Sample records for catalysts

  1. Oxidation catalyst (United States)

    Ceyer, Sylvia T.; Lahr, David L.


    The present invention generally relates to catalyst systems and methods for oxidation of carbon monoxide. The invention involves catalyst compositions which may be advantageously altered by, for example, modification of the catalyst surface to enhance catalyst performance. Catalyst systems of the present invention may be capable of performing the oxidation of carbon monoxide at relatively lower temperatures (e.g., 200 K and below) and at relatively higher reaction rates than known catalysts. Additionally, catalyst systems disclosed herein may be substantially lower in cost than current commercial catalysts. Such catalyst systems may be useful in, for example, catalytic converters, fuel cells, sensors, and the like.

  2. Catalysts preparing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normatov, I.Sh.; Mirsaidov, U.M.


    One of the base area of zeolites industry using is catalysis. The catalytic properties of zeolites use in the carbonated reactions in the petrochemistry. Last years zeolite catalysts use in oxidative-reduction processes

  3. Lunar CATALYST (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lunar Cargo Transportation and Landing by Soft Touchdown (Lunar CATALYST) is a NASA initiative to encourage the development of U.S. private-sector robotic lunar...

  4. Photo-oxidation catalysts (United States)

    Pitts, J Roland [Lakewood, CO; Liu, Ping [Irvine, CA; Smith, R Davis [Golden, CO


    Photo-oxidation catalysts and methods for cleaning a metal-based catalyst are disclosed. An exemplary catalyst system implementing a photo-oxidation catalyst may comprise a metal-based catalyst, and a photo-oxidation catalyst for cleaning the metal-based catalyst in the presence of light. The exposure to light enables the photo-oxidation catalyst to substantially oxidize absorbed contaminants and reduce accumulation of the contaminants on the metal-based catalyst. Applications are also disclosed.

  5. Highly dispersed metal catalyst (United States)

    Xiao, Xin; West, William L.; Rhodes, William D.


    A supported catalyst having an atomic level single atom structure is provided such that substantially all the catalyst is available for catalytic function. A process of forming a single atom catalyst unto a porous catalyst support is also provided.

  6. Bimetal catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, K. Y. Simon; Salley, Steve O.; Wang, Huali


    A catalyst comprises a carbide or nitride of a metal and a promoter element. The metal is selected from the group consisting of Mo, W, Co, Fe, Rh or Mn, and the promoter element is selected from the group consisting of Ni, Co, Al, Si, S or P, provided that the metal and the promoter element are different. The catalyst also comprises a mesoporous support having a surface area of at least about 170 m.sup.2 g.sup.-1, wherein the carbide or nitride of the metal and the promoter element is supported by the mesoporous support, and is in a non-sulfided form and in an amorphous form.

  7. Catalyst Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans; Marling, Gitte; Hansen, Peter Mandal


    How can architecture promote the enriching experiences of the tolerant, the democratic, and the learning city - a city worth living in, worth supporting and worth investing in? Catalyst Architecture comprises architectural projects, which, by virtue of their location, context and their combination...... of programs, have a role in mediating positive social and/or cultural development. In this sense, we talk about architecture as a catalyst for: sustainable adaptation of the city’s infrastructure appropriate renovation of dilapidated urban districts strengthening of social cohesiveness in the city development...

  8. Coal catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroenig, W.


    Some considerations in the selection of a catalyst for the liquid phase of coal hydrogenation are discussed. Some of the previous history of such selections is mentioned. At one stage of the development, the principal catalyst had been iron sulfate (FeSO/sub 4/.7H/sub 2/O). Later, for reasons of cost and availability of large supplies, selections had turned to mixtures of iron sulfate and one or another of some iron oxide- and aluminum oxide-containing byproducts of aluminum manufacture, namely Bayermasse, Luxamsse, or Lautamasse. Much of the discussion centered on optimal proportions for such mixtures, particularly as related to pH values of resulting coal pastes. Upper Silesian coal was more alkaline than Ruhr coal, and Bayermasse, etc., were quite alkaline. Thus, since the iron sulfate served as a partial neutralizer for the coal as well as a catalyst, it seemed necessary to increase the proportions of iron sulfate in the catalyst mixture when processing coal of greater alkalinity. A further reason for a greater proportion of iron sulfate seemed to be that most of the catalytic activity of the iron came from the ferrous iron of iron sulfate rather than from the ferric iron of the other materials. Ferrous-ferric ratios also seemed to indicate that Luxmasse or Lautamasse might be better catalyst components than Bayermasse but their water content sometimes caused handling problems, so Bayermasse had been more widely used. Formation of deposits in the preheater was more likely due to the Bayermasse than to the iron sulfate; sodium sulfide could help to prevent them.

  9. Catalyst Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catalyst Architecture’ takes its point of departure in a broadened understanding of the role of architecture in relation to developmental problems in large cities. Architectural projects frame particular functions and via their form language, they can provide the user with an aesthetic experience....... The broadened understanding of architecture consists in that an architectural project, by virtue of its placement in the context and of its composition of programs, can have a mediating role in a positive or cultural development of the district in question. In this sense, we talk about architecture as catalyst...... cities on the planet have growing pains and social cohesiveness is under pressure from an increased difference between rich and poor, social segregation, ghettoes, immigration of guest workers and refugees, commercial mass tourism etc. In this context, it is important to ask which role architecture...

  10. An introduction to catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Hak Je


    This book explains basic conception of catalyst such as definition, velocity of chemical reaction and velocity of catalyst reaction, absorption with absorption energy and chemical absorption, pore structure with the role of pore and measurement of pore structure, catalyst activity on solid structure, electrical property on catalyst activity, choice and design of catalyst, catalytic reaction with reaction velocity and chemical equilibrium and reaction velocity model, measurement of reaction velocity and material analysis, catalyst for mixed compound, catalyst for solid acid and catalyst for supported metal.

  11. Design of heterogeneous catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frey, Anne Mette

    The title of my PhD thesis is “Design of Heterogeneous Catalysts”. Three reactions have been investigated: the methanation reaction, the Fischer-Tropsch reaction, and the NH3-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO. The experimental work performed in connection with the methanation reaction...... hydrogenation. For both systems a maximum in catalytic activity was found for some of the bimetallic catalysts being superior to the monometallic catalysts. This resulted in volcano curves for all investigated systems. In the Fischer-Tropsch reaction promotion of cobalt catalysts with manganese was studied...... well, and the best catalyst prepared had a C5+ yield almost a factor of two higher than a standard air calcined Co catalyst. In the NH3-SCR reaction it is desirable to develop an active and stable catalyst for NOx removal in automotive applications, since the traditionally used vanadium-based catalyst...

  12. Methods of making textured catalysts (United States)

    Werpy, Todd [West Richland, WA; Frye, Jr., John G.; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA; Zacher, Alan H [Kennewick, WA


    A textured catalyst having a hydrothermally-stable support, a metal oxide and a catalyst component is described. Methods of conducting aqueous phase reactions that are catalyzed by a textured catalyst are also described. The invention also provides methods of making textured catalysts and methods of making chemical products using a textured catalyst.

  13. Catalyst Alloys Processing (United States)

    Tan, Xincai


    Catalysts are one of the key materials used for diamond formation at high pressures. Several such catalyst products have been developed and applied in China and around the world. The catalyst alloy most widely used in China is Ni70Mn25Co5 developed at Changsha Research Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. In this article, detailed techniques for manufacturing such a typical catalyst alloy will be reviewed. The characteristics of the alloy will be described. Detailed processing of the alloy will be presented, including remelting and casting, hot rolling, annealing, surface treatment, cold rolling, blanking, finishing, packaging, and waste treatment. An example use of the catalyst alloy will also be given. Industrial experience shows that for the catalyst alloy products, a vacuum induction remelt furnace can be used for remelting, a metal mold can be used for casting, hot and cold rolling can be used for forming, and acid pickling can be used for metal surface cleaning.

  14. Alloy catalyst material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to a novel alloy catalyst material for use in the synthesis of hydrogen peroxide from oxygen and hydrogen, or from oxygen and water. The present invention also relates to a cathode and an electrochemical cell comprising the novel catalyst material, and the process use...... of the novel catalyst material for synthesising hydrogen peroxide from oxygen and hydrogen, or from oxygen and water....


    Joris, G.G.


    It has been fuund that the presence of chlorine as an impurity adversely affects the performance of finely divided platinum catalysts such as are used in the isotopic exchange process for the production of beavy water. This chlorine impurity may be removed from these catalysts by treating the catalyst at an elevated temperature with dry hydrogen and then with wet hydrogen, having a hydrogen-water vapor volume of about 8: 1. This alternate treatment by dry hydrogen and wet hydrogen is continued until the chlorine is largely removed from the catalyst.

  16. Hydroxide catalysts for lignin depolymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckham, Gregg T; Biddy, Mary J.; Kruger, Jacob S.; Chmely, Stephen C.; Sturgeon, Matthew


    Solid base catalysts and their use for the base-catalyzed depolymerization (BCD) of lignin to compounds such as aromatics are presented herein. Exemplary catalysts include layered double hydroxides (LDHs) as recyclable, heterogeneous catalysts for BCD of lignin.

  17. Hydroxide catalysts for lignin depolymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckham, Gregg T.; Biddy, Mary J.; Chmely, Stephen C.; Sturgeon, Matthew


    Solid base catalysts and their use for the base-catalyzed depolymerization (BCD) of lignin to compounds such as aromatics are presented herein. Exemplary catalysts include layered double hydroxides (LDHs) as recyclable, heterogeneous catalysts for BCD of lignin.

  18. Magnetic catalyst bodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, Wendy; Bol, A.A.; Geus, John W.


    After a discussion about the importance of the size of the catalyst bodies with reactions in the liquid-phase with a suspended catalyst, the possibilities of magnetic separation are dealt with. Deficiencies of the usual ferromagnetic particles are the reactivity and the clustering of the

  19. Catalyst for Ammonia Oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to a bimetallic catalyst for ammonia oxidation, a method for producing a bimetallic catalyst for ammonia oxidation and a method for tuning the catalytic activity of a transition metal. By depositing an overlayer of less catalytic active metal onto a more catalytic...

  20. Nanostructured catalyst supports (United States)

    Zhu, Yimin; Goldman, Jay L.; Qian, Baixin; Stefan, Ionel C.


    The present invention relates to SiC nanostructures, including SiC nanopowder, SiC nanowires, and composites of SiC nanopowder and nanowires, which can be used as catalyst supports in membrane electrode assemblies and in fuel cells. The present invention also relates to composite catalyst supports comprising nanopowder and one or more inorganic nanowires for a membrane electrode assembly.

  1. Catalyst for hydrocarbon conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duhaut, P.; Miquel, J.


    A description is given for a catalyst and process for hydrocarbon conversions, e.g., reforming. The catalyst contains an alumina carrier, platinum, iridium, at least one metal selected from uranium, vanadium, and gallium, and optionally halogen in the form of metal halide of one of the aforesaid components. (U.S.)

  2. Catalysts, methods of making catalysts, and methods of use

    KAUST Repository

    Renard, Laetitia


    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for catalysts, methods of making catalysts, methods of using catalysts, and the like. In an embodiment, the method of making the catalysts can be performed in a single step with a metal nanoparticle precursor and a metal oxide precursor, where a separate stabilizing agent is not needed.

  3. Catalyst in Basic Oleochemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Suyenty


    Full Text Available Currently Indonesia is the world largest palm oil producer with production volume reaching 16 million tones per annum. The high crude oil and ethylene prices in the last 3 – 4 years contribute to the healthy demand growth for basic oleochemicals: fatty acids and fatty alcohols. Oleochemicals are starting to replace crude oil derived products in various applications. As widely practiced in petrochemical industry, catalyst plays a very important role in the production of basic oleochemicals. Catalytic reactions are abound in the production of oleochemicals: Nickel based catalysts are used in the hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids; sodium methylate catalyst in the transesterification of triglycerides; sulfonic based polystyrene resin catalyst in esterification of fatty acids; and copper chromite/copper zinc catalyst in the high pressure hydrogenation of methyl esters or fatty acids to produce fatty alcohols. To maintain long catalyst life, it is crucial to ensure the absence of catalyst poisons and inhibitors in the feed. The preparation methods of nickel and copper chromite catalysts are as follows: precipitation, filtration, drying, and calcinations. Sodium methylate is derived from direct reaction of sodium metal and methanol under inert gas. The sulfonic based polystyrene resin is derived from sulfonation of polystyrene crosslinked with di-vinyl-benzene. © 2007 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.[Presented at Symposium and Congress of MKICS 2007, 18-19 April 2007, Semarang, Indonesia][How to Cite: E. Suyenty, H. Sentosa, M. Agustine, S. Anwar, A. Lie, E. Sutanto. (2007. Catalyst in Basic Oleochemicals. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 2 (2-3: 22-31.  doi:10.9767/bcrec.2.2-3.6.22-31][How to Link/DOI: || or local:

  4. Study of spent hydrorefining catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gellerman, M.M.; Aliev, R.R.; Sidel'kovskaya, V.G.


    Aluminonickelmolybdenum catalysts for diesel fuel hydrorefining have been studied by DTA, XSPS, and diffuse reflection spectroscopy. Chemical and phase states of molybdenum compounds in samples of fresh catalyst, regenerated one after one year operation, and clogged with coke catalyst after five year operation, are determined. Chemical reactions and crystal-phase transformations of the molybdenum compounds during catalyst deactivation and regeneration are discussed

  5. Catalysts for Environmental Remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrams, B. L.; Vesborg, Peter Christian Kjærgaard


    on titania (V2O5-WO3/TiO2) as the example catalyst. The main photocatalysts examined for mineralization of organic compounds were TiO2 and MoS2. It is important to obtain insight into the catalyst structure-to-activity relationship in order to understand and locate the active site(s). In this chapter......The properties of catalysts used in environmental remediation are described here through specific examples in heterogeneous catalysis and photocatalysis. In the area of heterogeneous catalysis, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx was used as an example reaction with vanadia and tungsta...

  6. Catalyst for microelectromechanical systems microreactors (United States)

    Morse, Jeffrey D [Martinez, CA; Sopchak, David A [Livermore, CA; Upadhye, Ravindra S [Pleasanton, CA; Reynolds, John G [San Ramon, CA; Satcher, Joseph H [Patterson, CA; Gash, Alex E [Brentwood, CA


    A microreactor comprising a silicon wafer, a multiplicity of microchannels in the silicon wafer, and a catalyst coating the microchannels. In one embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises a nanostructured material. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises an aerogel. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises a solgel. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises carbon nanotubes.

  7. Catalysts and method (United States)

    Taylor, Charles E.; Noceti, Richard P.


    An improved catlayst and method for the oxyhydrochlorination of methane is disclosed. The catalyst includes a pyrogenic porous support on which is layered as active material, cobalt chloride in major proportion, and minor proportions of an alkali metal chloride and of a rare earth chloride. On contact of the catalyst with a gas flow of methane, HC1 and oxygen, more than 60% of the methane is converted and of that converted more than 40% occurs as monochloromethane. Advantageously, the monochloromethane can be used to produce gasoline boiling range hydrocarbons with the recycle of HCl for further reaction. This catalyst is also of value for the production of formic acid as are analogous catalysts with lead, silver or nickel chlorides substituted for the cobalt chloride.

  8. Epoxidation catalyst and process (United States)

    Linic, Suljo; Christopher, Phillip


    Disclosed herein is a catalytic method of converting alkenes to epoxides. This method generally includes reacting alkenes with oxygen in the presence of a specific silver catalyst under conditions suitable to produce a yield of the epoxides. The specific silver catalyst is a silver nanocrystal having a plurality of surface planes, a substantial portion of which is defined by Miller indices of (100). The reaction is performed by charging a suitable reactor with this silver catalyst and then feeding the reactants to the reactor under conditions to carry out the reaction. The reaction may be performed in batch, or as a continuous process that employs a recycle of any unreacted alkenes. The specific silver catalyst has unexpectedly high selectivity for epoxide products. Consequently, this general method (and its various embodiments) will result in extraordinarily high epoxide yields heretofore unattainable.

  9. Latent olefin metathesis catalysts


    Monsaert, Stijn; Lozano Vila, Ana; Drozdzak, Renata; Van Der Voort, Pascal; Verpoort, Francis


    Olefin metathesis is a versatile synthetic tool for the redistribution of alkylidene fragments at carbon-carbon double bonds. This field, and more specifically the development of task-specific, latent catalysts, attracts emerging industrial and academic interest. This tutorial review aims to provide the reader with a concise overview of early breakthroughs and recent key developments in the endeavor to develop latent olefin metathesis catalysts, and to illustrate their use by prominent exampl...

  10. Plasmatron-catalyst system (United States)

    Bromberg, Leslie; Cohn, Daniel R.; Rabinovich, Alexander; Alexeev, Nikolai


    A plasmatron-catalyst system. The system generates hydrogen-rich gas and comprises a plasmatron and at least one catalyst for receiving an output from the plasmatron to produce hydrogen-rich gas. In a preferred embodiment, the plasmatron receives as an input air, fuel and water/steam for use in the reforming process. The system increases the hydrogen yield and decreases the amount of carbon monoxide.

  11. Catalyst system comprising a first catalyst system tethered to a supported catalyst (United States)

    Angelici, Robert J.; Gao, Hanrong


    The present invention provides new catalyst formats which comprise a supported catalyst tethered to a second and different catalyst by a suitable tethering ligand. A preferred system comprises a heterogeneous supported metal catalyst tethered to a homogeneous catalyst. This combination of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts has a sufficient lifetime and unusually high catalytic activity in arene hydrogenations, and potentially many other reactions as well, including, but not limited to hydroformylation, hydrosilation, olefin oxidation, isomerization, hydrocyanation, olefin metathesis, olefin polymerization, carbonylation, enantioselective catalysis and photoduplication. These catalysts are easily separated from the products, and can be reused repeatedly, making these systems very economical.

  12. Magnetic and dendritic catalysts. (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Deraedt, Christophe; Ruiz, Jaime; Astruc, Didier


    The recovery and reuse of catalysts is a major challenge in the development of sustainable chemical processes. Two methods at the frontier between homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis have recently emerged for addressing this problem: loading the catalyst onto a dendrimer or onto a magnetic nanoparticle. In this Account, we describe representative examples of these two methods, primarily from our research group, and compare them. We then describe new chemistry that combines the benefits of these two methods of catalysis. Classic dendritic catalysis has involved either attaching the catalyst covalently at the branch termini or within the dendrimer core. We have used chelating pyridyltriazole ligands to insolubilize catalysts at the termini of dendrimers, providing an efficient, recyclable heterogeneous catalysts. With the addition of dendritic unimolecular micelles olefin metathesis reactions catalyzed by commercial Grubbs-type ruthenium-benzylidene complexes in water required unusually low amounts of catalyst. When such dendritic micelles include intradendritic ligands, both the micellar effect and ligand acceleration promote faster catalysis in water. With these types of catalysts, we could carry out azide alkyne cycloaddition ("click") chemistry with only ppm amounts of CuSO4·5H2O and sodium ascorbate under ambient conditions. Alternatively we can attach catalysts to the surface of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs), essentially magnetite (Fe3O4) or maghemite (γ-Fe2O3), offering the opportunity to recover the catalysts using magnets. Taking advantage of the merits of both of these strategies, we and others have developed a new generation of recyclable catalysts: dendritic magnetically recoverable catalysts. In particular, some of our catalysts with a γ-Fe2O3@SiO2 core and 1,2,3-triazole tethers and loaded with Pd nanoparticles generate strong positive dendritic effects with respect to ligand loading, catalyst loading, catalytic activity and

  13. Catalyst component interactions in nickel/alumina catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiš Erne E.


    Full Text Available The influence of nickel loading (5; 10; 20 wt% Ni, temperature of heat treatment (400; 700; 1100°C and way of catalyst preparation on the catalyst component interactions (CCI in the impregnated, mechanical powder mixed and co-precipitated catalyst was investigated. For sample characterization, low temperature nitrogen adsorption (LTNA and X-ray diffraction (XRD were applied. Significant differences were revealed, concerning CCI in dependence of nickel loading, temperature of heat treatment and way of catalyst preparation. The obtained results show that the support metal oxide interactions (SMI in impregnated and co-precipitated catalysts are more intensive than in the mechanical powder mixed catalyst. The degree and intensity of CCI is expressed by the ratio of real and theoretical surface area of the catalyst. This ratio can be used for a quantitative estimation of CCI and it is generally applicable to all types of heterogeneous catalysts.

  14. Supported organoiridium catalysts for alkane dehydrogenation (United States)

    Baker, R. Thomas; Sattelberger, Alfred P.; Li, Hongbo


    Solid supported organoiridium catalysts, a process for preparing such solid supported organoiridium catalysts, and the use of such solid supported organoiridium catalysts in dehydrogenation reactions of alkanes is provided. The catalysts can be easily recovered and recycled.

  15. Catalyst, method of making, and reactions using the catalyst (United States)

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y [Pasco, WA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA; Gao, Yufei [Kennewick, WA


    The present invention includes a catalyst having a layered structure with, (1) a porous support, (2) a buffer layer, (3) an interfacial layer, and optionally (4) a catalyst layer. The invention also provides a process in which a reactant is converted to a product by passing through a reaction chamber containing the catalyst.

  16. Oxide Nanocrystal Model Catalysts. (United States)

    Huang, Weixin


    Model catalysts with uniform and well-defined surface structures have been extensively employed to explore structure-property relationships of powder catalysts. Traditional oxide model catalysts are based on oxide single crystals and single crystal thin films, and the surface chemistry and catalysis are studied under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions. However, the acquired fundamental understandings often suffer from the "materials gap" and "pressure gap" when they are extended to the real world of powder catalysts working at atmospheric or higher pressures. Recent advances in colloidal synthesis have realized controlled synthesis of catalytic oxide nanocrystals with uniform and well-defined morphologies. These oxide nanocrystals consist of a novel type of oxide model catalyst whose surface chemistry and catalysis can be studied under the same conditions as working oxide catalysts. In this Account, the emerging concept of oxide nanocrystal model catalysts is demonstrated using our investigations of surface chemistry and catalysis of uniform and well-defined cuprous oxide nanocrystals and ceria nanocrystals. Cu2O cubes enclosed with the {100} crystal planes, Cu2O octahedra enclosed with the {111} crystal planes, and Cu2O rhombic dodecahedra enclosed with the {110} crystal planes exhibit distinct morphology-dependent surface reactivities and catalytic properties that can be well correlated with the surface compositions and structures of exposed crystal planes. Among these types of Cu2O nanocrystals, the octahedra are most reactive and catalytically active due to the presence of coordination-unsaturated (1-fold-coordinated) Cu on the exposed {111} crystal planes. The crystal-plane-controlled surface restructuring and catalytic activity of Cu2O nanocrystals were observed in CO oxidation with excess oxygen. In the propylene oxidation reaction with O2, 1-fold-coordinated Cu on Cu2O(111), 3-fold-coordinated O on Cu2O(110), and 2-fold-coordinated O on Cu2O(100) were identified

  17. Fuel cell catalyst degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arenz, Matthias; Zana, Alessandro


    Fuel cells are an important piece in our quest for a sustainable energy supply. Although there are several different types of fuel cells, the by far most popular is the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Among its many favorable properties are a short start up time and a high power density...... increasing focus. Activity of the catalyst is important, but stability is essential. In the presented perspective paper, we review recent efforts to investigate fuel cell catalysts ex-situ in electrochemical half-cell measurements. Due to the amount of different studies, this review has no intention to give...

  18. Olefin metathesis catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukes, S.G.; Banks, R.L.


    A process is described for preparing a disproportionation catalyst comprising admixing a catalytically effective amount of a calcined and activated catalyst consisting essentially of at least one metal oxide selected from molybdenum oxide and tungsten oxide and a support containing a major proportion of silica or alumina with a promoting amount of a methylating agent selected from the group consisting of dimethyl sulfate, dimethylsulfoxide, trimethyloxonium tetrafluorborate, methyl iodide, and methyl bromide, and subjecting same to inert atmospheric conditions for the methylating agent to promote the activity of the calcined molybdenum and tungsten oxides for the disproportionation of olefins.

  19. Deactivation-resistant catalyst for selective catalyst reduction of NOx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to a catalyst for selective catalytic reduction of NOx in alkali metal containing flue gas using ammonia as reductant, the catalyst comprising a surface with catalytically active sites, wherein the surface is at least partly coated with a coating comprising at least...... one metal oxide. In another aspect the present invention relates to the use of said catalyst and to a method of producing said catalyst. In addition, the present invention relates to a method of treating an catalyst for conferring thereon an improved resistance to alkali poisoning....

  20. Olefin metathesis and catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukes, S. G.; Banks, R. L.


    Olefins are converted into other olefins having different numbers of carbon atoms by contact with a catalyst comprising an inorganic refractory oxide support containing at least one of tungsten oxide and molybdenum oxide and a promoting amount of at least one methylating agent under conditions suitable for the methylating agent compounds to promote the activity of tungsten and molybdenum oxides for the disproportionation reaction.

  1. Hydrogen evolution reaction catalyst (United States)

    Subbaraman, Ram; Stamenkovic, Vojislav; Markovic, Nenad; Tripkovic, Dusan


    Systems and methods for a hydrogen evolution reaction catalyst are provided. Electrode material includes a plurality of clusters. The electrode exhibits bifunctionality with respect to the hydrogen evolution reaction. The electrode with clusters exhibits improved performance with respect to the intrinsic material of the electrode absent the clusters.

  2. Sabatier Catalyst Poisoning Investigation (United States)

    Nallette, Tim; Perry, Jay; Abney, Morgan; Knox, Jim; Goldblatt, Loel


    The Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) on the International Space Station (ISS) has been operational since 2010. The CRA uses a Sabatier reactor to produce water and methane by reaction of the metabolic CO2 scrubbed from the cabin air and the hydrogen byproduct from the water electrolysis system used for metabolic oxygen generation. Incorporating the CRA into the overall air revitalization system has facilitated life support system loop closure on the ISS reducing resupply logistics and thereby enhancing longer term missions. The CRA utilizes CO2 which has been adsorbed in a 5A molecular sieve within the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly, CDRA. There is a potential of compounds with molecular dimensions similar to, or less than CO2 to also be adsorbed. In this fashion trace contaminants may be concentrated within the CDRA and subsequently desorbed with the CO2 to the CRA. Currently, there is no provision to remove contaminants prior to entering the Sabatier catalyst bed. The risk associated with this is potential catalyst degradation due to trace organic contaminants in the CRA carbon dioxide feed acting as catalyst poisons. To better understand this risk, United Technologies Aerospace System (UTAS) has teamed with MSFC to investigate the impact of various trace contaminants on the CRA catalyst performance at relative ISS cabin air concentrations and at about 200/400 times of ISS concentrations, representative of the potential concentrating effect of the CDRA molecular sieve. This paper summarizes our initial assessment results.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    of alkali metal and/or alkali-earth compounds which process comprises using a catalyst combined of (i) a formed porous superacidic support, said superacidic support having an Hammett acidity stronger than Ho=-12, and (ii) a metal oxide catalytic component deposited on said superacidic support selected from...

  4. Noble metal ionic catalysts. (United States)

    Hegde, M S; Madras, Giridhar; Patil, K C


    Because of growing environmental concerns and increasingly stringent regulations governing auto emissions, new more efficient exhaust catalysts are needed to reduce the amount of pollutants released from internal combustion engines. To accomplish this goal, the major pollutants in exhaust-CO, NO(x), and unburned hydrocarbons-need to be fully converted to CO(2), N(2), and H(2)O. Most exhaust catalysts contain nanocrystalline noble metals (Pt, Pd, Rh) dispersed on oxide supports such as Al(2)O(3) or SiO(2) promoted by CeO(2). However, in conventional catalysts, only the surface atoms of the noble metal particles serve as adsorption sites, and even in 4-6 nm metal particles, only 1/4 to 1/5 of the total noble metal atoms are utilized for catalytic conversion. The complete dispersion of noble metals can be achieved only as ions within an oxide support. In this Account, we describe a novel solution to this dispersion problem: a new solution combustion method for synthesizing dispersed noble metal ionic catalysts. We have synthesized nanocrystalline, single-phase Ce(1-x)M(x)O(2-delta) and Ce(1-x-y)Ti(y)M(x)O(2-delta) (M = Pt, Pd, Rh; x = 0.01-0.02, delta approximately x, y = 0.15-0.25) oxides in fluorite structure. In these oxide catalysts, Pt(2+), Pd(2+), or Rh(3+) ions are substituted only to the extent of 1-2% of Ce(4+) ion. Lower-valent noble metal ion substitution in CeO(2) creates oxygen vacancies. Reducing molecules (CO, H(2), NH(3)) are adsorbed onto electron-deficient noble metal ions, while oxidizing (O(2), NO) molecules are absorbed onto electron-rich oxide ion vacancy sites. The rates of CO and hydrocarbon oxidation and NO(x) reduction (with >80% N(2) selectivity) are 15-30 times higher in the presence of these ionic catalysts than when the same amount of noble metal loaded on an oxide support is used. Catalysts with palladium ion dispersed in CeO(2) or Ce(1-x)Ti(x)O(2) were far superior to Pt or Rh ionic catalysts. Therefore, we have demonstrated that the

  5. Catalyst support structure, catalyst including the structure, reactor including a catalyst, and methods of forming same (United States)

    Van Norman, Staci A.; Aston, Victoria J.; Weimer, Alan W.


    Structures, catalysts, and reactors suitable for use for a variety of applications, including gas-to-liquid and coal-to-liquid processes and methods of forming the structures, catalysts, and reactors are disclosed. The catalyst material can be deposited onto an inner wall of a microtubular reactor and/or onto porous tungsten support structures using atomic layer deposition techniques.

  6. Dynamics of Catalyst Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Willum; Cavalca, Filippo; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is extensively used in catalysis research. Recent developments in aberration correction allows imaging surface structures with unprecedented resolution. Using these correctors in conjunction with environmental TEM (ETEM), where imaging of materials can be done...... under gas exposure, dynamic phenomena such as sintering and growth can be observed with sub-Ångstrøm resolution. Metal nanoparticles contain the active sites in heterogeneous catalysts, which are important for many industrial applications including the production of clean fuels, chemicals...... and pharmaceuticals, and the cleanup of exhaust from automobiles and stationary power plants. Sintering, or thermal deactivation, is an important mechanism for the loss of catalyst activity. In order to initiate a systematic study of the dynamics and sintering of nanoparticles, various catalytic systems have been...

  7. Mesoporous molecular sieve catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højholt, Karen Thrane

    This thesis deals with a very specific class of molecular sieves known as zeolites. Zeolites are a class of crystalline aluminosilicates characterised by pores or cavities of molecular dimensions as part of their crystal structure. In this work zeolites were modified for the use and understanding...... of different catalytic applications. Primarily the zeolites were modified regarding the porosity and the introduction of metals to the framework. The obtained materials were used as solid acid catalysts, as an inert matrix for stabilising metal nanoparticles and as an anchoring material for molecular metal....... Furthermore, preliminary work was done using mesoporous ZSM-5 zeolites as support material for anchoring molecular CoMo6 species for the application as potential bi-functional catalyst in simultaneous hydrodesulfurisation (HDS) and hydrocracking. HDS activity tests revealed that the anchoring improved...

  8. Photo catalyst; Ko shokubai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    While titanium oxide is excited by the light, electrons of titanium oxide are taken away by the light energy to form positive holes. Water will be decomposed into hydrogen ion and hydroxy radical (OH) by these positive holes. This hydroxy radical is a strong reactive substance called active oxygen, it decomposes organisms. Besides this photo- catalyst function, the titanium oxide can also make surface of a substance superhydrophilic. The super hydrophilicity results in not forming water drops on the glass surface but spreading all over the surface to prevent a covering of fog on the glass surface. The published patents concerning the photo catalysts were 593 from Jan. 1998 to Jan. 1999. The applicant order is the first TOTO 143, the second Daikin Industry 19, the third Toshiba Raitech, Nitto Denko, Hitachi 17 respectively. (NEDO)

  9. High-Activity Dealloyed Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kongkanand, Anusorn [General Motors LLC, Pontiac, MI (United States)


    Reduction of costly Pt usage in proton exchange membrane fuel cell electrodes is one of the major challenges towards development and commercialization of fuel cell vehicles. Although few have met the initial-kinetic activity requirements in a realistic fuel cell device, no catalyst material has ever met the demanding fuel cell durability targets set by DOE. In this project, a team of 4 universities and 2 companies came together to investigate a concept that appeared promising in preliminary non-fuel cell tests then to further develop the catalyst to a mature level ready for vehicle implementation. The team consists of academia with technical leadership in their respective areas, a catalyst supplier, and a fuel cell system integrator.The tightly collaborative project enabled development of a highly active and durable catalyst with performance that significantly exceeds that of previous catalysts and meets the DOE targets for the first time (Figure 1A). The catalyst was then further evaluated in full-active-area stack in a realistic vehicle operating condition (Figure 1B). This is the first public demonstration that one can realize the performance benefit and Pt cost reduction over a conventional pure Pt catalyst in a long-term realistic PEMFC system. Furthermore, systematic analyses of a range of catalysts with different performance after fuel cell testing allowed for correlation between catalyst microstructure and its electrocatalytic activity and durability. This will in turn aid future catalyst development.

  10. Deactivation of Oxidation Catalysts (United States)


    been observed to decrease CO oxidation even at 500TC ( Farrauto and Wedding, 1973, p. 254) by a sulfate formation mechanism, it is likely that the...sulfated CoO, in the study of Farrauto and Wedding (1973) and that no deactivation was observed in the previously discussed study by Pope et al...This is attributed to the adsorption of HO on the catalyst surface which competes with the adsorption of ethanol. Farrauto and Wedding (1973) studied

  11. Olefin metathesis and catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukes, S. G.; Banks, R. L.


    Olefins are converted into other olefins having different numbers of carbon atoms by contact with a catalyst comprising an inorganic refractory material containing at least one of tungsten oxide and molybdenum oxide and a promoting amount of at least one treating agent selected from chlorinated silicon compounds, thionyl chloride, and sulfuryl chloride under conditions suitable for the treating agent to promote the activity of tungsten and molybdenum oxides for the disporoportionation reaction.

  12. Catalyst in Basic Oleochemicals


    Eva Suyenty; Herlina Sentosa; Mariani Agustine; Sandy Anwar; Abun Lie; Erwin Sutanto


    Currently Indonesia is the world largest palm oil producer with production volume reaching 16 million tones per annum. The high crude oil and ethylene prices in the last 3 – 4 years contribute to the healthy demand growth for basic oleochemicals: fatty acids and fatty alcohols. Oleochemicals are starting to replace crude oil derived products in various applications. As widely practiced in petrochemical industry, catalyst plays a very important role in the production of basic oleochemic...

  13. Catalyst component interactions in nickel/alumina catalyst


    Kiš Erne E.; Lazić Matilda M.; Bošković Goran C.


    The influence of nickel loading (5; 10; 20 wt% Ni), temperature of heat treatment (400; 700; 1100°C) and way of catalyst preparation on the catalyst component interactions (CCI) in the impregnated, mechanical powder mixed and co-precipitated catalyst was investigated. For sample characterization, low temperature nitrogen adsorption (LTNA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were applied. Significant differences were revealed, concerning CCI in dependence of nickel loading, temperature of heat treatme...

  14. Dispersion enhanced metal/zeolite catalysts (United States)

    Sachtler, Wolfgang M. H.; Tzou, Ming-Shin; Jiang, Hui-Jong


    Dispersion stabilized zeolite supported metal catalysts are provided as bimetallic catalyst combinations. The catalyst metal is in a reduced zero valent form while the dispersion stabilizer metal is in an unreduced ionic form. Representative catalysts are prepared from platinum or nickel as the catalyst metal and iron or chromium dispersion stabilizer.

  15. Non-PGM cell catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colon-Mercado, H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Elvington, M. [Savannah River Consulting, Aiken, SC (United States); Ganesan, P. [Savannah River Consulting, Aiken, SC (United States)


    A unique approach has been developed to probe the non-PGM catalyst active site for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR) for PEMFCs. Iron based functionalities have been engineered into a variety of catalysts to evaluate their impact on activity for the ORR. A series of high surface area catalysts were synthesized and the impact of the chemical structure on the electrochemical and electrocatalytic properties was investigated. Elemental and surface analyses of the prepared catalysts reveal the incorporation of iron in a targeted and controlled manner. A high surface area framework catalyst was prepared that shows exceptional activity, comparable to state-of-the-art materials. The results of this research project provided critical seed data for the newly awarded ElectroCat project, which focuses on rationally designed framework catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction.

  16. Hyperfine interactions in metallic catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitovitch, Henrique; Silva, Paulo R.J.; Passos, Fabio B.


    Heterogeneous catalysts are of fundamental importance in several modern chemical processes. The characterization of catalysts is an issue of very present interest as it can provide a better understanding of the fundamental aspects of the catalytic phenomena, thus helping in the development of more efficient catalysts. In order to extend and improve the characterization of catalysts, new and less conventional methods are being applied, such as nuclear spectroscopies. In this paper we focus on the application of angular correlation, with can be used to resolve different local environments of probe atoms in solids and can be applied, as shown here, in the characterization of heterogeneous catalysts. A brief theoretical introduction is given and experimental results related to catalytic systems of alumina and niobia-supported Pt-In and Pd-In catalysts are presented. (author)

  17. Development of GREET Catalyst Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhichao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Benavides, Pahola T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cronauer, Donald C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    In this report, we develop energy and material flows for the production of five different catalysts (tar reforming, alcohol synthesis, Zeolite Socony Mobil-5 [ZSM-5], Mo/Co/ γ-Al2O3, and Pt/ γ-Al2O3) and two chemicals (olivine, dimethyl ether of polyethylene glycol [DEPG]). These compounds and catalysts are now included in the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET™) catalyst module.

  18. Oxygen-reducing catalyst layer (United States)

    O'Brien, Dennis P [Maplewood, MN; Schmoeckel, Alison K [Stillwater, MN; Vernstrom, George D [Cottage Grove, MN; Atanasoski, Radoslav [Edina, MN; Wood, Thomas E [Stillwater, MN; Yang, Ruizhi [Halifax, CA; Easton, E Bradley [Halifax, CA; Dahn, Jeffrey R [Hubley, CA; O'Neill, David G [Lake Elmo, MN


    An oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, and a method of making the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, where the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer includes a catalytic material film disposed on a substrate with the use of physical vapor deposition and thermal treatment. The catalytic material film includes a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

  19. Catalyst systems and uses thereof (United States)

    Ozkan, Umit S [Worthington, OH; Holmgreen, Erik M [Columbus, OH; Yung, Matthew M [Columbus, OH


    A method of carbon monoxide (CO) removal comprises providing an oxidation catalyst comprising cobalt supported on an inorganic oxide. The method further comprises feeding a gaseous stream comprising CO, and oxygen (O.sub.2) to the catalyst system, and removing CO from the gaseous stream by oxidizing the CO to carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) in the presence of the oxidation catalyst at a temperature between about 20 to about C.

  20. Reuse of Hydrotreating Spent Catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, A.M.; Menoufy, M.F.; Amhed, S.H.


    All hydro treating catalysts used in petroleum refining processes gradually lose activity through coking, poisoning by metal, sulfur or halides or lose surface area from sintering at high process temperatures. Waste hydrotreating catalyst, which have been used in re-refining of waste lube oil at Alexandria Petroleum Company (after 5 years lifetime) compared with the same fresh catalyst were used in the present work. Studies are conducted on partial extraction of the active metals of spent catalyst (Mo and Ni) using three leaching solvents,4% oxidized oxalic acid, 10% aqueous sodium hydroxide and 10% citric acid. The leaching experiments are conducting on the de coked extrude [un crushed] spent catalyst samples. These steps are carried out in order to rejuvenate the spent catalyst to be reused in other reactions. The results indicated that 4% oxidized oxalic acid leaching solution gave total metal removal 45.6 for de coked catalyst samples while NaOH gave 35% and citric acid gave 31.9 % The oxidized leaching agent was the most efficient leaching solvent to facilitate the metal removal, and the rejuvenated catalyst was characterized by the unchanged crystalline phase The rejuvenated catalyst was applied for hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of vacuum gas oil as a feedstock, under different hydrogen pressure 20-80 bar in order to compare its HDS activity

  1. Mixed Alcohol Synthesis Catalyst Screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Mark A.; White, James F.; Stevens, Don J.


    National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are conducting research to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). PNNL is tasked with obtaining commercially available or preparing promising mixed-alcohol catalysts and screening them in a laboratory-scale reactor system. Commercially available catalysts and the most promising experimental catalysts are provided to NREL for testing using a slipstream from a pilot-scale biomass gasifier. From the standpoint of producing C2+ alcohols as the major product, it appears that the rhodium catalyst is the best choice in terms of both selectivity and space-time yield (STY). However, unless the rhodium catalyst can be improved to provide minimally acceptable STYs for commercial operation, mixed alcohol synthesis will involve significant production of other liquid coproducts. The modified Fischer-Tropsch catalyst shows the most promise for providing both an acceptable selectivity to C2+ alcohols and total liquid STY. However, further optimization of the Fischer-Tropsch catalysts to improve selectivity to higher alcohols is highly desired. Selection of a preferred catalyst will likely entail a decision on the preferred coproduct slate. No other catalysts tested appear amenable to the significant improvements needed for acceptable STYs.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sie, S.T.


    Abstract of WO 9521691 (A1) Described is a reactor (1) at least partially filled with catalyst granules (11), which is intended for catalytically reacting at least one gas and at least one liquid with each other. According to the invention the catalyst granules (11) are collected in agglomerates

  3. Novel Reforming Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfefferle, Lisa D; Haller, Gary L


    Aqueous phase reforming is useful for processing oxygenated hydrocarbons to hydrogen and other more useful products. Current processing is hampered by the fact that oxide based catalysts are not stable under high temperature hydrothermal conditions. Silica in the form of structured MCM-41 is thermally a more stable support for Co and Ni than conventional high surface area amorphous silica but hydrothermal stability is not demonstrated. Carbon nanotube supports, in contrast, are highly stable under hydrothermal reaction conditions. In this project we show that carbon nanotubes are stable high activity/selectivity supports for the conversion of ethylene glycol to hydrogen.

  4. A Catalyst for Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønsmann, Dorte


    into in a process that hinges on new members functioning as tools for management to bring about the desired change. The article shows that while the newcomer is used as a catalyst for increased use of English and for the creation of a 'global mindset,' she is at the same time socialized into the existing Danish...... for changing language practices toward more English, with the ultimate aim of creating a 'global mindset' in the organization. Language socialization in a transient multilingual setting is shown to focus on and assign positive value to new linguistic norms that experienced members are socialized...

  5. In-situ characterization of heterogeneous catalysts

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, Jose A; Chupas, Peter J


    Helps researchers develop new catalysts for sustainable fuel and chemical production Reviewing the latest developments in the field, this book explores the in-situ characterization of heterogeneous catalysts, enabling readers to take full advantage of the sophisticated techniques used to study heterogeneous catalysts and reaction mechanisms. In using these techniques, readers can learn to improve the selectivity and the performance of catalysts and how to prepare catalysts as efficiently as possible, with minimum waste. In-situ Characterization of Heterogeneous Catalysts feat

  6. Catalysts for low temperature oxidation (United States)

    Toops, Todd J.; Parks, III, James E.; Bauer, John C.


    The invention provides a composite catalyst containing a first component and a second component. The first component contains nanosized gold particles. The second component contains nanosized platinum group metals. The composite catalyst is useful for catalyzing the oxidation of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, oxides of nitrogen, and other pollutants at low temperatures.

  7. Ring opening metathesis polymerization catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grubbs, R.H.; Johnson, L.K.; Novak, B.M.; Hillmyer, M.; Benedicto, A.; France, M.; Nguyen, S.T. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)


    Over the past eight years, a number of new catalysts for the ring opening metathesis polymerization of cyclic olefins have been developed. These catalysts are simple organometallic complexes containing metal carbon multiple bonds that in most cases polymerize olefins by a living process. These catalysts have been used to prepare a family of near monodispersed and structurally homogeneous polymers, a series of telechelic polymers with controlled molecular weight and functionality and triblock polymers with segments with potentially interesting electronic properties. A series of new group VIII catalysts are being developed that allow a wide range of functionality to be incorporated into the polymer side chains. The same catalysts can also be used in the synthesis of fine chemicals.

  8. Supported molten-metal catalysts (United States)

    Datta, Ravindra; Singh, Ajeet; Halasz, Istvan; Serban, Manuela


    An entirely new class of catalysts called supported molten-metal catalysts, SMMC, which can replace some of the existing precious metal catalysts used in the production of fuels, commodity chemicals, and fine chemicals, as well as in combating pollution. SMMC are based on supporting ultra-thin films or micro-droplets of the relatively low-melting (metals and semimetals from groups 1, 12, 13, 14, 15 and 16, of the periodic table, or their alloys and intermetallic compounds, on porous refractory supports, much like supported microcrystallites of the traditional solid metal catalysts. It thus provides orders of magnitude higher surface area than is obtainable in conventional reactors containing molten metals in pool form and also avoids corrosion. These have so far been the chief stumbling blocks in the application of molten metal catalysts.

  9. Development of GREET Catalyst Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhichao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Cronauer, Donald C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division


    Catalysts are critical inputs for many pathways that convert biomass into biofuels. Energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during the production of catalysts and chemical inputs influence the life-cycle energy consumption, and GHG emissions of biofuels and need to be considered in biofuel life-cycle analysis (LCA). In this report, we develop energy and material flows for the production of three different catalysts (tar reforming, alcohol synthesis, Zeolite Socony Mobil-5 [ZSM-5]) and two chemicals (olivine, dimethyl ether of polyethylene glycol [DEPG]). These compounds and catalysts are now included in the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET™) catalyst module. They were selected because they are consumed in existing U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) analyses of biofuel processes. For example, a thermochemical ethanol production pathway (indirect gasification and mixed alcohol synthesis) developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) uses olivine, DEPG, and tar reforming and alcohol synthesis catalysts (Dutta et al., 2011). ZSM-5 can be used in biofuel production pathways such as catalytic upgrading of sugars into hydrocarbons (Biddy and Jones, 2013). Other uses for these compounds and catalysts are certainly possible. In this report, we document the data sources and methodology we used to develop material and energy flows for the catalysts and compounds in the GREET catalyst module. In Section 2 we focus on compounds used in the model Dutta et al. (2011) developed. In Section 3, we report material and energy flows associated with ZSM-5 production. Finally, in Section 4, we report results.

  10. Chalcogen catalysts for polymer electrolyte fuel cell (United States)

    Alonso-Vante, Nicolas [Buxerolles, FR; Zelenay, Piotr [Los Alamos, NM; Choi, Jong-Ho [Los Alamos, NM; Wieckowski, Andrzej [Champaign, IL; Cao, Dianxue [Urbana, IL


    A methanol-tolerant cathode catalyst and a membrane electrode assembly for fuel cells that includes such a cathode catalyst. The cathode catalyst includes a support having at least one transition metal in elemental form and a chalcogen disposed on the support. Methods of making the cathode catalyst and membrane electrode assembly are also described.

  11. Increasing the lifetime of fuel cell catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latsuzbaia, R.


    In this thesis, I discuss a novel idea of fuel cell catalyst regeneration to increase lifetime of the PEM fuel cell electrode/catalyst operation and, therefore, reduce the catalyst costs. As many of the catalyst degradation mechanisms are difficult to avoid, the regeneration is alternative option to

  12. Impeded solid state reactions and transformations in ceramic catalysts supports and catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernő E. Kiss


    Full Text Available Impeded chemical reactions and impeded polymorphous transformation in materials are discussed, as desired effects, for stabilization of ceramic catalyst supports and ceramic based catalysts. This paper gives a short overview about the possibilities of slowing down the aging processes in ceramic catalyst supports and catalysts. Special attention is given to alumina and titania based catalysts.

  13. Rare earth metals for automotive exhaust catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinjoh, Hirohumi


    The usage of rare earth metals for automotive exhaust catalysts is demonstrated in this paper. Rare earth metals have been widely used in automotive catalysts. In particular, three-way catalysts require the use of ceria compounds as oxygen storage materials, and lanthana as both a stabilizer of alumina and a promoter. The application for diesel catalysts is also illustrated. Effects of inclusion of rare earth metals in automotive catalysts are discussed

  14. Biomass processing over gold catalysts

    CERN Document Server

    Simakova, Olga A; Murzin, Dmitry Yu


    The book describes the valorization of biomass-derived compounds over gold catalysts. Since biomass is a rich renewable feedstock for diverse platform molecules, including those currently derived from petroleum, the interest in various transformation routes has become intense. Catalytic conversion of biomass is one of the main approaches to improving the economic viability of biorefineries.  In addition, Gold catalysts were found to have outstanding activity and selectivity in many key reactions. This book collects information about transformations of the most promising and important compounds derived from cellulose, hemicelluloses, and woody biomass extractives. Since gold catalysts possess high stability under oxidative conditions, selective oxidation reactions were discussed more thoroughly than other critical reactions such as partial hydrogenation, acetalization, and isomerization. The influence of reaction conditions, the role of the catalyst, and the advantages and disadvantages of using gold are pre...

  15. The innovation catalysts. (United States)

    Martin, Roger L


    A few years ago the software development company Intuit realized that it needed a new approach to galvanizing customers. The company's Net Promoter Score was faltering, and customer recommendations of new products were especially disappointing. Intuit decided to hold a two-day, off-site meeting for the company's top 300 managers with a focus on the role of design in innovation. One of the days was dedicated to a program called Design for Delight. The centerpiece of the day was a PowerPoint presentation by Intuit founder Scott Cook, who realized midway through that he was no Steve Jobs: The managers listened dutifully, but there was little energy in the room. By contrast, a subsequent exercise in which the participants worked through a design challenge by creating prototypes, getting feedback, iterating, and refining, had them mesmerized. The eventual result was the creation of a team of nine design-thinking coaches--"innovation catalysts"--from across Intuit who were made available to help any work group create prototypes, run experiments, and learn from customers. The process includes a "painstorm" (to determine the customer's greatest pain point), a "soljam" (to generate and then winnow possible solutions), and a "code-jam" (to write code "good enough" to take to customers within two weeks). Design for Delight has enabled employees throughout Intuit to move from satisfying customers to delighting them.

  16. Nanostructured catalysts for organic transformations. (United States)

    Chng, Leng Leng; Erathodiyil, Nandanan; Ying, Jackie Y


    The development of green, sustainable and economical chemical processes is one of the major challenges in chemistry. Besides the traditional need for efficient and selective catalytic reactions that will transform raw materials into valuable chemicals, pharmaceuticals and fuels, green chemistry also strives for waste reduction, atomic efficiency and high rates of catalyst recovery. Nanostructured materials are attractive candidates as heterogeneous catalysts for various organic transformations, especially because they meet the goals of green chemistry. Researchers have made significant advances in the synthesis of well-defined nanostructured materials in recent years. Among these are novel approaches that have permitted the rational design and synthesis of highly active and selective nanostructured catalysts by controlling the structure and composition of the active nanoparticles (NPs) and by manipulating the interaction between the catalytically active NP species and their support. The ease of isolation and separation of the heterogeneous catalysts from the desired organic product and the recovery and reuse of these NPs further enhance their attractiveness as green and sustainable catalysts. This Account reviews recent advances in the use of nanostructured materials for catalytic organic transformations. We present a broad overview of nanostructured catalysts used in different types of organic transformations including chemoselective oxidations and reductions, asymmetric hydrogenations, coupling reactions, C-H activations, oxidative aminations, domino and tandem reactions, and more. We focus on recent research efforts towards the development of the following nanostructured materials: (i) nanostructured catalysts with controlled morphologies, (ii) magnetic nanocomposites, (iii) semiconductor-metal nanocomposites, and (iv) hybrid nanostructured catalysts. Selected examples showcase principles of nanoparticle design such as the enhancement of reactivity, selectivity

  17. Regeneration of Hydrotreating and FCC Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CM Wai; JG Frye; JL Fulton; LE Bowman; LJ Silva; MA Gerber


    Hydrotreating, hydrocracking, and fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts are important components of petroleum refining processes. Hydrotreating and hydrocracking catalysts are used to improve the yield of high-quality light oil fractions from heavier crude oil and petroleum feedstocks containing high levels of impurities. FCC catalysts improve the yield of higher octane gasoline from crude oil. Residuum hydrotreating and cracking catalysts are susceptible to irreversible deactivation caused by adsorption of sulfur and by metals impurities, such as vanadium and nickel. The gradual buildup of these impurities in a hydrotreating catalyst eventually plugs the pores and deactivates it. Nickel and vanadium adversely affect the behavior of cracking catalysts, reducing product yield and quality. Replacing deactivated catalysts represents a significant cost in petroleum refining. Equally important are the costs and potential liabilities associated with treating and disposing spent catalysts. For example, recent US Environmental Protection Agency rulings have listed spent hydrotreating and hydrorefining catalysts as hazardous wastes. FCC catalysts, though more easily disposed of as road-base or as filler in asphalt and cement, are still an economic concern mainly because of the large volumes of spent catalysts generated. New processes are being considered to increase the useful life of catalysts or for meeting more stringent disposal requirements for spent catalysts containing metals. This report discusses a collaborative effort between Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Phillips Petroleum, Inc., to identify promising chemical processes for removing metals adhered to spent hydrodesulfurization (HDS, a type of hydrotreating catalyst) and FCC catalysts. This study, conducted by PNNL, was funded by the US Department of Energy's Bartlesville Project Office. Fresh and spent catalysts were provided by Phillips Petroleum. The FCC catalyst was a rare

  18. Catalysts for improved fuel processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borup, R.L.; Inbody, M.A. [and others


    This report covers our technical progress on fuel processing catalyst characterization for the specific purpose of hydrogen production for proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cells. These development efforts support DOE activities in the development of compact, transient capable reformers for on-board hydrogen generation starting from candidate fuels. The long-term objective includes increased durability and lifetime, in addition to smaller volume, improved performance, and other specifications required meeting fuel processor goals. The technical barriers of compact fuel processor size, transient capability, and compact, efficient thermal management all are functions of catalyst performance. Significantly, work at LANL now tests large-scale fuel processors for performance and durability, as influenced by fuels and fuel constituents, and complements that testing with micro-scale catalyst evaluation which is accomplished under well controlled conditions.

  19. Catalyst containing oxygen transport membrane (United States)

    Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie Robyn; van Hassel, Bart Antonie


    A composite oxygen transport membrane having a dense layer, a porous support layer and an intermediate porous layer located between the dense layer and the porous support layer. Both the dense layer and the intermediate porous layer are formed from an ionic conductive material to conduct oxygen ions and an electrically conductive material to conduct electrons. The porous support layer has a high permeability, high porosity, and a high average pore diameter and the intermediate porous layer has a lower permeability and lower pore diameter than the porous support layer. Catalyst particles selected to promote oxidation of a combustible substance are located in the intermediate porous layer and in the porous support adjacent to the intermediate porous layer. The catalyst particles can be formed by wicking a solution of catalyst precursors through the porous support toward the intermediate porous layer.

  20. Use of lanthanide catalysts in air electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Parente, L.T. de


    A review on the lanthanide catalysts suitable for the reduction catalysis of oxygen in air electrodes is presented. The kinds of lanthanide indicated to be used as catalysts of oxygen reduction are shown. (A.R.H.) [pt

  1. Catalyst for Decomposition of Nitrogen Oxides (United States)

    Schryer, David R. (Inventor); Jordan, Jeffrey D. (Inventor); Akyurtlu, Ates (Inventor); Akyurtlu, Jale (Inventor)


    This invention relates generally to a platinized tin oxide-based catalyst. It relates particularly to an improved platinized tin oxide-based catalyst able to decompose nitric oxide to nitrogen and oxygen without the necessity of a reducing gas.

  2. Novel Fischer-Tropsch catalysts. [DOE patent (United States)

    Vollhardt, K.P.C.; Perkins, P.

    Novel compounds are described which are used as improved Fischer-Tropsch catalysts particularly for the conversion of CO + H/sub 2/ to gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons at milder conditions than with prior catalysts.

  3. Paraffin Alkylation Using Zeolite Catalysts in a slurry reactor: Chemical Engineering Principles to Extend Catalyst Lifetime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, K.P. de; Mesters, C.M.A.M.; Peferoen, D.G.R.; Brugge, P.T.M. van; Groot, C. de


    The alkylation of isobutane with 2-butene is carried out using a zeolitic catalyst in a well stirred slurry reactor. Whereas application of fixed bed technology using a solid acid alkylation catalyst has in the led to catalysts lifetimes in the range of minutes, in this work we report catalyst

  4. Quick Guide to Flash Catalyst

    CERN Document Server

    Elmansy, Rafiq


    How do you transform user interface designs created in Photoshop or Illustrator into interactive web pages? It's easier than you think. This guide shows you how to use Adobe Flash Catalyst to create interactive UIs and website wireframes for Rich Internet Applications-without writing a single line of code. Ideal for web designers, this book introduces Flash Catalyst basics with detailed step-by-step instructions and screenshots that illustrate every part of the process. You'll learn hands-on how to turn your static design or artwork into working user interfaces that can be implemented in Fla

  5. Rhenium Nanochemistry for Catalyst Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim G. Kessler


    Full Text Available The review presents synthetic approaches to modern rhenium-based catalysts. Creation of an active center is considered as a process of obtaining a nanoparticle or a molecule, immobilized within a matrix of the substrate. Selective chemical routes to preparation of particles of rhenium alloys, rhenium oxides and the molecules of alkyltrioxorhenium, and their insertion into porous structure of zeolites, ordered mesoporous MCM matrices, anodic mesoporous alumina, and porous transition metal oxides are considered. Structure-property relationships are traced for these catalysts in relation to such processes as alkylation and isomerization, olefin metathesis, selective oxidation of olefins, methanol to formaldehyde conversion, etc.

  6. Hydrothermal performance of catalyst supports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elam, Jeffrey W.; Marshall, Christopher L.; Libera, Joseph A.; Dumesic, James A.; Pagan-Torres, Yomaira J.


    A high surface area catalyst with a mesoporous support structure and a thin conformal coating over the surface of the support structure. The high surface area catalyst support is adapted for carrying out a reaction in a reaction environment where the thin conformal coating protects the support structure within the reaction environment. In various embodiments, the support structure is a mesoporous silica catalytic support and the thin conformal coating comprises a layer of metal oxide resistant to the reaction environment which may be a hydrothermal environment.

  7. Stereospecific olefin polymerization with chiral metallocene catalysts


    Brintzinger, Hans-Herbert; Fischer, David; Mülhaupt, Rolf; Rieger, Bernhard; Waymouth, Robert M.


    Current studies on novel, metallocenebased catalysts for the polymerization of α-olefins have far-reaching implications for the development of new materials as well as for the understanding of basic reaction mechanisms responsible for the growth of a polymer chain at a catalyst center and the control of its stereoregularity. In contrast to heterogeneous Ziegler–Natta catalysts, polymerization by a homogeneous, metallocene-based catalyst occurs principally at a single type of metal center with...

  8. Rare behaviour of a catalyst pellet catalyst dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.; Loonen, R.A.; Martens, A.


    Temperature overshoots and undershoots were found for a Pd on alumina catalyst pellet in its course towards a new steady state after a change in concentration of one of the reactants ethylene or hydrogen. When cooling the pellet, after heat-up by reaction, with pure hydrogen a sudden temperature

  9. Attrition resistant catalysts and sorbents based on heavy metal poisoned FCC catalysts (United States)

    Gangwal, Santosh; Jothimurugesan, Kandaswamy


    A heavy metal poisoned, spent FCC catalyst is treated by chemically impregnating the poisoned catalyst with a new catalytic metal or metal salt to provide an attrition resistant catalyst or sorbent for a different catalytic or absorption processes, such as catalysts for Fischer-Tropsh Synthesis, and sorbents for removal of sulfur gasses from fuel gases and flue-gases. The heavy metal contaminated FCC catalyst is directly used as a support for preparing catalysts having new catalytic properties and sorbents having new sorbent properties, without removing or "passivating" the heavy metals on the spent FCC catalyst as an intermediate step.

  10. Structure of silica-supported catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladden, L.F.; Vignaux, M.; Griffiths, R.W.; Jackson, S.D.; Jones, J.R.; Sharratt, A.P.; Robertson, F.J.; Webb, G.


    Neutron diffraction and SANS studies of silica supported metal catalysts have indicated that more active metal:silica catalysts are produced when the silica support has a relatively high content of three-membered rings in its network structure. SANS studies also suggest that the more active catalysts possess a bimodal metal particle size distribution. (orig.)

  11. 40 CFR 721.9665 - Organotin catalysts. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Organotin catalysts. 721.9665 Section... Substances § 721.9665 Organotin catalysts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as organotin catalysts (PMNs P-93-853, P-93...

  12. Catalysts and methods of using the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slowing, Igor Ivan; Kandel, Kapil


    The present invention provides a catalyst including a mesoporous silica nanoparticle and a catalytic material comprising iron. In various embodiments, the present invention provides methods of using and making the catalyst. In some examples, the catalyst can be used to hydrotreat fatty acids or to selectively remove fatty acids from feedstocks.

  13. Efficient epoxidation of propene using molecular catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovits, Iulius I. E.; Anthofer, Michael H.; Kolding, Helene


    The epoxidation of propene is performed in homogeneous phase using various molecular catalysts and H2O2 or tert-butyl hydroperoxide as oxidants. A comparison between some molybdenum catalysts and methyltrioxorhenium (MTO) shows that the well known Re catalyst is the best among the examined...

  14. Novel non-platinum metal catalyst material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to a novel non-platinum metal catalyst material for use in low temperature fuel cells and electrolysers and to fuel cells and electrolysers comprising the novel non-platinum metal catalyst material. The present invention also relates to a novel method for synthesizing...... the novel non-platinum metal catalyst material....

  15. Low platinum catalyst and method of preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Di-Jia; Chong, Lina


    A low platinum catalyst and method for making same. The catalyst comprises platinum-transition metal bimetallic alloy microcrystallites over a transition metal-nitrogen-carbon composite. A method of making a catalyst comprises preparation of transition metal organic frameworks, infusion of platinum, thermal treatment, and reduction to form the microcrystallites and composite.

  16. Alternative alkali resistant deNOx catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putluru, Siva Sankar Reddy; Kristensen, Steffen Buus; Due-Hansen, Johannes


    Alternative alkali resistant deNOx catalysts were prepared using three different supports ZrO2, TiO2 and Mordenite zeolite. The majority of the catalysts were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation of a commercial support, with vanadium, copper or iron precursor, one catalyst was prepared...

  17. Perovskite catalysts for oxidative coupling (United States)

    Campbell, Kenneth D.


    Perovskites of the structure A.sub.2 B.sub.2 C.sub.3 O.sub.10 are useful as catalysts for the oxidative coupling of lower alkane to heavier hydrocarbons. A is alkali metal; B is lanthanide or lanthanum, cerium, neodymium, samarium, praseodymium, gadolinium or dysprosium; and C is titanium.

  18. Organic Synthesis using Clay Catalysts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 1. Organic Synthesis using Clay Catalysts - Clays for 'Green Chemistry'. Gopalpur Nagendrappa. General Article Volume 7 Issue 1 January 2002 pp 64-77. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  19. Cellulose Depolymerization over Heterogeneous Catalysts. (United States)

    Shrotri, Abhijit; Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Fukuoka, Atsushi


    Cellulosic biomass is the largest source of renewable organic carbon on our planet. Cellulose accounts for 40-50 wt % of this lignocellulose, and it is a feedstock for industrially important chemicals and fuels. The first step in cellulose conversion involves its depolymerization to glucose or to its hydrogenated product sorbitol. The hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose by homogeneous mineral acids was the subject of research for almost a century. However, homogeneous acids have significant drawbacks and are neither economical nor environmentally friendly. In 2006, our group reported for the first time the ability of heterogeneous catalysts to depolymerize cellulose through hydrolytic hydrogenation to produce sorbitol. Later, we reported the hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose using carbon catalyst containing weakly acidic functional groups. Understanding the reaction between cellulose and heterogeneous catalyst is a challenge as the reaction occurs between a solid substrate and a solid catalyst. In this Account, we describe our efforts for the conversion of cellulose to sorbitol and glucose using heterogeneous catalysts. Sorbitol is produced by sequential hydrolysis and hydrogenation of cellulose in one pot. We reported sorbitol synthesis from cellulose in the presence of supported metal catalysts and H 2 gas. The reducing environment of the reaction prevents byproduct formation, and harsh reaction conditions can be used to achieve sorbitol yield of up to 90%. Glucose is produced by acid catalyzed hydrolysis of cellulose, a more challenging reaction owing to the tendency of glucose to rapidly decompose in hot water. Sulfonated carbons were first reported as active catalysts for cellulose hydrolysis, but they were hydrothermally unstable under the reaction conditions. We found that carbon catalysts bearing weakly acidic functional groups such as hydroxyl and carboxylic acids are also active. Weakly acidic functional groups are hydrothermally stable, and a soluble

  20. Industrial production of catalyst 5058

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Fuener, W.


    Catalyst 5058 was tungsten sulfide, WS/sub 2/. It was produced from tungstic acid, WO/sub 3/.H/sub 2/O, which was itself produced from concentrated tungsten ores. The formation of tungstic acid from the ore proceeded in two or three cycles of dissolving the substance in a base (sodium hydroxide, ammonia, lime), decomposing the result with acid, and the filtering, washing, and drying the resulting impure tungstic acid. The final tungstic acid had only about 0.2% impurities. The formation of tungsten sulfide from the tungstic acid proceeded in several steps. First, the tungstic acid was reacted with ammonium hydroxide to give ammonium tungstate, (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/WO/sub 4/, which was then saturated with hydrogen sulfide to give ammonium sulfotungstate, (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/WS/sub 4/, which precipitated out of solution at reduced temperature as monoclinic crystals in an orange-red powder. The saturation itself had to be done at about 70/sup 0/C to prevent formation (and later coprecipitation) of an interfering oxysulfate compound, (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/WO/sub 2/S/sub 2/. The ammonium sulfotungstate precipitate was filtered out under suction and dried in hydrogen in a steam-heated vessel. The ammonium sulfotungstate was then decomposed in a stream of hydrogen in a furnace, at high temperature, to give tungsten sulfide in a monoclinic crystalline structure, which was different from the usual hexagonal crystal structure of tungsten sulfide. The resulting porous structure of the crystal lattice contributed to the activity of the catalyst. Finally, the catalyst was powdered into a fine powder and then compressed into cylindrical tablets as the form in which the catalyst was introduced into the hydrogenation ovens for use. Regeneration of the catalyst was necessary after 1 or 2 years of use.

  1. Automotive Catalyst State Diagnosis Using Microwaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moos Ralf


    Full Text Available The state of catalysts plays a key role in automotive exhaust gas aftertreatment. The soot or ash loading of Diesel particulate filters, the oxygen loading degree in three-way catalysts, the amount of stored ammonia in SCR catalysts, or the NOx loading degree in NOx storage catalysts are important parameters that are today determined indirectly and in a model-based manner with gas sensors installed upstream and/or downstream of the catalysts. This contribution gives an overview on a novel approach to determine the catalyst state directly by a microwave-based technique. The method exploits the fact that the catalyst housing acts as a microwave cavity resonator. As “sensing” elements, one or two simple antennas are mounted inside the catalyst canning. The electrical properties of the catalyst device (ceramic honeycomb plus coating and storage material can be measured. Preferably, the resonance characteristics, e.g., the resonance frequencies, of selected cavity modes are observed. The information on the catalyst interior obtained in such a contactless manner is very well correlated with the catalyst state as will be demonstrated for different exhaust gas aftertreatment systems.

  2. Operando chemistry of catalyst surfaces during catalysis. (United States)

    Dou, Jian; Sun, Zaicheng; Opalade, Adedamola A; Wang, Nan; Fu, Wensheng; Tao, Franklin Feng


    Chemistry of a catalyst surface during catalysis is crucial for a fundamental understanding of mechanism of a catalytic reaction performed on the catalyst in the gas or liquid phase. Due to the pressure- or molecular density-dependent entropy contribution of gas or liquid phase of the reactants and the potential formation of a catalyst surface during catalysis different from that observed in an ex situ condition, the characterization of the surface of a catalyst under reaction conditions and during catalysis can be significant and even necessary for understanding the catalytic mechanism at a molecular level. Electron-based analytical techniques are challenging for studying catalyst nanoparticles in the gas or liquid phase although they are necessary techniques to employ. Instrumentation and further development of these electron-based techniques have now made in situ/operando studies of catalysts possible. New insights into the chemistry and structure of catalyst nanoparticles have been uncovered over the last decades. Herein, the origin of the differences between ex situ and in situ/operando studies of catalysts, and the technical challenges faced as well as the corresponding instrumentation and innovations utilized for characterizing catalysts under reaction conditions and during catalysis, are discussed. The restructuring of catalyst surfaces driven by the pressure of reactant(s) around a catalyst, restructuring in reactant(s) driven by reaction temperature and restructuring during catalysis are also reviewed herein. The remaining challenges and possible solutions are briefly discussed.

  3. Autothermal reforming catalyst having perovskite structure (United States)

    Krumpel, Michael [Naperville, IL; Liu, Di-Jia [Naperville, IL


    The invention addressed two critical issues in fuel processing for fuel cell application, i.e. catalyst cost and operating stability. The existing state-of-the-art fuel reforming catalyst uses Rh and platinum supported over refractory oxide which add significant cost to the fuel cell system. Supported metals agglomerate under elevated temperature during reforming and decrease the catalyst activity. The catalyst is a perovskite oxide or a Ruddlesden-Popper type oxide containing rare-earth elements, catalytically active firs row transition metal elements, and stabilizing elements, such that the catalyst is a single phase in high temperature oxidizing conditions and maintains a primarily perovskite or Ruddlesden-Popper structure under high temperature reducing conditions. The catalyst can also contain alkaline earth dopants, which enhance the catalytic activity of the catalyst, but do not compromise the stability of the perovskite structure.

  4. Catalyst for Carbon Monoxide Oxidation (United States)

    Davis, Patricia; Brown, Kenneth; VanNorman, John; Brown, David; Upchurch, Billy; Schryer, David; Miller, Irvin


    In many applications, it is highly desirable to operate a CO2 laser in a sealed condition, for in an open system the laser requires a continuous flow of laser gas to remove the dissociation products that occur in the discharge zone of the laser, in order to maintain a stable power output. This adds to the operating cost of the laser, and in airborne or space applications, it also adds to the weight penalty of the laser. In a sealed CO2 laser, a small amount of CO2 gas is decomposed in the electrical discharge zone into corresponding quantities of CO and O2. As the laser continues to operate, the concentration of CO2 decreases, while the concentrations of CO and O2 correspondingly increase. The increasing concentration of O2 reduces laser power, because O2 scavenges electrons in the electrical discharge, thereby causing arcing in the electric discharge and a loss of the energetic electrons required to boost CO2 molecules to lasing energy levels. As a result, laser power decreases rapidly. The primary object of this invention is to provide a catalyst that, by composition of matter alone, contains chemisorbed water within and upon its structure. Such bound moisture renders the catalyst highly active and very long-lived, such that only a small quantity of it needs to be used with a CO2 laser under ambient operating conditions. This object is achieved by a catalyst that consists essentially of about 1 to 40 percent by weight of one or more platinum group metals (Pt, Pd, Rh, Ir, Ru, Os, Pt being preferred); about 1 to 90 percent by weight of one or more oxides of reducible metals having multiple valence states (such as Sn, Ti, Mn, Cu, and Ce, with SnO2 being preferred); and about 1 to 90 percent by weight of a compound that can bind water to its structure (such as silica gel, calcium chloride, magnesium sulfate, hydrated alumina, and magnesium perchlorate, with silica gel being preferred). Especially beneficial results are obtained when platinum is present in the

  5. Polymerization catalyst, production and use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Best, S.A.


    A process is described for polymerization of ethylene and alpha-olefins having from 1 to 20 carbon atoms or mixtures of ethylene, alpha-olefins and diolefins. The process comprises polymerizing one or more olefins in the presence of the catalyst system comprising (a) an organoaluminum cocatalyst, and (b) a vanadium containing a catalyst component obtained by treating an inert solid support material in an inert solvent with (i) an organoaluminum compound represented by the formula R/sub m/AIX/sub 3-m/, wherein R represents an alkyl group, cycloalkyl group or aryl group having from 1 to 18 carbon atoms, X represents halogen atoms, and 1≤m≤3, (ii) an acyl halide, and (iii) a vanadium compound. Another process is identified wherein the inert solid support material is an inorganic oxide or mixtures of inorganic oxides. Also a process wherein the inorganic oxide is silica is described

  6. Polymerization catalyst, production and use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Best, S.A.


    A process is described for the polymerization of ethylene and alpha-olefins having from 1 to 2 carbon atoms of mixtures of ethylene, alpha-olefins or diolefins. The process comprises polymerizing one or more olefins in the presence of the catalyst system comprising (A) an organo aluminum cocatalyst, and (B) a vanadium-containing catalyst component obtained by sequentially treating an inert solid support material in an inert solvent with (i) a dihydrocarbyl magnesium compound, (ii) optionally an oxygen-containing compound which is an alcohol, ketone or aldehyde, (iii) a vanadium compound, and (iv) a Group IIIa metal halide. The process as above is described wherein the inert solid support material is an inorganic oxide or mixtures of inorganic oxides

  7. Biodiesel production using heterogeneous catalysts. (United States)

    Semwal, Surbhi; Arora, Ajay K; Badoni, Rajendra P; Tuli, Deepak K


    The production and use of biodiesel has seen a quantum jump in the recent past due to benefits associated with its ability to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG). There are large number of commercial plants producing biodiesel by transesterification of vegetable oils and fats based on base catalyzed (caustic) homogeneous transesterification of oils. However, homogeneous process needs steps of glycerol separation, washings, very stringent and extremely low limits of Na, K, glycerides and moisture limits in biodiesel. Heterogeneous catalyzed production of biodiesel has emerged as a preferred route as it is environmentally benign needs no water washing and product separation is much easier. The present report is review of the progress made in development of heterogeneous catalysts suitable for biodiesel production. This review shall help in selection of suitable catalysts and the optimum conditions for biodiesel production. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Catalyst for Expanding Human Spaceflight (United States)

    Lueders, Kathryn L.


    History supplies us with many models of how and how not to commercialize an industry. This presentation draws parallels between industries with government roots, like the railroad, air transport, communications and the internet, and NASAs Commercial Crew Program. In these examples, government served as a catalyst for what became a booming industry. The building block approach the Commercial Crew Program is taking is very simple -- establish a need, laying the groundwork, enabling industry and legal framework.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Due to the new environmental regulations for fuel quality, refineries need to process cleaner fuel. This requires an improvement in performance of hydrotreating catalysts. Improvements in catalyst activity require knowledge of the relationships between catalyst morphology and activity. Molybdenum sulfide, the generally agreed catalysts that give the best performance in hydrocracking and hydrotreating was investigated for its morphology effects on hydrotreating reactions. Three types of MoS2 catalysts with different morphology were studied. They are crystalline MoS2, exfoliated MoS2 and MoS2 derived from a precursor, molybdenum naphthenate. Exfoliated MoS2 with minimal long range order, with much higher rim edges has shown relative higher hydrogenation activity. Generally, results of MoS2 catalyst activities in hydrogenation, hydrodesulfurization, hydrodenitrogenation and hydrideoxy¬gena¬tion are in agreement with the rim-edge model.

  10. Organic synthesis with olefin metathesis catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grubbs, R.H. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)


    Over the past nine years, early transition metal catalysts for the ring opening metathesis polymerization of cyclic olefins have been developed. These catalysts are simple organometallic complexes containing metal carbon multiple bonds that in most cases polymerize olefins by a living process. These catalysts have been used to prepare a family of near monodispersed and structurally homogeneous polymers. A series of group VII ROMP catalysts that allow a wide range of functionality to be incorporated into the polymer side chains have been prepared. The most important member of this family of complexes are the bisphosphinedihalo-ruthenium carbene complexes. These polymerization catalysts can also be used in the synthesis of fine chemicals by ring closing (RCM) and vinyl coupling reactions. The availability of the group VII catalysts allow metathesis to be carried out on highly functionalized substrates such as polypeptides and in unusual environments such as in aqueous emulsions.

  11. Optimization of catalyst system reaps economic benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Roy, C.F.; Hanshaw, M.J.; Fischer, S.M.; Malik, T.; Kooiman, R.R.


    Champlin Refining and Chemicals Inc. is learning to optimize its catalyst systems for hydrotreating Venezuelan gas oils through a program of research, pilot plant testing, and commercial unit operation. The economic results of this project have been evaluated, and the benefits are most evident in improvements in product yields and qualities. The project has involved six commercial test runs, to date (Runs 10-15), with a seventh run planned. A summary of the different types of catalyst systems used in the test runs, and the catalyst philosophy that developed is given. Runs 10 and 11 used standard CoMo and NiMo catalysts for heavy gas oils hydrotreating. These catalysts had small pore sizes and suffered high deactivation rates because of metals contamination. When it was discovered that metals contamination was a problem, catalyst options were reviewed

  12. Alternative deNOx catalysts and technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due-Hansen, Johannes

    . The commercial catalyst used for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitrogen oxides exhibits high activity and selectivity towards N2. However, the vanadia-titania-based catalyst used is very sensitive to deactivation by alkali-species (primarily potassium), which are typically present in high amounts...... a catalyst less susceptible to the poisons present in the flue gas, a number of catalysts have been synthesized and tested in the present work, all based on commercially available supports. A highly acidic support consisting of sulfated zirconia was chosen based on preliminary studies. A number of different...... active species distributed on the support were investigated, such as iron, copper and vanadium oxides. However, based on the catalysts performance in the SCR reaction and their resistances towards potassium, the most promising candidate of the formulations studied was the vanadia-loaded catalyst, i.e. V2...

  13. Toward molecular catalysts by computer. (United States)

    Raugei, Simone; DuBois, Daniel L; Rousseau, Roger; Chen, Shentan; Ho, Ming-Hsun; Bullock, R Morris; Dupuis, Michel


    CONSPECTUS: Rational design of molecular catalysts requires a systematic approach to designing ligands with specific functionality and precisely tailored electronic and steric properties. It then becomes possible to devise computer protocols to design catalysts by computer. In this Account, we first review how thermodynamic properties such as redox potentials (E°), acidity constants (pKa), and hydride donor abilities (ΔGH(-)) form the basis for a framework for the systematic design of molecular catalysts for reactions that are critical for a secure energy future. We illustrate this for hydrogen evolution and oxidation, oxygen reduction, and CO conversion, and we give references to other instances where it has been successfully applied. The framework is amenable to quantum-chemical calculations and conducive to predictions by computer. We review how density functional theory allows the determination and prediction of these thermodynamic properties within an accuracy relevant to experimentalists (∼0.06 eV for redox potentials, ∼1 pKa unit for pKa values, and 1-2 kcal/mol for hydricities). Computation yielded correlations among thermodynamic properties as they reflect the electron population in the d shell of the metal center, thus substantiating empirical correlations used by experimentalists. These correlations point to the key role of redox potentials and other properties (pKa of the parent aminium for the proton-relay-based catalysts designed in our laboratory) that are easily accessible experimentally or computationally in reducing the parameter space for design. These properties suffice to fully determine free energies maps and profiles associated with catalytic cycles, i.e., the relative energies of intermediates. Their prediction puts us in a position to distinguish a priori between desirable and undesirable pathways and mechanisms. Efficient catalysts have flat free energy profiles that avoid high activation barriers due to low- and high

  14. Thermally Stable, Latent Olefin Metathesis Catalysts


    Thomas, Renee M.; Fedorov, Alexey; Keitz, Benjamin K.; Grubbs, Robert H.


    Highly thermally stable N-aryl,N-alkyl N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ruthenium catalysts were designed and synthesized for latent olefin metathesis. These catalysts showed excellent latent behavior toward metathesis reactions, whereby the complexes were inactive at ambient temperature and initiated at elevated temperatures, a challenging property to achieve with second generation catalysts. A sterically hindered N-tert-butyl substituent on the NHC ligand of the ruthenium complex was found to i...

  15. Oxidation catalysts on alkaline earth supports (United States)

    Mohajeri, Nahid


    An oxidation catalyst includes a support including particles of an alkaline earth salt, and first particles including a palladium compound on the support. The oxidation catalyst can also include precious metal group (PMG) metal particles in addition to the first particles intermixed together on the support. A gas permeable polymer that provides a continuous phase can completely encapsulate the particles and the support. The oxidation catalyst may be used as a gas sensor, where the first particles are chemochromic particles.

  16. Catalysts for Dehydrogenation of ammonia boranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinekey, Dennis M. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)


    Several effective homogeneous catalysts for the dehydrogenation of amine boranes have been developed. The best catalyst uses an iridium complex, and is capable of dehydrogenating H3NBH3 (AB) and CH3NH2BH3 (MeAB) at comparable rates. Thermodynamic measurements using this catalyst demonstrate that the dehydrogenation of AB and MeAB is substantially exothermic, which has important implications for regeneration.

  17. Molecular catalysts structure and functional design

    CERN Document Server

    Gade, Lutz H


    Highlighting the key aspects and latest advances in the rapidly developing field of molecular catalysis, this book covers new strategies to investigate reaction mechanisms, the enhancement of the catalysts' selectivity and efficiency, as well as the rational design of well-defined molecular catalysts. The interdisciplinary author team with an excellent reputation within the community discusses experimental and theoretical studies, along with examples of improved catalysts, and their application in organic synthesis, biocatalysis, and supported organometallic catalysis. As a result, readers wil

  18. Next Generation Catalyst Engineering via Support Modification (United States)


    performance of AT-treated MEAs is related to an improved interface between the catalyst and Nafion ionomer . Among potential explanations, this...Gennett, Ryan O’Hayre. Effect of Halide-Modified Model Carbon Supports on Catalyst Stability, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces , (12 2012): 0...model carbon supports on catalyst stability”, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces , 4 (12), 6728-6734 (2012) 4) Demonstration of Improved Durability Using a

  19. Bifunctional cobalt F-T catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.G.; Coughlin, P.K.; Yang, C.L.; Rabo, J.A.


    Results on the catalytic screening of Fischer-Tropsch catalysts containing shape selective components are reported. Catalysts consist of promoted cobalt intimately contacted with Union Carbide molecular sieves and were tested using a Berty type internally recycled reactor. Methods of preparation, promoters and shape selective components were varied and aimed at improving catalyst performance. Catalysts were developed demonstrating high C/sub 5/ + yields with high olefin content and low methane production while maintaining stability under both low and high H/sub 2/:CO ratio conditions.

  20. Nitrogen oxides storage catalysts containing cobalt (United States)

    Lauterbach, Jochen; Snively, Christopher M.; Vijay, Rohit; Hendershot, Reed; Feist, Ben


    Nitrogen oxides (NO.sub.x) storage catalysts comprising cobalt and barium with a lean NO.sub.x storage ratio of 1.3 or greater. The NO.sub.x storage catalysts can be used to reduce NO.sub.x emissions from diesel or gas combustion engines by contacting the catalysts with the exhaust gas from the engines. The NO.sub.x storage catalysts can be one of the active components of a catalytic converter, which is used to treat exhaust gas from such engines.

  1. CO methanation over supported bimetallic Ni-Fe catalysts: From computational studies towards catalyst optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kustov, Arkadii; Frey, Anne Mette; Larsen, Kasper Emil


    , we report a more detailed catalytic study aimed at optimizing the catalyst performance. For this purpose, two series of mono and bimetallic Ni-Fe catalysts supported on MgAl2O4 and Al2O3, respectively, were prepared. All catalysts were tested in the CO methanation reaction in the temperature interval...

  2. New Trends in Gold Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonarda F. Liotta


    Full Text Available Gold is an element that has fascinated mankind for millennia. The catalytic properties of gold have been a source of debate, due to its complete chemical inertness when in a bulk form, while it can oxidize CO at temperatures as low as ~200 K when in a nanocrystalline state, as discovered by Haruta in the late 1980s [1]. Since then, extensive activity in both applied and fundamental research on gold has been initiated. The importance of the catalysis by gold represents one of the fasted growing fields in science and is proven by the promising applications in several fields, such as green chemistry and environmental catalysis, in the synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes, as modifiers of Ni catalysts for methane steam and dry reforming reactions and in biological and electrochemistry applications. The range of reactions catalyzed by gold, as well as the suitability of different supports and the influence of the preparation conditions have been widely explored and optimized in applied research [2]. Gold catalysts appeared to be very different from the other noble metal-based catalysts, due to their marked dependence on the preparation method, which is crucial for the genesis of the catalytic activity. Several methods, including deposition-precipitation, chemical vapor deposition and cation adsorption, have been applied for the preparation of gold catalysts over reducible oxides, like TiO2. Among these methods, deposition-precipitation has been the most frequently employed method for Au loading, and it involves the use of tetrachloroauric (III acid as a precursor. On the other hand, the number of articles dealing with Au-loaded acidic supports is smaller than that on basic supports, possibly because the deposition of [AuCl4]− or [AuOHxCl4−x]− species on acidic supports is difficult, due to their very low point of zero charge. Despite this challenge, several groups have reported the use of acidic zeolites as supports for gold. Zeolites

  3. Highly Stable and Active Catalyst for Sabatier Reactions (United States)

    Hu, Jianli; Brooks, Kriston P.


    Highly active Ru/TiO2 catalysts for Sabatier reaction have been developed. The catalysts have shown to be stable under repeated shutting down/startup conditions. When the Ru/TiO2 catalyst is coated on the engineered substrate Fe-CrAlY felt, activity enhancement is more than doubled when compared with an identically prepared engineered catalyst made from commercial Degussa catalyst. Also, bimetallic Ru-Rh/TiO2 catalysts show high activity at high throughput.

  4. Novel metalloporphyrin catalysts for the oxidation of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Showalter, M.C.; Nenoff, T.M.; Shelnutt, J.A.


    Work was done for developing biomimetic oxidation catalysts. Two classes of metalloporphyrin catalysts were studied. The first class of catalysts studied were a novel series of highly substituted metalloporphyrins, the fluorinated iron dodecaphenylporphyrins. These homogeneous metalloporphyrin catalysts were screened for activity as catalysts in the oxidation of hydrocarbons by dioxygen. Results are discussed with respect to catalyst structural features. The second type of catalysts studied were heterogeneous catalysts consisting of metalloporphyrins applied to inorganic supports. Preliminary catalytic testing results with these materials are presented.

  5. European workshop on spent catalysts. Book of abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In 1999 and 2002 two well attended workshops on recycling, regeneration, reuse and disposal of spent catalysts took place in Frankfurt. This series has been continued in Berlin. The workshop was organized in collaboration with DGMK, the German Society for Petroleum and Coal Science and Technology. Contributions were in the following areas of catalyst deactivation: recycling of spent catalysts in chemical and petrochemical industry, recycling of precious metal catalysts and heterogenous base metal catalysts, legal aspects of transboundary movements, catalyst regeneration, quality control, slurry catalysts, commercial reactivation of hydrotreating catalysts. (uke)

  6. Catalyst and method for production of methylamines (United States)

    Klier, Kamil; Herman, Richard G.; Vedage, Gamini A.


    This invention relates to an improved catalyst and method for the selective production of methylamines. More particularly, it is concerned with the preparation of stable highly active catalysts for producing methylamines by a catalytic reaction of ammonia or substituted amines and binary synthesis gas (CO+H.sub.2).

  7. Ligand iron catalysts for selective hydrogenation (United States)

    Casey, Charles P.; Guan, Hairong


    Disclosed are iron ligand catalysts for selective hydrogenation of aldehydes, ketones and imines. A catalyst such as dicarbonyl iron hydride hydroxycyclopentadiene) complex uses the OH on the five member ring and hydrogen linked to the iron to facilitate hydrogenation reactions, particularly in the presence of hydrogen gas.

  8. Olefin polymerization over supported chromium oxide catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weckhuysen, B.M.; Schoonheydt, R.A.


    Cr/SiO2 or Phillips-type catalysts are nowadays responsible for a large fraction of all polyethylene (HDPE and LLDPE) worldwide produced. In this review, several key-properties of Cr/SiO2 catalysts will be discussed in relation to their polymerization characteristics. It will be shown how the

  9. Investigation of vanadium catalyst regeneration stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsarev, Yu.V.; Il'in, A.P.; Shirokov, Yu.G.


    Regeneration stages of vanadium catalyst: dissolution of spent catalyst in alkaline solution of potassium vanadate, precipitation and aging of hydrosilica gel, which passed to solution, have been studied experimentally. The influence of the stages on final activity and thermal stability of regenerated contact masses has been considered. 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Behaviour of six sulphided iron hydroliquefaction catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, P.S.; Cashion, J.D.; Bell, A.P.


    Five iron ore samples and a synthetic magnetite were added to Wandoan bituminous coal as hydroliquefaction catalysts. Catalyst transformations after sulphiding and after subsequent hydrogenation were analysed. The conversion efficiency increased with decreasing particle size or increased crystallographic disorder and showed that different catalytic mechanisms operate in the hydroliquefaction of brown and black coals. (orig.)

  11. Thin film hydrous metal oxide catalysts (United States)

    Dosch, Robert G.; Stephens, Howard P.


    Thin film (metal oxide catalysts are prepared by 1) synthesis of a hydrous metal oxide, 2) deposition of the hydrous metal oxide upon an inert support surface, 3) ion exchange with catalytically active metals, and 4) activating the hydrous metal oxide catalysts.

  12. Magnetically retrievable catalysts for organic synthesis (United States)

    The use of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) as a catalyst in organic synthesis has become a subject of intense investigation. The recovery of expensive catalysts after catalytic reaction and reusing it without losing its activity is an important feature in the sustainable process de...

  13. Post-metallocene catalysts for olefin polymerisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryliakov, Konstantin P


    The main types of post-metallocene catalysts for olefin polymerisation based on bis(imino), bis(imino)pyridyl, bis(phenoxyimino), bis(pyrrolylimino) and other complexes of transition metals developed in the last 10-15 years and having prospects for practical use are considered. Modern views on the mechanism of action of these catalysts are discussed.

  14. Post-metallocene catalysts for olefin polymerisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryliakov, Konstantin P [G K Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation)


    The main types of post-metallocene catalysts for olefin polymerisation based on bis(imino), bis(imino)pyridyl, bis(phenoxyimino), bis(pyrrolylimino) and other complexes of transition metals developed in the last 10-15 years and having prospects for practical use are considered. Modern views on the mechanism of action of these catalysts are discussed.

  15. Post-metallocene catalysts for olefin polymerisation (United States)

    Bryliakov, Konstantin P.


    The main types of post-metallocene catalysts for olefin polymerisation based on bis(imino), bis(imino)pyridyl, bis(phenoxyimino), bis(pyrrolylimino) and other complexes of transition metals developed in the last 10-15 years and having prospects for practical use are considered. Modern views on the mechanism of action of these catalysts are discussed.

  16. Nanoparticular metal oxide/anatase catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    the catalyst metai oxide is co-precipitated with the carrier metal oxide, which crystallization seeds are removed by combustion in a final calcining step. The present invention also concerns processes wherein the nanoparticular metal oxide catalysts of the invention are used, such as SCR (deNOx) reactions...

  17. Advances in Catalyst Deactivation and Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvin H. Bartholomew


    Full Text Available Catalyst deactivation, the loss over time of catalytic activity and/or selectivity, is a problem of great and continuing concern in the practice of industrial catalytic processes. Costs to industry for catalyst replacement and process shutdown total tens of billions of dollars per year. [...

  18. Advances in Catalyst Deactivation and Regeneration


    Calvin H. Bartholomew; Morris D. Argyle


    Catalyst deactivation, the loss over time of catalytic activity and/or selectivity, is a problem of great and continuing concern in the practice of industrial catalytic processes. Costs to industry for catalyst replacement and process shutdown total tens of billions of dollars per year. [...

  19. Vanadyl phosphate catalysts in biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Serio, M.; Cozzolino, M.; Tesser, R.; Santacesaria, E. [Universita degli studi di Napoli ' Federico II' , Dipartimento di Chimica, via Cintia 4, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Patrono, P.; Pinzari, F. [CNR-IMIP Area della Ricerca di Roma, via Salaria, 00016 Monterotondo Scalo, Roma (Italy); Bonelli, B. [Politecnico di Torino, Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali ed Ingegneria Chimica, Duca degli Abruzzi 24, I-10129 Torino (Italy)


    The possibility of using vanadyl phosphate (VOP)-based catalysts in biodiesel production has been investigated. Vanadium phosphate catalysts resulted very active in the transesterification reaction of triglycerides with methanol, despite their low specific surface area. A slow deactivation of the catalysts has been experimentally detected under the reaction conditions, but the catalyst can easily be regenerated by calcination in air. The influence of the calcination treatment on the surface structure and, consequently, on its catalytic performances was deeply investigated. Both fresh and used catalysts were characterized by using several techniques, such as BET, X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis diffuse reflectance (DRUV) and laser-Raman (LRS). The characterization results showed that the deactivation is due to a progressive reduction of vanadium (V) species from V{sup 5+} to V{sup 4+} and V{sup 3+} by methanol. By comparing the obtained performances of VOP catalysts with the ones of other heterogeneous catalysts reported by the literature, it is possible to conclude that VOP catalysts can already be used industrially for biodiesel production but their performances can probably be greatly improved in perspective. (author)

  20. Future trends in the refining catalyst market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvy, Ricardo Prada


    The oil refining industry operation is analyzed in order to estimate the future catalyst market trends. The refining catalyst market corresponding to the main catalytic processes is estimated taking into account the following information: (1) the average refining capacity increases for the main catalytic processes since 1999, (2) the additional refining capacity due to future plans of construction and expansion of refineries and process units that will be added by 2005, and (3) the past refining catalyst market behavior. From this information, we have determined for the main catalytic processes a global average factor, expressed as processed oil barrels per dollar of catalyst. According to our estimates, the global refining catalyst market will increase from $2.32 billion in 2001 to about $2.65 billion in 2005 (3.6% annual growth). Hydrotreating, fluid catalytic cracking, hydrocracking and isomerization represent about 74% of the total catalyst market and will grow by about $34, $32, $11 and $2.5 million per year, respectively. However, naphtha reforming catalyst market will not grow during 2001-2005. Higher catalyst spending growth is expected for the North America region ($27.5 million per year)

  1. Transmission electron microscopy on live catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmer, G.M.


    The dissertation describes TEM experiments on heterogeneous catalysts. Starting with characterization of (Ni/Co)MoS2 on Alumina and the effect of oxidation, and sequential resulfidation. After that, Co-based catalysts are used for high-resolution (S)TEM/EDX caracterization studies, and in situ

  2. Method for reactivating catalysts and a method for recycling supercritical fluids used to reactivate the catalysts (United States)

    Ginosar, Daniel M.; Thompson, David N.; Anderson, Raymond P.


    A method of reactivating a catalyst, such as a solid catalyst or a liquid catalyst. The method comprises providing a catalyst that is at least partially deactivated by fouling agents. The catalyst is contacted with a fluid reactivating agent that is at or above a critical point of the fluid reactivating agent and is of sufficient density to dissolve impurities. The fluid reactivating agent reacts with at least one fouling agent, releasing the at least one fouling agent from the catalyst. The at least one fouling agent becomes dissolved in the fluid reactivating agent and is subsequently separated or removed from the fluid reactivating agent so that the fluid reactivating agent may be reused. A system for reactivating a catalyst is also disclosed.

  3. New catalysts for clean environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maijanen, A.; Hase, A. [eds.] [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland)


    VTT launched a Research Programme on Chemical Reaction Mechanisms (CREAM) in 1993. The three-year programme (1993-1995) has focused on reaction mechanisms relevant to process industries and aimed at developing novel catalysts and biocatalysts for forest, food, and specialty chemicals industries as well as for energy production. The preliminary results of this programme have already been presented in the first symposium organized in Espoo in September 1994. To conclude the programme the second symposium is organized in Otaniemi, Espoo on January 29 - 30, 1996. Papers by 19 speakers and 17 poster presentations of the 1996 Symposium are included in this book. The Symposium consists of four sessions: Biotechnology for Natural Fibers Processing, New Biocatalysts, Catalysts for Clean Energy, and New Opportunities for Chemical Industry. The CREAM programme has tried to foresee solutions for the problems challenged by the public concern on environmental aspects, especially dealing with industrial processes and novel use of raw materials and energy. The programme has followed the basic routes that can lead to natural and simple solutions to develop processes in the fields of forest, food fine chemicals, and energy industry. This symposium presents the results of the programme to learn and further discuss together with the international experts that have been invited as keynote speakers. (author)

  4. Isobutane alkylation over solid catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozorezov, Y.I.; Lisin, V.I.


    Commercial alumina modified with 6Vertical Bar3< by wt boron trifluoride was active in isobutane alkylation with ethylene in a flow reactor at 5:1 isobutane-ethylene and 5-20 min reaction time. The reaction rate was first-order in ethylene and increased with increasing temperature (20/sup 0/-80/sup 0/C) and ethylene pressure (0.2-3 atm). The calculated activation energy was 8.4 kj. Kinetic data and the activity of tert.-butyl chloride, but not ethyl chloride as alkylating agents in place of ethylene suggested a carbonium-ion chain mechanism involving both surface and gas-phase reactions. The ethylene-based yield of the alkylate decreased from 132 to 41Vertical Bar3< by wt after nine hours on stream, and its bromine number increased from 0.2 to 1 g Br/sub 2//100 ml. This inhibition was attributed to adsorption on the active acidic sites of the reaction products, particularly C/sub 10//sup +/ olefins. Catalyst stabilization could probably be achieved by selecting an appropriate solvent that would continuously desorb the inhibiting products from the catalyst surface.

  5. Theoretical investigations of olefin metathesis catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cundari, T.R.; Gordon, M.S. [North Dakota State Univ., Fargo, ND (United States)


    An ab initio analysis of the electronic structure of high-valent, transition-metal alkylidenes as models for olefin metathesis catalysts is presented. The catalyst models studied fall into three categories: {open_quotes}new{close_quotes} metathesis catalyst models-tetrahedral M(OH){sup 2}(XH)(CH{sub 2}) complexes; {open_quotes}old{close_quotes} metathesis catalyst models-tetrahedral MCl{sub 2}(Y)(CH{sub 2}) complexes and alkylidene-substituted Mo metathesis catalysts, Mo(OH){sub 2}(NH)(=C(H)Z). The effect on the bonding caused by modification of either the metal, ligands, or alkylidene substitutents is considered. 21 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Amorphous molybdenum sulfides as hydrogen evolution catalysts. (United States)

    Morales-Guio, Carlos G; Hu, Xile


    Providing energy for a population projected to reach 9 billion people within the middle of this century is one of the most pressing societal issues. Burning fossil fuels at a rate and scale that satisfy our near-term demand will irreversibly damage the living environment. Among the various sources of alternative and CO2-emission-free energies, the sun is the only source that is capable of providing enough energy for the whole world. Sunlight energy, however, is intermittent and requires an efficient storage mechanism. Sunlight-driven water splitting to make hydrogen is widely considered as one of the most attractive methods for solar energy storage. Water splitting needs a hydrogen evolution catalyst to accelerate the rate of hydrogen production and to lower the energy loss in this process. Precious metals such as Pt are superior catalysts, but they are too expensive and scarce for large-scale applications. In this Account, we summarize our recent research on the preparation, characterization, and application of amorphous molybdenum sulfide catalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction. The catalysts can be synthesized by electrochemical deposition under ambient conditions from readily available and inexpensive precursors. The catalytic activity is among the highest for nonprecious catalysts. For example, at a loading of 0.2 mg/cm(2), the optimal catalyst delivers a current density of 10 mA/cm(2) at an overpotential of 160 mV. The growth mechanism of the electrochemically deposited film catalysts was revealed by an electrochemical quartz microcrystal balance study. While different electrochemical deposition methods produce films with different initial compositions, the active catalysts are the same and are identified as a "MoS(2+x)" species. The activity of the film catalysts can be further promoted by divalent Fe, Co, and Ni ions, and the origins of the promotional effects have been probed. Highly active amorphous molybdenum sulfide particles can also be prepared

  7. Fluidised bed catalytic pyrolysis of scrap tyres: influence of catalyst:tyre ratio and catalyst temperature. (United States)

    Williams, Paul T; Brindle, Alexander J


    Pyrolysis with on-line Zeolite catalysis of scrap tyres was undertaken in a fluidised bed reactor with the aim of maximising the production of higher value single ring aromatic hydrocarbons in the derived oil. Experiments were carried out in relation to the ratio of the catalyst to tyre feedstock and the temperature of the catalyst bed. Two Zeolite catalysts were examined, a Y-type Zeolite catalyst and Zeolite ZSM-5 catalyst of differing pore size and surface activity. The composition of the oils derived from the uncatalysed fluidised bed pyrolysis of tyres showed that benzene concentration was 0.2 wt%, toluene concentration was 0.8 wt%, o-xylene was 0.3 wt%, m/p-xylenes were 1.8 wt% and limonene was 4.3 wt%. Benzene, toluene and xylenes present in the oils showed a significant increase in the presence of both of the catalysts. The maximum concentrations of these chemicals for the Y-Zeolite (CBV-400) catalyst was 1 wt% for benzene, 8wt% for toluene, 3 wt% for o-xylene and 8.5 wt% for m/p-xylenes, produced at a catalyst:tyre ratio of 1.5. There was less influence of catalyst temperature on the yield of benzene, toluene and xylenes, however, increasing the temperature of the catalyst resulted in a marked decrease in limonene concentration. The Y-type Zeolite catalyst produced significantly higher concentrations of benzene, toluene and xylenes which was attributed to the larger pore size and higher surface acidity of the Y-Zeolite catalyst compared to the Zeolite ZSM-5 catalyst.

  8. Catalysts, Protection Layers, and Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chorkendorff, Ib


    Hydrogen is the simplest solar fuel to produce and in this presentation we shall give a short overview of the pros and cons of various tandem devices [1]. The large band gap semiconductor needs to be in front, but apart from that we can chose to have either the anode in front or back using either...... acid or alkaline conditions. Since most relevant semiconductors are very prone to corrosion the advantage of using buried junctions and using protection layers offering shall be discussed [2-4]. Next we shall discuss the availability of various catalysts for being coupled to these protections layers...... and how their stability may be evaluated [5, 6]. Examples of half-cell reaction using protection layers for both cathode and anode will be discussed though some of recent examples under both alkaline and acidic conditions. Si is a very good low band gap semiconductor and by using TiO2 as a protection...

  9. Fundamental investigations of catalyst nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Christian Fink

    different topics, each related to different aspects of nanoparticle dynamics and catalysis. The first topic is the reduction of a homogeneous solid state precursor to form the catalytically active phase which is metal nanoparticles on an inert support. Here, we have reduced Cu phyllosilicate to Cu on silica......Heterogeneous catalysis, the conversion of chemicals by the use of a suitable solid state catalyst, is a very important technology in modern society and it is involved in the production of up to 90% of all chemicals. Catalysis has in this way played a significant role in the technological...... and economic development in the 20th century. There is however a downside to this development and we are seeing significant pollution and pressure on resources. Catalysis therefore has an increasingly important role in limiting pollution and optimizing the use of resources. This development will depend on our...

  10. High temperature durable catalyst development (United States)

    Snow, G. C.; Tong, H.


    A program has been carried out to develop a catalytic reactor capable of operation in environments representative of those anticipated for advanced automotive gas turbine engines. A reactor consisting of a graded cell honeycomb support with a combination of noble metal and metal oxide catalyst coatings was built and successfully operated for 1000 hr. At an air preheat temperature of 740 K and a propane/air ratio of 0.028 by mass, the adiabatic flame temperature was held at about 1700 K. The graded cell monolithic reaction measured 5 cm in diameter by 10.2 cm in length and was operated at a reference velocity of 14.0 m/s at 1 atm. Measured NOx levels remained below 5 ppm, while unburned hydrocarbon concentrations registered near zero and carbon monoxide levels were nominally below 20 ppm.

  11. Sulfur Resistance of Pt-W Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina P. Betti


    Full Text Available The sulfur resistance of low-loaded monometallic Pt catalysts and bimetallic Pt-W catalysts during the partial selective hydrogenation of styrene, a model compound of Pygas streams, was studied. The effect of metal impregnation sequence on the activity and selectivity was also evaluated. Catalysts were characterized by ICP, TPR, XRD, and XPS techniques. Catalytic tests with sulfur-free and sulfur-doped feeds were performed. All catalysts showed high selectivities (>98% to ethylbenzene. Activity differences between the catalysts were mainly attributed to electronic effects due to the presence of different electron-rich species of Pt0 and electron-deficient species of Ptδ+. Pt0 promotes the cleavage of H2 while Ptδ+ the adsorption of styrene. The catalyst successively impregnated with W and Pt (WPt/Al was more active and sulfur resistant than the catalyst prepared with an inverse impregnation order (PtW/Al. The higher poison resistance of WPt/Al was attributed to both steric and electronic effects.

  12. Novel Fischer-Tropsch catalysts (United States)

    Vollhardt, Kurt P. C.; Perkins, Patrick


    Novel polymer-supported metal complexes of the formula: PS --R Me(CO).sub.n H.sub.m where: PS represents a divinylbenzene crosslinked polystyrene in which the divinylbenzene crosslinking is greater than 1% and less than about 18%; R represents a cycloalkadienyl radical of 4 through 6 carbon atoms; Me represents a Group VIII metal; CO represents a carbonyl radical; H represents hydrogen; n represents an integer varying from 0 through 3; m represents an integer varying from 0 through 2 inclusively with the further provision that 2n+m must total 18 when added to the electrons in R and Me, or n+m must total 0; are prepared by: brominating PS --H by treating same with bromine in the presence of a thallium salt in a partially or fully halogenated solvent to form PS --Br; treating said PS --Br so produced with a lithium alkyl of 1 through 12 carbon atoms in an aromatic solvent to produce PS --Li; substituting said PS-- Li so produced by reaction with a 2-cycloalkenone of 4 to 6 carbon atoms in the presence of an ether solvent and using a water work-up to form a cycloalkenylalcohol-substituted PS ; dehydrating said alcohol so produced by heating under a vacuum to produce a cycloalkadienyl-substituted PS ; reacting the cycloalkadienyl-substituted PS with metal carbonyl in the presence of a partially or fully halogenated hydrocarbon, aromatic hydrocarbon of 6 through 8 carbon atoms, ethers, or esters of 4 through 10 carbon atoms as a solvent to produce a polystyrene-supported cycloalkadienyl metal carbonyl. The novel compounds are used as improved Fischer-Tropsch catalysts particularly for the conversion of CO+H.sub.2 to gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons at milder conditions than with prior catalysts.

  13. Dates in the development of catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    A chronological listing is presented of the dates on which various I. G. Farbenindustrie catalysts were first used. In most cases the entries gave compositions and some hints at the methods of preparation of the catalysts as well as the code numbers for the catalysts. The listing started in December, 1924, and extended throught August, 1941. Some of the more important catalysts were the following: 5058, tungsten disulfide (WS/sub 2/), produced from the thio salt by dry decomposition (1930); 6434, a diluted mixture of hydrogen fluoride-treated ''Terrana'' and 10% WS/sub 2/ (1935); 6719, a prehydrogenation catalyst of 75 parts ferrous sulfide (FeS), 22 parts WS/sub 2/, and 3 parts nickel monosulfide (NiS) (1937); 7019, an aromatization catalyst of 100 parts primry coal, 15 parts chromic oxide (Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3/), and 5 parts vanadium sesquioxide (V/sub 2/O/sub 3/) (1938); 7360, a DHD catalyst of activated alumina (Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/) and 55 g/l molybdenum trioxide (MoO/sub 3/) (1939); 7846, a prehydrogenated catalyst, a sulfonated mixture of activated alumina, 100 g/l MoO/sub 3/, and 30 g/l nickel sesquioxide (Ni/sub 2/O/sub 3/) (1940); and 8376 W, a prehydrogenation catalyst, a sulfonated mixture of activated alumina, 250 g/l tungsten trioxide (WO/sub 3/), and 50 g/l Ni/sub 2/O/sub 3/ (1941). Other caalysts given included numbers 1724, 2365, 2473, 2500, 3510, 3884, 5053, 5676, 6525, and 6561. Compounds used other than those mentioned above included molybdenum disulfide (MoS/sub 2/), zinc sulfide (ZnS), zinc oxide (ZnO), and magnesium oxide (MgO).

  14. Investigation of activity and selectivity of redox catalysts in oxidative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, oxidative coupling of methane on Redox catalysts in fluidized bed reactor was investigated. For this purpose, the catalyst Mn-Na2WO4/SiO2 was selected as a Redox catalyst. In order to investigate this catalyst, transient state experiments were designed and performed. Then, the different reaction conditions on ...

  15. 40 CFR 90.427 - Catalyst thermal stress resistance evaluation. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Catalyst thermal stress resistance... Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.427 Catalyst thermal stress resistance evaluation. (a) The purpose of... catalyst conversion efficiency for Phase 1 engines. The thermal stress is imposed on the test catalyst by...

  16. Bio-oil hydrodeoxygenation catalysts produced using strong electrostatic adsorption (United States)

    We synthesized hydrothermally stable metal catalysts with controlled particle size and distribution, with the goal of determining which catalyst(s) can selectively catalyze the production of aromatics from bio-oil (from pyrolysis of biomass). Both precious and base transition metal catalysts (Ru, Pt...

  17. Towards the computational design of solid catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Jens Kehlet; Bligaard, Thomas; Rossmeisl, Jan


    Over the past decade the theoretical description of surface reactions has undergone a radical development. Advances in density functional theory mean it is now possible to describe catalytic reactions at surfaces with the detail and accuracy required for computational results to compare favourably...... with experiments. Theoretical methods can be used to describe surface chemical reactions in detail and to understand variations in catalytic activity from one catalyst to another. Here, we review the first steps towards using computational methods to design new catalysts. Examples include screening for catalysts...

  18. deNOx catalysts for biomass combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Steffen Buus

    The present thesis revolves around the challenges involved in removal of nitrogen oxides in biomass fired power plants. Nitrogen oxides are unwanted byproducts formed to some extent during almost any combustion. In coal fired plants these byproducts are removed by selective catalytic reduction......, however the alkali in biomass complicate matters. Alkali in biomass severely deactivates the catalyst used for the selective catalytic reduction in matter of weeks, hence a more alkali resistant catalyst is needed. In the thesis a solution to the problem is presented, the nano particle deNOx catalyst...

  19. Catalyst for hydrogen-amine D exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtslander, W.J.; Johnson, R.E.


    A process is claimed for deuterium isotopic enrichment (suitable for use in heavy water production) by amine-hydrogen exchange in which the exchange catalyst comprises a mixture of alkyl amides of two metals selected from the group consisting of the alkali metals. Catalyst mixtures comprising at least one of the alkali amides of lithium and potassium are preferred. At least one of the following benefits are obtained: decreased hydride formation, decreased thermal decomposition of alkyl amide, increased catalyst solubility in the amine phase, and increased exchange efficiency. 11 claims

  20. In-situ hydrodeoxygenation of phenol by supported Ni catalyst-explanation for catalyst performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Ze; Zeng, Ying; Lin, Weigang


    In-situ hydrodeoxygenation of phenol with aqueous hydrogen donor over supported Ni catalyst was investigated. The supported Ni catalysts exerted very poor performance, if formic acid was used as the hydrogen donor. Catalyst modification by loading K, Na, Mg or La salt could not make the catalyst ...... products of cyclohexanone and cyclohexanol. The better effect of methanol enlightened the application of the supported Ni catalyst in in-situ hydrodeoxygenation of phenol....... performance improved. If gaseous hydrogen was used as the hydrogen source the activity of Ni/Al2O3 was pretty high. CO2 was found poisonous to the catalysis, due to the competitive adoption of phenol with CO2. If formic acid was replaced by methanol, the catalyst performance improved remarkably, with major...

  1. Supported catalyst systems and method of making biodiesel products using such catalysts (United States)

    Kim, Manhoe; Yan, Shuli; Salley, Steven O.; Ng, K. Y. Simon


    A heterogeneous catalyst system, a method of preparing the catalyst system and a method of forming a biodiesel product via transesterification reactions using the catalyst system is disclosed. The catalyst system according to one aspect of the present disclosure represents a class of supported mixed metal oxides that include at least calcium oxide and another metal oxide deposited on a lanthanum oxide or cerium oxide support. Preferably, the catalysts include CaO--CeO.sub.2ZLa.sub.2O.sub.3 or CaO--La.sub.2O.sub.3/CeO.sub.2. Optionally, the catalyst may further include additional metal oxides, such as CaO--La.sub.2O.sub.3--GdOxZLa.sub.2O.sub.3.

  2. Novel Anode Catalyst for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells


    Basri, S.; Kamarudin, S. K.; Daud, W. R. W.; Yaakob, Z.; Kadhum, A. A. H.


    PtRu catalyst is a promising anodic catalyst for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) but the slow reaction kinetics reduce the performance of DMFCs. Therefore, this study attempts to improve the performance of PtRu catalysts by adding nickel (Ni) and iron (Fe). Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are used to increase the active area of the catalyst and to improve the catalyst performance. Electrochemical analysis techniques, such as energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), X-ray diffracti...

  3. Bi-metallic catalysts, methods of making, and uses thereof

    KAUST Repository

    Basset, Jean-Marie


    Provided herein are bi-metallic catalysts, methods of making, and uses thereof. In some embodiments, the bi-metallic catalyst contains two different metal catalysts that can be used in hydrocarbon metathesis reactions, in some embodiments, the methods of making the bi-metallic catalysts can include two steps utilizing a surface organometallic chemistry approach in which the two different metal catalysts are sequentially grafted onto a support.

  4. Preparative characteristics of hydrophobic polymer catalyst for the tritium removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hee Suk; Choi, H. J.; Lee, H. S.; Ahn, D. H.; Kim, K. R.; Paek, S. W.; Paek, S. W.; Kim, J. G.; Chung, H. S.


    The optimum method for the fabrication of hydrophobic catalyst was selected and the apparatuses for the preparation of catalyst support with high yield was developed for the large scale production. Also, we summarized the method of improving the physical property of the catalyst support, the loading characteristics of Pt metal as a catalyst, and the characteristics of the apparatus for the fabrication of the catalysts on a large scale

  5. Oxidation catalysts and process for preparing same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Compounds particularly suitable as oxidation catalysis are described, comprising specified amounts of uranium, antimony and tin as oxides. Processes for making and using the catalysts are described. (U.K.)

  6. Environmentally benign catalysts for clean organic reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Patel, Anjali


    Heterogeneous catalysis attracts researchers and industry because it satisfies most of green chemistry's requirements. Emphasizing the development of third generation catalysts, this book surveys trends and opportunities in academic and industrial research.

  7. Stereogenic-Only-at-Metal Asymmetric Catalysts. (United States)

    Zhang, Lilu; Meggers, Eric


    Chirality is an essential feature of asymmetric catalysts. This review summarizes asymmetric catalysts that derive their chirality exclusively from stereogenic metal centers. Reported chiral-at-metal catalysts can be divided into two classes, namely, inert metal complexes, in which the metal fulfills a purely structural role, so catalysis is mediated entirely through the ligand sphere, and reactive metal complexes. The latter are particularly appealing because structural simplicity (only achiral ligands) is combined with the prospect of particularly effective asymmetric induction (direct contact of the substrate with the chiral metal center). Challenges and solutions for the design of such reactive stereogenic-only-at-metal asymmetric catalysts are discussed. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Evaluation of Low Temperature CO Removal Catalysts (United States)

    Monje, Oscar


    CO removal from spacecraft gas streams was evaluated for three commercial, low temperature oxidation catalysts: Carulite 300, Sofnocat 423, and Hamilton Sundstrand Pt1. The catalysts were challenged with CO concentrations (1-100 ppm) under dry and wet (50% humidity) conditions using 2-3 % O2. CO removal and CO2 concentration were measured at constant feed composition using a FTIR. Water vapor affected the CO conversion of each catalyst differently. An initial screening found that Caulite 300 could not operate in humid conditions. The presence of water vapor affected CO conversion of Sofnocat 423 for challenge concentrations below 40 ppm. The conversion of CO by Sofnocat 423 was 80% at CO concentrations greater than 40 ppm under both dry and moist conditions. The HS Pt1 catalyst exhibited CO conversion levels of 100% under both dry and moist conditions.

  9. Heterogeneous Metal Catalysts for Oxidation Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Eaqub Ali


    Full Text Available Oxidation reactions may be considered as the heart of chemical synthesis. However, the indiscriminate uses of harsh and corrosive chemicals in this endeavor are threating to the ecosystems, public health, and terrestrial, aquatic, and aerial flora and fauna. Heterogeneous catalysts with various supports are brought to the spotlight because of their excellent capabilities to accelerate the rate of chemical reactions with low cost. They also minimize the use of chemicals in industries and thus are friendly and green to the environment. However, heterogeneous oxidation catalysis are not comprehensively presented in literature. In this short review, we clearly depicted the current state of catalytic oxidation reactions in chemical industries with specific emphasis on heterogeneous catalysts. We outlined here both the synthesis and applications of important oxidation catalysts. We believe it would serve as a reference guide for the selection of oxidation catalysts for both industries and academics.

  10. Photoexcited iron porphyrin as biomimetic catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartocci, C.; Maldotti, A.; Varani, G.; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Ferrara


    Photoexcited iron porphyrins can be of some interest in both fine and industrial chemistry in view of the preparation of new efficient biomimetic catalysts, working with high selectivity under mild temperature and pressure

  11. Eggshell waste as catalyst: A review. (United States)

    Laca, Amanda; Laca, Adriana; Díaz, Mario


    Agricultural wastes are some of the most emerging problems in food industries because of their disposal cost. However, it is also an opportunity for the bioeconomy society if new uses for these residual materials can be found. Eggshells, considered a hazardous waste by UE regulations, are discarded, amounting hundreds of thousands of tonnes worldwide. This egg processing waste is a valuable source material, which can be used in different fields such as fodder or fertilizer production. Additionally, this residue offers interesting characteristics to be used in other applications, like its employment as an environment-friendly catalyst. In the present review we provide a global view of eggshell waste uses as catalyst in different processes. According to reviewed researching works, a huge variety of added value products can be obtained by using this catalyst which emphasised the interest of further investigations in order to widen the possible uses of this cheap green catalyst. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Highly sensitive silicon microreactor for catalyst testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Toke Riishøj; Olsen, Jakob Lind; Vesborg, Peter Christian Kjærgaard


    by directing the entire gas flow through the catalyst bed to a mass spectrometer, thus ensuring that nearly all reaction products are present in the analyzed gas flow. Although the device can be employed for testing a wide range of catalysts, the primary aim of the design is to allow characterization of model...... catalysts which can only be obtained in small quantities. Such measurements are of significant fundamental interest but are challenging because of the low surface areas involved. The relationship between the reaction zone gas flow and the pressure in the reaction zone is investigated experimentally......, it is found that platinum catalysts with areas as small as 15 mu m(2) are conveniently characterized with the device. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3270191]...

  13. Oxidation Catalyst Studies on a Diesel Engine


    Ye, Shifei


    In this thesis, the experimental test facilities consisted of a well instrumented live Ford 2.0 litre turbocharged diesel engine connected to a specially made exhaust can, which contained a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC). Experiments were performed on DOCs, which were specially prepared by Johnson Matthey, and had thermocouples mounted in their walls to measure axial temperature profiles. These DOCs consisted of a Pt catalyst dispersed in an alumina washcoat on a cordierite monolith supports...

  14. Catalyst system of the structured type


    Jansen, J.C.; Legein, C.H.; Calis, H.P.A.; Van Bekkum, H.; Gerritsen, A.W.; Van den Bleek, M.


    The invention relates to a catalyst system of the structured type, in which a structured support is covered with a layer of molecular sieve crystals and/or modifications thereof. These crystals have substantially the same orientation relative to the support surface. The invention further relates to a reactor in which this catalyst system is incorporated. Finally, the invention relates to a method for the selective reduction of nitrogen oxides utilizing a compound comprising a NH group, in whi...

  15. Silica supported nickel catalysts : Tracer studies.


    Sharratt, Andrew Paul.


    A series of silica supported catalysts were prepared by impregnation of the support materials with a nickel(II) nitrate precursor under standard conditions. The catalysts and silicas were characterised using temperature programmed reduction (TPR) techniques, neutron diffraction, small angle neutron scattering, and 29Si magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR). These analyses revealed one significant variable in the silicas:- the surface concentration of strained siloxane ring...

  16. Investigating Zirconia Catalysts = Handling Sensitive Materials


    Klose, Barbara S.; Jentoft, Rolf E.; Hahn, Alexander H. P.; Ressler, Thorsten; Yang, Xiaobo; Jentoft, Friederike C.


    Investigating Zirconia Catalysts = Handling Sensitive Materials B.S. Klose, R.E. Jentoft, A. Hahn, T. Ressler, X. Yang, F.C. Jentoft Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society Faradayweg 4-6, D-14195 Berlin, Germany Introduction Sulfated zirconia (SZ) based catalysts are active for n-butane isomerization at 373 K [1]. Despite intense research, no convincing structure-activity relationship for these materials has evolved. Still in question...

  17. Single-layer transition metal sulfide catalysts (United States)

    Thoma, Steven G [Albuquerque, NM


    Transition Metal Sulfides (TMS), such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS.sub.2), are the petroleum industry's "workhorse" catalysts for upgrading heavy petroleum feedstocks and removing sulfur, nitrogen and other pollutants from fuels. We have developed an improved synthesis technique to produce SLTMS catalysts, such as molybdenum disulfide, with potentially greater activity and specificity than those currently available. Applications for this technology include heavy feed upgrading, in-situ catalysis, bio-fuel conversion and coal liquefaction.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    and eco-friendly catalysts for both redox and/or acid–base type reactions in industrial ... The reaction mixture was stirred for 45min under refluxing conditions. ... Heteropolyacides as green and reusable catalysts for synthesis of [3,4-b][1,3,4] thiadiazines. Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. 2014, 28(1). 69. NH. N. N. S. O. NH2. CH3. Ph.

  19. Catalyst for hydrogen-amine D exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtslander, W.J.; Johnson, R.E.


    In a process for enrichment of deuterium by contacting hydrogen with an amine (such as methylamine), an alkali metal amide (such as potassium methylamide) is used as a catalyst. The present improvement is to use a mixture of two metal amides (e.g. lithium methylamide plus potassium methylamide) in order to prevent precipitation of a hydride and to reduce thermal decomposition of the catalyst. (NDH)

  20. Tetraalkylammonium Salts as Hydrogen-Bonding Catalysts


    Shirakawa, Seiji; Liu, Shiyao; Kaneko, Shiho; Kumatabara, Yusuke; Fukuda, Airi; Omagari, Yumi; Maruoka, Keiji


    Although the hydrogen-bonding ability of the α hydrogen atoms on tetraalkylammonium salts is often discussed with respect to phase-transfer catalysts, catalysis that utilizes the hydrogen-bond-donor properties of tetraalkylammonium salts remains unknown. Herein, we demonstrate hydrogen-bonding catalysis with newly designed tetraalkylammonium salt catalysts in Mannich-type reactions. The structure and the hydrogen-bonding ability of the new ammonium salts were investigated by X-ray diffraction...

  1. Germanium nanowires grown using different catalyst metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouveia, R.C., E-mail: [Departamento de Física – NanO Lab, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Rod. Washington Luís, Km 235 – SP 310, São Carlos, CEP 13565-905 (Brazil); Área de Ciências, Instituto Federal de Educação Ciência e Tecnologia de São Paulo, Rua Américo Ambrósio, 269, Jd. Canaã, Sertãozinho, CEP 14169-263 (Brazil); Kamimura, H.; Munhoz, R.; Rodrigues, A.D. [Departamento de Física – NanO Lab, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Rod. Washington Luís, Km 235 – SP 310, São Carlos, CEP 13565-905 (Brazil); Leite, E.R. [Departamento de Química – LIEC, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, CEP 13565-905 (Brazil); Chiquito, A.J. [Departamento de Física – NanO Lab, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Rod. Washington Luís, Km 235 – SP 310, São Carlos, CEP 13565-905 (Brazil)


    Germanium nanowires have been synthesized by the well known vapor-liquid-solid growth mechanism using gold, silver, cooper, indium and nickel as catalyst metals. The influence of metal seeds on nanowires structural and electronic transport properties was also investigated. Electron microscopy images demonstrated that, despite differences in diameters, all nanowires obtained presented single crystalline structures. X-ray patterns showed that all nanowires were composed by germanium with a small amount of germanium oxide, and the catalyst metal was restricted at the nanowires' tips. Raman spectroscopy evidenced the long range order in the crystalline structure of each sample. Electrical measurements indicated that variable range hopping was the dominant mechanism in carrier transport for all devices, with similar hopping distance, regardless the material used as catalyst. Then, in spite of the differences in synthesis temperatures and nanowires diameters, the catalyst metals have not affected the composition and crystalline quality of the germanium nanowires nor the carrier transport in the germanium nanowire network devices. - Highlights: • Ge nanowires were grown by VLS method using Au, Ag, Cu, In and Ni as catalysts. • All nanowires presented high single crystalline quality and long range order. • Devices showed semiconducting behavior having VRH as dominant transport mechanism. • The metal catalyst did not influence structural properties or the transport mechanism.

  2. Low temperature catalysts for methanol production (United States)

    Sapienza, Richard S.; Slegeir, William A.; O'Hare, Thomas E.; Mahajan, Devinder


    A catalyst and process useful at low temperatures (below about C.) and preferably in the range C. used in the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and hydrogen is disclosed. The catalyst is used in slurry form and comprises a complex reducing agent derived from the component structure NaH--RONa--M(OAc).sub.2 where M is selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pd, and Co and R is a lower alkyl group containing 1-6 carbon atoms. This catalyst is preferably used alone but is also effective in combination with a metal carbonyl of a group VI (Mo, Cr, W) metal. The preferred catalyst precursor is Nic (where M=Ni and R=tertiary amyl). Mo(CO).sub.6 is the preferred metal carbonyl if such component is used. The catalyst is subjected to a conditioning or activating step under temperature and pressure, similar to the parameters given above, to afford the active catalyst.

  3. Low temperature catalysts for methanol production (United States)

    Sapienza, R.S.; Slegeir, W.A.; O'Hare, T.E.; Mahajan, D.


    A catalyst and process useful at low temperatures (below about 160/sup 0/C) and preferably in the range 80 to 120/sup 0/C used in the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and hydrogen is disclosed. The catalyst is used in slurry form and comprises a complex reducing agent derived from the component structure NaH-RONa-M(OAc)/sub 2/ where M is selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pd, and Co and R is a lower alkyl group containing 1 to 6 carbon atoms. This catalyst is preferably used alone but is also effective in combination with a metal carbonyl of a group VI (Mo, Cr, W) metal. The preferred catalyst precursor is Nic (where M = Ni and R = tertiary amyl). Mo(CO)/sub 6/ is the preferred metal carbonyl if such component is used. The catalyst is subjected to a conditioning or activating step under temperature and pressure, similar to the parameters given above, to afford the active catalyst.

  4. Polypropylene reinvented: Costs of using metallocene catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brockmeier, N.F.


    This study develops scoping estimates of the required capital investment and manufacturing costs to make a zirconocene catalyst/cocatalyst system [(F{sub 6}-acen)Zr(CH{sub 2}CMe{sub 3})(NMe{sub 2}Ph)][B(C{sub 6}F{sub 5}){sub 4}] immobilized on a silica support. Costs for this fluorine-based system are compared with estimates for two other metallocene catalysts using methylaluminoxane (MAO)-based cocatalysts. Including wt of support and cocatalyst, each of the production facilities for making the 3 zirconocene catalyst systems is sized at 364--484 tonnes/year. Cost to make the F-based catalyst system is estimated to be $10780/kg, assuming 20% return on capital invested. Costs for the two MAO-based catalyst system fall in the range of $10950--12160/kg, assuming same return. Within the {plus_minus}50% accuracy of these estimates, these differences are not significant. Given a catalyst productivity of 250 kg resin/gram zirconocene, the cost contribution in the finished ethylene-propylene copolymer resin is 4.4 cents/kg, excluding selling, administrative, research costs.

  5. Rhodium catalysts bound to functionalized mesoporous silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitterwolf, Thomas E.; Newell, J D.; Carver, Colin T.; Addleman, Raymond S.; Linehan, John C.; Fryxell, Glen E.


    Phosphine and amine functionalized mesoporous silica materials were metallated with Rh(CO)2(i-Pr2NH)Cl or Rh2(CO)4Cl2, respectively, to yield catalysts containing the Rh(PPh2R)2(CO)Cl or Rh(CO)2(NH2R)Cl, where R is a propyl chain bonded to the silica surface, reactive centers. In order to ascertain the effect of pore size on rates of hydroformylation catalysis both 35 and 45 ? pore size materials were used. Using the hydroformylation of octene as a reference reaction, the phosphine based, 45 ? catalysts were 1.5-1.3 times faster than the amine based, 45 ? materials were 2.6-2.1 times faster than the 35 ? catalysts, and the 45 ? materials. The orientation of the catalyst relative to the functionalized surface, and the steric environment around the catalyst active site appear to be significant in determining rate of reaction. The ability of the surface bound phosphine catalysts to affect hydroformylation was strongly influenced by the steric constraints of the substrate. Terminal alkenes were readily hydroformylated and norbornene was slowly hydroformylated, but pinene, trans-cyclododecene, cyclohexene and cholesterol were nonreactive to the catalytic center.

  6. Sulfur deactivation of fatty ester hydrogenolysis catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brands, D.S.; U-A-Sai, G.; Poels, E.K.; Bliek, A. [Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Chemical Engineering


    Trace organosulfur compounds present as natural impurities in oleochemical feedstocks may lead to activation of copper-containing catalysts applied for hydrogenolysis of esters toward fatty alcohols. In this paper, the sulfur deactivation of Cu/SiO{sub 2} and Cu/ZnO/SiO{sub 2} catalysts was studied in the liquid-phase hydrogenolysis of methyl palmitate. The rate of deactivation is fast and increases as a function of the sulfur-containing compound present: octadecanethiol {approx} dihexadecyl disulfide < benzyl isothiocyanate < methyl p-toluene sulfonate < dihexadecyl sulfide < dibenzothiophene. The rapid deactivation is caused by the fact that sulfur is quantitatively removed from the reaction mixture and because mainly surface sulfides are formed under hydrogenolysis conditions. The life time of a zinc-promoted catalyst is up to two times higher than that of the Cu/SiO{sub 2} catalyst, most likely due to zinc surface sulfide formation. The maximum sulfur coverage obtained after full catalyst deactivation with dibenzothiophene and dihexadecyl sulfide--the sulfur compounds that cause the fastest deactivation--may be as low as 0.07. This is due to the fact that decomposition of these compounds as well as the hydrogenolysis reaction itself proceeds on ensembles of copper atoms. Catalyst regeneration studies reveal that activity cannot be regained by reduction or combined oxidation/reduction treatments. XRD, TPR, and TPO results confirm that no distinct bulk copper or zinc sulfide or sulfate phases are present.

  7. Hollow Nano- and Microstructures as Catalysts. (United States)

    Prieto, Gonzalo; Tüysüz, Harun; Duyckaerts, Nicolas; Knossalla, Johannes; Wang, Guang-Hui; Schüth, Ferdi


    Catalysis is at the core of almost every established and emerging chemical process and also plays a central role in the quest for novel technologies for the sustainable production and conversion of energy. Particularly since the early 2000s, a great surge of interest exists in the design and application of micro- and nanometer-sized materials with hollow interiors as solid catalysts. This review provides an updated and critical survey of the ever-expanding material architectures and applications of hollow structures in all branches of catalysis, including bio-, electro-, and photocatalysis. First, the main synthesis strategies toward hollow materials are succinctly summarized, with emphasis on the (regioselective) incorporation of various types of catalytic functionalities within their different subunits. The principles underlying the scientific and technological interest in hollow materials as solid catalysts, or catalyst carriers, are then comprehensively reviewed. Aspects covered include the stabilization of catalysts by encapsulation, the introduction of molecular sieving or stimuli-responsive "auxiliary" functionalities, as well as the single-particle, spatial compartmentalization of various catalytic functions to create multifunctional (bio)catalysts. Examples are also given on the applications which hollow structures find in the emerging fields of electro- and photocatalysis, particularly in the context of the sustainable production of chemical energy carriers. Finally, a critical perspective is provided on the plausible evolution lines for this thriving scientific field, as well as the main practical challenges relevant to the reproducible and scalable synthesis and utilization of hollow micro- and nanostructures as solid catalysts.

  8. Catalytic Transformation of Ethylbenzene over Y-Zeolite-based Catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Khattaf, Sulaiman


    Catalytic transformation of ethylbenzene (EB) has been investigated over ultrastable Y (USY)-zeolite-based catalysts in a novel riser simulator at different operating conditions. The effect of reaction conditions on EB conversion is reported. The USY catalyst (FCC-Y) was modified by steaming to form a significantly lower acidity catalyst (FCC-SY). The current study shows that the FCC-SY catalyst favors EB disproportionation more than cracking. A comparison has been made between the results of EB conversion over the lowly acidic catalyst (FCC-SY) and the highly acidic catalyst (FCC-Y) under identical conditions. It was observed that increase in catalyst acidity favored cracking of EB at the expense of disproportionation. Kinetic parameters for EB disappearance during disproportionation reaction over the FCC-SY catalyst were calculated using the catalyst activity decay function based on time on stream (TOS). © 2008 American Chemical Society.

  9. Interaction between Nafion ionomer and noble metal catalyst for PEMFCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Shuang Ma

    The implement of polymer impregnation in electrode structure (catalyst layer) decreasing the noble metal catalyst loading by a factor of ten , , is one of the essential mile stones in the evolution of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells’ development among the application of catalyst support...... and electrode deposition etc. In fuel cell reactions, both electrons and protons are involved. Impregnation of Nafion ionomer in catalyst layer effectively increases the proton-electron contact, enlarge the reaction zone, extend the reaction from the surface to the entire electrode. Therefore, the entire...... catalyst layer conducts both electrons and protons so that catalyst utilization in the layer is improved dramatically. The catalyst layer will in turn generate and sustain a higher current density. One of the generally adapted methods to impregnate Nafion into the catalyst layer is to mix the catalysts...

  10. Optimal catalyst curves: Connecting density functional theory calculations with industrial reactor design and catalyst selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, C.J.H.; Dahl, Søren; Boisen, A.


    For ammonia synthesis catalysts a volcano-type relationship has been found experimentally. We demonstrate that by combining density functional theory calculations with a microkinetic model the position of the maximum of the volcano curve is sensitive to the reaction conditions. The catalytic...... ammonia synthesis activity, to a first approximation, is a function only of the binding energy of nitrogen to the catalyst. Therefore, it is possible to evaluate which nitrogen binding energy is optimal under given reaction conditions. This leads to the concept of optimal catalyst curves, which illustrate...... the nitrogen binding energies of the optimal catalysts at different temperatures, pressures, and synthesis gas compositions. Using this concept together with the ability to prepare catalysts with desired binding energies it is possible to optimize the ammonia process. In this way a link between first...

  11. Biomimetic Water-Oxidation Catalysts: Manganese Oxides. (United States)

    Kurz, Philipp


    The catalytic oxidation of water to molecular oxygen is a key process for the production of solar fuels. Inspired by the biological manganese-based active site for this reaction in the enzyme Photosystem II, researchers have made impressive progress in the last decades regarding the development of synthetic manganese catalysts for water oxidation. For this, it has been especially fruitful to explore the many different types of known manganese oxides MnOx. This chapter first offers an overview of the structural, thermodynamic, and mechanistic aspects of water-oxidation catalysis by MnOx. The different test systems used for catalytic studies are then presented together with general reactivity trends. As a result, it has been possible to identify layered, mixed Mn (III/IV)-oxides as an especially promising class of bio-inspired catalysts and an attempt is made to give structure-based reasons for the good performances of these materials. In the outlook, the challenges of catalyst screenings (and hence the identification of a "best MnOx catalyst") are discussed. There is a great variety of reaction conditions which might be relevant for the application of manganese oxide catalysts in technological solar fuel-producing devices, and thus catalyst improvements are currently still addressing a very large parameter space. Nonetheless, detailed knowledge about the biological catalyst and a solid experimental basis concerning the syntheses and water-oxidation reactivities of MnOx materials have been established in the last decade and thus this research field is well positioned to make important contributions to solar fuel research in the future.

  12. TOPICAL REVIEW: Nanostructured catalysts in fuel cells (United States)

    Zhong, Chuan-Jian; Luo, Jin; Fang, Bin; Wanjala, Bridgid N.; Njoki, Peter N.; Loukrakpam, Rameshwori; Yin, Jun


    One of the most important challenges for the ultimate commercialization of fuel cells is the preparation of active, robust, and low-cost catalysts. This review highlights some findings of our investigations in the last few years in developing advanced approaches to nanostructured catalysts that address this challenge. Emphasis is placed on nanoengineering-based fabrication, processing, and characterization of multimetallic nanoparticles with controllable size (1-10 nm), shape, composition (e.g. MlnM2100-n, M1nM2mM3100-n-m, M1@M2, where M (1 or 2) = Pt, Co, Ni, V, Fe, Cu, Pd, W, Ag, Au etc) and morphology (e.g. alloy, core@shell etc). In addition to an overview of the fundamental issues and the recent progress in fuel cell catalysts, results from evaluations of the electrocatalytic performance of nanoengineered catalysts in fuel cell reactions are discussed. This approach differs from other traditional approaches to the preparation of supported catalysts in the ability to control the particle size, composition, phase, and surface properties. An understanding of how the nanoscale properties of the multimetallic nanoparticles differ from their bulk-scale counterparts, and how the interaction between the nanoparticles and the support materials relates to the size sintering or evolution in the thermal activation process, is also discussed. The fact that the bimetallic gold-platinum nanoparticle system displays a single-phase character different from the miscibility gap known for its bulk-scale counterpart serves as an important indication of the nanoscale manipulation of the structural properties, which is useful for refining the design and preparation of the bimetallic catalysts. The insight gained from probing how nanoparticle-nanoparticle and nanoparticle-substrate interactions relate to the size evolution in the activation process of nanoparticles on planar substrates serves as an important guiding principle in the control of nanoparticle sintering on different

  13. Thermal decomposition of supported lithium nitrate catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, Maria Lucia [INTEQUI (CONICET-UNSL), 25 de Mayo 384, V. Mercedes, 5730, San Luis (Argentina); Lick, Ileana Daniela [CINDECA (CONICET-UNLP), Calle 47 No 257, La Plata, 1900, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ponzi, Marta Isabel [INTEQUI (CONICET-UNSL), 25 de Mayo 384, V. Mercedes, 5730, San Luis (Argentina); Castellon, Enrique Rodriguez; Jimenez-Lopez, Antonio [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Cristalografia y Mineralogia. Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Malaga, Campus de Teatinos, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Ponzi, Esther Natalia, E-mail: [CINDECA (CONICET-UNLP), Calle 47 No 257, La Plata, 1900, Buenos Aires (Argentina)


    New catalysts for soot combustion were prepared by impregnation of different supports (SiO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2}.nH{sub 2}O) with a LiNO{sub 3} solution and then characterized by means of FTIR, XPS, TGA and UV-vis spectroscopy, whereby the presence of lithium nitrate in the prepared catalysts was identified and quantified. The soot combustion rate using this series of catalysts (LiNO{sub 3}/support) was compared with the activity of a series of impregnated catalysts prepared using LiOH (Li{sub 2}O/supports). Catalysts prepared using LiNO{sub 3} are found to be more active than those prepared using LiOH. The catalytic performance was also studied with a NO/O{sub 2} mixture in the feed, demonstrating that NO increases the combustion rate of soot, probably as a consequence of lithium oxide forming an 'in situ' nitrate ion.

  14. Weyl Semimetals as Hydrogen Evolution Catalysts. (United States)

    Rajamathi, Catherine R; Gupta, Uttam; Kumar, Nitesh; Yang, Hao; Sun, Yan; Süß, Vicky; Shekhar, Chandra; Schmidt, Marcus; Blumtritt, Horst; Werner, Peter; Yan, Binghai; Parkin, Stuart; Felser, Claudia; Rao, C N R


    The search for highly efficient and low-cost catalysts is one of the main driving forces in catalytic chemistry. Current strategies for the catalyst design focus on increasing the number and activity of local catalytic sites, such as the edge sites of molybdenum disulfides in the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Here, the study proposes and demonstrates a different principle that goes beyond local site optimization by utilizing topological electronic states to spur catalytic activity. For HER, excellent catalysts have been found among the transition-metal monopnictides-NbP, TaP, NbAs, and TaAs-which are recently discovered to be topological Weyl semimetals. Here the study shows that the combination of robust topological surface states and large room temperature carrier mobility, both of which originate from bulk Dirac bands of the Weyl semimetal, is a recipe for high activity HER catalysts. This approach has the potential to go beyond graphene based composite photocatalysts where graphene simply provides a high mobility medium without any active catalytic sites that have been found in these topological materials. Thus, the work provides a guiding principle for the discovery of novel catalysts from the emerging field of topological materials. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. New catalysts for exhaust gas cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haerkoenen, M. [Kemira Metalkat Oy, Oulu (Finland)


    Major challenge for future catalyst systems was to develop thermally more stable washcoats for close coupled operating conditions and for engines operating under high speed and load conditions. To design these future emission systems extensive research and development was undertaken to develop methods to disperse and stabilize the key catalytic materials for operation at much higher temperatures. Second priority was to design catalysts that are more effective under low temperature exhaust conditions and have improved oxygen storage properties in the washcoats. Incorporating new materials and modified preparation technology a new generation of metallic catalyst formulations emerged, those being trimetallic K6 (Pt:Pd:Rh and bimetallic K7) (Pd+Pd:Rh). The target was to combine the best property of Pt:Rh (good NO{sub x} reduction) with that of the good HC oxidation activity of Pd and to ensure that precious metal/support interactions were positively maintained. Both K6 and K7 concepts contain special catalyst structures with optimized washcoat performance which can be brick converter configuration. Improvement in light-off, thermal stability and transient performance with these new catalyst formulations have clearly been shown in both laboratory and vehicle testing. (author) (20 refs.)

  16. Influence of hydrogen treatment on SCR catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due-Hansen, Johannes

    reduction (SCR) process, i.e. the catalytic removal of NOx from the flue gas. A series of experiments was conducted to reveal the impact on the NO SCR activity of a industrial DeNOX catalyst (3%V2O5-7%WO3/TiO2) by treatment of H2. Standard conditions were treatment of the SCR catalyst for 60 min with three......Municipal waste flue gas was previously found to deactivate the Pt-based CO oxidation catalyst severely. In the specific case studied, siloxanes were found to cause the deactivation. An on-site method for complete regeneration of the catalysts activity was found without shutdown of the flue gas...... stream, i.e. by in situ treatment of the Pt-catalyst by reductive H2-gas. However, the introduction of H2 gas in the gas stream could also affect other units in the tail pipe gas cleaning system. Of special interest in this study is the effect of hydrogen gas on the performance of the selective catalytic...

  17. Study of ammonia synthesis using technetium catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitsyn, V.I.; Mikhajlenko, I.E.; Pokrovskaya, O.V.


    A study was made on catalytic properties of technetium in ammonia synthesis reaction. The preparation of technetium catalysts on ν-Al 2 O 3 , BaTiO 3 , BaO-ν-Al 2 O 3 substrates is described. The investigation of catalytic activity of catalysts was carried out at a pressure of 1 atm. in vertical reactor with volume rate of 15000 h - 1 in the temperature range of 350-425 deg. The amount of catalyst was 0.5-1 g, the volume- 0.5 ml, the size of granules- 2-3 mm. Rate constants of ammonia synthesis reaction were calculated. Seeming activation energies of the process have meanings wihtin the limits of 40-50 kcal/mol. It was shown that with increase in concentration of Tc on BaTiO 3 the catalytic activity rises in comparison with pure Tc. The reduction of catalytic activity with increase of metal content on Al 2 O 3 begins in the limits of 3.5-6.7% Tc/ν-Al 2 O 3 . The catalyst of 5.3% Tc/4.1% Ba/ν -Al 2 O 3 compound has the maximum activity. Technetium catalysts possess the stable catalytic activity and don't requre its reduction during several months

  18. Copolymerization of ethylene and cycloolefin with metallocene catalysts : I. Effect of catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D.H.; Jung, H.K.; Kim, W.S.; Min, K.E.; Park, L.S.; Seo, K.H.; Kang, I.K. [Kyungpook National University, Taegu (Korea); Noh, S.K. [Yeoungnam University, Kyungsan (Korea)


    The copolymerization of ethylene (E) and norbornene (N) was examined by using various metallocene catalysts and modified-MAO (MMAO) cocatalyst. For C{sub 2}-symmetry catalysts such as rac-Et(Ind){sub 2}ZrCl{sub 2}, Me{sub 2}Si(Ind){sub 2}ZrCl{sub 2},Me{sub 2}Si(Cp){sub 2}ZrCl{sub 2} and Cs-symmetrical iPr(FluCp)ZrCl{sub 2} as well as CGC and di-bridged zirconocene, the effects of catalyst structure and [N]/[E] feed ratio on catalyst activity, thermal property and [N] content of copolymer (COC) was investigated. For rac-Et(Ind){sub 2}ZrCl{sub 2} catalyst of a constant [N]/[E] feed ratio, the appropriate conditions of [Al]/[Zr] mole ratio, polymerization temperature and cocatalyst structure were found to be 3000, 40 deg. C, MMAO cocatalyst, respectively. As [N]/[E] feed ratio increased. the incorporation of norbornene to copolymer increased while the activity of catalyst decreased except for iPr(FluCp)ZrCl{sub 2}. With consideration of catalyst activity as well as N content, it was found that rac-Et(Ind){sub 2}ZrCl{sub 2}/MMAO system exhibited relatively high activity and controllable T{sub g}. Monomer reactivity ratio was determined by Kelen-Tudos method. (author). 34 refs., 5 tabs., 3 figs.

  19. Productions of palm oil bio diesel whit heterogeneous basic catalysts compared to conventional homogeneous catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rios, Luis A; Franco C, Alexander; Zuleta S, Ernesto


    The conventional process to produce biodiesel involves the presence of homogeneous basic catalysts. However, these catalysts have disadvantages associated to the need of purification steps, which increase the cost of the final product and generate pollution problems caused by the effluents. This paper compares different homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts for the biodiesel production from palm oil. For this, heterogeneous catalysts supported on alumina were prepared and characterized by nitrogen adsorption, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X ray spectroscopy and X ray diffraction. Transesterification of palm oil with methanol was accomplished at 60 celsius degrade and one hour, varying methanol/oil ratio, the type of catalyst and its concentration. Yields of the reaction and purity of the so obtained biodiesel were evaluated. Comparing the catalysts performance, based on the amount, was found that sodium methoxide (CH 3 ONa) and potassium carbonate supported on alumina (K 2 CO 3 /Al 2 O 3 ) were the catalysts that give the higher purity of biodiesel (96.8 and 95.85% respectively). When was determined the active site quality, by dividing the performance by each mole of active sites, it was found that calcined Na 2 SO 4 /Al 2 O 3 has the most active sites.

  20. Protein Scaffolding for Small Molecule Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, David [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)


    We aim to design hybrid catalysts for energy production and storage that combine the high specificity, affinity, and tunability of proteins with the potent chemical reactivities of small organometallic molecules. The widely used Rosetta and RosettaDesign methodologies will be extended to model novel protein / small molecule catalysts in which one or many small molecule active centers are supported and coordinated by protein scaffolding. The promise of such hybrid molecular systems will be demonstrated with the nickel-phosphine hydrogenase of DuBois et. al.We will enhance the hydrogenase activity of the catalyst by designing protein scaffolds that incorporate proton relays and systematically modulate the local environment of the catalyticcenter. In collaboration with DuBois and Shaw, the designs will be experimentally synthesized and characterized.

  1. Catalyst design for clean and efficient fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Šaric, Manuel

    of synthesizing dimethyl carbonate electrochemically. Hydrodesulfurization is an industrial refining process in which sulfur is removed from oil in order to reduce SO2 emissions. The study on hydrodesulfurization involves determining the active sites and their atomic scale structure for the industrially used...... cobalt promoted MoS2 catalyst. Reactivity of a series of model molecules, found in oil prior to desulfurization, is studied on cobalt promoted MoS2. Such an approach has the potential to explain the underlying processes involved in the removal of sulfur at each specific site of the catalyst. The goal...... processes currently used. It is found that noble metals can be used as electrocatalysts for the synthesis of dimethyl carbonate, significantly lowering the potential when using copper instead of gold. Besides being active, copper was found to be selective towards dimethyl carbonate. A non-selective catalyst...

  2. Low temperature catalyst system for methanol production (United States)

    Sapienza, R.S.; Slegeir, W.A.; O'Hare, T.E.


    This patent discloses a catalyst and process useful at low temperatures (150/sup 0/C) and preferably in the range 80 to 120/sup 0/C used in the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The catalyst components are used in slurry form and comprise (1) a complex reducing agent derived from the component structure NaH-ROH-M(OAc)/sub 2/ where M is selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pd, and Co and R is a lower alkyl group containing 1 to 6 carbon atoms and (2) a metal carbonyl of a group VI (Mo, Cr, W) metal. For the first component, Nic is preferred (where M = Ni and R = tertiary amyl). For the second component, Mo(CO)/sub 6/ is preferred. The mixture is subjected to a conditioning or activating step under temperature and pressure, similar to the parameters given above, to afford the active catalyst.

  3. Homogeneous catalyst formulations for methanol production (United States)

    Mahajan, Devinder; Sapienza, Richard S.; Slegeir, William A.; O'Hare, Thomas E.


    There is disclosed synthesis of CH.sub.3 OH from carbon monoxide and hydrogen using an extremely active homogeneous catalyst for methanol synthesis directly from synthesis gas. The catalyst operates preferably between C. and preferably at 100-150 psia synthesis gas to produce methanol. Use can be made of syngas mixtures which contain considerable quantities of other gases, such as nitrogen, methane or excess hydrogen. The catalyst is composed of two components: (a) a transition metal carbonyl complex and (b) an alkoxide component. In the simplest formulation, component (a) is a complex of nickel tetracarbonyl and component (b) is methoxide (CH.sub.3 O.sup.13 ), both being dissolved in a methanol solvent system. The presence of a co-solvent such as p-dioxane, THF, polyalcohols, ethers, hydrocarbons, and crown ethers accelerates the methanol synthesis reaction.

  4. Cerium promoted Fischer-Tropsch catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiato, R.A.; Bar-Gadda, R.; Miseo, S.


    This patent describes a hydrocarbon synthesis catalyst composition comprising sintered combination metal oxides having the following components in the stated weight percentage of the catalyst composition: (a) about 5 to about 80 weight percent Fe oxide; (b) about 4 to about 20 weight percent Zn oxide; (c) about 10 to about 40 weight percent Ti and/or Mn oxide; (d) about 1 to about 5 weight percent K, Rb, and/or Cs oxide; and (e) about 1 to about 10 weight percent Ce oxide, such that where the catalyst contains Fe, the sintered combination comprises a series of Fe, Zn, and/or Ti and/or Mn spinels and oxides of K, Rb and/or Cs, dispersed in a Ce oxide matrix

  5. Pyrochlore catalysts for hydrocarbon fuel reforming (United States)

    Berry, David A.; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Haynes, Daniel; Smith, Mark; Spivey, James J.


    A method of catalytically reforming a reactant gas mixture using a pyrochlore catalyst material comprised of one or more pyrochlores having the composition A2B2-y-zB'yB"zO7-.DELTA., where y>0 and z.gtoreq.0. Distribution of catalytically active metals throughout the structure at the B site creates an active and well dispersed metal locked into place in the crystal structure. This greatly reduces the metal sintering that typically occurs on supported catalysts used in reforming reactions, and reduces deactivation by sulfur and carbon. Further, oxygen mobility may also be enhanced by elemental exchange of promoters at sites in the pyrochlore. The pyrochlore catalyst material may be utilized in catalytic reforming reactions for the conversion of hydrocarbon fuels into synthesis gas (H2+CO) for fuel cells, among other uses.

  6. Sintering of nickel steam reforming catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, Jens; Larsen, Niels Wessel; Falsig, Hanne


    The lifetimes of heterogeneous catalysts in many widely used industrial processes are determined by the loss of active surface area. In this context, the underlying physical sintering mechanism and quantitative information about the rate of sintering at industrial conditions are relevant....... In this paper, particle migration and coalescence in nickel steam reforming catalysts is studied. Density functional theory calculations indicate that Ni-OH dominate nickel transport at nickel surfaces in the presence of steam and hydrogen as Ni-OH has the lowest combined energies of formation and diffusion...... compared to other potential nickel transport species. The relation between experimental catalyst sintering data and the effective mass diffusion constant for Ni-OH is established by numerical modelling of the particle migration and coalescence process. Using this relation, the effective mass diffusion...

  7. Polypropylene obtained through zeolite supported catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queli C. Bastos


    Full Text Available Propylene polymerizations were carried out with f2C(Flu(CpZrCl2 and SiMe2(Ind2ZrCl2 catalysts supported on silica, zeolite sodic mordenite (NaM and acid mordenite (HM. The polymerizations were performed at different temperatures and varying aluminium/zirconium molar ratios ([Al]/[Zr]. The effect of these reaction parameters on the catalyst activity was investigated using a proposed statistical experimental planning. In the case of f2C(Flu(CpZrCl2, SiO2 and NaM were used as support and the catalyst performance evaluated using toluene and pentane as polymerization solvent. The molecular weight, molecular weight distribution, melting point and crystallinity of the polymers were examined. The results indicate very high activities for the syndiospecific heterogeneous system. Also, the polymers obtained had superior Mw and stereoregularity.

  8. Study of ammonia synthesis over uranium catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitsyn, V.I.; Erofeev, B.V.; Mikhajlenko, I.E.; Gorelkin, I.I.; Ivanov, L.S.


    The effect of induced radiactivity and chemical composition of uranium catalysts on their catalytic activity in the ammonia synthesis reaction has been studied. The catalyst samples comprise pieces of metal uranium and chip irradiated in nuclear reactor by the 4.3x10 16 n/cm 2 integral flux of slow neutrons. Studies of catalytic activity was carried out at 1 atm and 340-510 deg C when stoichiometric nitrogen-hydrogen mixture passed through the following installation. At different temperatures uranium nitrides of different composition are shown to be formed. Uranium nitrides with the composition close to UN 2 are the samples with the highest catalYtic activity. The reduction of catalytic activity of uranium catalysts with the increased temperature of their formation above 400 deg C is explained by low catalytic activity of forming UNsub(1.7) in comparison with UN 2 . Catalytic properties of irradiated and nonirradiated samples do not differ from one another

  9. TXRF analysis of aged three way catalysts. (United States)

    Fernández-Ruiz, R; Galisteo, F Cabello; Larese, C; Granados, M López; Mariscal, R; Fierro, J L G


    A methodology for the quantitative analysis of the elements present in car exhaust catalysts by TXRF is described. Some of the most relevant catalytic components (Zr, Rh, Pd) and contaminant elements (P, Pb, Zn, Pt, Ca and Ni) on car Three Way Catalysts were quantified during vehicle aging. The study was conducted along the main axis of a Ford Focus 1.6i catalytic cartridge, aiming to obtain the axial profile of the elements retained or eliminated after more than 59,000 km. The analysis of a fresh Three Way Catalysts (0 km) was also conducted for comparative purposes. The existence of a strong differences for elemental concentration in the interphase between the two blocks of the catalytic cartridge has been quantitatively measured for first time. In addition, the behaviour of the contaminant absorption capacity of both catalytic blocks has been obtained. Finally, the loss of the contaminant elements Pb and Zn to the environment has been proven.

  10. New catalysts for miniaturized methanol fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christoffer Mølleskov

    . The kinetics can however be improved by using a superior catalyst. Therefore, the aim of this thesis is to identify new catalyst material for methanol fuel cells. By analysing the performance of the standard catalysts (PtRu and Pt) currently being applied in methanol fuel cells as anode and cathode......The methanol fuel cell is an interesting energy technology, capable of converting the chemical energy of methanol directly into electricity. The technology is specifically attractive for small mobile applications such as laptops, smartphones, tablets etc. since it offers almost instantaneously...... demonstrated by the Danish Technological Institute; however, for the technology to become more widely adapted, the power density of the fuel cell must be increased. It is well known that a considerable part of the energy from the methanol is lost in the fuel cell during the conversion due to poor kinetics...

  11. Naphtha reforming on mono and bimetallic catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Querini, C.A.; Figoli, N.S.; Parera, J.M.


    Catalytic activity, selectivity and stability in the reforming of several naphtha cuts on Pt/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, Pt-Re-S/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and Pt-Ge/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ were studied by carrying out activity-deactivation tests which consist of three periods. During the first and third periods, industrial conditions were reproduced, and during the second one, pressure and H/sub 2//hydrocarbon ratio were decreased in order to accelerate the deactivation. The results are compared with those obtained in the reforming of n-paraffins and cyclopentanes, showing an agreement with the qualitative performance of the catalysts. Pt-Re-S/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ is the most active catalyst; Pt-Ge/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ is the one showing the largest liquid yield, and Pt/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ is the catalyst producing the largest volume of gas. Coke deposited on the catalysts shows a minimum for a feed with a mean boiling point of 100 C. This minimum, on one hand is the result of the greater coking capacity of the naphthenes with five carbon atom rings present in the lighter cuts and, on the other hand, is caused by the presence of 8, 9 and 10 carbon atom paraffins and aromatics present in the heavier cuts. From the results obtained on each of the catalysts, reactor performance can be improved using simultaneously two bimetallic catalysts in separate beds. 13 refs.

  12. Catalysts for oxidation of mercury in flue gas (United States)

    Granite, Evan J [Wexford, PA; Pennline, Henry W [Bethel Park, PA


    Two new classes of catalysts for the removal of heavy metal contaminants, especially mercury (Hg) from effluent gases. Both of these classes of catalysts are excellent absorbers of HCl and Cl.sub.2 present in effluent gases. This adsorption of oxidizing agents aids in the oxidation of heavy metal contaminants. The catalysts remove mercury by oxidizing the Hg into mercury (II) moieties. For one class of catalysts, the active component is selected from the group consisting of iridium (Ir) and iridum-platinum (Ir/Pt) alloys. The Ir and Ir/Pt alloy catalysts are especially corrosion resistant. For the other class of catalyst, the active component is partially combusted coal or "Thief" carbon impregnated with Cl.sub.2. Untreated Thief carbon catalyst can be self-activating in the presence of effluent gas streams. The Thief carbon catalyst is disposable by means of capture from the effluent gas stream in a particulate collection device (PCD).

  13. Advanced Aqueous Phase Catalyst Development using Combinatorial Methods, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The use of combinatorial methods is proposed to rapidly screen catalyst formulations for the advanced development of aqueous phase oxidation catalysts with greater...

  14. Dearomatization of jet fuel on irradiated platinum-supported catalyst (United States)

    Múčka, V.; Ostrihoňová, A.; Kopernický, I.; Mikula, O.

    The effect of ionizing radiation ( 60Co γ-rays) on Pt-supported catalyst used for the dearomatization of jet fuel with distillation in the range 395-534 K has been studied. Pre-irradiation of the catalyst with doses in the range 10 2-5 × 10 4 Gy leads to the partial catalyst activation. Irradiation of the catalyst enhances its resistance to catalyst poisons, particularly to sulphur-compounds, and this is probably the reason for its catalytic activity being ˜60-100% greater than that of un-irradiated catalyst. Optimum conditions for dearomatization on the irradiated catalyst were found and, by means of a rotary three-factorial experiment, it was shown that these lie at lower temperatures and lower pressures than those for un-irradiated catalyst.

  15. Calcium and lanthanum solid base catalysts for transesterification (United States)

    Ng, K. Y. Simon; Yan, Shuli; Salley, Steven O.


    In one aspect, a heterogeneous catalyst comprises calcium hydroxide and lanthanum hydroxide, wherein the catalyst has a specific surface area of more than about 10 m.sup.2/g. In another aspect, a heterogeneous catalyst comprises a calcium compound and a lanthanum compound, wherein the catalyst has a specific surface area of more than about 10 m.sup.2/g, and a total basicity of about 13.6 mmol/g. In further another aspect, a heterogeneous catalyst comprises calcium oxide and lanthanum oxide, wherein the catalyst has a specific surface area of more than about 10 m.sup.2/g. In still another aspect, a process for preparing a catalyst comprises introducing a base precipitant, a neutral precipitant, and an acid precipitant to a solution comprising a first metal ion and a second metal ion to form a precipitate. The process further comprises calcining the precipitate to provide the catalyst.

  16. Preparation of Heterogeneous CaO Catalysts for Biodiesel Production (United States)

    Widayat, W.; Darmawan, T.; Hadiyanto, H.; Rosyid, R. Ar


    The objective of this research was to develop heterogeneous catalysts from three CaO sources for biodiesel synthesis. The CaO catalyst were prepared from limestone, calcium hydroxide and calciun carbonate with thermal processing in a muffle furnace at 900°C.. The results showed that CaO catalyst from limestone has better characteristic than catalyst from Calcium Hydroxide and Calcium Carbonate. From morphology testing, the CaO catalyst derived from limestone formed a crystal, while The X-ray difraction analysis showed that the amount of CaO contained in limestone was the highest among the others. The yield of biodiesel obtained from the experiment was 89.98% for the catalyst from limestone; 85.15% for the catalyst Ca (OH)2; and 78.71% for CaCO3 catalyst.

  17. Enhancement of alkylation catalysts for improved supercritical fluid regeneration (United States)

    Ginosar, Daniel M.; Petkovic, Lucia M.


    A method of modifying an alkylation catalyst to reduce the formation of condensed hydrocarbon species thereon. The method comprises providing an alkylation catalyst comprising a plurality of active sites. The plurality of active sites on the alkylation catalyst may include a plurality of weakly acidic active sites, intermediate acidity active sites, and strongly acidic active sites. A base is adsorbed to a portion of the plurality of active sites, such as the strongly acidic active sites, selectively poisoning the strongly acidic active sites. A method of modifying the alkylation catalyst by providing an alkylation catalyst comprising a pore size distribution that sterically constrains formation of the condensed hydrocarbon species on the alkylation catalyst or by synthesizing the alkylation catalyst to comprise a decreased number of strongly acidic active sites is also disclosed, as is a method of improving a regeneration efficiency of the alkylation catalyst.

  18. Highly Durable Catalysts for Ignition of Advanced Monopropellants Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Monopropellants are readily ignited or decomposed over a bed of solid catalyst. A serious limitation of existing catalysts in the ignition of advanced...

  19. Sulfur tolerant zeolite supported platinum catalysts for aromatics hydrogenation (United States)


    An experimental study of sulfur tolerant zeolite platinum catalysts for aormatics hydrogenation. Platinum catalysts supported on Y-zeolite have been prepared and characterized in various ways, including the hydrogenation of toluene in a high pressure...

  20. Hafnium metallocene catalyst for the polymerization of olefins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewen, J.A.


    A catalyst is described for the polymerization and copolymerization of olefins comprising a an alumoxane and chiral, stereorigid hafnium metallocene catalyst. It includes a cyclopentadienyl ring and germanium, silicon, phosphorus, nitrogen, boron, and aluminum radicals.

  1. Method of performing sugar dehydration and catalyst treatment (United States)

    Hu, Jianli [Kennewick, WA; Holladay, Johnathan E [Kennewick, WA; Zhang, Xinjie [Burlington, MA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA


    The invention includes a method of treating a solid acid catalyst. After exposing the catalyst to a mixture containing a sugar alcohol, the catalyst is washed with an organic solvent and is then exposed to a second reaction mixture. The invention includes a process for production of anhydrosugar alcohol. A solid acid catalyst is provided to convert sugar alcohol in a first sample to an anhydrosugar alcohol. The catalyst is then washed with an organic solvent and is subsequently utilized to expose a second sample. The invention includes a method for selective production of an anhydrosugar. A solid acid catalyst is provided within a reactor and anhydrosugar alcohol is formed by flowing a starting sugar alcohol into the reactor. The acid catalyst is then exposed to an organic solvent which allows a greater amount of additional anhydrosugar to be produced than would occur without exposing the acid catalyst to the organic solvent.

  2. Dearomatization of jet fuel on irradiated platinum-supported catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mucka, V.; Ostrihonova, A.; Kopernicky, I.; Mikula, O.


    The effect of ionizing radiation ( 60 Co #betta#-rays) on Pt-supported catalyst used for the dearomatization of jet fuel with distillation in the range 395 to 534 K has been studied. Pre-irradiation of the catalyst with doses in the range 10 2 to 5 x 10 4 Gy leads to the partial catalyst activation. Irradiation of the catalyst enhances its resistance to catalyst poisons, particularly to sulphur-compounds, and this is probably the reason for its catalytic activity being approx. 60 to 100% greater than that of un-irradiated catalyst. Optimum conditions for dearomatization on the irradiated catalyst were found and, by means of a rotary three-factorial experiment, it was shown that these lie at lower temperatures and lower pressures than those for un-irradiated catalyst. (author)

  3. Ruthenium-based olefin metathesis catalysts bearing pH-responsive ligands: External control of catalyst solubility and activity (United States)

    Balof, Shawna Lynn


    Sixteen novel, Ru-based olefin metathesis catalysts bearing pH responsive ligands were synthesized. The pH-responsive groups employed with these catalysts included dimethylamino (NMe2) modified NHC ligands as well as N-donor dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) and 3-(o-pyridyl)propylidene ligands. These pH-responsive ligands provided the means by which the solubility and/or activity profiles of the catalysts produced could be controlled via acid addition. The main goal of this dissertation was to design catalyst systems capable of performing ring opening metathesis (ROMP) and ring closing metathesis (RCM) reactions in both organic and aqueous media. In an effort to quickly gain access to new catalyst structures, a template synthesis for functionalized NHC ligand precursors was designed, in addition to other strategies, to obtain ligand precursors with ancillary NMe2 groups. Kinetic studies for the catalysts produced from these precursors showed external control of catalyst solubility was afforded via protonation of the NMe2 groups of their NHC ligands. Additionally, this protonation afforded external control of catalyst propagation rates for several catalysts. This is the first known independent external control for the propagation rates of ROMP catalysts. The incorporation of pH-responsive N-donor ligands into catalyst structures also provided the means for the external control of metathesis activity, as the protonation of these ligands resulted in an increased initiation rate based on their fast and irreversible dissociation from the metal center. The enhanced external control makes these catalysts applicable to a wide range of applications, some of which have been explored by us and/or through collaboration. Three of the catalysts designed showed remarkable metathesis activity in aqueous media. These catalysts displayed comparable RCM activity in aqueous media to a class of water-soluble catalysts reported by Grubbs et al., considered to be the most active catalyst for

  4. Resin catalysts and method of preparation (United States)

    Smith, L.A. Jr.


    Heat stabilized catalyst compositions are prepared from nuclear sulfonic acid, for example, macroporous crosslinked polyvinyl aromatic compounds containing sulfonic acid groups are neutralized with a metal of Al, Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, ions or mixtures and alkali, alkaline earth metals or ammonium ions by contacting the resin containing the sulfonic acid with aqueous solutions of the metals salts and alkali, alkaline earth metal or ammonium salts. The catalysts have at least 50% of the sulfonic acid groups neutralized with metal ions and the balance of the sulfonic acid groups neutralized with alkali, alkaline earth ions or ammonium ions.

  5. Ruthenium-Aryloxide Catalysts for Olefin Metathesis (United States)

    Monfette, Sebastien; Blacquiere, Johanna M.; Conrad, Jay C.; Beach, Nicholas J.; Fogg, Deryn E.

    : Advances in design of ruthenium aryloxide catalysts for olefin metathesis are described. The target complexes are accessible on reaction of RuCl2(NHC)(py)2 (CHPh) (NHC - N-heterocyclic carbene) with electron-deficient, monodentate aryl- oxides, or aryloxides that yield small, rigid chelate rings. The best of these catalysts offer activity comparable to or greater than that of the parent chloride (Grubbs) systems in ring-closing metathesis (RCM). Preliminary studies of the electronic nature of the Ru-X bond suggest that the metal center is more electropositive in the aryloxide complexes than in the Grubbs systems.

  6. Asymptotic stability of a catalyst particle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedel, Stig; Michelsen, Michael L.; Villadsen, John


    The catalyst asymptotic stability problem is studied by means of several new methods that allow accurate solutions to be calculated where other methods have given qualitatively erroneous results. The underlying eigenvalue problem is considered in three limiting situations Le = ∞, 1 and 0. These a......The catalyst asymptotic stability problem is studied by means of several new methods that allow accurate solutions to be calculated where other methods have given qualitatively erroneous results. The underlying eigenvalue problem is considered in three limiting situations Le = ∞, 1 and 0...

  7. Catalysis by nonmetals rules for catalyst selection

    CERN Document Server

    Krylov, Oleg V


    Catalysis by Non-metals: Rules of Catalyst Selection presents the development of scientific principles for the collection of catalysts. It discusses the investigation of the mechanism of chemosorption and catalysis. It addresses a series of properties of solid with catalytic activity. Some of the topics covered in the book are the properties of a solid and catalytic activity in oxidation-reduction reactions; the difference of electronegativities and the effective charges of atoms; the role of d-electrons in the catalytic properties of a solid; the color of solids; and proton-acid and proton-ba

  8. Investigation of iron-bismuth-molybdenum catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ven'yaminov, S.A.; Barannik, G.B.; Pitaeva, A.N.; Sazonova, N.N.; Plyasova, L.M.


    The catalytic properties of an oxide iron-bismuth-molybdenum system in reactions of oxidative ammonolysis of propylene and oxidative dehydrogenation of butene-1 are investigated. It is shown that catalysts containing double molybdate of bismuth and iron (the X-phase) exhibit an increased catalytic activity as compared with bismuth molybdate (Bi 2 O 3 x3MoO 3 ). Preliminary reduction of such specimens increases their activity and selectivity in subsequent work under conditions of a stationary course of the oxidation reaction. The activity and selectivity of catalysts containing only bismuth molybdate and iron molybdate are due to the additivity of the properties of the separate molybdates

  9. Optimal catalyst curves: Connecting density functional theory calculations with industrial reactor design and catalyst selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, C.J.H.; Dahl, Søren; Boisen, A.


    For ammonia synthesis catalysts a volcano-type relationship has been found experimentally. We demonstrate that by combining density functional theory calculations with a microkinetic model the position of the maximum of the volcano curve is sensitive to the reaction conditions. The catalytic...... ammonia synthesis activity, to a first approximation, is a function only of the binding energy of nitrogen to the catalyst. Therefore, it is possible to evaluate which nitrogen binding energy is optimal under given reaction conditions. This leads to the concept of optimal catalyst curves, which illustrate...

  10. Thief carbon catalyst for oxidation of mercury in effluent stream (United States)

    Granite, Evan J [Wexford, PA; Pennline, Henry W [Bethel Park, PA


    A catalyst for the oxidation of heavy metal contaminants, especially mercury (Hg), in an effluent stream is presented. The catalyst facilitates removal of mercury through the oxidation of elemental Hg into mercury (II) moieties. The active component of the catalyst is partially combusted coal, or "Thief" carbon, which can be pre-treated with a halogen. An untreated Thief carbon catalyst can be self-promoting in the presence of an effluent gas streams entrained with a halogen.

  11. Recent Development of Palladium-Supported Catalysts for Chemoselective Hydrogenation. (United States)

    Monguchi, Yasunari; Ichikawa, Tomohiro; Sajiki, Hironao


    This paper describes practical and selective hydrogenation methodologies using heterogeneous palladium catalysts. Chemoselectivity develops dependent on the catalyst activity based on the characteristic of the supports, derived from structural components, functional groups, and/or morphologies. We especially focus on our recent development of heterogeneous palladium catalysts supported on chelate resin, ceramic, and spherically shaped activated carbon. In addition, the application of flow technology for chemoselective hydrogenation using the palladium catalysts immobilized on molecular sieves 3A and boron nitride is outlined.

  12. Tethered catalysts for the hydration of carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdez, Carlos A; Satcher, Jr., Joe H; Aines, Roger D; Wong, Sergio E; Baker, Sarah E; Lightstone, Felice C; Stolaroff, Joshuah K


    A system is provided that substantially increases the efficiency of CO.sub.2 capture and removal by positioning a catalyst within an optimal distance from the air-liquid interface. The catalyst is positioned within the layer determined to be the highest concentration of carbon dioxide. A hydrophobic tether is attached to the catalyst and the hydrophobic tether modulates the position of the catalyst within the liquid layer containing the highest concentration of carbon dioxide.

  13. Concluding remarks: Progress toward the design of solid catalysts


    Gates, BC


    © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry. The 2016 Faraday Discussion on the topic "Designing New Heterogeneous Catalysts" brought together a group of scientists and engineers to address forefront topics in catalysis and the challenge of catalyst design - which is daunting because of the intrinsic non-uniformity of the surfaces of catalytic materials. "Catalyst design" has taken on a pragmatic meaning which implies the discovery of new and better catalysts on the basis of fundamental understandi...

  14. Nano Catalysts for Diesel Engine Emission Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narula, Chaitanya Kumar [ORNL; Yang, Xiaofan [ORNL; Debusk, Melanie Moses [ORNL; Mullins, David R [ORNL; Mahurin, Shannon Mark [ORNL; Wu, Zili [ORNL


    The objective of this project was to develop durable zeolite nanocatalysts with broader operating temperature windows to treat diesel engine emissions to enable diesel engine based equipment and vehicles to meet future regulatory requirements. A second objective was to improve hydrothermal durability of zeolite catalysts to at least 675 C. The results presented in this report show that we have successfully achieved both objectives. Since it is accepted that the first step in NO{sub x} conversion under SCR (selective catalytic reduction) conditions involves NO oxidation to NO{sub 2}, we reasoned that catalyst modification that can enhance NO oxidation at low-temperatures should facilitate NO{sub x} reduction at low temperatures. Considering that Cu-ZSM-5 is a more efficient catalyst than Fe-ZSM-5 at low-temperature, we chose to modify Cu-ZSM-5. It is important to point out that the poor low-temperature efficiency of Fe-ZSM-5 has been shown to be due to selective absorption of NH{sub 3} at low-temperatures rather than poor NO oxidation activity. In view of this, we also reasoned that an increased electron density on copper in Cu-ZSM-5 would inhibit any bonding with NH{sub 3} at low-temperatures. In addition to modified Cu-ZSM-5, we synthesized a series of new heterobimetallic zeolites, by incorporating a secondary metal cation M (Sc{sup 3+}, Fe{sup 3+}, In{sup 3+}, and La{sup 3+}) in Cu exchanged ZSM-5, zeolite-beta, and SSZ-13 zeolites under carefully controlled experimental conditions. Characterization by diffuse-reflectance ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) does not permit conclusive structural determination but supports the proposal that M{sup 3+} has been incorporated in the vicinity of Cu(II). The protocols for degreening catalysts, testing under various operating conditions, and accelerated aging

  15. Biomass Conversion over Heteropoly Acid Catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Jizhe


    Biomass is a natural resource that is both abundant and sustainable. Its efficient utilization has long been the focus of research and development efforts with the aim to substitute it for fossil-based feedstock. In addition to the production of biofuels (e.g., ethanol) from biomass, which has been to some degree successful, its conversion to high value-added chemicals is equally important. Among various biomass conversion pathways, catalytic conversion is usually preferred, as it provides a cost-effective and eco-benign route to the desired products with high selectivities. The research of this thesis is focused on the conversion of biomass to various chemicals of commercial interest by selective catalytic oxidation. Molecular oxygen is chosen as the oxidant considering its low cost and environment friendly features in comparison with commonly used hydrogen peroxide. However, the activation of molecular oxygen usually requires high reaction temperatures, leading to over oxidation and thus lower selectivities. Therefore, it is highly desirable to develop effective catalysts for such conversion systems. We use kegging-type heteropoly acids (HPAs) as a platform for catalysts design because of their high catalytic activities and ease of medication. Using HPA catalysts allows the conversion taking place at relatively low temperature, which is beneficial to saving production cost as well as to improving the reaction selectivity. The strong acidity of HPA promotes the hydrolysis of biomass of giant molecules (e.g. cellulose), which is the first as well as the most difficult step in the conversion process. Under certain circumstances, a HPA combines the merits of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts, acting as an efficient homogeneous catalyst during the reaction while being easily separated as a heterogeneous catalyst after the reaction. We have successfully applied HPAs in several biomass conversion systems. Specially, we prepared a HPA-based bi-functional catalyst

  16. Synthesis of iron/GAC catalyst for wastewater treatment using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Iron catalyst dispersed on granular activated carbon (GAC) was prepared by impregnating Fe(NO3)3 solution on GAC. The mixed solution was annealed at 600◦C in muffle furnace under ambient condition for 1 h. The structural property of the catalyst was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The catalyst's ...

  17. Attrition resistant Fischer-Tropsch catalyst and support (United States)

    Singleton, Alan H.; Oukaci, Rachid; Goodwin, James G.


    A catalyst support having improved attrition resistance and a catalyst produced therefrom. The catalyst support is produced by a method comprising the step of treating calcined .gamma.-alumina having no catalytic material added thereto with an acidic aqueous solution having an acidity level effective for increasing the attrition resistance of the calcined .gamma.-alumina.

  18. Enhanced gasification of wood in the presence of mixed catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, S. L.; Mudge, L. K.; Sealock, Jr., L. J.; Robertus, R. J.; Mitchell, D. E.

    Experimental results obtained in laboratory investigations of steam gasification of wood in the presence of mixed catalysts are presented. These studies are designed to test the technical feasibility of producing specific gaseous products from wood by enhancing its reactivity and product specificity through the use of combined catalysts. The desired products include substitute natural gas, hydrocarbon synthesis gas and ammonia synthesis gas. The gasification reactions are controlled through the use of specific catalyst combinations and operating parameters. A primary alkali carbonate gasification catalyst impregnated into the wood combined with specific commercially available secondary catalysts produced the desired products. A yield of 50 vol % methane was obtained with a randomly mixed combination of a commercial nickel methanation catalyst and silica-alumina cracking catalyst at a weight ratio of 3:1 respectively. Steam gasification of wood in the presence of a commercial Si-Al cracking catalyst produced the desired hydrocarbon synthesis gas. Hydrogen-to-carbon monoxide ratios needed for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis of hydrocarbons were obtained with this catalyst system. A hydrogen-to-nitrogen ratio of 3:1 for ammonia synthesis gas was achieved with steam-air gasification of wood in the presence of catalysts. The most effective secondary catalyst system employed to produce the ammonia synthesis gas included two commercially prepared catalysts formulated to promote the water-gas shift reaction.

  19. Hydrogenation of cottonseed oil with nickel, palladium and platinum catalysts (United States)

    A number of commercial catalysts have been used to study hydrogenation of cottonseed oil, with the goal of minimizing trans fatty acid (TFA) content. Despite the different temperatures used, catalyst levels, and reaction times, the data from each catalyst type fall on the same curve when the TFA le...

  20. Coke Accumulation on Catalysts used in a Fluidized Bed Pyrolyzer (United States)

    We have examined the impact of various solid catalysts on the product distribution resulting from the pyrolysis of biomass. Though catalysts do have a discernible impact, this impact is small. In our bench-top pyrolyzer designed as a catalyst screening tool, we measure bulk product distribution as...

  1. An overview on the applications of 'Doyle catalysts' in asymmetric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Johnson Matthey has recently obtained a worldwide exclusive licence to manufacture and sell a unique class of chiral dirhodium(II) carboxamidate catalysts called 'Doyle catalysts'. These homogeneous catalysts are capable of producing chiral cyclopropanes, cyclopropenes and C–H insertion products of very high ...

  2. The Immobilization of a Transfer Hydrogenation Catalyst on Colloidal Particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ravensteijn, Bas G P|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/338806008; Schild, Dirk Jan; Kegel, Willem K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/113729464; Klein Gebbink, Robertus J M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/166032646


    In this paper, we report a new synthetic procedure to immobilize a transfer hydrogenation catalyst on the surface of colloidal polystyrene particles. Using supports of colloidal dimensions allows for combining a relatively high surface area for catalyst binding, mobility of the catalyst, and facile

  3. 40 CFR 90.329 - Catalyst thermal stress test. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Catalyst thermal stress test. 90.329... Equipment Provisions § 90.329 Catalyst thermal stress test. (a) Oven characteristics. The oven used for thermally stressing the test catalyst must be capable of maintaining a temperature of 500 ±5 °C and 1000 ±10...

  4. 40 CFR 91.329 - Catalyst thermal stress test. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Catalyst thermal stress test. 91.329....329 Catalyst thermal stress test. (a) Oven characteristics. The oven used for termally stressing the test catalyst must be capable of maintaining a temperature of 500 ±5 °C and 1000 ±10 °C. (b) Evaluation...

  5. Catalyst design for carbon nanotube growth using atomistic modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pint, Cary L; Bozzolo, Guillermo; Hauge, Robert


    The formation and stability of bimetallic catalyst particles, in the framework of carbon nanotube growth, is studied using the Bozzolo-Ferrante-Smith (BFS) method for alloys. Monte Carlo-Metropolis simulations with the BFS method are utilized in order to predict and study equilibrium configurations for nanoscale catalyst particles which are directly relevant to the catalyst state prior to growth of carbon nanotubes. At the forefront of possible catalyst combinations is the popular Fe-Mo bimetallic catalyst, which we have recently studied experimentally. We explain our experimental results, which indicate that the growth observed is dependent on the order of co-catalyst deposition, in the straightforward interpretation of BFS strain and chemical energy contributions toward the formation of Fe-Mo catalyst prior to growth. We find that the competition between the formation of metastable inner Mo cores and clusters of surface-segregated Mo atoms in Fe-Mo catalyst particles influences catalyst formation, and we investigate the role of Mo concentration and catalyst particle size in this process. Finally, we apply the same modeling approach to other prominent bimetallic catalysts and suggest that this technique can be a powerful tool to understand and manipulate catalyst design for highly efficient carbon nanotube growth

  6. 40 CFR 91.427 - Catalyst thermal stress resistance evaluation. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Catalyst thermal stress resistance... Procedures § 91.427 Catalyst thermal stress resistance evaluation. (a)(1) The purpose of the evaluation procedure specified in this section is to determine the effect of thermal stress on catalyst conversion...

  7. Synthesis of iron/GAC catalyst for wastewater treatment using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Iron catalyst dispersed on granular activated carbon (GAC) was prepared by impregnating Fe(NO3)3 solution on GAC. The mixed solution was annealed at 600°C in muffle furnace under ambient condition for 1 h. The structural property of the catalyst was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The catalyst's activity and ...

  8. Neutral nickel ethylene oligo- and polymerization catalysts: towards computational catalyst prediction and design. (United States)

    Heyndrickx, Wouter; Occhipinti, Giovanni; Jensen, Vidar R


    DFT calculations have been used to elucidate the chain termination mechanisms for neutral nickel ethylene oligo- and polymerization catalysts and to rationalize the kind of oligomers and polymers produced by each catalyst. The catalysts studied are the (κ(2)-O,O)-coordinated (1,1,1,5,5,5-hexafluoro-2,4-acetylacetonato)nickel catalyst I, the (κ(2)-P,O)-coordinated SHOP-type nickel catalyst II, the (κ(2)-N,O)-coordinated anilinotropone and salicylaldiminato nickel catalysts III and IV, respectively, and the (κ(2)-P,N)-coordinated phosphinosulfonamide nickel catalyst V. Numerous termination pathways involving β-H elimination and β-H transfer steps have been investigated, and the most probable routes identified. Despite the complexity and multitude of the possible termination pathways, the information most critical to chain termination is contained in only few transition states. In addition, by consideration of the propagation pathway, we have been able to estimate chain lengths and discriminate between oligo- and polymerization catalysts. In agreement with experiment, we found the Gibbs free energy difference between the overall barrier for the most facile propagation and termination pathways to be close to 0 kcal mol(-1) for the ethylene oligomerization catalysts I and V, whereas values of at least 7 kcal mol(-1) in favor of propagation were determined for the polymerization catalysts III and IV. Because of the shared intermediates between the termination and branching pathways, we have been able to identify the preferred cis/trans regiochemistry of β-H elimination and show that a pronounced difference in σ donation of the two bridgehead atoms of the bidentate ligand can suppress hydride formation and thus branching. The degree of rationalization obtained here from a handful of key intermediates and transition states is promising for the use of computational methods in the screening and prediction of new catalysts of the title class. © 2014 WILEY

  9. Solid Acid Catalysts in Green Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 10. Solid Acid Catalysts in Green Chemistry - Some Practical Examples. Leena Rao. General Article Volume 12 Issue 10 October 2007 pp 30-36. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  10. Solid Acid Catalysts in Green Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 8. Solid Acid Catalysts in Green Chemistry - Emerging Eco-Friendly Practices in Chemical Industry. Leena Rao. General Article Volume 12 Issue 8 August 2007 pp 65-75 ...

  11. Selective Oxidations using Nanostructured Heterogeneous Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mielby, Jerrik Jørgen

    The aim of this thesis is to investigate and develop new efficient methods to oxidise alcohols and amines using heterogeneous catalysts and either O2 or H2O2 as oxidants. From an economic and environmental point of view, these oxidants are ideal, because they are cheap and readily available and b...... stability, catalytic activity and selectivity for the gas-phase oxidation of bioethanol to acetaldehyde, which may become a favourable and green alternative to the ethylene route.......The aim of this thesis is to investigate and develop new efficient methods to oxidise alcohols and amines using heterogeneous catalysts and either O2 or H2O2 as oxidants. From an economic and environmental point of view, these oxidants are ideal, because they are cheap and readily available......, the chapter focuses on the use of supported metal catalysts for the selective oxidation of alcohols, which are currently dominated by the platinum group metals. Chapter 2 deals with the most important methods to characterise heterogeneous catalysts, including X-ray powder diffraction, physisorption analysis...

  12. Alum an Efficient Catalyst for Erlenmeyer Synthesis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    found to be useful precursors for the synthesis of amino acids,2 peptides,3 and ... tuted imidazoles,21h etc. However, there are no examples of the use of alum as a catalyst for the synthesis of azlactone deriva- tives. 2. Result and Discussion .... 12 P.S. Rao and R.V. Venkataratnam, Indian J. Chem, 1994, 33B, 984–985.

  13. Attrition resistant gamma-alumina catalyst support (United States)

    Singleton, Alan H.; Oukaci, Rachid; Goodwin, James G.


    A .gamma.-alumina catalyst support having improved attrition resistance produced by a method comprising the steps of treating a particulate .gamma.-alumina material with an acidic aqueous solution comprising water and nitric acid and then, prior to adding any catalytic material thereto, calcining the treated .gamma.-alumina.

  14. Design of porous nanostructured solid catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildstrøm, Jacob Oskar

    and activity. The basis of the catalyst is the yolk-shell particles consisting of small platinum nanoparticles and a shell of nitrogen doped carbon with graphitic elements. The carbon shell will be activated with potassium hydroxide to generate some microporosity in the shell, to improve the diffusion...

  15. Theoretical studies of homogeneous catalysts mimicking nitrogenase. (United States)

    Sgrignani, Jacopo; Franco, Duvan; Magistrato, Alessandra


    The conversion of molecular nitrogen to ammonia is a key biological and chemical process and represents one of the most challenging topics in chemistry and biology. In Nature the Mo-containing nitrogenase enzymes perform nitrogen 'fixation' via an iron molybdenum cofactor (FeMo-co) under ambient conditions. In contrast, industrially, the Haber-Bosch process reduces molecular nitrogen and hydrogen to ammonia with a heterogeneous iron catalyst under drastic conditions of temperature and pressure. This process accounts for the production of millions of tons of nitrogen compounds used for agricultural and industrial purposes, but the high temperature and pressure required result in a large energy loss, leading to several economic and environmental issues. During the last 40 years many attempts have been made to synthesize simple homogeneous catalysts that can activate dinitrogen under the same mild conditions of the nitrogenase enzymes. Several compounds, almost all containing transition metals, have been shown to bind and activate N₂ to various degrees. However, to date Mo(N₂)(HIPTN)₃N with (HIPTN)₃N= hexaisopropyl-terphenyl-triamidoamine is the only compound performing this process catalytically. In this review we describe how Density Functional Theory calculations have been of help in elucidating the reaction mechanisms of the inorganic compounds that activate or fix N₂. These studies provided important insights that rationalize and complement the experimental findings about the reaction mechanisms of known catalysts, predicting the reactivity of new potential catalysts and helping in tailoring new efficient catalytic compounds.

  16. Theoretical Studies of Homogeneous Catalysts Mimicking Nitrogenase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Magistrato


    Full Text Available The conversion of molecular nitrogen to ammonia is a key biological and chemical process and represents one of the most challenging topics in chemistry and biology. In Nature the Mo-containing nitrogenase enzymes perform nitrogen ‘fixation’ via an iron molybdenum cofactor (FeMo-co under ambient conditions. In contrast, industrially, the Haber-Bosch process reduces molecular nitrogen and hydrogen to ammonia with a heterogeneous iron catalyst under drastic conditions of temperature and pressure. This process accounts for the production of millions of tons of nitrogen compounds used for agricultural and industrial purposes, but the high temperature and pressure required result in a large energy loss, leading to several economic and environmental issues. During the last 40 years many attempts have been made to synthesize simple homogeneous catalysts that can activate dinitrogen under the same mild conditions of the nitrogenase enzymes. Several compounds, almost all containing transition metals, have been shown to bind and activate N2 to various degrees. However, to date Mo(N2(HIPTN3N with (HIPTN3N= hexaisopropyl-terphenyl-triamidoamine is the only compound performing this process catalytically. In this review we describe how Density Functional Theory calculations have been of help in elucidating the reaction mechanisms of the inorganic compounds that activate or fix N2. These studies provided important insights that rationalize and complement the experimental findings about the reaction mechanisms of known catalysts, predicting the reactivity of new potential catalysts and helping in tailoring new efficient catalytic compounds.

  17. Catalyst system of the structured type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.C.; Legein, C.H.; Calis, H.P.A.; Van Bekkum, H.; Gerritsen, A.W.; Van den Bleek, M.


    The invention relates to a catalyst system of the structured type, in which a structured support is covered with a layer of molecular sieve crystals and/or modifications thereof. These crystals have substantially the same orientation relative to the support surface. The invention further relates to

  18. Pt/C Fuel Cell Catalyst Degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zana, Alessandro

    This thesis investigates the degradation behavior of Pt/C catalysts under simulated automotive conditions. By using the “tool box” synthesis method the Pt loading has been changed from low to high Pt loadings, therefore permitting to study the role of Pt on the degradation of high surface area (H...

  19. Metal nanoparticles as a conductive catalyst (United States)

    Coker, Eric N [Albuquerque, NM


    A metal nanocluster composite material for use as a conductive catalyst. The metal nanocluster composite material has metal nanoclusters on a carbon substrate formed within a porous zeolitic material, forming stable metal nanoclusters with a size distribution between 0.6-10 nm and, more particularly, nanoclusters with a size distribution in a range as low as 0.6-0.9 nm.

  20. Metallocene catalyst containing bulky organic group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marks, Tobin J. (Evanston, IL); Ja, Li (Chicago, IL); Yang, Xinmin (Evanston, IL)


    An ionic metallocene catalyst for olefin polymerization which comprises: (1) a cyclopentadienyl-type ligand, a Group IVB transition metal, and alkyl, aryl, or hydride substituents, as a cation, and (2) a weakly coordinating anion comprising boron substituted with halogenated, such as tetra fluoro, aryl substituents preferably containing silylalkyl substitution, such as para-silyl t-butyldimethyl.

  1. Metallocene catalyst containing bulky organic group (United States)

    Marks, T.J.; Ja, L.; Yang, X.


    An ionic metallocene catalyst for olefin polymerization which comprises: (1) a cyclopentadienyl-type ligand, a Group IVB transition metal, and alkyl, aryl, or hydride substituents, as a cation, and (2) a weakly coordinating anion comprising boron substituted with halogenated, such as tetrafluoro-aryl substituents preferably containing silylalkyl substitution, such as para-silyl t-butyldimethyl.

  2. Catalysis science of supported vanadium oxide catalysts. (United States)

    Wachs, Israel E


    Supported vanadium oxide catalysts contain a vanadium oxide phase deposited on a high surface area oxide support (e.g., Al2O3, SiO2, TiO2, etc.) and have found extensive applications as oxidation catalysts in the chemical, petroleum and environmental industries. This review of supported vanadium oxide catalysts focuses on the fundamental aspects of this novel class of catalytic materials (molecular structures, electronic structures, surface chemistry and structure-reactivity relationships). The molecular and electronic structures of the supported vanadium oxide phases were determined by the application of modern in situ characterization techniques (Raman, IR, UV-vis, XANES, EXAFS, solid state (51)V NMR and isotopic oxygen exchange). The characterization studies revealed that the supported vanadium oxide phase consists of two-dimensional surface vanadia sites dispersed on the oxide supports. Corresponding surface chemistry and reactivity studies demonstrated that the surface vanadia sites are the catalytic active sites for oxidation reactions by supported vanadia catalysts. Combination of characterization and reactivity studies demonstrate that the oxide support controls the redox properties of the surface vanadia sites that can be varied by as much as a factor of ~10(3).

  3. Nitrated metalloporphyrins as catalysts for alkane oxidation (United States)

    Ellis, Jr., Paul E.; Lyons, James E.


    Compositions of matter comprising nitro-substituted metal complexes of porphyrins are catalysts for the oxidation of alkanes. The metal is iron, chromium, manganese, ruthenium, copper or cobalt. The porphyrin ring has nitro groups attached thereto in meso and/or .beta.-pyrrolic positions.

  4. Process for Functionalizing Biomass using Molybdenum Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention concerns a process for converting biomass into useful organic building blocks for the chemical industry. The process involves the use of molybdenum catalysts of the formula Aa+a(MovXxR1yR2zR3e)a*3-, which may be readily prepared from industrial molybdenum compounds....

  5. Developments of Chiral Metallocenes as Polymerization Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Shiono


    Full Text Available This review article describes developments in chiral metallocenes as polymerization catalysts focusing on C2 symmetric ansa-zirconocene complexes. Selective synthesis of rac-isomers of ansa-zirconocenes are surveyed. Isospecific polymerizations of propylene catalyzed by chiral zirconocenes are summarized. Advanced series of polymerizations by chiral metallocenes such as asymmetric polymerization and polymerization of polar monomers are also introduced.

  6. Sexual selection studies: A NESCent catalyst meeting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roughgarden, J.; Adkins-Regan, E.; Akcay, E.; Hinde, C.A.; Hoquet, T.; O'Connor, C.; Prokop, Z.M.; Prum, R.O.; Shafir, S.; Snow, S.S.; Taylor, D.; Cleve, Van J.; Weisberg, M.


    A catalyst meeting on sexual selection studies was held in July 2013 at the facilities of the National Evolutionary Synthesis Center (NESCent) in Durham, NC. This article by a subcommittee of the participants foregrounds some of the topics discussed at the meeting. Topics mentioned here include the

  7. Comparison of environmentally friendly, selective polyurethane catalysts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strachota, Adam; Strachotová, Beata; Špírková, Milena


    Roč. 23, č. 6 (2008), s. 566-570 ISSN 1042-6914 R&D Projects: GA MPO FT-TA3/034 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : amine catalyst * foam * gelation * kinetics * polyurethane Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.706, year: 2008

  8. Catalyst Activity Comparison of Alcohols over Zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Wang, Yong


    Alcohol transformation to transportation fuel range hydrocarbon on HZSM-5 (SiO2 / Al2O3 = 30) catalyst was studied at 360oC and 300psig. Product distributions and catalyst life were compared using methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol or 1-butanol as a feed. The catalyst life for 1-propanol and 1-butanol was more than double compared to that for methanol and ethanol. For all the alcohols studied, the product distributions (classified to paraffin, olefin, napthene, aromatic and naphthalene compounds) varied with time on stream (TOS). At 24 hours TOS, liquid product from 1-propanol and 1-butanol transformation primarily contains higher olefin compounds. The alcohol transformation process to higher hydrocarbon involves a complex set of reaction pathways such as dehydration, oligomerization, dehydrocyclization, and hydrogenation. Compared to ethylene generated from methanol and ethanol, oligomerization of propylene and butylene has a lower activation energy and can readily take place on weaker acidic sites. On the other hand, dehydrocyclization of propylene and butylene to form the cyclic compounds requires the sits with stronger acid strength. Combination of the above mentioned reasons are the primary reasons for olefin rich product generated in the later stage of the time on stream and for the extended catalyst life time for 1 propanol and 1 butanol compared to methanol and ethanol conversion over HZSM-5.

  9. Palladium catalysts deposited on silica materials: Comparison of catalysts based on mesoporous and amorphous supports in Heck reaction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Demel, J.; Čejka, Jiří; Štěpnička, P.


    Roč. 329, 1-2 (2010), s. 13-20 ISSN 1381-1169 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/09/0561 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : heterogeneous catalysts * immobolized catalysts * supported catalysts Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.872, year: 2010

  10. On the degradation of fuel cell catalyst. From model systems to high surface area catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arenz, M. [Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark). Dept. of Chemistry


    In the presented work, as an alternative accelerated degradation tests in the form of half-cell measurements combined with identical location transmission electron microscopy (IL-TEM){sup 10,} {sup 11} are presented. It is demonstrated that for different catalysts the degradation mechanism can be scrutinized in detail. Thus this approach enables the systematic investigation of fuel cell catalyst degradation in a reduced period of time. (orig.)

  11. Catalysts for biobased fuels. New catalyst formulations for vehicles fuelled by biobased motor fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, L.J.; Wahlberg, A.M.; Jaeraas, S.G. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Technology


    The long-term objective for the project is to develop tailor-made exhaust gas catalysts for heavy-duty vehicles fuelled by biobased motor fuels operating in urban traffic. In this report an experimental study of catalytic oxidation of ethanol in a laboratory flow reactor is presented. The miniature catalyst samples consisted of monolithic cordierite substrates onto which various combinations of washcoat material and active material were applied. Oxides of Cu and Cu-Mn, as well as different combinations of precious metals were evaluated as active material supported on various washcoat materials. The experimental conditions were chosen in order to simulate the exhaust from a diesel engine fuelled by neat ethanol. Catalyst characterization included measurements of BET surface area and pore size distribution as well as temperature programmed reduction (TPR) analysis. When comparing the TPR profiles with the light-off curves from the ethanol oxidation experiments, we have found an indication of a correlation between activity and reducibility of the catalyst. There also seems to be a correlation between TPR profile and pore size distribution for titania-supported catalysts. When combining two precious metals as active material, a positive synergistic effect has been observed. The light-off temperature (T{sub 50}) is considerably lower for some of these combinations than for the corresponding monometallic catalysts. The base metal oxide catalysts tested were more selective for oxidation of ethanol to carbon dioxide and water than the precious metal catalysts. The results also indicate that the oxidation of nitric oxide to the more hazardous nitrogen dioxide can be suppressed by using a suitable combination of active material and washcoat material 45 refs, 97 figs, 4 tabs


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADU Ionuţ Valentin


    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the existence of fractal and pollution prevention methods. One way to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases from motor vehicles is to systematically collect and dispose of any waste (high emissions. This paper treats a new type of catalyst, the catalytic oxidation process improvement. This new type of catalyst can be produced at sizes much smaller than those on the market because the surface of monolithic spiral have introduced a series of fractals.

  13. Precious metal compounds and recovery. Fischer-Tropsch catalysts and catalysts for hydroformylation and oxo processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schapp, J.; Arndt, M. [W.C. Heraeus GmbH, Hanau (Germany); Meyer, H. [Heraeus Metal Processing Inc., Santa Fe Springs, CA (United States)


    Solid-phase Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, which are used in the emerging field of interest known as ''Gas-to-Liquid'' (GTL), consist to a high percentage of cobalt. In addition, they contain on a value basis, a considerable amount of platinum group metals or rhenium as promoters. Therefore, there is an imperative need for economically feasible recycling processes triggered not only by the value of the metals in spent Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, but also by the potentially limited availability of promoters like rhenium. Heraeus, as a precious metal expert, is supporting this important technology with its profound know-how in developing tailor-made hydrometallurgical recycling processes for all kinds of catalyst systems. Besides giving an overview of state-of-the-art recovery processes, this paper will clarify the economic and environmental aspects involved. Hydroformylation and oxo processes are technologies which consume a major percentage of homogeneous catalysts worldwide. The focus lies on organometallic compounds with rhodium as the catalytic center. With significant rises of the rhodium price, many companies are being pushed to look more closely at the involved recycling terms. Accordingly, Heraeus is proud to offer its HeraCYCLE {sup registered} recovery process recently developed for homogeneous catalysts in particular. Furthermore, Heraeus manufactures the required quantities of fresh homogeneous catalysts ensuring highest quality standards. Key economic, technical, and environmental aspects of the precious metal loops will be covered by this paper. (orig.)

  14. Catalysts for Efficient Production of Carbon Nanotubes (United States)

    Sun, Ted X.; Dong, Yi


    Several metal alloys have shown promise as improved catalysts for catalytic thermal decomposition of hydrocarbon gases to produce carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Heretofore almost every experiment on the production of carbon nanotubes by this method has involved the use of iron, nickel, or cobalt as the catalyst. However, the catalytic-conversion efficiencies of these metals have been observed to be limited. The identification of better catalysts is part of a continuing program to develop means of mass production of high-quality carbon nanotubes at costs lower than those achieved thus far (as much as $100/g for purified multi-wall CNTs or $1,000/g for single-wall CNTs in year 2002). The main effort thus far in this program has been the design and implementation of a process tailored specifically for high-throughput screening of alloys for catalyzing the growth of CNTs. The process includes an integral combination of (1) formulation of libraries of catalysts, (2) synthesis of CNTs from decomposition of ethylene on powders of the alloys in a pyrolytic chemical-vapor-decomposition reactor, and (3) scanning- electron-microscope screening of the CNTs thus synthesized to evaluate the catalytic efficiencies of the alloys. Information gained in this process is put into a database and analyzed to identify promising alloy compositions, which are to be subjected to further evaluation in a subsequent round of testing. Some of these alloys have been found to catalyze the formation of carbon nano tubes from ethylene at temperatures as low as 350 to 400 C. In contrast, the temperatures typically required for prior catalysts range from 550 to 750 C.

  15. In situ Transmission Electron Microscopy of catalyst sintering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DeLaRiva, Andrew T.; Hansen, Thomas Willum; Challa, Sivakumar R.


    Recent advancements in the field of electron microscopy, such as aberration correctors, have now been integrated into Environmental Transmission Electron Microscopes (TEMs), making it possible to study the behavior of supported metal catalysts under operating conditions at atomic resolution. Here......, we focus on in situ electron microscopy studies of catalysts that shed light on the mechanistic aspects of catalyst sintering. Catalyst sintering is an important mechanism for activity loss, especially for catalysts that operate at elevated temperatures. Literature from the past decade is reviewed...

  16. Nonprecious Metal Catalysts for Oxygen Reduction in Heterogeneous Aqueous Systems. (United States)

    Gewirth, Andrew A; Varnell, Jason A; DiAscro, Angela M


    A comprehensive review of recent advances in the field of oxygen reduction electrocatalysis utilizing nonprecious metal (NPM) catalysts is presented. Progress in the synthesis and characterization of pyrolyzed catalysts, based primarily on the transition metals Fe and Co with sources of N and C, is summarized. Several synthetic strategies to improve the catalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) are highlighted. Recent work to explain the active-site structures and the ORR mechanism on pyrolyzed NPM catalysts is discussed. Additionally, the recent application of Cu-based catalysts for the ORR is reviewed. Suggestions and direction for future research to develop and understand NPM catalysts with enhanced ORR activity are provided.

  17. Catalysts for conversion of syngas to liquid motor fuels (United States)

    Rabo, Jule A.; Coughlin, Peter K.


    Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen is converted to C.sub.5.sup.+ hydrocarbons suitable for use as liquid motor fuels by contact with a dual catalyst composition capable of ensuring the production of only relatively minor amounts of heavy products boiling beyond the diesel oil range. The catalyst composition, having desirable stability during continuous production operation, employs a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst, together with a co-catalyst/support component. The latter component is a steam-stabilized zeolite Y catalyst of hydrophobic character, desirably in acid-extracted form.

  18. Process of activation of a palladium catalyst system (United States)

    Sobolevskiy, Anatoly [Orlando, FL; Rossin, Joseph A [Columbus, OH; Knapke, Michael J [Columbus, OH


    Improved processes for activating a catalyst system used for the reduction of nitrogen oxides are provided. In one embodiment, the catalyst system is activated by passing an activation gas stream having an amount of each of oxygen, water vapor, nitrogen oxides, and hydrogen over the catalyst system and increasing a temperature of the catalyst system to a temperature of at least C. at a heating rate of from Use of activation processes described herein leads to a catalyst system with superior NOx reduction capabilities.

  19. Catalyst study for the plasma exhaust purification process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabot, J.; Sannier, J.


    Several catalysts available from commercial sources have been screened to find out specific catalysts which allow complete methane oxidation and ammonia decomposition at temperature as low as possible in order to minimize tritium loss by permeation through processing equipment walls. Afterwards, an extended kinetic investigation has been performed on the best catalysts to achieve the data necessary to unit calculations. For methane oxidation, a palladium on alumina catalyst shows a very satisfactory low-temperature efficiency while a non-precious metal catalyst made of nickel oxide and alumina was found to be the more efficient for ammonia decomposition

  20. Characterization of catalysts by scanning transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Targos, W.M.; Bradley, S.A.


    The dedicated scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) is an integral tool for characterizing catalysts because of its unique ability to image and analyze nanosized volumes. This information is valuable in optimizing catalyst formulations and determining causes for reduced catalyst performance. For many commercial catalysts direct correlations between structural features of metal crystallites and catalytic performance are not attainable. When these instances occur, determination of elemental distribution may be the only information available. In this paper the authors discuss some of the techniques employed and limitations associated with characterizing commercial catalysts

  1. Hydroliquefaction of coal with supported catalysts: 1980 status review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polinski, Leon M.; Stiegel, Gary J.; Tischer, Richard E.


    The objectives of the program have been to determine catalyst deactivation kinetic models and catalyst deactivation modes for supported Co-Mo and Ni-Mo catalysts used primarily in coal liquefaction via the H-COAL process. Emphasis has been on developing methods to increase catalyst usage by determining how to decrease catalyst replacement rates in the process and how to decrease catalyst poisoning. An important conclusion reached via model analysis and verified by experiment is that larger diameter (1/16 in.) catalysts resist poisoning deactivation much more than smaller (1/32 in.) catalysts over extended periods (60 to 110 hours) of time. If this trend can be verified, it gives a powerful tool for reducing catalyst replacement rate in the H-COAL ebullated bed system by factors of 2 or more. A second conclusion is that poisoning of catalysts occurs by several possible mechanisms or modes. Indirect or direct evidence of all these modes can be presented, though the relative importance of each mechanism has not been established. The modes include (a) poisoning by coking - with gradual increase in C/H ratio (more refractory coke) with time, (b) poisoning by metallization (selective/non-selective adsorption of inorganics such as Ti and Fe on the catalyst), (c) sintering - increase in larger pores/decrease in surface area, and (d) parallel poisoning by irreversible nitrogen compound adsorption.

  2. Phosphine-Free EWG-Activated Ruthenium Olefin Metathesis Catalysts (United States)

    Grela, Karol; Szadkowska, Anna; Michrowska, Anna; Bieniek, Michal; Sashuk, Volodymyr

    Hoveyda-Grubbs catalyst has been successfully fine-tuned by us in order to increase its activity and applicability by the introduction of electron-withdrawing groups (EWGs) to diminish donor properties of the oxygen atom. As a result, the stable and easily accessible nitro-substituted Hoveyda-Grubbs catalyst has found a number of successful applications in various research and industrial laboratories. Some other EWG-activated Hoveyda-type catalysts are commercially available. The results described herewith demonstrate that the activity of ruthenium (Ru) metathesis catalysts can be enhanced by introduction of EWGs without detriment to catalysts stability. Equally noteworthy is the observation that different Ru catalysts turned out to be optimal for different applications. This shows that no single catalyst outperforms all others in all possible applications.

  3. Synthesis of Supported Bimetal Catalysts using Galvanic Deposition Method. (United States)

    Mahara, Yuji; Ohyama, Junya; Sawabe, Kyoichi; Satsuma, Atsushi


    Supported bimetallic catalysts have been studied because of their enhanced catalytic properties due to metal-metal interactions compared with monometallic catalysts. We focused on galvanic deposition (GD) as a bimetallization method, which achieves well-defined metal-metal interfaces by exchanging heterogeneous metals with different ionisation tendencies. We have developed Ni@Ag/SiO 2 catalysts for CO oxidation, Co@Ru/Al 2 O 3 catalysts for automotive three-way reactions and Pd-Co/Al 2 O 3 catalysts for methane combustion by using the GD method. In all cases, the catalysts prepared by the GD method showed higher catalytic activity than the corresponding monometallic and bimetallic catalysts prepared by the conventional co-impregnation method. The GD method provides contact between noble and base metals to improve the electronic state, surface structure and reducibility of noble metals. © 2018 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Studies on the dehydration of glycerol over niobium catalysts. (United States)

    Lee, Young Yi; Moon, Dong Ju; Kim, Jong Ho; Park, Nam Cook; Kim, Young Chul


    The dehydration of glycerol over nanosize niobium catalysts was conducted in a stainless steel autoclave reactor. The catalysts were prepared by the calcination of niobium oxalate between 200 and 700 degrees C. Catalysts were characterized by N2 Physisorption, XRD and TPD of ammonia to investigate the effect of the calcination temperature and water on catalytic performance, catalysts' structures and acidity. Acrolein was mainly produced about 51-71% with useful by-products such as acetaldehyde and methanol. Amorphous Nb2O5 catalysts calcined at 200-400 degrees C significantly showed higher conversion of glycerol than the crystallized Nb2O5 catalyst calcined at 500-700 degrees C. Also the conversion of glycerol and selectivity of acrolein was increased with increasing the acidity of catalyst, which can be controlled by calcination temperature.

  5. A new catalyst for heavy water production and its prospect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Toshio; Ohkoshi, Sumio; Takahashi, Tomiki


    The heavy water production process utilizing isotope exchange reaction between liquid water and hydrogen is the most promising method. Study was made for developing highly active and long life catalyst practically applied for this process. As platinum is used as this catalyst, catalytic activities using varieties of Polapacs and Shodexes instead of active carbon as the carriers of platinum catalyst were investigated. It became clear that the catalytic activity using Pt/Shodex 104 (3 wt %) was 1000 times as high as the activity using Pt/active carbon (1 wt %). This method is considered to be reasonable enough economically. There are many problems which must be solved hereafter for its practical use, and the further studies are required regarding the following points; forming of catalyst, life of catalyst, mass production of catalyst, most appropriate counter flow reacting device of hydrophobic catalyst, pressure and temperature effects on reaction. (Kobatake, H.)

  6. Concluding remarks: progress toward the design of solid catalysts. (United States)

    Gates, Bruce C


    The 2016 Faraday Discussion on the topic "Designing New Heterogeneous Catalysts" brought together a group of scientists and engineers to address forefront topics in catalysis and the challenge of catalyst design-which is daunting because of the intrinsic non-uniformity of the surfaces of catalytic materials. "Catalyst design" has taken on a pragmatic meaning which implies the discovery of new and better catalysts on the basis of fundamental understanding of the catalyst structure and performance. The presentations and discussion at the meeting illustrate the rapid progress in this understanding linked with improvements in spectroscopy, microscopy, theory, and catalyst performance testing. The following text includes a statement of recurrent themes in the discussion and examples of forefront science that evidences progress toward catalyst design.

  7. Multiphase catalysts for selective reduction of NOx with hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisuls, S.E.


    Among the existing proposed solutions to reduce emission of NOx there is a promising alternative, the so-called (HC-SCR) selective catalytic reduction of NOx using hydrocarbons as reductant. This thesis is part of a worldwide effort devoted to gain knowledge on the selective catalytic reduction of NOx with hydrocarbons with the final goal to contribute to the development of suitable catalysts for the above mentioned process. Chapter 2 describes the details of the experimental set-up and of the analytical methods employed. Among the catalyst for HC-SCR, Co-based catalyst are known to be active and selective, thus, a study on a series of Co-based catalysts, supported on zeolites, was undertaken and the results are presented in Chapter 3. Correlation between catalytic characteristics and kinetic results are employed to understand the working catalyst and this is used as a basis for catalyst optimization. With the intention to prepare a multi-functional catalyst that will preserve the desired characteristics of the individual components, minimizing their negative aspects, catalysts based on Co-Pt, supported on ZSM-5, were investigated. In Chapter 4 the results of this study are discussed. A bimetallic Co-Pt/ZSM-5 catalysts with low Pt contents (0.1 wt %) showed a synergistic effect by combining high stability and activity of Pt catalysts with the high N2 selectivity of Co catalysts. Furthermore, it was found to be sulfur- and water-tolerant. Its positive qualities brought us to study the mechanism that takes place over this catalyst during HC-SCR. The results of an in-situ i.r mechanistic study over this catalyst is reported in Chapter 5. From the results presented in Chapter 5 a mechanism operating over the Co-Pt/ZSM-5 catalyst is proposed. The modification of Co catalyst with Pt improved the catalysts. However, further improvement was found to be hindered by high selectivity to N2O. Since Rh catalysts are generally less selective to N2O, the modification of Co

  8. Novel Attrition-Resistant Fischer Tropsch Catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weast, Logan, E.; Staats, William, R.


    There is a strong national interest in the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis process because it offers the possibility of making liquid hydrocarbon fuels from reformed natural gas or coal and biomass gasification products. This project explored a new approach that had been developed to produce active, attrition-resistant Fischer-Tropsch catalysts that are based on glass-ceramic materials and technology. This novel approach represented a promising solution to the problem of reducing or eliminating catalyst attrition and maximizing catalytic activity, thus reducing costs. The technical objective of the Phase I work was to demonstrate that glass-ceramic based catalytic materials for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis have resistance to catalytic deactivation and reduction of particle size superior to traditional supported Fischer-Tropsch catalyst materials. Additionally, these novel glass-ceramic-based materials were expected to exhibit catalytic activity similar to the traditional materials. If successfully developed, the attrition-resistant Fischer-Tropsch catalyst materials would be expected to result in significant technical, economic, and social benefits for both producers and public consumers of Fischer-Tropsch products such as liquid fuels from coal or biomass gasification. This program demonstrated the anticipated high attrition resistance of the glass-ceramic materials. However, the observed catalytic activity of the materials was not sufficient to justify further development at this time. Additional testing documented that a lack of pore volume in the glass-ceramic materials limited the amount of surface area available for catalysis and consequently limited catalytic activity. However, previous work on glass-ceramic catalysts to promote other reactions demonstrated that commercial levels of activity can be achieved, at least for those reactions. Therefore, we recommend that glass-ceramic materials be considered again as potential Fischer-Tropsch catalysts if it can be

  9. Catalyst for reduction of nitrogen oxides (United States)

    Ott, Kevin C.


    A Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst was prepared by slurry coating ZSM-5 zeolite onto a cordierite monolith, then subliming an iron salt onto the zeolite, calcining the monolith, and then dipping the monolith either into an aqueous solution of manganese nitrate and cerium nitrate and then calcining, or by similar treatment with separate solutions of manganese nitrate and cerium nitrate. The supported catalyst containing iron, manganese, and cerium showed 80 percent conversion at 113 degrees Celsius of a feed gas containing nitrogen oxides having 4 parts NO to one part NO.sub.2, about one equivalent ammonia, and excess oxygen; conversion improved to 94 percent at 147 degrees Celsius. N.sub.2O was not detected (detection limit: 0.6 percent N.sub.2O).

  10. Redox Equilibria in SO2 Oxidation Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren Birk; Eriksen, Kim Michael; Boghosian, Soghomon


    The catalyst used for sulfuric acid production is well described by the molten salt-gas system M2S2O7-V2O5/SO2-O2-SO3-N2 (M=Na, K, Cs) at 400 - 600°C.In order to understand the mechanism of the oxidation of SO2 by O2 to SO3, catalyzed by the above mentioned system, rather intensive research has...... been carried out regarding the complex and compound formation of V(V) and the formation of V(IV) and V(III) compounds with low solubility causing catalyst deactivation. However, the redox chemistry of vanadium and the complex formation of V(IV) is much less investigated and further information...

  11. Development of polymer catalyst manufacturing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Heung Seok; Kim, Yong Ik; Lee, Han Soo; Kang, Hui Seok; Seong, Ki Ung; Na, Jeong Won; An, Do Hui; Kim, Kwang Rak; Cho, Young Hyeon; Baek, Seung Uh; Jeong, Yong Won


    Heavy water is used as moderator and coolant in Pressurized Heavy Water Power Plants. According to the governmental long-term plan for power supply, Korea is scheduled to construct new six pressurized heavy water power plants till the year 2006. Total heavy water demand for these plants would be 3892 Mg during the period 1992-2006. Reformed hydrogen processes are considered best suited to Korea. Hydrophobic catalysts for this process were manufactured and the performance of hydrogen isotope exchance was investigated. The overall mass transfer coefficients varied between 0.004 and 2.295 m 3 HD/m 3 Bed.sec. and heavy water separation processes using the catalysts were optimized. (Author)

  12. Carbon Xerogel Catalyst for NO Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel F. R. Pereira


    Full Text Available Carbon xerogels were prepared by the polycondensation of resorcinol and formaldehyde using three different solution pH values and the gels were carbonized at three different temperatures. Results show that it is possible to tailor the pore texture of carbon xerogels by adjusting the pH of the initial solution and the carbonization temperature. Materials with different textural properties were obtained and used as catalysts for NO oxidation at room temperature. The NO conversions obtained with carbon xerogels were quite high, showing that carbon xerogels are efficient catalysts for NO oxidation. A maximum of 98% conversion for NO was obtained at initial concentration of NO of 1000 ppm and 10% of O2. The highest NO conversions were obtained with the samples presenting the highest surface areas. The temperature of reaction has a strong influence on NO oxidation: the conversion of NO decreases with the increase of reaction temperature.

  13. Relating FTS Catalyst Properties to Performance (United States)

    Ma, Wenping; Ramana Rao Pendyala, Venkat; Gao, Pei; Jermwongratanachai, Thani; Jacobs, Gary; Davis, Burton H.


    During the reporting period June 23, 2011 to August 31, 2013, CAER researchers carried out research in two areas of fundamental importance to the topic of cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS): promoters and stability. The first area was research into possible substitute promoters that might be used to replace the expensive promoters (e.g., Pt, Re, and Ru) that are commonly used. To that end, three separate investigations were carried out. Due to the strong support interaction of ?-Al2O3 with cobalt, metal promoters are commonly added to commercial FTS catalysts to facilitate the reduction of cobalt oxides and thereby boost active surface cobalt metal sites. To date, the metal promoters examined have been those up to and including Group 11. Because two Group 11 promoters (i.e., Ag and Au) were identified to exhibit positive impacts on conversion, selectivity, or both, research was undertaken to explore metals in Groups 12 - 14. The three metals selected for this purpose were Cd, In, and Sn. At a higher loading of 25%Co on alumina, 1% addition of Cd, In, or Sn was found to-on average-facilitate reduction by promoting a heterogeneous distribution of cobalt consisting of larger lesser interacting cobalt clusters and smaller strongly interacting cobalt species. The lesser interacting species were identified in TPR profiles, where a sharp low temperature peak occurred for the reduction of larger, weakly interacting, CoO species. In XANES, the Cd, In, and Sn promoters were found to exist as oxides, whereas typical promoters (e.g., Re, Ru, Pt) were previously determined to exist in an metallic state in atomic coordination with cobalt. The larger cobalt clusters significantly decreased the active site density relative to the unpromoted 25%Co/Al2O3 catalyst. Decreasing the cobalt loading to 15%Co eliminated the large non-interacting species. The TPR peak for reduction of strongly interacting CoO in the Cd promoted catalyst occurred at a measurably lower temperature

  14. Design of sintering-stable heterogeneous catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallas-Hulin, Agata

    the crystalline framework of a zeolite creates a steric hindrance against agglomeration into larger clusters. In the present study, experimental protocols for encapsulation of metal nanoparticles inside zeolites were developed. Two different methodologies were proposed to encapsulate gold, palladium and platinum......One of the major issues in the use of metal nanoparticles in heterogeneous catalysis is sintering. Sintering occurs at elevated temperatures because of increased mobility of nanoparticles, leading to their agglomeration and, as a consequence, to the deactivation of the catalyst. It is an emerging...... problem especially for the noble metals-based catalysis. These metals being expensive and scarce, it is worth developing catalyst systems which preserve their activity over time. Encapsulation of nanoparticles inside zeolites is one of the ways to prevent sintering. Entrapment of nanoparticles inside...

  15. Novel Anode Catalyst for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Basri


    Full Text Available PtRu catalyst is a promising anodic catalyst for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs but the slow reaction kinetics reduce the performance of DMFCs. Therefore, this study attempts to improve the performance of PtRu catalysts by adding nickel (Ni and iron (Fe. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs are used to increase the active area of the catalyst and to improve the catalyst performance. Electrochemical analysis techniques, such as energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX, X-ray diffraction (XRD, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, are used to characterize the kinetic parameters of the hybrid catalyst. Cyclic voltammetry (CV is used to investigate the effects of adding Fe and Ni to the catalyst on the reaction kinetics. Additionally, chronoamperometry (CA tests were conducted to study the long-term performance of the catalyst for catalyzing the methanol oxidation reaction (MOR. The binding energies of the reactants and products are compared to determine the kinetics and potential surface energy for methanol oxidation. The FESEM analysis results indicate that well-dispersed nanoscale (2–5 nm PtRu particles are formed on the MWCNTs. Finally, PtRuFeNi/MWCNT improves the reaction kinetics of anode catalysts for DMFCs and obtains a mass current of 31 A g−1 catalyst.

  16. Novel anode catalyst for direct methanol fuel cells. (United States)

    Basri, S; Kamarudin, S K; Daud, W R W; Yaakob, Z; Kadhum, A A H


    PtRu catalyst is a promising anodic catalyst for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) but the slow reaction kinetics reduce the performance of DMFCs. Therefore, this study attempts to improve the performance of PtRu catalysts by adding nickel (Ni) and iron (Fe). Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are used to increase the active area of the catalyst and to improve the catalyst performance. Electrochemical analysis techniques, such as energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), are used to characterize the kinetic parameters of the hybrid catalyst. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) is used to investigate the effects of adding Fe and Ni to the catalyst on the reaction kinetics. Additionally, chronoamperometry (CA) tests were conducted to study the long-term performance of the catalyst for catalyzing the methanol oxidation reaction (MOR). The binding energies of the reactants and products are compared to determine the kinetics and potential surface energy for methanol oxidation. The FESEM analysis results indicate that well-dispersed nanoscale (2-5 nm) PtRu particles are formed on the MWCNTs. Finally, PtRuFeNi/MWCNT improves the reaction kinetics of anode catalysts for DMFCs and obtains a mass current of 31 A g(-1) catalyst.

  17. Optimal Catalyst and Cocatalyst Precontacting in Industrial Ethylene Copolymerization Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Aigner


    Full Text Available In industrial-scale catalytic olefin copolymerization processes, catalyst and cocatalyst precontacting before being introduced in the polymerization reactor is of profound significance in terms of catalyst kinetics and morphology control. The precontacting process takes place under either well-mixing (e.g., static mixers or plug-flow (e.g., pipes conditions. The scope of this work is to study the influence of mixing on catalyst/cocatalyst precontacting for a heterogeneous Ziegler-Natta catalyst system under different polymerization conditions. Slurry ethylene homopolymerization and ethylene copolymerization experiments with 1-butene are performed in a 0.5 L reactor. In addition, the effect of several key parameters (e.g., precontacting time, and ethylene/hydrogen concentration on catalyst activity is analyzed. Moreover, a comprehensive mass transfer model is employed to provide insight on the mass transfer process and support the experimental findings. The model is capable of assessing the external and internal mass transfer limitations during catalyst/cocatalyst precontacting process. It is shown that catalyst/cocatalyst precontacting is very important for the catalyst activation as well as for the overall catalyst kinetic behavior. The study reveals that there is an optimum precontacting time before and after which the catalyst activity decreases, while this optimum time depends on the precontacting mixing conditions.

  18. Ni Catalysts Supported on Modified Alumina for Diesel Steam Reforming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonios Tribalis


    Full Text Available Nickel catalysts are the most popular for steam reforming, however, they have a number of drawbacks, such as high propensity toward coke formation and intolerance to sulfur. In an effort to improve their behavior, a series of Ni-catalysts supported on pure and La-, Ba-, (La+Ba- and Ce-doped γ-alumina has been prepared. The doped supports and the catalysts have been extensively characterized. The catalysts performance was evaluated for steam reforming of n-hexadecane pure or doped with dibenzothiophene as surrogate for sulphur-free or commercial diesel, respectively. The undoped catalyst lost its activity after 1.5 h on stream. Doping of the support with La improved the initial catalyst activity. However, this catalyst was completely deactivated after 2 h on stream. Doping with Ba or La+Ba improved the stability of the catalysts. This improvement is attributed to the increase of the dispersion of the nickel phase, the decrease of the support acidity and the increase of Ni-phase reducibility. The best catalyst of the series doped with La+Ba proved to be sulphur tolerant and stable for more than 160 h on stream. Doping of the support with Ce also improved the catalytic performance of the corresponding catalyst, but more work is needed to explain this behavior.

  19. Peptide-templated noble metal catalysts: syntheses and applications. (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Anderson, Caleb F; Wang, Zongyuan; Wu, Wei; Cui, Honggang; Liu, Chang-Jun


    Noble metal catalysts have been widely used in many applications because of their high activity and selectivity. However, a controllable preparation of noble metal catalysts still remains as a significant challenge. To overcome this challenge, peptide templates can play a critical role in the controllable syntheses of catalysts owing to their flexible binding with specific metallic surfaces and self-assembly characteristics. By employing peptide templates, the size, shape, facet, structure, and composition of obtained catalysts can all be specifically controlled under the mild synthesis conditions. In addition, catalysts with spherical, nanofiber, and nanofilm structures can all be produced by associating with the self-assembly characteristics of peptide templates. Furthermore, the peptide-templated noble metal catalysts also reveal significantly enhanced catalytic behaviours compared with conventional catalysts because the electron conductivity, metal dispersion, and reactive site exposure can all be improved. In this review, we summarize the research progresses in the syntheses of peptide-templated noble metal catalysts. The applications of the peptide-templated catalysts in organic reactions, photocatalysis, and electrocatalysis are discussed, and the relationship between structure and activity of these catalysts are addressed. Future opportunities, including new catalytic materials designed by using biological principles, are indicated to achieve selective, eco-friendly, and energy neutral synthesis approaches.

  20. Method of producing heavy water and new catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Toshio


    This paper describes on the new methods of producing heavy water with new catalyst. The water-hydrogen exchange reaction has large separation coefficient, but requires catalyst. In 1972, the new catalyst which is hydrophobic was developed. The catalyst, platinum-γ-alumina, coated with silicone resin film was made by Butler et al. at first. Then, the improvement has been made, and the catalyst, 0.39 percent Pt-carbon-teflon, exhibits good activity. The problem of these catalysts is their life. In this paper, the new catalysts, platinum with porous hydrophobic carriers, are described. The catalysts were made by the reduction method. The activity test was made with a jet type closed circuit system. The platinum content was about 0.01, and the amount of a few grams was used. The on-line analysis by gas-chromatography was made for activity test. The activity of various catalysts was compared with the reaction rate constants per weight. The constant of porous glass catalyst with hydrophobic treatment increased by the factor of 200. In case of active carbon, the effect of hydrophobic treatment was not observed. (Kato, T.)

  1. Mordenite - Type Zeolite SCR Catalysts with Iron or Copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    Cu/mordenite catalysts were found to be highly active for the SCR of NO with NH3 and exhibited high resistance to alkali poisoning. Redox and acidic properties of Cu/mordenite were well preserved after poisoning with potassium unlike that of vanadium catalysts. Fe-mordenite catalysts also reveale...... to be essential requirements for the high alkali resistance. Mordenite-type zeolite based catalysts could therefore be attractive alternatives to conventional SCR catalysts for biomass fired power plant flue gas treatment.......Cu/mordenite catalysts were found to be highly active for the SCR of NO with NH3 and exhibited high resistance to alkali poisoning. Redox and acidic properties of Cu/mordenite were well preserved after poisoning with potassium unlike that of vanadium catalysts. Fe-mordenite catalysts also revealed...... much higher alkali resistivity than that of commercial V2O5/WO3-TiO2 (VWT) SCR catalyst which is currently used for NOx abatement in stationary installations. Unique support properties like high surface area and surface acidity, which are not available in the commercial VWT catalyst, seem...

  2. Extended Catalyst Longevity Via Supercritical Isobutane Regeneration of a Partially Deactivated USY Alkylation Catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel M. Ginosar; David N. Thompson; Kyle C. Burch; David J. Zalewski


    Off-line, in situ activity recovery of a partially deactivated USY zeolite catalyst used for isobutane/butene alkylation was examined in a continuous-flow reaction system employing supercritical isobutane. Catalyst samples were deactivated in a controlled manner by running them to either to a fixed butene conversion level of 95% or a fixed time on stream of three hours, and then exposing the catalyst to supercritical isobutane to restore activity. Activity recovery was determined by comparing alkylation activity before and after the regeneration step. Both single and multiple regenerations were performed. Use of a 95% butene conversion level criterion to terminate the reaction step afforded 86% activity recovery for a single regeneration and provided nine sequential reaction steps for the multiple regeneration studies. Employing a fixed 3 h time on stream criterion resulted in nearly complete activity recovery for a single regeneration, and 24 reaction steps were demonstrated in sequence for the multiple regeneration process, producing only minor product yield declines per step. This resulted in a 12-fold increase in catalyst longevity versus unregenerated catalyst.

  3. Catalyst support effects on hydrogen spillover (United States)

    Karim, Waiz; Spreafico, Clelia; Kleibert, Armin; Gobrecht, Jens; Vandevondele, Joost; Ekinci, Yasin; van Bokhoven, Jeroen A.


    Hydrogen spillover is the surface migration of activated hydrogen atoms from a metal catalyst particle, on which they are generated, onto the catalyst support. The phenomenon has been much studied and its occurrence on reducible supports such as titanium oxide is established, yet questions remain about whether hydrogen spillover can take place on nonreducible supports such as aluminium oxide. Here we use the enhanced precision of top-down nanofabrication to prepare controlled and precisely tunable model systems that allow us to quantify the efficiency and spatial extent of hydrogen spillover on both reducible and nonreducible supports. We place multiple pairs of iron oxide and platinum nanoparticles on titanium oxide and aluminium oxide supports, varying the distance between the pairs from zero to 45 nanometres with a precision of one nanometre. We then observe the extent of the reduction of the iron oxide particles by hydrogen atoms generated on the platinum using single-particle in situ X-ray absorption spectromicroscopy applied simultaneously to all particle pairs. The data, in conjunction with density functional theory calculations, reveal fast hydrogen spillover on titanium oxide that reduces remote iron oxide nanoparticles via coupled proton-electron transfer. In contrast, spillover on aluminium oxide is mediated by three-coordinated aluminium centres that also interact with water and that give rise to hydrogen mobility competing with hydrogen desorption; this results in hydrogen spillover about ten orders of magnitude slower than on titanium oxide and restricted to very short distances from the platinum particle. We anticipate that these observations will improve our understanding of hydrogen storage and catalytic reactions involving hydrogen, and that our approach to creating and probing model catalyst systems will provide opportunities for studying the origin of synergistic effects in supported catalysts that combine multiple functionalities.

  4. Intermediate Ethanol Blends Catalyst Durability Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, Brian H; Sluder, Scott; Knoll, Keith; Orban, John; Feng, Jingyu


    In the summer of 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a test program to evaluate the potential impacts of intermediate ethanol blends (also known as mid-level blends) on legacy vehicles and other engines. The purpose of the test program was to develop information important to assessing the viability of using intermediate blends as a contributor to meeting national goals for the use of renewable fuels. Through a wide range of experimental activities, DOE is evaluating the effects of E15 and E20 - gasoline blended with 15% and 20% ethanol - on tailpipe and evaporative emissions, catalyst and engine durability, vehicle driveability, engine operability, and vehicle and engine materials. This report provides the results of the catalyst durability study, a substantial part of the overall test program. Results from additional projects will be reported separately. The principal purpose of the catalyst durability study was to investigate the effects of adding up to 20% ethanol to gasoline on the durability of catalysts and other aspects of the emissions control systems of vehicles. Section 1 provides further information about the purpose and context of the study. Section 2 describes the experimental approach for the test program, including vehicle selection, aging and emissions test cycle, fuel selection, and data handling and analysis. Section 3 summarizes the effects of the ethanol blends on emissions and fuel economy of the test vehicles. Section 4 summarizes notable unscheduled maintenance and testing issues experienced during the program. The appendixes provide additional detail about the statistical models used in the analysis, detailed statistical analyses, and detailed vehicle specifications.

  5. Transformation of methylcyclohexane on an FCC catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabeharitsara A.


    Full Text Available The transformation of methylcyclohexane at 723 K over on a USHY sample and on an FCC catalyst composed of 30% USHY and 70% matrix containing 25% Al2O3 was studied. With both samples, C2-C7 alkenes and alkanes, cyclopentane and methylcyclopentane (cracking products, dimethylcyclopentanes and ethylcyclopentane (isomers and aromatics appeared as primary products. The activity and selectivity of fresh samples as well as the influence of coke deposits on porosity and selectivity are discussed.

  6. Bifunctional Catalysts for CO2 Reduction (United States)


    dioxide reduction catalysis . (SA 1 – Catalyst candidate synthesis) As outlined in the original proposal, ligand platforms have been synthesized to...was limited to outer-sphere electron transfer (necessary oxidation potentials for catalysis > –2.1 V vs. [Cp2Fe] +/0). Thus, we pursued two...high altitude air travel is the transportation of the fuel itself. Our targeted strategy is to transform CO2 into viable building blocks for synthetic

  7. Improving performance of catalysts for water electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydendal, Rasmus

    This Ph.D. thesis presents work on non-noble metal oxide catalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction, OER. This reaction is currently a bottleneck in electrolyzer technologies, which are promising for energy storage purposes. In particular, Polymer Electrolyte Membrane, PEM, cells are attractive ......-ray Absorption Spectroscopy study it was found that Mn oxidises at a more cathodic potential when Au is nearby. This experimental study serves as a starting point for understanding the beneficial interaction between gold and manganese oxides....

  8. Hydrolysis of isocyanic acid on SCR catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsener, M.; Kleemann, M.; Koebel, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)


    Standard SCR catalysts possess high activity for the hydrolysis of HNCO and thus explain the suitability of urea as a selective reducing agent for NO{sub x}. At high space velocities HNCO-slip can get perceptible over the entire temperature range. This can be attributed to the fact that the temperature dependence is strong for the SCR reaction, but weak for the hydrolysis reaction. (author) 3 figs., 5 refs.

  9. Cationic surfactants as the hydrolytic micellar catalysts


    Janošcová, Petra


    Cationic surfactants as the hydrolytic micellar catalysts Petra Janošcová The effectiveness of hydrolytic cleavage of the pesticide fenitrothionin cationic surfactants micellar media has been tested. All used surfactants increased the rate of fenitrothionhydrolysis, which was the evidence of micellar catalysis. For some surfactants decreases has been evident at the highest rate of hydrolysis concentrations. It has been the result of a phenomenon called the effect of empty micelles. High hydro...

  10. Fuel cell development for transportation: Catalyst development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doddapaneni, N. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Fuel cells are being considered as alternate power sources for transportation and stationary applications. With proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells the fuel crossover to cathodes causes severe thermal management and cell voltage drop due to oxidation of fuel at the platinized cathodes. The main goal of this project was to design, synthesize, and evaluate stable and inexpensive transition metal macrocyclic catalysts for the reduction of oxygen and be electrochemically inert towards anode fuels such as hydrogen and methanol.

  11. Characterization of active sites in zeolite catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckert, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Bug, A. [Swarthmore Coll., PA (United States); Nicol, J.M. [MOLTECH (United States)] [and others


    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Atomic-level details of the interaction of adsorbed molecules with active sites in catalysts are urgently needed to facilitate development of more effective and/or environmentally benign catalysts. To this end the authors have carried out neutron scattering studies combined with theoretical calculations of the dynamics of small molecules inside the cavities of zeolite catalysts. The authors have developed the use of H{sub 2} as a probe of adsorption sites by observing the hindered rotations of the adsorbed H{sub 2} molecule, and they were able to show that an area near the four-rings is the most likely adsorption site for H{sub 2} in zeolite A while adsorption of H{sub 2} near cations located on six-ring sites decreases in strength as Ni {approximately} Co > Ca > Zn {approximately} Na. Vibrational and rotational motions of ethylene and cyclopropane adsorption complexes were used as a measure for zeolite-adsorbate interactions. Preliminary studies of the binding of water, ammonia, and methylamines were carried out in a number of related guest-host materials.

  12. Coprecipitated nickel-alumina methanation catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruissink, E.C.


    In the last few years there has been a renewed interest in the methanation reaction CO+3H 2 =CH 4 +H 2 O. The investigations described in this thesis were performed in relation to the application of this reaction, within the framework of the so-called 'NFE' project, also called 'ADAM' and 'EVA' project. This project, which has been under investigation in West Germany for some years, aims at the investigation of the feasibility of transporting heat from a nuclear high temperature reactor by means of a chemical cycle. A promising possibility to realize such a cycle exists in applying the combination of the endothermic steam reforming of methane and the exothermic methanation reaction. This thesis describes the investigations into a certain type of methanation catalyst, viz. a coprecipitated nickel-alumina catalyst, with the aim to give more insight into the interrelationship between the preparation conditions on the one hand and catalyst properties such as activity and stability on the other hand. (Auth.)

  13. Development of radioactive platinum group metal catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, H.S.; Kim, Y.S.; Kim, Y.E. [and others


    The fission product nuclides generated during the irradiation of reactor fuel include many useful elements, among them platinum group metals such as ruthenium, rhodium and palladium which are of great industrial importance, occur rarely in nature and are highly valuable. In this research, the authors reviewed various PGM recovery methods. Recovery of palladium from seven-component simulated waste solutions was conducted by selective precipitation method. The recovery yield was more than 99.5% and the purity of the product was more than 99%. Wet-proof catalyst was prepared with the recovered palladium. The specific surface area of the catalyst support was more than 400m{sup 2}/g.The content of palladium impregnated on the support was 1 to 10 wt. %. Hydrogen isotope exchange efficiency of more than 93% to equilibrium with small amount of the catalyst was obtained. It was turned out possible to consider using such palladium or other very low active PGM materials in applications where its activity is unimportant as in nuclear industries. (author). 86 refs., 44 tabs., 88 figs.

  14. Low Temperature Catalyst for NH3 Removal (United States)

    Monje, Oscar; Melendez, Orlando


    Air revitalization technologies maintain a safe atmosphere inside spacecraft by the removal of C02, ammonia (NH3), and trace contaminants. NH3 onboard the International Space Station (ISS) is produced by crew metabolism, payloads, or during an accidental release of thermal control refrigerant. Currently, the ISS relies on removing NH3 via humidity condensate and the crew wears hooded respirators during emergencies. A different approach to cabin NH3 removal is to use selective catalytic oxidation (SCO), which builds on thermal catalytic oxidation concepts that could be incorporated into the existing TCCS process equipment architecture on ISS. A low temperature platinum-based catalyst (LTP-Catalyst) developed at KSC was used for converting NH3 to H20 and N2 gas by SCO. The challenge of implementing SCO is to reduce formation of undesirable byproducts like NOx (N20 and NO). Gas mixture analysis was conducted using FTIR spectrometry in the Regenerable VOC Control System (RVCS) Testbed. The RVCS was modified by adding a 66 L semi-sealed chamber, and a custom NH3 generator. The effect of temperature on NH3 removal using the LTP-Catalyst was examined. A suitable temperature was found where NH3 removal did not produce toxic NO, (NO, N02) and N20 formation was reduced.

  15. Development of radioactive platinum group metal catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, H.S.; Kim, Y.S.; Kim, Y.E.


    The fission product nuclides generated during the irradiation of reactor fuel include many useful elements, among them platinum group metals such as ruthenium, rhodium and palladium which are of great industrial importance, occur rarely in nature and are highly valuable. In this research, the authors reviewed various PGM recovery methods. Recovery of palladium from seven-component simulated waste solutions was conducted by selective precipitation method. The recovery yield was more than 99.5% and the purity of the product was more than 99%. Wet-proof catalyst was prepared with the recovered palladium. The specific surface area of the catalyst support was more than 400m 2 /g. The content of palladium impregnated on the support was 1 to 10 wt. %. Hydrogen isotope exchange efficiency of more than 93% to equilibrium with small amount of the catalyst was obtained. It was turned out possible to consider using such palladium or other very low active PGM materials in applications where its activity is unimportant as in nuclear industries. (author). 86 refs., 44 tabs., 88 figs

  16. Highly Dispersed Alloy Catalyst for Durability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murthi, Vivek S.; Izzo, Elise; Bi, Wu; Guerrero, Sandra; Protsailo, Lesia


    Achieving DOE's stated 5000-hr durability goal for light-duty vehicles by 2015 will require MEAs with characteristics that are beyond the current state of the art. Significant effort was placed on developing advanced durable cathode catalysts to arrive at the best possible electrode for high performance and durability, as well as developing manufacturing processes that yield significant cost benefit. Accordingly, the overall goal of this project was to develop and construct advanced MEAs that will improve performance and durability while reducing the cost of PEMFC stacks. The project, led by UTC Power, focused on developing new catalysts/supports and integrating them with existing materials (membranes and gas diffusion layers (GDLs)) using state-of-the-art fabrication methods capable of meeting the durability requirements essential for automotive applications. Specifically, the project work aimed to lower platinum group metals (PGM) loading while increasing performance and durability. Appropriate catalysts and MEA configuration were down-selected that protects the membrane, and the layers were tailored to optimize the movements of reactants and product water through the cell to maximize performance while maintaining durability.

  17. Characteristics of honeycomb catalysts to recover tritiated hydrogen and methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatsuhiko, Uda; Masahiro, Tanaka; Kenzo, Munakata


    Applicability of honeycomb catalysts to the tritium recovery system was examined considering tritium release accidents in the fusion plant where large volumes of air would be processed by the air cleanup system. Catalytic oxidation of isotopic hydrogen isotopes including tritium is a conventional method for the removal of tritium from air in the working space. However, the high throughput of air causes pressure drop in catalyst beds, which results in high load to the process gas pumping system. The honeycomb catalyst has an advantage in terms of pressure drop, which is estimated to be far less than that in conventional particle-packed catalyst beds. Our previous studies revealed that honeycomb catalysts made of cordierite and Al-Cr-Fe metal alloy substances have preferable oxidizing performance. It was found that the platinum-deposited cordierite catalyst shows the higher oxidation rate for hydrogen gas, and the palladium-deposited metal honeycomb catalyst shows the higher oxidation rate for methane gas. In this study, the properties of honeycomb catalysts were more systematically studied by changing experimental parameters such as noble metal content, mesh density and so forth to obtain design data base for high performance honeycomb catalysts. With regard to catalysts, the amount of noble metal deposited on the honeycomb substrates were varied from 1 g/L to 4 g/L and the mesh density of the honeycombs were changed from 260 to 400 CPSI as well. For operating conditions, the flow rate of the process gases was varied from 0.016 to 0.12 m 3 /hr, and the concentration of water vapor was changed from 0 to 1.4 %. Results of experimental study suggest that honeycomb catalysts are useful for the treatment of gases with high volumetric velocity in a fusion plant because of their low pressure drop in the catalyst reactor. The platinum catalysts were found to be suitable for oxidation of hydrogen gas, while the palladium catalysts exhibit better performance for oxidation of

  18. Raney copper catalysts for the water-gas shift reaction - II. Initial catalyst optimisation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mellor, JR


    Full Text Available -Zn-A1 catalyst. During the controlled passivation Table 2 Crystalline phase of alloys B, C and D and their product Raney copper catalysts before and after reaction Alloy Precursor alloy phases Cat. phases before reaction a Cat. phases after reaction a... L; dry gas composition=10% CO/90% N2; CO : H20=I : 22.5; catalyst volume=2i0.1 ml): (O)=Cat. A Cu(69.3)Zn(6.9)Al( 19.5); (~)=cat. B Cu(73.6)Zn(10.9)AI(14.8); (W1)=cat. C Cu(72.4)Zn(13.3)Al(12.9); ({))=cat. D Cu(61.5)Zn(15.1)AI(19.1). It can...

  19. Catalyst Needs for Thermochemical Hydrogen Production Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginosar, Daniel M.; Petkovic, Lucia M.; Rollins, Harry W.; Burch, Kyle C.


    Thermochemical cycles can be used to split water through a series of chemical reactions where the net result is the production of hydrogen and oxygen at much lower temperatures than direct thermal decomposition. All chemicals within the cycle are fully recycled and the heat to drive the reactions, which tend to be endothermic, must be provided by a primary energy source. When the primary energy driver is nuclear heat, hydrogen can be generated without producing green-house gases, and can provide independence from our dwindling supplies of fossil fuels. A number of thermochemical cycles can be driven by the primary heat of nuclear reactors, especially a very high temperature reactor (VHTR). The sulfur-based family of thermochemical cycles, including the Sulfur- Iodine cycle (S-I), the Hybrid Sulfur cycle, and the Sulfur-Bromine Hybrid cycle, appears promising for producing hydrogen using nuclear heat. These cycles employ a high-temperature sulfuric acid decomposition reaction step. The reaction produces oxygen and generates SO 2 , which is used in other reaction steps of the cycles. The reaction takes place from 750 to 900 deg. C, or higher, and is facilitated by heterogeneous catalysts. The S-I cycle produces hydrogen by the catalytic decomposition of HI. The calcium-bromine cycle is also being considered as a nuclear powered thermochemical cycle. The various cycles all present requirements of high temperatures and harsh chemical reaction conditions which present significantly challenging environments for catalytic materials. This work will focus on the catalyst needs of thermochemical cycles that are candidates for being powered by nuclear reactors. Specific catalyst activity and stability testing results will be provided for the decomposition of sulfuric acid for the production of oxygen in the sulfur-based family of cycles and for the catalytic decomposition of hydro-iodic acid for the production of hydrogen in the S-I process. Sulfuric acid decomposition

  20. Synthetic catalysts that separate CO.sub.2 from the atmosphere and gas mixtures (United States)

    Lightstone, Felice C; Wong, Sergio E; Lau, Edmond Y; Satcher, Jr., Joe H; Aines, Roger D


    The creation of a catalyst that can be used for a wide variety of applications including the steps of developing preliminary information regarding the catalyst, using the preliminary information to produce a template of the catalyst, and using the template of the catalyst to produce the catalyst.

  1. Thin Film Catalyst Layers for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (United States)

    Witham, C. K.; Chun, W.; Ruiz, R.; Valdez, T. I.; Narayanan, S. R.


    One of the primary obstacles to the widespread use of the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is the high cost of the catalyst. Therefore, reducing the catalyst loading well below the current level of 8-12 mg/cm 2 would be important to commercialization. The current methods for preparation of catalyst layers consisting of catalyst, ionomer and sometimes a hydrophobic additive are applied by either painting, spraying, decal transfer or screen printing processes. Sputter deposition is a coating technique widely used in manufacturing and therefore particularly attractive. In this study we have begun to explore sputtering as a method for catalyst deposition. Present experiments focus on Pt-Ru catalyst layers for the anode.

  2. Homogeneous deuterium exchange using rhenium and platinum chloride catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawdry, R.M.


    Previous studies of homogeneous hydrogen isotope exchange are mostly confined to one catalyst, the tetrachloroplatinite salt. Recent reports have indicated that chloride salts of iridium and rhodium may also be homogeneous exchange catalysts similar to the tetrachloroplatinite, but with much lower activities. Exchange by these homogeneous catalysts is frequently accompanied by metal precipitation with the termination of homogeneous exchange, particularly in the case of alkane exchange. The studies presented in this thesis describe two different approaches to overcome this limitation of homogeneous hydrogen isotope exchange catalysts. The first approach was to improve the stability of an existing homogeneous catalyst and the second was to develop a new homogeneous exchange catalyst which is free of the instability limitation

  3. Method for reactivating solid catalysts used in alkylation reactions (United States)

    Ginosar, Daniel M.; Thompson, David N.; Coates, Kyle; Zalewski, David J.; Fox, Robert V.


    A method for reactivating a solid alkylation catalyst is provided which can be performed within a reactor that contains the alkylation catalyst or outside the reactor. Effective catalyst reactivation is achieved whether the catalyst is completely deactivated or partially deactivated. A fluid reactivating agent is employed to dissolve catalyst fouling agents and also to react with such agents and carry away the reaction products. The deactivated catalyst is contacted with the fluid reactivating agent under pressure and temperature conditions such that the fluid reactivating agent is dense enough to effectively dissolve the fouling agents and any reaction products of the fouling agents and the reactivating agent. Useful pressures and temperatures for reactivation include near-critical, critical, and supercritical pressures and temperatures for the reactivating agent. The fluid reactivating agent can include, for example, a branched paraffin containing at least one tertiary carbon atom, or a compound that can be isomerized to a molecule containing at least one tertiary carbon atom.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, B.H.


    The goal of the proposed work described in this Final Report was the development of iron-based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts that combined high activity, selectivity and life with physical robustness for slurry phase reactors that will produce either low-alpha or high-alpha products. The work described here has optimized the catalyst composition and pretreatment operation for a low-alpha catalyst. In parallel, work has been conducted to design a high-alpha iron catalyst that is suitable for slurry phase synthesis. Studies have been conducted to define the chemical phases present at various stages of the pretreatment and synthesis stages and to define the course of these changes. The oxidation/reduction cycles that are anticipated to occur in large, commercial reactors have been studied at the laboratory scale. Catalyst performance has been determined for catalysts synthesized in this program for activity, selectivity and aging characteristics.

  5. Studies of Deactivation of Methanol to Formaldehyde Selective Oxidation Catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun, Kristian Viegaard; Schumann, Max; Høj, Martin

    as the Formox process [1]. The average lifetime of the industrial catalyst is only 1–2 years depending on the operating conditions. The catalyst consists of a bulk phase of Fe2(MoO4)3 and a surface layer phase of MoO3. The MoO3 surfaceis selective towards formaldehyde while the iron in the sublayer increases...... the activity of the catalyst [2]. Pure MoO3 in itself has low activity. Literature from the last decades agrees that the major reason for the deactivation is loss of molybdenum from the catalyst. Molybdenum forms volatile species with methanol, which can leave behind Mo poor zones. The catalyst is usually...... prepared with excess MoO3 (Mo/Fe > 1.5) to counter the loss of Mo. This work focuses on understanding the structural changes occurring in the catalyst and its behavior during deactivation via prolonged activity testing and spectroscopic investigations....

  6. Catalyst based processes at back end of nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincent, T.


    Heterogeneous catalysts occupy a pivotal position in chemical industry. Their advanced preparation technology allows us to employ these catalysts for wide range of application. But the deployment of catalyst based radiochemical technology has to address the particular features like aggressive nitric acid media and intensive radiation fields. This put forward the rigid requirements to a choice of catalysts: high chemical and radiation stability of the catalyst and support, mechanical durability, catalytic activity and simplicity of preparation. Hydrogenation process with Pt/SiO 2 has been adopted industrially for making uranous nitrate (U 4+ ) from uranyl nitrate (U 6+ ) in PUREX process at commercial reprocessing plants. Bimetallic catalysts are being explored for the destruction of nitrates generated during nuclear fuel cycle operations

  7. Heterogeneous Tin Catalysts Applied to the Esterification and Transesterification Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio José da Silva


    Full Text Available The interest in the development of efficient and environmentally benign catalysts for esters synthesis has increased exponentially, mainly due to the demand for biodiesel. In general, fatty esters are used as bioadditive, cosmetic ingredients, polymers, and, more recently, biofuel. Nevertheless, most of the production processes use nonrecyclable and homogenous alkaline catalysts, which results in the reactors corrosion, large generation of effluents, and residues on the steps of separation and catalyst neutralization. Heterogeneous acid catalysts can answer these demands and are an environmentally benign alternative extensively explored. Remarkably, solid acid catalysts based on tin have been shown highly attractive for the biodiesel production, mainly via FFA esterification reactions. This review describes important features related to be the synthesis, stability to, and activity of heterogeneous tin catalysts in biodiesel production reactions.

  8. Indium Catalysts for Ring Opening Polymerization: Exploring the Importance of Catalyst Aggregation. (United States)

    Osten, Kimberly M; Mehrkhodavandi, Parisa


    Inexorably, the environmental persistence and damage caused by polyolefins have become major drawbacks to their continued long-term use. Global shifts in thinking from fossil-fuel to renewable biobased resources have urged researchers to focus their attention on substituting fossil-fuel based polymers with renewable and biodegradable alternatives on an industrial scale. The recent development of biodegradable polyesters from ring opening polymerization (ROP) of bioderived cyclic ester monomers has emerged as a promising new avenue toward this goal. Ever increasing numbers of metal-based initiators have been reported in the literature for the controlled ROP of cyclic esters, in particular for the polymerization of lactide to produce poly(lactic acid) (PLA). PLA has several material weaknesses, which hinder its use as a replacement for commodity plastics. Despite many advances in developing highly active and controlled catalysts for lactide polymerization, no single catalyst system has emerged to replace industrially used catalysts and provide access to PLA materials with improved properties. We reported the first example of indium(III) for the ring opening polymerization of lactide. Since then, indium(III) has emerged as a useful Lewis acid in initiators for the controlled polymerization of lactide and other cyclic esters. In particular, we have developed a large family of chiral dinuclear indium complexes bearing tridentate diaminophenolate ligands and tetradentate salen and salan ligands. Complexes within our tridentate ligand family are highly active initiators for the moderately isoselective living and immortal polymerization of rac-lactide, as well as other cyclic esters. We have shown that subtle steric effects influence aggregation in these systems, with polymerization typically proceeding through a dinuclear propagating species. In addition, profound effects on polymerization activities have been observed for central tertiary versus secondary amine donors in

  9. Catalyst for purifying exhaust gases and a method for producing the catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujitani, Y.; Kondoh, S.; Muraki, H.; Nakamura, T.; Sobukawa, H.; Tomita, M.; Yokota, K.


    A catalyst for reducing nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons, the noxious components in exhaust gases from internal combustion engines, etc., which comprises: a carrier having a substructure of refractory material in the form of a honeycomb structure, etc., and a porous layer of a powder formed on the surface thereof selected from the group consisting of a powder of zirconium oxide and a mixed powder of zirconium oxide powder with at least one powder selected from the group consisting of alumina, alumina-magnesia spinel and cerium oxide; and a catalyst ingredient supported thereon consisting of cerium oxide and a metal selected from the group consisting of platinum, palladium and mixtures thereof.

  10. Catalysts and process for liquid hydrocarbon fuel production (United States)

    White, Mark G.; Ranaweera, Samantha A.; Henry, William P.


    The present invention provides a novel process and system in which a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen synthesis gas, or syngas, is converted into hydrocarbon mixtures composed of high quality distillates, gasoline components, and lower molecular weight gaseous olefins in one reactor or step. The invention utilizes a novel supported bimetallic ion complex catalyst for conversion, and provides methods of preparing such novel catalysts and use of the novel catalysts in the process and system of the invention.

  11. Activation of catalysts for synthesizing methanol from synthesis gas (United States)

    Blum, David B.; Gelbein, Abraham P.


    A method for activating a methanol synthesis catalyst is disclosed. In this method, the catalyst is slurried in an inert liquid and is activated by a reducing gas stream. The activation step occurs in-situ. That is, it is conducted in the same reactor as is the subsequent step of synthesizing methanol from a methanol gas stream catalyzed by the activated catalyst still dispersed in a slurry.

  12. Mesoporous Molecular Sieves as Supports for Metathesis Catalysts (United States)

    Balcar, Hynek; Cejka, Jirí

    Mesoporous molecular sieves represent a new family of inorganic oxides with regular nanostructure, large surface areas, large void volumes, and narrow pore size distribution of mesopores. These materials offer new possibilities for designing highly active and selective catalysts for olefin metathesis and metathesis polymerization. Siliceous sieves MCM-41, MCM-48, SBA-15, and organized mesoporous alumina (OMA) were used as supports for preparation of new molybdenum and rhenium oxide catalysts, as well as for heterogenization of well-defined homogeneous catalysts.

  13. An improved method of preparation of nanoparticular metal oxide catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention concerns an improved method of preparation of nanoparticular vanadium oxide/anatase titania catalysts having a narrow particle size distribution. In particular, the invention concerns preparation of nanoparticular vanadium oxide/anatase titania catalyst precursors comprising...... combustible crystallization seeds upon which the catalyst metal oxide is coprecipitated with the carrier metal oxide, which crystallization seeds are removed by combustion in a final calcining step....

  14. XPS characterization of supported Ziegler-Natta catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushik, V.K.; Gupta, V.K.; Naik, D.G.


    Surface analytical technique ESCA (electron spectrometer for chemical analysis) has been used for analysis of catalysts used in propylene polymerization. As a result of this analysis it has been shown that productivity of a catalyst can be correlated to Ti/Mg atomic ratio that indicates dispersion of titanium atoms on magnesium support. A quantitative indicator of productivity, i.e. 'titanium index' has also been evaluated for studied catalysts

  15. Optimal Catalyst and Cocatalyst Precontacting in Industrial Ethylene Copolymerization Processes


    Aigner, Paul; Paulik, Christian; Krallis, Apostolos; Kanellopoulos, Vasileios


    In industrial-scale catalytic olefin copolymerization processes, catalyst and cocatalyst precontacting before being introduced in the polymerization reactor is of profound significance in terms of catalyst kinetics and morphology control. The precontacting process takes place under either well-mixing (e.g., static mixers) or plug-flow (e.g., pipes) conditions. The scope of this work is to study the influence of mixing on catalyst/cocatalyst precontacting for a heterogeneous Ziegler-Natta cata...

  16. Method for filling a reactor with a catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The invention relates to a method for filling a reactor with a catalyst for the carbonylation of carbonylated compounds in the gas phase. According to said method, a SILP catalyst is covered with a filling agent which is liquid under normal conditions and is volatile under carbonylation reaction...... conditions, and a thus-treated catalyst is introduced into the reactor and the reactor is sealed....

  17. Hydrogen production from bio-fuels using precious metal catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasel Joachim


    Full Text Available Fuel cell systems with integrated autothermal reforming unit require active and robust catalysts for H2 production. Thus, an experimental screening of catalysts for autothermal reforming of commercial biodiesel fuel was performed. Catalysts consisted of a monolithic cordierite substrate, an oxide support (γ-Al2O3 and Pt, Ru, Ni, PtRh and PtRu as active phase. Experiments were run by widely varying the O2/C and H2O/C molar ratios at different gas hourly space velocities. Fresh and aged catalysts were characterized by temperature programmed methods and thermogravimetry to find correlations with catalytic activity and stability.

  18. Hydrogen production from bio-fuels using precious metal catalysts (United States)

    Pasel, Joachim; Wohlrab, Sebastian; Rotov, Mikhail; Löhken, Katrin; Peters, Ralf; Stolten, Detlef


    Fuel cell systems with integrated autothermal reforming unit require active and robust catalysts for H2 production. Thus, an experimental screening of catalysts for autothermal reforming of commercial biodiesel fuel was performed. Catalysts consisted of a monolithic cordierite substrate, an oxide support (γ-Al2O3) and Pt, Ru, Ni, PtRh and PtRu as active phase. Experiments were run by widely varying the O2/C and H2O/C molar ratios at different gas hourly space velocities. Fresh and aged catalysts were characterized by temperature programmed methods and thermogravimetry to find correlations with catalytic activity and stability.

  19. Method of distributing liquefaction catalysts in solid carbonaceous material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, S W


    A method of dispersing a liquefaction catalyst within coal or other carbonaceous solids involves providing a suspension in oil of microcapsules containing the catalyst. An aqueous solution of a catalytic metal salt is emulsified in the water-immiscible oil and the resulting minute droplets microencapsulated in polymeric shells by interfacial polycondensation. The catalyst is subsequently blended and dispersed throughout the powdered carbonaceous material to be liquefied. At liquefaction temperatures the polymeric microcapsules are destroyed and the catalyst converted to minute crystallites in intimate contact with the carbonaceous material. 2 tables.

  20. Two Catalysts for Selective Oxidation of Contaminant Gases (United States)

    Wright, John D.


    Two catalysts for the selective oxidation of trace amounts of contaminant gases in air have been developed for use aboard the International Space Station. These catalysts might also be useful for reducing concentrations of fumes in terrestrial industrial facilities especially facilities that use halocarbons as solvents, refrigerant liquids, and foaming agents, as well as facilities that generate or utilize ammonia. The first catalyst is of the supported-precious-metal type. This catalyst is highly active for the oxidation of halocarbons, hydrocarbons, and oxygenates at low concentrations in air. This catalyst is more active for the oxidation of hydrocarbons and halocarbons than are competing catalysts developed in recent years. This catalyst completely converts these airborne contaminant gases to carbon dioxide, water, and mineral acids that can be easily removed from the air, and does not make any chlorine gas in the process. The catalyst is thermally stable and is not poisoned by chlorine or fluorine atoms produced on its surface during the destruction of a halocarbon. In addition, the catalyst can selectively oxidize ammonia to nitrogen at a temperature between 200 and 260 C, without making nitrogen oxides, which are toxic. The temperature of 260 C is higher than the operational temperature of any other precious-metal catalyst that can selectively oxidize ammonia. The purpose of the platinum in this catalyst is to oxidize hydrocarbons and to ensure that the oxidation of halocarbons goes to completion. However, the platinum exhibits little or no activity for initiating the destruction of halocarbons. Instead, the attack on the halocarbons is initiated by the support. The support also provides a high surface area for exposure of the platinum. Moreover, the support resists deactivation or destruction by halogens released during the destruction of halocarbons. The second catalyst is of the supported- metal-oxide type. This catalyst can selectively oxidize ammonia to

  1. New processes and catalysts solve problems of feed contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    This paper reports that the petroleum refining catalyst industry is facing a rough road ahead. New catalysts will be needed to meet the U.S. 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, not to mention other emissions regulations. And as if this weren't enough, the world's supply of light, sweet crude is rapidly declining. Refiners are increasingly faced with processing heavier crudes with higher sulfur and metals contents. Both of these factors will likely lead, if they have not already, to increased research and development budgets for catalyst manufacturers. Catalyst supplier's and process licensors' efforts to meet these increasing demands are already well under way

  2. Fischer-Tropsch, hydrotreating and superClaus catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraan, A.M. van der


    In modern society the application of catalysts, and hence, research in the field of catalysis, is becoming more and more important. In the strongly increasing chemical industry most reaction processes are performed with the aid of catalysts. Knowledge about the structure of the active sites present at the surface of catalysts will facilitate the design of new catalysts with better performances. Such knowledge can be obtained by Moessbauer spectroscopy, which is an excellent in-situ characterization technique due to the high penetrating power of the γ-radiation used and the sensitivity of the spectral parameters for the chemical state and local environment of the Moessbauer atoms

  3. High pressure CO hydrogenation over bimetallic Pt-Co catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jakob Munkholt; Medford, Andrew James; Studt, Felix


    produce mainly methanol in the Pt-rich composition range andmainly hydrocarbons (and to a modest extent higher alcohols) in the Co-rich composition range. The transition between the two types of behavior occurs in a narrow composition range around a molar Pt:Co ratio of 1:1.......The potential of bimetallic Pt-Co catalysts for production of higher alcohols in high pressure CO hydrogenation has been assessed. Two catalysts (Pt3Co/SiO2 and PtCo/SiO2) were tested, and the existing literature on CO hydrogenation over Pt-Co catalysts was reviewed. It is found that the catalysts...

  4. Highly Durable Catalysts for Ignition of Advanced Monopropellants, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposed SBIR Phase I addresses the development of catalysts and technology for the ignition of advanced monopropellants consisting of mixtures of...

  5. Multi-stage catalyst systems and uses thereof (United States)

    Ozkan, Umit S [Worthington, OH; Holmgreen, Erik M [Columbus, OH; Yung, Matthew M [Columbus, OH


    Catalyst systems and methods provide benefits in reducing the content of nitrogen oxides in a gaseous stream containing nitric oxide (NO), hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide (CO), and oxygen (O.sub.2). The catalyst system comprises an oxidation catalyst comprising a first metal supported on a first inorganic oxide for catalyzing the oxidation of NO to nitrogen dioxide (NO.sub.2), and a reduction catalyst comprising a second metal supported on a second inorganic oxide for catalyzing the reduction of NO.sub.2 to nitrogen (N.sub.2).

  6. Toward Catalyst Design from Theoretical Calculations (464th Brookhaven Lecture)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ping (BNL Chemistry Dept)


    Catalysts have been used to speed up chemical reactions as long as yeast has been used to make bread rise. Today, catalysts are used everywhere from home kitchens to industrial chemical factories. In the near future, new catalysts being developed at Brookhaven Lab may be used to speed us along our roads and highways as they play a major role in solving the world’s energy challenges. During the lecture, Liu will discuss how theorists and experimentalists at BNL are working together to formulate and test new catalysts that could be used in real-life applications, such as hydrogen-fuel cells that may one day power our cars and trucks.

  7. Activation of molecular catalysts using semiconductor quantum dots (United States)

    Meyer, Thomas J [Chapel Hill, NC; Sykora, Milan [Los Alamos, NM; Klimov, Victor I [Los Alamos, NM


    Photocatalytic materials based on coupling of semiconductor nanocrystalline quantum dots (NQD) and molecular catalysts. These materials have capability to drive or catalyze non-spontaneous chemical reactions in the presence of visible radiation, ultraviolet radiation, or both. The NQD functions in these materials as a light absorber and charge generator. Following light absorption, the NQD activates a molecular catalyst adsorbed on the surface of the NQD via transfer of one or more charges (either electrons or electron-holes) from the NQD to the molecular catalyst. The activated molecular catalyst can then drive a chemical reaction. A photoelectrolytic device that includes such photocatalytic materials is also described.

  8. Graphene-supported platinum catalysts for fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seselj, Nedjeljko; Engelbrekt, Christian; Zhang, Jingdong


    Increasing concerns with non-renewable energy sources drive research and development of sustainable energy technology. Fuel cells have become a central part in solving challenges associated with energy conversion. This review summarizes recent development of catalysts used for fuel cells over...... the past 15 years. It is focused on polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells as an environmentally benign and feasible energy source. Graphene is used as a promising support material for Pt catalysts. It ensures high catalyst loading, good electrocatalysis and stability. Attention has been drawn...... in the field. Future perspective is given in a form of Pt-free catalysts, such as microbial fuel cells for long-term development....

  9. Preparation of alveolate hydrophobic catalyst for tritium waste gas treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yong; Peng, Shuming; Wang, Heyi; Du, Yang; Li, Jiamao


    Highlights: • The catalyst is hydrophobic, it will not be poisoned by steam in room air at room temperature which is better than Pt-Al 2 O 3 . • At room temperature, the conversion of low concentration of H2 and tritium gas in room air over the catalyst is high. • The air resistance of catalyst is much lower than graininess Pt-Al 2 O 3 . • It is inorganic and will not burn. - Abstract: To prepare a catalyst for the detritiation of waste gases at high flow rates, a heat-resistant hydrophobic zeolitic molecular sieve coating was synthesized on the surface of alveolate cordierite by hydrothermal processing. The alveolate hydrophobic catalyst prepared from the support was essentially waterproof and not easily poisoned by moisture. At room temperature, the conversion of low concentrations of H 2 in humid air over the catalyst was higher than 95% at different space velocities (0–16,000 h −1 ) and different relative humidities. The reaction rate constant of the oxidation of tritium over alveolate hydrophobic catalyst is 0.182 s −1 at 293.3 K–293.7 K and 59%–60% RH, it is much higher than the catalyst of reference honeycomb catalyst.

  10. Advanced Aqueous Phase Catalyst Development using Combinatorial Methods, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Combinatorial methods are proposed to develop advanced Aqueous Oxidation Catalysts (AOCs) with the capability to mineralize organic contaminants present in effluents...

  11. Combined catalysts for the combustion of fuel in gas turbines (United States)

    Anoshkina, Elvira V.; Laster, Walter R.


    A catalytic oxidation module for a catalytic combustor of a gas turbine engine is provided. The catalytic oxidation module comprises a plurality of spaced apart catalytic elements for receiving a fuel-air mixture over a surface of the catalytic elements. The plurality of catalytic elements includes at least one primary catalytic element comprising a monometallic catalyst and secondary catalytic elements adjacent the primary catalytic element comprising a multi-component catalyst. Ignition of the monometallic catalyst of the primary catalytic element is effective to rapidly increase a temperature within the catalytic oxidation module to a degree sufficient to ignite the multi-component catalyst.

  12. Attrition Resistant Fischer-Tropsch Catalysts Based on FCC Supports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adeyiga, Adeyinka


    Commercial spent fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts provided by Engelhard and Albemarle were used as supports for Fe-based catalysts with the goal of improving the attrition resistance of typical F-T catalysts. Catalysts with the Ruhrchemie composition (100 Fe/5 Cu/4.2 K/25 spent FCC on mass basis) were prepared by wet impregnation. XRD and XANES analysis showed the presence of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} in calcined catalysts. FeC{sub x} and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} were present in the activated catalysts. The metal composition of the catalysts was analyzed by ICP-MS. F-T activity of the catalysts activated in situ in CO at the same conditions as used prior to the attrition tests was measured using a fixed bed reactor at T = 573 K, P = 1.38 MPa and H{sub 2}:CO ratio of 0.67. Cu and K promoted Fe supported over Engelhard provided spent FCC catalyst shows relatively good attrition resistance (8.2 wt% fines lost), high CO conversion (81%) and C{sub 5}+ hydrocarbons selectivity (18.3%).

  13. Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis over Iron Manganese Catalysts: Effect of Preparation and Operating Conditions on Catalyst Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali A. Mirzaei


    molar basis which is the most active catalyst for the conversion of synthesis gas to light olefins. The effects of different promoters and supports with loading of optimum support on the catalytic performance of catalysts are also studied. It was found that the catalyst containing 50%Fe/50%Mn/5 wt.%Al2O3 is an optimum-modified catalyst. The catalytic performance of optimal catalyst has been studied in operation conditions such as a range of reaction temperatures, H2/CO molar feed ratios and a range of total pressures. Characterization of both precursors and calcined catalysts is carried out by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, BET specific surface area and thermal analysis methods such as TGA and DSC.

  14. Subnanometer and nanometer catalysts, method for preparing size-selected catalysts (United States)

    Vajda, Stefan [Lisle, IL; Pellin, Michael J [Naperville, IL; Elam, Jeffrey W [Elmhurst, IL; Marshall, Christopher L [Naperville, IL; Winans, Randall A [Downers Grove, IL; Meiwes-Broer, Karl-Heinz [Roggentin, GR


    Highly uniform cluster based nanocatalysts supported on technologically relevant supports were synthesized for reactions of top industrial relevance. The Pt-cluster based catalysts outperformed the very best reported ODHP catalyst in both activity (by up to two orders of magnitude higher turn-over frequencies) and in selectivity. The results clearly demonstrate that highly dispersed ultra-small Pt clusters precisely localized on high-surface area supports can lead to affordable new catalysts for highly efficient and economic propene production, including considerably simplified separation of the final product. The combined GISAXS-mass spectrometry provides an excellent tool to monitor the evolution of size and shape of nanocatalyst at action under realistic conditions. Also provided are sub-nanometer gold and sub-nanometer to few nm size-selected silver catalysts which possess size dependent tunable catalytic properties in the epoxidation of alkenes. Invented size-selected cluster deposition provides a unique tool to tune material properties by atom-by-atom fashion, which can be stabilized by protective overcoats.

  15. Catalyst Schools' Implementation of the Learning School Approach. Catalyst Schools Research Study Report (United States)

    Hammer, Patricia Cahape


    "Catalyst schools" were 28 elementary and secondary schools selected to participate in a pilot project begun in July 2014, which explored how best to support teacher professional learning through decentralization of decision making and implementation of the Learning School approach. The pilot project was the first phase in a statewide…

  16. Poisoning of vanadia based SCR catalysts by potassium:influence of catalyst composition and potassium mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Brian Kjærgaard; Kügler, Frauke; Jensen, Anker Degn


    exposure temperatures slowdown the deactivation. K2SO4 causes a lower rate of deactivation compared to KCl. This may be related to a faster transfer of potassium from the solid KCl matrix to the catalyst, however, it cannot be ruled out toalso be caused by a significantly larger particle size of the K2SO4...

  17. Development of industrial hydrogenating catalyst on rhenium base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chistyakova, G.A.; Bat', I.I.; Rebrova, V.V.


    Processes for forming rhenium catalysts on carbon carrier and their catalytic properties in nitrobenzene (NB) reduction were studied. Application of an ammonia preparation to the carbon surface produced impregnated carbon saturated at room temperature with a water solution of the ammonia preparation, taken in a volume equal to the volumetric capacity of the carbon. With one impregnation, 2% rhenium was taken up. Catalysts containing more than 5% rhenium were obtained by impregnating the carbon with heating and use of more concentrated solutions. Catalysts made in this way and dried at 100 0 C had the composition Re 2 OH/carbon/. The most active catalysts were those reduced at 200-250 0 C; higher temperatures, up to 300-500 0 C, decreased the activity. Study of the catalytic properties of the rhenium catalysts in a liquid phase reduction of NB showed that the specific activity of rhenium depends only slightly on the content of the active component in the catalyst and is close to the specific activity of palladium and considerably exceeds that of nickel. Study of the effect of the NB concentration and hydrogen pressure on the activity and stability of the 5% rhenium catalyst indicated that with NB concentrations from 50 to 10% the process takes place at an essentially constant rate; the order of the reaction was close to zero with an apparent activation energy of about 7000 cal/mole. At pressures of 15-200 atm the yield with the 5% catalyst was proportional to the hydrogen pressure. A big advantage of the rhenium catalysts in the reduction of NB is their high selectivity. With a higher activity than palladium and nickel catalysts, 5% rhenium catalyst produces a high operating capacity in a wide range of contact charges, which has considerable significance for industrial use in contact apparatus of the column type. Comparison of the costs of rhenium catalysts and granular carbon carrier with those of nickel, platinum, and palladium showed that 5% rhenium catalyst can

  18. CATALYSTS NHI Thermochemical Systems FY 2009 Year-End Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel M. Ginosar


    Fiscal Year 2009 work in the Catalysts project focused on advanced catalysts for the decomposition of sulfuric acid, a reaction common to both the Sulfur-Iodine (S-I) cycle and the Hybrid Sulfur cycle. Prior years’ effort in this project has found that although platinum supported on titanium oxide will be an acceptable catalyst for sulfuric acid decomposition in the integrated laboratory scale (ILS) project, the material has short comings, including significant cost and high deactivation rates due to sintering and platinum evaporation. For pilot and larger scale systems, the catalyst stability needs to be improved significantly. In Fiscal Year 2008 it was found that at atmospheric pressure, deactivation rates of a 1 wt% platinum catalyst could be reduced by 300% by adding either 0.3 wt% iridium (Ir) or 0.3 wt% ruthenium (Ru) to the catalyst. In Fiscal Year 2009, work focused on examining the platinum group metal catalysts activity and stability at elevated pressures. In addition, simple and complex metal oxides are known to catalyze the sulfuric acid decomposition reaction. These metal oxides could offer activities comparable to platinum but at significantly reduced cost. Thus a second focus for Fiscal Year 2009 was to explore metal oxide catalysts for the sulfuric acid decomposition reaction. In Fiscal Year 2007 several commercial activated carbons had been identified for the HI decomposition reaction; a reaction specific to the S-I cycle. Those materials should be acceptable for the pilot scale project. The activated carbon catalysts have some disadvantages including low activity at the lower range of reactor operating temperature (350 to 400°C) and a propensity to generate carbon monoxide in the presence of water that could contaminate the hydrogen product, but due to limited funding, this area had low priority in Fiscal Year 2009. Fiscal Year 2009 catalyst work included five tasks: development, and testing of stabilized platinum based H2SO4 catalysts

  19. Heterogeneously catalyzed coal hydroliquefaction: screening of catalysts and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legarreta, J.; Arias, P.L.; Marco, I. de; Chomon, M.J.; Caballero, B.; Cambra, J.F.; Guemez, B.; Fierro, J.L.G. (Universidad del Pais Vasco, Bilbao (Spain). Escuel de Ingenieros de Bilbao)


    This project is centred upon the study of the activities of different catalysts in one-step coal liquefaction processes. A series of alumina supported catalysts was prepared by multistep impregnation, including a conventional CoMo/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] and other preparations containing Zn as a second promoter, and the alumina was acidified with different fluorine contents. These catalysts were extensive physicochemically characterized and their hydrodesulphurization (HDS) and hydrogenation (HYD) activities were tested using a model compound (thiophene). The results obtained indicate that partial substitution of Co by Zn does not affect the HDS and HYD activities and that fluorination diminishes these activities because of textural changes of the carrier. The prepared catalysts were tested in coal liquefaction and their activities were compared to those of cheap iron containing dispersion catalysts such as red mud, Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3] aerosol, and Cottrell and pyrite ashes (by-products of the sulphur acid industry). Prior to the study and comparison of the catalyst activities and exploration of the influence of various operating conditions (temperature, tetralin/coal ratio, type of solvent and operating pressure) on catalytic and non-catalytic coal liquefaction was performed. The coal used in most of the experiments was a Spanish subbituminous A coal. Additionally, a comparison of all the catalysts was carried out with a standard high volatile bituminous coal. Supported catalysts present higher activities than iron-based catalysts. Among these catalysts, red mud proved to be the most active. Catalytic experiments using anthracene oil as solvent and CoZnMo/fluorinated alumina catalysts present maximum yields indicating that Zn as second promoter and carrier acidification to be beneficial in coal liquefaction with solvents similar to those used in real plants. 41 refs., 9 figs., 13 tabs.

  20. Nanostructural characterisation of catalysts by SANS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Stefanis, A.; Tomlinson, A.A.G.; Steriotis, Th.A.; Stefanopoulos, K.L.; Keiderling, U.


    A series of restructured clays used as catalysts in small- and large-scale chemical reactions, have been studied by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). Analysis of the spectra provides detailed information both on the nanopore structure and the surface texture of these materials. Additionally, pillared inter-layered clays (PILCs) have a great potential for industrial utilisation in catalysis, sorption and separations. PILCs have been studied with contrast-matching SANS in order to independently resolve the structure of each phase since by matching the neutron scattering length density of the clay or the pillars, the scattering curve results only from the non-contrast matched phase

  1. Nanostructural characterisation of catalysts by SANS (United States)

    Stefanis, A. De; Tomlinson, A. A. G.; Steriotis, Th. A.; Stefanopoulos, K. L.; Keiderling, U.


    A series of restructured clays used as catalysts in small- and large-scale chemical reactions, have been studied by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). Analysis of the spectra provides detailed information both on the nanopore structure and the surface texture of these materials. Additionally, pillared inter-layered clays (PILCs) have a great potential for industrial utilisation in catalysis, sorption and separations. PILCs have been studied with contrast-matching SANS in order to independently resolve the structure of each phase since by matching the neutron scattering length density of the clay or the pillars, the scattering curve results only from the non-contrast matched phase.

  2. Selective catalyst reduction light-off strategy (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI


    An emissions control system includes a temperature determination module and an emissions control module. The temperature determination module determines a first temperature of a heater element of a diesel particulate filter (DPF) assembly in an exhaust system and determines a second temperature of a catalyst of the DPF assembly. The emissions control module selectively activates the heater element, selectively initiates a predefined combustion process in an engine based upon the first temperature, and selectively starts a reductant injection process based upon the second temperature.

  3. Methyltrioxorhenium as catalyst for olefin metathesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, W.A. (Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Anorganisch-Chemisches Inst.); Wagner, W. (Consortium fuer Elektrochemische Industrie GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)); Flessner, U.N.; Volkhardt, U.; Komber, H. (Institut fuer Technologie der Polymere, Dresden (Germany))


    No cocatalysts are needed as additives when methyltrioxorhenium (MTO) supported on acidic carriers is employed to catalyze the metathesis of functionalized olefins. A typical system is MTO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}, which is active, for instance, in the metathesis of allyl halides, allylsilanes, unsaturated carboxylates, and nitriles. MTO in combination with R{sub n}AlCl{sub 3-n} is a homogeneous catalyst in ring-opening polymerizations (R = CH{sub 3}, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}; n = 1,2). (orig.).

  4. Cooperative catalysis designing efficient catalysts for synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, René


    Written by experts in the field, this is a much-needed overview of the rapidly emerging field of cooperative catalysis. The authors focus on the design and development of novel high-performance catalysts for applications in organic synthesis (particularly asymmetric synthesis), covering a broad range of topics, from the latest progress in Lewis acid / Br?nsted base catalysis to e.g. metal-assisted organocatalysis, cooperative metal/enzyme catalysis, and cooperative catalysis in polymerization reactions and on solid surfaces. The chapters are classified according to the type of cooperating acti

  5. Alkaline earth metal catalysts for asymmetric reactions. (United States)

    Kobayashi, Shū; Yamashita, Yasuhiro


    The group 2 alkaline earth metals calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), and barium (Ba) are among the most common elements on Earth, abundant in both the sea and the Earth's crust. Although they are familiar in our daily lives, their application to organic synthesis has, so far, been limited. Some particularly useful properties of these elements include (i) low electronegativity, (ii) a stable oxidation state of +2, meaning that they can potentially form two covalent bonds with anions, and (iii) the ability to occupy a variety of coordination sites due to their large ionic radius. Furthermore, the alkaline earth metals, found between the group 1 and group 3 elements, show mild but significant Lewis acidity, which can be harnessed to control coordinative molecules via a Lewis acid-base interaction. Taken together, these characteristics make the metals Ca, Sr, and Ba very promising components of highly functionalized acid-base catalysts. In this Account, we describe the development of chiral alkaline earth metal catalysts for asymmetric carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions. Recently prepared chiral alkaline earth metal complexes have shown high diastereo- and enantioselectivities in fundamental and important chemical transformations. We chose chiral bisoxazoline (Box) derivatives bearing a methylene tether as a ligand for chiral modification. These molecules are very useful because they can covalently coordinate to alkaline earth metals in a bidentate fashion through deprotonation of the tether portion. It was found that chiral calcium-Box complexes could successfully promote catalytic asymmetric 1,4-addition and [3 + 2] cycloaddition reactions with high diastereo- and enantioselectivities. Both the calcium-Box complexes and chiral strontium-bis-sulfonamide and chiral barium-BINOLate complexes could catalyze asymmetric 1,4-addition reactions with high enantioselectivities. Furthermore, we designed a calcium-neutral coordinative ligand complex as a new type of chiral alkaline

  6. Non-noble metal fuel cell catalysts

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Zhongwei; Zhang, Jiujun


    Written and edited by a group of top scientists and engineers in the field of fuel cell catalysts from both industry and academia, this book provides a complete overview of this hot topic. It covers the synthesis, characterization, activity validation and modeling of different non-noble metal and metalfree electrocatalysts for the reduction of oxygen, as well as their integration into acid or alkaline polymer exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells and their performance validation, while also discussing those factors that will drive fuel cell commercialization. With its well-structured app

  7. Predictive design of engineered multifunctional solid catalysts. (United States)

    Raja, Robert; Potter, Matthew E; Newland, Stephanie H


    The ability to devise and design multifunctional active sites at the nanoscale, by drawing on the intricate ability of enzymes to evolve single-sites with distinctive catalytic function, has prompted complimentary and concordant developments in the field of catalyst design and in situ operando spectroscopy. Innovations in design-application approach have led to a more fundamental understanding of the nature of the active site and its mechanistic influence at a molecular level, that have enabled robust structure-property correlations to be established, which has facilitated the dextrous manipulation and predictive design of redox and solid-acid sites for industrially-significant, sustainable catalytic transformations.

  8. Hydrogen recombiner catalyst test supporting data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton, M.D.


    This is a data package supporting the Hydrogen Recombiner Catalyst Performance and Carbon Monoxide Sorption Capacity Test Report, WHC-SD-WM-TRP-211, Rev 0. This report contains 10 appendices which consist of the following: Mass spectrometer analysis reports: HRC samples 93-001 through 93-157; Gas spectrometry analysis reports: HRC samples 93-141 through 93-658; Mass spectrometer procedure PNL-MA-299 ALO-284; Alternate analytical method for ammonia and water vapor; Sample log sheets; Job Safety analysis; Certificate of mixture analysis for feed gases; Flow controller calibration check; Westinghouse Standards Laboratory report on Bois flow calibrator; and Sorption capacity test data, tables, and graphs.

  9. Fuel Cell Stations Automate Processes, Catalyst Testing (United States)


    Glenn Research Center looks for ways to improve fuel cells, which are an important source of power for space missions, as well as the equipment used to test fuel cells. With Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) awards from Glenn, Lynntech Inc., of College Station, Texas, addressed a major limitation of fuel cell testing equipment. Five years later, the company obtained a patent and provided the equipment to the commercial world. Now offered through TesSol Inc., of Battle Ground, Washington, the technology is used for fuel cell work, catalyst testing, sensor testing, gas blending, and other applications. It can be found at universities, national laboratories, and businesses around the world.

  10. Cure Schedule for Stycast 2651/Catalyst 9.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kropka, Jamie Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); McCoy, John D. [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)


    The Emerson & Cuming technical data sheet (TDS) for Stycast 2651/Catalyst 9 lists three alternate cure schedules for the material, each of which would result in a different state of reaction and different material properties. Here, a cure schedule that attains full reaction of the material is defined. The use of this cure schedule will eliminate variance in material properties due to changes in the cure state of the material, and the cure schedule will serve as the method to make material prior to characterizing properties. The following recommendation uses one of the schedules within the TDS and adds a “post cure” to obtain full reaction.

  11. Screening of Catalysts for Hydrodeoxygenation of Phenol as Model Compound for Bio-oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peter Mølgaard; Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk; Jensen, Peter Arendt


    Four groups of catalysts have been tested for hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of phenol as a model compound of bio-oil, including: oxide catalysts, methanol synthesis catalysts, reduced noble metal catalysts, and reduced non-noble metal catalysts. In total 23 different catalysts were tested at 100 bar H2...... and 275 °C in a batch reactor. The experiments showed that none of the tested oxides and methanol synthesis catalysts had any significant activity for phenol HDO at the given conditions, which were linked to their inability to hydrogenate the phenol. HDO of phenol over reduced metal catalysts could...

  12. Experimental research of technology activating catalysts for SCR DeNOx in boiler (United States)

    Zeng, Xi; Yang, Zhengde; Li, Yan; Chen, Donglin


    In order to improve activity of the catalysts used in SCR DeNOx system of flue gas, a series of catalysts activated by different activating liquids under varied conditions in boiler directly were conducted. Then these catalysts were characterized by SEM, FT-IR and BET technology. And NO conversions of the activated catalysts were studied and compared with that of inactivated catalyst. The above experiment shows that NO conversion of the activated catalyst can be up to 99%, which 30% higher than that of inactivated catalyst, so activity of catalysts were improved greatly. Furthermore, optimal activating liquid labeled L2 and effective technology parameters were gained in the experiment.

  13. Novel Sol-Gel Based Pt Nanocluster Catalysts for Propane Dehydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boespflug, Elaine; Kawola, Jeffrey S.; Martino, Anthony; Sault, Allen G.


    We report propane dehydrogenation behavior of catalysts prepared using two novel synthesis strategies that combine inverse micelle Pt nanocluster technology with silica and alumina sol-gel processing. Unlike some other sol-gel catalyst preparations. Pt particles in these catalysts are not encapsulated in the support structure and the entire Pt particle surface is accessible for reaction. Turnover frequencies (TOF) for these catalysts are comparable to those obtained over Pt catalysts prepared by traditional techniques such as impregnation, yet the resistance to deactivation by carbon poisoning is much greater in our catalysts. The deactivation behavior is more typical of traditionally prepared PtSn catalysts than of pure Pt catalysts.

  14. Metal-free phenanthrenequinone cyclotrimer as an effective heterogeneous catalyst. (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Wang, Xuan; Su, Qi; Zhi, Linjie; Thomas, Arne; Feng, Xinliang; Su, Dang Sheng; Schlögl, Robert; Müllen, Klaus


    A phenanthrenequinone macrocyclic trimer was synthesized and used as a heterogeneous catalyst for oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene. This model molecule under comparable kinetic conditions is up to 47 times more active than extended solid catalysts including nanocarbons, metal phosphates, and oxides, confirming the hypothesis that diketone-like groups can serve as active sites.

  15. Three-dimensional Transmission Electron Microscopy of Porous Catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Andries Hendrik


    Zeolites are microporous crystalline aluminosilicates and have proven to be very useful as catalyst in the petrochemical industry. They can act as very selective catalysts since the micropores (0.3 to 1.2 nm) are of the same dimensions as the molecules to be converted. However, as diffusion in the

  16. Regeneration of sulfur-fouled bimetallic Pd-based catalysts. (United States)

    Chaplin, Brian P; Shapley, John R; Werth, Charles J


    Pd-based catalysts provide efficient and selective reduction of several drinking water contaminants, but their long-term application requires effective treatments for catalyst regeneration following fouling by constituents in natural waters. This studytested alumina-supported Pd-Cu and Pd-In bimetallic catalysts for nitrate reduction with H2 after sulfide fouling and oxidative regeneration procedures. Both catalysts were severely deactivated after treatment with microM levels of sulfide. Regeneration was attempted with dissolved oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, sodium hypochlorite, and heated air. Only sodium hypochlorite and heated air were effective regenerants, specifically restoring nitrate reduction rates for a Pd-In/gamma-Al2O3 catalyst from 20% to between 39 and 60% of original levels. Results from ICP-MS revealed that sodium hypochlorite caused dissolution of Cu from the Pd-Cu catalyst but that the Pd-In catalyst was chemically stable over a range of sulfide fouling and oxidative regenerative conditions. Analysis byXPS indicated that PdS and In2S3 complexes form during sulfide fouling, where sulfur is present as S2-, and that regeneration with sodium hypochlorite converts a portion of the S2- to S6+, with a corresponding increase in reduction rates. These results indicate that Pd-In catalysts show exceptional promise for being robust under fouling and regeneration conditions that may occur when treating natural waters.

  17. Calcined eggshell (CES): An efficient natural catalyst for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    percentage of calcium carbonate, nearly about 94%.21. Waste eggshells have been utilized as humidity adsor- bent,22 as an adsorbent in the removal of chromium from its aqueous solution,23 and also as a low cost solid catalyst for biodiesel production,24 as a catalyst for lactose isomerization to lactulose.25 Being a natu-.

  18. Cobalt nanoparticles as reusable catalysts for reduction of 4 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    nanoparticles as catalysts for the hydrogenation of 4-NP in the presence of NaBH4 [23,25–27]. Metal-oxide-supported metal nanoparticles have been tested as catalysts for the con- version of p-nitrophenol to p-aminophenol. Pd nanoparticles dispersed in alumina have been reported [28] with NaBH4 as the reducing agent.

  19. Bifunctional anode catalysts for direct methanol fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossmeisl, Jan; Ferrin, Peter; Tritsaris, Georgios


    Using the binding energy of OH* and CO* on close-packed surfaces as reactivity descriptors, we screen bulk and surface alloy catalysts for methanol electro-oxidation activity. Using these two descriptors, we illustrate that a good methanol electro-oxidation catalyst must have three key properties...

  20. Chemical nature of catalysts of oxide nanoparticles in environment ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Carbon nanostructures (CNS) are often grown using oxide nanoparticles as catalyst in chemical vapour deposition and these oxides are not expected to survive as such during growth. In the present study, the catalysts of cobalt- and nickel oxide-based nanoparticles of sizes varying over a range have been reduced at 575 ...

  1. Oxidation of 4-methoxy-1-naphthol on promoted platinum catalysts

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maphoru, MV


    Full Text Available by the solvent, the reaction temperature and the physical structure of the catalyst. The catalyst structure is determined by the synthesis method and the modifier used (Bi or Sb). Within 40 min 4-methoxy-1-naphthol can be converted to 4,4'-dimethoxy-2,2...

  2. Basic approach to evaluate methane partial oxidation catalysts

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Parmaliana, A


    Full Text Available . The effects of reactor diameter recycle flow, catalyst weight, and methane-to-oxygen ratios on the catalyst activity have been outlined. By performing several blank tests with an empty and a quartz-filled reactor, it has been demonstrated that the gas...

  3. Ammonia treated Mo/AC catalysts for CO hydrogenation with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A series of ammonia treated Mo/Activated Carbon (AC) catalysts were synthesized by wet impregnation method by nominal incorporation of 5, 10 and 15 wt% of molybdenum. The calcined catalysts (500◦C, 4 h, N₂ flow) were subjected to a stepwise ammonia treatment at temperatures from 25 up to 700◦C. This work ...

  4. Propane Dehydrogenation on Metal and Metal Oxide Catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sattler, Jesper


    In this PhD thesis, the catalytic performance and deactivation of various propane dehydrogenation catalysts is studied. First of all, a literature study is performed, where the three most commonly used formulations, namely Pt-, CrOx- and GaOx-based catalysts are compared in terms of yield relative

  5. Nanoscale intimacy in bifunctional catalysts for selective conversion of hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zecevic, Jovana; Vanbutsele, Gina; de Jong, Krijn P.; Martens, Johan A.


    The ability to control nanoscale features precisely is increasingly being exploited to develop and improve monofunctional catalysts(1-4). Striking effects might also be expected in the case of bifunctional catalysts, which are important in the hydrocracking of fossil and renewable hydrocarbon

  6. beads immobilized metal nanoparticle catalysts for the reduction of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    economic advantage. Further, the existing catalyst cannot be continuously packed into ... neous NP catalysts with higher efficiency, stability, economy, easy synthesis and reusability for potential degradation ... then the solution was refluxed in an oil bath at 80◦C. The reaction mixture has been protected from light to avoid the.

  7. Chelated ruthenium catalysts for Z-selective olefin metathesis. (United States)

    Endo, Koji; Grubbs, Robert H


    We report the development of ruthenium-based metathesis catalysts with chelating N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands that catalyze highly Z-selective olefin metathesis. A very simple and convenient procedure for the synthesis of such catalysts has been developed. Intramolecular C-H bond activation of the NHC ligand, promoted by anion ligand substitution, forms the appropriate chelate for stereocontrolled olefin metathesis.

  8. Highly Active Water-Soluble Olefin Metathesis Catalyst


    Hong, Soon Hyeok; Grubbs, Robert H.


    A novel water-soluble ruthenium olefin metathesis catalyst supported by a poly(ethylene glycol) conjugated saturated 1,3-dimesityl-4,5-dihydroimidazol-2-ylidene ligand is reported. The catalyst displays improved activity in ring-opening metathesis polymerization, ring-closing metathesis, and cross-metathesis reactions in aqueous media.

  9. The asymmetric Schrock olefin metathesis catalysts. A computational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goumans, T.P.M.; Ehlers, A.W.; Lammertsma, K.


    The mechanism of the transition metal catalyzed olefin metathesis reaction with the Schrock catalyst is investigated with pure (BP86) and hybrid (B3LYP) density functional theory. On the free-energy surface there is no adduct between ethylene and model catalyst (MeO)

  10. A clamp-like biohybrid catalyst for DNA oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dongen, S.F.M.; Clerx, J.; Norgaard, K.; Bloemberg, T.G.; Cornelissen, Jeroen Johannes Lambertus Maria; Trakselis, M.A.; Nelson, S.W.; Benkovic, S.J.; Rowan, A.E.; Nolte, R.J.M.


    In processive catalysis, a catalyst binds to a substrate and remains bound as it performs several consecutive reactions, as exemplified by DNA polymerases. Processivity is essential in nature and is often mediated by a clamp-like structure that physically tethers the catalyst to its (polymeric)

  11. BINIVOX catalyst for hydrogen production from ethanol by low ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    Nov 4, 2017 ... Special Issue on Recent Trends in the Design and Development of Catalysts and their Applications. BINIVOX catalyst for hydrogen production from ethanol by low temperature steam reforming (LTSR). B PATIL, S SHARMA, H K MOHANTA and B ROY. ∗. Department of Chemical Engineering, Birla Institute ...

  12. Efficient utilization of bimetallic catalyst in low environment syngas ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    Oct 26, 2017 ... Special Issue on Recent Trends in the Design and Development of Catalysts and their Applications. Efficient utilization of bimetallic catalyst ... norms, the research is diverted towards Fisher Tropsch synthesis route. .... was done in GCMS and quantitative analysis was done using simulative distillation taking ...

  13. Reduction of a Ni/Spinel Catalyst for Methane Reforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehres, Jan; Andreasen, Jens Wenzel; Fløystad, Jostein Bø


    microscopy (HRTEM) was performed on the fresh catalyst sample. The Ni particles in the fresh catalyst sample were observed to exhibit a Ni/NiO core/shell structure. A decrease of the Ni lattice parameter is observed during the reduction in a temperature interval from 413 – 453 K, which can be related...

  14. Sodium sesquicarbonate (Akang) and limestone as catalysts for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production of monoglycerides from palm and palm kernel oils were carried out using sodium sesquicarbonate (akang) and lime stone as catalysts.The results showed that the maximum monoglyceride formed is in the range of 49–57% of the fatty product for the limestone catalyst and 78 – 92% for the sodium ...

  15. Making A Noble-Metal-On-Metal-Oxide Catalyst (United States)

    Miller, Irvin M.; Davis, Patricia P.; Upchurch, Billy T.


    Catalyst exhibits superior performance in oxidation of CO in CO2 lasers. Two-step process developed for preparing platinum- or palladium-on-tin-oxide catalyst for recombination of CO and O2, decomposition products that occur in high-voltage discharge region of closed-cycle CO2 laser. Process also applicable to other noble-metal/metal-oxide combinations.

  16. Catalytic water oxidation by single-site ruthenium catalysts. (United States)

    Concepcion, Javier J; Jurss, Jonah W; Norris, Michael R; Chen, Zuofeng; Templeton, Joseph L; Meyer, Thomas J


    A series of monomeric ruthenium polypyridyl complexes have been synthesized and characterized, and their performance as water oxidation catalysts has been evaluated. The diversity of ligand environments and how they influence rates and reaction thermodynamics create a platform for catalyst design with controllable reactivity based on ligand variations.

  17. Zinc zirconium phosphate as an efficient catalyst for chemoselective ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zinc zirconium phosphate as an efficient catalyst for chemoselective synthesis of 1,1-diacetates under solvent-free conditions ... Zinc zirconium phosphate; nanoparticles; heterogeneous catalysis; diacetate; solvent-free synthesis. ... Also, the deprotection of 1,1-diacetates has been achieved using this catalyst in water.

  18. Titanium Dioxide as a Catalyst Support in Heterogeneous Catalysis (United States)

    Bagheri, Samira; Muhd Julkapli, Nurhidayatullaili; Bee Abd Hamid, Sharifah


    The lack of stability is a challenge for most heterogeneous catalysts. During operations, the agglomeration of particles may block the active sites of the catalyst, which is believed to contribute to its instability. Recently, titanium oxide (TiO2) was introduced as an alternative support material for heterogeneous catalyst due to the effect of its high surface area stabilizing the catalysts in its mesoporous structure. TiO2 supported metal catalysts have attracted interest due to TiO2 nanoparticles high activity for various reduction and oxidation reactions at low pressures and temperatures. Furthermore, TiO2 was found to be a good metal oxide catalyst support due to the strong metal support interaction, chemical stability, and acid-base property. The aforementioned properties make heterogeneous TiO2 supported catalysts show a high potential in photocatalyst-related applications, electrodes for wet solar cells, synthesis of fine chemicals, and others. This review focuses on TiO2 as a support material for heterogeneous catalysts and its potential applications. PMID:25383380

  19. Sulfated polyborate: A mild, efficient catalyst for synthesis of N ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rapid, efficient and inexpensive method for synthesis of N-tert-butyl/N-trityl protected amides via Ritter reaction of nitriles with tertiary alcohols in the presence of a sulfated polyborate catalyst under solvent-free conditions is described. The catalyst has the advantage of Lewis as well as Bronsted acidity and recyclability ...

  20. Discovery of technical methanation catalysts based on computational screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, Jens; Larsen, Kasper Emil; Kustov, Arkadii


    Methanation is a classical reaction in heterogeneous catalysis and significant effort has been put into improving the industrially preferred nickel-based catalysts. Recently, a computational screening study showed that nickel-iron alloys should be more active than the pure nickel catalyst...

  1. An overview on the applications of 'Doyle catalysts' in asymmetric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The chiral dirhodium(II) carboxamidates are a unique class of chiral catalysts useful for asymmetric inter- and intramolecular cyclopropanation, cyclopropenation and C-H insertion reactions with excellent enantioselectivities. The broad applications of these catalysts in organic syntheses are briefly reviewed.

  2. Role of clay as catalyst in Friedel–Craft alkylation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Solid acids have become increasingly important for many liquid-phase industrial reactions these days. Montmorillonite clays (2:1 clay mineral) have been used as efficient solid acid catalysts for a number of organic and liquid phase reactions and offer several advantages over classic acids. Tailor made catalysts can be ...

  3. Hydrous metal oxide catalysts for oxidation of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.E.; Dosch, R.G.; McLaughlin, L.I. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Process Research Dept.


    This report describes work performed at Sandia under a CRADA with Shell Development of Houston, Texas aimed at developing hydrous metal oxide (HMO) catalysts for oxidation of hydrocarbons. Autoxidation as well as selective oxidation of 1-octene was studied in the presence of HMO catalysts based on known oxidation catalysts. The desired reactions were the conversion of olefin to epoxides, alcohols, and ketones, HMOs seem to inhibit autoxidation reactions, perhaps by reacting with peroxides or radicals. Attempts to use HMOs and metal loaded HMOs as epoxidation catalysts were unsuccessful, although their utility for this reaction was not entirely ruled out. Likewise, alcohol formation from olefins in the presence of HMO catalysts was not achieved. However, this work led to the discovery that acidified HMOs can lead to carbocation reactions of hydrocarbons such as cracking. An HMO catalyst containing Rh and Cu that promotes the reaction of {alpha}-olefins with oxygen to form methyl ketones was identified. Although the activity of the catalyst is relatively low and isomerization reactions of the olefin simultaneously occur, results indicate that these problems may be addressed by eliminating mass transfer limitations. Other suggestions for improving the catalyst are also made. 57 refs.

  4. Oxidative dehydrogenation of propane over niobia supported vanadium oxide catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watling, T.C.; Watling, T.C.; Deo, G.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Wachs, I.E.; Lercher, J.A.


    Oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) of propane is examined over a series of catalysts, which include Nb2O5 supported monolayer V2O5 catalysts, bulk vanadia-niobia with different vanadium oxide loadings and prepared by four different methods, V2O5and Nb2O5. The intrinsic activity (TOF) of the samples

  5. Synthesis of heterogeneous catalyst for the production of biodiesel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study explore the comparison of a suitable heterogeneous catalyst for conversion of triglyceride into fatty acid methyl ester. A series of heterogeneous cerium, manganese, and zinc oxide catalyst supported at mixture of cinder was prepared by co-precipitation and applied for conversion of triglyceride in oil to biodiesel ...

  6. Nickel catalysts for internal reforming in molten carbonate fuel cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berger, R.J.; Berger, R.J.; Doesburg, E.B.M.; Doesburg, E.B.M.; van Ommen, J.G.; Ross, J.R.H.; Ross, J.R.H.


    Natural gas may be used instead of hydrogen as fuel for the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) by steam reforming the natural gas inside the MCFC, using a nickel catalyst (internal reforming). The severe conditions inside the MCFC, however, require that the catalyst has a very high stability. In

  7. Studies of Deactivation of Methanol to Formaldehyde Selective Oxidation Catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun, Kristian Viegaard; Schumann, Max; Høj, Martin

    This work presents a study of the deactivation behavior of Fe-Mo oxide catalyst during selective oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde in a period of 5 days. The structural changes in the catalyst have been investigated in situ for the initial 10 h by Raman spectroscopy, and the structure after 5...

  8. Chemical nature of catalysts of oxide nanoparticles in environment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Carbon nanostructures (CNS) are often grown using oxide nanoparticles as catalyst in chemical vapour deposition and these oxides are not expected to survive as such during growth. In the present study, the catalysts of cobalt- and nickel oxide-based nanoparticles of sizes varying over a range have been reduced at 575 ...

  9. Capsule-controlled selectivity of a rhodium hydroformylation catalyst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocokić, V.; Kalkan, A.; Lutz, M.; Spek, A.L.; Gryko, D.T.; Reek, J.N.H.


    Chemical processes proceed much faster and more selectively in the presence of appropriate catalysts, and as such the field of catalysis is of key importance for the chemical industry, especially in light of sustainable chemistry. Enzymes, the natural catalysts, are generally orders of magnitude

  10. Titanium Dioxide as a Catalyst Support in Heterogeneous Catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Bagheri


    Full Text Available The lack of stability is a challenge for most heterogeneous catalysts. During operations, the agglomeration of particles may block the active sites of the catalyst, which is believed to contribute to its instability. Recently, titanium oxide (TiO2 was introduced as an alternative support material for heterogeneous catalyst due to the effect of its high surface area stabilizing the catalysts in its mesoporous structure. TiO2 supported metal catalysts have attracted interest due to TiO2 nanoparticles high activity for various reduction and oxidation reactions at low pressures and temperatures. Furthermore, TiO2 was found to be a good metal oxide catalyst support due to the strong metal support interaction, chemical stability, and acid-base property. The aforementioned properties make heterogeneous TiO2 supported catalysts show a high potential in photocatalyst-related applications, electrodes for wet solar cells, synthesis of fine chemicals, and others. This review focuses on TiO2 as a support material for heterogeneous catalysts and its potential applications.

  11. A novel magnetically recyclable heterogeneous catalyst for the

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nano -propylsulphonated -Fe2O3 (NPS--Fe2O3) was applied as a new magnetically recyclable heterogeneous catalyst for the efficient one-pot synthesis of bis(pyrazolyl)methanes in water. The catalyst was easily isolated from the reaction mixture by a magnetic bar and reused at least five times without significant ...

  12. Transition metal oxide loaded MCM catalysts for photocatalytic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nanoporous, high surface area compounds were obtained after calcination of the compounds. The catalysts were characterized by SEM, XRD, XPS, UV-vis and BET surface area analysis. The catalysts showed high activity for the photocatalytic degradation of both anionic and cationic dyes. The degradation of the dyes was ...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    Attachment of phosphites to styrene copolymers is described which are used as rhodium hydroformylation catalysts. The influence of the chain loading on the activity and complex formation of three types of copolymer-bound rhodium hydroformylation catalysts in comparison with their low molecular

  14. Enantioselective Reduction of Prochiral Ketones using Spiroborate Esters as Catalysts (United States)

    Stepanenko, Viatcheslav; De Jesus, Melvin; Correa, Wildeliz; Guzman, Irisbel; Vazquez, Cindybeth; de la Cruz, Wilanet; Ortiz-Marciales, Margarita; Barnes, Charles L.


    Novel spiroborate esters derived nonracemic 1,2-aminoalcohols and ethylene glycol are reported as highly effective catalysts for the asymmetric borane reduction of a variety of prochiral ketones with borane-dimethyl sulfide complex at room temperature. Optically active alcohols were obtained in excellent chemical yields using 0.1 to 10 mol % of catalysts with up to 99% ee. PMID:19554205

  15. Synthesis and characterization of solid heterogeneous catalyst for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthesis and characterization of solid heterogeneous catalyst for the production of biodiesel from high FFA waste cooking oil. Nasar Mansir, Taufiq-Yap Yun Hin. Abstract. No Abstract. Keywords: Biodiesel, Transesterification, High FFA waste cooking oil, Heterogeneous catalyst, Single step reaction process. Full Text:.

  16. Syngas production by reforming of methane on perovskite catalysts ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T V Sagar

    catalysts has become a big question.16 Non-noble metals, mostly of group VIII, are catalytically active for CH4 reforming.7,17 Among the non-noble metals, Ni is more economically viable as a catalyst. High turnover rates, the inherent availability, low cost and remarkable long-term stability are its advantages.18 Metallic Ni ...

  17. A Catalyst-for-Change Approach to Evaluation Capacity Building (United States)

    Garcia-Iriarte, Edurne; Suarez-Balcazar, Yolanda; Taylor-Ritzler, Tina; Luna, Maria


    Evaluation capacity building (ECB) has become a popular approach for helping community-based organizations (CBOs) to meet their funders' demands for accountability. This case study reports the ECB process with one staff member using a catalyst-for-change approach. The authors analyzed the role of the catalyst in diffusing evaluation knowledge and…

  18. Morphology-controlled Pd nanocrystals as catalysts in tandem ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    Sep 22, 2017 ... REGULAR ARTICLE. Special Issue on Recent Trends in the Design and Development of Catalysts and their Applications. Morphology-controlled Pd nanocrystals as catalysts ..... KBr in the synthesis of nanocubes, while keeping all the experimental conditions used in the synthesis of Cubes(S) (Figure S2).


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Dragomir B. Bukur; Dr. Ketil Hanssen; Alec Klinghoffer; Dr. Lech Nowicki; Patricia O' Dowd; Dr. Hien Pham; Jian Xu


    This report describes research conducted to support the DOE program in novel slurry phase catalysts for converting coal-derived synthesis gas to diesel fuels. The primary objective of this research program is to develop attrition resistant catalysts that exhibit high activities for conversion of coal-derived syngas.

  20. Calcined eggshell (CES): An efficient natural catalyst for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    from its aqueous solution,23 and also as a low cost solid catalyst for biodiesel production,24 as a catalyst for lactose isomerization to lactulose.25 Being a natu- ral source of calcium, eggshell powder can serve as a good calcium supplement in prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.26. 2. Experimental. 2.1 Materials and ...

  1. Scalable synthesis of palladium nanoparticle catalysts by atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Xinhua; Lyon, Lauren B.; Jiang Yingbing; Weimer, Alan W.


    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) was used to produce Pd/Al 2 O 3 catalysts using sequential exposures of Pd(II) hexafluoroacetylacetonate and formalin at 200 °C in a fluidized bed reactor. The ALD-prepared Pd/alumina catalysts were characterized by various methods including hydrogen chemisorption, XPS, and TEM, and compared with a commercially available 1 wt% Pd/alumina catalyst, which was also characterized. The content of Pd on alumina support and the size of Pd nanoparticles can be controlled by the number of ALD-coating cycles and the dose time of the Pd precursor. One layer of organic component from the Pd precursor remained on the Pd particle surface. The ALD 0.9 wt% Pd/alumina had greater active metal surface area and percent metal dispersion than the commercial 1 wt% Pd/alumina catalyst. The ALD and commercial catalysts were subjected to catalytic testing to determine their relative activities for glucose oxidation to gluconic acid in aqueous solution. The ALD 0.9 wt% Pd/alumina catalyst had comparable activity as compared to the commercial 1 wt% Pd catalyst. No noticeable amount of Pd leaching was observed for the ALD-prepared catalysts during the vigorously stirred reaction.

  2. Hydrocracking activity of NiMo-USY zeolite hydrotreating catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egia, B.; Cambra, J.F.; Gueemez, B.; Arias, P.L. [Departamento de Ingeniera Quimica y del Medio Ambiente. Escuela de Ingenieros, Bilbao (Spain); Pawelec, B.; Fierro, J.L.G. [Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica, Madrid (Spain)


    In previous works the hydrodesulfurization and hydrodenitrogenation activities of Ni, Mo and MoNi zeolite supported catalysts were studied, and a remarkable initial deactivation by cocking was detected. In the present work the hydrocracking activity of these catalysts in the sulfided state has been studied. 21 refs.

  3. Silica-supported Preyssler Nanoparticles as New Catalysts in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new and efficient method for the preparation of 4(3H)-quinazolinones from the condensation of anthranilic acid, orthoester and substituted anilines, in the presence of catalytic amounts of silica-supported Preyssler nanoparticles is reported. The catalyst performs very well in comparison with other catalysts reported before.

  4. Application of aromatization catalyst in synthesis of carbon nanotubes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In a typical chemical vapour deposition (CVD) process for synthesizing carbon nanotubes (CNTs), it was found that the aromatization catalysts could promote effectively the formation of CNT. The essence of this phenomenon was attributed to the fact that the aromatization catalyst can accelerate the ...

  5. Wafer scale integration of catalyst dots into nonplanar microsystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerde, Kjetil; Kjelstrup-Hansen, Jakob; Gammelgaard, Lauge


    diameter nickel catalyst dots on a wafer scale are presented and compared. Three of the methods are based on a p-Si layer utilized as an in situ mask, an encapsulating layer, and a sacrificial window mask, respectively. All methods enable precise positioning of nickel catalyst dots at the end...

  6. Supported organometallic catalysts for hydrogenation and Olefin Polymerization (United States)

    Marks, Tobin J.; Ahn, Hongsang


    Novel heterogeneous catalysts for the which hydrogenation of olefins and arenes with high conversion rates under ambient conditions and the polymerization of olefins have been developed. The catalysts are synthesized from Ziegler-type precatalysts by supporting them on sulfate-modified zirconia.

  7. Ceramic wash-coat for catalyst support (United States)

    Kulkarni, Anand A.; Subramanian, Ramesh; Sabol, Stephen M.


    A wash-coat (16) for use as a support for an active catalyst species (18) and a catalytic combustor component (10) incorporating such wash-coat. The wash-coat is a solid solution of alumina or alumina-based material (Al.sub.2O.sub.3-0-3 wt % La.sub.2O.sub.3) and a further oxide exhibiting a coefficient of thermal expansion that is lower than that exhibited by alumina. The further oxide may be silicon dioxide (2-30 wt % SiO.sub.2), zirconia silicate (2-30 wt % ZrSiO.sub.4), neodymium oxide (0-4 wt %), titania (Al.sub.2O.sub.3-3-40% TiO.sub.2) or alumina-based magnesium aluminate spinel (Al.sub.2O.sub.3-25 wt % MgO) in various embodiments. The active catalyst species may be palladium and a second metal in a concentration of 10-50% of the concentration of the palladium.

  8. Metal Nanoparticle Catalysts for Carbon Nanotube Growth (United States)

    Pierce, Benjamin F.


    Work this summer involved and new and unique process for producing the metal nanoparticle catalysts needed for carbon nanotube (CNT) growth. There are many applications attributed to CNT's, and their properties have deemed them to be a hot spot in research today. Many groups have demonstrated the versatility in CNT's by exploring a wide spectrum of roles that these nanotubes are able to fill. A short list of such promising applications are: nanoscaled electronic circuitry, storage media, chemical sensors, microscope enhancement, and coating reinforcement. Different methods have been used to grow these CNT's. Some examples are laser ablation, flame synthesis, or furnace synthesis. Every single approach requires the presence of a metal catalyst (Fe, Co, and Ni are among the best) that is small enough to produce a CNT. Herein lies the uniqueness of this work. Microemulsions (containing inverse micelles) were used to generate these metal particles for subsequent CNT growth. The goal of this summer work was basically to accomplish as much preliminary work as possible. I strived to pinpoint which variable (experimental process, metal product, substrate, method of application, CVD conditions, etc.) was the determining factor in the results. The resulting SEM images were sufficient for the appropriate comparisons to be made. The future work of this project consists of the optimization of the more promising experimental procedures and further exploration onto what exactly dictated the results.

  9. Deodorant ceramic catalyst. Dasshu ceramics shokubai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, K. (Kobe Steel Ltd., Kobe (Japan)); Naka, R. (Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))


    Concerning debromination to be used for the filter of deodorizing device, those of long life and high deodorizing performance are demanded a great deal. As one of this kind of debromination, a deodorant ceramic catalyst (mangantid) has been developed and put for practical use as deodorant for refrigerator. In this article, the information and knowledge obtained by the development of mangantid, the features as well as several properties of the product are stated. The deodorizing methods currently used practically are roughly divided into 6 kinds such as the adsorption method, the direct combustion method, the catalytic method and the oxidation method, but each of them has its own merit and demerit, hence it is necessary to select the method in accordance with the kind of odor and its generating condition. Mangantid is a compound body of high deodorant material in a honeycomb configuration, and has the features that in comparison with the existing deordorants, its pressure loss is smaller, its deodorizing rate is bigger, and acidic, neutral and basic gaseous components can be removed in a well-balanced manner. Deodorization with mangantid has the mechanism to let the odorous component contact and react with the catalyst and change the component to the non-odorous component in the temperature range from room temperature to the low temperature region. 5 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Reactivation of a Tin-Oxide-Containing Catalyst (United States)

    Hess, Robert; Sidney, Barry; Schryer, David; Miller, Irvin; Miller, George; Upchurch, Bill; Davis, Patricia; Brown, Kenneth


    The electrons in electric-discharge CO2 lasers cause dissociation of some CO2 into O2 and CO, and attach themselves to electronegative molecules such as O2, forming negative O2 ions, as well as larger negative ion clusters by collisions with CO or other molecules. The decrease in CO2 concentration due to dissociation into CO and O2 will reduce the average repetitively pulsed or continuous wave laser power, even if no disruptive negative ion instabilities occur. Accordingly, it is the primary object of this invention to extend the lifetime of a catalyst used to combine the CO and O2 products formed in a laser discharge. A promising low-temperature catalyst for combining CO and O2 is platinum on tin oxide (Pt/SnO2). First, the catalyst is pretreated by a standard procedure. The pretreatment is considered complete when no measurable quantity of CO2 is given off by the catalyst. After this standard pretreatment, the catalyst is ready for its low-temperature use in the sealed, high-energy, pulsed CO2 laser. However, after about 3,000 minutes of operation, the activity of the catalyst begins to slowly diminish. When the catalyst experiences diminished activity during exposure to the circulating gas stream inside or external to the laser, the heated zone surrounding the catalyst is raised to a temperature between 100 and 400 C. A temperature of 225 C was experimentally found to provide an adequate temperature for reactivation. During this period, the catalyst is still exposed to the circulating gas inside or external to the laser. This constant heating and exposing the catalyst to the laser gas mixture is maintained for an hour. After heating and exposing for an appropriate amount of time, the heated zone around the catalyst is allowed to return to the nominal operating temperature of the CO2 laser. This temperature normally resides in the range of 23 to 100 C. Catalyst activity can be measured as the percentage conversion of CO to CO2. In the specific embodiment

  11. Graphitic Carbon Nitride Supported Catalysts for Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells (United States)


    Graphitic carbon nitrides are investigated for developing highly durable Pt electrocatalyst supports for polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). Three different graphitic carbon nitride materials were synthesized with the aim to address the effect of crystallinity, porosity, and composition on the catalyst support properties: polymeric carbon nitride (gCNM), poly(triazine) imide carbon nitride (PTI/Li+Cl–), and boron-doped graphitic carbon nitride (B-gCNM). Following accelerated corrosion testing, all graphitic carbon nitride materials are found to be more electrochemically stable compared to conventional carbon black (Vulcan XC-72R) with B-gCNM support showing the best stability. For the supported catalysts, Pt/PTI-Li+Cl– catalyst exhibits better durability with only 19% electrochemical surface area (ECSA) loss versus 36% for Pt/Vulcan after 2000 scans. Superior methanol oxidation activity is observed for all graphitic carbon nitride supported Pt catalysts on the basis of the catalyst ECSA. PMID:24748912

  12. Characteristics of Polyaniline Cobalt Supported Catalysts for Epoxidation Reactions (United States)

    Kowalski, Grzegorz; Pielichowski, Jan; Grzesik, Mirosław


    A study of polyaniline (PANI) doping with various cobalt compounds, that is, cobalt(II) chloride, cobalt(II) acetate, and cobalt(II) salen, is presented. The catalysts were prepared by depositing cobalt compounds onto the polymer surface. PANI powders containing cobalt ions were obtained by one- or two-step method suspending PANI in the following acetonitrile/acetic acid solution or acetonitrile and then acetic acid solution. Moreover different ratios of Co(II) : PANI were studied. Catalysts obtained with both methods and at all ratios were investigated using various techniques including AAS and XPS spectroscopy. The optimum conditions for preparation of PANI/Co catalysts were established. Catalytic activity of polyaniline cobalt(II) supported catalysts was tested in dec-1-ene epoxidation with molecular oxygen at room temperature. The relationship between the amount of cobalt species, measured with both AAS and XPS techniques, and the activity of PANI-Co catalysts has been established. PMID:24701183

  13. Recent Advancements in Stereoselective Olefin Metathesis Using Ruthenium Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Patrick Montgomery


    Full Text Available Olefin metathesis is a prevailing method for the construction of organic molecules. Recent advancements in olefin metathesis have focused on stereoselective transformations. Ruthenium olefin metathesis catalysts have had a particularly pronounced impact in the area of stereoselective olefin metathesis. The development of three categories of Z-selective olefin metathesis catalysts has made Z-olefins easily accessible to both laboratory and industrial chemists. Further design enhancements to asymmetric olefin metathesis catalysts have streamlined the construction of complex molecules. The understanding gained in these areas has extended to the employment of ruthenium catalysts to stereoretentive olefin metathesis, the first example of a kinetically E-selective process. These advancements, as well as synthetic applications of the newly developed catalysts, are discussed.

  14. Hydrogenation of Tetralin over Supported Ni and Ir Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipali P. Upare


    Full Text Available Selective hydrogenation and ring opening (SRO of tetrahydronaphthalene (tetralin was studied over nickel and iridium supported catalysts in the context of the removal of polynuclear aromatics from diesel fuel. The tetralin hydrogenation was carried out in a fixed-bed reactor at 270°C, using H2 pressure of 30 bars, WHSV of 2.3 h−1, and H2/feed molar ratio of 40; the resultant products were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The Ir/SiO2 catalyst gave 85% of tetralin conversion and 75.1% of decalin products selectivity whereas Ni/SiO2 catalyst showed an unprecedented high catalytic performance with 88.3% of tetralin conversion and 93% of decalin products selectivity. The catalysts were characterized by using different characterization techniques such as XRD, TPR, and HR-TEM to know the physicochemical properties as well as active sites in the catalysts.

  15. Potential application of palladium nanoparticles as selective recyclable hydrogenation catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, DebKumar


    The search for more efficient catalytic systems that might combine the advantages of both homogeneous (catalyst modulation) and heterogeneous (catalyst recycling) catalysis is one of the most exciting challenges of modern chemistry. More recently with the advances of nanochemistry, it has been possible to prepare soluble analogues of heterogeneous catalysts. These nanoparticles are generally stabilized against aggregation into larger particles by electrostatic or steric protection. Herein we demonstrate the use of room temperature ionic liquid for the stabilization of palladium nanoparticles that are recyclable catalysts for the hydrogenation of carbon-carbon double bonds and application of these catalysts to the selective hydrogenation of internal or terminal C=C bonds in unsaturated primary alcohols. The particles suspended in room temperature ionic liquid show no metal aggregation or loss of catalytic activity even on prolonged use

  16. Magnetic nanoparticles conjugated to chiral imidazolidinone as recoverable catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondini, Sara [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Laboratorio di Nanotecnologie, Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari (Italy); Puglisi, Alessandra; Benaglia, Maurizio, E-mail:; Ramella, Daniela [Università degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Chimica (Italy); Drago, Carmelo [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Chimica Biomolecolare (Italy); Ferretti, Anna M.; Ponti, Alessandro, E-mail: [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Laboratorio di Nanotecnologie, Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari (Italy)


    The immobilization of an ad hoc designed chiral imidazolidin-4-one onto iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is described, to afford MNP-supported MacMillan’s catalyst. Morphological and structural analysis of the materials, during preparation, use, and recycle, has been carried out by transmission electron microscopy. The supported catalyst was tested in the Diels–Alder reaction of cyclopentadiene with cinnamic aldehyde, affording the products in good yields and enantiomeric excesses up to 93 %, comparable to those observed with the non-supported catalyst. Recovery of the chiral catalyst has been successfully performed by simply applying an external magnet to achieve a perfect separation of the MNPs from the reaction product. The recycle of the catalytic system has been also investigated. Noteworthy, this immobilized MacMillan’s catalyst proved to be able to efficiently promote the reaction in pure water.

  17. Graphitic Carbon Nitride Supported Catalysts for Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells. (United States)

    Mansor, Noramalina; Jorge, A Belen; Corà, Furio; Gibbs, Christopher; Jervis, Rhodri; McMillan, Paul F; Wang, Xiaochen; Brett, Daniel J L


    Graphitic carbon nitrides are investigated for developing highly durable Pt electrocatalyst supports for polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). Three different graphitic carbon nitride materials were synthesized with the aim to address the effect of crystallinity, porosity, and composition on the catalyst support properties: polymeric carbon nitride (gCNM), poly(triazine) imide carbon nitride (PTI/Li + Cl - ), and boron-doped graphitic carbon nitride (B-gCNM). Following accelerated corrosion testing, all graphitic carbon nitride materials are found to be more electrochemically stable compared to conventional carbon black (Vulcan XC-72R) with B-gCNM support showing the best stability. For the supported catalysts, Pt/PTI-Li + Cl - catalyst exhibits better durability with only 19% electrochemical surface area (ECSA) loss versus 36% for Pt/Vulcan after 2000 scans. Superior methanol oxidation activity is observed for all graphitic carbon nitride supported Pt catalysts on the basis of the catalyst ECSA.

  18. Catalysts Efficiency Evaluation by using CC Analysis Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arina Negoitescu


    Full Text Available The study emphasizes the necessity of the catalysts efficiency testing. Diagnosis systems using lambda probes are based on the capacity of the catalyst oxygen storage. Comparing the lambda probe signals upstream and downstream of catalyst provides an indication on catalyst activity, although the correlation between oxygen storage capacity and catalyst efficiency is still difficult. Diagnosis for the 1.4 Renault Clio Symbol was accomplished in the Road Vehicles Lab at the Politehnica University of Timisoara using AVL Dicom 4000. The tests showed that the engine worked with lean mixture being necessary a fuel mixture correction calculated by the control unit ECU. A compensation of 0.14 % vol is required for the engine correct operation and emissions integration within permissible limits

  19. Apparatus and Process for Controlled Nanomanufacturing Using Catalyst Retaining Structures (United States)

    Nguyen, Cattien (Inventor)


    An apparatus and method for the controlled fabrication of nanostructures using catalyst retaining structures is disclosed. The apparatus includes one or more modified force microscopes having a nanotube attached to the tip portion of the microscopes. An electric current is passed from the nanotube to a catalyst layer of a substrate, thereby causing a localized chemical reaction to occur in a resist layer adjacent the catalyst layer. The region of the resist layer where the chemical reaction occurred is etched, thereby exposing a catalyst particle or particles in the catalyst layer surrounded by a wall of unetched resist material. Subsequent chemical vapor deposition causes growth of a nanostructure to occur upward through the wall of unetched resist material having controlled characteristics of height and diameter and, for parallel systems, number density.

  20. Studies on PEM fuel cell noble metal catalyst dissolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S. M.; Grahl-Madsen, L.; Skou, E. M.


    A combination of electrochemical, spectroscopic and gravimetric methods was carried out on Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell electrodes with the focus on platinum and ruthenium catalysts dissolution, and the membrane degradation. In cyclic voltammetry (CV) experiments, the noble metals were...... found to dissolve in 1 M sulfuric acid solution and the dissolution increased exponentially with the upper potential limit (UPL) between 0.6 and 1.6 vs. RHE. 2-20% of the Pt (depending on the catalyst type) was found to be dissolved during the experiments. Under the same conditions, 30-100% of the Ru...... (depending on the catalyst type) was found to be dissolved. The faster dissolution of ruthenium compared to platinum in the alloy type catalysts was also confirmed by X-ray diffraction measurements. The dissolution of the carbon supported catalyst was found one order of magnitude higher than the unsupported...

  1. Characteristics of Polyaniline Cobalt Supported Catalysts for Epoxidation Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Kowalski


    Full Text Available A study of polyaniline (PANI doping with various cobalt compounds, that is, cobalt(II chloride, cobalt(II acetate, and cobalt(II salen, is presented. The catalysts were prepared by depositing cobalt compounds onto the polymer surface. PANI powders containing cobalt ions were obtained by one- or two-step method suspending PANI in the following acetonitrile/acetic acid solution or acetonitrile and then acetic acid solution. Moreover different ratios of Co(II : PANI were studied. Catalysts obtained with both methods and at all ratios were investigated using various techniques including AAS and XPS spectroscopy. The optimum conditions for preparation of PANI/Co catalysts were established. Catalytic activity of polyaniline cobalt(II supported catalysts was tested in dec-1-ene epoxidation with molecular oxygen at room temperature. The relationship between the amount of cobalt species, measured with both AAS and XPS techniques, and the activity of PANI-Co catalysts has been established.

  2. Alkali resistivity of Cu based selective catalytic reduction catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putluru, Siva Sankar Reddy; Jensen, Anker Degn; Riisager, Anders


    The deactivation of V2O5–WO3–TiO2, Cu–HZSM5 and Cu–HMOR plate type monolithic catalysts was investigated when exposed to KCl aerosols in a bench-scale reactor. Fresh and exposed catalysts were characterized by selective catalytic reduction (SCR) activity measurements, scanning electron microscope...... and Cu–HMOR catalysts only experienced a slight loss of acidity while the V2O5–WO3–TiO2 catalyst lost most of the acidity. High alkali resistivity seems to be characteristic of the zeolite supported SCR catalysts which thus could be attractive for flue gas cleaning in biomass plants....

  3. Ziegler-Natta catalyst for polypropylene and polyethylene nanocomposites preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvino, Alexandre C.; Dias, Marcos L.; Bezerra, Ana Beatriz F.


    Polypropylene and polyethylene nanocomposites are well known for their improved properties when compared with the neat polymers. In this work we report the preparation, characterization and the activity studies of a fourth generation Ziegler-Natta catalyst for the preparation of polyolefin/clay nanocomposites. The catalyst was prepared treating an organo-modified silicate with magnesium and titanium compounds. The content of titanium and that of the magnesium of the catalyst were determined by UV-vis spectroscopy and atomic absorption respectively. The first results show that the catalyst is active for propylene polymerization being suitable for polypropylene/clay nanocomposite preparation. The catalyst activity for ethylene polymerization was also investigated. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the polyethylene samples suggest the clay exfoliation occurs in the in situ polymerization, even with high clay loading (about 9 %) indicating that a nanocomposite was formed. (author)

  4. Method of Heating a Foam-Based Catalyst Bed (United States)

    Fortini, Arthur J.; Williams, Brian E.; McNeal, Shawn R.


    A method of heating a foam-based catalyst bed has been developed using silicon carbide as the catalyst support due to its readily accessible, high surface area that is oxidation-resistant and is electrically conductive. The foam support may be resistively heated by passing an electric current through it. This allows the catalyst bed to be heated directly, requiring less power to reach the desired temperature more quickly. Designed for heterogeneous catalysis, the method can be used by the petrochemical, chemical processing, and power-generating industries, as well as automotive catalytic converters. Catalyst beds must be heated to a light-off temperature before they catalyze the desired reactions. This typically is done by heating the assembly that contains the catalyst bed, which results in much of the power being wasted and/or lost to the surrounding environment. The catalyst bed is heated indirectly, thus requiring excessive power. With the electrically heated catalyst bed, virtually all of the power is used to heat the support, and only a small fraction is lost to the surroundings. Although the light-off temperature of most catalysts is only a few hundred degrees Celsius, the electrically heated foam is able to achieve temperatures of 1,200 C. Lower temperatures are achievable by supplying less electrical power to the foam. Furthermore, because of the foam s open-cell structure, the catalyst can be applied either directly to the foam ligaments or in the form of a catalyst- containing washcoat. This innovation would be very useful for heterogeneous catalysis where elevated temperatures are needed to drive the reaction.

  5. Supported Molten Metal Catalysis. A New Class of Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravindra Datta; Ajeet Singh; Manuela Serban; Istvan Halasz


    We describe a new class of heterogeneous catalysts called supported molten metal catalysis (SMMC), in which molten metal catalysts are dispersed as nanodroplets on the surface of porous supports, allowing much larger active surface area than is possible in conventional contacting techniques for catalytic metals that are molten under reaction conditions, thus greatly enhancing their activity and potential utility. Specific examples of different types of reactions are provided to demonstrate the broad applicability of the technique in designing active, selective, and stable new catalysts. It is shown that dispersing the molten metal on a support in the suggested manner can enhance the rate of a reaction by three to four orders of magnitude as a result of the concomitant increase in the active surface area. New reaction examples include {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported molten Te (melting point 450 C) and Ga (MP 30 C) catalysts for bifunctional methylcyclohexane dehydrogenation. These catalysts provide activity similar to conventional Pt-based catalysts for this with better resistance to coking. In addition, results are described for a controlled pore glass supported molten In (MP 157 C) catalyst for the selective catalytic reduction of NO with ethanol in the presence of water, demonstrating activities superior to conventional catalysts for this reaction. A discussion is also provided on the characterization of the active surface area and dispersion of these novel supported catalysts. It is clear based on the results described that the development of new active and selective supported molten metal catalysts for practical applications is entirely plausible.

  6. Impact of catalyst reduction mode on selective hydrogenation of cinnamaldehyde over Ru-Sn sol-gel catalysts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájek, J.; Kumar, N.; Salmi, T.; Murzin, DY.; Karhu, H.; Väyrynen, J.; Červený, L.; Paseka, Ivo


    Roč. 42, č. 2 (2003), s. 295-305 ISSN 0888-5885 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/00/1009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4032918 Keywords : Supported ruthenium catalysts * Ru-Sn-Al2O3 catalysts * benzene Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.317, year: 2003


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A catalyst comprising a mixture of metal A selected from the group of Fe, Co and Ni and metal B selected from the group of Zn and Ga, and a support material, wherein the two metals are present in an intermetallic composition; A method for the manufacture of the catalyst; and the use of above...

  8. The Dependence of CNT Aerogel Synthesis on Sulfur-driven Catalyst Nucleation Processes and a Critical Catalyst Particle Mass Concentration. (United States)

    Hoecker, Christian; Smail, Fiona; Pick, Martin; Weller, Lee; Boies, Adam M


    The floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition (FC-CVD) process permits macro-scale assembly of nanoscale materials, enabling continuous production of carbon nanotube (CNT) aerogels. Despite the intensive research in the field, fundamental uncertainties remain regarding how catalyst particle dynamics within the system influence the CNT aerogel formation, thus limiting effective scale-up. While aerogel formation in FC-CVD reactors requires a catalyst (typically iron, Fe) and a promotor (typically sulfur, S), their synergistic roles are not fully understood. This paper presents a paradigm shift in the understanding of the role of S in the process with new experimental studies identifying that S lowers the nucleation barrier of the catalyst nanoparticles. Furthermore, CNT aerogel formation requires a critical threshold of Fe x C y  > 160 mg/m 3 , but is surprisingly independent of the initial catalyst diameter or number concentration. The robustness of the critical catalyst mass concentration principle is proved further by producing CNTs using alternative catalyst systems; Fe nanoparticles from a plasma spark generator and cobaltocene and nickelocene precursors. This finding provides evidence that low-cost and high throughput CNT aerogel routes may be achieved by decoupled and enhanced catalyst production and control, opening up new possibilities for large-scale CNT synthesis.

  9. Supported Dendrimer-Encapsulated Metal Clusters: Toward Heterogenizing Homogeneous Catalysts. (United States)

    Ye, Rong; Zhukhovitskiy, Aleksandr V; Deraedt, Christophe V; Toste, F Dean; Somorjai, Gabor A


    Recyclable catalysts, especially those that display selective reactivity, are vital for the development of sustainable chemical processes. Among available catalyst platforms, heterogeneous catalysts are particularly well-disposed toward separation from the reaction mixture via filtration methods, which renders them readily recyclable. Furthermore, heterogeneous catalysts offer numerous handles-some without homogeneous analogues-for performance and selectivity optimization. These handles include nanoparticle size, pore profile of porous supports, surface ligands and interface with oxide supports, and flow rate through a solid catalyst bed. Despite these available handles, however, conventional heterogeneous catalysts are themselves often structurally heterogeneous compared to homogeneous catalysts, which complicates efforts to optimize and expand the scope of their reactivity and selectivity. Ongoing efforts in our laboratories are aimed to address the above challenge by heterogenizing homogeneous catalysts, which can be defined as the modification of homogeneous catalysts to render them in a separable (solid) phase from the starting materials and products. Specifically, we grow the small nanoclusters in dendrimers, a class of uniform polymers with the connectivity of fractal trees and generally radial symmetry. Thanks to their dense multivalency, shape persistence, and structural uniformity, dendrimers have proven to be versatile scaffolds for the synthesis and stabilization of small nanoclusters. Then these dendrimer-encapsulated metal clusters (DEMCs) are adsorbed onto mesoporous silica. Through this method, we have achieved selective transformations that had been challenging to accomplish in a heterogeneous setting, e.g., π-bond activation and aldol reactions. Extensive investigation into the catalytic systems under reaction conditions allowed us to correlate the structural features (e.g., oxidation states) of the catalysts and their activity. Moreover, we have

  10. Biomimetic catalysts responsive to specific chemical signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    Part 1. Design of Biomimetic Catalysts Based on Amphiphilic Systems The overall objective of our research is to create biomimetic catalysts from amphiphilic molecules. More specifically, we aim to create supramolecular systems that can be used to control the microenvironment around a catalytic center in a biomimetic fashion and apply the learning to construct supramolecular catalysts with novel functions found in enzymatic catalysts. We have prepared synthetic molecules (i.e., foldamers) that could fold into helical structures with nanometer-sized internal hydrophilic cavities. Cavities of this size are typically observed only in the tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins but were formed in our foldamer prepared in just a few steps from the monomer. Similar to many proteins, our foldamers displayed cooperativity in the folding/unfolding equilibrium and followed a two-state conformational transition. In addition, their conformational change could be triggered by solvent polarity, pH, or presence of metal ions and certain organic molecules. We studied their environmentally dependent conformational changes in solutions, surfactant micelles, and lipid bilayer membranes. Unlike conventional rigid supramolecular host, a foldamer undergoes conformational change during guest binding. Our study in the molecular recognition of an oligocholate host yielded some extremely exciting results. Cooperativity between host conformation and host–guest interactions was found to “magnify” weak binding interactions. In other words, since binding affinity is determined by the overall change of free energy during the binding, guest-induced conformational change of the host, whether near or far from the binding site, affects the binding. This study has strong implications in catalysis because enzymes have been hypothesized to harvest similar intramolecular forces to strengthen their binding with the transition state of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction. The supramolecular and


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukur, Dragomir B.; Lang, X.; Chokkaram, S.; Nowicki, L.; Wei, G.; Ding, Y.; Reddy, B.; Xiao, S.


    Despite the current worldwide oil glut, the US will ultimately require large-scale production of liquid (transportation) fuels from coal. Slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology, with its versatile product slate, may be expected to play a major role in production of transportation fuels via indirect coal liquefaction. Some of the F-T catalysts synthesized and tested at Texas A and M University under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-89PC89868 were more active than any other known catalysts developed for maximizing production of high molecular weight hydrocarbons (waxes). The objectives of the present contract were to demonstrate repeatability of catalyst performance and reproducibility of preparation procedures of two of these catalysts on a laboratory scale. Improvements in the catalyst performance were attempted through the use of: (a) higher reaction pressure and gas space velocity to maximize the reactor productivity; (b) modifications in catalyst preparation steps; and (c) different pretreatment procedures. Repeatability of catalyst performance and reproducibility of catalyst synthesis procedure have been successfully demonstrated in stirred tank slurry reactor tests. Reactor space-time-yield was increased up to 48% by increasing reaction pressure from 1.48 MPa to 2.17 MPa, while maintaining the gas contact time and synthesis gas conversion at a constant value. Use of calcination temperatures above 300 C, additional CaO promoter, and/or potassium silicate as the source of potassium promoter, instead of potassium bicarbonate, did not result in improved catalyst performance. By using different catalyst activation procedures they were able to increase substantially the catalyst activity, while maintaining low methane and gaseous hydrocarbon selectivities. Catalyst productivity in runs SA-0946 and SA-2186 was 0.71 and 0.86 gHC/g-Fe/h, respectively, and this represents 45-75% improvement in productivity relative to that achieved in Rheinpreussen's demonstration plant

  12. Colors as catalysts in enzymatic reactions. (United States)

    Azeemi, Samina T Yousuf; Raza, Syed Mohsin; Yasinzai, Masoom


    We studied the effects of visible range irradiation (in vitro) on the enzyme solutions (glucose oxidase, cholesterol oxidase + cholesterol esterase and lipase) in order to infer the changes produced in the human body after chromotherapy. The glucose oxidase showed enhanced activity to the color purple (464 nm), while the activity of the other enzymes, cholesterol esterase + cholesterol oxidase and lipase, increased when exposed to dark violet (400 nm). Purple is being used in conventional chromotherapy for diabetes, as supported by the experimental observation in which purple enhanced the activity of enzymes responsible for the oxidation of glucose. Specific wavelengths regulate living processes by acting as catalysts in enzyme activity, while some wavelengths may reduce enzyme activity. The irradiation of specific wavelengths effect enzymatic processes, which as a consequence, accelerated biochemical reactions. This particular frequency when provided to the enzymes (in vitro) lead to changes which may well be occurring in vivo.

  13. Catalyst Initiation in the Oscillatory Carbonylation Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Novakovic


    Full Text Available Palladium(II iodide is used as a catalyst in the phenylacetylene oxidative carbonylation reaction that has demonstrated oscillatory behaviour in both pH and heat of reaction. In an attempt to extract the reaction network responsible for the oscillatory nature of this reaction, the system was divided into smaller parts and they were studied. This paper focuses on understanding the reaction network responsible for the initial reactions of palladium(II iodide within this oscillatory reaction. The species researched include methanol, palladium(II iodide, potassium iodide, and carbon monoxide. Several chemical reactions were considered and applied in a modelling study. The study revealed the significant role played by traces of water contained in the standard HPLC grade methanol used.

  14. Asymmetric pair distribution functions in catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, B. S.; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet


    it has been realized that often there is a need to use an improved EXAFS data analysis compared to the simple harmonic approach which works well for well-defined bulk structures. This is due to the fact that catalysts contain highly dispersed or disordered structures with pair distribution functions...... of asymmetric pair distribution functions for nano-sized particles and how they influence the structural parameters obtained from the standard data analysis. An alternative method, which takes into account deviations from the Gaussian pair distribution function typically used in the analysis of EXAFS spectra......, will be described. The method is based on an analysis of the pair distribution functions derived from molecular dynamics simulations of small metal particles and its reliability is demonstrated by comparing structural parameters obtained from independent X-ray diffraction experiments....

  15. Cure Schedule for Stycast 2651/Catalyst 11.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kropka, Jamie Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); McCoy, John D. [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)


    The Henkel technical data sheet (TDS) for Stycast 2651/Catalyst 11 lists three alternate cure schedules for the material, each of which would result in a different state of reaction and different material properties. Here, a cure schedule that attains full reaction of the material is defined. The use of this cure schedule will eliminate variance in material properties due to changes in the cure state of the material, and the cure schedule will serve as the method to make material prior to characterizing properties. The following recommendation was motivated by (1) a desire to cure at a single temperature for ease of manufacture and (2) a desire to keep the cure temperature low (to minimize residual stress build-up associated with the cooldown from the cure temperature to room temperature) without excessively limiting the cure reaction due to vitrification (i.e., material glass transition temperature, Tg, exceeding cure temperature).

  16. Octahedral molecular sieve sorbents and catalysts (United States)

    Li, Liyu [Richland, WA; King, David L [Richland, WA


    Octahedral molecular sieve sorbents and catalysts are disclosed, including silver hollandite and cryptomelane. These materials can be used, for example, to catalyze the oxidation of CO.sub.x (e.g., CO), NO.sub.x (e.g., NO), hydrocarbons (e.g., C.sub.3H.sub.6) and/or sulfur-containing compounds. The disclosed materials also may be used to catalyze other reactions, such as the reduction of NO.sub.2. In some cases, the disclosed materials are capable of sorbing certain products from the reactions they catalyze. Silver hollandite, in particular, can be used to remove a substantial portion of certain sulfur-containing compounds from a gas or liquid by catalysis and/or sorption. The gas or liquid can be, for example, natural gas or a liquid hydrocarbon.

  17. Design criteria for stable Pt/C fuel cell catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef C. Meier


    Full Text Available Platinum and Pt alloy nanoparticles supported on carbon are the state of the art electrocatalysts in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. To develop a better understanding on how material design can influence the degradation processes on the nanoscale, three specific Pt/C catalysts with different structural characteristics were investigated in depth: a conventional Pt/Vulcan catalyst with a particle size of 3–4 nm and two Pt@HGS catalysts with different particle size, 1–2 nm and 3–4 nm. Specifically, Pt@HGS corresponds to platinum nanoparticles incorporated and confined within the pore structure of the nanostructured carbon support, i.e., hollow graphitic spheres (HGS. All three materials are characterized by the same platinum loading, so that the differences in their performance can be correlated to the structural characteristics of each material. The comparison of the activity and stability behavior of the three catalysts, as obtained from thin film rotating disk electrode measurements and identical location electron microscopy, is also extended to commercial materials and used as a basis for a discussion of general fuel cell catalyst design principles. Namely, the effects of particle size, inter-particle distance, certain support characteristics and thermal treatment on the catalyst performance and in particular the catalyst stability are evaluated. Based on our results, a set of design criteria for more stable and active Pt/C and Pt-alloy/C materials is suggested.

  18. Dispersed catalysts for co-processing and coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bockrath, B.; Parfitt, D.; Miller, R. [Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)


    The basic goal is to improve dispersed catalysts employed in the production of clean fuels from low value hydrocarbons. The immediate objective is to determine how the properties of the catalysts may be altered to match the demands placed on them by the properties of the feedstock, the qualities of the desired end products, and the economic constraints put upon the process. Several interrelated areas of the application of dispersed catalysts to co-processing and coal conversion are under investigation. The first involves control of the selectivity of MoS{sub 2} catalysts for HDN, HDS, and hydrogenation of aromatics. A second area of research is the development and use of methods to evaluate dispersed catalysts by means of activity and selectivity tests. A micro-flow reactor has been developed for determining intrinsic reactivities using model compounds, and will be used to compare catalysts prepared in different ways. Micro-autoclaves will also be used to develop data in batch experiments at higher partial pressures of hydrogen. The third area under investigation concerns hydrogen spillover reactions between MoS{sub 2} catalysts and carbonaceous supports. Preliminary results obtained by monitoring H{sub 2}/D{sub 2} exchange reactions with a pulse-flow microreactor indicate the presence of spillover between MoS{sub 2} and a graphitic carbon. A more complete study will be made at a later stage of the project. Accomplishments and conclusions are discussed.

  19. Technology development for iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Brien, R.J.; Raje, A.; Keogh, R.A. [and others


    The objective of this research project is to develop the technology for the production of physically robust iron-based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts that have suitable activity, selectivity and stability to be used in the slurry phase synthesis reactor development. The catalysts that are developed shall be suitable for testing in the Advanced Fuels Development Facility at LaPorte, Texas, to produce either low-or high-alpha product distributions. Previous work by the offeror has produced a catalyst formulation that is 1.5 times as active as the {open_quotes}standard-catalyst{close_quotes} developed by German workers for slurry phase synthesis. In parallel, work will be conducted to design a high-alpha iron catalyst this is suitable for slurry phase synthesis. Studies will be conducted to define the chemical phases present at various stages of the pretreatment and synthesis stages and to define the course of these changes. The oxidation/reduction cycles that are anticipated to occur in large, commercial reactors will be studied at the laboratory scale. Catalyst performance will be determined for catalysts synthesized in this program for activity, selectivity and aging characteristics.

  20. The generation of efficient supported (Heterogeneous) olefin metathesis catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grubbs, Robert H


    Over the past decade, a new family of homogeneous metathesis catalysts has been developed that will tolerate most organic functionalities as well as water and air. These homogeneous catalysts are finding numerous applications in the pharmaceutical industry as well as in the production of functional polymers. In addition the catalysts are being used to convert seed oils into products that can substitute for those that are now made from petroleum products. Seed oils are unsaturated, contain double bonds, and are a ready source of linear hydrocarbon fragments that are specifically functionalized. To increase the number of applications in the area of biomaterial conversion to petrol chemicals, the activity and efficiency of the catalysts need to be as high as possible. The higher the efficiency of the catalysts, the lower the cost of the conversion and a larger number of practical applications become available. Active supported catalysts were prepared and tested in the conversion of seed oils and other important starting materials. The outcome of the work was successful and the technology has been transferred to a commercial operation to develop viable applications of the discovered systems. A biorefinery that converts seed oils is under construction in Indonesia. The catalysts developed in this study will be considered for the next generation of operations.

  1. Catalysts for the selective oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfur (United States)

    Srinivas, Girish; Bai, Chuansheng


    This invention provides catalysts for the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide. In particular, the invention provides catalysts for the partial oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur and water. The catalytically active component of the catalyst comprises a mixture of metal oxides containing titanium oxide and one or more metal oxides which can be selected from the group of metal oxides or mixtures of metal oxides of transition metals or lanthanide metals. Preferred metal oxides for combination with TiO.sub.2 in the catalysts of this invention include oxides of V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Hf, Ta, W, Au, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu. Catalysts which comprise a homogeneous mixture of titanium oxide and niobium (Nb) oxide are also provided. A preferred method for preparing the precursor homogenous mixture of metal hydroxides is by coprecipitation of titanium hydroxide with one or more other selected metal hydroxides. Catalysts of this invention have improved activity and/or selectivity for elemental sulfur production. Further improvements of activity and/or selectivity can be obtained by introducing relatively low amounts (up to about 5 mol %)of a promoter metal oxide (preferably of metals other than titanium and that of the selected second metal oxide) into the homogeneous metal/titanium oxide catalysts of this invention.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Jothimurugesan; James G. Goodwin, Jr.; Santosh K. Gangwal


    Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis to convert syngas (CO + H{sub 2}) derived from natural gas or coal to liquid fuels and wax is a well-established technology. For low H{sub 2} to CO ratio syngas produced from CO{sub 2} reforming of natural gas or from gasification of coal, the use of Fe catalysts is attractive because of their high water gas shift activity in addition to their high FT activity. Fe catalysts are also attractive due to their low cost and low methane selectivity. Because of the highly exothermic nature of the FT reaction, there has been a recent move away from fixed-bed reactors toward the development of slurry bubble column reactors (SBCRs) that employ 30 to 90 {micro}m catalyst particles suspended in a waxy liquid for efficient heat removal. However, the use of FeFT catalysts in an SBCR has been problematic due to severe catalyst attrition resulting in fines that plug the filter employed to separate the catalyst from the waxy product. Fe catalysts can undergo attrition in SBCRs not only due to vigorous movement and collisions but also due to phase changes that occur during activation and reaction.

  3. Sulfur tolerant zeolite supported platinum catalysts for aromatics hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergem, Haakon


    The increased demand for transportation fuels at the expence of heavier fuel oil has forced the refinery industry to expand their conversion capacity with hydrotreating as one of the key processes. A shift towards more diesel powered vehicles along with tightening fuel regulations demanding cleaner fuels has lead to increasing interest in catalytic processes for the manufacturing of such environmentally acceptable fuels. This provides the motivation for this thesis. Its main objective was to study possible catalysts active for desulfurization, hydrogenation, and ring-opening of aromatics all in the presence of sulfur. A close examination of the physical properties and kinetical behaviour of the chosen catalysts has been performed. A high pressure reactor setup was designed and built for activity measurements. Zeolite supported platinum catalysts were prepared and both the metal and acid functions were characterized utilizing various experimental techniques. Hydrogenation of toluene was used as a model reaction and the effect of sulfur adsorption on the activity and kinetic behaviour of the catalysts was investigated. The catalyst samples showed hydrogenation activities comparable to a commercial Pt/Al2O3 catalyst. There were no clear differences in the effect of the various sulfur compounds studied. Platinum supported on zeolite Y gave considerably more sulfur tolerant catalysts compared to Al2O3 as support. 155 refs., 58 figs., 36 tabs.

  4. Catalyst deterioration over the lifetime of small utility engines. (United States)

    Doll, Nicholas J; Reisel, John R


    In this paper, the deterioration of catalysts in small, four-stroke, spark-ignition engines is described. The laboratory testing performed followed a proven test method that mimics the lifetime of a small air-cooled utility engine operating under normal field conditions. The engines used were single-cylinder, 6.5-hp, side-valve engines. These engines have a nominal 125-hr lifetime. The effectiveness of the catalysts was determined by testing exhaust emissions before and after the catalyst to determine the catalyst's efficiency. This was done several times during the lifetime of the engines to determine the deterioration in the performance of the catalysts at lowering pollutant emissions. Additional testing was performed on the catalysts to determine wear patterns, contamination, and recoverable activity. The results indicate that considerable catalyst deterioration is occurring over the lifetime of the engine. The results reveal that soot buildup, poisons, and active surface loss appear to be the contributing factors to the deterioration. These results were determined after analyzing the exhaust emissions data, scanning electron microscope results analysis, and the impact of regeneration attempts. An ANOVA statistical analysis was performed, and it was determined that the emissions are also impacted, to some degree, by time and the engine itself.

  5. Deactivation of SCR catalysts in biomass fired power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Brian Kjærgaard

    and test new alkali resistant catalyst formulations, coatings and/or improved means of operation which can extend the life-time of SCR catalysts in biomass fired power plants. Plate-type V2O5-(WO3)/TiO2 SCR catalysts have been exposed to KCl and K2SO4 aerosols in a bench-scale reactor at 150, 300 or 350 °C......-scale setup at 350 °C for up to 1100 hours, and their activities were followed by in situ measurements. A 3%V2O5-7%WO3/TiO2 reference catalyst deactivated with a rate of 0.91 %/day during 960 hours of exposure, and a subsequent SEM-EDS analysis showed complete potassium penetration of the catalyst wall....... A catalyst coated with a 1:1 mixture of MgO and TiO2 showed insufficient start activity (30 % of that of the reference) when tested in the bench-scale setup, likely due to a low porosity of the coat.vA deactivation model describing the potassium poisoning of an SCR monolith catalyst has been derived...

  6. Impregnation alternatives for Fe-based coal liquefaction catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R.K.; Armstong, B.T.; Givens, E.N. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)


    Because of the cost effective and environmentally compatible nature of Fe, attention has been directed towards improving the utilization of this metal in direct coal liquefaction. Among the several factors thought to affect catalyst activity, much of this work has focused on dispersion. Weller and Pelipetz reported the importance of catalyst dispersion, based on experiments with a wide variety of catalysts in solvent-free liquefaction studies. And in the presence of solvent, other studies have demonstrated the advantages of adding the precursor by impregnation over its addition in the form of particulates. In general, a high surface/volume ratio, along with intimate contact between the active catalyst and coal, are thought to be the controlling factors. Dispersion, as normally inferred from changes in catalyst activity, may be affected by the mode of addition, the presence of solvent, and the initial composition of the precursor (e.g., soluble organometallics); and for coal-impregnated catalyst precursors, the choice of impregnation solvent and impregnation conditions. A variety of innovative strategies have been developed to introduce catalyst precursors to the liquefaction reaction while seeking to maintain particle size and distribution. These have included the use of emulsions and colloids, direct addition of ultra-fine particles to the slurry`s addition of oil soluble organometallics and carbonyls, ion exchange and impregnating the coal. This paper describes the results of liquefaction experiments carried out with the impregnation of subbituminous coal with iron.

  7. Heterogeneous electro-Fenton catalyst for 1-butylpyridinium chloride degradation. (United States)

    Meijide, Jessica; Pazos, Marta; Sanromán, Maria Ángeles


    The application of the electro-Fenton process for organic compound mineralisation has been widely reported over the past years. However, operational problems related to the use of soluble iron salt as a homogeneous catalyst involve the development of novel catalysts that are able to operate in a wide pH range. For this purpose, polyvinyl alcohol-alginate beads, containing goethite as iron, were synthesised and evaluated as heterogeneous electro-Fenton catalyst for 1-butylpyridinium chloride mineralisation. The influence of catalyst dosage and pH solution on ionic liquid degradation was analysed, achieving almost total oxidation after 60 min under optimal conditions (2 g/L catalyst concentration and pH 3). The results showed good catalyst stability and reusability, although its effectiveness decreases slightly after three successive cycles. Furthermore, a plausible mineralisation pathway was proposed based on the oxidation byproducts determined by chromatographic techniques. Finally, the Microtox® test revealed notable detoxification after treatment which demonstrates high catalyst ability for pyridinium-based ionic liquid degradation by the electro-Fenton process.

  8. Tritium transfer process using the CRNL wetproof catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuang, K.T.; Holtslander, W.J.


    The recovery of tritium from heavy water in CANDU reactor systems requires the transfer of the tritium atoms from water to hydrogen molecules prior to tritium concentration by cryogenic distillation. Isotopic exchange between liquid water and hydrogen using the CRNL-developed wetproof catalyst provides an effective method for the tritium transfer process. The development of this process has required the translation of the technology from a laboratory demonstration of catalyst activity for the exchange reaction to proving and demonstration that the process will meet the practical restraints in a full-scale tritium recovery plant. This has led to a program to demonstrate acceptable performance of the catalyst at operating conditions that will provide data for design of large plants. Laboratory and pilot plant work has shown adequate catalyst lifetimes, demonstrated catalyst regeneration techniques and defined and required feedwater purification systems to ensure optimum catalyst performance. The ability of the catalyst to promote the exchange of hydrogen isotopes between water and hydrogen has been shown to be technically feasible for the tritium transfer process

  9. Exploring catalyst passivation with NMR relaxation. (United States)

    Robinson, Neil; Gladden, Lynn F; D'Agostino, Carmine


    NMR relaxation has recently emerged as a novel and non-invasive tool for probing the surface dynamics of adsorbate molecules within liquid-saturated mesoporous catalysts. The elucidation of such dynamics is of particular relevance to the study and development of solvated green catalytic processes, such as the production of chemicals and fuels from bio-resources. In this paper we develop and implement a protocol using high field 1 H NMR spin-lattice relaxation as a probe of the reorientational dynamics of liquids imbibed within mesoporous oxide materials. The observed relaxation of liquids within mesoporous materials is highly sensitive to the adsorbed surface layer, giving insight into tumbling behaviour of spin-bearing chemical environments at the pore surface. As a prototypical example of relevance to liquid-phase catalytic systems, we examine the mobility of liquid methanol within a range of common catalyst supports. In particular, through the calculation and comparison of a suitable interaction parameter, we assess and quantify changes to these surface dynamics upon replacing surface hydroxyl groups with hydrophobic alkyl chains. Our results indicate that the molecular tumbling of adsorbed methanol is enhanced upon surface passivation due to the suppression of surface-adsorbate hydrogen bonding interactions, and tends towards that of the unrestricted bulk liquid. A complex analysis in which we account for the influence of changing pore structure and surface chemistry upon passivation is discussed. The results presented highlight the use of NMR spin-lattice relaxation measurements as a non-invasive probe of molecular dynamics at surfaces of interest to liquid-phase heterogeneous catalysis.

  10. A biomimetic methane-oxidising catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, H. [Warwick Univ., Coventry (United Kingdom). Dept. of Biological Sciences


    The diminishing resources of petroleum oil has meant that there has been considerable efforts in recent years to find a suitable substitute for gasoline as a transportation fuel. Methanol has been identified as a suitable substitute since it is a readily combustible fuel which can be manufactured from a number of different sources. Methane is commonly used as a starting material for the production of synthesis gas (CO + H{sub 2}) and hence methanol. It is well known that the cleavage of the C-H bond of methane is extremely difficult (bond energy is around 104 kcal/mol) and that fairly drastic conditions are required to convert methane into methanol. Temperatures around 1200 deg C and pressures of up to 100 atmospheres over metal catalysts in a series of reactions are required to effect this process. Efforts have been made to reduce the temperature and the number of steps by using lanthanide ruthenium oxide catalyst but such reactions are still thermodynamically endothermic. An energetically more efficient reaction would be the direct conversion of methane to methanol using oxygen as the oxidant: CH{sub 4} + 1/2O{sub 2} -> CH{sub 3}OH {Delta}H deg = - 30.7 kcal/mol. Such a direct oxidation route is manifest in the bacterially-mediated oxidation of methane by methanotrophic bacteria. These organisms effect the direct oxidation of methane to methanol by the enzyme methane monooxygenase (MMO) as part of the reaction sequences to oxidize methane to carbon dioxide. (14 refs.)

  11. EXAFS characterization of supported metal catalysts in chemically dynamic environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robota, H.J.


    Characterization of catalysts focuses on the identification of an active site responsible for accelerating desirable chemical reactions. The identification, characterization, and selective modification of such sites is fundamental to the development of structure-function relationships. Unfortunately, this goal is far from realized in nearly all catalysts, and particularly in catalysts comprised of small supported metal particles. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) has had a dramatic effect on our understanding of supported metal particles in their resting state. However, the performance of a catalyst can not be assessed from such simple resting state measurements. Among the factors which influence catalyst performance are the exact catalyst composition, including the support and any modifiers; particle size; catalyst finishing and pretreatment conditions; pressure, composition, and temperature of the operating environment; time. Gaining an understanding of how the structure of a catalytic site can change with such an array of variables requires that we begin to develop measurement methods which are effective under chemically dynamic conditions. Ideally, it should be possible to obtain a full X-ray absorption spectrum of each element thought to have a causal relationship with observed catalyst properties. From these spectra, we can optimally extract only a relatively limited amount of information which we must then piece together with information derived from other characterization methods and intuition to arrive at a hypothetical structure of the operating catalyst. Information about crystallinity, homogeneity, and general disorder can be obtained from the Debye-Waller factor. Finally, through analogy with known compounds, the electronic structure of the active atoms can be inferred from near edge absorption features

  12. Investigation and development of heavy oil upgrading catalysts. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D.K.; Lee, I.C.; Yoon, W.L.; Lee, H.T.; Chung, H.; Hwang, Y.J.; Park, S.H. [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    This study aimed at the domestic development of HDS catalysts which are most fundamental and wide-used in the petroleum refinery. In this year, some experimental works were conducted for developing the effective utilization technology of the novel dispersed-catalysts in the hydro-desulfurization of heavy oils, and improving the reaction performance of alumina-supported Mo-based hydro-treating catalysts conventionally used in most of refineries. First, it was experimentally proved that the dispersed catalysts of Co-Mo could be employed for the hydro-desulfurization of a heavy atmospheric residual oil excluding the catalyst deactivation. The utilization of a carbon-expanded reactor in combination with this dispersed catalyst system exhibited an enhanced reaction performance and provided an efficient way for the separation and recovery of the dispersed catalytic component from oils. Second, the tungsten-incorporated WCoMo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst revealed the improved catalytic performance in the various hydro-treating reactions and in the initial deactivation rates for the high pressure hydro-treatment of a heavy oil as compared with the commercial CoMo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. This new experimental finding for the promoting role of the monomeric WO{sub 3} species in CoMo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst may be generally applicable to the Mo-based alumina-sulfide phase, higher catalytic activity, and more extended service life. (author). 101 refs., 33 figs., 18 tabs.

  13. Catalyst Deactivation and Regeneration in Low Temperature Ethanol Steam Reforming with Rh/CeO2-ZrO2 Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Hyun-Seog; Platon, Alex; Wang, Yong; King, David L.


    Rh/CeO2-ZrO2 catalysts with various CeO2/ZrO2 ratios have been applied to H2 production from ethanol steam reforming at low temperatures. The catalysts all deactivated with time on stream (TOS) at 350 C. The addition of 0.5% K has a beneficial effect on catalyst stability, while 5% K has a negative effect on catalytic activity. The catalyst could be regenerated considerably even at ambient temperature and could recover its initial activity after regeneration above 200 C with 1% O2. The results are most consistent with catalyst deactivation due to carbonaceous deposition on the catalyst.

  14. Dual catalyst bed concept for catalytic partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, J.J.; Mujeebur Rahuman, M.S.M.; van Ommen, J.G.; Lefferts, Leonardus


    A system with two catalyst beds instead of one single metal catalyst bed is proposed for catalytic partial oxidation of methane (CPOM) to synthesis gas. In this dual catalyst bed system, an irreducible stable oxide, such as yttrium-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), is used in the first catalyst bed to

  15. Development of active, and stable water-gas-shift reaction catalysts for fuel cell applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azzam, K.G.H.; Babich, Igor V.; Seshan, Kulathu Iyer; Lefferts, Leon


    Water-gas-shift (WGS) reaction CO + H2O = CO2 + H2, is a key step in the generation of H2 for fuel cells. Noble metal-based catalysts are promising single stage WGS catalysts because they less sensitive than LTS catalysts (Cu based) and more active than the HTS (Ni) catalysts. High activity in CO

  16. Why Does Industry Not Use Immobilized Transition Metal Complexes as Catalysts?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huebner, Sandra; de Vries, Johannes G.; Farina, Vittorio


    Much effort has gone into the immobilization of homogeneous catalysts based on the idea that in this way the catalysts could be not only separated more easily from the product but also reused several times, thus reducing the cost of the catalyst use. So far none of these immobilized catalysts have

  17. Flame spray deposition of porous catalysts on surfaces and in microsystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, Susanne; Jensen, Søren; Johansen, Johnny


    . With shadow masks, porous catalyst layers can be deposited selectively into microchannels. Using Au/TiO$_2$ as test catalyst and CO-oxidation as test reaction, it is found that the apparent activation energy of the deposited catalyst is similar to what is normally seen for supported gold catalysts...

  18. Re/HZSM-5: a new catalyst for ethane aromatization with improved stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Anne; Hansen, Thomas W.; Christensen, Claus Hviid


    Rhenium-impregnated HZSM-5 is found to be a promising catalyst for ethane aromatization. The Re–HZSM-5 catalyst deactivates significantly slower than well-known ethane aromatization Zn–HZSM-5 catalyst. Product selectivities for the two catalysts are similar, indicating that the shape selectivity...

  19. New efficient catalyst for ammonia synthesis: barium-promoted cobalt on carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Stefan; Barfod, Rasmus; Fehrmann, Rasmus


    Barium-promoted cobalt catalysts supported on carbon exhibit higher ammonia activities at synthesis temperatures than the commercial, multipromoted iron catalyst and also a lower ammonia......Barium-promoted cobalt catalysts supported on carbon exhibit higher ammonia activities at synthesis temperatures than the commercial, multipromoted iron catalyst and also a lower ammonia...

  20. Oxidative conversion of light alkanes to olefins over alkali promoted oxide catalysts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leveles, L.; Fuchs, S.; Fuchs, Stefan; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Lercher, J.A.; Lefferts, Leonardus


    Alkali promoted mixed oxides were studied as catalysts for the oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) and cracking of butane and propane. Olefin yields as high as 50% were obtained with Li/MgO-based catalysts. Magnesia-based catalysts showed higher activity for olefin production than catalysts based on

  1. Using a microwave-induced method to regenerate platinum catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ju G. Jou


    Full Text Available When the catalyst is put under the conditions of microwave energy with oxygen, it absorbs microwave energy and turns the energy into heat to support the combustion process. The oxygen is spread into the catalyst through surface pores which allows coke combustion. The laboratory results show that when air flow rate is at 2 L min−1 and microwave energy is at 450 W with an exposure time of 8 h, the coke removal efficiency was 70% as compared to 15% in the control system (without air. This study provides an innovative technique of using microwave energy to regenerate spent platinum catalysts containing coke.

  2. Reactivation of a Ruthenium-Based Olefin Metathesis Catalyst (United States)

    Tabari, Daniel S.; Tolentino, Daniel R.; Schrodi, Yann


    1st Generation Hoveyda-Grubbs olefin metathesis catalyst was purposely decomposed in the presence of ethylene yielding inorganic species that are inactive in the ring-closing metathesis (RCM) of benchmark substrate diethyldiallyl malonate (DEDAM). The decomposed catalyst was treated with 1-(3,5-diisopropoxyphenyl)-1-phenylprop-2-yn-1-ol (3) to generate an olefin metathesis active ruthenium indenylidene-ether complex in 43 % yield. This complex was also prepared independently by reacting RuCl2(p-cymene)(PCy3) with organic precursor 3. The activity of the isolated reactivated catalyst in the RCM of DEDAM is similar to that of the independently prepared complex. PMID:23355756

  3. Hysteresis Phenomena in Sulfur Dioxide Oxidation over Supported Vanadium Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masters, Stephen G.; Eriksen, Kim Michael; Fehrmann, Rasmus


    Catalyst deactivation and hysteresis behavior in industrial SO2-oxidation catalysts have been studied in the temperature region 350-480 C by combined in situ EPR spectroscopy and catalytic activity measurements. The feed gas composition simulated sulfuric acid synthesis gas and wet/dry deNOx'ed f......NOx'ed flue gas. The vanadium (IV) compound K4(VO)3(SO4)5 precipitated during all the investigated conditions hence causing catalyst deactivation. Hysteresis behavior of both the catalytic activity and the V(IV) content was observed during reheating....

  4. Stability and resistance of nickel catalysts for hydrodeoxygenation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peter Mølgaard; Gardini, Diego; de Carvalho, Hudson W. P.


    deactivation with complete loss of activity due to the formation of nickel sulfide. Exposing Ni/ZrO2 to chlorine-containing compounds (at a concentration of 0.05 wt% Cl) on-stream led to a steady decrease in activity over 40 h of exposure. Removal of the chlorine species from the feed led to the regaining...... of activity. Analysis of the spent catalyst revealed that the adsorption of chlorine on the catalyst was completely reversible, but chlorine had caused sintering of nickel particles. In two experiments, potassium, as either KCl or KNO3, was impregnated on the catalyst prior to testing. In both cases...

  5. Interfacial charge distributions in carbon-supported palladium catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rao, Radhika G.; Blume, Raoul; Hansen, Thomas Willum


    trends between the charge distribution at the palladium-carbon interface and the metal's selectivity for hydrogenation of multifunctional chemicals. These electronic effects are strong enough to affect the performance of large (~5 nm) Pd particles. Our results also demonstrate how simple thermal...... treatments can be used to tune the interfacial charge distribution, hereby providing a strategy to rationally design carbon-supported catalysts.Control over charge transfer in carbon-supported metal nanoparticles is essential for designing new catalysts. Here, the authors show that thermal treatments...... effectively tune the interfacial charge distribution in carbon-supported palladium catalysts with consequential changes in hydrogenation performance....

  6. The activation mechanism of Fe-based olefin metathesis catalysts (United States)

    Poater, Albert; Pump, Eva; Vummaleti, Sai Vikrama Chaitanya; Cavallo, Luigi


    Density functional theory calculations have been used to describe the first turnover for olefin metathesis reaction of a homogenous Fe-based catalyst bearing a N-heterocyclic carbene ligand with methoxyethene as a substrate. Equal to conventional Ru-based catalysts, the activation of its Fe congener occurs through a dissociative mechanism, however with a more exothermic reaction energy profile. Predicted upper energy barriers were calculated to be on average ∼2 kcal/mol more beneficial for Fe catalyzed metathesis. Overall, this present computational study emphasises on advantages of Fe-based metathesis and gives a potential recipe for the design of an efficient Fe-based olefin metathesis catalysts.

  7. Building Indenylidene-Ruthenium Catalysts for Metathesis Transformations (United States)

    Clavier, Hervé; Nolan, Steven P.

    Ruthenium-mediated olefin metathesis has emerged as an indispensable tool in organic synthesis for the formation carbon-carbon double bonds, attested by the large number of applications for natural product synthesis. Among the numerous catalysts developed to mediate olefin metathesis transformations, ruthenium-indenylidene complexes are robust and powerful pre-catalysts. The discovery of this catalyst category was slightly muddled due to a first mis-assignment of the compound structure. This report provides an overview of the synthetic routes for the construction of the indenylidene pattern in ruthenium complexes. The parameters relating to the indenylidene moiety construction will be discussed as well as the mechanism of this formation

  8. Method of making metal-polymer composite catalysts (United States)

    Zelena, Piotr [Los Alamos, NM; Bashyam, Rajesh [Los Alamos, NM


    A metal-polymer-carbon composite catalyst for use as a cathode electrocatalyst in fuel cells. The catalyst includes a heteroatomic polymer; a transition metal linked to the heteroatomic polymer by one of nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus, and a recast ionomer dispersed throughout the heteroatomic polymer-carbon composite. The method includes forming a heteroatomic polymer-carbon composite and loading the transition metal onto the composite. The invention also provides a method of making a membrane electrode assembly for a fuel cell that includes the metal-polymer-carbon composite catalyst.

  9. Properties of the FCC Catalyst Additive Prepared from Guizhou Kaoline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianlun Xu


    Full Text Available The properties of a FCC catalyst additive prepared from Guizhou kaoline were extensively investigated. The samples were characterized by N2 adsorption, X-ray diffraction, IR spectrometry, and scanning electron microscope (SEM. The results showed that the crystallinity of NaY zeolite synthesized from this kaoline was 25% and the silica alumina ratio was rk/s ˇ m = 5.05. The catalyst additive prepared from above crystallization product exhibited excellent performance of nickel and vanadium passivation, offered 21% lower coke versus base catalyst, while maintaining high bottoms upgrading selectivity.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roncolatto R.E


    Full Text Available This work provides concrete evidence that vanadium causes the destruction of the zeolite in the FCC catalysts by a mechanism of acid attack or solid-solid transformation, as well as additional dealumination of the zeolite framework in the presence of steam and at high temperature. While these effects resulted in the reduction in crystallinity (zeolite Y content, specific area and unit cell size of the Y zeolite as the amount of vanadium in the catalysts increased, the reduction in activity was the most pronounced. The differences in these behaviors were interpreted and the model can be used for better catalyst formulation or screening.

  11. FCC catalyst finds three safe reuse outlets in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, R.


    This paper reports on three usages in the area of construction materials which offer a potential outlet for the reuse of spent fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalyst that far exceeds the supply from European refineries. The proximity of the spent catalyst source to the point-of-use is critical because this determines the transportation cost-the major element in the cost of disposal/reuse. This is why a balance geographical spread of reuse outlets throughout Europe is sought. Asphalt, cement, and red bricks containing spent fluid catalytic cracking catalyst, have all passed environmental acceptability tests

  12. Synthesis and properties of catalysts prepared from silicomolybdovanadium heteropoly acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chumachenko, N.N.; Tarasova, D.V.; Nikoro, T.A.; Yaroslavtseva, I.V.


    Catalytic properties of samples prepared of silicomolybdovanadium heteropoly acid (HPA) have been investigated. The massive catalyst is shown to be comparatively low effective in the reaction of acrolein oxidation to acrylic acid. Impregnation of coarse-dispersed silica gel by the HPA solution results in the formation of active and selective catalyst, whereas low-active catalyst of deep oxidation is formed on the base of high-dispersed silica gel. The obtained data are explained by the formation and stabilization of different forms of vanadium- and molybdenum-containing compounds on the carrier surface

  13. Regeneration of zeolite catalysts of isobutane alkylation with butenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manza, I.A.; Tsupryk, I.N.; Bartyshevskii, V.A.; Gaponenko, O.I.; Petrilyak, K.I.


    The industrial adoption of alkylation of isoalkanes with alkenes is held back by the rapid and irreversible deactivation of the zeolite catalysts appropriate to the process. This paper is aimed specifically at the restoration of the catalytic activity and increase in the service life of zeolite alkylation catalysts. The catalyst chosen for the investigation was HLaCaNaX zeolite both unmodified and modified with various multivalence cations. The thermochemical and oxidative regeneration process as well as the equipment utilized are described. Both the advantages and the drawbacks of the method are given; explanations for the possibly irreversible losses of the catalytic properties in the regenerated zeolites are also put forward.

  14. Use of ionic liquids as coordination ligands for organometallic catalysts (United States)

    Li, Zaiwei [Moreno Valley, CA; Tang, Yongchun [Walnut, CA; Cheng,; Jihong, [Arcadia, CA


    Aspects of the present invention relate to compositions and methods for the use of ionic liquids with dissolved metal compounds as catalysts for a variety of chemical reactions. Ionic liquids are salts that generally are liquids at room temperature, and are capable of dissolving a many types of compounds that are relatively insoluble in aqueous or organic solvent systems. Specifically, ionic liquids may dissolve metal compounds to produce homogeneous and heterogeneous organometallic catalysts. One industrially-important chemical reaction that may be catalyzed by metal-containing ionic liquid catalysts is the conversion of methane to methanol.

  15. Influence of temperature on the results of prehydrogenation (saturation) with concentrated and diluted catalysts. The preparation of such catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    In July 1941 systematic tests had been made with the alumina--molybdenum--nickel catalyst 7846. The results of those tests were summarized in this report. A test with catalyst 5058 was underway at this time and a test with alumina--tungsten--nickel catalyst 7846 W250-8376 was planned. In prehydrogenation of bituminous coal middle oils with catalyst 7846, usually done at 434/sup 0/C, the temperature was varied and it was observed that: at 300/sup 0/C, the catalyst began to show hydrogenation effects and to reduce phenols and nitrogen compounds; at 442/sup 0/C maximum hydrogenation effect was obtained; practically no splitting of C-C bonds took place below 434/sup 0/C; and below 434/sup 0/C the catalyst worked fully reversibly with respect to temperature change. The preparation of catalyst 6434 was discussed. Adsorption of hydrogen by tungsten sulfide was also a topic of this report, and it included the preparation of WS/sub 2/. Studies of the adsorption at about 25/sup 0/C showed adsorption increased appreciably up to 48 hours. The final value was fairly constant down to pressures under 100 mm and equaled about 1 ccH/sub 2//gWS/sub 2/. At pressures below 100 mm the quantity adsorbed dropped rapidly and equalled only .45 ccH/sub 2//gWS/sub 2/ at 13 mm Hg.

  16. An Overview of Recent Development in Composite Catalysts from Porous Materials for Various Reactions and Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaiku Xie


    Full Text Available Catalysts are important to the chemical industry and environmental remediation due to their effective conversion of one chemical into another. Among them, composite catalysts have attracted continuous attention during the past decades. Nowadays, composite catalysts are being used more and more to meet the practical catalytic performance requirements in the chemical industry of high activity, high selectivity and good stability. In this paper, we reviewed our recent work on development of composite catalysts, mainly focusing on the composite catalysts obtained from porous materials such as zeolites, mesoporous materials, carbon nanotubes (CNT, etc. Six types of porous composite catalysts are discussed, including amorphous oxide modified zeolite composite catalysts, zeolite composites prepared by co-crystallization or overgrowth, hierarchical porous catalysts, host-guest porous composites, inorganic and organic mesoporous composite catalysts, and polymer/CNT composite catalysts.

  17. Effects of preparation method and active metal content on of Ni/kieselguhr catalyst activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galuh Widiyarti; Wuryaningsih Sri Rahayu


    The preparation and the active metal content influence the activity of catalyst. Study has been conducted to see the activity of Ni/kieselguhr based on preparation method and Nickel (Ni) contents in the catalyst in the laboratory scale. The Ni/kieselguhr catalyst were prepared by impregnation and precipitation methods, with Ni active contents of 10, 20, and 30 % by weight. The catalysts characterization was analyzed using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Catalysts activities were analyzed based on decreasing of iodine number from hydrogenation of crude palm oil for 2 hours. The activity tests results show that precipitation catalysts are more active than impregnation catalysts. The decreasing in iodine number of fatty acid after 2 hours of hydrogenation process using precipitation catalysts and impregnation catalysts are 51.53 and 21.85 %, respectively. In addition, the catalysts are more active with increasing Ni contents. (author)

  18. Boron-containing catalysts for dry reforming of methane to synthesis gas

    KAUST Repository

    Takanabe, Kazuhiro


    The present invention uses a cobalt catalyst for carbon dioxide reforming of lower alkanes to synthesis gas having a cobalt catalyst on an oxide support where the supported cobalt catalyst has been modified with a boron precursor. The boron-treated cobalt catalyst systems as described herein show significant increases in the conversion of CH4 and CO2 during the dry reforming of methane (DRM) reaction as compared to traditional catalysts. Described herein are supported catalysts and methods of using the catalysts for the dry reforming of methane to synthesis gas, with the supported catalysts in the present invention include a boron-treated cobalt catalyst disposed on an oxide support. Also described herein are processes for preparing the supported catalysts.

  19. Tandem hydroformylation/hydrogenation of alkenes to normal alcohols using Rh/Ru dual catalyst or Ru single component catalyst. (United States)

    Takahashi, Kohei; Yamashita, Makoto; Nozaki, Kyoko


    The catalyst system for tandem hydroformylation/hydrogenation of terminal alkenes to the corresponding homologated normal alcohol was developed. The reaction mechanism for the Rh/Ru dual catalyst was investigated by real-time IR monitoring experiments and (31)P NMR spectroscopy, which proved the mutual orthogonality of Rh-catalyzed hydroformylation and Ru-catalyzed hydrogenation. Detailed investigation about Ru-catalyzed hydrogenation of undecanal under H(2)/CO pressure clarified different kinetics from the hydrogenation under H(2) and gave a clue to design more active hydrogenation catalysts under H(2)/CO atmosphere. The solely Ru-catalyzed normal selective hydroformylation/hydrogenation is also reported.

  20. Mechanical alloying of a hydrogenation catalyst used for the remediation of contaminated compounds (United States)

    Quinn, Jacqueline W. (Inventor); Clausen, Christian A. (Inventor); Geiger, Cherie L. (Inventor); Aitken, Brian S. (Inventor)


    A hydrogenation catalyst including a base material coated with a catalytic metal is made using mechanical milling techniques. The hydrogenation catalysts are used as an excellent catalyst for the dehalogenation of contaminated compounds and the remediation of other industrial compounds. Preferably, the hydrogenation catalyst is a bimetallic particle including zero-valent metal particles coated with a catalytic material. The mechanical milling technique is simpler and cheaper than previously used methods for producing hydrogenation catalysts.