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Sample records for catalytic ceramic membranes

  1. Flame assisted synthesis of catalytic ceramic membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Johnny; Mosleh, Majid; Johannessen, Tue

    2004-01-01

    technology it is possible to make supported catalysts, composite metal oxides, catalytically active surfaces, and porous ceramic membranes. Membrane layers can be formed by using a porous substrate tube (or surface) as a nano-particle filter. The aerosol gas from the flame is led through a porous substrate...

  2. Fabrication of palladium nanoparticles immobilized on an amine-functionalized ceramic membrane support using a nanoparticulate colloidal impregnation method with enhanced catalytic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Yan; Chen, Rizhi [Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing (China)

    2015-09-15

    An efficient and reusable catalyst was developed by depositing palladium nanoparticles on an amine-functionalized ceramic membrane support using a nanoparticulate colloidal impregnation method. The as-prepared Pdloaded ceramic membrane support was characterized by XRD, SEM, EDS, TEM, XPS, ICP, and its catalytic properties were investigated in the liquid-phase p-nitrophenol hydrogenation. A comparative study was also made with the palladium nanoparticles deposited on an amine-functionalized ceramic membrane support by an impregnation-reduction method. The palladium nanoparticles could be homogeneously immobilized on the ceramic membrane support surface, and exhibited excellent catalytic performance in the p-nitrophenol hydrogenation. The catalytic activity of the Pdloaded ceramic membrane support prepared by the nanoparticulate colloidal impregnation method increased by 16.6% compared to that of impregnation-reduction method. In the nanoparticulate colloidal impregnation method, palladium nanoparticles were presynthesized, higher loading of Pd(0) could be obtained, resulting in better catalytic activity. The as-prepared Pd-loaded ceramic membrane support could be easily reused for several cycles without appreciable degradation of catalytic activity.

  3. A novel catalytic ceramic membrane fabricated with CuMn2O4 particles for emerging UV absorbers degradation from aqueous and membrane fouling elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yang; Song, Zilong; Xu, Bingbing; Li, Yanning; Qi, Fei; Croue, Jean-Philippe; Yuan, Donghai

    2018-02-15

    A novel catalytic ceramic membrane (CM) for improving ozonation and filtration performance was fabricated by surface coating CuMn 2 O 4 particles on a tubular CM. The degradation of ultraviolet (UV) absorbers, reduction of toxicity, elimination of membrane fouling and catalytic mechanism were investigated. The characterization results suggested the particles were well-fixed on membrane surface. The modified membrane showed improved benzophenone-3 removal performance (from 28% to 34%), detoxification (EC 50 as 12.77%) and the stability of catalytic activity. In the degradation performance of model UV absorbers, the developed membrane significantly decreased the UV254 and DOC values in effluent. Compared with a virgin CM, this CM ozonation increased water flux as 29.9% by in-situ degrade effluent organic matters. The CuMn 2 O 4 modified membrane enhanced the ozone self-decompose to generate O 2 - and initiated the chain reaction of ozone decomposition, and subsequently reacted with molecule ozone to produce OH. Additionally, CM was able to promote the interaction between ozone and catalyst/organic chemicals to form H 2 O 2 that promoted the formation of OH. This catalytic ceramic membrane combining with ozonation showed potential applications in emerging pollutant degradation and membrane fouling elimination, and acted as a novel ternary technology for wastewater treatment and water reuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Shape-dependent plasma-catalytic activity of ZnO nanomaterials coated on porous ceramic membrane for oxidation of butane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjeeva Gandhi, M; Mok, Young Sun

    2014-12-01

    In order to explore the effects of the shape of ZnO nanomaterials on the plasma-catalytic decomposition of butane and the distribution of byproducts, three types of ZnO nanomaterials (nanoparticles (NPs), nanorods (NRs) and nanowires (NWs)) were prepared and coated on multi-channel porous alumina ceramic membrane. The structures and morphologies of the nanomaterials were confirmed by X-ray diffraction method and scanning electron microscopy. The observed catalytic activity of ZnO in the oxidative decomposition of butane was strongly shape-dependent. It was found that the ZnO NWs exhibited higher catalytic activity than the other nanomaterials and could completely oxidize butane into carbon oxides (COx). When using the bare or ZnO NPs-coated ceramic membrane, several unwanted partial oxidation and decomposition products like acetaldehyde, acetylene, methane and propane were identified during the decomposition of butane. When the ZnO NWs- or ZnO NRs-coated membrane was used, however, the formation of such unwanted byproducts except methane was completely avoided, and full conversion into COx was achieved. Better carbon balance and COx selectivity were obtained with the ZnO NWs and NRs than with the NPs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Oxyfuel combustion using a catalytic ceramic membrane reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Xiaoyao; Li, K. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, University of London, South Kensington, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Thursfield, A.; Metcalfe, I.S. [School of Chemical Engineering and Advanced Materials, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2008-02-29

    Membrane catalytic combustion (MCC) is an environmentally friendly technique for heat and power generation from methane. This work demonstrates the performances of a MCC perovskite hollow fibre membrane reactor for the catalytic combustion of methane. The ionic-electronic La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{alpha}} (LSCF6428) mixed conductor, in the form of an oxygen-permeable hollow fibre membrane, has been prepared successfully by means of a phase-inversion spinning/sintering technique. For this process polyethersulfone (PESf) was used as a binder, N-methyl-2-pyrrollidone (NMP) as solvent and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP, K16-18) as an additive. With the prepared LSCF6428 hollow fibre membranes packed with catalyst, hollow fibre membrane reactors (HFMRs) have been assembled to perform the catalytic combustion of methane. A simple mathematical model that combines the local oxygen permeation rate with approximate catalytic reaction kinetics has been developed and can be used to predict the performance of the HFMRs for methane combustion. The effects of operating temperature and methane and air feed flow rates on the performance of the HFMR have been investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Both the methane conversion and oxygen permeation rate can be improved by means of coating platinum on the air side of the hollow fibre membranes. (author)

  6. Dense ceramic membranes for methane conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouwmeester, Henny J.M. [Laboratory for Inorganic Materials Science, Department of Science and Technology and MESA Research Institute, University of Twente, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

    2003-07-30

    Dense ceramic membranes made from mixed oxygen-ionic and electronic conducting perovskite-related oxides allow separation of oxygen from an air supply at elevated temperatures (>700C). By combining air separation and catalytic partial oxidation of methane to syngas into a ceramic membrane reactor, this technology is expected to significantly reduce the capital costs of conversion of natural gas to liquid added-value products. The present survey is mainly concerned with the material properties that govern the performance of the mixed-conducting membranes in real operating conditions and highlights significant developments in the field.

  7. Catalytic membrane in reduction of aqueous nitrates: operational principles and catalytic performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ilinitch, O.M.; Cuperus, F.P.; Nosova, L.V.; Gribov, E.N.

    2000-01-01

    The catalytic membrane with palladium-copper active component supported over the macroporous ceramic membrane, and a series of γ-Al 2O 3 supported Pd-Cu catalysts were prepared and investigated. In reduction of nitrate ions by hydrogen in water at ambient temperature, pronounced internal diffusion

  8. Ceramic oxygen transport membrane array reactor and reforming method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Sean M.; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Robinson, Charles; Wilson, Jamie R.; Gonzalez, Javier E.; Doraswami, Uttam R.

    2016-11-08

    The invention relates to a commercially viable modular ceramic oxygen transport membrane reforming reactor configured using repeating assemblies of oxygen transport membrane tubes and catalytic reforming reactors.

  9. Reactor vessel using metal oxide ceramic membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Marc A.; Zeltner, Walter A.

    1992-08-11

    A reaction vessel for use in photoelectrochemical reactions includes as its reactive surface a metal oxide porous ceramic membrane of a catalytic metal such as titanium. The reaction vessel includes a light source and a counter electrode. A provision for applying an electrical bias between the membrane and the counter electrode permits the Fermi levels of potential reaction to be favored so that certain reactions may be favored in the vessel. The electrical biasing is also useful for the cleaning of the catalytic membrane.

  10. Use of a Ceramic Membrane to Improve the Performance of Two-Separate-Phase Biocatalytic Membrane Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranieri, Giuseppe; Mazzei, Rosalinda; Wu, Zhentao; Li, Kang; Giorno, Lidietta

    2016-03-14

    Biocatalytic membrane reactors (BMR) combining reaction and separation within the same unit have many advantages over conventional reactor designs. Ceramic membranes are an attractive alternative to polymeric membranes in membrane biotechnology due to their high chemical, thermal and mechanical resistance. Another important use is their potential application in a biphasic membrane system, where support solvent resistance is highly needed. In this work, the preparation of asymmetric ceramic hollow fibre membranes and their use in a two-separate-phase biocatalytic membrane reactor will be described. The asymmetric ceramic hollow fibre membranes were prepared using a combined phase inversion and sintering technique. The prepared fibres were then used as support for lipase covalent immobilization in order to develop a two-separate-phase biocatalytic membrane reactor. A functionalization method was proposed in order to increase the density of the reactive hydroxyl groups on the surface of ceramic membranes, which were then amino-activated and treated with a crosslinker. The performance and the stability of the immobilized lipase were investigated as a function of the amount of the immobilized biocatalytst. Results showed that it is possible to immobilize lipase on a ceramic membrane without altering its catalytic performance (initial residual specific activity 93%), which remains constant after 6 reaction cycles.

  11. Use of a Ceramic Membrane to Improve the Performance of Two-Separate-Phase Biocatalytic Membrane Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Ranieri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Biocatalytic membrane reactors (BMR combining reaction and separation within the same unit have many advantages over conventional reactor designs. Ceramic membranes are an attractive alternative to polymeric membranes in membrane biotechnology due to their high chemical, thermal and mechanical resistance. Another important use is their potential application in a biphasic membrane system, where support solvent resistance is highly needed. In this work, the preparation of asymmetric ceramic hollow fibre membranes and their use in a two-separate-phase biocatalytic membrane reactor will be described. The asymmetric ceramic hollow fibre membranes were prepared using a combined phase inversion and sintering technique. The prepared fibres were then used as support for lipase covalent immobilization in order to develop a two-separate-phase biocatalytic membrane reactor. A functionalization method was proposed in order to increase the density of the reactive hydroxyl groups on the surface of ceramic membranes, which were then amino-activated and treated with a crosslinker. The performance and the stability of the immobilized lipase were investigated as a function of the amount of the immobilized biocatalytst. Results showed that it is possible to immobilize lipase on a ceramic membrane without altering its catalytic performance (initial residual specific activity 93%, which remains constant after 6 reaction cycles.

  12. A submerged ceramic membrane reactor for the p-nitrophenol hydrogenation over nano-sized nickel catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R Z; Sun, H L; Xing, W H; Jin, W Q; Xu, N P

    2009-02-01

    The catalytic hydrogenation of p-nitrophenol to p-aminophenol over nano-sized nickel catalysts was carried out in a submerged ceramic membrane reactor. It has been demonstrated that the submerged ceramic membrane reactor is more suitable for the p-nitrophenol hydrogenation over nano-sized nickel catalysts compared with the side-stream ceramic membrane reactor, and the membrane module configuration has a great influence on the reaction rate of p-nitrophenol hydrogenation and the membrane treating capacity. The deactivation of nano-sized nickel is mainly caused by the adsorption of impurity on the surface of nickel and the increase of oxidation degree of nickel.

  13. Catalytic nanoporous membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellin, Michael J; Hryn, John N; Elam, Jeffrey W

    2013-08-27

    A nanoporous catalytic membrane which displays several unique features Including pores which can go through the entire thickness of the membrane. The membrane has a higher catalytic and product selectivity than conventional catalysts. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes serve as the catalyst substrate. This substrate is then subjected to Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), which allows the controlled narrowing of the pores from 40 nm to 10 nm in the substrate by deposition of a preparatory material. Subsequent deposition of a catalytic layer on the inner surfaces of the pores reduces pore sizes to less than 10 nm and allows for a higher degree of reaction selectivity. The small pore sizes allow control over which molecules enter the pores, and the flow-through feature can allow for partial oxidation of reactant species as opposed to complete oxidation. A nanoporous separation membrane, produced by ALD is also provided for use in gaseous and liquid separations. The membrane has a high flow rate of material with 100% selectivity. Also provided is a method for producing a catalytic membrane having flow-through pores and discreet catalytic clusters adhering to the inside surfaces of the pores.

  14. Ceramic membranes with mixed conductivity and their application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozhevnikov, V L; Leonidov, I A; Patrakeev, M V

    2013-01-01

    Data on the catalytic reactors with ceramic membranes possessing mixed oxygen ion and electronic conductivity that make it possible to integrate the processes of oxygen separation and oxidation are analyzed and generalized. The development of this approach is of interest for the design of energy efficient and environmentally friendly processes for processing natural gas and other raw materials. The general issues concerning the primary processing of light alkanes in reactors with oxygen separating membranes are expounded and general demands to the membrane materials are discussed. Particular attention is paid to the process of oxidative conversion of methane to synthesis gas. The bibliography includes 110 references

  15. OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

    2000-10-01

    This is the third quarterly report on oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes. In the following, the report describes the progress made by our university partners in Tasks 1 through 6, experimental apparatus that was designed and built for various tasks of this project, thermodynamic calculations, where applicable and work planned for the future. (Task 1) Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints. (Task 2) Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability. (Task 3) Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres. (Task 4) Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures. (Task 5) Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability. (Task 6) Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques.

  16. Ceramic membrane development in NGK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araki, Kiyoshi; Sakai, Hitoshi, E-mail: kinsakai@ngk.co.jp [Corporate R and D, NGK Insulators, Ltd., Nagoya 467-8530 (Japan)

    2011-05-15

    NGK Insulators, Ltd. was established in 1919 to manufacture the electric porcelain insulators for power transmission lines. Since then, our business has grown as one of the world-leading ceramics manufacturing companies and currently supply with the various environmentally-benign ceramic products to worldwide. In this paper, ceramic membrane development in NGK is described in detail. We have been selling ceramic microfiltration (MF) membranes and ultra-filtration (UF) membranes for many years to be used for solid/liquid separation in various fields such as pharmaceutical, chemical, food and semiconductor industries. In Corporate R and D, new ceramic membranes with sub-nanometer sized pores, which are fabricated on top of the membrane filters as support, are under development for gas and liquid/liquid separation processes.

  17. Ceramic membrane development in NGK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Kiyoshi; Sakai, Hitoshi

    2011-05-01

    NGK Insulators, Ltd. was established in 1919 to manufacture the electric porcelain insulators for power transmission lines. Since then, our business has grown as one of the world-leading ceramics manufacturing companies and currently supply with the various environmentally-benign ceramic products to worldwide. In this paper, ceramic membrane development in NGK is described in detail. We have been selling ceramic microfiltration (MF) membranes and ultra-filtration (UF) membranes for many years to be used for solid/liquid separation in various fields such as pharmaceutical, chemical, food and semiconductor industries. In Corporate R&D, new ceramic membranes with sub-nanometer sized pores, which are fabricated on top of the membrane filters as support, are under development for gas and liquid/liquid separation processes.

  18. Environmentally benign synthesis of amides and ureas via catalytic dehydrogenation coupling of volatile alcohols and amines in a Pd-Ag membrane reactor

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Tao

    2016-05-31

    In this study, we report the direct synthesis of amides and ureas via the catalytic dehydrogenation of volatile alcohols and amines using the Milstein catalyst in a Pd-Ag/ceramic membrane reactor. A series of amides and ureas, which could not be synthesized in an open system by catalytic dehydrogenation coupling, were obtained in moderate to high yields via catalytic dehydrogenation of volatile alcohols and amines. This process could be monitored by the hydrogen produced. Compared to the traditional method of condensation, this catalytic system avoids the stoichiometric pre-activation or in situ activation of reagents, and is a much cleaner process with high atom economy. This methodology, only possible by employing the Pd-Ag/ceramic membrane reactor, not only provides a new environmentally benign synthetic approach of amides and ureas, but is also a potential method for hydrogen storage.

  19. Environmentally benign synthesis of amides and ureas via catalytic dehydrogenation coupling of volatile alcohols and amines in a Pd-Ag membrane reactor

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Tao; Zeng, Gaofeng; Lai, Zhiping; Huang, Kuo-Wei

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we report the direct synthesis of amides and ureas via the catalytic dehydrogenation of volatile alcohols and amines using the Milstein catalyst in a Pd-Ag/ceramic membrane reactor. A series of amides and ureas, which could not be synthesized in an open system by catalytic dehydrogenation coupling, were obtained in moderate to high yields via catalytic dehydrogenation of volatile alcohols and amines. This process could be monitored by the hydrogen produced. Compared to the traditional method of condensation, this catalytic system avoids the stoichiometric pre-activation or in situ activation of reagents, and is a much cleaner process with high atom economy. This methodology, only possible by employing the Pd-Ag/ceramic membrane reactor, not only provides a new environmentally benign synthetic approach of amides and ureas, but is also a potential method for hydrogen storage.

  20. The use of nanoparticles in polymeric and ceramic membrane structures: Review of manufacturing procedures and performance improvement for water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeonghwan [Department of Environmental Engineering, INHA University, Nam-gu, Yonghyun-dong 253, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Van der Bruggen, Bart, E-mail: bart.vanderbruggen@cit.kuleuven.b [K.U. Leuven, Department of Chemical Engineering, Laboratory for Applied Physical Chemistry and Environmental Technology, W. de Croylaan 46, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2010-07-15

    Membrane separations are powerful tools for various applications, including wastewater treatment and the removal of contaminants from drinking water. The performance of membranes is mainly limited by material properties. Recently, successful attempts have been made to add nanoparticles or nanotubes to polymers in membrane synthesis, with particle sizes ranging from 4 nm up to 100 nm. Ceramic membranes have been fabricated with catalytic nanoparticles for synergistic effects on the membrane performance. Breakthrough effects that have been reported in the field of water and wastewater treatment include fouling mitigation, improvement of permeate quality and flux enhancement. Nanomaterials that have been used include titania, alumina, silica, silver and many others. This paper reviews the role of engineered nanomaterials in (pressure driven) membrane technology for water treatment, to be applied in drinking water production and wastewater recycling. Benefits and drawbacks are described, which should be taken into account in further studies on potential risks related to release of nanoparticles into the environment. - Nanoparticles show a great potential for application in polymeric and ceramic membrane structures, in view of fouling mitigation and catalytic breakdown processes.

  1. The use of nanoparticles in polymeric and ceramic membrane structures: Review of manufacturing procedures and performance improvement for water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeonghwan; Van der Bruggen, Bart

    2010-01-01

    Membrane separations are powerful tools for various applications, including wastewater treatment and the removal of contaminants from drinking water. The performance of membranes is mainly limited by material properties. Recently, successful attempts have been made to add nanoparticles or nanotubes to polymers in membrane synthesis, with particle sizes ranging from 4 nm up to 100 nm. Ceramic membranes have been fabricated with catalytic nanoparticles for synergistic effects on the membrane performance. Breakthrough effects that have been reported in the field of water and wastewater treatment include fouling mitigation, improvement of permeate quality and flux enhancement. Nanomaterials that have been used include titania, alumina, silica, silver and many others. This paper reviews the role of engineered nanomaterials in (pressure driven) membrane technology for water treatment, to be applied in drinking water production and wastewater recycling. Benefits and drawbacks are described, which should be taken into account in further studies on potential risks related to release of nanoparticles into the environment. - Nanoparticles show a great potential for application in polymeric and ceramic membrane structures, in view of fouling mitigation and catalytic breakdown processes.

  2. Nanostructured Ceramic Photocatalytic Membrane Modified with a Polymer Template for Textile Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwan Ahmad

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalytic ceramic membranes have attracted considerable attention for industrial wastewater treatment. However, morphological control of the membrane surface to improve its photocatalytic reactivity for the degradation of organic pollutants remains a challenge. Herein, we report a new nanostructured TiO2/Al2O3 composite ceramic membrane prepared from a poly(oxyethylene methacrylate (POEM template through a sol–gel method and its photocatalytic performance in the treatment of a model dye compound. The POEM polymeric template allowed the homogeneous distribution of catalytic sites, i.e., the TiO2 layer, on the Al2O3 membrane surface, resulting in improved organic dye degradation along with effective fouling mitigation. The immobilization of a TiO2 layer on the Al2O3 membrane support also significantly enhanced the membrane adsorption capacity toward dye organic compounds. An organic removal efficiency of over 96% was achieved with the TiO2/Al2O3 composite membrane under Ultraviolet (UV irradiation. In addition, the self-cleaning efficiency of the TiO2/Al2O3 composite membrane was remarkably improved by the degradation of organic foulants on the membrane under UV illumination.

  3. A forced-flow membrane reactor for transfructosylation using ceramic membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizawa, K; Nakajima, M; Nabetani, H

    2000-04-05

    A forced-flow membrane reactor system for transfructosylation was investigated using several ceramic membranes having different pore sizes. beta-Fructofuranosidase from Aspergillus niger ATCC 20611 was immobilized chemically to the inner surface of a ceramic membrane activated by a silane-coupling reagent. Sucrose solution was forced through the ceramic membrane by crossflow filtration while transfructosylation took place. The saccharide composition of the product, which was a mixture of fructooligosaccharides (FOS), was a function of the permeate flux, which was easily controlled by pressure. Using 0.2 micrometer pore size of symmetric ceramic membrane, the volumetric productivity obtained was 3.87 kg m(-3) s(-1), which was 560 times higher than that in a reported batch system, with a short residence time of 11 s. The half-life of the immobilized enzyme in the membrane was estimated to be 35 days by a long-term operation. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  4. Method of producing a carbon coated ceramic membrane and associated product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Paul K. T.; Gallaher, George R.; Wu, Jeffrey C. S.

    1993-01-01

    A method of producing a carbon coated ceramic membrane including passing a selected hydrocarbon vapor through a ceramic membrane and controlling ceramic membrane exposure temperature and ceramic membrane exposure time. The method produces a carbon coated ceramic membrane of reduced pore size and modified surface properties having increased chemical, thermal and hydrothermal stability over an uncoated ceramic membrane.

  5. Characterization of natural organic matter treated by iron oxide nanoparticle incorporated ceramic membrane-ozonation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hosik; Kim, Yohan; An, Byungryul; Choi, Heechul

    2012-11-15

    In this study, changes in the physical and structural properties of natural organic matter (NOM) were observed during hybrid ceramic membrane processes that combined ozonation with ultrafiltration ceramic membrane (CM) or with a reactive ceramic membrane (RM), namely, an iron oxide nanoparticles (IONs) incorporated-CM. NOM from feed water and NOM from permeate treated with hybrid ceramic membrane processes were analyzed by employing several NOM characterization techniques. Specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA), high-performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) and fractionation analyses showed that the hybrid ceramic membrane process effectively removed and transformed relatively high contents of aromatic, high molecular weight and hydrophobic NOM fractions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and 3-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that this process caused a significant decrease of the aromaticity of humic-like structures and an increase in electron withdrawing groups. The highest removal efficiency (46%) of hydroxyl radical probe compound (i.e., para-Chlorobenzoic acid (pCBA)) in RM-ozonation process compared with that in CM without ozonation process (8%) revealed the hydroxyl radical formation by the surface-catalyzed reaction between ozone and IONs on the surface of RM. In addition, experimental results on flux decline showed that fouling of RM-ozonation process (15%) was reduced compared with that of CM without ozonation process (30%). These results indicated that the RM-ozonation process enhanced the destruction of NOM and reduced the fouling by generating hydroxyl radicals from the catalytic ozonation in the RM-ozonation process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ceramic membrane defouling (cleaning) by air Nano Bubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadimkhani, Aliasghar; Zhang, Wen; Marhaba, Taha

    2016-03-01

    Ceramic membranes are among the most promising technologies for membrane applications, owing to their excellent resistance to mechanical, chemical, and thermal stresses. However, membrane fouling is still an issue that hampers the applications at large scales. Air Nano Bubbles (NBs), due to high mass transfer efficiency, could potentially prevent fouling of ceramic membrane filtration processes. In this study, bench and pilot scale ceramic membrane filtration was performed with air NBs to resist fouling. To simulate fouling, humic acid, as an organic foulant, was applied to the membrane flat sheet surface. Complete membrane clogging was achieved in less than 6 h. Membrane defouling (cleaning) was performed by directly feeding of air NBs to the membrane cells. The surface of the ceramic membrane was superbly cleaned by air NBs, as revealed by atomic force microscope (AFM) images before and after the treatment. The permeate flux recovered to its initial level (e.g., 26.7 × 10(-9) m(3)/m(2)/s at applied pressure of 275.8 kPa), which indicated that NBs successfully unclogged the pores of the membrane. The integrated ceramic membrane and air NBs system holds potential as an innovative sustainable technology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sol-gel applications for ceramic membrane preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, I.

    2017-02-01

    Ceramic membranes possessing superior properties compared to polymeric membranes are more durable under severe working conditions and therefore their service life is longer. The ceramic membranes are composed of some layers. The support is the layer composed of coarser ceramic structure and responsible for mechanical durability under filtration pressure and it is prepared by consolidation of ceramic powders. The top layer is composed of a finer ceramic micro-structure mainly responsible for the separation of components present in the fluid to be filtered and sol-gel method is a versatile tool to prepare such a tailor-made ceramic filtration structure with finer pores. Depending on the type of filtration (e.g. micro-filtration, ultra-filtration, nano-filtration) aiming separation of components with different sizes, sols with different particulate sizes should be prepared and consolidated with varying precursors and preparation conditions. The coating of sol on the support layer and heat treatment application to have a stable ceramic micro-structure are also important steps determining the final properties of the top layer. Sol-gel method with various controllable parameters (e.g. precursor type, sol formation kinetics, heat treatment conditions) is a practical tool for the preparation of top layers of ceramic composite membranes with desired physicochemical properties.

  8. A Review on Catalytic Membranes Production and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba Abdallah

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of the chemical industry regarding reducing the production cost and obtaining a high-quality product with low environmental impact became the essential requirements of the world in these days. The catalytic membrane is considered as one of the new alternative solutions of catalysts problems in the industries, where the reaction and separation can be amalgamated in one unit. The catalytic membrane has numerous advantages such as breaking the thermodynamic equilibrium limitation, increasing conversion rate, reducing the recycle and separation costs. But the limitation or most disadvantages of catalytic membranes related to the high capital costs for fabrication or the fact that manufacturing process is still under development. This review article summarizes the most recent advances and research activities related to preparation, characterization, and applications of catalytic membranes. In this article, various types of catalytic membranes are displayed with different applications and explained the positive impacts of using catalytic membranes in various reactions. Copyright © 2017 BCREC Group. All rights reserved. Received: 1st April 2016; Revised: 14th February 2017; Accepted: 22nd February 2017 How to Cite: Abdallah, H. (2017. A Review on Catalytic Membranes Production and Applications. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 12 (2: 136-156 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.12.2.462.136-156 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.12.2.462.136-156

  9. OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

    2001-01-01

    Conversion of natural gas to liquid fuels and chemicals is a major goal for the Nation as it enters the 21st Century. Technically robust and economically viable processes are needed to capture the value of the vast reserves of natural gas on Alaska's North Slope, and wean the Nation from dependence on foreign petroleum sources. Technologies that are emerging to fulfill this need are all based syngas as an intermediate. Syngas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide) is a fundamental building block from which chemicals and fuels can be derived. Lower cost syngas translates directly into more cost-competitive fuels and chemicals. The currently practiced commercial technology for making syngas is either steam methane reforming (SMR) or a two-step process involving cryogenic oxygen separation followed by natural gas partial oxidation (POX). These high-energy, capital-intensive processes do not always produce syngas at a cost that makes its derivatives competitive with current petroleum-based fuels and chemicals. This project has the following 6 main tasks: Task 1--Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints. Task 2--Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability. Task 3--Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres. Task 4--Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures. Task 5--Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability. Task 6--Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques

  10. Robust, high temperature-ceramic membranes for gas separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchtold, Kathryn A.; Young, Jennifer S.

    2014-07-29

    A method of making ceramic membranes, and the ceramic membranes so formed, comprising combining a ceramic precursor with an organic or inorganic comonomer, forming the combination as a thin film on a substrate, photopolymerizing the thin film, and pyrolyzing the photopolymerized thin film.

  11. Hydrogenation of Maltose in Catalytic Membrane Reactor for Maltitol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makertihartha I.G.B.N.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Maltitol is one of the low-calorie sweeteners which has a major role in food industries. Due to its characteristics of comparable sweetness level to sucrose, maltitol can be a suitable sugar replacement. In this work, catalytic membrane reactor (CMR was examined in maltitol production through hydrogenation of maltose. Commercial ceramic membrane impregnated with Kalcat 8030 Nickel was used as the CMR. The reaction was conducted at a batch mode operation, 95 to 110°C of temperature, and 5 to 8 bar of pressure. In the range of working conditions used in this study, up to 47% conversion was achieved. The reaction conversion was significantly affected by temperature and pressure. Results of this preliminary study indicated that CMR can be used for hydrogenation of maltose with good performance under a relatively low operating pressure.

  12. Experimental study on ceramic membrane technology for onboard oxygen generation

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang Dongsheng; Bu Xueqin; Sun Bing; Lin Guiping; Zhao Hongtao; Cai Yan; Fang Ling

    2016-01-01

    The ceramic membrane oxygen generation technology has advantages of high concentration of produced oxygen and potential nuclear and biochemical protection capability. The present paper studies the ceramic membrane technology for onboard oxygen generation. Comparisons are made to have knowledge of the effects of two kinds of ceramic membrane separation technologies on oxygen generation, namely electricity driven ceramic membrane separation oxygen generation technology (EDCMSOGT) and pressure d...

  13. Method to remove ammonia using a proton-conducting ceramic membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, Uthamalinga; Bose, Arun C

    2003-10-07

    An apparatus and method for decomposing NH.sub.3. A fluid containing NH.sub.3 is passed in contact with a tubular membrane that is a homogeneous mixture of a ceramic and a first metal, with the ceramic being selected from one or more of a cerate having the formula of M'Ce.sub.1-x M".sub.3-.delta., zirconates having the formula M'Zr.sub.1-x M"O.sub.3-.delta., stannates having the formula M'Sn.sub.1-x M'O.sub.3-.delta., where M' is a group IIA metal, M" is a dopant metal of one or more of Ca, Y, Yb, In, Nd, Gd or mixtures thereof and .delta. is a variable depending on the concentration of dopant and is in the range of from 0.001 to 0.5, the first metal is a group VIII or group IB element selected from the group consisting of Pt, Ag, Pd, Fe, Co, Cr, Mn, V, Ni, Au, Cu, Rh, Ru and mixtures thereof. The tubular membrane has a catalytic metal on the side thereof in contact with the fluid containing NH.sub.3 which is effective to cause NH.sub.3 to decompose to N.sub.2 and H.sub.2. When the H.sub.2 contacts the membrane H.sup.+ ions are formed which pass through the membrane driving the NH.sub.3 decomposition toward completion.

  14. Novel, Ceramic Membrane System For Hydrogen Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elangovan, S.

    2012-12-31

    Separation of hydrogen from coal gas represents one of the most promising ways to produce alternative sources of fuel. Ceramatec, teamed with CoorsTek and Sandia National Laboratories has developed materials technology for a pressure driven, high temperature proton-electron mixed conducting membrane system to remove hydrogen from the syngas. This system separates high purity hydrogen and isolates high pressure CO{sub 2} as the retentate, which is amenable to low cost capture and transport to storage sites. The team demonstrated a highly efficient, pressure-driven hydrogen separation membrane to generate high purity hydrogen from syngas using a novel ceramic-ceramic composite membrane. Recognizing the benefits and limitations of present membrane systems, the all-ceramic system has been developed to address the key technical challenges related to materials performance under actual operating conditions, while retaining the advantages of thermal and process compatibility offered by the ceramic membranes. The feasibility of the concept has already been demonstrated at Ceramatec. This project developed advanced materials composition for potential integration with water gas shift rectors to maximize the hydrogenproduction.

  15. New separation technique. Catalytically functionated separation membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urgami, Tadashi [Kansai Univ., Osaka (Japan)

    1989-02-01

    This report introduces research examples, showing the fundamental principle of the membrane by separating the catalytically functionated separation membrane into enzyme fixing separation membrane, polymerized metal complex separation membrane and polymer catalyst separation membrane. This membrane can achieve both functions of separation and catalytic reaction simultaneously and has sufficient possibility to combine powerful functions. Enzyme fixing separation membrane is prepared by carrier combination method, bridging method or covering method and the enzyme fixing method with polymerized complex in which enzyme is controlled to prevent the activity lowering as much as possible and enzyme is fixed from an aqueous solution into polymer membrane. This membrane is applied to the continuous manufacturing of invert sugar from cane sugar and adsorption and removing of harmful substances from blood by utilizing both micro-capsuled urease and active carbon. Alginic acid-copper (II) complex membrane is used for the polymerized metal complex membrane and polystyrene sulfonate membrane is used for the polymer catalyst separation membrane. 28 refs., 4 figs., 1 tabs.

  16. Novel Catalytic Membrane Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart Nemser, PhD

    2010-10-01

    There are many industrial catalytic organic reversible reactions with amines or alcohols that have water as one of the products. Many of these reactions are homogeneously catalyzed. In all cases removal of water facilitates the reaction and produces more of the desired chemical product. By shifting the reaction to right we produce more chemical product with little or no additional capital investment. Many of these reactions can also relate to bioprocesses. Given the large number of water-organic compound separations achievable and the ability of the Compact Membrane Systems, Inc. (CMS) perfluoro membranes to withstand these harsh operating conditions, this is an ideal demonstration system for the water-of-reaction removal using a membrane reactor. Enhanced reaction synthesis is consistent with the DOE objective to lower the energy intensity of U.S. industry 25% by 2017 in accord with the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and to improve the United States manufacturing competitiveness. The objective of this program is to develop the platform technology for enhancing homogeneous catalytic chemical syntheses.

  17. Differential natural organic matter fouling of ceramic versus polymeric ultrafiltration membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Jin; Kim, Jae-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Ceramic ultrafiltration membranes has drawn increasing attention in drinking water treatment sectors as an alternative to traditional polymeric counterparts, yet only limited information has been made available about the characteristics of ceramic membrane fouling by natural organic matter. The effects of solution chemistry including ionic strength, divalent ion concentration and pH on the flux behavior were comparatively evaluated for ceramic and polymeric ultrafiltration of synthetic water containing model natural organic matter. Filtration characteristics were further probed via resistance-in-series model analysis, fouling visualization using quantum dots, batch adsorption test, contact angle measurement, solute-membrane surface adhesion force measurement, and quantitative comparison of fouling characteristics between ceramic and polymeric membranes. The results collectively suggested that the effects of solution chemistry on fouling behavior of ceramic membranes were generally similar to polymeric counterparts in terms of trends, while the extent varied significantly depending on water quality parameters. Lower fouling tendency and enhanced cleaning efficiency were observed with the ceramic membrane, further promoting the potential for ceramic membrane application to surface water treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Experimental study on ceramic membrane technology for onboard oxygen generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Dongsheng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The ceramic membrane oxygen generation technology has advantages of high concentration of produced oxygen and potential nuclear and biochemical protection capability. The present paper studies the ceramic membrane technology for onboard oxygen generation. Comparisons are made to have knowledge of the effects of two kinds of ceramic membrane separation technologies on oxygen generation, namely electricity driven ceramic membrane separation oxygen generation technology (EDCMSOGT and pressure driven ceramic membrane separation oxygen generation technology (PDCMSOGT. Experiments were conducted under different temperatures, pressures of feed air and produced oxygen flow rates. On the basis of these experiments, the flow rate of feed air, electric power provided, oxygen recovery rate and concentration of produced oxygen are compared under each working condition. It is concluded that the EDCMSOGT is the oxygen generation means more suitable for onboard conditions.

  19. The Enhancement of the Selectivity of Complex Reactions by a Catalytic Membrane Reactor -Ethylene Oxidation Over a Ag Catalyst Supported in a Ceramic Membrane-

    OpenAIRE

    馮, 臨; 小林, 正義; Lin, FENG; Masayoshi, KOBAYASHI

    1991-01-01

    This research demonstrated that, using a membrane reactor consisting of a tubular, microporous, glass-ceramic membrane, it is possible to achieve selective oxidation of ethylene to ethylene oxide with an Ag catalyst. In experiments which a reaction temperature range of 115 to 300℃ and a contact time of 1.5 to 5 seconds, resulting data illustrated the following characteristics of this membrane reactor : 1) compared with a classic tubular reactor, the selectivity of ethylene oxide is increased ...

  20. A comparative evaluation on the emission characteristics of ceramic and metallic catalytic converter in internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leman, A. M.; Jajuli, Afiqah; Rahman, Fakhrurrazi; Feriyanto, Dafit; Zakaria, Supaat

    2017-09-01

    Enforcement of a stricter regulation on exhaust emission by many countries has led to utilization of catalytic converter to reduce the harmful pollutant emission. Ceramic and metallic catalytic converters are the most common type of catalytic converter used. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of the ceramic and metallic catalytic converter on its conversion efficiency using experimental measurement. Both catalysts were placed on a modified exhaust system equipped with a Mitshubishi 4G93 single cylinder petrol engine that was tested on an eddy current dynamometer under steady state conditions for several engine speeds. The experimental results show that the metallic catalytic converter reduced a higher percentage of CO up to 98.6% reduction emissions while ceramic catalytic converter had a better reduction efficiency of HC up to 85.4% and 87.2% reduction of NOx.

  1. Catalytic membrane reactors for tritium recovery from tritiated water in the ITER fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosti, S.; Violante, V.; Basile, A.; Chiappetta, G.; Castelli, S.; De Francesco, M.; Scaglione, S.; Sarto, F.

    2000-01-01

    Palladium and palladium-silver permeators have been obtained by coating porous ceramic tubes with a thin metal layer. Three coating techniques have been studied and characterized: chemical electroless deposition (PdAg film thickness of 10 μm), ion sputtering (about 1 μm) and rolling of thin metal sheets (50 μm). The Pd-ceramic membranes have been used for manufacturing catalytic membrane reactors (CMR) for hydrogen and its isotopes recovering and purifying. These composite membranes and the CMR have been studied and developed for a closed-loop process with reference to the design requirements of the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER) blanket tritium recovery system in the enhanced performance phase of operation. The membranes and CMR have been tested in a pilot plant equipped with temperature, pressure and flow-rate on-line measuring and controlling devices. The conversion value for the water gas shift reaction in the CMR has been measured close to 100% (always above the equilibrium one, 80% at 350 deg. C): the effect of the membrane is very clear since the reaction is moved towards the products because of the continuous hydrogen separation. The rolled thin film membranes have separated the hydrogen from other gases with a complete selectivity and exhibited a slightly larger mass transfer resistance with respect to the electroless membranes. Preliminary tests on the sputtered membranes have also been carried out with a promising performance. Considerations on the use of different palladium alloy in order to improve the performances of the membranes in terms of permeation flux and mechanical strength, such as palladium/yttrium, are also reported

  2. Deashing of coal liquids with ceramic membrane microfiltration and diafiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, B.; Goldsmith, R. [CeraMem Corp., Waltham, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Removal of mineral matter from liquid hydrocarbons derived from the direct liquefaction of coal is required for product acceptability. Current methods include critical solvent deashing (Rose{sup {reg_sign}} process from Kerr-McGee) and filtration (U.S. Filter leaf filter as used by British Coal). These methods produce ash reject streams containing up to 15% of the liquid hydrocarbon product. Consequently, CeraMem proposed the use of low cost, ceramic crossflow membranes for the filtration of coal liquids bottoms to remove mineral matter and subsequent diafiltration (analogous to cake washing in dead-ended filtration) for the removal of coal liquid from the solids stream. The use of these ceramic crossflow membranes overcomes the limitations of traditional polymeric crossflow membranes by having the ability to operate at elevated temperature and to withstand prolonged exposure to hydrocarbon and solvent media. In addition, CeraMem`s membrane filters are significantly less expensive than competitive ceramic membranes due to their unique construction. With these ceramic membrane filters, it may be possible to reduce the product losses associated with traditional deashing processes at an economically attractive cost. The performance of these ceramic membrane microfilters is discussed.

  3. Application of ceramic membranes to SAGD produced water treatment for enhanced recycle and reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minnich, K. [Veolia Water Solutions and Technologies, Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Drivers for using ceramic membranes in steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) include reduced investment cost; alternative treatment technologies that reduce energy and greenhouse gas emissions; and ceramic membranes can be chemically and steam cleaned. This presentation discussed the application of ceramic membranes to SAGD produced water treatment for enhanced recycle and reuse. The presentation illustrated conventional ceramic membranes as well as surface enhanced membranes and provided background information on oil separation. Other topics that were discussed included issues regarding desalter bottoms de-oiling; challenges in de-oiling oil sands produced water; CeraMem surface enhanced membranes; surface facilities and ceramic membrane opportunities; and water treatment using ceramic membranes. The presentation concluded with a discussion of the application of ceramic membranes to SAGD next steps such as a demonstration test of industrial prototype membranes for de-oiling, and pilot testing of ceramic desilication. tabs., figs.

  4. Refining of biodiesel by ceramic membrane separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yong; Ou, Shiyi; Tan, Yanlai; Tang, Shuze [Department of Food Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Wang, Xingguo; Liu, Yuanfa [School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214112 (China)

    2009-03-15

    A ceramic membrane separation process for biodiesel refining was developed to reduce the considerable usage of water needed in the conventional water washing process. Crude biodiesel produced by refined palm oil was micro-filtered by ceramic membranes of the pore size of 0.6, 0.2 and 0.1 {mu}m to remove the residual soap and free glycerol, at the transmembrane pressure of 0.15 MPa and temperature of 60 C. The flux through membrane maintained at 300 L m{sup -} {sup 2} h{sup -} {sup 1} when the volumetric concentrated ratio reached 4. The content of potassium, sodium, calcium and magnesium in the whole permeate was 1.40, 1.78, 0.81 and 0.20 mg/kg respectively, as determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy. These values are lower than the EN 14538 specifications. The residual free glycerol in the permeate was estimated by water extraction, its value was 0.0108 wt.%. This ceramic membrane technology was a potential environmental process for the refining of biodiesel. (author)

  5. Hydrophilic Fe2O3 dynamic membrane mitigating fouling of support ceramic membrane in ultrafiltration of oil/water emulsion

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Dongwei; Cheng, Wei; Zhang, Tao; Lu, Xinglin; Liu, Qianliang; Jiang, Jin; Ma, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Oil/water (O/W) emulsion is daily produced and difficult to be treated effectively. Ceramic membrane ultrafiltration is one of reliable processes for the treatment of O/W emulsion, yet still hindered by membrane fouling. In this study, two types of Fe2O3 dynamic membranes (i.e., pre-coated dynamic membrane and self-forming dynamic membrane) were prepared to mitigate the fouling of support ceramic membrane in O/W emulsion treatment. Pre-coated dynamic membrane (DM) significantly reduced the fouling of ceramic membrane (i.e., 10% increase of flux recovery rate), while self-forming dynamic membrane aggravated ceramic membrane fouling (i.e., 8.6% decrease of flux recovery rate) after four filtration cycles. A possible fouling mechanism was proposed to explain this phenomenon, which was then confirmed by optical images of fouled membranes and the analysis of COD rejection. In addition, the cleaning efficiency of composite membranes (i.e., Fe2O3 dynamic membrane and support ceramic membrane) was enhanced by substitution of alkalescent water backwash for deionized water backwash. The possible reason for this enhancement was also explained. Our result suggests that pre-coated Fe2O3 dynamic membrane with alkalescent water backwash can be a promising technology to reduce the fouling of ceramic membrane and enhance membrane cleaning efficiency in the treatment of oily wastewater.

  6. Hydrophilic Fe2O3 dynamic membrane mitigating fouling of support ceramic membrane in ultrafiltration of oil/water emulsion

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Dongwei

    2016-03-17

    Oil/water (O/W) emulsion is daily produced and difficult to be treated effectively. Ceramic membrane ultrafiltration is one of reliable processes for the treatment of O/W emulsion, yet still hindered by membrane fouling. In this study, two types of Fe2O3 dynamic membranes (i.e., pre-coated dynamic membrane and self-forming dynamic membrane) were prepared to mitigate the fouling of support ceramic membrane in O/W emulsion treatment. Pre-coated dynamic membrane (DM) significantly reduced the fouling of ceramic membrane (i.e., 10% increase of flux recovery rate), while self-forming dynamic membrane aggravated ceramic membrane fouling (i.e., 8.6% decrease of flux recovery rate) after four filtration cycles. A possible fouling mechanism was proposed to explain this phenomenon, which was then confirmed by optical images of fouled membranes and the analysis of COD rejection. In addition, the cleaning efficiency of composite membranes (i.e., Fe2O3 dynamic membrane and support ceramic membrane) was enhanced by substitution of alkalescent water backwash for deionized water backwash. The possible reason for this enhancement was also explained. Our result suggests that pre-coated Fe2O3 dynamic membrane with alkalescent water backwash can be a promising technology to reduce the fouling of ceramic membrane and enhance membrane cleaning efficiency in the treatment of oily wastewater.

  7. Determination of the gas-to-membrane mass transfer coefficient in a catalytic membrane reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldsink, J.W.; Versteeg, G.F.; Swaaij, W.P.M. van

    1995-01-01

    A novel method to determine the external mass transfer coefficient in catalytic membrane reactors (Sloot et al., 1992a, b) was presented in this study. In a catalytically active membrane reactor, in which a very fast reaction occurs, the external transfer coefficient can conveniently be measured by

  8. Comparison of porosity assessment techniques for low-cost ceramic membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Magdalena Lorente-Ayza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Several characterization methods were applied to low cost ceramic membranes developed for wastewater treatment in membrane bioreactors (MBRs and/or tertiary treatments. The membranes were prepared by four different procedures (uniaxial pressing and extrusion, both with and without starch addition to generate pores. The pore size of these symmetric ceramic membranes was measured by two different methods: bubble point and intrusion mercury porosimetry. A good agreement between both methods was achieved, confirming the validity of the bubble point method for the measurement of the mean pore size of membranes. Air and water permeations of these ceramic membranes were also studied. The relationship between the permeation of both fluids is consistent with the ratio of viscosities, according to the Hagen–Poiseuille equation.

  9. Comparison of porosity assessment techniques for low-cost ceramic membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorente-Ayza, M.M.; Perez-Fernandez, O.; Alcala, R.; Sanchez, A.; Mestre, S.; Coronas, J.; Menendez, M.

    2017-07-01

    Several characterization methods were applied to low cost ceramic membranes developed for wastewater treatment in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) and/or tertiary treatments. The membranes were prepared by four different procedures (uniaxial pressing and extrusion, both with and without starch addition to generate pores). The pore size of these symmetric ceramic membranes was measured by two different methods: bubble point and intrusion mercury porosimetry. A good agreement between both methods was achieved, confirming the validity of the bubble point method for the measurement of the mean pore size of membranes. Air and water permeations of these ceramic membranes were also studied. The relationship between the permeation of both fluids is consistent with the ratio of viscosities, according to the Hagen–Poiseuille equation. (Author)

  10. Breakthrough in ceramic membranes; Doorbraak in keramische membranen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vente, J.F.; Van Veen, H.M. [ECN Energy Efficiency in the Industry, Petten (Netherlands)

    2008-06-15

    Ceramic membranes have a promising potential for carrying out separations in a more energy efficient manner in the petrochemical industry. Researchers of ECN and the Universities of Twente and Amsterdam developed a new ceramic membrane that has a higher hydrothermal stability than existing membranes. [mk]. [Dutch] Keramische membranen gelden als potentieel veelbelovend om scheidingen in de petrochemische industrie energiezuiniger uit te voeren. Onderzoekers van ECN en de universiteiten van Twente en Amsterdam ontwikkelden een nieuw keramisch membraan dat een hogere hydrothermische stabiliteit heeft dan bestaande membranen.

  11. Use of a Ceramic Membrane to Improve the Performance of Two-Separate-Phase Biocatalytic Membrane Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Ranieri, G; Mazzei, R; Wu, Z; Li, K; Giorno, L

    2016-01-01

    Biocatalytic membrane reactors (BMR) combining reaction and separation within the same unit have many advantages over conventional reactor designs. Ceramic membranes are an attractive alternative to polymeric membranes in membrane biotechnology due to their high chemical, thermal and mechanical resistance. Another important use is their potential application in a biphasic membrane system, where support solvent resistance is highly needed. In this work, the preparation of asymmetric ceramic ho...

  12. Ceramic membranes for high temperature hydrogen separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fain, D.E.; Roettger, G.E. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Ceramic gas separation membranes can provide very high separation factors if the pore size is sufficiently small to separate gas molecules by molecular sieving and if oversized pores are adequately limited. Ceramic membranes typically have some pores that are substantially larger than the mean pore size and that should be regarded as defects. To assess the effects of such defects on the performance of ceramic membranes, a simple mathematical model has been developed to describe flow through a gas separation membrane that has a primary mode of flow through very small pores but that has a secondary mode of flow through undesirably large pores. This model permits separation factors to be calculated for a specified gas pair as a function of the molecular weights and molecular diameters of the gases, the membrane pore diameter, and the diameter and number of defects. This model will be described, and key results from the model will be presented. The separation factors of the authors membranes continue to be determined using a permeance test system that measures flows of pure gases through a membrane at temperatures up to 275{degrees}C. A primary goal of this project for FY 1996 is to develop a mixed gas separation system for measuring the separation efficiency of membranes at higher temperatures. Performance criteria have been established for the planned mixed gas separation system and design of the system has been completed. The test system is designed to measure the separation efficiency of membranes at temperatures up to 600{degrees}C and pressures up to 100 psi by separating the constituents of a gas mixture containing hydrogen. The system will accommodate the authors typical experimental membrane that is tubular and has a diameter of about 9 mm and a length of about 23 cm. The design of the new test system and its expected performance will be discussed.

  13. Elaboration by tape-casting and co-sintering of multilayer catalytic membrane reactor- performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julian, A.

    2008-12-01

    This research deals with the increasing interest of the conversion of natural gas into liquid fuels (diesel, kerosene) using the Gas To Liquid (GTL) process. Within this context, Catalytic Membrane-based Reactors (CMR) would allow an improvement of the process efficiency and a reduction of investment and production costs with respect to the present technologies. They allow performing the separation of oxygen from air, and the conversion of natural gas into synthesis gas within a single step. After having highlighted the economical and technological advantages of using a ceramic membrane for the production of syngas (H 2 + CO 2 ), the author describes the protocols of synthesis of powders selected for the dense membrane and the porous support, and their physical characteristics. The obtained powders are then adapted to the tape-casting forming process. Graded-composition multilayer structures and microstructure are then elaborated by co-sintering. Performances in terms of membrane oxygen flows are presented. Mechanisms limiting the oxygen flow are discussed in order to propose ways of improving membrane performances. The limits of the studied system are defined in terms of elastic properties, and optimization ways are proposed for the dense membrane material composition in terms of mechanical properties and performance in oxygen semi-permeation

  14. Polymer and Membrane Design for Low Temperature Catalytic Reactions

    KAUST Repository

    Villalobos, Luis Francisco

    2016-02-29

    Catalytically active asymmetric membranes have been developed with high loadings of palladium nanoparticles located solely in the membrane\\'s ultrathin skin layer. The manufacturing of these membranes requires polymers with functional groups, which can form insoluble complexes with palladium ions. Three polymers have been synthesized for this purpose and a complexation/nonsolvent induced phase separation followed by a palladium reduction step is carried out to prepare such membranes. Parameters to optimize the skin layer thickness and porosity, the palladium loading in this layer, and the palladium nanoparticles size are determined. The catalytic activity of the membranes is verified with the reduction of a nitro-compound and with a liquid phase Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction. Very low reaction times are observed. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Ceramic nanostructure materials, membranes and composite layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burggraaf, A.J.; Keizer, Klaas; van Hassel, B.A.

    1989-01-01

    Synthesis methods to obtain nanoscale materials will be briefly discussed with a focus on sol-gel methods. Three types of nanoscale composites (powders, membranes and ion implanted layers) will be discussed and exemplified with recent original research results. Ceramic membranes with a thickness of

  16. Preparation of amino-functionalized regenerated cellulose membranes with high catalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Bai, Qian; Liang, Tao; Bai, Huiyu; Liu, Xiaoya

    2017-09-01

    The modification of regenerated cellulose (RC) membranes was carried out by using silane coupling agents presenting primary and secondary amino-groups. The grafting of the amino groups onto the modified cellulose molecule was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies and 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic analyses. The crystallinity of the cellulose membranes (CM) decreased after chemical modification as indicated by the X-ray diffraction results. Moreover, a denser structure was observed at the surface and cross section of the modified membranes by SEM images. The contact angle measurements showed that the silane coupling treatment enhanced the hydrophobicity of the obtained materials. Then the catalytic properties of two types of modified membranes were studied in a batch process by evaluating their catalytic performance in a Knoevenagel condensation. The results indicated that the cellulose membrane grafted with many secondary amines exhibited a better catalytic activity compared to the one grafted only by primary amines. In addition, the compact structure of the modified membranes permitted their application in a pervaporation catalytic membrane reactor. Therefore, functional CM that prepared in this paper represented a promising material in the field of industrial catalysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of fouling characteristics in different pore-sized submerged ceramic membrane bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Le; Ong, Say Leong; Ng, How Yong

    2010-12-01

    Membrane fouling, the key disadvantage that inevitably occurs continuously in the membrane bioreactor (MBR), baffles the wide-scale application of MBR. Ceramic membrane, which possesses high chemical and thermal resistance, has seldom been used in MBR to treat municipal wastewater. Four ceramic membranes with the same materials but different pore sizes, ranging from 80 to 300 nm, were studied in parallel using four lab-scale submerged MBRs (i.e., one type of ceramic membrane in one MBR). Total COD and ammonia nitrogen removal efficiencies were observed to be consistently above 94.5 and 98%, respectively, in all submerged ceramic membrane bioreactors. The experimental results showed that fouling was mainly affected by membrane's microstructure, surface roughness and pore sizes. Ceramic membrane with the roughest surface and biggest pore size (300 nm) had the highest fouling potential with respect to the TMP profile. The 80 nm membrane with a smoother surface and relatively uniform smaller pore openings experienced least membrane fouling with respect to TMP increase. The effects of the molecular weight distribution, particle size distribution and other biomass characteristics such as extracellular polymeric substances, zeta potential and capillary suction time, were also investigated in this study. Results showed that no significant differences of these attributes were observed. These observations indicate that the membrane surface properties are the dominant factors leading to different fouling potential in this study. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Preparation and Characterization of Microfiltration Ceramic Membranes Based on Natural Quartz Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Ivanets

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of phase and chemical composition of natural quartz sand, binder and burnable additives was studied. The conditions of application of the membrane and biocide layers on the formation of porous ceramic and microfiltration membranes were investigated. It is shown that a crystalline oxide of Si(IV is determinant for obtaining the ceramic materials. The presence of carbonates (calcite, dolomite, aragonite, etc. and crystalline aluminosilicates (microcline, albite, phlogopit, etc. leads to a decrease in mechanical strength of ceramics. The biocide coating designed to protect the ceramic membrane surfaces from biofouling was applied and its anti-bacterial activity was shown.

  19. Polymer and Membrane Design for Low Temperature Catalytic Reactions

    KAUST Repository

    Villalobos, Luis Francisco; Xie, Yihui; Nunes, Suzana Pereira; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2016-01-01

    Catalytically active asymmetric membranes have been developed with high loadings of palladium nanoparticles located solely in the membrane's ultrathin skin layer. The manufacturing of these membranes requires polymers with functional groups, which can form insoluble complexes with palladium ions. Three polymers have been synthesized for this purpose and a complexation/nonsolvent induced phase separation followed by a palladium reduction step is carried out to prepare such membranes. Parameters to optimize the skin layer thickness and porosity, the palladium loading in this layer, and the palladium nanoparticles size are determined. The catalytic activity of the membranes is verified with the reduction of a nitro-compound and with a liquid phase Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction. Very low reaction times are observed. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Ceramic membrane microfilter as an immobilized enzyme reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, T J; Gainer, J L; Kirwan, D J

    1992-10-01

    This study investigated the use of a ceramic microfilter as an immobilized enzyme reactor. In this type of reactor, the substrate solution permeates the ceramic membrane and reacts with an enzyme that has been immobilized within its porous interior. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of permeation rate on the observed kinetic parameters for the immobilized enzyme in order to assess possible mass transfer influences or shear effects. Kinetic parameters were found to be independent of flow rate for immobilized penicillinase and lactate dehydrogenase. Therefore, neither mass transfer nor shear effects were observed for enzymes immobilized within the ceramic membrane. Both the residence time and the conversion in the microfilter reactor could be controlled simply by regulating the transmembrane pressure drop. This study suggests that a ceramic microfilter reactor can be a desirable alternative to a packed bed of porous particles, especially when an immobilized enzyme has high activity and a low Michaelis constant.

  1. Ceramic membrane in production of recycled water; Keraamikalvo uusioveden valmistuksessa - EKT 05

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laitinen, N.; Luonsi, A.; Levaenen, E.; Maentylae, T.; Vilen, J. [Haemeen ympaeristoekeskus, Tampere (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Applicability of ceramic ultrafiltration membrane modifications were studied with laboratory units to purify clear filtrate and biologically treated combined wastewater from high quality board manufacturing process for reuse. Also performance of polymeric membrane and ceramic membrane was compared. The performance of the membrane filtration cell, developed according to requirements of the fixed dimensions of ceramic membrane was compared with the performance of the cross-rotational commercial test unit (CR-filter) of polymeric membranes. The quality of ultrafiltration permeate, namely suspended solids, turbidity and colour, was better than the quality of lake water used in the mill. The permeate fluxes were in the range of 60-75 l/m{sup 2}h. The fouling layer primarily controlled the flux and the retention, leaving the effects of surface modifications as the secondary function. The flux was slightly higher with the biologically treated wastewater. Differences in membrane material and pore size had an effect on the cleaning ability of the membranes. The polymeric membrane and the membrane with smaller pore size were easier to clean. Tests with the CR-filter showed that the rotor increases shear forces, reduces the filtration resistance and thus increases the flux compared to the cell for ceramic membranes where the increase of shear forces can be done by increasing the flow velocities. (orig.)

  2. Ceramic membrane in production of recycled water; Keraamikalvo uusioveden valmistuksessa - EKT 05

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laitinen, N; Luonsi, A; Levaenen, E; Maentylae, T; Vilen, J [Haemeen ympaeristoekeskus, Tampere (Finland)

    1999-12-31

    Applicability of ceramic ultrafiltration membrane modifications were studied with laboratory units to purify clear filtrate and biologically treated combined wastewater from high quality board manufacturing process for reuse. Also performance of polymeric membrane and ceramic membrane was compared. The performance of the membrane filtration cell, developed according to requirements of the fixed dimensions of ceramic membrane was compared with the performance of the cross-rotational commercial test unit (CR-filter) of polymeric membranes. The quality of ultrafiltration permeate, namely suspended solids, turbidity and colour, was better than the quality of lake water used in the mill. The permeate fluxes were in the range of 60-75 l/m{sup 2}h. The fouling layer primarily controlled the flux and the retention, leaving the effects of surface modifications as the secondary function. The flux was slightly higher with the biologically treated wastewater. Differences in membrane material and pore size had an effect on the cleaning ability of the membranes. The polymeric membrane and the membrane with smaller pore size were easier to clean. Tests with the CR-filter showed that the rotor increases shear forces, reduces the filtration resistance and thus increases the flux compared to the cell for ceramic membranes where the increase of shear forces can be done by increasing the flow velocities. (orig.)

  3. Process of making porous ceramic materials with controlled porosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Marc A.; Ku, Qunyin

    1993-01-01

    A method of making metal oxide ceramic material is disclosed by which the porosity of the resulting material can be selectively controlled by manipulating the sol used to make the material. The method can be used to make a variety of metal oxide ceramic bodies, including membranes, but also pellets, plugs or other bodies. It has also been found that viscous sol materials can readily be shaped by extrusion into shapes typical of catalytic or adsorbent bodies used in industry, to facilitate the application of such materials for catalytic and adsorbent applications.

  4. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF CERAMICS MICROFILTRATION MEMBRANE FOR WATER TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.T. Owoeye

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic membranes are especially suitable for processes with high temperatures and harsh chemical environments or for processes where sterilizability of the membrane is important. The main objective of this work is to determine the evaluation of four different ceramic membranes with different material compositions. Ceramic disc type microfiltration membranes were fabricated by the mould and press method from different percentage compositions of clay, kaolin, sawdust and wood charcoal. The fabricated membranes were sintered at a temperature of 1100°C and characterized by an X-ray diffractometer and optical scanner. Compressibility tests and physical properties of the membranes were also examined. It was observed that, as the percentage composition of kaolin increased from 0 to 80% and the percentage composition of clay decreased from 80 to 0% respectively, the compressive stress of all the sample membranes increased, with an increase in compressive strain from 1.8 to 2.4. Sample A had the highest value of compressive stress from 1.8 to 2.2 compressive strain, but sample B had the highest value of compressive stress of 150MPa at a compressive strain of 2.4. Optical micrographs of all membranes showed the presence of uniformly distributed pores and no cracks were seen around them. It was concluded that, with increasing percentage of kaolin and decreasing percentage of clay, there was a decrease in porosity and water absorption, as well as a decrease in the mechanical properties of the fabricated membranes.

  5. Recovery of homogeneous polyoxometallate catalysts from aqueous and organic media by a mesoporous ceramic membrane without loss of catalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy Chowdhury, Sankhanilay; Witte, Peter T; Blank, Dave H A; Alsters, Paul L; Ten Elshof, Johan E

    2006-04-03

    The recovery of homogeneous polyoxometallate (POM) oxidation catalysts from aqueous and non-aqueous media by a nanofiltration process using mesoporous gamma-alumina membranes is reported. The recovery of Q(12)[WZn(3)(ZnW(9)O(34))(2)] (Q=[MeN(n-C(8)H(17))(3)](+)) from toluene-based media was quantitative within experimental error, while up to 97 % of Na(12)[WZn(3)(ZnW(9)O(34))(2)] could be recovered from water. The toluene-soluble POM catalyst was used repeatedly in the conversion of cyclooctene to cyclooctene oxide and separated from the product mixture after each reaction. The catalytic activity increased steadily with the number of times that the catalyst had been recycled, which was attributed to partial removal of the excess QCl that is known to have a negative influence on the catalytic activity. Differences in the permeability of the membrane for different liquid media can be attributed to viscosity differences and/or capillary condensation effects. The influence of membrane pore radius on permeability and recovery is discussed.

  6. A review of water treatment membrane nanotechnologies

    KAUST Repository

    Pendergast, MaryTheresa M.

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology is being used to enhance conventional ceramic and polymeric water treatment membrane materials through various avenues. Among the numerous concepts proposed, the most promising to date include zeolitic and catalytic nanoparticle coated ceramic membranes, hybrid inorganic-organic nanocomposite membranes, and bio-inspired membranes such as hybrid protein-polymer biomimetic membranes, aligned nanotube membranes, and isoporous block copolymer membranes. A semi-quantitative ranking system was proposed considering projected performance enhancement (over state-of-the-art analogs) and state of commercial readiness. Performance enhancement was based on water permeability, solute selectivity, and operational robustness, while commercial readiness was based on known or anticipated material costs, scalability (for large scale water treatment applications), and compatibility with existing manufacturing infrastructure. Overall, bio-inspired membranes are farthest from commercial reality, but offer the most promise for performance enhancements; however, nanocomposite membranes offering significant performance enhancements are already commercially available. Zeolitic and catalytic membranes appear reasonably far from commercial reality and offer small to moderate performance enhancements. The ranking of each membrane nanotechnology is discussed along with the key commercialization hurdles for each membrane nanotechnology. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  7. Review on Development of Ceramic Membrane From Sol-Gel Route: Parameters Affecting Characteristics of the Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Othman and H. Mukhtar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The importance of laboratory scale ceramic membrane preparation using sol-gel technique with pore sizes in the range of 1-10nm is reviewed. Parameters affecting the characteristics of membrane during membrane development are highlighted and discussed in detail. Experimental results from literatures have shown that the correct amount of acid, water, PVA, appropriate membrane thickness, proper control of drying rate, and appropriate temperature profile selection during sintering process are necessary in order to acquire sufficient strength and reduce the formation of crack in the membrane. The different temperature setting during sintering process also influences the size of pore formed.Key Words: Sol-Gel, Inorganic Membrane, Ceramic Membrane, Gas Permeation, Sintering, Sol Properties, Membrane Morphologies, Pore Size Distribution.

  8. Ozonation and/or Coagulation - Ceramic Membrane Hybrid for Filtration of Impaired-Quality Source Waters

    KAUST Repository

    Ha, Changwon

    2013-09-01

    When microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) membranes are applied for drinking water treatment/wastewater reuse, membrane fouling is an evitable problem, causing the loss of productivity over time. Polymeric membranes have been often reported to experience rapid and/or problematical fouling, restraining sustainable operation. Ceramic membranes can be effectively employed to treat impaired-quality source waters due to their inherent robustness in terms of physical and chemical stability. This research aimed to identify the effects of coagulation and/or ozonation on ceramic membrane filtration for seawater and wastewater (WW) effluent. Two different types of MF and UF ceramic membranes obtained by sintering (i.e., TAMI made of TiO2+ZrO2) and anodic oxidation process (i.e., AAO made of Al2O3) were employed for bench-scale tests. Precoagulation was shown to play an important role in both enhancing membrane filterability and natural organic matter (NOM) removal efficacy for treating a highorganic surface water. The most critical factors were found to be pH and coagulant dosage with the highest efficiency resulting under low pH and high coagulant dose. Due to the ozone-resistance nature of the ceramic membranes, preozonation allowed the ceramic membranes to be operated at higher flux, especially leading to significant flux improvement when treating seawater in the presence of calcium and magnesium. 4 Dissolved ozone in contact with the TAMI ceramic membrane surface accelerated the formation of hydroxyl (˙OH) radicals in WW effluent treatment. Flux restoration of both ceramic membranes, fouled with seawater and WW effluent, was efficiently achieved by high backwash (BW) pressure and ozone in chemically enhanced backwashing (CEB). Ceramic membranes exhibited a pH-dependent permeate flux while filtering WW effluent, showing reduced fouling with increased pH. On the other hand, for filtering seawater, differences in permeate flux between the two membranes was

  9. Planar ceramic membrane assembly and oxidation reactor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Michael Francis; Dyer, legal representative, Kathryn Beverly; Wilson, Merrill Anderson; Ohm, Ted R.; Kneidel, Kurt E.; Peterson, David; Chen, Christopher M.; Rackers, Keith Gerard; Dyer, deceased, Paul Nigel

    2007-10-09

    Planar ceramic membrane assembly comprising a dense layer of mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material, wherein the dense layer has a first side and a second side, a porous layer of mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material in contact with the first side of the dense layer, and a ceramic channeled support layer in contact with the second side of the dense layer. The planar ceramic membrane assembly can be used in a ceramic wafer assembly comprising a planar ceramic channeled support layer having a first side and a second side; a first dense layer of mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material having an inner side and an outer side, wherein the inner side is in contact with the first side of the ceramic channeled support layer; a first outer support layer comprising porous mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material and having an inner side and an outer side, wherein the inner side is in contact with the outer side of the first dense layer; a second dense layer of mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material having an inner side and an outer side, wherein the inner side is in contact with the second side of the ceramic channeled layer; and a second outer support layer comprising porous mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material and having an inner side and an outer side, wherein the inner side is in contact with the outer side of the second dense layer.

  10. Gas phase fractionation method using porous ceramic membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Reid A.; Hill, Jr., Charles G.; Anderson, Marc A.

    1996-01-01

    Flaw-free porous ceramic membranes fabricated from metal sols and coated onto a porous support are advantageously used in gas phase fractionation methods. Mean pore diameters of less than 40 .ANG., preferably 5-20 .ANG. and most preferably about 15 .ANG., are permeable at lower pressures than existing membranes. Condensation of gases in small pores and non-Knudsen membrane transport mechanisms are employed to facilitate and increase membrane permeability and permselectivity.

  11. NOVEL CERAMIC MEMBRANE FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE CARBON DIOXIDE SEPARATION; SEMIANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerry Y.S. Lin; Jun-ichi Ida

    2001-01-01

    This project is aimed at demonstrating technical feasibility for a lithium zirconate based dense ceramic membrane for separation of carbon dioxide from flue gas at high temperature. The research work conducted in this reporting period was focused on several fundamental issues of lithium zirconate important to the development of the dense inorganic membrane. These fundamental issues include material synthesis of lithium zirconate, phases and microstructure of lithium zirconate and structure change of lithium zirconate during sorption/desorption process. The results show difficulty to prepare the dense ceramic membrane from pure lithium zirconate, but indicate a possibility to prepare the dense inorganic membrane for carbon dioxide separation from a composite lithium zirconate

  12. Performance and fouling characteristics of different pore-sized submerged ceramic membrane bioreactors (SCMBR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Le; Ng, How Yong; Ong, Say Leong

    2009-01-01

    The membrane bioreactor (MBR), a combination of activated sludge process and the membrane separation system, has been widely used in wastewater treatment. However, 90% of MBR reported were employing polymeric membranes. The usage of ceramic membranes in MBR is quite rare. Four submerged ceramic membrane bioreactors (SCMBRs) with different membrane pore size were used in this study to treat sewage. The results showed that the desirable carbonaceous removal of 95% and ammonia nitrogen removal of 98% were obtained for all the SCMBRs. It was also showed that the ceramic membranes were able to reject some portions of the protein and carbohydrate, whereby the carbohydrate rejection rate was much higher than that of protein. Membrane pore size did not significantly affect the COD and TOC removal efficiencies, the composition of EPS and SMP or the membrane rejection rate, although slight differences were observed. The SCMBR with the biggest membrane pore size fouled fastest, and membrane pore size was a main contributor for the different fouling potential observed.

  13. Behavior of micro-particles in monolith ceramic membrane filtration with pre-coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonekawa, H; Tomita, Y; Watanabe, Y

    2004-01-01

    This paper is intended to clarify the characteristics unique to monolith ceramic membranes with pre-coagulation by referring to the behavior of micro-particles. Flow analysis and experiments have proved that monolith ceramic membranes show a unique flow pattern in the channels within the element, causing extremely rapid flocculation in the channel during dead-end filtration. It was assumed that charge-neutralized micro-particles concentrated near the membrane surface grow in size due to flocculation, and as a result, coarse micro-particles were taken up by the shearing force to flow out. As the dead end points of flow in all the channels are located near the end of the channels with higher filterability, most of the flocculated coarse particles are formed to a columnar cake intensively at the dead end point. Therefore cake layer forming on the membrane other than around the dead end point is alleviated. This behavior of particle flocculation and cake formation at the dead end point within the channels are unique characteristics of monolith ceramic membranes. This is why all monolith ceramic membrane water purification systems operating in Japan do not have pretreatment equipment for flocculation and sedimentation.

  14. Oxygen transport membrane system and method for transferring heat to catalytic/process reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Sean M; Kromer, Brian R; Litwin, Michael M; Rosen, Lee J; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie R; Kosowski, Lawrence W; Robinson, Charles

    2014-01-07

    A method and apparatus for producing heat used in a synthesis gas production is provided. The disclosed method and apparatus include a plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements adapted to separate oxygen from an oxygen containing stream contacting the retentate side of the membrane elements. The permeated oxygen is combusted with a hydrogen containing synthesis gas stream contacting the permeate side of the tubular oxygen transport membrane elements thereby generating a reaction product stream and radiant heat. The present method and apparatus also includes at least one catalytic reactor containing a catalyst to promote the stream reforming reaction wherein the catalytic reactor is surrounded by the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements. The view factor between the catalytic reactor and the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements radiating heat to the catalytic reactor is greater than or equal to 0.5.

  15. Oxygen transport membrane system and method for transferring heat to catalytic/process reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Sean M.; Kromer, Brian R.; Litwin, Michael M.; Rosen, Lee J.; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie R.; Kosowski, Lawrence W.; Robinson, Charles

    2016-01-19

    A method and apparatus for producing heat used in a synthesis gas production process is provided. The disclosed method and apparatus include a plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements adapted to separate oxygen from an oxygen containing stream contacting the retentate side of the membrane elements. The permeated oxygen is combusted with a hydrogen containing synthesis gas stream contacting the permeate side of the tubular oxygen transport membrane elements thereby generating a reaction product stream and radiant heat. The present method and apparatus also includes at least one catalytic reactor containing a catalyst to promote the steam reforming reaction wherein the catalytic reactor is surrounded by the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements. The view factor between the catalytic reactor and the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements radiating heat to the catalytic reactor is greater than or equal to 0.5

  16. Mixed oxygen ion/electron-conducting ceramics for oxygen separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, J.W.; Armstrong, T.R.; Armstrong, B.L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Mixed oxygen ion and electron-conducting ceramics are unique materials that can passively separate high purity oxygen from air. Oxygen ions move through a fully dense ceramic in response to an oxygen concentration gradient, charge-compensated by an electron flux in the opposite direction. Compositions in the system La{sub 1{minus}x}M{sub x}Co{sub 1{minus}y{minus}z}Fe{sub y}N{sub z}O{sub 3{minus}{delta}}, perovskites where M=Sr, Ca, and Ba, and N=Mn, Ni, Cu, Ti, and Al, have been prepared and their electrical, oxygen permeation, oxygen vacancy equilibria, and catalytic properties evaluated. Tubular forms, disks, and asymmetric membrane structures, a thin dense layer on a porous support of the same composition, have been fabricated for testing purposes. In an oxygen partial gradient, the passive oxygen flux through fully dense structures was highly dependent on composition. An increase in oxygen permeation with increased temperature is attributed to both enhanced oxygen vacancy mobility and higher vacancy populations. Highly acceptor-doped compositions resulted in oxygen ion mobilities more than an order of magnitude higher than yttria-stabilized zirconia. The mixed conducting ceramics have been utilized in a membrane reactor configuration to upgrade methane to ethane and ethylene. Conditions were established to balance selectivity and throughput in a catalytic membrane reactor constructed from mixed conducting ceramics.

  17. Dissolution of Ceramic Monolith of Spent Catalytic Converters by Using Hydrometallurgical Methods / Rozpuszczanie Monolitu Ceramicznego Zużytych Katalizatorów Na Drodze Hydrometalurgicznej

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willner J.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic converters contain the catalytic substance in their structure, which is a mixture of Platinum Group Metals (PGMs: platinum, palladium and rhodium. The prices of these metals and a growing demand for them in the market, make it necessary to recycle spent catalytic converters and recovery of PGMs. The ceramic monolith of catalytic converters is still a predominant material in its construction among of multitude of catalytic converters which are in circulation. In this work attempts were made to leach additional metals (excluding Pt from comminuted ceramic monolith. Classic leachant oxidizing media 10M H2SO4, HCl and H3PO4 were used considering the possibility of dissolution of the ceramic monolith.

  18. Fabrication of Ceramic Membrane Chromatography for Biologics Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maizirwan Mel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Chromatography is one of the most important separation processes of choice for the recovery/purification of proteins and complex bio-structures. Fabrication of chromatographic membranes and their efficiency in the chromatography process has been the subject of many recent researches. In this study, a coin-like, 13 mm diameter and 3 mm thick, ceramic membrane was fabricated to be used as a chromatographic medium. The membrane is used to replace the conventional resin-based chromatography columns. Hydroxyapatite (HA powder was used as a material for the membrane fabrication. In this project, a HA powder was produced using starch as pore creating agents. Characterization processes were done for the ceramic membrane using the suitable apparatuses. Three parameters of the fabrication process (starch wt %, compaction pressure and sintering temperature were manipulated to optimize the performance of the membrane. The fabricated membrane was placed in a (FPLC system to be tested for its performance as an adsorptive membrane. (IMAC process was run by immobilizing Ni2+ ions at the membrane particles surfaces. NP protein of the (NDV was used to test the membrane's ability to bind Histidine-tagged proteins. The optimum set of process parameters that yielded in the highest porosity and good chromatogram was determined to be 5 wt % starch, 3000 psi compaction pressure and 1100°C sintering temperature.ABSTRAK: Kromatografi merupakan satu daripada proses pengasingan yang penting yang dipilih untuk perolehan/penapisan protein dan biostruktur yang kompleks. Pemfabrikatan membran kromatografi dan kecekapannya dalam proses kromatografi merupakan fokus beberapa kajian terkini. Dalam kajian ini, membran seramik berbentuk duit syiling, berdiameter 13 mm dengan ketebalan 3 mm, direka untuk digunakan sebagai perantara kromatografi. Membran ini digunakan untuk menggantikan turus kromatografi berasaskan resin yang lazim. Serbuk hidroksiapatit (HA digunakan sebagai bahan

  19. Positively charged microporous ceramic membrane for the removal of Titan Yellow through electrostatic adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiuting; Li, Na; Zhu, Mengfu; Zhang, Lili; Deng, Yu; Deng, Cheng

    2016-06-01

    To develop a depth filter based on the electrostatic adsorption principle, positively charged microporous ceramic membrane was prepared from a diatomaceous earth ceramic membrane. The internal surface of the highly porous ceramic membrane was coated with uniformly distributed electropositive nano-Y2O3 coating. The dye removal performance was evaluated through pressurized filtration tests using Titan Yellow aqueous solution. It showed that positively charged microporous ceramic membrane exhibited a flow rate of 421L/(m(2)·hr) under the trans-membrane pressure of 0.03bar. Moreover it could effectively remove Titan Yellow with feed concentration of 10mg/L between pH3 to 8. The removal rate increased with the enhancement of the surface charge properties with a maximum rejection of 99.6%. This study provides a new and feasible method of removing organic dyes in wastewater. It is convinced that there will be a broad market for the application of charged ceramic membrane in the field of dye removal or recovery from industry wastewater. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Advanced Material-Ordered Nanotubular Ceramic Membranes Covalently Capped with Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samer Al-Gharabli

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Advanced ceramic materials with a well-defined nano-architecture of their surfaces were formed by applying a two-step procedure. Firstly, a primary amine was docked on the ordered nanotubular ceramic surface via a silanization process. Subsequently, single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs were covalently grafted onto the surface via an amide building block. Physicochemical (e.g., hydrophobicity, and surface free energy (SFE, mechanical, and tribological properties of the developed membranes were improved significantly. The design, preparation, and extended characterization of the developed membranes are presented. Tools such as high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM, single-area electron diffraction (SAED analysis, microscopy, tribology, nano-indentation, and Raman spectroscopy, among other techniques, were utilized in the characterization of the developed membranes. As an effect of hydrophobization, the contact angles (CAs changed from 38° to 110° and from 51° to 95° for the silanization of ceramic membranes 20 (CM20 and CM100, respectively. SWCNT functionalization reduced the CAs to 72° and 66° for ceramic membranes carbon nanotubes 20 (CM-CNT-20 and CM-CNT-100, respectively. The mechanical properties of the developed membranes improved significantly. From the nanotribological study, Young’s modulus increased from 3 to 39 GPa for CM-CNT-20 and from 43 to 48 GPa for pristine CM-CNT-100. Furthermore, the nanohardness increased by about 80% after the attachment of CNTs for both types of ceramics. The proposed protocol within this work for the development of functionalized ceramic membranes is both simple and efficient.

  1. The use of nanoparticles in polymeric and ceramic membrane structures: review of manufacturing procedures and performance improvement for water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeonghwan; Van der Bruggen, Bart

    2010-07-01

    Membrane separations are powerful tools for various applications, including wastewater treatment and the removal of contaminants from drinking water. The performance of membranes is mainly limited by material properties. Recently, successful attempts have been made to add nanoparticles or nanotubes to polymers in membrane synthesis, with particle sizes ranging from 4 nm up to 100 nm. Ceramic membranes have been fabricated with catalytic nanoparticles for synergistic effects on the membrane performance. Breakthrough effects that have been reported in the field of water and wastewater treatment include fouling mitigation, improvement of permeate quality and flux enhancement. Nanomaterials that have been used include titania, alumina, silica, silver and many others. This paper reviews the role of engineered nanomaterials in (pressure driven) membrane technology for water treatment, to be applied in drinking water production and wastewater recycling. Benefits and drawbacks are described, which should be taken into account in further studies on potential risks related to release of nanoparticles into the environment. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Water Reclamation Using a Ceramic Nanofiltration Membrane and Surface Flushing with Ozonated Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Anh T.; Okuda, Tetsuji; Takeuchi, Haruka; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Nghiem, Long D.

    2018-01-01

    A new membrane fouling control technique using ozonated water flushing was evaluated for direct nanofiltration (NF) of secondary wastewater effluent using a ceramic NF membrane. Experiments were conducted at a permeate flux of 44 L/m2h to evaluate the ozonated water flushing technique for fouling mitigation. Surface flushing with clean water did not effectively remove foulants from the NF membrane. In contrast, surface flushing with ozonated water (4 mg/L dissolved ozone) could effectively remove most foulants to restore the membrane permeability. This surface flushing technique using ozonated water was able to limit the progression of fouling to 35% in transmembrane pressure increase over five filtration cycles. Results from this study also heighten the need for further development of ceramic NF membrane to ensure adequate removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) for water recycling applications. The ceramic NF membrane used in this study showed approximately 40% TOC rejection, and the rejection of PPCPs was generally low and highly variable. It is expected that the fouling mitigation technique developed here is even more important for ceramic NF membranes with smaller pore size and thus better PPCP rejection. PMID:29671797

  3. Water Reclamation Using a Ceramic Nanofiltration Membrane and Surface Flushing with Ozonated Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Fujioka

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A new membrane fouling control technique using ozonated water flushing was evaluated for direct nanofiltration (NF of secondary wastewater effluent using a ceramic NF membrane. Experiments were conducted at a permeate flux of 44 L/m2h to evaluate the ozonated water flushing technique for fouling mitigation. Surface flushing with clean water did not effectively remove foulants from the NF membrane. In contrast, surface flushing with ozonated water (4 mg/L dissolved ozone could effectively remove most foulants to restore the membrane permeability. This surface flushing technique using ozonated water was able to limit the progression of fouling to 35% in transmembrane pressure increase over five filtration cycles. Results from this study also heighten the need for further development of ceramic NF membrane to ensure adequate removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs for water recycling applications. The ceramic NF membrane used in this study showed approximately 40% TOC rejection, and the rejection of PPCPs was generally low and highly variable. It is expected that the fouling mitigation technique developed here is even more important for ceramic NF membranes with smaller pore size and thus better PPCP rejection.

  4. Salt splitting with ceramic membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurath, D.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this task is to develop ceramic membrane technologies for salt splitting of radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions. This technology has the potential to reduce the low-level waste (LLW) disposal volume, the pH and sodium hydroxide content for subsequent processing steps, the sodium content of interstitial liquid in high-level waste (HLW) sludges, and provide sodium hydroxide free of aluminum for recycle within processing plants at the DOE complex. Potential deployment sites include Hanford, Savannah River, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The technical approach consists of electrochemical separation of sodium ions from the salt solution using sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON). As the name implies, sodium ions are transported rapidly through these ceramic crystals even at room temperatures

  5. Comprehensive Study on Ceramic Membranes for Low‐Cost Microbial Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternak, Grzegorz; Greenman, John

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) made with different types of ceramic membranes were investigated to find a low‐cost alternative to commercially available proton exchange membranes. The MFCs operated with fresh human urine as the fuel. Pyrophyllite and earthenware produced the best performance to reach power densities of 6.93 and 6.85 W m−3, respectively, whereas mullite and alumina achieved power densities of 4.98 and 2.60 W m−3, respectively. The results indicate the dependence of bio‐film growth and activity on the type of ceramic membrane applied. The most favourable conditions were created in earthenware MFCs. The performance of the ceramic membranes was related to their physical and chemical properties determined by environmental scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X‐ray spectroscopy. The cost of mullite, earthenware, pyrophyllite and alumina was estimated to be 13.61, 4.14, 387.96 and 177.03 GBP m−2, respectively. The results indicate that earthenware and mullite are good substitutes for commercially available proton exchange membranes, which makes the MFC technology accessible in developing countries. PMID:26692569

  6. Ceramic membranes for gas processing in coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smart, S.; Lin, C.X.C.; Ding, L.; Thambimuthu, K.; da Costa, J.C.D. [University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia)

    2010-07-01

    Pre-combustion options via coal gasification, especially integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) processes, are attracting the attention of governments, industry and the research community as an attractive alternative to conventional power generation. It is possible to build an IGCC plant with CCS with conventional technologies however; these processes are energy intensive and likely to reduce power plant efficiencies. Novel ceramic membrane technologies, in particular molecular sieving silica (MSS) and pervoskite membranes, offer the opportunity to reduce efficiency losses by separating gases at high temperatures and pressures. MSS membranes can be made preferentially selective for H{sub 2}, enabling both enhanced production, via a water-gas shift membrane reactor, and recovery of H{sub 2} from the syngas stream at high temperatures. They also allow CO{sub 2} to be concentrated at high pressures, reducing the compression loads for transportation and enabling simple integration with CO{sub 2} storage or sequestration operations. Perovskite membranes provide a viable alternative to cryogenic distillation for air separation by delivering the tonnage of oxygen required for coal gasification at a reduced cost. In this review we examine ceramic membrane technologies for high temperature gas separation and discuss the operational, mechanical, design and process considerations necessary for their successful integration into IGCC with CCS systems.

  7. Chemical and microstructural analyses for heavy metals removal from water media by ceramic membrane filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Asmaa; Ahmed, Abdelkader; Gad, Ali

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the ability of low cost ceramic membrane filtration in removing three common heavy metals namely; Pb 2+ , Cu 2+ , and Cd 2+ from water media. The work includes manufacturing ceramic membranes with dimensions of 15 by 15 cm and 2 cm thickness. The membranes were made from low cost materials of local clay mixed with different sawdust percentages of 0.5%, 2.0%, and 5.0%. The used clay was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence analysis. Aqueous solutions of heavy metals were prepared in the laboratory and filtered through the ceramic membranes. The influence of the main parameters such as pH, initial driving pressure head, and concentration of heavy metals on their removal efficiency by ceramic membranes was investigated. Water samples were collected before and after the filtration process and their heavy metal concentrations were determined by chemical analysis. Moreover, a microstructural analysis using scanning electronic microscope (SEM) was performed on ceramic membranes before and after the filtration process. The chemical analysis results showed high removal efficiency up to 99% for the concerned heavy metals. SEM images approved these results by showing adsorbed metal ions on sides of the internal pores of the ceramic membranes.

  8. Vibrational Spectroscopy as a Promising Toolbox for Analyzing Functionalized Ceramic Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Johannes; Bartels, Julia; Kroll, Stephen; Rezwan, Kurosch

    2018-01-01

    Ceramic materials find use in many fields including the life sciences and environmental engineering. For example, ceramic membranes have shown to be promising filters for water treatment and virus retention. The analysis of such materials, however, remains challenging. In the present study, the potential of three vibrational spectroscopic methods for characterizing functionalized ceramic membranes for water treatment is evaluated. For this purpose, Raman scattering, infrared (IR) absorption, and solvent infrared spectroscopy (SIRS) were employed. The data were analyzed with respect to spectral changes as well as using principal component analysis (PCA). The Raman spectra allow an unambiguous discrimination of the sample types. The IR spectra do not change systematically with functionalization state of the material. Solvent infrared spectroscopy allows a systematic distinction and enables studying the molecular interactions between the membrane surface and the solvent.

  9. Amperometric NOx-sensor for Combustion Exhaust Gas Control. Studies on transport properties and catalytic activity of oxygen permeable ceramic membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romer, E.W.J.

    2001-01-01

    materials must be co-firable and, hence, match in thermal, chemical and mechanical behaviour. A number of studies on different mixed oxygen ion/electron conducting materials is described in this thesis. Emphasis is put on the demands of the targeted sensor application, in which these materials are used as mixed conducting dense ceramic membranes. In Chapter 2, a series of perovskite materials is studied. The general composition is ABO 3-δ (A = Gd, Pr, Y; B = Mn, Cr, Fe), being partially doped with Ca 2+ and Sr 2+ on the A-site to create mobile oxygen vacancies. The main focus of the work presented is on the measurement of catalytic activities towards NOx and the ionic conductivities of the selected materials. In Chapter 3, the preparation and characterisation of a material with the overall composition of Gd 0.7 Ca 0.3 CoO x is described. Dual phase composite membranes are the subject of investigations presented in Chapters 4-7. The main advantage of these type of materials is that their properties can be tailored to meet the demands imposed by the sensor design. Emphasis is on the preparation of the materials, characterisation by SEM-EDX, XRD, catalytic activity and measurement of ionic/electronic conductivities. In Chapter 4, dual phase composites of composition Gd 0.7 Ca 0.3 CoO x /Ce 0.8 Gd 0.2 O 2- are studied. Composites ZrO 2 /In 2 O 3 and ZrO 2 /ITO are subject to the investigations reported in Chapters 5 and 6, respectively. Finally, in Chapter 7, composite Au/YSZ and Au/Ce 0.8 Gd 0.2 O 2- membranes are studied. Finally, in Chapter 8 a summary of the results is given together with recommendations for future research

  10. Ceramic membrane fouling during ultrafiltration of oil/water emulsions: roles played by stabilization surfactants of oil droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dongwei; Zhang, Tao; Ma, Jun

    2015-04-07

    Oil/water (O/W) emulsion stabilized by surfactants is the part of oily wastewater that is most difficult to handle. Ceramic membrane ultrafiltration presently is an ideal process to treat O/W emulsions. However, little is known about the fouling mechanism of the ceramic membrane during O/W emulsion treatment. This paper investigated how stabilization surfactants of O/W emulsions influence the irreversible fouling of ceramic membranes during ultrafiltration. An unexpected phenomenon observed was that irreversible fouling was much less when the charge of the stabilization surfactant of O/W emulsions is opposite to the membrane. The less ceramic membrane fouling in this case was proposed to be due to a synergetic steric effect and demulsification effect which prevented the penetration of oil droplets into membrane pores and led to less pore blockage. This proposed mechanism was supported by cross section images of fouled and virgin ceramic membranes taken with scanning electron microscopy, regression results of classical fouling models, and analysis of organic components rejected by the membrane. Furthermore, this mechanism was also verified by the existence of a steric effect and demulsification effect. Our finding suggests that ceramic membrane oppositely charged to the stabilization surfactant should be applied in ultrafiltration of O/W emulsions to alleviate irreversible membrane fouling. It could be a useful rule for ceramic membrane ultrafiltration of oily wastewater.

  11. Ceramic membrane fouling during ultrafiltration of oil/water emulsions: Roles played by stabilization surfactants of oil droplets

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Dongwei

    2015-04-07

    Oil/water (O/W) emulsion stabilized by surfactants is the part of oily wastewater that is most difficult to handle. Ceramic membrane ultrafiltration presently is an ideal process to treat O/W emulsions. However, little is known about the fouling mechanism of the ceramic membrane during O/W emulsion treatment. This paper investigated how stabilization surfactants of O/W emulsions influence the irreversible fouling of ceramic membranes during ultrafiltration. An unexpected phenomenon observed was that irreversible fouling was much less when the charge of the stabilization surfactant of O/W emulsions is opposite to the membrane. The less ceramic membrane fouling in this case was proposed to be due to a synergetic steric effect and demulsification effect which prevented the penetration of oil droplets into membrane pores and led to less pore blockage. This proposed mechanism was supported by cross section images of fouled and virgin ceramic membranes taken with scanning electron microscopy, regression results of classical fouling models, and analysis of organic components rejected by the membrane. Furthermore, this mechanism was also verified by the existence of a steric effect and demulsification effect. Our finding suggests that ceramic membrane oppositely charged to the stabilization surfactant should be applied in ultrafiltration of O/W emulsions to alleviate irreversible membrane fouling. It could be a useful rule for ceramic membrane ultrafiltration of oily wastewater. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  12. Fabrication of silica ceramic membrane via sol-gel dip-coating method at different nitric acid amount

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlib, N. A. Z.; Daud, F. D. M.; Mel, M.; Hairin, A. L. N.; Azhar, A. Z. A.; Hassan, N. A.

    2018-01-01

    Fabrication of silica ceramics via the sol-gel method has offered more advantages over other methods in the fabrication of ceramic membrane, such as simple operation, high purity homogeneous, well defined-structure and complex shapes of end products. This work presents the fabrication of silica ceramic membrane via sol-gel dip-coating methods by varying nitric acid amount. The nitric acid plays an important role as catalyst in fabrication reaction which involved hydrolysis and condensation process. The tubular ceramic support, used as the substrate, was dipped into the sol of Tetrethylorthosilicate (TEOS), distilled water and ethanol with the addition of nitric acid. The fabricated silica membrane was then characterized by (Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope) FESEM and (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) FTIR to determine structural and chemical properties at different amount of acids. From the XRD analysis, the fabricated silica ceramic membrane showed the existence of silicate hydrate in the final product. FESEM images indicated that the silica ceramic membrane has been deposited on the tubular ceramic support as a substrate and penetrate into the pore walls. The intensity peak of FTIR decreased with increasing of amount of acids. Hence, the 8 ml of acid has demonstrated the appropriate amount of catalyst in fabricating good physical and chemical characteristic of silica ceramic membrane.

  13. Cross flow microfiltration of oil-water emulsions using clay based ceramic membrane support and TiO2 composite membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanchapogu Suresh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work is to study the effect of cross flow filtration conditions on the separation of oily wastewater using ceramic support and TiO2 membrane. Firstly, the low cost clay based ceramic membrane support was prepared by uniaxial compaction method using combination of pyrophyllite, quartz, feldspar, kaolin, ball clay and calcium carbonate along with PVA as a binder. Subsequently, TiO2 composite membrane was fabricated via hydrothermal route employing TiO2 sol derived from TiCl4 and NH4OH solution. Cross flow microfiltration investigations were carried out by utilizing oil-water emulsion concentration of 200 mg/L at three distinct applied pressures (69–207 kPa and three cross flow velocities (0.0885, 0.1327, and 0.1769 m/s. Compared to ceramic support, TiO2 composite membrane demonstrates better performance in terms of flux and removal efficiency of oil and also the rate of flux decline during filtration operation is lower due to highly hydrophilic surface of the TiO2 membrane. TiO2 membrane displays the oil removal efficiency of 99% in the entire range of applied pressures investigation, while ceramic support shows 93–96% of oil removal.

  14. On the study of catalytic membrane reactor for water detritiation: Modeling approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liger, Karine, E-mail: karine.liger@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DTN/SMTA/LIPC Cadarache, Saint Paul-lez-Durance F-13108 (France); Mascarade, Jérémy [CEA, DEN, DTN/SMTA/LIPC Cadarache, Saint Paul-lez-Durance F-13108 (France); Joulia, Xavier; Meyer, Xuan-Mi [Université de Toulouse, INPT, UPS, Laboratoire de Génie Chimique, 4, Allée Emile Monso, Toulouse F-31030 (France); CNRS, Laboratoire de Génie Chimique, Toulouse F-31030 (France); Troulay, Michèle; Perrais, Christophe [CEA, DEN, DTN/SMTA/LIPC Cadarache, Saint Paul-lez-Durance F-13108 (France)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Experimental results for the conversion of tritiated water (using deuterium as a simulant of tritium) by means of a catalytic membrane reactor in view of tritium recovery. • Phenomenological 2D model to represent catalytic membrane reactor behavior including the determination of the compositions of gaseous effluents. • Good agreement between the simulation results and experimental measurements performed on the dedicated facility. • Explanation of the unexpected behavior of the catalytic membrane reactor by the modeling results and in particular the gas composition estimation. - Abstract: In the framework of tritium recovery from tritiated water, efficiency of packed bed membrane reactors have been successfully demonstrated. Thanks to protium isotope swamping, tritium bonded water can be recovered under the valuable Q{sub 2} form (Q = H, D or T) by means of isotope exchange reactions occurring on catalyst surface. The use of permselective Pd-based membrane allows withdrawal of reactions products all along the reactor, and thus limits reverse reaction rate to the benefit of the direct one (shift effect). The reactions kinetics, which are still little known or unknown, are generally assumed to be largely greater than the permeation ones so that thermodynamic equilibriums of isotope exchange reactions are generally assumed. This paper proposes a new phenomenological 2D model to represent catalytic membrane reactor behavior with the determination of gas effluents compositions. A good agreement was obtained between the simulation results and experimental measurements performed on a dedicated facility. Furthermore, the gas composition estimation permits to interpret unexpected behavior of the catalytic membrane reactor. In the next future, further sensitivity analysis will be performed to determine the limits of the model and a kinetics study will be conducted to assess the thermodynamic equilibrium of reactions.

  15. On the study of catalytic membrane reactor for water detritiation: Modeling approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liger, Karine; Mascarade, Jérémy; Joulia, Xavier; Meyer, Xuan-Mi; Troulay, Michèle; Perrais, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental results for the conversion of tritiated water (using deuterium as a simulant of tritium) by means of a catalytic membrane reactor in view of tritium recovery. • Phenomenological 2D model to represent catalytic membrane reactor behavior including the determination of the compositions of gaseous effluents. • Good agreement between the simulation results and experimental measurements performed on the dedicated facility. • Explanation of the unexpected behavior of the catalytic membrane reactor by the modeling results and in particular the gas composition estimation. - Abstract: In the framework of tritium recovery from tritiated water, efficiency of packed bed membrane reactors have been successfully demonstrated. Thanks to protium isotope swamping, tritium bonded water can be recovered under the valuable Q_2 form (Q = H, D or T) by means of isotope exchange reactions occurring on catalyst surface. The use of permselective Pd-based membrane allows withdrawal of reactions products all along the reactor, and thus limits reverse reaction rate to the benefit of the direct one (shift effect). The reactions kinetics, which are still little known or unknown, are generally assumed to be largely greater than the permeation ones so that thermodynamic equilibriums of isotope exchange reactions are generally assumed. This paper proposes a new phenomenological 2D model to represent catalytic membrane reactor behavior with the determination of gas effluents compositions. A good agreement was obtained between the simulation results and experimental measurements performed on a dedicated facility. Furthermore, the gas composition estimation permits to interpret unexpected behavior of the catalytic membrane reactor. In the next future, further sensitivity analysis will be performed to determine the limits of the model and a kinetics study will be conducted to assess the thermodynamic equilibrium of reactions.

  16. Forced-flow bioreactor for sucrose inversion using ceramic membrane activated by silanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, M; Watanabe, A; Jimbo, N; Nishizawa, K; Nakao, S

    1989-02-20

    A forced-flow enzyme membrane reactor system for sucrose inversion was investigated using three ceramic membranes having different pore sizes. Invertase was immobilized chemically to the inner surface of a ceramic membrane activated by a silane-glutaraldehyde technique. With the cross-flow filtration of sucrose solution, the reaction rate was a function of the permeate flux, easily controlled by pressure. Using 0.5 microm support pore size of membrane, the volumetric productivity obtained was 10 times higher than that in a reported immobilized enzyme column reactor, with a short residence time of 5 s and 100% conversion of the sucrose inversion.

  17. Precursors-Derived Ceramic Membranes for High-Temperature Separation of Hydrogen

    OpenAIRE

    Yuji, Iwamoto

    2007-01-01

    This review describes recent progress in the development of hydrogen-permselective ceramic membranes derived from organometallic precursors. Microstructure and gas transport property of microporous amorphous silica-based membranes are briefly described. Then, high-temperature hydrogen permselectivity, hydrothermal stability as well as hydrogen/steam selectivity of the amorphous silica-based membranes are discussed from a viewpoint of application to membrane reactors for conversion enhancement...

  18. Evaluation of the conversion efficiency of ceramic and metallic three way catalytic converters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, H.; Costa, M.

    2008-01-01

    Ceramic and metallic three way catalytic converters have been compared to assess the influence of the substrate geometrical and physical parameters on the exhaust gas conversions for several vehicle operating conditions. Both catalysts were placed on a vehicle equipped with a 2.8 l DOHC V6 spark ignition engine that was tested on a chassis dynamometer under steady state conditions for several engine speeds and loads. The data obtained include exhaust gas species concentrations and temperature taken both upstream and downstream of the catalytic converter, as well as temperatures in various locations within the substrate of the catalysts. The experimental data revealed that: (i) at low space velocities, the ceramic substrate presents better conversions, particularly for HC and CO, as compared to the metallic substrate, possibly because of its lower thermal conductivity which facilitates local ignition; (ii) at high space velocities, the metallic substrate presents better conversions, as compared to the ceramic substrate, mainly because of its larger geometric surface area and lower transverse Peclet number; and (iii) in general, the HC conversion for small space velocities is kinetically controlled while for high space velocities it is mass transfer limited; both limitations are less pronounced for the CO conversion and insignificant for the NO x conversion

  19. Pre-Combustion Carbon Dioxide Capture by a New Dual Phase Ceramic-Carbonate Membrane Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jerry Y. S. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    2015-01-31

    This report documents synthesis, characterization and carbon dioxide permeation and separation properties of a new group of ceramic-carbonate dual-phase membranes and results of a laboratory study on their application for water gas shift reaction with carbon dioxide separation. A series of ceramic-carbonate dual phase membranes with various oxygen ionic or mixed ionic and electronic conducting metal oxide materials in disk, tube, symmetric, and asymmetric geometric configurations was developed. These membranes, with the thickness of 10 μm to 1.5 mm, show CO2 permeance in the range of 0.5-5×10-7 mol·m-2·s-1·Pa-1 in 500-900°C and measured CO2/N2 selectivity of up to 3000. CO2 permeation mechanism and factors that affect CO2 permeation through the dual-phase membranes have been identified. A reliable CO2 permeation model was developed. A robust method was established for the optimization of the microstructures of ceramic-carbonate membranes. The ceramic-carbonate membranes exhibit high stability for high temperature CO2 separations and water gas shift reaction. Water gas shift reaction in the dual-phase membrane reactors was studied by both modeling and experiments. It is found that high temperature syngas water gas shift reaction in tubular ceramic-carbonate dual phase membrane reactor is feasible even without catalyst. The membrane reactor exhibits good CO2 permeation flux, high thermal and chemical stability and high thermal shock resistance. Reaction and separation conditions in the membrane reactor to produce hydrogen of 93% purity and CO2 stream of >95% purity, with 90% CO2 capture have been identified. Integration of the ceramic-carbonate dual-phase membrane reactor with IGCC process for carbon dioxide capture was analyzed. A methodology was developed to identify optimum operation conditions for a

  20. Application of ceramic membranes for seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) pre-treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Hamad, Juma

    2013-05-30

    Low-pressure (microfiltration/ultrafiltration (MF/UF)) membranes are being increasingly used as pre-treatment, prior to seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO). The objective of pre-treatment before reverse osmosis (RO) membranes is to remove undesirable and particulate fouling materials (algae, suspended and colloidal particles). Also, a pre-treatment barrier reduces organics and provides better feed water quality for RO membranes. MF and UF pre-treatment prior to SWRO provides Low Silt Density Index (SDI) values recommended for RO operation. Ceramic membranes are more attractive as they made of more chemically resistant materials, which allow for more stable operation and aggressive backwashing (BW) and cleaning. A pilot plant with a monolith ceramic MF membrane (0.1 μm pore size) from METAWATER was used to carry out the study. Red Sea water pumped from a distance of 700 m offshore from Thuwal (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia) was used as feed water. The pilot plant was operated automatically at constant flux of 150 LMH that involved BW, air flushing and forward flushing at the end of filtration cycle. Seawater permeates were used for hydraulic BW, while sodium hypochlorite, citric acid and sodium hydroxide were used for chemical cleaning (CIP) to restore the membrane permeability after use. Filtration cycles of 2.5 h were adopted for initial experiments. Aggressive BW flux of 1,800 LMH for 15 s, air flushing of 4 bars for 10 s and forward flushing of 300 LMH for 40 s were applied for regular membrane hydraulic cleaning. The increase of membrane resistances over time was monitored. Further studies were also performed by using Anopore ceramic membranes AAO100 (pore sizes of 0.1 μm) using a constant pressure bench-scale set-up. The feed water and permeate were analysed using an SDI unit, flow cytometre (FCM) and liquid chromatography with organic carbon detection (LC-OCD). The results showed that ceramic membrane filtration reduced the SDI15 of seawater from 6.1 to 2.1 which

  1. Treatment of the Bleaching Effluent from Sulfite Pulp Production by Ceramic Membrane Filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Ebrahimi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pulp and paper waste water is one of the major sources of industrial water pollution. This study tested the suitability of ceramic tubular membrane technology as an alternative to conventional waste water treatment in the pulp and paper industry. In this context, in series batch and semi-batch membrane processes comprising microfiltration, ultrafiltration and nanofiltration, ceramic membranes were developed to reduce the chemical oxygen demand (COD and remove residual lignin from the effluent flow during sulfite pulp production. A comparison of the ceramic membranes in terms of separation efficiency and performance revealed that the two-stage process configuration with microfiltration followed by ultrafiltration was most suitable for the efficient treatment of the alkaline bleaching effluent tested herein, reducing the COD concentration and residual lignin levels by more than 35% and 70%, respectively.

  2. Treatment of the Bleaching Effluent from Sulfite Pulp Production by Ceramic Membrane Filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Mehrdad; Busse, Nadine; Kerker, Steffen; Schmitz, Oliver; Hilpert, Markus; Czermak, Peter

    2015-12-31

    Pulp and paper waste water is one of the major sources of industrial water pollution. This study tested the suitability of ceramic tubular membrane technology as an alternative to conventional waste water treatment in the pulp and paper industry. In this context, in series batch and semi-batch membrane processes comprising microfiltration, ultrafiltration and nanofiltration, ceramic membranes were developed to reduce the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and remove residual lignin from the effluent flow during sulfite pulp production. A comparison of the ceramic membranes in terms of separation efficiency and performance revealed that the two-stage process configuration with microfiltration followed by ultrafiltration was most suitable for the efficient treatment of the alkaline bleaching effluent tested herein, reducing the COD concentration and residual lignin levels by more than 35% and 70%, respectively.

  3. Treatment of the Bleaching Effluent from Sulfite Pulp Production by Ceramic Membrane Filtration

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahimi, Mehrdad; Busse, Nadine; Kerker, Steffen; Schmitz, Oliver; Hilpert, Markus; Czermak, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Pulp and paper waste water is one of the major sources of industrial water pollution. This study tested the suitability of ceramic tubular membrane technology as an alternative to conventional waste water treatment in the pulp and paper industry. In this context, in series batch and semi-batch membrane processes comprising microfiltration, ultrafiltration and nanofiltration, ceramic membranes were developed to reduce the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and remove residual lignin from the effluen...

  4. Cross flow microfiltration of oil-water emulsions using clay based ceramic membrane support and TiO2 composite membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Kanchapogu Suresh; G. Pugazhenthi

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to study the effect of cross flow filtration conditions on the separation of oily wastewater using ceramic support and TiO2 membrane. Firstly, the low cost clay based ceramic membrane support was prepared by uniaxial compaction method using combination of pyrophyllite, quartz, feldspar, kaolin, ball clay and calcium carbonate along with PVA as a binder. Subsequently, TiO2 composite membrane was fabricated via hydrothermal route employing TiO2 sol derived fro...

  5. CO2 separation from biogas with ceramic membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fassauer, Burkhardt; Richter, Hannes; Schwarz, Bjoern; Reger-Wagner, Norman; Kaemnitz, Susanne; Lubenau, Udo; Mothes, Raimund

    2015-01-01

    Biogas contains after the production of up to 55% CO 2 . In order to use biogas as a fuel or to feed it into the natural gas network, it must be purified before. Adsorption and scrubbing processes are primarily used technically. Membrane processes offer the advantage of continuous operation and a simple modular and flexible system design, which imply relatively low investment costs and low energy needs. Moreover, membrane systems can be started up and shut down quickly without any problems. Ceramic membranes are characterised by high stability (thermal, chemical, mechanical) and very high flows in comparison to polymeric membranes. [de

  6. Treatment of domestic wastewater with an anaerobic ceramic membrane bioreactor (AnCMBR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiaodi; Koh, Yoong Keat Kelvin; Ng, How Yong

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a ceramic membrane with a pore size of 80 nm was incorporated into an anaerobic membrane bioreactor for excellent stability and integrity. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies by biodegradation reached 78.6 ± 6.0% with mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) of 12.8 ± 1.2 g/L. Even though the total methane generated was 0.3 ± 0.03 L/g CODutilized, around 67.4% of it dissolved in permeate and was lost beyond collection. As a result, dissolved methane was 2.7 times of the theoretical saturating concentration calculated from Henry's law. When transmembrane pressure (TMP) of the ceramic membrane reached 30 kPa after 25.3 d, 95.2% of the total resistance was attributed to the cake layer, which made it the major contributor to membrane fouling. Compared to the mixed liquor, cake layer was rich in colloids and soluble products that could bind the solids to form a dense cake layer. The Methanosarcinaceae family preferred to attach to the ceramic membranes.

  7. Ceramic oxygen transport membrane array reactor and reforming method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Sean M.; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Robinson, Charles; Wilson, Jamie R; Gonzalez, Javier E.; Doraswami, Uttam R.

    2017-10-03

    The invention relates to a commercially viable modular ceramic oxygen transport membrane system for utilizing heat generated in reactively-driven oxygen transport membrane tubes to generate steam, heat process fluid and/or provide energy to carry out endothermic chemical reactions. The system provides for improved thermal coupling of oxygen transport membrane tubes to steam generation tubes or process heater tubes or reactor tubes for efficient and effective radiant heat transfer.

  8. Gas pollutant cleaning by a membrane reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaldis Sotiris

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An alternative technology for the removal of gas pollutants at the integrated gasification combined cycle process for power generation is the use of a catalytic membrane reactor. In the present study, ammonia decomposition in a catalytic reactor, with a simultaneous removal of hydrogen through a ceramic membrane, was investigated. A Ni/Al2O3 catalyst was prepared by the dry and wet impregnation method and characterized by the inductively coupled plasma method, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and N2 adsorption before and after activation. Commercially available a-Al2O3 membranes were also characterized and the permeabilities and permselectivities of H2, N2, and CO2 were measured by the variable volume method. In parallel with the experimental analysis, the necessary mathematical models were developed to describe the operation of the catalytic membrane reactor and to compare its performance with the conventional reactor. .

  9. Effects of dissolved organic matters (DOMs) on membrane fouling in anaerobic ceramic membrane bioreactors (AnCMBRs) treating domestic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiaodi; Koh, Yoong Keat Kelvin; Ng, How Yong

    2015-12-01

    Anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) have been regarded as a potential solution to achieve energy neutrality in the future wastewater treatment plants. Coupling ceramic membranes into AnMBRs offers great potential as ceramic membranes are resistant to corrosive chemicals such as cleaning reagents and harsh environmental conditions such as high temperature. In this study, ceramic membranes with pore sizes of 80, 200 and 300 nm were individually mounted in three anaerobic ceramic membrane bioreactors (AnCMBRs) treating real domestic wastewater to examine the treatment efficiencies and to elucidate the effects of dissolved organic matters (DOMs) on fouling behaviours. The average overall chemical oxygen demands (COD) removal efficiencies could reach around 86-88%. Although CH4 productions were around 0.3 L/g CODutilised, about 67% of CH4 generated was dissolved in the liquid phase and lost in the permeate. When filtering mixed liquor of similar properties, smaller pore-sized membranes fouled slower in long-term operations due to lower occurrence of pore blockages. However, total organic removal efficiencies could not explain the fouling behaviours. Liquid chromatography-organic carbon detection, fluorescence spectrophotometer and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence and ultra-violet detectors were used to analyse the DOMs in detail. The major foulants were identified to be biopolymers that were produced in microbial activities. One of the main components of biopolymers--proteins--led to different fouling behaviours. It is postulated that the proteins could pass through porous cake layers to create pore blockages in membranes. Hence, concentrations of the DOMs in the soluble fraction of mixed liquor (SML) could not predict membrane fouling because different components in the DOMs might have different interactions with membranes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Salt splitting using ceramic membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurath, D.E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Many radioactive aqueous wastes in the DOE complex have high concentrations of sodium that can negatively affect waste treatment and disposal operations. Sodium can decrease the durability of waste forms such as glass and is the primary contributor to large disposal volumes. Waste treatment processes such as cesium ion exchange, sludge washing, and calcination are made less efficient and more expensive because of the high sodium concentrations. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Ceramatec Inc. (Salt Lake City UT) are developing an electrochemical salt splitting process based on inorganic ceramic sodium (Na), super-ionic conductor (NaSICON) membranes that shows promise for mitigating the impact of sodium. In this process, the waste is added to the anode compartment, and an electrical potential is applied to the cell. This drives sodium ions through the membrane, but the membrane rejects most other cations (e.g., Sr{sup +2}, Cs{sup +}). The charge balance in the anode compartment is maintained by generating H{sup +} from the electrolysis of water. The charge balance in the cathode is maintained by generating OH{sup {minus}}, either from the electrolysis of water or from oxygen and water using an oxygen cathode. The normal gaseous products of the electrolysis of water are oxygen at the anode and hydrogen at the cathode. Potentially flammable gas mixtures can be prevented by providing adequate volumes of a sweep gas, using an alternative reductant or destruction of the hydrogen as it is generated. As H{sup +} is generated in the anode compartment, the pH drops. The process may be operated with either an alkaline (pH>12) or an acidic anolyte (pH <1). The benefits of salt splitting using ceramic membranes are (1) waste volume reduction and reduced chemical procurement costs by recycling of NaOH; and (2) direct reduction of sodium in process streams, which enhances subsequent operations such as cesium ion exchange, calcination, and vitrification.

  11. The use of ceramic membranes for radioactive solutions purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakrzewska-Trznadel, G.

    2002-01-01

    Membrane permeation combined with complexation was tested for radioactive wastes processing purpose. The results of experiments with MEMBRALOX and CeRAM INSIDE filtering elements are presented in the paper. The pore size of ceramic membranes was in 1kD-100 nm range. The experiments were performed with non-active and with radioactive model solutions and original radioactive waste samples. To achieve high decontamination factors the process was enhanced by chemical complexation. Such complexants as poly(acrylic) acid and polyacrylic)acid salts of different crosslinking, polyethylenimine and cyanoferrates were tested. The experiments showed the significant increase of retention and decontamination factors while before ultrafiltration macromolecular ligands were added. The effectiveness of complexation by each ligand is strongly dependent on pH and alkali metals concentration. (author)

  12. Gas pollutant cleaning by a membrane reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topis, S.; Koutsonikolas, D.; Kaldis, S. (and others) [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2005-07-01

    An alternative technology for the removal of gas pollutants at the integrated gasification combined cycle process for power generation is the use of a catalytic membrane reactor. In the present study, ammonia decomposition in a catalytic reactor, with simultaneous removal of hydrogen through a ceramic membrane, was investigated. A Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was prepared by the dry and wet impregnation method and characterized by ICP, SEM, XRD and N{sub 2} adsorption before and after activation. Commercially available {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} membranes were also characterized and the permeabilities and selectivities of H{sub 2}, N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} were measured by the variable volume method. In parallel with the experimental analysis, the necessary mathematical models were developed to describe the operation of the catalytic membrane reactor and to compare its performance with the conventional reactor. 5 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Gas pollutant cleaning by a membrane reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George E. Skodras; Sotiris Kaldis; Savas G. Topis; Dimitris Koutsonikolas; George P. Sakellaropoulos [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece). Chemical Process Engineering Laboratory, Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2006-07-01

    An alternative technology for the removal of gas pollutants at the intergrated gasification combined cycle process for power generation is the use of a catalytic membrane reactor. In the present study, ammonia decomposition in a catalytic reactor, with a simultaneous removal of hydrogen through a ceramic membrane, was investigated. A Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was prepared by the dry and wet impregnation method and characterized by ICP, SEM, XRD and N{sub 2} adsorption before and after activation. Commercially available {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} membranes were also characterized and the permeabilities and permselectivities of H{sub 2}, N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} were measured by the variable volume method. In parallel with the experimental analysis, the necessary mathematical models were developed to describe the operation of the catalytic membrane reactor and to compare its performance with the conventional reactor. 9 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Deposition and consolidation of porous ceramic films for membrane separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmøe, Tobias Dokkedal; Tricoli, Antonio; Johannessen, Tue

    The deposition of porous ceramic films for membrane separation can be done by several processes such as thermophoresis [1], dip-coating [2] and spray pyrolysis [3]. Here we present a high-speed method, in which ceramic nano-particles form a porous film by filtration on top of a porous ceramic...... substrate [4]. Ceramic nano-particles are generated in a flame, using either a premixed (gas) flame, in which a metal-oxide precursor is evaporated in an N2 stream, which is combusted with methane and air, or using a flame spray pyrolysis, in which a liquid metal-oxide precursor is sprayed through a nozzle...

  15. Alternative movement : collaborative project has researchers looking to ceramic membranes to improve produced water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, P.

    2009-10-15

    Ceramic membranes have high chemical and thermal stability coupled with mechanical strength and are therefore used in a range of microfiltration, ultrafiltration and nanofiltration applications. This article described a new technology that involves the use of ceramic membranes in the treatment of produced water in thermal heavy oil recovery operations. The efficacy of advanced ceramic nano-membrane technology (CMT) is being examined in bench-scale experiments at the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology (SAIT) in collaboration with the department of chemical and petroleum engineering at the University of Calgary. In one project, next-generation ceramic membrane technology is being used as part of the overall treatment process of produced water. The project is funded through a Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers fund and the Alberta Department of Energy. It is facilitated by the Petroleum Technology Alliance Canada in an effort to find cost-effective treatment solutions for recycling produced water for the conventional oil and gas industry. The key objective is to increase the amount of produced water that can be reused rather than disposed into deep saline aquifers. The research focuses on the pre-treatment of produced water and related salt impacted water by using ceramic membranes for the removal of organic compounds for beneficial reuse downstream. Ceramic membranes consist of a multilayer system and their performance depends on the separation and permeation properties of the membrane as well as its mechanical integrity. It was concluded that the CMT findings will be beneficial to the oil and gas industry in providing practical solutions for the challenging issues associated with de-oiling and produced water treatment. 2 figs.

  16. Progress in Treatment of Oily Wastewater by Inorganic Porous Ceramic Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Xiaoyuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition and complexity of oily wastewater contains many solid particles, free oil, emulsified oil and so on.It brought about a series of environmental pollution problems when oily wastewater was directly discharged into rivers, lakes and other water bodies. Therefore, researchers are committed to study how to deal with oily wastewater to deal with oily wastewater to apply it to meet the requirements of water injection.Inorganic porous ceramic membrane has excellent properties among many filtering methods. For example, high temperature and high pressure resistance, resistance to acid and alkali, low energy consumption, no pollution to the environment and has a good prospect in the field of oily wastewater treatment, which has attracted the attention of many scholars not only at home but also on abroad. This article describes the present situation of the research on the treatment of oily wastewater by ceramic membrane in recent years, and expounded the significance of the treatment of oily wastewater to people’s lives and makes an expectation for the development of inorganic porous ceramic membrane in the future.

  17. Free-standing hierarchical α-MnO2@CuO membrane for catalytic filtration degradation of organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xinsheng; Liang, Heng; Qu, Fangshu; Ding, An; Cheng, Xiaoxiang; Tang, Chuyang Y; Li, Guibai

    2018-06-01

    Catalytic membrane, due to its compact reactor assembling, high catalytic performance as well as low energy consumption, has proved to be more attractive for wastewater treatment. In this work, a free-standing α-MnO 2 @CuO membrane with hierarchical nanostructures was prepared and evaluated as the catalytic membrane to generate radicals from peroxymonosulfate (PMS) for the oxidative degradation of organic dyes in aqueous solution. Benefiting from the high mass transport efficiency and the hierarchical nanostructures, a superior catalytic activity of the membrane was observed for organic dyes degradation. As a typical organic dye, more than 99% of methylene blue (MB) was degraded within 0.23 s using dead-end filtration cell. The effects of flow rate, PMS concentration and buffer solution on MB degradation were further investigated. Besides MB, the catalytic membrane also showed excellent performance for the removal of other dyes, such as congo red, methyl orange, rhodamine B, acid chrome blue K and malachite green. Moreover, the mechanism study indicated that OH and SO 4 - generated from the interaction between PMS and Mn/Cu species with different oxidation states mainly accounted for the dyes degradation. The catalytic filtration process using α-MnO 2 @CuO catalytic membrane could provide a novel method for wastewater purification with high efficiency and low energy consumption. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Field testing of polymeric mesh and ash-based ceramic membranes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the initial findings of field testing of 2 low-cost membrane filters, viz. 30 ìm polymeric mesh and 2–6 ìm macroporous waste-ash based ceramic filter, in a submerged membrane bioreactor (MBR) employing batch anoxic and aerobic conditions. The influent was raw wastewater from a residential complex ...

  19. A dense cell retention culture system using stirred ceramic membrane reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, T; Sato, T; Kominami, M

    1994-11-20

    A novel reactor design incorporating porous ceramic tubes into a stirred jar fermentor was developed. The stirred ceramic membrane reactor has two ceramic tubular membrane units inside the vessel and maintains high filtration flux by alternating use for filtering and recovering from clogging. Each filter unit was linked for both extraction of culture broth and gas sparging. High permeability was maintained for long periods by applying the periodical control between filtering and air sparging during the stirred retention culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The ceramic filter aeration system increased the k(L)a to about five times that of ordinary gas sparing. Using the automatic feeding and filtering system, cell mass concentration reached 207 g/L in a short time, while it was 64 g/L in a fed-batch culture. More than 99% of the growing cells were retained in the fermentor by the filtering culture. Both yield and productivity of cells were also increased by controlling the feeding of fresh medium and filtering the supernatant of the dense cells culture. (c) 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  20. Analysis of heterogeneous oxygen exchange and fuel oxidation on the catalytic surface of perovskite membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Jongsup

    2013-10-01

    The catalytic kinetics of oxygen surface exchange and fuel oxidation for a perovskite membrane is investigated in terms of the thermodynamic state in the immediate vicinity of or on the membrane surface. Perovskite membranes have been shown to exhibit both oxygen perm-selectivity and catalytic activity for hydrocarbon conversion. A fundamental description of their catalytic surface reactions is needed. In this study, we infer the kinetic parameters for heterogeneous oxygen surface exchange and catalytic fuel conversion reactions, based on permeation rate measurements and a spatially resolved physical model that incorporates detailed chemical kinetics and transport in the gas-phase. The conservation equations for surface and bulk species are coupled with those of the gas-phase species through the species production rates from surface reactions. It is shown that oxygen surface exchange is limited by dissociative/associative adsorption/desorption of oxygen molecules onto/from the membrane surface. On the sweep side, while the catalytic conversion of methane to methyl radical governs the overall surface reactions at high temperature, carbon monoxide oxidation on the membrane surface is dominant at low temperature. Given the sweep side conditions considered in ITM reactor experiments, gas-phase reactions also play an important role, indicating the significance of investigating both homogeneous and heterogeneous chemistry and their coupling when examining the results. We show that the local thermodynamic state at the membrane surface should be considered when constructing and examining models of oxygen permeation and heterogeneous chemistry. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  1. Analysis of heterogeneous oxygen exchange and fuel oxidation on the catalytic surface of perovskite membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Jongsup; Kirchen, Patrick; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2013-01-01

    The catalytic kinetics of oxygen surface exchange and fuel oxidation for a perovskite membrane is investigated in terms of the thermodynamic state in the immediate vicinity of or on the membrane surface. Perovskite membranes have been shown to exhibit both oxygen perm-selectivity and catalytic activity for hydrocarbon conversion. A fundamental description of their catalytic surface reactions is needed. In this study, we infer the kinetic parameters for heterogeneous oxygen surface exchange and catalytic fuel conversion reactions, based on permeation rate measurements and a spatially resolved physical model that incorporates detailed chemical kinetics and transport in the gas-phase. The conservation equations for surface and bulk species are coupled with those of the gas-phase species through the species production rates from surface reactions. It is shown that oxygen surface exchange is limited by dissociative/associative adsorption/desorption of oxygen molecules onto/from the membrane surface. On the sweep side, while the catalytic conversion of methane to methyl radical governs the overall surface reactions at high temperature, carbon monoxide oxidation on the membrane surface is dominant at low temperature. Given the sweep side conditions considered in ITM reactor experiments, gas-phase reactions also play an important role, indicating the significance of investigating both homogeneous and heterogeneous chemistry and their coupling when examining the results. We show that the local thermodynamic state at the membrane surface should be considered when constructing and examining models of oxygen permeation and heterogeneous chemistry. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  2. Comparison of filtration and treatment performance between polymeric and ceramic membranes in anaerobic membrane bioreactor treatment of domestic wastewater

    KAUST Repository

    Jeong, Yeongmi

    2018-02-28

    The feasibility of an anaerobic ceramic membrane bioreactor (AnCMBR) was investigated by comparison with a conventional anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR). With regard to treatment performance, the AnCMBR achieved higher organic removal rates than the AnMBR because the ceramic membranes retained a high concentration of biomass in the reactor. Despite a high mixed liquor suspended solid (MLSS) concentration, the AnCMBR exhibited lower membrane fouling. To elucidate effects of sludge properties on membrane fouling in the AnCMBR and AnMBR, soluble microbial products (SMPs) and extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) were analyzed. The SMP and EPS concentrations in the AnCMBR were higher than in the AnMBR. This may be because some suspended solids bio-degraded and likely released protein-like SMPs in the AnCMBR. Hydrophobicity and surface charges were analyzed; the sludge in the AnCMBR was found to be more hydrophobic and less negative than in the AnMBR because protein was abundant in the AnCMBR. Despite the adverse properties of the sludge in the AnCMBR, it showed more stable filtration performance than the AnMBR. This is because the alumina-based ceramic membrane had a superhydrophilic surface and could thus mitigate membrane fouling by hydrophilic-hydrophobic repulsion. The findings from this study have significant implications for extending the application of AnCMBRs to, for example, treatment of high-strength organic waste such as food waste or livestock manure.

  3. Comparison of filtration and treatment performance between polymeric and ceramic membranes in anaerobic membrane bioreactor treatment of domestic wastewater

    KAUST Repository

    Jeong, Yeongmi; Kim, Youngjin; Jin, Yongxun; Hong, Seungkwan; Park, Chanhyuk

    2018-01-01

    The feasibility of an anaerobic ceramic membrane bioreactor (AnCMBR) was investigated by comparison with a conventional anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR). With regard to treatment performance, the AnCMBR achieved higher organic removal rates than the AnMBR because the ceramic membranes retained a high concentration of biomass in the reactor. Despite a high mixed liquor suspended solid (MLSS) concentration, the AnCMBR exhibited lower membrane fouling. To elucidate effects of sludge properties on membrane fouling in the AnCMBR and AnMBR, soluble microbial products (SMPs) and extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) were analyzed. The SMP and EPS concentrations in the AnCMBR were higher than in the AnMBR. This may be because some suspended solids bio-degraded and likely released protein-like SMPs in the AnCMBR. Hydrophobicity and surface charges were analyzed; the sludge in the AnCMBR was found to be more hydrophobic and less negative than in the AnMBR because protein was abundant in the AnCMBR. Despite the adverse properties of the sludge in the AnCMBR, it showed more stable filtration performance than the AnMBR. This is because the alumina-based ceramic membrane had a superhydrophilic surface and could thus mitigate membrane fouling by hydrophilic-hydrophobic repulsion. The findings from this study have significant implications for extending the application of AnCMBRs to, for example, treatment of high-strength organic waste such as food waste or livestock manure.

  4. Dense ceramic membranes: A review of the state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozhukharov, V.

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available During the past several years the concepts of oxygen permeation through mixed valency ceramic membranes possess special interest. In this context, a classification and brief review of the major membrane ceramic materials will be presented. The focus will be on dense ceramic membranes as elements for advanced application. A discussion will be proposed for mixed conductor ceramics as perovskite ABO3 compounds. Dense membranes on perovskite base are the object of the present review and some details about processing and characterization of double (A- and B-site substituted La1-x Sr(BaxCo0.8Fe0.2O3-d perovskites will be presented.

    El concepto de permeación de oxígeno a través de membranas cerámicas de valencia mixta, ha venido adquiriendo especial relevancia a lo largo de los últimos años. En este contexto se hace se efectúa una clasificación y breve revisión de los materiales cerámicos más relevantes utilizados como membranas. En particular se orienta la descripción hacia las membranas cerámicas densas para aplicaciones avanzadas. Se propone un análisis de los conductores cerámicos mixtos, como los compuestos de tipo perovskita ABO3. Se realiza una revisión de los materiales de este tipo existentes, así como se describen algunos aspectos sobre el procesamiento y caracterización de las perovskitas tipo La1-x Sr(BaxCo0.8Fe0.2O3-d doblemente sustituidas (lugares A- y B-.

  5. Removal of bacteriophages with different surface charges by diverse ceramic membrane materials in pilot spiking tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambsch, B; Bösl, M; Eberhagen, I; Müller, U

    2012-01-01

    This study examines mechanisms for removal of bacteriophages (MS2 and phiX174) by ceramic membranes without application of flocculants. The ceramic membranes considered included ultra- and microfiltration membranes of different materials. Phages were spiked into the feed water in pilot scale tests in a waterworks. The membranes with pore sizes of 10 nm provided a 2.5-4.0 log removal of the phages. For pore sizes of 50 nm, the log removal dropped to 0.96-1.8. The membrane with a pore size of 200 nm did not remove phages. So, the removal of both MS2- and phiX174-phages depended on the pore size of the membranes. But apart from pore size also other factors influence the removal of phages. Removal was 0.5-0.9 log higher for MS2-phages compared with phiX174-phages. Size exclusion seems to be the major but not the only mechanism which influences the efficiency of phage removal by ceramic membranes.

  6. Salt splitting of sodium-dominated radioactive waste using ceramic membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollenberg, G.W.; Carlson, C.D.; Virkar, A.; Joshi, A.

    1994-08-01

    The potential for salt splitting of sodium dominated radioactive wastes by use of a ceramic membrane is reviewed. The technical basis for considering this processing technology is derived from the technology developed for battery and chlor-alkali chemical industry. Specific comparisons are made with the commercial organic membranes which are the standard in nonradioactive salt splitting. Two features of ceramic membranes are expected to be especially attractive: high tolerance to gamma irradiation and high selectivity between sodium and other ions. The objective of the salt splitting process is to separate nonradioactive sodium from contaminated sodium salts prior to other pretreatment processes in order to: (1) concentrate the waste in order to reduce the volume of subsequent additives and capacity of equipment, (2) decrease the pH of the waste in preparation for further processing, and (3) provide sodium with very low radioactivity levels for caustic washing of sludge or low level and mixed waste vitrification

  7. Production of hydrogen from bio-ethanol in catalytic membrane reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gernot, E.; Aupretre, F.; Deschamps, A.; Etievant, C.; Epron, F.; Marecot, P.; Duprez, D.

    2006-01-01

    Production of hydrogen from renewable energy sources offers a great potential for CO 2 emission reduction, responsible for global warming. Among renewable energies, liquid biofuels are very convenient hydrogen carriers for decentralized applications such as micro-cogeneration and transports. Ethanol, produced from sugar plants and cereals, allows a reduction of more than 60% of CO 2 emissions in comparison to gasoline. BIOSTAR is an R and D project, co-funded by the French Agency for Environment and Energy Management (ADEME) which aims at developing an efficient source of hydrogen from bio-ethanol, suitable for proton exchange membrane fuel cell systems. The objectives are to obtain, through catalytic process at medium temperature range, an efficient conversion of bio-ethanol into pure hydrogen directly usable for PEMFC. CETH has developed a catalytic membrane reformer (CMR), based on a patented technology, integrating a steam reforming catalyst as well as a combustion catalyst. Both catalysts have been developed and optimized for membrane reactor in partnership with the University of Poitiers. The composite metallic membrane developed by CETH allows hydrogen extraction near the hydrogen production sites, which enhances both efficiency and compactness. (authors)

  8. Newly Developed Ceramic Membranes for Dehydration and Separation of Organic Mixtures by Pervaporation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemert, van R.W.; Cuperus, F.P.

    1995-01-01

    Polymeric pervaporation membranes sometimes show great variety in performance when they are alternately used for different solvent mixtures. In addition, membrane stability in time is a problem in case of some solvents. Therefore, newly developed ceramic silica membranes with a 'dense' top layer

  9. Understanding ozone mechanisms to alleviate ceramic membrane fouling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Irma Giovanna Llamosas

    Ceramic membranes are a strong prospect as an advanced treatment in the drinking water domain. But their high capital cost and the lack of specific research on their performance still discourage their application in this field. Thus, knowing that fouling is the main drawback experienced in filtration processes, this bench-scale study was aimed to assess the impact of an ozonation pre-treatment on the alleviation of the fouling of UF ceramic membranes. Preozonation and filtration steps were performed under two different pH and ozone doses. Chosen pH values were at the limits of natural surface waters range (6.5 and 8.5) to keep practicability. Raw water from the Thousand Isle's river at Quebec-Canada was used for the tests. The filtration setup involved an unstirred dead-end filtration cell operated at constant flux. Results showed that pre-oxidation by ozone indeed reduced the fouling degree of the membranes according to the dose applied (up to 60 and 85% for membranes 8 and 50 kDa, respectively). Direct NOM oxidation was found responsible for this effect as the presence of molecular ozone was not essential to achieve these results. In the context of this experiment, however, pH showed to be more effective than the ozonation pre-treatment to keep fouling at low levels: 70% lower at pH 6.5 than at pH 8.5 for un-ozonated waters, which was contrary to most of the literature found on the topic (Changwon, 2013; De Angelis & Fidalgo, 2013; Karnik et al., 2005; S. Lee & Kim, 2014). This behaviour results mainly from the operation mode used in the experiment, the electrical repulsions between MON molecules at basic pH that led to the accumulation of material on the feed side of the membranes (concentration polarisation) and ulterior cake formation. In addition, solution pH showed an influence in the definition of fouling mechanisms. At solution pH 6.5, which was precisely the isoelectric point of the membranes (+/-6.5), the blocking fouling mode was frequently detected

  10. Novel Ceramic-Polymer Composite Membranes for the Separation of Hazardous Liquid Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoram Cohen

    2001-12-01

    The present project was conceived to address the need for robust yet selective membranes suitable for operating in harsh ph, solvent, and temperature environments. An important goal of the project was to develop a membrane chemical modification technology that would allow one to tailor-design membranes for targeted separation tasks. The method developed in the present study is based on the process of surface graft polymerization. Using essentially the same base technology of surface modification the research was aimed at demonstrating that improved membranes can be designed for both pervaporation separation and ultrafiltration. In the case of pervaporation, the present study was the first to demonstrate that pervaporation can be achieved with ceramic support membranes modified with an essentially molecular layer of terminally anchored polymer chains. The main advantage of the above approach, relative to other proposed membranes, is that the separating polymer layer is covalently attached to the ceramic support. Therefore, such membranes have a potential use in organic-organic separations where the polymer can swell significantly yet membrane robustness is maintained due to the chemical linkage of the chains to be inorganic support. The above membrane technology was also useful in developing fouling resistant ultrafiltration membranes. The prototype membrane developed in the project was evaluated for the treatment of oil-in-water microemulsions, demonstrating lack of irreversible fouling common with commercial membranes.

  11. Hydrogen production by water dissociation using ceramic membranes - annual report for FY 2010.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balachandran, U.; Dorris, S. E.; Emerson, J. E.; Lee, T. H.; Lu, Y.; Park, C. Y.; Picciolo, J. J. (Energy Systems)

    2011-03-14

    The objective of this project is to develop dense ceramic membranes that can produce hydrogen via coal/coal gas-assisted water dissociation without using an external power supply or circuitry. This project grew from an effort to develop a dense ceramic membrane for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures such as those generated during coal gasification, methane partial oxidation, and water-gas shift reactions. That effort led to the development of various cermet (i.e., ceramic/metal composite) membranes that enable hydrogen production by two methods. In one method, a hydrogen transport membrane (HTM) selectively removes hydrogen from a gas mixture by transporting it through either a mixed protonic/electronic conductor or a hydrogen transport metal. In the other method, an oxygen transport membrane (OTM) generates hydrogen mixed with steam by removing oxygen that is generated through water splitting. This project focuses on the development of OTMs that efficiently produce hydrogen via the dissociation of water. Supercritical boilers offer very high-pressure steam that can be decomposed to provide pure hydrogen using OTMs. Oxygen resulting from the dissociation of steam can be used for coal gasification, enriched combustion, or synthesis gas production. Hydrogen and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} can be produced from coal and steam by using the membrane being developed in this project. Although hydrogen can also be generated by high-temperature steam electrolysis, producing hydrogen by water splitting with a mixed-conducting membrane requires no electric power or electrical circuitry.

  12. Block copolymer hollow fiber membranes with catalytic activity and pH-response

    KAUST Repository

    Hilke, Roland

    2013-08-14

    We fabricated block copolymer hollow fiber membranes with self-assembled, shell-side, uniform pore structures. The fibers in these membranes combined pores able to respond to pH and acting as chemical gates that opened above pH 4, and catalytic activity, achieved by the incorporation of gold nanoparticles. We used a dry/wet spinning process to produce the asymmetric hollow fibers and determined the conditions under which the hollow fibers were optimized to create the desired pore morphology and the necessary mechanical stability. To induce ordered micelle assembly in the doped solution, we identified an ideal solvent mixture as confirmed by small-angle X-ray scattering. We then reduced p-nitrophenol with a gold-loaded fiber to confirm the catalytic performance of the membranes. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  13. Block copolymer hollow fiber membranes with catalytic activity and pH-response

    KAUST Repository

    Hilke, Roland; Neelakanda, Pradeep; Madhavan, Poornima; Vainio, Ulla; Behzad, Ali Reza; Sougrat, Rachid; Nunes, Suzana Pereira; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2013-01-01

    We fabricated block copolymer hollow fiber membranes with self-assembled, shell-side, uniform pore structures. The fibers in these membranes combined pores able to respond to pH and acting as chemical gates that opened above pH 4, and catalytic activity, achieved by the incorporation of gold nanoparticles. We used a dry/wet spinning process to produce the asymmetric hollow fibers and determined the conditions under which the hollow fibers were optimized to create the desired pore morphology and the necessary mechanical stability. To induce ordered micelle assembly in the doped solution, we identified an ideal solvent mixture as confirmed by small-angle X-ray scattering. We then reduced p-nitrophenol with a gold-loaded fiber to confirm the catalytic performance of the membranes. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  14. Ceramic membranes applied in separation of hot gases; Membranas Ceramicas para Separacion de Gases en Caliente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The aim of this project is to develop and evaluate inorganic membranes of a ceramic type, with nanometric pore size, applied in separation of contaminants and fuel enrichment, gas mixture in coal gasification . etc. Using ceramic materials have the advantage of being highly physical and chemical resistance, which makes these membranes more adequate then metal equivalent for these applications. A support manufacture and the development of natricum membranes technology to estimate the potential fields of applications and industrial viability of ceramic membranes are the intermediate goals so that the project could be considered successful one. The project has been carried out jointly by the following entities: TGI, S. A. (Tecnologia y Gestion de la Innovacion, Spain). CIEMAT (Centro de Investigaciones energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Spain) and CSIC-UAM (Centro mixto Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas-Universidad Autonoma de Madrid. Instituto de Ciencias de Materiales, Spain). The range of activities proposed in this project is to get the sufficient knowledge of preparation and behaviour of separation membranes to be able to procede to the desing and manufacture of an industrial filter. The project phases include; the ameiloration of ceramic support processing methods, the fluid dynamic evaluation, technology for membrane desing and manufacturing, the mounting (setting up) of an experimental installation for testing and evaluation. As a previous step a state of the art review about the following topics was made: high temperature inorganic membranes, technology separation mechanisms, gasifications process and its previous experience applications of membranes and determination of membranes specifications and characteristics of testing conditions. At the end a new inorganic ceramic membrane, with nanometric pore size and useful in several industrial processes (filtration, separation of contaminants, fuel enrichment, purification of gas mixtures

  15. Performance study of mullite and mullite-alumina ceramic MF membranes for oily wastewaters treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbasi, Mohsen; Mirfendereski, Mojtaba; Fini, Mahdi Nikbakht

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, results of an experimental study on separation of oil from actual and synthetic oily wastewaters with mullite and mullite-alumina tubular ceramic membranes are presented. Mullite and mullite-alumina microfiltration (MF) symmetric membranes were synthesized from kaolin clay and α......-alumina membranes for treatment of synthetic wastewaters were investigated. In order to determine the best operating conditions, 250-3000ppm condensate gas in water emulsions was employed as synthetic oily wastewaters using mullite membrane. At the best operating conditions (3bar pressure, 1.5m/s cross flow...... velocity and 35°C temperature), performance of mullite and mullite-alumina membranes for treatment of real and synthetic wastewaters were also compared. The results for treatment of emulsions showed that the mullite ceramic membrane has the highest R (93.8%) and the lowest FR (28.97%). Also, the mullite...

  16. Synthesis and characterization of ceramic/carbon nanotubes composite adsorptive membrane for copper ion removal from water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tofighy, Maryam Ahmadzadeh; Mohammadi, Toraj [Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    We prepared a novel adsorptive membrane by implanting carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in pore channels of ceramic (α-alumina) support via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method using cyclohexanol and ferrocene as carbon precursor and catalyst, respectively. Optimization of CNTs growth conditions resulted in uniform distribution of the CNTs in the pore channels of the support. The optimized CNTs-ceramic membrane was oxidized with concentrated nitric acid, and chitosan was employed for filling intertube-CNT gaps. The modified CNTs-ceramic membrane was used for copper ion removal from water, and the effects of the modification steps (oxidation and filling intertube-CNT gaps with chitosan) and pH on permeation flux and rejection of the prepared adsorptive membrane were investigated. Moreover, static adsorption was also investigated and Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms and two kinetics models were used to describe adsorption behavior of copper ions by the prepared adsorptive membrane.

  17. Efficiency of serum protein removal from skim milk with ceramic and polymeric membranes at 50 degrees C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulewska, J; Newbold, M; Barbano, D M

    2009-04-01

    Raw milk (2,710 kg) was separated at 4 degrees C, the skim milk was pasteurized (72 degrees C, 16 s), split into 3 batches, and microfiltered using pilot-scale ceramic uniform transmembrane pressure (UTP; Membralox model EP1940GL0.1microA, 0.1 microm alumina, Pall Corp., East Hills, NY), ceramic graded permeability (GP; Membralox model EP1940GL0.1microAGP1020, 0.1 microm alumina, Pall Corp.), and polymeric spiral-wound (SW; model FG7838-OS0x-S, 0.3 microm polyvinylidene fluoride, Parker-Hannifin, Process Advanced Filtration Division, Tell City, IN) membranes. There were differences in flux among ceramic UTP, ceramic GP, and polymeric SW microfiltration membranes (54.08, 71.79, and 16.21 kg/m2 per hour, respectively) when processing skim milk at 50 degrees C in a continuous bleed-and-feed 3x process. These differences in flux among the membranes would influence the amount of membrane surface area required to process a given volume of milk in a given time. Further work is needed to determine if these differences in flux are maintained over longer processing times. The true protein contents of the microfiltration permeates from UTP and GP membranes were higher than from SW membranes (0.57, 0.56, and 0.38%, respectively). Sodium-dodecyl-sulfate-PAGE gels for permeates revealed a higher casein proportion in GP and SW permeate than in UTP permeate, with the highest passage of casein through the GP membrane under the operational conditions used in this study. The slight cloudiness of the permeates produced using the GP and SW systems may have been due to the presence of a small amount of casein, which may present an obstacle in their use in applications when clarity is an important functional characteristic. More beta-lactoglobulin passed through the ceramic membranes than through the polymeric membrane. The efficiency of removal of serum proteins in a continuous bleed-and-feed 3x process at 50 degrees C was 64.40% for UTP, 61.04% for GP, and 38.62% for SW microfiltration

  18. A flexible, robust and antifouling asymmetric membrane based on ultra-long ceramic/polymeric fibers for high-efficiency separation of oil/water emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kui; Yiming, Wubulikasimu; Saththasivam, Jayaprakash; Liu, Zhaoyang

    2017-07-06

    Polymeric and ceramic asymmetric membranes have dominated commercial membranes for water treatment. However, polymeric membranes are prone to becoming fouled, while ceramic membranes are mechanically fragile. Here, we report a novel concept to develop asymmetric membranes based on ultra-long ceramic/polymeric fibers, with the combined merits of good mechanical stability, excellent fouling resistance and high oil/water selectivity, in order to meet the stringent requirements for practical oil/water separation. The ultra-long dimensions of ceramic nanofibers/polymeric microfibers endow this novel membrane with mechanical flexibility and robustness, due to the integrated and intertwined structure. This membrane is capable of separating oil/water emulsions with high oil-separation efficiency (99.9%), thanks to its nanoporous selective layer made of ceramic nanofibers. Further, this membrane also displays superior antifouling properties due to its underwater superoleophobicity and ultra-low oil adhesion of the ceramic-based selective layer. This membrane exhibits high water permeation flux (6.8 × 10 4 L m -2 h -1 bar -1 ) at low operation pressures, which is attributed to its 3-dimensional (3D) interconnected fiber-based structure throughout the membrane. In addition, the facile fabrication process and inexpensive materials required for this membrane suggest its significant potential for industrial applications.

  19. Facile synthesis of mesoporous silica sublayer with hierarchical pore structure on ceramic membrane using anionic polyelectrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Taewook; Oh, Seogil; Kim, Honggon; Yi, Jongheop

    2005-06-21

    A facile method for introducing mesoporous silica sublayer onto the surface of a ceramic membrane for use in liquid-phase separation is described. To reduce the electrostatic repulsion between the mesoporous silica sol and the ceramic membrane in highly acidic conditions (pH ceramic membrane, as confirmed by experimental titration data. Consistent with the titration results, the amount of mesoporous silica particles on the surface of the ceramic membrane was low, in the absence of PSS- treatment, whereas mesoporous silica sublayer with hierarchical pore structure was produced, when 1 wt % PSS- was used. The results show that mesoporous silica grows in the confined surface, eventually forming a multistacked surface architecture. The mesoporous silica sublayer contained uniform, ordered (P6 mm) mesopores of ca. 7.5 nm from mesoporous silica as well as macropores ( approximately mum) from interparticle voids, as evidenced by transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy analyses. The morphologies of the supported mesoporous silica could be manipulated, thus permitting the generation of uniform needlelike forms or uniform spheroid particles by varying the concentration of PSS-.

  20. Facilitated transport ceramic membranes for high-temperature gas cleanup. Final report, February 1990--April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, R.; Minford, E.; Damle, A.S.; Gangwal, S.K.; Hart, B.A.

    1994-04-01

    The objective of this program was to demonstrate the feasibility of developing high temperature, high pressure, facilitated transport ceramic membranes to control gaseous contaminants in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power generation systems. Meeting this objective requires that the contaminant gas H{sub 2}S be removed from an IGCC gas mixture without a substantial loss of the other gaseous components, specifically H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}. As described above this requires consideration of other, nonconventional types of membranes. The solution evaluated in this program involved the use of facilitated transport membranes consisting of molten mixtures of alkali and alkaline earth carbonate salts immobilized in a microporous ceramic support. To accomplish this objective, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Golden Technologies Company Inc., and Research Triangle Institute worked together to develop and test high temperature facilitated membranes for the removal of H{sub 2}S from IGCC gas mixtures. Three basic experimental activities were pursued: (1) evaluation of the H{sub 2}S chemistry of a variety of alkali and alkaline earth carbonate salt mixtures; (2) development of microporous ceramic materials which were chemically and physically compatible with molten carbonate salt mixtures under IGCC conditions and which could function as a host to support a molten carbonate mixture and; (3) fabrication of molten carbonate/ceramic immobilized liquid membranes and evaluation of these membranes under conditions approximating those found in the intended application. Results of these activities are presented.

  1. Catalytic molecularly imprinted polymer membranes: development of the biomimetic sensor for phenols detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeyeva, T A; Slinchenko, O A; Gorbach, L A; Matyushov, V F; Brovko, O O; Piletsky, S A; Sergeeva, L M; Elska, G V

    2010-02-05

    Portable biomimetic sensor devices for the express control of phenols content in water were developed. The synthetic binding sites mimicking active site of the enzyme tyrosinase were formed in the structure of free-standing molecularly imprinted polymer membranes. Molecularly imprinted polymer membranes with the catalytic activity were obtained by co-polymerization of the complex Cu(II)-catechol-urocanic acid ethyl ester with (tri)ethyleneglycoldimethacrylate, and oligourethaneacrylate. Addition of the elastic component oligourethaneacrylate provided formation of the highly cross-linked polymer with the catalytic activity in a form of thin, flexible, and mechanically stable membrane. High accessibility of the artificial catalytic sites for the interaction with the analyzed phenol molecules was achieved due to addition of linear polymer (polyethyleneglycol Mw 20,000) to the initial monomer mixture before the polymerization. As a result, typical semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (semi-IPNs) were formed. The cross-linked component of the semi-IPN was represented by the highly cross-linked catalytic molecularly imprinted polymer, while the linear one was represented by polyethyleneglycol Mw 20,000. Extraction of the linear polymer from the fully formed semi-IPN resulted in formation of large pores in the membranes' structure. Concentration of phenols in the analyzed samples was detected using universal portable device oxymeter with the oxygen electrode in a close contact with the catalytic molecularly imprinted polymer membrane as a transducer. The detection limit of phenols detection using the developed sensor system based on polymers-biomimics with the optimized composition comprised 0.063 mM, while the linear range of the sensor comprised 0.063-1 mM. The working characteristics of the portable sensor devices were investigated. Storage stability of sensor systems at room temperature comprised 12 months (87%). As compared to traditional methods of phenols

  2. A Dual-Phase Ceramic Membrane with Extremely High H2 Permeation Flux Prepared by Autoseparation of a Ceramic Precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shunfan; Wang, Yanjie; Zhuang, Libin; Xue, Jian; Wei, Yanying; Feldhoff, Armin; Caro, Jürgen; Wang, Haihui

    2016-08-26

    A novel concept for the preparation of multiphase composite ceramics based on demixing of a single ceramic precursor has been developed and used for the synthesis of a dual-phase H2 -permeable ceramic membrane. The precursor BaCe0.5 Fe0.5 O3-δ decomposes on calcination at 1370 °C for 10 h into two thermodynamically stable oxides with perovskite structures: the cerium-rich oxide BaCe0.85 Fe0.15 O3-δ (BCF8515) and the iron-rich oxide BaCe0.15 Fe0.85 O3-δ (BCF1585), 50 mol % each. In the resulting dual-phase material, the orthorhombic perovskite BCF8515 acts as the main proton conductor and the cubic perovskite BCF1585 as the main electron conductor. The dual-phase membrane shows an extremely high H2 permeation flux of 0.76 mL min(-1)  cm(-2) at 950 °C with 1.0 mm thickness. This auto-demixing concept should be applicable to the synthesis of other ionic-electronic conducting ceramics. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Ceramic membranes for gas separation in advanced fossil power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meulenberg, W.A.; Baumann, S.; Ivanova, M.; Gestel, T. van; Bram, M.; Stoever, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (DE). Inst. fuer Energieforschung (IEF)

    2010-07-01

    The reduction or elimination of CO{sub 2} emissions from electricity generation power plants fuelled by coal or gas is a major target in the current socio-economic, environmental and political discussion to reduce green house gas emissions such as CO{sub 2}. This mission can be achieved by introducing gas separation techniques making use of membrane technology, which is, as a rule, associated with significantly lower efficiency losses compared with the conventional separation technologies. Depending on the kind of power plant process different membrane types (ceramic, polymer, metal) can be implemented. The possible technology routes are currently investigated to achieve the emission reduction. They rely on different separation tasks. The CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} separation is the main target in the post-combustion process. Air separation (O{sub 2}/N{sub 2}) is the focus of the oxyfuel process. In the pre-combustion process an additional H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} separation is included. Although all separation concepts imply different process requirements they have in common a need in membranes with high permeability, selectivity and stability. In each case CO{sub 2} is obtained in a readily condensable form. CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} separation membranes like microporous membranes or polymer membranes are applicable in post-combustion stages. In processes with oxyfuel combustion, where the fuel is combusted with pure oxygen, oxygen transport membranes i.e. mixed ionic electronic conducting (MIEC) membranes with mainly perovskite or fluorite structure can be integrated. In the pre-combustion stages of the power plant process, H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} separation membranes like microporous membranes e.g. doped silica or mixed protonic electronic conductors or metal membranes can be applied. The paper gives an overview about the considered ceramic materials for the different gas separation membranes. The manufacturing of bulk materials as well as supported thin films of these membranes along

  4. Ceramic membrane ultrafiltration of natural surface water with ultrasound enhanced backwashing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boley, A; Narasimhan, K; Kieninger, M; Müller, W-R

    2010-01-01

    Ultrafiltration membrane cleaning with ultrasound enhanced backwashing was investigated with two ceramic membrane systems in parallel. One of them was subjected to ultrasound during backwashing, the other acted as a reference system. The feed water was directly taken from a creek with a sedimentation process as only pre-treatment. The cleaning performance was improved with ultrasound but after 3 weeks of operation damages occurred on the membranes. These effects were studied with online measurements of flux, trans-membrane-pressure and temperature, but also with integrity tests, turbidity measurements and visual examination.

  5. Evaluation of Removal Mechanisms in a Graphene Oxide-Coated Ceramic Ultrafiltration Membrane for Retention of Natural Organic Matter, Pharmaceuticals, and Inorganic Salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Kyoung Hoon; Fathizadeh, Mahdi; Yu, Miao; Flora, Joseph R V; Jang, Am; Jang, Min; Park, Chang Min; Yoo, Sung Soo; Her, Namguk; Yoon, Yeomin

    2017-11-22

    Functionalized graphene oxide (GO), derived from pure graphite via the modified Hummer method, was used to modify commercially available ceramic ultrafiltration membranes using the vacuum method. The modified ceramic membrane functionalized with GO (ceramic GO ) was characterized using a variety of analysis techniques and exhibited higher hydrophilicity and increased negative charge compared with the pristine ceramic membrane. Although the pure water permeability of the ceramic GO membrane (14.4-58.6 L/m 2 h/bar) was slightly lower than that of the pristine membrane (25.1-62.7 L/m 2 h/bar), the removal efficiencies associated with hydrophobic attraction and charge effects were improved significantly after GO coating. Additionally, solute transport in the GO nanosheets of the ceramic GO membrane played a vital role in the retention of target compounds: natural organic matter (NOM; humic acid and tannic acid), pharmaceuticals (ibuprofen and sulfamethoxazole), and inorganic salts (NaCl, Na 2 SO 4 , CaCl 2 , and CaSO 4 ). While the retention efficiencies of NOM, pharmaceuticals, and inorganic salts in the pristine membrane were 74.6%, 15.3%, and 2.9%, respectively, these increased to 93.5%, 51.0%, and 31.4% for the ceramic GO membrane. Consequently, the improved removal mechanisms of the membrane modified with functionalized GO nanosheets can provide efficient retention for water treatment under suboptimal environmental conditions of pH and ionic strength.

  6. Novel Water Treatment Processes Based on Hybrid Membrane-Ozonation Systems: A Novel Ceramic Membrane Contactor for Bubbleless Ozonation of Emerging Micropollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stylianos K. Stylianou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is the presentation of novel water treatment systems based on ozonation combined with ceramic membranes for the treatment of refractory organic compounds found in natural water sources such as groundwater. This includes, firstly, a short review of possible membrane based hybrid processes for water treatment from various sources. Several practical and theoretical aspects for the application of hybrid membrane-ozonation systems are discussed, along with theoretical background regarding the transformation of target organic pollutants by ozone. Next, a novel ceramic membrane contactor, bringing into contact the gas phase (ozone and water phase without the creation of bubbles (bubbleless ozonation, is presented. Experimental data showing the membrane contactor efficiency for oxidation of atrazine, endosulfan, and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE are shown and discussed. Almost complete endosulfan degradation was achieved with the use of the ceramic contactor, whereas atrazine degradation higher than 50% could not be achieved even after 60 min of reaction time. Single ozonation of water containing MTBE could not result in a significant MTBE degradation. MTBE mineralization by O3/H2O2 combination increased at higher pH values and O3/H2O2 molar ratio of 0.2 reaching a maximum of around 65%.

  7. Pore surface fractal analysis of palladium-alumina ceramic membrane using Frenkel-Halsey-Hill (FHH) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, A L; Mustafa, N N N

    2006-09-15

    The alumina ceramic membrane has been modified by the addition of palladium in order to improve the H(2) permeability and selectivity. Palladium-alumina ceramic membrane was prepared via a sol-gel method and subjected to thermal treatment in the temperature range 500-1100 degrees C. Fractal analysis from nitrogen adsorption isotherm is used to study the pore surface roughness of palladium-alumina ceramic membrane with different chemical composition (nitric acid, PVA and palladium) and calcinations process in terms of surface fractal dimension, D. Frenkel-Halsey-Hill (FHH) model was used to determine the D value of palladium-alumina membrane. Following FHH model, the D value of palladium-alumina membrane increased as the calcinations temperature increased from 500 to 700 degrees C but decreased after calcined at 900 and 1100 degrees C. With increasing palladium concentration from 0.5 g Pd/100 ml H(2)O to 2 g Pd/100 ml H(2)O, D value of membrane decreased, indicating to the smoother surface. Addition of higher amount of PVA and palladium reduced the surface fractal of the membrane due to the heterogeneous distribution of pores. However, the D value increased when nitric acid concentration was increased from 1 to 15 M. The effect of calcinations temperature, PVA ratio, palladium and acid concentration on membrane surface area, pore size and pore distribution also studied.

  8. Application of Pre-coated Microfiltration Ceramic Membrane with Powdered Activated Carbon for Natural Organic Matter Removal from Secondary Wastewater Effluent

    KAUST Repository

    Kurniasari, Novita

    2012-12-01

    Ceramic membranes offer more advantageous performances than conventional polymeric membranes. However, membrane fouling caused by Natural Organic Matters (NOM) contained in the feed water is still become a major problem for operational efficiency. A new method of ceramic membrane pre-coating with Powdered Activated Carbon (PAC), which allows extremely contact time for adsorbing aquatic contaminants, has been studied as a pre-treatment prior to ceramic microfiltration membrane. This bench scale study evaluated five different types of PAC (SA Super, G 60, KCU 6, KCU 8 and KCU 12,). The results showed that KCU 6 with larger pore size was performed better compared to other PAC when pre-coated on membrane surface. PAC pre-coating on the ceramic membrane with KCU 6 was significantly enhance NOM removal, reduced membrane fouling and improved membrane performance. Increase of total membrane resistance was suppressed to 96%. The removal of NOM components up to 92%, 58% and 56% for biopolymers, humic substances and building blocks, respectively was achieved at pre-coating dose of 30 mg/l. Adsorption was found to be the major removal mechanism of NOM. Results obtained showed that biopolymers removal are potentially correlated with enhanced membrane performance.

  9. Electrolytic process to produce sodium hypochlorite using sodium ion conductive ceramic membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balagopal, Shekar; Malhotra, Vinod; Pendleton, Justin; Reid, Kathy Jo

    2012-09-18

    An electrochemical process for the production of sodium hypochlorite is disclosed. The process may potentially be used to produce sodium hypochlorite from seawater or low purity un-softened or NaCl-based salt solutions. The process utilizes a sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane, such as membranes based on NASICON-type materials, in an electrolytic cell. In the process, water is reduced at a cathode to form hydroxyl ions and hydrogen gas. Chloride ions from a sodium chloride solution are oxidized in the anolyte compartment to produce chlorine gas which reacts with water to produce hypochlorous and hydrochloric acid. Sodium ions are transported from the anolyte compartment to the catholyte compartment across the sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane. Sodium hydroxide is transported from the catholyte compartment to the anolyte compartment to produce sodium hypochlorite within the anolyte compartment.

  10. Oxygen transport by oxygen potential gradient in dense ceramic oxide membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiya, P.S.; Balachandran, U.; Dusek, J.T.; Mieville, R.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Div.; Kleefisch, M.S.; Udovich, C.A. [Amoco Exploration/Production, Naperville, IL (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Numerous studies have been conducted in recent years on the partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas (syngas: CO + H{sub 2}) with air as the oxidant. In partial oxidation, a mixed-oxide ceramic membrane selectively transports oxygen from the air; this transport is driven by the oxygen potential gradient. Of the several ceramic materials the authors have tested, a mixed oxide based on the Sr-Fe-Co-O system has been found to be very attractive. Extensive oxygen permeability data have been obtained for this material in methane conversion experiments carried out in a reactor. The data have been analyzed by a transport equation based on the phenomenological theory of diffusion under oxygen potential gradients. Thermodynamic calculations were used to estimate the driving force for the transport of oxygen ions. The results show that the transport equation deduced from the literature describes the permeability data reasonably well and can be used to determine the diffusion coefficients and the associated activation energy of oxygen ions in the ceramic membrane material.

  11. Performance assessment of MCM-48 ceramic composite membrane by separation of AlCl3 from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Basumatary, Ashim; Kumar Ghoshal, Aloke; Pugazhenthi, G

    2016-12-01

    Three dimensional ordered mesoporous MCM-48 membrane was fabricated on a circular shaped ceramic support by in-situ hydrothermal method. The synthesized MCM-48 powder and MCM-48 ceramic composite membrane were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The porosity and pore size of the composite membrane are reduced considerably by the deposition of MCM-48 on the support. The formation of MCM-48 is verified by the XRD analysis. Three stepwise mechanisms for surfactant removal are observed by TGA analysis. FESEM images clearly signify the deposition of MCM-48 on the ceramic support. The pure water flux of the support and MCM-48 composite membrane is found to be 3.63×10 -6 and 4.18×10 -8 m 3 /m 2 skPa, respectively. The above prepared MCM-48 ceramic composite membrane is employed for the removal of AlCl 3 from aqueous solution and the highest rejection of 81% is obtained at an applied pressure of 276kPa with salt concentration of 250ppm. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Ceramic membrane reactor with two reactant gases at different pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Mieville, Rodney L.

    2001-01-01

    The invention is a ceramic membrane reactor for syngas production having a reaction chamber, an inlet in the reactor for natural gas intake, a plurality of oxygen permeating ceramic slabs inside the reaction chamber with each slab having a plurality of passages paralleling the gas flow for transporting air through the reaction chamber, a manifold affixed to one end of the reaction chamber for intake of air connected to the slabs, a second manifold affixed to the reactor for removing the oxygen depleted air, and an outlet in the reaction chamber for removing syngas.

  13. Novel ceramic-polymer composite membranes for the separation of hazardous liquid waste. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Y.

    1998-01-01

    'This report summarizes the work progress over the last 1.75 years of a 3 year project. The objectives of the project have been to develop a new class of ceramic-supported polymeric membranes that could be tailored-designed for a wide-range of applications in remediation and pollution prevention. To date, a new class of chemically-modified ceramic membranes was developed for the treatment of oil-in-water emulsions and for the pervaporation removal of volatile organics from aqueous systems. These new ceramic-supported polymer (CSP) membranes are fabricated by modifying the pore surface of a ceramic membrane support by a graft polymerization process (Chaimberg and Cohen, 1994). The graft polymerization process consists of activating the membrane surface with alkoxy vinyl silanes onto which vinyl monomers are added via free-radical graft polymerization resulting in a thin surface layer of terminally anchored polymer chains. Reaction conditions are selected based on knowledge of the graft polymerization kinetics for the specific polymer/substrate system. The resultant ceramic-supported polymer (CSP) membrane is a composite structure in which mechanical strength is provided by the ceramic support and the selectivity is determined by the covalently bonded polymer brush layer. Thus, one of the unique attributes of the CSP membrane is that it can be used in environments where the polymer layer is swollen (or even completely miscible) in the mixture to be separated (Castro et al., 1993). It is important to note that the above modification process is carried out under mild conditions (e.g., temperature of about 70 C) and is well suited for large scale commercial application. In a series of studies, the applicability of a polyvinylpyrrolidone CSP membrane was demonstrated for the treatment of oil-in-water emulsion under a variety of flow conditions (Castro et al.,1996). Improved membrane performance was achieved due to minimization of surface adsorption of the oil components

  14. Modelling and analysis of CVD processes for ceramic membrane preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, H.W.; Cao, G.Z.; Meijerink, J.; de Vries, Karel Jan; Burggraaf, Anthonie

    1993-01-01

    A mathematical model is presented that describes the modified chemical vapour deposition (CVD) process (which takes place in advance of the electrochemical vapour deposition (EVD) process) to deposit ZrO2 inside porous media for the preparation and modification of ceramic membranes. The isobaric

  15. Synthesis and characterization of ceramic membranes for micro filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad Idrees; Lim Yan Ne; Hamdani Saidi

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a preliminary research work in the development of ceramic membranes by moulding process. The two major objectives were to determine the effect of operating parameters ori- the membrane sheet and membrane characterization. The starting material for the membrane was powdered aluminum oxide and alumina granules. Alumina granules were obtained by spray drying of mixture of alumina with additives and binders under specific conditions. The membrane sheet was produced by mould pressing at various pressures and then sintering at different temperatures. Membrane characterization was done based on microstructure using SEM, pore size distribution, density, and porosity. Strong and porous membranes were produced at pressing force of 120 -140 kN and sintering temperature of 1400 -1500 'C. Pore size and porosity obtained was in the range of 2 -10 μ m, and 13 - 48% respectively. These membranes can be used for, microfiltration at elevated temperature and under extreme environmental condition. They can also be used as porous support for the production qf composite asymmetric UF/hyperfiltration, and gas separation membranes. Further work in the refinement of' pore-size and permeation studies is envisaged

  16. Microporous nano-MgO/diatomite ceramic membrane with high positive surface charge for tetracycline removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xian; Liu, Zhimeng; Deng, Cheng; Zhu, Mengfu; Wang, Deyin; Li, Kui; Deng, Yu; Jiang, Mingming

    2016-12-15

    A novel microporous nano-MgO/diatomite ceramic membrane with high positive surface charge was prepared, including synthesis of precursor colloid, dip-coating and thermal decomposition. Combined SEM, EDS, XRD and XPS studies show the nano-MgO is irregularly distributed on the membrane surface or pore walls and forms a positively charged nano coating. And the nano-MgO coating is firmly attached to the diatomite membrane via SiO chemical bond. Thus the nano-MgO/diatomite membrane behaves strong electropositivity with the isoelectric point of 10.8. Preliminary filtration tests indicate that the as-prepared nano-MgO/diatomite membrane could remove approximately 99.7% of tetracycline in water through electrostatic adsorption effect. The desirable electrostatic property enables the nano-MgO/diatomite membrane to be a candidate for removal of organic pollutants from water. And it is convinced that there will be a great application prospect of charged ceramic membrane in water treatment field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A catalytically membrane reactor for fast, highly exothermic, heterogeneous gas reactions : a pilot plant study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldsink, J.W.; Veldsink, J.W.; Versteeg, Geert; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1995-01-01

    Membrane reactors have been frequently studied because of their ability to combine chemical activity and separation properties into one device. Due to their thermal stability and mechanical strength, ceramic membranes are preferred over polymeric ones, but small transmembrane fluxes obstruct a

  18. Pressureless sintering and gas flux properties of porous ceramic membranes for gas applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David O. Obada

    Full Text Available The preparation and characterization of kaolin based ceramic membranes using styrofoam (STY and sawdust (SD as pore formers have been prepared by mechano-chemical synthesis using pressureless sintering technique with porogen content between (0–20 wt% by die pressing. Pellets were fired at 1150 °C and soaking time of 4 h. The membranes cast as circular disks were subjected to characterization studies to evaluate the effect of the sintering temperature and pore former content on porosity, density, water absorption and mechanical strength. Obtained membranes show effective porosity with maximum at about 43 and 47% respectively for membranes formulated with styrofoam and sawdust porogens but with a slightly low mechanical strength that does not exceed 19 MPa. The resultant ceramic bodies show a fine porous structure which is mainly caused by the volatilization of the porogens. The fabricated membrane exhibited high N2 gas flux, hence, these membranes can be considered as efficient for potential application for gas separation by reason of the results shown in the gas flux tests. Keywords: Porosity, Pore formers, Kaolin, Physico-mechanical properties, Gas separation, Gas flux

  19. Computer-aided modeling framework – a generic modeling template for catalytic membrane fixed bed reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedorova, Marina; Sin, Gürkan; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    and users to generate and test models systematically, efficiently and reliably. In this way, development of products and processes can be faster, cheaper and very efficient. In this contribution, as part of the framework a generic modeling template for the systematic derivation of problem specific catalytic...... membrane fixed bed models is developed. The application of the modeling template is highlighted with a case study related to the modeling of a catalytic membrane reactor coupling dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene with hydrogenation of nitrobenzene....

  20. Flux recovery of ceramic tubular membranes fouled with whey proteins: Some aspects of membrane cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Svetlana S.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of membrane processes is greatly affected by the flux reduction due to the deposits formation at the surface and/or in the pores of the membrane. Efficiency of membrane processes is affected by cleaning procedure applied to regenerate flux. In this work, flux recovery of ceramic tubular membranes with 50 and 200 nm pore size was investigated. The membranes were fouled with reconstituted whey solution for 1 hour. After that, the membranes were rinsed with clean water and then cleaned with sodium hydroxide solutions or formulated detergents (combination of P3 Ultrasil 67 and P3 Ultrasil 69. Flux recovery after the rinsing step was not satisfactory although fouling resistance reduction was significant so that chemical cleaning was necessary. In the case of 50 nm membrane total flux recovery was achieved after cleaning with 1.0% (w/w sodium hydroxide solution. In the case of 200 nm membrane total flux recovery was not achieved irrespective of the cleaning agent choice and concentration. Cleaning with commercial detergent was less efficient than cleaning with the sodium hydroxide solution.

  1. Evaluation of the oleophilicity of different alkoxysilane modified ceramic membranes through wetting dynamic measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Nengwen, E-mail: nengwengao@cqut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Materials-oriented Chemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University of Technology, Chongqing 400050 (China); Ke, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Materials-oriented Chemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China); Fan, Yiqun, E-mail: yiqunfan@njut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Materials-oriented Chemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China); Xu, Nanping [State Key Laboratory of Materials-oriented Chemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2013-10-15

    Wettability has been recognized as one of the most important properties of porous materials for both fundamental and practical applications. In this study, the oleophilicity of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} membranes modified by four alkoxysilanes with different length of alkyl group was investigated through oil wetting dynamic test. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimertric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were measured to confirm that ceramic membrane surfaces have been grafted with alkoxysilanes without changing the membrane morphology. A high speed video camera was used to record the spreading and imbibition process of oil on the modified membrane surface. The value of oil contact angle and its change during the wetting process were used to characterize the membrane oleophilicity. Characterization results showed that the oleophilicity of the modified membranes increased along with the increasing of the silane alkyl group. The influence of oleophilicity on the filtration performance of water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions was experimentally studied. A higher oil flux was obtained for membranes grafted with a longer alkyl group, indicating that increase oleophilicity can increase the membrane antifouling property. This work presents a valuable route to the surface oleophilicity control and testing of ceramic membranes in the filtration of non-polar organic solvents.

  2. Prospects and problems of dense oxygen permeable membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, P.V.; Larsen, P.H.; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2000-01-01

    The prospects of using mixed ionic/electronic conducting ceramics for syngas production in a catalytic membrane reactor are analysed. Problems relating to limited thermodynamic stability and poor dimensional stability of candidate materials are addressed, The consequences for these problems......, of flux improving measures like minimization of membrane thickness and minimization of the losses due to oxygen exchange over the membrane surfaces, are discussed. The analysis is conducted on two candidate materials: La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-delta and SrFeCo0.5Ox. Finally. experimental investigations...

  3. A porous ceramic membrane tailored high-temperature supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; He, Benlin; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Tang, Qunwei

    2018-03-01

    The supercapacitor that can operate at high-temperature are promising for markedly increase in capacitance because of accelerated charge movement. However, the state-of-the-art polymer-based membranes will decompose at high temperature. Inspired by solid oxide fuel cells, we present here the experimental realization of high-temperature supercapacitors (HTSCs) tailored with porous ceramic separator fabricated by yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and nickel oxide (NiO). Using activated carbon electrode and supporting electrolyte from potassium hydroxide (KOH) aqueous solution, a category of symmetrical HTSCs are built in comparison with a conventional polymer membrane based device. The dependence of capacitance performance on temperature is carefully studied, yielding a maximized specific capacitance of 272 F g-1 at 90 °C for the optimized HTSC tailored by NiO/YSZ membrane. Moreover, the resultant HTSC has relatively high durability when suffer repeated measurement over 1000 cycles at 90 °C, while the polymer membrane based supercapacitor shows significant reduction in capacitance at 60 °C. The high capacitance along with durability demonstrates NiO/YSZ membrane tailored HTSCs are promising in future advanced energy storage devices.

  4. Improving carbon tolerance of Ni-YSZ catalytic porous membrane by palladium addition for low temperature steam methane reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Moon; Won, Jong Min; Kim, Geo Jong; Lee, Seung Hyun; Kim, Sung Su; Hong, Sung Chang

    2017-10-01

    Palladium was added on the Ni-YSZ catalytic porous membrane by wet impregnation and electroless plating methods. Its surface morphology characteristics and carbon deposition properties for the low temperature steam methane reforming were investigated. The addition of palladium could obviously be enhanced the catalytic activity as well as carbon tolerance of the Ni-YSZ porous membrane. The porous membranes were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), H2 temperature-programmed reduction (H2-TPR), CH4 temperature-programmed reduction (CH4-TPR), and O2 temperature-programmed oxidation (O2-TPO). It was found that the Pd-Ni-YSZ catalytic porous membrane showed the superior stability as well as the deposition of carbon on the surface during carbon dissociation adsorption at 650 °C was also suppressed.

  5. Ceramic membranes for high temperature hydrogen separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adcock, K.D.; Fain, D.E.; James, D.L.; Powell, L.E.; Raj, T.; Roettger, G.E.; Sutton, T.G. [East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The separative performance of the authors` ceramic membranes has been determined in the past using a permeance test system that measured flows of pure gases through a membrane at temperatures up to 275 C. From these data, the separation factor was determined for a particular gas pair from the ratio of the pure gas specific flows. An important project goal this year has been to build a Mixed Gas Separation System (MGSS) for measuring the separation efficiencies of membranes at higher temperatures and using mixed gases. The MGSS test system has been built, and initial operation has been achieved. The MGSS is capable of measuring the separation efficiency of membranes at temperatures up to 600 C and pressures up to 100 psi using a binary gas mixture such as hydrogen/methane. The mixed gas is fed into a tubular membrane at pressures up to 100 psi, and the membrane separates the feed gas mixture into a permeate stream and a raffinate stream. The test membrane is sealed in a stainless steel holder that is mounted in a split tube furnace to permit membrane separations to be evaluated at temperatures up to 600 C. The compositions of the three gas streams are measured by a gas chromatograph equipped with thermal conductivity detectors. The test system also measures the temperatures and pressures of all three gas streams as well as the flow rate of the feed stream. These data taken over a range of flows and pressures permit the separation efficiency to be determined as a function of the operating conditions. A mathematical model of the separation has been developed that permits the data to be reduced and the separation factor for the membrane to be determined.

  6. Treatment of wastewater containing phenol using a tubular ceramic membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersu, C B; Ong, S K

    2008-02-01

    The performance of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) with a tubular ceramic membrane for phenol removal was evaluated under varying hydraulic retention times (HRT) and a fixed sludge residence time (SRT) of 30 days. The tubular ceramic membrane was operated with a mode of 15 minutes of filtration followed by 15 seconds of permeate backwashing at a flux of 250 l m(-2)hr(-1) along with an extended backwashing of 30 seconds every 3 hours of operation, which maintained the transmembrane pressure (TMP) below 100 kPa. Using a simulated municipal wastewater with varying phenol concentrations, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and phenol removals observed were greater than 88% with excellent suspended solids (SS) removal of 100% at low phenol concentrations (approx. 100 mg l(-1) of phenol). Step increases in phenol concentration showed that inhibition was observed between 600 to 800 mg l(-1) of phenol with decreased sludge production rate, mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentration, and removal performance. The sludge volume index (SVI) of the biomass increased to about 450 ml g(-1) for a phenol input concentration of 800 mg l(-1). When the phenol concentration was decreased to 100 mg l(-1), the ceramic tubular MBR was found to recover rapidly indicating that the MBR is a robust system retaining most of the biomass. Experimental runs using wastewater containing phenol indicated that the MBR can be operated safely without upsets for concentrations up to 600 mg l(-1) of phenol at 2-4 hours HRT and 30 days SRT.

  7. Hydraulically irreversible fouling on ceramic MF/UF membranes: comparison of fouling indices, foulant composition and irreversible pore narrowing

    KAUST Repository

    Shang, Ran; Vuong, Francois; Hu, Jingyi; Li, Sheng; Kemperman, Antoine J.B.; Nijmeijer, Kitty; Cornelissen, Emile R.; Heijman, Sebastiaan G.J.; Rietveld, Luuk C.

    2015-01-01

    The application of ceramic membranes in water treatment is becoming increasing attractive because of their long life time and excellent chemical, mechanical and thermal stability. However, fouling of ceramic membranes, especially hydraulically irreversible fouling, is still a critical aspect affecting the operational cost and energy consumption in water treatment plants. In this study, four ceramic membranes with pore sizes or molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) of 0.20 μm, 0.14 μm, 300 kDa and 50 kDa were compared during natural surface water filtration with respect to hydraulically irreversible fouling index (HIFI), foulant composition and narrowing of pore size due to the irreversible fouling. Our results showed that the hydraulically irreversible fouling index (HIFI) was proportional to the membrane pore size (r2=0.89) when the same feed water was filtrated. The UF membranes showed lower HIFI values than the MF membranes. Pore narrowing (internal fouling) was found to be a main fouling pattern of the hydraulically irreversible fouling. The internal fouling was caused by monolayer adsorption of foulants with different sizes that is dependent on the size of the membrane pore.

  8. Hydraulically irreversible fouling on ceramic MF/UF membranes: comparison of fouling indices, foulant composition and irreversible pore narrowing

    KAUST Repository

    Shang, Ran

    2015-05-06

    The application of ceramic membranes in water treatment is becoming increasing attractive because of their long life time and excellent chemical, mechanical and thermal stability. However, fouling of ceramic membranes, especially hydraulically irreversible fouling, is still a critical aspect affecting the operational cost and energy consumption in water treatment plants. In this study, four ceramic membranes with pore sizes or molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) of 0.20 μm, 0.14 μm, 300 kDa and 50 kDa were compared during natural surface water filtration with respect to hydraulically irreversible fouling index (HIFI), foulant composition and narrowing of pore size due to the irreversible fouling. Our results showed that the hydraulically irreversible fouling index (HIFI) was proportional to the membrane pore size (r2=0.89) when the same feed water was filtrated. The UF membranes showed lower HIFI values than the MF membranes. Pore narrowing (internal fouling) was found to be a main fouling pattern of the hydraulically irreversible fouling. The internal fouling was caused by monolayer adsorption of foulants with different sizes that is dependent on the size of the membrane pore.

  9. A Catalytically Active Membrane Reactor for Fast, Highly Exothermic, Heterogeneous Gas Reactions. A Pilot Plant Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldsink, Jan W.; Versteeg, Geert F.; Swaaij, Wim P.M. van

    1995-01-01

    Membrane reactors have been frequently studied because of their ability to combine chemical activity and separation properties into one device. Due to their thermal stability and mechanical strength, ceramic membranes are preferred over polymeric ones, but small transmembrane fluxes obstruct a

  10. Field-scale electrolysis/ceramic membrane system for the treatment of sewage from decentralized small communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Dong-Jin; Kim, Woo-Yeol; Yun, Chan-Young; Kim, Dae-Gun; Chang, Duk; Sunwoo, Young; Hong, Ki-Ho

    2017-07-05

    The electrolysis process adopting copper electrodes and ceramic membrane with pore sizes of 0.1-0.2 μm were consisted to a system for the treatment of sewage from decentralized small communities. The system was operated under an HRT of 0.1 hour, voltage of 24 V, and TMP of 0.05 MPa. The system showed average removals of organics, nitrogen, phosphorus, and solids of up to 80%, 52%, 92%, and 100%, respectively. Removal of organics and nitrogen dramatically increased in proportion to increment of influent loading. Phosphorus and solids were remarkably eliminated by both electro-coagulation and membrane filtration. The residual particulate constituents could also be removed successfully through membrane process. A system composed of electrolysis process with ceramic membrane would be a compact, reliable, and flexible option for the treatment of sewage from decentralized small communities.

  11. Desolventizing of soybean oil/azeotrope mixtures using ceramic membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Jonas R M; Tiggeman, Lidia; Rezzadori, Katia; Steffens, Juliana; Palliga, Marshall; Oliveira, J Vladimir; Di Luccio, Marco; Tres, Marcus V

    2017-08-01

    This work investigates the use of ceramic membranes with different molecular weight cut-offs (MWCOs: 5, 10 and 20 kDa) to desolventize azeotropic solvent mixtures (ethanol/n-hexane and isopropyl alcohol/n-hexane) from soybean oil/azeotrope micelles. Results show that a decrease in the MWCO of a membrane and an increase in the solvent mass ratio in the mixture resulted in a significant reduction in the permeate flux. The 20 kDa membrane presented the highest permeate flux, 80 and 60 kg/m 2 h for the soybean oil/n-hexane/isopropyl alcohol and soybean oil/n-hexane/ethanol azeotropes, respectively, for an oil to solvent ratio of 1:3 (w/w). The highest oil retention was found using the n-hexane/isopropyl alcohol azeotrope, around 25% in the membrane with the lowest MWCO, that is, 5 kDa. It is shown that the azeotropic mixtures provided intermediate characteristics compared to the original pure solvent behavior.

  12. Low Temperature Steam Methane Reforming Over Ni Based Catalytic Membrane Prepared by Electroless Palladium Plating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Moon; Hong, Sung Chang; Kim, Sung Su

    2018-09-01

    A Pd/Ni-YSZ porous membrane with different palladium loadings and hydrazine as a reducing reagent was prepared by electroless plating and evaluated for the steam methane reforming activity. The steam-reforming activity of a Ni-YSZ porous membrane was greatly increased by the deposition of 4 g/L palladium in the low-temperature range (600 °C). With an increasing amount of reducing reagent, the Pd clusters were well dispersed on the Ni-YSZ surface and were uniform in size (∼500 nm). The Pd/Ni-YSZ catalytic porous membrane prepared by 1 of Pd/hydrazine ratio possessed an abundant amount of metallic Pd. The optimal palladium loadings and Pd/hydrazine ratio increased the catalytic activity in both the steam-reforming reaction and the Pd dispersion.

  13. Removal of chromium from synthetic wastewater using MFI zeolite membrane supported on inexpensive tubular ceramic substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vinoth Kumar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A mordenite framework inverted (MFI type zeolite membrane was produced on inexpensive tubular ceramic substrate through hydrothermal synthesis and applied for the removal of chromium from synthetic wastewater. The fabricated ceramic substrate and membrane was characterized by diverse standard techniques such as X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscope, porosity, water permeability and pore size measurements. The porosity of the ceramic substrate (53% was reduced by the deposition of MFI (51% zeolite layer. The pore size and water permeability of the membrane was evaluated as 0.272 μm and 4.43 × 10–7 m3/m2s.kPa, respectively, which are lower than that of the substrate pore size (0.309 μm and water permeability (5.93 × 10–7 m3/m2s.kPa values. To identify the effectiveness of the prepared membrane, the applied pressure of the filtration process and initial chromium concentration and cross flow rate were varied to study their influence on the permeate flux and percentage of removal. The maximum removal of chromium achieved was 78% under an applied pressure of 345 kPa and an initial feed concentration of 1,000 ppm. Finally, the efficiency of the membrane for chromium removal was assessed with other membranes reported in the literature.

  14. Glycerin purification using asymmetric nano-structured ceramic membranes from production of waste fish oil biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghami, M.; Sadrameli, S. M.; Shamloo, M.

    2018-02-01

    Biodiesel is an environmental friendly alternative liquid transportation fuel that can be used in diesel engines without major modifications. The scope of this research work is to produce biodiesel from waste fish oil and its purification from the byproducts using a ceramic membrane. Transesterification of waste fish oil was applied for the biodiesel production using methanol in the presence of KOH as a catalyst. Effect of catalyst weight percent, temperature and methanol to oil molar ratio (MR) on the biodiesel yield have been studied and the results show that highest methyl ester yield of 79.2% has been obtained at 60 °C, MR: 6 and 1% KOH. The produced biodiesel purified by a ceramic membrane. Membrane flux and glycerin removal at different operating conditions such as temperature, trans-membrane pressures and cross flow velocities have been measured. Glycerin purity by membrane method is 99.97% by weight at the optimum condition. The highest membrane flux occurred at 50 °C temperature, 1 bar pressure and 3 m/s velocity.

  15. Determination of porosity in supports for ceramic membranes of titanium dioxide by gamma spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siciliano, Umberto C.C.S.; Oliveira, Elizabeth E.M.; Brandão, Luís E.B.; Carvalho, Paulo V.R., E-mail: ucsiciliano@gmail.com, E-mail: eemo@ien.gov.br, E-mail: brandao@ien.gov.br, E-mail: paulov@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Membrane separation processes (MSP) have been widely used to fractionate, concentrate and purity solutions, such as: food industry, pharmaceutical, water desalination and for treatment of the radioactive liquid waste in the nuclear industry. The MSP are more economical than traditional methods because most of them are athermic. Increased membrane application has led to the expansion of the manufacturing technology knowledge base, resulting in membranes with high permeability, improved selectivity and long-term stability. The demand for high operating temperatures and chemical resistance have stimulated the development of inorganic structures, mainly porous ceramics. The materials most used to obtain ceramic membranes are oxides like Ab0{sub 3}, Si0{sub 2}, Zr0{sub 2} and Ti0{sub 2} or combination of these. Despite the favorable characteristics, ceramic membranes has not been applied extensively, mainly due to the difficulty of obtaining porous structures without cracks and with adequate pore size. The objective of this work is obtain a support of titanium oxide using potato starch as a pore former. The titanium oxide used is commercial, with average particle size of 0.13 μm. Three suspensions were prepared containing 0,5 and 10 % of the potato starch and the drying in spray dryer, obtaining a homogeneous and granulated powder, with flow ability suitable for compaction. The supports were uniaxial pressing with l.5 kgf.cm{sup -2} and sintering at temperatures of 1050, 1100 and 1150 °C for 1h in oven resistance. The results showed that the porosity obtained by gamma ray transmission method was approximately 50%. This value is within range for applications as membrane support. (author)

  16. Development of a mixed-conductive ceramic membrane for syngas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etchegoyen, G.

    2005-10-01

    Natural gas conversion into syngas (H 2 +CO) is very attractive for hydrogen and clean fuel production via GTL technology by providing an alternative to oil products and reducing greenhouse gas emission. Syngas production, using a mixed ionic-electronic conducting ceramic membrane, is thought to be particularly promising. The purpose of this PhD thesis was to develop this type of membrane. Mixed-conducting oxide was synthesized, characterized and then, shaped via tape casting and co-sintered in order to obtain multilayer membranes with controlled architectures and microstructures. Oxygen permeation fluxes were measured with a specific device to evaluate membrane performances. As a result, the optimisation of architecture and microstructure made it possible to increase oxygen permeation flux by a factor 30. Additional researches were focused on the oxide composition in order to achieve higher dimensional stability. (author)

  17. Elaboration by tape-casting and co-sintering of multilayer catalytic membrane reactor- performances; Elaboration par coulage en bande et cofrittage de reacteurs catalytiques membranaires multicouches-performances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julian, A

    2008-12-15

    This research deals with the increasing interest of the conversion of natural gas into liquid fuels (diesel, kerosene) using the Gas To Liquid (GTL) process. Within this context, Catalytic Membrane-based Reactors (CMR) would allow an improvement of the process efficiency and a reduction of investment and production costs with respect to the present technologies. They allow performing the separation of oxygen from air, and the conversion of natural gas into synthesis gas within a single step. After having highlighted the economical and technological advantages of using a ceramic membrane for the production of syngas (H{sub 2} + CO{sub 2}), the author describes the protocols of synthesis of powders selected for the dense membrane and the porous support, and their physical characteristics. The obtained powders are then adapted to the tape-casting forming process. Graded-composition multilayer structures and microstructure are then elaborated by co-sintering. Performances in terms of membrane oxygen flows are presented. Mechanisms limiting the oxygen flow are discussed in order to propose ways of improving membrane performances. The limits of the studied system are defined in terms of elastic properties, and optimization ways are proposed for the dense membrane material composition in terms of mechanical properties and performance in oxygen semi-permeation.

  18. Liberated PKA Catalytic Subunits Associate with the Membrane via Myristoylation to Preferentially Phosphorylate Membrane Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillo, Shane E; Xiong, Wei-Hong; Takahashi, Maho; Miao, Sheng; Andrade, Adriana L; Fortin, Dale A; Yang, Guang; Qin, Maozhen; Smoody, Barbara F; Stork, Philip J S; Zhong, Haining

    2017-04-18

    Protein kinase A (PKA) has diverse functions in neurons. At rest, the subcellular localization of PKA is controlled by A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). However, the dynamics of PKA upon activation remain poorly understood. Here, we report that elevation of cyclic AMP (cAMP) in neuronal dendrites causes a significant percentage of the PKA catalytic subunit (PKA-C) molecules to be released from the regulatory subunit (PKA-R). Liberated PKA-C becomes associated with the membrane via N-terminal myristoylation. This membrane association does not require the interaction between PKA-R and AKAPs. It slows the mobility of PKA-C and enriches kinase activity on the membrane. Membrane-residing PKA substrates are preferentially phosphorylated compared to cytosolic substrates. Finally, the myristoylation of PKA-C is critical for normal synaptic function and plasticity. We propose that activation-dependent association of PKA-C renders the membrane a unique PKA-signaling compartment. Constrained mobility of PKA-C may synergize with AKAP anchoring to determine specific PKA function in neurons. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Feasibility study of a reverse flow catalytic membrane reactor with porous membranes for the production of syngas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a novel reverse flow catalytic membrane reactor (RFCMR) is proposed for the partial oxidation of CH4 to syngas. The feasibility of the RFCMR concept has been investigated for industrial conditions on basis of a simulation study employing a reactor model, which includes a detailed

  20. Catalytic combustion of propane in a membrane reactor with separate feed of reactants—II. Operation in presence of trans-membrane pressure gradients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saracco, Guido; Veldsink, Jan Willem; Versteeg, Geert F.; Swaaij, Wim P.M. van

    1995-01-01

    This is the second communication of a series dealing with an experimental and modelling study on propane catalytic combustion in a membrane reactor with separate feed of reactants. In paper I the behaviour of the reactor in the absence of trans-membrane pressure gradients was presented and

  1. Impact of PAC Fines in Fouling of Polymeric and Ceramic Low-Pressure Membranes for Drinking Water Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oligny, Laurent; Bérubé, Pierre R.; Barbeau, Benoit

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the issue of membrane fouling in a Hybrid Membrane Process (HMP) due to the export of powdered activated carbon (PAC) fines from a pretreatment contactor. Two parallel pilot-scale ceramic and polymeric membranes were studied. Reversible and irreversible foulings were measured following three cleaning procedures: Physical backwashing (BW), chemically enhanced backwashing (CEB) and Clean-in-Place (CIP). The impacts on fouling of membrane type, operation flux increase and the presence/absence of the PAC pretreatment were investigated. Membranes without pretreatment were operated in parallel as a control. In addition, CIP washwaters samples were analyzed to measure organic and inorganic foulants removed from the membranes. It was observed that for the polymeric membranes, fouling generally increased with the presence of the PAC pretreatment because of the export of fines. On the contrary, the ceramic membranes were not significantly impacted by their presence. The analysis of CIP washwaters showed a greater total organic carbon (TOC) content on membranes with a PAC pretreatment while no similar conclusion could be made for inorganic foulants. PMID:27399788

  2. Impact of PAC Fines in Fouling of Polymeric and Ceramic Low-Pressure Membranes for Drinking Water Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oligny, Laurent; Bérubé, Pierre R; Barbeau, Benoit

    2016-07-07

    This study assessed the issue of membrane fouling in a Hybrid Membrane Process (HMP) due to the export of powdered activated carbon (PAC) fines from a pretreatment contactor. Two parallel pilot-scale ceramic and polymeric membranes were studied. Reversible and irreversible foulings were measured following three cleaning procedures: Physical backwashing (BW), chemically enhanced backwashing (CEB) and Clean-in-Place (CIP). The impacts on fouling of membrane type, operation flux increase and the presence/absence of the PAC pretreatment were investigated. Membranes without pretreatment were operated in parallel as a control. In addition, CIP washwaters samples were analyzed to measure organic and inorganic foulants removed from the membranes. It was observed that for the polymeric membranes, fouling generally increased with the presence of the PAC pretreatment because of the export of fines. On the contrary, the ceramic membranes were not significantly impacted by their presence. The analysis of CIP washwaters showed a greater total organic carbon (TOC) content on membranes with a PAC pretreatment while no similar conclusion could be made for inorganic foulants.

  3. Impact of PAC Fines in Fouling of Polymeric and Ceramic Low-Pressure Membranes for Drinking Water Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Oligny

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the issue of membrane fouling in a Hybrid Membrane Process (HMP due to the export of powdered activated carbon (PAC fines from a pretreatment contactor. Two parallel pilot-scale ceramic and polymeric membranes were studied. Reversible and irreversible foulings were measured following three cleaning procedures: Physical backwashing (BW, chemically enhanced backwashing (CEB and Clean-in-Place (CIP. The impacts on fouling of membrane type, operation flux increase and the presence/absence of the PAC pretreatment were investigated. Membranes without pretreatment were operated in parallel as a control. In addition, CIP washwaters samples were analyzed to measure organic and inorganic foulants removed from the membranes. It was observed that for the polymeric membranes, fouling generally increased with the presence of the PAC pretreatment because of the export of fines. On the contrary, the ceramic membranes were not significantly impacted by their presence. The analysis of CIP washwaters showed a greater total organic carbon (TOC content on membranes with a PAC pretreatment while no similar conclusion could be made for inorganic foulants.

  4. Low energy single-staged anaerobic fluidized bed ceramic membrane bioreactor (AFCMBR) for wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Muhammad; McCarty, Perry L; Shin, Chungheon; Bae, Jaeho; Kim, Jeonghwan

    2017-09-01

    An aluminum dioxide (Al 2 O 3 ) ceramic membrane was used in a single-stage anaerobic fluidized bed ceramic membrane bioreactor (AFCMBR) for low-strength wastewater treatment. The AFCMBR was operated continuously for 395days at 25°C using a synthetic wastewater having a chemical oxygen demand (COD) averaging 260mg/L. A membrane net flux as high as 14.5-17L/m 2 h was achieved with only periodic maintenance cleaning, obtained by adding 25mg/L of sodium hypochlorite solution. No adverse effect of the maintenance cleaning on organic removal was observed. An average SCOD in the membrane permeate of 23mg/L was achieved with a 1h hydraulic retention time (HRT). Biosolids production averaged 0.014±0.007gVSS/gCOD removed. The estimated electrical energy required to operate the AFCMBR system was 0.039kWh/m 3 , which is only about 17% of the electrical energy that could be generated with the methane produced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Integrated nitrogen removal biofilter system with ceramic membrane for advanced post-treatment of municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Dong-Jin; Yun, Chan-Young; Kim, Woo-Yeol; Zhang, Xing-Ya; Kim, Dae-Gun; Chang, Duk; Sunwoo, Young; Hong, Ki-Ho

    2016-12-01

    The pre-denitrification biofilm process for nitrogen removal was combined with ceramic membrane with pore sizes of 0.05-0.1 µm as a system for advanced post-treatment of municipal wastewater. The system was operated under an empty bed hydraulic retention time of 7.8 h, recirculation ratio of 3, and transmembrane pressure of 0.47 bar. The system showed average removals of organics, total nitrogen, and solids as high as 93%, 80%, and 100%, respectively. Rapid nitrification could be achieved and denitrification was performed in the anoxic filter without external carbon supplements. The residual particulate organics and nitrogen in effluent from biofilm process could be also removed successfully through membrane filtration and the removal of total coliform was noticeably improved after membrane filtration. Thus, a system composed of the pre-denitrification biofilm process with ceramic membrane would be a compact and flexible option for advanced post-treatment of municipal wastewater.

  6. Porous polyoxadiazole membranes for harsh environment

    KAUST Repository

    Maab, Husnul

    2013-10-01

    A series of polyoxadiazoles with exceptionally high stability at temperatures as high as 370°C and in oxidative medium has been synthesized by polycondensation and manufactured into porous membranes by phase inversion. The membranes were characterized by thermal analysis (TGA), chemical stability was measured by immersion test, oxidative stability by Fenton\\'s test, pore diameter by porosimetry and the morphology by FESEM. The polymers are soluble only in sulfuric acid and are stable in organic solvents like NMP, THF and isopropanol. The membranes selectivity was confirmed by separation of polystyrene standards with different molecular weights. Most membranes were characterized as having a cut-off of 60,000. g/mol. Being stable under harsh environments, the membranes have incomparable characteristics with perspectives of application in chemical and pharmaceutical industry, catalytic reactors, in combination with oxidative processes and other applications so far envisioned only for ceramic membranes. © 2013.

  7. Gradient composite metal-ceramic foam as supportive component for planar SOFCs and MIEC membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smorygo, Oleg; Mikutski, Vitali; Marukovich, Alexander; Sadykov, Vladislav; Usoltsev, Vladimir; Mezentseva, Natalia; Borodinecs, Anatolijs; Bobrenok, Oleg

    2011-01-01

    A novel approach to the design of planar gradient porous supports for the thin-film SOFCs and MIEC membranes is described. The support's thermal expansion is controlled by the creation of a two-component composite metal-ceramic foam structure. Thin MIEC membranes and SOFCs were prepared on the composite supports by the layerwise deposition of composite functional layers including complex fluorites and perovskites. Lab-scale studies demonstrated promising performance of both MIEC membrane and SOFC.

  8. Gradient composite metal-ceramic foam as supportive component for planar SOFCs and MIEC membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smorygo, Oleg; Mikutski, Vitali; Marukovich, Alexander; Sadykov, Vladislav; Usoltsev, Vladimir; Mezentseva, Natalia; Borodinecs, Anatolijs; Bobrenok, Oleg

    2011-06-01

    A novel approach to the design of planar gradient porous supports for the thin-film SOFCs and MIEC membranes is described. The support's thermal expansion is controlled by the creation of a two-component composite metal-ceramic foam structure. Thin MIEC membranes and SOFCs were prepared on the composite supports by the layerwise deposition of composite functional layers including complex fluorites and perovskites. Lab-scale studies demonstrated promising performance of both MIEC membrane and SOFC.

  9. Hybrid membrane-microfluidic components using a novel ceramic MEMS technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Brent J.; Polyakov, Oleg; Rinaldo, Chris

    2012-03-01

    A novel hybrid nano/microfabrication technology has been employed to produce unique MEMS and microfluidic components that integrate nanoporous membranes. The components are made by micromachining a self-organized nanostructured ceramic material that is biocompatible and amenable to surface chemistry modification. Microfluidic structures, such as channels and wells, can be made with a precision of membranes can be integrated into the bottom of these structures, featuring a wide range of possible thicknesses, from 100 micron to membranes may be non-porous or porous (with controllable pore sizes from 200 nm to technology is highly scaleable, and thus can yield low-cost, reliable, disposable microcomponents and devices. Specific applications that can benefit from this technology includes cell culturing and assays, imaging by cryo-electron tomography, environmental sample processing, as well as many others.

  10. Catalytic combustion of propane in a membrane reactor with separate feed of reactants—I. Operation in absence of trans-membrane pressure gradients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saracco, Guido; Veldsink, Jan Willem; Versteeg, Geert F.; Swaaij, Wim P.M. van

    1995-01-01

    A pilot plant study on propane catalytic combustion in a membrane reactor with separate reactant feeds is presented. The membrane consisted of a porous alumina tube activated by insertion into its pores of a Pt/γ-Al2O3 catalyst. The role of reactants concentration and of the feed flow rates were

  11. Ceramic hot-gas filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, E.S.; Forsythe, G.D.; Domanski, D.M.; Chambers, J.A.; Rajendran, G.P.

    1999-05-11

    A ceramic hot-gas candle filter is described having a porous support of filament-wound oxide ceramic yarn at least partially surrounded by a porous refractory oxide ceramic matrix, and a membrane layer on at least one surface thereof. The membrane layer may be on the outer surface, the inner surface, or both the outer and inner surface of the porous support. The membrane layer may be formed of an ordered arrangement of circularly wound, continuous filament oxide ceramic yarn, a ceramic filler material which is less permeable than the filament-wound support structure, or some combination of continuous filament and filler material. A particularly effective membrane layer features circularly wound filament with gaps intentionally placed between adjacent windings, and a filler material of ceramic particulates uniformly distributed throughout the gap region. The filter can withstand thermal cycling during back pulse cleaning and is resistant to chemical degradation at high temperatures.

  12. Ceramic hot-gas filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Elizabeth Sokolinski; Forsythe, George Daniel; Domanski, Daniel Matthew; Chambers, Jeffrey Allen; Rajendran, Govindasamy Paramasivam

    1999-01-01

    A ceramic hot-gas candle filter having a porous support of filament-wound oxide ceramic yarn at least partially surrounded by a porous refractory oxide ceramic matrix, and a membrane layer on at least one surface thereof. The membrane layer may be on the outer surface, the inner surface, or both the outer and inner surface of the porous support. The membrane layer may be formed of an ordered arrangement of circularly wound, continuous filament oxide ceramic yarn, a ceramic filler material which is less permeable than the filament-wound support structure, or some combination of continuous filament and filler material. A particularly effective membrane layer features circularly wound filament with gaps intentionally placed between adjacent windings, and a filler material of ceramic particulates uniformly distributed throughout the gap region. The filter can withstand thermal cycling during backpulse cleaning and is resistant to chemical degradation at high temperatures.

  13. Pretreatment with ceramic membrane microfiltration in the clarification process of sugarcane juice by ultrafiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla dos Santos Gaschi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the sugar cane juice from COCAFE Mill, was clarified using tubular ceramic membranes (α-Al2O3/TiO2 with pore size of 0.1 and 0.3 µm, and membrane area of 0.005 m2. Experiments were performed in batch with sugar cane juice, in a pilot unit of micro and ultrafiltration using the principle of tangential filtration. The sugar cane juice was settled for one hour and the supernatant was treated by microfiltration. After that, the MF permeate was ultrafiltered. The experiments of micro and ultrafiltration were carried out at 65ºC and 1 bar. The ceramic membranes were able to remove the colloidal particles, producing a limpid permeated juice with color reduction. The clarification process with micro- followed by ultrafiltration produced a good result with an average purity rise of 2.74 units, 99.4% lower turbidity and 44.8% lighter color in the permeate.

  14. Synthesis of inorganic materials in a supercritical carbon dioxide medium. Application to ceramic cross-flow filtration membranes preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papet, Sebastien

    2000-01-01

    Membrane separations, using cross-flow mineral ceramic membranes, allows fractionation of aqueous solutions due to the molecular sieve effect and electrostatic charges. To obtain a high selectivity, preparation of new selective ceramic membranes is necessary. We propose in this document two different routes to prepare such cross-flow tubular mineral membranes. In the first exposed method, a ceramic material is used, titanium dioxide, synthesized in supercritical carbon dioxide by the hydrolysis of an organometallic precursor of the oxide. The influence of operating parameters is similar to what is observed during a liquid-phase synthesis (sol-gel process), and leads us to control the size and texture of the prepared particles. This material is then used to prepare mineral membrane with a compressed layer process. The particles are mixed with organic components to form a liquid suspension. A layer is then deposited on the internal surface of a tubular porous support by slip-casting. The layer is then dried and compressed on the support before sintering. The obtained membranes arc in the ultrafiltration range. A second process has been developed in this work. It consists on the hydrolysis, in a supercritical CO 2 medium, of a precursor of titanium dioxide infiltrated into the support. The obtained material is then both deposited on the support but also infiltrated into the porosity. This new method leads to obtain ultrafiltration membranes that retain molecules which molecular weight is round 4000 g.mol -1 . Furthermore, we studied mass transfer mechanisms in cross-flow filtration of aqueous solutions. An electrostatic model, based on generalized Nernst-Planck equation that takes into account electrostatic interactions between solutes and the ceramic material, lead us to obtain a good correlation between experimental results and the numerical simulation. (author) [fr

  15. Support influence on the properties of the alumina ceramic membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clar, C.; Scian, A.N.; Aglietti, E.F.

    2003-01-01

    The ceramic substrates used as supports for the formation of a top layer membrane must meet several requirements.Some of them are: have an average pore size and a suitable surface rugosity to obtain a homogenous top layer preventing the penetration of the membrane precursor particles into the support pores.This work analyzes the performance of the three α-Al 2 O 3 supports, with different average pore sizes and surface textures, for the formation of a membrane top layer by the dipcoating technique from colloids in suspension of aluminum basic acetate and later thermal treatment at 1000degC.The pore size distribution of the supports, the support-membrane systems and the top layer membrane was obtained by the mercury intrusion porosimetry technique.The microstructural differences of the supports and the top layer thickness were observed by MEB.It could be observed that for numerous deposits the membrane layer pore size obtained is independent on the support used and that the thickness of the last layer is lower for the greater pore size supports.The possibility of an intermediate layer between the support and the top layer was considered in every case

  16. Ceramic membrane fouling during ultrafiltration of oil/water emulsions: Roles played by stabilization surfactants of oil droplets

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Dongwei; Zhang, Tao; Ma, Jun

    2015-01-01

    of classical fouling models, and analysis of organic components rejected by the membrane. Furthermore, this mechanism was also verified by the existence of a steric effect and demulsification effect. Our finding suggests that ceramic membrane oppositely charged

  17. Reduction of DOM fractions and their trihalomethane formation potential in surface river water by in-line coagulation with ceramic membrane filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakruam, Pharkphum; Wattanachira, Suraphong

    2014-03-01

    This research was aimed at investigating the reduction of DOM fractions and their trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) by in-line coagulation with 0.1 μm ceramic membrane filtration. The combination of ceramic membrane filtration with a coagulation process is an alternative technology which can be applied to enhance conventional coagulation processes in the field of water treatment and drinking water production. The Ping River water (high turbidity water) was selected as the raw surface water because it is currently the main raw water source for water supply production in the urban and rural areas of Chiang Mai Province. From the investigation, the results showed that the highest percent reductions of DOC, UV-254, and THMFP (47.6%, 71.0%, and 67.4%, respectively) were achieved from in-line coagulation with ceramic membrane filtration at polyaluminum chloride dosage 40 mg/L. Resin adsorption techniques were employed to characterize the DOM in raw surface water and filtered water. The results showed that the use of a ceramic membrane with in-line coagulation was able to most efficiently reduce the hydrophobic fraction (HPOA) (68.5%), which was then followed by the hydrophilic fraction (HPIA) (49.3%). The greater mass DOC reduction of these two fractions provided the highest THMFP reductions (55.1% and 37.2%, respectively). Furthermore, the in-line coagulation with ceramic membrane filtration was able to reduce the hydrophobic (HPOB) fraction which is characterized by high reactivity toward THM formation. The percent reduction of mass DOC and THMFP of HPOB by in-line coagulation with ceramic membrane filtration was 45.9% and 48.0%, respectively. Copyright © 2014 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of operating conditions on the performances of multichannel ceramic UF membranes for textile mercerization wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebić Avdičević, Maja; Košutić, Krešimir; Dobrović, Slaven

    2017-01-01

    Textile wastewaters are rated as one of the most polluting in all industrial sectors, and membrane separation is the most promising technology for their treatment and reuse of auxiliary chemicals. This study evaluates the performance of three types of tubular ceramic ultrafiltration membranes differing by mean pore size (1, 2 and 500 kDa) treating textile mercerization wastewater from a textile mill at different operating conditions: cross-flow velocity (CFV) and temperature. Acceptable results were obtained with 1 kDa ceramic membrane, with rejection efficiencies 92% for suspended solids, 98% for turbidity, 98% for color and 53% for total organic carbon at 20°C and 3 m s -1 CFV. Highest fouling effect was observed for 500 kDa membrane and lowest CFV. According to the observed results, 1 kDa membrane could be used for the treatment of wastewater from the textile mercerization process in terms of permeate quality.

  19. Comparing the short and long term stability of biodegradable, ceramic and cation exchange membranes in microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winfield, Jonathan; Chambers, Lily D; Rossiter, Jonathan; Ieropoulos, Ioannis

    2013-11-01

    The long and short-term stability of two porous dependent ion exchange materials; starch-based compostable bags (BioBag) and ceramic, were compared to commercially available cation exchange membrane (CEM) in microbial fuel cells. Using bi-directional polarisation methods, CEM exhibited power overshoot during the forward sweep followed by significant power decline over the reverse sweep (38%). The porous membranes displayed no power overshoot with comparably smaller drops in power during the reverse sweep (ceramic 8%, BioBag 5.5%). The total internal resistance at maximum power increased by 64% for CEM compared to 4% (ceramic) and 6% (BioBag). Under fixed external resistive loads, CEM exhibited steeper pH reductions than the porous membranes. Despite its limited lifetime, the BioBag proved an efficient material for a stable microbial environment until failing after 8 months, due to natural degradation. These findings highlight porous separators as ideal candidates for advancing MFC technology in terms of cost and operation stability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendfra Nagabhushana

    2001-07-01

    The mechanical properties of model systems were analyzed. A reasonably accurate finite element model was implemented and a rational metric to predict the strength of ceramic/metal concentrical joints was developed. The mode of failure of the ceramic/metal joints was determined and the importance of the mechanical properties of the braze material was assessed. Thermal cycling experiments were performed on the model systems and the results were discussed. Additionally, experiments using the concept of placing diffusion barriers on the ceramic surface to limit the extent of the reaction with the braze were performed. It was also observed that the nature and morphology of the reaction zone depends greatly on the nature of the perovskite structure being used. From the experiments, it is observed that the presence of Cr in the Fe-occupied sites decreases the tendency of Fe to segregate and to precipitate out of the lattice. In these new experiments, Ni was observed to play a major role in the decomposition of the ceramic substrate.

  1. Influence of Surface Properties of Filtration-Layer Metal Oxide on Ceramic Membrane Fouling during Ultrafiltration of Oil/Water Emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dongwei; Zhang, Tao; Gutierrez, Leo; Ma, Jun; Croué, Jean-Philippe

    2016-05-03

    In this work, ceramic ultrafiltration membranes deposited with different metal oxides (i.e., TiO2, Fe2O3, MnO2, CuO, and CeO2) of around 10 nm in thickness and similar roughness were tested for O/W emulsion treatment. A distinct membrane fouling tendency was observed, which closely correlated to the properties of the filtration-layer metal oxides (i.e., surface hydroxyl groups, hydrophilicity, surface charge, and adhesion energy for oil droplets). Consistent with the distinct bond strength of the surface hydroxyl groups, hydrophilicity of these common metal oxides is quite different. The differences in hydrophilicity consequently lead to different adhesion of these metal oxides toward oil droplets, consistent with the irreversible membrane fouling tendency. In addition, the surface charge of the metal oxide opposite to that of emulsion can help to alleviate irreversible membrane fouling in ultrafiltration. Highly hydrophilic Fe2O3 with the lowest fouling tendency could be a potential filtration-layer material for the fabrication/modification of ceramic membranes for O/W emulsion treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study clearly showing the correlations between surface properties of filtration-layer metal oxides and ceramic membrane fouling tendency by O/W emulsion.

  2. Influence of surface properties of filtration-layer metal oxide on ceramic membrane fouling during ultrafiltration of oil/water emulsion

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Dongwei; Zhang, Tao; Gutierrez, Leo; Ma, Jun; Croue, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    In this work, ceramic ultrafiltration membranes deposited with different metal oxides (i.e., TiO2, Fe2O3, MnO2, CuO, and CeO2) of around 10 nm in thickness and similar roughness were tested for O/W emulsion treatment. Distinct membrane fouling tendency was observed, which closely correlated to the properties of the filtration-layer metal oxides (i.e. surface hydroxyl groups, hydrophilicity, surface charge, and adhesion energy for oil droplets). In consistent with the distinct bond strength of the surface hydroxyl groups, hydrophilicity of these common metal oxides are quite different. The differences in hydrophilicity consequently lead to different adhesion of these metal oxides towards oil droplets which consists very well with irreversible membrane fouling tendency. In addition, the surface charge of the metal oxide opposite to that of emulsion can help to alleviate irreversible membrane fouling in ultrafiltration. Highly hydrophilic Fe2O3 with lowest fouling tendency could be a potential filtration-layer material for the fabrication/modification of ceramic membranes for O/W emulsion treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study clearly showing the correlations between surface properties of filtration-layer metal oxides and ceramic membrane fouling tendency by O/W emulsion.

  3. Influence of surface properties of filtration-layer metal oxide on ceramic membrane fouling during ultrafiltration of oil/water emulsion

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Dongwei

    2016-04-01

    In this work, ceramic ultrafiltration membranes deposited with different metal oxides (i.e., TiO2, Fe2O3, MnO2, CuO, and CeO2) of around 10 nm in thickness and similar roughness were tested for O/W emulsion treatment. Distinct membrane fouling tendency was observed, which closely correlated to the properties of the filtration-layer metal oxides (i.e. surface hydroxyl groups, hydrophilicity, surface charge, and adhesion energy for oil droplets). In consistent with the distinct bond strength of the surface hydroxyl groups, hydrophilicity of these common metal oxides are quite different. The differences in hydrophilicity consequently lead to different adhesion of these metal oxides towards oil droplets which consists very well with irreversible membrane fouling tendency. In addition, the surface charge of the metal oxide opposite to that of emulsion can help to alleviate irreversible membrane fouling in ultrafiltration. Highly hydrophilic Fe2O3 with lowest fouling tendency could be a potential filtration-layer material for the fabrication/modification of ceramic membranes for O/W emulsion treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study clearly showing the correlations between surface properties of filtration-layer metal oxides and ceramic membrane fouling tendency by O/W emulsion.

  4. Immobilization of glucoamylase on ceramic membrane surfaces modified with a new method of treatment utilizing SPCP-CVD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida; Matsuyama; Yamamoto

    2000-07-01

    Glucoamylase, as a model enzyme, was immobilized on a ceramic membrane modified by surface corona discharge induced plasma chemical process-chemical vapor deposition (SPCP-CVD). Characterizations of the immobilized enzyme were then discussed. Three kinds of ceramic membranes with different amounts of amino groups on the surface were prepared utilizing the SPCP-CVD method. Each with 1-time, 3-times and 5-times surface modification treatments and used for supports in glucoamylase immobilization. The amount of immobilized glucoamylase increased with the increase in the number of surface modification treatments and saturated to a certain maximum value estimated by a two-dimensional random packing. The operational stability of the immobilized glucoamylase also increased with the increase in the number of the surface treatment. It was almost the same as the conventional method, while the activity of immobilized enzyme was higher. The results indicated the possibility of designing the performance of the immobilized enzyme by controlling the amount of amino groups. The above results showed that the completely new surface modification method using SPCP was effective in modifying ceramic membranes for enzyme immobilization.

  5. Cross flow ultrafiltration of Cr (VI) using MCM-41, MCM-48 and Faujasite (FAU) zeolite-ceramic composite membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basumatary, Ashim Kumar; Kumar, R Vinoth; Ghoshal, Aloke Kumar; Pugazhenthi, G

    2016-06-01

    This work describes the removal of Cr (VI) from aqueous solution in cross flow mode using MCM-41, MCM-48 and FAU zeolite membranes prepared on circular shaped porous ceramic support. Ceramic support was manufactured using locally available clay materials via a facile uni-axial compaction method followed by sintering process. A hydrothermal technique was employed for the deposition of zeolites on the ceramic support. The porosity of ceramic support (47%) is reduced by the formation of MCM-41 (23%), MCM-48 (22%) and FAU (33%) zeolite layers. The pore size of the MCM-41, MCM-48 and FAU membrane is found to be 0.173, 0.142, and 0.153 μm, respectively, which is lower than that of the support (1.0 μm). Cross flow ultrafiltration experiments of Cr (VI) were conducted at five different applied pressures (69-345 kPa) and three cross flow rates (1.11 × 10(-7) - 2.22 × 10(-7) m(3)/s). The filtration studies inferred that the performance of the fabricated zeolite composite membranes is optimum at the maximum applied pressure (345 kPa) and the highest rejection is obtained with the lowest cross flow rate (1.11 × 10(-7) m(3)/s) for all three zeolite membrane. The permeate flux of MCM-41, MCM-48 and FAU zeolite composite membranes are almost remained constant in the entire duration of the separation process. The highest removal of 82% is shown by FAU membrane, while MCM-41 and MCM-48 display 75% and 77% of Cr (VI) removal, respectively for the initial feed concentration of 1000 ppm with natural pH of the solution at an applied pressure of 345 kPa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Simulation of a porous ceramic membrane reactor for hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, W.; Ohmori, T.; Yamamoto, T.; Endo, A.; Nakaiwa, M.; Hayakawa, T. [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan); Itoh, N. [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan); Utsunomiya Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry

    2005-08-01

    A systematic simulation study was performed to investigate the performance of a porous ceramic membrane reactor for hydrogen production by means of methane steam reforming. The results show that the methane conversions much higher than the corresponding equilibrium values can be achieved in the membrane reactor due to the selective removal of products from the reaction zone. The comparison of isothermal and non-isothermal model predictions was made. It was found that the isothermal assumption overestimates the reactor performance and the deviation of calculation results between the two models is subject to the operating conditions. The effects of various process parameters such as the reaction temperature, the reaction side pressure, the feed flow rate and the steam to methane molar feed ratio as well as the sweep gas flow rate and the operation modes, on the behavior of membrane reactor were analyzed and discussed. (author)

  7. Planar, Polysilazane-Derived Porous Ceramic Supports for Membrane and Catalysis Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konegger, Thomas; Williams, Lee F; Bordia, Rajendra K

    2015-10-01

    Porous, silicon carbonitride-based ceramic support structures for potential membrane and catalysis applications were generated from a preceramic polysilazane precursor in combination with spherical, ultrahigh-molecular weight polyethylene microparticles through a sacrificial filler approach. A screening evaluation was used for the determination of the impact of both porogen content and porogen size on pore structure, strength, and permeability characteristics of planar specimens. By optimizing both the composition as well as cross-linking parameters, maximum characteristic biaxial flexural strengths of 65 MPa and porosities of 42% were achieved. The evolution of an interconnected, open-pore network during thermal porogen removal and conversion of the preceramic polymer led to air permeabilities in the order of 10 -14 m 2 . The materials were further exposed to long-term heat treatments to demonstrate the stability of properties after 100 h at 800°C in oxidizing, inert, and reducing environments. The determined performance, in combination with the versatile preparation method, illustrates the feasibility of this processing approach for the generation of porous ceramic support structures for applications at elevated temperatures in a variety of fields, including membrane and catalysis science.

  8. Catalytic reforming of methane to syngas in an oxygen-permeative membrane reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urano, Takeshi; Kubo, Keiko; Saito, Tomoyuki; Hitomi, Atsushi, E-mail: turano@jp.tdk.com [Materials and Process Development Center, TDK Corporation 570-2, Matsugashita, Minamihatori, Narita, Chiba 286-8588 (Japan)

    2011-05-15

    For fuel cell applications, partial oxidative reforming of methane to syngas, hydrogen and carbon monoxide, was performed via a dense oxygen-permeative ceramic membrane composed by both ionic and electronic conductive materials. The modification of Ni-based catalyst by noble metals was investigated to increase oxygen permeation flux and decrease carbon deposition during reforming reaction. The role of each component in catalyst was also discussed.

  9. Separation membrane development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M.W. [Savannah River Technology Center, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1998-08-01

    A ceramic membrane has been developed to separate hydrogen from other gases. The method used is a sol-gel process. A thin layer of dense ceramic material is coated on a coarse ceramic filter substrate. The pore size distribution in the thin layer is controlled by a densification of the coating materials by heat treatment. The membrane has been tested by permeation measurement of the hydrogen and other gases. Selectivity of the membrane has been achieved to separate hydrogen from carbon monoxide. The permeation rate of hydrogen through the ceramic membrane was about 20 times larger than Pd-Ag membrane.

  10. Microfiltration of wheat starch suspensions using multichannel ceramic membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikonić Bojana B.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates influence of different process parameters such as transmembrane pressure, flow rate and concentration of wheat starch suspension on the average permeate flux and permeate flux decline. Used membrane in all experiments was 19 channels ceramic membrane with 0.2 μm pore size. Experimental results were analyzed using response surface methodology. It is observed that the significant average permeate flux enhancement of 200% was achieved by the increase of the transmembrane pressure, while the increase of flow rate and concentration affected the increase in average permeate flux in the range of 40-100%. Permeate flux decline was almost independent of the transmembrane pressure, but the increase of the flow rate, as well as the decrease of the concentration led to decrease of permeate flux decline in the range of 20-50%.

  11. Planar, Polysilazane?Derived Porous Ceramic Supports for Membrane and Catalysis Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Konegger, Thomas; Williams, Lee F.; Bordia, Rajendra K.

    2015-01-01

    Porous, silicon carbonitride?based ceramic support structures for potential membrane and catalysis applications were generated from a preceramic polysilazane precursor in combination with spherical, ultrahigh?molecular weight polyethylene microparticles through a sacrificial filler approach. A screening evaluation was used for the determination of the impact of both porogen content and porogen size on pore structure, strength, and permeability characteristics of planar specimens. By optimizin...

  12. Cake layers and long filtration times protect ceramic micro-filtration membranes for fouling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, J.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research was to decrease membrane fouling of a ceramic microfiltration system and at the same time increase the recovery. A conventional operation in micro- and ultrafiltration is an in-line coagulation and a frequent hydraulic backwash. The idea about these frequent backwashes

  13. Treatment of food waste recycling wastewater using anaerobic ceramic membrane bioreactor for biogas production in mainstream treatment process of domestic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yeongmi; Hermanowicz, Slawomir W; Park, Chanhyuk

    2017-10-15

    A bench-scale anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) equipped with submerged flat-sheet ceramic membranes was operated at mesophilic conditions (30-35 °C) treating domestic wastewater (DWW) supplemented with food wasterecycling wastewater (FRW) to increase the organic loading rate (OLR) for better biogas production. Coupling ceramic membrane filtration with AnMBR treatment provides an alternative strategy for high organic wastewater treatment at short hydraulic retention times (HRTs) with the potential benefits of membrane fouling because they have a high hydrophilicity and more robust at extreme conditions. The anaerobic ceramic MBR (AnCMBR) treating mixture of actual FRW with DWW (with an influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 2,115 mg/L) was studied to evaluate the treatment performance in terms of organic matter removal and methane production. COD removal during actual FRW with DWW operation averaged 98.3 ± 1.0% corresponding to an average methane production of 0.21 ± 0.1 L CH 4 /g COD removed . Biogas sparging, relaxation and permeate back-flushing were concurrently employed to manage membrane fouling. A flux greater than 9.2 L m -2  h -1 (LMH) was maintained at 13 h HRT for approximately 200 days without chemical cleaning at an OLR of 2.95 kg COD m -3  d -1 . On day 100, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-gel beads were added into the AnCMBR to alleviate the membrane fouling, suggesting that their mechanical scouring effect contributed positively in reducing the fouling index (FI). Although these bio-carriers might accelerate the breaking up of bio-flocs, which released a higher amount of soluble microbial products (SMP), a 95.4% SMP rejection was achieved. Although the retention efficiency of dissolved organic carbons (DOC) was 91.4% across the ceramic membrane, a meaningful interpretation of organic carbon detection (OCD) fingerprints was conducted to better understand the ceramic membrane performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  14. Enhancing oxygen transport through Mixed-Ionic-and-Electronic-Conducting ceramic membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Anthony S.

    Ceramic membranes based on Mixed-Ionic-and-Electronic-Conducting (MIEC) oxides are capable of separating oxygen from air in the presence of an oxygen partial-pressure gradient. These MIEC membranes show great promise for oxygen consuming industrial processes, such as the production of syngas from steam reforming of natural gas (SRM), as well as for electricity generation in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC). For both applications, the overall performance is dictated by the rate of oxygen transport across the membrane. Oxygen transport across MIEC membranes is composed of a bulk oxygen-ion diffusion process and surface processes, such as surface reactions and adsorption/desorption of gaseous reactants/products. The main goal of this thesis was to determine which process is rate-limiting in order to significantly enhance the overall rate of oxygen transport in MIEC membrane systems. The rate-limiting step was determined by evaluating the total resistance to oxygen transfer, Rtot. Rtot is the sum of a bulk diffusion resistance in the membrane itself, Rb, and interfacial loss components, Rs. Rb is a function of the membrane's ionic conductivity and thickness, while Rs arises primarily from slow surface-exchange kinetics that cause the P(O2) at the surfaces of the membrane to differ from the P(O 2) in the adjacent gas phases. Rtot can be calculated from the Nernst potential across the membrane and the measured oxygen flux. The rate-limiting process can be determined by evaluating the relative contributions of the various losses, Rs and Rb, to Rtot. Using this method, this thesis demonstrates that for most membrane systems, Rs is the dominating factor. In the development of membrane systems with high oxygen transport rates, thin membranes with high ionic conductivities are required to achieve fast bulk oxygen-ion diffusion. However, as membrane thickness is decreased, surface reaction kinetics become more important in determining the overall transport rate. The two

  15. Ceramic microsieves: influence of perforation shape and distribution on flow resistance and membrane strength

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, S.; Brink, R.; Nijdam, W.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2002-01-01

    Ceramic microsieves with slit-shaped perforations were compared to sieves with circular-shaped perforations, regarding flow resistance and membrane strength. Destructive tests show that the highest strength is obtained if the perforations are placed in a non-alternating pattern. Especially for

  16. Hybrid Processes Combining Photocatalysis and Ceramic Membrane Filtration for Degradation of Humic Acids in Saline Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lili; Zhu, Bo; Gray, Stephen; Duke, Mikel; Muthukumaran, Shobha

    2016-03-01

    This study explored the combined effects of photocatalysis with ceramic membrane filtration for the removal of humic acid in the presence of salt; to simulate saline wastewater conditions. The effects of operating parameters, such as salinity and TiO₂ concentration on permeate fluxes, total organic carbon (TOC), and UV absorbance removal, were investigated. The interaction between the humic acids and TiO₂ photocatalyst played an important role in the observed flux change during ceramic membrane filtration. The results for this hybrid system showed that the TOC removal was more than 70% for both without NaCl and with the 500 ppm NaCl concentration, and 62% and 66% for 1000 and 2000 ppm NaCl concentrations. The reduction in UV absorbance was more complete in the absence of NaCl compared to the presence of NaCl. The operation of the integrated photoreactor-ceramic membrane filter over five repeat cycles is described. It can be concluded that the overall removal performance of the hybrid system was influenced by the presence of salts, as salt leads to agglomeration of TiO₂ particles by suppressing the stabilising effects of electrostatic repulsion and thereby reduces the effective surface contact between the pollutant and the photocatalyst.

  17. Hybrid Processes Combining Photocatalysis and Ceramic Membrane Filtration for Degradation of Humic Acids in Saline Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Song

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the combined effects of photocatalysis with ceramic membrane filtration for the removal of humic acid in the presence of salt; to simulate saline wastewater conditions. The effects of operating parameters, such as salinity and TiO2 concentration on permeate fluxes, total organic carbon (TOC, and UV absorbance removal, were investigated. The interaction between the humic acids and TiO2 photocatalyst played an important role in the observed flux change during ceramic membrane filtration. The results for this hybrid system showed that the TOC removal was more than 70% for both without NaCl and with the 500 ppm NaCl concentration, and 62% and 66% for 1000 and 2000 ppm NaCl concentrations. The reduction in UV absorbance was more complete in the absence of NaCl compared to the presence of NaCl. The operation of the integrated photoreactor-ceramic membrane filter over five repeat cycles is described. It can be concluded that the overall removal performance of the hybrid system was influenced by the presence of salts, as salt leads to agglomeration of TiO2 particles by suppressing the stabilising effects of electrostatic repulsion and thereby reduces the effective surface contact between the pollutant and the photocatalyst.

  18. Reducing the pollutant load of olive mill wastewater by photocatalytic membranes and monitoring the process using both tyrosinase biosensor and COD test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Elisabetta; Tomassetti, Mauro; Campanella, Luigi; Fortuna, Antonio

    2013-12-01

    Photocatalytic technique had already been employed in the treatment of olive mill wastewater (OMW) using the photocatalysis in suspension. The coupling of photocatalytic and membrane techniques should result in a very powerful process bringing great innovation to OMW depollution. Despite the potential advantages using these hybrid photoreactors, research on the combined use of photocatalysis and membranes has so far not been sufficiently developed. The present paper describes a study to assess the photocatalytic efficacy of a new ceramic membrane containing titanium dioxide, irradiated by UV light, used to abate the pollutant load of olive mill wastewater. Good results were obtained (more than 90% of the phenol content was removed and the COD decrease was of the order of 46-51 % in 24 h) particularly using the ceramic membrane compared with those offered by analogous catalytic membranes made of metallic or polymeric materials.

  19. Reducing the pollutant load of olive mill wastewater by photocatalytic membranes and monitoring the process using both tyrosinase biosensor and COD test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Elisabetta; Tomassetti, Mauro; Campanella, Luigi; Fortuna, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Photocatalytic technique had already been employed in the treatment of olive mill wastewater (OMW) using the photocatalysis in suspension. The coupling of photocatalytic and membrane techniques should result in a very powerful process bringing great innovation to OMW depollution. Despite the potential advantages using these hybrid photoreactors, research on the combined use of photocatalysis and membranes has so far not been sufficiently developed. The present paper describes a study to assess the photocatalytic efficacy of a new ceramic membrane containing titanium dioxide, irradiated by UV light, used to abate the pollutant load of OMW. Good results were obtained (more than 90% of the phenol content was removed and the COD decrease was of the order of 46–51% in 24 h) particularly using the ceramic membrane compared with those offered by analogous catalytic membranes made of metallic or polymeric materials. PMID:24790964

  20. Novel ceramic-polymer composite membranes for the separation of liquid waste. Annual progress report, September 15, 1996 - September 14, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Y.

    1997-01-01

    'The project on ceramic-supported polymer membranes focuses on the development of a novel class of membranes for the separation of organics from both organic-aqueous and organic-organic mixtures, Theses membranes are fabricated by a graft polymerization process where polymer chains are grown onto the surface of a ceramic support membrane. The surface graft polymerization process, developed at UCLA, results in the formation of a thin polymer layer covalently bonded to the membrane pore surface as a layer of terminally anchored polymeric chains. Through the selection of the polymer most appropriate for the desired separation task, the graft polymerized surface layer can be synthesized to impart specific separation properties to the membrane. It is expected that this project will lead to the demonstration of a new technology for the tailor design of a new class of selective and robust ceramic-supported polymer membranes. This new approach will allow the rapid deployment of task-specific membranes for the separation of waste constituents for subsequent recovery, treatment or disposal. Progress to date includes the preparation of successful silica-polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) membrane for the treatment of oil-in-water emulsions and a silica-polyvinylacetate (PVAc) pervaporation membrane for the separation of organics from water. Current work is ongoing to study the performance of the pervaporation membrane for the removal of chlorinated organics from water and to develop a pervaporation membrane for organic-organic separation. In another aspect of the study, the authors are studying the hydrophilic PVP CSP membrane for oil-in-water emulsion treatment with the goal of determining the optimal membrane polymer surface structure as a function of various operating conditions (e.g., tube-side Reynolds number and transmembrane pressure), Work is also in progress to characterize the polymer layer by AFM and internal reflection FTIR, and to model the conformation of the polymer

  1. A POLYMER-CERAMIC COMPOSITE MEMBRANE FOR RECOVERING VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM WASTEWATERS BY PERVAPORATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A composite membrane was constructed on a porous ceramic support from a block copolymer of styrene and butadiene (SBS). It was tested in a laboratory pervaporation apparatus for recovering volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such a 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) and trichloroethylene ...

  2. Fluidized-bed Fenton coupled with ceramic membrane separation for advanced treatment of flax wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Dong; Ding, Lili; Huang, Hui; Chen, Mengtian; Ren, Hongqiang

    2017-10-15

    Fluidized-bed Fenton coupled with ceramic membrane separation to treat the flax secondary effluent was investigated. The operating variables, including initial pH, dosage of H 2 O 2 and Fe 0 , air flow rate, TMP and pore size, were optimized. The distributions of DOMs in the treatment process were analyzed. Under the optimum condition (600mgL -1 H 2 O 2 , 1.4gL -1 Fe 0 , pH=3, 300Lh -1 air flow rate and 15psi TMP), the highest TOC and color removal efficiencies were 84% and 94% in the coupled reactor with 100nm ceramic membrane, reducing 39% of total iron with similar removal efficiency compared with Fluidized-bed Fenton. Experimental results showed that the ceramic membrane could intercept catalyst particles (average particle size >100nm), 10.4% macromolecules organic matter (AMW>20000Da) and 12.53% hydrophobic humic-like component. EEM-PARAFAC identified four humic-like (M1-M4) and one protein-like components (M5), and the fluorescence intensities of M1-M5 in the secondary effluent were 63.27, 63.05, 33.41, 16.71 and 0.72 QSE, respectively. After the coupled treatment, the removal efficiencies of M1(81%), M2(86%) were higher than M3, M4(63%, 61%). Pearson correlation analysis suggested that M1, M2 and M3 were the major contributors to the cake layer, and M4, M5 might more easily lead to pore blockages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Rejection of Bromide and Bromate Ions by a Ceramic Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moslemi, Mohammadreza; Davies, Simon H; Masten, Susan J

    2012-12-01

    Effects of pH and the addition of calcium chloride (CaCl(2)) on bromate (BrO(3) (-)) and bromide (Br(-)) rejection by a ceramic membrane were investigated. Rejection of both ions increased with pH. At pH 8, the rejection of BrO(3) (-) and Br(-) was 68% and 63%, respectively. Donnan exclusion appears to play an important role in determining rejection of BrO(3) (-) and Br(-). In the presence of CaCl(2), rejection of BrO(3) (-) and Br(-) ions was greatly reduced, confirming the importance of electrostatic interactions in determining rejection of BrO(3) (-) and Br(-). The effect of Ca(2+) is so pronounced that in most natural waters, rejection of both BrO(3) (-) and Br(-) by the membrane would be extremely small.

  4. A submerged tubular ceramic membrane bioreactor for high strength wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, D D; Zeng, J L; Tay, J H

    2003-01-01

    A 4 L submerged tubular ceramic membrane bioreactor (MBR) was applied in laboratory scale to treat 2,400 mg-COD/L high strength wastewater. A prolonged sludge retention time (SRT) of 200 day, in contrast to the conventional SRT of 5 to 15 days, was explored in this study, aiming to reduce substantially the amount of disposed sludge. The MBR system was operated for a period of 142 days in four runs, differentiated by specific oxygen utilization rate (SOUR) and hydraulic retention time (HRT). It was found that the MBR system produced more than 99% of suspended solid reduction. Mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) was found to be adversely proportional to HRT, and in general higher than the value from a conventional wastewater treatment plant. A chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency was achieved as high as 98% in Run 1, when SOUR was in the range of 100-200 mg-O/g-MLVSS/hr. Unexpectedly, the COD removal efficiency in Run 2 to 4 was higher than 92%, on average, where higher HRT and abnormally low SOUR of 20-30 mg-O/g-MLVSS/hr prevailed. It was noted that the ceramic membrane presented a significant soluble nutrient rejection when the microbial metabolism of biological treatment broke down.

  5. Influence of morphology of ceramic fibers in catalytic combustion of methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabarelli, A.C.; Alves, A.K.; Bergmann, C.P.

    2012-01-01

    Methane, considered as the main constituent of natural gas has been widely used as an energy source. During its combustion are produced pollutants that cause concern and necessity to eliminate or reduce the emission of these agents in the atmosphere. One of the main means of controlling emissions is the use of catalysts. In order to contribute to the development of new catalysts, this study analyzed the morphology of ceramic fibers of cerium oxide (ceria) doped with copper fabricated by electrospinning, in order to verify their effects on catalytic activity. Parameters were varied in distance from the electrodes, the diameter of the capillary and applied voltage between electrodes. The characterizations were performed: scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, BET and Xray diffraction (DXR). The results indicate that after the thermal treatment there was a reduction of approximately 40% fiber diameter and specific surface area ranging between 28.929 and 34.501 m 2 /g. (author)

  6. A reverse flow catalytic membrane reactor for the production of syngas: an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J.; Bekink, G.J.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper experimental results are presented for a demonstration unit of a recently proposed novel integrated reactor concept (Smit et. al., 2005) for the partial oxidation of natural gas to syngas (POM), namely a Reverse Flow Catalytic Membrane Reactor (RFCMR). Natural gas has great potential

  7. EFFICIENCY OF ULTRAFILTRATION CERAMIC MEMBRANES FOR TOXIC ELEMENTS REMOVAL FROM WASTEWATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Alami Younssi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The preparation and characterization of porous ceramics multilayer ultrafiltration membrane is described. The first step consisted to prepare high-quality macroporous support in Moroccan clay. The choice of this material is based on its natural abundance and thermal stability.The microporous interlayer was then prepared by slip casting from zirconia commercial powders and finally the active UF toplayers was obtained by sol-gel route using ZnAl2O4 and TiO2 mixed sols. The performance of ultrafiltration membrane (TiO2 (50�20– ZnAl2O4 (50� was evaluated by pores diameter, water flux, thickness and molecular weight cut off (MWCO. The water permeability measured for this composite membrane is 9.42 L/(m2•h•bar, the thickness is less than 700 nm, the pore diameter is centered near 5 nm and the MWCO was about 4500 Da.

  8. Molecular Grafting of Fluorinated and Nonfluorinated Alkylsiloxanes on Various Ceramic Membrane Surfaces for the Removal of Volatile Organic Compounds Applying Vacuum Membrane Distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawa, Joanna; Al-Gharabli, Samer; Kujawski, Wojciech; Knozowska, Katarzyna

    2017-02-22

    Four main tasks were presented: (i) ceramic membrane functionalization (TiO 2 5 kDa and 300 kDa), (ii) extended material characterization (physicochemistry and tribology) of pristine and modified ceramic samples, (iii) evaluation of chemical and mechanical stability, and finally (iv) assessment of membrane efficiency in vacuum membrane distillation applied for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) removal from water. Highly efficient molecular grafting with four types of perfluoroalkylsilanes and one nonfluorinated agent was developed. Materials with controllable tribological and physicochemical properties were achieved. The most meaningful finding is associated with the applicability of fluorinated and nonfluorinated grafting agents. The results of contact angle, hysteresis of contact angle, sliding angle, and critical surface tension as well as Young's modulus, nanohardness, and adhesion force for grafting by these two modifiers are comparable. This provides insight into the potential applicability of environmental friendly hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces. The achieved hydrophobic membranes were very effective in the removal of VOCs (butanol, methyl-tert-butyl ether, and ethyl acetate) from binary aqueous solutions in vacuum membrane distillation. The correlation between membrane effectiveness and separated solvent polarity was compared in terms of material properties and resistance to the wetting (kinetics of wetting and in-depth liquid penetration). Material properties were interpreted considering Zisman theory and using Kao diagram. The significant influence of surface chemistry on the membrane performance was noticed (5 kDa, influence of hydrophobic nanolayer and separation controlled by solution-diffusion model; 300 kDa, no impact of surface chemistry and separation controlled by liquid-vapor equilibrium).

  9. Review. Freeze-casting: Fabrication of highly porous and hierarchical ceramic supports for energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudillere, C.; Serra, J. M.

    2016-05-01

    The manufacture of structured ceramic porous support knows an important boom since more than a decade with the development of new shaping techniques. Among the most promising ones, the freeze-casting also called Ice-Tem plating allows the fabrication of ceramic parts exhibiting high porosity (>50%) and vertically aligned and hierarchically organized pores. Such structures were firstly conceived for biomedical applications like bone substitute and tissue engineering, but the distinctive features of freeze-cast structures have attracted the attention of diverse scientific fields, especially in high temperature ceramic-based energy production systems. Indeed, technologies like (a) Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Electrolyser Cell (SOEC), (b) gas separation (O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}) by asymmetric supported membranes based on mixed ionic and electronic conductors (MIEC) or hydrogen-permeable metals, and (c) Catalytic Membrane Reactor (CMR) systems present a porous component in their physical structure. This latest, presenting a tortuous pathway for gas access and as a consequence, a high transport limitation, is known to be a limiting component for the operation at high flow streams that would enable to reach industrial target. (Author)

  10. Hydrogen separation from high temperature CO-containing syn-gas flow using molecular ceramic membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soudarev, A.; Konakov, G.; Souryaninov, A.; Molchanov, A. [Boyko Research Engineering Ceramic Heat Engines Center Ltd., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Lelait, L.; Stevens, P.H. [European Inst. for Power Studies, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Poisoning of the platinum (Pt) metals used as catalysts for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) can negatively impact on PEMFC operation efficiency. In order to address this issue, a supply of hydrogen with a carbon monoxide (CO) admixtures is required. This paper provided details of a new type of molecular ceramic membrane (MCM) that allows the separation of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) from the hydrocarbon fuel reforming products that contain CO and has higher temperature and pressure capacity than other membranes. After various tests, alumo-magnesium spinel (AMS) was selected as the most promising porous material for the ceramic multi-layer membrane. The crystalline structure of the AMS showed good thermo-dynamic stability during tests that ranged between 20 and 1400 degrees C, as well as a chemical resistance relative to the effects of the aggressive fuel cell environment, and no exposure to the oxidation-recovery processes in the CO and H{sub 2} flow. The macroporous substrate of the AMS and the membrane selection layers have the same composition. The formation of the carrier was conducted by a semi-dry molding on a hydraulic press. Formation of the nano-porous structure in the carrier macro-pores by the polysilicon acid sol solution treatment allowed the synthesis of the amorphous silica and crystobalite crystals with a developed surface and nano-dimension subporosity. Test results have shown that the MCM has optimum penetrability and selectivity values as well as admissible thermo-mechanical properties. H{sub 2} flow through the membrane was 1.5-1.7 times greater than the CO flow. It was concluded that the AMS-based membrane devices will increase the efficiency of the PEMFC power plants and reduce their degradation capacity. 2 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  11. Reducing the pollutant load of olive mill wastewater by photocatalytic membranes and monitoring the process using both tyrosinase biosensor and COD test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta eMartini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalytic technique had already been employed in the treatment of olive mill wastewater (OMW using the photocatalysis in suspension. The coupling of photocatalytic and membrane techniques should result in a very powerful process bringing great innovation to OMW depollution. Despite the potential advantages using these hybrid photoreactors, research on the combined use of photocatalysis and membranes has so far not been sufficiently developed. The present paper describes a study to assess the photocatalytic efficacy of a new ceramic membrane containing titanium dioxide, irradiated by UV light, used to abate the pollutant load of olive mill wastewater. Good results were obtained (more than 90% of the phenol content was removed and the COD decrease was of the order of 46-51 % in 24 h particularly using the ceramic membrane compared with those offered by analogous catalytic membranes made of metallic or polymeric materials.

  12. Ceramic membrane ozonator for soluble organics removal from produced water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siagian, U. W. R.; Dwipramana, A. S.; Perwira, S. B.; Khoiruddin; Wenten, I. G.

    2018-01-01

    In this work, the performance of ozonation for degradation of soluble organic compounds in produced water was investigated. Tubular ceramic membrane diffuser (with and without a static mixer in the lumen side) was used to facilitate contact between ozone and produced water. The ozonation was conducted at ozone flow rate of 8 L.min-1, ozone concentration of 0.4 ppm, original pH of the solution, and pressure of 1.2 bar, while the flow rates of the produced water were varied (192, 378 and 830 mL.min-1). It was found that the reduction of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene were 85%, 99%, 85%, and 95%, respectively. A lower liquid flow rate in a laminar state showed a better component reduction due to the longer contacting time between the liquid and the gas phase. The introduction of the static mixer in the lumen side of the membrane as a turbulence promoter provided a positive effect on the performance of the membrane diffuser. The twisted static mixer exhibited the better removal rate than the spiral static mixer.

  13. Experimental demonstration of the reverse flow catalytic membrane reactor concept for energy efficient syngas production. Part 2: Model development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J.; Bekink, G.J.; Sint Annaland, van M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    In this contribution the technical feasibility of the reverse flow catalytic membrane reactor (RFCMR) concept with porous membranes for energy efficient syngas production is investigated. In earlier work an experimental proof of principle was already provided [Smit, J., Bekink, G.J., van Sint

  14. A study of the isobutane dehydrogenation in a porous membrane catalytic reactor: design, use and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casanave, D

    1996-01-26

    The aim of this study was to set up and model a catalytic fixed-bed membrane reactor for the isobutane dehydrogenation. The catalyst, developed at Catalysis Research Institute (IRC), was a silicalite-supported Pt-based catalyst. Their catalytic performances (activity, selectivity, stability) where found better adapted to the membrane reactor, when compared with commercial Pt or Cr based catalysts. The kinetic study of the reaction has been performed in a differential reactor and led to the determination of a kinetic law, suitable when the catalyst is used near thermodynamic equilibrium. The mass transfer mechanisms were determined in meso-porous and microporous membranes through both permeability and gas mixtures (iC{sub 4}/H{sub 2}/N{sub 2}) separation measurements. For the meso-porous {gamma}-alumina, the mass transfer is ensured by a Knudsen diffusion mechanism which can compete with surface diffusion for condensable gas like isobutane. The resulting permselectivity H{sub 2}/iC4 of this membrane is low ({approx} 4). For the microporous zeolite membrane, molecular sieving occurs due to steric hindrance, leading to higher permselectivity {approx}14. Catalyst/membrane associations were compared in terms of isobutane dehydrogenation performances, for both types of membranes (meso-porous and microporous) and for two different reactor configurations (co-current and counter-current sweep gas flow). The best experimental results were obtained with the zeolite membrane, when sweeping the outer compartment in a co-current flow. The equilibrium displacement observed with the {gamma}-alumina membrane was lower and mainly due to a dilution effect of the reaction mixture by the sweep gas. A mathematical model was developed, which correctly describes all the experimental results obtained with the zeolite membrane, when the co-current mode is used. (Abstract Truncated)

  15. Preparation and characterization of a nickel/alumina composite membrane for high temperature hydrogen separation. Application in a membrane reactor for the dry reforming of methane; De la synthese d'une membrane composite nikel/ceramique permselective a l'hydrogene au reacteur membranaire. Application au reformage du methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haag, St.

    2003-11-01

    The objective of this work was to develop composite inorganic membranes based on nickel or palladium supported on a porous ceramic for high temperature hydrogen separation. These membranes were used in a membrane reactor for the dry reforming of methane in order to shift the chemical equilibrium towards the production of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. The metal layers were deposited on a tubular alumina support by electroless plating. The Ni and the Pd layers are 1 micron thick. The hydrogen permeation tests were done for high temperatures. The Pd/ceramic membrane is permselective to hydrogen and the H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} separation factor (single gas) is 60 at 400 deg C with a transmembrane pressure difference of 1 bar. With a gas mixture, the H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} separation factor is 13. This membrane is not completely dense and the transport mechanism of hydrogen through the Pd layer is mixed: solution-diffusion through the metal bulk and surface diffusion through the defects of the film. However, an embrittlement of the palladium layer under hydrogen atmosphere was observed at 500 deg C. The Ni/ceramic membrane is stable until 600 deg C, its permselectivity to hydrogen increases with the temperature. The use of a sweep gas can provide a H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} separation factor (mixture) of about 25. The main diffusion mechanism is surface diffusion through the pores. Both membranes are not catalytic. Thus, some catalysts composed of nickel and cobalt supported on MgO, SiO{sub 2} or Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were prepared. These systems allow to reach theoretical limits of conversion calculated for a conventional fixed bed reactor. In the membrane reactor, an enhancement of the methane conversion (15-20%) is observed with both membranes due the selective removal of hydrogen during the reaction. The Ni/ceramic membrane more stable, more permeable and as selective as the palladium one is a brand new material for high temperature hydrogen separation. (author)

  16. Separation of BSA through FAU-type zeolite ceramic composite membrane formed on tubular ceramic support: Optimization of process parameters by hybrid response surface methodology and biobjective genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinoth Kumar, R; Ganesh Moorthy, I; Pugazhenthi, G

    2017-08-09

    In this study, Faujasite (FAU) zeolite was coated on low-cost tubular ceramic support as a separating layer through hydrothermal route. The mixture of silicate and aluminate solutions was used to create a zeolitic separation layer on the support. The prepared zeolite ceramic composite membrane was characterized using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), particle size distribution (PSD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and zeta potential measurements. The porosity of ceramic support (53%) was reduced by the deposition of FAU (43%) zeolite layer. The pore size and water permeability of the membrane were evaluated as 0.179 µm and 1.62 × 10 -7  m 3 /m 2  s kPa, respectively, which are lower than that of the support (pore size of 0.309 µm and water permeability of 5.93 × 10 -7  m 3 /m 2  s kPa). The permeate flux and rejection potential of the prepared membrane were evaluated by microfiltration of bovine serum albumin (BSA). To study the influences of three independent variables such as operating pressure (68.94-275.79 kPa), concentration of BSA (100-500 ppm), and solution pH (2-4) on permeate flux and percentage of rejection, the response surface methodology (RSM) was used. The predicted models for permeate flux and rejection were further subjected to biobjective genetic algorithm (GA). The hybrid RSM-GA approach resulted in a maximum permeate flux of 2.66 × 10 -5  m 3 /m 2  s and BSA rejection of 88.02%, at which the optimum conditions were attained as 100 ppm BSA concentration, 2 pH solution, and 275.79 kPa applied pressure. In addition, the separation efficiency was compared with other membranes applied for BSA separation to know the potential of the fabricated FAU zeolite ceramic composite membrane.

  17. Halloysite nanotube-based electrospun ceramic nanofibre mat: a novel support for zeolite membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuwen; Zeng, Jiaying; Lv, Dong; Gao, Jinqiang; Zhang, Jian; Bai, Shan; Li, Ruili; Hong, Mei; Wu, Jingshen

    2016-12-01

    Some key parameters of supports such as porosity, pore shape and size are of great importance for fabrication and performance of zeolite membranes. In this study, we fabricated millimetre-thick, self-standing electrospun ceramic nanofibre mats and employed them as a novel support for zeolite membranes. The nanofibre mats were prepared by electrospinning a halloysite nanotubes/polyvinyl pyrrolidone composite followed by a programmed sintering process. The interwoven nanofibre mats possess up to 80% porosity, narrow pore size distribution, low pore tortuosity and highly interconnected pore structure. Compared with the commercial α-Al2O3 supports prepared by powder compaction and sintering, the halloysite nanotube-based mats (HNMs) show higher flux, better adsorption of zeolite seeds, adhesion of zeolite membranes and lower Al leaching. Four types of zeolite membranes supported on HNMs have been successfully synthesized with either in situ crystallization or a secondary growth method, demonstrating good universality of HNMs for supporting zeolite membranes.

  18. Polymer-derived microporous ceramics for membranes and sensors for high temperature hydrogen purification and sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, Ravi Mohan

    2012-06-11

    The growing interest in the use of hydrogen as main fuel has increased the need for pure hydrogen (H{sub 2}) production and purification. There are several by-products (CO, H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}) associated with the production of hydrogen which might damage the production rate. Therefore, separation of hydrogen from other gases is an important step in the hydrogen production process. If H{sub 2} can be selectively removed from the product side during hydrogen production in membrane reactors, then it would be possible to achieve complete CO conversion in a single-step under high temperature conditions. The main goal of the present work is the high temperature H{sub 2} purification and sensing by applying polymer-derived ceramics. To prove the concept, the microporous SiBCN, Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and SiCN ceramic membranes have been synthesized by the polymer-pyrolysis route and their performance for the hydrogen separation have been evaluated in tubular membranes as well as in planar chemiresistors. The synthesis of amorphous SiBCN ceramics has been realized through pyrolysis of poly(organoborosilazanes) in argon. Multilayered amorphous SiBCN/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/{alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} membranes with gradient porosity have been realized and assessed with respect to the thermal stability, pore-size distribution and H{sub 2}/CO permeance. N{sub 2}-adsorption measurement indicates micropores in the range of 0.68-0.73 nm for three-fold SiBCN/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/{alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} membrane. SEM characterization of three-fold SiBCN/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/{alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} membrane shows the thickness of SiBCN membrane layer is 2.8 {mu}m; gas permeance measurements of the membrane shows H{sub 2}/CO selectivity of about 10.5 and the H{sub 2} permeance of about 1.05 x 10{sup -8} mol m{sup -2}s{sup -1}Pa{sup -1}. The observed gas permeation properties point out that the transportation of gas molecules through the membrane is governed by both

  19. Poly-thiosemicarbazide/gold nanoparticles catalytic membrane: In-situ growth of well-dispersed, uniform and stable gold nanoparticles in a polymeric membrane

    KAUST Repository

    Villalobos, Luis Francisco

    2014-11-01

    This work presents a method that achieves the highest loading, published so far, of non-agglomerated and well-distributed gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) inside a polymeric membrane. The method uses poly-thiosemicarbazide (PTSC) as the starting material for fabricating the membranes. This polymer contains one chelate site per monomeric unit, resulting in a high content of adsorption sites. This helps to achieve such high loading without agglomeration, along with the strong interaction of the chelate sites with the metal ions and the fact that they are distributed homogeneously along the membrane structure. The simple and scalable three-step procedure developed in this work resulted in a PTSC membrane containing 33.5 wt.% Au/PTSC in the form of 2.9 nm AuNPs. The membrane demonstrated catalytic activity for the reduction of 4-Nitrophenol (4-NP) to 4-Aminophenol (4-AP). © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  20. Metallic Membranes for High Temperature Hydrogen Separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Y.H.; Catalano, Jacopo; Guazzone, Federico

    2013-01-01

    membrane fabrication methods have matured over the last decades, and the deposition of very thin films (1–5 µm) of Pd over porous ceramics or modified porous metal supports is quite common. The H2 permeances and the selectivities achieved at 400–500 °C were in the order of 50–100 Nm3/m/h/bar0.5 and greater......Composite palladium membranes have extensively been studied in laboratories and, more recently, in small pilot industrial applications for the high temperature separation of hydrogen from reactant mixtures such as water-gas shift (WGS) reaction or methane steam reforming (MSR). Composite Pd...... than 1000, respectively. This chapter describes in detail composite Pd-based membrane preparation methods, which consist of the grading of the support and the deposition of the dense metal layer, their performances, and their applications in catalytic membrane reactors (CMRs) at high temperatures (400...

  1. Structural investigations of the active-site mutant Asn156Ala of outer membrane phospholipase A: Function of the Asn-His interaction in the catalytic triad

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, H.J.; van Eerde, J.H.; Kalk, K.H.; Dekker, N.; Egmond, M.R.; Dijkstra, B.W.

    2010-01-01

    Outer membrane phospholipase A (OMPLA) from Escherichia coli is an integral-membrane enzyme with a unique His-Ser-Asn catalytic triad. In serine proteases and serine esterases usually an Asp occurs in the catalytic triad; its role has been the subject of much debate. Here the role of the uncharged

  2. Substrate Effect on Carbon/Ceramic Mixed Matrix Membrane Prepared by a Vacuum-Assisted Method for Desalination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingjun Song

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the effect of various membrane substrates and coating conditions on the formation of carbon/ceramic mixed matrix membranes for desalination application. The substrates were impregnated with phenolic resin via a vacuum-assisted method followed by carbonization under an inert gas. Substrates with pore sizes of 100 nm required a single impregnation step only, where short vacuum times (<120 s resulted in low quality membranes with defects. For vacuum times of ≥120 s, high quality membranes with homogeneous impregnation were prepared leading to high salt rejection (>90% and high water fluxes (up to 25 L m−2 h−1. The increase in water flux as a function of the vacuum time confirms the vacuum etching effect resulting from the vacuum-assisted method. Substrates with pore sizes of 140 nm required two impregnation steps. These pores were too large for the ceramic inter-particle space to be filled with phenolic resin via a single step. In the second impregnation step, increasing the concentration of the phenolic resin resulted in membranes with lower water fluxes. These results indicate that thicker films were formed by increasing the phenolic resin concentration. In the case of substrates with pores of 600 nm, these pores were too large and inter-particle space filling with phenolic resin was not attained.

  3. PERFORMANCE AND SELECTIVITY OF CERAMIC MEMBRANES IN THE ULTRAFILTRATION OF MODEL EMULSION IN SALINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad ĆWIRKO

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Oily wastewaters from different onshore and offshore installations and from maritime transport pose a serious threat to the environment so they must be treated by multistage separation also including membrane processes. The main advantages of such membranes are high performance and selectivity, high resistance for temperature and pressure, resistance for acids, bases and solvents, long service life and for application – significant reduction of industries and transport environmental impact. This work presents the results of the process of separation of oil from the emulsion with NaCl addition. Research was performed with a use of laboratory installation with ceramic 300 kDa membrane. The analysis concerned performance and selectivity of a membrane in the function of time and test results have been subsequently compared with the requirements of the IMO.

  4. Effect of ozone on the performance of a hybrid ceramic membrane-biological activated carbon process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jianning; Hu, Jiangyong; Tao, Yi; Zhu, Jia; Zhang, Xihui

    2014-04-01

    Two hybrid processes including ozonation-ceramic membrane-biological activated carbon (BAC) (Process A) and ceramic membrane-BAC (Process B) were compared to treat polluted raw water. The performance of hybrid processes was evaluated with the removal efficiencies of turbidity, ammonia and organic matter. The results indicated that more than 99% of particle count was removed by both hybrid processes and ozonation had no significant effect on its removal. BAC filtration greatly improved the removal of ammonia. Increasing the dissolved oxygen to 30.0 mg/L could lead to a removal of ammonia with concentrations as high as 7.80 mg/L and 8.69 mg/L for Processes A and B, respectively. The average removal efficiencies of total organic carbon and ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm (UV254, a parameter indicating organic matter with aromatic structure) were 49% and 52% for Process A, 51% and 48% for Process B, respectively. Some organic matter was oxidized by ozone and this resulted in reduced membrane fouling and increased membrane flux by 25%-30%. However, pre-ozonation altered the components of the raw water and affected the microorganisms in the BAC, which may impact the removals of organic matter and nitrite negatively. Copyright © 2014 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Effect of solution environments on ceramic membrane microfiltration of model system of Chinese medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lianjun; Lu, Jin; Le, Kang; Fu, Tingming; Guo, Liwei

    2010-07-01

    To investigate the effect of differents solution environments on the ceramic membrane microfiltration of model system of Chinese medicines. Taking binary system of soybean protein-berberine as the research object, flux, transmittance of berberine and traping rate of protein as indexes, different solution environment on membrane process were investigated. When the concentration of soybean protein was under 1 g x L(-1), the membrane flux was minimum with the traping of berberine decreased slightly as the concentration increased. When pH was 4, the flux was maximum with the traping rate of protein was 99%, and the transmittance of berberine reached above 60%. The efficiency of membrane separation can be improved by optimizing the solution environment of water-extraction of chinese medicines. The efficiency of membrane separation is the best when adjust the pH to the isoelectric point of proteins for the proteins as the main pollutant in aqueous solution.

  6. Performance of Hybrid Photocatalytic-Ceramic Membrane System for the Treatment of Secondary Effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lili; Zhu, Bo; Gray, Stephen; Duke, Mikel; Muthukumaran, Shobha

    2017-03-28

    Evaluation of an advanced wastewater treatment system that combines photocatalysis with ceramic membrane filtration for the treatment of secondary effluent was undertaken. The results showed that, after photocatalysis and ceramic membrane filtration, the removal of dissolved organic carbon and UV 254 was 60% and 54%, respectively, at a concentration of 4 g/L of TiO₂. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) present in the secondary effluent was characterised with a liquid chromatography-organic carbon detector (LC-OCD) technique. The results showed low removal of humics, building blocks, the other oxidation by-products and no removal of biopolymers after TiO₂/UV photocatalytic treatment. This suggested that the radical non-selective oxidation mechanisms of TiO₂/UV process resulted in secondary effluent in which all of the DOM fractions were present. However, the hybrid system was effective for removing biopolymers with the exception of low molecular weight (LMW) compounds acids, which accumulated from the beginning of the reaction. In addition, monitoring of the DOM fractions with LC-OCD analysis demonstrated that the reduction of the effluent aromaticity was not firmly correlated with the removal of humic substances for the combined processes.

  7. On the use of supported ceria membranes for oxyfuel process/syngas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lobera, M.P.; Serra, J.M.; Foghmoes, Søren Preben Vagn

    2011-01-01

    Ceramic oxygen transport membranes (OTMs) enable selective oxygen separation from air at high temperatures. Among several potential applications for OTMs, the use in (1) oxygen production for oxyfuel power plants and (2) the integration in high-temperature catalytic membrane reactors for alkane...... upgrading through selective oxidative reactions are of special interest. Nevertheless, these applications involve the direct contact of the membrane surface with carbon-rich atmospheres. Most state-of-the-art permeable membranes are based on perovskites, which are prone to carbonation under operation in CO2......-rich environments and/or decomposition in reducing gas environments. The oxygen flux through supported thin film membranes of Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95−δ (CGO) with 2 mol.% of cobalt was measured for oxygen separation in oxyfuel processes and in syngas production and degradation was compared to perovskite...

  8. DETERMINATION OF THE MASS TRANSFER CHARACTERIZATION OF A CERAMIC-POLYMER COMPOSITE MEMBRANE IN THE PERVAPORATION MODE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of the coating layer thickness on VOC extraction performance of a ceramic polymer composite membrane has been investigated. It was found, under experimental condiitons representing typical field operation, the overall mass transfer rates of feed components were control...

  9. Interfacial microstructure and shear strength of reactive air brazed oxygen transport membrane ceramic-metal alloy joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    FR, Wahid Muhamad; Yoon, Dang-Hyok; Raju, Kati; Kim, Seyoung; Song, Kwang-sup; Yu, Ji Haeng

    2018-01-01

    To fabricate a multi-layered structure for maximizing oxygen production, oxygen transport membrane (OTM) ceramics need to be joined or sealed hermetically metal supports for interfacing with the peripheral components of the system. Therefore, in this study, Ag-10 wt% CuO was evaluated as an effective filler material for the reactive air brazing of dense Ce0.9Gd0.1O2-δ-La0.7Sr0.3MnO3±δ (GDC-LSM) OTM ceramics. Thermal decomposition in air and wetting behavior of the braze filler was performed. Reactive air brazing was performed at 1050 °C for 30 min in air to join GDC-LSM with four different commercially available high temperature-resistant metal alloys, such as Crofer 22 APU, Inconel 600, Fecralloy, and AISI 310S. The microstructure and elemental distribution of the ceramic-ceramic and ceramic-metal interfaces were examined from polished cross-sections. The mechanical shear strength at room temperature for the as-brazed and isothermally aged (800 °C for 24 h) joints of all the samples was compared. The results showed that the strength of the ceramic-ceramic joints was decreased marginally by aging; however, in the case of metal-ceramic joints, different decreases in strengths were observed according to the metal alloy used, which was explained based on the formation of different oxide layers at the interfaces.

  10. Effect of ceramic membrane channel diameter on limiting retentate protein concentration during skim milk microfiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Michael C; Barbano, David M

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the effect of retentate flow channel diameter (4 or 6mm) of nongraded permeability 100-nm pore size ceramic membranes operated in nonuniform transmembrane pressure mode on the limiting retentate protein concentration (LRPC) while microfiltering (MF) skim milk at a temperature of 50°C, a flux of 55 kg · m(-2) · h(-1), and an average cross-flow velocity of 7 m · s(-1). At the above conditions, the retentate true protein concentration was incrementally increased from 7 to 11.5%. When temperature, flux, and average cross-flow velocity were controlled, ceramic membrane retentate flow channel diameter did not affect the LRPC. This indicates that LRPC is not a function of the Reynolds number. Computational fluid dynamics data, which indicated that both membranes had similar radial velocity profiles within their retentate flow channels, supported this finding. Membranes with 6-mm flow channels can be operated at a lower pressure decrease from membrane inlet to membrane outlet (ΔP) or at a higher cross-flow velocity, depending on which is controlled, than membranes with 4-mm flow channels. This implies that 6-mm membranes could achieve a higher LRPC than 4-mm membranes at the same ΔP due to an increase in cross-flow velocity. In theory, the higher LRPC of the 6-mm membranes could facilitate 95% serum protein removal in 2 MF stages with diafiltration between stages if no serum protein were rejected by the membrane. At the same flux, retentate protein concentration, and average cross-flow velocity, 4-mm membranes require 21% more energy to remove a given amount of permeate than 6-mm membranes, despite the lower surface area of the 6-mm membranes. Equations to predict skim milk MF retentate viscosity as a function of protein concentration and temperature are provided. Retentate viscosity, retentate recirculation pump frequency required to maintain a given cross-flow velocity at a given retentate viscosity, and retentate protein

  11. A novel zincum-doped perovskite-type ceramic membrane for oxygen separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Xinzhi; Liu Hongfei; Wei Yanying [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, No. 381 Wushan Road, 510640 Guangzhou (China); Caro Juergen [Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Leibniz University Hannover, Callinstr. 3-3A D-30179 Hannover (Germany); Wang Haihui, E-mail: hhwang@scut.edu.c [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, No. 381 Wushan Road, 510640 Guangzhou (China)

    2009-09-18

    Zincum-doped ceramic membrane materials based on BaCo{sub 0.4}Fe{sub 0.4}Zn{sub x}Zr{sub (0.2-x)}O{sub 3-delta} with 0 <= x <= 0.2 were synthesized by combining citric acid and ethylene-diamine-tetraacetic acid (EDTA) complexing method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns show that the BaCo{sub 0.4}Fe{sub 0.4}Zn{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-delta} ceramic oxide exhibits a pure cubic perovskite structure. Oxygen temperature-programmed desorption (O{sub 2}-TPD) profile indicates that BaCo{sub 0.4}Fe{sub 0.4}Zn{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-delta} possesses a good phase reversibility. An oxygen permeation flux of 0.65 ml/min cm{sup 2} was obtained at 950 deg. C and a single activation energy of 67 kJ/mol was observed for the oxygen permeation in the temperature range of 600-950 deg. C. No decline was found during more than 100 h oxygen permeation.

  12. Ceramic membrane by tape casting and sol-gel coating for microfiltration and ultrafiltration application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Nandini; Maiti, H. S.

    2009-11-01

    Alumina membrane filters in the form of thin (0.3-0.8 mm) discs of 25-30 mm diameter suitable for microfiltration application have been fabricated by tape-casting technique. Further using this microfiltration membrane as substrate, boehmite sol coating was applied on it and ultrafiltration membrane with very small thickness was formed. The pore size of the microfiltration membrane could be varied in the range of 0.1-0.7 μm through optimisation of experimental parameter. In addition, each membrane shows a very narrow pore size distribution. The most important factor, which determines the pore size of the membrane, is the initial particle size and its distribution of the ceramic powder. The top thin ultrafiltration, boehmite layer was prepared by sol-gel method, with a thickness of 0.5 μm. Particle size of the sol was approximately 30-40 nm. The structure and formation of the layer was analysed through TEM. At 550 °C formation of the top layer was completed. The pore size of the ultrafiltration membrane measured from TEM micrograph was almost 10 nm. Results of microbial (Escherichia coli—smallest-sized water-borne bacteria) test confirm the possibility of separation through this membrane

  13. Ceramic membrane fuel cells based on solid proton electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Guangyao; Ma, Qianli; Peng, Ranran; Liu, Xingqin [USTC Lab. for Solid State Chemistry and Inorganic Membranes, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Ma, Guilin [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Suzhou University, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2007-04-15

    The development of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) has reached its new stage characterized with thin electrolytes on porous electrode support, and the most important fabrication techniques developed in which almost all are concerned with inorganic membranes, and so can be named as ceramic membrane fuel cells (CMFCs). CMFCs based on proton electrolytes (CMFC-H) may exhibit more advantages than CMFCs based on oxygen-ion electrolytes (CMFC-O) in many respects, such as energy efficiency and avoiding carbon deposit. Ammonia fuelled CMFC with proton-conducting BaCe{sub 0.8}Gd{sub 0.2}O{sub 2.9} (BCGO) electrolyte (50 {mu}m in thickness) is reported in this works, which showed the open current voltage (OCV) values close to theoretical ones and rather high power density. And also, we have found that the well known super oxide ion conductor, La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-{alpha}} (LSGM), is a pure proton conductor in H{sub 2} and mixed proton and oxide ion conductor in wet air, while it is a pure oxide ion conductor in oxygen or dry air. To demonstrate the CMFC-H concept to get high performance fuel cells the techniques for thin membranes, chemical vapor deposition (CVD), particularly novel CVD techniques, should be given more attention because of their many advantages. (author)

  14. Tritium Sequestration in Gen IV NGNP Gas Stream via Proton Conducting Ceramic Pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Fanglin Frank [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Adams, Thad M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Brinkman, Kyle [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Reifsnider, Kenneth [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    2011-09-30

    Several types of high-temperature proton conductors based on SrCeO3 and BaCeO3 have been systematically investigated in this project for tritium separation in NGNP applications. One obstacle for the field application is the chemical stability issues in the presence of steam and CO2 for these proton conductors. Several strategies to overcome such issues have been evaluated, including A site doping and B site co-doping method for perovskite-structured proton conductors. Novel zirconium-free proton conductors have also been developed with improved electrical conductivity and enhanced chemical stability. Novel catalytic materials for the proton-conducting separation membranes have been investigated. A tubular geometry proton-conducting membrane has been developed for the proton separation membranes. Total dose rate estimated from tritium decay (beta emission) under realistic membrane operating conditions, combined with electron irradiation experiments, indicates that proton ceramic materials possess the appropriate radiation stability for this application.

  15. Experimental demonstration of the reverse flow catalytic membrane reactor concept for energy efficient syngas production. Part 1: Influence of operating conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J.; Bekink, G.J.; Sint Annaland, van M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    In this contribution the technical feasibility of the reverse flow catalytic membrane reactor (RFCMR) concept with porous membranes for energy efficient syngas production is investigated. In earlier work an experimental proof of principle was already provided [Smit, J., Bekink, G.J., van Sint

  16. Real life experimental determination of platinum group metals content in automotive catalytic converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakoumis, I.; Moschovi, A. M.; Giannopoulou, I.; Panias, D.

    2018-03-01

    The real life experimental protocol for the preparation of spent automobile catalyst samples for elemental analysis is thoroughly described in the following study. Collection, sorting and dismantling, homogenization and sample preparation for X-Ray fluorescence spectroscopy and Atomic Adsorption Spectroscopy combined with Inductive coupled plasma mass spectrometry are discussed in detail for both ceramic and metallic spent catalysts. The concentrations of Platinum Group Metals (PGMs) in spent catalytic converters are presented based on typical consignments of recycled converters (more than 45,000 pieces) from the Greek Market. The conclusions clearly denoted commercial metallic catalytic foil contains higher PGMs loading than ceramic honeycombs. On the other hand, the total PGMs loading in spent ceramic catalytic converters has been found higher than the corresponding value for the metallic ones.

  17. Desolventizing of Jatropha curcas oil from azeotropes of solvents using ceramic membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carniel, Naira; Zabot, Giovani L; Paliga, Marshall; Mignoni, Marcelo L; Mazutti, Marcio A; Priamo, Wagner L; Oliveira, J V; Di Luccio, Marco; Tres, Marcus V

    2017-12-01

    The separation of Jatropha curcas oil from azeotropes of ethyl alcohol-n-hexane and isopropyl alcohol-n-hexane using ceramic membranes with different cutoffs (5, 10 and 20 kDa) is presented. The mass ratios of oil:azeotropes (O:S) studied were 1:3 for feeding pressures of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 MPa, and 1:1 for the feeding pressure of 0.1 MPa. Isopropyl alcohol was the best solvent for the membranes conditioning to permeate n-hexane (240 kg/m 2  h). In the separation of J. curcas oil and azeotropes of solvents, both membranes showed oil retention and total flux decreases with time. Overall, the lowest decrease in the retentions was reached in the 5 kDa membrane, while the lowest decrease in the total flux was reached in the 20 kDa. In the separation of oil and ethyl alcohol-n-hexane azeotrope, the best retention at 60 min of the process was equal to 17.3 wt% in the 20 kDa membrane at 0.3 MPa and O:S ratio equalled to 1:3. In this condition, the total permeate flux was 17.5 kg/m 2  h. Different retentions and permeabilities are provided when changing the O:S ratio, the feeding pressure and the molecular weight cutoff of membranes.

  18. Research results on productivity stabilization by ultrasonic camera (plant with membrane ceramic elements during vine processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. T. Antufyev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes solutions to the problems of declining productivity of ceramic membrane elements for wine processing on the final manufacturing phase. A relative stabilization of filtration velocity, venting efficiency and wine lightening were experimentally confirmed during contacts with oscillation waves of ultrasonic transmitter on the ceramic filter. Which significantly reduced the cost of various preservatives to increase periods storage. To study the processes of wine processing by the proposed method it was made an experimental installation on the basis of pilot machine MRp-1/2 for bottling of quiet liquids and an ultrasonic device "Volna– M" UZTA-1/22-OM with a firmly, waveguide which transmits sound, fixed filter frame on the ultrasound emitter. To stabilize the performance of ultrasonic units with ceramic membrane elements without quality deterioration of wines it was empirically determined rational parameters of power of ultrasound input and pressure in the system. The given derived dependencies and graphs allow to define the time of relatively stable operating filter regime. It was revealed a significant cost reduction on filtration, as it allows escape from the contamination of the product by various preservatives, and increasing of storage duration in a sealed container during aseptic filling without a thermal sterilization. Ultrasonic emitter contact by superposition wave vibrations on the ceramic filter increases not only the efficiency of gas removal, but also improves the organoleptic characteristics, stabilizes the filters, improves their productivity. Gas removal creates unfavorable conditions for development of the yeast, which in turn increases the shelf life of semisweet wine.

  19. Ceramic membrane as a pretreatment for reverse osmosis: Interaction between marine organic matter and metal oxides

    KAUST Repository

    Dramas, Laure

    2013-02-01

    Scaling and (bio)fouling phenomena can severely alter the performance of the reverse osmosis process during desalination of seawater. Pretreatments must be applied to efficiently remove particles, colloids, and also precursors of the organic fouling and biofouling. Ceramic membranes offer a lot of advantages for micro and ultrafiltration pretreatments because their initial properties can be recovered using more severe cleaning procedure. The study focuses on the interaction between metal oxides and marine organic matter. Experiments were performed at laboratory scale. The first series of experiments focus on the filtration of different fractions of natural organic matter and model compounds solutions on flat disk ceramic membranes (47 mm of diameter) characterized with different pore size and composition. Direct filtration experiments were conducted at 0.7 bar or 2 bars and at room temperature (20 ± 0.5 °C). The efficiency of backflush and alkaline cleaning were eval, and titanium oxides. Each metal oxide corresponds to a specific pore size for the disk ceramic membranes: 80, 60, and 30 nm. Different sizes of metal oxide particles are used to measure the impact of the surface area on the adsorption of the organic matter. Seawaters from the Arabian Gulf and from the Red Sea were collected during algal blooms. Cultures of algae were also performed in the laboratory and in cooperation with woods hole oceanographic institute. Solutions of algal exudates were obtained after a couple of weeks of cultivation followed by sonication. Solutions were successively filtered through GFF (0.7 lm) and 0.45 lm membrane filters before use. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration of final solution was between 1 and 4 mg/L and showed strong hydrophilic character. These various solutions were prepared with the objective to mimic the dissolved organic matter composition of seawater subjected to algal bloom. Characterization of the solutions of filtration experiments (feed

  20. Fine platinum nanoparticles supported on a porous ceramic membrane as efficient catalysts for the removal of benzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Li, Chengyin; Ren, Xiaoyong; Liu, Kaiqi; Yang, Jun

    2017-11-29

    It would be desirable to remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) while we eliminate the dusts using silicon carbide (SiC)-based porous ceramics from the hot gases. Aiming at functionalizing SiC-based porous ceramics with catalytic capability, we herein report a facile strategy to integrate high efficient catalysts into the porous SiC substrates for the VOC removal. We demonstrate an aqueous salt method for uniformly distributing fine platinum (Pt) particles on the alumina (Al 2 O 3 ) layers, which are pre-coated on the SiC substrates as supports for VOC catalysts. We confirm that at a Pt mass loading as low as 0.176% and a weight hourly space velocity of 6000 mL g -1 h -1 , the as-prepared Pt/SiC@Al 2 O 3 catalysts can convert 90% benzene at a temperature of ca. 215 °C. The results suggest a promising way to design ceramics-based bi-functional materials for simultaneously eliminating dusts and harmful VOCs from various hot gases.

  1. Dynamic simulation of pure hydrogen production via ethanol steam reforming in a catalytic membrane reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedayati, Ali; Le Corre, Olivier; Lacarrière, Bruno; Llorca, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol steam reforming (ESR) was performed over Pd-Rh/CeO 2 catalyst in a catalytic membrane reactor (CMR) as a reformer unit for production of fuel cell grade pure hydrogen. Experiments were performed at 923 K, 6–10 bar, and fuel flow rates of 50–200 μl/min using a mixture of ethanol and distilled water with steam to carbon ratio of 3. A static model for the catalytic zone was derived from the Arrhenius law to calculate the total molar production rates of ESR products, i.e. CO, CO 2 , CH 4 , H 2 , and H 2 O in the catalytic zone of the CMR (coefficient of determination R 2  = 0.993). The pure hydrogen production rate at steady state conditions was modeled by means of a static model based on the Sieverts' law. Finally, a dynamic model was developed under ideal gas law assumptions to simulate the dynamics of pure hydrogen production rate in the case of the fuel flow rate or the operating pressure set point adjustment (transient state) at isothermal conditions. The simulation of fuel flow rate change dynamics was more essential compared to the pressure change one, as the system responded much faster to such an adjustment. The results of the dynamic simulation fitted very well to the experimental values at P = 7–10 bar, which proved the robustness of the simulation based on the Sieverts' law. The simulation presented in this work is similar to the hydrogen flow rate adjustments needed to set the electrical load of a fuel cell, when fed online by the pure hydrogen generating reformer studied. - Highlights: • Ethanol steam reforming (ESR) experiments were performed in a Pd-Ag membrane reactor. • The model of the catalytic zone of the reactor was derived from the Arrhenius law. • The permeation zone (membrane) was modeled based on the Sieverts' law. • The Sieverts' law model showed good results for the range of P = 7–10 bar. • Pressure and fuel flow rate adjustments were considered for dynamic simulation.

  2. PROCESSING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF TUBULAR CERAMIC SUPPORT FOR MICROFILTRATION MEMBRANE PREPARED FROM PYROPHYLLITE CLAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abedallah Talidi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Tubular macroporous support for ceramic microfiltration membranes were prepared by extrusion followed by sintering of the low cost pyrophyllite clay. Clay powders mixed with some organic additives can be extruded to form a porous tubular support. The average pore size of the membrane is observed to increase from 5 µm to 10.8 µm when sintering temperature increase from 900 °C to 1200 °C. However, with the increase in temperature from 900 °C to 1200 °C, the support porosity is reduced from 47% to 30% and flexural strength is increased from 4 MPa to 17 MPa. The fabricated macro-porous supports are expected to have potential applications in the pre-treatment and also can be used like support for membranes of ultra-filtration.

  3. Performance of zeolite ceramic membrane synthesized by wet mixing method as methylene blue dye wastewater filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masturi; Widodo, R. D.; Edie, S. S.; Amri, U.; Sidiq, A. L.; Alighiri, D.; Wulandari, N. A.; Susilawati; Amanah, S. N.

    2018-03-01

    Problem of pollution in water continues in Indonesia, with its manufacturing sector as biggest contributor to economic growth. One out of many technological solutions is post-treating industrial wastewater by membrane filtering technology. We presented a result of our fabrication of ceramic membrane made from zeolite with simple mixing and he. At 5% of (poring agent):(total weight), its permeability stays around 2.8 mD (10‑14m2) with slight variance around it, attributed to the mixture being in far below percolating threshold. All our membranes achieve remarkable above 90% rejection rate of methylene blue as solute waste in water solvent.

  4. Effective and highly recyclable ceramic membrane based on amorphous nanosilica for dye removal from t

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehan M.K. Tolba

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an adsorptive ceramic membrane was prepared by a simple dry pressing of a mixture of nanosilica produced from low cost rice husk by hydrothermal technique at sub-critical water conditions, calcium phosphate, and ammonium acetate together and then calcined at 600 °C in air. Optimization of the raw materials ratio was found to be necessary to avoid crack formation during sintering process. The membrane microstructure, dye removal efficiency and the permeation flux of the membranes were investigated. The membrane was tested to remove the methylene blue from aqueous solution. Results show that the removal of the dye increases as the silica content increases in the all given membranes and it decreases with an increase in the ammonium acetate. Moreover, the water flux decreases with an increase in the silica content. The methylene blue adsorbed onto the silica membrane can be removed by calcination and the membrane could be recycled several times without any obvious loss in the adsorption performance. In conclusion, this study demonstrates a convenient strategy to prepare an effective adsorptive membrane, which can be applied as a highly recyclable membrane for the adsorption of organic maters.

  5. Effect of UV on De-NOx performance and microbial community of a hybrid catalytic membrane biofilm reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhouyang; Huang, Zhensha; He, Yiming; Xiao, Xiaoliang; Wei, Zaishan

    2018-02-01

    The hybrid membrane catalytic biofilm reactor provides a new way of flue gas denitration. However, the effects of UV on denitrification performance, microbial community and microbial nitrogen metabolism are still unknown. In this study, the effects of UV on deNO x performance, nitrification and denitrification, microbial community and microbial nitrogen metabolism of a bench scale N-TiO2/PSF hybrid catalytic membrane biofilm reactor (HCMBR) were evaluated. The change from nature light to UV in the HCMBR leads to the fall of NO removal efficiency of HCMBR from 92.8% to 81.8%. UV affected the microbial community structure, but did not change microbial nitrogen metabolism, as shown by metagenomics sequencing method. Some dominant phyla, such as Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Alphaproteobacteria, increased in abundance, whereas others, such as Proteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria, decreased. There were nitrification, denitrification, nitrogen fixation, and organic nitrogen metabolism in the HCMBR.

  6. Modeling and simulation of ammonia removal from purge gases of ammonia plants using a catalytic Pd-Ag membrane reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimpour, M.R.; Asgari, A.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, the removal of ammonia from synthesis purge gas of an ammonia plant has been investigated. Since the ammonia decomposition is thermodynamically limited, a membrane reactor is used for complete decomposition. A double pipe catalytic membrane reactor is used to remove ammonia from purge gas. The purge gas is flowing in the reaction side and is converted to hydrogen and nitrogen over nickel-alumina catalyst. The hydrogen is transferred through the Pd-Ag membrane of tube side to the shell side. A mathematical model including conservation of mass in the tube and shell side of reactor is proposed. The proposed model was solved numerically and the effects of different parameters on the rector performance were investigated. The effects of pressure, temperature, flow rate (sweep ratio), membrane thickness and reactor diameter have been investigated in the present study. Increasing ammonia conversion was observed by raising the temperature, sweep ratio and reducing membrane thickness. When the pressure increases, the decomposition is gone toward completion but, at low pressure the ammonia conversion in the outset of reactor is higher than other pressures, but complete destruction of the ammonia cannot be achieved. The proposed model can be used for design of an industrial catalytic membrane reactor for removal of ammonia from ammonia plant and reducing NO x emissions

  7. Evaluation of clayey masses compositions starting from the residue incorporation of the red ceramic industry to obtain tubular ceramic membranes; Avaliacao das composicoes de massas argilosas a partir da incorporacao de residuo da industria de ceramica vermelha na obtencao de membranas ceramicas tubulares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Adriano Lima da; Chaves, Alexsandra Cristina; Luna, Carlos Bruno Barreto; Neves, Gelmires de Araujo; Lira, Helio de Lucena, E-mail: adrianolimadasilva@hotmail.com, E-mail: alexsandra.chaves@ifap.edu.br, E-mail: brunobarretodemaufcg@hotmail.com, E-mail: gelmires@ufcg.edu.br, E-mail: helio@ufcg.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEMa/CCT/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais

    2017-01-15

    The inappropriate residue disposal of red ceramic industry is very high. Nowadays, one of the major challenges is the investigation of processes to obtain alternative materials, enabling the use of these residues to manufacture new materials. This work's objective is to study clayey masses' compositions starting from the residue incorporation of the red ceramic industry to be used in tubular ceramic membranes. Two compositions of ceramic masses were established, composition A (50% of residue) and composition B (70% of residue). Granulometric analysis of the ceramic masses presented an average size of particles, what indicates membranes in the microfiltration scale. Another observed factor is related to the increase of residue amount, what favored a decrease in the ceramic mass' plasticity. A rise in the apparent porosity was also observed, probably because of a possible growing in the bigger pores numbers, due to the sintering high temperature and the elevation of residue quantity itself. (author)

  8. Treatment of secondary effluent by sequential combination of photocatalytic oxidation with ceramic membrane filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lili; Zhu, Bo; Jegatheesan, Veeriah; Gray, Stephen; Duke, Mikel; Muthukumaran, Shobha

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the present work was to experimentally evaluate an alternative advanced wastewater treatment system, which combines the action of photocatalytic oxidation with ceramic membrane filtration. Experiments were carried out using laboratory scale TiO 2 /UV photocatalytic reactor and tubular ceramic microfiltration (CMF) system to treat the secondary effluent (SE). A 100-nm pore size CMF membrane was investigated in cross flow mode under constant transmembrane pressure of 20 kPa. The results show that specific flux decline of CMF membrane with and without TiO 2 /UV photocatalytic treatment was 30 and 50%, respectively, after 60 min of filtration. Data evaluation revealed that the adsorption of organic compounds onto the TiO 2 particles was dependent on the pH of the suspension and was considerably higher at low pH. The liquid chromatography-organic carbon detector (LC-OCD) technique was used to characterise the dissolved organic matter (DOM) present in the SE and was monitored following photocatalysis and CMF. The results showed that there was no removal of biopolymers and slight removal of humics, building blocks and the other oxidation by-products after TiO 2 /UV photocatalytic treatment. This result suggested that the various ions present in the SE act as scavengers, which considerably decrease the efficiency of the photocatalytic oxidation reactions. On the other hand, the CMF was effective for removing 50% of biopolymers with no further removal of other organic components after photocatalytic treatment. Thus, the quantity of biopolymers in SE has an apparent correlation with the filterability of water samples in CMF.

  9. Possibilities Of Metals Extracton From Spent Metallic Automotive Catalytic Converters By Using Biometallurgical Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willner J.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The main task of automotive catalytic converters is reducing the amount of harmful components of exhaust gases. Metallic catalytic converters are an alternative to standard ceramic catalytic converters. Metallic carriers are usually made from FeCrAl steel, which is covered by a layer of Precious Group Metals (PGMs acting as a catalyst. There are many methods used for recovery of platinum from ceramic carriers in the world, but the issue of platinum and other metals recovery from metallic carriers is poorly described. The article presents results of preliminary experiments of metals biooxidation (Fe, Cr and Al from spent catalytic converters with metallic carrier, using bacteria of the Acidithiobacillus genus.

  10. Preparation and characterization of superfine ammonium perchlorate (AP) crystals through ceramic membrane anti-solvent crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhenye; Li, Cheng; Wu, Rujun; Chen, Rizhi; Gu, Zhenggui

    2009-10-01

    In this paper, a novel ceramic membrane anti-solvent crystallization (CMASC) method was proposed for the safe and rapid preparation ammonium perchlorate (AP) crystals, in which the acetone and ethyl acetate were chosen as solvent and anti-solvent, respectively. Comparing with the conventional liquid anti-solvent crystallization (LASC), CMASC which successfully introduces ceramic membrane with regular pore structure to the LASC as feeding medium, is favorable to control the rate of feeding rate and, therefore, to obtain size and morphology controllable AP. Several kinds of micro-sized AP particles with different morphology were obtained including polyhedral-like, quadrate-like to rod-like. The effect of processing parameters on the crystal size and shape of AP crystals such as volume ratio of anti-solvent to solvent, feeding pressure and crystallization temperature were investigated. It is found that higher volume ratio of anti-solvent to solvent, higher feeding pressure and higher temperature result in smaller particle size. Scaning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the resulting AP crystals. The nucleation and growth kinetic of the resulting AP crystals were also discussed.

  11. The catalytic function of cytochrome P450 is entwined with its membrane-bound nature [version 1; referees: 4 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Barnaba

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cytochrome P450, a family of monooxygenase enzymes, is organized as a catalytic metabolon, which requires enzymatic partners as well as environmental factors that tune its complex dynamic. P450 and its reducing counterparts—cytochrome P450-reductase and cytochrome b5—are membrane-bound proteins located in the cytosolic side of the endoplasmic reticulum. They are believed to dynamically associate to form functional complexes. Increasing experimental evidence signifies the role(s played by both protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions in P450 catalytic function and efficiency. However, the biophysical challenges posed by their membrane-bound nature have severely limited high-resolution understanding of the molecular interfaces of these interactions. In this article, we provide an overview of the current knowledge on cytochrome P450, highlighting the environmental factors that are entwined with its metabolic function. Recent advances in structural biophysics are also discussed, setting up the bases for a new paradigm in the study of this important class of membrane-bound enzymes.

  12. Surface-Enhanced Separation of Water from Hydrocarbons: Potential Dewatering Membranes for the Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis of Pine Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engtrakul, Chaiwat; Hu, Michael Z.; Bischoff, Brian L.; Jang, Gyoung G.

    2016-10-20

    The impact of surface-selective coatings on water permeation through a membrane when exposed to catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) vapor products was studied by tailoring the surface properties of the membrane coating from superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic. Our approach used high-performance architectured surface-selective (HiPAS) membranes that were inserted after a CFP reactor. At this insertion point, the inner wall surface of a tubular membrane was exposed to a mixture of water and upgraded product vapors, including light gases and deoxygenated hydrocarbons. Under proper membrane operating conditions, a high selectivity for water over one-ring upgraded biomass pyrolysis hydrocarbons was observed as a result of a surface-enhanced capillary condensation process. Owing to this surface-enhanced effect, HiPAS membranes have the potential to enable high flux separations, suggesting that water can be selectively removed from the CFP product vapors.

  13. Use of nano filtration membrane technology for ceramic industry wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moliner-Salvador, R.; Deratani, A.; Palmeri, J.; Sanchez, E.

    2012-07-01

    A study has been undertaken of an advanced wastewater treatment approach using polymer nano filtration membranes, in an attempt to obtain water of sufficient quality to allow it to be reused in the same production process or, alternatively, to be discharged without any problems. The study has initially focused on the removal of organic matter (reduction of COD) and the most representative ions present in the wastewater, such as Na{sup +}, Mg{sup 2}+, Cl{sup -}, and SO{sub 4}{sup 2}. In a first part of the study, with a view to optimising the experimental phase, a simulation has been performed of the nano filtration process using the Nano Flux software. Among other things, the simulation allows the most suitable membranes to be selected as a function of the permeate flow rate and desired level of retention in the substances to be removed. The subsequent experimentation was carried out in a laboratory tangential filtration system that works with flat membranes. It was found that retention values of about 90% were obtained for the studied substances, with a good permeate flow rate, using low operating pressures. These results demonstrate the feasibility of the studied technology and its potential as a treatment for improving ceramic industry wastewater quality.

  14. Carbon-coated ceramic membrane reactor for the production of hydrogen by aqueous-phase reforming of sorbitol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neira D'Angelo, M F; Ordomsky, V; Schouten, J C; van der Schaaf, J; Nijhuis, T A

    2014-07-01

    Hydrogen was produced by aqueous-phase reforming (APR) of sorbitol in a carbon-on-alumina tubular membrane reactor (4 nm pore size, 7 cm long, 3 mm internal diameter) that allows the hydrogen gas to permeate to the shell side, whereas the liquid remains in the tube side. The hydrophobic nature of the membrane serves to avoid water loss and to minimize the interaction between the ceramic support and water, thus reducing the risks of membrane degradation upon operation. The permeation of hydrogen is dominated by the diffusivity of the hydrogen in water. Thus, higher operation temperatures result in an increase of the flux of hydrogen. The differential pressure has a negative effect on the flux of hydrogen due to the presence of liquid in the larger pores. The membrane was suitable for use in APR, and yielded 2.5 times more hydrogen than a reference reactor (with no membrane). Removal of hydrogen through the membrane assists in the reaction by preventing its consumption in undesired reactions. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Waste-to-resource preparation of a porous ceramic membrane support featuring elongated mullite whiskers with enhanced porosity and permeance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Li; Dong, Yingchao; Hampshire, Stuart; Cerneaux, Sophie; Winnubst, Aloysius J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Different from traditional particle packing structure, a porous structure of ceramic membrane support was fabricated, featuring elongated mullitewhiskers with enhanced porosity, permeance and sufficient mechanical strength. The effect of additives (MoO3and AlF3) and sintering procedureon open

  16. Synthesis of ceramic powder of TiO_2 doped with Zr by the Pechini Method applied in ceramic membranes for water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias, R.F.V.; Fernandes, M.S.M.; Silva, R.S.; Franca, K.B.; Lira, H.L.; Bonifacio, M.A.R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the synthesis of ceramic powder of TiO2 doped with Zr by the polymeric precursor method, also known as Pechini method applied in ceramic membranes for water treatment. Three compositions were synthesized according to the molar ratio Ti_x-1Zr_xO_2 (x = 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75 moles), calcined at 700° C/1h. The samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and microbiological analysis. The presence of the doping element was not decisive in the average size of crystallite, which ranged from 5.5 to 11.3 nm. The SEM images showed clusters with uniform surface and granular aspect, it is still possible to see a clearly porous structure formed by clusters of uniform size for all samples. The microbiological analyses of powders have revealed that they have bactericidal properties. (author)

  17. Development of a mixed-conductive ceramic membrane for syngas production; Developpement d'une membrane ceramique conductrice mixte pour la production de gaz de synthese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etchegoyen, G

    2005-10-15

    Natural gas conversion into syngas (H{sub 2}+CO) is very attractive for hydrogen and clean fuel production via GTL technology by providing an alternative to oil products and reducing greenhouse gas emission. Syngas production, using a mixed ionic-electronic conducting ceramic membrane, is thought to be particularly promising. The purpose of this PhD thesis was to develop this type of membrane. Mixed-conducting oxide was synthesized, characterized and then, shaped via tape casting and co-sintered in order to obtain multilayer membranes with controlled architectures and microstructures. Oxygen permeation fluxes were measured with a specific device to evaluate membrane performances. As a result, the optimisation of architecture and microstructure made it possible to increase oxygen permeation flux by a factor 30. Additional researches were focused on the oxide composition in order to achieve higher dimensional stability. (author)

  18. Pretreated Landfill Gas Conversion Process via a Catalytic Membrane Reactor for Renewable Combined Fuel Cell-Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe Ziaka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new landfill gas-based reforming catalytic processing system for the conversion of gaseous hydrocarbons, such as incoming methane to hydrogen and carbon oxide mixtures, is described and analyzed. The exit synthesis gas (syn-gas is fed to power effectively high-temperature fuel cells such as SOFC types for combined efficient electricity generation. The current research work is also referred on the description and design aspects of permreactors (permeable reformers carrying the same type of landfill gas-reforming reactions. Membrane reactors is a new technology that can be applied efficiently in such systems. Membrane reactors seem to perform better than the nonmembrane traditional reactors. The aim of this research includes turnkey system and process development for the landfill-based power generation and fuel cell industries. Also, a discussion of the efficient utilization of landfill and waste type resources for combined green-type/renewable power generation with increased processing capacity and efficiency via fuel cell systems is taking place. Moreover, pollution reduction is an additional design consideration in the current catalytic processors fuel cell cycles.

  19. The application of ceramic membranes for treating effluent water from closed-circuit fish farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonisławska Małgorzata

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyze and assess the possibility of using a two-stage filtration system with ceramic membranes: a 3-tube module with 1.0 kDa cut-off (1st stage and a one-tube module with 0.45 kDa cut-off (2nd stage for treating effluent water from a juvenile African catfish aquaculture. The study revealed that during the 1st filtration stage of the effluent water, the highest degrees of retention were obtained with respect to: suspended solids SS (rejection coefficient RI=100%, turbidity (RI=99.40%, total iron (RI=89.20%, BOD5 (RI=76.0%, nitrite nitrogen (RI=62.30%, and CODCr (RI=41.74%. The 2nd filtration stage resulted in a lower reduction degree of the tested indicators in comparison to the 1st filtration stage. At the 2nd stage, the highest values of the rejection coefficient were noted in for the total iron content (RIV=100%, CODCr (RIV=59.52%; RV=64.28%, RVI=63.49% and turbidity (RIV and RV = 45.0%, RVI=50.0%. The obtained results indicate that ceramic membranes (with 1.0 and 0.45 kDa cut-offs may be used in recirculation aquaculture systems as one of the stages of effluent water treatment.

  20. Direct interfacial polymerization onto thin ceramic hollow fibers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maaskant, Evelien; de Wit, Patrick; Benes, Nieck E.

    2018-01-01

    Membrane separation under harsh conditions, such as high-p,T or in the presence of aggressive chemicals, requires a robust membrane support. In academia commonly ceramic disks are used for this purpose, but these disks posses a too low surface-area-to-volume ratio for practical applications. Ceramic

  1. Polymer derived non-oxide ceramics modified with late transition metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaheer, Muhammad; Schmalz, Thomas; Motz, Günter; Kempe, Rhett

    2012-08-07

    This tutorial review highlights the methods for the preparation of metal modified precursor derived ceramics (PDCs) and concentrates on the rare non-oxide systems enhanced with late transition metals. In addition to the main synthetic strategies for modified SiC and SiCN ceramics, an overview of the morphologies, structures and compositions of both, ceramic materials and metal (nano) particles, is presented. Potential magnetic and catalytic applications have been discussed for the so manufactured metal containing non-oxide ceramics.

  2. Optimization of O3 as Pre-Treatment and Chemical Enhanced Backwashing in UF and MF Ceramic Membranes for the Treatment of Secondary Wastewater Effluent and Red Sea Water

    KAUST Repository

    Herrera, Catalina

    2011-12-12

    Ceramic membranes have proven to have many advantages over polymeric membranes. Some of these advantages are: resistance against extreme pH, higher permeate flux, less frequent chemical cleaning, excellent backwash efficiency and longer lifetime. Other main advantage is the use of strong chemical agent such as Ozone (O3), to perform membrane cleaning. Ozone has proven to be a good disinfection agent, deactivating bacteria and viruses. Ozone has high oxidation potential and high reactivity with natural organic matter (NOM). Several studies have shown that combining ozone to MF/UF systems could minimize membrane fouling and getting higher operational fluxes. This work focused on ozone – ceramic membrane filtration for treating wastewater effluent and seawater. Effects of ozone as a pre – treatment or chemical cleaning with ceramic membrane filtration were identified in terms of permeate flux and organic fouling. Ozonation tests were done by adjusting O3 dose with source water, monitoring flux decline and membrane fouling. Backwashing availability and membrane recovery rate were also analyzed. Two types of MF/UF ceramics membranes (AAO and TAMI) were used for this study. When ozone dosage was higher in the source water, membrane filtration improved in performance, resulting in a reduced flux decline. In secondary wastewater effluent, raw source water declined up to 77% of normalized flux, while with O3 as pre – treatment, source water at its higher O3 dose, flux decreased only 33% of normalized flux. For seawater, membrane performance increase from declining to 37% of its final normalized flux to 21%, when O3 as a pre – treatment was used. Membrane recovery rate also improved even with low O3 dose, as an example, with 8 mg/L irreversible fouling decreases from 58% with no ozone addition to 29% for secondary wastewater effluent treatment. For seawater treatment, irreversible fouling decreased from 37% with no ozone addition to 21% at 8 mg/L, proving ozone is a

  3. Ceramic porous material and method of making same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Kim, Anthony Y.; Virden, Jud W.

    1997-01-01

    The invention is a mesoporous ceramic membrane having substantially uniform pore size. Additionally, the invention includes aqueous and non-aqueous processing routes to making the mesoporous ceramic membranes. According to one aspect of the present invention, inserting a substrate into a reaction chamber at pressure results in reaction products collecting on the substrate and forming a membrane thereon. According to another aspect of the present invention, a second aqueous solution that is sufficiently immiscible in the aqueous solution provides an interface between the two solutions whereon the mesoporous membrane is formed. According to a further aspect of the present invention, a porous substrate is placed at the interface between the two solutions permitting formation of a membrane on the surface or within the pores of the porous substrate. According to yet another aspect of the present invention, mesoporous ceramic materials are formed using a non-aqueous solvent and water-sensitive precursors.

  4. Surface Modification of Ceramic Membranes with Thin-film Deposition Methods for Wastewater Treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Jahangir, Daniyal

    2017-12-01

    -TiO2 and ALD-SnO2 modified membranes were tested for alginate fouling inhibition performance in a dead-end constant-pressure filtration system. This is the first report on the application of SnO2-modified ceramic membrane for testing its alginate fouling potential; which was determined to be nearly-same for both modified membranes with a negligible amount of difference. This revealed SnO2 as a potential future anti-foulant to be tested for membrane modification/fabrication for application in water/wastewater treatment systems.

  5. Comparative catalytic activity of PET track-etched membranes with embedded silver and gold nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashentseva, Anastassiya; Borgekov, Daryn; Kislitsin, Sergey; Zdorovets, Maxim; Migunova, Anastassiya

    2015-12-01

    Irradiated by heavy ions nanoporous polyethylene terephthalate track-etched membranes (PET TeMs) after +15Kr84 ions bombardment (1.75 MeV/nucl with the ion fluency of 1 × 109 cm-2) and sequential etching was applied in this research as a template for development of composites with catalytically enriched properties. A highly ordered silver and gold nanotubes arrays were embedded in 100 nm pores of PET TeMs via electroless deposition technique at 4 °C during 1 h. All "as-prepared" composites were examined for catalytic activity using reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) to 4-aminophenol (4-AP) by sodium borohydride as a common reaction to test metallic nanostructures catalysts. The effect of temperature on the catalytic activity was investigated in range of 292-313 K and activation energy were calculated. Kapp of Ag/PET composites linearly increase with an increase of the temperature thus normal Arrhenius behavior have been seen and the activation energy was calculated to be 42.13 kJ/mol. Au/PET composites exhibit not only more powerful catalytic activity but also non-linear dependence of rate constant from temperature. Kapp increased with increasing temperature throughout the 292-308 K temperature range; the reaction had an activation energy 65.32 kJ/mol. In range 311-313 K rate constant dramatically decreased and the apparent activation energy at this temperature rang was -91.44 kJ/mol due some structural changes, i.e. agglomeration of Au nanoparticles on the surface of composite.

  6. Preconceptual design of a salt splitting process using ceramic membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurath, D.E.; Brooks, K.P.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Clemmer, R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Balagopal, S.; Landro, T.; Sutija, D.P. [Ceramatec, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Inorganic ceramic membranes for salt splitting of radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions are being developed for treating U. S. Department of Energy tank wastes. The process consists of electrochemical separation of sodium ions from the salt solution using sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON) membranes. The primary NaSICON compositions being investigated are based on rare- earth ions (RE-NaSICON). Potential applications include: caustic recycling for sludge leaching, regenerating ion exchange resins, inhibiting corrosion in carbon-steel tanks, or retrieving tank wastes; reducing the volume of low-level wastes volume to be disposed of; adjusting pH and reducing competing cations to enhance cesium ion exchange processes; reducing sodium in high-level-waste sludges; and removing sodium from acidic wastes to facilitate calcining. These applications encompass wastes stored at the Hanford, Savannah River, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory sites. The overall project objective is to supply a salt splitting process unit that impacts the waste treatment and disposal flowsheets and meets user requirements. The potential flowsheet impacts include improving the efficiency of the waste pretreatment processes, reducing volume, and increasing the quality of the final waste disposal forms. Meeting user requirements implies developing the technology to the point where it is available as standard equipment with predictable and reliable performance. This report presents two preconceptual designs for a full-scale salt splitting process based on the RE-NaSICON membranes to distinguish critical items for testing and to provide a vision that site users can evaluate.

  7. Preconceptual design of a salt splitting process using ceramic membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurath, D.E.; Brooks, K.P.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Clemmer, R.; Balagopal, S.; Landro, T.; Sutija, D.P.

    1997-01-01

    Inorganic ceramic membranes for salt splitting of radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions are being developed for treating U. S. Department of Energy tank wastes. The process consists of electrochemical separation of sodium ions from the salt solution using sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON) membranes. The primary NaSICON compositions being investigated are based on rare- earth ions (RE-NaSICON). Potential applications include: caustic recycling for sludge leaching, regenerating ion exchange resins, inhibiting corrosion in carbon-steel tanks, or retrieving tank wastes; reducing the volume of low-level wastes volume to be disposed of; adjusting pH and reducing competing cations to enhance cesium ion exchange processes; reducing sodium in high-level-waste sludges; and removing sodium from acidic wastes to facilitate calcining. These applications encompass wastes stored at the Hanford, Savannah River, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory sites. The overall project objective is to supply a salt splitting process unit that impacts the waste treatment and disposal flowsheets and meets user requirements. The potential flowsheet impacts include improving the efficiency of the waste pretreatment processes, reducing volume, and increasing the quality of the final waste disposal forms. Meeting user requirements implies developing the technology to the point where it is available as standard equipment with predictable and reliable performance. This report presents two preconceptual designs for a full-scale salt splitting process based on the RE-NaSICON membranes to distinguish critical items for testing and to provide a vision that site users can evaluate

  8. Design of a tubular ceramic membrane for gas separation in a PEMFC system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamarudin, S.K.; Daud, W.R.W.; Mohammad, A.W.; Som, A.Md.; Takriff, M.S. [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, National University of Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study is to introduce a shortcut in the method of design for a tubular ceramic membrane (TCM) for gas separation. Generally, it explains the permeation of the multi component gas using cross flow models in a porous membrane and the surface area of the membrane required. The novel aspect of this method is that the expression for the length of the membrane is simplified to a number unit (NTU) and a height of transfer unit (HTU). The HTU term for porous membranes is characterised by the physical properties of the membrane; the feed flow rate, n{sub F}, membrane thickness, l{sub M}, feed pressure, P{sub F}, K the permeability of gas and the diameter of the membrane, D{sub M}. The integral for NTU of a porous membrane is the solution for the local permeate along the length of the membrane. It is found that, NTU mainly depends on the rejection stream, x{sub R,}, along the membrane and it describes the relative degree of separation. The Proton Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) system is taken as the case study. CO is the main culprit in reducing the performance of the PEMFC and will act as a catalyst poison for the fuel cell anode at a concentration as low as 100 ppm. Thus, the reformate, from primary reforming, contains a significant amount of CO and must be purified. The effect of some important parameters such as temperature, pressure and the thickness of membrane to the degree of separation are presented in this paper. From the results, it can be seen that the system could reduce the CO concentration from 2000 - 500 ppm. Basically the TCM will operate, in series, with a pressure swing adsorber in order to further reduce the concentration of CO to less than 10 ppm before entering the fuel cell stack. However, this paper only focuses on the design of the TCM. Besides this, it is observed that the purity of the hydrogen increased from 72.8 - 96% (at {theta} = 0.5) after the membrane. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  9. Presence of Fe-Al binary oxide adsorbent cake layer in ceramic membrane filtration and their impact for removal of HA and BSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-Jo; Jang, Am

    2018-04-01

    To enhance the removal of natural organic matter (NOM) in ceramic (Ce) membrane filtration, an iron-aluminum binary oxide (FAO) was applied to the ceramic membrane surface as the adsorbent cake layer, and it was compared with heated aluminum oxide (HAO) for the evaluation of the control of NOM. Both the HAO and FAO adsorbent cake layers efficiently removed the NOM regardless of NOM's hydrophobic/hydrophilic characteristics, and the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal in NOM for FAO was 1-1.12 times greater than that for HAO, which means FAO was more efficient in the removal of DOC in NOM. FAO (0.03 μm), which is smaller in size than HAO (0.4 μm), had greater flux reduction than HAO. The flux reduction increased as the filtration proceeded because most of the organic foulants (colloid/particles and soluble NOM) were captured by the adsorbent cake layer, which caused fouling between the membrane surface and the adsorbent cake layer. However, no chemically irreversible fouling was observed on the Ce membrane at the end of the FAO adsorbent cake layer filtration. This means that a stable adsorbent cake layer by FAO formed on the Ce membrane, and that the reduced pure water flux of the Ce membrane, resulting from the NOM fouling, can easily be recovered through physicochemical cleaning. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Economic evaluation of pre-combustion CO2-capture in IGCC power plants by porous ceramic membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, Johannes; Maas, Pascal; Scherer, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Process simulations of IGCC with pre-combustion capture via membranes were done. • Most promising technology is the water–gas-shift-membrane-reactor (WGSMR). • Energetic evaluations showed minimum efficiency loss of 5.8%-points for WGSMR. • Economic evaluations identified boundary limits of membrane technology. • Cost of electricity for optimum WGSMR-case is 57 €/MW h under made assumptions. - Abstract: Pre-combustion-carbon-capture is one of the three main routes for the mitigation of CO 2 -emissions by fossil fueled power plants. Based on the data of a detailed technical evaluation of CO 2 -capture by porous ceramic membranes (CM) and ceramic membrane reactors (WGSMR) in an Integrated-Gasification-Combined-Cycle (IGCC) power plant this paper focuses on the economic effects of CO 2 -abatement. First the results of the process simulations are presented briefly. The analysis is based on a comparison with a reference IGCC without CO 2 -capture (dry syngas cooling, bituminous coal, efficiency of 47.4%). In addition, as a second reference, an IGCC process with CO 2 removal based on standard Selexol-scrubbing is taken into account. The most promising technology for CO 2 -capture by membranes in IGCC applications is the combination of a water gas shift reactor and a H 2 -selective membrane into one water gas shift membrane reactor. For the WGSRM-case efficiency losses can be limited to about 6%-points (including losses for CO 2 compression) for a CO 2 separation degree of 90%. This is a severe reduction of the efficiency loss compared to Selexol (10.3% points) or IGCC–CM (8.6% points). The economic evaluation is based on a detailed analysis of investment and operational costs. Parameters like membrane costs and lifetime, costs of CO 2 -certificates and annual operating hours are taken into account. The purpose of these evaluations is to identify the minimum cost of electricity for the different capture cases for the variation of the boundary

  11. Ceramic Ultrafiltration of Marine Algal Solutions: A Comprehensive Study

    KAUST Repository

    Dramas, Laure

    2014-09-01

    Algal bloom can significantly impact reverse osmosis desalination process and reduce the drinking water production. In 2008, a major bloom event forced several UAE reverse osmosis plants to stop their production, and in this context, a better understanding of UF membrane fouling caused by algal organic matter (AOM) is needed, in order to adjust the filtration conditions during algal bloom events. Polymeric MF/UF membranes are already widely used for RO pretreatment, but ceramic UF membranes can also be an alternative for the filtration of marine algal solutions. The fouling potential of the Red Sea and the Arabian Sea, sampled at different seasons, along with four algal monocultures grown in laboratory, and one mesocosm experiment in the Red Sea was investigated. Algal solutions induce a stronger and more irreversible fouling than terrestrial humic solution, toward ceramic membrane. During algal bloom events, this fouling is enhanced and becomes even more problematic at the decline phase of the bloom, for a similar initial DOC. Three main mechanisms are involved: the formation of a cake layer at the membrane surface; the penetration of the algal organic matter (AOM) in the pore network of the membrane; the strong adhesion of AOM with the membrane surface. The last mechanism is species-specific and metal-oxide specific. In order to understand the stronger ceramic UF fouling at the decline phase, AOM quality was analyzed every two days. During growth, AOM is getting enriched in High Molecular Weight (HMW) structures (> 200 kDa), which are mainly composed by proteins and polysaccharides, and these compounds seem to be responsible for the stronger fouling at decline phase. In order to prevent the fouling of ceramic membrane, coagulation-flocculation (CF) using ferric chloride was implemented prior to filtration. It permits a high removal of HMW compounds and greatly reduces the fouling potential of the algal solution. During brief algal bloom events, CF should be

  12. Application of proton-conducting ceramics and polymer permeable membranes for gaseous tritium recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asakura, Yamato; Sugiyama, Takahiko; Kawano, Takao; Uda, Tatsuhiko; Tanaka, Masahiro; Tsuji, Naruhito; Katahira, Koji; Iwahara, Hiroyasu

    2004-01-01

    In order to carry out deuterium plasma experiments on the Large Helical Device (LHD), the National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS) is planning to install a system for the recovery of tritium from exhaust gas and effluent liquid. As well as adopting proven conventional tritium recovery systems, NIFS is planning to apply the latest technologies such as proton-conducting ceramics and membrane-type dehumidifiers in an overall strategy to ensure minimal risk in the tritium recovery process. Application of these new technologies to the tritium recovery system for the LHD deuterium plasma experiment is evaluated quantitatively using recent experimental data. (author)

  13. Ultrafiltration technology with a ceramic membrane for reactive dye removal: optimization of membrane performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alventosa-deLara, E; Barredo-Damas, S; Alcaina-Miranda, M I; Iborra-Clar, M I

    2012-03-30

    An ultrafiltration (UF) ceramic membrane was used to decolorize Reactive Black 5 (RB5) solutions at different dye concentrations (50 and 500 mg/L). Transmembrane pressure (TMP) and cross-flow velocity (CFV) were modified to study their influence on initial and steady-state permeate flux (J(p)) and dye rejection (R). Generally, J(p) increased with higher TMP and CFV and lower feed concentration, up to a maximum steady-state J(p) of 266.81 L/(m(2)h), obtained at 3 bar, 3m/s and 50mg/L. However, there was a TMP value (which changed depending on operating CFV and concentration) beyond which slight or no further increase in steady-state J(p) was observed. Similarly, the higher the CFV was, the more slightly the steady-state J(p) increased. Furthermore, the effectiveness of ultrafiltration treatment was evaluated through dye rejection coefficient. The results showed significant dye removals, regardless of the tested conditions, with steady-state R higher than 79.8% for the 50mg/L runs and around 73.2% for the 500 mg/L runs. Finally response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize membrane performance. At 50mg/L, a TMP of 4 bar and a CFV of 2.53 m/s were found to be the conditions giving the highest steady-state J(p), 255.86 L/(m(2)h), and the highest R, 95.2% simultaneously. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Synthesis of a catalytic reactor membrane for synthesis gas production; Elaboration d'une membrane de reacteur catalytique pour la production de gaz de synthese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juste, E.; Julian, A.; Chartier, T. [Limoges Univ., Lab. Science des Procedes Ceramiques et de Traitements de Surface (SPCTS, UMR 6638 CNRS), 87 (France); Juste, E.; Julian, A.; Del Gallo, P.; Richet, N. [Centre de Recherche Claude-Delorme, Air Liquide, 78 - Jouy en Josas (France)

    2007-07-01

    The conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas (mixture of H{sub 2} and CO) is a main challenge for the hydrogen and clean fuels production. Mixed (ionic O{sup 2-} and electronic) conducing ceramics membrane reactors seem particularly promising. The design considered for the membrane is a tri-layer system integrating a reforming catalyst and a dense membrane laying on a porous support. Among the materials considered for the dense membrane, perovskites La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}Fe{sub 1-y}Ga{sub y}O{sub 3-{delta}} seem to be interesting for their performances and stability. The oxygen flux through the membrane is measured in terms of temperature under different oxygen partial pressure gradients. In the industrial experimental conditions, the membrane is submitted to a strong oxygen (air/methane) partial pressure gradient of about 900 C which induces mechanical stresses, on account of the material expansion difference, in terms of p{sub O2}. In this framework, the evolutions of the performances and of the expansion coefficient have been followed in terms of the substitutions rates in La{sub (1-x)}Sr{sub x}Fe{sub (1-y)}Ga{sub y}O{sub 3-{delta}} with x{<=}0.5 and y{<=}0.5. (O.M.)

  15. Nanopartículas catalisadoras suportadas por materiais cerâmicos Catalytic nanoparticles supported by ceramic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. L. V. Carreño

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho são apresentados os procedimentos de preparação de materiais cerâmicos de SiO2, SnO2 e Al2O3 e, também, suas propriedades catalíticas nas reações de reforma do metano e do metanol. As análises dos resíduos de carbono, após testes catalíticos, sugerem que a modificação estrutural dos catalisadores pode minimizar os efeitos de sua desativação.This work presents the procedures for preparing SiO2, SnO2 and Al2O3 ceramic materials and also their catalytic properties for the reforming reactions of methane and methanol. The analyses of the carbonaceous residues suggest that the structural modification of the catalyst can minimize the deactivation effect upon them.

  16. Optimization of O3 as Pre-Treatment and Chemical Enhanced Backwashing in UF and MF Ceramic Membranes for the Treatment of Secondary Wastewater Effluent and Red Sea Water

    KAUST Repository

    Herrera, Catalina

    2011-01-01

    Ceramic membranes have proven to have many advantages over polymeric membranes. Some of these advantages are: resistance against extreme pH, higher permeate flux, less frequent chemical cleaning, excellent backwash efficiency and longer lifetime

  17. Integration of ceramic membrane and compressed air-assisted solvent extraction (CASX) for metal recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chi-Wang; Chiu, Chun-Hao; Lee, Yu-Cheng; Chang, Chia-Hao; Lee, Yu-Hsun; Chen, Yi-Ming

    2010-01-01

    In our previous publications, compressed air-assisted solvent extraction process (CASX) was developed and proved to be kinetically efficient process for metal removal. In the current study, CASX with a ceramic MF membrane integrated for separation of spent solvent was employed to remove and recover metal from wastewater. MF was operated either in crossflow mode or dead-end with intermittent flushing mode. Under crossflow mode, three distinct stages of flux vs. TMP (trans-membrane pressure) relationship were observed. In the first stage, flux increases with increasing TMP which is followed by the stage of stable flux with increasing TMP. After reaching a threshold TMP which is dependent of crossflow velocity, flux increases again with increasing TMP. At the last stage, solvent was pushed through membrane pores as indicated by increasing permeate COD. In dead-end with intermittent flushing mode, an intermittent flushing flow (2 min after a 10-min or a 30-min dead-end filtration) was incorporated to reduce membrane fouling by flush out MSAB accumulated on membrane surface. Effects of solvent concentration and composition were also investigated. Solvent concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 1% (w/w) have no adverse effect in terms of membrane fouling. However, solvent composition, i.e. D(2)EHPA/kerosene ratio, shows impact on membrane fouling. The type of metal extractants employed in CASX has significant impact on both membrane fouling and the quality of filtrate due to the differences in their viscosity and water solubility. Separation of MSAB was the limiting process controlling metal removal efficiency, and the removal efficiency of Cd(II) and Cr(VI) followed the same trend as that for COD.

  18. Modification of the Selectivity Properties of Tubular Ceramic Membranes after Alkaline Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Dutournié

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the selectivity modification of ceramic membranes after a mild alkaline treatment. Filtration of pure salt-water solutions was carried out with commercial titania membranes before and after the treatment. After treatment, the rejection of NaF significantly decreased, while the rejection of NaCl and NaBr increased. Additionally, NaI and Na2SO4 remained close to zero. Pore size and electrical charge being almost unchanged, only significant modifications in the dielectric effects can explain this modification of selectivity. Therefore, the surface chemistry and the interaction (nature and magnitude with the solvent and with the species present in the solution appear to be modified by the alkaline treatment. This trend is also illustrated by discussing the electric and the dielectric properties that were numerically identified before and after treatment. The alkaline treatment significantly decreased the apparent dielectric constant of NaCl-water solution in the pore, highlighting the rejection of sodium chloride. Contrariwise, the modification of the surface chemistry increased the apparent dielectric constant of NaF-water solution by promoting fluoride transmission.

  19. Impact of ozonation and biological activated carbon filtration on ceramic membrane fouling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibn Abdul Hamid, Khaled; Sanciolo, Peter; Gray, Stephen; Duke, Mikel; Muthukumaran, Shobha

    2017-12-01

    Ozone pre-treatment (ozonation, ozonisation) and biological activated carbon (BAC) filtration pre-treatment for the ceramic microfiltration (CMF) treatment of secondary effluent (SE) were studied. Ozone pre-treatment was found to result in higher overall removal of UV absorbance (UVA 254 ) and colour, and higher permeability than BAC pre-treatment or the combined use of ozone and BAC (O3+BAC) pre-treatment. The overall removal of colour and UVA 254 by ceramic filtration of the ozone pre-treated water was 97% and 63% respectively, compared to 86% and 48% respectively for BAC pre-treatment and 29% and 6% respectively for the untreated water. Ozone pre-treatment, however, was not effective in removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The permeability of the ozone pre-treated water through the ceramic membrane was found to decrease to 50% of the original value after 200 min of operation, compared to approximately 10% of the original value for the BAC pre-treated, O3+BAC pre-treated water and the untreated water. The higher permeability of the ozone pre-treated water was attributed to the excellent removal of biopolymer particles (100%) and high removal of humic substances (84%). The inclusion of a BAC stage between ozone pre-treatment and ceramic filtration was detrimental. The O3+BAC+CMF process was found to yield higher biopolymer removal (96%), lower humic substance (HS) component removal (66%) and lower normalized permeability (0.1) after 200 min of operation than the O3+CMF process (86%, 84% and 0.5 respectively). This was tentatively attributed to the chemical oxidation effect of ozone on the BAC biofilm and adsorbed components, leading to the generation of foulants that are not generated in the O3+CMF process. This study demonstrated the potential of ozone pre-treatment for reducing organic fouling and thus improving flux for the CMF of SE compared to O3+BAC pre-treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Beer Clarification by Novel Ceramic Hollow-Fiber Membranes: Effect of Pore Size on Product Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimini, Alessio; Moresi, Mauro

    2016-10-01

    In this work, the crossflow microfiltration performance of rough beer samples was assessed using ceramic hollow-fiber (HF) membrane modules with a nominal pore size ranging from 0.2 to 1.4 μm. Under constant operating conditions (that is, transmembrane pressure difference, TMP = 2.35 bar; feed superficial velocity, v S = 2.5 m/s; temperature, T = 10 °C), quite small steady-state permeation fluxes (J * ) of 32 or 37 L/m 2 /h were achieved using the 0.2- or 0.5-μm symmetric membrane modules. Both permeates exhibited turbidity beer quality parameters. Moreover, it exhibited J * values of the same order of magnitude of those claimed for the polyethersulfone HF membrane modules currently commercialized. The 1.4-μm asymmetric membrane module yielded quite a high steady-state permeation flux (196 ± 38 L/m 2 /h), and a minimum decline in permeate quality parameters, except for the high levels of turbidity at room temperature and chill haze. In the circumstances, such a membrane module might be regarded as a real valid alternative to conventional powder filters on condition that the resulting permeate were submitted to a final finishing step using 0.45- or 0.65-μm microbially rated membrane cartridges prior to aseptic bottling. A novel combined beer clarification process was thus outlined. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  1. Separation Properties of Wastewater Containing O/W Emulsion Using Ceramic Microfiltration/Ultrafiltration (MF/UF Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanji Matsumoto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Washing systems using water soluble detergent are used in electrical and mechanical industries and the wastewater containing O/W emulsion are discharged from these systems. Membrane filtration has large potential for the efficient separation of O/W emulsion for reuses of treated water and detergent. The separation properties of O/W emulsions by cross-flow microfiltration and ultrafiltration were studied with ceramic MF and UF membranes. The effects of pore size; applied pressure; cross-flow velocity; and detergent concentration on rejection of O/W emulsion and flux were systematically studied. At the condition achieving complete separation of O/W emulsion the pressure-independent flux was observed and this flux behavior was explained by gel-polarization model. The O/W emulsion tended to permeate through the membrane at the conditions of larger pore size; higher emulsion concentration; and higher pressure. The O/W emulsion could permeate the membrane pore structure by destruction or deformation. These results imply the stability of O/W emulsion in the gel-layer formed on membrane surface play an important role in the separation properties. The O/W emulsion was concentrated by batch cross-flow concentration filtration and the flux decline during the concentration filtration was explained by the gel- polarization model.

  2. Separation Properties of Wastewater Containing O/W Emulsion Using Ceramic Microfiltration/Ultrafiltration (MF/UF) Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kazuho; Matsumoto, Kanji

    2013-01-01

    Washing systems using water soluble detergent are used in electrical and mechanical industries and the wastewater containing O/W emulsion are discharged from these systems. Membrane filtration has large potential for the efficient separation of O/W emulsion for reuses of treated water and detergent. The separation properties of O/W emulsions by cross-flow microfiltration and ultrafiltration were studied with ceramic MF and UF membranes. The effects of pore size; applied pressure; cross-flow velocity; and detergent concentration on rejection of O/W emulsion and flux were systematically studied. At the condition achieving complete separation of O/W emulsion the pressure-independent flux was observed and this flux behavior was explained by gel-polarization model. The O/W emulsion tended to permeate through the membrane at the conditions of larger pore size; higher emulsion concentration; and higher pressure. The O/W emulsion could permeate the membrane pore structure by destruction or deformation. These results imply the stability of O/W emulsion in the gel-layer formed on membrane surface play an important role in the separation properties. The O/W emulsion was concentrated by batch cross-flow concentration filtration and the flux decline during the concentration filtration was explained by the gel- polarization model. PMID:24958621

  3. Effect of ceramic membrane channel geometry and uniform transmembrane pressure on limiting flux and serum protein removal during skim milk microfiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Michael C; Hurt, Emily E; Barbano, David M

    2015-11-01

    Our objectives were to determine the effects of a ceramic microfiltration (MF) membrane's retentate flow channel geometry (round or diamond-shaped) and uniform transmembrane pressure (UTP) on limiting flux (LF) and serum protein (SP) removal during skim milk MF at a temperature of 50°C, a retentate protein concentration of 8.5%, and an average cross-flow velocity of 7 m·s(-1). Performance of membranes with round and diamond flow channels was compared in UTP mode. Performance of the membrane with round flow channels was compared with and without UTP. Using UTP with round flow channel MF membranes increased the LF by 5% when compared with not using UTP, but SP removal was not affected by the use of UTP. Using membranes with round channels instead of diamond-shaped channels in UTP mode increased the LF by 24%. This increase was associated with a 25% increase in Reynolds number and can be explained by lower shear at the vertices of the diamond-shaped channel's surface. The SP removal factor of the diamond channel system was higher than the SP removal factor of the round channel system below the LF. However, the diamond channel system passed more casein into the MF permeate than the round channel system. Because only one batch of each membrane was tested in our study, it was not possible to determine if the differences in protein rejection between channel geometries were due to the membrane design or random manufacturing variation. Despite the lower LF of the diamond channel system, the 47% increase in membrane module surface area of the diamond channel system produced a modular permeate removal rate that was at least 19% higher than the round channel system. Consequently, using diamond channel membranes instead of round channel membranes could reduce some of the costs associated with ceramic MF of skim milk if fewer membrane modules could be used to attain the required membrane area. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  4. Electricity and catholyte production from ceramic MFCs treating urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino Jimenez, Irene; Greenman, John; Ieropoulos, Ioannis

    2017-01-19

    The use of ceramics as low cost membrane materials for Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) has gained increasing interest, due to improved performance levels in terms of power and catholyte production. The catholyte production in ceramic MFCs can be attributed to a combination of water or hydrogen peroxide formation from the oxygen reduction reaction in the cathode, water diffusion and electroosmotic drag through the ion exchange membrane. This study aims to evaluate, for the first time, the effect of ceramic wall/membrane thickness, in terms of power, as well as catholyte production from MFCs using urine as a feedstock. Cylindrical MFCs were assembled with fine fire clay of different thicknesses (2.5, 5 and 10 mm) as structural and membrane materials. The power generated increased when the membrane thickness decreased, reaching 2.1 ± 0.19 mW per single MFC (2.5 mm), which was 50% higher than that from the MFCs with the thickest membrane (10 mm). The amount of catholyte collected also decreased with the wall thickness, whereas the pH increased. Evidence shows that the catholyte composition varies with the wall thickness of the ceramic membrane. The possibility of producing different quality of catholyte from urine opens a new field of study in water reuse and resource recovery for practical implementation.

  5. FAS grafted superhydrophobic ceramic membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Yu, Yun; Zhou, Jianer; Song, Lixin; Hu, Xingfang; Larbot, Andre

    2009-08-01

    The hydrophobic properties of γ-Al 2O 3 membrane have been obtained by grafting fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) on the surface of the membrane. The following grafting parameters were studied: the eroding time of the original membrane, the grafting time, the concentration of FAS solution and the multiplicity of grafting. Hydrophobicity of the membranes was characterized by contact angle (CA) measurement. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to investigate the weight loss process (25-800 °C) of the fluoroalkylsilane grafted on Al 2O 3 powders under different grafting conditions. The morphologies of the membranes modified under different parameters were examined by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and the surface roughness (Ra) was measured using white light interferometers. A needle-like structure was observed on the membrane surface after modification, which causes the change of Ra. On the results above, we speculated a model to describe the reaction between FAS and γ-Al 2O 3 membrane surface as well as the formed surface morphology.

  6. Comparative Study on Performance and Organic Fouling of ZrO2 Ceramic Membranes in Ultrafiltration of Synthetic Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Cen

    2011-07-01

    Adsorption of organic matter on ceramic membrane can lead to hydraulic-irreversible fouling, which decreases the permeate flux and the cost-efficiency of membrane devices. In order to optimize the filtration process, detailed information is necessary about the organic fouling mechanisms on ceramic membranes. In this study, dead-end filtration experiments of both synthetic water and secondary effluent from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) were conducted on a ZrO2 ceramic membrane. The experiment results of synthetic water showed that humic acid (HA) was able to be adsorbed by the ZrO2 membrane and cause permeate flux decline; and that HA-tryptophan mixture, at the same DOC level, promoted the filtration flux decline; DOC removal in the case of HA-tryptophan was lower than that of HA alone. It seems that hydrophilic organic matter with low molecular weight have some specific contribution to the organic fouling of the ZrO2 membrane. The results also suggest that tryptophan molecules were preferentially adsorbed on the membrane at the beginning, exposing their hydrophobic sides which might further adsorb HA from the feed water. During the filtration of WWTP effluent, protein-like substances (mainly tryptophan-like) were also preferentially adsorbed on the membrane compared with humic-like ones in the initial few cycles of filtration. More humic-like substances were adsorbed in the following filtration cycles due to the increase of membrane hydrophobicity. A significant rise in hydraulic-irreversible flux decline was obtained by decreasing pH from near pHpzc to below pHpzc of the membrane. It suggests that a positively charged surface is preferred for HA adsorption. Ionic strength increase did not affect the filtration of HA, but it lessened the hydraulic-irreversible flux decline of HA-tryptophan filtration. The adsorption of HA-tryptophan can be attributed to outersphere interaction while HA adsorption is mainly caused by inner-sphere interaction. The results of

  7. Fiscal 1999 achievement report on research and development of industrial technologies. Research and development of synergy ceramics; 1999 nendo sangyo kagaku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Synergy ceramics no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Efforts are conducted in the two fields of (1) survey and research and (2) development of technology for evaluating high temperature dynamic corrosion characteristics of heat resistant ceramics. In field (1), a comprehensive survey is conducted, an application study is conducted about high temperature gas separating ceramic membranes, and efforts are made to put to practical use ceramic parts manufactured by a low cost production process. In the application study of ceramic membranes, technologies are developed for a process of manufacturing high temperature gas separating porous ceramic membranes capable of separating and purifying gas emissions and gas ingredients, which involves the development of technologies for improving on gas separation and purification functions, development of technology of providing catalyst support function, technology of porous membrane formation, evaluation of separation characteristics, and so forth. In an application study for ceramic parts manufactured by a low cost manufacturing process, which involves structural ceramics, optimization is accomplished for materials synthesizing technologies by means of mechanical alloying, and cylinder liners are fabricated and evaluated for a natural gas engine made of silicon nitride based ceramics. In field (2), a high temperature dynamic corrosion testing device is built for heat shield coatings. (NEDO)

  8. Removal of some organic pollutants in water employing ceramic membranes impregnated with cross-linked silylated dendritic and cyclodextrin polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allabashi, Roza; Arkas, Michael; Hörmann, Gerold; Tsiourvas, Dimitris

    2007-01-01

    Triethoxysilylated derivatives of poly(propylene imine) dendrimer, polyethylene imine and polyglycerol hyperbranched polymers and beta-cyclodextrin have been synthesized and characterized. These compounds impregnated ceramic membranes made from Al(2)O(3), SiC and TiO(2) and subsequently sol-gel reaction led to their polymerization and chemical bond formation with the ceramic substrates. The resulting organic-inorganic filters were tested for the removal of a variety of organic pollutants from water. They were found to remove of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (up to 99%), of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (up to 93%), trihalogen methanes (up to 81%), pesticides (up to 43%) and methyl-tert-butyl ether (up to 46%).

  9. FAS grafted superhydrophobic ceramic membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Jun [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jingdezhen Ceramic Institute, 333001 Jingdezhen (China); Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, CAS, 1295 DingXi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Yu Yun, E-mail: yunyush@mail.sic.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, CAS, 1295 DingXi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Zhou Jianer [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jingdezhen Ceramic Institute, 333001 Jingdezhen (China); Song Lixin; Hu Xingfang [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, CAS, 1295 DingXi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Larbot, Andre [Institut Europeen des Membranes, UMR 5635-CNRS, ENSCM, UMII, 1919 Route de Mende 34293, Montpellier Cedex 5 (France)

    2009-08-30

    The hydrophobic properties of {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} membrane have been obtained by grafting fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) on the surface of the membrane. The following grafting parameters were studied: the eroding time of the original membrane, the grafting time, the concentration of FAS solution and the multiplicity of grafting. Hydrophobicity of the membranes was characterized by contact angle (CA) measurement. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to investigate the weight loss process (25-800 deg. C) of the fluoroalkylsilane grafted on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders under different grafting conditions. The morphologies of the membranes modified under different parameters were examined by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and the surface roughness (Ra) was measured using white light interferometers. A needle-like structure was observed on the membrane surface after modification, which causes the change of Ra. On the results above, we speculated a model to describe the reaction between FAS and {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} membrane surface as well as the formed surface morphology.

  10. Development of laundry drainage treatment system with ceramic ultra filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanda, Masanori; Kurahasi, Takafumi

    1995-01-01

    A compact laundry drainage treatment system (UF system hereafter) with a ceramic ultra filter membrane (UF membrane hereafter) has been developed to reduce radioactivity in laundry drainage from nuclear power plants. The UF membrane is made of sintered fine ceramic. The UF membrane has 0.01 μm fine pores, resulting in a durable, heat-resistant, and corrosion-resistant porous ceramic filter medium. A cross-flow system, laundry drainage is filtrated while it flows across the UF membrane, is used as the filtration method. This method creates less caking when compared to other methods. The UF membrane is back washed at regular intervals with permeated water to minimize caking of the filter. The UF membrane and cross-flow system provides long stable filtration. The ceramic UF membrane is strong enough to concentrate suspended solids in laundry drainage up to a weight concentration of 10%. The final concentrated laundry drainage can be treated in an incinerator. The performance of the UF system was checked using radioactive laundry drainage. The decontamination factor of the UF system was 25 or more. The laundry drainage treatment capacity and concentration ratio of the UF system, as well as the service life of the UF membrane were also checked by examination using simulated non-radioactive laundry drainage. Even though laundry drainage was concentrated 1000 times, the UF system showed good permeated water quality and permeated water flux. (author)

  11. Sol-gel route to synthesis of microporous ceramic membranes: Thermal stability of TiO2-ZrO2 mixed oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qunyin Xu; Anderson, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper concerning the synthesis of microporous ceramic membranes, the authors focus on the preparation and thermal stability of unsupported microporous TiO 2 -ZrO 2 mixed-oxide membranes. It has been observed that, by adding up to 20% ZrO 2 into TiO 2 or up to 10% TiO 2 into ZrO 2 , these microporous membranes display improved thermal stability. They can be fired up to 500 C for 0.5 h without closing micropores. However, membranes containing almost equal percentages of each component have lost microporous features and have low surface areas and low porosities. A phase diagram of a two-component TiO 2 -ZrO 2 mixed-oxide membrane has been prepared based on DTA and X-ray diffraction data in order to better understand the microstructure changes upon firing

  12. Continuous esterification to produce biodiesel by SPES/PES/NWF composite catalytic membrane in flow-through membrane reactor: experimental and kinetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wenying; He, Benqiao; Cao, Yuping; Li, Jianxin; Yan, Feng; Cui, Zhenyu; Zou, Zhiqun; Guo, Shiwei; Qian, Xiaomin

    2013-02-01

    A novel composite catalytic membrane (CCM) was prepared from sulfonated polyethersulfone (SPES) and polyethersulfone (PES) blend supported by non-woven fabrics, as a heterogeneous catalyst to produce biodiesel from continuous esterification of oleic acid with methanol in a flow-through mode. A kinetic model of esterification was established based on a plug-flow assumption. The effects of the CCM structure (thickness, area, porosity, etc.), reaction temperature and the external and internal mass transfer resistances on esterification were investigated. The results showed that the CCM structure had a significant effect on the acid conversion. The external mass transfer resistance could be neglected when the flow rate was over 1.2 ml min(-1). The internal mass transfer resistance impacted on the conversion when membrane thickness was over 1.779 mm. An oleic acid conversion kept over 98.0% for 500 h of continuous running. The conversions obtained from the model are in good agreement with the experimental data. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Reactivity of nanoaggregations of platinum on supports of different nature in reactions of catalytic decomposition of hydrazine in acid media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anan'ev, A.V.; Boltoeva, M.Yu.; Grigor'ev, M.S.; Shilov, V.P.; Sharygin, L.M.

    2006-01-01

    Platinized catalysts on the basis of supports of different chemical nature are tested in reactions of catalytic hydrazine decomposition in perchloric and nitric acid solutions. In perchloric acid catalytic activity of catalysts on the basis of ceramic materials of Termoksid brand is higher of activity of catalysts on the basis of amorphous silica gel. In nitric acid solutions opposite dependence is observed. Tendency of ceramic supports to peptization in acid solutions is pointed out. Results obtained are interpreted using conceptions of energetic heterogeneity of surface atoms and hydrazine catalytic decomposition mechanisms in different media [ru

  14. ENHANCEMENT OF EQUILIBRIUMSHIFT IN DEHYDROGENATION REACTIONS USING A NOVEL MEMBRANE REACTOR; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamsuddin Ilias, Ph.d., P.E.; Franklin G. King, D.Sc.

    2001-01-01

    With the advances in new inorganic materials and processing techniques, there has been renewed interest in exploiting the benefits of membranes in many industrial applications. Inorganic and composite membranes are being considered as potential candidates for use in membrane-reactor configuration for effectively increasing reaction rate, selectivity and yield of equilibrium limited reactions. To investigate the usefulness of a palladium-ceramic composite membrane in a membrane reactor-separator configuration, we investigated the dehydrogenation of cyclohexane by equilibrium shift. A two-dimensional pseudo-homogeneous reactor model was developed to study the dehydrogenation of cyclohexane by equilibrium shift in a tubular membrane reactor. Radial diffusion was considered to account for the concentration gradient in the radial direction due to permeation through the membrane. For a dehydrogenation reaction, the feed stream to the reaction side contained cyclohexane and argon, while the separation side used argon as the sweep gas. Equilibrium conversion for dehydrogenation of cyclohexane is 18.7%. The present study showed that 100% conversion could be achieved by equilibrium shift using Pd-ceramic membrane reactor. For a feed containing cyclohexane and argon of 1.64 x 10(sup -6) and 1.0 x 10(sup -3) mol/s, over 98% conversion could be readily achieved. The dehydrogenation of cyclohexane was also experimentally investigated in a palladium-ceramic membrane reactor. The Pd-ceramic membrane was fabricated by electroless deposition of palladium on ceramic substrate. The performance of Pd-ceramic membrane was compared with a commercially available hydrogen-selective ceramic membrane. From limited experimental data it was observed that by appropriate choice of feed flow rate and sweep gas rate, the conversion of cyclohexane to benzene and hydrogen can increased to 56% at atmospheric pressure and 200 C in a Pd-ceramic membrane reactor. In the commercial ceramic membrane

  15. Oxygen- and hydrogen-permeation measurements on-mixed conducting SrFeCo{sub 0.5}O{sub y} ceramic membrane material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra, E.; Casagrande, E.; La Barbera, A. [ENEA UTS MAT, CR Casaccia, 00060 S.M. di Galeria, Roma (Italy); Alvisi, M. [ENEA UTS MAT, CR Brindisi, 72100 Brindisi (Italy); Bezzi, G.; Mingazzini, C. [ENEA UTS MAT, CR Faenza, 48018 Faenza (Italy)

    2008-02-15

    The SrFeCo{sub 0.5}O{sub y} system combines high electronic/ionic conductivity with appreciable oxygen permeability at elevated temperatures. This system has potential use in high-temperature electrochemical applications such as solid oxide fuel cells, batteries, sensors, and oxygen separation membranes. Dense ceramic membranes of SrFeCo{sub 0.5}O{sub y} are prepared by pressing a ceramic powder prepared by using a sol-gel combustion technique. Oxygen and hydrogen permeation at high temperature on this material are studied. Measurements are conducted using a time-dependent permeation method at the temperature in the range of 1073-1273 K with oxygen- and hydrogen-driving pressures in the range (3 x 10{sup 2})-(1 x 10{sup 5}) Pa (300-1000 mbar). The maximum oxygen-permeated flux at 1273 K is 6.5 x 10{sup -3} mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}. The activation energies for the O{sub 2}-permeation fluxes and diffusivities are 240 and 194 kJ/mol, respectively. Due to the high fragility, the high temperature for the measurements and the high oxygen permeation through such material, a special membrane holder, and compression sealing system have been designed and realized for the permeation apparatus. (author)

  16. Membrane Guanylate Cyclase catalytic Subdomain: Structure and Linkage with Calcium Sensors and Bicarbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarangan Ravichandran

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Membrane guanylate cyclase (MGC is a ubiquitous multi-switching cyclic GMP generating signaling machine linked with countless physiological processes. In mammals it is encoded by seven distinct homologous genes. It is a single transmembrane spanning multi-modular protein; composed of integrated blocks and existing in homo-dimeric form. Its core catalytic domain (CCD module is a common transduction center where all incoming signals are translated into the production of cyclic GMP, a cellular signal second messenger. Crystal structure of the MGC’s CCD does not exist and its precise identity is ill-defined. Here, we define it at a sub-molecular level for the phototransduction-linked MGC, the rod outer segment guanylate cyclase type 1, ROS-GC1. (1 The CCD is a conserved 145-residue structural unit, represented by the segment V820-P964. (2 It exists as a homo-dimer and contains seven conserved catalytic elements (CEs wedged into seven conserved motifs. (3 It also contains a conserved 21-residue neurocalcin δ-modulated structural domain, V836-L857. (4 Site-directed mutagenesis documents that each of the seven CEs governs the cyclase’s catalytic activity. (5 In contrast to the soluble and the bacterium MGC which use Mn2+-GTP substrate for catalysis, MGC CCD uses the natural Mg2+-GTP substrate. (6 Strikingly, the MGC CCD requires anchoring by the Transmembrane Domain (TMD to exhibit its major (∼92% catalytic activity; in isolated form the activity is only marginal. This feature is not linked with any unique sequence of the TMD; there is minimal conservation in TMD. Finally, (7 the seven CEs control each of four phototransduction pathways- -two Ca2+-sensor GCAPs-, one Ca2+-sensor, S100B-, and one bicarbonate-modulated. The findings disclose that the CCD of ROS-GC1 has built-in regulatory elements that control its signal translational activity. Due to conservation of these regulatory elements, it is proposed that these elements also control the

  17. Tight ceramic UF membrane as RO pre-treatment: the role of electrostatic interactions on phosphate rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ran; Verliefde, Arne R D; Hu, Jingyi; Zeng, Zheyi; Lu, Jie; Kemperman, Antoine J B; Deng, Huiping; Nijmeijer, Kitty; Heijman, Sebastiaan G J; Rietveld, Luuk C

    2014-01-01

    Phosphate limitation has been reported as an effective approach to inhibit biofouling in reverse osmosis (RO) systems for water purification. The rejection of dissolved phosphate by negatively charged TiO2 tight ultrafiltration (UF) membranes (1 kDa and 3 kDa) was observed. These membranes can potentially be adopted as an effective process for RO pre-treatment in order to constrain biofouling by phosphate limitation. This paper focuses on electrostatic interactions during tight UF filtration. Despite the larger pore size, the 3 kDa ceramic membrane exhibited greater phosphate rejection than the 1 kDa membrane, because the 3 kDa membrane has a greater negative surface charge and thus greater electrostatic repulsion against phosphate. The increase of pH from 6 to 8.5 led to a substantial increase in phosphate rejection by both membranes due to increased electrostatic repulsion. At pH 8.5, the maximum phosphate rejections achieved by the 1 kDa and 3 kDa membrane were 75% and 86%, respectively. A Debye ratio (ratio of the Debye length to the pore radius) is introduced in order to evaluate double layer overlapping in tight UF membranes. Threshold Debye ratios were determined as 2 and 1 for the 1 kDa and 3 kDa membranes, respectively. A Debye ratio below the threshold Debye ratio leads to dramatically decreased phosphate rejection by tight UF membranes. The phosphate rejection by the tight UF, in combination with chemical phosphate removal by coagulation, might accomplish phosphate-limited conditions for biological growth and thus prevent biofouling in the RO systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Novel Catalytic Membrane Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-02-01

    This factsheet describes a research project that will focus on the development and application of nonporous high gas flux perfluoro membranes with high temperature rating and excellent chemical resistance.

  19. Application of novel catalytic-ceramic-filler in a coupled system for long-chain dicarboxylic acids manufacturing wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Suqing; Qi, Yuanfeng; Fan, Chunzhen; He, Shengbing; Dai, Bibo; Huang, Jungchen; Zhou, Weili; Gao, Lei

    2016-02-01

    To gain systematic technology for long-chain dicarboxylic acids (LDCA) manufacturing wastewater treatment, catalytic micro-electrolysis (CME) coupling with adsorption-biodegradation sludge (AB) process was studied. Firstly, novel catalytic-ceramic-filler was prepared from scrap iron, clay and copper sulfate solution and packed in the CME reactor. To remove residual n-alkane and LDCA, the CME reactor was utilized for LDCA wastewater pretreatment. The results revealed that about 94% of n-alkane, 98% of LDCA and 84% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) were removed by the aerated CME reactor at the optimum hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3.0 h. In this process, catalysis from Cu and montmorillonites played an important role in improving the contaminants removal. Secondly, to remove residual COD in the wastewater, AB process was designed for the secondary biological treatment, about 90% of the influent COD could be removed by biosorption, bio-flocculation and biodegradation effects. Finally, the effluent COD (about 150 mg L(-1)) discharged from the coupled CME-AB system met the requirement of the national discharged standard (COD ≤ 300 mg L(-1)). All of these results suggest that the coupled CME-AB system is a promising technology due to its high-efficient performance, and has the potential to be applied for the real LDCA wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Water-sensitive positron trapping modes in nanoporous magnesium aluminate ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipecki, J; Ingram, A; Klym, H; Shpotyuk, O; Vakiv, M

    2007-01-01

    The water-sensitive positron trapping modes in nanoporous MgAl 2 O 4 ceramics with a spinel structure are studied. It is shown that water-sorption processes in magnesium aluminate ceramics leads to corresponding increase in positron trapping rates of extended defects located near intergranual boundaries. This catalytic affect has reversible nature, being strongly dependent on sorption water fluxes in ceramics. The fixation of all water-dependent positron trapping inputs allow to refine the most significant changes in positron trapping rate of extended defects

  1. Water-sensitive positron trapping modes in nanoporous magnesium aluminate ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filipecki, J [Institute of Physics of Jan Dlugosz University, 13/15, al. Armii Krajowej, Czestochowa, PL 42201 (Poland); Ingram, A [Opole University of Technology, 75, Ozimska str., Opole, PL 45370 (Poland); Klym, H [Institute of Materials of SRC ' Carat' , 202, Stryjska str., Lviv, UA 79031 (Ukraine); Shpotyuk, O [Institute of Materials of SRC ' Carat' , 202, Stryjska str., Lviv, UA 79031 (Ukraine); Vakiv, M [Institute of Materials of SRC ' Carat' , 202, Stryjska str., Lviv, UA 79031 (Ukraine)

    2007-08-15

    The water-sensitive positron trapping modes in nanoporous MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} ceramics with a spinel structure are studied. It is shown that water-sorption processes in magnesium aluminate ceramics leads to corresponding increase in positron trapping rates of extended defects located near intergranual boundaries. This catalytic affect has reversible nature, being strongly dependent on sorption water fluxes in ceramics. The fixation of all water-dependent positron trapping inputs allow to refine the most significant changes in positron trapping rate of extended defects.

  2. CERAMIC MEMBRANE ENABLING TECHNOLOGY FOR IMPROVED IGCC EFFICIENCY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravi Prasad

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this program is to conduct a technology development program to advance the state-of-the-art in ceramic Oxygen Transport Membranes (OTM) to the level required to produce step change improvements in process economics, efficiency, and environmental benefits for commercial IGCC systems and other applications. The IGCC program is focused on addressing key issues in materials, processing, manufacturing, engineering and system development that will make the OTM a commercial reality. The objective of the OTM materials development task is to identify a suitable material that can be formed into a thin film to produce the target oxygen flux. This requires that the material have an adequate permeation rate, and thermo-mechanical and thermo-chemical properties such that the material is able to be supported on the desired substrate and sufficient mechanical strength to survive the stresses involved in operation. The objective of the composite OTM development task is to develop the architecture and fabrication techniques necessary to construct stable, high performance, thin film OTMs supported on suitable porous, load bearing substrates. The objective of the process development task of this program to demonstrate the program objectives on a single OTM tube under test conditions simulating those of the optimum process cycle for the power plant

  3. Procedure for the preparation of catalysts for application in catalytic gas phase reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The invention describes the preparation of catalysts to be used in catalytic reactions in the gaseous phase. The catalytic material is disposed at the surface of a ceramic or carbon substrate (av. particle size 0.1 μ - 0.5 cm, surface area smaller than 20 m 2 /g) by bombardment of the catalytic material (Pt, Rh, Pd, Ru, Os, Ir) with energetic ions (Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe) in the vicinity of the substrate in medium vacuum

  4. Catalytic exhaust control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemann, H

    1973-09-01

    Recent achievements and problems in the development of exhaust control devices in the USA are reviewed. To meet the 1976 emission standards, catalytic systems for the oxidation of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons and for the reduction of nitrogen oxides to nitrogen and water are needed. While oxidizing catalysts using platinum, palladium, copper, vanadium, and chromium appplied on alumina or ceramic materials are more or less effective in emission control, there are no catalytic devices for the reduction of nitrogen oxides with the required useful life of 25,000 to 50,000 miles as yet available. In the case of platinum catalysts on monolithic supports, the operating temperature of 650 to 750/sup 0/C as required for the oxidation process may cause inactivation of the catalysts and fusion of the support material. The oxidation of CO and hydrocarbons is inhibited by high concentrations of CO, nitric oxide, and hydrocarbons. The use of catalytic converters requires the use of lead-free or low-lead gasoline. The nitrogen oxides conversion efficiency is considerably influenced by the oxygen-to-CO ratio of the exhaust gas, which makes limitation of this ratio necessary.

  5. Potentiality of a ceramic membrane reactor for the laccase-catalyzed removal of bisphenol A from secondary effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arca-Ramos, A; Eibes, G; Feijoo, G; Lema, J M; Moreira, M T

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the removal of bisphenol A (BPA) by laccase in a continuous enzymatic membrane reactor (EMR) was investigated. The effects of key parameters, namely, type of laccase, pH, and enzyme activity, were initially evaluated. Once optimal conditions were determined, the continuous removal of the pollutant in an EMR was assessed in synthetic and real biologically treated wastewaters. The reactor configuration consisted of a stirred tank reactor coupled to a ceramic membrane, which prevented the sorption of the pollutant and allowed the recovery and recycling of laccase. Nearly complete removal of BPA was attained under both operation regimes with removal yields above 94.5 %. In experiments with real wastewater, the removal of BPA remained high while the presence of colloids and certain ions and the formation of precipitates on the membrane potentially affected enzyme stability and made necessary the periodic addition of laccase. Polymerization and degradation were observed as probable mechanisms of BPA transformation by laccase.

  6. Fast Pyrolysis Oil Stabilization: An Integrated Catalytic and Membrane Approach for Improved Bio-oils. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, George W.; Upadhye, Aniruddha A.; Ford, David M.; Bhatia, Surita R.; Badger, Phillip C.

    2012-10-19

    This University of Massachusetts, Amherst project, "Fast Pyrolysis Oil Stabilization: An Integrated Catalytic and Membrane Approach for Improved Bio-oils" started on 1st February 2009 and finished on August 31st 2011. The project consisted following tasks: Task 1.0: Char Removal by Membrane Separation Technology The presence of char particles in the bio-oil causes problems in storage and end-use. Currently there is no well-established technology to remove char particles less than 10 micron in size. This study focused on the application of a liquid-phase microfiltration process to remove char particles from bio-oil down to slightly sub-micron levels. Tubular ceramic membranes of nominal pore sizes 0.5 and 0.8m were employed to carry out the microfiltration, which was conducted in the cross-flow mode at temperatures ranging from 38 to 45 C and at three different trans-membrane pressures varying from 1 to 3 bars. The results demonstrated the removal of the major quantity of char particles with a significant reduction in overall ash content of the bio-oil. The results clearly showed that the cake formation mechanism of fouling is predominant in this process. Task 2.0 Acid Removal by Membrane Separation Technology The feasibility of removing small organic acids from the aqueous fraction of fast pyrolysis bio-oils using nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes was studied. Experiments were carried out with a single solute solutions of acetic acid and glucose, binary solute solutions containing both acetic acid and glucose, and a model aqueous fraction of bio-oil (AFBO). Retention factors above 90% for glucose and below 0% for acetic acid were observed at feed pressures near 40 bar for single and binary solutions, so that their separation in the model AFBO was expected to be feasible. However, all of the membranes were irreversibly damaged when experiments were conducted with the model AFBO due to the presence of guaiacol in the feed solution. Experiments

  7. Pd based ultrathin membranes for the tritiated water gas shift reaction in the ITER breeder recovery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosti, S.; Bettinali, L.; Violante, V.; Basile, A.; Chiappetta, M.; Criscuoli, A.; Drioli, E.; Rizzelo, C.

    1998-01-01

    A mathematical model of a catalytic membrane reactor (CMR) for the water gas shift reaction has been carried out. Based on the model, a new closed loop process for the tritium removal system for the ITER test module of helium cooled pebble bed blanket concept has been studied. A CMR is the main equipment of the proposed process. The main advantages of the closed loop process are related to the absence of secondary wastes, low tritium inventories, moderate operating temperatures and pressures, low dilution of the stream to be processed by isotopic separation. As permeating membranes in the CMR ultra-thin metallic membranes of Pd and PdAg (50-70 μm thick) have been studied. A ceramic porous tube, containing the catalyst in the lumen, has been put in the metallic tube to obtain the CMR for the water gas shifting. Experimental tests, carried out both on ultra-thin membranes and CMRs for the water gas shift reaction, confirmed the behavior studied by the theoretical model and showed a long live of the membrane. (authors)

  8. Study of loading/air back-pulse cleaning cycles on the performance of ceramic membrane filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waggoner, Charles; Alderman, Steven; Parsons, Michael; Hogoncamp, Kristina; Alderman, Steven

    2007-01-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The most commonly identified threats to conventional glass fiber HEPA filter performance are moisture and rapid blinding of filters by smoke. Regenerable filter media composed of ceramics or sintered metal can be utilized as pre-filters to protect the more vulnerable glass fiber HEPA filters in the event of upset conditions. Additionally, used in a pre-filtering application, the use of these regenerable filters can potentially extend the lifetime of conventional units. A series of tests have been conducted using CeraMem ceramic membrane filters in an effort to evaluate their performance after repeated loading and air back pulse cleaning. This was done in an effort to access filter performance after repeated loading/cleaning cycles. The filters were loaded using a solid potassium chloride aerosol challenge. The filters were evaluated for pressure drop and filtering efficiency changes from one cleaning cycle to the next. Additionally, the particle size distribution of the aerosol penetrating the filters was measured. (authors)

  9. Advanced Hydrogen Transport Membranes for Vision 21 Fossil Fuel Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carl R. Evenson; Shane E. Roark

    2006-03-31

    The objective of this project was to develop an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. A family of hydrogen separation membranes was developed including single phase mixed conducting ceramics, ceramic/ceramic composites, cermet membranes, cermet membranes containing a hydrogen permeable metal, and intermediate temperature composite layered membranes. Each membrane type had different operating parameters, advantages, and disadvantages that were documented over the course of the project. Research on these membranes progressed from ceramics to cermets to intermediate temperature composite layered membranes. During this progression performance was increased from 0.01 mL x min{sup -1} x cm{sup -2} up to 423 mL x min{sup -1} x cm{sup -2}. Eltron and team membranes not only developed each membrane type, but also membrane surface catalysis and impurity tolerance, creation of thin film membranes, alternative applications such as membrane promoted alkane dehydrogenation, demonstration of scale-up testing, and complete engineering documentation including process and mechanical considerations necessary for inclusion of Eltron membranes in a full scale integrated gasification combined cycle power plant. The results of this project directly led to a new $15 million program funded by the Department of Energy. This new project will focus exclusively on scale-up of this technology as part of the FutureGen initiative.

  10. Niobia-silica and silica membranes for gas separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boffa, V.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of ceramic membranes suitable for hydrogen separation and CO2 recovery from gaseous streams. The research work was focused on the three different parts of which gas selective ceramic membranes are composed, i.e., the microporous gas selective silica layer, the

  11. Facile and scalable fabrication of polymer-ceramic composite electrolyte with high ceramic loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandian, Amaresh Samuthira; Chen, X. Chelsea; Chen, Jihua; Lokitz, Bradley S.; Ruther, Rose E.; Yang, Guang; Lou, Kun; Nanda, Jagjit; Delnick, Frank M.; Dudney, Nancy J.

    2018-06-01

    Solid state electrolytes are a promising alternative to flammable liquid electrolytes for high-energy lithium battery applications. In this work polymer-ceramic composite electrolyte membrane with high ceramic loading (greater than 60 vol%) is fabricated using a model polymer electrolyte poly(ethylene oxide) + lithium trifluoromethane sulfonate and a lithium-conducting ceramic powder. The effects of processing methods, choice of plasticizer and varying composition on ionic conductivity of the composite electrolyte are thoroughly investigated. The physical, structural and thermal properties of the composites are exhaustively characterized. We demonstrate that aqueous spray coating followed by hot pressing is a scalable and inexpensive technique to obtain composite membranes that are amazingly dense and uniform. The ionic conductivity of composites fabricated using this protocol is at least one order of magnitude higher than those made by dry milling and solution casting. The introduction of tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether further increases the ionic conductivity. The composite electrolyte's interfacial compatibility with metallic lithium and good cyclability is verified by constructing lithium symmetrical cells. A remarkable Li+ transference number of 0.79 is discovered for the composite electrolyte.

  12. Generation of nanobubbles by ceramic membrane filters: The dependence of bubble size and zeta potential on surface coating, pore size and injected gas pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ahmed Khaled Abdella; Sun, Cuizhen; Hua, Likun; Zhang, Zhibin; Zhang, Yanhao; Zhang, Wen; Marhaba, Taha

    2018-07-01

    Generation of gaseous nanobubbles (NBs) by simple, efficient, and scalable methods is critical for industrialization and applications of nanobubbles. Traditional generation methods mainly rely on hydrodynamic, acoustic, particle, and optical cavitation. These generation processes render issues such as high energy consumption, non-flexibility, and complexity. This research investigated the use of tubular ceramic nanofiltration membranes to generate NBs in water with air, nitrogen and oxygen gases. This system injects pressurized gases through a tubular ceramic membrane with nanopores to create NBs. The effects of membrane pores size, surface energy, and the injected gas pressures on the bubble size and zeta potential were examined. The results show that the gas injection pressure had considerable effects on the bubble size, zeta potential, pH, and dissolved oxygen of the produced NBs. For example, increasing the injection air pressure from 69 kPa to 414 kPa, the air bubble size was reduced from 600 to 340 nm respectively. Membrane pores size and surface energy also had significant effects on sizes and zeta potentials of NBs. The results presented here aim to fill out the gaps of fundamental knowledge about NBs and development of efficient generation methods. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Removal of selected nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds in biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (BPCGW) using the catalytic ozonation process combined with the two-stage membrane bioreactor (MBR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hao; Han, Yuxing; Ma, Wencheng; Han, Hongjun; Ma, Weiwei

    2017-12-01

    Three identical anoxic-aerobic membrane bioreactors (MBRs) were operated in parallel for 300 consecutive days for raw (R 1 ), ozonated (R 2 ) and catalytic ozonated (R 3 ) biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (BPCGW) treatment. The results demonstrated that catalytic ozonation process (COP) applied asa pretreatment remarkably improved the performance of the unsatisfactory single MBR. The overall removal efficiencies of COD, NH 3 -N and TN in R 3 were 92.7%, 95.6% and 80.6%, respectively. In addition, typical nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds (NHCs) of quinoline, pyridine and indole were completely removed in the integrated process. Moreover, COP could alter sludge properties and reshape microbial community structure, thus delaying the occurrence of membrane fouling. Finally, the total cost for this integrated process was estimated to be lower than that of single MBR. The results of this study suggest that COP is a good option to enhance pollutants removal and alleviate membrane fouling in the MBR for BPCGW treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Hydrogen amplification of coke oven gas by reforming of methane in a ceramic membrane reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuwen; Li, Qian; Shen, Peijun; Liu, Yong; Yang, Zhibin; Ding, Weizhong; Lu, Xionggang [School of Material Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, No. 275 Mail Box, 149 Yanchang Road, Shanghai 200072 (China)

    2008-07-15

    To maximize hydrogen production from coke oven gas (COG), partial oxidation of methane in COG was studied thermodynamically and experimentally. Thermodynamic analysis indicates that an optimal hydrogen yield of 1.04-1.10 mole per mole of the consumed COG can be achieved when the initial ratio of O{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} is 0.57-0.46 in a temperature range of 800-900 C, and the corresponding amplification of original hydrogen in COG reaches 1.8-1.9 times. The amplification of original hydrogen was carried out in a BaCo{sub 0.7}Fe{sub 0.2}Nb{sub 0.1}O{sub 3-{delta}} (BCFNO) membrane reactor, and the hydrogen yield in the lab scale was about 80% more than that of original H{sub 2} in model COG. In a large hydrogen content in COG, the ceramic membrane reactors made from perovskite mixed-conducting oxygen-permeable materials must have higher stability to withstand the harsh reduction condition. (author)

  15. Cordierite containing ceramic membranes from smectetic clay using natural organic wastes as pore-forming agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Misrar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cordierite ceramic membranes were manufactured from natural clay, oxides and organic wastes as pore forming agents. Mixtures aforementioned materials with the pore-forming agents (up to 10 wt.% were investigated in the range 1000–1200 °C using thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, mercury porosimetry and filtration tests. Physical properties (density, water absorption and bending strength were correlated to the processing factors (pore-forming agent addition, firing temperature and soaking time. The results showed that cordierite together with spinel, diopside and clinoenstatite neoformed. SEM analysis revealed heterogeneous aspects. The results of the response surface methodology showed that the variations of physical properties versus processing parameters were well described by the used polynomial model. The addition of pore forming agent and temperature were the most influential factors. Filtration tests were performed on the best performing sample. The results allowed to testify that these membranes could be used in waste water treatment.

  16. Coordination kinetics of different metal ions with the amidoximated polyacrylonitrile nanofibrous membranes and catalytic behaviors of their complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Fu; Dong, Yong Chun; Kang, Wei Min; Cheng, Bowen; Qu, Xiang; Cui, Guixin [School of Textiles, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin (China)

    2016-12-15

    Two transition metal ions (Fe{sup 3+} and Cu{sup 2+}) and a rare earth metal ion (Ce{sup 3+}) were selected to coordinate with amidoximated polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibrous membrane for preparing three metal modified PAN nanofibrous membrane complexes (M-AO-n-PANs, M = Fe, Cu, or Ce) as the heterogeneous Fenton catalysts for the dye degradation in water under visible irradiation. The coordination kinetics of three metal ions with modified PAN nanofibrous membranes was studied and the catalytic properties of the resulting complexes were also compared. The results indicated that increasing metal ion concentrations in solution or higher coordination temperature led to a significant increase in metal content, particularly in Fe and Cu contents of the complexes. Their coordination process could be described using Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second-order kinetic equations. Moreover, Fe-AO-n-PAN had the best photocatalytic efficiency for the dye degradation in acidic medium, but a lower photocatalytic activity than Cu-AO-n-PAN in alkali medium.

  17. High-performance ceramics - state of the art and trends of development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadow, R.; Keizer, K; Burggraaf, A.J.; Boch, P.; Chartier, T.; Thomann, H.

    1989-01-01

    This paper contains 4 lectures on the following topics: 1. fiber and whisker reinforced ceramics (R. Gadow), 2. ceramic membranes (K. Keizer, A.J. Burggraf), 3. ceramic processing techniques: The case of tape casting (P. Bach, T. Chartier), 4. ceramic superconductors (H. Thomann). Three contributions are separately analyzed for the ENERGIE database. (MM) [de

  18. Reaction-sintered porous mineral-based mullite ceramic membrane supports made from recycled materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yingchao; Zhou, Jian-Er; Lin, Bin; Wang, Yongqing; Wang, Songlin; Miao, Lifeng; Lang, Ying; Liu, Xingqin; Meng, Guangyao

    2009-12-15

    Bulk porous mullite supports for ceramic membranes were prepared directly using a mixture of industrial waste fly ash and bauxite by dry-pressing, followed by sintering between 1200 and 1550 degrees C. The effects of sintering temperature on the phase composition and shrinkage percent of porous mullite were studied. The XRD results indicate that secondary mullitization reaction took place above 1200 degrees C, and completed at 1450 degrees C. During sintering, the mixture samples first shrunk, then expanded abnormally between 1326 and 1477 degrees C, and finally shrunk again above 1477 degrees C. This unique volume self-expansion is ascribed to the secondary mullitization reaction between bauxite and fly ash. More especially, the micro-structural variations induced by this self-expansion sintering were verified by SEM, porosity, pore size distribution and nitrogen gas permeation flux. During self-expansion sintering, with increasing temperature, an abnormal increase in both open porosity and pore size is observed, which also results in the increase of nitrogen gas flux. The mineral-based mullite supports with increased open porosity were obtained. Furthermore, the sintered porous mullite membrane supports were characterized in terms of thermal expansion co-efficient and mechanical strength.

  19. Conversion of hydrophilic SiOC nanofibrous membrane to robust hydrophobic materials by introducing palladium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Nan; Wan, Lynn Yuqin; Wang, Yingde; Ko, Frank

    2017-12-01

    Hydrophobic ceramic nanofibrous membranes have wide applications in the fields of high-temperature filters, oil/water separators, catalyst supports and membrane reactors, for their water repellency property, self-cleaning capability, good environmental stability and long life span. In this work, we fabricated an inherently hydrophobic ceramic nanofiber membrane without any surface modification through pyrolysis of electrospun polycarbosilane nanofibers. The hydrophobicity was introduced by the hierarchical microstructure formed on the surface of the nanofibers and the special surface composition by the addition of trace amounts of palladium. Furthermore, the flexible ceramic mats demonstrated robust chemical resistance properties with consistent hydrophobicity over the entire pH value range and effective water-in-oil emulsion separation performance. Interestingly, a highly cohesive force was found between water droplet and the ceramic membranes, suggesting their great potentials in micro-liquid transportation. This work provides a new route for adjusting the composition of ceramic surface and flexible, recyclable and multifunctional ceramic fibrous membranes for utilization in harsh environments.

  20. Wettability modified nanoporous ceramic membrane for simultaneous residual heat and condensate recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, H. W.; Tang, G. H.; Niu, D.

    2016-06-01

    Recovery of both latent heat and condensate from boiler flue gas is significant for improving boiler efficiency and water conservation. The condensation experiments are carried out to investigate the simultaneous heat and mass transfer across the nanoporous ceramic membranes (NPCMs) which are treated to be hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces using the semicontinuous supercritical reactions. The effects of typical parameters including coolant flow rate, vapor/nitrogen gas mixture temperature, water vapor volume fraction and transmembrane pressure on heat and mass transfer performance are studied. The experimental results show that the hydrophilic NPCM exhibits higher performances of condensation heat transfer and condensate recovery. However, the hydrophobic modification results in remarkable degradation of heat and condensate recovery from the mixture. Molecular dynamics simulations are conducted to establish a hydrophilic/hydrophobic nanopore/water liquid system, and the infiltration characteristics of the single hydrophilic/hydrophobic nanopore is revealed.

  1. Wettability modified nanoporous ceramic membrane for simultaneous residual heat and condensate recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, H W; Tang, G H; Niu, D

    2016-06-07

    Recovery of both latent heat and condensate from boiler flue gas is significant for improving boiler efficiency and water conservation. The condensation experiments are carried out to investigate the simultaneous heat and mass transfer across the nanoporous ceramic membranes (NPCMs) which are treated to be hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces using the semicontinuous supercritical reactions. The effects of typical parameters including coolant flow rate, vapor/nitrogen gas mixture temperature, water vapor volume fraction and transmembrane pressure on heat and mass transfer performance are studied. The experimental results show that the hydrophilic NPCM exhibits higher performances of condensation heat transfer and condensate recovery. However, the hydrophobic modification results in remarkable degradation of heat and condensate recovery from the mixture. Molecular dynamics simulations are conducted to establish a hydrophilic/hydrophobic nanopore/water liquid system, and the infiltration characteristics of the single hydrophilic/hydrophobic nanopore is revealed.

  2. Ceramic Ultrafiltration of Marine Algal Solutions: A Comprehensive Study

    KAUST Repository

    Dramas, Laure

    2014-01-01

    understanding of UF membrane fouling caused by algal organic matter (AOM) is needed, in order to adjust the filtration conditions during algal bloom events. Polymeric MF/UF membranes are already widely used for RO pretreatment, but ceramic UF membranes can also

  3. Mesoporous and microporous titania membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sekulic, J.

    2004-01-01

    The research described in this thesis deals with the synthesis and properties of ceramic oxide membrane materials. Since most of the currently available inorganic membranes with required separation properties have limited reliability and long-term stability, membranes made of new oxide materials

  4. A conceptual design of catalytic gasification fuel cell hybrid power plant with oxygen transfer membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wangying; Han, Minfang

    2017-09-01

    A hybrid power generation system integrating catalytic gasification, solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), oxygen transfer membrane (OTM) and gas turbine (GT) is established and system energy analysis is performed. In this work, the catalytic gasifier uses steam, recycled anode off-gas and pure oxygen from OTM system to gasify coal, and heated by hot cathode off-gas at the same time. A zero-dimension SOFC model is applied and verified by fitting experimental data. Thermodynamic analysis is performed to investigate the integrated system performance, and system sensitivities on anode off-gas back flow ratio, SOFC fuel utilization, temperature and pressure are discussed. Main conclusions are as follows: (1) System overall electricity efficiency reaches 60.7%(HHV) while the gasifier operates at 700 °C and SOFC at 850 °C with system pressure at 3.04 bar; (2) oxygen enriched combustion simplify the carbon-dioxide capture process, which derives CO2 of 99.2% purity, but results in a penalty of 6.7% on system electricity efficiency; (3) with SOFC fuel utilization or temperature increasing, the power output of SOFC increases while GT power output decreases, and increasing system pressure can improve both the performance of SOFC and GT.

  5. Ultrathin Ceramic Membranes as Scaffolds for Functional Cell Coculture Models on a Biomimetic Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jud, Corinne; Ahmed, Sher; Müller, Loretta; Kinnear, Calum; Vanhecke, Dimitri; Umehara, Yuki; Frey, Sabine; Liley, Martha; Angeloni, Silvia; Petri-Fink, Alke; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Epithelial tissue serves as an interface between biological compartments. Many in vitro epithelial cell models have been developed as an alternative to animal experiments to answer a range of research questions. These in vitro models are grown on permeable two-chamber systems; however, commercially available, polymer-based cell culture inserts are around 10 μm thick. Since the basement membrane found in biological systems is usually less than 1 μm thick, the 10-fold thickness of cell culture inserts is a major limitation in the establishment of realistic models. In this work, an alternative insert, accommodating an ultrathin ceramic membrane with a thickness of only 500 nm (i.e., the Silicon nitride Microporous Permeable Insert [SIMPLI]-well), was produced and used to refine an established human alveolar barrier coculture model by both replacing the conventional inserts with the SIMPLI-well and completing it with endothelial cells. The structural–functional relationship of the model was evaluated, including the translocation of gold nanoparticles across the barrier, revealing a higher translocation if compared to corresponding polyethylene terephthalate (PET) membranes. This study demonstrates the power of the SIMPLI-well system as a scaffold for epithelial tissue cell models on a truly biomimetic scale, allowing construction of more functionally accurate models of human biological barriers. PMID:26713225

  6. Investigation on the effect of sintering temperature on kaolin hollow fibre membrane for dye filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtor, Nur Hamizah; Othman, Mohd Hafiz Dzarfan; Ismail, Ahmad Fauzi; Rahman, Mukhlis A; Jaafar, Juhana; Hashim, Nur Awanis

    2017-07-01

    Despite its extraordinary price, ceramic membrane can still be able to surpass polymeric membrane in the applications that require high temperature and pressure conditions, as well as harsh chemical environment. In order to alleviate the high cost of ceramic material that still becomes one of the major factors that contributes to the high production cost of ceramic membrane, various attempts have been made to use low cost ceramic materials as alternatives to well-known expensive ceramic materials such as alumina, silica, and zirconia in the fabrication of ceramic membrane. Thus, local Malaysian kaolin has been chosen as the ceramic material in this study for the preparation of kaolin hollow fibre membrane since it is inexpensive and naturally abundant in Malaysia. Due to the fact that the sintering process plays a prominent role in obtaining the desired morphology, properties, and performances of prepared ceramic membrane, the aim of this work was to study the effect of different sintering temperatures applied (ranging from 1200 to 1500 °C) in the preparation of kaolin hollow fibre membrane via dry/wet phase inversion-based spinning technique and sintering process. The morphology and properties of membrane were then characterised by SEM, AFM, FTIR, XRD, and three-point bending test, while the performances of membrane were investigated by conducting water permeation and Reactive Black 5 (RB5) dye rejection tests. From the experimental results obtained, the sintering temperature of 1400 °C could be selected as the optimum sintering temperature in preparing the kaolin hollow fibre membrane with the dense sponge-like structure of separation layer that resulted in the good mechanical strength of 70 MPa with the appreciable water permeation of 75 L/h m 2  bar and RB5 rejection of 68%.

  7. CO{sub 2} separation from biogas with ceramic membranes; CO{sub 2}-Abtrennung aus Biogas mit keramischen Membranen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fassauer, Burkhardt; Richter, Hannes; Schwarz, Bjoern; Reger-Wagner, Norman; Kaemnitz, Susanne [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Keramische Technologien und Systeme IKTS, Dresden (Germany); Lubenau, Udo; Mothes, Raimund [DBI Gas- und Umwelttechnik GmbH, Leipzig (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Biogas contains after the production of up to 55% CO{sub 2}. In order to use biogas as a fuel or to feed it into the natural gas network, it must be purified before. Adsorption and scrubbing processes are primarily used technically. Membrane processes offer the advantage of continuous operation and a simple modular and flexible system design, which imply relatively low investment costs and low energy needs. Moreover, membrane systems can be started up and shut down quickly without any problems. Ceramic membranes are characterised by high stability (thermal, chemical, mechanical) and very high flows in comparison to polymeric membranes. [German] Biogas enthaelt nach der Erzeugung bis zu 55 % CO{sub 2}. Um Biogas als Kraftstoff zu nutzen oder in das Erdgasnetz einspeisen zu koennen, muss es zuvor gereinigt werden. Technisch genutzt werden vor allem Adsorptions- und Waschverfahren. Membranverfahren bieten den Vorteil eines kontinuierlichen Betriebes sowie einer einfachen, modularen und flexiblen Anlagenkonzeption, die vergleichsweise niedrige Investitionskosten und einen geringen Energiebedarf bedeuten. Darueber hinaus koennen Membrananlagen schnell an- und abgefahren werden und voellig ohne Probleme abgeschaltet werden. Keramische Membranen zeichnen sich gegenueber Polymermembranen durch hohe Stabilitaet (thermisch, chemisch, mechanisch) und sehr hohe Fluesse aus.

  8. Hydrogen Production From catalytic reforming of greenhouse gases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    a fixed bed stainless steel reactor. The 20wt%. ... catalytic activity for hydrogen production with the highest yield and selectivity of 32.5% and 17.6% respectively. © JASEM ... CO2 reforming of methane is however not fully developed ..... Design and preparation of .... catalytic nickel membrane for gas to liquid (GTL) process.

  9. Modulation of catalytic activity in multi-domain protein tyrosine phosphatases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalima L Madan

    Full Text Available Signaling mechanisms involving protein tyrosine phosphatases govern several cellular and developmental processes. These enzymes are regulated by several mechanisms which include variation in the catalytic turnover rate based on redox stimuli, subcellular localization or protein-protein interactions. In the case of Receptor Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases (RPTPs containing two PTP domains, phosphatase activity is localized in their membrane-proximal (D1 domains, while the membrane-distal (D2 domain is believed to play a modulatory role. Here we report our analysis of the influence of the D2 domain on the catalytic activity and substrate specificity of the D1 domain using two Drosophila melanogaster RPTPs as a model system. Biochemical studies reveal contrasting roles for the D2 domain of Drosophila Leukocyte antigen Related (DLAR and Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase on Drosophila chromosome band 99A (PTP99A. While D2 lowers the catalytic activity of the D1 domain in DLAR, the D2 domain of PTP99A leads to an increase in the catalytic activity of its D1 domain. Substrate specificity, on the other hand, is cumulative, whereby the individual specificities of the D1 and D2 domains contribute to the substrate specificity of these two-domain enzymes. Molecular dynamics simulations on structural models of DLAR and PTP99A reveal a conformational rationale for the experimental observations. These studies reveal that concerted structural changes mediate inter-domain communication resulting in either inhibitory or activating effects of the membrane distal PTP domain on the catalytic activity of the membrane proximal PTP domain.

  10. [Pollution prevention and control of aqueous extract of astragali radix processed with ZrO2 inorganic ceramic membrane micro-filtration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lin-Men; Huang, Min-Yan; Guo, Li-Wei

    2012-11-01

    To study the measures for preventing and controlling the pollution of aqueous extract of Astragali Radix proceeded with inorganic ceramic membrane micro-filtration, in order to find effective measures for preventing and controlling the membrane pollution. The resistance distribution, polymer removal and changes in physical and chemical parameters of the zirconium oxide film of different pore diameters were determined to analyze the state or location of pollutants as well as the regularity of formation. Meanwhile, recoil and ultrasonic physical measures were adopted to strengthen the membrane process, in order to explore the methods for preventing and controlling the membrane pollution. When 0.2 microm of ZrO2 micro-filtrated aqueous extract of Astragali Radix, the rate of pollution was as high as 44.9%. The hole blocking resistance and the concentration polarization resistance were the main filtration resistances, while the surface deposit resistance decreased with the increase in the membrane's hold diameter; after micro-filtration, the liquid turbidity significantly reduced, with slight changes in both pH and viscosity. The 0.2 microm ZrO2 micro-filtration membrane performed better than the 0.05 microm pore size membrane in terms of conductivity. The 0. 2 microm and 0.05 microm pore diameter membranes showed better performance in the removal of pectin. The ultrasonic measure to strengthen membranes is more suitable to this system, with a flux rate up by 41.7%. The membrane optimization process adopts appropriate measures for preventing and controlling the membrane pollution, in order to reduce the membrane pollution, recover membrane performance and increase filtration efficiency.

  11. Glass-ceramic material and method of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhardt, Kerry D [Richland, WA; Vienna, John D [West Richland, WA; Armstrong, Timothy R [Pasco, WA; Pederson, Larry R [Kennewick, WA

    2002-08-13

    The present invention is a glass-ceramic material and method of making useful for joining at least two solid ceramic parts. The seal is a blend of M.sub.A O--M.sub.B O.sub.y --SiO.sub.2 that substantially matches a coefficient of thermal expansion of the solid electrolyte. According to the present invention, a series of glass ceramics in the M.sub.A O--M.sub.B O.sub.y --SiO.sub.2 system can be used to join or seal both tubular and planar ceramic solid oxide fuel cells, oxygen electrolyzers, and membrane reactors for the production of syngas, commodity chemicals and other products.

  12. Proton Content and Nature in Perovskite Ceramic Membranes for Medium Temperature Fuel Cells and Electrolysers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Slodczyk

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent interest in environmentally friendly technology has promoted research on green house gas-free devices such as water steam electrolyzers, fuel cells and CO2/syngas converters. In such applications, proton conducting perovskite ceramics appear especially promising as electrolyte membranes. Prior to a successful industrial application, it is necessary to determine/understand their complex physical and chemical behavior, especially that related to proton incorporation mechanism, content and nature of bulk protonic species. Based on the results of quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QNS, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, Raman and IR measurements we will show the complexity of the protonation process and the importance of differentiation between the protonic species adsorbed on a membrane surface and the bulk protons. The bulk proton content is very low, with a doping limit (~1–5 × 10−3 mole/mole, but sufficient to guarantee proton conduction below 600 °C. The bulk protons posses an ionic, covalent bond free nature and may occupy an interstitial site in the host perovskite structure.

  13. Recent advances on polymeric membranes for membrane reactors

    KAUST Repository

    Buonomenna, M. G.

    2012-06-24

    Membrane reactors are generally applied in high temperature reactions (>400 °C). In the field of fine chemical synthesis, however, much milder conditions are generally applicable and polymeric membranes were applied without their damage. The successful use of membranes in membrane reactors is primary the result of two developments concerning: (i) membrane materials and (ii) membrane structures. The selection of a suited material and preparation technique depends on the application the membrane is to be used in. In this chapter a review of up to date literature about polymers and configuration catalyst/ membranes used in some recent polymeric membrane reactors is given. The new emerging concept of polymeric microcapsules as catalytic microreactors has been proposed. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of the Interaction between Aquatic Humic Substances and Algal Organic Matter on the Fouling of a Ceramic Microfiltration Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolei; Fan, Linhua; Roddick, Felicity A

    2018-02-01

    The influence of the interaction between aquatic humic substances and the algal organic matter (AOM) derived from Microcystis aeruginosa on the fouling of a ceramic microfiltration (MF) membrane was studied. AOM alone resulted in a significantly greater flux decline compared with Suwannee River humic acid (HA), and fulvic acid (FA). The mixture of AOM with HA and FA exhibited a similar flux pattern as the AOM alone in the single-cycle filtration tests, indicating the flux decline may be predominantly controlled by the AOM in the early filtration cycles. The mixtures resulted in a marked increase in irreversible fouling resistance compared with all individual feed solutions. An increase in zeta potential was observed for the mixtures (becoming more negatively charged), which was in accordance with the increased reversible fouling resistance resulting from enhanced electrostatic repulsion between the organic compounds and the negatively-charged ceramic membrane. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and size exclusion chromatography analyses showed an apparent increase in molecular size for the AOM-humics mixtures, and some UV-absorbing molecules in the humics appeared to participate in the formation of larger aggregates with the AOM, which led to greater extent of pore plugging and hence resulted in higher irreversible fouling resistance.

  15. Impact of the Interaction between Aquatic Humic Substances and Algal Organic Matter on the Fouling of a Ceramic Microfiltration Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolei Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the interaction between aquatic humic substances and the algal organic matter (AOM derived from Microcystis aeruginosa on the fouling of a ceramic microfiltration (MF membrane was studied. AOM alone resulted in a significantly greater flux decline compared with Suwannee River humic acid (HA, and fulvic acid (FA. The mixture of AOM with HA and FA exhibited a similar flux pattern as the AOM alone in the single-cycle filtration tests, indicating the flux decline may be predominantly controlled by the AOM in the early filtration cycles. The mixtures resulted in a marked increase in irreversible fouling resistance compared with all individual feed solutions. An increase in zeta potential was observed for the mixtures (becoming more negatively charged, which was in accordance with the increased reversible fouling resistance resulting from enhanced electrostatic repulsion between the organic compounds and the negatively-charged ceramic membrane. Dynamic light scattering (DLS and size exclusion chromatography analyses showed an apparent increase in molecular size for the AOM-humics mixtures, and some UV-absorbing molecules in the humics appeared to participate in the formation of larger aggregates with the AOM, which led to greater extent of pore plugging and hence resulted in higher irreversible fouling resistance.

  16. Histologic evaluation of the bone-ceramic interface of an alumina ceramic cup arthroplasty retrieved after 25 years in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuminori Higuchi, MD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A 47-year-old man underwent ceramic cup arthroplasty when he was 22 years old. Revision total hip arthroplasty was performed 25 years later because of limited range of motion without implant loosening. Histologic examination revealed that the femoral head and ceramic implant were well fixed through a thin fibrous membrane. The energy-dispersive X-ray analysis indicated that calcium and phosphorus were detected in the same peak pattern as cancellous bone in the bone-ceramic interface.

  17. Industrial applications of membrane processes in chemistry and energy generation; Applications industrielles des procedes membranaires en chimie et production d'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    process for the processing of industrial effluents; 6 - membrane reactors: membrane catalytic reactors: extraction, isobutane dehydrogenation and xylenes isomerization; selective oxidation of n-butane, water treatment by gas-liquid processes; selectiveness improvement of the butadiene selective hydrogenation with the use of a membrane reactor; comparison of the efficiency of three catalytic reactors for the destruction of VOCs; 7 - gases and vapors separation: a new generation of particulate filters with catalyst impregnation for DeNox function; use of membranes for uranium enrichment: example of the EURODIF plant; inorganic membranes for integration in power generation cycles and hydrogen production; treatment of natural gas with Air Liquide-MEDAL hollow fiber membranes; 8 - liquids separation: nano-filtration in organic environment: state-of-the-art; recycling of organic compounds by inverse osmosis and seawater sulfate removing by nano-filtration; use of organic and mineral membranes in chemistry; membrane separation in chemicals manufacture; advantages and drawbacks of different membrane systems for the treatment of industrial water; concentration and recovery of organic pigments using ceramic membranes; 9 - membranes, processes and simulation: industrial experience with hybrid distillation - pervaporation or vapor permeation applications; electro-dialysis integration in amines and glycol solutions purification processes; integration of MFI membranes in the light gasoline isomerization process. (J.S.)

  18. Catalytic, Conductive Bipolar Membrane Interfaces through Layer-by-Layer Deposition for the Design of Membrane-Integrated Artificial Photosynthesis Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Michael B; Freund, Michael S; Hammond, Paula T

    2017-11-23

    In the presence of an electric field, bipolar membranes (BPMs) are capable of initiating water disassociation (WD) within the interfacial region, which can make water splitting for renewable energy in the presence of a pH gradient possible. In addition to WD catalytic efficiency, there is also the need for electronic conductivity in this region for membrane-integrated artificial photosynthesis (AP) systems. Graphene oxide (GO) was shown to catalyze WD and to be controllably reduced, which resulted in electronic conductivity. Layer-by-layer (LbL) film deposition was employed to improve GO film uniformity in the interfacial region to enhance WD catalysis and, through the addition of a conducting polymer in the process, add electronic conductivity in a hybrid film. Three different deposition methods were tested to optimize conducting polymer synthesis with the oxidant in a metastable solution and to yield the best film properties. It was found that an approach that included substrate dipping in a solution containing the expected final monomer/oxidant ratio provided the most predictable film growth and smoothest films (by UV/Vis spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy/scanning electron microscopy, respectively), whereas dipping in excess oxidant or co-spraying the oxidant and monomer produced heterogeneous films. Optimized films were found to be electronically conductive and produced a membrane ohmic drop that was acceptable for AP applications. Films were integrated into the interfacial region of BPMs and revealed superior WD efficiency (≥1.4 V at 10 mA cm -2 ) for thinner films (<10 bilayers≈100 nm) than for either the pure GO catalyst or conducting polymer individually, which indicated that there was a synergistic effect between these materials in the structure configured by the LbL method. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Preparation of a surface-grafted imprinted ceramic membrane for selective separation of molybdate anion from water solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jianxian; Dong, Zhihui; Zhang, Zhe; Liu, Yuan

    2017-07-05

    A surface-grafted imprinted ceramic membrane (IIP-PVI/CM) for recognizing molybdate (Mo(VI)) anion was prepared by surface-initiated graft-polymerization. Firstly, raw alumina ceramic membrane (CM) was deposited with SiO 2 active layer by situ hydrolysis deposition method. Subsequently, γ-methacryloxy propyl trimethoxyl silane (MPS) was used as a coupling agent to introduce double bonds onto the SiO 2 layer (MPS-CM). Then, 1-vinylimidazole (VI) was employed as a functional monomer to graft-polymerization onto the MPS-CM (PVI-CM). During the graft-polymerization, the influence factors of grafting degree of PVI were investigated in detail. Under optimum conditions (monomer concentration 20wt%, temperature 70°C, initiator amount 1.1wt% and reaction time 8h), the grafting degree of 20.39g/100g was obtained. Further, Mo(VI) anion was used as a template to imprint in the PVI-CM by employing 1,6-dibromohexane as a cross-linking agent, and then Mo(VI) was removed, obtaining the IIP-PVI/CM with many imprinted cavities for Mo(VI). Thereafter, static adsorption and dynamic separation properties of IIP-PVI/CM for Mo(VI) were studied. Results indicate that IIP-PVI/CM shows a specific selectivity for Mo(VI) with the adsorption capacity of 0.69mmol/100g, and the selectivity coefficient of IIP-PVI/CM is 7.48 for molybdate to tungstate anions. During the dynamic separation, IIP-PVI/CM has also good selectivity for separation of Mo(VI) and W(VI) anions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Incorporation of zinc for fabrication of low-cost spinel-based composite ceramic membrane support to achieve its stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingling; Dong, Xinfa; Dong, Yingchao; Zhu, Li; You, Sheng-Jie; Wang, Ya-Fen

    2015-04-28

    In order to reduce environment risk of zinc, a spinel-based porous membrane support was prepared by the high-temperature reaction of zinc and bauxite mineral. The phase evolution process, shrinkage, porosity, mechanical property, pore size distribution, gas permeation flux and microstructure were systematically studied. The XRD results, based on a Zn/Al stoichiometric composition of 1/2, show a formation of ZnAl2O4 structure starting from 1000°C and then accomplished at 1300°C. For spinel-based composite membrane, shrinkage and porosity are mainly influenced by a combination of an expansion induced by ZnAl2O4 formation and a general densification due to amorphous liquid SiO2. The highest porosity, as high as 44%, is observed in ZnAl4 membrane support among all the investigated compositions. Compared with pure bauxite (Al), ZnAl4 composite membrane support is reinforced by ZnAl2O4 phase and inter-locked mullite crystals, which is proved by the empirical strength-porosity relationships. Also, an increase in average pore diameter and gas flux can be observed in ZnAl4. A prolonged leaching experiment reveals the zinc can be successfully incorporated into ceramic membrane support via formation of ZnAl2O4, which has substantially better resistance toward acidic attack. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Stable proton-conducting Ca-doped LaNbO4 thin electrolyte-based protonic ceramic membrane fuel cells by in situ screen printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Bin; Wang Songlin; Liu Xingqin; Meng Guangyao

    2009-01-01

    In order to develop a simple and cost-effective route to fabricate protonic ceramic membrane fuel cells (PCMFCs), a stable proton-conducting La 0.99 Ca 0.01 NbO 4 (LCN) thin electrolyte was fabricated on a porous NiO-La 0.5 Ce 0.5 O 1.75 (NiO-LDC) anode by in situ screen printing. The key part of this process is to directly print well-mixed ink of La 2 O 3 , CaCO 3 and Nb 2 O 5 instead of pre-synthesized LCN ceramic powder on the anode substrate. After sintering at 1400 deg. C for 5 h, the full dense electrolyte membrane in the thickness of 20 μm was obtained. A single cell was assembled with (La 0.8 Sr 0.2 ) 0.9 MnO 3-δ -La 0.5 Ce 0.5 O 1.75 (LSM-LDC) as cathode and tested with humidified hydrogen as fuel and static air as oxidant. The open circuit voltage (OCV) and maximum power density respectively reached 0.98 V and 65 mW cm -2 at 800 deg. C. Interface resistance of cell under open circuit condition was also investigated.

  2. Efficient decomposition of formaldehyde at room temperature over Pt/honeycomb ceramics with ultra-low Pt content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Longhui; Zheng, Yingqiu; Yu, Jiaguo

    2014-09-14

    Pt/honeycomb ceramic (Pt/HC) catalysts with ultra-low Pt content (0.005-0.055 wt%) were for the first time prepared by an impregnation of honeycomb ceramics with Pt precursor and NaBH4-reduction combined method. The microstructures, morphologies and textural properties of the resulting samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The obtained Pt/HC catalysts were used for catalytic oxidative decomposition of formaldehyde (HCHO) at room temperature. It was found that the as-prepared Pt/HC catalysts can efficiently decompose HCHO in air into CO2 and H2O at room temperature. The catalytic activity of the Pt/HC catalysts increases with increasing the Pt loading in the range of 0.005-0.013 wt%, and the further increase of the Pt loading does not obviously improve catalytic activity. From the viewpoint of cost and catalytic performance, 0.013 wt% Pt loading is the optimal Pt loading amount, and the Pt/HC catalyst with 0.013 wt% Pt loading also exhibited good catalytic stability. Considering practical applications, this work will provide new insights into the low-cost and large-scale fabrication of advanced catalytic materials for indoor air purification.

  3. Voltage-dependent motion of the catalytic region of voltage-sensing phosphatase monitored by a fluorescent amino acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Souhei; Jinno, Yuka; Kawanabe, Akira; Okamura, Yasushi

    2016-07-05

    The cytoplasmic region of voltage-sensing phosphatase (VSP) derives the voltage dependence of its catalytic activity from coupling to a voltage sensor homologous to that of voltage-gated ion channels. To assess the conformational changes in the cytoplasmic region upon activation of the voltage sensor, we genetically incorporated a fluorescent unnatural amino acid, 3-(6-acetylnaphthalen-2-ylamino)-2-aminopropanoic acid (Anap), into the catalytic region of Ciona intestinalis VSP (Ci-VSP). Measurements of Anap fluorescence under voltage clamp in Xenopus oocytes revealed that the catalytic region assumes distinct conformations dependent on the degree of voltage-sensor activation. FRET analysis showed that the catalytic region remains situated beneath the plasma membrane, irrespective of the voltage level. Moreover, Anap fluorescence from a membrane-facing loop in the C2 domain showed a pattern reflecting substrate turnover. These results indicate that the voltage sensor regulates Ci-VSP catalytic activity by causing conformational changes in the entire catalytic region, without changing their distance from the plasma membrane.

  4. Voltage-dependent motion of the catalytic region of voltage-sensing phosphatase monitored by a fluorescent amino acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Souhei; Jinno, Yuka; Kawanabe, Akira; Okamura, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    The cytoplasmic region of voltage-sensing phosphatase (VSP) derives the voltage dependence of its catalytic activity from coupling to a voltage sensor homologous to that of voltage-gated ion channels. To assess the conformational changes in the cytoplasmic region upon activation of the voltage sensor, we genetically incorporated a fluorescent unnatural amino acid, 3-(6-acetylnaphthalen-2-ylamino)-2-aminopropanoic acid (Anap), into the catalytic region of Ciona intestinalis VSP (Ci-VSP). Measurements of Anap fluorescence under voltage clamp in Xenopus oocytes revealed that the catalytic region assumes distinct conformations dependent on the degree of voltage-sensor activation. FRET analysis showed that the catalytic region remains situated beneath the plasma membrane, irrespective of the voltage level. Moreover, Anap fluorescence from a membrane-facing loop in the C2 domain showed a pattern reflecting substrate turnover. These results indicate that the voltage sensor regulates Ci-VSP catalytic activity by causing conformational changes in the entire catalytic region, without changing their distance from the plasma membrane. PMID:27330112

  5. Method to produce catalytically active nanocomposite coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemir, Ali; Eryilmaz, Osman Levent; Urgen, Mustafa; Kazmanli, Kursat

    2016-02-09

    A nanocomposite coating and method of making and using the coating. The nanocomposite coating is disposed on a base material, such as a metal or ceramic; and the nanocomposite consists essentially of a matrix of an alloy selected from the group of Cu, Ni, Pd, Pt and Re which are catalytically active for cracking of carbon bonds in oils and greases and a grain structure selected from the group of borides, carbides and nitrides.

  6. Method to produce catalytically active nanocomposite coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdemir, Ali; Eryilmaz, Osman Levent; Urgen, Mustafa; Kazmanli, Kursat

    2017-12-19

    A nanocomposite coating and method of making and using the coating. The nanocomposite coating is disposed on a base material, such as a metal or ceramic; and the nanocomposite consists essentially of a matrix of an alloy selected from the group of Cu, Ni, Pd, Pt and Re which are catalytically active for cracking of carbon bonds in oils and greases and a grain structure selected from the group of borides, carbides and nitrides.

  7. Method of making a hydrogen transport membrane, and article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Joseph M.; Corpus, Joseph M.; Lim, Hankwon

    2015-07-21

    The present invention relates to a method of manufacturing a hydrogen transport membrane and the composite article itself. More specifically, the invention relates to producing a membrane substrate, wherein the ceramic substrate is coated with a metal oxide slurry, thereby eliminating the need for an activation step prior to plating the ceramic membrane through an electroless plating process. The invention also relates to modifying the pore size and porosity of the substrate by oxidation or reduction of the particles deposited by the metal oxide slurry.

  8. Preparation of Organic/Inorganic Siloxane Composite Membranes and Concentration of n-butanol from ABE Solution by Pervaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jee, Ki Yong; Lee, Yong Taek [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this paper, polymer composite membranes and ceramic composite membranes were prepared in order to compare differences in pervaporation performances relative to the support layers. PVDF was used for the polymer support layers, and a-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was used for the ceramic support layers. For active layer was coated for PDMS, which is a rubbery polymer. The characterization of membranes were analysed by SEM, contact angle, and XPS. We studied performances relative to the composite membrane support layers in the ABE mixture solutions. The results of the pervaporation, the flux of the ceramic composite membrane was shown to be 250.87 g/m{sup 2}h, which was higher than that of polymer composite membranes, at 195.64 g/m{sup 2}h. However, it was determined that the separation factor of the polymer composite membranes was 31.98 which were higher than that of the ceramic composite membranes, at 20.66.

  9. Metal oxide membranes for gas separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Marc A.; Webster, Elizabeth T.; Xu, Qunyin

    1994-01-01

    A method for permformation of a microporous ceramic membrane onto a porous support includes placing a colloidal suspension of metal oxide particles on one side of the porous support and exposing the other side of the porous support to a drying stream of gas or a reactive gas stream so that the particles are deposited on the drying side of the support as a gel. The gel so deposited can be sintered to form a supported ceramic membrane having mean pore sizes less than 30 Angstroms and useful for ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, or gas separation.

  10. The absorption of iodine-131 on a ceramic matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, H.S.; Park, U.J.; Dash, A.

    2004-01-01

    The retention of 131 I on ceramic rod coated with silver nitrate followed by coating with a polyurethane membrane to be applied in brachytherapy was studied. The concentration of silver nitrate (20 g/l), the volume of 131 I as a sodium iodide solution (100 μl), the pH of the reaction mixture (pH 9) etc., were optimized to get a maximum uptake on the ceramic rod. The concentration of coating solution (5%, polyurethane in tetrahydrofuran) was also optimized to obtain a minimum leaching of 131 I activity in normal saline solution. After coating with a polyurethane membrane, the 131 I absorbed on the ceramic rod exhibited low leachability (0.03%). This method can be applied for the preparation of 125 I interstitial sources to be used in eye and prostate cancer therapy. (author)

  11. Synthesis of zeolite membrane (Y / α-alumina)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Ana Paula; Silva, Valmir Jose da; Crispin, Alana Carolyne; Rodrigues, Meiry Glaucia F.; Menezes, Romualdo R.

    2009-01-01

    The general aim of this study was to develop materials of the type: Y zeolite (hydrothermal synthesis), ceramic support (forming of powder) and zeolite membrane (rubbing). The preparation of the Y zeolite was conducted in accordance with the hydrothermal synthesis method, the time of crystallization was one day. The ceramic support was prepared by means of the forming of powder technique and subsequently subjected to sintering at a temperature of 1400 deg C/1h. The zeolite membrane (Y/α- alumina) was prepared by secondary growth method (rubbing). These materials were characterized by XRD and SEM. Obtaining Y zeolite could be confirmed by X ray diffractograms. From the images obtained by SEM, it was possible to derive from analysis that the Y zeolite is composed of a homogeneous morphology, where the particles are crowded, with uniform size. The results obtained for the ceramic support (α-alumina) showed that it displays characteristics peaks of aluminum oxide. By using micrographs it was possible to observe a heterogeneous microstructure with a compact form, without cracks upon the layers. According to the XRD, for the method of secondary growth (rubbing), it was observed that the Y zeolite which had been synthesized on the ceramic support displayed a crystalline structure. The micrography of the zeolite membrane (Y/α-alumina) showed the formation of a layer of zeolite on the ceramic support. (author)

  12. Hydrogen production by steam reforming of bio-alcohols. The use of conventional and membrane-assisted catalytic reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seelam, P. K.

    2013-11-01

    The energy consumption around the globe is on the rise due to the exponential population growth and urbanization. There is a need for alternative and non-conventional energy sources, which are CO{sub 2}-neutral, and a need to produce less or no environmental pollutants and to have high energy efficiency. One of the alternative approaches is hydrogen economy with the fuel cell (FC) technology which is forecasted to lead to a sustainable society. Hydrogen (H{sub 2}) is recognized as a potential fuel and clean energy carrier being at the same time a carbon-free element. Moreover, H{sub 2} is utilized in many processes in chemical, food, metallurgical, and pharmaceutical industry and it is also a valuable chemical in many reactions (e.g. refineries). Non-renewable resources have been the major feedstock for H{sub 2} production for many years. At present, {approx}50% of H{sub 2} is produced via catalytic steam reforming of natural gas followed by various down-stream purification steps to produce {approx}99.99% H{sub 2}, the process being highly energy intensive. Henceforth, bio-fuels like biomass derived alcohols (e.g. bio-ethanol and bio-glycerol), can be viable raw materials for the H{sub 2} production. In a membrane based reactor, the reaction and selective separation of H{sub 2} occur simultaneously in one unit, thus improving the overall reactor efficiency. The main motivation of this work is to produce H{sub 2} more efficiently and in an environmentally friendly way from bio-alcohols with a high H{sub 2} selectivity, purity and yield. In this thesis, the work was divided into two research areas, the first being the catalytic studies using metal decorated carbon nanotube (CNT) based catalysts in steam reforming of ethanol (SRE) at low temperatures (<450 deg C). The second part was the study of steam reforming (SR) and the water-gas-shift (WGS) reactions in a membrane reactor (MR) using dense and composite Pd-based membranes to produce high purity H{sub 2}. CNTs

  13. Environment-oriented low-cost porous mullite ceramic membrane supports fabricated from coal gangue and bauxite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lü, Qikai [Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen (China); Ningbo Urban Environment Observation and Research Station-NUEORS, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China); Dong, Xinfa [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China); Zhu, Zhiwen [Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen (China); Ningbo Urban Environment Observation and Research Station-NUEORS, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo (China); Dong, Yingchao, E-mail: ycdong@iue.ac.cn [Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen (China); Ningbo Urban Environment Observation and Research Station-NUEORS, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo (China)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Coal gangue was recycled to fabricate low-cost porous mullite membrane supports. • A unique volume-expansion occurred due to a mullitization-crystal-growth process. • A porous structure consists of glassy particles and embedded mullite crystals. - Abstract: Porous mullite ceramic supports for filtration membrane were successfully fabricated via recycling of coal gangue and bauxite at sintering temperatures from 1100 to 1500 °C with corn starch as pore-forming agent. The dynamic sintering behaviors, phase evolution, shrinkage, porosity and pore size, gas permeation flux, microstructure and mechanical property were systematically studied. A unique volume-expansion stage was observed at increased temperatures from 1276 to 1481 °C caused by a mullitization-crystal-growth process. During this stage, open porosity increases and pore size distributions broaden, which result in a maximum of nitrogen gas flux at 1400 °C. The X-ray diffraction results reveal that secondary mullitization took place from 1100 °C and the major phase is mullite with a content of ∼84.7 wt.% at 1400 °C. SEM images show that the as-fabricated mullite supports have a porous microstructure composed of sintered glassy particles embedded with inter-locked mullite crystals, which grew gradually with increasing temperature from rod-like into blocky-like morphologies. To obtain mullite membrane supports with sufficient porosity and acceptable mechanical strength, the relationship between porosity and mechanical strength was investigated, which was fitted using a parabolic equation.

  14. Utilization of the granite sawing residue For the manufacture of low cost ceramic membranes; Aproveitamento do residuo de serragem de granito para fabricacao de membranas ceramicas de baixo custo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, R.C.O.; Lira, H.L.; Neves, G.A.; Silva, M.C.; Silva, C.D., E-mail: rosacolima@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais

    2011-07-01

    A prominent application of bentonite clays is to obtain organoclays for use in polymer nanocomposites. In Brazil, there are Membranes are thin structures that allow the phase separation of a substance through the transport of certain chemical species. Ceramic membranes present several advantages in relation to others materials, including longer lifetime, better clean facility, chemical and biological stability and high temperature and pressure resistance, its use is limited, however, by the high cost of fabrication. The search for raw materials of low cost is necessary. Combining the demands of the market with environmental concerns, the aim of this work is to make use of granite sawing residue to prepare tubular ceramic membranes of low cost. Firstly the granite residue was characterized by particle size distribution, chemical analysis by X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction. The membranes were prepared with bentonite clay (35%), quartz (35%) and granite residue (30%) and sintering at temperatures of 750, 800, 850 and 900 deg C and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, mercury porosimetry and permeate water flux. The results showed that the granite residue present average particle size of 18.46μm and high content of silica and alumina. The membranes present average pore size between microfiltration and ultrafiltration and permeate water flux from 10.0 to 20.0 L/h.m{sup 2}. (author)

  15. Electroviscous Effects in Ceramic Nanofiltration Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsi, Ali; Boffa, Vittorio; Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard

    2015-11-16

    Membrane permeability and salt rejection of a γ-alumina nanofiltration membrane were studied and modeled for different salt solutions. Salt rejection was predicted by using the Donnan-steric pore model, in which the extended Nernst-Planck equation was applied to predict ion transport through the pores. The solvent flux was modeled by using the Hagen-Poiseuille equation by introducing electroviscosity instead of bulk viscosity. γ-Alumina particles were used for ζ-potential measurements. The ζ-potential measurements show that monovalent ions did not adsorb on the γ-alumina surface, whereas divalent ions were highly adsorbed. Thus, for divalent ions, the model was modified, owing to pore shrinkage caused by ion adsorption. The ζ-potential lowered the membrane permeability, especially for membranes with a pore radius lower than 3 nm, a ζ-potential higher than 20 mV, and an ionic strength lower than 0.01 m. The rejection model showed that, for a pore radius lower than 3 nm and for solutions with ionic strengths lower than 0.01 m, there is an optimum ζ-potential for rejection, because of the concurrent effects of electromigration and convection. Hence, the model can be used as a prediction tool to optimize membrane perm-selectivity by designing a specific pore size and surface charge for application at specific ionic strengths and pH levels. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Optimization of protein fractionation by skim milk microfiltration: Choice of ceramic membrane pore size and filtration temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Camilla Elise; Abrahamsen, Roger K; Rukke, Elling-Olav; Johansen, Anne-Grethe; Schüller, Reidar B; Skeie, Siv B

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how ceramic membrane pore size and filtration temperature influence the protein fractionation of skim milk by cross flow microfiltration (MF). Microfiltration was performed at a uniform transmembrane pressure with constant permeate flux to a volume concentration factor of 2.5. Three different membrane pore sizes, 0.05, 0.10, and 0.20µm, were used at a filtration temperature of 50°C. Furthermore, at pore size 0.10µm, 2 different filtration temperatures were investigated: 50 and 60°C. The transmission of proteins increased with increasing pore size, giving the permeate from MF with the 0.20-µm membrane a significantly higher concentration of native whey proteins compared with the permeates from the 0.05- and 0.10-µm membranes (0.50, 0.24, and 0.39%, respectively). Significant amounts of caseins permeated the 0.20-µm membrane (1.4%), giving a permeate with a whitish appearance and a casein distribution (αS2-CN: αS1-CN: κ-CN: β-CN) similar to that of skim milk. The 0.05- and 0.10-µm membranes were able to retain all caseins (only negligible amounts were detected). A permeate free from casein is beneficial in the production of native whey protein concentrates and in applications where transparency is an important functional characteristic. Microfiltration of skim milk at 50°C with the 0.10-µm membrane resulted in a permeate containing significantly more native whey proteins than the permeate from MF at 60°C. The more rapid increase in transmembrane pressure and the significantly lower concentration of caseins in the retentate at 60°C indicated that a higher concentration of caseins deposited on the membrane, and consequently reduced the native whey protein transmission. Optimal protein fractionation of skim milk into a casein-rich retentate and a permeate with native whey proteins were obtained by 0.10-µm MF at 50°C. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  17. Synthesis of a composite inorganic membrane for the separation of nitrogen, tetrafluoromethane and hexafluoropropylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hertzog Bissett

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Composite inorganic membranes were synthesised for gas component separation of N2, CF4 and C3F6. Selectivities lower than Knudsen selectivities were obtained due to membrane defects. A composite ceramic membrane consisting of a ceramic support structure, a MFI intermediate zeolite layer and a Teflon top layer, was developed to improve separation.

  18. Ceramic Nanocomposites from Tailor-Made Preceramic Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Mera

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present Review addresses current developments related to polymer-derived ceramic nanocomposites (PDC-NCs. Different classes of preceramic polymers are briefly introduced and their conversion into ceramic materials with adjustable phase compositions and microstructures is presented. Emphasis is set on discussing the intimate relationship between the chemistry and structural architecture of the precursor and the structural features and properties of the resulting ceramic nanocomposites. Various structural and functional properties of silicon-containing ceramic nanocomposites as well as different preparative strategies to achieve nano-scaled PDC-NC-based ordered structures are highlighted, based on selected ceramic nanocomposite systems. Furthermore, prospective applications of the PDC-NCs such as high-temperature stable materials for thermal protection systems, membranes for hot gas separation purposes, materials for heterogeneous catalysis, nano-confinement materials for hydrogen storage applications as well as anode materials for secondary ion batteries are introduced and discussed in detail.

  19. Ceramic Nanocomposites from Tailor-Made Preceramic Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mera, Gabriela; Gallei, Markus; Bernard, Samuel; Ionescu, Emanuel

    2015-04-01

    The present Review addresses current developments related to polymer-derived ceramic nanocomposites (PDC-NCs). Different classes of preceramic polymers are briefly introduced and their conversion into ceramic materials with adjustable phase compositions and microstructures is presented. Emphasis is set on discussing the intimate relationship between the chemistry and structural architecture of the precursor and the structural features and properties of the resulting ceramic nanocomposites. Various structural and functional properties of silicon-containing ceramic nanocomposites as well as different preparative strategies to achieve nano-scaled PDC-NC-based ordered structures are highlighted, based on selected ceramic nanocomposite systems. Furthermore, prospective applications of the PDC-NCs such as high-temperature stable materials for thermal protection systems, membranes for hot gas separation purposes, materials for heterogeneous catalysis, nano-confinement materials for hydrogen storage applications as well as anode materials for secondary ion batteries are introduced and discussed in detail.

  20. Ceramic Nanocomposites from Tailor-Made Preceramic Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mera, Gabriela; Gallei, Markus; Bernard, Samuel; Ionescu, Emanuel

    2015-01-01

    The present Review addresses current developments related to polymer-derived ceramic nanocomposites (PDC-NCs). Different classes of preceramic polymers are briefly introduced and their conversion into ceramic materials with adjustable phase compositions and microstructures is presented. Emphasis is set on discussing the intimate relationship between the chemistry and structural architecture of the precursor and the structural features and properties of the resulting ceramic nanocomposites. Various structural and functional properties of silicon-containing ceramic nanocomposites as well as different preparative strategies to achieve nano-scaled PDC-NC-based ordered structures are highlighted, based on selected ceramic nanocomposite systems. Furthermore, prospective applications of the PDC-NCs such as high-temperature stable materials for thermal protection systems, membranes for hot gas separation purposes, materials for heterogeneous catalysis, nano-confinement materials for hydrogen storage applications as well as anode materials for secondary ion batteries are introduced and discussed in detail. PMID:28347023

  1. A process efficiency assessment of serum protein removal from milk using ceramic graded permeability microfiltration membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay-Marchand, D; Doyen, A; Britten, M; Pouliot, Y

    2016-07-01

    Microfiltration (MF) is a well-known process that can be used in the dairy industry to separate caseins from serum proteins (SP) in skim milk using membranes with a pore diameter of 0.1μm. Graded permeability ceramic membranes have been studied widely as means of improving milk fractionation by overcoming problems encountered with other MF membranes. The ideal operating parameters for process efficiency in terms of membrane selectivity, permeate flux, casein loss, SP transmission, energy consumption, and dilution with water remain to be determined for this membrane. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of transmembrane pressure (TMP), volumetric concentration factor (VCF), and diafiltration on overall process efficiency. Skim milk was processed using a pilot-scale MF system equipped with 0.72-m(2) graded permeability membranes with a pore size of 0.1μm. In the first experiment, in full recycle mode, TMP was set at 124, 152, 179, or 207 kPa by adjusting the permeate pressure at the outlet. Whereas TMP had no significant effect on permeate and retentate composition, 152 kPa was found to be optimal for SP removal during concentration and concentration or diafiltration experiments. When VCF was increased to 3×, SP rejection coefficient increased along with energy consumption and total casein loss, whereas SP removal rate decreased. Diafiltering twice allowed an increase in total SP removal but resulted in a substantial increase in energy consumption and casein loss. It also reduced the SP removal rate by diluting permeate. The membrane surface area required for producing cheese milk by blending whole milk, cream, and MF retentate (at different VCF) was estimated for different cheese milk casein concentrations. For a given casein concentration, the same quantity of permeate and SP would be produced, but less membrane surface area would be needed at a lower retentate VCF. Microfiltration has great potential as a process of adding value to conventional

  2. Preparation, characterization and application of novel proton conducting ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Siwei

    Due to the immediate energy shortage and the requirement of environment protection nowadays, the efficient, effective and environmental friendly use of current energy sources is urgent. Energy conversion and storage is thus an important focus both for industry and academia. As one of the hydrogen energy related materials, proton conducting ceramics can be applied in solid oxide fuel cells and steam electrolysers, as well as high temperature hydrogen separation membranes and hydrogen sensors. For most of the practical applications, both high proton conductivity and chemical stability are desirable. However, the state-of-the-art proton conducting ceramics are facing great challenges in simultaneously fulfilling conductivity and stability requirements for practical applications. Consequently, understanding the properties for the proton conducting ceramics and developing novel materials that possess both high proton conductivity and enhanced chemical stability have both scientific and practical significances. The objective of this study is to develop novel proton conducting ceramics, either by evaluating the doping effects on the state-of-the-art simple perovskite structured barium cerates, or by investigating novel complex perovskite structured Ba3Ca1.18Nb1.82O 9-delta based proton conductors as potential proton conducting ceramics with improved proton conductivity and enhanced chemical stability. Different preparation methods were compared, and their influence on the structure, including the bulk and grain boundary environment has been investigated. In addition, the effects of microstructure on the electrical properties of the proton conducting ceramics have also been characterized. The solid oxide fuel cell application for the proton conducting ceramics performed as electrolyte membranes has been demonstrated.

  3. Technology of ceramic and polymeric membranes for oil/water separation; Tecnologia de membranas ceramicas e polimericas para separacao oleo/agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, A.A; Souto, K.M; Silva, Adriano A.; Lira, H.L.; Carvalho, L.H.; Costa, A.C.F.M. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    In last years, separation techniques by membranes and membranes grew of a laboratory simple tool for an industrial process with a considerable technical and commercial impact. Today, membranes have been being widely used in the treatment of the oily/water, because they offer chemical, thermal resistance and resistance the pressure for a wide variety of alimentation terms. Membrane can be defined as a barrier that separates two phases and that restricts, total or partially, the transportation of one or several present chemical species in the phases. The morphology of the membrane and nature of the material that constitutes are some characteristics that are going to define application kind. The ideal structure for these filters is the asymmetric, formed by one or more layers of different pores size, with gradual reduction of the pores size, when approaches the side filtrate. Having in mind that the environmental legislations more process with membranes offers a new option to face these challenges. The membranes typically used in the oil and water separation act as a barrier for the emulsified oil and solubilization. In the petroleum production and refined oil water mixed with oil is prosecuted in great volumes in lots of processes, this mixture should be treated to separate the oil of water before it can return to the environment or even to be reused in the process. This review aims relate studies done with ceramic and polymeric membranes using a separation oil/water system mounted in laboratory scale in UFCG/CCT/ANP/PHH25. The results show that filtration membranes, micro filtration and ultrafiltration were very effective in oil/water separation. (author)

  4. One Step Biomass Gas Reforming-Shift Separation Membrane Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Michael J. [Gas Technology Institute; Souleimanova, Razima [Gas Technology Institute

    2012-12-28

    GTI developed a plan where efforts were concentrated in 4 major areas: membrane material development, membrane module development, membrane process development, and membrane gasifier scale-up. GTI assembled a team of researchers to work in each area. Task 1.1 Ceramic Membrane Synthesis and Testing was conducted by Arizona State University (ASU), Task 1.2 Metallic Membrane Synthesis and Testing was conducted by the U.S. National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Task 1.3 was conducted by SCHOTT, and GTI was to test all membranes that showed potential. The initial focus of the project was concentrated on membrane material development. Metallic and glass-based membranes were identified as hydrogen selective membranes under the conditions of the biomass gasification, temperatures above 700C and pressures up to 30 atmospheres. Membranes were synthesized by arc-rolling for metallic type membranes and incorporating Pd into a glass matrix for glass membranes. Testing for hydrogen permeability properties were completed and the effects of hydrogen sulfide and carbon monoxide were investigated for perspective membranes. The initial candidate membrane of Pd80Cu20 chosen in 2008 was selected for preliminary reactor design and cost estimates. Although the H2A analysis results indicated a $1.96 cost per gge H2 based on a 5A (micron) thick PdCu membrane, there was not long-term operation at the required flux to satisfy the go/no go decision. Since the future PSA case yielded a $2.00/gge H2, DOE decided that there was insufficient savings compared with the already proven PSA technology to further pursue the membrane reactor design. All ceramic membranes synthesized by ASU during the project showed low hydrogen flux as compared with metallic membranes. The best ceramic membrane showed hydrogen permeation flux of 0.03 SCFH/ft2 at the required process conditions while the metallic membrane, Pd80Cu20 showed a flux of 47.2 SCFH/ft2 (3 orders of magnitude difference). Results from

  5. Experimental study of permeation and selectivity of zeolite membranes for tritium processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borisevich, Olga; Antunes, Rodrigo; Demange, David, E-mail: david.demange@kit.edu

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • We report about new experimental results on advanced membranes for tritium processing especially for the DEMO breeding blanket. • High permeances are measured on different zeolite MFI membranes made by film deposition or pore plugging. • Selectivity for H{sub 2}/He is limited requiring a multi-stage membrane process. • Selectivity of H{sub 2}O/He seems high enough to operate one single module. - Abstract: Zeolites are known as tritium compatible inorganic materials widely used in packed beds as driers in detritiation systems and are also suggested for tritium removal from helium at cryogenic temperature. The Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK) proposed a new fully continuous approach for tritium extraction from the solid breeding blanket of fusion machines that improves the overall tritium management and minimizes both the tritium inventory and processing time. It is based on membrane permeation as a pre-concentration stage upstream of a final tritium recovery stage using a catalytic Pd-based membrane reactor. Zeolite membranes were identified as the most promising candidates for the pre-concentration stage. In the present work the tubular zeolite MFI membrane provided by the Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems (IKTS, Hermsdorf, Germany) is studied to consolidate the proposed approach. The permeation measurements for single gases hydrogen (replacing radioactive tritium) and helium, for binary mixtures H{sub 2}/He and H{sub 2}O/He at different concentrations and temperatures are presented. The tested membrane demonstrates a high performance, almost independent from the inlet composition in the case of a gaseous mixture, while the transport in the presence of water vapour is strongly related to the temperature of the mixture and component concentrations.

  6. Reversing flow catalytic converter for a natural gas/diesel dual fuel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, E.; Checkel, M.D. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Hayes, R.E. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering; Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Zheng, M.; Mirosh, E. [Alternative Fuel Systems Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    An experimental and modelling study was performed for a reverse flow catalytic converter attached to a natural gas/diesel dual fuel engine. The catalytic converter had a segmented ceramic monolith honeycomb substrate and a catalytic washcoat containing a predominantly palladium catalyst. A one-dimensional single channel model was used to simulate the operation of the converter. The kinetics of the CO and methane oxidation followed first-order behaviour. The activation energy for the oxidation of methane showed a change with temperature, dropping from a value of 129 to 35 kJ/mol at a temperature of 874 K. The reverse flow converter was able to achieve high reactor temperature under conditions of low inlet gas temperature, provided that the initial reactor temperature was sufficiently high. (author)

  7. Separation of metallic cations by means of coupled filtration on a ceramic membrane. Use of a complexing heteropolyanion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, Stephane

    1999-01-01

    In the field of the high level nuclear waste reprocessing, the Nuclear French Agency is currently carrying out studies on several processes (including the SESAME process) which aim at separating radioactive elements in order to dispose them specifically or to transmute them. One of these processes concerns the selective extraction of americium at an upper oxidation state than Ill. This work deals with the separation of Am(IV) from Ln(Ill) by means of complexation-coupled tangential filtration on alumina-titanium ceramic membranes. The chosen selective complexing agent is a lacunar heteropolyanion from the tungstophosphate family α_2P_2W_1_7O_6_1"1"0"-, which synthesis and various properties in solution have been studied. The polyanion stability in 0.5 M nitric solution strongly depends on the quality of the synthesised product. Two analytical techniques were developed to check the quality of the synthesised sets: "3"1P NMR and arsenazo-lanthanum complexometric titration. The separation studies on the cerium (IV)-neodymium (Ill) system were carried out to simulate americium(IV)/lanthanides(Ill) system. For the two alumina-titanium membranes studied (ultrafiltration and nano-filtration), the solvent flow can be described through a capillary mechanism which is characteristic of porous membranes. The ion transfer through the membranes, mainly governed by electrostatic interactions, strongly depends on the ionic strength at the membrane-solution interface. The best separation results, using nano-filtration, still remain below the expected performances, with a Ce(IV)/Nd(Ill) separation factor of 35 on a single stage in 0,5 M nitric medium. (author) [fr

  8. Electrospun Ceramic Nanofiber Mats Today: Synthesis, Properties, and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfahani, Hamid; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2017-01-01

    Ceramic nanofibers (NFs) have recently been developed for advanced applications due to their unique properties. In this article, we review developments in electrospun ceramic NFs with regard to their fabrication process, properties, and applications. We find that surface activity of electrospun ceramic NFs is improved by post pyrolysis, hydrothermal, and carbothermal processes. Also, when combined with another surface modification methods, electrospun ceramic NFs result in the advancement of properties and widening of the application domains. With the decrease in diameter and length of a fiber, many properties of fibrous materials are modified; characteristics of such ceramic NFs are different from their wide and long (bulk) counterparts. In this article, electrospun ceramic NFs are reviewed with an emphasis on their applications as catalysts, membranes, sensors, biomaterials, fuel cells, batteries, supercapacitors, energy harvesting systems, electric and magnetic parts, conductive wires, and wearable electronic textiles. Furthermore, properties of ceramic nanofibers, which enable the above applications, and techniques to characterize them are briefly outlined. PMID:29077074

  9. Electrospun Ceramic Nanofiber Mats Today: Synthesis, Properties, and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Esfahani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic nanofibers (NFs have recently been developed for advanced applications due to their unique properties. In this article, we review developments in electrospun ceramic NFs with regard to their fabrication process, properties, and applications. We find that surface activity of electrospun ceramic NFs is improved by post pyrolysis, hydrothermal, and carbothermal processes. Also, when combined with another surface modification methods, electrospun ceramic NFs result in the advancement of properties and widening of the application domains. With the decrease in diameter and length of a fiber, many properties of fibrous materials are modified; characteristics of such ceramic NFs are different from their wide and long (bulk counterparts. In this article, electrospun ceramic NFs are reviewed with an emphasis on their applications as catalysts, membranes, sensors, biomaterials, fuel cells, batteries, supercapacitors, energy harvesting systems, electric and magnetic parts, conductive wires, and wearable electronic textiles. Furthermore, properties of ceramic nanofibers, which enable the above applications, and techniques to characterize them are briefly outlined.

  10. Layered perovskite LaBaCuMO{sub 5+x} (M = Fe, Co) cathodes for intermediate-temperature protonic ceramic membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling Yihan; Lin Bin; Zhao Ling; Zhang Xiaozhen; Yu Jia; Peng Ranran; Meng Guangyao [CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China (USTC), Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Liu Xingqin, E-mail: lyhyy@mail.ustc.edu.c [CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China (USTC), Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2010-03-18

    Layered perovskite LaBaCuFeO{sub 5+x} (LBCF) and LaBaCuCoO{sub 5+x} (LBCC) oxides are synthesized by a modified Pechini method and examined as potential cathode materials for intermediate-temperature protonic ceramic membrane fuel cells (IT-PCMFCs). Thin proton-conducting BaZr{sub 0.1}Ce{sub 0.7}Y{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-{delta}} (BZCY) electrolyte and NiO-BaZr{sub 0.1}Ce{sub 0.7}Y{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-{delta}} (NiO-BZCY) anode functional layer are prepared over porous anode substrates composed of NiO-BaZr{sub 0.1}Ce{sub 0.7}Y{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-{delta}} by a one-step dry-pressing/co-firing process. Laboratory-sized quad-layer cells of NiO-BYCZ/NiO-BYCZ/BYCZ/LBCF (LBCC) are operated from 550 to 700 {sup o}C with humidified hydrogen ({approx}3% H{sub 2}O) as fuel and the static air as oxidant. The single cell with LBCF cathode shows peak power densities of only 327 mW cm{sup -2} at 700 {sup o}C and 105 mW cm{sup -2} for 550 {sup o}C, while the single cell with LBCC cathode shows peak power densities of 432 and 171 mW cm{sup -2} at 700 and 550 {sup o}C, respectively. The dramatic improvement of cell performance is attributed to higher cobaltites catalytic activity than that of ferrites for IT-PCMFCs, which is in good agreement with the results of impedance measurement.

  11. Environment-oriented low-cost porous mullite ceramic membrane supports fabricated from coal gangue and bauxite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Qikai; Dong, Xinfa; Zhu, Zhiwen; Dong, Yingchao

    2014-05-30

    Porous mullite ceramic supports for filtration membrane were successfully fabricated via recycling of coal gangue and bauxite at sintering temperatures from 1100 to 1500°C with corn starch as pore-forming agent. The dynamic sintering behaviors, phase evolution, shrinkage, porosity and pore size, gas permeation flux, microstructure and mechanical property were systematically studied. A unique volume-expansion stage was observed at increased temperatures from 1276 to 1481°C caused by a mullitization-crystal-growth process. During this stage, open porosity increases and pore size distributions broaden, which result in a maximum of nitrogen gas flux at 1400°C. The X-ray diffraction results reveal that secondary mullitization took place from 1100°C and the major phase is mullite with a content of ∼84.7wt.% at 1400°C. SEM images show that the as-fabricated mullite supports have a porous microstructure composed of sintered glassy particles embedded with inter-locked mullite crystals, which grew gradually with increasing temperature from rod-like into blocky-like morphologies. To obtain mullite membrane supports with sufficient porosity and acceptable mechanical strength, the relationship between porosity and mechanical strength was investigated, which was fitted using a parabolic equation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Investigation of a novel protonic/electronic ceramic composite material as a candidate for hydrogen separation membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Jason S.

    A novel ceramic protonic/electronic conductor composite BaCe 0.2Zr0.7Y0.1O3-delta / Sr0.95 Ti0.9Nb0.1O3-delta (BCZY27/STN95: BS27) has been synthesized, and its electrical properties and hydrogen permeability have been investigated. The volume ratio of the STN95 phase was varied from 50 - 70 % to test the effects on conductivity and hydrogen permeability. BCZY27 and STN95 powders were prepared by solid-state reaction, and membrane samples were fabricated through conventional and spark plasma sintering techniques. The phase composition, density, and microstructure were compared between the sintering methodologies. Total conductivities of 0.01 - 0.06 S·cm -1 were obtained in wet (+1 % H2O) dilute H2/(N 2, He, Ar) from 600 - 800 °C for 50 volume % STN95. With increasing STN content (60 and 70 volume %), conductivity generally increased, though remained lower than predicted by standard effective medium models, even at 70 volume % STN95. A new effective medium model was proposed, which accounted for an interfacial resistance term associated with the heterojunctions formed between the BCZY27 and STN95 phases. Better fits for the measured data were achieved with this new method, although some effects remain unexplained. Discrepancies between the model and experiment were attributed to space charge effects, grain boundary resistances, and insulating impurity phase formation during synthesis. Dense BS27 samples were tested for high-temperature hydrogen permeation and a measured flux of 0.006 mumol·cm-2·s -1 was recorded for a 50 volume % STN95 sample at 700 °C, using dry argon as a sweep gas. This value represents a modest improvement on other ceramic composite membranes, but remains short of targets for commercialization. Persistent leaks in the flux experiments generated a shallower hydrogen gradient across the samples, although this p(H2) on the sweep side simultaneously decreased the oxygen partial pressure gradient across the sample and preserved the reduced state

  13. Optimization of the flux values in multichannel ceramic membrane microfiltration of Baker`s yeast suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milović Nemanja R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to estimate the effects of the operating parameters on the baker's yeast microfiltration through multichannel ceramic membrane. The selected parameters were transmembrane pressure, suspension feed flow, and initial suspension concentration. In order to investigate the influence and interaction effects of these parameters on the microfiltration operation, two responses have been chosen: average permeate flux and flux decline. The Box-Behnken experimental design and response surface methodology was used for result processing and process optimization. According to the obtained results, the most important parameter influencing permeate flux during microfiltration is the initial suspension concentration. The maximum average flux value was achieved at an initial concentration of 0.1 g/L, pressure around 1.25 bars and a flow rate at 16 L/h. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31002

  14. Cross-flow micro-filtration using ceramic membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thern, Gerardo G.; Marajofsky, Adolfo; Rossi, Federico; La Gamma, Ana M.; Chocron, Mauricio

    2004-01-01

    Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors have a system devoted to the purification and upgrading of the collected heavy water leaks. The purification train is fed with different degradation ratios (D 2 O/H 2 O), activities and impurities. The water is distilled in a packed bed column filled with a mesh type packing. With the purpose of minimizing the column stack corrosion, the water is pre-treated in a train consisting on an activated charcoal bed-strong cationic-anionic resin and a final polishing anionic bed resin. Traces of oils are retained by the charcoal bed but some of them pass through and could be responsible for the resins fouling. The process of micro filtration using ceramic materials is particularly applied to the treatment of waters with oil micro droplets. We describe the development stages of single and double layer filtration ceramic tubes, their characterization and the adaptation to test equipment. The efficiency was evaluated by means of tangential ('cross-flow') filtration of aqueous solutions containing dodecane at the micrograms per ml concentration level. This compound simulates the properties of a typical oil contaminant. A 100-fold reduction in the amount of dodecane in water was observed after the filtration treatment. (author)

  15. Comparative study of the performance of three cross-flow ceramic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several tests using water as effluent are used to analyse the performance of three types of microfiltration cross-flow ceramic membranes. Two of these membranes are commercial (Atech and Membralox/US Filter) and the third one is experimental. The main differences between them lie in their chemical composition ...

  16. OXIDATIVE COUPLING OF METHANE USING INORGANIC MEMBRANE REACTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Y.H. Ma; Dr. W.R. Moser; Dr. A.G. Dixon; Dr. A.M. Ramachandra; Dr. Y. Lu; C. Binkerd

    1998-04-01

    The objective of this research is to study the oxidative coupling of methane in catalytic inorganic membrane reactors. A specific target is to achieve conversion of methane to C{sub 2} hydrocarbons at very high selectivity and higher yields than in conventional non-porous, co-feed, fixed bed reactors by controlling the oxygen supply through the membrane. A membrane reactor has the advantage of precisely controlling the rate of delivery of oxygen to the catalyst. This facility permits balancing the rate of oxidation and reduction of the catalyst. In addition, membrane reactors minimize the concentration of gas phase oxygen thus reducing non selective gas phase reactions, which are believed to be a main route for the formation of CO{sub x} products. Such gas phase reactions are a cause of decreased selectivity in the oxidative coupling of methane in conventional flow reactors. Membrane reactors could also produce higher product yields by providing better distribution of the reactant gases over the catalyst than the conventional plug flow reactors. Membrane reactor technology also offers the potential for modifying the membranes both to improve catalytic properties as well as to regulate the rate of the permeation/diffusion of reactants through the membrane to minimize by-product generation. Other benefits also exist with membrane reactors, such as the mitigation of thermal hot-spots for highly exothermic reactions such as the oxidative coupling of methane. The application of catalytically active inorganic membranes has potential for drastically increasing the yield of reactions which are currently limited by either thermodynamic equilibria, product inhibition, or kinetic selectivity.

  17. Preparação e caracterização de membranas cerâmicas de cordierita Preparation and characterization of cordierite ceramic membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Silva

    2006-12-01

    sinterizadas a 1280 ºC obtiveram maior permeabilidade, seguindo-se das de 1250 ºC, 1200 ºC e as de 1150 ºC. Os valores médios dos fluxos encontrados nas membranas sinterizadas nas temperaturas de 1150, 1200, 1250 e 1280 ºC foram de aproximadamente 68, 143, 378 e 587 kg/h.m², respectivamente.Membrane separation processes find large applications. Ceramic membranes are applied in several processes, mainly in application above 250 ºC, as well as in separation of solutions with pH extremely acid and even in systems with organic solvents. On the other hand, ceramic membranes show high cost of fabrication, mainly in relation to the raw synthetic materials (zirconia, alumina, titania and silica. Therefore, the main concern in the development of these membranes is to optimize the cost using natural non-expensive raw materials and more efficient ceramic processing, such as extrusion. The fabrication of ceramic membranes by extrusion gives the possibility to use cross flow system, which is very useful in microfiltration and ultrafiltration separation processes. The aim of this work is to prepare tubular cordierite membranes from raw materials such as clays and talc and by extrusion processing. Four sintering temperatures (1150, 1200, 1250 and 1280 ºC were used to show the effect on the morphological characteristics of the membranes. The membranes were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and mercury intrusion porosimetry. The results showed the formation of cordierite phase at all sintering temperatures. The membranes presented pore size of 1.4, 2.2, 3.3 and 4.1 µm and porosity content of 28.7, 29.1, 27.7 and 24.3% for sintering temperaturesf 1150, 1200, 1250 and 1280 ºC, respectively. These values show that these membranes are suitable to be applied in microfiltration separation processes. The results of water flux, at steady state, show that the membrane sintered at 1280 ºC presented the highest value, 587.3 kg/m².h, followed by 377.7 kg

  18. Enhanced lithium battery with polyethylene oxide-based electrolyte containing silane-Al2 O3 ceramic filler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zewde, Berhanu W; Admassie, Shimelis; Zimmermann, Jutta; Isfort, Christian Schulze; Scrosati, Bruno; Hassoun, Jusef

    2013-08-01

    A solid polymer electrolyte prepared by using a solvent-free, scalable technique is reported. The membrane is formed by low-energy ball milling followed by hot-pressing of dry powdered polyethylene oxide polymer, LiCF3 SO3 salt, and silane-treated Al2 O3 (Al2 O3 -ST) ceramic filler. The effects of the ceramic fillers on the properties of the ionically conducting solid electrolyte membrane are characterized by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, XRD, differential scanning calorimeter, SEM, and galvanostatic cycling in lithium cells with a LiFePO4 cathode. We demonstrate that the membrane containing Al2 O3 -ST ceramic filler performs well in terms of ionic conductivity, thermal properties, and lithium transference number. Furthermore, we show that the lithium cells, which use the new electrolyte together with the LiFePO4 electrode, operate within 65 and 90 °C with high efficiency and long cycle life. Hence, the Al2 O3 -ST ceramic can be efficiently used as a ceramic filler to enhance the performance of solid polymer electrolytes in lithium batteries. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Microfiltration Process by Inorganic Membranes for Clarification of TongBi Liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minyan Huang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Membrane separation is an alternative separation technology to the conventional method of filtration. Hence, it has attracted use in the purification and concentration of Chinese Herbal Medicine Extracts (CHMEs. The purpose of this work was to study the process of microfiltration of Tongbi liquor (TBL, a popular Chinese herbal drink, using ceramic membranes. Zirconium oxide and aluminum oxide membranes with pore mean sizes of 0.2 μm and 0.05 μm, respectively, are used for comparisons in terms of flux, transmittance of the ingredients, physical-chemical parameters, removal of macromolecular materials and fouling resistance. The results show that 0.2 μm zirconium oxide membrane is more suitable. The stable permeate flux reaches 135 L·h−1·m−2, the cumulative transmittance of the indicator is 65.53%. Macromolecular materials, such as starch, protein, tannin, pectin and total solids were largely eliminated in retentate after filtration using 0.2 μm ZrO2 ceramic membrane, resulting in clearer TBL. Moreover, this work also reveals that continuous ultrasound could strengthen membrane process that the permeate flux increases significantly. This work demonstrates that the purification of CHME with ceramic membranes is possible and yielded excellent results.

  20. Dynamic membrane filtration in tangential flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Oil-containing waste water is produced in many cleaning processes and also on production of compressed air. Dynamic membrane filtration in the tangential flow mode has proved effective in the treatment of these stable emulsions. The possible applications of ceramic membrane filters are illustrated for a variety of examples. (orig.) [de

  1. Polymer nanocomposite membranes with hierarchically structured catalysts for high throughput dehalogenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crock, Christopher A.

    Halogenated organics are categorized as primary pollutants by the Environmental Protection Agency. Trichloroethylene (TCE), which had broad industrial use in the past, shows persistence in the environment because of its chemical stability. The large scale use and poor control of TCE resulted in its prolonged release into the environment before the carcinogenic risk associated with TCE was fully understood. TCE pollution stemmed from industrial effluents and improper disposal of solvent waste. Membrane reactors are promising technology for treating TCE polluted groundwater because of the high throughput, relatively low cost of membrane fabrication and facile retrofitting of existing membrane based water treatment facilities with catalytic membrane reactors. Compared to catalytic fluidized or fixed bed reactors, catalytic membrane reactors feature minimal diffusional limitation. Additionally, embedding catalyst within the membrane avoids the need for catalyst recovery and can prevent aggregation of catalytic nanoparticles. In this work, Pd/xGnP, Pd-Au/xGnP, and commercial Pd/Al2O3 nanoparticles were employed in batch and flow-through membrane reactors to catalyze the dehalogenation of TCE in the presence of dissolved H2. Bimetallic Pd-Au/xGnP catalysts were shown to be more active than monometallic Pd/xGnP or commercial Pd/Al 2O3 catalysts. In addition to synthesizing nanocomposite membranes for high-throughput TCE dehalogenation, the membrane based dehalogenation process was designed to minimize the detrimental impact of common catalyst poisons (S2-, HS-, and H2S -) by concurrent oxidation of sulfide species to gypsum in the presence of Ca2+ and removal of gypsum through membrane filtration. The engineered membrane dehalogenation process demonstrated that bimetallic Pd-Au/xGnP catalysts resisted deactivation by residual sulfide species after oxidation, and showed complete removal of gypsum during membrane filtration.

  2. Upgrading of Gasification Gases by means of a Catalytic Membrane Reactor: WGS Catalysts and Inorganic Palladium Membranes HENRECA Project (ENE2004-07758-CO2-01). Final Report; Estudios de Enriquecimiento en H{sub 2} de Gases de Gasificacion mediante el Uso Reactor Catalitico de Membranas: Catalizadores WGS y Membranas Inorganicas de Paladio. Informe Final Proyecto HENRECA (ENE2004-07758-C02-01)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maranon Bujan, M.; Sanchez Hervas, J. M.; Barreiro Carou, M. del

    2008-07-01

    The combination of a CO catalytic converter with a highly hydrogen selective membrane out stands as a very promising technology for the upgrading of biomass gasification gases. The advantages of this combined system over the traditional two stages WGS technology has been investigated within the HENRECA project, financed under the Spanish PN 2004-2007 of the Ministry of Science and Technology. This project started in September 2004 and had a duration of three years. The Division of Combustion and Gasification of CIEMAT participates in this project in three main activities: the study of the catalytic activity of WGS catalysts synthesised by the other partner of the project (University Rey Juan Carlos), the design of the reaction-separation system and the design and construction of a bench-scale pilot plant where the performance of the membranes prepared by URJC and the catalytic membrane system were investigated. This report describes the activities carried out within the project and the main results obtained. (Author) 14 ref.

  3. Influence of morphology of ceramic fibers in catalytic combustion of methane; Influencia da morfologia de fibras ceramicas na combustao catalitica do metano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabarelli, A.C.; Alves, A.K.; Bergmann, C.P., E-mail: andretabarelli@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Departamento de Materiais

    2012-07-01

    Methane, considered as the main constituent of natural gas has been widely used as an energy source. During its combustion are produced pollutants that cause concern and necessity to eliminate or reduce the emission of these agents in the atmosphere. One of the main means of controlling emissions is the use of catalysts. In order to contribute to the development of new catalysts, this study analyzed the morphology of ceramic fibers of cerium oxide (ceria) doped with copper fabricated by electrospinning, in order to verify their effects on catalytic activity. Parameters were varied in distance from the electrodes, the diameter of the capillary and applied voltage between electrodes. The characterizations were performed: scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, BET and Xray diffraction (DXR). The results indicate that after the thermal treatment there was a reduction of approximately 40% fiber diameter and specific surface area ranging between 28.929 and 34.501 m{sup 2}/g. (author)

  4. Transmission of Er:YAG laser through different dental ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Tugrul; Tuncel, Ilkin; Usumez, Aslihan; Gutknecht, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser transmission ratio through different dental ceramics with different thicknesses. Laser debonding procedure of adhesively luted all-ceramic restorations is based on the transmission of laser energy through the ceramic and the ablation of resin cement, because of the transmitted laser energy. Five different dental ceramics were evaluated in this study: sintered zirconium-oxide core ceramic, monolithic zirconium-oxide ceramic, feldspathic ceramic, leucite-reinforced glass ceramic, and lithium disilicate-reinforced glass ceramic. Two ceramic discs with different thicknesses (0.5 and 1 mm) were fabricated for each group. Ceramic discs were placed between the sensor membrane of the laser power meter and the tip of the contact handpiece of an Er:YAG laser device with the aid of a custom- made acrylic holder. The transmission ratio of Er:YAG laser energy (500 mJ, 2 Hz, 1 W, 1000 μs) through different ceramic discs was measured with the power meter. Ten measurements were made for each group and the results were analyzed with two way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey honestly significant difference (HSD) tests. The highest transmission ratio was determined for lithium disilicate-reinforced ceramic with 0.5 mm thickness (88%) and the lowest was determined for feldspathic ceramic with 1 mm thickness (44%). The differences among the different ceramics and between the different thicknesses were significant (pCeramic type and thickness should be taken into consideration to adjust the laser irradiation parameters during laser debonding of adhesively luted all-ceramic restorations.

  5. Microfiltration of distillery stillage: Influence of membrane pore size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasić Vesna M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Stillage is one of the most polluted waste products of the food industry. Beside large volume, the stillage contains high amount of suspended solids, high values of chemical oxygen demand and biological oxygen demand, so it should not be discharged in the nature before previous purification. In this work, three ceramic membranes for microfiltration with different pore sizes were tested for stillage purification in order to find the most suitable membrane for the filtration process. Ceramic membranes with a nominal pore size of 200 nm, 450 nm and 800 nm were used for filtration. The influence of pore size on permeate flux and removal efficiency was investigated. A membrane with the pore size of 200 nm showed the best filtration performance so it was chosen for the microfiltration process.

  6. CATALYTIC SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF Mn(II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    method is based on the catalytic effect of Mn(II) with the oxidation of Celestine blue .... water samples were filtered through a 0.45 μm pore size membrane filter to remove suspended .... slope of the calibration graph as the optimization criterion. ..... In presence of Phen as stability enhancement agent in indicator system. ( ) +.

  7. Catalytic Surface Promotion of Composite Cathodes in Protonic Ceramic Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solis, Cecilia; Navarrete, Laura; Bozza, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Composite cathodes based on an electronic conductor and a protonic conductor show advantages for protonic ceramic fuel cells. In this work, the performance of a La5.5WO11.25-δ/ La0.8Sr0.2MnO3+δ (LWO/LSM) composite cathode in a fuel cell based on an LWO protonic conducting electrolyte is shown...

  8. Inorganic membranes for hydrogen production and purification: a critical review and perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, G Q; Diniz da Costa, J C; Duke, M; Giessler, S; Socolow, R; Williams, R H; Kreutz, T

    2007-10-15

    Hydrogen as a high-quality and clean energy carrier has attracted renewed and ever-increasing attention around the world in recent years, mainly due to developments in fuel cells and environmental pressures including climate change issues. In thermochemical processes for hydrogen production from fossil fuels, separation and purification is a critical technology. Where water-gas shift reaction is involved for converting the carbon monoxide to hydrogen, membrane reactors show great promises for shifting the equilibrium. Membranes are also important to the subsequent purification of hydrogen. For hydrogen production and purification, there are generally two classes of membranes both being inorganic: dense phase metal and metal alloys, and porous ceramic membranes. Porous ceramic membranes are normally prepared by sol-gel or hydrothermal methods, and have high stability and durability in high temperature, harsh impurity and hydrothermal environments. In particular, microporous membranes show promises in water gas shift reaction at higher temperatures. In this article, we review the recent advances in both dense phase metal and porous ceramic membranes, and compare their separation properties and performance in membrane reactor systems. The preparation, characterization and permeation of the various membranes will be presented and discussed. We also aim to examine the critical issues in these membranes with respect to the technical and economical advantages and disadvantages. Discussions will also be made on the relevance and importance of membrane technology to the new generation of zero-emission power technologies.

  9. Dense ceramic membranes based on ion conducting oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, M.L.; Larring, Y.; Bredesen, R.; Norby, T.; Grande, T.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter reviews the recent progress made in the fields of high temperature oxygen and hydrogen separation membranes. Studies of membranes for oxygen separation are mainly focusing on materials design to improve flux, and to lesser extent, related to stability issues. High oxygen fluxes satisfying industrial requirements can be obtained but, for many materials, the surface exchange rate is limiting the performance. The current status on electrolyte-type and mixed proton and electron conducting membranes is outlined, highlighting materials with improved stability in typical applications as solid oxide fuel cell technology and gas separation. In our presentation more fundamental aspects related to transport properties, chemical and mechanical stability of membrane materials are also treated. It is concluded that a significantly better understanding of the long term effects of operation in chemical gradients is needed for these types of membrane materials. (authors)

  10. Catalytic combustion of the retentate gas from a CO2/H2 separation membrane reactor for further CO2 enrichment and energy recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Kyung-Ran; Park, Jin-Woo; Lee, Sung-Wook; Hong, Sungkook; Lee, Chun-Boo; Oh, Duck-Kyu; Jin, Min-Ho; Lee, Dong-Wook; Park, Jong-Soo

    2015-01-01

    The CCR (catalytic combustion reaction) of the retentate gas, consisting of 90% CO 2 and 10% H 2 obtained from a CO 2 /H 2 separation membrane reactor, was investigated using a porous Ni metal catalyst in order to recover energy and further enrich CO 2 . A disc-shaped porous Ni metal catalyst, namely Al[0.1]/Ni, was prepared by a simple method and a compact MCR (micro-channel reactor) equipped with a catalyst plate was designed for the CCR. CO 2 and H 2 concentrations of 98.68% and 0.46%, respectively, were achieved at an operating temperature of 400 °C, GHSV (gas-hourly space velocity) of 50,000 h −1 and a H 2 /O 2 ratio (R/O) of 2 in the unit module. In the case of the MCR, a sheet of the Ni metal catalyst was easily installed along with the other metal plates and the concentration of CO 2 in the retentate gas increased up to 96.7%. The differences in temperatures measured before and after the CCR were 31 °C at the product outlet and 19 °C at the N 2 outlet in the MCR. The disc-shaped porous metal catalyst and MCR configuration used in this study exhibit potential advantages, such as high thermal transfer resulting in improved energy recovery rate, simple catalyst preparation, and easy installation of the catalyst in the MCR. - Highlights: • The catalytic combustion of a retentate gas obtained from the H 2 /CO 2 separation membrane. • A disc-shaped porous nickel metal catalyst and a micro-channel reactor for catalytic hydrogen combustion. • CO 2 enrichment up to 98.68% at 400 °C, 50,000 h −1 and H 2 /O 2 ratio of 2.

  11. Enhanced water desalination performance through hierarchically-structured ceramic membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Tong; Lei, Libin; Gu, Jianqiang; Wang, Yao; Winnubst, Louis; Chen, Chusheng; Ye, Chunsong; Chen, Fanglin

    2017-01-01

    Developments of membrane water desalination are impeded by low water vapor flux across the membrane. We present an innovative membrane design to significantly enhance the water vapor flux. A bilayer zirconia-based membrane with a thick hierarchically-structured support and a thin functional layer is

  12. Porous ceramic materials for micro filtration processes I: Al2 O3 fabrication and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas K, J.; Reyes M, P.E.; Piderit A, G.

    1992-01-01

    Ceramic filters in separation processes are becoming more important every day. The use of these filters or membranes in the micro and ultrafiltration range, which origin goes back to the nuclear industry for uranium isotopes separation by gaseous diffusion and radioactive waste treatments, significantly improves some industrial processes efficiency. The present work describes the research done in the filters, or ceramic membrane supports fabrication field, the obtained operational results and their relation with the microstructure. (author)

  13. NOVEL CERAMIC MEMBRANE FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE CARBON DIOXIDE SEPARATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, Jun-ichi; Yang, Zhaohui; Lin, Jerry Y.S.

    2002-01-01

    A new CO 2 semi-permeable dense inorganic membrane consisting of a porous metal phase and molten carbonate was proposed. A simple direct infiltration method was used to synthesize the metal-carbonate dual-phase membrane. Hermetic (gas-tight) dual phase membrane was successfully obtained. Permeation data showed that nitrogen or helium is not permeable through the membrane (only CO 2 , with O 2 can permeate through the membrane based on transport mechanism)

  14. Carbon nanofibers in catalytic membrane microreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aran, H.C.; Pacheco Benito, Sergio; Luiten-Olieman, Maria W.J.; Er, S.; Wessling, Matthias; Lefferts, Leonardus; Benes, Nieck Edwin; Lammertink, Rob G.H.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we report on the fabrication and operation of new hybrid membrane microreactors for gas–liquid–solid (G–L–S) reactions. The presented reactors consist of porous stainless steel tubes onto which carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are grown as catalyst support, all encapsulated by a gas permeable

  15. Ceramic pore channels with inducted carbon nanotubes for removing oil from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinwei; Hong, Liang; Xu, Yanfang; Ong, Zheng Wei

    2012-04-01

    Water contaminated with tiny oil emulsions is costly and difficult to treat because of the colloidal stability and deformable nature of emulsified oil. This work utilizes carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in macro/mesopore channels of ceramic membrane to remove tiny oil droplets from water. The CNTs were implanted into the porous ceramic channels by means of chemical vapor deposition. Being hydrophobic in nature and possessing an interfacial curvature at nanoscale, CNTs enabled tiny oil emulsion in submicrometer and nano scales to be entrapped while permeating through the CNTs implanted pore channels. Optimizing the growth condition of the CNTs resulted in a uniform distribution of CNT grids, which allowed the development of lipophilic layers during filtration. These lipo-layers drastically enhanced the separation performance. The filtration capability of CNT-ceramic membrane was assessed by the purification of a dilute oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion containing ca. 210 ppm mineral oil 1600 ppm emulsifier, and a trace amount of dye, a proxy polluted water source. The best CNT-tailored ceramic membrane, prepared under the optimized CNT growth condition, claimed 100% oil rejection rate and a permeation flux of 0.6 L m(-2) min(-1), driven by a pressure drop of ca. 1 bar for 3 days on the basis of UV measurement. The CNT-sustained adsorption complements the size-exclusion mechanism in removing soluble oil.

  16. Stable proton-conducting Ca-doped LaNbO{sub 4} thin electrolyte-based protonic ceramic membrane fuel cells by in situ screen printing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Bin [USTC Laboratory for Solid State Chemistry and Inorganic Membranes, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China (USTC), Hefei, 230026, Anhui (China)], E-mail: bin@mail.ustc.edu.cn; Wang Songlin; Liu Xingqin [USTC Laboratory for Solid State Chemistry and Inorganic Membranes, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China (USTC), Hefei, 230026, Anhui (China); Meng Guangyao [USTC Laboratory for Solid State Chemistry and Inorganic Membranes, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China (USTC), Hefei, 230026, Anhui (China)], E-mail: mgym@ustc.edu.cn

    2009-06-10

    In order to develop a simple and cost-effective route to fabricate protonic ceramic membrane fuel cells (PCMFCs), a stable proton-conducting La{sub 0.99}Ca{sub 0.01}NbO{sub 4} (LCN) thin electrolyte was fabricated on a porous NiO-La{sub 0.5}Ce{sub 0.5}O{sub 1.75} (NiO-LDC) anode by in situ screen printing. The key part of this process is to directly print well-mixed ink of La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CaCO{sub 3} and Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} instead of pre-synthesized LCN ceramic powder on the anode substrate. After sintering at 1400 deg. C for 5 h, the full dense electrolyte membrane in the thickness of 20 {mu}m was obtained. A single cell was assembled with (La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}){sub 0.9}MnO{sub 3-{delta}}-La{sub 0.5}Ce{sub 0.5}O{sub 1.75} (LSM-LDC) as cathode and tested with humidified hydrogen as fuel and static air as oxidant. The open circuit voltage (OCV) and maximum power density respectively reached 0.98 V and 65 mW cm{sup -2} at 800 deg. C. Interface resistance of cell under open circuit condition was also investigated.

  17. Catalytic membranes for CO oxidation in fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandi-Tapia, Giselle; Carrado Gregar, Kathleen; Kizilel, Riza

    2010-06-08

    A hydrogen permeable membrane, which includes a polymer stable at temperatures of about 200 C having clay impregnated with Pt or Au or Ru or Pd particles or mixtures thereof with average diameters of less than about 10 nanometers (nms) is disclosed. The membranes are useful in fuel cells or any device which requires hydrogen to be separated from carbon monoxide.

  18. Production efficiency of micellar casein concentrate using polymeric spiral-wound microfiltration membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, S L; Zulewska, J; Newbold, M; Barbano, D M

    2010-10-01

    Most current research has focused on using ceramic microfiltration (MF) membranes for micellar casein concentrate production, but little research has focused on the use of polymeric spiral-wound (SW) MF membranes. A method for the production of a serum protein (SP)-reduced micellar casein concentrate using SW MF was compared with a ceramic MF membrane. Pasteurized (79°C, 18s) skim milk (1,100 kg) was microfiltered at 50°C [about 3 × concentration] using a 0.3-μm polyvinylidene fluoride spiral-wound membrane, bleed-and-feed, 3-stage process, using 2 diafiltration stages, where the retentate was diluted 1:2 with reverse osmosis water. Skim milk, permeate, and retentate were analyzed for SP content, and the reduction of SP from skim milk was determined. Theoretically, 68% of the SP content of skim milk can be removed using a single-stage 3× MF. If 2 subsequent water diafiltration stages are used, an additional 22% and 7% of the SP can be removed, respectively, giving a total SP removal of 97%. Removal of SP greater than 95% has been achieved using a 0.1-μm pore size ceramic uniform transmembrane pressure (UTP) MF membrane after a 3-stage MF with diafiltration process. One stage of MF plus 2 stages of diafiltration of 50°C skim milk using a polyvinylidene fluoride polymeric SW 0.3-μm membrane yielded a total SP reduction of only 70.3% (stages 1, 2, and 3: 38.6, 20.8, and 10.9%, respectively). The SP removal rate for the polymeric SW MF membrane was lower in all 3 stages of processing (stages 1, 2, and 3: 0.05, 0.04, and 0.03 kg/m(2) per hour, respectively) than that of the comparable ceramic UTP MF membrane (stages 1, 2, and 3: 0.30, 0.11, and 0.06 kg/m(2) per hour, respectively), indicating that SW MF is less efficient at removing SP from 50°C skim milk than the ceramic UTP system. To estimate the number of steps required for the SW system to reach 95% SP removal, the third-stage SP removal rate (27.4% of the starting material SP content) was used to

  19. The development of zirconia membrane oxygen separation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiacchi, F.T.; Badwal, S.P.S.; Velizko, V.

    2000-01-01

    The oxygen separation technology based on ceramic membranes constructed from stabilised zirconia is currently under development for applications ranging from oxygen generation or air enrichment for medical use to control of oxygen concentration or oxygen removal from gas streams and enclosures for semiconductor, food packaging and process control instrumentation industries. The technology is based on a rugged tubular design with extensive thermal cycling capability. Several single and three tube devices have been operated for periods up to 5000h. An eight tube module, as a building block for larger scale oxygen production or removal devices, has been constructed and is being evaluated. In this paper, the construction of the device, oxygen generating capacity, life time tests and performance of the ceramic membrane device under development at CSIRO will be discussed. Copyright (2000) The Australian Ceramic Society

  20. Porous polymeric membranes with thermal and solvent resistance

    KAUST Repository

    Pulido, Bruno

    2017-05-30

    Polymeric membranes are highly advantageous over their ceramic counterparts in terms of the simplicity of the manufacturing process, cost and scalability. Their main disadvantages are low stability at temperatures above 200 °C, and in organic solvents. We report for the first time porous polymeric membranes manufactured from poly(oxindolebiphenylylene) (POXI), a polymer with thermal stability as high as 500 °C in oxidative conditions. The membranes were prepared by solution casting and phase inversion by immersion in water. The asymmetric porous morphology was characterized by scanning electronic microscopy. The pristine membranes are stable in alcohols, acetone, acetonitrile and hexane, as well as in aqueous solutions with pH between 0 and 14. The membrane stability was extended for application in other organic solvents by crosslinking, using various dibromides, and the efficiency of the different crosslinkers was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). POXI crosslinked membranes are stable up to 329 °C in oxidative conditions and showed organic solvent resistance in polar aprotic solvents with 99% rejection of Red Direct 80 in DMF at 70 °C. With this development, the application of polymeric membranes could be extended to high temperature and harsh environments, fields currently dominated by ceramic membranes.

  1. The treatment of oily brines containing waste oils using membrane technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, H.; Tremblay, A.Y. [Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Veinot, D.E. [Defence R and D Canada, Halifax, NS (Canada). Atlantic Dockyard Laboratory

    2004-07-01

    Bilge water is an oily wastewater from ships that must be treated before it is discharged to coastal waters. It is difficult to treat because it contains seawater, particulates, used oils and detergents. This paper presents the results of a study which examined a cascaded membrane system comprised of a backflushed microfiltration membrane used for pretreatment of bilge water. It also examined an ultrafiltration membrane used in the final polishing step. Membrane pore size, materials and support structures were examined for single tube carbon membrane and multilumen ceramic membranes. Results indicate that membranes with a pore size less than 0.2 microns can treat bilge water directly. The performance of the membrane depends on its pore size and on the particle size distribution of the bilge water. Backflushing improved the flux in single tube carbon membranes but not in the multilumen ceramic membranes. Another important factor in bilge water treatment was the clearance of the support structure with respect to particulates. Heating, air and steam methods were all found to be suitable for membrane flux regeneration. A hybrid microfiltration and ultrafiltration membrane proved to be very effective in treating bilge water.

  2. Carbon membranes - current progress and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tennison, St.; Arnott, K.; Richter, H.

    2007-01-01

    The future use of nano-porous gas separation membranes will be dependent on significant reductions in the membrane and module costs, improvements in production methods to allow better reproducibility, ability to scale up production and improved performance and understanding of the mode of operation of the membrane systems. New approaches to ceramic supported carbon membranes could offer solutions to these problems. Whilst the performance characteristics underline the limitations of these membranes they also show where specific process opportunities might be accessible particularly in environmental and high temperature separations. (authors)

  3. Development of an Electrochemical Ceramic Membrane Filtration System for Efficient Contaminant Removal from Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Junjian; Wang, Zhiwei; Ma, Jinxing; Xu, Shaoping; Wu, Zhichao

    2018-04-03

    Inability to remove low-molecular-weight anthropogenic contaminants is a critical issue in low-pressure membrane filtration processes for water treatment. In this work, a novel electrochemical ceramic membrane filtration (ECMF) system using TiO 2 @SnO 2 -Sb anode was developed for removing persistent p-chloroaniline (PCA). Results showed that the ECMF system achieved efficient removal of PCA from contaminated waters. At a charging voltage of 3 V, the PCA removal rate of TiO 2 @SnO 2 -Sb ECMF system under flow-through mode was 2.4 times that of flow-by mode. The energy consumption for 50% of PCA removal for TiO 2 @SnO 2 -Sb ECMF at 3 V under flow-through mode was 0.38 Wh/L, much lower than that of flow-by operation (1.5 Wh/L), which was attributed to the improved utilization of the surface adsorbed HO· and dissociated HO· driven by the enhanced mass transfer of PCA toward the anode surface. Benefiting from the increased production of reactive oxygen species such as O 2 •- , H 2 O 2 , and HO· arising from excitation of anatase TiO 2 , TiO 2 @SnO 2 -Sb ECMF exhibited a superior electrocatalytic activity to the SnO 2 -Sb ECMF system. The degradation pathways of PCA initiated by OH· attack were further proposed, with the biodegradable short-chain carboxylic acids (mainly formic, acetic, and oxalic acids) identified as the dominant oxidized products. These results highlight the potential of the ECMF system for cost-effective water purification.

  4. Asymmetric bipolar membrane: A tool to improve product purity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balster, J.H.; Sumbharaju, R.; Srikantharajah, S.; Punt, Ineke G.M.; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Jordan, V.; Wessling, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    Bipolar membranes (BPMs) are catalytic membranes for electro-membrane processes splitting water into protons and hydroxyl ions. To improve selectivity and current efficiency of BPMs, we prepare new asymmetric BPMs with reduced salt leakages. The flux of salt ions across a BPM is determined by the

  5. Viral membrane fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. - Highlights: • Viral fusion proteins overcome the high energy barrier to lipid bilayer merger. • Different molecular structures but the same catalytic mechanism. • Review describes properties of three known fusion-protein structural classes. • Single-virion fusion experiments elucidate mechanism

  6. Viral membrane fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Stephen C., E-mail: harrison@crystal.harvard.edu

    2015-05-15

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. - Highlights: • Viral fusion proteins overcome the high energy barrier to lipid bilayer merger. • Different molecular structures but the same catalytic mechanism. • Review describes properties of three known fusion-protein structural classes. • Single-virion fusion experiments elucidate mechanism.

  7. Silicalite-1 zeolite membranes on unmodified and modified surfaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Silicalite-1 zeolite membranes were prepared hydrothermally on the porous ceramic supports, both unmodified and modified with 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES) as a coupling agent following ex situ (secondary) crystal growth process. The microstructure of the membranes was examined by scanning electron ...

  8. Noncatalytic hydrogenation of decene-1 with hydrogen accumulated in a hybrid carbon nanostructure in nanosized membrane reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatov, A. P.

    2014-08-01

    Studies on the creation of nanosized membrane reactors (NMRs) of a new generation with accumulated hydrogen and a regulated volume of reaction zone were continued at the next stage. Hydrogenation was performed in the pores of ceramic membranes with hydrogen preliminarily adsorbed in mono- and multilayered orientated carbon nanotubes with graphene walls (OCNTGs)—a new hybrid carbon nanostructure formed on the inner pore surface. Quantitative determination of hydrogen adsorption in OCNTGs was performed using TRUMEM ultrafiltration membranes with D av = 50 and 90 nm and showed that hydrogen adsorption was up to ˜1.5% of the mass of OCNTG. The instrumentation and procedure for noncatalytic hydrogenation of decene-1 at 250-350°C using hydrogen accumulated and stored in OCNTG were developed. The conversion of decene-1 into decane was ˜0.2-1.8% at hydrogenation temperatures of 250 and 350°C, respectively. The rate constants and activation energy of hydrogenation were determined. The latter was found to be 94.5 kJ/mol, which is much smaller than the values typical for noncatalytic hydrogenations and very close to the values characteristic for catalytic reactions. The quantitative distribution of the reacting compounds in each pore regarded as a nanosized membrane reactor was determined. The activity of hydrogen adsorbed in a 2D carbon nanostructure was evaluated. Possible mechanisms of noncatalytic hydrogenation were discussed.

  9. Ceramic Ultra- and Nanofiltration for Municipal Wastewater Reuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shang, R.

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, water reuse has been widely recognized in many regions of the world. Fouling of ceramic membranes, especially hydraulically irreversible fouling, is a critical aspect affecting the operational cost and energy consumption in water treatment plants. In addition, the reverse

  10. Recovery of homogeneous polyoxometallate catalysts from aqueous and organic media by a mesoporous ceramic membrane without loss of catalytic activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy Chowdhury, S.; Roy Chowdhury, Sankhanilay; Witte, Peter T.; Blank, David H.A.; Alsters, Paul L.; ten Elshof, Johan E.

    2006-01-01

    The recovery of homogeneous polyoxometallate (POM) oxidation catalysts from aqueous and non-aqueous media by a nanofiltration process using mesoporous γ-alumina membranes is reported. The recovery of Q12[WZn3(ZnW9O34)2] (Q=[MeN(n-C8H17)3]+) from toluene-based media was quantitative within

  11. Surface Catalytic Efficiency of Advanced Carbon Carbon Candidate Thermal Protection Materials for SSTO Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, David A.

    1996-01-01

    The catalytic efficiency (atom recombination coefficients) for advanced ceramic thermal protection systems was calculated using arc-jet data. Coefficients for both oxygen and nitrogen atom recombination on the surfaces of these systems were obtained to temperatures of 1650 K. Optical and chemical stability of the candidate systems to the high energy hypersonic flow was also demonstrated during these tests.

  12. Ceramic Membrane combined with Powdered Activated Carbon (PAC) or Coagulation for Treatment of Impaired Quality Waters

    KAUST Repository

    Hamad, Juma Z.

    2013-08-29

    Ceramic membranes (CM) are robust membranes attributed with high production, long life span and stability against critical conditions. While capital costs are high, these are partially offset by lower operation and maintenance costs compared to polymeric membranes. Like any other low-pressure membrane (LPM), CM faces problems of fouling, low removal of organic matter and poor removal of trace organic compounds (TOrCs). Current pretreatment approaches that are mainly based on coagulation and adsorption can remove some organic matter but with a low removal of the biopolymers component which is responsible for fouling. Powdered activated carbon (PAC) accompanied with a LPM maintains good removal of TOrCs. However, enhanced removal of TOrCs to higher level is required. Submicron powdered activated carbon (SPAC), obtained after crushing commercial activated carbon into very fine particle, and novel activated carbon (KCU 6) which is characterized with larger pores and high surface area were employed. A pre-coating approach, which provides intimated contact between PAC and contaminants, was adopted for wastewater and (high DOC) surface water treatment. For seawater, in-line coagulation with iron III chloride was adopted. Both SPAC and KCU 6 showed good removal of biopolymers at a dose of 30 mg/L with > 85 % and 90 %, respectively. A dose of 40 mg/L of SPAC and 30 mg/L KCU 6 pre-coats were successful used in controlling membrane fouling. SPAC is suggested to remove biopolymers by physical means and adsorption while KCU 6 removed biopolymers through adsorption. Both KCU 6 and SPAC attained high removal of TOrCs whereas KCU 6 showed outstanding performance. Out of 29 TOrCs investigated, KCU 6 showed > 87 % TOrCs rejection for 28 compounds. In seawater pretreatment, transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) were found to be an important foulant. TEP promoted both reversible and irreversible fouling. TEP are highly electronegative while alumina CM is positively charged which

  13. Study and optimization of the ultrasound-enhanced cleaning of an ultrafiltration ceramic membrane through a combined experimental-statistical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alventosa-deLara, E; Barredo-Damas, S; Alcaina-Miranda, M I; Iborra-Clar, M I

    2014-05-01

    Membrane fouling is one of the main drawbacks of ultrafiltration technology during the treatment of dye-containing effluents. Therefore, the optimization of the membrane cleaning procedure is essential to improve the overall efficiency. In this work, a study of the factors affecting the ultrasound-assisted cleaning of an ultrafiltration ceramic membrane fouled by dye particles was carried out. The effect of transmembrane pressure (0.5, 1.5, 2.5 bar), cross-flow velocity (1, 2, 3 ms(-1)), ultrasound power level (40%, 70%, 100%) and ultrasound frequency mode (37, 80 kHz and mixed wave) on the cleaning efficiency was evaluated. The lowest frequency showed better results, although the best cleaning performance was obtained using the mixed wave mode. A Box-Behnken Design was used to find the optimal conditions for the cleaning procedure through a response surface study. The optimal operating conditions leading to the maximum cleaning efficiency predicted (32.19%) were found to be 1.1 bar, 3 ms(-1) and 100% of power level. Finally, the optimized response was compared to the efficiency of a chemical cleaning with NaOH solution, with and without the use of ultrasound. By using NaOH, cleaning efficiency nearly triples, and it improves up to 25% by adding ultrasound. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. YSZ-Reinforced Alumina Multi-Channel Capillary Membranes for Micro-Filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The combined phase-inversion and sintering method not only produces ceramic hollow fibre membranes with much lower fabrication costs than conventional methods, but these membranes can also be designed to have greatly reduced transport resistances for filtration processes. The bottleneck of this technique is the weak mechanical property of the fibres, due to the small dimensions and the brittle nature of the ceramic materials. In this study, yttrium stabilised zirconia (YSZ reinforced alumina seven-channel capillary microfiltration membranes were prepared with a pore size of ~230 nm and their mechanical property and permeation characteristics were studied. It is found that the addition of YSZ can effectively enhance the mechanical property of the membrane and also increase pure water permeation flux. The Al2O3-YSZ seven-channel capillary membranes could reach a fracture load of 23.4 N and a bending extension of 0.54 mm when being tested with a 6 cm span, to meet the requirements for most industrial microfiltration applications.

  15. YSZ-Reinforced Alumina Multi-Channel Capillary Membranes for Micro-Filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Lee, Melanie; Li, Kang

    2015-12-30

    The combined phase-inversion and sintering method not only produces ceramic hollow fibre membranes with much lower fabrication costs than conventional methods, but these membranes can also be designed to have greatly reduced transport resistances for filtration processes. The bottleneck of this technique is the weak mechanical property of the fibres, due to the small dimensions and the brittle nature of the ceramic materials. In this study, yttrium stabilised zirconia (YSZ) reinforced alumina seven-channel capillary microfiltration membranes were prepared with a pore size of ~230 nm and their mechanical property and permeation characteristics were studied. It is found that the addition of YSZ can effectively enhance the mechanical property of the membrane and also increase pure water permeation flux. The Al₂O₃-YSZ seven-channel capillary membranes could reach a fracture load of 23.4 N and a bending extension of 0.54 mm when being tested with a 6 cm span, to meet the requirements for most industrial microfiltration applications.

  16. Hydrogen Production by Catalytic Partial Oxidation of Coke Oven Gas in BaCo0.7Fe0.3-xZrxO3-δ Ceramic Membrane Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Weilin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The BaCo0.7Fe0.3-xZrxO3-δ (BCFZ, x = 0.04–0.12 mixed ionic–electronic conducting (MIEC membranes were synthesized with a sol–gel method and evaluated as potential membrane reactor materials for the partial oxidation of coke oven gas (COG. The effect of zirconium content on the phase structure, microstructure and performance of the BCFZ membrane under He or COG atmosphere were systemically investigated. The BaCo0.7Fe0.24Zr0.06O3-δ membrane exhibited the best oxygen permeability and good operation stability, which could be a potential candidate of the membrane materials for hydrogen production through the partial oxidation of COG.

  17. Carbon nanotubes-porous ceramic composite by in situ CCVD growth of CNTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazumder, Sangram; Sarkar, Naboneeta; Park, Jung Gyu; Han, In Sub; Kim, Ik Jin

    2016-01-01

    A novel approach towards the formation of Carbon nanotubes-porous alumina ceramic composite was attempted by the application of three different reaction techniques. Porous alumina ceramics having micrometer pore dimensions were developed using the direct foaming technique. NaA zeolites were simultaneously synthesized and coated within the porous ceramics by an in situ hydrothermal process and were subjected to a simple ion exchange reaction for preparing the suitable catalyst material for Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) synthesis. The catalytic chemical vapour deposition (CCVD) technique was used to grow CNTs within the porous ceramics and the effect of growth time on the synthesized CNTs were investigated. Phase compositions of the samples were analysed by X-ray diffractometer (XRD). Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) were used for morphology, surface quality and structural analysis. Crystallinity, defects and yield were studied by Raman spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). - Highlights: • Novel processing route of MWCNTs grown on Cobalt-zeolites-porous ceramics by CCVD. • CCVD time of 120 min produced MWCNTs with most prominent tube-like structure. • 120 min produced highest yield (19.46%) of CNTs with an I_D/I_G ratio of 0.88.

  18. Preparation and characterization of metallic supported thin Pd-Ag membranes for hydrogen separation

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Ekain; Medrano, Jose Antonio; Melendez, Jon; Parco, Maria; Viviente, J.L.; van Sint Annaland, Martin; Gallucci, Fausto; Pacheco Tanaka, David A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the preparation and characterization of thin-film (4-5 µm thick) Pd-Ag metallic supported membranes for high temperature applications. Various thin film membranes have been prepared by depositing a ceramic interdiffusion barrier layer prior to the simultaneous Pd-Ag electroless plating deposition. Two deposition techniques for ceramic layers (made of zirconia and alumina) have been evaluated: atmospheric plasma spraying and dip coating of a powder suspension. Initially, the...

  19. Ceramic and polymeric devices for breast brachytherapy - Mammographic and CT response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Luciana B.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R.

    2009-01-01

    The present research investigates the radiological visibility of ceramic and polymeric devices implanted in breast phantom (in vitro) for future applications in brachytherapy treatments. The main research goal is to investigate the viability of monitoring ceramic and polymeric devices, in vitro based on simple methods of radiological diagnostic, maintaining the easiest access to the population, represented by the conventional X-ray and mammography. The methodology involves the processing of ceramic devices constituted by bioglasses of Sm, SmBa, Ho, HoBa and the production of polymeric devices, such as polymeric membranes incorporating Ho e HoBa. Contrast agent of Barium was introduced in the syntheses of those devices to improve the radiological visibility in breast equivalent-tissue (TE) phantom. The breast phantom is constituted of glandular, adipose and skin TE, reproducing a 5 cm compressed real breast. In the compressed breast phantom, all types of ceramic and polymeric devices were implanted side by side. Radiological images were generated through X-ray equipment, mammography and computerized tomography (TC), for the samples implanted in the compressed breast phantom. The results show that SmBa and HoBa seeds on breast phantom presented suitable radiological visibility, on all the radiological diagnostic methods. However, the X-rays radiological visibility of Sm seeds without contrast was discreet. On mammography and TC images, it was not possible to identify those seeds, because the same ones were degraded after two months immersed in the glandular TE, after placed on the phantom. The Ho seeds were identified on all radiological diagnostic images, although non contrast agent in its constitution was added. However, the holmium polymeric membranes in direct contact with TE did not show Xray radiological visibility. However, the polymeric membranes of HoBa in the same conditions presented efficient X-rays radiological response. For mammography and TC methods

  20. Ceramic membrane technologies for gas separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badwal, S.P.S.; Ciacchi, F.T.

    2000-01-01

    Solid state electrochemical cells based on oxygen-ion or proton conduction (pure ionic or mixed ionic/electronic conductors) allow selective transport of oxygen (oxygen-ion conducting materials) or hydrogen (for proton conducting materials) in the form of ionic flux at high temperatures. Thus these systems can act as filters for molecular oxygen or hydrogen and can be used for both generation or removal of these gases selectively. The usage of such devices are numerous including control of atmosphere in industrial environments to production of power and chemicals, in petroleum and medical industries, and in combustion processes. In this paper, a brief overview of the technology has been given and various doped materials for construction of such devices, such as zirconia, ceria, bismuth oxides or lanthanum gallates have been briefly reviewed. Copyright (2000) The Australian Ceramic Society

  1. Introducing catalyst in alkaline membrane for improved performance direct borohydride fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Haiying; Lin, Longxia; Chu, Wen; Jiang, Wei; He, Yan; Shi, Qiao; Deng, Yonghong; Ji, Zhenguo; Liu, Jiabin; Tao, Shanwen

    2018-01-01

    A catalytic material is introduced into the polymer matrix to prepare a novel polymeric alkaline electrolyte membrane (AEM) which simultaneously increases ionic conductivity, reduces the fuel cross-over. In this work, the hydroxide anion exchange membrane is mainly composed of poly(vinylalcohol) and alkaline exchange resin. CoCl2 is added into the poly(vinylalcohol) and alkaline exchange resin gel before casting the membrane to introduce catalytic materials. CoCl2 is converted into CoOOH after the reaction with KOH solution. The crystallinity of the polymer matrix decreases and the ionic conductivity of the composite membrane is notably improved by the introduction of Co-species. A direct borohydride fuel cell using the composite membrane exhibits an open circuit voltage of 1.11 V at 30 °C, which is notably higher than that of cells using other AEMs. The cell using the composite membrane achieves a maximum power density of 283 mW cm-2 at 60 °C while the cell using the membrane without Co-species only reaches 117 mW cm-2 at the same conditions. The outstanding performance of the cell using the composite membrane benefits from impregnation of the catalytic Co-species in the membrane, which not only increases the ionic conductivity but also reduces electrode polarization thus improves the fuel cell performance. This work provides a new approach to develop high-performance fuel cells through adding catalysts in the electrolyte membrane.

  2. A model of protocell based on the introduction of a semi-permeable membrane in a stochastic model of catalytic reaction networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Villani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work we introduce some preliminary analyses on the role of a semi-permeable membrane in the dynamics of a stochastic model of catalytic reaction sets (CRSs of molecules. The results of the simulations performed on ensembles of randomly generated reaction schemes highlight remarkable differences between this very simple protocell description model and the classical case of the continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR. In particular, in the CSTR case, distinct simulations with the same reaction scheme reach the same dynamical equilibrium, whereas, in the protocell case, simulations with identical reaction schemes can reach very different dynamical states, despite starting from the same initial conditions.

  3. Multilayer sulfur-resistant composite metal membranes and methods of making and repairing the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, J. Douglas; Hatlevik, Oyvind

    2014-07-15

    The invention relates to thin, hydrogen-permeable, sulfur-resistant membranes formed from multi-layers of palladium or palladium-alloy coatings on porous, ceramic or metal supports, methods of making these membranes, methods of repairing layers of these membranes and devices that incorporate these membranes.

  4. [Adsorption characteristics of proteins on membrane surface and effect of protein solution environment on permeation behavior of berberine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-Qun; Xu, Li; Zhu, Hua-Xu; Tang, Zhi-Shu; Li, Bo; Pan, Yong-Lan; Yao, Wei-Wei; Fu, Ting-Ming; Guo, Li-Wei

    2017-10-01

    In order to explore the adsorption characteristics of proteins on the membrane surface and the effect of protein solution environment on the permeation behavior of berberine, berberine and proteins were used as the research object to prepare simulated solution. Low field NMR, static adsorption experiment and membrane separation experiment were used to study the interaction between the proteins and ceramic membrane or between the proteins and berberine. The static adsorption capacity of proteins, membrane relative flux, rejection rate of proteins, transmittance rate of berberine and the adsorption rate of proteins and berberine were used as the evaluation index. Meanwhile, the membrane resistance distribution, the particle size distribution and the scanning electron microscope (SEM) were determined to investigate the adsorption characteristics of proteins on ceramic membrane and the effect on membrane separation process of berberine. The results showed that the ceramic membrane could adsorb the proteins and the adsorption model was consistent with Langmuir adsorption model. In simulating the membrane separation process, proteins were the main factor to cause membrane fouling. However, when the concentration of proteins was 1 g•L⁻¹, the proteins had no significant effect on membrane separation process of berberine. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  5. Removing Pathogens Using Nano-Ceramic-Fiber Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepper, Frederick; Kaledin, Leonid

    2005-01-01

    A nano-aluminum-oxide fiber of only 2 nanometers in diameter was used to develop a ceramic-fiber filter. The fibers are electropositive and, when formulated into a filter material (NanoCeram(TradeMark)), would attract electro-negative particles such as bacteria and viruses. The ability to detect and then remove viruses as well as bacteria is of concern in space cabins since they may be carried onboard by space crews. Moreover, an improved filter was desired that would polish the effluent from condensed moisture and wastewater, producing potable drinking water. A laboratory- size filter was developed that was capable of removing greater than 99.9999 percent of bacteria and virus. Such a removal was achieved at flow rates hundreds of times greater than those through ultraporous membranes that remove particles by sieving. Because the pore size of the new filter was rather large as compared to ultraporous membranes, it was found to be more resistant to clogging. Additionally, a full-size cartridge is being developed that is capable of serving a full space crew. During this ongoing effort, research demonstrated that the filter media was a very efficient adsorbent for DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), RNA (ribonucleic acid), and endotoxins. Since the adsorption is based on the charge of the macromolecules, there is also a potential for separating proteins and other particulates on the basis of their charge differences. The separation of specific proteins is a major new thrust of biotechnology. The principal application of NanoCeram filters is based on their ability to remove viruses from water. The removal of more than 99.9999 percent of viruses was achieved by a NanoCeram polishing filter added to the effluent of an existing filtration device. NanoCeram is commercially available in laboratory-size filter discs and in the form of a syringe filter. The unique characteristic of the filter can be demonstrated by its ability to remove particulate dyes such as Metanyl yellow. Its

  6. The obtaining and properties of asymmetric ion transport membrane for separating of oxygen from air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovieva, A. A.; Kulbakin, I. V.

    2018-04-01

    The bilayer oxygen-permeable membrane, consisting of a thin-film dense composite based on Co3O4 - 36 wt. % Bi2O3, and of a porous ceramic substrate of Co2SiO4, was synthesized and characterized. The way for obtaining of porous ceramic based on cobalt silicate was found, while the microstructure and the mechanical properties of porous ceramic were studied. Layered casting with post-pressing was used to cover the surface of porous support of Co2SiO4 by the Co3O4 - 36 wt. % Bi2O3 - based film. Transport properties of the asymmetric membrane have been studied, the kinetic features of oxygen transport have been established, and the characteristic thickness of the membrane has been estimated. The methods to prevent the high-temperature creep of ion transport membranes based on solid/molten oxides, which are the promising ones for obtaining of pure oxygen from air, are proposed and discussed.

  7. Membranes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min; Hou, Junbo

    2012-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed. PMID:24958286

  8. Membranes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junbo Hou

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed.

  9. Template-mediated synthesis of periodic membranes for improved liquid-phase separations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groger, H.

    1997-01-01

    Solid/liquid separations of particulates in waste streams will benefit from design and development of ultrafiltration (UF) membranes with uniform, tailorable pore size and chemical, thermal, and mechanical stability. Such membranes will perform solid/liquid separations with high selectivity, permeance, lifetime, and low operating costs. Existing organic and inorganic membrane materials do not adequately meet all these requirements. An innovative solution to the need for improved inorganic membranes is the application of mesoporous ceramics with narrow pore-size distributions and tailorable pore size (1.5 to 10 nm) that have recently been shown to form with the use of organic surfactant molecules and surfactant assemblies as removable templates. This series of porous ceramics, designated MCM-41, consists of silica or aluminosilicates distinguished by periodic arrays of uniform channels. In this Phase I Small Business Innovation Research program, American Research Corporation of Virginia will demonstrate the use of supported MCM-41 thin films deposited by a proprietary technique, as UF membranes. Technical objectives include deposition in thin, defect-free periodic mesoporous MCM-41 membranes on porous supports; measurement of membrane separation factors, permeance, and fouling; and measurement of membrane lifetime as part of an engineering and economic analysis

  10. Template-mediated synthesis of periodic membranes for improved liquid-phase separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groger, H. [American Research Corp. of Virginia, Radford, VA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Solid/liquid separations of particulates in waste streams will benefit from design and development of ultrafiltration (UF) membranes with uniform, tailorable pore size and chemical, thermal, and mechanical stability. Such membranes will perform solid/liquid separations with high selectivity, permeance, lifetime, and low operating costs. Existing organic and inorganic membrane materials do not adequately meet all these requirements. An innovative solution to the need for improved inorganic membranes is the application of mesoporous ceramics with narrow pore-size distributions and tailorable pore size (1.5 to 10 nm) that have recently been shown to form with the use of organic surfactant molecules and surfactant assemblies as removable templates. This series of porous ceramics, designated MCM-41, consists of silica or aluminosilicates distinguished by periodic arrays of uniform channels. In this Phase I Small Business Innovation Research program, American Research Corporation of Virginia will demonstrate the use of supported MCM-41 thin films deposited by a proprietary technique, as UF membranes. Technical objectives include deposition in thin, defect-free periodic mesoporous MCM-41 membranes on porous supports; measurement of membrane separation factors, permeance, and fouling; and measurement of membrane lifetime as part of an engineering and economic analysis.

  11. Treatment of textile dyehouse effluent using ceramic membrane based process in combination with chemical pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Priyankari; Ghosh, Sourja; Majumdar, Swachchha; Bandyopadhyay, Sibdas

    2013-10-01

    Treatment of highly concentrated dyebath effluent and comparatively dilute composite effluent having mixture of various reactive dyes collected from a cotton fabric dyeing unit was undertaken in the present study. Ceramic microfiltration membrane prepared from a cost effective composition of alumina and clay was used. Prior to microfiltration, a chemical pretreatment was carried out with aluminium sulphate in combination with a polymeric retention aid. An optimum dose of 100 mg/L of aluminium sulphate and 1 ml/L of a commercial flocculant Afilan RAMF was found effective for dye removal (> 98%) from the synthetic solutions of reactive dyes with initial concentration of 150 mg/L in both the single component and two component systems. In the microfiltration study, effect of operating pressure in the permeate flux was observed for both the pretreated and untreated effluents and permeate samples were analyzed for dye concentration, COD, turbidity, TSS, etc. during constant pressure filtration. About 98-99% removal of dyes was obtained in the combined process with COD reduction of 54-64%.

  12. Evaluation of membranes for the treatment of oilfield-produced water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Edegar Weschenfelder

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Large quantities of water are generated during oil extraction. Reinjection of this effluent is frequently the most suitable option for environmental considerations. For this purpose, the water produced must have characteristics that will prevent the plugging of the reservoir rocks, i.e., suspended solids and oil and grease content must be lower than 5 mg L-1. This work evaluated the performance of membranes for water treatment, based upon long-term experiments with real effluent, evaluating the permeate flux over time and the effluent characteristics. The results indicated that it is possible to obtain a permeate flux with suspended solids content with less than 1 mg L-1 oil and a grease concentration in the range of 1 to 3 mg L-1 using membranes with a pore size of 0,1 m. After 50 hours of permeation, the permeate fluxes obtained with the polymeric and ceramic membranes were equal to 50 and 300 L h-1 m-2, respectively. With a chemical regeneration procedure, it was possible to recover 95% of the ceramic membrane’s original permeability and 30% of the polymeric membrane’s permeability. Considering the permeate quality, the regeneration efficiency of the membrane and the fluxes achieved, it is possible to point out the use of ceramic membranes as a potential technology for treating oilfield-produced water, and it has the advantage of being a compact and robust process.

  13. Concentration of Immunoglobulins in Microfiltration Permeates of Skim Milk: Impact of Transmembrane Pressure and Temperature on the IgG Transmission Using Different Ceramic Membrane Types and Pore Sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidebrecht, Hans-Jürgen; Toro-Sierra, José; Kulozik, Ulrich

    2018-06-28

    The use of bioactive bovine milk immunoglobulins (Ig) has been found to be an alternative treatment for certain human gastrointestinal diseases. Some methodologies have been developed with bovine colostrum. These are considered in laboratory scale and are bound to high cost and limited availability of the raw material. The main challenge remains in obtaining high amounts of active IgG from an available source as mature cow milk by the means of industrial processes. Microfiltration (MF) was chosen as a process variant, which enables a gentle and effective concentration of the Ig fractions (ca. 0.06% in raw milk) while reducing casein and lactose at the same time. Different microfiltration membranes (ceramic standard and gradient), pore sizes (0.14⁻0.8 µm), transmembrane pressures (0.5⁻2.5 bar), and temperatures (10, 50 °C) were investigated. The transmission of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and casein during the filtration of raw skim milk (fat) was evaluated during batch filtration using a single channel pilot plant. The transmission levels of IgG (~160 kDa) were measured to be at the same level as the reference major whey protein β-Lg (~18 kDa) at all evaluated pore sizes and process parameters despite the large difference in molecular mass of both fractions. Ceramic gradient membranes with a pore sizes of 0.14 µm showed IgG-transmission rates between 45% to 65% while reducing the casein fraction below 1% in the permeates. Contrary to the expectations, a lower pore size of 0.14 µm yielded fluxes up to 35% higher than 0.2 µm MF membranes. It was found that low transmembrane pressures benefit the Ig transmission. Upscaling the presented results to a continuous MF membrane process offers new possibilities for the production of immunoglobulin enriched supplements with well-known processing equipment for large scale milk protein fractionation.

  14. Distinct structural and catalytic roles for Zap70 in formation of the immunological synapse in CTL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Misty R; Stinchcombe, Jane C; Au-Yeung, Byron B; Asano, Yukako; Ritter, Alex T; Weiss, Arthur; Griffiths, Gillian M

    2014-01-01

    T cell receptor (TCR) activation leads to a dramatic reorganisation of both membranes and receptors as the immunological synapse forms. Using a genetic model to rapidly inhibit Zap70 catalytic activity we examined synapse formation between cytotoxic T lymphocytes and their targets. In the absence of Zap70 catalytic activity Vav-1 activation occurs and synapse formation is arrested at a stage with actin and integrin rich interdigitations forming the interface between the two cells. The membranes at the synapse are unable to flatten to provide extended contact, and Lck does not cluster to form the central supramolecular activation cluster (cSMAC). Centrosome polarisation is initiated but aborts before reaching the synapse and the granules do not polarise. Our findings reveal distinct roles for Zap70 as a structural protein regulating integrin-mediated control of actin vs its catalytic activity that regulates TCR-mediated control of actin and membrane remodelling during formation of the immunological synapse. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01310.001 PMID:24596147

  15. Single-walled carbon nanotube-facilitated dispersion of particulate TiO2 on ZrO2 ceramic membrane filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yuan; Li, Gonghu; Gray, Kimberly A; Lueptow, Richard M

    2008-07-15

    We report that SWCNTs substantially improve the uniformity and coverage of TiO2 coatings on porous ZrO2 ceramic membrane filters. The ZrO2 filters were dip coated with 100 nm anatase TiO2, TiO2/SWCNT composites, a TiO2+SWCNT mixture, and a TiO2/MWCNT composite at pH 3, 5, and 8. Whereas the TiO2+SWCNT mixture and the TiO2/MWCNT composite promote better coverage and less clumping than TiO2 alone, the TiO2/SWCNT composite forms a complete uniform coating without cracking at pH 5 ( approximately 100% coverage). A combination of chemical and electrostatic effects between TiO2 and SWCNTs forming the composite as well as between the composite and the ZrO2 surface explains these observations.

  16. Development of membranes and a study of their interfaces for rechargeable lithium-air battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Jitendra; Kumar, Binod [Electrochemical Power Group, Metals and Ceramics Division, University of Dayton Research Institute, OH 45469-0171 (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This paper describes an investigation with an objective to screen and select high performance membrane materials for a working, rechargeable lithium-air battery. Membrane laminates comprising glass-ceramic (GC) and polymer-ceramic (PC) membranes were assembled, evaluated and analyzed. A superionic conducting GC membrane with a chemical composition of Li{sub 1+x}Al{sub x}Ge{sub 2-x}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} (x = 0.5) was used. Polymer membranes comprising of PC(BN), PC(AlN), PC(Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) and PC(Li{sub 2}O) electrochemically coupled the GC membrane with the lithium anode. The cell and membrane laminates were characterized by determining cell conductivity, open circuit voltage and carrier concentration and its mobility. The measurements identified Li{sub 2}O and BN as suitable dopants in polymer matrix which catalyzed anodic charge transfer reaction, formed stable SEI layer and provided high lithium ion conductivity. (author)

  17. Carbon nanotubes-porous ceramic composite by in situ CCVD growth of CNTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazumder, Sangram; Sarkar, Naboneeta; Park, Jung Gyu [Institute of Processing and Application of Inorganic Materials (PAIM), Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanseo University, #360 Daegok-ri, Haemi-myeon, Seosan-si, Chungnam, 356-706 (Korea, Republic of); Han, In Sub [Korea Institute of Energy Research (KIER), #152 Gajeong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ik Jin, E-mail: ijkim@hanseo.ac.kr [Institute of Processing and Application of Inorganic Materials (PAIM), Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanseo University, #360 Daegok-ri, Haemi-myeon, Seosan-si, Chungnam, 356-706 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-01

    A novel approach towards the formation of Carbon nanotubes-porous alumina ceramic composite was attempted by the application of three different reaction techniques. Porous alumina ceramics having micrometer pore dimensions were developed using the direct foaming technique. NaA zeolites were simultaneously synthesized and coated within the porous ceramics by an in situ hydrothermal process and were subjected to a simple ion exchange reaction for preparing the suitable catalyst material for Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) synthesis. The catalytic chemical vapour deposition (CCVD) technique was used to grow CNTs within the porous ceramics and the effect of growth time on the synthesized CNTs were investigated. Phase compositions of the samples were analysed by X-ray diffractometer (XRD). Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) were used for morphology, surface quality and structural analysis. Crystallinity, defects and yield were studied by Raman spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). - Highlights: • Novel processing route of MWCNTs grown on Cobalt-zeolites-porous ceramics by CCVD. • CCVD time of 120 min produced MWCNTs with most prominent tube-like structure. • 120 min produced highest yield (19.46%) of CNTs with an I{sub D}/I{sub G} ratio of 0.88.

  18. Synthesis of ceramics membranes using ZrO{sub 2} obtained by Pechini method aiming it application in oil/water separation; Sintese de membranas ceramicas utilizando ZrO{sub 2} obtido pelo metodo Pechini visando sua aplicacao na separacao oleo/agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maia, D.F.; Lira, H.L.; Vilar, M.A.; Costa, A.C.F.M.; Oliveira, J.B.L.; Kiminami, R.H.G.A.; Gama, L.

    2004-07-01

    The water produced in the oil production presents emulsified oil drops of difficult separation causing problems in the reinjection and the discarding. The conventional methods used in the separation oil/water don't clean all the water with efficiency and low cost. Thus, the ceramic membranes appear as a new option for being material very resistant chemistry and thermal, of high perm selective and high efficiency in use in processes of micro filtration and ultrafiltration separation. The zirconia is considered an adequate material to obtain of such membranes and the Pechini method is one promising technique in the attainment of after ultrafine with controlled characteristics. Thus the objective of this work was to prepare ceramic membranes from after synthesized by the Pechini method. The results had shown that the Pechini method was efficient in the attainment of ZrO{sub 2} powder, nanometric, with size of crystal of 7,2 nm and with average diameter of agglomerated 4,94{mu}, indicating that this material can be used in the attainment of membranes of micro filtration and ultrafiltration, adjusted to the separation oil/water The micrographs of the obtained membranes show a homogeneous surface where if it can visualize pores uniformly distributed. (author)

  19. Glass-ceramic joint and method of joining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhardt, Kerry D [Richland, WA; Vienna, John D [West Richland, WA; Armstrong, Timothy R [Clinton, TN; Pederson, Larry R [Kennewick, WA

    2003-03-18

    The present invention is a glass-ceramic material and method of making useful for joining a solid ceramic component and at least one other solid component. The material is a blend of M1-M2-M3, wherein M1 is BaO, SrO, CaO, MgO, or combinations thereof, M2 is Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, present in the blend in an amount from 2 to 15 mol %, M3 is SiO.sub.2 with up to 50 mol % B.sub.2 O.sub.3 that substantially matches a coefficient of thermal expansion of the solid electrolyte. According to the present invention, a series of glass ceramics in the M1-Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 -M3 system can be used to join or seal both tubular and planar solid oxide fuel cells, oxygen electrolyzers, and membrane reactors for the production of syngas, commodity chemicals and other products.

  20. Aging time on the aluminum basic acetate gel and its influence on the membrane permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clar, C; Scian, A. N; Aglietti, E.F

    2003-01-01

    Alumina ceramic membranes are new materials with important applications in separation processes with low energy requirements, high selectivity and ability to work at high and low temperatures.The preparation of alumina ceramic membranes from hydrates or aluminum salts as precursors implies obtaining a system of controlled porosity with a suitable mechanical resistance as well as the densification of the material thanks to the stable phases remaining after the thermal treatment.The metal carboxylates are potential precursors for the deposition and the subsequent formation of oxides at low temperatures.Aluminum basic acetate gel was synthesised in this work from commercial pseudobohemite. The influence of the aging time on the composition, crystalline structure and transition temperatures of the phases on the carboxylate was studied by XRD and DTA-TG.From suspensions of this aged gel at different times alumina ceramic membranes were prepared by dipcoating on different α-Al 2 O 3 supports and the influence of aging on the permeability of those membranes face to N 2 was also studied. It was observed that this is a parameter to be considered as it determines the thickness, permeability and integrity of the membranes

  1. Improving protein resistance of {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} membranes by modification with POEGMA brushes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Huating [State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China); Jing Wenheng, E-mail: jingwenheng@yahoo.com.cn [State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China); Xing Weihong; Fan Yiqun [State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2011-11-15

    A kind of protein-resistant ceramic membrane is prepared by grafting poly(oligo (ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) (POEGMA) brushes onto the surfaces and pore walls of {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} membrane (AM) by surface-initiated atom-transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). Contact-angle, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) were measured to confirm that the surfaces and pore walls of the ceramic porous membranes have been modified by the brushes with this method successfully. The protein interaction behavior with the POEGMA modified membranes (AM-POEGMA) was studied by the model protein of bovine serum albumin (BSA). A protein-resistant mechanism of AM-POEGMA was proposed to describe an interesting phenomenon discovered in the filtration experiment, in which the initial flux filtrating BSA solution is higher than the pure water flux. The fouling of AM-POEGMA was easier to remove than AM for the action of POEGMA brushes, indicated that the ceramic porous membranes modified with POEGMA brushes exhibit excellent protein resistance.

  2. Transforming p21 ras protein: flexibility in the major variable region linking the catalytic and membrane-anchoring domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willumsen, B M; Papageorge, A G; Hubbert, N

    1985-01-01

    or increasing it to 50 amino acids has relatively little effect on the capacity of the gene to induce morphological transformation of NIH 3T3 cells. Assays of GTP binding, GTPase and autophosphorylating activities of such mutant v-rasH-encoded proteins synthesized in bacteria indicated that the sequences...... that is required for post-translational processing, membrane localization and transforming activity of the proteins. We have now used the viral oncogene (v-rasH) of Harvey sarcoma virus to study the major variable region by deleting or duplicating parts of the gene. Reducing this region to five amino acids...... that encode these biochemical activities are located upstream from the major variable region. In the context of transformation, we propose that the region of sequence heterogeneity serves principally to connect the N-terminal catalytic domain with amino acids at the C terminus that are required to anchor...

  3. 3. International conference on catalysis in membrane reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    The 3. International Conference on Catalysis in Membrane Reactors, Copenhagen, Denmark, is a continuation of the previous conferences held in Villeurbanne 1994 and Moscow 1996 and will deal with the rapid developments taking place within membranes with emphasis on membrane catalysis. The approx. 80 contributions in form of plenary lectures and posters discuss hydrogen production, methane reforming into syngas, selectivity and specificity of various membranes etc. The conference is organised by the Danish Catalytic Society under the Danish Society for Chemical Engineering. (EG)

  4. design of ceramic membrane supports: permeability, tensile strength and stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesheuvel, Pieter Maarten; Biesheuvel, P.M.; Verweij, H.

    1999-01-01

    A membrane support provides mechanical strength to a membrane top layer to withstand the stress induced by the pressure difference applied over the entire membrane and must simultaneously have a low resistance to the filtrate flow. In this paper an experimental and a theoretical approach toward the

  5. Performance and mechanisms for the removal of phthalates and pharmaceuticals from aqueous solution by graphene-containing ceramic composite tubular membrane coupled with the simultaneous electrocoagulation and electrofiltration process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gordon C C; Chen, Ying-Chun; Yang, Hao-Xuan; Yen, Chia-Heng

    2016-07-01

    In this study, commonly detected emerging contaminants (ECs) in water, including di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), cephalexin (CLX), sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and caffeine (CAF), were selected as the target contaminants. A lab-prepared graphene-containing ceramic composite tubular membrane (TGCCM) coupled with the simultaneous electrocoagulation and electrofiltration process (EC/EF) in crossflow filtration mode was used to remove target contaminants in model solution. Meanwhile, a comparison of the removal efficiency was made among various tubular composite membranes reported, including carbon fibers/carbon/alumina composite tubular membrane (TCCACM), titania/alumina composite tubular membrane (TTACM) and alumina tubular membrane (TAM). The results of this study showed that the removal efficiencies for DnBP and DEHP were 99%, whereas 32-97% for cephalexin (CLX), sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and caffeine (CAF). In this work the mechanisms involved in removing target ECs were proposed and their roles in removing various ECs were also discussed. Further, two actual municipal wastewaters were treated to evaluate the applicability of the aforementioned treatment technology (i.e., TGCCM coupled with EC/EF) to various aqueous solutions in the real world. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Preparation of Pd-Loaded Hierarchical FAU Membranes and Testing in Acetophenone Hydrogenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Molinari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pd-loaded hierarchical FAU (Pd-FAU membranes, containing an intrinsic secondary non-zeolitic (mesoporosity, were prepared and tested in the catalytic transfer hydrogenation of acetophenone (AP to produce phenylethanol (PE, an industrially relevant product. The best operating conditions were preliminarily identified by testing different solvents and organic hydrogen donors in a batch hydrogenation process where micron-sized FAU seeds were employed as catalyst support. Water as solvent and formic acid as hydrogen source resulted to be the best choice in terms of conversion for the catalytic hydrogenation of AP, providing the basis for the design of a green and sustainable process. The best experimental conditions were selected and applied to the Pd-loaded FAU membrane finding enhanced catalytic performance such as a five-fold higher productivity than with the unsupported Pd-FAU crystals (11.0 vs. 2.2 mgproduct gcat−1·h−1. The catalytic performance of the membrane on the alumina support was also tested in a tangential flow system obtaining a productivity higher than that of the batch system (22.0 vs. 11.0 mgproduct gcat−1·h−1.

  7. Preparation of Pd-Loaded Hierarchical FAU Membranes and Testing in Acetophenone Hydrogenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, Raffaele; Lavorato, Cristina; Mastropietro, Teresa F; Argurio, Pietro; Drioli, Enrico; Poerio, Teresa

    2016-03-22

    Pd-loaded hierarchical FAU (Pd-FAU) membranes, containing an intrinsic secondary non-zeolitic (meso)porosity, were prepared and tested in the catalytic transfer hydrogenation of acetophenone (AP) to produce phenylethanol (PE), an industrially relevant product. The best operating conditions were preliminarily identified by testing different solvents and organic hydrogen donors in a batch hydrogenation process where micron-sized FAU seeds were employed as catalyst support. Water as solvent and formic acid as hydrogen source resulted to be the best choice in terms of conversion for the catalytic hydrogenation of AP, providing the basis for the design of a green and sustainable process. The best experimental conditions were selected and applied to the Pd-loaded FAU membrane finding enhanced catalytic performance such as a five-fold higher productivity than with the unsupported Pd-FAU crystals (11.0 vs. 2.2 mgproduct gcat(-1)·h(-1)). The catalytic performance of the membrane on the alumina support was also tested in a tangential flow system obtaining a productivity higher than that of the batch system (22.0 vs. 11.0 mgproduct gcat(-1)·h(-1)).

  8. Dependence of Shear and Concentration on Fouling in a Membrane Bioreactor with Rotating Membrane Discs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mads Koustrup; Pedersen, Malene Thostrup; Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard

    2014-01-01

    Rotating ceramic membrane discs were fouled with lab-scale membrane bioreactors (MBR) sludge. Sludge filtrations were performed at varying rotation speeds and in different concentric rings of the membranes on different sludge concentrations. Data showed that the back transport expressed by limiting...... flux increased with rotation speed and distance from membrane center as an effect of shear. Further, the limiting flux decreased with increasing sludge concentration. A model was developed to link the sludge concentration and shear stress to the limiting flux. The model was able to simulate the effect...... of shear stress and sludge concentration on the limiting flux. The model was developed by calculating the shear rate at laminar flow regime at different rotation speeds and radii on the membrane. Furthermore, through the shear rate and shear stress, the non-Newtonian behavior of MBR sludge was addressed...

  9. Integrated pyrolucite fluidized bed-membrane hybrid process for improved iron and manganese control in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashtban Kenari, Seyedeh Laleh; Barbeau, Benoit

    2017-04-15

    Newly developed ceramic membrane technologies offer numerous advantages over the conventional polymeric membranes. This work proposes a new configuration, an integrated pyrolucite fluidized bed (PFB)-ceramic MF/UF hybrid process, for improved iron and manganese control in drinking water. A pilot-scale study was undertaken to evaluate the performance of this process with respect to iron and manganese control as well as membrane fouling. In addition, the fouling of commercially available ceramic membranes in conventional preoxidation-MF/UF process was compared with the hybrid process configuration. In this regard, a series of experiments were conducted under different influent water quality and operating conditions. Fouling mechanisms and reversibility were analyzed using blocking law and resistance-in-series models. The results evidenced that the flux rate and the concentration of calcium and humic acids in the feed water have a substantial impact on the filtration behavior of both membranes. The model for constant flux compressible cake formation well described the rise in transmembrane pressure. The compressibility of the filter cake substantially increased in the presence of 2 mg/L humic acids. The presence of calcium ions caused significant aggregation of manganese dioxide and humic acid which severely impacted the extent of membrane fouling. The PFB pretreatment properly alleviated membrane fouling by removing more than 75% and 95% of iron and manganese, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Pilot plant development of a new catalytic process for improved electrostatic separation of fly-ash in coal fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivares del Valle, J.; Salvador Martinez, L.; Muniz Baum, B.; Cortes Galeano, V. [University of Seville, Seville (Spain). Chemical and Environmental Engineering Dept.

    1996-12-31

    A new catalytic process for flue gas conditioning in pulverized coal fired power plants is outlined. Vanadium and platinum catalysts specifically prepared on ceramic honeycomb monoliths to oxidize SO{sub 2} into SO{sub 3} have been tested and evaluated at pilot scale. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of ceramic-supported and metal-supported membrane layers for the separation of CO{sub 2} in fossil-fuel power plants; Herstellung und Charakterisierung von keramik- und metallgestuetzten Membranschichten fuer die CO{sub 2}-Abtrennung in fossilen Kraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauler, Felix

    2010-07-01

    The separation of CO{sub 2} in fossil fuel power plants has become a very important issue due to the contribution of this greenhouse gas to global warming. Thin microporous membranes are promising candidates for separating CO{sub 2} from gas flow before being exhausted into the atmosphere. The membrane demands are good permeation and separation properties and high stability under operation conditions. Novel sol-gel derived materials composed of TiO{sub 2}/ZrO{sub 2} and stabilized SiO{sub 2} seem to be promising due to their good chemical stability and microporous character, especially for the separation of H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}. Metallic substrates should be preferred as membrane support because they exhibit practical advantages combining good mechanical stability and the benefit of facilitated joining. The present thesis deals with the development of sol-gel derived microporous membrane layers on ceramic and metallic supports for the separation of CO{sub 2}. In this context, the optimized preparation of high-quality membranes with TiO{sub 2}/ZrO{sub 2} and Ni, Co, Zr, Ti doped SiO{sub 2} top layers is presented. These multilayered membranes consist of a graded pore structure to provide a smooth transition of the pore size from the support to the functional layer. Due to the good surface properties, the ceramic substrates only need one interlayer, whereas the rough metallic substrates exhibiting larger pores require a total of three interlayers to obtain an enhanced surface quality. On both types of supports, crack-free functional layers with a thickness below 100 nm were deposited by dip-coating. The unsupported and supported sol-gel materials used for the top layers were investigated in terms of structural properties by thermal analysis, sorption measurements, X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. Gas permeation tests with He, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} und N{sub 2} were carried out to determine the membrane performance with regard to permeation rates and

  12. Exfoliated MoS2 nanosheets loaded on bipolar exchange membranes interfaces as advanced catalysts for water dissociation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jian; Morthensen, Sofie Thage; Zhu, Junyong

    2018-01-01

    . Bipolar membranes are key factors for splitting water at the interface of a cation and anion exchange layer in an electric field. The ideal bipolar membrane should have a low energy consumption, a high current efficiency and long-term stability. In order to investigate the catalytic effect of a monolayer...... this prediction. Furthermore, a bipolar membrane prepared at 90°C had a low swelling ratio of about 7.5% while maintaining a high water uptake of 71.6%. From the calculation of current efficiency and energy consumption, the bipolar membrane with a monolayer of MoS2 has a higher current efficiency (45......%) and a lower energy consumption (3.6 kW/h·kg) compared to a current efficiency of 24% and an energy consumption of 6.3 kW/h·kg for a bipolar membrane without MoS2. This study proves the catalytic function of MoS2, which lays a foundation for further research on catalytic bipolar exchange membranes....

  13. Pt{sub 1-x}Co{sub x} nanoparticles as cathode catalyst for proton exchange membrane fuel cells with enhanced catalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Huimin; Wexler, David; Liu Huakun [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Savadogo, O. [Materials Engineering Department, Ecole Polytechique de Montreal, Montreal, QC H3C3A7 (Canada); Ahn, Jungho [Department of Materials Engineering, Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Wang Guoxiu, E-mail: Guoxiu.Wang@uts.edu.au [Department of Chemistry and Forensic Science, University of Technology, Sydney, NSW 2007 (Australia)

    2010-11-01

    Nanosize carbon-supported Pt{sub 1-x}Co{sub x} (x = 0.2, 0.3, and 0.45) electrocatalysts were prepared by a chemical reduction method using sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}) as the reduction agent. Transmission electron microscopy examination showed uniform dispersion of Pt{sub 1-x}Co{sub x} alloy catalysts on carbon matrix, with the particle size less than 10 nm. The electrochemical characteristics of Pt{sub 1-x}Co{sub x} alloy catalysts were studied by cyclic voltammetry, linear sweep voltammetry, and chronoamperometric testing. The as-prepared Pt{sub 1-x}Co{sub x} alloy nanoparticles could be promising cathode catalysts for oxygen reduction in proton exchange membrane fuel cells with the feature of much reduced cost, but significantly increased catalytic activity.

  14. Performance of ceramic ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis membranes in treating car wash wastewater for reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazzem, Shamima; Wills, Jamie; Fan, Linhua; Roddick, Felicity; Jegatheesan, Veeriah

    2018-03-01

    Reusing treated effluents in industries is a great option to conserve freshwater resources. For example, car wash centres all over Australia are estimated to use 17.5 billion litres of water and discharge it as wastewater and spend $75 million a year for both purchasing fresh water and for treating and/or discharging the wastewater. Therefore, it is important to develop simple but reliable systems that can help to treat and reuse car wash wastewater. Significant savings could also be associated with the implementation of such systems. This study evaluates the performance of granular and membrane filtration systems with coagulation/flocculation and sedimentation in treating car wash wastewater for the purpose of reuse. Overall, 99.9% of turbidity, 100% of suspended solids and 96% of COD were removed from the car wash wastewater after treating by coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, sand filtration, ceramic ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis and the treated water meets the standards required for class A recycled water in Australia and standards imposed in Belgium and China. The treated water can be reused. However, optimisation is required to reduce the sludge produced by this system.

  15. Porous ceramic membrane with superhydrophobic and superoleophilic surface for reclaiming oil from oily water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Changhong; Xu, Youqian; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Yang; Li, Jun

    2012-01-01

    A porous ceramic tube with superhydrophobic and superoleophilic surface was fabricated by sol-gel and then surface modification with polyurethane-polydimethysiloxane, and an oil-water separator based on the porous ceramic tube was erected to characterize superhydrophobic and superoleophilic surface's separation efficiency and velocity when being used to reclaim oil from oily water and complex oily water containing clay particle. The separator is fit for reclaiming oil from oily water.

  16. Chemical cleaning-associated generation of dissolved organic matter and halogenated byproducts in ceramic MBR: Ozone versus hypochlorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Huifang; Liu, Hang; Han, Jiarui; Zhang, Xiangru; Cheng, Fangqin; Liu, Yu

    2018-04-24

    This study characterized the dissolved organic matter (DOM) and byproducts generated after the exposure of activated sludge to ozone and NaClO in ceramic MBR. It was found that NaClO triggered more significant release of DOM than ozone. Proteins with the molecular weight greater than 20 kDa and humic acid like-substances were the principal components of DOM generated by NaClO, while ozone was found to effectively degrade larger biopolymers to low molecular weight substances. The results showed that more than 80% of DOM generated by NaClO and ozone could pass through the 0.2-μm ceramic membrane. Furthermore, total organic chlorine (TOCl) was determined to be the principal species of halogenated byproducts in both cases, while the generation of TOCl by NaClO was much more significant than that by ozone. Only a small fraction of TOCl was removed by the 0.2-μm ceramic membrane. More importantly, the toxic bioassays further revealed that the supernatant of sludge suspension and permeate in the MBR with NaClO cleaning exhibited higher developmental toxicity to the polychaete embryos than those by ozone. The results clearly showed that on-line chemical cleaning with ozone should be a more eco-friendly and safer approach for sustaining long-term membrane permeability in ceramic MBR. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. High-flux water desalination with interfacial salt sieving effect in nanoporous carbon composite membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Wei; Chen, Shuyu; Liang, Tengfei; Zhang, Qiang; Fan, Zhongli; Yin, Hang; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Zhang, Xixiang; Lai, Zhiping; Sheng, Ping

    2018-01-01

    Freshwater flux and energy consumption are two important benchmarks for the membrane desalination process. Here, we show that nanoporous carbon composite membranes, which comprise a layer of porous carbon fibre structures grown on a porous ceramic

  18. CVD of solid oxides in porous substrates for ceramic membrane modification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Y.S.; Lin, Y.S.; Burggraaf, Anthonie; Burggraaf, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    The deposition of yttria-doped zirconia has been experimented systematically in various types of porous ceramic substrates by a modified chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process operating in an opposing reactant geometry using water vapor and corresponding metal chloride vapors as reactants. The

  19. Porous polymeric membranes with thermal and solvent resistance

    KAUST Repository

    Pulido, Bruno; Waldron, Christopher; Zolotukhin, M.G.; Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2017-01-01

    Polymeric membranes are highly advantageous over their ceramic counterparts in terms of the simplicity of the manufacturing process, cost and scalability. Their main disadvantages are low stability at temperatures above 200 °C, and in organic

  20. Tubular membrane bioreactors for biotechnological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Christoph; Beutel, Sascha; Scheper, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    This article is an overview of bioreactors using tubular membranes such as hollow fibers or ceramic capillaries for cultivation processes. This diverse group of bioreactor is described here in regard to the membrane materials used, operational modes, and configurations. The typical advantages of this kind of system such as environments with low shear stress together with high cell densities and also disadvantages like poor oxygen supply are summed up. As the usage of tubular membrane bioreactors is not restricted to a certain organism, a brief overview of various applications covering nearly all types of cells from prokaryotic to eukaryotic cells is also given here.

  1. Gas Permeation Characteristics across Nano-Porous Inorganic Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R Othman, H. Mukhtar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available An overview of parameters affecting gas permeation in inorganic membranes is presented. These factors include membrane physical characteristics, operational parameters and gas molecular characteristics. The membrane physical characteristics include membrane materials and surface area, porosity, pore size and pore size distribution and membrane morphology. The operational parameters include feed flow rate and concentration, stage cut, temperature and pressure. The gas molecular characteristics include gas molecular weight, diameter, critical temperature, critical pressure, Lennard-Jones parameters and diffusion volumes. The current techniques of material characterization may require complementary method in describing microscopic heterogeneity of the porous ceramic media. The method to be incorporated in the future will be to apply a stochastic model and/or fractal dimension. Keywords: Inorganic membrane, surface adsorption, Knudsen diffusion, Micro-porous membrane, permeation, gas separation.

  2. Site Directed Nucleation and Growth of Ceramic Films on Metallic Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-30

    microporous membrane that is a tortuous medium having pores with size distributions and no well-defined geometry. 16 The resistance measurement using...shape carrying a uniformly distributed charge, however it has been validated in the case of a ceramic microporous membrane that is a tortuous medium...000 °C. The data are presented in Figure 3. As can be seen, the oyster shell material acts as an insulator from approximately -80 oc to 1000 °C. This

  3. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; X.-D Zhou; Q. Cai; J. Yang; W.B. Yelon; W.J. James; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2004-05-01

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In this report, in situ neutron diffraction was used to characterize the chemical and structural properties of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} (here after as L2SF55T) specimen, which was subject to measurements of neutron diffraction from room temperature to 900 C in N{sub 2}. Space group of R3c was found to result in a better refinement and is used in this study. The difference for crystal structure, lattice parameters and local crystal chemistry for LSFT nearly unchanged when gas environment switched from air to N{sub 2}. Stable crack growth studies on Dense OTM bars provided by Praxair were done at room temperature in air. A bridge-compression fixture was fabricated to achieve stable pre-cracks from Vickers indents. Post fracture evaluation indicated stable crack growth from the indent and a regime of fast fracture. Post-fracture X-ray data of the OTM fractured at 1000 C in environment were refined by FullProf code and results indicate a distortion of the parent cubic perovskite to orthorhombic structure with reduced symmetry. TGA-DTA studies on the post-fracture samples also indicated residual effect arising from the thermal and stress history of the samples. The thermal and chemical expansion of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} were studied at 800 {le} T {le} 1000 C and at {approx} 1 x 10{sup -15} {le} pO{sub 2} {le} 0.21 atm. The thermal expansion coefficient of the sample was calculated from the dilatometric analysis in the temperature range between room temperature and 1200 C in air. A series of isotope transients under air separation mode (small gradient) were completed on the membrane of LSCrF-2828 at 900 C. Low pO{sub 2} atmospheres based on with CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have also been admitted to the delivery side of

  4. Development and characterization of a metallic substrat for nanostructured membranes in the separation of gas mixtures; Entwicklung und Charakterisierung eines metallischen Substrats fuer nanostrukturierte Gastrennmembranen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brands, Katharina

    2010-07-01

    In order to minimize the further increase of CO{sub 2}-content in the atmosphere, efforts are made to separate and store CO{sub 2} from exhaust gases of fossil power plants. Beside well-established separation techniques like chemical scrubber, the application of membrane technology is intensively investigated. One focus of this thesis is the development of metal supported substrates for microporous ceramic gas separation membranes, which are expected to have a higher mechanical stability than ceramic supported substrates. Starting with commercial porous steel substrates, interlayers are applied by wet powder spraying. For the interlayers the materials 1.4404-stainless steel and TiO{sub 2} or 1.4845-stainless steel and yttria stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) are chosen. The interlayers have to be defect-free, as minimal defects can deteriorate the membrane performance. By a subsequent mechanical treatment and an adjustment of the viscosity of the 8YSZ-sus