbides and nitrides, for treatment of coal liquid and petroleum feedstocks. The main objectives were: (1) preparation of catalysts in unsupported and supported form; (2) characterization of the materials; (3) evaluation of their catalytic properties in HDS and HDN; (4) measurement of the surface properties; and (5) observation of adsorbed species. All of the objectives were substantially carried out and the results will be described in detail below. The catalysts were transition metal carbides and nitrides spanning Groups 4--6 in the Periodic Table. They were chosen for study because initial work had shown they were promising materials for hydrotreating. The basic strategy was first to prepare the materials in unsupported form to identify the most promising catalyst, and then to synthesize a supported form of the material. Already work had been carried out on the synthesis of the Group VI compounds Mo{sub 2}C, Mo{sub 2}N, and WC, and new methods were developed for the Group V compounds VC and NbC. All the catalysts were then evaluated in a hydrotreating test at realistic conditions. It was found that the most active catalyst was Mo{sub 2}C, and further investigations of the material were carried out in supported form. A new technique was employed for the study of the bulk and surface properties of the catalysts, near edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy (NEXAFS), that fingerprinted the electronic structure of the materials. Finally, two new research direction were explored. Bimetallic alloys formed between two transition metals were prepared, resulting in catalysts having even higher activity than Mo{sub 2}C. The performance of the catalysts in hydrodechloration was also investigated.

  13. Dispersed-phase catalysis in coal liquefaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utz, B.R.; Cugini, A.V.; Frommell, E.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that the specific reaction (activation) conditions for the conversion of catalyst precursors to unsupported catalyst have a direct effect on the catalytic activity and dispersion. The importance of reaction intermediates in decomposition of ammonium heptamolybdate and ammonium tetrathiomolybdate, and the sensitivity of these intermediates to reaction conditions, were studied in coal liquefaction systems. Recent results indicate that optimization of activation conditions facilitates the formation of a highly dispersed and active form of molybdenum disulfide for coal liquefaction. The use of the catalyst precursors ammonium heptamolybdate, ammonium tetrathiomolybdate, and molybdenum trisulfide for the conversion of coal to soluble products will be discussed. The use of an unsupported dispersed-phase catalyst for direct coal liquefaction is not a novel concept and has been employed in may studies with varying success. Dispersed-phase catalysts soluble and oil-soluble salts, and as finely divided powders. While some methods of catalyst introduction give higher dispersion of the catalyst and greater activity for the liquefaction of coal, all of the techniques allow the formation of a finely dispersed inorganic phase

  14. Coal information 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Coal Information (1997 edition) is the latest edition of a publication that has been produced annually by the IEA since 1983. The report is intended to provide both Member countries of the OECD and those employed in all sectors of the coal industry with information on current world coal market trends and long-term prospects. It includes information on coal prices, demand, trade, supply, production capacity, transport, environmental issues (including emission standards for coal-fired boilers), coal ports, coal-fired power stations and coal used in non -OECD countries. Part I of the publication contains a wide ranging review of world coal market developments in 1996 and current prospects to 2010. The review is based on historical data of OECD energy supply and demand, data on other world regions, projections of OECD coal supply, demand and trade and information provided by the CIAB. Part II provides, in tabular and graphical form, a more detailed and comprehensive statistical picture of coal developments and future prospects for coal in the OECD, by region and for individual Member countries. Readers interested in projections are strongly advised to read the notes for individual countries in Principles and Definitions in Part II. Coal statistics for non-OECD countries are presented in Part III of the book. Summary data are available on hard coal supply and end-use statistics for about 40 countries and regions world-wide. Data are based on official national submissions to the United Nations in Geneva and New York, national energy publications, information provided to the IEA Secretariat by national statistical offices as well as other unofficial Secretariat sources. Further information on coal used in non-OECD countries is published annually by the IEA in Energy Statistics and Balances of Non-OECD Countries. Also included in Part III are the Survey of Coal Ports world-wide and the Survey of Coal-fired Power Stations in coal-importing countries

  15. Catalytic distillation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1982-06-22

    A method is described for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C[sub 4] feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

  16. Catalytic Functions of Standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Blind (Knut)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe three different areas and the examples have illustrated several catalytic functions of standards for innovation. First, the standardisation process reduces the time to market of inventions, research results and innovative technologies. Second, standards themselves promote the

  17. Structure and chemistry of coals: calorimetric analyses. [Wetting heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ,

    1979-01-01

    Heats of immersion (h/sub i/) of coals have been shown to be a valuable means of investigating structure and chemistry of coals. This report outlines some of the factors involved. Lower ranked coals imbibe more liquids (i.e., H/sub 2/O) onto more polar sites (carbonyl, phenolic, etc.) than higher ranked coals. Mineral matter reacts strongly with polar liquids (i.e., H/sub 2/O) giving rise to enhanced h/sub i/. Grinding of coals not only decreases particle size but modifies the coal structure to an increasing degree dependent upon the extent and severity of grinding. The magnitude of h/sub i/ and the rate of reaction are both modified consistent with the existence of a shrinking core or unperturbed coal structure serving as substrate to which the modified (less ordered) material is bound. Chemical (alkali) attack seems to loosen the coal structure markedly to allow enhanced access to fluid reagents. These exploratory studies have shown that calorimetric analyses similar to those developed and used by A.C. Zettlemoyer and his coworkers are excellent means for elucidating the structure and chemistry of coals and related materials.

  18. Catalytic distillation structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1984-04-17

    Catalytic distillation structure is described for use in reaction distillation columns, and provides reaction sites and distillation structure consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and is present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consists of at least 10 volume % open space. 10 figs.

  19. MINIMIZATION OF CARBON LOSS IN COAL REBURNING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lissianski, Vitali V.; Loc Ho; Maly, Peter M.; Zamansky, Vladimir M.

    2002-01-01

    This project develops Fuel-Flexible Reburning (FFR), which combines conventional reburning and Advanced Reburning (AR) technologies with an innovative method of delivering coal as the reburning fuel. The FFR can be retrofit to existing boilers and can be configured in several ways depending on the boiler, coal characteristics, and NO x control requirements. Fly ash generated by the technology will be a saleable byproduct for use in the cement and construction industries. FFR can also reduce NO x by 60%-70%, achieving an emissions level of 0.15 lb/10 6 Btu in many coal-fired boilers equipped with Low NO x Burners. Total process cost is expected to be one third to one half of that for Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR). Activities during reporting period included design, manufacture, assembly, and shake down of the coal gasifier and pilot-scale testing of the efficiency of coal gasification products in FFR. Tests were performed in a 300 kW Boiler Simulator Facility. Several coals with different volatiles content were tested. Data suggested that incremental increase in the efficiency of NO x reduction due to the gasification was more significant for less reactive coals with low volatiles content. Experimental results also suggested that the efficiency of NO x reduction in FFR was higher when air was used as a transport media. Up to 14% increase in the efficiency of NO x reduction in comparison with that of basic reburning was achieved with air transport. Temperature and residence time in the gasification zone also affected the efficiency of NO x reduction

  20. Montana Integrated Carbon to Liquids (ICTL) Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiato, Rocco A. [Accelergy Corporation, Houston, TX (United States); Sharma, Ramesh [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC); Allen, Mark [Accelergy Corporation, Houston, TX (United States). Integrated Carbon Solutions; Peyton, Brent [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Macur, Richard [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Dept. of Land Resources and Environmental Sciences; Cameron, Jemima [Australian Energy Company Ltd., Hovea (Australia). Australian American Energy Corporation (AAEC)

    2013-12-01

    Integrated carbon-to-liquids technology (ICTL) incorporates three basic processes for the conversion of a wide range of feedstocks to distillate liquid fuels: (1) Direct Microcatalytic Coal Liquefaction (MCL) is coupled with biomass liquefaction via (2) Catalytic Hydrodeoxygenation and Isomerization (CHI) of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) or trigylceride fatty acids (TGFA) to produce liquid fuels, with process derived (3) CO2 Capture and Utilization (CCU) via algae production and use in BioFertilizer for added terrestrial sequestration of CO2, or as a feedstock for MCL and/or CHI. This novel approach enables synthetic fuels production while simultaneously meeting EISA 2007 Section 526 targets, minimizing land use and water consumption, and providing cost competitive fuels at current day petroleum prices. ICTL was demonstrated with Montana Crow sub-bituminous coal in MCL pilot scale operations at the Energy and Environmental Research Center at the University of North Dakota (EERC), with related pilot scale CHI studies conducted at the University of Pittsburgh Applied Research Center (PARC). Coal-Biomass to Liquid (CBTL) Fuel samples were evaluated at the US Air Force Research Labs (AFRL) in Dayton and greenhouse tests of algae based BioFertilizer conducted at Montana State University (MSU). Econometric modeling studies were also conducted on the use of algae based BioFertilizer in a wheat-camelina crop rotation cycle. We find that the combined operation is not only able to help boost crop yields, but also to provide added crop yields and associated profits from TGFA (from crop production) for use an ICTL plant feedstock. This program demonstrated the overall viability of ICTL in pilot scale operations. Related work on the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of a Montana project indicated that CCU could be employed very effectively to reduce the overall carbon footprint of the MCL/CHI process. Plans are currently being made to conduct larger

  1. International perspectives on coal preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The report consists of the vugraphs from the presentations which covered the following topics: Summaries of the US Department of Energy`s coal preparation research programs; Preparation trends in Russia; South African coal preparation developments; Trends in hard coal preparation in Germany; Application of coal preparation technology to oil sands extraction; Developments in coal preparation in China; and Coal preparation in Australia.

  2. Catalytic partial oxidation of methanol and ethanol for hydrogen generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohn, Keith L; Lin, Yu-Chuan

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogen-powered fuel cell vehicles feature high energy efficiency and minor environmental impact. Liquid fuels are ideal hydrogen carriers, which can catalytically be converted into syngas or hydrogen to power vehicles. Among the potential liquid fuels, alcohols have several advantages. The hydrogen/carbon ratio is higher than that of other liquid hydrocarbons or oxygenates, especially in the case of methanol. In addition, alcohols can be derived from renewable biomass resources. Catalytic partial oxidation of methanol or ethanol offers immense potential for onboard hydrogen generation due to its rapid reaction rate and exothermic nature. These benefits stimulate a burgeoning research community in catalyst design, reaction engineering, and mechanistic investigation. The purpose of this Minireview is to provide insight into syngas and hydrogen production from methanol and ethanol partial oxidation, particularly highlighting catalytic chemistry.

  3. Role of the resid solvent in catalytic coprocessing with finely divided catalysts. Quarterly report, April 1995--June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The research reported in this progress report describes the continuation of coal-resid coprocessing reactions that were discussed in the January to March 1995 Quarterly Report. During previous quarters, Maya and FHC-623 resids were evaluated in non-catalytic and catalytic reactions at 400{degrees}C with Pittsburgh No. 8 and DECS-17 Blind Canyon coals. From the complete reaction matrix containing the two coals and two resids, it was found that the influence of resids on coprocessing depended on the type of coal used; for example, under catalytic reaction conditions, the hexane solubles of Maya resid increased coal conversion of Pittsburgh No. 8 coal but decreased that of DECS-17. In order to observe the intrinsic behavior of resids during coprocessing, another resid, Manjii, and another coal, Illinois No. 6, are being tested. These reactions were begun this quarter. The results are reported herein. In order to evaluate the role of the different components in resids, the resids were separated into hexane soluble materials and hexane insoluble materials. The hexane solubles, which should contain the naphthenes present in the resid, and the untreated whole resids were reacted with coal at equivalent liquefaction conditions and at the same conditions as when the resids were reacted individually.

  4. EXPLORATORY RESEARCH ON NOVEL COAL LIQUEFACTION CONCEPT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.

    1998-11-30

    The report presents a summary the work performed under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-95PC95050. Investigations performed under Task 4--Integrated Flow Sheet Testing are detailed. In this program, a novel direct coal liquefaction technology was investigated by CONSOL Inc. with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and LDP Associates. The process concept explored consists of a first-stage coal dissolution step in which the coal is solubilized by hydride ion donation. In the second stage, the products are catalytically upgraded to refinery feedstocks. Integrated first-stage and solids-separation steps were used to prepare feedstocks for second-stage catalytic upgrading. An engineering and economic evaluation was conducted concurrently with experimental work throughout the program. Approaches to reduce costs for a conceptual commercial plant were recommended at the conclusion of Task 3. These approaches were investigated in Task 4. The economic analysis of the process as it was defined at the conclusion of Task 4, indicates that the production of refined product (gasoline) via this novel direct liquefaction technology is higher than the cost associated with conventional two-stage liquefaction technologies.

  5. Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal. Semi-annual report, January--June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    Summaries of progress on the following tasks are presented: Mixed waste treatment; Hot water extraction of nonpolar organic pollutant from soils; Aqueous phase thermal oxidation wastewater treatment; Review of results from comprehensive characterization of air toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants; Air toxic fine particulate control; Effectiveness of sorbents for trace elements; Catalyst for utilization of methane in selective catalytic reduction of NOx; Fuel utilization properties; Hot gas cleaning; PFBC; catalytic tar cracking; sulfur forms in coal; resid and bitumen desulfurization; biodesulfurization; diesel fuel desulfurization; stability issues; Sorbent carbon development; Evaluation of carbon products; Stable and supercritical chars; Briquette binders; Carbon molecular sieves; Coal char fuel evaporation canister sorbent; Development of a coal by-product classification protocol for utilization; Use of coal ash in recycled plastics and composite materials; Corrosion of advanced structural materials; Joining of advanced structural materials; Resource data evaluation; and the Usti and Labem (Czech Republic) coal-upgrading program.

  6. Theory of the liquid phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rank, V.

    1944-01-31

    This report discussed the regularities in the behavior of the liquid phase and illustrated these with a few examples and also discussed a method of testing of hydrogenation behavior of coals. A table was given that contained examples of the behavior of different coals in the liquid phase for the purpose of production of oils of different composition. All tests had been run at 600 atm with iron catalysts, a normal gas throughput, and with about a 50% paste. The remaining independent variables were the temperature, the throughput, and the composition of the pasting oils. When these three requirements were fixed, the conversion of a given coal, yield, composition of the oils produced, gasification, and asphalt production would be definite for a fixed method of working up the residue. Results would vary from coal to coal. As a general rule, the Ruhr coal seemed better suited to gasoline and middle oil production than the Upper Silesian coal. The recycling of oils in a closed cycle was not necessarily the best means to determine the particular method best suited to a given coal because of the possibility of superimposed effects that could obscure the issue. The use of B-bombs with a standard pasting oil was basically more correct in spite of the disadvantages of using a non-continuous process. 2 tables.

  7. Inorganic Constituents in Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović A.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Coal contains not only organic matter but also small amounts of inorganic constituents. More thanone hundred different minerals and virtually every element in the periodic table have been foundin coal. Commonly found group minerals in coal are: major (quartz, pyrite, clays and carbonates,minor, and trace minerals. Coal includes a lot of elements of low mass fraction of the orderof w=0.01 or 0.001 %. They are trace elements connected with organic matter or minerals comprisedin coal. The fractions of trace elements usually decrease when the rank of coal increases.Fractions of the inorganic elements are different, depending on the coal bed and basin. A varietyof analytical methods and techniques can be used to determine the mass fractions, mode ofoccurrence, and distribution of organic constituents in coal. There are many different instrumentalmethods for analysis of coal and coal products but atomic absorption spectroscopy – AAS is theone most commonly used. Fraction and mode of occurrence are one of the main factors that haveinfluence on transformation and separation of inorganic constituents during coal conversion.Coal, as an important world energy source and component for non-fuels usage, will be continuouslyand widely used in the future due to its relatively abundant reserves. However, there is aconflict between the requirements for increased use of coal on the one hand and less pollution onthe other. It’s known that the environmental impacts, due to either coal mining or coal usage, canbe: air, water and land pollution. Although, minor components, inorganic constituents can exert asignificant influence on the economic value, utilization, and environmental impact of the coal.

  8. Outlook and Challenges for Chinese Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aden, Nathaniel T.; Fridley, David G.; Zheng, Nina

    2008-06-20

    China has been, is, and will continue to be a coal-powered economy. The rapid growth of coal demand since 2001 has created deepening strains and bottlenecks that raise questions about supply security. Although China's coal is 'plentiful,' published academic and policy analyses indicate that peak production will likely occur between 2016 and 2029. Given the current economic growth trajectory, domestic production constraints will lead to a coal gap that is not likely to be filled with imports. Urbanization, heavy industry growth, and increasing per-capita consumption are the primary drivers of rising coal usage. In 2006, the power sector, iron and steel, and cement accounted for 71% of coal consumption. Power generation is becoming more efficient, but even extensive roll-out of the highest efficiency units could save only 14% of projected 2025 coal demand. If China follows Japan, steel production would peak by 2015; cement is likely to follow a similar trajectory. A fourth wedge of future coal consumption is likely to come from the burgeoning coal-liquefaction and chemicals industries. New demand from coal-to-liquids and coal-to-chemicals may add 450 million tonnes of coal demand by 2025. Efficient growth among these drivers indicates that China's annual coal demand will reach 4.2 to 4.7 billion tonnes by 2025. Central government support for nuclear and renewable energy has not been able to reduce China's growing dependence on coal for primary energy. Few substitution options exist: offsetting one year of recent coal demand growth would require over 107 billion cubic meters of natural gas, 48 GW of nuclear, or 86 GW of hydropower capacity. While these alternatives will continue to grow, the scale of development using existing technologies will be insufficient to substitute significant coal demand before 2025. The central role of heavy industry in GDP growth and the difficulty of substituting other fuels suggest that coal consumption is

  9. Porous media for catalytic renewable energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotz, Nico

    2012-05-01

    A novel flow-based method is presented to place catalytic nanoparticles into a reactor by sol-gelation of a porous ceramic consisting of copper-based nanoparticles, silica sand, ceramic binder, and a gelation agent. This method allows for the placement of a liquid precursor containing the catalyst into the final reactor geometry without the need of impregnating or coating of a substrate with the catalytic material. The so generated foam-like porous ceramic shows properties highly appropriate for use as catalytic reactor material, e.g., reasonable pressure drop due to its porosity, high thermal and catalytic stability, and excellent catalytic behavior. The catalytic activity of micro-reactors containing this foam-like ceramic is tested in terms of their ability to convert alcoholic biofuel (e.g. methanol) to a hydrogen-rich gas mixture with low concentrations of carbon monoxide (up to 75% hydrogen content and less than 0.2% CO, for the case of methanol). This gas mixture is subsequently used in a low-temperature fuel cell, converting the hydrogen directly to electricity. A low concentration of CO is crucial to avoid poisoning of the fuel cell catalyst. Since conventional Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cells require CO concentrations far below 100 ppm and since most methods to reduce the mole fraction of CO (such as Preferential Oxidation or PROX) have CO conversions of up to 99%, the alcohol fuel reformer has to achieve initial CO mole fractions significantly below 1%. The catalyst and the porous ceramic reactor of the present study can successfully fulfill this requirement.

  10. Flash hydrogenation of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manowitz, Bernard; Steinberg, Meyer; Sheehan, Thomas V.; Winsche, Warren E.; Raseman, Chad J.

    1976-01-01

    A process for the hydrogenation of coal comprising the contacting of powdered coal with hydrogen in a rotating fluidized bed reactor. A rotating fluidized bed reactor suitable for use in this process is also disclosed. The coal residence time in the reactor is limited to less than 5 seconds while the hydrogen contact time is not in excess of 0.2 seconds.

  11. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment: Task 6 Topical Report, Utah Clean Coal Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.J.; Deo, M.; Edding, E.G.; Hradisky, M.; Kelly, K.E.; Krumm, R.; Sarofim, Adel; Wang, D.

    2014-08-15

    The long-term objective of this task is to develop a transformational energy production technology by in- situ thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas and/or liquid transportation fuels while leaving much of the coal’s carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-greenhouse gas (GHG) emitting fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This task focused on three areas: Experimental. The Underground Coal Thermal Treatment (UCTT) team focused on experiments at two scales, bench-top and slightly larger, to develop data to understand the feasibility of a UCTT process as well as to develop validation/uncertainty quantification (V/UQ) data for the simulation team. Simulation. The investigators completed development of High Performance Computing (HPC) simulations of UCTT. This built on our simulation developments over the course of the task and included the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)- based tools to perform HPC simulations of a realistically sized domain representative of an actual coal field located in Utah. CO2 storage. In order to help determine the amount of CO2 that can be sequestered in a coal formation that has undergone UCTT, adsorption isotherms were performed on coals treated to 325, 450, and 600°C with slow heating rates. Raw material was sourced from the Sufco (Utah), Carlinville (Illinois), and North Antelope (Wyoming) mines. The study indicated that adsorptive capacity for the coals increased with treatment temperature and that coals treated to 325°C showed less or similar capacity to the untreated coals.

  12. Self-scrubbing coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindig, J.K.

    1992-01-01

    More than 502 million tons - 65 percent of all coal shipped to utilities in 1990 - were above 1.2 pounds of sulfur dioxide per million Btu. Most of the coal, even though cleaned in conventional coal preparation plants, still does not meet the emission limitation the Clean Air Act Amendments mandate for the year 2000. To cope with this fact, most utilities plan to switch to low sulfur (western U.S. or Central Appalachian) coal or install scrubbers. Both solutions have serous drawbacks. Switching puts local miners out of work and weakens the economy in the utility's service territory. Scrubbing requires a major capital expenditure by the utility. Scrubbers also increase the operating complexity and costs of the generating station and produce yet another environmental problem, scrubber sludge. Employing three new cost-effective technologies developed by Customer Coals International (CCl), most non-compliance coals east of the Mississippi River can be brought into year-2000 compliance. The compliance approach employed, depends upon the characteristics of the raw coal. Three types of raw coal are differentiated, based upon the amount of organic sulfur in the coals and the ease (or difficultly) of liberating the pyrite. They are: Low organic sulfur content and pyrite that liberates easily. Moderate organic sulfur content and pyrite that liberates easily. High organic sulfur content or the pyrite liberates with difficulty. In this paper examples of each type of raw coal are presented below, and the compliance approach employed for each is described. The names of the beneficiated coal products produced from each type of raw coal give above are: Carefree Coal, Self-Scrubbing Coal and Dry-Scrubbing Coal

  13. Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Towle; Richard Donais; Todd Hellewell; Robert Lewis; Robert Schrecengost

    2007-06-30

    For more than two decades, Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom) has developed a range of low cost, infurnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes Alstom's internally developed TFS 2000{trademark} firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy. As of the date of this report, more than 270 units representing approximately 80,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with Alstom low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coal to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coal, with typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing boiler equipment. On March 10, 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR). CAIR requires 25 Eastern states to reduce NOx emissions from the power generation sector by 1.7 million tons in 2009 and 2.0 million tons by 2015. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. The overall objective of the work is to develop an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner, which, when integrated with Alstom's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems will provide a means to achieve: Less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a high volatile Eastern or Western bituminous coal, Less than 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a subbituminous coal, NOx reduction costs at least 25% lower than the costs of an SCR, Validation of the NOx control technology developed through large (15 MWt) pilot scale demonstration, and Documentation required for

  14. Australian Coal Company Risk Factors: Coal and Oil Prices

    OpenAIRE

    M. Zahid Hasan; Ronald A. Ratti

    2014-01-01

    Examination of panel data on listed coal companies on the Australian exchange over January 1999 to February 2010 suggests that market return, interest rate premium, foreign exchange rate risk, and coal price returns are statistically significant in determining the excess return on coal companies’ stock. Coal price return and oil price return increases have statistically significant positive effects on coal company stock returns. A one per cent rise in coal price raises coal company returns ...

  15. Coal Data: A reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of Coal Data: A Reference is to provide basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the United States. The report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ''Coal Terminology and Related Information'' provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces new terms. Topics covered are US coal deposits, resources and reserves, mining, production, employment and productivity, health and safety, preparation, transportation, supply and stocks, use, coal, the environment, and more. (VC)

  16. Steam reformer with catalytic combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voecks, Gerald E. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A steam reformer is disclosed having an annular steam reforming catalyst bed formed by concentric cylinders and having a catalytic combustor located at the center of the innermost cylinder. Fuel is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and air is directed at the top of the combustor, creating a catalytic reaction which provides sufficient heat so as to maintain the catalytic reaction in the steam reforming catalyst bed. Alternatively, air is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and a fuel mixture is directed at the top. The catalytic combustor provides enhanced radiant and convective heat transfer to the reformer catalyst bed.

  17. Indonesian coal export potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millsteed, Ch.; Jolly, L.; Stuart, R.

    1993-01-01

    Indonesia's coal mining sector is expanding rapidly. Much of the increase in coal production since the mid-1980s has been exported. Indonesian coal mining companies have large expansion programs and continuing strong export growth is projected for the remainder of the 1990s. The low mining costs of indonesian coal, together with proximity to Asian markets, mean that Indonesia is well placed to compete strongly with other thermal coal exporters and win market share in the large and expanding thermal coal market in Asia. However, there is significant uncertainty about the likely future level of Indonesia's exportable surplus of coal. The government's planned expansion in coal fired power generation could constrain export growth, while the ability of producers to meet projected output levels is uncertain. The purpose in this article is to review coal supply and demand developments in Indonesia and, taking account of the key determining factors, to estimate the level of coal exports from Indonesia to the year 2000. This time frame has been chosen because all currently committed mine developments are expected to be on stream by 2000 and because it is difficult to project domestic demand for coal beyond that year. 29 refs., 8 tabs., 7 figs

  18. Current experiences in applied underground coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Justyn

    2010-05-01

    The world is experiencing greater stress on its ability to mine and exploit energy resources such as coal, through traditional mining methods. The resources available by extraction from traditional mining methods will have a finite time and quantity. In addition, the high quality coals available are becoming more difficult to find substantially increasing exploration costs. Subsequently, new methods of extraction are being considered to improve the ability to unlock the energy from deep coals and improve the efficiency of the exploitation of the resources while also considering the mitigation of global warming. Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) is a leading commercial technology that is able to maximize the exploitation of the deep coal through extraction of the coal as a syngas (CO and H2) in situ. The syngas is then brought to the surface and efficiently utilized in any of combined cycle power generation, liquid hydrocarbon transport fuel production, fertilizer production or polymer production. Commercial UCG has been successfully operating for more than 50 years at the Yerostigaz facility in Angren, Uzbekistan. Yerostigaz is the only remaining UCG site in the former Soviet Union. Linc Energy currently owns 91.6% of this facility. UCG produces a high quality synthetic gas (syngas), containing carbon monoxide, hydrogen and methane. UCG produced syngas can be economically used for a variety of purposes, including: the production of liquid fuels when combined with Gas to Liquids (GTL) technology power generation in gas turbine combined cycle power stations a feedstock for different petrochemical processes, for example producing chemicals or other gases such as hydrogen, methane, ammonia, methanol and dimethyl ether Linc Energy has proven the combined use of UCG to Gas to Liquids (GTL) technologies. UCG to GTL technologies have the ability to provide energy alternatives to address increasing global demand for energy products. With these technologies, Linc Energy is

  19. Extraction of low rank coal with sub- and supercritical water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.H.; Do Park, S. [Korean Institute of Energy Research, Taejon (Republic of Korea). Green House Gas Research Center

    2008-07-15

    Alaska coals were extracted with sub- and supercritical water (SCW) using a micro reactor. Conversion of coal was studied in the temperature range of 320-400{sup o}C, pressure 15-30 MPa and water density 0.06-0.7 g/cm{sup 3} for 0-2 h. The experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of reaction temperature, pressure and water density on gas and liquid products respectively. The results show that the coal conversion in supercritical condition was higher than in sub-critical condition. The hexane soluble liquid product of original coal reaches a maximum 18.8% in the reaction time of 90 min at 400{sup o}C and 30 MPa. The contents of CO, CH{sub 4}, and H{sub 2} form especially well at supercritical condition. It is seen that supercritical condition was favourable to the hydrogen formation. With the increase of temperature, the sulfur in coal releases into the liquid and gas effluents. And the sulfur removal in liquid effluents is much greater than that in gas effluents. Higher water density causes higher conversion due to promotion of hydrolysis in coal extraction.

  20. Status and future opportunities for conversion of synthesis gas to liquid energy fuels: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, G. (Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (United States). Center for Catalytic Science and Technology)

    1993-05-01

    The manufacture of liquid energy fuels from syngas (a mixture of H[sub 2] and CO, usually containing CO[sub 2]) is of growing importance and enormous potential because: (1) Abundant US supplies of coal, gas, and biomass can be used to provide the needed syngas. (2) The liquid fuels produced, oxygenates or hydrocarbons, can help lessen environmental pollution. Indeed, oxygenates are required to a significant extent by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. (3) Such liquid synfuels make possible high engine efficiencies because they have high octane or cetane ratings. (4) There is new, significantly improved technology for converting syngas to liquid fuels and promising opportunities for further improvements. This is the subject of this report. The purpose of this report is to provide an account and evaluative assessment of advances in the technology for producing liquid energy fuels from syngas and to suggest opportunities for future research deemed promising for practical processes. Much of the improved technology for selective synthesis of desired fuels from syngas has resulted from advances in catalytic chemistry. However, novel process engineering has been particularly important recently, utilizing known catalysts in new configurations to create new catalytic processes. This report is an update of the 1988 study Catalysts for Fuels from Syngas: New Directions for Research (Mills 1988), which is included as Appendix A. Technology for manufacture of syngas is not part of this study. The manufacture of liquid synfuels is capital intensive. Thus, in evaluating advances in fuels technology, focus is on the potential for improved economics, particularly on lowering plant investment costs. A second important criteria is the potential for environmental benefits. The discussion is concerned with two types of hydrocarbon fuels and three types of oxygenate fuels that can be synthesized from syngas. Seven alternative reaction pathways are involved.

  1. Status and future opportunities for conversion of synthesis gas to liquid energy fuels: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, G [Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (United States). Center for Catalytic Science and Technology

    1993-05-01

    The manufacture of liquid energy fuels from syngas (a mixture of H{sub 2} and CO, usually containing CO{sub 2}) is of growing importance and enormous potential because: (1) Abundant US supplies of coal, gas, and biomass can be used to provide the needed syngas. (2) The liquid fuels produced, oxygenates or hydrocarbons, can help lessen environmental pollution. Indeed, oxygenates are required to a significant extent by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. (3) Such liquid synfuels make possible high engine efficiencies because they have high octane or cetane ratings. (4) There is new, significantly improved technology for converting syngas to liquid fuels and promising opportunities for further improvements. This is the subject of this report. The purpose of this report is to provide an account and evaluative assessment of advances in the technology for producing liquid energy fuels from syngas and to suggest opportunities for future research deemed promising for practical processes. Much of the improved technology for selective synthesis of desired fuels from syngas has resulted from advances in catalytic chemistry. However, novel process engineering has been particularly important recently, utilizing known catalysts in new configurations to create new catalytic processes. This report is an update of the 1988 study Catalysts for Fuels from Syngas: New Directions for Research (Mills 1988), which is included as Appendix A. Technology for manufacture of syngas is not part of this study. The manufacture of liquid synfuels is capital intensive. Thus, in evaluating advances in fuels technology, focus is on the potential for improved economics, particularly on lowering plant investment costs. A second important criteria is the potential for environmental benefits. The discussion is concerned with two types of hydrocarbon fuels and three types of oxygenate fuels that can be synthesized from syngas. Seven alternative reaction pathways are involved.

  2. Coal fired flue gas mercury emission controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jiang; Pan, Weiguo; Cao, Yan; Pan, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metals, harmful to both the environment and human health. Hg is released into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources and its emission control has caused much concern. This book introduces readers to Hg pollution from natural and anthropogenic sources and systematically describes coal-fired flue gas mercury emission control in industry, especially from coal-fired power stations. Mercury emission control theory and experimental research are demonstrated, including how elemental mercury is oxidized into oxidized mercury and the effect of flue gas contents on the mercury speciation transformation process. Mercury emission control methods, such as existing APCDs (air pollution control devices) at power stations, sorbent injection, additives in coal combustion and photo-catalytic methods are introduced in detail. Lab-scale, pilot-scale and full-scale experimental studies of sorbent injection conducted by the authors are presented systematically, helping researchers and engineers to understand how this approach reduces the mercury emissions in flue gas and to apply the methods in mercury emission control at coal-fired power stations.

  3. Low Cost High-H2 Syngas Production for Power and Liquid Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, S. James [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2015-07-31

    This report summarizes the technical progress made of the research project entitled “Low Cost High-H2 Syngas Production for Power and Liquid Fuels,” under DOE Contract No. DE-FE-0011958. The period of performance was October 1, 2013 through July 30, 2015. The overall objectives of this project was to determine the technical and economic feasibility of a systems approach for producing high hydrogen syngas from coal with the potential to reduce significantly the cost of producing power, chemical-grade hydrogen or liquid fuels, with carbon capture to reduce the environmental impact of gasification. The project encompasses several areas of study and the results are summarized here. (1) Experimental work to determine the technical feasibility of a novel hybrid polymer/metal H2-membrane to recover pure H2 from a coal-derived syngas was done. This task was not successful. Membranes were synthesized and show impermeability of any gases at required conditions. The cause of this impermeability was most likely due to the densification of the porous polymer membrane support made from polybenzimidazole (PBI) at test temperatures above 250 °C. (2) Bench-scale experimental work was performed to extend GTI's current database on the University of California Sulfur Recovery Process-High Pressure (UCSRP-HP) and recently renamed Sulfur Removal and Recovery (SR2) process for syngas cleanup including removal of sulfur and other trace contaminants, such as, chlorides and ammonia. The SR2 process tests show >90% H2S conversion with outlet H2S concentrations less than 4 ppmv, and 80-90% ammonia and chloride removal with high mass transfer rates. (3) Techno-economic analyses (TEA) were done for the production of electric power, chemical-grade hydrogen and diesel fuels, from a mixture of coal- plus natural gas-derived syngas using the Aerojet Rocketdyne (AR) Advanced Compact coal gasifier and a natural gas partial oxidation reactor (POX) with SR2 technology. Due to the unsuccessful

  4. CATALYTIC KINETIC SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    acetylchlorophosphonazo(CPApA) by hydrogen peroxide in 0.10 M phosphoric acid. A novel catalytic kinetic-spectrophotometric method is proposed for the determination of copper based on this principle. Copper(II) can be determined spectrophotometrically ...

  5. CATALYTIC KINETIC SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the property that in 0.12 M sulfuric acid medium titanium(IV) catalyzes the discoloring reaction of DBS-arsenazo oxidized by potassium bromate, a new catalytic kinetic spectrophotometric method for the determination of trace titanium (IV) was developed. The linear range of the determination of titanium is

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's experimental coal program: minimizing the hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrester, R.C. III; Cochran, H.D.; Bolton, N.E.

    1977-01-01

    Many processing techniques for the liquefaction or gasification of coal are being developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and elsewhere. Although different in many other respects, all coal conversion processes produce a liquid effluent comprising a complex mixture of hydrocarbons. Such mixtures invariably contain significant amounts of polycyclic, aromatic compounds, some of which are known to be highly active carcinogens. The underlying philosophy that has been adopted for the protection of personnel involved in experimental coal processing operations is defined, and procedures that have been instituted to govern the conduct of such experimental work and handling of associated coal-derived liquids are detailed.

  7. Advanced physical fine coal cleaning spherical agglomeration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    The project included process development, engineering, construction, and operation of a 1/3 tph proof-of-concept (POC) spherical agglomeration test module. The POC tests demonstrated that physical cleaning of ultrafine coal by agglomeration using heptane can achieve: (1) Pyritic sulfur reductions beyond that possible with conventional coal cleaning methods; (2) coal ash contents below those which can be obtained by conventional coal cleaning methods at comparable energy recoveries; (3) energy recoveries of 80 percent or greater measured against the raw coal energy content; (4) complete recovery of the heptane bridging liquid from the agglomerates; and (5) production of agglomerates with 3/8-inch size and less than 30 percent moisture. Test results met or exceeded all of the program objectives. Nominal 3/8-inch size agglomerates with less than 20 percent moisture were produced. The clean coal ash content varied between 1.5 to 5.5 percent by weight (dry basis) depending on feed coal type. Ash reductions of the run-of-mine (ROM) coal were 77 to 83 percent. ROM pyritic sulfur reductions varied from 86 to 90 percent for the three test coals, equating to total sulfur reductions of 47 to 72 percent.

  8. Coal sector profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-05

    Coal is our largest domestic energy resource with recoverable reserves estimated at 268 billion short tons or 5.896 quads Btu equivalent. This is approximately 95 percent of US fossil energy resources. It is relatively inexpensive to mine, and on a per Btu basis it is generally much less costly to produce than other energy sources. Its chief drawbacks are the environmental, health and safety concerns that must be addressed in its production and consumption. Historically, coal has played a major role in US energy markets. Coal fueled the railroads, heated the homes, powered the factories. and provided the raw materials for steel-making. In 1920, coal supplied over three times the amount of energy of oil, gas, and hydro combined. From 1920 until the mid 1970s, coal production remained fairly constant at 400 to 600 million short tons a year. Rapid increases in overall energy demands, which began during and after World War II were mostly met by oil and gas. By the mid 1940s, coal represented only half of total energy consumption in the US. In fact, post-war coal production, which had risen in support of the war effort and the postwar Marshall plan, decreased approximately 25 percent between 1945 and 1960. Coal demand in the post-war era up until the 1970s was characterized by increasing coal use by the electric utilities but decreasing coal use in many other markets (e.g., rail transportation). The oil price shocks of the 1970s, combined with natural gas shortages and problems with nuclear power, returned coal to a position of prominence. The greatly expanded use of coal was seen as a key building block in US energy strategies of the 1970s. Coal production increased from 613 million short tons per year in 1970 to 950 million short tons in 1988, up over 50 percent.

  9. Kinetics assisted design of catalysts for coal liquefaction. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, M.T.; Foley, H.C.; Calkins, W.H.; Scouten, C.

    1998-02-01

    The thermal and catalytic reactions of 4-(1-naphthylmethyl)bibenzyl (NBBM), a resid and coal model compound, were examined. Catalytic reaction of NBBM was carried out at 400 C under hydrogen with a series of transition metal-based catalytic materials including Fe(CO){sub 4}PPh{sub 3}, Fe(CO){sub 3}(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}, Fe(CO){sub 2}(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}CS{sub 2}, Fe(CO){sub 5}, Mo(CO){sub 6}, Mn{sub 2}(CO){sub 10}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and MoS{sub 2}. Experimental findings and derived mechanistic insights were organized into molecular-level reaction models for NBBM pyrolysis and catalysis. Hydropyrolysis and catalysis reaction families occurring during NBBM hydropyrolysis at 420 C were summarized in the form of reaction matrices which, upon exhaustive application to the components of the reacting system, yielded the mechanistic reaction model. Each reaction family also had an associated linear free energy relationship (LFER) which provided an estimate of the rate constant k{sub i} given a structural property of species i or its reaction. Including the catalytic reaction matrices with those for the pyrolysis model provided a comprehensive NBBM catalytic reaction model and allowed regression of fundamental LFER parameters for the catalytic reaction families. The model also allowed specification of the property of an optimal catalyst. Iron, molybdenum and palladium were predicted to be most effective for model compound consumption. Due to the low costs associated with iron and its disposal, it is a good choice for coal liquefaction catalysis and the challenge remains to synthesize small particles able to access the full surface area of the coal macromolecule.

  10. Adoption of clean coal technologies in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sligar, J.

    1998-01-01

    Coal is a major Indian energy resource. It is being utilized in conventional power stations now. Considerable coal resources are not located near load centers and therefore involve transport by rail. India is becoming more concerned with environmental matters and particularly with the health of its population. Clean coal electricity generation technologies are at the commercial demonstration stage in Europe and the USA in unit capacities appropriate to Indian needs. These technologies minimize environmental problems and promise 25% more efficiency. This competitive technology can be introduced to India in greenfield power stations, in repowering older power stations and in providing an enviable alternative for existing and new power stations presently depending on liquid or gas as fuel. (author)

  11. The Dual Role of Oxygen Functions in Coal Pretreatment and Liquefaction: Crosslinking and Cleavage Reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Serio; Erik Kroo; Sylvie Charpenay; Peter Solomon

    1993-09-30

    The overall objective of this project was to elucidate and model the dual role of oxygen functions in thermal pretreatment and liquefaction of low rank coals through the application of analytical techniques and theoretical models. The project was an integrated study of model polymers representative of coal structures, raw coals of primarily low rank, and selectively modified coals in order to provide specific information relevant to the reactions of real coals. The investigations included liquefaction experiments in microautoclave reactors, along with extensive analysis of intermediate solid, liquid and gaseous products. Attempts were made to incorporate the results of experiments on the different systems into a liquefaction model.

  12. The tritium labelling of ibuprofen by heterogeneous catalytic exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santamaria, J.; Rebollo, D.V.; Rivera, P.; Estaban, M.

    1986-01-01

    The tritium labelling of 2-(4-isobutylphenyl) propionic acid (ibuprofen) was performed. The method employed was heterogeneous catalytic exchange between ibuprofen and tritiated water. Prior to labelling, thermic stability of ibuprofen was studied. Purification was accomplished through thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Concentration, purity and specific activity of the labelled compound were determined by ultraviolet, HPLC and liquid scintillation techniques. (author)

  13. Case studies on direct liquefaction of low rank Wyoming coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, P.; Kramer, S.J.; Poddar, S.K. [Bechtel Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Previous Studies have developed process designs, costs, and economics for the direct liquefaction of Illinois No. 6 and Wyoming Black Thunder coals at mine-mouth plants. This investigation concerns two case studies related to the liquefaction of Wyoming Black Thunder coal. The first study showed that reducing the coal liquefaction reactor design pressure from 3300 to 1000 psig could reduce the crude oil equivalent price by 2.1 $/bbl provided equivalent performing catalysts can be developed. The second one showed that incentives may exist for locating a facility that liquifies Wyoming coal on the Gulf Coast because of lower construction costs and higher labor productivity. These incentives are dependent upon the relative values of the cost of shipping the coal to the Gulf Coast and the increased product revenues that may be obtained by distributing the liquid products among several nearby refineries.

  14. Coal, culture and community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    16 papers are presented with the following titles: the miners; municipalisation and the millenium - Bolton-upon-Dearne Urban District Council 1899-1914; the traditional working class community revisited; the cultural capital of coal mining communities; activities, strike-breakers and coal communities; the limits of protest - media coverage of the Orgreave picket during the miners` strike; in defence of home and hearth? Families, friendships and feminism in mining communities; young people`s attitudes to the police in mining communities; the determinants of productivity growth in the British coal mining industry, 1976-1989; strategic responses to flexibility - a case study in coal; no coal turned in Yorkshire?; the North-South divide in the Central Coalfields; the psychological effects of redundancy and worklessness - a case study from the coalfields; the Dearne Valley initiative; the future under labour: and coal, culture and the community.

  15. Coal tar in dermatology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelofzen, J.H.J.; Aben, K.K.H.; Van Der Valk, P.G.M.; Van Houtum, J.L.M.; Van De Kerkhof, P.C.M.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands). Dept. of Dermatology

    2007-07-01

    Coal tar is one of the oldest treatments for psoriasis and eczema. It has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antipruritic and antimitotic effects. The short-term side effects are folliculitis, irritation and contact allergy. Coal tar contains carcinogens. The carcinogenicity of coal tar has been shown in animal studies and studies in occupational settings. There is no clear evidence of an increased risk of skin tumors or internal tumors. Until now, most studies have been fairly small and they did not investigate the risk of coal tar alone, but the risk of coal tar combined with other therapies. New, well-designed, epidemiological studies are necessary to assess the risk of skin tumors and other malignancies after dermatological use of coal tar.

  16. Coal contract cost reduction through resale of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, R.

    1990-01-01

    The weak coal market of the 1980's has enabled utilities and other users of coal to enjoy stable or falling prices for coal supplies. Falling prices for coal stimulated the renegotiation of numerous coal contracts in recent years, as buyers look to take advantage of lower fuel prices available in the marketplace. This paper examines the use of coal resale transactions as a means of reducing fuel costs, and analyzes the benefits and risks associated with such transactions

  17. The tritium labeling of Butibufen by heterogeneous catalytic exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santamaria, J.; Rebollo, D.

    1986-01-01

    The labeling of a new non-steroidal antiinflammatory agent, Butibufen (2-(4-isobutylphenyl) butyric acid) was studied. The method used was heterogeneous catalytic exchange between Butibufen and tritiated water, obtained in situ. Purification was accomplished through thin layer chromatography. Concentration, purity and specific activity of the labeled drug were determined by ultraviolet and liquid scintillation techniques. (Author) 7 refs

  18. Coal and our environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This booklet describes how coal is important for economic development and how it can be used without environmental damage. Aspects covered include: improved air quality; Clean Air Act; controlling emissions from coal; flue gas desulfurization; acid rain; the greenhouse effect and climatic change; the cost of clean air; surface coal mining and land reclamation; underground mining and subsidence; and mining and water pollution including acid mine drainage

  19. Control of pyrite addition in coal liquefaction process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Bruce K.; Junkin, James E.

    1982-12-21

    Pyrite addition to a coal liquefaction process (22, 26) is controlled (118) in inverse proportion to the calcium content of the feed coal to maximize the C.sub.5 --900.degree. F. (482.degree. C.) liquid yield per unit weight of pyrite added (110). The pyrite addition is controlled in this manner so as to minimize the amount of pyrite used and thus reduce pyrite contribution to the slurry pumping load and disposal problems connected with pyrite produced slag.

  20. Brown coal - on the way to industrial-scale upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speich, P.

    1981-01-01

    The main fields of development of Rheinische Braunkohlenwerke AG (Rheinbraun) in the field of brown coal upgrading are reported, i.e. production of synthesis gas, SNG, and liquid products. The Rheinbraun research programme involves the processes of high-temperature-Winkler gasification, hydrogasification, hydroliquefaction, tube stills, and methanation plants. In the long run, nuclear power will be indispensable for base load power supply so that brown coal can be upgraded instead of being used directly for electric power generation. (HS) [de

  1. The influence of platinum washing-out time on its recovery from used auto catalytic converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fornalczyk

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The used catalytic converters contain small amounts of precious metals. Recovery of these metals is essential for environmental and economic reasons. This work presents a method of Platinum Group Metals (PGM recovery from auto catalytic converters in which they are washed out by a liquid metal. The magneto-hydro-dynamic pump was used to force circulation of liquid metal under the influence of electromagnetic fields The influence of process time on platinum recovery was also carried out.

  2. Biological production of ethanol from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    Due to the abundant supply of coal in the United States, significant research efforts have occurred over the past 15 years concerning the conversion of coal to liquid fuels. Researchers at the University of Arkansas have concentrated on a biological approach to coal liquefaction, starting with coal-derived synthesis gas as the raw material. Synthesis gas, a mixture of CO, H[sub 2], CO[sub 2], CH[sub 4] and sulfur gases, is first produced using traditional gasification techniques. The CO, CO[sub 2] and H[sub 2] are then converted to ethanol using a bacterial culture of Clostridium 1jungdahlii. Ethanol is the desired product if the resultant product stream is to be used as a liquid fuel. However, under normal operating conditions, the wild strain'' produces acetate in favor of ethanol in conjunction with growth in a 20:1 molar ratio. Research was performed to determine the conditions necessary to maximize not only the ratio of ethanol to acetate, but also to maximize the concentration of ethanol resulting in the product stream.

  3. Coal export facilitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eeles, L.

    1998-01-01

    There is a wide range of trade barriers, particularly tariffs, in current and potential coal market. Commonwealth departments in Australia play a crucial role in supporting government industry policies. This article summarises some of more recent activities of the Department of Primary Industries and Energy (DPIE) in facilitating the export of Australian Coals. Coal export facilitation activities are designed to assist the Australian coal industry by directing Commonwealth Government resources towards issues which would be inappropriate or difficult for the industry to address itself

  4. Developing Queensland coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philp, A. [Australian QTherm (Australia)

    1998-11-01

    Despite regional economic woes and falling coal prices, there have been exciting developments in Queensland`s coal industry with the announcement of three new coal mines, four mine expansions and two mine feasibility studies being undertaken. The article describes new projects being undertaken in Coppabella, Morahbah North and Hall Creek all in the Northern Bowen Basin, and mine expansions underway at Burton, Enshan, Newlands and Oaky North. Feasibility studies are the progress in the Millmerran and Acland deposits in The Moreton Basin. However, a number of proposed expansions at some major mines, such as Moura, Saraji and Peak Downs, have been postponed due to falling international coal prices. 2 figs., 2 photos.

  5. Pyrolysis of Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović, A.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of relevant literature on coal pyrolysis.Pyrolysis, as a process technology, has received considerable attention from many researchers because it is an important intermediate stage in coal conversion.Reactions parameters as the temperature, pressure, coal particle size, heating rate, soak time, type of reactor, etc. determine the total carbon conversion and the transport of volatiles and therebythe product distribution. Part of the possible environmental pollutants could be removed by optimising the pyrolysis conditions. Therefore, this process will be subsequently interesting for coal utilization in the future

  6. Coal-water mixture fuel burner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, T.D.; Reehl, D.P.; Walbert, G.F.

    1985-04-29

    The present invention represents an improvement over the prior art by providing a rotating cup burner arrangement for use with a coal-water mixture fuel which applies a thin, uniform sheet of fuel onto the inner surface of the rotating cup, inhibits the collection of unburned fuel on the inner surface of the cup, reduces the slurry to a collection of fine particles upon discharge from the rotating cup, and further atomizes the fuel as it enters the combustion chamber by subjecting it to the high shear force of a high velocity air flow. Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide for improved combustion of a coal-water mixture fuel. It is another object of the present invention to provide an arrangement for introducing a coal-water mixture fuel into a combustion chamber in a manner which provides improved flame control and stability, more efficient combustion of the hydrocarbon fuel, and continuous, reliable burner operation. Yet another object of the present invention is to provide for the continuous, sustained combustion of a coal-water mixture fuel without the need for a secondary combustion source such as natural gas or a liquid hydrocarbon fuel. Still another object of the present invention is to provide a burner arrangement capable of accommodating a coal-water mixture fuel having a wide range of rheological and combustion characteristics in providing for its efficient combustion. 7 figs.

  7. Catalytic thermal barrier coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Anand A.; Campbell, Christian X.; Subramanian, Ramesh

    2009-06-02

    A catalyst element (30) for high temperature applications such as a gas turbine engine. The catalyst element includes a metal substrate such as a tube (32) having a layer of ceramic thermal barrier coating material (34) disposed on the substrate for thermally insulating the metal substrate from a high temperature fuel/air mixture. The ceramic thermal barrier coating material is formed of a crystal structure populated with base elements but with selected sites of the crystal structure being populated by substitute ions selected to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a higher rate than would the base compound without the ionic substitutions. Precious metal crystallites may be disposed within the crystal structure to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a lower light-off temperature than would the ceramic thermal barrier coating material without the precious metal crystallites.

  8. Environmental and economic evaluation of selective non-catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parchevskii, V. M.; Shchederkina, T. E.; Proshina, A. O.

    2017-11-01

    There are two groups of atmosphere protecting measures: technology (primary) and treatment (secondary). When burning high-calorie low-volatile brands of coals in the furnaces with liquid slag removal to achieve emission standards required joint use of these two methods, for example, staged combustion and selective non-catalytic reduction recovery (SNCR). For the economically intelligent combination of these two methods it is necessary to have information not only about the environmental performance of each method, but also the operating costs per unit of reduced emission. The authors of this report are made an environmental-economic analysis of SNCR on boiler Π-50P Kashirskaya power station. The obtained results about the dependence of costs from the load of the boiler and the mass emissions of nitrogen oxides then approximates into empirical formulas, is named as environmental and economic characteristics, which is suitable for downloading into controllers and other control devices for subsequent implementation of optimal control of emissions to ensure compliance with environmental regulations at the lowest cost at any load of the boiler.

  9. Sistema de alimentação gás-líquido para medidas de atividade catalítica Gas-liquid feeding system for catalytic activity measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar W. Perez-Lopez

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available This note has as objective to present the advantages of the use of syringe-type pumps for the feeding of liquid reactants, together with mass flow controllers for gases, instead of the saturators, as it is generally accomplished. Among the advantages, the system with syringe pumps presents a greater flexibility in flow control as well as in composition compared with the system that uses saturator. In addition, the flow of the liquid reactants is known with precision in the syringe pump system.

  10. Coal combustion technology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Z.X.

    1994-01-01

    Coal is the most important energy source in China, the environmental pollution problem derived from coal burning is rather serious in China. The present author discusses coal burning technologies both in boilers and industrial furnaces and their relations with environmental protection problems in China. The technological situations of Circulating Fluidized Bed Coal Combustor, Pulverized Coal Combustor with Aerodynamic Flame Holder and Coal Water Slurry Combustion have been discussed here as some of the interesting problems in China only. (author). 3 refs

  11. In situ formation of coal gasification catalysts from low cost alkali metal salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Bernard J.; Brittain, Robert D.; Sancier, Kenneth M.

    1985-01-01

    A carbonaceous material, such as crushed coal, is admixed or impregnated with an inexpensive alkali metal compound, such as sodium chloride, and then pretreated with a stream containing steam at a temperature of 350.degree. to 650.degree. C. to enhance the catalytic activity of the mixture in a subsequent gasification of the mixture. The treatment may result in the transformation of the alkali metal compound into another, more catalytically active, form.

  12. Purification processes for coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, D.K.; Primack, H.S.

    1977-01-01

    It is apparent from the discussion that many routes can be taken to achieve acid-gas removal and sulfur recovery from coal gas. The selection of the optimum purification system is a major task. The type of coal, type of gasifier and the upstream processing all strongly influence the selection. Several generalizations can be made: (1) The cost of the purification sections of a high-Btu gas plant is significant--perhaps 10 to 30% of the capital cost of the coal conversion facility. (2) The cost of purifying gas produced from high-sulfur coal feed is more expensive than the cost for purifying gas produced from low-sulfur coal. (3) The choice of an acid-gas removal system will often be a function of system pressure. The economical choice will usually be: (a) amine-based systems at atmospheric pressure; (b) hot-carbonate systems at moderate pressure or (c) physical-solvent systems at higher pressure. (4) For a high-Btu, high-sulfur case: (a) A selective acid-gas removal system with a Claus plant is probably more economical than a non-selective acid-gas system with liquid oxidation of the H/sub 2/S in the regenerator off-gas. (b) Even moderately selective systems can produce an H/sub 2/S-rich gas suitable for a Claus plant. The CO/sub 2/-rich gas may or may not require further sulfur removal, depending on the selectivity. (5) For a high-Btu, low-sulfur case: (a) The hot carbonate and tertiary amine systems may not be sufficiently selective to produce a gas suitable for feed to a Claus process while a physical solvent system may be. Therefore, the physical solvent system may be expected to be more economical. (b) The regenerated gas from the bulk CO/sub 2/ removal system following a selective physical solvent system may require further sulfur removal, depending upon the sulfur level in the initial feedstock and the selectivity of the system selected.

  13. Evaluation of the effects of coal grinding in terms of coal water slurry preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robak Jolanta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal Water Slurry (CWS is a specific form of solid fuel. It occurs in the form of finely ground coal particles and water. Depending on the use, the content of combustible matter is from 40 to 70% by weight. The attractiveness of the fuel is primarily its properties, i.e. liquid form, high energy efficiency (for water evaporation 4% energy is used – for CSW with 70% concentration of coal, decreased environmental impurities (lower NOx emission and reduced risk of explosion. The advantages of CWS fuels, the possibility of independence from petrochemical fuels, wide availability of coal and emphasis on the use of cleaner technologies are the driving force for development of slurry fuel technologies. The major parameters characterizing the fuel suspension are: solid phase concentration (share of coal in the slurry expressed as either weight or volume fraction of dry coal, time stability (resistance to delamination and separation of the dispersed phase from the continuous phase and viscosity, determining the flow of suspension. The mentioned parameters are dependent on the susceptibility of coal for production of aqueous suspensions (slurrability, conditioned by natural properties of coal, such as: coalification degree, petrographic composition and surface properties. They are also dependent on the slurry fuel preparation process: particle size, solid phase concentration, used additives (stabilizing and dispersion agents and modification of primary coal properties (ash removal, change of surface properties. Preparation of sustainable, high concentrated CWS fuel coal is promoted by the hydrophobic nature of the coal surface, characteristic for coals of higher coalification. A great technological problem is to obtain a highly concentrated coal slurry fuel from less coalified hydrophilic steam coals. The paper presents the results of lab scale research on the CWS prepared from Polish steam coal by wet grinding in mill drum and vibrating. The milling

  14. The Indonesian coal industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, A.; Daulay, B.

    2000-01-01

    In this comprehensive article the authors describe the origins and progress of the Indonesian coal industry and the role it plays, and will play, in the domestic energy scene and world coal trade. In the '80s, the Indonesian coal industry laid the basis for major expansion such that coal production rose from under a million tonnes in 1983 to 10.6 million tonnes in 1990, 50.9 million tonnes by 1996 and 61.2 million tonnes in 1992. At the same time, exports have increased from 0.4 million tonnes to 44.8 million tonnes. Current export levels are higher than originally expected, due in part to a slow down in the construction of electric power stations and a partial switch to natural gas. This has slowed the rate at which domestic coal demand has built up. The majority of coals currently exported are low rank steam coals, but some of the higher rank and very low ash coals are used for blast furnace injection, and a very small proportion may even be used within coking blends, even though they have poor coking properties. The Indonesian coal industry has developed very rapidly over the last six years to become a significant exporter, especially within the ASEAN context. The resources base appears to be large enough to support further increases in production above those already planned. It is probable that resources and reserves can be increased above the current levels. It is likely that some reserves of high value coals can be found, but it is also probable that the majority of additions to reserves will be lower in rank (and therefore quality) compared with the average of coals currently being mined. Reserves of qualities suitable for export will support that industry for a considerable period of time. However, in the longer term, the emphasis of production will increasingly swing to the domestic market

  15. Coals of Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landis, E.R.; Rohrbacher, T.J.; Gluskoter, H.; Fodor, B.; Gombar, G.; Sebestyen, I.

    1999-07-01

    As part of the activities conducted under the U.S. Hungarian Science and Technology Fund, a total of 39 samples from five coal mines in Hungary were selected for standard coal analyses and major, minor and trace elements analysis. The mine areas sampled were selected to provide a spectrum of coal quality information for comparison with other coal areas in central Europe and worldwide. All of the areas are of major importance in the energy budget of Hungary. The five sample sites contain coal in rocks of Jurassic, Cretaceous, Eocene, Miocene, and Pliocene age. The coals, from four underground and one surface mine, range in rank from high volatile bituminous to lignite B. Most of the coal produced from the mines sampled is used to generate electricity. Some of the power plants that utilize the coals also provide heat for domestic and process usage. The standard coal analysis program is based on tests performed in accordance with standards of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). Proximate and ultimate analyses were supplemented by determinations of the heating value, equilibrium moisture, forms of sulfur, free-swelling index, ash fusion temperatures (both reducing and oxidizing), apparent specific gravity and Hardgrove Grindability index. The major, minor and trace element analyses were performed in accordance with standardized procedures of the U.S. Geological Survey. The analytical results will be available in the International Coal Quality Data Base of the USGS. The results of the program provide data for comparison with test data from Europe and information of value to potential investors or cooperators in the coal industry of Hungary and Central Europe.

  16. Clean coal technologies and future prospects for coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, A.; Torries, T.; Labys, W.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the future potential of coal in the US economy during the next 25 years in light of clean coal technologies. According to official US Department of Energy (DOE) designations, these technologies pertain only to the beneficiation, transformation, combustion, and postcombustion clean-up stages of the coal cycle; no coal mining or coal transport technologies are included. In general, clean coal technologies offer the prospect of mitigating environmental side-effects of coal utilization, primarily through improved operating efficiencies and lowered costs of air emission controls. If they prove successful, coal users will be able to meet more stringent environmental regulations at little or no additional cost. In assessing the influence of clean coal technologies on coal demand, we focus on the economics of three crucial areas: their development, their deployment, and coal utilization implications of their operation

  17. Application of Fischer–Tropsch Synthesis in Biomass to Liquid Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongwu Lu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fischer–Tropsch synthesis is a set of catalytic processes that can be used to produce fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas (mixture of CO and H2, which can be derived from natural gas, coal, or biomass. Biomass to Liquid via Fischer–Tropsch (BTL-FT synthesis is gaining increasing interests from academia and industry because of its ability to produce carbon neutral and environmentally friendly clean fuels; such kinds of fuels can help to meet the globally increasing energy demand and to meet the stricter environmental regulations in the future. In the BTL-FT process, biomass, such as woodchips and straw stalk, is firstly converted into biomass-derived syngas (bio-syngas by gasification. Then, a cleaning process is applied to remove impurities from the bio-syngas to produce clean bio-syngas which meets the Fischer–Tropsch synthesis requirements. Cleaned bio-syngas is then conducted into a Fischer–Tropsch catalytic reactor to produce green gasoline, diesel and other clean biofuels. This review will analyze the three main steps of BTL-FT process, and discuss the issues related to biomass gasification, bio-syngas cleaning methods and conversion of bio-syngas into liquid hydrocarbons via Fischer–Tropsch synthesis. Some features in regard to increasing carbon utilization, enhancing catalyst activity, maximizing selectivity and avoiding catalyst deactivation in bio-syngas conversion process are also discussed.

  18. Preliminary assessment of coal-based industrial energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study, performed by Mittelhauser Corp. and Resource Engineering, Inc. to identify the potential economic, environmental, and energy impacts of possible New Source Performance Standards for industrial steam generators on the use of coal and coal-derived fuels. A systems-level approach was used to take mine-mouth coal and produce a given quantity of heat input to a new boiler at an existing Chicago industrial-plant site. The technologies studied included post-combustion clean-up, atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion, solvent-refined coal liquids, substitute natural gas, and low-Btu gas. Capital and operating costs were prepared on a mid-1985 basis from a consistent set of economic guidelines. The cases studied were evaluated using three levels of air emission controls, two coals, two boiler sizes, and two operating factors. Only those combinations considered likely to make a significant impact on the 1985 boiler population were considered. The conclusions drawn in the report are that the most attractive applications of coal technology are atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion and post-combustion clean-up. Solvent-refined coal and probably substitute natural gas become competitive for the smaller boiler applications. Coal-derived low-Btu gas was found not to be a competitive boiler fuel at the sizes studied. It is recommended that more cases be studied to broaden the applicability of these results.

  19. India clamours for coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadkarni, S.

    2000-10-01

    The steadily deteriorating quality of coal provided by government-owned companies in India has persuaded coal users to follow the lead of the World Bank and call for deregulation of the sector to allow quality coal to be procured at competitive prices from the global market.Some 24 opencast mines belonging to Coal India Limited subsidiaries were to be expanded to produce 112 mta of coal but the World Bank terminated a loan of 507 million dollars from the total sanctioned loan of 1.06 bn. CIL refuses to accept that the loan was terminated because the government failed to meet the terms and conditions imposed at the time of the loan sanction. In addition to slow demand from the power sector, the state-owned coal companies have found the World Bank terms impossible to meet. The favourable debt market in India has come to their aid but even this will not enable the quality of coal to be improved for use in many power plants. The Maharashtra State Electricity Board has called for the formation of a joint venture with the private sector to explore for and supply quality coal. 1 photo.

  20. Imported coal remains flexible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, F.

    1982-01-01

    The new law on coal tariff quotas is one year old. During this period hard coal imports increased by 1 million tons, in spite of the slowed down economic activities and the wait-and-see attitude of consumers. The author gives a first survey.

  1. Development of coal resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    It is an important issue to expand stable coal supply areas for Japan, especially to assure stable supply of overseas coals. The investigations on geological structures in foreign countries perform surveys on geological structures in overseas coal producing countries and basic feasibility studies. The investigations select areas with greater business risks in coal producing countries and among private business entities. The geological structure investigations were carried out on China, Indonesia and Malaysia and the basic feasibility studies on Indonesia during fiscal 1994. The basic coal resource development investigations refer to the results of previous physical explorations and drilling tests to develop practical exploration technologies for coal resources in foreign countries. The development feasibility studies on overseas coals conduct technological consultation, surface surveys, physical explorations, and trial drilling operations, and provide fund assistance to activities related thereto. Fiscal 1994 has provided fund assistance to two projects in Indonesia and America. Fund loans are provided on investigations for development and import of overseas coals and other related activities. Liability guarantee for development fund is also described.

  2. COAL USE REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The world's coal reserves have been estimated to be about one exagram accessible with current extraction technology. The energy content has been valued at 290 zettajourles. Using a value of 15 terawatt as the current global energy consumption, the coal supply could global needs f...

  3. Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jr., Edward M.

    1984-01-01

    A method for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure consisting of closed porous containers containing the catatlyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column.

  4. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-03-01

    CONSOL R&D is conducting a three-year program to characterize process and product streams from direct coal liquefaction process development projects. The program objectives are two-fold: (1) to obtain and provide appropriate samples of coal liquids for the evaluation of analytical methodology, and (2) to support ongoing DOE-sponsored coal liquefaction process development efforts. The two broad objectives have considerable overlap and together serve to provide a bridge between process development and analytical chemistry.

  5. Review of coal-water fuel pulverization technology and atomization quality registration methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenkov Andrey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Possibilities of coal-water fuel application in industrial power engineering are considered and described. Two main problems and disadvantages of this fuel type are suggested. The paper presents information about liquid fuel atomization technologies and provides data on nozzle type for coal-water fuel pulverization. This article also mentions some of the existing technologies for coal-water slurry spraying quality determination.

  6. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Deo, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Eddings, E. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Sarofim, A. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Gueishen, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Hradisky, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kelly, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Mandalaparty, P. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Zhang, H. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2012-01-11

    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coal's carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO2 sequestration.

  7. The renaissance of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schernikau, Lars

    2013-01-01

    There is hardly another energy resource where public opinion and reality lie as far apart as they do for coal. Many think of coal as an inefficient relic from the era of industrialisation. However, such views underestimate the significance of this energy resource both nationally and globally. In terms of global primary energy consumption coal ranks second behind crude oil, which plays a central role in the energy sector. Since global electricity use is due to rise further, coal, being the only energy resource that can meet a growing electricity demand over decades, stands at the beginning of a renaissance, and does so also in the minds of the political leadership. Coal is indispensable as a bridging technology until the electricity demand of the world population can be met primarily through renewable resources.

  8. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Y.N.; Crooker, S.C.; Kitchell, J.P.; Nochur, S.V.

    1991-05-16

    The overall objective of this program was to investigate the feasibility of an enzymatic desulfurization process specifically intended for organic sulfur removal from coal. Toward that end, a series of specific objectives were defined: (1) establish the feasibility of (bio)oxidative pretreatment followed by biochemical sulfate cleavage for representative sulfur-containing model compounds and coals using commercially-available enzymes; (2) investigate the potential for the isolation and selective use of enzyme preparations from coal-utilizing microbial systems for desulfurization of sulfur-containing model compounds and coals; and (3) develop a conceptual design and economic analysis of a process for enzymatic removal of organic sulfur from coal. Within the scope of this program, it was proposed to carry out a portion of each of these efforts concurrently. (VC)

  9. The effect of coal type and pyrolysis temperature on the electrochemical activity of coal at a solid carbon anode in molten carbonate media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J. A.; Glenn, M.; Donne, S. W.

    2015-04-01

    A systematic assessment of the electrochemical activity of two different parent coal types, pyrolysed at temperatures between 500 and 900 °C higher heating temperature (HHT), is presented in this work. Analysis shows that certain coal chars are catalytically activated in molten carbonate media at 600 °C, however activity does not appear to follow trends established for ashless carbon sources. It is seen here that it is not possible to predict activity based solely on electrical resistance, surface functionalization, or the BET surface area of pyrolysed coals. Instead, it is suggested that coal ash type, abundance and distribution plays a pivotal role in activating the coal char to allow fast electrochemical oxidation through a catalytically enhanced pathway. Activation from ash influence is discussed to result from wetting of the molten carbonate media with the carbon surface (change in polarity of electrode surface), through ash mediated oxide adsorption and transfer to carbon particles, or possibly through another catalytic pathway not yet able to be predicted from current results.

  10. Environmental impacts of coal mine and thermal power plant to the surroundings of Barapukuria, Dinajpur, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Nazir; Paul, Shitangsu Kumar; Hasan, Md Muyeed

    2015-04-01

    The study was carried out to analyse the environmental impacts of coal mine and coal-based thermal power plant to the surrounding environment of Barapukuria, Dinajpur. The analyses of coal, water, soil and fly ash were carried out using standard sample testing methods. This study found that coal mining industry and coal-based thermal power plant have brought some environmental and socio-economic challenges to the adjacent areas such as soil, water and air pollution, subsidence of agricultural land and livelihood insecurity of inhabitants. The pH values, heavy metal, organic carbon and exchangeable cations of coal water treated in the farmland soil suggest that coal mining deteriorated the surrounding water and soil quality. The SO4(2-) concentration in water samples was beyond the range of World Health Organisation standard. Some physico-chemical properties such as pH, conductivity, moisture content, bulk density, unburned carbon content, specific gravity, water holding capacity, liquid and plastic limit were investigated on coal fly ash of Barapukuria thermal power plant. Air quality data provided by the Barapukuria Coal Mining Company Limited were contradictory with the result of interview with the miners and local inhabitants. However, coal potentially contributes to the development of economy of Bangladesh but coal mining deteriorates the environment by polluting air, water and soil. In general, this study includes comprehensive baseline data for decision makers to evaluate the feasibility of coal power industry at Barapukuria and the coalmine itself.

  11. The Comparative Analysis of the Efficiency of Coal Liquefaction Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudyka Viktor I.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Organization of production of synthetic liquid fuels (SLF in Ukraine becomes an especially topical and at the same time complex scientific and applied task, taking into consideration criteria of the techno-ecological and economic rationality. The article presents a methodical approach to the comparative analysis of efficiency of the main methods and technologies for the synthetic liquid fuels production and a carried out testing, the results of which allowed to conclude that the most rational is the technology of indirect coal liquefaction based on coal thermal plasma gasification.

  12. Liquids and liquid mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Rowlinson, J S; Baldwin, J E; Buckingham, A D; Danishefsky, S

    2013-01-01

    Liquids and Liquid Mixtures, Third Edition explores the equilibrium properties of liquids and liquid mixtures and relates them to the properties of the constituent molecules using the methods of statistical thermodynamics. Topics covered include the critical state, fluid mixtures at high pressures, and the statistical thermodynamics of fluids and mixtures. This book consists of eight chapters and begins with an overview of the liquid state and the thermodynamic properties of liquids and liquid mixtures, including vapor pressure and heat capacities. The discussion then turns to the thermodynami

  13. Effects of main parameters on rheological properties of oil-coal slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yong-gang; Hao Li-fang; Xiong Chu-an; Sun Xiu-ying [China University of Mining & Technology, Beijing (China). School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering

    2006-09-15

    Oil-coal slurry prepared in coal direct liquefaction is a dispersed solid-liquid suspension system. In this paper, some factors such as solvent properties, solid concentrations and temperatures, which affect viscosity change of oil-coal slurry, were studied. The viscosity of coal slurry was measured using rotary viscometer, and the rheological properties have been investigated. The viscosity and rheological curves were plotted and regressed, respectively. The results show that the coal slurry behaves a pseudoplastic and thixotropic property. The rheological type of coal slurry was ascertained and its rheological equations were educed. The oil-coal slurry changes to non-Newtonian fluid from Newtonian fluid with the increasing of solid concentration. 10 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. PRODUCTION OF CARBON PRODUCTS USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dady Dadyburjor; Philip R. Biedler; Chong Chen; L. Mitchell Clendenin; Manoj Katakdaunde; Elliot B. Kennel; Nathan D. King; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2004-08-31

    This Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored project developed carbon products, using mildly hydrogenated solvents to extract the organic portion of coal to create synthetic pitches, cokes, carbon foam and carbon fibers. The focus of this effort was on development of lower cost solvents, milder hydrogenation conditions and improved yield in order to enable practical production of these products. This technology is needed because of the long-term decline in production of domestic feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. Currently, carbon products represents a market of roughly 5 million tons domestically, and 19 million tons worldwide. Carbon products are mainly derived from feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. The domestic supply of petroleum pitch is declining because of the rising price of liquid fuels, which has caused US refineries to maximize liquid fuel production. As a consequence, the long term trend has a decline in production of petroleum pitch over the past 20 years. The production of coal tar pitch, as in the case of petroleum pitch, has likewise declined significantly over the past two decades. Coal tar pitch is a byproduct of metallurgical grade coke (metcoke) production. In this industry, modern metcoke facilities are recycling coal tar as fuel in order to enhance energy efficiency and minimize environmental emissions. Metcoke production itself is dependent upon the production requirements for domestic steel. Hence, several metcoke ovens have been decommissioned over the past two decades and have not been replaced. As a consequence sources of coal tar are being taken off line and are not being replaced. The long-term trend is a reduction in coal tar pitch production. Thus import of feedstocks, mainly from Eastern Europe and China, is on the rise despite the relatively large transportation cost. To reverse this trend, a new process for producing carbon products is needed. The process must be

  15. Flash pyrolysis of coal-solvent slurry prepared from the oxidized coal and the coal dissolved in solvent; Ichibu yokaishita sanka kaishitsutan slurry no jinsoku netsubunkai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maki, T.; Mae, K.; Okutsu, H.; Miura, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    In order to develop a high-efficiency coal pyrolysis method, flash pyrolysis was experimented on slurry prepared by using liquid-phase oxidation reformed coal and a methanol-based solvent mixture. Australian Morwell coal was used for the experiment. The oxidized coal, into which carboxyl groups have been introduced, has the condensation structure relaxed largely, and becomes highly fluid slurry by means of the solvent. Char production can be suppressed by making the oxidation-pretreated coal into slurry, resulting in drastically improved pyrolytic conversion. The slurry was divided into dissolved solution, dried substance, extracted residue, and residual slurry, which were pyrolized independently. The dissolved solution showed very high conversion. Improvement in the conversion is contributed by separating the dissolved substances (coal macromolecules) at molecular levels, coagulating the molecules, suppressing cross-link formation, and reducing molecular weight of the dissolved substances. Oxidized coal can be dissolved to 80% or higher by using several kinds of mixed solvents. As a result of the dissolution, a possibility was suggested on pyrolysis which is easy in handling and high in conversion. 7 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Pyrolysis and combustion behaviour of coal-MBM blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skodras, G; Grammelis, P; Basinas, P

    2007-01-01

    In the present work, thermogravimetric analysis was employed in order to investigate the behaviour of MBM and their blends with Greek brown coal, under pyrolysis and combustion conditions. MBM presented enhanced pyrolysis rates reflecting its high volatile and low ash contents compared to Greek brown coal. Increased conversion rates were observed when MBM was added in the brown coal sample. Significant interactions were detected between the two fuel blend components leading to significant deviations from the expected behaviour. The catalytic effect of mineral matter on the pyrolysis of MBM resulted in reaction rate decrease and DTG curve shift to lower temperatures for the demineralised MBM. Alterations in the combustion process due to the mineral matter were minimal when testing the blends. Interactions maintained during combustion and lower reactivity of MBM was achieved due to the reduced oxygen content.

  17. Catalytic reforming methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadd, Andrew R; Schwank, Johannes

    2013-05-14

    A catalytic reforming method is disclosed herein. The method includes sequentially supplying a plurality of feedstocks of variable compositions to a reformer. The method further includes adding a respective predetermined co-reactant to each of the plurality of feedstocks to obtain a substantially constant output from the reformer for the plurality of feedstocks. The respective predetermined co-reactant is based on a C/H/O atomic composition for a respective one of the plurality of feedstocks and a predetermined C/H/O atomic composition for the substantially constant output.

  18. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-08-01

    This is the tenth Quarterly Technical Progress Report under DOE Contract DE-AC22-89PC89883. Process oils from Wilsonville Run 262 were analyzed to provide information on process performance. Run 262 was operated from July 10 through September 30, 1991, in the thermal/catalytic Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction (CC-ITSL) configuration with ash recycle. The feed coal was Black Thunder Mine subbituminous coal. The high/low temperature sequence was used. Each reactor was operated at 50% of the available reactor volume. The interstage separator was in use throughout the run. The second-stage reactor was charged with aged Criterion 324 catalyst (Ni/Mo on 1/16 inch alumina extrudate support). Slurry catalysts and sulfiding agent were fed to the first-stage reactor. Molyvan L is an organometallic compound which contains 8.1% Mo, and is commercially available as an oil-soluble lubricant additive. It was used in Run 262 as a dispersed hydrogenation catalyst precursor, primarily to alleviate deposition problems which plagued past runs with Black Thunder coal. One test was made with little supported catalyst in the second stage. The role of phenolic groups in donor solvent properties was examined. In this study, four samples from direct liquefaction process oils were subjected to O-methylation of the phenolic groups, followed by chemical analysis and solvent quality testing.

  19. Costs of coal liquefaction: influences of technical/economic risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tillman, D.A.

    1987-02-01

    Despite the recent declines in the world price of oil, the potential for manufacturing synthetic liquids from coal remains a significant economic force. Consequently, it is important to determine the approximate costs of synthetic liquid fuels from coal. Further, it is important to evaluate how those costs relate to crude oil prices, and at what world oil price synthetic fuels will be introduced. Finally, it is important to evaluate the influences of technical and financial risk on the cost of coal liquids, and whether experience can reduce the cost of manufacturing such coal-based fuels. This paper focuses on the risk issue as it relates to the discount rate, and then estimates the cost of synthetic fuels from solvent extraction and coal-to-methanol processes. At the point of introduction the cost of syncrude is about 8.60 dollars per million Btu and the cost of coal based methanol is about 11.90 dollars per million Btu. The price of crude oil required to achieve introduction of syncrude is about 10.70 dollars per million (or over 62 dollars per barrel). Building pioneer plants can reduce the cost of coal liquids, however. It is estimated that reducing the economic risk by experience can bring about a reduction in syncrude costs of about 1.70 million dollars Btu, and can bring about a reduction in methanol costs of about 2.30 dollars per million Btu. Such savings achieved by experience are equivalent to dramatic improvements in capital cost, operating cost, or fuel cost. 12 references.

  20. Mercury Oxidation via Catalytic Barrier Filters Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne Seames; Michael Mann; Darrin Muggli; Jason Hrdlicka; Carol Horabik

    2007-09-30

    In 2004, the Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory awarded the University of North Dakota a Phase II University Coal Research grant to explore the feasibility of using barrier filters coated with a catalyst to oxidize elemental mercury in coal combustion flue gas streams. Oxidized mercury is substantially easier to remove than elemental mercury. If successful, this technique has the potential to substantially reduce mercury control costs for those installations that already utilize baghouse barrier filters for particulate removal. Completed in 2004, Phase I of this project successfully met its objectives of screening and assessing the possible feasibility of using catalyst coated barrier filters for the oxidation of vapor phase elemental mercury in coal combustion generated flue gas streams. Completed in September 2007, Phase II of this project successfully met its three objectives. First, an effective coating method for a catalytic barrier filter was found. Second, the effects of a simulated flue gas on the catalysts in a bench-scale reactor were determined. Finally, the performance of the best catalyst was assessed using real flue gas generated by a 19 kW research combustor firing each of three separate coal types.

  1. The leachability of carbon-14-labelled 3,4-benzopyrene from coal ash into aqueous systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besemer, A.C.; Kanij, J.

    1984-01-01

    The leachability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coal ash into aqueous systems was studied. Carbon-14-labeled 3,4-Benzopyrene (BaP) was deposited on coal fly ash by adsorption from the liquid phase in quantities of about 10 ??g/g ash. After a thermal treatment in air at 120??C for 2 hours

  2. Current and future use of coal in the Northeast. [60 refs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelston, B.S.; Rubin, E.S.

    1976-05-01

    Some of the problems of and potential for coal utilization in the Northeast region (defined as New England, New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, and the District of Columbia are discussed. Coal utilization in the Northeast now occurs mainly in Pennsylvania, where coal is used extensively for steel manufacturing and electricity generation. Elsewhere in the region, coal use is limited for the most part to electric power generation, and increased future reliance on coal is likely to be associated principally with this use. At present, oil supplies most of the energy used to generate electricity in the Northeast. Recent trends in national and regional coal use are reviewed, and an overview of potential options for and constraints on future coal use are presented. The outlook for future coal supplies in the region for the reference years 1985 and 2000 is discussed. Supply estimates are shown tabularly. Regional availability of low-sulfur coal will depend on interregional economic factors as well as on technical constraints and public policy. The transportation system of the Northeast coals also constrain coal use. The potential demand for coal by electric utilities in the region is considered. Three coal demand scenarios are developed for 1985. The role of coal-derived synthetic fuels in the energy future of the Northeast is discussed. For the most part, processes producing low-Btu gas, high-Btu gas, and synthetic liquids from coal will contribute to the energy supply of the Northeast indirectly by augmenting national supplies of gas, oil, and electricity. In 1985, synthetic fuels production is likely to be small; by 2000, more substantial contributions could be available if a national policy for rapid coal synthetics development was pursued.

  3. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing the SNOX innovative clean coal technology demonstration. Volume 1, Sampling/results/special topics: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This study was one of a group of assessments of toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants, conducted for DOE during 1993. The motivation for those assessments was the mandate in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments that a study be made of emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from electric utilities. The report is organized in two volumes. Volume 1: Sampling describes the sampling effort conducted as the basis for this study; Results presents the concentration data on HAPs in the several power plant streams, and reports the results of evaluations and calculations conducted with those data; and Special Topics report on issues such as comparison of sampling methods and vapor/solid distributions of HAPs. Volume 2: Appendices include quality assurance/quality control results, uncertainty analysis for emission factors, and data sheets. This study involved measurements of a variety of substances in solid, liquid, and gaseous samples from input, output, and process streams at the Innovative Clean Coal Technology Demonstration (ICCT) of the Wet Sulfuric Acid-Selective Catalytic Reduction (SNOX) process. The SNOX demonstration is being conducted at Ohio Edison`s Niles Boiler No. 2 which uses cyclone burners to burn bituminous coal. A 35 megawatt slipstream of flue gas from the boiler is used to demonstrate SNOX. The substances measured at the SNOX process were the following: 1. Five major and 16 trace elements, including mercury, chromium, cadmium, lead, selenium, arsenic, beryllium, and nickel; 2. Acids and corresponding anions (HCl, HF, chloride, fluoride, phosphate, sulfate); 3. Ammonia and cyanide; 4. Elemental carbon; 5. Radionuclides; 6. Volatile organic compounds (VOC); 7. Semi-volatile compounds (SVOC) including polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); and 8. Aldehydes.

  4. Modelling of a reverse flow catalytic membrane reactor for the partial oxidation of methane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    Gas-To-Liquid (GTL) processes have great potential as alternative to conventional oil and coal processing for the production of liquid fuels. In GTL-processes the partial oxidation of methane (POM) is combined with the Fischer-Tropsch reaction. An important part of the investment costs of a

  5. Characterization and suitability of superclean coals for hydroliquefaction feedstocks: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Nam

    1989-05-30

    Superclean coals have been studied for their suitability as liquefaction feedstocks. The effects of ash and sulfur contents and two catalysts on a hydrogen donor solvent liquefaction reaction have been studied. Experiments were run using a unique coal of small particle size (90% <22 microns). The coal was characterized in terms of its chemical and its physical properties. This information made it possible to determine the effects of the static tube flotation separation on the coal. Once characterized the coals were liquefied in the hydrogen donor tetralin under a hydrogen atmosphere of 500 psig. The first series of experiments was to determine the effects of the ash on the liquefaction reaction. The second group of experiments dealt with the effects of catalysts (ammonium molybdate and titanium carbide) on low ash coals at various conditions. A model for batch liquefaction in a hydrogen donor solvent is then developed. This model is based on the assumption that the reaction is due to two competing mechanisms; (1) a thermal decomposition of the coal and (2) a catalytic reaction. The thermal reaction produces unwanted products while the catalytic reaction produces the desired products. To accurately model the batch system, mass transfer is considered. 51 refs., 50 figs., 29 tabs.

  6. Investigation on characterization and liquefaction of coals from Tavan tolgoi deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Purevsuren

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of proximate, ultimate, petrographic and IR analysis results have been confirmed that the Tavan tolgoi coal is a high-rank G mark stone coal. The results of X-ray fluorescence analysis of coal ash show that the Tavan tolgoi coal is a subbituminous coal. The ash of Tavan tolgoi coal has an acidic character. The results of pyrolysis of Tavan tolgoi coal at different heating temperatures show that a maximum yield - 5.0% of liquid product can be obtained at 700°C. The results of thermal dissolution of Tavan tolgoi coal in tetralin with constant mass ratio between coal and tetralin (1:1.8 at 450°C show that 50.0% of liquid product can be obtained after thermal decomposition of the COM (coal organic matter. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5564/mjc.v14i0.191 Mongolian Journal of Chemistry 14 (40, 2013, p12-19

  7. NMR imaging studies of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Z.R.; Zhang, P.Z.; Ding, G.L.; Li, L.Y.; Ye, C.H. [University of Science and Technology, Beijing (China). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-06-01

    The permeation transportation and swelling behavior of solvents into coal are investigated by NMR imaging using pyridine-d{sub 5} and acetone-d{sub 6}. Images of coal swollen with deuterated solvents illuminate proton distributions of mobile phases within the coal macromolecular networks. More information about the chemical and physical structure of coal can be obtained using NMR imaging techniques.

  8. Coal: Less than lackluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerell, P.

    1994-01-01

    Not many in the world coal industry will remember 1993 as a good year. The reasons for the poor state of affairs were first the weak economic climate, and second, the energy glut. For the first time after expanding steadily since the 70s, seaborne trade in hard coal fell by about 4% to 350M mt. Steam coal accounted for a good half of this volume. While demand continued to rise in the newly industrialized countries of the Pacific area, imports into Europe of both coking coal and steam coal fell sharply. The United States, CIS, and Canada had to accept substantial losses of export volume. Australia, as well as South Africa, Colombia, and Indonesia consolidated their market positions and Poland, too, recorded high volumes available for export. The positive news came from Australia, where in mid-December the New South Wales coal industry reported an increase in the net profit after tax from $A83M (about $55M) to $A98M (about $126M) in 1992/1993. This success was however ascribed less to an improvement in the fundamental mining indicators than to the fall in the Australian dollar and the lowering of corporate tax. The reduction in capital investment by 26% down to $A330M (after the previous year when it had also been cut by 25%) is seen by the chairman of the NSW Coal Assoc. as not auguring well for the industry's ability to meet the forecast growth in demand to the year 2000

  9. The catalytic cracking mechanism of lignite pyrolysis char on tar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Z.; Huibin, H.; Xiangling, S.; Zhenhua, M.; Lei, Z.

    2017-01-01

    The influence of different pyrolysis conditions for tar catalytic cracking will be analyzed according to the lignite pyrolysis char as catalyst on pyrolytic tar in this paper. The pyrolysis char what is the by-product of the cracking of coal has an abundant of pore structure and it has good catalytic activity. On this basis, making the modified catalyst when the pyrolysis char is activation and loads Fe by impregnation method. The cracking mechanism of lignite pyrolytic tar is explored by applying gas chromatograph to analyze splitting products of tar. The experimental results showed that: (1) The effect of tar cracking as the pyrolysis temperature, the heating rate, the volatilization of pyrolysis char and particle size increasing is better and better. The effect of the catalytic and cracking of lignite pyrolysis char in tar is best when the heating rate, the pyrolysis temperature, the volatiles of pyrolysis char, particle size is in specific conditions.(2) The activation of pyrolysis char can improve the catalytic effect of pyrolysis char on the tar cracking. But it reduces the effect of the tar cracking when the pyrolysis char is activation loading Fe. (author)

  10. Novel Catalytic Membrane Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart Nemser, PhD

    2010-10-01

    There are many industrial catalytic organic reversible reactions with amines or alcohols that have water as one of the products. Many of these reactions are homogeneously catalyzed. In all cases removal of water facilitates the reaction and produces more of the desired chemical product. By shifting the reaction to right we produce more chemical product with little or no additional capital investment. Many of these reactions can also relate to bioprocesses. Given the large number of water-organic compound separations achievable and the ability of the Compact Membrane Systems, Inc. (CMS) perfluoro membranes to withstand these harsh operating conditions, this is an ideal demonstration system for the water-of-reaction removal using a membrane reactor. Enhanced reaction synthesis is consistent with the DOE objective to lower the energy intensity of U.S. industry 25% by 2017 in accord with the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and to improve the United States manufacturing competitiveness. The objective of this program is to develop the platform technology for enhancing homogeneous catalytic chemical syntheses.

  11. Coal potential of Antartica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, G.; McElroy, C.T.

    1987-01-01

    This report attempts to bring together available information on the coal deposits of Antarctica and discuss factors that would be involved if these deposits were to be explored and mined. Most of the reported principal coal deposits in Antarctica lie generally within the Transantarctic Mountains: the majority are of Permian age and are present in the Victoria Group of the Beacon Supergroup. Several other deposits have been recorded in East Antarctica and in the Antarctic Peninsula, including minor occurrences of Mesozoic and Tertiary coal and carbonaceous shale.

  12. Extreme coal handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, S; Homleid, D. [Air Control Science Inc. (United States)

    2004-04-01

    Within the journals 'Focus on O & M' is a short article describing modifications to coal handling systems at Eielson Air Force Base near Fairbanks, Alaska, which is supplied with power and heat from a subbituminous coal-fired central plant. Measures to reduce dust include addition of an enclosed recirculation chamber at each transfer point and new chute designs to reduce coal velocity, turbulence, and induced air. The modifications were developed by Air Control Science (ACS). 7 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Coal-fired generation

    CERN Document Server

    Breeze, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Coal-Fired Generation is a concise, up-to-date and readable guide providing an introduction to this traditional power generation technology. It includes detailed descriptions of coal fired generation systems, demystifies the coal fired technology functions in practice as well as exploring the economic and environmental risk factors. Engineers, managers, policymakers and those involved in planning and delivering energy resources will find this reference a valuable guide, to help establish a reliable power supply address social and economic objectives. Focuses on the evolution of the traditio

  14. Microbial desulfurization of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bos, P.; Boogerd, F.C.; Kuenen, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, studies have been initiated to explore the possibilities of the use of biological systems in coal technology. This chapter discusses the principles behind the bioprocessing of coal, the advantages and disadvantages, and the economic feasibility of the process. For large-scale, coal-using, energy-producing plants, stack gas cleaning should be the treatment of choice. Biodesulfurization is preferable with industrial, small-scale, energy-producing plants. Treatment of the stack gases of these plants is not advisable because of high investment costs. Finally, it should be realized that biodesulfurization produces a waste stream that needs further treatment. 91 refs

  15. Assessment of the candidate markets for liquid boiler fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-12-01

    Liquid fuels can be produced from coal in a number of indirect and direct liquefaction processes. While indirect coal liquefaction has been proved commercially outside the United States, most attention in this country has focused on the direct liquefaction processes, which include the processes under examination in this report; namely, the Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS), the H-Coal, and the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) II processes. The objectives of the study were to: compare the boiler fuels of direct coal liquefaction with residual fuel oil (No. 6 fuel oil) including physical characteristics and environmental hazards, such as carcinogenic characteristics and toxic hazard characteristics; determine whether a boiler fuel market would exist for the coal liquefaction products given their physical characteristics and potential environmental hazards; determine the advantages of utilizing methanol as a boiler fuel on a continuous basis in commercial boilers utilizing existing technology; identify the potential regional candidate markets for direct coal liquefaction products as liquid boiler fuels; determine the distributing and handling costs associated with marketing coal liquefaction products as liquid boiler fuels; determine the current regulatory issues associated with the marketing of coal liquefaction products as boiler fuels; and determine and evaluate other institutional issues associated with the marketing of direct coal liquefaction products as boiler fuels.

  16. Coal based electric generation comparative technologies report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-10-26

    Ohio Clean Fuels, Inc., (OCF) has licensed technology that involves Co-Processing (Co-Pro) poor grade (high sulfur) coal and residual oil feedstocks to produce clean liquid fuels on a commercial scale. Stone Webster is requested to perform a comparative technologies report for grassroot plants utilizing coal as a base fuel. In the case of Co-Processing technology the plant considered is the nth plant in a series of applications. This report presents the results of an economic comparison of this technology with other power generation technologies that use coal. Technologies evaluated were:Co-Processing integrated with simple cycle combustion turbine generators, (CSC); Co-Processing integrated with combined cycle combustion turbine generators, (CCC); pulverized coal-fired boiler with flue gas desulfurization and steam turbine generator, (PC) and Circulating fluidized bed boiler and steam turbine generator, (CFB). Conceptual designs were developed. Designs were based on approximately equivalent net electrical output for each technology. A base case of 310 MWe net for each technology was established. Sensitivity analyses at other net electrical output sizes varying from 220 MWe's to 1770 MWe's were also performed. 4 figs., 9 tabs.

  17. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J.A.; Linehan, J.C.; Robins, W.H. (Battelle Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

    1992-07-01

    Under contract from the DOE , and in association with CONSOL Inc., Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) evaluated four principal and several complementary techniques for the analysis of non-distillable direct coal liquefaction materials in support of process development. Field desorption mass spectrometry (FDMS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic methods were examined for potential usefulness as techniques to elucidate the chemical structure of residual (nondistillable) direct coal liquefaction derived materials. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and supercritical fluid chromatography/mass spectrometry (SFC/MS) were evaluated for effectiveness in compound-class separation and identification of residual materials. Liquid chromatography (including microcolumn) separation techniques, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (MS/MS), and GC/Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy methods were applied to supercritical fluid extracts. The full report authored by the PNL researchers is presented here. The following assessment briefly highlights the major findings of the project, and evaluates the potential of the methods for application to coal liquefaction materials. These results will be incorporated by CONSOL into a general overview of the application of novel analytical techniques to coal-derived materials at the conclusion of CONSOL's contract.

  18. Catalytic Antibodies: Concept and Promise

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 11. Catalytic Antibodies: Concept and Promise. Desirazu N Rao Bharath Wootla. General Article Volume 12 Issue ... Keywords. Catalytic antibodies; abzymes; hybridome technology; Diels– Alder reaction; Michaelis– Menten kinetics; Factor VIII.

  19. Quarterly coal report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, P.

    1996-05-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1995 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1987 through the third quarter of 1995. Appendix A displays, from 1987 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  20. Coal Mine Permit Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — ESRI ArcView shapefile depicting New Mexico coal mines permitted under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA), by either the NM Mining these...