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Sample records for catalysts industrial

  1. Industrial catalysts as a source of valuable metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fornalczyk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Catalyst are used in all sector of the chemical industry: in basic chemistry (synthesis of sulfuric and nitric acid, ammonia, methanol and aromactics; in petrochemistry; in polymerization chemistry; in refining, in reactions of fluid catalytic cracking (FCC, resid fluid cracking catalyst (RFCC, hydrodesulfurization (HDS and hydrotreatment; in auto industry for reduce of pollution, for removal of NO, CO and hydrocarbons in exhaust emissions; in variety of industrial processes. Recovery of metals and precious metals from spent catalysts has been an important topic not only from economic aspect but also for recycling rare natural sources and reducing the catalyst waste to prevent the environmental pollution. Various methods for recovering metals form spent auto catalyst, petroleum reforming and other industrial catalysts are reviewed.Design/methodology/approach: The article presents the methods used in the world for metals recovery from spent industrial catalysts.Findings: To recover precious metals from spent catalysts many hydro- and pyrometallurgical methods are used. But none of these methods is an universal method that can be used to recover all type of spent catalysts. These recovery methods have also some disadvantages: pyrometallurgical methods require special equipment, reaching the desired temperature, and they are not only expensive but also highly energy consuming. The application of hydrometallurgical methods requires to solve the problem of harmful waste solutions generated during the process.Practical implications: The paper presents the possibilities of industrial catalysis as a source of valuable metals.Originality/value: The present work is a review about industrial catalysts as a source of valuable metals.

  2. SPARTNIK: Engineering catalyst for government and industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prass, James D.; Romano, Thomas C.; Hunter, Jeanine M.

    1995-09-01

    Industrial demands for highly motivated and competent technical personnel to carry forward with the technological goals of the US has posed a significant challenge to graduating engineers. While curricula has improved and diversified over time to meet these industry demands, relevant industry experience is not always available to undergraduates. The microsatellite development program at San Jose State University (SJSU) has allowed an entire undergraduate senior class to utilize a broad range of training and education to refine their engineering skills, bringing them closer to becoming engineering professionals. Close interaction with industry mentors and manufacturers on a real world project provides a significant advantage to educators and students alike. With support from companies and government agencies, the students have designed and manufactured a microsatellite, designed to be launched into a low Earth orbit. This satellite will gather telemetry for characterizing the state of the spacecraft. This will enable the students to have a physical check on their predicted value of spacecraft subsystem performance. Additional experiments will also be undertaken during the two year lifetime, including micro-meteorite impact sensing and capturing digital color images of the Earth. This paper will detail the process whereby students designed, prototype and manufactured a small satellite in a large team environment, along with the experiments that will be performed on board. With the project's limited funds, it needed the support of many industry companies to help with technical issues and hardware acquisition. Among the many supporting companies, NASA's space shuttle small payloads program could be used for an affordable launch vehicle for the student project. The paper address these collaborations between the student project and industry support, as well as explaining the benefits to both. The paper draws conclusion on how these types of student projects can be used

  3. Used solid catalysts from chemical and petrochemical industries; Les catalyseurs solides uses de l`industrie chimique et du raffinage petrolier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    A comprehensive survey of the solid catalysts used in the chemical and petrochemical industries is presented; information on solid catalyst market demand prospective for 1998, the nature of solid catalysts used in the various industrial sectors and for the various chemical products production, the european catalysts manufacturers, solid catalyst poisons and inhibitors according to the various types of chemical reactions, mean compositions of used solid catalysts, an assessment of the volume of used solid catalysts generated by chemical and petrochemical industries, the various ways of solid catalyst regeneration and disposal, the potential for off-site regeneration of used catalysts, and French and European regulations, is presented

  4. XAFS characterization of industrial catalysts: in situ study of phase transformation of nickel sulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Jia, Z.; Wang, Q.; Zhao, S.; Xu, Z.; Yang, W.; Frenkel, A. I.

    2016-05-01

    The online sulfiding process for nickel-contained catalyst often ends up with a nickel sulfide mixture in refinery plant. To elucidate the local environment of nickel and its corresponding sulfur species, a model catalyst (nickel sulfide) and model thermal process were employed to explore the possibilities for characterization of real catalysts in industrial conditions. The present investigation shows effectiveness of in situ XANES and EXAFS measurements for studying the phase stability and phase composition in these systems, which could be used to simulate real sulfiding process in industrial reactions, such as hydrodesulfurizations of oil.

  5. Optimal catalyst curves: Connecting density functional theory calculations with industrial reactor design and catalyst selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, C.J.H.; Dahl, Søren; Boisen, A.;

    2002-01-01

    For ammonia synthesis catalysts a volcano-type relationship has been found experimentally. We demonstrate that by combining density functional theory calculations with a microkinetic model the position of the maximum of the volcano curve is sensitive to the reaction conditions. The catalytic...

  6. Study of the catalyst deactivation in an industrial gasoil HDS reactor using a mini-scale laboratory reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.E. Kallinikos; G.D. Bellos; N.G. Papayannako [National Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece). School of Chemical Engineering

    2008-09-15

    The activity of a hydrodesulphurization catalyst loaded in an industrial hydrotreater is studied at start up and end of run. Catalyst initial and final activity was determined by performing HDS experiments at industrial conditions in a laboratory mini-scale hydrotreater. The results show that the deactivation of the catalyst samples collected from three different places of the industrial reactor do not vary significantly, the maximum difference among the catalyst samples, being less than {+-}4%. The experimentally determined deactivation level of the catalyst samples is compared with the deactivation estimated for the same industrial reactor and the same load using a hybrid neural network model trained with operational data of the industrial and the results are in close agreement. Catalyst deactivation appears to be faster for hydrogen consumption reactions than for hydrodesulphurization reactions indicating a decreasing hydrogen consumption trend with time in operation for specific sulphur content in the product. 21 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Supported noble metal catalysts in the catalytic wet air oxidation of industrial wastewaters and sewage sludges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, M; Descorme, C; Bernardi, M; Gallezot, P; di Gregorio, F; Grosjean, N; Minh, D Pham; Pintar, A

    2010-12-01

    This paper reviews some catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) investigations of industrial wastewaters over platinum and ruthenium catalysts supported on TiO2 and ZrO2 formulated to be active and resistant to leaching, with particular focus on the stability of the catalyst. Catalyst recycling experiments were performed in batch reactors and long-term stability tests were conducted in trickle-bed reactors. The catalyst did not leach upon treatment of Kraft bleaching plant and olive oil mill effluents, and could be either recycled or used for long periods of time in continuous reactors. Conversely, these catalysts were rapidly leached when used to treat effluents from the production of polymeric membranes containing N,N-dimethylformamide. The intermediate formation of amines, such as dimethylamine and methylamine with a high complexing capacity for the metal, was shown to be responsible for the metal leaching. These heterogeneous catalysts also deactivated upon CWAO of sewage sludges due to the adsorption of the solid organic matter. Pre-sonication of the sludge to disintegrate the flocs and improve solubility was inefficient. PMID:21214003

  8. Carbon-supported platinum alloy catalysts for phenol hydrogenation for making industrial chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivas, S.T.; Song, C.

    1999-07-01

    Phenol is available in large quantities in liquids derived from coal and biomass. Phenol hydrogenation is an industrially important reaction to produce cyclohexanone and cyclohexanol. Cyclohexane, cyclohexene and benzene are obtained as minor products in this reaction. Cyclohexanone is an important intermediate in the production of caprolactam for nylon 6 and cyclohexanol for adipic acid production. In USA, cyclohexanol and cyclohexanone are produced by benzene hydrogenation to cyclohexane over nickel or noble metal catalysts, followed by oxidation of cyclohexane to produce a mixture of cyclohexanol and cyclohexanone. Then cyclohexanol is dehydrogenated in the presence of Cu-Zn catalyst to cyclohexanone. Usually phenol hydrogenation is also carried out by using Ni catalyst in liquid phase. However, a direct single-step vapor phase hydrogenation of phenol to give cyclohexanone selectively is more advantageous in terms of energy savings and process economics, since processing is simplified and the endothermic step of cyclohexanol dehydrogenation can be avoided, as demonstrated by Montedipe and Johnson Matthey using promoted Pd/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. While it is not the purpose of this paper to dwell on the relative merits of these routes, it is necessary to mention that while using monometallic catalysts, generally the problem of catalyst deactivation of sintering as well as coking is frequently encountered. Addition and alloying of noble metal (e.g. Pt) with a second metal can result in a catalyst with better selectivity and activity in the reaction which is more resistant to deactivation. This paper presents the results on the single-step vapor phase hydrogenation of phenol over carbon-supported Pt-M (M=Cr, V, Zr) alloy catalysts to yield mainly cyclohexanone or cyclohexanol.

  9. Method of making hydrophobic industrial catalyst for water-hydrogen isotope exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have performed the research centering around the development of platinum catalyst carried by styrene divinylbenzene copolymer as the hydrophobic catalyst for water-hydrogen isotope exchange for the purpose of heavy water concentration and especially tritium removal. In this paper, the method of industrial production of this catalyst, the results of catalytic performance test by trickle bed and the problems are reported. It was found that only chloroplatinic acid was suitable as the practical raw material of the catalyst. The ethanol solution of chloroplatinic acid is practically most desirable. Generally, the catalytic activity increases by the aging of SDB in pure hydrogen flow. For the impregnation of chloroplatinic acid into SDB, the column method is suitable. The impregnated carriers are dried with an air drier. Then the carriers carrying chloroplatinic acid are reduced in a reaction tube with highly pure hydrogen. The catalytic performance test was performed in a packed tower, and the effects of the shape of catalysts, flow mode, oxygen, scale-up, pressure and impurities are reported. (Kako, I.)

  10. Enzyme catalysts for a biotechnology-based chemical industry. Quarterly progress report, April 1--July 1, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, F.H.

    1998-07-08

    The goal of this research is to engineer enzymes to be efficient and economically attractive catalysts for the chemical industry. The author is attempting to demonstrate generally-applicable approaches to enzyme improvement as well as develop specific catalysts for potential industrial application. Progress on three tasks are described: Random mutagenesis of pNB esterase--improved activity and stability; Directed evolution of subtilisin E to enhance thermostability; and Methods for invitro recombination.

  11. Enzyme catalysts for a biotechnology-based chemical industry. Quarterly progress report, April 1--June 28, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, F.H.

    1996-07-22

    The goal of this research is to engineer enzymes to be efficient and economically attractive catalysts for the chemical industry. The author is attempted to demonstrate generally-applicable approaches to enzyme improvement as well as develop specific catalysts for potential industrial application. The paper describes the progress in two projects: (a) Random mutagenesis of pNB esterase: Improved activity and stability; and (2) Subtilisin mutants exhibiting improved ligase activity in organic solvents.

  12. Enzyme catalysts for a biotechnology-based chemical industry. Quarterly progress report, January 1--April 1, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, F.H.

    1998-04-20

    The goal of this research is to engineer enzymes to be efficient and economically attractive catalysts for the chemical industry. The author is attempting to demonstrate generally-applicable approaches to enzyme improvement as well as develop specific catalysts for potential industrial application. The research is focused on the following areas: (1) Random mutagenesis of pNB esterase: improved activity and stability; (2) Directed evolution of subtilisin E to enhance thermostability; and (3) Methods for in vitro recombination.

  13. The effect of the nature of rare earth elements on the stable activity of an industrial amorphous aluminum silicate catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skoblo, V.A.; Kapustin, V.M.; Kozlov, L.L.

    1983-01-01

    The promoting effect of fourteen rare earth elements (REE) on the catalytic activity and stability of an industrial aluminum silicate catalyst (Kt) in a reaction of cracking gas oil is studied. It is shown that the individual rare earth elements have a promoting effect on the catalyst to a varying degree. Neodymium in a cerium subgroup has the greatest promoting effect, along with Disprosium and Holmium in a Yttrium subgroup of rare earth elements.

  14. A Novel Approach for Prediction of Industrial Catalyst Deactivation Using Soft Sensor Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Gharehbaghi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Soft sensors are used for fault detection and prediction of the process variables in chemical processing units, for which the online measurement is difficult. The present study addresses soft sensor design and identification for deactivation of zeolite catalyst in an industrial-scale fixed bed reactor based on the process data. The two main reactions are disproportionation (DP and transalkylation (TA, which change toluene and C9 aromatics into xylenes and benzene. Two models are considered based on the mass conservation around the reactor. The model parameters are estimated by data-based modeling (DBM philosophy and state dependent parameter (SDP method. In the SDP method, the parameters are assumed to be a function of the system states. The results show that the catalyst activity during the period under study has approximately a monotonic trend. Identification of the system clearly shows that the xylene concentration has a determining role in the conversion of reactions. The activation energies for both DP and TA reactions are found to be 43.8 and 18 kJ/mol, respectively. The model prediction is in good agreement with the observed industrial data.

  15. Spent solid catalysts of chemical industry and petroleum refining; Les catalyseurs solides uses de l`industrie chimique et du raffinage petrolier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paillier, A.; Briand, Y.

    1996-12-31

    The aim of this work is the analysis of the heterogeneous catalysis. In a first part are given the utilizing sectors. There are mainly the petroleum refining, the chemical industry and the environment. A catalyst is chosen according to its selectivity and velocity, its cost and the wastes it induces. Thus are found three main heterogeneous catalysts series: the bulky metals, the supported metals: precious or heavy or their compounds, the zeolites and other silico-aluminates. Their most frequent uses are given. The catalysts used in the main petroleum refining processes (distillation, catalytic hydro-treatment, desulfurization, catalytic reforming, catalytic cracking, catalytic hydrocracking, alkylation) are also detailed. The second part deals with the spent solid catalysts. The reasons of the deactivation (poisons or contaminants, structure modification) are given. The spent catalysts are either regenerated or eliminated. The regeneration methods are described. The solid catalysts cannot be stored without being stabilized (decrease of its water permeability and of its leachable fraction). The stabilization methods are reviewed. The regulations on the spent solid catalysts are given in the last part. (O.M.)

  16. Evaluation of potential for reuse of industrial wastewater using metal-immobilized catalysts and reverse osmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeongyun; Chung, Jinwook

    2015-04-01

    This report describes a novel technology of reusing the wastewater discharged from the display manufacturing industry through an advanced oxidation process (AOP) with a metal-immobilized catalyst and reverse osmosis (RO) in the pilot scale. The reclaimed water generated from the etching and cleaning processes in display manufacturing facilities was low-strength organic wastewater and was required to be recycled to secure a water source. For the reuse of reclaimed water to ultrapure water (UPW), a combination of solid-phase AOP and RO was implemented. The removal efficiency of TOC by solid-phase AOP and RO was 92%. Specifically, the optimal acid, pH, and H2O2 concentrations in the solid-phase AOP were determined. With regard to water quality and operating costs, the combination of solid-phase AOP and RO was superior to activated carbon/RO and ultraviolet AOP/anion polisher/coal carbon.

  17. Metallocene Catalysts Technology,Academic Aspects,Industrial Challenges, Environmental Implication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abbas Razavi; Vincenzo Bellia; Didier Baekelmans; Sabine Sirol; Martine Slawinsky; Liliane Peters; Margo Lopez; Vladimir Marin

    2004-01-01

    @@ Single site catalysts related polypropylene exhibit large diversity in their polymer chain microstructures far exceeding the tactic varieties observed with the polypropylene obtained with native, multiple site,heterogeneous TiCl3 based Ziegler -Natta type catalysts.

  18. Characterization of Industrial Pt-Sn/Al2O3 Catalyst and Transient Product Formations during Propane Dehydrogenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kah Sing Ho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The major problem plaguing propane dehydrogenation process is the coke formation on the Pt-Sn/Al2O3 catalyst which leads to catalyst deactivation. Due to information paucity, the physicochemical characteristics of the commercially obtained regenerated Pt-Sn/Al2O3 catalyst (operated in moving bed reactor and coke formation at different temperatures of reaction were discussed. The physicochemical characterization of regenerated catalyst gave a BET surface area of 104.0 m2/g with graphitic carbon content of 8.0% indicative of incomplete carbon gasification during the industrial propylene production. Effect of temperatures on coke formation was identified by studying the product yield via temperature-programmed reaction carried out at 500oC, 600oC and 700oC. It was found that ethylene was precursor to carbon laydown while propylene tends to crack into methane. Post reaction, the spent catalyst possessed relatively lower surface area and pore radius whilst exhibited higher carbon content (31.80% at 700oC compared to the regenerated catalyst. Significantly, current studies also found that higher reaction temperatures favoured the coke formation. Consequently, the propylene yield has decreased with reaction temperature. © 2013 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 10th March 2013; Revised: 28th April 2013; Accepted: 6th May 2013[How to Cite: Kah, S.H., Joanna Jo, E.C., Sim, Y.C., Chin, K.C. (2013. Characterization of Industrial Pt-Sn/Al2O3 Catalyst and Transient Product Formations during Propane Dehydrogenation. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 8 (1: 77-82. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4569.77-82][Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4569.77-82] | View in  |

  19. Laboratory evaluation of FCC commercial catalysts. Analysis of products of industrial importance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passamonti, Francisco J.; De la Puente, Gabriela; Sedran, Ulises [Instituto de Investigaciones en Catalisis y Petroquimica (INCAPE, FIQ, UNL-CONICET), Santiago del Estero 2654, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina)

    2008-04-15

    The results of the conversion of a VGO over six equilibrium commercial FCC catalysts with different formulations in a batch CREC Riser Simulator laboratory reactor at 500 and 550 C, catalyst to oil ratio 6.1 and reaction times from 3 to 30 s, were analyzed. It was possible to define the main catalyst characteristics in terms of various evaluation items, such as activity, gasoline yield and quality, LPG yield and coke yield, or the yields of particular compounds like, e.g., isobutane. Important differences in activity between catalysts were not observed, but catalyst properties reflected clearly as significant differences in gasoline, LPG or coke selectivities. Particularly, catalyst's hydrogen transfer properties impacted on gasoline composition and isobutane yield. The results showed that the CREC Riser Simulator reactor is an important tool for the evaluation of both commercial catalysts and feedstocks and process conditions. (author)

  20. Immobilized Lignin Peroxidase-Like Metalloporphyrins as Reusable Catalysts in Oxidative Bleaching of Industrial Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Zucca

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic and bioinspired metalloporphyrins are a class of redox-active catalysts able to emulate several enzymes such as cytochromes P450, ligninolytic peroxidases, and peroxygenases. Their ability to perform oxidation and degradation of recalcitrant compounds, including aliphatic hydrocarbons, phenolic and non-phenolic aromatic compounds, sulfides, and nitroso-compounds, has been deeply investigated. Such a broad substrate specificity has suggested their use also in the bleaching of textile plant wastewaters. In fact, industrial dyes belong to very different chemical classes, being their effective and inexpensive oxidation an important challenge from both economic and environmental perspective. Accordingly, we review here the most widespread synthetic metalloporphyrins, and the most promising formulations for large-scale applications. In particular, we focus on the most convenient approaches for immobilization to conceive economical affordable processes. Then, the molecular routes of catalysis and the reported substrate specificity on the treatment of the most diffused textile dyes are encompassed, including the use of redox mediators and the comparison with the most common biological and enzymatic alternative, in order to depict an updated picture of a very promising field for large-scale applications.

  1. Quantification of zinc atoms in a surface alloy on copper in an industrial-type methanol synthesis catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuld, Sebastian; Moses, Poul Georg; Sehested, Jens;

    2014-01-01

    Methanol has recently attracted renewed interest because of its potential importance as a solar fuel.1 Methanol is also an important bulk chemical that is most efficiently formed over the industrial Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst. The identity of the active site and, in particular, the role of ZnO as a pr......Methanol has recently attracted renewed interest because of its potential importance as a solar fuel.1 Methanol is also an important bulk chemical that is most efficiently formed over the industrial Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst. The identity of the active site and, in particular, the role of Zn...... a consistent picture of surface alloying between copper and zinc. This analysis enables a reinterpretation of the methods that have been used for the determination of the Cu surface area and provides an opportunity to independently quantify the specific Cu and Zn areas. This method may also be applied to other...

  2. Quantification of zinc atoms in a surface alloy on copper in an industrial-type methanol synthesis catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuld, Sebastian; Moses, Poul Georg; Sehested, Jens;

    2014-01-01

    Methanol has recently attracted renewed interest because of its potential importance as a solar fuel. Methanol is also an important bulk chemical that is most efficiently formed over the industrial Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst. The identity of the active site and, in particular, the role of ZnO as a pro......Methanol has recently attracted renewed interest because of its potential importance as a solar fuel. Methanol is also an important bulk chemical that is most efficiently formed over the industrial Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst. The identity of the active site and, in particular, the role of Zn...... picture of surface alloying between copper and zinc. This analysis enables a reinterpretation of the methods that have been used for the determination of the Cu surface area and provides an opportunity to independently quantify the specific Cu and Zn areas. This method may also be applied to other systems...

  3. Accelerating process and catalyst development in reforming reactions with high throughput technologies under industrially relevant conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schunk, S.A.; Bollmann, G.; Froescher, A.; Kaiser, H.; Lange de Oliveira, A.; Roussiere, T.; Wasserschaff, G. [hte Aktiengesellschaft, Heidelberg (Germany); Domke, I. [BASF SE, Ludwigshafen (Germany)

    2010-12-30

    The generation of hydrogen via reforming of a variety of carbon containing feed-stocks in the presence of water is up to date one of the most versatile technologies for the production of hydrogen and syngas. Although these reforming technologies are in principle well established, understood and commercialized, there are still a number of technological challenges that are not solved up to a satisfactorily degree and there is a constant demand for appropriate answers to the challenges posed. High throughput experimentation can be a valuable tool in helping accelerate the development of suitable solutions on the catalyst and process development side. In order to be able to generate test data that are close or identical to process relevant conditions, hte has developed a new technology portfolio of test technologies named Stage-IV technology. In contrast to earlier developments which address more small scale testing on the basis of catalyst volumes of 1ml up to 10 ml under isothermal conditions, our new technology portfolio offers the advantage of test volumes at sub-pilot scale also realizing reactor dimensions close to technical applications. This does not only ensure a good mimic of the hydrodynamic conditions of the technical scale, but also allows a fingerprinting of features like temperature gradients in the catalyst bed which play a large role for catalyst performance. Apart from catalyst tests with granulates when screening for optimized catalyst compositions, the units are designed to accommodate tests with shaped catalysts. In order to demonstrate how these technologies can accelerate catalyst and process development we have chosen technically challenging application examples: (I) Pre-reforming and reforming of methane based feeds which accelerate coking and catalyst deactivation. Higher reaction pressures, high CO{sub 2} contents in the feedgas (which occur typically in sources like bio-gas or certain types of natural gas), the presence of higher alkanes

  4. Homogeneous catalysts

    CERN Document Server

    Chadwick, John C; Freixa, Zoraida; van Leeuwen, Piet W N M

    2011-01-01

    This first book to illuminate this important aspect of chemical synthesis improves the lifetime of catalysts, thus reducing material and saving energy, costs and waste.The international panel of expert authors describes the studies that have been conducted concerning the way homogeneous catalysts decompose, and the differences between homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts. The result is a ready reference for organic, catalytic, polymer and complex chemists, as well as those working in industry and with/on organometallics.

  5. Bridging the Time Gap: A Copper/Zinc Oxide/Aluminum Oxide Catalyst for Methanol Synthesis Studied under Industrially Relevant Conditions and Time Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunkenbein, Thomas; Girgsdies, Frank; Kandemir, Timur; Thomas, Nygil; Behrens, Malte; Schlögl, Robert; Frei, Elias

    2016-10-01

    Long-term stability of catalysts is an important factor in the chemical industry. This factor is often underestimated in academic testing methods, which may lead to a time gap in the field of catalytic research. The deactivation behavior of an industrially relevant Cu/ZnO/Al2 O3 catalyst for the synthesis of methanol is reported over a period of 148 days time-on-stream (TOS). The process was investigated by a combination of quasi in situ and ex situ analysis techniques. The results show that ZnO is the most dynamic species in the catalyst, whereas only slight changes can be observed in the Cu nanoparticles. Thus, the deactivation of this catalyst is driven by the changes in the ZnO moieties. Our findings indicate that methanol synthesis is an interfacially mediated process between Cu and ZnO.

  6. Enzyme catalysts for a biotechnology-based chemical industry. Quarterly progress report, September 29--December 28, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, F.H.

    1998-01-15

    The goal of this research is to engineer enzymes to be efficient and economically attractive catalysts for the chemical industry. The author is attempting to demonstrate generally-applicable approaches to enzyme improvement as well as develop specific catalysts for potential industrial application. In this report attention is focused on random mutagenesis of pNB esterase -- improved activity and stability. The most thermostable esterases obtained by sequential random mutagenesis (6H7) and random mutagenesis plus recombination (6sF9) each contain 9 amino acid mutations and a number of silent mutations, relative to the wild-type sequence. Eight of the mutations are present in both genes, for a total of ten potentially adaptive mutations. Because several of these mutations occurred in the same generation, it is difficult to identify the mutations responsible for the increases in activity and stability. In order to aid in this identification, the thermostable genes were recombined with the wild-type gene, in hopes of removing neutral mutations. The gene from the first-generation variant, with five amino acid substitutions was also recombined with wild-type.

  7. Industrial H2-SCR of NO on a novel Pt/MgO-CeO2 catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe here the performance of a novel MgO-CeO2-supported Pt (0.1 wt%) catalyst towards the selective conversion of NO into N2 (SN2 > 80%) by using H2 (H2-SCR) under process conditions similar to those encountered in the NH3-SCR in the low-temperature range of 150-200 C. At 200 C, 100% conversion of NO and 85% N2-selectivity were obtained with a feed stream containing 1000 ppm NO, 5% O2, 5% H2O, 10% CO2, 0-0.5% CO, and using 1.5% H2 in the feed as reducing agent (GHSV = 40,000 h-1). Thus, a N2-yield of 85% similar to that obtained in most NH3-SCR applications could make H2-SCR as the most environmentally friendly NOx control catalytic technology with great potential to replace the existing NH3-SCR technology. The latter is currently used industrially mainly in power and nitric acid plants, gas turbines, furnaces, boilers, and waste incinerators for the elimination of NOx. However, this technology faces several problems such as catalyst deterioration, emissions of non-reacted toxic NH3 (ammonia slip), ash odor, air-heaters fouling, and a high running cost. (author)

  8. Application of a supramolecular-ligand library for the automated search for catalysts for the asymmetric hydrogenation of industrially relevant substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Meeuwissen; M. Kuil; A.M. van der Burg; A.J. Sandee; J.N.H. Reek

    2009-01-01

    A procedure is described for the automated screening and lead optimization of a supramolecular-ligand library for the rhodium-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation of five challenging substrates relevant to industry. Each catalyst is (self-) assembled from two urea-functionalized ligands and a transiti

  9. Electrochemical catalyst recovery method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Laura J.; Bray, Lane A.

    1995-01-01

    A method of recovering catalyst material from latent catalyst material solids includes: a) combining latent catalyst material solids with a liquid acid anolyte solution and a redox material which is soluble in the acid anolyte solution to form a mixture; b) electrochemically oxidizing the redox material within the mixture into a dissolved oxidant, the oxidant having a potential for oxidation which is effectively higher than that of the latent catalyst material; c) reacting the oxidant with the latent catalyst material to oxidize the latent catalyst material into at least one oxidized catalyst species which is soluble within the mixture and to reduce the oxidant back into dissolved redox material; and d) recovering catalyst material from the oxidized catalyst species of the mixture. The invention is expected to be particularly useful in recovering spent catalyst material from petroleum hydroprocessing reaction waste products having adhered sulfides, carbon, hydrocarbons, and undesired metals, and as well as in other industrial applications.

  10. Sustainable processes using heterogeneous acid catalysts. Some examples of industrial interest.

    OpenAIRE

    Gliozzi, Gherardo

    2014-01-01

    In recent years the need for the design of more sustainable processes and the development of alternative reaction routes to reduce the environmental impact of the chemical industry has gained vital importance. Main objectives especially regard the use of renewable raw materials, the exploitation of alternative energy sources, the design of inherently safe processes and of integrated reaction/separation technologies (e.g. microreactors and membranes), the process intensification, the reduction...

  11. Mineralization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) over the catalyst CuO-Co3O4-CeO2 and its applications in industrial odor control

    KAUST Repository

    Somekawa, Shouichi

    2011-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present at ppm levels were decomposed over the catalyst CuO-Co3O4-CeO2 (Cu:Co:Ce = 10:45:45 in mol) in an attempt to scale up for industrial odor control. In addition to enhancing the catalytic activity, CuO-Co3O4 and CeO2 helped, respectively, to maintain the strength of the pelleted catalysts and inhibit their sintering. Using toluene as a VOC model compound, kinetic analysis of the total oxidation to carbon dioxide was conducted. The odor emitted from paint-drying processes could be eliminated effectively using CuO-Co3O4-CeO2 (Cu:Co:Ce = 10:45:45) pelleted catalysts (188 ml) in a large-scale system. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Development and Industrial Application of Hydrocracking Pretreatment Catalyst of FRIPP%FRIPP加氢裂化预处理催化剂的开发及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨占林; 姜虹; 唐兆吉; 温德荣; 彭绍忠; 王继锋

    2015-01-01

    Hydrocracking pretreatment catalyst research progres s and industrial application situation of Fushun Research Institute of Petroleum and Petrochemicals(FRIPP)are introduced in this article. The early development of the catalyst is mainly by adjusiting nature of the carrier to improve the performance of the catalyst, the recent development of FF-46 and FF-56 catalyst, further optimizes mode of the active sites and the carrier, signifi cantly enhancing the performance of the catalyst, the bulk catalyst is developed by the new concept, it includes a higher volume of activity, reducing the cost of product quality upgrade of refinery. Different types of hydrocracking pretreatment catalyst from FRIPP had reached cumulait ve producit on of more than 10 thousand tons by March 2015.%重点介绍了抚顺石油化工研究院(FRIPP)在加氢裂化预处理催化剂方面的研究进展及工业应用情况.早期开发的催化剂主要通过调节载体的性质来改善催化剂的性能,而近期开发的FF-46和FF-56催化剂,进一步优化了活性位及载体的作用方式,催化剂性能得到大幅度提升,基于新理念开发的体相法催化剂,具有更高的体积活性,降低炼厂产品质量升级的成本.截至2015年3月, FRIPP不同牌号的加氢预处理催化剂已累计生产万余吨,总体上达到了世界先进水平.

  13. RJW-3石蜡加氢催化剂的工业应用%INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION OF RJW-3 PARAFFIN HYDROREFINING CATALYST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉庆

    2011-01-01

    Industrial application of RJW-3 paraffin hydrorefining catalyst in SINOPEC Jingmen Company was introduced. The industry operation results show that RJW-3 catalyst possess high catalytic activity, good aromatic hydrocarbon saturation performance, low cracking activity and high crushing strength. It can be used at low reaction temperature and high LHSV. Compared with RJW-2 catalyst when RJW-3 catalyst is applied under the conditions of a LHSV more than 15. 7% higher, a reaction temperature 8 ℃ lower and lower hydrogen partial pressure, the product qualities still well meet the standard of food-grade wax even with poor quality feedstock.%介绍RJW-3石蜡加氢催化剂在中国石化荆门分公司的工业应用情况.工业运转结果表明,该催化剂具有较高的催化活性和芳烃饱和能力、较低的裂解活性和较高的机械强度.该催化剂可在较低的反应温度和较高的反应空速下使用,反应空速比RJW-2催化剂至少提高15.7%.即使加工劣质石蜡原料,该催化剂仍可用来生产合格的食品级石蜡产品.

  14. APPLICATION OF MAGNETIC CATALYSTS TO THE CATALYTIC WET PEROXIDE OXIDATION (CWPO OF INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER CONTAINING NON BIODEGRADABLE ORGANIC POLLUTANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macarena Munoz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A new ferromagnetic -Al2O3-supported iron catalyst has been prepared and its activity and stability have been compared with those of a previous iron-based conventional catalyst and with the traditional homogeneous Fenton process in the oxidation of chlorophenols. The use of solid catalysts improved significantly the efficiency on the use of H2O2, achieving higher mineralization degrees. The magnetic catalyst led to significantly higher oxidation rates than the conventional one due to the presence of both Fe (II and Fe (III. On the other hand, the use of a catalyst with magnetic properties is of interest, since it allows rapid recovery after treatment using a magnetic field. Moreover, it showed a high stability with fairly low iron leaching (<1% upon CWPO runs. An additional clear advantage of this new catalyst is its easy separation and recovery from the reaction medium by applying an external magnetic field.

  15. RSC-2006催化剂的研发及工业应用%The Development and Industrial Application of RSC-2006 Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘汉坡

    2016-01-01

    RSC-2006 catalyst,which is developed by SINOPEC Research Institute of Petroleum Processing and produced by SINOPEC Catalyst Co.,Ltd.Qilu Division,has been successfully applied in the HOFCC unit of SINOPEC Jingmen Petrochemical. RSC-2006 catalyst shows excellent heavy oil converting ability and coke selectivity.The industrial application of RSC-2006 catalyst has brought considerable economic benefits to SINOPEC Jingmen Petrochemical.%由中国石油化工股份有限公司石油化工科学研究院研制、齐鲁催化剂分公司生产的RSC-2006催化剂在荆门重油催化裂化装置上进行了成功的工业应用。RSC-2006催化剂具有优异的重油转化能力和焦炭选择性,RSC-2006催化剂的工业应用为荆门分公司带来了可观的经济效益。

  16. deNOx catalysts for biomass combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Steffen Buus

    industrial reference catalyst. Furthermore long-term activity measurements at normal operating temperature revealed that the catalyst did not display any sign of deactivation. The catalyst showed very high resistance towards potassium poisoning maintaining a 16 times higher activity than the equally poisoned...... industrial reference catalyst, after impregnation of 225 mole potassium/g of catalyst. A catalyst plate was synthesised using 20 wt.% sepiolite mixed with nano catalyst, supported by a SiO2-fibre mesh. Realistic potassium poisoning was performed on the catalyst plate, by exposure in a potassium aerosol...

  17. Oxidation catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceyer, Sylvia T.; Lahr, David L.

    2010-11-09

    The present invention generally relates to catalyst systems and methods for oxidation of carbon monoxide. The invention involves catalyst compositions which may be advantageously altered by, for example, modification of the catalyst surface to enhance catalyst performance. Catalyst systems of the present invention may be capable of performing the oxidation of carbon monoxide at relatively lower temperatures (e.g., 200 K and below) and at relatively higher reaction rates than known catalysts. Additionally, catalyst systems disclosed herein may be substantially lower in cost than current commercial catalysts. Such catalyst systems may be useful in, for example, catalytic converters, fuel cells, sensors, and the like.

  18. Electronic materials high-T(sub c) superconductivity polymers and composites structural materials surface science and catalysts industry participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The fifth year of the Center for Advanced Materials was marked primarily by the significant scientific accomplishments of the research programs. The Electronics Materials program continued its work on the growth and characterization of gallium arsenide crystals, and the development of theories to understand the nature and distribution of defects in the crystals. The High Tc Superconductivity Program continued to make significant contributions to the field in theoretical and experimental work on both bulk materials and thin films and devices. The Ceramic Processing group developed a new technique for cladding YBCO superconductors for high current applications in work with the Electric Power Research Institute. The Polymers and Composites program published a number of important studies involving atomistic simulations of polymer surfaces with excellent correlations to experimental results. The new Enzymatic Synthesis of Materials project produced its first fluorinated polymers and successfully began engineering enzymes designed for materials synthesis. The structural Materials Program continued work on novel alloys, development of processing methods for advanced ceramics, and characterization of mechanical properties of these materials, including the newly documented characterization of cyclic fatigue crack propagation behavior in toughened ceramics. Finally, the Surface Science and Catalysis program made significant contributions to the understanding of microporous catalysts and the nature of surface structures and interface compounds.

  19. From surface science to catalysis: The importance of methoxy and formate species on Cu single crystals and industrial catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, M.; Waugh, K. C.

    2016-08-01

    Early work from the Madix group identified a number of simple surface intermediate species which have proved to be of significance for industrial catalytic processes. Two of these intermediates are the methoxy and formate surface species. We discuss the formation and behavior of these on copper surfaces, and go on to highlight their role in two important industrial reactions, namely methanol synthesis and the selective oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde. The formate is the pivotal intermediate for methanol synthesis and is formed from the reaction of CO2 and H2, whereas it is important to avoid the formation of that intermediate for selective methanol oxidation, which proceeds through dehydrogenation of the methoxy species.

  20. Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of the industry in Austria. It gives a review of the structure and types of the industry, the legal framework and environmental policy of industrial relevance. The environmental situation of the industry in Austria is analyzed in detail, concerning air pollution (SO2, NOx, CO2, CO, CH4, N2O, NH3, Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxin, furans), waste water, waste management and deposit, energy and water consumption. The state of the art in respect of the IPPC-directives (European Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Bureau) concerning the best available techniques of the different industry sectors is outlined. The application of European laws and regulations in the Austrian industry is described. (a.n.)

  1. Study on the Recovery of Rhodium from Spent Organic Rhodium Catalysts of Acetic Acid Industry Using Pyrometallurgical Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Xiaotang; WANG Huan; WU Xilong; LI Yong; ZHAO Yu; HAN Shouli; LI Kun; GUO Junmei

    2012-01-01

    A new process recycling rhodium from organic waste containing rhodium in acetic acid industry is developed.Use the special affinity of base metal sulfides (FeS,Ni2S3,CuS,etc.) on platinum group metals,adopting high nickel matte trapping-aluminothermic activation method to recovery rhodium from incinerator residue of organic rhodium waste.The method is shorter process,lower equipment requirement,and the higher activity of rhodium black.In pyrometallurgy enrichment process,the recovery rate of rhodium reached 94.65%,the full flow of rhodium recovery rate was 92.04%.

  2. Enzyme catalysts for a biotechnology-based chemical industry. Final report, September 29, 1993--September 28, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, F.H.

    1998-11-16

    Enzymes have enormous potential for reducing energy requirements and environmental problems in the chemicals and pharmaceutical industries. The explosion of tools that has come out of molecular biology during the last 20 years has made it possible to evolve enzymes for features never required in nature. Scientists can speed up the rate and channel the direction of evolution by controlling mutagenesis and the accompanying selection pressures. Darwinian evolution carried out in the test tube offers a unique opportunity for biotechnology: the ability to tailor enzymes for optimal performance in a wide range of applications. Thus it is possible, for example, to evolve enzymes that carry out reactions on nonnatural substrates or even to carry out reactions for which there is no counterpart in nature. Due to the vast size of the potential sequence space, however, explorations by directed evolution must be guided by sound principles and workable strategies. During the course of this group, this laboratory has continued to make significant progress in the evolution of industrial enzymes as well as in developing general methods for in vitro evolution.

  3. Catalyst in Basic Oleochemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Suyenty

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently Indonesia is the world largest palm oil producer with production volume reaching 16 million tones per annum. The high crude oil and ethylene prices in the last 3 – 4 years contribute to the healthy demand growth for basic oleochemicals: fatty acids and fatty alcohols. Oleochemicals are starting to replace crude oil derived products in various applications. As widely practiced in petrochemical industry, catalyst plays a very important role in the production of basic oleochemicals. Catalytic reactions are abound in the production of oleochemicals: Nickel based catalysts are used in the hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids; sodium methylate catalyst in the transesterification of triglycerides; sulfonic based polystyrene resin catalyst in esterification of fatty acids; and copper chromite/copper zinc catalyst in the high pressure hydrogenation of methyl esters or fatty acids to produce fatty alcohols. To maintain long catalyst life, it is crucial to ensure the absence of catalyst poisons and inhibitors in the feed. The preparation methods of nickel and copper chromite catalysts are as follows: precipitation, filtration, drying, and calcinations. Sodium methylate is derived from direct reaction of sodium metal and methanol under inert gas. The sulfonic based polystyrene resin is derived from sulfonation of polystyrene crosslinked with di-vinyl-benzene. © 2007 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.[Presented at Symposium and Congress of MKICS 2007, 18-19 April 2007, Semarang, Indonesia][How to Cite: E. Suyenty, H. Sentosa, M. Agustine, S. Anwar, A. Lie, E. Sutanto. (2007. Catalyst in Basic Oleochemicals. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 2 (2-3: 22-31.  doi:10.9767/bcrec.2.2-3.6.22-31][How to Link/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.2.2-3.6.22-31 || or local: http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/6

  4. Industrialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter discusses the role-plays by nuclear technology to enhance productivity in industry. Some of the techniques, Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) - x, gamma, electron and neutron radiography, nuclear gauges, materials characterization are discussed thoroughly

  5. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  6. Feasibility evaluation of using spent FCC catalyst for metals treatment from industrial waste; Avaliacao do potencial de recuperacao de niquel de catalisadores equilibrados (E-CAT) atraves da tecnica de remediacao eletrocinetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Adalberto; Ponte, Haroldo de Araujo [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this work is to describe the feasibility evaluation using FCC catalyst for treatment from industrial wastes increasing the life time of the spent catalysts and reducing the environmental impact. Evaluated the reutilization of catalyst in process recovery of nickel adsorbed. The technique used was the Electrokinetic Remediation. This technique is based in application of a direct current of low intensity or low potential between the electrodes located in soil. The pollutants are mobilized how loaded species or particles. It used a electrokinetic reactor with approximated volume of 1200 cm{sup 3}, where the residue is placed. In your extremity are adapted two cameras of acrylic, being one anodic, with steel inox 304 electrode, and other cathodic, with lead electrode. In anodic camera, it was injected, with aid a bomb, a solution of sulfuric acid, which work as electrolyte, to a flow rate of 20 ml/h. Was evaluated the desorption of Nickel in the equilibrium catalyst submitting a variation of the conditions of the concentration and potential. (author)

  7. European workshop on spent catalysts. Book of abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    In 1999 and 2002 two well attended workshops on recycling, regeneration, reuse and disposal of spent catalysts took place in Frankfurt. This series has been continued in Berlin. The workshop was organized in collaboration with DGMK, the German Society for Petroleum and Coal Science and Technology. Contributions were in the following areas of catalyst deactivation: recycling of spent catalysts in chemical and petrochemical industry, recycling of precious metal catalysts and heterogenous base metal catalysts, legal aspects of transboundary movements, catalyst regeneration, quality control, slurry catalysts, commercial reactivation of hydrotreating catalysts. (uke)

  8. Evaluation of dairy industry wastewater treatment and simultaneous bioelectricity generation in a catalyst-less and mediator-less membrane microbial fuel cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Jafari Mansoorian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased human activity and consumption of natural energy resources have led to decline in fossil fuel. These current methods of energy production are not compatible with the environment. In this study catalyst-less and mediator-less membrane microbial fuel cell (CAML-MMFC represents a new method for simultaneous dairy industry wastewater treatment and bioelectricity generation. The CAML-MMFC used was designed as two chambered that included an anaerobic anode and aerobic cathode compartment and was separated from each other by a proton exchange membrane. The anode and cathode electrodes were made from graphite plate. Current intensity, power density and voltage produced from wastewater as fuel were measured and the effluent from the anode compartment was examined to evaluate pollutant decrease. The maximum current intensity and power density produced were respectively 3.74 mA and 621.13 mW/m2 on the anode surface, at OLR equal to 53.22 kgCOD/m3 d and at the external resistance of 1 k Ω. The maximum voltage produced was 0.856 V at OLR equal to 53.22 kgCOD/m3 d and at temperature 35oC. The maximum coulombic efficiency of 37.16% was achieved at OLR equal to 17.74 kgCOD/m3 d. The HRT was examined as a factor influencing the power generation and when it was 5 day, maximum voltage and power density were obtained. The maximum removal efficiency of COD, BOD5, NH3, NH4+, dissolved phosphorus, phosphorus in suspended solids, SO42−, TSS, and VSS was respectively achieved at 90.46%, 81.72%, 73.22%, 69.43%, 31.18%, 72.45%, 39.43%, 70.17% and 64.6%. The results showed that generating bioelectricity and dairy industry wastewater treatment by CAML-MMFC are a good alternative for producing energy and treating wastewater at the same time.

  9. Aerogel derived catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, J. G., LLNL

    1996-12-11

    Aerogels area class of colloidal materials which have high surface areas and abundant mesoporous structure. SiO{sub 2} aerogels show unique physical, optical and structural properties. When catalytic metals are incorporated in the aerogel framework, the potential exists for new and very effective catalysts for industrial processes. Three applications of these metal-containing SiO{sub 2} aerogels as catalysts are briefly reviewed in this paper--NO{sub x} reduction, volatile organic compound destruction, and partial oxidation of methane.

  10. Dynamics of Catalyst Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Willum; Cavalca, Filippo; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    under gas exposure, dynamic phenomena such as sintering and growth can be observed with sub-Ångstrøm resolution. Metal nanoparticles contain the active sites in heterogeneous catalysts, which are important for many industrial applications including the production of clean fuels, chemicals...... and pharmaceuticals, and the cleanup of exhaust from automobiles and stationary power plants. Sintering, or thermal deactivation, is an important mechanism for the loss of catalyst activity. In order to initiate a systematic study of the dynamics and sintering of nanoparticles, various catalytic systems have been...

  11. 城市旅游文化创意产业链的触媒效应研究——兼论《印象大红袍》的创意触媒过程%The Catalyst Effect of Urban Tourism and Cultural Creative Industry Chain --Also on the Process of the Impression DaHongPao's Creative Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄明霞; 黄安民; 郑彬

    2011-01-01

    In the process of city management, it should have enough connotation for support and foster the corresponding industry chain, which forms the industrial agglomeration advantages and scale advantage, to improve the competition of the city and comprehensive economic strength. This paper analyzes the catalyst essence and characteristics of urban cultural creative industries based on catalyst theory and has mode analysis through the introduction of the industry chain. And it takes a typical example Impression DaHongpao subject-live performance of this type as a case to analyze the main operation process of its industry chain media and finally summarize its catalyst value and significance to Wuyi Mountain City.%在经营城市的过程中,必须要有足够的内涵作支持,注重培育相应的产业链,形成产业集聚优势和规模优势,以提高城市竞争力和综合经济实力。本文基于触媒理论对城市文化创意产业的触媒本质及特征入手进行分析,通过引入产业链理论对《印象系列》进行模式分析,并以其典型范例《印象大红袍》文化创意产业为研究对象,解析其产业链触媒体的主要运作过程,进而总结其对武夷山市的触媒价值和意义。

  12. Advances in Catalyst Deactivation and Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Calvin H. Bartholomew; Morris D. Argyle

    2015-01-01

    Catalyst deactivation, the loss over time of catalytic activity and/or selectivity, is a problem of great and continuing concern in the practice of industrial catalytic processes. Costs to industry for catalyst replacement and process shutdown total tens of billions of dollars per year. [...

  13. Advances in Catalyst Deactivation and Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvin H. Bartholomew

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Catalyst deactivation, the loss over time of catalytic activity and/or selectivity, is a problem of great and continuing concern in the practice of industrial catalytic processes. Costs to industry for catalyst replacement and process shutdown total tens of billions of dollars per year. [...

  14. Introdução de catalisadores metalocênicos como estratégia competitiva da indústria de termoplásticos The introduction of metallocene catalysts as a competitive strategy of the thermoplastic industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco A. Ribeiro Fº

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Recentes inovações tecnológicas no setor de polímeros levaram a novos catalisadores que poderão mudar a estrutura de toda a indústria. É feita uma análise das estratégias competitivas adotadas pelas empresas do setor e do impacto que a adoção dos catalisadores metalocênicos vêm causando.Recent technological innovation in the polymer sector has produced new catalysts, which may change the structure of the industry. Competitive strategies adopted by these companies are analysed as well as the impact caused by the adoption of metallocene catalysts.

  15. Bimetallic Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinfelt, John H.

    1985-01-01

    Chemical reaction rates can be controlled by varying composition of miniscule clusters of metal atoms. These bimetallic catalysts have had major impact on petroleum refining, where work has involved heterogeneous catalysis (reacting molecules in a phase separate from catalyst.) Experimentation involving hydrocarbon reactions, catalytic…

  16. FF-46/FC-16B齿球形催化剂的工业应用%Industrial Application of FF-46/FC-16B Teeth Spherical Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘嘉; 石巨川

    2015-01-01

    近年来,加氢精制和加氢裂化催化剂的制备方法都已经比较成熟,而催化剂的研发与生产工艺的改进成为科研单位和生产企业研究的主要方向,除此之外,催化剂外形的创新也成为一个发展方向。介绍了FF-46/FC-16B 齿球形催化剂在中国石化海南炼油化工有限公司的工业应用,应用结果表明,齿球形催化剂易装填均匀,FF-46/FC-16B级配催化剂活性好、加氢性能强,提高了催化剂的整体使用性能。%In recent years, the preparation methods for hydrotreating and hydrocracking catalysts tend to be relatively mature, and development of catalysts and improvement of production process have become a research focus,in addition, the innovation of catalyst shape is also orientated to the development. In this paper, application of FF-46/FC-16B teeth spherical catalyst in Sinopec Hainan petrochemical Co.,Ltd. was introduced. Application results show that the teeth spherical catalyst is easy to load, and the FF-46/FC-16B graded catalyst has better activity and hydrogenation performance, which can enhance the overall performance of the catalyst.

  17. Characterization and Regeneration of Pt-Catalysts Deactivated in Municipal Waste Flue Gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren Birk; Kustov, Arkadii; Due-Hansen, Johannes;

    2006-01-01

    Severe deactivation was observed for industrially aged catalysts used in waste incineration plants and tested in lab-scale. Possible compounds that cause deactivation of these Pt-based CO oxidation catalysts have been studied. Kinetic observations of industrial and model catalysts showed that sil...... the activity of the deactivated catalysts. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  18. Landscape of Industry: Transformation of (Eco Industrial Park through history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Sharma

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The landscape of industry has been changing over time. Industry has transformed and many tangents have emerged from the sporadic home-based cottage industries to geographically scattered large manufacturing industries to co-located industrial parks to environment friendly eco-industrial parks. Curiosity about the catalysts that bring about the transformation of industrial landscape is the motivation of this article. Through the narrative on Industrial Park and the gradual shift towards Eco-Industrial Park, this article aims to shed light on the context and conditions that act as catalysts for industrial transformations, so as to serve as a reference for predicting future changes in industrial landscape.

  19. Synthesis of Organic Compounds over Selected Types of Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Mohamed Saad Ismail

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This study provides an overview for the utilization of different catalytic material in the synthesis of organic compounds for important reactions such as heck reaction, aldol reaction, Diels- Alder and other reactions. Comparisons between multiple catalysts for the same reaction and justifications for developing new catalyzed materials are discussed. The following topics are introduced in this work; (1 solid base catalysts, (2 clay catalysts, (3 palladium catalysts, and (4 catalysts to produce organic compound from CO2. The features of these catalysts a long with the conjugated reactions and their selectivity are explained in details, also, some alternatives for toxic or polluting catalysts used in industry are suggested.

  20. Photo-oxidation catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, J. Roland; Liu, Ping; Smith, R. Davis

    2009-07-14

    Photo-oxidation catalysts and methods for cleaning a metal-based catalyst are disclosed. An exemplary catalyst system implementing a photo-oxidation catalyst may comprise a metal-based catalyst, and a photo-oxidation catalyst for cleaning the metal-based catalyst in the presence of light. The exposure to light enables the photo-oxidation catalyst to substantially oxidize absorbed contaminants and reduce accumulation of the contaminants on the metal-based catalyst. Applications are also disclosed.

  1. Immobilized Ruthenium Catalyst for Carbon Dioxide Hydrogenation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Min YU; Jin Hua FEI; Yi Ping ZHANG; Xiao Ming ZHENG

    2006-01-01

    Three kinds of cross linked polystyrene resin (PS) supported ruthenium complexes were developed as catalysts for the synthesis of formic acid from carbon dioxide hydrogenation. Many factors, such as the functionalized supports, solvents and ligands, could influence their activities and reuse performances greatly. These immobilized catalysts also offer the industrial advantages such as easy separation.

  2. Catalyst composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onodera, T.; Sakai, T.; Sumitani, K.; Yamasaki, Y.

    1984-11-27

    A catalyst composition comprising a crystalline aluminosilicate selected from the group consisting of zeolite ZSM-5, zeolite ZSM-11, zeolite ZSM-12, zeolite ZSM-35 and zeolite ZSM-38 and having a silica/alumina mole ratio of 20 to 1,000; and at least two metals which are platinum and at least one other metal selected from the group consisting of titanium, chromium, zinc, gallium, germanium, strontium, yttrium, zirconium, molybdenum, palladium, tin, barium, cerium, tungsten, osmium, lead, cadmium, mercury, indium, lanthanum and beryllium. This catalyst composition is useful particularly for the isomerization of aromatic hydrocarbons and reforming of naphtha.

  3. Copper Replaces Tin: A Copper based Gelling Catalyst for Poly-Urethane from Discarded Motherboard

    OpenAIRE

    Parasar, Bibudha; Jing, Gao Wen; Yuan, Dandan; KUN, Wang; WANG, Peng; Dasgupta, Arijit; Sahasrabudhe, Atharva; Barman, Soumitra; Yuan, Rongxin; Roy, Soumyajit

    2013-01-01

    A discarded motherboard based eco-friendly copper catalyst has been programmed to replace the industrially used tin based catalyst DBTDL. The catalyst has been characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, FT-IR and TEM. Using the catalyst reaction conditions is optimized and under the optimized condition, both polyurethane and polyurethane foam are prepared, thus proving the generality of the catalyst to be used in industries. A possible mechanism has also been proposed.

  4. 硫化型FC-32加氢裂化催化剂的工业应用%Industrial Application of Sulfide FC-32 Hydrocracking Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘嘉; 郭蓉; 王凤来; 高玉兰

    2013-01-01

    The FC-32 sulfide hydrocracking catalyst, developed at FRIPP and produced in Sinopec Catalyst Company Fushun Division, was used in Guangzhou Petrochemical Company to improve diesel fuel quality. Its application has significantly saved the operating time in hydrogenation plant, improved plant production safety and economic efficiency, solved the centralized heat problems in the storage and loading of product and start-up, effectively improved the utilization rate of the catalytic metal activity, and met the demand of producing diesel Yue IV for Guangzhou Petrochemical Company.%  中国石化广州分公司因柴油质量升级的需要,采用由抚顺石油化工研究院研发的、催化剂抚顺分公司生产的硫化型FC-32加氢裂化催化剂,显著节省了加氢装置开工时间,并提高了装置生产安全性和企业经济效益;解决了产品贮运和装填中的安全性问题和开工中的集中放热问题;有效地提高催化剂活性金属的利用率,完全可以满足广州分公司生产国IV(粤IV)标准柴油的需求。

  5. Synthesis and characterization of Co and Ni catalysts supported on alumina, synthesized from aluminum industry wastes and its use in the reforming reaction of ethanol, to hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alumina was synthesized from aluminum anodizing process wastes through a process of mechanical and thermal treatment of calcination,1373 K with a heating rate of 5 K/min to 8h, obtaining a pure alumina of corundum type, a crystal size of 9.77 nm. This material is used as a microporous support and have elaborated Cobalt heterogeneous catalysts (CO3O4 / Al2O3) and Nickel (NiO/Al2O3) which were calcined at different temperatures (573 K, 773 K, 973 K, 1173 K). From these is produced hydrogen by ethenol catalytic reforming. Two techniques were used for driving the mixture EtOH:H2O (1:3) of starting gas. A first technique has involved trawling through boiling of the mixture. High percentages were obtained of hydrogen but to a lesser reaction time, consuming all starting reagent, the most efficient catalyst has been the CO2O3 / Al2O3 calcined at 973K with a production of H2 of 50% v/v as well as CH4 and CO of 10%v/v. The second type of starting reagent carryover has been mild heating at 333 K and nitrogen sweep, with the following results 11% v/v H2, 12% v/v CH4 and 7% v/v CO. Addition of ethanol conversion maximums of 76% and hydrogen yield of 29%, of the theoretical yield based on the ethanol consumed. (author)

  6. Catalyst Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans; Marling, Gitte; Hansen, Peter Mandal

    2014-01-01

    How can architecture promote the enriching experiences of the tolerant, the democratic, and the learning city - a city worth living in, worth supporting and worth investing in? Catalyst Architecture comprises architectural projects, which, by virtue of their location, context and their combinatio...... meaningful for everyone. The exhibited works are designed by SANAA, Diller Scofidio + Renfro, James Corner Field Operation, JBMC Arquitetura e Urbanismo, Atelier Bow-Wow, Ateliers Jean Nouvel, COBE, Transform, BIG, Topotek1, Superflex, and by visual artist Jane Maria Petersen....

  7. Industrial Application of the Catalyst for Oxidation of Prolylene to Acrylic Acid%丙烯氧化制丙烯酸催化剂在万吨级工业装置上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪梅; 冯世强; 焦昆; 秦春华; 褚小东; 邵敬铭

    2012-01-01

    采用XRD和BET等手段对自制丙烯氧化制丙烯酸催化剂进行了表征;对该催化剂进行了小试、模试和10kt/a工业装置评价.试验结果表明,一段催化剂主要为CoMO4,Bi2M03O12,Bi2MoO6,FeMoO4,Co6Mo12Bi15Ox的晶相;二段催化剂主要为MoO3,Mo5Ol4,( Sb2O)M6O18( M=Mo,W,V)氧化物的晶相.小试评价结果为一段催化剂平均丙烯转化率98.1%、丙烯醛和丙烯酸总收率92.3%、氧化碳总收率3.4%,二段催化剂平均丙烯醛转化率99.7%、丙烯酸收率97.9%、氧化碳收率l.6%;一段和二段催化剂串联后,其模试评价的丙烯酸收率为88.8%,工业装置上运行时丙烯酸收率为88.9%.%The catalysts were characterized by means of XRD and BET, and their catalytic performance for oxidation of propylene to acrylic acid was evaluated through bench scale test, pilot scale test and 10 kt/a industrial test. The results showed that crystal phases of the first stage catalysts included CoMoO4, Bi2Mo3O12, Bi2MoO6, FeMoO4 and Co6Mo12Bi1.5Ox, and crystal phases of the second stage catalysts included MoO3, Mo5O14 and (Sb2O) M6O18(M=Mo, W, V). The bench scale test indicated 98.1% propylene conversion, 92.3% total yield of acrolein and acrylic acid, and 3.4% carbon oxide yield for the first stage catalyst, and 99.7% acrolein conversion, 97.9% acrylic acid yield and 1.6% carbon oxide yield for the second stage catalyst. The acrylic acid yield could reach 88.8% and 88.9% in the pilot scale test and the 10 kt/a industrial test, respectively.

  8. Heterogeneous Metal Catalysts for Oxidation Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Eaqub Ali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation reactions may be considered as the heart of chemical synthesis. However, the indiscriminate uses of harsh and corrosive chemicals in this endeavor are threating to the ecosystems, public health, and terrestrial, aquatic, and aerial flora and fauna. Heterogeneous catalysts with various supports are brought to the spotlight because of their excellent capabilities to accelerate the rate of chemical reactions with low cost. They also minimize the use of chemicals in industries and thus are friendly and green to the environment. However, heterogeneous oxidation catalysis are not comprehensively presented in literature. In this short review, we clearly depicted the current state of catalytic oxidation reactions in chemical industries with specific emphasis on heterogeneous catalysts. We outlined here both the synthesis and applications of important oxidation catalysts. We believe it would serve as a reference guide for the selection of oxidation catalysts for both industries and academics.

  9. An overview of recent development in composite catalysts from porous materials for various reactions and processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zaiku; Liu, Zhicheng; Wang, Yangdong; Yang, Qihua; Xu, Longya; Ding, Weiping

    2010-01-01

    Catalysts are important to the chemical industry and environmental remediation due to their effective conversion of one chemical into another. Among them, composite catalysts have attracted continuous attention during the past decades. Nowadays, composite catalysts are being used more and more to meet the practical catalytic performance requirements in the chemical industry of high activity, high selectivity and good stability. In this paper, we reviewed our recent work on development of composite catalysts, mainly focusing on the composite catalysts obtained from porous materials such as zeolites, mesoporous materials, carbon nanotubes (CNT), etc. Six types of porous composite catalysts are discussed, including amorphous oxide modified zeolite composite catalysts, zeolite composites prepared by co-crystallization or overgrowth, hierarchical porous catalysts, host-guest porous composites, inorganic and organic mesoporous composite catalysts, and polymer/CNT composite catalysts. PMID:20559508

  10. An Overview of Recent Development in Composite Catalysts from Porous Materials for Various Reactions and Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaiku Xie

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Catalysts are important to the chemical industry and environmental remediation due to their effective conversion of one chemical into another. Among them, composite catalysts have attracted continuous attention during the past decades. Nowadays, composite catalysts are being used more and more to meet the practical catalytic performance requirements in the chemical industry of high activity, high selectivity and good stability. In this paper, we reviewed our recent work on development of composite catalysts, mainly focusing on the composite catalysts obtained from porous materials such as zeolites, mesoporous materials, carbon nanotubes (CNT, etc. Six types of porous composite catalysts are discussed, including amorphous oxide modified zeolite composite catalysts, zeolite composites prepared by co-crystallization or overgrowth, hierarchical porous catalysts, host-guest porous composites, inorganic and organic mesoporous composite catalysts, and polymer/CNT composite catalysts.

  11. Process for Functionalizing Biomass using Molybdenum Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention concerns a process for converting biomass into useful organic building blocks for the chemical industry. The process involves the use of molybdenum catalysts of the formula Aa+a(MovXxR1yR2zR3e)a*3-, which may be readily prepared from industrial molybdenum compounds....

  12. Sulphur condensation influence in Claus catalyst performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, R L

    2000-12-01

    The Claus process is an efficient way of removing H(2)S from acid gas streams and this is widely practised in industries such as natural gas processing, oil refining and metal smelting. Increasingly strict pollution control regulations require maximum sulphur recovery from the Claus unit in order to minimise sulphur-containing effluent. The most widely used Claus catalyst in sulphur recovery units is non-promoted spherical activated alumina. Properties associated with optimum non-promoted Claus catalyst performance include high surface area, appropriate pore size distribution and enhanced physical properties. The objective of this paper is to outline a procedure in order to estimate Claus catalyst effectiveness after pore plugging due to sulphur condensation. Catalyst deactivation due to pore plugging by sulphur is modelled employing a Bethe lattice and its corresponding performance is described by means of a modified effectiveness factor. Model results show an improvement in the modified effectiveness factor due to modifications in catalyst porous structure.

  13. Mechanical alloying of a hydrogenation catalyst used for the remediation of contaminated compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Jacqueline W. (Inventor); Clausen, Christian A. (Inventor); Geiger, Cherie L. (Inventor); Aitken, Brian S. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A hydrogenation catalyst including a base material coated with a catalytic metal is made using mechanical milling techniques. The hydrogenation catalysts are used as an excellent catalyst for the dehalogenation of contaminated compounds and the remediation of other industrial compounds. Preferably, the hydrogenation catalyst is a bimetallic particle including zero-valent metal particles coated with a catalytic material. The mechanical milling technique is simpler and cheaper than previously used methods for producing hydrogenation catalysts.

  14. Active carbon catalyst for heavy oil upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuyama, Hidetsugu; Terai, Satoshi [Technology Research Center, Toyo Engineering Corporation, 1818 Azafujimi, Togo, Mobara-shi, Chiba 297-00017 (Japan); Uchida, Masayuki [Business Planning and Exploring Department, Overseas Business Development and Marketing Division, Toyo Engineering Corporation, 2-8-1 Akanehama, Narashino-shi, Chiba 275-0024 (Japan); Cano, Jose L.; Ancheyta, Jorge [Maya Crude Treatment Project, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas No. 152, Col. San Bartolo Atepehuacan, Mexico D.F. 07730 (Mexico)

    2004-11-24

    The active carbon (AC) catalyst was studied by hydrocracking of Middle Eastern vacuum residue (VR) for heavy oil upgrading. It was observed that the active carbon has the affinity to heavy hydrocarbon compounds and adsorption selectivity to asphaltenes, and exhibits better ability to restrict the coke formation during the hydrocracking reaction of VR. The mesopore of active carbon was thought to play an important role for effective conversion of heavy hydrocarbon compounds into lighter fractions restricting carbon formation. The performance of the AC catalyst was examined by continuous hydrocracking by CSTR for the removal of such impurities as sulfur and heavy metals (nickel and vanadium), which are mostly concentrated in the asphaltenes. The AC catalyst was confirmed to be very effective for the removal of heavy metals from Middle Eastern VR, Maya/Istmo VR and Maya VR. The extruded AC catalysts were produced by industrial manufacturing method. The application test of the extruded AC catalyst for ebullating-bed reactor as one of the commercially applicable reactors was carried out at the ebullating-bed pilot plant for 500h. The ebullition of the extruded AC catalyst was successfully traced and confirmed by existing {gamma}-ray density meter. The extruded AC catalyst showed stable performance with less sediment formation at an equivalent conversion by conventional alumina catalyst at commercial ebullating-bed unit. The degradation of the AC catalyst at the aging test was observed to be less than that of the conventional alumina catalyst. Thus, the AC catalyst was confirmed to be effective and suitable for upgrading of heavy oil, especially such heavy oils as Maya, which contains much heavy metals.

  15. New catalysts for clean environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maijanen, A.; Hase, A. [eds.] [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    VTT launched a Research Programme on Chemical Reaction Mechanisms (CREAM) in 1993. The three-year programme (1993-1995) has focused on reaction mechanisms relevant to process industries and aimed at developing novel catalysts and biocatalysts for forest, food, and specialty chemicals industries as well as for energy production. The preliminary results of this programme have already been presented in the first symposium organized in Espoo in September 1994. To conclude the programme the second symposium is organized in Otaniemi, Espoo on January 29 - 30, 1996. Papers by 19 speakers and 17 poster presentations of the 1996 Symposium are included in this book. The Symposium consists of four sessions: Biotechnology for Natural Fibers Processing, New Biocatalysts, Catalysts for Clean Energy, and New Opportunities for Chemical Industry. The CREAM programme has tried to foresee solutions for the problems challenged by the public concern on environmental aspects, especially dealing with industrial processes and novel use of raw materials and energy. The programme has followed the basic routes that can lead to natural and simple solutions to develop processes in the fields of forest, food fine chemicals, and energy industry. This symposium presents the results of the programme to learn and further discuss together with the international experts that have been invited as keynote speakers. (author)

  16. Phosphine-Free EWG-Activated Ruthenium Olefin Metathesis Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grela, Karol; Szadkowska, Anna; Michrowska, Anna; Bieniek, Michal; Sashuk, Volodymyr

    Hoveyda-Grubbs catalyst has been successfully fine-tuned by us in order to increase its activity and applicability by the introduction of electron-withdrawing groups (EWGs) to diminish donor properties of the oxygen atom. As a result, the stable and easily accessible nitro-substituted Hoveyda-Grubbs catalyst has found a number of successful applications in various research and industrial laboratories. Some other EWG-activated Hoveyda-type catalysts are commercially available. The results described herewith demonstrate that the activity of ruthenium (Ru) metathesis catalysts can be enhanced by introduction of EWGs without detriment to catalysts stability. Equally noteworthy is the observation that different Ru catalysts turned out to be optimal for different applications. This shows that no single catalyst outperforms all others in all possible applications.

  17. Foundation Flash Catalyst

    CERN Document Server

    Goralski, Greg

    2010-01-01

    This book offers an introduction to Flash Catalyst for designers with intermediate to advanced skills. It discusses where Catalyst sits within the production process and how it communicates with other programs. It covers all of the features of the Flash Catalyst workspace, teaching you how to create designs from scratch, how to build application designs and add functionality, and how to master the Catalyst/Flex workflow. * Introduces Flash Catalyst * Focuses on production process * Covers the interrelation between Flash Catalyst and Photoshop/Illustrator/Flex/Flash What you'll learn Starting f

  18. Discovery of technical methanation catalysts based on computational screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, Jens; Larsen, Kasper Emil; Kustov, Arkadii;

    2007-01-01

    Methanation is a classical reaction in heterogeneous catalysis and significant effort has been put into improving the industrially preferred nickel-based catalysts. Recently, a computational screening study showed that nickel-iron alloys should be more active than the pure nickel catalyst and at ...

  19. Design strategies for the molecular level synthesis of supported catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, Staci L; Marks, Tobin J; Stair, Peter C

    2012-02-21

    Supported catalysts, metal or oxide catalytic centers constructed on an underlying solid phase, are making an increasingly important contribution to heterogeneous catalysis. For example, in industry, supported catalysts are employed in selective oxidation, selective reduction, and polymerization reactions. Supported structures increase the thermal stability, dispersion, and surface area of the catalyst relative to the neat catalytic material. However, structural and mechanistic characterization of these catalysts presents a formidable challenge because traditional preparations typically afford complex mixtures of structures whose individual components cannot be isolated. As a result, the characterization of supported catalysts requires a combination of advanced spectroscopies for their characterization, unlike homogeneous catalysts, which have relatively uniform structures and can often be characterized using standard methods. Moreover, these advanced spectroscopic techniques only provide ensemble averages and therefore do not isolate the catalytic function of individual components within the mixture. New synthetic approaches are required to more controllably tailor supported catalyst structures. In this Account, we review advances in supported catalyst synthesis and characterization developed in our laboratories at Northwestern University. We first present an overview of traditional synthetic methods with a focus on supported vanadium oxide catalysts. We next describe approaches for the design and synthesis of supported polymerization and hydrogenation catalysts, using anchoring techniques which provide molecular catalyst structures with exceptional activity and high percentages of catalytically significant sites. We then highlight similar approaches for preparing supported metal oxide catalysts using atomic layer deposition and organometallic grafting. Throughout this Account, we describe the use of incisive spectroscopic techniques, including high

  20. Pd Close Coupled Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Hua SHI; Mao Chu GONG; Yao Qiang CHEN

    2006-01-01

    A catalyst comprised novel high surface area alumina support was prepared to control emission of automobiles. The results showed that prepared catalyst could satisfy the requirements of a high performance close coupled catalyst for its good catalytic activity at low temperature and good stability at high temperature.

  1. Spatial heterogeneities within an individual catalyst particle during reaction as revealed by in-situ micro-spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kox, M.H.F.

    2009-01-01

    Heterogeneous catalysts are solids, which are of fundamental importance in (petro-) chemical, pharmaceutical and environmental industries. The majority (> 85%) of all chemicals and transportation fuels have come into contact with at least one catalyst material during their manufacturing process. In

  2. Heterogeneous catalysis of mixed oxides perovskite and heteropoly catalysts

    CERN Document Server

    Misono, M

    2014-01-01

    Mixed oxides are the most widely used catalyst materials for industrial catalytic processes. The principal objective of this book is to describe systematically the mixed oxide catalysts, from their fundamentals through their practical applications.  After describing concisely general items concerning mixed oxide and mixed oxide catalysts, two important mixed oxide catalyst materials, namely, heteropolyacids and perovskites, are taken as typical examples and discussed in detail. These two materials have several advantages: 1. They are, respectively, typical examples of salts of oxoacids an

  3. Characterization and regeneration of Pt-catalysts deactivated in municipal waste flue gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severe deactivation was observed for industrially aged catalysts used in waste incineration plants and tested in lab-scale. Possible compounds that cause deactivation of these Pt-based CO oxidation catalysts have been studied. Kinetic observations of industrial and model catalysts showed that siloxanes were the most severe catalyst poisons, although acidic sulfur compounds also caused deactivation. Furthermore, a method for on-site regeneration without shutdown of the catalytic flue gas cleaning system has been developed, i.e. an addition of H2/N2 gas to the off-gas can completely restore the activity of the deactivated catalysts. (author)

  4. Manipulating the reactivity of nanoscale catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conradsen, Christian Nagstrup

    . The dynamical changes of an industrial Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst are investigated by three adsorption methods and XPS. A deviation in the copper surface area measured by H2-TPD and N2O-RFC is explained by the appearance of metallic zinc measured by XPS. The pretreatment in hydrogen resulted in a surface decoration...

  5. Alkane dehydrogenation over supported chromium oxide catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weckhuysen, B.M.; Schoonheydt, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    The dehydrogenation of alkanes over supported chromium oxide catalysts in the absence of oxygen is of high interest for the industrial production of propene and isobutene. In this review, a critical overview is given of the current knowledge nowadays available about chromium-based dehydrogenation ca

  6. Overview of Support Effects in Hydrotreating Catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michèle Breysse

    2004-01-01

    @@ Industrial hydrotreating (HDT) catalysts are composed of a molybdenum sulfide (or tungsten sulfide) phase promoted by cobalt or nickel and usually supported on alumina. The origin of the almost exclu1sive use of alumina as support has to be ascribed to its outstanding textural and mechanical properties and its relatively low cost[1].

  7. Environmentally benign production of biodiesel using heterogeneous catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Michikazu

    2009-01-01

    Fuelling the future: The production of esters of higher fatty acids from plant materials is of great interest for the manufacture of biodiesel. Heterogeneous catalysts can provide new routes for the environmentally benign production of biodiesel. Particulate heterogeneous catalysts can be readily separated from products following reaction allowing the catalyst to be reused, generating less waste, and consuming less energy. Diesel engines are simple and powerful, and exhibit many advantages in energy efficiency and cost. Therefore, the production of higher fatty acid esters from plant materials has become of interest in recent years for the manufacture of biodiesel, a clean-burning alternative fuel. The industrial production of biodiesel mostly proceeds in the presence of "soluble" catalysts such as alkali hydroxides and liquid acids. A considerable amount of energy is required for the purification of products and catalyst separation, and furthermore these catalysts are not reusable. This process results in substantial energy wastage and the production of large amounts of chemical waste. Particulate heterogeneous catalysts can be readily separated from products following reaction, allowing the catalyst to be reused and consuming less energy. This Minireview describes the environmentally benign production of biodiesel using heterogeneous catalysts such as solid bases, acid catalysts, and immobilized enzymes. PMID:19180600

  8. Reforming gasoline over catalyst Kr-104

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen' kov, G.M.; Pushkarev, V.P.; Kozlov, N.S.; Varshavskiy, O.M.; Pryakhina, N.Ya.; Glinchak, S.I.; Gorbatsevich, M.F.

    KR-104 is a widely used domestic polymetallic (Pt, Re, Cd, Fe) catalyst for making high octane components of motor fuel. The start-up and performance results of this catalyst on a high capacity LK-6u unit have been presented previously. In the present work, a further study was made of the performance and regeneration characteristics of the catalyst during reforming of a broad cut gasoline fraction in a one million ton per year industrial unit for 45 months. In the first stage of regeneration, the catalyst was reduced at 768 K for 9 hours and then oxychlorinated. During the second stage, the KR-104 was first treated for 8 hours with a hydrogen-containing gas at 768 K and then cooled and blown through with nitrogen. No change in Pt or Re content was observed, although the Cd content dropped markedly after 11 months and then remained constant. The octane number of the catalyzate was 80.4 (motor method, without TEL) and the catalyst lost both activity and selectivity and had to be regenerated after 5 months. The poor performance of the catalyst and its drop in activity are attributed to the high moisture content in the system during the start-up period. 10 references, 3 figures.

  9. 硫酸工业中钒系催化剂的研究现状与展望%Research Status and Prospect of Vanadium Catalyst in Sulfuric Acid Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴红; 邓洪江

    2015-01-01

    Vanadium catalyst is widely used in sulfuric acid production process, it is often referred to V-K-Si catalyst using V2 O5 as the main active ingredient, alkali metal ( mainly potassium, sodium ) sulfate as co-catalysts, diatomite as catalyst support.The present general situations of domestic and foreign research on vanadium catalyst were reviewed.Furthermore, the recent research status of vanadium catalyst and diatomite were mainly introduced.The future development of vanadium catalyst was forecasted.Modified treatment of domestic diatomite, improvement of the manufacturing process and basic research are the crucial points for the further study.%钒系催化剂是硫酸生产过程中必用的催化剂,它是以V2 O5为主活性成分,碱金属(主要是钾、钠)硫酸盐作为助催化剂,硅藻土作载体,通常称为V-K-Si系催化剂。本文综述了国内外钒系催化剂的概况,着重介绍了目前我国钒系催化剂、催化剂载体硅藻土改性的研究现状,提出了钒催化剂的发展方向。指出对国产硅藻土进行改良处理,现有钒系催化剂的制造工艺进行改进,加大钒系催化剂的基础研究是今后深入研究的重点。

  10. Alloy catalyst material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel alloy catalyst material for use in the synthesis of hydrogen peroxide from oxygen and hydrogen, or from oxygen and water. The present invention also relates to a cathode and an electrochemical cell comprising the novel catalyst material, and the process use...... of the novel catalyst material for synthesising hydrogen peroxide from oxygen and hydrogen, or from oxygen and water....

  11. Resin Catalyst Hybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Asaoka

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction: What are resin catalyst hybrids? There are typically two types of resin catalyst. One is acidic resin which representative is polystyrene sulfonic acid. The other is basic resin which is availed as metal complex support. The objective items of this study on resin catalyst are consisting of pellet hybrid, equilibrium hybrid and function hybrid of acid and base,as shown in Fig. 1[1-5].

  12. An Overview of Recent Development in Composite Catalysts from Porous Materials for Various Reactions and Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Zaiku Xie; Zhicheng Liu; Yangdong Wang; Qihua Yang; Longya Xu; Weiping Ding

    2010-01-01

    Catalysts are important to the chemical industry and environmental remediation due to their effective conversion of one chemical into another. Among them, composite catalysts have attracted continuous attention during the past decades. Nowadays, composite catalysts are being used more and more to meet the practical catalytic performance requirements in the chemical industry of high activity, high selectivity and good stability. In this paper, we reviewed our recent work on development of comp...

  13. Production of olefins from bioethanol. Catalysts, mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusman Dossumov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This review describes methods of catalytic obtaining from bioethanol of valuable industrial products – olefins, particularly ethylene. Аmong olefins, ethylene is the most popular key raw material of petrochemical synthesis. The scope of appllication of ethylene is almost unlimited in petrochemical products: polyethylene, ethylbenzene, styrene, ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride etc. It also examines catalysts for the production of olefins and their properties. The most promising and commercially advantageous process of ethylene production by catalytic dehydration of ethanol on catalysts based on modified alumina. And this review discusses the mechanisms of catalytic conversion of ethanol to ethylene.

  14. Magnetic catalyst bodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, Wendy; Bol, A.A.; Geus, John W.

    2001-01-01

    After a discussion about the importance of the size of the catalyst bodies with reactions in the liquid-phase with a suspended catalyst, the possibilities of magnetic separation are dealt with. Deficiencies of the usual ferromagnetic particles are the reactivity and the clustering of the particles.

  15. Catalyst for Ammonia Oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a bimetallic catalyst for ammonia oxidation, a method for producing a bimetallic catalyst for ammonia oxidation and a method for tuning the catalytic activity of a transition metal. By depositing an overlayer of less catalytic active metal onto a more catalytic...

  16. Heterogeneous hydrogenation catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main types of heterogeneous catalysts used for hydrogenation, the methods for their preparation, and the structure and chemistry of their surfaces are considered, as well as the catalytic activity and the mechanism of action in the hydrogenation of unsaturated and aromatic compounds, of CO, and of carbonyl compounds and in the hydrorefining of fuels. Chief attention is paid to supported Ni catalysts, to the methods for their preparation and physicochemical studies, and to the development of novel catalytic systems through modification. A novel type of catalyst for hydrogenation, viz. metal carbides, is described. Some aspects of the mechanochemical treatment of hydrogenation catalysts, including in situ methods, are discussed. Sulfide catalysts for hydrotreating are also discussed in detail. The bibliography includes 340 references.

  17. Design of heterogeneous catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frey, Anne Mette

    . Previously it has been shown that calcination of cobalt catalyst in a NO/He mixture resulted in improved catalytic activity compared to standard air calcined samples, since more homogenous cobalt particles with a narrow particle size distribution were formed. Unfortunately the C5+ selectivity decreased....... Since Mn is known to improve C5+ selectivity the addition of this promoter, combined with NO calcination, was studied. The influence of parameters such as Co:Mn ratio, drying conditions, and reduction temperatures on the catalytic performance were investigated. The promotion strategy turned out to work...... well, and the best catalyst prepared had a C5+ yield almost a factor of two higher than a standard air calcined Co catalyst. In the NH3-SCR reaction it is desirable to develop an active and stable catalyst for NOx removal in automotive applications, since the traditionally used vanadium-based catalyst...

  18. Catalysts, methods of making catalysts, and methods of use

    KAUST Repository

    Renard, Laetitia

    2014-03-06

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for catalysts, methods of making catalysts, methods of using catalysts, and the like. In an embodiment, the method of making the catalysts can be performed in a single step with a metal nanoparticle precursor and a metal oxide precursor, where a separate stabilizing agent is not needed.

  19. Theoretical Studies of Homogeneous Catalysts Mimicking Nitrogenase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Magistrato

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The conversion of molecular nitrogen to ammonia is a key biological and chemical process and represents one of the most challenging topics in chemistry and biology. In Nature the Mo-containing nitrogenase enzymes perform nitrogen ‘fixation’ via an iron molybdenum cofactor (FeMo-co under ambient conditions. In contrast, industrially, the Haber-Bosch process reduces molecular nitrogen and hydrogen to ammonia with a heterogeneous iron catalyst under drastic conditions of temperature and pressure. This process accounts for the production of millions of tons of nitrogen compounds used for agricultural and industrial purposes, but the high temperature and pressure required result in a large energy loss, leading to several economic and environmental issues. During the last 40 years many attempts have been made to synthesize simple homogeneous catalysts that can activate dinitrogen under the same mild conditions of the nitrogenase enzymes. Several compounds, almost all containing transition metals, have been shown to bind and activate N2 to various degrees. However, to date Mo(N2(HIPTN3N with (HIPTN3N= hexaisopropyl-terphenyl-triamidoamine is the only compound performing this process catalytically. In this review we describe how Density Functional Theory calculations have been of help in elucidating the reaction mechanisms of the inorganic compounds that activate or fix N2. These studies provided important insights that rationalize and complement the experimental findings about the reaction mechanisms of known catalysts, predicting the reactivity of new potential catalysts and helping in tailoring new efficient catalytic compounds.

  20. Determination of platinum in Adam's catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelić Brankica Č.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Adams's catalyst PtO2 x H2O has an important application in the chemical industry. The method for determination of platinum in Adam's catalyst has been elaborated. It includes the combination of cupellation and gravimetry methods. Considering that platinum oxide is practically insolvent in mineral acids, the sample is alloyed with lead by cupellation method and the separated balls solution procedure has been tested. The ball, platinum and lead alloy, is soluble in mineral acid. The platinum was settled by amonium chloride from solution, and obtained deposit treated by amonium acetate with addition of ethanol for lead removing. The retained platinum was determined by atomic absorption spctrophotometry method in the filtrate (after the platinum separation and the final result of platinum content corrected. It was shown how the combined gravimetric and AAS-Pt determination methods might be used for solving determination of Pt content in practically unsoluble sample of catalyst. Applied procedure enables testing the catalyst quality and proving its characteristics required for chemical industry.

  1. High performance vanadia-anatase nanoparticle catalysts for the selective catalytic reduction of NO by ammonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Steffen Buus; Kunov-Kruse, Andreas Jonas; Riisager, Anders;

    2011-01-01

    Highly active nanoparticle SCR deNO(x) catalysts composed of amorphous vanadia on crystalline anatase have been prepared by a sol-gel, co-precipitation method using decomposable crystallization seeds. The catalysts were characterized by means of XRPD, TEM/SEM, FT-IR, nitrogen physisorption and NH(3......) catalysts reported in the literature in the examined temperature range of 200-400 degrees C. The catalysts showed very high resistivity towards potassium poisoning maintaining a 15-30 times higher activity than the equally poisoned industrial reference catalyst, upon impregnation by 280 mu mole potassium...

  2. Oxides Catalysts of Rare Earth and Transient Metal for Catalytic Oxidation of Benzene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Kun; Li Rong; Chen Jianjun; Ma Jiantai

    2004-01-01

    The catalysts of CeO2 and the mixture of CeO2 and CuO were prepared, and the activities of these catalysts for completely oxidizing benzene were studied.The results show that the optimal proportion of CeO2/CuO is 6: 4.The highest temperature at which benzene was completely oxidized on these catalysts at different airspeed was measured.Compared these catalysts with the noble metal used, our catalysts had superiority in the resources and the industrial cost besides good activities.

  3. Selective propene oxidation on mixed metal oxide catalysts

    CERN Document Server

    James, D W

    2002-01-01

    Selective catalytic oxidation processes represent a large segment of the modern chemical industry and a major application of these is the selective partial oxidation of propene to produce acrolein. Mixed metal oxide catalysts are particularly effective in promoting this reaction, and the two primary candidates for the industrial process are based on iron antimonate and bismuth molybdate. Some debate exists in the literature regarding the operation of these materials and the roles of their catalytic components. In particular, iron antimonate catalysts containing excess antimony are known to be highly selective towards acrolein, and a variety of proposals for the enhanced selectivity of such materials have been given. The aim of this work was to provide a direct comparison between the behaviour of bismuth molybdate and iron antimonate catalysts, with additional emphasis being placed on the component single oxide phases of the latter. Studies were also extended to other antimonate-based catalysts, including coba...

  4. ALKALI RESISTANT CATALYST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention concerns the selective removal of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from gasses. In particular, the invention concerns a process, a catalyst and the use of a catalyst for the selective removal of nitrogen oxides in the presence of ammonia from gases containing a significant amount...... of alkali metal and/or alkali-earth compounds which process comprises using a catalyst combined of (i) a formed porous superacidic support, said superacidic support having an Hammett acidity stronger than Ho=-12, and (ii) a metal oxide catalytic component deposited on said superacidic support selected from...

  5. 镁法脱硫浆液氧化催化剂工业化应用研究%INDUSTRIALIZED APPLICATION RESEARCH ON OXIDATIVE CATALYSTS OF MAGNESIUM DESULFURIZATION SLURRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于方; 王中原; 宋宝华

    2013-01-01

    针对镁法脱硫浆液氧化催化剂工业化的实际应用进行研究,结果表明:使用催化剂Catalyst TR后,脱硫浆液的氧化时间可缩短为4h即能达到硫酸镁溶液含量20%以上,氧利用率可提高到20%以上,且考虑氧化系统运行成本后,使用含量0.001 mol/L的催化剂Catalyst TR较经济合理,最终能够产出符合工业硫酸镁一级品标准的七水硫酸镁产品.

  6. Two Catalysts for Selective Oxidation of Contaminant Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, John D.

    2011-01-01

    Two catalysts for the selective oxidation of trace amounts of contaminant gases in air have been developed for use aboard the International Space Station. These catalysts might also be useful for reducing concentrations of fumes in terrestrial industrial facilities especially facilities that use halocarbons as solvents, refrigerant liquids, and foaming agents, as well as facilities that generate or utilize ammonia. The first catalyst is of the supported-precious-metal type. This catalyst is highly active for the oxidation of halocarbons, hydrocarbons, and oxygenates at low concentrations in air. This catalyst is more active for the oxidation of hydrocarbons and halocarbons than are competing catalysts developed in recent years. This catalyst completely converts these airborne contaminant gases to carbon dioxide, water, and mineral acids that can be easily removed from the air, and does not make any chlorine gas in the process. The catalyst is thermally stable and is not poisoned by chlorine or fluorine atoms produced on its surface during the destruction of a halocarbon. In addition, the catalyst can selectively oxidize ammonia to nitrogen at a temperature between 200 and 260 C, without making nitrogen oxides, which are toxic. The temperature of 260 C is higher than the operational temperature of any other precious-metal catalyst that can selectively oxidize ammonia. The purpose of the platinum in this catalyst is to oxidize hydrocarbons and to ensure that the oxidation of halocarbons goes to completion. However, the platinum exhibits little or no activity for initiating the destruction of halocarbons. Instead, the attack on the halocarbons is initiated by the support. The support also provides a high surface area for exposure of the platinum. Moreover, the support resists deactivation or destruction by halogens released during the destruction of halocarbons. The second catalyst is of the supported- metal-oxide type. This catalyst can selectively oxidize ammonia to

  7. Synthesis and characterization of ZSM-12 type zeolytic catalysts by using different aluminium sources in the petroleum industry; Sintese e caracterizacao de catalisadores zeoliticos do tipo ZSM-12 utilizando diferentes fontes de aluminio na industria do petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Marilia R.F.S.; Jesus, Daniela B.; Souza, Marcelo J.B. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Santos, Consuelo D.; Machado, Sanny W.M.; Pedrosa, Anne M. Garrido [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2010-12-15

    The main objective was to synthesize and characterize ZSM-12 zeolites from different sources of aluminium, using hydrothermal method and characterize the catalysts synthesized by X-ray diffractions, thermal analysis and infrared absorption spectroscopy. The X-ray diffractogram showed the formation of zeolites of the family pantasil crystalline. Thermogravimetric curves and FTIR spectra were utilized by monitoring the removal of template and by monitoring the maintenance of zeolite structure. (author)

  8. Methanol dehydration on carbon-based acid catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Valero-Romero, Mª José; Calvo-Muñoz, Elisa Mª; Ruiz-Rosas, Ramiro; Rodríguez-Mirasol, José; Cordero, Tomás

    2013-01-01

    Methanol dehydration to produce dimethyl ether (DME) is an interesting process for the chemical industry since DME is an important intermediate and a promising clean alternative fuel for diesel engines. Pure or modified γ-aluminas (γ-Al2O3) and zeolites are often used as catalysts for this reaction. However, these materials usually yield non desirable hydrocarbons and undergo fast deactivation. In this work, we study the catalytic conversion of methanol over an acid carbon catalyst obtaine...

  9. Leaching of vanadium from sulphuric acid manufacture spent catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    García, Diego Juan; Lozano Blanco, Luis Javier; Mulero Vivancos, María Dolores

    2001-01-01

    Recovery of vanadium contained in spent catalysts from the manufacture of sulphuric acid has been studied in this work, resulting in an industrial multistage process for the treatment of them avoiding direct deposition or dumping. Characterization of supplied spent catalysts samples, confirmed vanadium levels showed in the literature. The study of variables influencing leaching process: type of leaching agent, leaching agent concentration, S/L ratio, stirring speed and temperature, allows to ...

  10. Spent FCC catalyst for improving early strength Portland cement

    OpenAIRE

    Borrachero Rosado, María Victoria; Monzó Balbuena, José Mª; Paya Bernabeu, Jorge Juan; Vunda, Christian; VELÁZQUEZ RODRÍGUEZ, SERGIO; Soriano Martinez, Lourdes

    2014-01-01

    Spent fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalyst from the petrol industry has proven to be a very active pozzolanic material. This behavior leads to an additional increase in the strength of the mortar that contains this catalyst. Pozzolanic effects tend to be considered for periods above three days, whereas in shorter times, the influence of pozzolan is usually negligible. The reactivity of FCC is so high, however, that both pozzolanic effects and acceleration of cement hydration are evident in...

  11. Hysteresis Phenomena in Sulfur Dioxide Oxidation over Supported Vanadium Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masters, Stephen G.; Eriksen, Kim Michael; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    1997-01-01

    Catalyst deactivation and hysteresis behavior in industrial SO2-oxidation catalysts have been studied in the temperature region 350-480 C by combined in situ EPR spectroscopy and catalytic activity measurements. The feed gas composition simulated sulfuric acid synthesis gas and wet/dry de......NOx'ed flue gas. The vanadium (IV) compound K4(VO)3(SO4)5 precipitated during all the investigated conditions hence causing catalyst deactivation. Hysteresis behavior of both the catalytic activity and the V(IV) content was observed during reheating....

  12. Catalyst for microelectromechanical systems microreactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morse, Jeffrey D. (Martinez, CA); Sopchak, David A. (Livermore, CA); Upadhye, Ravindra S. (Pleasanton, CA); Reynolds, John G. (San Ramon, CA); Satcher, Joseph H. (Patterson, CA); Gash, Alex E. (Brentwood, CA)

    2011-11-15

    A microreactor comprising a silicon wafer, a multiplicity of microchannels in the silicon wafer, and a catalyst coating the microchannels. In one embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises a nanostructured material. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises an aerogel. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises a solgel. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises carbon nanotubes.

  13. Catalyst for microelectromechanical systems microreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Jeffrey D.; Sopchak, David A.; Upadhye, Ravindra S.; Reynolds, John G.; Satcher, Joseph H.; Gash, Alex E.

    2010-06-29

    A microreactor comprising a silicon wafer, a multiplicity of microchannels in the silicon wafer, and a catalyst coating the microchannels. In one embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises a nanostructured material. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises an aerogel. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises a solgel. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises carbon nanotubes.

  14. Synthesis, characterization and hydrotreating performance of supported tungsten phosphide catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Supported tungsten phosphide catalysts were prepared by temperature-programmed reduction of their precursors (supported phospho-tungstate catalysts) in H2 and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD),BET,temperature-programmed desorption of ammonia (NH3-TPD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).The reduction-phosphiding processes of the precursors were investigated by thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) and the suitable phosphiding temperatures were defined.The hydrodesulfurization (HDS) and hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) activities of the catalysts were tested by using thiophene,pyridine,dibenzothiophene,carbazole and diesel oil as the feed-stock.The TiO2,γ-Al2O3 supports and the Ni,Co promoters could remarkably increase and stabilize active W species on the catalyst surface.A suitable amount of Ni (3%-5%),Co (5%-7%) and V (1%-3%) could increase dispersivity of the W species and the BET surface area of the WP/γ-Al2O3 catalyst.The WP/γ-Al2O3 catalyst possesses much higher thiophene HDS and carbazole HDN activities and the WP/TiO2 catalyst has much higher dibenzothiophene (DBT) HDS and pyridine HDN activities.The Ni,Co and V can obviously promote the HDS activity and inhibit the HDN activity of the WP/γ-Al2O3 catalyst.The G-Ni5 catalyst possesses a much higher diesel oil HDS activity than the sulphided industrial NiW/γ-Al2O3 catalyst.In general,a support or promoter in the WP/γ-Al2O3 catalyst which can increase the amount and dispersivity of the active W species can promote its HDS and HDN activities.

  15. Epoxidation catalyst and process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linic, Suljo; Christopher, Phillip

    2010-10-26

    Disclosed herein is a catalytic method of converting alkenes to epoxides. This method generally includes reacting alkenes with oxygen in the presence of a specific silver catalyst under conditions suitable to produce a yield of the epoxides. The specific silver catalyst is a silver nanocrystal having a plurality of surface planes, a substantial portion of which is defined by Miller indices of (100). The reaction is performed by charging a suitable reactor with this silver catalyst and then feeding the reactants to the reactor under conditions to carry out the reaction. The reaction may be performed in batch, or as a continuous process that employs a recycle of any unreacted alkenes. The specific silver catalyst has unexpectedly high selectivity for epoxide products. Consequently, this general method (and its various embodiments) will result in extraordinarily high epoxide yields heretofore unattainable.

  16. STUDIES ON HYDROISOMERIZATION CATALYSTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    C5/C6 alkane hydroisomerization is one of the most economical technologies for octane enhancement and has potential application in China in the next decade. The work about choice of hydroisomerization catalyst systems and scale-up in catalyst preparation was presented. Performance and regeneration behaviors tested in different laboratory reactors and a 1000 t/a pilot plant were discussed, which offers the information for commercial use of this process. Mechanism for coke formation was also proposed.

  17. New Catalysts for ROMP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. Berke; C. Frech; A. Lhamazares; O. Blacque; H.W. Schmalle; C. Adlhart; P. Chen

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction Ring Opening Metathesis Polymerization (ROMP) is based on the olefin metathesis reaction, which requires transition metal catalysts. Mainly molybdenum, tungsten and ruthenium based catalysts have up to now been used. The "in-between" metal rhenium was only rarely applied in olefin metathesis reactions, and not at all in ROMP processes.We have found that cationic phosphine substituted dinitrosyl rhenium complexes[1]1a and 1b effectively catalyze ROMP of norbonene, dicyclopentadiene and of cyclooctene. See Fig. 1.

  18. "Industrialization and the Fertility Decline"

    OpenAIRE

    Raphael Franck; Oded Galor

    2015-01-01

    The research provides the first empirical examination of the hypothesized effect of industrialization on the fertility decline. Exploiting exogenous source of regional variations in the adoption of steam engines across France, the study establishes that industrialization was a major catalyst in the fertility decline in the course of the demographic transition. Moreover, the analysis further suggests that the contribution of industrialization to the decline in fertility plausibly operated thro...

  19. Industrial recovery capability. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides an evaluation of the vulnerability - to a nuclear strike, terrorist attack, or natural disaster - of our national capacity to produce chlorine, beryllium, and a particular specialty alumina catalyst required for the production of sulfur. All of these industries are of critical importance to the United States economy. Other industries that were examined and found not to be particularly vulnerable are medicinal drugs and silicon wafers for electronics. Thus, only the three more vulnerable industries are addressed in this report

  20. Ethylene Oligomerization and Polymerization: Alternative Iron Catalysts beyond 2,6-Bisiminopyridyl Iron Complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suyun Jie; Shu Zhang; Wenjuan Zhang; Yingxia Song; Junxian Hou; Wen-Hua Sun

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction Polyolefin industry arrives the option to transfer from multiple-site systems of the classical Ziegler-Natta catalysts to more sophisticated single-site catalysts. The late-transition metal compounds were traditionally assumed with poor polymerization properties due to the highly competitive chain-termination step, and produced the short-chain oligomers up to 40 carbon atoms (SHOP catalysts). Recently the polyolefins employing latetransition metal complexes as catalysts became a hot research subject with the pioneering works by Brookhart and Gibson. It is promising for nickel catalysts to use solely ethylene as monomer for highly branched polyethylenes, and the designed nickel catalysts were not useful in industry. It is critical time to investigate the relationship of coordination modes of nickel complexes and its catalytic activities and the properties of resultant polyethylenes.

  1. [Laser Raman spectra study on Co-Mo/Al2O3 hydrodesulphurization catalysts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hui; Xu, Guang-Tong; Qiherima; Li, Hui-Feng; Lu, Li-Jun; Yang, Xing-Yuan; Tana

    2014-02-01

    Due to the implementation of more stringent specifications in sulfur content for gasoline , a deep understanding of the active phase of Co-Mo/Al2O3 catalysts is necessary to the development of hydrodesulphurization (HDS) catalysts. A series of Co-Mo/Al2O3 HDS catalysts with different metal loading were studied by laser Raman spectra. The existence form and the content of the active component of the catalyst were obtained by Raman spectra. The result shows that the percentage of characteristic Raman bands 940 cm(-1) correlates linearly with the HDS selectivity, which can be used as an experimental evidence for developing industrial selective HDS catalysts. Raman spectra of sulfided catalysts show that the bands of oxidic catalysts at 839 and 940 cm(-1) disappeared, and simultaneously, the bands of Mo-S at 372 and 408 cm(-1) emerged, which indicate that the oxidic sample is sulfided completely. PMID:24822416

  2. On the Deactivation of Cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch Catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Cats, K.H.

    2016-01-01

    The Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) process is an attractive way to obtain synthetic liquid fuel from alternative energy sources such as natural gas, coal or biomass. However, the deactivation of the catalyst, consisting of cobalt nanoparticles supported on TiO2, currently hampers the industrial application of the process. Despite many years of research, we still lack the fundamental insights into the mechanism of catalyst deactivation necessary to develop the next generation of FTS catalysts...

  3. Catalyst Deactivation During n-Alkane Isomerization Studied by In Situ UV–vis–NIR Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Tzolova-Müller, G.; Chan Thaw, C.; Garin, F.; Jentoft, F.; Schlögl, R.

    2006-01-01

    In many industrial processes catalyst deactivation is caused by formation of carbonaceous deposits (“coke”) on the catalyst surface. Development of catalysts that are less prone to deactivation requires understanding the nature of the carbonaceous species and the formation routes. In situ spectroscopic methods could be very informative in this respect, as they give information about the state of the surface including adsorbates and allow correlations with catalytic performance. Sulfated zi...

  4. Modern multiphase catalysis: new developments in the separation of homogeneous catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muldoon, Mark J

    2010-01-14

    Homogeneous catalysts are powerful tools for the synthesis of fine chemicals, pharmaceuticals and materials, however their exploitation on an industrial scale is often held back due to the challenges of separating and recycling the catalyst. This perspective focuses on approaches to multiphase catalysis that have emerged in the last decade, highlighting methods that can address the separation issues and in some cases result in superior catalyst performance and environmental benefits.

  5. Porous structure and particle size of silica and hydrotalcite catalyst precursors

    OpenAIRE

    Titulaer, M.K.

    1993-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the control of the porous structure of catalyst bodies. The first part deals with silica, that can be utilized as catalyst support with many industrially important catalytic reactions. The second part of the thesis deals with the preparation and characterization of solid catalysts having a tubular or a platelet microstructure. The success of zeolites in catalytic reactions is due to the fact that the shape of the porous structure can be controlled on an atomic sc...

  6. Method of Heating a Foam-Based Catalyst Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortini, Arthur J.; Williams, Brian E.; McNeal, Shawn R.

    2009-01-01

    A method of heating a foam-based catalyst bed has been developed using silicon carbide as the catalyst support due to its readily accessible, high surface area that is oxidation-resistant and is electrically conductive. The foam support may be resistively heated by passing an electric current through it. This allows the catalyst bed to be heated directly, requiring less power to reach the desired temperature more quickly. Designed for heterogeneous catalysis, the method can be used by the petrochemical, chemical processing, and power-generating industries, as well as automotive catalytic converters. Catalyst beds must be heated to a light-off temperature before they catalyze the desired reactions. This typically is done by heating the assembly that contains the catalyst bed, which results in much of the power being wasted and/or lost to the surrounding environment. The catalyst bed is heated indirectly, thus requiring excessive power. With the electrically heated catalyst bed, virtually all of the power is used to heat the support, and only a small fraction is lost to the surroundings. Although the light-off temperature of most catalysts is only a few hundred degrees Celsius, the electrically heated foam is able to achieve temperatures of 1,200 C. Lower temperatures are achievable by supplying less electrical power to the foam. Furthermore, because of the foam s open-cell structure, the catalyst can be applied either directly to the foam ligaments or in the form of a catalyst- containing washcoat. This innovation would be very useful for heterogeneous catalysis where elevated temperatures are needed to drive the reaction.

  7. Lits fluidisés pour l'industrie chimique. Extrapolation et amélioration des catalyseurs. Première partie : Etudes et modèles. Enseignements issus des pilotes Fluidized Beds in Chemical Industry. Scale Up and Catalysts Improvement. First Part: Studies, Models, Learning from Pilot Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botton R.

    2006-12-01

    est intitulée Études théoriques, réalités expérimentales, suggestions . Les bulles des lits fluidisés ont fait l'objet de très nombreux travaux, dont les résultats sont très souvent explicités sous la forme de modèles mécanistiques à un paramètre qui est le diamètre des bulles. Pour confronter ces modèles à l'expérience, une relation est établie entre le diamètre des bulles et la vitesse minimum de fluidisation de comportement. Des suggestions sont alors faites pour améliorer les modèles, et l'on propose des conclusions générales sur les lits fluidisés. The firsts catalytic fluidized beds appear near 1942 in petroleum industry and near 1960 in chemical industry. We only consider very high performances chemical fluidized bed reactors (> 99%. In the past, they were developed through the use of very expensive pilot plants of about 0. 5 m diameter and 10 in high. We will demonstrate that direct scale up from laboratory data is possible. This possibility gives also a simple method to improve catalysts used into operating units and opens fluidized bed technique to products that need only low production. Presentation is made with three articles:- In the first, Studies, Models, Learning from Pilot Plants : after a description of the major scale-up problems, studies to solve then are summarized. Then scale-up works of two processes with the use of about 0. 5 m diameter pilot plant are given. From the results it is deduced the possible performances of a catalytic fluidized bed and how to operate to obtain then. - In the second*, Scale up with Only Laboratory Data , it is experimentally demonstrated that the information's scale-up can be obtained in a laboratory. A strategy to obtain them is suggested. An another result of theses experimental studies is that all physical properties of catalytic fluidized bed depends of only one parameter. It is called comportment incipient fluidization velocity . - In the third*, Theoretical Studies, Experimental

  8. Supported organoiridium catalysts for alkane dehydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, R. Thomas; Sattelberger, Alfred P.; Li, Hongbo

    2013-09-03

    Solid supported organoiridium catalysts, a process for preparing such solid supported organoiridium catalysts, and the use of such solid supported organoiridium catalysts in dehydrogenation reactions of alkanes is provided. The catalysts can be easily recovered and recycled.

  9. Deactivation-resistant catalyst for selective catalyst reduction of NOx

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Anker Degn; Castellino, Francesco; Rams, Per Donskov; Pedersen, Jannik Blaabjerg; Putluru, Siva Sankar Reddy

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a catalyst for selective catalytic reduction of NOx in alkali metal containing flue gas using ammonia as reductant, the catalyst comprising a surface with catalytically active sites, wherein the surface is at least partly coated with a coating comprising at least one metal oxide. In another aspect the present invention relates to the use of said catalyst and to a method of producing said catalyst. In addition, the present invention relates to a method of treat...

  10. Diagnosis of deactivation sources for vanadium catalysts used in SO2 oxidation reaction and optimization of vanadium extraction from deactivated catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physico-chemical analysis (X-ray, FTIR) and/or methanol oxidation reaction test were performed on fresh and deactivated vanadium catalysts used in H2SO4 manufacturing. It allowed the diagnosis of catalyst deactivation sources, as well as the processes of regenerating and recycling the worn out catalyst in converter. One of these processes is hydrometallurgical method. It consists in treating the deactivated catalyst with alkaline or acidic reagents and forming vanadate solution. A simple and non-costly operation of chemical attack permits the extraction of vanadium from silica in deactivated catalyst. The extracted vanadium can be used for the confection of regenerated catalysts or metallic tools. After optimization, this method can be used for industrial application

  11. Controlled assembly of a Cr-based heterogeneous single-site ethylene trimerisation catalyst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nenu, C.N.

    2006-01-01

    One of the most illustrative examples of heterogeneous catalyst complexity is the Phillips-type Cr/SiO2 catalyst, which is industrially used for the production of more than 40% of all polyethylene worldwide. It is considered that (i) the amount of active Cr sites is less than 10% of the total amount

  12. Nature of nitrogen specie in coke and their role in NOx formation during FCC catalyst regeneration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babich, I.V.; Seshan, K.; Lefferts, L.

    2005-01-01

    NOx emission during the regeneration of coked fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts is an environmental problem. In order to follow the route to NOx formation and try to find ways to suppress it, a coked industrial FCC catalyst has been prepared using model N-containing compounds, e.g., pyridine,

  13. Development of radioactive platinum group metal catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fission product nuclides generated during the irradiation of reactor fuel include many useful elements, among them platinum group metals such as ruthenium, rhodium and palladium which are of great industrial importance, occur rarely in nature and are highly valuable. In this research, the authors reviewed various PGM recovery methods. Recovery of palladium from seven-component simulated waste solutions was conducted by selective precipitation method. The recovery yield was more than 99.5% and the purity of the product was more than 99%. Wet-proof catalyst was prepared with the recovered palladium. The specific surface area of the catalyst support was more than 400m2/g. The content of palladium impregnated on the support was 1 to 10 wt. %. Hydrogen isotope exchange efficiency of more than 93% to equilibrium with small amount of the catalyst was obtained. It was turned out possible to consider using such palladium or other very low active PGM materials in applications where its activity is unimportant as in nuclear industries. (author). 86 refs., 44 tabs., 88 figs

  14. Development of radioactive platinum group metal catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, H.S.; Kim, Y.S.; Kim, Y.E. [and others

    1999-03-01

    The fission product nuclides generated during the irradiation of reactor fuel include many useful elements, among them platinum group metals such as ruthenium, rhodium and palladium which are of great industrial importance, occur rarely in nature and are highly valuable. In this research, the authors reviewed various PGM recovery methods. Recovery of palladium from seven-component simulated waste solutions was conducted by selective precipitation method. The recovery yield was more than 99.5% and the purity of the product was more than 99%. Wet-proof catalyst was prepared with the recovered palladium. The specific surface area of the catalyst support was more than 400m{sup 2}/g.The content of palladium impregnated on the support was 1 to 10 wt. %. Hydrogen isotope exchange efficiency of more than 93% to equilibrium with small amount of the catalyst was obtained. It was turned out possible to consider using such palladium or other very low active PGM materials in applications where its activity is unimportant as in nuclear industries. (author). 86 refs., 44 tabs., 88 figs.

  15. Platinum nanophase electro catalysts and composite electrodes for hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrik, L. F.; Godongwana, Z. G.; Iwuoha, E. I.

    Nanophase Pt electro catalysts were prepared by impregnating a Pt salt containing solution upon a high surface area hexagonal mesoporous silica (HMS) matrix, which was then carbonized to varying degree by chemical vapour deposition of liquid petroleum gas (LPG). Thereafter the HMS Si matrix could be removed by chemical etching with NaOH to immediately form a Pt containing carbon analogue or ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) with a porous structure similar to the parent HMS. Nanoparticles of Pt electro catalysts were thus successfully stabilized without agglomeration on both HMS and upon the porous HMS carbon analogue or OMC, which was graphitic in nature. The catalysts were electro active for the hydrogen evolution reaction and their activity compared favourable with an industry standard. Such nanophase Pt electro catalysts could be incorporated successfully in a composite electrode by sequential deposition, upon a suitable substrate and the catalysts in electrodes so formed proved to be stable and active under high-applied potential in high electrolyte environment for hydrogen production by electrolysis of water. This route to preparing a nanophase Pt OMC catalyst may be applicable to prepare active electro catalysts for polymer electrolyte fuel cells and solid polymer electrolyte electrolyzers.

  16. The generation of efficient supported (Heterogeneous) olefin metathesis catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grubbs, Robert H

    2013-04-05

    Over the past decade, a new family of homogeneous metathesis catalysts has been developed that will tolerate most organic functionalities as well as water and air. These homogeneous catalysts are finding numerous applications in the pharmaceutical industry as well as in the production of functional polymers. In addition the catalysts are being used to convert seed oils into products that can substitute for those that are now made from petroleum products. Seed oils are unsaturated, contain double bonds, and are a ready source of linear hydrocarbon fragments that are specifically functionalized. To increase the number of applications in the area of biomaterial conversion to petrol chemicals, the activity and efficiency of the catalysts need to be as high as possible. The higher the efficiency of the catalysts, the lower the cost of the conversion and a larger number of practical applications become available. Active supported catalysts were prepared and tested in the conversion of seed oils and other important starting materials. The outcome of the work was successful and the technology has been transferred to a commercial operation to develop viable applications of the discovered systems. A biorefinery that converts seed oils is under construction in Indonesia. The catalysts developed in this study will be considered for the next generation of operations.

  17. Sulfur tolerant zeolite supported platinum catalysts for aromatics hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergem, Haakon

    1997-12-31

    The increased demand for transportation fuels at the expence of heavier fuel oil has forced the refinery industry to expand their conversion capacity with hydrotreating as one of the key processes. A shift towards more diesel powered vehicles along with tightening fuel regulations demanding cleaner fuels has lead to increasing interest in catalytic processes for the manufacturing of such environmentally acceptable fuels. This provides the motivation for this thesis. Its main objective was to study possible catalysts active for desulfurization, hydrogenation, and ring-opening of aromatics all in the presence of sulfur. A close examination of the physical properties and kinetical behaviour of the chosen catalysts has been performed. A high pressure reactor setup was designed and built for activity measurements. Zeolite supported platinum catalysts were prepared and both the metal and acid functions were characterized utilizing various experimental techniques. Hydrogenation of toluene was used as a model reaction and the effect of sulfur adsorption on the activity and kinetic behaviour of the catalysts was investigated. The catalyst samples showed hydrogenation activities comparable to a commercial Pt/Al2O3 catalyst. There were no clear differences in the effect of the various sulfur compounds studied. Platinum supported on zeolite Y gave considerably more sulfur tolerant catalysts compared to Al2O3 as support. 155 refs., 58 figs., 36 tabs.

  18. Application of solid ash based catalysts in heterogeneous catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaobin

    2008-10-01

    Solid wastes, fly ash, and bottom ash are generated from coal and biomass combustion. Fly ash is mainly composed of various metal oxides and possesses higher thermal stability. Utilization of fly ash for other industrial applications provides a cost-effective and environmentally friendly way of recycling this solid waste, significantly reducing its environmental effects. On the one hand, due to the higher stability of its major component, aluminosilicates, fly ash could be employed as catalyst support by impregnation of other active components for various reactions. On the other hand, other chemical compounds in fly ash such as Fe2O3 could also provide an active component making fly ash a catalyst for some reactions. In this paper, physicochemical properties of fly ash and its applications for heterogeneous catalysis as a catalyst support or catalyst in a variety of catalytic reactions were reviewed. Fly-ash-supported catalysts have shown good catalytic activities for H2 production, deSO(x), deNO(x), hydrocarbon oxidation,and hydrocracking, which are comparable to commercially used catalysts. As a catalyst itself, fly ash can also be effective for gas-phase oxidation of volatile organic compounds, aqueous-phase oxidation of organics, solid plastic pyrolysis, and solvent-free organic synthesis. PMID:18939526

  19. Olefin metathesis catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukes, S.G.; Banks, R.L.

    1986-05-20

    A process is described for preparing a disproportionation catalyst comprising admixing a catalytically effective amount of a calcined and activated catalyst consisting essentially of at least one metal oxide selected from molybdenum oxide and tungsten oxide and a support containing a major proportion of silica or alumina with a promoting amount of a methylating agent selected from the group consisting of dimethyl sulfate, dimethylsulfoxide, trimethyloxonium tetrafluorborate, methyl iodide, and methyl bromide, and subjecting same to inert atmospheric conditions for the methylating agent to promote the activity of the calcined molybdenum and tungsten oxides for the disproportionation of olefins.

  20. Polymer-Supported Raney Nickel Catalysts for Sustainable Reduction Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibin Jiang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Green is the future of chemistry. Catalysts with high selectivity are the key to green chemistry. Polymer-supported Raney catalysts have been found to have outstanding performance in the clean preparation of some chemicals. For example, a polyamide 6-supported Raney nickel catalyst provided a 100.0% conversion of n-butyraldehyde without producing any detectable n-butyl ether, the main byproduct in industry, and eliminated the two main byproducts (isopropyl ether and methyl-iso-butylcarbinol in the hydrogenation of acetone to isopropanol. Meanwhile, a model for how the polymer support brought about the elimination of byproducts is proposed and confirmed. In this account the preparation and applications of polymer-supported Raney catalysts along with the corresponding models will be reviewed.

  1. Polymer-Supported Raney Nickel Catalysts for Sustainable Reduction Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Haibin; Lu, Shuliang; Zhang, Xiaohong; Dai, Wei; Qiao, Jinliang

    2016-01-01

    Green is the future of chemistry. Catalysts with high selectivity are the key to green chemistry. Polymer-supported Raney catalysts have been found to have outstanding performance in the clean preparation of some chemicals. For example, a polyamide 6-supported Raney nickel catalyst provided a 100.0% conversion of n-butyraldehyde without producing any detectable n-butyl ether, the main byproduct in industry, and eliminated the two main byproducts (isopropyl ether and methyl-iso-butylcarbinol) in the hydrogenation of acetone to isopropanol. Meanwhile, a model for how the polymer support brought about the elimination of byproducts is proposed and confirmed. In this account the preparation and applications of polymer-supported Raney catalysts along with the corresponding models will be reviewed.

  2. Polymer-Supported Raney Nickel Catalysts for Sustainable Reduction Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Haibin; Lu, Shuliang; Zhang, Xiaohong; Dai, Wei; Qiao, Jinliang

    2016-01-01

    Green is the future of chemistry. Catalysts with high selectivity are the key to green chemistry. Polymer-supported Raney catalysts have been found to have outstanding performance in the clean preparation of some chemicals. For example, a polyamide 6-supported Raney nickel catalyst provided a 100.0% conversion of n-butyraldehyde without producing any detectable n-butyl ether, the main byproduct in industry, and eliminated the two main byproducts (isopropyl ether and methyl-iso-butylcarbinol) in the hydrogenation of acetone to isopropanol. Meanwhile, a model for how the polymer support brought about the elimination of byproducts is proposed and confirmed. In this account the preparation and applications of polymer-supported Raney catalysts along with the corresponding models will be reviewed. PMID:27347922

  3. Compressive strength and heavy metal leaching behaviour of mortars containing spent catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanasak, U; Jaturapitakkul, C; Sudaprasert, T

    2001-10-01

    This investigation was set and aimed to study the possibility of using spent catalyst as a concrete constituent which the spent catalyst was used as sand. Besides the spent catalyst was used as sand, it was also ground to very small particle size as small as that of cement and used as 20% replacement of cement by weight. Compressive strengths and leaching characteristics of lead, chromium, cadmium, and nickel in mortars containing spent catalyst and ground spent catalyst were tested. The results presented revealed that the compressive strength of mortar containing spent catalyst increased with ages. The results also indicated that the compressive strength of mortar containing spent catalyst at the proportion of 1.25 times of cement by weight was strong enough to make a concrete brick. In case of the ground spent catalyst being used to replace cement, it made the compressive strength lower than that of the standard mortar approximately 20%. The leachate results of lead and chromium from spent catalyst were lower than the allowance, but cadmium and nickel exceeded the limits. After the spent catalyst was fixed with cement, the leaching of the heavy metals did not exceed the industrial effluent standard. Therefore, the heavy metals mentioned earlier were not a problem in using spent catalyst as a concrete constituent.

  4. Deactivation-resistant catalyst for selective catalyst reduction of NOx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a catalyst for selective catalytic reduction of NOx in alkali metal containing flue gas using ammonia as reductant, the catalyst comprising a surface with catalytically active sites, wherein the surface is at least partly coated with a coating comprising at least...... one metal oxide. In another aspect the present invention relates to the use of said catalyst and to a method of producing said catalyst. In addition, the present invention relates to a method of treating an catalyst for conferring thereon an improved resistance to alkali poisoning....

  5. Hydrogen evolution reaction catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaraman, Ram; Stamenkovic, Vojislav; Markovic, Nenad; Tripkovic, Dusan

    2016-02-09

    Systems and methods for a hydrogen evolution reaction catalyst are provided. Electrode material includes a plurality of clusters. The electrode exhibits bifunctionality with respect to the hydrogen evolution reaction. The electrode with clusters exhibits improved performance with respect to the intrinsic material of the electrode absent the clusters.

  6. Olefin metathesis and catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukes, S. G.; Banks, R. L.

    1985-05-14

    Olefins are converted into other olefins having different numbers of carbon atoms by contact with a catalyst comprising an inorganic refractory oxide support containing at least one of tungsten oxide and molybdenum oxide and a promoting amount of at least one methylating agent under conditions suitable for the methylating agent compounds to promote the activity of tungsten and molybdenum oxides for the disproportionation reaction.

  7. Tight bifunctional hierarchical catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Højholt, Karen T; Vennestrøm, Peter N R; Tiruvalam, Ramchandra; Beato, Pablo

    2011-12-28

    A new concept to prepare tight bifunctional catalysts has been developed, by anchoring CoMo(6) clusters on hierarchical ZSM-5 zeolites for simultaneous use in HDS and hydrocracking catalysis. The prepared material displays a significant improved activity in HDS catalysis compared to the impregnated counterpart. PMID:22048337

  8. Catalysts for Environmental Remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrams, B. L.; Vesborg, Peter Christian Kjærgaard

    2013-01-01

    The properties of catalysts used in environmental remediation are described here through specific examples in heterogeneous catalysis and photocatalysis. In the area of heterogeneous catalysis, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx was used as an example reaction with vanadia and tungsta...

  9. Nanopore and nanoparticle catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J M; Raja, R

    2001-01-01

    The design, atomic characterization, performance, and relevance to clean technology of two distinct categories of new nanocatalysts are described and interpreted. Exceptional molecular selectivity and high activity are exhibited by these catalysts. The first category consists of extended, crystallographically ordered inorganic solids possessing nanopores (apertures, cages, and channels), the diameters of which fall in the range of about 0.4 to about 1.5 nm, and the second of discrete bimetallic nanoparticles of diameter 1 to 2 nm, distributed more or less uniformly along the inner walls of mesoporous (ca. 3 to 10 nm diameter) silica supports. Using the principles and practices of solid-state and organometallic chemistry and advanced physico-chemical techniques for in situ and ex situ characterization, a variety of powerful new catalysts has been evolved. Apart from those that, inter alia, simulate the behavior of enzymes in their specificity, shape selectivity, regio-selectivity, and ability to function under ambient conditions, many of these new nanocatalysts are also viable as agents for effecting commercially significant processes in a clean, benign, solvent-free, single-step fashion. In particular, a bifunctional, molecular sieve nanopore catalyst is described that converts cyclohexanone in air and ammonia to its oxime and caprolactam, and a bimetallic nanoparticle catalyst that selectively converts cyclic polyenes into desirable intermediates. Nanocatalysts in the first category are especially effective in facilitating highly selective oxidations in air, and those in the second are well suited to effecting rapid and selective hydrogenations of a range of organic compounds.

  10. Methane Steam Reforming Kinetics for a Rhodium-Based Catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jon Geest; Jakobsen, M.; Chorkendorff, Ib;

    2010-01-01

    Methane steam reforming is the key reaction to produce synthesis gas and hydrogen at the industrial scale. Here the kinetics of methane steam reforming over a rhodium-based catalyst is investigated in the temperature range 500-800 A degrees C and as a function of CH4, H2O and H-2 partial pressures...

  11. Conversion of spent solid phosphoric Acid catalyst to environmentally friendly fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merwe, Werner van der

    2010-03-01

    Solid phosphoric acid (SPA) catalysts are widely used in the petroleum industry. Despite a high phosphorus content the spent catalyst is generally not reused. Moreover, due to the limited life spans that are achieved industrially, large quantities of spent catalyst requires disposal, often by landfill. SPA can be readily converted to fertilizer, but the presence of carbonaceous deposits on the catalyst presents a potential environmental hazard. This work demonstrates that these deposits are mostly polyaromatic (amorphous carbon) with smaller amounts of oxygenates and aliphatics. Neither the chemical makeup nor the physical structure of the catalyst or the presence of coke precludes it from use as fertilizer. Subsequently, the spent catalyst was milled, neutralized with lime and ammonium hydroxide, and then calcined to yield a phosphate-rich fertilizer. Toxicity characteristic leaching tests of the spent catalyst fertilizer showed low levels of metals and organics, establishing that no harmful compounds are likely to be absorbed into plant life or groundwater. A plant growth study of the spent catalyst fertilizer indicated that it is approximately as effective as superphosphate fertilizer when used in alkaline soil. The spent catalyst fertilizer is environmentally benign and economically efficient. PMID:20146419

  12. Conversion of spent solid phosphoric Acid catalyst to environmentally friendly fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merwe, Werner van der

    2010-03-01

    Solid phosphoric acid (SPA) catalysts are widely used in the petroleum industry. Despite a high phosphorus content the spent catalyst is generally not reused. Moreover, due to the limited life spans that are achieved industrially, large quantities of spent catalyst requires disposal, often by landfill. SPA can be readily converted to fertilizer, but the presence of carbonaceous deposits on the catalyst presents a potential environmental hazard. This work demonstrates that these deposits are mostly polyaromatic (amorphous carbon) with smaller amounts of oxygenates and aliphatics. Neither the chemical makeup nor the physical structure of the catalyst or the presence of coke precludes it from use as fertilizer. Subsequently, the spent catalyst was milled, neutralized with lime and ammonium hydroxide, and then calcined to yield a phosphate-rich fertilizer. Toxicity characteristic leaching tests of the spent catalyst fertilizer showed low levels of metals and organics, establishing that no harmful compounds are likely to be absorbed into plant life or groundwater. A plant growth study of the spent catalyst fertilizer indicated that it is approximately as effective as superphosphate fertilizer when used in alkaline soil. The spent catalyst fertilizer is environmentally benign and economically efficient.

  13. SULFUR-RESISTANT BIMETALLIC NOBLE METAL CATALYSTS FOR AROMATIC HYDROGENATION OF DIESEL FUEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Y zeolite supporting noble metal catalysts, as the important industrial catalysts for aromatics hydrogenation, have received increasing attention in recent years. Pd-M/Y bimetallic catalysts, where M is non-noble metal element, were prepared to investigate the effects of the addition of a second metal. Pd-M/Y catalysts were evaluated under the following conditions: H2 pressure 4.2 MPa, MHSV 4.0 h-1, sulfur content in feed 3000 μg/g. The microreactor results indicated that the second metal remarkably affects the hydrogenation activity of Pd/Y catalysts. Among them, Cr and W improve the sulfur resistance of Pd/Y, but La, Mn, Mo and Ag make the sulfur resistance worse and the second metals have no evident influence on product selectivity and acidic properties of the catalysts.

  14. Fluorination process using catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochel, R.C.; Saturday, K.A.

    1983-08-25

    A process is given for converting an actinide compound selected from the group consisting of uranium oxides, plutonium oxides, uranium tetrafluorides, plutonium tetrafluorides and mixtures of said oxides and tetrafluorides, to the corresponding volatile actinide hexafluoride by fluorination with a stoichiometric excess of fluorine gas. The improvement involves conducting the fluorination of the plutonium compounds in the presence of a fluoride catalyst selected from the group consisting of CoF/sub 3/, AgF/sub 2/ and NiF/sub 2/, whereby the fluorination is significantly enhanced. The improvement also involves conducting the fluorination of one of the uranium compounds in the presence of a fluoride catalyst selected from the group consisting of CoF/sub 3/ and AgF/sub 2/, whereby the fluorination is significantly enhanced.

  15. Fluorination process using catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochel, Robert C.; Saturday, Kathy A.

    1985-01-01

    A process for converting an actinide compound selected from the group consisting of uranium oxides, plutonium oxides, uranium tetrafluorides, plutonium tetrafluorides and mixtures of said oxides and tetrafluorides, to the corresponding volatile actinide hexafluoride by fluorination with a stoichiometric excess of fluorine gas. The improvement involves conducting the fluorination of the plutonium compounds in the presence of a fluoride catalyst selected from the group consisting of CoF.sub.3, AgF.sub.2 and NiF.sub.2, whereby the fluorination is significantly enhanced. The improvement also involves conducting the fluorination of one of the uranium compounds in the presence of a fluoride catalyst selected from the group consisting of CoF.sub.3 and AgF.sub.2, whereby the fluorination is significantly enhanced.

  16. Silica supported Brӧnsted acids as catalyst in organic transformations:A comprehensive review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manpreet Kaur; Sahil Sharma; Preet M. S. Bedi

    2015-01-01

    Brӧnsted acid catalysts have been used in a number of organic transformations. To overcome limi‐tations, such as toxicity, volatility, high price and hazardous nature of the conventional methods, the catalysts are adsorbed on silica gel to give the benefits and advantages of ready availability, simple work‐up procedure, long catalytic life, environment‐friendliness, good to excellent yields and recy‐clability. The uses of such catalysts have gained importance worldwide. This article describes some of the important silicated catalysts, namely, heteropolyacids, polyphosphoric acid, perchloric acid, fluoroboric acid, and silicated sulphuric acid. These catalysts have been used in a number of organic reactions to yield compounds that are important in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. We summarize the beneficial effects of these catalysts and the reports that have been published on them in the past several years. In the present review, the description of the catalysts are introduced followed by a recent research history, and a comparison between the silica supported catalysts and other (polymer) supported catalysts. The article ends up giving the advantages of these catalytic systems over the conventional catalyst.

  17. [In-situ FTIR study of CO adsorption on Co-Mo/Al2O3 hydrodesulphurization catalysts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hui; Sun, Shu-ling; Zheng, Ai-guo; Xu, Guang-tong

    2008-09-01

    Due to the implementation of more stringent specifications in sulfur content for diesel oil, a deep understanding of the active phase of Co-Mo/Al2O3 catalysts is necessary to the development of ultra-deep hydrodesulphurization (HYD) catalysts. A series of reductive Co-Mo/Al2O3 catalysts prepared in the lab and the high-active industrial catalyst (G) were studied by in-situ FTIR using CO as probe molecule. The showed a good relationship with the desulphurization activities of the catalysts. With the increase in MoO3 and CoO loading, the desulphurization activity of catalyst increases, and the infrared spectrum changes with the amount of CO adsorbed on the catalyst. There is a new band at 2179 cm(-1) when the MoO3 loading is up to 20% and CoO up to 4. 16%. According to the activities of the catalysts, the appearance of this new band suggests that the catalyst has higher hydrodesulphurization (HYD) activity. Compared with the infrared spectrum of CO on the catalyst of the same MoO3 and CoO loading by the common preparation method, the catalyst prepared with chelating agents has higher HYD activity and its band at 2 179 cm(-1) is stronger. The infrared spectrum of CO adsorbed on optimum Co-Mo/Al2O3 catalyst prepared in the lab is similar to the highly active industrial catalyst (G). Their bands at 2179 cm(-1) are both very strong and their HYD activities are both higher than the others. Thus, the appearance and the increase of the band at 2179 cm(-1) indicate the increase in the HYD activity of Co-Mo/Al2O3 catalysts to some extent, which could be an effective tool for developing ultra-deep HYD catalysts. PMID:19093557

  18. Modelling Catalyst Surfaces Using DFT Cluster Calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Kröcher

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We review our recent theoretical DFT cluster studies of a variety of industrially relevant catalysts such as TiO2, γ-Al2O3, V2O5-WO3-TiO2 and Ni/Al2O3. Aspects of the metal oxide surface structure and the stability and structure of metal clusters on the support are discussed as well as the reactivity of surfaces, including their behaviour upon poisoning. It is exemplarily demonstrated how such theoretical considerations can be combined with DRIFT and XPS results from experimental studies.

  19. Modelling catalyst surfaces using DFT cluster calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czekaj, Izabela; Wambach, Jörg; Kröcher, Oliver

    2009-11-20

    We review our recent theoretical DFT cluster studies of a variety of industrially relevant catalysts such as TiO(2), gamma-Al(2)O(3), V(2)O(5)-WO(3)-TiO(2) and Ni/Al(2)O(3). Aspects of the metal oxide surface structure and the stability and structure of metal clusters on the support are discussed as well as the reactivity of surfaces, including their behaviour upon poisoning. It is exemplarily demonstrated how such theoretical considerations can be combined with DRIFT and XPS results from experimental studies.

  20. Non-noble metal fuel cell catalysts

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Zhongwei; Zhang, Jiujun

    2014-01-01

    Written and edited by a group of top scientists and engineers in the field of fuel cell catalysts from both industry and academia, this book provides a complete overview of this hot topic. It covers the synthesis, characterization, activity validation and modeling of different non-noble metal and metalfree electrocatalysts for the reduction of oxygen, as well as their integration into acid or alkaline polymer exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells and their performance validation, while also discussing those factors that will drive fuel cell commercialization. With its well-structured app

  1. Olefin metathesis and catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukes, S. G.; Banks, R. L.

    1985-03-12

    Olefins are converted into other olefins having different numbers of carbon atoms by contact with a catalyst comprising an inorganic refractory material containing at least one of tungsten oxide and molybdenum oxide and a promoting amount of at least one treating agent selected from chlorinated silicon compounds, thionyl chloride, and sulfuryl chloride under conditions suitable for the treating agent to promote the activity of tungsten and molybdenum oxides for the disporoportionation reaction.

  2. Role of clay as catalyst in Friedel–Craft alkylation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tanushree Choudhury; Nirendra M Misra

    2011-10-01

    Solid acids have become increasingly important for many liquid-phase industrial reactions these days. Montmorillonite clays (2:1 clay mineral) have been used as efficient solid acid catalysts for a number of organic and liquid phase reactions and offer several advantages over classic acids. Tailor made catalysts can be prepared from clays by suitably adjusting their acidity and surface area by acid activation. In the present work, preparation, characterization and performance of Pt (II) clays, Cu (II) clays, acid clay, and sol–gel hybrids of Cu (II) clays as solid catalysts in a test Friedel–Craft alkylation reaction of benzyl chloride with toluene using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) are reported. Product formation has been analysed by FTIR spectroscopy. The main objective of this work is to show how clay as a solid catalyst affects reaction rates and activation energies. Acidity and dispersion of solid catalysts are twomain factors which govern a catalysis reaction. Kinetic parameter analysis and XRD studies confirm that acid Pt (II) clay and Pt (II) clay dispersed by natural dispersants aremore effective catalysts. In contrast to the reactions using AlCl3, the experimental conditions are non-polluting and the final work up does not require any aqueous treatment.

  3. Influence of hydrogen treatment on SCR catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due-Hansen, Johannes

    reduction (SCR) process, i.e. the catalytic removal of NOx from the flue gas. A series of experiments was conducted to reveal the impact on the NO SCR activity of a industrial DeNOX catalyst (3%V2O5-7%WO3/TiO2) by treatment of H2. Standard conditions were treatment of the SCR catalyst for 60 min with three...... different concentrations of H2 (0-2%) in a 8% O2/N2 mixture, where the SCR activity was measured before and after the hydrogen treatment. The results show that the activity of the SCR catalyst is only negligible affected during exposure to the H2/O2 gas and in all cases it returned reversibly to the initial...... NOx conversion (temporarily higher) after reexposure to the standard NO SCR gas. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) suggests that a fraction of both V(IV) and V(V) were reduced to V(III) during exposure to 2% H2 + 8% O2. However, the distribution of vanadium in oxidation state V(III)-V(V) quickly...

  4. Oxygen-reducing catalyst layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Dennis P.; Schmoeckel, Alison K.; Vernstrom, George D.; Atanasoski, Radoslav; Wood, Thomas E.; Yang, Ruizhi; Easton, E. Bradley; Dahn, Jeffrey R.; O'Neill, David G.

    2011-03-22

    An oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, and a method of making the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, where the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer includes a catalytic material film disposed on a substrate with the use of physical vapor deposition and thermal treatment. The catalytic material film includes a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

  5. Catalyst systems and uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Umit S.; Holmgreen, Erik M.; Yung, Matthew M.

    2012-07-24

    A method of carbon monoxide (CO) removal comprises providing an oxidation catalyst comprising cobalt supported on an inorganic oxide. The method further comprises feeding a gaseous stream comprising CO, and oxygen (O.sub.2) to the catalyst system, and removing CO from the gaseous stream by oxidizing the CO to carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) in the presence of the oxidation catalyst at a temperature between about 20 to about 200.degree. C.

  6. Development of GREET Catalyst Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhichao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Benavides, Pahola T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cronauer, Donald C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    In this report, we develop energy and material flows for the production of five different catalysts (tar reforming, alcohol synthesis, Zeolite Socony Mobil-5 [ZSM-5], Mo/Co/ γ-Al2O3, and Pt/ γ-Al2O3) and two chemicals (olivine, dimethyl ether of polyethylene glycol [DEPG]). These compounds and catalysts are now included in the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET™) catalyst module.

  7. Privileged chiral ligands and catalysts

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Qi-Lin

    2011-01-01

    This ultimate ""must have"" and long awaited reference for every chemist working in the field of asymmetric catalysis starts with the core structure of the catalysts, explaining why a certain ligand or catalyst is so successful. It describes in detail the history, the basic structural characteristics, and the applications of these ""privileged catalysts"". A novel concept that gives readers a much deeper insight into the topic.

  8. Hydrodewaxing with mixed zeolite catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chester, A.W.; McHale, W.D.; Yen, J.H.

    1986-03-11

    A process is described for catalytically dewaxing a hydrocarbon lubricating oil feedstock comprising contacting the feedstock with a dewaxing catalyst, the dewaxing catalyst comprising, in combination: (a) a zeolite catalyst having a Constraint Index not less than 1, (b) an acidic catalytic material selected from the group consisting of Mordenite, TEA Mordenite, Dealuminized Y, Ultrastable Y, Rare Earth Y, amorphous silica-alumina chlorinated alumina, ZSM-4 and ZSM-20, and (c) a hydrogenation component, and recovering a dewaxed product. A process is also described for catalytically dewaxing a hydrocarbon lubricating oil feedstock comprising contacting the feedstock with a dewaxing catalyst, the dewaxing catalyst comprising, in combinations: (a) a first zeolite catalyst selected from the group consisting of ZSM-5, ZMS-11, ZSM-12, ZSM-22, ZSM-23, ZSM-34, ZSM-35, ZSM-38, ZSM-48, TMA Offretite and Erionite, (b) a second catalyst selected from the group consisting of ZSM-12, ZSM-22, ZSM-38 and ZSM-48, the second zeolite catalyst being different from the first zeolite catalyst, and (c) a hydrogenation component, and recovering a dewaxed product.

  9. Catalyst design for enhanced sustainability through fundamental surface chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Personick, Michelle L; Montemore, Matthew M; Kaxiras, Efthimios; Madix, Robert J; Biener, Juergen; Friend, Cynthia M

    2016-02-28

    Decreasing energy consumption in the production of platform chemicals is necessary to improve the sustainability of the chemical industry, which is the largest consumer of delivered energy. The majority of industrial chemical transformations rely on catalysts, and therefore designing new materials that catalyse the production of important chemicals via more selective and energy-efficient processes is a promising pathway to reducing energy use by the chemical industry. Efficiently designing new catalysts benefits from an integrated approach involving fundamental experimental studies and theoretical modelling in addition to evaluation of materials under working catalytic conditions. In this review, we outline this approach in the context of a particular catalyst-nanoporous gold (npAu)-which is an unsupported, dilute AgAu alloy catalyst that is highly active for the selective oxidative transformation of alcohols. Fundamental surface science studies on Au single crystals and AgAu thin-film alloys in combination with theoretical modelling were used to identify the principles which define the reactivity of npAu and subsequently enabled prediction of new reactive pathways on this material. Specifically, weak van der Waals interactions are key to the selectivity of Au materials, including npAu. We also briefly describe other systems in which this integrated approach was applied. PMID:26755756

  10. Chemical imaging of single catalyst particles with scanning μ-XANES-CT and μ-XRF-CT

    OpenAIRE

    Price, S. W.; Ignatyev, K.; Geraki, K.; Basham, M.; Filik, J.; Vo, N. T.; Witte, P.T.; Beale, A. M.; Mosselmans, J. F.

    2015-01-01

    The physicochemical state of a catalyst is a key factor in determining both activity and selectivity; however these materials are often not structurally or compositionally homogeneous. Here we report on the 3-dimensional imaging of an industrial catalyst, Mo-promoted colloidal Pt supported on carbon. The distribution of both the active Pt species and Mo promoter have been mapped over a single particle of catalyst using microfocus X-ray fluorescence computed tomography. X-ray absorption near e...

  11. How to make Fischer-Tropsch catalyst scale-up fully reliable?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, L.; Heraud, J.P.; Forret, A.; Gazarian, J. [IFP Energies nouvelles, Solaize (France); Cornaro, U. [Eni S.p.A., San Donato Milanese (Italy). R and M Div.; Carugati, A. [Eni S.p.A., San Donato Milanese (Italy). E and P Div.

    2011-07-01

    Several players use Fischer-Tropsch catalysts and technologies industrially [1,2] or declare to be ready for industrial application [e.g. 3]. Present R and D aims to further increase capacities per train [4] or improve catalyst selectivity towards middle distillates [5]. For transforming promising laboratory results into industrial reality, representative catalyst testing is of particular importance for slurry bubble column FT. In the Italian eni's refinery of Sannazzaro, a 20 BPD slurry bubble column pilot plant has cumulated more than 20,000 hours time on stream in different campaigns. Non reactive slurry bubble columns corresponding to reactor capacities between 20 BPD and 1000 BPD permitted to determine the profiles for gas hold up and liquid velocities as a function of gas flow, catalyst loading, reactor diameter and internals. A hydrodynamic model based on those data led to design a Large Validation Tool, which can reproduce under reaction conditions a high mechanical stress on the catalyst equivalent to the one experienced in an industrial 15000 BPD reactor. While those tools have proven to be efficient for developing an industrial scale FT catalyst [3], they predict today in a representative manner fines formation, activity and selectivity of improved catalysts and / or for optimization of operation conditions to increase the capacity per train. We compare the here presented approach to others. We have found that it is mandatory to combine chemical stress from the reaction products with mechanical stress as experienced in an industrial slurry bubble column, in order to evaluate in a reliable way catalyst performance stability and fines formation. The potential of improvements are discussed. (orig.)

  12. DEHYDROGENATION CATALYST FOR PRODUCTION OF MTBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this project were to better understand the effect of different catalyst preparation parameters, the effect of different catalyst treatment parameters, and the mechanism of deactivation. Accordingly, catalysts were made using various preparation methods and with...

  13. REACTOR FILLED WITH CATALYST MATERIAL, AND CATALYST THEREFOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sie, S.T.

    1995-01-01

    Abstract of WO 9521691 (A1) Described is a reactor (1) at least partially filled with catalyst granules (11), which is intended for catalytically reacting at least one gas and at least one liquid with each other. According to the invention the catalyst granules (11) are collected in agglomerates

  14. Catalyst regeneration by circulating catalyst in a hydrotreating oil process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanbier, D.; Goudriaan, F.

    1978-02-14

    A process is disclosed for catalytic hydrotreating of a heavy hydrocarbon oil and a light hydrocarbon oil in separate reactors, wherein the hydrotreating catalyst is circulated through both reactors. The process is particularly suited to obtaining long catalyst life when operating at low hydrogen pressures.

  15. Novel Reforming Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfefferle, Lisa D; Haller, Gary L

    2012-10-16

    Aqueous phase reforming is useful for processing oxygenated hydrocarbons to hydrogen and other more useful products. Current processing is hampered by the fact that oxide based catalysts are not stable under high temperature hydrothermal conditions. Silica in the form of structured MCM-41 is thermally a more stable support for Co and Ni than conventional high surface area amorphous silica but hydrothermal stability is not demonstrated. Carbon nanotube supports, in contrast, are highly stable under hydrothermal reaction conditions. In this project we show that carbon nanotubes are stable high activity/selectivity supports for the conversion of ethylene glycol to hydrogen.

  16. Atomistic Processes of Catalyst Degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-11-27

    The purpose of this cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) between Sasol North America, Inc., and the oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was to improve the stability of alumina-based industrial catalysts through the combination of aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) at ORNL and innovative sample preparation techniques at Sasol. Outstanding progress has been made in task 1, 'Atomistic processes of La stabilization'. STEM investigations provided structural information with single-atom precision, showing the lattice location of La dopant atoms, thus enabling first-principles calculations of binding energies, which were performed in collaboration with Vanderbilt University. The stabilization mechanism turns out to be entirely due to a particularly strong binding energy of the La tom to the {gamma}-alumina surface. The large size of the La atom precludes incorporation of La into the bulk alumina and also strains the surface, thus preventing any clustering of La atoms. Thus highly disperse distribution is achieved and confirmed by STEM images. la also affects relative stability of the exposed surfaces of {gamma}-alumina, making the 100 surface more stable for the doped case, unlike the 110 surface for pure {gamma}-alumina. From the first-principles calculations, they can estimate the increase in transition temperature for the 3% loading of La used commercially, and it is in excellent agreement with experiment. This task was further pursued aiming to generate useable recommendations for the optimization of the preparation techniques for La-doped aluminas. The effort was primarily concentrated on the connection between the boehmitre-{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase transition (i.e. catalyst preparation) and the resulting dispersion of La on the {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} surface. It was determined that the La distribution on boehmite was non-uniform and different from that on the {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and thus

  17. MCM-41 Bound Ruthenium Complex as Heterogeneous Catalyst for Hydrogenation Ⅰ: Effect of Support, Ligand and Solvent on the Catalyst Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU, Ying-Min; FEI, Jin-Hua; ZHANG, Yi-Ping; ZHENG, Xiao-Ming

    2006-01-01

    The functionalized MCM-41 mesoporous bound ruthenium complex was synthesized and characterized using elemental analysis, atomic absorption spectrophotometer, BET, XRD and FTIR. Hydrogenation of carbon dioxide to formic acid was investigated over these catalysts under supercritical CO2 condition. The effect of reactant gas partial pressure, supports, solvents and ligands on the synthesis of formic acid was studied. These factors could influence the catalyst activity, stability and reuse performance greatly and no byproduct was detected. These promising catalysts also offered the industrial advantages such as easy separation.

  18. In-situ characterization of heterogeneous catalysts

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, Jose A; Chupas, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Helps researchers develop new catalysts for sustainable fuel and chemical production Reviewing the latest developments in the field, this book explores the in-situ characterization of heterogeneous catalysts, enabling readers to take full advantage of the sophisticated techniques used to study heterogeneous catalysts and reaction mechanisms. In using these techniques, readers can learn to improve the selectivity and the performance of catalysts and how to prepare catalysts as efficiently as possible, with minimum waste. In-situ Characterization of Heterogeneous Catalysts feat

  19. Study of the effect of ionizing radiation for utilization of spent cracking catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalyst is a substance that changes the rate of a reaction. In the petroleum industry the commonly catalysts are used for Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) and Hydrocatalytic Cracking (HCC), which one applied in a specific stage. These catalysts are used to facilitate the molecular chains cracking which will generate a mixture of hydrocarbons. However, the catalyst gradually loses its activity, either by changing its original molecular structure or by its contamination from other petroleum molecules. The application of ionizing radiation (electron beam and gamma rays) over these spent catalysts was studied to contribute with the extraction of metals or rare-earths of high added-value. Tests carried out with FCC catalysts were used the techniques of 60Co irradiation and electron beam (EB) and had as a subject the extraction of lanthanum (La2O3), regeneration and utilization of these catalysts. However, the use of ionizing radiation has not contributed in these processes. Meanwhile with HCC catalysts the irradiation used was electron beam and had as a subject the extraction of molybdenum (MoO3). In temperature around 750°C, these irradiated catalysts of the lower region have an extraction yield twice higher compared to non-irradiated ones, in other words 57.65% and 26.24% respectively. (author)

  20. Effects of loading and synthesis method of titania-supported cobalt catalysts for Fischer–Tropsch synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eschemann, T.O.; Bitter, J.H.; Jong, de K.P.

    2014-01-01

    Because of their high activity and selectivity to C5+ hydrocarbons in the Fischer–Tropsch, process, titania-supported cobalt catalysts have received great interest from industrial and academic, institutions. Here, we report on three catalyst preparation procedures, incipient wetness impregnation (IW

  1. Effects of loading and synthesis method of titania-supported cobalt catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eschemann, Thomas O.; Bitter, Johannes H.; De Jong, Krijn P.

    2014-01-01

    Because of their high activity and selectivity to C5+ hydrocarbons in the Fischer-Tropsch, process, titania-supported cobalt catalysts have received great interest from industrial and academic, institutions. Here, we report on three catalyst preparation procedures, incipient wetness impregnation (IW

  2. Doped palladium containing oxidation catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohajeri, Nahid

    2014-02-18

    A supported oxidation catalyst includes a support having a metal oxide or metal salt, and mixed metal particles thereon. The mixed metal particles include first particles including a palladium compound, and second particles including a precious metal group (PMG) metal or PMG metal compound, wherein the PMG metal is not palladium. The oxidation catalyst may also be used as a gas sensor.

  3. Catalysts for low temperature oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toops, Todd J.; Parks, III, James E.; Bauer, John C.

    2016-03-01

    The invention provides a composite catalyst containing a first component and a second component. The first component contains nanosized gold particles. The second component contains nanosized platinum group metals. The composite catalyst is useful for catalyzing the oxidation of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, oxides of nitrogen, and other pollutants at low temperatures.

  4. Improved Ruthenium Catalysts for Z-Selective Olefin Metathesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keitz, Benjamin K.; Endo, Koji; Patel, Paresma R.; Herbert, Myles B.; Grubbs, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    Several new C-H activated ruthenium catalysts for Z-selective olefin metathesis have been synthesized. Both the carboxylate ligand and the aryl group of the N-heterocyclic carbene have been altered and the resulting catalysts were evaluated using a range of metathesis reactions. Substitution of bidentate with monodentate X-type ligands led to a severe attenuation of metathesis activity and selectivity, while minor differences were observed between bidentate ligands within the same family (e.g. carboxylates). The use of nitrato-type ligands, in place of carboxylates, afforded a significant improvement in metathesis activity and selectivity. With these catalysts, turnover numbers approaching 1000 were possible for a variety of cross-metathesis reactions, including the synthesis of industrially-relevant products. PMID:22097946

  5. Catalyst design for biorefining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Karen; Lee, Adam F

    2016-02-28

    The quest for sustainable resources to meet the demands of a rapidly rising global population while mitigating the risks of rising CO2 emissions and associated climate change, represents a grand challenge for humanity. Biomass offers the most readily implemented and low-cost solution for sustainable transportation fuels, and the only non-petroleum route to organic molecules for the manufacture of bulk, fine and speciality chemicals and polymers. To be considered truly sustainable, biomass must be derived from resources which do not compete with agricultural land use for food production, or compromise the environment (e.g. via deforestation). Potential feedstocks include waste lignocellulosic or oil-based materials derived from plant or aquatic sources, with the so-called biorefinery concept offering the co-production of biofuels, platform chemicals and energy; analogous to today's petroleum refineries which deliver both high-volume/low-value (e.g. fuels and commodity chemicals) and low-volume/high-value (e.g. fine/speciality chemicals) products, thereby maximizing biomass valorization. This article addresses the challenges to catalytic biomass processing and highlights recent successes in the rational design of heterogeneous catalysts facilitated by advances in nanotechnology and the synthesis of templated porous materials, as well as the use of tailored catalyst surfaces to generate bifunctional solid acid/base materials or tune hydrophobicity. PMID:26755755

  6. An assessment on preparation methods and applications of hydrophobic Pt-catalyst in nuclear and environmental field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the long experience of the authors in the preparation, testing and evaluation of the performances of hydrophobic catalysts and based on the reviewed references, this paper presents up-to-date R and D activities on the preparation and application of hydrophobic catalysts for use in nuclear and environmental fields. Unlike the conventional hydrophilic catalysts, the hydrophobic catalysts repel the liquid water and allow the transport of the gaseous reactants and reaction products to and from catalytic active centers. For deuterium and tritium separation, over one hundred hydrophobic catalyst types have been prepared in different experimental conditions and by a large diversity of wet proofing methods. The influence of about twenty parameters on catalytic activity have been also studied. The purpose of this paper is: (1) to provide a database for preparation and selection of he most appropriate method for preparing an active hydrophobic catalyst, (2) to show how to use the hydrophobic catalyst and how to operate efficiently the reactor packed with hydrophobic catalyst, (3) to evaluate the performances and potentiality of hydrophobic catalysts in nuclear and environmental field, (4) evaluation of applications of hydrophobic catalysts in nuclear and environmental fields. As result, the following categories are shown: (1) the hydrophobic catalysts based on platinum and Teflon as wet-proofing proved to have the highest activity and the longest stability, (2) the utilization of hydrophobic catalyst as ordered mixed catalytic packing in the trickle bed or separated bed reactors is more efficient and has been entirely proved on industrial scale for tritium separation process, (3) the extension of the applications of hydrophobic catalysts for other processes which take place in the presence of saturated humidity or liquid water in environmental protection field. The merits of hydrophobic Pt-catalysts for tritium separation are discussed in comparison to other

  7. Industrial applications of enzyme biocatalysis: Current status and future aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jung-Min; Han, Sang-Soo; Kim, Hak-Sung

    2015-11-15

    Enzymes are the most proficient catalysts, offering much more competitive processes compared to chemical catalysts. The number of industrial applications for enzymes has exploded in recent years, mainly owing to advances in protein engineering technology and environmental and economic necessities. Herein, we review recent progress in enzyme biocatalysis, and discuss the trends and strategies that are leading to broader industrial enzyme applications. The challenges and opportunities in developing biocatalytic processes are also discussed.

  8. Profiling Physicochemical Changes within Catalyst Bodies during Preparation: New Insights from Invasive and Noninvasive Microspectroscopic Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espinosa-Alonso, L.; Beale, A.M.; Weckhuysen, B.M.

    2013-01-01

    Cylindrical or spherical catalyst bodies with sizes ranging from tens of micrometers to a few millimeters have a wide variety of industrial applications. They are crucial in the oil refining industry and in the manufacture of bulk and fine chemicals. Their stability, activity, and selectivity are la

  9. A New Concept for Advanced Heterogeneous Metal Catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Bo-Qing

    2004-01-01

    Oxide-supported metal catalysts, having always nano-sized structures in which the metal catalysts are prepared as highly dispersed nano-crystals (typically 1-20 nm) on support oxide particles that are often one to several orders of magnitude larger than the metal nano-particles, are an important class of heterogeneous metal catalysts that finds many applications in chemical/petrochemical industries, in environmental protection, in chemical sensors and in the manufacture of fine and special chemicals. It is believed that catalysis by supported metals is the oldest application of nanotechnology. The literature has been rich in nano-size effect of metal nanoparticles in the metal/oxide catalysts. However, it is until recently that the development of size-controlled synthesis of oxide nanoparticles has made it possible to study the nano-size effect of oxide-support particles. When the particle sizes of an oxide support are reduced to become comparable to the sizes of the active metal nanoparticles, the oxide could deviate dramatically from its function as a conventional support. Such metal/oxide catalysts consisting of comparably sized metal and oxide nanocrystals are better called metal/oxide nanocomposite catalysts or catalytic nanoarchitectures.In this presentation, several attempts with reducing the particle size of oxide supports (ZrO2, TiO2,MgO, Al2O3) to approach the metal/oxide nanocomposite concept will be discussed to emphasize the importance of the support size effect. Examples will be given on characteristics of nanocomposite Ni/oxide catalysts for the reforming of natural gas with CO2 and/or steam, and on Au/oxide catalysts for CO oxidation and hydrogenation of unsaturated organic compounds. It will be emphasized that systematic investigations into the size effects of both the metal and oxide nanoparticles approaching the metal/oxide nanocomposite concept can lead to advanced heterogeneous metal catalysts.Moreover, intensive practice of the nanocomposite

  10. Metal Catalysts Recycling and Heterogeneous/Homogeneous Catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiko Arai

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous metal catalysts rather than homogeneous ones are recommended for industrial applications after considering their performance in activity, separation, and recycling [1]. The recycling of metal catalysts is important from economic and environmental points of view. When supported and bulk metal catalysts are used in liquid-phase organic reactions, there is a possibility that active metal species are leaching away into the liquid phases [2,3]. The metal leaching would make it difficult for the catalysts to maintain their desired initial performance for repeated batch reactions and during continuous ones. The metal leaching would also cause some undesired contamination of products by the metal species dissolved in the reaction mixture, and the separation of the metal contaminants would be required to purify the products. Therefore, various novel methods have been proposed so far to immobilize/stabilize the active metal species and to separate/collect/reuse the dissolved metal species [4]. In addition, knowledge on the heterogeneous and homogeneous natures of organic reactions using heterogeneous catalysts is important to discuss their reaction mechanisms and catalytically working active species. [...

  11. Etat actuel des recherches fondamentales sur les catalyseurs bimétalliques à base de platine, sur support alumine, comparables à ceux utilisés dans l'industrie pétrolière. Current State of Fundamental Research on Platinum-Base Bimetallic Catalysts on an Alumina Support, Comparable to the Ones Used in the Petroleum Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charcosset H.

    2006-11-01

    és promoteurs diminuant l'hydrogénolyse ou (et inhibiteurs par encrassement ; 6 le fait que dans les 158 références de l'article la moitié date de 1976 et après, souligne l'intérêt croissant porté aux recherches fondamentales dans ce domaine. This article mainly concerns the pairs (Pt, Re, (Pt, Ir and (Pt,Ru dealt with in the following order - catalyst preparation (impregnation of the support, reduction by hydrogen ; - characterization of reduced catalysts ; - catalytic activities ; - scale-up tests ta industriel catalysts , - conclusions. Special emphasis is placed on I the difficulty of obtaining data on the degree of reduction which are meaningful concerning the state of the catalyst under normal working conditions, hence the need ta combine several techniques such as DTA, TGA, volumetry, catharometry, ESCA, in-frared spectroscopy, HL thermodesorption and the measuring of catalytic activities ; 21 the dference between the phase diagrams of divided and massed systems ; 3 the usefulness of the hydrogen titration of the unsorbed oxygen ta give evidence for the presence of small pure Mell particles in (Pt, Mell/AI20a catalysts; 4 the dependence of the final state of the catalyst on the activation mode. The pair (Pt, Re con be stabilized in a state of alloy particles having similar superficial and mean composition or in a state of particle mixture of (Pt, Re with an Re content of less than the rated composition and of pure and well dispersed Re. The pairs (Pt, Ir and especially (Pt, Ru are characterized by the difficulty in obtaining on alloy state with a constant composition from one metal particle to another ; 5 variations in catalytic activity due ta the addition of Mell to Pt, reflecting one or several of the following effects a increase in the dispersion of Pt with (or without a change in its intrinsic properties by weak-valence ions of W, Mo, Cr, etc. ; b formation of Mell in a metallic state, eventually producing an alloy with Pt ; c the rote of promoter carbon

  12. Stereospecific olefin polymerization catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercaw, John E.; Herzog, Timothy A.

    1998-01-01

    A metallocene catalyst system for the polymerization of .alpha.-olefins to yield stereospecific polymers including syndiotactic, and isotactic polymers. The catalyst system includes a metal and a ligand of the formula ##STR1## wherein: R.sup.1, R.sup.2, and R.sup.3 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, C.sub.1 to C.sub.10 alkyl, 5 to 7 membered cycloalkyl, which in turn may have from 1 to 3 C.sub.1 to C.sub.10 alkyls as a substituent, C.sub.6 to C.sub.15 aryl or arylalkyl in which two adjacent radicals may together stand for cyclic groups having 4 to 15 carbon atoms which in turn may be substituted, or Si(R.sup.8).sub.3 where R.sup.8 is selected from the group consisting of C.sub.1 to C.sub.10 alkyl, C.sub.6 to C.sub.15 aryl or C.sub.3 to C.sub.10 cycloalkyl; R.sup.4 and R.sup.6 are substituents both having van der Waals radii larger than the van der Waals radii of groups R.sup.1 and R.sup.3 ; R.sup.5 is a substituent having a van der Waals radius less than about the van der Waals radius of a methyl group; E.sup.1, E.sup.2 are independently selected from the group consisting of Si(R.sup.9).sub.2, Si(R.sup.9).sub.2 --Si(R.sup.9).sub.2, Ge(R.sup.9).sub.2, Sn(R.sup.9).sub.2, C(R.sup.9).sub.2, C(R.sup.9).sub.2 --C(R.sup.9).sub.2, where R.sup.9 is C.sub.1 to C.sub.10 alkyl, C.sub.6 to C.sub.15 aryl or C.sub.3 to C.sub.10 cycloalkyl; and the ligand may have C.sub.S or C.sub.1 -symmetry. Preferred metals are selected from the group consisting of group III, group IV, group V or lanthanide group elements. The catalysts are used to prepare stereoregular polymers including polypropylene from .alpha.-olefin monomers.

  13. Catalytic destruction of dichloromethane using perovskite-type oxide catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Jie-Chung; Hung, Chang-Mao; Yang, Bor-Yu

    2004-06-01

    Dichloromethane (DCM, also known as methylene chloride [CH2Cl2]) is often present in industrial waste gas and is a valuable chemical product in the chemical industry. This study addresses the oxidation of airstreams that contain CH2Cl2 by catalytic oxidation in a tubular fixed-bed reactor over perovskite-type oxide catalysts. This work also considers how the concentration of influent CH2Cl2 (Co = 500-1000 ppm), the space velocity (GHSV = 5000-48,000 1/hr), the relative humidity (RH = 10-70%) and the concentration of oxygen (O2 = 5-21%) influence the operational stability and capacity for the removal of CH2Cl2. The surface area of lanthanum (La)-cobalt (Co) composite catalyst was the greatest of the five perovskite-type catalysts prepared in various composites of La, strontium, and Co metal oxides. Approximately 99.5% CH2Cl2 reduction was achieved by the catalytic oxidation over LaCoO3-based perovskite catalyst at 600 degrees C. Furthermore, the effect of the initial concentration and reaction temperature on the removal of CH2Cl2 in the gaseous phase was also monitored. This study also provides information that a higher humidity corresponds to a lower conversion. Carbon dioxide and hydrogen chloride were the two main products of the oxidation process at a relative humidity of 70%.

  14. Impacto dos catalisadores automotivos no controle da qualidade do ar Impact of automotive catalysts in the control of air quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Rangel

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Advanced industrialized nations have experienced severe pollution problems over the past forty years, caused mainly by carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxide emissions from automobiles. Catalyst technology has played a major part in minimizing these emissions as required by even more restrictive laws. The catalyst has been optimized over the years to meet the requirements of high activity and long life. The oxidation of hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide are in advanced development stage while that of NOx catalysts is far less advanced. In the future, catalyst technology is expected to contribute to overcome the challenges to get a cleaner air.

  15. Application of Li2SiO3 as a heterogeneous catalyst in the production of biodiesel from soybean oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Xun Wang; Kung Tung Chen; Shiuh Tsuen Huang; Chiing Chang Chen

    2011-01-01

    Biodiesel was synthesized from soybean oil by transesterification over Li2SiO3 catalyst. The Li2SiO3 can be used for biodiesel production directly without further drying or thermal pretreatment, no obvious difference in the FAME conversion (92.4-96.7%) between the air-exposed catalyst (24-72 h) and the fresh one (94.2%). This leads to important benefits when considering industrial applications of Li2SiO3 as a solid catalyst for storing and handling catalyst without taking special actions.

  16. Ceramic catalyst materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sault, A.G.; Gardner, T.J. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hanprasopwattanna, A.; Reardon, J.; Datye, A.K. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Hydrous titanium oxide (HTO) ion-exchange materials show great potential as ceramic catalyst supports due to an inherently high ion-exchange capacity which allows facile loading of catalytically active transition metal ions, and an ability to be cast as thin films on virtually any substrate. By coating titania and HTO materials onto inexpensive, high surface area substrates such as silica and alumina, the economics of using these materials is greatly improved, particularly for the HTO materials, which are substantially more expensive in the bulk form than other oxide supports. In addition, the development of thin film forms of these materials allows the catalytic and mechanical properties of the final catalyst formulation to be separately engineered. In order to fully realize the potential of thin film forms of titania and HTO, improved methods for the deposition and characterization of titania and HTO films on high surface area substrates are being developed. By varying deposition procedures, titania film thickness and substrate coverage can be varied from the submonolayer range to multilayer thicknesses on both silica and alumina. HTO films can also be formed, but the quality and reproducibility of these films is not nearly as good as for pure titania films. The films are characterized using a combination of isopropanol dehydration rate measurements, point of zero charge (PZC) measurements, BET surface area, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and elemental analysis. In order to assess the effects of changes in film morphology on catalytic activity, the films are being loaded with MoO{sub 3} using either incipient wetness impregnation or ion-exchange of heptamolybdate anions followed by calcining. The MoO{sub 3} is then sulfided to form MOS{sub 2}, and tested for catalytic activity using pyrene hydrogenation and dibenzothiophene (DBT) desulfurization, model reactions that simulate reactions occurring during coal liquefaction.

  17. When Magnetic Catalyst Meets Magnetic Reactor: Etherification of FCC Light Gasoline as an Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Meng; Xie, Wenhua; Zong, Baoning; Sun, Bo; Qiao, Minghua

    2013-06-01

    The application of elaborately designed magnetic catalysts has long been limited to ease their separation from the products only. In this paper, we for the first time employed a magnetic sulphonated poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) resin catalyst on a magnetically stabilized-bed (MSB) reactor to enhance the etherification of fluidized catalytic cracking (FCC) light gasoline, one of the most important reactions in petroleum refining industry. We demonstrated that the catalytic performance of the magnetic acid resin catalyst on the magnetic reactor is substantially enhanced as compared to its performance on a conventional fixed-bed reactor under otherwise identical operation conditions. The magnetic catalyst has the potential to be loaded and unloaded continuously on the magnetic reactor, which will greatly simplify the current complex industrial etherification processes.

  18. When magnetic catalyst meets magnetic reactor: etherification of FCC light gasoline as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Meng; Xie, Wenhua; Zong, Baoning; Sun, Bo; Qiao, Minghua

    2013-01-01

    The application of elaborately designed magnetic catalysts has long been limited to ease their separation from the products only. In this paper, we for the first time employed a magnetic sulphonated poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) resin catalyst on a magnetically stabilized-bed (MSB) reactor to enhance the etherification of fluidized catalytic cracking (FCC) light gasoline, one of the most important reactions in petroleum refining industry. We demonstrated that the catalytic performance of the magnetic acid resin catalyst on the magnetic reactor is substantially enhanced as compared to its performance on a conventional fixed-bed reactor under otherwise identical operation conditions. The magnetic catalyst has the potential to be loaded and unloaded continuously on the magnetic reactor, which will greatly simplify the current complex industrial etherification processes.

  19. Selective recovery of catalyst layer from supporting matrix of ceramic-honeycomb-type automobile catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wantae; Kim, Boungyoung; Choi, Doyoung; Oki, Tatsuya; Kim, Sangbae

    2010-11-15

    Natural resources of platinum group metals (PGMs) are limited and their demand is increasing because of their extensive uses in industrial applications. The low rate of production of PGMs due to low concentration in the related natural ores and high cost of production have made the recovery of PGMs from previously discarded catalytic converters a viable proposition. The ceramic-honeycomb-type automobile catalytic converter contains appreciable amount of PGMs. These valuable substances, which are embedded in the catalyst layer and covered on the surface of the supporting matrix, were selectively recovered by attrition scrubbing. The attrition scrubbing was effective for the selective recovery of catalyst layer. The process was convinced as the comminution and separation process by physical impact and shearing action between particles in the scrubbing vessel. The catalyst layer was dislodged from the surface of the supporting matrix into fine particles by attrition scrubbing. The recovery of Al(2)O(3) and total PGMs in the fraction less than 300 μm increased with the residence time whereas their contents in the recovered materials slightly decreased. The interparticle scrubbing became favorable when the initial input size increased. However, the solid/liquid ratio in the mixing vessel was slightly affected by the low density of converter particles. PMID:20728274

  20. Magnetically Recoverable Ruthenium Catalysts in Organic Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Dong Wang; Didier Astruc

    2014-01-01

    Magnetically recyclable catalysts with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are becoming a major trend towards sustainable catalysts. In this area, recyclable supported ruthenium complexes and ruthenium nanoparticles occupy a key place and present great advantages compared to classic catalysts. In this micro-review, attention is focused on the fabrication of MNP-supported ruthenium catalysts and their catalytic applications in various organic syntheses.

  1. Impeded solid state reactions and transformations in ceramic catalysts supports and catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernő E. Kiss

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Impeded chemical reactions and impeded polymorphous transformation in materials are discussed, as desired effects, for stabilization of ceramic catalyst supports and ceramic based catalysts. This paper gives a short overview about the possibilities of slowing down the aging processes in ceramic catalyst supports and catalysts. Special attention is given to alumina and titania based catalysts.

  2. A review of metal recovery from spent petroleum catalysts and ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcil, Ata; Vegliò, Francesco; Ferella, Francesco; Okudan, Mediha Demet; Tuncuk, Aysenur

    2015-11-01

    With the increase in environmental awareness, the disposal of any form of hazardous waste has become a great concern for the industrial sector. Spent catalysts contribute to a significant amount of the solid waste generated by the petrochemical and petroleum refining industry. Hydro-cracking and hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalysts are extensively used in the petroleum refining and petrochemical industries. The catalysts used in the refining processes lose their effectiveness over time. When the activity of catalysts decline below the acceptable level, they are usually regenerated and reused but regeneration is not possible every time. Recycling of some industrial waste containing base metals (such as V, Ni, Co, Mo) is estimated as an economical opportunity in the exploitation of these wastes. Alkali roasted catalysts can be leached in water to get the Mo and V in solution (in which temperature plays an important role during leaching). Several techniques are possible to separate the different metals, among those selective precipitation and solvent extraction are the most used. Pyrometallurgical treatment and bio-hydrometallurgical leaching were also proposed in the scientific literature but up to now they did not have any industrial application. An overview on patented and commercial processes was also presented. PMID:26188611

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF IMPROVED CATALYSTS FOR THE SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION OF NITROGEN OXIDES WITH HYDROCARBONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ates Akyurtlu; Jale F. Akyurtlu

    2003-11-30

    Significant work has been done by the investigators on the cerium oxide-copper oxide based sorbent/catalysts for the combined removal of sulfur and nitrogen oxides from the flue gases of stationary sources. Evaluation of these sorbents as catalysts for the selective reduction of NO{sub x} gave promising results with methane. Since the replacement of ammonia by methane is commercially very attractive, in this project, the effect of promoters on the activity and selectivity of copper oxide/cerium oxide-based catalysts and the reaction mechanism for the SCR with methane was investigated. Unpromoted and promoted catalysts were investigated for their SCR activity with methane in a microreactor setup and also, by the temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) technique. The results from the SCR experiments indicated that manganese is a more effective promoter than the other metals (Rh, Li, K, Na, Zn, and Sn) for the supported copper oxide-ceria catalysts under study. The effectiveness of the promoter increased with the increase in Ce/Cu ratio. Among the catalysts tested, the Cu1Ce3 catalyst promoted with 1 weight % Mn was found to be the best catalyst for the SCR of NO with methane. This catalyst was subjected to long-term testing at the facilities of our industrial partner TDA Research. TDA report indicated that the performance of this catalyst did not deteriorate during 100 hours of operation and the activity and selectivity of the catalyst was not affected by the presence of SO{sub 2}. The conversions obtained by TDA were significantly lower than those obtained at Hampton University due to the transport limitations on the reaction rate in the TDA reactor, in which 1/8th inch pellets were used while the Hampton University reactor contained 250-425-{micro}m catalyst particles. The selected catalyst was also tested at the TDA facilities with high-sulfur heavy oil as the reducing agent. Depending on the heavy oil flow rate, up to 100% NO conversions were obtained. The

  4. Test and evaluation report of the Catalyst Research Oxygen Monitor, Model Miniox 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckart, James E.; Quattlebaum, Martin; Licina, Joseph R.; Olding, Bill

    1992-07-01

    The Catalyst Research Oxygen Monitor, Model Miniox 3, was tested for electromagnetic interference/compatibility in the UH-60A helicopter under the U.S. Army Program for Testing and Evaluation of Equipment for Aeromedical Operations. The tests were conducted using current military and industrial standards and procedures for electromagnetic interference/compatibility and human factors. The Catalyst Research Oxygen Monitor, Model Miniox III, was found to be compatible with U.S. Army MEDEVAC UH-60 Black Hawk.

  5. Site Identification on Heteropolyacid Catalysts using CO & CO2 and Transmission & Diffuse Reflectance IR Spetroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Kröhnert, Jutta; Jentoft, Friederike C.; Schlögl, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Site Identification on Heteropolyacid Catalysts using CO & CO2 and Transmission & Diffuse Reflectance IR Spectroscopy Jutta Kröhnert, Friederike C. Jentoft, Robert Schlögl Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Fritz-Haber-Institute of the Max Planck Society Faradayweg 4-6, D-14195 Berlin, Germany Introduction Heteropolyacid-based catalysts are used in the industrial production of methacrolic acid from methacrolein [1]. Unfortunately, the (thermal) stability and thus the lifetim...

  6. Multisite organic-inorganic hybrid catalysts for the direct sustainable synthesis of GABAergic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva-Pérez, Antonio; García-García, Pilar; Corma, Avelino

    2014-08-11

    Multisite organic-inorganic hybrid catalysts have been prepared and applied in a new general, practical, and sustainable synthetic procedure toward industrially relevant GABA derivatives. The domino sequence is composed of seven chemical transformations which are performed in two one-pot reactions. The method produces both enantiomeric forms of the product in high enantiopurity as well as the racemate in good yields after a single column purification step. This protocol highlights major process intensification, catalyst recyclability, and low waste generation.

  7. ACIDIC REMOVAL OF METALS FROM FLUIDIZED CATALYTIC CRACKING CATALYST WASTE ASSISTED BY ELECTROKINETIC TREATMENT

    OpenAIRE

    R. B. G. Valt; A. N. Diógenes; L. S. Sanches; N. M. S. Kaminari; M. J. J. S. Ponte; H. A. Ponte

    2015-01-01

    AbstractOne of the main uses of catalysts in the oil industry is in the fluidized catalytic cracking process, which generates large quantities of waste material after use and regeneration cycles and that can be treated by the electrokinetic remediation technique, in which the contaminant metals are transported by migration. In this study, deactivated FCC catalyst was characterized before and after the electrokinetic remediation process to evaluate the amount of metal removed, and assess struc...

  8. STUDY ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SOLID CATALYSTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    IntroductionMixed oxides and oxide-supported metalcatalysts are widely used in the petroleum andchemical industries. Besides aGtivity and selectivity, asuccessful solid catalyst should have good physicalproperties, among which mechanical strength is one ofthe key parameters for the reliable and efficientperformance of a fi'xed bed converterlll. Duringtransportation as well as in operation, the catalystssuffer from mechanical stress, which can besufficiently high to cause fracture of the particle. Theformati...

  9. Active coke: Carbonaceous materials as catalysts for alkane dehydrogenation

    OpenAIRE

    McGregor, J.; Huang, Z; Parrott, E.; Zeitler, J.; Nguyen, K.; Rawson, J.; Carley, A; Hansen, T.; Tessonnier, J.; Su, D.; Teschner, D; Vass, E.; Knop-Gericke, A.; Schlögl, R.; Gladden, L.

    2010-01-01

    The catalytic dehydrogenation (DH) and oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) of light alkanes are of significant industrial importance. In this work both carbonaceous materials deposited on VOx/Al2O3 catalysts during reaction and unsupported carbon nanofibres (CNFs) are shown to be active for the dehydrogenation of butane in the absence of gas-phase oxygen. Their activity in these reactions is shown to be dependent upon their structure, with different reaction temperatures yielding structurally dif...

  10. Activated hydrotalcites as solid base catalysts in aldol condensations

    OpenAIRE

    Roelofs, J.C.A.A.

    2002-01-01

    The development of new catalytic materials and routes to replace environmentally unacceptable processes in the fine chemical industry is emerging due to stringent legislation. Replacement of currently applied alkali bases in liquid-phase aldol condensations can result in diminishing of waste water streams, less corrosion and catalyst re-use. The chosen candidate for this is the anionic clay hydrotalcite (HT), which shows promising results after activation. However, why a treated HT is catalyt...

  11. Aerobic oxidation assisted by ligand-free palladium catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Rui Wang; Chu Ting Yang; Lei Liu; Qing Xiang Guo

    2007-01-01

    Aerobic oxidation of electron-rich benzylic and phenyl allylic alcohols was achieved with high yields with only 0.1 mol.% ofPd(OAc)2 catalyst in the absence of any ligand. This procedure was expected to be valuable for realistic industrial-scale applications from both economic as well as environmental points of view.(C) 2006 Qing Xiang Guo. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Chinese Chemical Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Alumina supported iridium catalysts - preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the method employed in the preparation of alumina supported iridium catalysts, with metal contents between 30 and 40%, that will be used for hydrazine monopropellant decomposition. (author)

  13. Duplex steam reformer: alternate catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The manufacturing feasibility of a duplex steam reformer tube for potential use in a high temperature gas cooled reactor has been successfully demonstrated. This technique consists of explosively expanding the inner tube into the outer tube. To successfully achieve the desired 0 to 3 mil radial gap between the tubes it is necessary to perform the expansion in two steps with an intermediate anneal. A catalyst design that would have replaced the conventional Raschig rings with a metal supported catalyst has been evaluated and it has been concluded that further development and testing are needed before fabrication of a full scale prototype is warranted. Consequently, the immediate efforts are directed towards reevaluating the incentives for developing a catalyst and the probability of successfully developing a catalyst that could be used for steam reforming

  14. Noble metal catalysts in the production of biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, A.

    2013-11-01

    The energy demand is increasing in the world together with the need to ensure energy security and the desire to decrease greenhouse gas emissions. While several renewable alternatives are available for the production of electricity, e.g. solar energy, wind power, and hydrogen, biomass is the only renewable source that can meet the demand for carbon-based liquid fuels and chemicals. The technology applied in the conversion of biomass depends on the type and complexity of the biomass, and the desired fuel. Hydrogen and hydrogen-rich mixtures (synthesis gas) are promising energy sources as they are more efficient and cleaner than existing fuels, especially when they are used in fuel cells. Hydrotreatment is a catalytic process that can be used in the conversion of biomass or biomass-derived liquids into fuels. In autothermal reforming (ATR), catalysts are used in the production of hydrogen-rich mixtures from conventional fuels or bio-fuels. The different nature of biomass and biomass-derived liquids and mineral oil makes the use of catalysts developed for the petroleum industry challenging. This requires the improvement of available catalysts and the development of new ones. To overcome the limitations of conventional hydrotreatment and ATR catalysts, zirconia-supported mono- and bimetallic rhodium, palladium, and platinum catalysts were developed and tested in the upgrading of model compounds for wood-based pyrolysis oil and in the production of hydrogen, using model compounds for gasoline and diesel. Catalysts were also tested in the ATR of ethanol. For comparative purposes commercial catalysts were tested and the results obtained with model compounds were compared with those obtained with real feedstocks (hydrotreatmet tests with wood-based pyrolysis oil and ATR tests with NExBTL renewable diesel). Noble metal catalysts were active and selective in the hydrotreatment of guaiacol used as the model compound for the lignin fraction of wood-based pyrolysis oil and wood

  15. Copper containing hydrocarbon cracking catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lussier, R.J.; Magee, J.S. Jr.

    1975-12-30

    A copper-exchanged zeolite cracking catalyst capable of producing high octane gasoline of increased aromatic and olefinic content is described. Mixtures of copper and hydrogen ions are exchanged into a Y-type zeolite using a combination of exchange and calcination steps. The exchanged zeolite is advantageously combined with a major portion of inorganic oxide matrix to produce a catalyst suitable for use in standard commercial fluid and moving bed cat-cracking units. (auth)

  16. Bio-inspired MOF-based Catalysts for Lignin Valorization.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allendorf, Mark D.; Stavila, Vitalie; Ramakrishnan, Parthasarathi; Davis, Ryan Wesley

    2014-09-01

    Lignin is a potentially plentiful source of renewable organics, with %7E50Mtons/yr produced by the pulp/paper industry and 200-300 Mtons/yr projected production by a US biofuels industry. This industry must process approximately 1 billion tons of biomass to meet the US Renewable Fuel goals. However, there are currently no efficient processes for converting lignin to value-added chemicals and drop-in fuels. Lignin is therefore an opportunity for production of valuable renewable chemicals, but presents staggering technical and economic challenges due to the quantities of material involved and the strong chemical bonds comprising this polymer. Aggressive chemistries and high temperatures are required to degrade lignin without catalysts. Moreover, chemical non-uniformity among lignins leads to complex product mixtures that tend to repolymerize. Conventional petrochemical approaches (pyrolysis, catalytic cracking, gasification) are energy intensive (400-800 degC), require complicated separations, and remove valuable chemical functionality. Low-temperature (25-200 degC) alternatives are clearly desirable, but enzymes are thermally fragile and incompatible with liquid organic compounds, making them impractical for large-scale biorefining. Alternatively, homogeneous catalysts, such as recently developed vanadium complexes, must be separated from product mixtures, while many heterogenous catalysts involve costly noble metals. The objective of this project is to demonstrate proof of concept that an entirely new class of biomimetic, efficient, and industrially robust synthetic catalysts based on nanoporous Metal- Organic Frameworks (MOFs) can be developed. Although catalytic MOFs are known, catalysis of bond cleavage reactions needed for lignin degradation is completely unexplored. Thus, fundamental research is required that industry and most sponsoring agencies are currently unwilling to undertake. We introduce MOFs infiltrated with titanium and nickel species as catalysts

  17. The innovation catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Roger L

    2011-06-01

    A few years ago the software development company Intuit realized that it needed a new approach to galvanizing customers. The company's Net Promoter Score was faltering, and customer recommendations of new products were especially disappointing. Intuit decided to hold a two-day, off-site meeting for the company's top 300 managers with a focus on the role of design in innovation. One of the days was dedicated to a program called Design for Delight. The centerpiece of the day was a PowerPoint presentation by Intuit founder Scott Cook, who realized midway through that he was no Steve Jobs: The managers listened dutifully, but there was little energy in the room. By contrast, a subsequent exercise in which the participants worked through a design challenge by creating prototypes, getting feedback, iterating, and refining, had them mesmerized. The eventual result was the creation of a team of nine design-thinking coaches--"innovation catalysts"--from across Intuit who were made available to help any work group create prototypes, run experiments, and learn from customers. The process includes a "painstorm" (to determine the customer's greatest pain point), a "soljam" (to generate and then winnow possible solutions), and a "code-jam" (to write code "good enough" to take to customers within two weeks). Design for Delight has enabled employees throughout Intuit to move from satisfying customers to delighting them. PMID:21714388

  18. The innovation catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Roger L

    2011-06-01

    A few years ago the software development company Intuit realized that it needed a new approach to galvanizing customers. The company's Net Promoter Score was faltering, and customer recommendations of new products were especially disappointing. Intuit decided to hold a two-day, off-site meeting for the company's top 300 managers with a focus on the role of design in innovation. One of the days was dedicated to a program called Design for Delight. The centerpiece of the day was a PowerPoint presentation by Intuit founder Scott Cook, who realized midway through that he was no Steve Jobs: The managers listened dutifully, but there was little energy in the room. By contrast, a subsequent exercise in which the participants worked through a design challenge by creating prototypes, getting feedback, iterating, and refining, had them mesmerized. The eventual result was the creation of a team of nine design-thinking coaches--"innovation catalysts"--from across Intuit who were made available to help any work group create prototypes, run experiments, and learn from customers. The process includes a "painstorm" (to determine the customer's greatest pain point), a "soljam" (to generate and then winnow possible solutions), and a "code-jam" (to write code "good enough" to take to customers within two weeks). Design for Delight has enabled employees throughout Intuit to move from satisfying customers to delighting them.

  19. Synthetic rubbers prepared by lanthanide coordination catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China is rich in rare earth resources. Rare earth elements, also named lanthanides, are number 58 to number 81 elements in the elemental periodic table. They have unique electronic structures and may form various coordination compounds. In the early 1960s, researchers at the Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CIAC) found the catalytic activities of lanthanide compounds in stereospecific polymerization of conjugated dienes, and published the first paper on this topic in 1964. On the basis of this finding, CIAC launched extensive research activities on lanthanide compounds as diene polymerization catalysts, from a series of fundamental research to the efforts of industrializing the rare earth catalyzed cis-1,4-polybutatine rubber and cis-1,4-polyisoprene rubber. This review aims to summarize the progress in this field in the past half century.

  20. Synthetic rubbers prepared by lanthanide coordination catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN WenQi; WANG FoSong

    2009-01-01

    China is rich in rare earth resources. Rare earth elements, also named Ianthanides, are number 58 to number 81 elements in the elemental periodic table. They have unique electronic structures and may form various coordination compounds. In the early 1960s, researchers at the Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CIAC) found the catalytic activities of lanthanide compounds in stereospecific polymerization of conjugated dienes, and published the first paper on this topic in 1964. On the basis of this finding, CIAC launched extensive research activities on lanthanide compounds as diene polymerization catalysts, from a series of fundamental research to the efforts of industrializing the rare earth catalyzed cis~(-1),4-polybutatine rubber and cis~(-1),4-polyisoprene rubber. This review aims to summarize the progress in this field in the past half century.

  1. Perfluorocarbon-soluble Catalysts and Reagent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montanari, F. [Milan Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica organica e industriale; Pozzi, G.; Quici, S. [CNR, Milan (Italy). Centro sulla sintesi e stereochimica di speciali sistemi organici

    1998-05-01

    The new phase-separation and immobilization technique known as FBS (Fluorous Biphase System) is rapidly becoming popular among researchers, both in industry and in academia. The FBS approach takes advantage of the immiscibility of perfluorocarbons with most organic solvents and water. This allows the easy recover and recycle of catalysts and reagents selectively soluble perfluorocarbons. The present review describes the major results obtained in this field up to 1997. [Italiano] La nuova tecnica di immobilizzazione e separazione denominata FBS (Fluorous Biphase System) sta attirando l`interesse di numerosi gruppi di ricerca, sia in ambito industriale sia in quello accademico. Nei sistemi FBS l`immiscibilita` dei fluidi perfluorurati con la maggior parte dei solventi organici e con l`acqua consente il facile recupero e riciclo di catalizzatori e reagenti selettivemente solubili nella fase fluorurata. Questa rassegna prende in esame i principali risultati finora conseguiti in questo campo.

  2. Promotional Effect of Ce on Iron-Based Catalysts for Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO with NH3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A series of Fe–Ce–Ti catalysts were prepared via co-precipitation method to investigate the effect of doping Ce into Fe–Ti catalysts for selective catalytic reduction of NO with NH3. The NO conversion over Fe–Ce–Ti catalysts was considerably improved after Ce doping compared to that of Fe–Ti catalysts. The Fe(0.2–Ce(0.4–Ti catalysts exhibited superior catalytic activity to that of Fe(0.2–Ti catalysts. The obtained catalysts were characterized by N2 adsorption (BET, X-ray diffraction (XRD, temperature programmed reduction (H2-TPR, temperature programmed desorption (NH3-TPD, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectrophotometry, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The data showed that the introduction of Ce results in higher surface area and better dispersion of active components on the catalyst surface and enhances the amount of surface acid sites. The interactions between Fe and Ce species were found to improve the redox ability of the catalyst, which promotes catalytic performance at low temperature. The XPS results revealed that Fe3+/Fe2+ and Ce4+/Ce3+ coexisted on the catalyst surface and that Ti was in 4+ oxidation state on catalyst surface. Ce doping increased the atomic ratio of Fe/Ti and Ce/Ti and enhanced the surface adsorbed oxygen species. In addition, Fe(0.2–Ce(0.4–Ti catalyst also showed better tolerance to H2O and SO2 and up to 92% NO conversion at 270 °C with 200 ppm SO2 added over 25 h, which suggests that it is a promising industrial catalyst for mid-low temperature NH3–selective catalytic reduction (SCR reaction.

  3. NANOPARTICLES OF TUNGSTEN AS LOW-COST MONOMETALLIC CATALYST FOR SELECTIVE HYDROGENATION OF 3-HEXYNE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Juliana Maccarrone

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-cost tungsten monometallic catalysts containing variable amounts of metal (4.5, 7.1 and 8.5%W were prepared by impregnating alumina with ammonium metatungstate as an inexpensive precursor. The catalysts were characterized using ICP, XPS, XRD, TPR and hydrogen chemisorption. These techniques revealed mainly WO3-Al2O3 (W6+ species on the surface. The effects of the content of W nanoparticles and reaction temperature on activity and selectivity for the partial hydrogenation of 3-hexyne, a non-terminal alkyne, were assessed under moderate conditions of temperature and pressure. The monometallic catalysts prepared were found to be active and stereoselective for the production of (Z -3-hexene, had the following order: 7.1WN/A > 8.5 WN/A ≥ 4.5 WN/A. Additionally, the performance of the synthesized xWN/A catalysts exhibited high sensitivity to temperature variation. In all cases, the maximum 3-hexyne total conversion and selectivity was achieved at 323 K. The performance of the catalysts was considered to be a consequence of two phenomena: a the electronic effects, related to the high charge of W (+6, causing an intensive dipole moment in the hydrogen molecule (van der Waals forces and leading to heterolytic bond rupture; the H+ and H- species generated approach a 3-hexyne adsorbate molecule and cause heterolytic rupture of the C≡C bond into C- = C+; and b steric effects related to the high concentration of WO3 on 8.5WN/A that block the Al2O3 support. Catalyst deactivation was detected, starting at about 50 min of reaction time. Electrodeficient W6+ species are responsible for the formation of green oil at the surface level, blocking pores and active sites of the catalyst, particularly at low reaction temperatures (293 and 303 K. The resulting best catalyst, 7.1WN/A, has low fabrication cost and high selectivity for (Z -3-hexene (94% at 323 K. This selectivity is comparable to that of the classical and more expensive industrial Lindlar catalyst

  4. Industry Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article illustrates projected employment change by industry and industry sector over 2010-20 decade. Workers are grouped into an industry according to the type of good produced or service provided by the establishment for which they work. Industry employment projections are shown in terms of numeric change (growth or decline in the total…

  5. Hierarchical hybrid peroxidase catalysts for remediation of phenol wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiaonan; Corgié, Stéphane C; Aneshansley, Daniel J; Wang, Peng; Walker, Larry P; Giannelis, Emmanuel P

    2014-04-01

    We report a new family of hierarchical hybrid catalysts comprised of horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-magnetic nanoparticles for advanced oxidation processes and demonstrate their utility in the removal of phenol from water. The immobilized HRP catalyzes the oxidation of phenols in the presence of H2 O2 , producing free radicals. The phenoxy radicals react with each other in a non-enzymatic process to form polymers, which can be removed by precipitation with salts or condensation. The hybrid peroxidase catalysts exhibit three times higher activity than free HRP and are able to remove three times more phenol from water compared to free HRP under similar conditions. In addition, the hybrid catalysts reduce substrate inhibition and limit inactivation from reaction products, which are common problems with free or conventionally immobilized enzymes. Reusability is improved when the HRP-magnetic nanoparticle hybrids are supported on micron-scale magnetic particles, and can be retained with a specially designed magnetically driven reactor. The performance of the hybrid catalysts makes them attractive for several industrial and environmental applications and their development might pave the way for practical applications by eliminating most of the limitations that have prevented the use of free or conventionally immobilized enzymes.

  6. Facile catalyst separation without water: Fluorous biphase hydroformylation of olefins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horvath, I.T.; Rabai, J. [Exxon Research and Engineering Co., Annandale, NJ (United States)

    1994-10-07

    A novel concept for performing stoichiometric and catalytic chemical transformations has been developed that is based on the limited miscibility of partially or fully fluorinated compounds with nonfluorinated compounds. A fluorous biphase system (FBS) consists of a fluorous phase containing a dissolved reagent or catalyst and another phase, which could be any common organic or nonorganic solvent with limited or no solubility in the fluorous phase. The fluorous phase is defined as the fluorocarbon (mostly perfluorinated alkanes, ethers, and tertiary amines)-rich phase of a biphase system. An FBS compatible reagent or catalyst contains enough fluorous moieties that it will be soluble only or preferentially in the fluorous phase. The most effective fluorous moieties are linear or branched perfuoralkyl chains with high carbon number; they may also contain heteroatoms. The chemical transformation may occur either in the fluorous phase or at the interface of the two phases. The application of FBS has been demonstrated for the extraction of rhodium from toluene and for the hydroformylation of olefins. The ability to separate a catalyst or a reagent from the products completely at mild conditions could lead to industrial application of homogeneous catalysts or reagents and to the development of more environmentally benign processes.

  7. PURIFIED WASTE FCC CATALYST AS A CEMENT REPLACEMENT MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danute Vaiciukyniene

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Zeolites are commonly used in the fluid catalytic cracking process. Zeolite polluted with oil products and became waste after some time used. The quantity of this waste inevitably rises by expanding rapidly oil industry. The composition of these catalysts depends on the manufacturer and on the process that is going to be used. The main factors retarding hydration process of cement systems and modifying them strength are organic compounds impurities in the waste FCC catalyst. The present paper shows the results of using purified waste FCC catalyst (pFCC from Lithuania oil refinery, as Portland cement replacement material. For this purpose, the purification of waste FCC catalyst (FCC samples was treated with hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 is one of the most powerful oxidizers known. By acting of waste with H2O2 it can eliminate the aforementioned waste deficiency, and the obtained product becomes one of the most promising ingredients, in new advanced building materials. Hardened cement paste samples with FCC or pFCC were formed. It was observed that the pFCC blended cements developed higher strength, after 28 days, compared to the samples with FCC or reference samples. Typical content of Portland cement substituting does not exceed 30 % of mass of Portland cement in samples. Reducing the consumption of Portland cement with utilizing waste materials is preferred for reasons of environmental protection.

  8. Hierarchical hybrid peroxidase catalysts for remediation of phenol wastewater

    KAUST Repository

    Duan, Xiaonan

    2014-02-20

    We report a new family of hierarchical hybrid catalysts comprised of horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-magnetic nanoparticles for advanced oxidation processes and demonstrate their utility in the removal of phenol from water. The immobilized HRP catalyzes the oxidation of phenols in the presence of H2O2, producing free radicals. The phenoxy radicals react with each other in a non-enzymatic process to form polymers, which can be removed by precipitation with salts or condensation. The hybrid peroxidase catalysts exhibit three times higher activity than free HRP and are able to remove three times more phenol from water compared to free HRP under similar conditions. In addition, the hybrid catalysts reduce substrate inhibition and limit inactivation from reaction products, which are common problems with free or conventionally immobilized enzymes. Reusability is improved when the HRP-magnetic nanoparticle hybrids are supported on micron-scale magnetic particles, and can be retained with a specially designed magnetically driven reactor. The performance of the hybrid catalysts makes them attractive for several industrial and environmental applications and their development might pave the way for practical applications by eliminating most of the limitations that have prevented the use of free or conventionally immobilized enzymes. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Towards ‘greener’ catalyst manufacture: Reduction of wastewater from the preparation of Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 methanol synthesis catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prieto, G.; de Jong, K.P.; de Jongh, P.E.

    2013-01-01

    The generation of large volumes of nitrate-containing wastewater is a major issue in the industrial production of solid catalysts such as Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 employed in methanol synthesis. Extensive washing with water is needed to remove nitrate (and sodium) residues in the as-precipitated metal hydroxy-c

  10. Industrial Chain: Industrial Vertical Definition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YifeiDu; GuojunJiang; ShimingLi

    2004-01-01

    Like value chain and supply chain, “industrial chain” becomes the focus of attention. The implication of “industrial chain” has gained a large range of extension. It not only expresses the industrial “chain” structure and relationship of “back and forward”in order or “up and down” in direction, but also it represents a cluster of large scale of firms in an area or colony. It is a network, or a community. Consequently, we conclude that “industrial chain” is a synthesis of industrial chain, industrial cluster, or industrial network.In this article, firstly we will distinguish industry chain from industry. An industry is the collection of firms that have the same attribute, so an industry can be defined by firm collection of certain attribute. We indicate that industrial chain is a kind of vertical and orderly industrial link. It is defined according to a series of specific product or service created. Secondly we analyze the vertical orderly defiinition process from the aspects of social division of labor and requirement division, self-organization system, and value analysis.Non-symmetry and depending on system or community of large scale of industrial units lead to entire industry to “orderly” structure. On the other hand, the draught of diversity and complexity of requirement simultaneously lead to entire industry to be more “orderly”. Along with processes of self-organization, industrial will appi'oach the state of more orderly and steady, and constantly make industrial chain upgrade. Each firm or unit, who will gain the value, has to establish channels of value, which we called “industrial value chain”. Lastly,we discuss the consequence of vertical and orderly definition, which is exhibited by a certain relationship body. The typical forms of industrial chain include industrial cluster, strategy alliance and vertical integration etc.

  11. Regeneration of Hydrotreating and FCC Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CM Wai; JG Frye; JL Fulton; LE Bowman; LJ Silva; MA Gerber

    1999-09-30

    Hydrotreating, hydrocracking, and fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts are important components of petroleum refining processes. Hydrotreating and hydrocracking catalysts are used to improve the yield of high-quality light oil fractions from heavier crude oil and petroleum feedstocks containing high levels of impurities. FCC catalysts improve the yield of higher octane gasoline from crude oil. Residuum hydrotreating and cracking catalysts are susceptible to irreversible deactivation caused by adsorption of sulfur and by metals impurities, such as vanadium and nickel. The gradual buildup of these impurities in a hydrotreating catalyst eventually plugs the pores and deactivates it. Nickel and vanadium adversely affect the behavior of cracking catalysts, reducing product yield and quality. Replacing deactivated catalysts represents a significant cost in petroleum refining. Equally important are the costs and potential liabilities associated with treating and disposing spent catalysts. For example, recent US Environmental Protection Agency rulings have listed spent hydrotreating and hydrorefining catalysts as hazardous wastes. FCC catalysts, though more easily disposed of as road-base or as filler in asphalt and cement, are still an economic concern mainly because of the large volumes of spent catalysts generated. New processes are being considered to increase the useful life of catalysts or for meeting more stringent disposal requirements for spent catalysts containing metals. This report discusses a collaborative effort between Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Phillips Petroleum, Inc., to identify promising chemical processes for removing metals adhered to spent hydrodesulfurization (HDS, a type of hydrotreating catalyst) and FCC catalysts. This study, conducted by PNNL, was funded by the US Department of Energy's Bartlesville Project Office. Fresh and spent catalysts were provided by Phillips Petroleum. The FCC catalyst was a rare

  12. Catalyst containing oxygen transport membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie Robyn; van Hassel, Bart Antonie

    2012-12-04

    A composite oxygen transport membrane having a dense layer, a porous support layer and an intermediate porous layer located between the dense layer and the porous support layer. Both the dense layer and the intermediate porous layer are formed from an ionic conductive material to conduct oxygen ions and an electrically conductive material to conduct electrons. The porous support layer has a high permeability, high porosity, and a high average pore diameter and the intermediate porous layer has a lower permeability and lower pore diameter than the porous support layer. Catalyst particles selected to promote oxidation of a combustible substance are located in the intermediate porous layer and in the porous support adjacent to the intermediate porous layer. The catalyst particles can be formed by wicking a solution of catalyst precursors through the porous support toward the intermediate porous layer.

  13. Novel Fischer-Tropsch catalysts. [DOE patent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollhardt, K.P.C.; Perkins, P.

    Novel compounds are described which are used as improved Fischer-Tropsch catalysts particularly for the conversion of CO + H/sub 2/ to gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons at milder conditions than with prior catalysts.

  14. Catalyst for Decomposition of Nitrogen Oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schryer, David R. (Inventor); Jordan, Jeffrey D. (Inventor); Akyurtlu, Ates (Inventor); Akyurtlu, Jale (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    This invention relates generally to a platinized tin oxide-based catalyst. It relates particularly to an improved platinized tin oxide-based catalyst able to decompose nitric oxide to nitrogen and oxygen without the necessity of a reducing gas.

  15. Operando UV-Vis spectroscopy of a catalytic solid in a pilos-scale reactor: deactivation of a CrOx/Al2O3 propane dehydrogenation catalyst

    OpenAIRE

    Sattler, J.J.H.B.; Gonzalez-Jimenez, I.D.; Mens, A.J.M.; Arias, M.J.; Visser, T.; Weckhuysen, B. M.

    2013-01-01

    A novel operando UV-Vis spectroscopic set-up has been constructed and tested for the investigation of catalyst bodies loaded in a pilot-scale reactor under relevant reaction conditions. Spatiotemporal insight into the formation and burning of coke deposits on an industrial CrOx/Al2O3 catalyst during propane dehydrogenation has been obtained.

  16. Combined XRD and XANES studies of a Re-promoted Co/γ-Al2O3 catalyst at Fischer–Tropsch synthesis conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønning, Magnus; Tsakoumis, Nikolaos E.; Voronov, Alexey;

    2010-01-01

    A cobalt based Fischer–Tropsch catalyst was studied during the initial stages of the reaction at industrially relevant conditions. The catalyst consists of 20wt% cobalt supported on γ-Al2O3 and promoted by 1wt% of rhenium. X-ray diffraction (XRD) in combination with X-ray absorption near edge str...

  17. Platinum group metal recovery and catalyst manufacturing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, H. S.; Kim, Y. S.; Yoo, J. H.; Lee, H. S.; Ahn, D. H.; Kim, K. R.; Lee, S. H.; Paek, S. W.; Kang, H. S.

    1998-03-01

    The fission product nuclides generated during the irradiation of reactor fuel include many useful elements, among them platinum group metal such as ruthenium, rhodium and palladium which are of great industrial importance, occur rarely in nature and are highly valuable. In this research, the authors reviewed various PGM recovery methods. Recovery of palladium from seven-component simulated waste solution was conducted by selective precipitation method. The recovery yield was more than 99.5% and the purity of the product was more than 99%. Wet-proof catalyst was prepared with the recovered palladium. The specific surface area of the catalyst support was more than 400 m{sup 2}/g. The content of palladium impregnated on the support was 10 wt.%. Hydrogen isotope exchange efficiency of 93 % to equilibrium with small amount of the catalyst was obtained. It was turned out possible to consider using such palladium or other very low active PGM materials in applications where its actively is unimportant as in nuclear industries. (author). 63 refs., 38 tabs., 36 figs.

  18. Rhenium Nanochemistry for Catalyst Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim G. Kessler

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The review presents synthetic approaches to modern rhenium-based catalysts. Creation of an active center is considered as a process of obtaining a nanoparticle or a molecule, immobilized within a matrix of the substrate. Selective chemical routes to preparation of particles of rhenium alloys, rhenium oxides and the molecules of alkyltrioxorhenium, and their insertion into porous structure of zeolites, ordered mesoporous MCM matrices, anodic mesoporous alumina, and porous transition metal oxides are considered. Structure-property relationships are traced for these catalysts in relation to such processes as alkylation and isomerization, olefin metathesis, selective oxidation of olefins, methanol to formaldehyde conversion, etc.

  19. Biomass processing over gold catalysts

    CERN Document Server

    Simakova, Olga A; Murzin, Dmitry Yu

    2013-01-01

    The book describes the valorization of biomass-derived compounds over gold catalysts. Since biomass is a rich renewable feedstock for diverse platform molecules, including those currently derived from petroleum, the interest in various transformation routes has become intense. Catalytic conversion of biomass is one of the main approaches to improving the economic viability of biorefineries.  In addition, Gold catalysts were found to have outstanding activity and selectivity in many key reactions. This book collects information about transformations of the most promising and important compounds

  20. Quick Guide to Flash Catalyst

    CERN Document Server

    Elmansy, Rafiq

    2011-01-01

    How do you transform user interface designs created in Photoshop or Illustrator into interactive web pages? It's easier than you think. This guide shows you how to use Adobe Flash Catalyst to create interactive UIs and website wireframes for Rich Internet Applications-without writing a single line of code. Ideal for web designers, this book introduces Flash Catalyst basics with detailed step-by-step instructions and screenshots that illustrate every part of the process. You'll learn hands-on how to turn your static design or artwork into working user interfaces that can be implemented in Fla

  1. EFFECTS OF CATALYST MORPHOLOGY ON HYDROTREATING REACTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    TYE CHING THIAN

    2008-01-01

    Due to the new environmental regulations for fuel quality, refineries need to process cleaner fuel. This requires an improvement in performance of hydrotreating catalysts. Improvements in catalyst activity require knowledge of the relationships between catalyst morphology and activity. Molybdenum sulfide, the generally agreed catalysts that give the best performance in hydrocracking and hydrotreating was investigated for its morphology effects on hydrotreating reactions. Three types of MoS2 c...

  2. Colloidal nanoparticles as catalysts and catalyst precursors for nitrite hydrogenation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Yingnan

    2015-01-01

    The most distinguished advantage to use colloidal methods for catalyst preparation is that the size and the shape of nanoparticles can be manipulated easily under good control, which is normally difficult to achieve by using traditional methods, such as impregnation and precipitation. This facilitat

  3. Profiling physicochemical changes within catalyst bodies during preparation: new insights from invasive and noninvasive microspectroscopic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Alonso, Leticia; Beale, Andrew M; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    2010-09-21

    Cylindrical or spherical catalyst bodies with sizes ranging from tens of micrometers to a few millimeters have a wide variety of industrial applications. They are crucial in the oil refining industry and in the manufacture of bulk and fine chemicals. Their stability, activity, and selectivity are largely dependent on their preparation; thus, achieving the optimum catalyst requires a perfect understanding of the physicochemical processes occurring in a catalyst body during its synthesis. The ultimate goal of the catalyst researcher is to visualize these physicochemical processes as the catalyst is being prepared and without interfering with the system. In order to understand this chemistry and improve catalyst design, researchers need better, less invasive tools to observe this chemistry as it occurs, from the first stages in contact with a precursor all the way through its synthesis. In this Account, we provide an overview of the recent advances in the development of space- and time-resolved spectroscopic methods, from invasive techniques to noninvasive ones, to image the physicochemical processes taking place during the preparation of catalyst bodies. Although several preparation methods are available to produce catalyst bodies, the most common method used in industry is the incipient wetness impregnation. It is the most common method used in industry because it is simple and cost-effective. This method consists of three main steps each of which has an important role in the design of a catalytic material: pore volume impregnation, drying, and thermal treatment. During the impregnation step, the interface between the support surface and the precursor of the active phase at the solid-liquid interface is where the critical synthetic chemistry occurs. Gas-solid and solid-solid interfaces are critical during the drying and thermal treatment steps. Because of the length scale of these catalyst bodies, the interfacial chemistry that occurs during preparation is space

  4. Process intensification of biodiesel production by using microwave and ionic liquids as catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy crisis pushes the development and intensification of biodiesel production process. Biodiesel is produced by transesterification of vegetable oils or animal fats and conventionally produced by using acid/base catalyst. However, the conventional method requires longer processing time and obtains lower yield of biodiesel. The microwave has been intensively used to accelerate production process and ionic liquids has been introduced as source of catalyst. This paper discusses the overview of the development of biodiesel production through innovation using microwave irradiation and ionic liquids catalyst to increase the yield of biodiesel. The potential microwave to reduce the processing time will be discussed and compared with other energy power, while the ionic liquids as a new generation of catalysts in the chemical industry will be also discussed for its use. The ionic liquids has potential to enhance the economic and environmental aspects because it has a low corrosion effect, can be recycled, and low waste form

  5. Highly selective oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane with supported molten chloride catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaertner, C.A.; Veen, A.C. van; Lercher, J.A. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Catalysis Research Center

    2011-07-01

    Ethene production is one of the most important transformations in chemical industry, given that C{sub 2}H{sub 4} serves as building block for many mass-market products. Besides conventional thermal processes like steam cracking of ethane, ethane can be produced selectively by catalytic processes. One of the classes of catalysts that have been reported in literature as active and highly selective for the oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane is that of supported molten chloride catalysts, containing an alkali chloride overlayer on a solid support. This work deals with fundamental aspects of the catalytic action in latter class of catalysts. Results from kinetic reaction studies are related to observations in detailed characterization and lead to a comprehensive mechanistic understanding. Of fundamental importance towards mechanistic insights is the oxygen storage capacity of the catalysts that has been determined by transient step experiments. (orig.)

  6. Recent development of supported monometallic gold as heterogeneous catalyst for selective liquid phase hydrogenation reactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thushara Kandaramath Hari; Zahira Yaakob

    2015-01-01

    The great potential of gold catalysts for chemical conversions in both industrial and environmental concerns has attracted increasing interest in many fields of research. Gold nanoparticles supported by metal oxides with high surface area have been recognized as highly efficient and effective green heterogeneous catalyst even at room temperature under normal reaction conditions, in gas and liquid phase reactions. In the present review, we dis-cuss the recent development of heterogeneous, supported monometal ic gold catalysts for organic transforma-tions emphasizing mainly liquid phase hydrogenation reactions. Discussions on the catalytic synthesis procedures and the promoting effect of other noble metals are omitted since they are already worked out. Appli-cations of heterogeneous, supported monometal ic catalysts for chemoselective hydrogenations in liquid phase are studied including potential articles during the period 2000–2013.

  7. Thioetherification of chloroheteroarenes: a binuclear catalyst promotes wide scope and high functional-group tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platon, Mélanie; Wijaya, Novi; Rampazzi, Vincent; Cui, Luchao; Rousselin, Yoann; Saeys, Mark; Hierso, Jean-Cyrille

    2014-09-22

    A constrained binuclear palladium catalyst system affords selective thioetherification of a wide range of functionalized arenethiols with chloroheteroaromatic partners with the highest turnover numbers (TONs) reported to date and tolerates a large variety of reactive functions. The scope of this system includes the coupling of thiophenols with six- and five-membered 2-chloroheteroarenes (i.e., functionalized pyridine, pyrazine, quinoline, pyrimidine, furane, and thiazole) and 3-bromoheteroarenes (i.e., pyridine and furane). Electron-rich congested thiophenols and fluorinated thiophenols are also suitable partners. The coupling of unprotected amino-2-chloropyridines with thiophenol and the successful employment of synthetically valuable chlorothiophenols are described with the same catalyst system. DFT studies attribute the high performance of this binuclear palladium catalyst to the decreased stability of thiolate-containing resting states. Palladium loading was as low as 0.2 mol %, which is important for industrial application and is a step forward in solving catalyst activation/deactivation problems. PMID:25112971

  8. Interstitial modification of palladium nanoparticles with boron atoms as a green catalyst for selective hydrogenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chun Wong Aaron; Mahadi, Abdul Hanif; Li, Molly Meng-Jung; Corbos, Elena Cristina; Tang, Chiu; Jones, Glenn; Kuo, Winson Chun Hsin; Cookson, James; Brown, Christopher Michael; Bishop, Peter Trenton; Tsang, Shik Chi Edman

    2014-12-01

    Lindlar catalysts comprising of palladium/calcium carbonate modified with lead acetate and quinoline are widely employed industrially for the partial hydrogenation of alkynes. However, their use is restricted, particularly for food, cosmetic and drug manufacture, due to the extremely toxic nature of lead, and the risk of its leaching from catalyst surface. In addition, the catalysts also exhibit poor selectivities in a number of cases. Here we report that a non-surface modification of palladium gives rise to the formation of an ultra-selective nanocatalyst. Boron atoms are found to take residence in palladium interstitial lattice sites with good chemical and thermal stability. This is favoured due to a strong host-guest electronic interaction when supported palladium nanoparticles are treated with a borane tetrahydrofuran solution. The adsorptive properties of palladium are modified by the subsurface boron atoms and display ultra-selectivity in a number of challenging alkyne hydrogenation reactions, which outclass the performance of Lindlar catalysts.

  9. Conversion of xylose into furfural using lignosulfonic acid as catalyst in ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Changyan; Chen, Wei; Zhong, Linxin; Peng, Xinwen; Sun, Runcang; Fang, Junjie; Zheng, Shaobo

    2014-07-30

    Preparation of biopolymer-based catalysts for the conversion of carbohydrate polymers to new energies and chemicals is a hot topic nowadays. With the aim to develop an ecological method to convert xylose into furfural without the use of inorganic acids, a biopolymer-derived catalyst (lignosulfonic acid) was successfully used to catalyze xylose into furfural in ionic acid ([BMIM]Cl). The characteristics of lignosulfonic acid (LS) and effects of solvents, temperature, reaction time, and catalyst loading on the conversion of xylose were investigated in detail, and the reusability of the catalytic system was also studied. Results showed that 21.0% conversion could be achieved at 100 °C for 1.5 h. The method not only avoids pollution from conventional mineral acid catalysts and organic liquids but also maked full use of a byproduct (lignin) from the pulp and paper industry, thus demonstrating an environmentally benign process for the conversion of carbohydrates into furfural.

  10. Process intensification of biodiesel production by using microwave and ionic liquids as catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, Prima Astuti; Abdullah, dan Hadiyanto

    2015-12-01

    The energy crisis pushes the development and intensification of biodiesel production process. Biodiesel is produced by transesterification of vegetable oils or animal fats and conventionally produced by using acid/base catalyst. However, the conventional method requires longer processing time and obtains lower yield of biodiesel. The microwave has been intensively used to accelerate production process and ionic liquids has been introduced as source of catalyst. This paper discusses the overview of the development of biodiesel production through innovation using microwave irradiation and ionic liquids catalyst to increase the yield of biodiesel. The potential microwave to reduce the processing time will be discussed and compared with other energy power, while the ionic liquids as a new generation of catalysts in the chemical industry will be also discussed for its use. The ionic liquids has potential to enhance the economic and environmental aspects because it has a low corrosion effect, can be recycled, and low waste form.

  11. Process intensification of biodiesel production by using microwave and ionic liquids as catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handayani, Prima Astuti [Department of Chemical Engineering, Diponegoro University (Indonesia); Chemical Engineering Program, Faculty of Engineering, Semarang State University (Indonesia); Abdullah; Hadiyanto, Dan, E-mail: hadiyanto@live.undip.ac.id [Department of Chemical Engineering, Diponegoro University (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    The energy crisis pushes the development and intensification of biodiesel production process. Biodiesel is produced by transesterification of vegetable oils or animal fats and conventionally produced by using acid/base catalyst. However, the conventional method requires longer processing time and obtains lower yield of biodiesel. The microwave has been intensively used to accelerate production process and ionic liquids has been introduced as source of catalyst. This paper discusses the overview of the development of biodiesel production through innovation using microwave irradiation and ionic liquids catalyst to increase the yield of biodiesel. The potential microwave to reduce the processing time will be discussed and compared with other energy power, while the ionic liquids as a new generation of catalysts in the chemical industry will be also discussed for its use. The ionic liquids has potential to enhance the economic and environmental aspects because it has a low corrosion effect, can be recycled, and low waste form.

  12. Monolitni katalizatori i reaktori: osnovne značajke, priprava i primjena (Monolith catalysts and reactors: preparation and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomašić, V.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Monolithic (honeycomb catalysts are continuous unitary structures containing many narrow, parallel and usually straight channels (or passages. Catalytically active components are dispersed uniformly over the whole porous ceramic monolith structure (so-called incorporated monolithic catalysts or are in a layer of porous material that is deposited on the walls of channels in the monolith's structure (washcoated monolithic catalysts. The material of the main monolithic construction is not limited to ceramics but includes metals, as well. Monolithic catalysts are commonly used in gas phase catalytic processes, such as treatment of automotive exhaust gases, selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides, catalytic removal of volatile organic compounds from industrial processes, etc. Monoliths continue to be the preferred support for environmental applications due to their high geometric surface area, different design options, low pressure drop, high temperature durability, mechanical strength, ease of orientation in a reactor and effectiveness as a support for a catalytic washcoat. As known, monolithic catalysts belong to the class of the structured catalysts and/or reactors (in some cases the distinction between "catalyst" and "reactor" has vanished. Structured catalysts can greatly intensify chemical processes, resulting in smaller, safer, cleaner and more energy efficient technologies. Monolith reactors can be considered as multifunctional reactors, in which chemical conversion is advantageously integrated with another unit operation, such as separation, heat exchange, a secondary reaction, etc. Finally, structured catalysts and/or reactors appear to be one of the most significant and promising developments in the field of heterogeneous catalysis and chemical engineering of the recent years. This paper gives a description of the background and perspectives for application and development of monolithic materials. Different methods and techniques

  13. Low Temperature Activation of Supported Metathesis Catalysts by Organosilicon Reducing Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mougel, Victor; Chan, Ka-Wing; Siddiqi, Georges; Kawakita, Kento; Nagae, Haruki; Tsurugi, Hayato; Mashima, Kazushi; Safonova, Olga; Copéret, Christophe

    2016-08-24

    Alkene metathesis is a widely and increasingly used reaction in academia and industry because of its efficiency in terms of atom economy and its wide applicability. This reaction is notably responsible for the production of several million tons of propene annually. Such industrial processes rely on inexpensive silica-supported tungsten oxide catalysts, which operate at high temperatures (>350 °C), in contrast with the mild room temperature reaction conditions typically used with the corresponding molecular alkene metathesis homogeneous catalysts. This large difference in the temperature requirements is generally thought to arise from the difficulty in generating active sites (carbenes or metallacyclobutanes) in the classical metal oxide catalysts and prevents broader applicability, notably with functionalized substrates. We report here a low temperature activation process of well-defined metal oxo surface species using organosilicon reductants, which generate a large amount of active species at only 70 °C (0.6 active sites/W). This high activity at low temperature broadens the scope of these catalysts to functionalized substrates. This activation process can also be applied to classical industrial catalysts. We provide evidence for the formation of a metallacyclopentane intermediate and propose how the active species are formed. PMID:27610418

  14. Industrial Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer

    2015-01-01

    Industrial engineering is a discipline that is concerned with increasing the effectiveness of (primarily) manufacturing and (occasionally).......Industrial engineering is a discipline that is concerned with increasing the effectiveness of (primarily) manufacturing and (occasionally)....

  15. Efficient epoxidation of propene using molecular catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovits, Iulius I. E.; Anthofer, Michael H.; Kolding, Helene;

    2014-01-01

    The epoxidation of propene is performed in homogeneous phase using various molecular catalysts and H2O2 or tert-butyl hydroperoxide as oxidants. A comparison between some molybdenum catalysts and methyltrioxorhenium (MTO) shows that the well known Re catalyst is the best among the examined...

  16. Novel non-platinum metal catalyst material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel non-platinum metal catalyst material for use in low temperature fuel cells and electrolysers and to fuel cells and electrolysers comprising the novel non-platinum metal catalyst material. The present invention also relates to a novel method for synthesizing...... the novel non-platinum metal catalyst material....

  17. Silver doped catalysts for treatment of exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Paul Worn (Peoria, IL); Hester, Virgil Raymond (Edelstein, IL); Ragle, Christie Susan (Havana, IL); Boyer, Carrie L. (Shiloh, IL)

    2009-06-02

    A method of making an exhaust treatment element includes washcoating a substrate with a slurry that includes a catalyst support material. At least some of the catalyst support material from the slurry may be transferred to the substrate, and silver metal (Ag) is dispersed within the catalyst support material.

  18. Alternative alkali resistant deNOx catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putluru, Siva Sankar Reddy; Kristensen, Steffen Buus; Due-Hansen, Johannes;

    2012-01-01

    Alternative alkali resistant deNOx catalysts were prepared using three different supports ZrO2, TiO2 and Mordenite zeolite. The majority of the catalysts were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation of a commercial support, with vanadium, copper or iron precursor, one catalyst was prepared...

  19. Effect of a Reactivation strategy based on partial bio catalyst replacement on the performance of a fungal fluidized bed bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega-Clemente, A.; Robledo-Narvaez, P.; Barrera-Cortes, J.; Poggi-Varaldo, H. M.

    2009-07-01

    The Mexican pulp and paper industry discharges approximately 12% of the annual industrial discharges and holds a second position in the ranking of main water industrial polluters in Mexico. Their wastewaters are characteristically recalcitrant and toxic. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of two operational strategies on the performance of two fungal fluidized bed reactor (FBR) for the post-treatment of anaerobically weal black liquor systems (AP-WBL) without supplementation of soluble carbohydrates, i. e. Strategy 1 (continuous operation with the same original, fungal bio catalysts and eventual spikes of protease inhibitor and glucose), and Strategy 2 operation with partial exchange of bio catalysts. (Author)

  20. Mechanism of NO decomposition on perovskite (-like) catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Junjiang; XIAO Dehai; LI Jing; YANG Xiangguang; WU Yue

    2005-01-01

    @@ NOx emitting from industrial and mobile exhaust are serious pollutant in air atmosphere, and the removal of them is an urgent task of today in environment-protection field[1,2]. Although the present three-way-catalyst (TWC)can remove NOx from the mobile exhaust effectively, it will be out of work as lean-burn strategies are used to increase energy efficiency (for example, the diesel engine operated in the lean-burn condition), hence, the technology that can remove NOx in the presence of excess oxygen is desired[3]. In addition, because the capability of noblemetal catalyst for NOx removal is weak at high temperatures (>873 K)[4], it is thus necessary to comprehend the process of NOx decomposition, which would help to solve the problem of NOx removal.

  1. Industry News

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ China Foundry Association's exhibition received 'Golden Finger' award in China's exhibition industry On January 12, 2008, the 8th International Foundry, Forging,and Industry Furnace Exhibition, sponsored by China Foundry Association, won the 'Golden Finger' award in China exposition industry for metal processing, foundry metallurgy and forging products.

  2. Fotografische industrie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij H

    1992-01-01

    This document on photographic industry has been published within the SPIN project. In this project information has been collected on industrial plants or industrial processes to afford support to governmental policy on emission reduction. This document contains information on the processes, emissi

  3. Plasma-chemical Synthesis and Regeneration of Catalysts for CH4 Steam Conversion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    We carried out experimental studies concerning the plasma-chemical synthesis(PCS) of a catalyst for CH4 steam conversion and designed and built the equipment for PCS and/ or regeneration of spent catalyst for CH4 steam conversion. Under the conditions of an electric-arc low-temperature plasma (LTP), we studied the Ni-O-Al system and performed a comprehensive physicochemical analysis of the ultradispersed product obtained. It's the first time worldwide when the conditions of plasma-chemical synthesis and/ or regeneration of CH4 steam conversion catalysts under the conditions of electric-arc LTP are investigated depending on the plasma-chemical process (PCP) parameters and the plasma-chemical reactor (PCP) type (with CW-"cold walls" Tw = 500 K or WW-"warm walls" Tw = 1500 K), samples with a specific surface of 120 m2/g are obtained. Plasma-chemically synthesized and/ or regenerated samples have a homogenous chemical composition similar to that the Girdller (USA) conventional industrial catalyst. It is empirically established that the optimal temperature range in PCR for synthesis of samples with maximum dispersity is (2000 ~ 3000) K. Results from investigation on dynamics and kinetics of plasma-chemically synthesized and / or regenerated catalysts for CH4 steam conversion show that under LTP conditions premises for the formation of catalyst compositions are established. They are reduced 3 to 4 times faster than their industrial analogues. High specific surface of the samples, homogenous composition, high rate of active chemical surface formed by reduction, faulty crystal lattice of catalytically active phases and mostly high catalytic activity make them a potential competitor with their industrial analogues for their probable production in catalyst shops.

  4. Biodiesel production using heterogenous catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    The current transesterification of triacylglycerides (TAG) to produce biodiesel is based on the homogenous catalyst method using strong base such as hydroxides or methoxides. However, this method results in a number of problems: (1) acid pre-treatment is required of feedstocks high in free fatty ac...

  5. Alternative deNO{sub x} catalysts and technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Due-Hansen, J.

    2010-06-15

    Two approaches are undertaken in the present work to reduce the emission of NO{sub x}: by means of catalytic removal, and by NO absorption in ionic liquids. The commercial catalyst used for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitrogen oxides exhibits high activity and selectivity towards N{sub 2}. However, the vanadia-titania-based catalyst used is very sensitive to deactivation by alkali-species (primarily potassium), which are typically present in high amounts in the flue gas when biomass is combusted. By co-firing with large amounts of CO{sub 2}-neutral straw or wood (to meet stringent CO{sub 2} emission legislation), the lifetime of the traditional SCR catalyst is thus significantly reduced due to the presence of deactivating species originating from the fuel. To develop a catalyst less susceptible to the poisons present in the flue gas, a number of catalysts have been synthesized and tested in the present work, all based on commercially available supports. A highly acidic support consisting of sulfated zirconia was chosen based on preliminary studies. A number of different active species distributed on the support were investigated, such as iron, copper and vanadium oxides. However, based on the catalysts performance in the SCR reaction and their resistances towards potassium, the most promising candidate of the formulations studied was the vanadia-loaded catalyst, i.e. V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-SO{sub 4}2-ZrO{sub 2}. This work, together with an introduction to the catalytic removal of NO{sub x}, are described in chapter 3. The remainder of the first part is concerned with the catalytic NO{sub x} removal (chapter 4) and it addresses the upscaling of the best catalyst candidate. The catalyst was mixed with the natural binding clay (sepiolite) to upscale the selected catalyst to the monolithic level, suitable for installation in gas stream with high flows, e.g. a flue gas duct of a power plant. A series of catalyst pellets with increasing levels of sepiolite were

  6. The Danish Industrial Enzyme Industry - National based Companies with strong internationalised R&D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard; Hansen, Anne Grethe

    Danish industrial enzyme industry consists of three main companies (Chr. Hansen A/S, Novozymes A/S and Danisco A/S) which in total has around 75 percent of the world market for industrial enzymes. Industrial enzymes are catalysts used in biological and chemical processes in food, detergents, pape....... There is no definitive answer to this question. But a combination of raw materials, growing markets and a good understanding of production based on science based engineering seem to be a strong argument in this discussion....

  7. Coarse-pored ceramic supports for pyrolysis catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potapova, L.L.; Cherches, B.Kh.; Egiazarov, Yu.G.

    1988-03-20

    One promising trend in improvement of pyrolysis of hydrocarbon feedstocks is the use of heterogeneous catalysts in the process. The industrial use of highly effective catalysts would result in substantially increased product yields and in decrease of energy consumption in comparison with the requirements of drastic thermal processes. The aims of the present work were to obtain a mechanically strong coarse-pored ceramic support for pyrolysis catalysts and to study the influence of various factors on formation of its structure. The support material was made from an industrial ceramic mass of the following composition (%): koalin 30, plastic refractory clay 21, quartz 32, pegmatite 17. Various additives were used for formation of a porous structure: noncombustible highly porous (pumice, claydite), partially combustible (shungite), and completely combustible (SKT) activated carbon). The authors results show that 15 mass % of SKT carbon (particle size 0.1-0.2 mm) and 1-2 mass % of sodium trimetaphosphate should be added to the ceramic mass. The crushing strength of the resultant support samples reaches 550-630 kg/cm/sup 2/, with 34-35% porosity. Under the optimal conditions of pyrolysis of a straight-run gasoline fraction the catalyst obtained by deposition of 12 mass % of In/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and 4% K/sub 2/O on the synthesized support gives a yield of 39-41 mass % of ethylene and 61-62 mass % of unsaturated C/sub 2/-C/sub 4/ hydrocarbons, with 88-90 mass % gasification.

  8. Sixtieth Anniversary of Ziegler-Natta Catalysts and Stereospecific Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janović Z.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This review article highlights the history of the discoveries of organometallic catalysts and stereospecific polymerization of α-olefins, dienes and a number of vinyl monomers by Karl Ziegler and Giulio Natta sixty years ago, their developments and recent progress. As one of the most important achievements in the field of catalysis, macromolecular science and polymer materials, their inventors were awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1963 “for their discoveries in the field of chemistry and technology of high polymers”. These discoveries have stimulated an intensive, both basic and applied research all over the world, up to the present times, leading to great development of the polymer industry. The important biographical data and scientific advancements of K. Ziegler and G. Natta are presented as well. Karl Ziegler, a German scientist, Director of Max Planck Institute for Coal Research in Mülheim, besides many scientific achievements, in 1953 discovered a new process for the polymerization of ethylene into linear polyethylene under mild conditions by using titanium chloride and alkyl aluminium catalytic system that was superior to all existing polymerization. Giulio Natta, an Italian scientist, Director of the Department of Industrial Chemistry at Polytechnic, University of Milan, besides many achievements in petrochemical processes, in 1954 obtained for the first time isotactic polypropylene and Montecatini Co. started its production already in 1958. He conducted pioneering studies on the chain microstructure of synthetic organic polymers and postulated the mechanisms of stereospecific polymerizations. Since the discovery of the Zeigler-Natta catalyst, stereospecific polymerization and processes, significant developments have occurred. The breakthrough in polymerization processes such as fluid bed, liquid phase loop reactor and reactor granule technology led to significant development and growth of polyolefin production. In the 1980s

  9. Industrial electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical and economic scope for industrial process electrification in Canada is assessed in the light of increasing costs of combustion fuels relative to electricity. It is concluded that electricity is capable of providing an increasing share of industrial energy, eventually aproaching 100 percent. The relatively low cost of electricity in Canada offers industry the opportunity of a head start in process electrification with consequent advantages in world markets both for industrial products and for electrical process equipment and technology. A method is described to promote the necessary innovation by providing access to technology and financing. The potential growth of electricity demand due to industrial electrification is estimated

  10. Metallocenes catalysts technology and environment; Technologie et environnement des catalyseurs metallocenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razavi, A. [Centre de Recherche du Groupe TotalFinaElf, Seneffe (Belgium)

    2000-07-01

    The polyolefin industry is increasingly confronted with the challenge to meet restricting environmental regulations. In parallel, the environmentally conscious public opinion (customer), now globally organized, demands even more stringent anticipative actions to prevent any short or long term damages inflicted upon environment. The gradual shift from high pressure high temperature radical polymerisation for production of polyethylene to silica supported CrO{sub 3} based Phillips catalysts and several generations of stepwise improved TiCl{sub 3} based Ziegler-Natta catalyst technology has led to highly efficient catalytic systems accomplishing substantial improvement with respect to environmental issues. The development and progress of the last decade in single-site metallocene catalyst technology finally indicate that the advancing polyolefin industry has moved, in anticipation, towards even more modern technologies meeting the ultimate goal of employing clean processes that provide environmentally green products. (author)

  11. Highlights from Faraday Discussion: Designing New Heterogeneous Catalysts, London, UK, April 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Nico; Manyar, Haresh G; Roldan, Alberto

    2016-06-28

    The Faraday Discussion on the design of new heterogeneous catalysts took place from 4-6 April 2016 in London, United Kingdom. It brought together world leading scientists actively involved in the synthesis, characterisation, modelling and testing of solid catalysts, attracting more than one hundred delegates from a broad spectrum of backgrounds and experience levels - academic and industrial researchers, experimentalists and theoreticians, and students. The meeting was a reflection of how big of an impact the ability to control and design catalysts with specific properties for particular processes can potentially have on the chemical industry, environment, economy and society as a whole. In the following, we give an overview of the topics covered during this meeting and briefly highlight the content of each presentation. PMID:27307017

  12. Highlights from Faraday Discussion: Designing New Heterogeneous Catalysts, London, UK, April 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Nico; Manyar, Haresh G; Roldan, Alberto

    2016-06-28

    The Faraday Discussion on the design of new heterogeneous catalysts took place from 4-6 April 2016 in London, United Kingdom. It brought together world leading scientists actively involved in the synthesis, characterisation, modelling and testing of solid catalysts, attracting more than one hundred delegates from a broad spectrum of backgrounds and experience levels - academic and industrial researchers, experimentalists and theoreticians, and students. The meeting was a reflection of how big of an impact the ability to control and design catalysts with specific properties for particular processes can potentially have on the chemical industry, environment, economy and society as a whole. In the following, we give an overview of the topics covered during this meeting and briefly highlight the content of each presentation.

  13. MECHANICAL STRENGTH AND RELIABILITY OF SOLID CATALYSTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongdan Li; Dongfang Wu; Y.S. Lin

    2004-01-01

    The mechanical strength of solid catalysts is one of the key parameters for reliable and efficient performance of a fixed bed reactor. Some recent developments and their basic mechanics within this context are reviewed. The main concepts discussed are brittle fracture which leads to the mechanical failure of the catalyst pellets, measurement and statistical properties of the catalyst strength data, and mechanical reliability of the catalyst pellets and their packed bed. The scientific basis for the issues on the catalyst mechanical properties calls yet for further elucidation and advancement.

  14. Industrial Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Industrial waste is waste from industrial production and manufacturing. Industry covers many industrial sectors and within each sector large variations are found in terms of which raw materials are used, which production technology is used and which products are produced. Available data on unit...... generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing industrial waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. In addition part...... of the industrial waste may in periods, depending on market opportunities and prices, be traded as secondary rawmaterials. Production-specificwaste from primary production, for example steel slag, is not included in the current presentation. In some countries industries must be approved or licensed and as part...

  15. Deactivation properties of a high-productive vanadia-titania catalyst for oxidation of o-xylene to phthalic anhydride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Georgieva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of a high-productive V2O5-TiO2 (anatase supported O 4-28 catalyst for oxidation of o-xylene to phthalic anhydride was investigated in the first three years of its exploitation in industry. By using a suitable mathematical model, an identification problem was solved and activation profiles of the catalyst along a fixed bed located in the tubes of an industrial reactor were determined. Experimental temperature regimes and yields of the main and side products for different periods of the catalyst life were used. The proper technological regimes providing for a maximum yield according to the requirements of the catalyst producer company were defined.

  16. Automotive Catalyst State Diagnosis Using Microwaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moos Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The state of catalysts plays a key role in automotive exhaust gas aftertreatment. The soot or ash loading of Diesel particulate filters, the oxygen loading degree in three-way catalysts, the amount of stored ammonia in SCR catalysts, or the NOx loading degree in NOx storage catalysts are important parameters that are today determined indirectly and in a model-based manner with gas sensors installed upstream and/or downstream of the catalysts. This contribution gives an overview on a novel approach to determine the catalyst state directly by a microwave-based technique. The method exploits the fact that the catalyst housing acts as a microwave cavity resonator. As “sensing” elements, one or two simple antennas are mounted inside the catalyst canning. The electrical properties of the catalyst device (ceramic honeycomb plus coating and storage material can be measured. Preferably, the resonance characteristics, e.g., the resonance frequencies, of selected cavity modes are observed. The information on the catalyst interior obtained in such a contactless manner is very well correlated with the catalyst state as will be demonstrated for different exhaust gas aftertreatment systems.

  17. RECENT PROGRESS OF INDUSTRIAL ZEOLITES IN CHINA%中国工业分子筛进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘俊; 王涛; 刘志坚; 一镡文芳

    2006-01-01

    介绍了由中国石化催化剂分公司所属催化剂厂生产的用于FCC催化剂的CDY,DOSY和ZSP工业分子筛,以及用于乙苯制备工艺的粒径约为100 nm左右的β分子筛.%The CDY, DOSY and ZSP industrial zeolites used as the FCC catalysts, and the zeolite β with small particle size of~100 nm as the catalyst for alkylation of benzene with ethylene were introduced here. These industrial zeolites were manufactured at catalyst factories of the SINOIPEC Catalyst Company.

  18. Autothermal reforming catalyst having perovskite structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumpel, Michael; Liu, Di-Jia

    2009-03-24

    The invention addressed two critical issues in fuel processing for fuel cell application, i.e. catalyst cost and operating stability. The existing state-of-the-art fuel reforming catalyst uses Rh and platinum supported over refractory oxide which add significant cost to the fuel cell system. Supported metals agglomerate under elevated temperature during reforming and decrease the catalyst activity. The catalyst is a perovskite oxide or a Ruddlesden-Popper type oxide containing rare-earth elements, catalytically active firs row transition metal elements, and stabilizing elements, such that the catalyst is a single phase in high temperature oxidizing conditions and maintains a primarily perovskite or Ruddlesden-Popper structure under high temperature reducing conditions. The catalyst can also contain alkaline earth dopants, which enhance the catalytic activity of the catalyst, but do not compromise the stability of the perovskite structure.

  19. New Titanium-Based Catalysts for the Synthesis of Poly(ethylene terephthalate)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Youngkeun; Yoon, Seungwoong; Hwang, Yongtaek; Song, Bogeun [Honam Petrochemical Corporation, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) is a polymer with relatively low cost and high performance, which is widely used in various applications such as bottles, textile fibers, films and engineering plastics for automobiles and electric industries. Commercial catalysts used for synthesis of PET are in general antimony (Sb) compounds. Antimony(III) oxide, antimony(III) acetate and antimony(III) glycolate are used as a catalyst in 95% of PET manufacturing industries worldwide. The few organoantimony compounds that have been identified in environmental and biological samples are all in the form of methylated Sb-species. The Sb trace element is extremely toxic to mammals, and interferes with embryonic and fetal development, also, carcinogenic to humans. In addition to being found in drinking water, food packaging and soft-drink bottles. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), Sb species concentration lower than 20 ppb are acceptable for drinking water. According to a recent study, in 14 brands of bottled water from Canada, Sb concentrations increased on average 19% during 6 months storage at room temperature, but 48 brands of water from 11 European countries increased on average 90% under identical conditions. Therefore, a very important challenge for polyester catalysis is to come-up with a new Sb-free catalysts with low environmental impact. Intensive efforts have been made to find other stable and more environmental friendly non-antimony catalysts, such as those based on titanium. Titanium-based catalysts have been known for many years and actually are used for polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) and polypropylene terephthalate (PPT) production, however, polycondensation (PC) of PET manufacture is not well studied in literature. To date, only few esterification processes have been applied for the synthesis of PET by titanium catalysts. Herein, we report an efficient synthesis characterization and polymerization of PET for a series of new nontoxic organotitanium

  20. Development of MCM-41 based catalysts for the photo-Fenton's degradation of dye pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Leung Yuk Frank

    The continuous advancement in most industries has resulted in serious water pollution problems. The industrial effluents contain a variety of highly toxic organics such as dye pollutants. Numerous processes have been demonstrated for treating such pollutants. Among them, photo-Fenton's reaction is effective for organic mineralization by hydroxyl radicals generated from the Fenton's reagents (Fe2+ and H2O2). However, there is a drawback in that it requires a separation system to recover the homogeneous ferrous ion in the treated wastewater. In this research, new heterogeneous Fenton's catalysts are developed to solve such a problem and to achieve an efficient mineralization of dye pollutants. Two methods for catalyst preparation, including sol-gel hydrothermal (SG) and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) techniques, were studied in this work. For SG-prepared catalysts, the iron element was successfully doped into the MCM-41 structure. These catalysts demonstrated a good catalytic efficiency but leaching of metal ions from the developed catalyst was found. In the MOCVD technique, a rotated tubular reactor system was developed to synthesize Fe/MCM-41 catalyst with uniform metal dispersion. It was found that using oxygen as a carrier gas during metal deposition was able to increase the stability of the deposited metal. In degradation of a model dye pollutant, Orange II, a total of 85% TOC mineralization was achieved at pH 3. A disadvantage of using Fe/MCM-41 was the reduced efficiency at higher pH. Cu/MCM-41 was thus developed and showed better catalytic activities than Fe/MCM-41 at neutral pH. Having the specific catalytic properties of Fe/MCM-41 and Cu/MCM-41, bimetallic (Fe+Cu) catalysts supported on MCM-41 were developed which show better activities in the Orange II mineralization than those monometallic (Fe or Cu) catalysts. The preparation conditions of the catalysts were experimentally optimized. The effects of catalyst dosage, metal loading

  1. Hydrotalcite-based catalysts for the synthesis of Methyl Isobutyl Ketone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, Ferry

    2006-01-01

    The investigations for more environmentally benign solid base catalysts have increased significantly for the production of bulk as well as fine chemicals due to the demands for cleaner processes and more stringent legislation. An interesting candidate for industrial applications in the production of

  2. Selective oxidation of methyl alpha-d-glucoside on carbon supported platinum catalysts. Doctoral thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuurman, Y.

    1992-01-27

    The selective oxidation of methyl alpha-D-glucoside to sodium 1-O-methyl alpha-D-glucuronate by molecular oxygen on supported platinum was studied in a three-phase agitated tank reactor. Emphasis was put on the intrinsic kinetics and on the catalyst deactivation during oxidation. The obtained results were applied to the design of an industrial production unit.

  3. Catalysts with Cerium in a Membrane Reactor for the Removal of Formaldehyde Pollutant from Water Effluents

    OpenAIRE

    Mirella Gutiérrez-Arzaluz; Luis Noreña-Franco; Saúl Ángel-Cuevas; Violeta Mugica-Álvarez; Miguel Torres-Rodríguez

    2016-01-01

    We report the synthesis of cerium oxide, cobalt oxide, mixed cerium, and cobalt oxides and a Ce–Co/Al2O3 membrane, which are employed as catalysts for the catalytic wet oxidation (CWO) reaction process and the removal of formaldehyde from industrial effluents. Formaldehyde is present in numerous waste streams from the chemical industry in a concentration low enough to make its recovery not economically justified but high enough to create an environmental hazard. Common biological degradation ...

  4. Site Identification on Heteropolyacid Catalysts using CO & CO2 and Transmission & Diffuse Reflectance IR Spetroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Kröhnert, J.; Jentoft, F.; Schlögl, R.

    2003-01-01

    Site Identification on Heteropolyacid Catalysts using CO & CO2 and Transmission & Diffuse Reflectance IR Spectroscopy Jutta Kröhnert, Friederike C. Jentoft, Robert Schlögl Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Fritz-Haber-Institute of the Max Planck Society Faradayweg 4-6, D-14195 Berlin, Germany Introduction Heteropolyacid-based catalysts are used in the industrial production of methacrolic acid from methacrolein [1]. Unfortunately, the (thermal) stability and thus the lifetime of these catalys...

  5. Mechanistic understanding and kinetic studies of highly selective oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane over novel supported molten chloride catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaertner, C.; Veen, A.C. van; Lercher, J.A. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Dept. of Chemistry

    2012-07-01

    Ethene is one of the most important feedstocks for chemical industry, nowadays mainly produced via steam cracking. However, oxidative dehydrogenation becomes a more important process route, allowing to produce ethene selectively and at lower temperatures. Supported alkali chloride catalysts are promising materials. However, the ODH mechanism of this class of catalysts is not well investigated so far. The investigation of the reaction mechanism is thus the aim of this contribution. (orig.)

  6. Thermo-Catalytic Methane Decomposition for Hydrogen Production: Effect of Palladium Promoter on Ni-based Catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Irene Lock Sow Mei; S.S.M. Lock; Dai-Viet N. Vo; Bawadi Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen production from the direct thermo-catalytic decomposition of methane is a promising alternative for clean fuel production. However, thermal decomposition of methane can hardly be of any practical and empirical interest in the industry unless highly efficient and effective catalysts, in terms of both catalytic activity and operational lifetime have been developed. In this study, the effect of palladium (Pd) as a promoter onto Ni supported on alumina catalyst has been investigated by u...

  7. Have Angels Done More? The Steel Industry Consent Decree

    OpenAIRE

    Casey Ichniowski

    1981-01-01

    This study analyzes the Consent Decree of the United States' basic steel industry which reformed plant seniority systems to accommodate issues of equal employment opportunity. The plant-by-plant litigation brought under Title VII and Executive Order 11246 is shown to be the main catalyst which brought representatives of the steel industry, of the United Steel Workers of America, and of the appropriate government agencies to negotiate this industry-wide solution. The principal terms of the ste...

  8. Study on Deactivation by Sulfur and Regeneration of Pd/C Catalyst in Hydrogenation of N-(3-nitro-4-methoxyphenyl) Acetamide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qunfeng; L(U) Jinghui; MA Lei; LU Chunshan; LIU Wei; LI Xiaonian

    2013-01-01

    Deactivation of Pd/C catalyst often occurs in liquid hydrogenation using industrial materials.For instance,the Pd/C catalyst is deactivated severely in the hydrogenation of N-(3-nitro-4-methoxyphenyl) acetamide.In this study,the chemisorption of sulfur on the surface of deactivated Pd/C was detected by energy dispersive spectrometer and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.Sulfur compounds poison the Pd/C catalyst and increase the formation of azo deposit,reducing the activity of catalyst.We report a mild method to regenerate the Pd/C catalyst:wash the deposit by N,N-dimethylformamide and oxidize the chemisorbed sulfur by hot air.The regenerated Pd/C catalyst can be reused at least ten runs with stable activity.

  9. Catalysts for cleaner combustion of coal, wood and briquettes sulfur dioxide reduction options for low emission sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.V. [Global Environmental Solutions, Inc., Morton Grove, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Coal fired, low emission sources are a major factor in the air quality problems facing eastern European cities. These sources include: stoker-fired boilers which feed district heating systems and also meet local industrial steam demand, hand-fired boilers which provide heat for one building or a small group of buildings, and masonary tile stoves which heat individual rooms. Global Environmental Systems is marketing through Global Environmental Systems of Polane, Inc. catalysts to improve the combustion of coal, wood or fuel oils in these combustion systems. PCCL-II Combustion Catalysts promotes more complete combustion, reduces or eliminates slag formations, soot, corrosion and some air pollution emissions and is especially effective on high sulfur-high vanadium residual oils. Glo-Klen is a semi-dry powder continuous acting catalyst that is injected directly into the furnace of boilers by operating personnel. It is a multi-purpose catalyst that is a furnace combustion catalyst that saves fuel by increasing combustion efficiency, a cleaner of heat transfer surfaces that saves additional fuel by increasing the absorption of heat, a corrosion-inhibiting catalyst that reduces costly corrosion damage and an air pollution reducing catalyst that reduces air pollution type stack emissions. The reduction of sulfur dioxides from coal or oil-fired boilers of the hand fired stoker design and larger, can be controlled by the induction of the Glo-Klen combustion catalyst and either hydrated lime or pulverized limestone.

  10. Coke deposition mechanism on the pores of a commercial Pt-Re/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} naphtha reforming catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baghalha, Morteza; Mohammadi, Mohammad; Ghorbanpour, Arian [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi St., Tehran, 11365-9465 (Iran)

    2010-07-15

    Coke deposition mechanism on a commercial Pt-Re/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} naphtha reforming catalyst was studied. A used catalyst that was in industrial reforming operation for 28 months, as well as the fresh catalyst of the unit were characterized using XRD, XRF, and nitrogen adsorption/desorption analyses. Carbon and sulfur contents of the fresh and the used catalysts were determined using Leco combustion analyzer. The pore size distributions (PSD) of the fresh and the used reforming catalysts were determined using BJH and Comparison Plot methods. The Comparison Plot method produced the most reasonable PSDs for the catalysts. Through comparison of the PSDs of the fresh and the used catalysts, it was revealed that coke deposited on both micropores and mesopores of the catalyst at a constant thickness of 1.0 nm. The constant coke thickness on the catalyst pore walls in the naphtha reforming process (temp. {proportional_to} 500 C) implies that coke deposition reaction is the slow controlling step in comparison to the fast mass transfer rate of coke ingredients into the pores. The bulk density of the deposited coke on the used catalyst was calculated as 0.966 g/cm{sup 3}. (author)

  11. SO2 oxidation catalyst model systems characterized by thermal methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatem, G; Eriksen, Kim Michael; Gaune-Escard, M;

    2002-01-01

    The molten salts M2S2O7 and MHSO4, the binary molten salt Systems M2S2O7-MHSO4 and the molten salt-gas systems M2S2O7 V2O5 and M2S2O7-M2SO4 V2O5 (M = Na, K, Rb, Cs) in O-2, SO2 and At atmospheres have been investigated by thermal methods like calorimetry, Differential Enthalpic Analysis (DEA) and...... to the mechanism Of SO2 oxidation by V2O5 based industrial catalysts....

  12. Sustainable catalyst supports for carbon dioxide gas adsorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlee, M. N.

    2016-07-01

    The adsorption of carbon dioxide (CO2) become the prime attention nowadays due to the fact that increasing CO2 emissions has been identified as a contributor to global climate change. Major sources of CO2 emissions are thermoelectric power plants and industrial plants which account for approximately 45% of global CO2 emissions. Therefore, it is an urgent need to develop an efficient CO2 reduction technology such as carbon capture and storage (CCS) that can reduce CO2 emissions particularly from the energy sector. A lot of sustainable catalyst supports have been developed particularly for CO2 gas adsorbent applications.

  13. Autothermal Reforming of n-Hexane over Supported Metal Catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Brandmair, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Autothermal reforming was investigated with hexane as a model compound for alkanes. Therefore, oxide supports (CeO2, ZrO2, Zr0.92Y0.08O2, gamma-Al2O3) were impregnated with metals (Ni, Pt und Rh) and their physico-chemical and catalytic properties were studied. Alumina supported rhodium showed the best and most stable performance. Detailed kinetic studies were performed on rhodium supported monolithic alumina in comparison with a monolithic industrial catalyst in a wide range of reaction temp...

  14. Deep hydrodesulphurization and hydrogenation of diesel fuels on alumina-supported and bulk molybdenum carbide catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Da Costa; Claude Potvin; Jean-Marie Manoli; Benoit Genin; Gerald Djega-Mariadassou [Universite P. et M. Curie, Paris (France). Laboratoire Reactivite de Surface

    2004-09-01

    Deep hydrodesulphurization (HDS) of diesel fuels has been carried out on P (Ni)-promoted or non-promoted Mo{sub 2}2C-supported {gamma}Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and bulk Mo{sub 2}C under standard industrial conditions (613 K, 3 MPa). The effect of the promoter was investigated for different feedstocks on HDS and hydrogenation (HYD) with very low levels of sulfur. The temperature effect was also followed. The HDS conversion indicates that phosphorus promoted alumina supported carbide catalysts are as active as a commercial Co-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst for low levels of sulfur in the feed. Furthermore, the refractory compounds such as 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene are only transformed on molybdenum carbide catalyst in industrial conditions for hydrotreated gas oils. With gas oils with less than 50 wt ppm in sulfur, phosphorus promoted molybdenum carbide catalysts become more active than commercial catalysts for the HYD of the aromatic compounds and the HDS or the HDN of the feedstock. 35 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Stable amorphous georgeite as a precursor to a high-activity catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrat, Simon A; Smith, Paul J; Wells, Peter P; Chater, Philip A; Carter, James H; Morgan, David J; Fiordaliso, Elisabetta M; Wagner, Jakob B; Davies, Thomas E; Lu, Li; Bartley, Jonathan K; Taylor, Stuart H; Spencer, Michael S; Kiely, Christopher J; Kelly, Gordon J; Park, Colin W; Rosseinsky, Matthew J; Hutchings, Graham J

    2016-03-01

    Copper and zinc form an important group of hydroxycarbonate minerals that include zincian malachite, aurichalcite, rosasite and the exceptionally rare and unstable--and hence little known and largely ignored--georgeite. The first three of these minerals are widely used as catalyst precursors for the industrially important methanol-synthesis and low-temperature water-gas shift (LTS) reactions, with the choice of precursor phase strongly influencing the activity of the final catalyst. The preferred phase is usually zincian malachite. This is prepared by a co-precipitation method that involves the transient formation of georgeite; with few exceptions it uses sodium carbonate as the carbonate source, but this also introduces sodium ions--a potential catalyst poison. Here we show that supercritical antisolvent (SAS) precipitation using carbon dioxide (refs 13, 14), a process that exploits the high diffusion rates and solvation power of supercritical carbon dioxide to rapidly expand and supersaturate solutions, can be used to prepare copper/zinc hydroxycarbonate precursors with low sodium content. These include stable georgeite, which we find to be a precursor to highly active methanol-synthesis and superior LTS catalysts. Our findings highlight the value of advanced synthesis methods in accessing unusual mineral phases, and show that there is room for exploring improvements to established industrial catalysts. PMID:26878237

  16. From powder to technical body: the undervalued science of catalyst scale up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Sharon; Michels, Nina-Luisa; Pérez-Ramírez, Javier

    2013-07-21

    Progress in catalysis has been, is, and will always be motivated by societal needs (e.g. environment, energy, chemicals, fuels), with the ultimate aim of improving process efficiency on a technical scale. Technical catalysts are often complex multicomponent millimetre-sized bodies consisting of active phases, supports, and numerous additives in shaped forms suitable for their commercial application. They can differ strongly in composition, structure, porosity, and performance from research catalysts, i.e. laboratory-developed materials constituted by a single bulk or supported active phase in powder form, which are the predominant focus of academic investigations. The industrial manufacture of heterogeneous catalysts, encompassing the upscaled preparation, formulation, and structuring, is encircled by secrecy and is decisive for the overall process viability. Yet despite the tremendous relevance, understanding the added complexity of these multicomponent systems and the consequences for the respective structure-property-function relationships has been largely neglected. Accordingly, our review examines the intricacies of the scale up of heterogeneous catalysts. While emphasising the lack of fundamental knowledge we point out the multiple functions that additives could provide by enhancing the mass and heat transfer properties, acting as co-catalysts, or imparting improved chemical, mechanical, or thermal stability. Recent exemplary studies developing rational approaches to prepare, characterise, and evaluate technical catalysts are analysed in detail and new directions for research in this field are put forward. PMID:23648466

  17. The role of arsine in the deactivation of methanol synthesis catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, R.; Mebrahtu, T.; Dahl, T.A.; Lucrezi, F.A.; Toseland, B.A. [Air Products and Chemicals Inc., Adsorption Technology Center, 7201 Hamilton Boulevard, Allentown, PA 18195-1501 (United States)

    2004-06-18

    The liquid phase methanol (LPMEOH) process is successfully producing methanol from coal-derived synthesis gas on an industrial scale. This process uses a standard copper, zinc oxide, and alumina catalyst suspended in an inert mineral oil in a slurry bubble column reactor. An arsenic-containing species, most reasonably arsine, was found in the feed to the LPMEOH commercial demonstration facility located at Eastman Chemical Company's chemicals-from-coal complex in Kingsport, TN. Laboratory testing showed that arsine is, in fact, a powerful methanol synthesis catalyst poison. At levels as low as 150ppbv, arsine results in a rapid deactivation of the catalyst. Removal of arsine results in a deactivation rate consistent with a clean synthesis gas feed; that is, arsine poisoning stops when it is removed from the feed. We infer that arsine reacts irreversibly with the catalyst under the methanol synthesis conditions. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) of arsenic-containing used catalyst indicated the presence of zero-valent arsenic in an intermetallic surface phase that is structurally related to Domeykite (Cu{sub 3}As). Experimental evidence, thermodynamics, and literature relating to other metal-arsine chemistry were consistent with dissociative adsorption of arsine on the copper surface to form gaseous H{sub 2} and Cu{sub 3}As. To deal with arsine poisoning, we have developed adsorption technology that can remove arsine to levels low enough that catalyst performance is unaffected.

  18. Leaching of vanadium from sulphuric acid manufacture spent catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García, Diego Juan

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Recovery of vanadium contained in spent catalysts from the manufacture of sulphuric acid has been studied in this work, resulting in an industrial multistage process for the treatment of them avoiding direct deposition or dumping. Characterization of supplied spent catalysts samples, confirmed vanadium levels showed in the literature. The study of variables influencing leaching process: type of leaching agent, leaching agent concentration, S/L ratio, stirring speed and temperature, allows to fix the most advantageous conditions using industrial application criterion and verifying that the process is difusión controlled. The work is completed by developing an industrial leaching cycle simulation with the aim of reproducing real performance of spent catalyst, proposing operating conditions, and verifying the non-toxic character of the final residue obtained.

    En el presente trabajo se ha estudiado la recuperación del vanadio contenido en los catalizadores agotados procedentes de la fabricación del ácido sulfúrico, planteando un proceso industrial multietapa para el tratamiento de estos residuos, evitando su deposición o vertido directos. La caracterización de las muestras de catalizadores agotados disponibles confirmó los valores encontrados en la bibliografía. Se estudiaron las variables que influyen en el proceso de lixiviación (tipo de agente de lixiviación y concentración del mismo, relación S/L, velocidad de agitación y temperatura definiendo las condiciones más adecuadas desde el punto de vista industrial y verificando que el proceso está controlado por mecanismos difusionales. El trabajo se completa con la simulación de un ciclo industrial de lavado del catalizador y la verificación de la nula toxicidad de los lixiviados obtenidos por degradación del residuo final. 24 Aplicación de la resistencia de ruido al estudio de pinturas ricas en zinc Noise resistance applied to the study of zinc rich paints

  19. Industrial Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Dean; Harden, Thomas K.

    Robots are mechanical devices that can be programmed to perform some task of manipulation or locomotion under automatic control. This paper discusses: (1) early developments of the robotics industry in the United States; (2) the present structure of the industry; (3) noneconomic factors related to the use of robots; (4) labor considerations…

  20. Functionalization of Carbon Nanofibres Obtained by Floating Catalyst Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Fernández

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The excellent physicochemical and electrical properties of carbon nanofibres (CNF combined with the possibility of being produced at industrial scale at reasonable costs have promoted the interest in their use in very diverse areas. However, there are still some drawbacks that must be solved in order to optimize their set of properties such as the presence of impurities or the imperfections in the crystalline structure. In this work, different modification treatments of CNFs produced by the floating catalyst method have been studied. Three types of modification processes have been explored that can be grouped as mechanical, thermal, and chemical functionalization processes. Mechanical processing has allowed solving the agglomeration problem related to CNFs produced by floating catalyst method and the resulting modified product ensures the secure handling of carbon nanofibres. Thermal and chemical treatments lead to purer and more crystalline products by removing catalyst impurities and amorphous carbon. Functionalization processes explored in this work open the possibility of customized posttreatment of carbon nanofibres according to the desired requirements.

  1. Bimetallic catalysts for upgrading of biomass to fuels and chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, David Martin; Wettstein, Stephanie G; Dumesic, James A

    2012-12-21

    Research interest in biomass conversion to fuels and chemicals has increased significantly in the last decade as the necessity for a renewable source of carbon has become more evident. Accordingly, many different reactions and processes to convert biomass into high-value products and fuels have been proposed in the literature. Special attention has been given to the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass, which does not compete with food sources and is widely available as a low cost feedstock. In this review, we start with a brief introduction on lignocellulose and the different chemical structures of its components: cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. These three components allow for the production of different chemicals after fractionation. After a brief overview of the main reactions involved in biomass conversion, we focus on those where bimetallic catalysts are playing an important role. Although the reactions are similar for cellulose and hemicellulose, which contain C(6) and C(5) sugars, respectively, different products are obtained, and therefore, they have been reviewed separately. The third major fraction of lignocellulose that we address is lignin, which has significant challenges to overcome, as its structure makes catalytic processing more challenging. Bimetallic catalysts offer the possibility of enabling lignocellulosic processing to become a larger part of the biofuels and renewable chemical industry. This review summarizes recent results published in the literature for biomass upgrading reactions using bimetallic catalysts. PMID:22872312

  2. Characterization and functionalities of Pd/hydrotalcite catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naresh, Dhachapally; Kumar, Vanama Pavan; Harisekhar, Mitta; Nagaraju, Nekkala; Putrakumar, Balla; Chary, Komandur V. R.

    2014-09-01

    A series of palladium supported on calcined hydrotalcite (CHT) catalysts with varying palladium (Pd) loadings (1.0-8.0 wt%) were prepared by impregnation method. Their catalytic performance was evaluated for the reductive amination of phenol to aniline that showed a tremendous interest in the chemical industry. The catalysts were characterized by BET surface area, XRD, TEM, XPS, TPR of H2, TPD of CO2 and CO chemisorption. BET surface area decreased continuously with increase in Pd content. XRD results confirmed the changes in the crystalline phases with altering Pd content. TEM results showed the formation of fine particles at lower loadings and agglomerates at higher loadings. TPR profiles revealed that the reducibility increases with increase of Pd loading. CO2 TPD results illustrate the catalysts basicity increases with increase of Pd loading up to 4.0 wt% and decreases at higher loadings. Pd dispersion, metal area and crystallite sizes were determined by CO chemisorption method. Pd dispersion and metal area decreases with increase of Pd content and crystallite sizes. The results demonstrated that the Pd dispersion and basic properties are depending on the Pd loading. The catalytic performance clearly showed that the increase Pd loading the conversion of phenol increased up to 2.0 wt% and level off beyond the loading. The catalytic properties are well correlated with the active Pd sites determined by CO chemisorption, dispersion and basicity.

  3. Industry honoured

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    CERN has organised a day to thank industry for its exceptional contributions to the LHC project. Lucio Rossi addresses CERN’s industrial partners in the Main Auditorium.The LHC inauguration provided an opportunity for CERN to thank all those who have contributed to transforming this technological dream into reality. Industry has been a major player in this adventure. Over the last decade it has lent its support to CERN’s teams and participating institutes in developing, building and assembling the machine, its experiments and the computing infrastructure. CERN involved its industrial partners in the LHC inauguration by organising a special industry prize-giving day on 20 October. Over 70 firms accepted the invitation. The firms not only made fundamental contributions to the project, but some have also supported LHC events in 2008 and the inauguration ceremony through generous donations, which have been coordinated by Carmen Dell’Erba, who is responsible for secu...

  4. Catalysts for decomposing ozone tail gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chang-an; SUN De-zhi; WANG Hui; LI Wei

    2003-01-01

    The preparation of immobilizing-catalysts for decomposing ozone by using dipping method was studied. XRD, XPS and TEM were used to characterize the catalysts. The three kinds of catalysts were selected preferentially, and their catalytic activities were investigated. The results showed that the catalyst with activated carbon dipping acetate (active components are Mn: Cu = 3:2, active component proportion in catalyst is 15%, calcination temperature is 200℃ ) has the best catalytic activity for ozone decomposing. One gram of catalyst can decompose 17.6 g ozone at initial ozone concentration of 2.5 g/m3 and the residence time in reactor of 0.1 s. The experimental results also indicated that humidity of reaction system had negative effect on catalytic activity.

  5. EFFECTS OF CATALYST MORPHOLOGY ON HYDROTREATING REACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TYE CHING THIAN

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to the new environmental regulations for fuel quality, refineries need to process cleaner fuel. This requires an improvement in performance of hydrotreating catalysts. Improvements in catalyst activity require knowledge of the relationships between catalyst morphology and activity. Molybdenum sulfide, the generally agreed catalysts that give the best performance in hydrocracking and hydrotreating was investigated for its morphology effects on hydrotreating reactions. Three types of MoS2 catalysts with different morphology were studied. They are crystalline MoS2, exfoliated MoS2 and MoS2 derived from a precursor, molybdenum naphthenate. Exfoliated MoS2 with minimal long range order, with much higher rim edges has shown relative higher hydrogenation activity. Generally, results of MoS2 catalyst activities in hydrogenation, hydrodesulfurization, hydrodenitrogenation and hydrideoxy¬gena¬tion are in agreement with the rim-edge model.

  6. Organic synthesis with olefin metathesis catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grubbs, R.H. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Over the past nine years, early transition metal catalysts for the ring opening metathesis polymerization of cyclic olefins have been developed. These catalysts are simple organometallic complexes containing metal carbon multiple bonds that in most cases polymerize olefins by a living process. These catalysts have been used to prepare a family of near monodispersed and structurally homogeneous polymers. A series of group VII ROMP catalysts that allow a wide range of functionality to be incorporated into the polymer side chains have been prepared. The most important member of this family of complexes are the bisphosphinedihalo-ruthenium carbene complexes. These polymerization catalysts can also be used in the synthesis of fine chemicals by ring closing (RCM) and vinyl coupling reactions. The availability of the group VII catalysts allow metathesis to be carried out on highly functionalized substrates such as polypeptides and in unusual environments such as in aqueous emulsions.

  7. Hydroprocessing full-range of heavy oils and bitumen using ultradispersed catalysts at low severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, Enzo

    The progressive exhaustion of light crude oils is forcing the petroleum industry to explore new alternatives for the exploitation of unconventional oils. New approaches are searching for technologies able to produce, transport and refine these feedstocks at lower costs, in which symbiotic processes between the enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and the conventional upgrading technologies are under investigation. The process explored in this thesis is an interesting alternative for in-situ upgrading of these crude oils in the presence of ultradispersed (UD) catalysts, which are included as a disperse phase able to circulate along with the processed feed. The objectives of this work are: (a) study the performance of UD catalysts in the presence of a full range (non fractioned) heavy oil and bitumen and (b) evaluate the recyclability of the UD catalysts. Four different heavy crude oils were evaluated in the presence with UD catalysts at a total pressure of 2.8 MPa, residence time of 8 hours and reaction temperatures from 360 up to 400ºC. Thermal and catalytic hydro-processing were compared in terms of conversion and product stability. A comparison between the different crude oils was additionally derived in terms of SARA, initial micro-carbon content and virgin oil stability among other properties. Advantages of catalytic hydro-processing over thermal hydro-processing were evidenced, with UD catalysts playing an essential hydrogenating role while retarding coke formation; microcarbon and asphaltenes reduction in the presence of UD catalysts was observed. To evaluate the feasibility of recycling the UD catalysts, a micro-slurry recycled unit was developed as part of this research. These main results showed: (a) a successful design of this unit, (b) that temperature, LHSV and fractional recycling ratio have more impact on VGO conversion, while pressure has almost no effect, and (c) an UD catalysts agglomeration process was detected, however this process is slow and reversible.

  8. Highly Selective Ruthenium Metathesis Catalysts for Ethenolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Renee M.; Keitz, Benjamin K.; Champagne, Timothy M.; Grubbs, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    N-aryl, N-alkyl N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ruthenium metathesis catalysts are highly selective toward the ethenolysis of methyl oleate, giving selectivity as high as 95% for the kinetic, ethenolysis products over the thermodynamic, self-metathesis products. The examples described herein represent some of the most selective NHC-based ruthenium catalysts for ethenolysis reactions to date. Furthermore, many of these catalysts show unusual preference and stability toward propagating as a methyl...

  9. Examining the surfaces in used platinum catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Trumić B.; Stanković D.; Trujić V.

    2009-01-01

    For the purpose of finding more advanced platinum catalyst manufacturing technologies and achieving a higher degree of ammonia oxidation, metallographic characterization has been done on the surface of catalyst gauzes and catalyst gripper gauzes made from platinum and palladium alloys. For the examined samples of gauzes as well as the cross section of the wires, a chemical analysis was provided. The purpose of this paper is the metallographic characterization of examined alloys carried out by...

  10. Manufacture of Catalyst Systems for Ammonia Conversion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAKH S.V.; SAVENKOV D.A.

    2012-01-01

    Platinum catalyst gauzes have been in use since the moment of development of the process of catalyst oxidation of ammonia for production of nitric acid or hydrocyanic acid.Catalyst gauzes are usually made of platinum or its alloys with rhodium and palladium.These precious metals have remarkable properties that make them ideal catalysts for acceleration of the ammonia/oxygen reaction.In 2008,OJSC "SIC ‘Supermetal’" and Umicore AG&Co.KG launched a production line for Pt-alloy-based catalyst systems to be used for ammonia oxidation in the production of weak nitric acid.Catalyst systems consist of a pack of catalyst gauzes and a pack of catchment gauzes,which are made using flat-bed knitting machines and wire-cloth looms.Today,up-to-date catalyst systems MKSpreciseTM are being manufactured,the basic advantages of which are an individual structure of gauzes and composition of the material,which allows to define precisely the position of each gauze in the catalyst pack,a high activity of the catalyst pack,direct catching of platinum and rhodium in the catalyst system,and a reasonable combination of single- and multilayer types of gauzes.This makes it possible to vary the configuration of the catalyst and select an optimum composition of the system to ensure the maximum efficiency of the ammonia oxidation process.We also produce the catchment systems that allow to find the best decision from the economic point view for each individual case.

  11. Catalysts for Dehydrogenation of ammonia boranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinekey, Dennis M.

    2014-12-19

    Several effective homogeneous catalysts for the dehydrogenation of amine boranes have been developed. The best catalyst uses an iridium complex, and is capable of dehydrogenating H3NBH3 (AB) and CH3NH2BH3 (MeAB) at comparable rates. Thermodynamic measurements using this catalyst demonstrate that the dehydrogenation of AB and MeAB is substantially exothermic, which has important implications for regeneration.

  12. Thermally Stable, Latent Olefin Metathesis Catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Renee M.; Fedorov, Alexey; Keitz, Benjamin K.; Grubbs, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    Highly thermally stable N-aryl,N-alkyl N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ruthenium catalysts were designed and synthesized for latent olefin metathesis. These catalysts showed excellent latent behavior toward metathesis reactions, whereby the complexes were inactive at ambient temperature and initiated at elevated temperatures, a challenging property to achieve with second generation catalysts. A sterically hindered N-tert-butyl substituent on the NHC ligand of the ruthenium complex was found to i...

  13. POLYMER-SUPPORTED LEWIS ACID CATALYSTS. VI. POLYSTYRENE-BONDED STANNIC CHLORIDE CATALYST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAN Ruicheng; FU Diankui

    1991-01-01

    A polystyrene-bonded stannic chloride catalyst was synthesized by the method of lithium polystyryl combined with stannic chloride. This catalyst is a polymeric organometallic compound containing 0.25 mmol Sn(IV)/g catalyst. The catalyst showed sufficient stability and catalytic activity in organic reaction such as esterification, acetalation and ketal formation, and it could be reused many times without losing its catalytic activity.

  14. Cationic ruthenium alkylidene catalysts bearing phosphine ligands

    OpenAIRE

    Endo, Koji; Grubbs, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of highly active catalysts and the success of ionic liquid immobilized systems have accelerated attention to a new class of cationic metathesis catalysts. We herein report the facile syntheses of cationic ruthenium catalysts bear-ing bulky phosphine ligands. Simple ligand exchange using silver(I) salts of non-coordinating or weakly coordinating anions pro-vided either PPh3 or chelating Ph2P(CH2)nPPh2 (n = 2 or 3) ligated cationic catalysts. The structures of these newly reported...

  15. Request for Information from entities interested in commercializing Laboratory-developed homogeneous catalyst technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Intrator, Miranda Huang [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-25

    Many industrial catalysts used for homogeneous hydrogenation and dehydrogenation of unsaturated substrates are derived from metal complexes that include (air-sensitive) ligands that are often expensive and difficult to synthesize. In particular, catalysts used for many hydrogenations are based on phosphorus containing ligands (in particular PNP pincer systems). These ligands are often difficult to make, are costly, are constrained to having two carbon atoms in the ligand backbone and are susceptible to oxidation at phosphorus, making their use somewhat complicated. Los Alamos researchers have recently developed a new and novel set of ligands that are based on a NNS (ENENES) skeleton (i.e. no phosphorus donors, just nitrogen and sulfur).

  16. CATALYST-ASSISTED CONVERSION OF PYROLYSIS BIO-OIL INTO FUELS

    OpenAIRE

    Mikulec, Jozef; Polakovičova, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    The aldol condensation of model compounds furfural and acetone on the selected base catalysts have been performed. The activity of MgO was compared with industrially produced hydrotalcite and the series laboratory prepared hydrotalcites. Si×MAl2O4 hydrotalcites (M = Mg, Zn, Ni, Co, Cu, and Fe) were prepared by the sol-gel method at low calcination temperature of 300°C. The properties of the catalysts were evaluated by XRD and BET technique and they had a mesoporous structure. The aldol co...

  17. Incubation Programs from Public Research Organizations as Catalysts for Open Business Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven H. De Cleyn

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In many economies, new knowledge and technology creation and transfer towards local entities and new startups have been recognized as catalysts for industry renewal and tools for safeguarding (or even enhancing a region’s employment and prosperity. This article presents a case study of iMinds, a network organization in Flanders, Belgium. The organization fosters interdisciplinary research in information and communication technologies (ICT and strongly engages in transferring these new technologies towards local actors and in creating and supporting new startups. iMinds’ incubation and entrepreneurship programs act as catalysts for open innovation and company startup activities in the Flemish region.

  18. CO methanation over supported bimetallic Ni-Fe catalysts: From computational studies towards catalyst optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kustov, Arkadii; Frey, Anne Mette; Larsen, Kasper Emil;

    2007-01-01

    , we report a more detailed catalytic study aimed at optimizing the catalyst performance. For this purpose, two series of mono and bimetallic Ni-Fe catalysts supported on MgAl2O4 and Al2O3, respectively, were prepared. All catalysts were tested in the CO methanation reaction in the temperature interval...

  19. The Influence of oxide additives on Ni/Al2O3 catalysts in low temperature methane steam reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen is industrially produced by methane steam reforming. The process is catalytic and the usual catalyst is based on Ni as the active element. The main problem of this process is its inefficiency. It requires high temperatures at which Ni also favors the formation of graphite, which deactivates the catalysts. Ni has the advantage of being much cheaper than noble metal catalysts, so many researches are done in order to improve the properties of supported Ni catalysts and to decrease the temperature at which the process is energetically efficient. In order to obtain catalysts with high activity and stability, it is essential to maintain the dispersion of the active phase (Ni particles) and the stability of the support. Both properties can be improved by addition of a second oxide to the support. In this paper we present the results obtained in preparation and characterization of Ni/Al2O3 catalysts modified by addition of CeO2 and La2O3 to alumina support. The following catalysts were prepared by impregnation method: Ni/Al2O3, Ni/CeO2-Al2O3 and Ni/La2O3-Al2O3 (10 wt.% Ni and 6 wt.% additional oxide). The catalytic surface was characterized by N2 adsorption - desorption isotherms. The hydrogen - surface bond was characterized by Thermo-Programmed-Desorption (TPD) method. All catalysts were tested in steam reforming reaction of methane in the range of 600 - 700 deg. C, at atmospheric pressure working with CH4:H2O ratio of 1:3. The modified catalysts showed a better catalytic activity and selectivity for H2 and CO2 formation, at lower temperatures than the simple Ni/Al2O3 catalyst. (authors)

  20. LIBERALIZATION OF THE TAIWAN WHEAT MILLING INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Stiegert, Kyle W.; Peng, Hsing Ming

    1998-01-01

    Taiwan, in just the past two years, lifted quoto restrictions on wheat imports and lowered tariff barriers. These changes along with the antitrust movement and severe overcapacity will be the catalysts for tremendous structural changes in the way wheat millers compete for domestic market share and contracts for flour. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of liberalization on the Taiwan milling industry.

  1. Industrial practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reports the industrial practices carried out by the author viewing the requirements fulfilled for obtention the academic degree in chemical engineering of the San Andres University - Bolivia

  2. Industrial pioneers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassink, J.

    2014-01-01

    With their knowledge of metallurgy, mechanics and thermodynamics, mechanical engineers had to give shape to the industrial revolution in the Netherlands 150 years ago. This revolution only slowly gathered momentum, however, especially in comparison with England.

  3. Pharmaceutical Industry Oriented Homogeneous Catalysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xumu

    2004-01-01

    Chiral therapeutics already makes up over one-third of pharmaceutical drugs currently sold worldwide. This is a growing industry with global chiral drug sales for 2002 increasing by 12%to $160 billion (Technology Catalysts International) of a total drug market of $410bn. The increasing demand to produce enantiomerically pure pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, flavors, and other fine chemicals has advanced the field of asymmetric catalytic technologies.We aim to become a high value technology provider and partner in the chiral therapeutics industry by offering proprietary catalysts, novel building blocks, and collaborative synthetic solutions. In decade, we have developed a set of novel chiral homogeneous phosphorus ligands such as Binaphane, Me-KetalPhos, TangPhos, f-Binaphane, Me-f-KetalPhos, C4TunePhos and Binapine,which we called Chiral Ligand ToolKit. Complementing the ToolKit, (R, S, S, R)-DIOP*, T-Phos,o-BIPHEP, o-BINAPO and FAP were added recently[1].These ligands can be applied to a broad variety of drug structural features by asymmetric hydrogenation of dehydroamino acid derivatives, enamides, unsatisfied acids and esters, ketones,beta ketoesters, imines and cyclic imines. And ligand FAP had been apllied succefully in allylic alkylation and [3+2] cycloaddition.

  4. Industrial Noise

    OpenAIRE

    Mehran zolfaghari

    1996-01-01

    Various risk factors in industrial environments can affect hearing status and healthy in today’s modern society. Noise control and hearing conservation program is very crucial in preventing workers exposed to high levels of noise in the work places. In the current article we are going to discuss issues such as industrial noise control, noise characteristics and standards and techniques for noise control. Then the methods for individual hearing conservation and medical care will be described i...

  5. Thermodynamic Properties of Supported Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorte, Raymond J.

    2014-03-26

    The goals of this work were to develop Coulometric Titration as a method for characterizing the thermodynamic redox properties of oxides and to apply this technique to the characterization of ceria- and vanadia-based catalysts. The redox properties of ceria and vanadia are a major part of what makes these materials catalytically active but their properties are also dependent on their structure and the presence of other oxides. Quantifying these properties through the measurement of oxidation energetics was the goal of this work.

  6. Catalysts in environmental technology summary; Katalyyttien avulla kohti puhtaampaa ympaeristoeae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiski, R. [Oulu Univ. (Finland) Process Technology

    1998-12-01

    Catalysis is an effective way to control pollution of the environment, now and in the future. New catalytic technologies are helping to protect the ozone layer, reduce the greenhouse effect, create environmentally safer transportation, solve environmental problems of energy production, purify the emissions of chemical and other industries, raise energy efficiency, minimize the use of raw materials and process renewable raw materials. Reformulated fuels that are environmentally more friendly can be produced via new catalytic processes, as can substitutes for CFC compounds. NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, VOCs, CO, CH{sub 4}, and the automotive exhaust gases as well as N{sub 2}O, and CO{sub 2} can be converted to less harmful products by catalytic processes. Catalysts for the oxidation of aqueous organic compounds in wastewater treatment are being developed. Re-use of by- products from the chemical industry, odour control and toxic waste gas purification are areas where catalytic processes will play a major role. Beyond the existing technologies, there are still many opportunities for innovation and for improved and fundamental understanding of the new catalytic technologies in environmental protection. Particularly important is the application of catalytic technologies in processes that use fewer toxic raw materials, eliminate hazardous by-products and produce less emissions. By the year 2000, the manufacture and use of catalysts for environmental protection will be on a more scientific basis than today. (author) 45 refs.

  7. Study of the effect of ionizing radiation for utilization of spent cracking catalysts; Estudo do efeito da radiacao ionizante na utilizacao dos catalisadores desativados de craqueamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Fernando Mantovani

    2014-07-01

    Catalyst is a substance that changes the rate of a reaction. In the petroleum industry the commonly catalysts are used for Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) and Hydrocatalytic Cracking (HCC), which one applied in a specific stage. These catalysts are used to facilitate the molecular chains cracking which will generate a mixture of hydrocarbons. However, the catalyst gradually loses its activity, either by changing its original molecular structure or by its contamination from other petroleum molecules. The application of ionizing radiation (electron beam and gamma rays) over these spent catalysts was studied to contribute with the extraction of metals or rare-earths of high added-value. Tests carried out with FCC catalysts were used the techniques of {sup 60}Co irradiation and electron beam (EB) and had as a subject the extraction of lanthanum (La{sub 2}O{sub 3}), regeneration and utilization of these catalysts. However, the use of ionizing radiation has not contributed in these processes. Meanwhile with HCC catalysts the irradiation used was electron beam and had as a subject the extraction of molybdenum (MoO{sub 3}). In temperature around 750°C, these irradiated catalysts of the lower region have an extraction yield twice higher compared to non-irradiated ones, in other words 57.65% and 26.24% respectively. (author)

  8. Systematic investigation of products formed during synthesis of Ni, Mo, Cu/Kieselguhr catalyst by X-ray diffraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanuja Srivastava

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic hydrogenolysis of sucrose is industrially important for the production of glycerol, ethylene glycol, and propylene glycol. Ni catalyst promoted by Mo and Cu and supported on kieselguhr was synthesized in the aqueous medium by co- precipitating compounds of nickel, copper, and molybdenum on kieselguhr from solution of their salts using sodium carbonate. The composition of the constituents present along with desired catalyst formed during synthesis has profound impact on its catalytic activity. Therefore, the present study deals with the synthesis and characterization of all the constituents' major and minor products formed during synthesisof catalyst both unreduced and reduced by X-ray diffraction studies. The results indicated the formation of appreciable amount of nickel hydro silicates and small amount of ionic nickel carbonate and nickel carbonate hydrate in the unreduced catalyst. Besides the formation of major product, hetropolyacid and nickel molybdenum silicide were also present in the unreduced catalyst. The catalyst was reduced at 600°C before carrying the hydrogenolysis reactions and the reduced products were also analyzed for the composition, when the catalyst activity was the maximum. The various chemical reactions involved in the synthesis procedure have been discussed.

  9. Catalyst. Volume 8, Number 2, Winter 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Barbara E., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education's Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and Violence Prevention publishes "Catalyst," a newsletter covering current Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and Violence (AODV) prevention issues at institutions of higher education. "Catalyst" discusses emerging issues and highlights innovative efforts on…

  10. Catalyst. Volume 8, Number 3, Spring 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Barbara E., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education's Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and Violence Prevention publishes "Catalyst," a newsletter covering current Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and Violence (AODV) prevention issues at institutions of higher education. "Catalyst" discusses emerging issues and highlights innovative efforts on…

  11. Catalyst. Volume 9, Number 2, Fall 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Barbara E., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education's Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and Violence Prevention publishes "Catalyst," a newsletter covering current Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and Violence (AODV) prevention issues at institutions of higher education. "Catalyst" discusses emerging issues and highlights innovative efforts on…

  12. Catalyst, Volume 9, Number 3, Winter 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Barbara E., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education's Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and Violence Prevention publishes "Catalyst," a newsletter covering current Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and Violence (AODV) prevention issues at institutions of higher education. "Catalyst" discusses emerging issues and highlights innovative efforts on…

  13. Catalyst, Volume 10, Number 1, Spring 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Barbara E., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education's Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and Violence Prevention publishes "Catalyst," a newsletter covering current Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and Violence (AODV) prevention issues at institutions of higher education. "Catalyst" discusses emerging issues and highlights innovative efforts on…

  14. NEW REFORMING CATALYST DEVELOPED BY RIPP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PUZhong-ying

    2003-01-01

    To meet the demands for high-octane gasoline and aromatics,catalytic reforming process has been advancing quickly in China.The reforming catalysts developed by RIPP have been used in more than 80% capacity of domestic CCR and SR units.This paper introduces the properties of PSVI CCR catalyst developed by RIPP in recent years and also the result from commercial units.The PS-VI catalyst has high activity and good selectivity,under the same reaction conditions,the carbon on catalyst was lowered by 26% in mass as compared with that of the reference catalyst.Among the SR reforming catalysts,the new type of PRT series catalysts have excellent performance at low reaction pressure compared with the ref.Cat A.The aromatics and reformate mass yields of PRT catalyst were 2%-3% and 3%,respectively ,higher than those of Cat A,and the run length was 30%-40% longer as well,which exhibits good prospect of application.

  15. Catalyst, Volume 10, Number 2, Fall 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Barbara E., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education's Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and Violence Prevention publishes "Catalyst," a newsletter covering current Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and Violence (AODV) prevention issues at institutions of higher education. "Catalyst" discusses emerging issues and highlights innovative efforts on…

  16. Magnetically retrievable catalysts for organic synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) as a catalyst in organic synthesis has become a subject of intense investigation. The recovery of expensive catalysts after catalytic reaction and reusing it without losing its activity is an important feature in the sustainable process de...

  17. Ligand iron catalysts for selective hydrogenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Charles P.; Guan, Hairong

    2010-11-16

    Disclosed are iron ligand catalysts for selective hydrogenation of aldehydes, ketones and imines. A catalyst such as dicarbonyl iron hydride hydroxycyclopentadiene) complex uses the OH on the five member ring and hydrogen linked to the iron to facilitate hydrogenation reactions, particularly in the presence of hydrogen gas.

  18. Olefin polymerization over supported chromium oxide catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weckhuysen, B.M.; Schoonheydt, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    Cr/SiO2 or Phillips-type catalysts are nowadays responsible for a large fraction of all polyethylene (HDPE and LLDPE) worldwide produced. In this review, several key-properties of Cr/SiO2 catalysts will be discussed in relation to their polymerization characteristics. It will be shown how the polyol

  19. Nanoparticular metal oxide/anatase catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    the catalyst metai oxide is co-precipitated with the carrier metal oxide, which crystallization seeds are removed by combustion in a final calcining step. The present invention also concerns processes wherein the nanoparticular metal oxide catalysts of the invention are used, such as SCR (deNOx) reactions...

  20. Method for reactivating catalysts and a method for recycling supercritical fluids used to reactivate the catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginosar, Daniel M.; Thompson, David N.; Anderson, Raymond P.

    2008-08-05

    A method of reactivating a catalyst, such as a solid catalyst or a liquid catalyst. The method comprises providing a catalyst that is at least partially deactivated by fouling agents. The catalyst is contacted with a fluid reactivating agent that is at or above a critical point of the fluid reactivating agent and is of sufficient density to dissolve impurities. The fluid reactivating agent reacts with at least one fouling agent, releasing the at least one fouling agent from the catalyst. The at least one fouling agent becomes dissolved in the fluid reactivating agent and is subsequently separated or removed from the fluid reactivating agent so that the fluid reactivating agent may be reused. A system for reactivating a catalyst is also disclosed.

  1. Stable amorphous georgeite as a precursor to a high-activity catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondrat, Simon A.; Smith, Paul J.; Wells, Peter P.;

    2016-01-01

    Copper and zinc form an important group of hydroxycarbonate minerals that include zincian malachite, aurichalcite, rosasite and the exceptionally rare and unstable-and hence little known and largely ignored-georgeite. The first three of these minerals are widely used as catalyst precursors...... for the industrially important methanol-synthesis and low-temperature water-gas shift (LTS) reactions, with the choice of precursor phase strongly influencing the activity of the final catalyst. The preferred phase is usually zincian malachite. This is prepared by a co-precipitation method that involves the transient...... formation of georgeite; with few exceptions it uses sodium carbonate as the carbonate source, but this also introduces sodium ions-a potential catalyst poison. Here we show that supercritical antisolvent (SAS) precipitation using carbon dioxide (refs 13, 14), a process that exploits the high diffusion rates...

  2. Solid Catalyst with Ionic Liquid Layer (SCILL). A concept to improve the selectivity of selective hydrogenations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jess, A.; Korth, W. [Bayreuth Univ. (Germany). Chair of Chemical Engineering

    2011-07-01

    Catalytic hydrogenations are important for refinery processes, petrochemical applications as well as for numerous processes of the fine chemicals industry. In some cases, hydrogenations consist of a sequence of consecutive reactions, and the desired product is the intermediate. An important goal is then a high yield and selectivity to the intermediate, if possible at a high conversion degree. The selectivity to an intermediate primarily depends on the chemical nature of the catalyst, but may also be influenced by diffusion processes. Ionic liquids (ILs) are low melting salts (< 100 C) and represent a promising solvent class. This paper focuses on the concept of a Solid Catalyst with Ionic Liquid Layer (SCILL), where the solid catalyst is coated with a thin IL layer to improve the selectivity. (orig.)

  3. Molecular molybdenum persulfide and related catalysts for generating hydrogen from water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jeffrey R.; Chang, Christopher J.; Karunadasa, Hemamala I.; Majda, Marcin

    2016-04-19

    New metal persulfido compositions of matter are described. In one embodiment the metal is molybdenum and the metal persulfido complex mimics the structure and function of the triangular active edge site fragments of MoS.sub.2, a material that is the current industry standard for petroleum hydro desulfurization, as well as a promising low-cost alternative to platinum for electrocatalytic hydrogen production. This molecular [(PY5W.sub.2)MoS.sub.2].sup.x+ containing catalyst is capable of generating hydrogen from acidic-buffered water or even seawater at very low overpotentials at a turnover frequency rate in excess of 500 moles H.sub.2 per mole catalyst per second, with a turnover number (over a 20 hour period) of at least 19,000,000 moles H.sub.2 per mole of catalyst.

  4. Palladium-tin catalysts for the direct synthesis of H₂O₂ with high selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freakley, Simon J; He, Qian; Harrhy, Jonathan H; Lu, Li; Crole, David A; Morgan, David J; Ntainjua, Edwin N; Edwards, Jennifer K; Carley, Albert F; Borisevich, Albina Y; Kiely, Christopher J; Hutchings, Graham J

    2016-02-26

    The direct synthesis of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) from H2 and O2 represents a potentially atom-efficient alternative to the current industrial indirect process. We show that the addition of tin to palladium catalysts coupled with an appropriate heat treatment cycle switches off the sequential hydrogenation and decomposition reactions, enabling selectivities of >95% toward H2O2. This effect arises from a tin oxide surface layer that encapsulates small Pd-rich particles while leaving larger Pd-Sn alloy particles exposed. We show that this effect is a general feature for oxide-supported Pd catalysts containing an appropriate second metal oxide component, and we set out the design principles for producing high-selectivity Pd-based catalysts for direct H2O2 production that do not contain gold.

  5. Titanium compounds as catalysts of higher alpha-olefin-based super-high-molecular polymers synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalov, K. B.; Kazaryan, M. A.; Manzhay, V. N.; Vetrova, O. V.

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of polymers of 10 million or more molecular weight is a difficult task even in a chemical lab. Higher α-olefin-based polymer agents of such kind have found a narrow but quite important niche, the reduction of drag in the turbulent flow of hydrocarbon fluids such as oil and oil-products. In its turn, searching for a catalytic system capable to produce molecules of such a high length and to synthesize polymers of a low molecular-mass distribution is part of a global task of obtaining a high-quality product. In this paper we had observed a number of industrial catalysts with respect to their suitability for higher poly-α- olefins synthesis. A number samples representing copolymers of 1-hexene with 1-decene obtained on a previous generation catalyst, a microsphere titanium chloride catalytic agent had been compared to samples synthesized using a titanium-magnesium catalyst both in solution and in a polymer medium.

  6. Partial oxidation of methane to formaldehyde on Mo03, Fe203 and ferromolybdenum catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Daniel Del Río

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the main challenges for catalysis has been direct methane conversion to useful products such as methanol and formaldehyde. Formaldehyde is currently produced by a three-step industrial process with syngas and metha- nol as intermediate products. MoO , Fe O and Fe (MoO catalysts were used with four different Mo/Fe molar 3\t2 3 2 4 3 ratios (0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 in this work. The ferromolybdenum catalyst was prepared by coprecipitation. Pure oxides are more active; however they are not formaldehyde selective, but carbon oxide (CO, CO selective. The ferro- molybdenum catalysts showed better HCHO selectivity at low conversions; the molybdenum oxide content did not show increased in catalytic activity. Increased reaction temperature did not increase formaldehyde selectivity.

  7. Characterization and Design of Zeolite Catalysts Solid Acidity, Shape Selectivity and Loading Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Niwa, Miki; Okumura, Kazu

    2010-01-01

    Zeolites are microporous, aluminosilicate minerals commonly used as commercial adsorbents. Zeolite-based catalysts are used by industrial chemical companies in the interconversion of hydrocarbons and the alkylation of aromatic compounds. The current book deals with the characterization of specific properties of Zeolites and calculations for the design of catalysts. Measurements and utilization of solid acidity, shape selectivity, and loading properties, that are three prominent properties of a Zeolite catalyst, are treated in detail. These features concern chemical vapor deposition of silica, shape selectivity, loading properties, solid activity, Brønsted or Lewis character, ammonia temperature programmed desorption, control of the pore-opening size by chemical vapor deposition of silica and XAFS analysis of metals being highly dispersed inside and outside a framework.

  8. Nanostructured Basic Catalysts: Opportunities for Renewable Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, William C; Huber, George; Auerbach, Scott

    2009-06-30

    This research studied and developed novel basic catalysts for production of renewable chemicals and fuels from biomass. We focused on the development of unique porous structural-base catalysts zeolites. These catalysts were compared to conventional solid base materials for aldol condensation, that were being commercialized for production of fuels from biomass and would be pivotal in future biomass conversion to fuels and chemicals. Specifically, we had studied the aldolpyrolysis over zeolites and the trans-esterification of vegetable oil with methanol over mixed oxide catalysts. Our research has indicated that the base strength of framework nitrogen in nitrogen substituted zeolites (NH-zeolites) is nearly twice as strong as in standard zeolites. Nitrogen substituted catalysts have been synthesized from several zeolites (including FAU, MFI, BEA, and LTL) using NH3 treatment.

  9. Theoretical investigations of olefin metathesis catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cundari, T.R.; Gordon, M.S. [North Dakota State Univ., Fargo, ND (United States)

    1992-01-01

    An ab initio analysis of the electronic structure of high-valent, transition-metal alkylidenes as models for olefin metathesis catalysts is presented. The catalyst models studied fall into three categories: {open_quotes}new{close_quotes} metathesis catalyst models-tetrahedral M(OH){sup 2}(XH)(CH{sub 2}) complexes; {open_quotes}old{close_quotes} metathesis catalyst models-tetrahedral MCl{sub 2}(Y)(CH{sub 2}) complexes and alkylidene-substituted Mo metathesis catalysts, Mo(OH){sub 2}(NH)(=C(H)Z). The effect on the bonding caused by modification of either the metal, ligands, or alkylidene substitutents is considered. 21 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Industrial diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, D.W.

    2013-01-01

    Estimated 2012 world production of natural and synthetic industrial diamond was about 4.45 billion carats. During 2012, natural industrial diamonds were produced in at least 20 countries, and synthetic industrial diamond was produced in at least 12 countries. About 99 percent of the combined natural and synthetic global output was produced in Belarus, China, Ireland, Japan, Russia, South Africa and the United States. During 2012, China was the world’s leading producer of synthetic industrial diamond followed by the United States and Russia. In 2012, the two U.S. synthetic producers, one in Pennsylvania and the other in Ohio, had an estimated output of 103 million carats, valued at about $70.6 million. This was an estimated 43.7 million carats of synthetic diamond bort, grit, and dust and powder with a value of $14.5 million combined with an estimated 59.7 million carats of synthetic diamond stone with a value of $56.1 million. Also in 2012, nine U.S. firms manufactured polycrystalline diamond (PCD) from synthetic diamond grit and powder. The United States government does not collect or maintain data for either domestic PCD producers or domestic chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond producers for quantity or value of annual production. Current trade and consumption quantity data are not available for PCD or for CVD diamond. For these reasons, PCD and CVD diamond are not included in the industrial diamond quantitative data reported here.

  11. Lanthanoid-free perovskite oxide catalyst for dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene working with redox mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo eWatanabe

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available For the development of highly active and robust catalysts for dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene (EBDH to produce styrene; an important monomer for polystyrene production, perovskite-type oxides were applied to the reaction. Controlling the mobility of lattice oxygen by changing the structure of Ba1–xSrxFeyMn1–yO3–d(0 ≤ x≤ 1, 0.2 ≤ y≤ 0.8, perovskite catalyst showed higher activity and stability on EBDH. The optimized Ba/Sr and Fe/Mn molar ratios were 0.4/0.6 and 0.6/0.4, respectively. Comparison of the dehydrogenation activity of Ba0.4Sr0.6Fe0.6Mn0.4O3–d catalyst with that of an industrial potassium promoted iron (Fe–K catalyst revealed that the Ba0.4Sr0.6Fe0.6Mn0.4O3–d catalyst showed higher initial activity than the industrial Fe–K oxide catalyst. Additionally, the Ba0.4Sr0.6Fe0.6Mn0.4O3–d catalyst showed high activity and stability under severe conditions, even at temperatures as low as 783 K, or at the low steam/EB ratio of 2, while, the Fe–K catalyst showed low activity in such conditions. Comparing reduction profiles of the Ba0.4Sr0.6Fe0.6Mn0.4O3–d and the Fe–K catalysts in aH2O/H2 atmosphere, reduction was suppressed by the presence of H2O over the Ba0.4Sr0.6Fe0.6Mn0.4O3–d catalyst while the Fe–K catalyst was reduced. In other words, Ba0.4Sr0.6Fe0.6Mn0.4O3–d catalyst had higher potential for activating the steam than the Fe–K catalyst. The lattice oxygen in perovskite-structure was consumed by H2, subsequently the consumed lattice oxygen was regenerated by H2O. So the catalytic performance of Ba0.4Sr0.6Fe0.6Mn0.4O3–d was superior to that of Fe–K catalyst thanks to the high redox property of the Ba0.4Sr0.6Fe0.6Mn0.4O3–d perovskite oxide.

  12. Polymer nanocomposite membranes with hierarchically structured catalysts for high throughput dehalogenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crock, Christopher A.

    Halogenated organics are categorized as primary pollutants by the Environmental Protection Agency. Trichloroethylene (TCE), which had broad industrial use in the past, shows persistence in the environment because of its chemical stability. The large scale use and poor control of TCE resulted in its prolonged release into the environment before the carcinogenic risk associated with TCE was fully understood. TCE pollution stemmed from industrial effluents and improper disposal of solvent waste. Membrane reactors are promising technology for treating TCE polluted groundwater because of the high throughput, relatively low cost of membrane fabrication and facile retrofitting of existing membrane based water treatment facilities with catalytic membrane reactors. Compared to catalytic fluidized or fixed bed reactors, catalytic membrane reactors feature minimal diffusional limitation. Additionally, embedding catalyst within the membrane avoids the need for catalyst recovery and can prevent aggregation of catalytic nanoparticles. In this work, Pd/xGnP, Pd-Au/xGnP, and commercial Pd/Al2O3 nanoparticles were employed in batch and flow-through membrane reactors to catalyze the dehalogenation of TCE in the presence of dissolved H2. Bimetallic Pd-Au/xGnP catalysts were shown to be more active than monometallic Pd/xGnP or commercial Pd/Al 2O3 catalysts. In addition to synthesizing nanocomposite membranes for high-throughput TCE dehalogenation, the membrane based dehalogenation process was designed to minimize the detrimental impact of common catalyst poisons (S2-, HS-, and H2S -) by concurrent oxidation of sulfide species to gypsum in the presence of Ca2+ and removal of gypsum through membrane filtration. The engineered membrane dehalogenation process demonstrated that bimetallic Pd-Au/xGnP catalysts resisted deactivation by residual sulfide species after oxidation, and showed complete removal of gypsum during membrane filtration.

  13. Assessment of research needs for advanced heterogeneous catalysts for energy applications. Final report: Volume 2, Topic reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, G.A.

    1994-04-01

    This report assesses the direction, technical content, and priority of research needs judged to provide the best chance of yielding new and improved heterogeneous catalysts for energy-related applications over the period of 5-20 years. It addresses issues of energy conservation, alternate fuels and feedstocks, and the economics and applications that could alleviate pollution from energy processes. Recommended goals are defined in 3 research thrusts: catalytic science, environmental protection by catalysis, and industrial catalytic applications. This study was conducted by an 11-member panel of experts from industry and academia, including one each from Japan and Europe. This volume first presents an in-depth overview of the role of catalysis in future energy technology in chapter 1; then current catalytic research is critically reviewed and research recommended in 8 topic chapters: catalyst preparation (design and synthesis), catalyst characterization (structure/function), catalyst performance testing, reaction kinetics/reactor design, catalysis for industrial chemicals, catalysis for electrical applications (clean fuels, pollution remediation), catalysis for control of exhaust emissions, and catalysts for liquid transportation fuels from petroleum, coal, residual oil, and biomass.

  14. Catalysts for complete oxidation of gaseous fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neyestanaki, A.K.

    1995-12-31

    This thesis presents a study on the complete oxidation of propane, natural gas and the conversion of car exhaust gases over two types of catalysts: (a) knitted silica-fibre supported catalysts and (b) metal-modified ZSM zeolite catalysts. A hybrid textile made up of an organic-inorganic hybrid fibre containing 70 % cellulose and 30 % silicic acid was used as the raw material for preparation of the fibre support for combustion catalysts. The hybrid textile was burnt to obtain a knitted silica-fibre. The changes in the surface area, pore volume and the crystallinity of the obtained support were studied as a function of burning temperature. The stability of the support in steam-rich atmospheres was tested. The knitted silica-fibre obtained by burning the hybrid textile at 1223 K was found to have sufficient strength and high BET specific surface area (140 m{sub 2}/g) to be used as a catalyst support. A series of knitted silica-fibre supported metal oxides (oxides of Co, Ni, Mn, Cr and Cu) and combinations of them, platinum-activated metal oxides (Pt-Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}, Pt-NiO, Pt-MnO{sub 2} and Pt-Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}) as well as noble metal (Pt, Pd) catalysts were prepared. The location of the metal oxides on the catalyst was studied by SEM equipped with EDXA. The metal oxide was found to be located mostly inside the pores rather than on the exterior surface of the silica-fibre. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, N{sub 2}-physisorption, O{sub 2}-TPD and the chemisorption of propane, carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The activity of the catalysts was tested in the combustion of propane, natural gas and in the conversion of automobile exhaust gases. The effect of residence time and stoichiometry on the conversion behaviour of the catalysts was studied

  15. An evaluation of synthesis gas contaminants as methanol synthesis catalyst poisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, R.; Dahl, T.A.; Toseland, B.A. [Air Products and Chemicals Inc., 7201 Hamilton Boulevard, Allentown, PA 18195-1501 (United States)

    2004-09-28

    The liquid phase methanol (LPMEOH(TM)) process has successfully produced methanol from coal-derived synthesis gas on an industrial scale. This process uses a standard copper, zinc oxide, and alumina catalyst suspended in an inert mineral oil in a slurry bubble column reactor. A series of common synthesis gas contaminants were evaluated to determine their effect on catalyst activity. The following representative species were found to adversely affect the rate of methanol synthesis: phosphine (PH{sub 3}), carbonyl sulfide (COS), carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2}), thiophene (C{sub 4}H{sub 4}S), methyl thiocyanate (CH{sub 3}SCN), methyl chloride (CH{sub 3}Cl), and methyl fluoride (CH{sub 3}F). The nitrogen-containing contaminants hydrogen cyanide (HCN), acetonitrile (CH{sub 3}CN), and methylamine (CH{sub 3}NH{sub 2}) had no effect on catalyst activity. The surprising inactivity of HCN is likely attributable to its hydrogenation under methanol synthesis conditions. An approximate order of decreasing catalyst poison potency was obtained: C{sub 4}H{sub 4}S|AsH{sub 3}>CH{sub 3}Cl>CH{sub 3}SCN>CS{sub 2}>COS>PH{sub 3}>CH{sub 3}F. Based on catalyst surface area and molar effectiveness for each poison, catalyst poisoning cannot be attributed solely to a loss of copper surface area. Although this study involved the liquid phase process, the results should be applicable to methanol synthesis by a gas phase, fixed bed process. A rationalization of contaminant/catalyst reactivity is presented.

  16. Bimetallic Pt-Ni catalysts supported on usy zeolite for n-hexane isomerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. V. Barsi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Isomerization of linear alkanes has had considerable importance for the refining industry because the isomers formed in this reaction have high octane number. Most works reported in the literature studied the use of bifunctional catalysts, i.e., ones that have acid sites and metallic sites. In this study, bifunctional monometallic (Ni or Pt and bimetallic catalysts (Pt-Ni, using HUSY zeolite as the support, were prepared in order to verify the role of the metal content and composition on the catalytic properties for n-hexane isomerization. The method used for metal dispersion in the zeolite was competitive ion exchange using ammine complexes [Ni(NH36]Cl2 and [Pt(NH34]Cl2 as precursors. Four series of catalysts with constant atomic metal content had total metal amounts between 130 and 280 µmol M/g cat. Catalysts were characterized by temperature programmed reduction (TPR and subjected to catalytic evaluation for n-hexane isomerization at 250 ºC and 1 atm using H2/C6 = 9 molar ratio. TPR results show an easier reducibility of Ni+2 cations in the presence of Pt, which was evidenced by the displacement of the reduction peak of those cations towards lower temperatures in bimetallic catalysts. The bimetallic catalysts presented a higher activity in the isomerization of n-hexane when compared to the monometallic ones, as well better stability as the Pt content in the solid increases. The results of the activity as a function of the Pt content in the bimetallic catalysts show a maximum value around 50% of Pt. An addition of Pt above this critical value leads to a small decrease of the catalytic activity.

  17. Uranium-oxide-based catalysts for the destruction of volatile chloro-organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The industrial release of hydrocarbons and chlorine-containing organic molecules into the environment continues to attract considerable public concern, which in turn has led to governmental attempts to control such emissions. The challenge is to reduce pollution without stifling economic growth. Chlorine-containing pollutants are known to be particularly stable, and at present the main industrial process for their destruction involves thermal oxidation at 1,000oC, an expensive process that can lead to the formation of highly toxic by-products such as dioxins and dibenzofurans. Catalytic combustion at lower temperatures could potentially destroy pollutants more efficiently (in terms of energy requirements) and without forming toxic by-products. Current industrial catalysts are based on precious metals that are deactivated rapidly by organochlorine compounds. Here we report that catalysts based on uranium oxide efficiently destroy a range of hydrocarbon and chlorine-containing pollutants, and that these catalysts are resistant to deactivation. We show that benzene, toluene, chlorobutane and chlorobenzene can be destroyed at moderate temperatures (oC) and industrially relevant flow rates. (Author)

  18. Fiabilidad industrial

    OpenAIRE

    Griful Ponsati, Eulàlia

    2001-01-01

    El presente libro ha sido escrito y editado para los estudios de segundo ciclo de Ingeniería de Organización Industrial que se imparten en la ETSEIT de la UPC. La materia de fiabilidad que se imparte en este texto es una introducción a las técnicas estadísticas para resolver cuestiones de fiabilidad industrial. Se estudian distintos modelos probabilísticos del tiempo de vida y se presentan distintas formas de recabar información y de estimar, en cada caso, la fiabilidad de los componentes y s...

  19. Size and Promoter Effects on Stability of Carbon-Nanofiber-Supported Iron-Based Fischer–Tropsch Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Fischer–Tropsch Synthesis converts synthesis gas from alternative carbon resources, including natural gas, coal, and biomass, to hydrocarbons used as fuels or chemicals. In particular, iron-based catalysts at elevated temperatures favor the selective production of C2–C4 olefins, which are important building blocks for the chemical industry. Bulk iron catalysts (with promoters) were conventionally used, but these deactivate due to either phase transformation or carbon deposition resulting in disintegration of the catalyst particles. For supported iron catalysts, iron particle growth may result in loss of catalytic activity over time. In this work, the effects of promoters and particle size on the stability of supported iron nanoparticles (initial sizes of 3–9 nm) were investigated at industrially relevant conditions (340 °C, 20 bar, H2/CO = 1). Upon addition of sodium and sulfur promoters to iron nanoparticles supported on carbon nanofibers, initial catalytic activities were high, but substantial deactivation was observed over a period of 100 h. In situ Mössbauer spectroscopy revealed that after 20 h time-on-stream, promoted catalysts attained 100% carbidization, whereas for unpromoted catalysts, this was around 25%. In situ carbon deposition studies were carried out using a tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM). No carbon laydown was detected for the unpromoted catalysts, whereas for promoted catalysts, carbon deposition occurred mainly over the first 4 h and thus did not play a pivotal role in deactivation over 100 h. Instead, the loss of catalytic activity coincided with the increase in Fe particle size to 20–50 nm, thereby supporting the proposal that the loss of active Fe surface area was the main cause of deactivation. PMID:27330847

  20. Catalysis Science Initiative: Catalyst Design by Discovery Informatics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgass, William Nicholas [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Chemical Engineering; Abu-Omar, Mahdi [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States) Department of Chemistry; Caruthers, James [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Chemical Engineering; Ribeiro, Fabio [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Chemical Engineering; Thomson, Kendall [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Chemical Engineering; Schneider, William [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States)

    2016-07-08

    atoms in the interfacial region. Some of the first theoretical descriptions of this important chemistry and potential new source of control of catalyst properties are be in preparation for submission. On the homogeneous catalysis side, we have used single site olefin polymerization as the testbed. This system is important because changes in a single ligand bonded to the catalytically active metal site can alter the rates of individual steps in the polymerization sequence and thereby change the properties of the resulting polymer, potentially improving its value in a hundred million pound per year industry. We have made a major advance in understanding such systems by developing a population balance kinetic model that allows us to predict the molecular weight distribution (MWD) of the product. That, in turn, allows use of MWD data to fit kinetic parameters. By combining monomer loss data, MWD, measurement of the number of working active sites, and polymer end group analysis, we have a rich data set that is highly discriminating of kinetic mechanism. Thus, we have a robust tool for producing high quality, detailed kinetic parameters, which we have used to refine mechanisms presented in the literature and discover relationships between steric and electronic properties of group IV catalysts and individual rate constants in a number of systems. Our recent work on six-coordinate Zr, Ti, and Hf amine bis(phenolate) systems, we have shown that: • The sterics (bulkiness) of the ligands specifically affect the chain termination reaction • The electron density on the metal controls misinsertion (flipped orientation) of the olefin into the growing polymer • Steric effects related to the size of the ortho ligand on the catalyst have been shown to strongly affect its the degree of dormancy, i.e. tendency to stop reacting • Changes in the size of the amine pendent group on the catalyst can have such a strong effect on chain termination as to change the catalyst from one that

  1. Effect of diluent and reaction parameter on selective oxidation of propane over MoVTeNb catalyst using nanoflow catalytic reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Restu Kartiko Widi; Sharifah Bee Abdul Hamid; Robert Schl(o)gl

    2008-01-01

    The selective oxidation of propane to acrylic acid over an MoVTeNb mixed oxide catalyst, dried and calcined before reaction has been studied using high-throughput instrumentation, which is called nanoflow catalytic reactor. The effects of catalyst dilution on the catalytic performance of the MoVTeNb mixed oxide catalyst in selective oxidation of propane to acrylic acid were also investigated. The effects of some reaction parameters, such as gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) and reaction temperature, for selective oxidation of propane to acrylic acid over diluted MoVTeNb catalyst have also been studied. The configuration of the nanoflow is shown to be suitable for screen catalytic performance, and its operating conditions were mimicked closely to conventional laboratory as well as to industrial conditions. The results obtained provided very good reproducibility and it showed that preparation methods as well as reaction parameters can play significant roles in catalytic performance of these catalysts.

  2. Industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication is meant to be a manual for industrial radiography. As such the manual concentrates on the practical aspects, presenting existing radiographic system and techniques of operation to satisfy specified quality requirements. The manual also reviews the safety aspect of performing radiographic work. (author) systems

  3. Industrial Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phaff, Herman J.

    1981-01-01

    Describes industrially important yeasts, molds, bacteria, and actinomycetes. Discussed in detail are microbial products, such as primary metabolites, secondary metabolites, enzymes, and capsular polysaccharides. Traces the historical background of human cell culture, mentioning recombinant DNA research and hybridization of normal mammalian cells…

  4. Shifting Industries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Coastal city Beihai aspires to revive its economy by developing its electronic information industry Against a clear sky,the blue sea hums along a shining beach,with villas in the distance.This beautiful scene is in Beihai,in south China’s Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region.

  5. The development of isomerization catalysts for production of high-octane products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrosa, A.M. Garrido; Melo, D.M.A.; Araujo, A.S. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Souza, M.J.B.; Silva, A.O.S. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica

    2004-07-01

    In current petroleum industry, paraffins larger than C5 are used for catalytic reform. The catalytic reform is one of the most important processes for petroleum refine in reason of all reactions they drive to production of high-octane products. Reformate has high-octane products, but they contain 60% aromatics. Isomerization of C5- C7 can improve the octane number. The octane number of n-heptane is zero and increases after isomerization. For tri branched C7, the octane number reaches 113, which is higher than that of benzene. So, isomerization of C5-C7 is suggested to be a reasonable way to replace or partly replace the catalytic reforming process. It can decrease aromatics content with enhancement of octane number. Liquid acid catalysts were widely used in chemical industry in past decades. However, they face strong environmental challenges. The heavy corrosion of the reactor system is one of the main problems. Thus, solid acid catalysts are investigated for the isomerization reactions. The aim of this work is to develop a catalysts for the production of reformate products. Isomerization is catalyzed by metal-acid bifunctional catalysts. The metal components aid in hydrogenation, while the support, such as, zirconium, clays or zeolites, is the acidic component. (author)

  6. Development of Auto Exhaust Catalysts and Associated Application of Rare Earths in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓东; 翁端

    2004-01-01

    There are at least three obvious trends in the developments of automotive market in China: the evolution of emission standards from Euro Ⅱ to Euro Ⅲ, the demand of lean-burn gasoline engine and the time of diesel vehicles. The latest application and advances of exhaust catalysts by Chinese researchers, using some high effcient, economical and durable methods to meet these changes in emission regulations laws and engine technologies, were described. Rare earth oxides, such as lanthana, ceria-based solid solutions and perovskite-type oxides, are widely used as excellent promoters for thermal stability, oxygen storage capacity and oxidation/reduction activity in these catalysts. Four phases in the development of the auto exhaust catalyst industry in China since the mid 1970s were reviewed. It is argued that China will become the center of global auto exhaust catalysts industry in the next decades with its economic, technical and environmental incentives, which greatly depends on the research and development of rare earth.

  7. Catalytic Oxidation of Phenol over Zeolite Based Cu/Y-5 Catalyst: Part 1: Catalyst Preparation and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Maduna Valkaj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The necessity to remove organic pollutants from the industrial wastewater streams has forced the development of new technologies that can produce better results in terms of pollutant removal and process efficiency in combination with low investment and operating costs. One of the new emerging processes with a potential to fulfil these demands is catalytic wet peroxide oxidation, commonly known as the CWPO process. The oxidative effect of the hydrogen peroxide is intensified by the addition of a heterogeneous catalyst that can reduce the operating conditions to atmospheric pressure and temperatures below 383 K. Zeolites, among others, are especially appealing as catalysts for selective oxidation processes due to their unique characteristics such as shape selectivity, thermal and chemical stability, and benign effect on nature and the living world. In this work, catalytic activity, selectivity and stability of Cu/Y-5 zeolite in phenol oxidation with hydrogen peroxide was examined. Catalyst samples were prepared by ion exchange method of the protonic form of commercial zeolite. The catalysts were characterized with powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and AAS elemental analysis, while the adsorption techniques were used for the measurement of the specific surface area. The catalytic tests were carried out in a stainless steel Parr reactor in batch operation mode at the atmospheric pressure and in the temperature range from 323 to 353 K. The catalyst was prepared in powdered form and the mass fraction of the active metal component on the zeolite was 3.46 %. The initial concentration of phenol solution was equal to 0.01 mol dm−3 and the concentration of hydrogen peroxide ranged from 0.01 to 0.10 mol dm−3. The obtained experimental data was tested to a proposed kinetic model for phenol oxidation r = k1 cF cVP and hydrogen peroxide decomposition rHP = k2 cHP. The kinetic parameters were estimated using the Nelder

  8. Catalysts, Protection Layers, and Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chorkendorff, Ib

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen is the simplest solar fuel to produce and in this presentation we shall give a short overview of the pros and cons of various tandem devices [1]. The large band gap semiconductor needs to be in front, but apart from that we can chose to have either the anode in front or back using either...... acid or alkaline conditions. Since most relevant semiconductors are very prone to corrosion the advantage of using buried junctions and using protection layers offering shall be discussed [2-4]. Next we shall discuss the availability of various catalysts for being coupled to these protections layers...... and how their stability may be evaluated [5, 6]. Examples of half-cell reaction using protection layers for both cathode and anode will be discussed though some of recent examples under both alkaline and acidic conditions. Si is a very good low band gap semiconductor and by using TiO2 as a protection...

  9. An EXAFS study of oxide and suphided catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamaraev, K. I.; Kochubey, D. I.

    1989-10-01

    This review article summarizes the results of EXAFS studies, mainly carried out in the USSR, on the structure of oxide and sulphided chemical compounds formed on surfaces of various heterogeneous catalysts. It describes supported metallic catalysts in the presence of oxygen, supported oxide catalysts at different preparation and activation conditions, and supports, modified by transition metal oxides and catalysts for hydrodesulphurization processes.

  10. Efficient Nd Promoted Rh Catalysts for Vapor Phase Methanol Carbonylation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu Feng ZHANG; Qing Li QIAN; Ping Lai PAN; Yi CHEN; Guo Qing YUAN

    2005-01-01

    A Nd promoted-Rh catalysts supported on polymer-derived carbon beads for vapor-phase methanol carbonylation was developed. Rh-Nd bimetallic catalysts obviously have higher activity than that of supported Rh catalyst under similar reaction condition. The difference between the activity of above two catalyst systems is clearly caused by the intrinsic properties generated by the introduction of Nd.

  11. 40 CFR 90.427 - Catalyst thermal stress resistance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Catalyst thermal stress resistance... Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.427 Catalyst thermal stress resistance evaluation. (a) The purpose of... catalyst conversion efficiency for Phase 1 engines. The thermal stress is imposed on the test catalyst...

  12. Oxide catalysts for oxidation of xylene

    OpenAIRE

    Kusman Dossumov; Dina Churina; E. Tulibaev

    2013-01-01

    Polioxide granulated catalysts based on transition and rare earth metals for oxidative conversion of xylene by oxygen have been investigated. It was defined the effect of the composition and concentration of the active phase of oxide catalysts: Cu-Mn-Ln; Cu-Mn-Ce and Cu-Mn-Nd on the o-xylene oxidation. It was found that the Cu-Mn-Ce catalyst has the highest activity at the concentrations of metals: copper – 3.0%; manganese – 3.0%; cerium – 1.0%.

  13. Characterization of three-way automotive catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenik, E.A.; More, K.L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States); LaBarge, W. [General Motors-AC Delco Systems, Flint, MI (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    This has been the second year of a CRADA between General Motors - AC Delco Systems (GM-ACDS) and Martin Marietta Energy Systems (MMES) aimed at improved performance/lifetime of platinum-rhodium based three-way-catalysts (TWC) for automotive emission control systems. While current formulations meet existing emission standards, higher than optimum Pt-Rh loadings are often required. In additionk, more stringent emission standards have been imposed for the near future, demanding improved performance and service life from these catalysts. Understanding the changes of TWC conversion efficiency with ageing is a critical need in improving these catalysts.

  14. Tungsten imido catalysts for selective ethylene dimerisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Christopher M R; Turner, Zoë R; Buffet, Jean-Charles; O'Hare, Dermot

    2016-02-14

    A tungsten imido complex W(NDipp)Me3Cl (Dipp = 2,6-(i)Pr-C6H3) is active for the selective dimerisation of ethylene to yield 1-butene under mild conditions. Immobilisation and activation of W(NDipp)Cl4(THF) on layered double hydroxides, silica or polymethylaluminoxane yields active solid state catalysts for the selective dimerisation of ethylene. The polymethylaluminoxane-based catalyst displays a turnover frequency (4.0 molC2H4 molW(-1) h(-1)) almost 7 times that of the homogeneous catalyst. PMID:26779579

  15. Tungsten imido catalysts for selective ethylene dimerisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Christopher M R; Turner, Zoë R; Buffet, Jean-Charles; O'Hare, Dermot

    2016-02-14

    A tungsten imido complex W(NDipp)Me3Cl (Dipp = 2,6-(i)Pr-C6H3) is active for the selective dimerisation of ethylene to yield 1-butene under mild conditions. Immobilisation and activation of W(NDipp)Cl4(THF) on layered double hydroxides, silica or polymethylaluminoxane yields active solid state catalysts for the selective dimerisation of ethylene. The polymethylaluminoxane-based catalyst displays a turnover frequency (4.0 molC2H4 molW(-1) h(-1)) almost 7 times that of the homogeneous catalyst.

  16. Towards the computational design of solid catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Jens Kehlet; Bligaard, Thomas; Rossmeisl, Jan;

    2009-01-01

    Over the past decade the theoretical description of surface reactions has undergone a radical development. Advances in density functional theory mean it is now possible to describe catalytic reactions at surfaces with the detail and accuracy required for computational results to compare favourably...... with experiments. Theoretical methods can be used to describe surface chemical reactions in detail and to understand variations in catalytic activity from one catalyst to another. Here, we review the first steps towards using computational methods to design new catalysts. Examples include screening for catalysts...

  17. LC-finer catalyst testing. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, D.; Bronfenbrenner, J.C.

    1983-09-01

    The activity and aging rate of modified Shell 324 Ni-Mo-Al catalyst were studied in ICRC's process development unit (PDU) under SRC-I Demonstration Plant hydroprocessing conditions. The studies determined variations in SRC conversion, hydrocarbon gas production, hydrogen consumption, and heteroatom removal at both constant and increasing reaction temperatures. Samples of spent catalyst were analyzed to ascertain the reasons for catalyst deactivation. Finally, the PDU hydroprocessing results were compared with those generated at Lummus and Wilsonville pilot plants. 14 references, 25 figures, 16 tables.

  18. Supported catalyst systems and method of making biodiesel products using such catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Manhoe; Yan, Shuli; Salley, Steven O.; Ng, K. Y. Simon

    2015-10-20

    A heterogeneous catalyst system, a method of preparing the catalyst system and a method of forming a biodiesel product via transesterification reactions using the catalyst system is disclosed. The catalyst system according to one aspect of the present disclosure represents a class of supported mixed metal oxides that include at least calcium oxide and another metal oxide deposited on a lanthanum oxide or cerium oxide support. Preferably, the catalysts include CaO--CeO.sub.2ZLa.sub.2O.sub.3 or CaO--La.sub.2O.sub.3/CeO.sub.2. Optionally, the catalyst may further include additional metal oxides, such as CaO--La.sub.2O.sub.3--GdOxZLa.sub.2O.sub.3.

  19. Development and Commercial Application of Third Generation Resid Hydrotreating Catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Dawei; Yang Qinghe; Dai Lishun; Zhao Xinqiang

    2013-01-01

    Based on the mechanism of resid hydrotreating reaction by coordinating the catalyst activity and stability, the diffusion mechanism and catalyst reactivity, the cost and catalyst performance, and the production and application re-quirements, the third-generation series catalysts for residue hydrotreating have been developed by Research Institute of Petroleum Processing, SINOPEC. The new series RHT catalysts possess higher activity for HDS, HDM and HDCCR per-formance as well as longer run length. The commercial results for application of these catalysts have demonstrated that the new catalyst system performs better than the reference ones.

  20. The profit potential in reverse supply chain functions for catalyst manufacturers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Samuel; Sorth-Olsen, Rasmus; Honoré, Aske Lykke;

    The reverse supply chain (RSC) contains inherent uncertainties, e.g. the quality level and return volume of used products. By contrast, the catalyst manufacturing industry is characterized by Certainty (manifested in e.g. well-defined and highly controlled production – processes and widespread...... standardization). This paper’s purpose is to examine whether RSC – processes can be profitably applied in this industry. Using case study research the paper examines which RSC - functions that are generally available to manufacturers are profitable for a selected catalyst manufacturer. Results show three...... profitable RSC – functions. These results contribute to the emerging view of the RSC as a value creator rather than a costly nuisance....

  1. Kinetics Studies on Esterification Reaction of Acetic acid with Iso-amyl Alcohol over Ion Exchange Resin as Catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkarni, Bhaskar D

    2014-01-01

    The low molecular weight organic esters have pleasing smell and are found in applications in the food industry for synthetic essence and perfume. Esterification reactions are ubiquitous reactions especially in pharmaceutical, perfumery and polymer industries, wherein; both heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysts have been extensively used. Iso-amyl acetate (or Iso-pentyl acetate) is often called as banana oil, since it has the recognizable odor of this fruit. I...

  2. New Method for Nucleophilic Substitution on Hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene by Allylamine Using an Algerian Proton Exchanged Montmorillonite Clay (Maghnite-H+) as a Green Solid Catalyst

    OpenAIRE

    Lahouaria Medjdoub; Belbachir Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Nucleophilic substitution on hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene (HCCTP) with allylamine in order to give hexa(allylamino)cyclotriphosphazene (HACTP)  is performed for the first time under mild conditions by using diethylether as solvent to replace benzene which is very toxic. The reaction time is reduced to half and also performed at room temperature but especially in the presence of an eco-catalyst called Maghnite-H+. This catalyst has a significant role in the industrial scale. In fact, the use ...

  3. Industrial Aplication of Catalytic Systems for n-Heptane Isomerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Olivia Alemán-Vázquez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The ideal gasoline must have a high pump octane number, in the 86 to 94 range, and a low environmental impact. Alkanes, as a family, have much lower photochemical reactivities than aromatics or olefins, but only the highly branched alkanes have adequate octane numbers. The purpose of this work is to examine the possibilities of extending the technological alternative of paraffin isomerization to heavier feedstocks (i.e., n-heptane using non-conventional catalytic systems which have been previously proposed in the literature: a Pt/sulfated zirconia catalyst and a molybdenum sub-oxide catalyst. Under the experimental conditions at which these catalysts have been evaluated, the molybdenum sub-oxide catalyst maintains a good activity and selectivity to isomerization after 24 h, while the Pt/sulfated zirconia catalyst shows a higher dimethylpentanes/methylhexanes ratio, probably due to a lower operating temperature, but also a high formation of cracking products, and presents signs of deactivation after 8 h. Though much remains to be done, the performance of these catalysts indicates that there are good perspectives for their industrial application in the isomerization of n-heptane and heavier alkanes.

  4. Characterization of deactivated catalytic cracking catalyst and evaluation as absorbent material; Caracterizacao de catalisador de craqueamento catalitico desativado e avaliacao como material adsorvente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valt, R.B.G.; Kaminari, N.M.S.; Cordeiro, B.; Ponte, M.J.J.S.; Ponte, H.A. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    One of the main uses of catalysts in the petroleum industry is in step catalytic cracking, which after use and regeneration cycles generates large quantities of waste material. In this research the deactivated FCC catalyst was characterized before and after the electrokinetic remediation process, in order to assess the change of its structure and possible adsorptive capacity. Analyses of X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy and BET surface area measurement were performed. The analysis showed no structural change due to the process employed and that electrokinetic remediation has recovered 42% of adsorption capacity of the material, by removing about 89% of heavy metals adhered initially in the catalyst surface. (author)

  5. Industrial Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer

    2015-01-01

    Companies organize in a way that involves many activities that are external to the traditional organizational boundaries. This presents challenges to operations management and managing operations involves many issues and actions dealing with external networks. Taking a network perspective changes...... the focus of operations management from managing the own organization to continuously developing and managing a network of external and internal resources forming a production system. This perspective may be called managing an “extraprise” rather than an “enterprise.” It should be noted that “an industrial...... network” should not be seen as an organizational form but as a perspective that can be used to enrich one's understanding of organizations. The industrial network perspective has three basic building blocks: actors, resources, and activities. The three building blocks and their relations constitute...

  6. Industrial vision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Ole

    1998-01-01

    This dissertation is concerned with the introduction of vision-based application s in the ship building industry. The industrial research project is divided into a natural seq uence of developments, from basic theoretical projective image generation via CAD and subpixel analysis to a description...... is present ed, and the variability of the parameters is examined and described. The concept of using CAD together with vision information is based on the fact that all items processed at OSS have an associated complete 3D CAD model that is accessible at all production states. This concept gives numerous...... possibilities for using vision in applications which otherwise would be very difficult to automate. The requirement for low tolerances in production is, despite the huge dimensions of the items involved, extreme. This fact makes great demands on the ability to do robust sub pixel estimation. A new method based...

  7. Analysis on Ammonia Synthesis over Wuestite-Based Iron Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小年; 刘化章; 等

    2003-01-01

    Wuestite-based catalyst for ammonia synthesis exhibits extremely high activity and easy to reduction under a wide range of conditions.The reaction kinetics of ammonia synthesis can be illustrated perfectly by both the classical Temkin-Pyzhev and modified Tecmkin equations with optimized α of 0.5,The pre-exponent factors and activation energies at the pressures of 8.0 and 15.0MPa are respectively κ0=1.09×1015,7.35×1014Pa0.5·s-1,and E=156.6,155.5kJ·mol-1 derived from the classical Temkin-Phyzhev equation,as well as k0=2.45×1014 ,1.83×1014Pa0.5·s-1,and E=147.7,147.2kJ·mol-1 derived from the modified Temkin equation.Although the degree of reduction under isothermal condition is primarily dependent upon temperature,low pressure seems to be imperative for reduction under high temperature and low space velocity to be considered as a high activity catalyst.The reduction behavior with dry feed gas can be illustrated perfectly by the shrinking-sphere-particle model,by which the reduction-rate constants of 4248exp(-71680/RT) and 644exp(-87260/RT) were obtained for the powder (0.045-0.054mm) and irregular shape(nominal diameter 3.17mm) catalysts respectively.The significant effect of particle size on reduction rate was observed,therefore,it is important to take into account the influence of particle size on reduction for the optimization of reduction process in industry.

  8. Improving Heterogeneous Catalyst Stability for Liquid-phase Biomass Conversion and Reforming

    OpenAIRE

    Héroguel, Florent Emmanuel; Rozmysłowicz, Bartosz; Luterbacher, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Biomass is a possible renewable alternative to fossil carbon sources. Today, many bio-resources can be converted to direct substitutes or suitable alternatives to fossil-based fuels and chemicals. However, catalyst deactivation under the harsh, often liquid-phase reaction conditions required for biomass treatment is a major obstacle to developing processes that can compete with the petrochemical industry. This review presents recently developed strategies to limit reversible and irreversible ...

  9. Nitrogen Chemistry and Coke Transformation of FCC Coked Catalyst during the Regeneration Process

    OpenAIRE

    Junjun Shi; Jianyu Guan; Dawei Guo; Jiushun Zhang; Liam John France; Lefu Wang; Xuehui Li

    2016-01-01

    Regeneration of the coked catalyst is an important process of fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) in petroleum refining, however, this process will emit environmentally harmful gases such as nitrogen and carbon oxides. Transformation of N and C containing compounds in industrial FCC coke under thermal decomposition was investigated via TPD and TPO to examine the evolved gaseous species and TGA, NMR and XPS to analyse the residual coke fraction. Two distinct regions of gas evolution are observed du...

  10. Polyethylene glycol: A recyclable solvent system for the synthesis of benzimidazole derivatives using CAN as catalyst

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mazaahir Kidwai; Anwar Jahan; Divya Bhatnagar

    2010-07-01

    Ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) efficiently catalysed the synthesis of benzimidazole derivatives from -phenylenediamine and aldehydes in PEG. This method provides a novel route for the synthesis of benzimidazoles in good yields with little catalyst loading. The recovery and the successful reutilization of the solvent system are also presented. Moreover, the easy set-up and purification tasks of this sustainable method make it appealing for bulk industry applications.

  11. Doped carbon nanostructures as metal-free catalysts for oxidative dehydrogenation of light alkanes

    OpenAIRE

    Jenssen, Kaia Andersson

    2014-01-01

    Catalytic reactions are often carried out on various supported metals, these usually being noble metals or metal oxides. Even though metal based catalysts plays a major role in today s industrial processes, they still have several disadvantages, including high cost, proneness to gas poisoning, as well as disadvantageous effect on the environment. Recently, certain carbon nanomaterials have been in the spotlight of several research groups, as carbon has the advantages of wide availability, env...

  12. Selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides with ammonia over microporous zeolite catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    VENNESTROM, PETER NICOLAI RAVNBORG

    2014-01-01

    With increasing legislative demands to remove nitrogen oxides (NOx) from automotive diesel exhaust, new catalyst systems are investigated and intensely studied in industry as well in academia. The most prevailing catalytic method of choice is the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) where non-toxic urea is used as a reductant for practical reasons. Usually urea is stored in a separate tank and once injected into the exhaust system it hydrolyses into the more aggressive reductant NH3 and CO2. ...

  13. Platinum-Bismuth Bimetallic Catalysts: Synthesis, Characterization and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Saucedo, Jose A, Jr; Xiao, Yang; Varma, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    Bimetallic catalysts have been explored and shown to exhibit unique characteristics which are not present in monometallic catalysts. Platinum is well known as an effective catalyst for oxidation and reduction reactions, and it can be made more effective when bismuth is introduced as a promotor. Thus, the effectiveness of the Pt-Bi catalyst was demonstrated in prior work. What is not clear, however, is the mechanism behind the catalyst function; why addition of bismuth to platinum decreases de...

  14. Titanium Dioxide as a Catalyst Support in Heterogeneous Catalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Samira Bagheri; Nurhidayatullaili Muhd Julkapli; Sharifah Bee Abd Hamid

    2014-01-01

    The lack of stability is a challenge for most heterogeneous catalysts. During operations, the agglomeration of particles may block the active sites of the catalyst, which is believed to contribute to its instability. Recently, titanium oxide (TiO2) was introduced as an alternative support material for heterogeneous catalyst due to the effect of its high surface area stabilizing the catalysts in its mesoporous structure. TiO2 supported metal catalysts have attracted interest due to TiO2 nanopa...

  15. FCC Catalysts to Meet Demand of New Era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Daping

    2008-01-01

    The CGP series FCC catalysts for manufacture of clean gasoline and propylene and the catalyst RSC-2006 for processing inferior residuum with high yield of light distillates are novel catalysts jointly developed by Qilu Catalyst Branch Company of SINOPEC Corp. and the Research Institute of Petroleum Processing (RIPP). The results of commercial application of these catalysts have revealed that they can satisfactorily meet the requirements for environmental protection, good economic benefits and capability for processing inferior FCC feed under new circumstances.

  16. Assessment on Commercial Application of Novel S-RHT Catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bian Fengming; Wen Huixin

    2004-01-01

    This article refers to the commercial application assessment of the novel S-RHT catalysts.The application outcome has shown that the catalysts loading was reduced with its performance kept at the original level at the initial and middle stages of operation. The performance of catalysts at the end of operation was analyzed, and factors affecting the performance of the novel catalysts at the end of run were identified to facilitate further improvement of the said catalysts.

  17. Preparative characteristics of hydrophobic polymer catalyst for the tritium removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The optimum method for the fabrication of hydrophobic catalyst was selected and the apparatuses for the preparation of catalyst support with high yield was developed for the large scale production. Also, we summarized the method of improving the physical property of the catalyst support, the loading characteristics of Pt metal as a catalyst, and the characteristics of the apparatus for the fabrication of the catalysts on a large scale

  18. Highly sensitive silicon microreactor for catalyst testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Toke Riishøj; Olsen, Jakob Lind; Vesborg, Peter Christian Kjærgaard;

    2009-01-01

    by directing the entire gas flow through the catalyst bed to a mass spectrometer, thus ensuring that nearly all reaction products are present in the analyzed gas flow. Although the device can be employed for testing a wide range of catalysts, the primary aim of the design is to allow characterization of model...... catalysts which can only be obtained in small quantities. Such measurements are of significant fundamental interest but are challenging because of the low surface areas involved. The relationship between the reaction zone gas flow and the pressure in the reaction zone is investigated experimentally......, it is found that platinum catalysts with areas as small as 15 mu m(2) are conveniently characterized with the device. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3270191]...

  19. Synthesis and Understanding of Novel Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stair, Peter C. [Northwestern University

    2013-07-09

    The research took advantage of our capabilities to perform in-situ and operando Raman spectroscopy on complex systems along with our developing expertise in the synthesis of uniform, supported metal oxide materials to investigate relationships between the catalytically active oxide composition, atomic structure, and support and the corresponding chemical and catalytic properties. The project was organized into two efforts: 1) Synthesis of novel catalyst materials by atomic layer deposition (ALD). 2) Spectroscopic and chemical investigations of coke formation and catalyst deactivation. ALD synthesis was combined with conventional physical characterization, Raman spectroscopy, and probe molecule chemisorption to study the effect of supported metal oxide composition and atomic structure on acid-base and catalytic properties. Operando Raman spectroscopy studies of olefin polymerization leading to coke formation and catalyst deactivation clarified the mechanism of coke formation by acid catalysts.

  20. Moderated ruthenium fischer-tropsch synthesis catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrevaya, Hayim

    1991-01-01

    The subject Fischer-Tropsch catalyst comprises moderated ruthenium on an inorganic oxide support. The preferred moderator is silicon. Preferably the moderator is effectively positioned in relationship to ruthenium particles through simultaneous placement on the support using reverse micelle impregnation.

  1. Alternative deNOx catalysts and technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due-Hansen, Johannes

    in the flue gas when biomass is combusted. By co-firing with large amounts of CO2-neutral straw or wood (tomeet stringent CO2 emission legislation), the lifetime of the traditional SCR catalyst is thus significantly reduced due to the presence of deactivating species originating from the fuel. To develop......The present thesis entitled Alternative deNOx Catalysts and technologies revolves around the topic of removal of nitrogen oxides. Nitrogen oxides, NOx, are unwanted byproducts formed during combustion (e.g. in engines or power plants). If emitted to the atmosphere, they are involved...... a catalyst less susceptible to the poisons present in the flue gas, a number of catalysts have been synthesized and tested in the present work, all based on commercially available supports. A highly acidic support consisting of sulfated zirconia was chosen based on preliminary studies. A number of different...

  2. Strategies for designing supported gold-palladium bimetallic catalysts for the direct synthesis of hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jennifer K; Freakley, Simon J; Carley, Albert F; Kiely, Christopher J; Hutchings, Graham J

    2014-03-18

    Hydrogen peroxide is a widely used chemical but is not very efficient to make in smaller than industrial scale. It is an important commodity chemical used for bleaching, disinfection, and chemical manufacture. At present, manufacturers use an indirect process in which anthraquinones are sequentially hydrogenated and oxidized in a manner that hydrogen and oxygen are never mixed. However, this process is only economic at a very large scale producing a concentrated product. For many years, the identification of a direct process has been a research goal because it could operate at the point of need, producing hydrogen peroxide at the required concentration for its applications. Research on this topic has been ongoing for about 100 years. Until the last 10 years, catalyst design was solely directed at using supported palladium nanoparticles. These catalysts require the use of bromide and acid to arrest peroxide decomposition, since palladium is a very active catalyst for hydrogen peroxide hydrogenation. Recently, chemists have shown that supported gold nanoparticles are active when gold is alloyed with palladium because this leads to a significant synergistic enhancement in activity and importantly selectivity. Crucially, bimetallic gold-based catalysts do not require the addition of bromide and acids, but with carbon dioxide as a diluent its solubility in the reaction media acts as an in situ acid promoter, which represents a greener approach for peroxide synthesis. The gold catalysts can operate under intrinsically safe conditions using dilute hydrogen and oxygen, yet these catalysts are so active that they can generate peroxide at commercially significant rates. The major problem associated with the direct synthesis of hydrogen peroxide concerns the selectivity of hydrogen usage, since in the indirect process this factor has been finely tuned over decades of operation. In this Account, we discuss how the gold-palladium bimetallic catalysts have active sites for the

  3. Skeletal Amorphous Nickel Based Alloy Catalysts and Magnetically Stabilized Bed Hydrogenation Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Enze

    2004-01-01

    Looking toward 21 century, smaller, cleaner and more energy-efficient technology will be an important trend in the development of chemical industry. In light of the new process requirements,a number of technology breakthroughs have occurred. One of these discoveries, the magnetically stabilized bed (MSB), has been proven a powerful process for intensification. Since its initial research in the late 1980's at Research Institute of Petroleum Processing (RIPP), the MSB technology and related catalytic material have matured rapidly through an intensive research and engineering program, primarily focused on its scaling-up.In this paper, we report the discovery of a novel skeletal amorphous nickel-based alloy and its use in magnetically stabilized bed (MSB). Amorphous alloys are new kinds of catalytic materials with short-range order but long-range disorder structure. In comparison with Raney Ni, the skeletal amorphous nickel-based alloy has an increasingly higher activity in the hydrogenation of reactive groups and compounds including nitro, nitrile, olefin, acetylene, aromatics, etc. Up to now, the amorphous nickel based alloy catalysts, SRNA series catalyst, one with high Ni ratio have been commercially manufactured more than four year. The new SRNA catalyst has been successfully implemented for hydrogenation applications in slurry reactor at Balin Petrochemical, SINOPEC.SRNA catalyst with further improvement in catalytic activity and stability raise its relative stability to 2~4 times of that of conventional catalyst. In the course of the long-cycle operation of SRNA-4 the excellent catalyst activity and stability can bring about such advantage as low reaction temperature, good selectivity and low catalyst resumption.Magnetically stabilized bed (MSB), a fluidized bed of magnetizable particles by applying a spatially uniform and time-invariant magnetic field oriented axially relative to the fluidizing fluid flow, had many advantages such as the low pressure drop and

  4. Coating powdered copper catalyst with yttria sol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Kuan-Ying [Department of Chemical and Engineering and Materials Science, Yuan Ze University, Chung-Li, Taiwan (China); Fuel Cell Center, Yuan Ze University, Chung-Li, Taiwan (China); Shen, Chia-Chieh, E-mail: ccshen@saturn.yzu.edu.tw [Fuel Cell Center, Yuan Ze University, Chung-Li, Taiwan (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yuan Ze University, Chung-Li, Taiwan (China); Graduate School of Renewable Energy Engineering, Yuan Ze University, Chung-Li, Taiwan (China); Lee, Chi-Yuan; Lee, Shuo-Jen [Fuel Cell Center, Yuan Ze University, Chung-Li, Taiwan (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yuan Ze University, Chung-Li, Taiwan (China); Graduate School of Renewable Energy Engineering, Yuan Ze University, Chung-Li, Taiwan (China); Leu, Chih-Hsing [Energy and Environment Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Wang, Jung-Hui [Fuel Cell Center, Yuan Ze University, Chung-Li, Taiwan (China); Yeh, Chuin-Tih [Department of Chemical and Engineering and Materials Science, Yuan Ze University, Chung-Li, Taiwan (China); Fuel Cell Center, Yuan Ze University, Chung-Li, Taiwan (China)

    2011-07-15

    Research highlights: {yields} The neutral Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} sol is an effective binder for coating powders of CuZnAl catalyst. {yields} A particle size ratio of 15 for catalyst to binder is suggested for stable coating. {yields} Sufficient stirring is an important step in the catalyst slurry preparation. - Abstract: A commercial Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} sol was tested as a binder for coating CuZnAl catalyst powder onto microchannels of a stainless steel plate (SSP). Coated plates were used to fabricate microchannel reactors that generate hydrogen via the steam reforming of methanol (SRM). Washcoating slurries were prepared by suspending catalyst powders into the sol. Slurry parameters, such as solid content, binder content, pH value, and stir time, were optimized to achieve a stable catalyst coating and good SRM performance. The expected stable coating could be obtained from neutral (pH 7) Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} slurry that is required for a negligible dissolution of the copper component of the catalyst. The experimental coating stability generally improved with the slurry stir time. Observed improvements were attributed to a dispersion of catalyst powders in the slurry through a two-step mechanism: the mechanical disassembly of agglomerated CuZnAl powders into primary particles, and the repelling of dissembled particles through adsorption of positively charged Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} binders. A reasonable reaction temperature of 280 deg. C was found for 95% conversion of methanol in SRM from the resulted microchannel reactors. A low CO fraction of 0.3% was also found in the hydrogen-rich gas reformed.

  5. Innovative synthetic rubbers via ruthenium catalyst systems

    OpenAIRE

    Tuba, Robert; Grubbs, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    The trans-polypentenamer has unique relevance among the synthetic rubbers since it has similar phys. properties to the natural rubber. The polypentenamer additives have propitious effect on the tire properties and have been studied extensively for this application. Polypentenamer synthetic rubber was synthesized by ringopening metathesis polymn. (ROMP) using ruthenium catalyst systems. It was found that the cyclopentene conversion does not depend on the catalyst activity and catal...

  6. Catalyst Deactivation: Control Relevance of Model Assumptions

    OpenAIRE

    Bernt Lie; David M. Himmelblau

    2000-01-01

    Two principles for describing catalyst deactivation are discussed, one based on the deactivation mechanism, the other based on the activity and catalyst age distribution. When the model is based upon activity decay, it is common to use a mean activity developed from the steady-state residence time distribution. We compare control-relevant properties of such an approach with those of a model based upon the deactivation mechanism. Using a continuous stirred tank reactor as an example, we show t...

  7. Heterogeneous Catalyst Deactivation and Regeneration: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Morris D. Argyle; Calvin H. Bartholomew

    2015-01-01

    Deactivation of heterogeneous catalysts is a ubiquitous problem that causes loss of catalytic rate with time. This review on deactivation and regeneration of heterogeneous catalysts classifies deactivation by type (chemical, thermal, and mechanical) and by mechanism (poisoning, fouling, thermal degradation, vapor formation, vapor-solid and solid-solid reactions, and attrition/crushing). The key features and considerations for each of these deactivation types is reviewed in detail with referen...

  8. Method for manufacturing a hydrorefining catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for the manufacture of a highly active and, at the same time, activity-stable hydrorefining catalyst is presented. The catalyst consisting of the combination of nickel-molybdenum(VI) oxide/aluminium oxide achieves an almost complete degradation of sulphur and nitrogen and a hydrogenation of olefins, consuming only little hydrogen. It is used for selective sulphur/nitrogen removal and olefin elimination from hydrocarbon fractions

  9. Entrepreneurship as a Catalyst for Rural Tourism Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Sharif Norhafiza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The tourism industry is seen as capable of being an agent of change in the landscape of economic, social and environment of a tourist destination. Tourism activity has also generated employment and entrepreneurship opportunities to the local community as well as using available resources as tourist attractions. The tourism sector has the potential to be a catalyst for the development of entrepreneurship and small business performance. Through the development of tourism, the rural community has the opportunity to offer services or sell products to the both local and foreign tourists. To fulfill this purpose, local community participation in entrepreneurship is very important in order to develope the economic potential and to determine the direction of a development in rural areas. In the context of entrepreneurship, local participation is important not only as an entrepreneur and labor in this sector as well as complementary sectors of the others, but they can serve to encourage the involvement of other residents to join together to develop this entrepreneurial. This article aims to discuss the extent of entrepreneurship as a catalyst to the development of tourism in rural areas. Through active participation among community members, rural entrepreneurship will hopefully move towards prosperity and success of rural development.

  10. Synchrotron radiation studies of supported metal catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metallic clusters supported on refractory oxides have been used extensively for several decades in the production of chemicals and petroleum derived transportation fuels. Catalysts containing more than one metal component are of particular interest since the addition of a second metal provides a method of controlling the selectivity of the catalyst. That is, the second metal can alter the rates of competing reactions in a complex reaction sequence and thus alter the final product distribution of the reaction. In this work the reactions of cyclohexane in hydrogen over silica supported ruthenium and osmium catalysts were studied. Bimetallic catalysts represent an important class of materials that are of interest both scientifically and technologically. Despite the importance and long-standing use of supported metal catalysts, detailed information on the structure of the metal clusters has been difficult to obtain. The development of x-ray absorption spectroscopy with the increasing availability of synchrotron radiation, however, has provided a powerful and versatile tool for studying the structure of these complex systems. Using the Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) technique, it is possible to obtain information on the local atomic structure of supported monometallic catalytic metals and their interaction with the support. In the discussion that follows the authors will focus on results that have been obtained on the structure of supported bimetallic cluster catalysts

  11. The Oxidation of Sulfur-Containing Compounds Using Heterogeneous Catalysts of Transition Metal Oxides Deposited on the Polymeric Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh Vu, Ngo; Dinh Bui, Nhi; Thi Minh, Thao; Thi Thanh Dam, Huong; Thi Tran, Hang

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the activity of heterogeneous catalysts of transition metal oxides deposited on the polymeric matrix in the oxidation of sulfur-containing compounds. It is shown that MnO2-10/CuO-10 has the highest catalytic activity. The physicomechanical properties of polymeric heterogeneous catalysts of transition-metal oxides, including the specific surface area, elongation at break and breaking strength, specific electrical resistance, and volume resistivity were studied by using an Inspekt mini 3 kN universal tensile machine in accordance with TCVN 4509:2006 at a temperature of 20 ± 2°C. Results show that heterogeneous polymeric catalysts were stable under severe reaction conditions. Scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive analysis are used to study the surfaces of the catalysts. Microstructural characterization of the catalysts is performed by using x-ray computed tomography. We demonstrate the potential application of polymeric heterogeneous catalysts of transition-metal oxides in industrial wastewater treatment.

  12. Chemical imaging of single catalyst particles with scanning μ-XANES-CT and μ-XRF-CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, S W T; Ignatyev, K; Geraki, K; Basham, M; Filik, J; Vo, N T; Witte, P T; Beale, A M; Mosselmans, J F W

    2015-01-01

    The physicochemical state of a catalyst is a key factor in determining both activity and selectivity; however these materials are often not structurally or compositionally homogeneous. Here we report on the 3-dimensional imaging of an industrial catalyst, Mo-promoted colloidal Pt supported on carbon. The distribution of both the active Pt species and Mo promoter have been mapped over a single particle of catalyst using microfocus X-ray fluorescence computed tomography. X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure revealed a mixed local coordination environment, including the presence of both metallic Pt clusters and Pt chloride species, but also no direct interaction between the catalyst and Mo promoter. We also report on the benefits of scanning μ-XANES computed tomography for chemical imaging, allowing for 2- and 3-dimensional mapping of the local electronic and geometric environment, in this instance for both the Pt catalyst and Mo promoter throughout the catalyst particle. PMID:25407850

  13. Carbon quantum dots with photo-generated proton property as efficient visible light controlled acid catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haitao; Liu, Ruihua; Kong, Weiqian; Liu, Juan; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Lei; Zhang, Xing; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Kang, Zhenhui

    2013-12-01

    Developing light-driven acid catalyst will be very meaningful for the controlled-acid catalytic processes towards a green chemical industry. Here, based on scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) and ΔpH testing, we demonstrate that the 5-10 nm carbon quantum dots (CQDs) synthesized by electrochemical ablation of graphite have strong light-induced proton properties under visible light in solution, which can be used as an acid catalyst. The 5-10 nm CQDs' catalytic activity is strongly dependent on the illumination intensity and the temperature of the reaction system. As an effective visible light driven and controlled acid-catalyst, 5-10 nm CQDs can catalyze a series of organic reactions (esterification, Beckmann rearrangement and aldol condensation) with high conversion (34.7-46.2%, respectively) in water solution under visible light, while the 1-4 nm CQDs and 10-2000 nm graphite do not have such excellent catalytic activity. The use of 5-10 nm CQDs as a light responsive and controllable photocatalyst is truly a novel application of carbon-based nanomaterials, which may significantly push research in the current catalytic industry, environmental pollution and energy issues.Developing light-driven acid catalyst will be very meaningful for the controlled-acid catalytic processes towards a green chemical industry. Here, based on scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) and ΔpH testing, we demonstrate that the 5-10 nm carbon quantum dots (CQDs) synthesized by electrochemical ablation of graphite have strong light-induced proton properties under visible light in solution, which can be used as an acid catalyst. The 5-10 nm CQDs' catalytic activity is strongly dependent on the illumination intensity and the temperature of the reaction system. As an effective visible light driven and controlled acid-catalyst, 5-10 nm CQDs can catalyze a series of organic reactions (esterification, Beckmann rearrangement and aldol condensation) with high conversion (34

  14. Methods for recovering precious metals from industrial waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canda, L.; Heput, T.; Ardelean, E.

    2016-02-01

    The accelerated rate of industrialization increases the demand for precious metals, while high quality natural resources are diminished quantitatively, with significant operating costs. Precious metals recovery can be successfully made from waste, considered to be secondary sources of raw material. In recent years, concerns and interest of researchers for more increasing efficient methods to recover these metals, taking into account the more severe environmental protection legislation. Precious metals are used in a wide range of applications, both in electronic and communications equipment, spacecraft and jet aircraft engines and for mobile phones or catalytic converters. The most commonly recovered precious metals are: gold from jewellery and electronics, silver from X- ray films and photographic emulsions, industrial applications (catalysts, batteries, glass/mirrors), jewellery; platinum group metals from catalytic converters, catalysts for the refining of crude oil, industrial catalysts, nitric acid manufacturing plant, the carbon-based catalyst, e-waste. An important aspect is the economic viability of recycling processes related to complex waste flows. Hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical routes are the most important ways of processing electrical and electronic equipment waste. The necessity of recovering precious metals has opened new opportunities for future research.

  15. Preparation and characterization of Cu/ZnO catalysts for methanol synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Zander, S.

    2012-01-01

    Methanol is one of the most important industrial base chemicals and also a starting material for many organic syntheses. A steadily rising amount is used as fuel or fuel additive because methanol can serve as liquid hydrogen carrier. In the chemical industry, methanol is produced from synthesis gas (H2, CO and CO2) over Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalysts at temperatures of 250-350 C and pressures up to 100 bars. It is known that Cu should be present finely dispersed to obtain a high Cu surface area and a...

  16. Improving the Timing of Extended Finite State Machines Via Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Yu Huang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a timing optimization technique for a complex finite state machine that consists of not only random logic but also data operators. In such a design, the timing critical path often forms a cycle and thus cannot be cut down easily by popular techniques such as pipelining or retiming. The proposed technique, based on the concept of catalyst, adds a functionally redundant block—which includes a piece of combinational logic and several other registers—to the circuits under consideration so that the timing critical paths are divided into stages. During this transformation, the circuit's functionality is not affected, while the speed is improved significantly. This technique has been successfully applied to an industrial application—a Built-In Self-Test (BIST circuit for static random access memories (SRAMs. The synthesis result indicates a 47% clock cycle time reduction.

  17. Thermocatalytic Oxidation of Chloro-Derivatives of Propane Occurring in Industrial Wastes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The processes of treatment and utilization of organic chlorine compounds: 1,2-dichloropropane andpropylene chlorohydrin, were investigated with application of contact catalysts to obtain the lowest possibletemperature of the process by selection of proper catalysts and determination of optimum reaction parameters.Experiments were carried out with application of oxide, copper-zinc (TMC-2, TMC 3/1) and platinum (PA-2)catalysts. Results of investigations proved the possibility of total oxidation of above-mentioned compoundsand components of industrial wastewater in the temperature range from 350 to 450 ℃.

  18. Directed Evolution of Enzymes for Industrial Biocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Joanne L; Rusli, Rukhairul A; Ollis, David L

    2016-02-01

    Enzymes have the potential to catalyse a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are increasingly being sought as environmentally friendly and cost-effective alternatives to conventional catalysts used in industries ranging from bioremediation to applications in medicine and pharmaceutics. Despite the benefits, they are not without their limitations. Many naturally occurring enzymes are not suitable for use outside of their native cellular environments. However, protein engineering can be used to generate enzymes tailored for specific industrial applications. Directed evolution is particularly useful and can be employed even when lack of structural information impedes the use of rational design. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of current industrial applications of enzyme technology and to show how directed evolution can be used to modify and to enhance enzyme properties. This includes a brief discussion on library generation and a more detailed focus on library screening methods, which are critical to any directed evolution experiment.

  19. Session 4: Improved middle distillate selectivity using pre-treated catalytic cracking catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trimm, D.L.; Chia, D.A. [New South Wales Univ., School of Chemical Engineering and Industrial Chemistry, Sydney (Australia)

    2004-07-01

    Demand for transport fuels has led to refining practices designed to maximize yields of middle distillate. One such practice involves the addition of light hydrocarbons to the bottom of the riser of a fluid catalytic cracker. Coke, deposited on the most acidic sites of a fresh catalyst, is suggested to limit over-cracking and maximize the yield of middle distillate. Mandal et al. found optimal results with the deposition of 0.2 - 0.3 wt % coke. An attempt to explore this finding using an equilibrated catalyst was unsuccessful and, as a result, the mechanism of the reaction has been explored using squalane (C{sub 30}H{sub 62}) cracking as a test system. All catalyst testing was carried out using a standard micro-activity test unit. Squalane was injected through 0.1 - 5 g catalyst mounted in a heated reactor. Gases and liquids were analysed using gas chromatography. Industrially equilibrated catalyst was fully characterized. Significant changes in the physical and chemical properties of the original catalyst (AKZO Access 908 ABP) were observed. Separate samples were coked to 1.4, 2.5 and 3.4 mass %, and other samples were treated by soaking in 25 mass % ammonia solution, drying and calcining (523 K: 1 h: 923 K: 5.5 h). Results reported are the average of 10 experiments (standard deviation of less than 2%). Initial experiments were carried out to compare the reactions of squalane over equilibrium catalyst with and without pre-treatment. All pre-treatments were found to decrease conversion, with pre-coking having a significant effect on LCO yield and on further coke formation. The results were consistent with pore blocking effects, and comparisons were made with an ammonia pre-treated catalyst where the pore structure remained the same. Compared to the equilibrated catalyst, it was surprising to find higher yields of lower molecular weight compounds at the expense of C{sub 7}{sup +} products, both at 38 and 65 mass % conversion. Hydrogen transfer reactions are known to

  20. Interaction between Nafion ionomer and noble metal catalyst for PEMFCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Shuang Ma

    The implement of polymer impregnation in electrode structure (catalyst layer) decreasing the noble metal catalyst loading by a factor of ten , , is one of the essential mile stones in the evolution of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells’ development among the application of catalyst support...... and electrode deposition etc. In fuel cell reactions, both electrons and protons are involved. Impregnation of Nafion ionomer in catalyst layer effectively increases the proton-electron contact, enlarge the reaction zone, extend the reaction from the surface to the entire electrode. Therefore, the entire...... catalyst layer conducts both electrons and protons so that catalyst utilization in the layer is improved dramatically. The catalyst layer will in turn generate and sustain a higher current density. One of the generally adapted methods to impregnate Nafion into the catalyst layer is to mix the catalysts...

  1. Catalytic Transformation of Ethylbenzene over Y-Zeolite-based Catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Khattaf, Sulaiman

    2008-11-19

    Catalytic transformation of ethylbenzene (EB) has been investigated over ultrastable Y (USY)-zeolite-based catalysts in a novel riser simulator at different operating conditions. The effect of reaction conditions on EB conversion is reported. The USY catalyst (FCC-Y) was modified by steaming to form a significantly lower acidity catalyst (FCC-SY). The current study shows that the FCC-SY catalyst favors EB disproportionation more than cracking. A comparison has been made between the results of EB conversion over the lowly acidic catalyst (FCC-SY) and the highly acidic catalyst (FCC-Y) under identical conditions. It was observed that increase in catalyst acidity favored cracking of EB at the expense of disproportionation. Kinetic parameters for EB disappearance during disproportionation reaction over the FCC-SY catalyst were calculated using the catalyst activity decay function based on time on stream (TOS). © 2008 American Chemical Society.

  2. Development of Novel Resid Hydrometallization Catalyst RDM-3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Dawei; Niu Chuanfeng; Yang Qinghe; Liu Tao

    2007-01-01

    Based on the reaction mechanism of resid hydrodemetallization,a new catalyst carrier was designed and prepared.As compared with the similar type of catalyst carder,the said new carrier featured a higher pore volume,a larger pore diameter and a weaker surface acidity,which could improve the diffusion performance and stable reaction performance of the catalyst.The active metal components were loaded on the said carrier by a new technique for better metal dispersion,thus the impurity removal rate of the new catalyst,RDM-3,was improved significantly.The commercial test of the RDM-3 catalyst showed that the process of catalyst preparation was stable,the catalyst performance was slightly better than the catalyst prepared in the lab,therefore,the catalyst could be manufactured in commercial scale.

  3. Advances in HDS catalysts design: relation between catalyst structure and feed composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kagami, Narinobu

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this work is to propose a better understanding of ultra deep HDS for diesel, to contribute to the development of advanced catalysts. The characterization of catalyst structure was examined by XRD, TPR, TPS and Raman spectroscopy. The ranking of catalytic activities were tested using vario

  4. Towards the Rational Design of Nanoparticle Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Priyabrat

    This research is focused on development of routes towards the rational design of nanoparticle catalysts. Primarily, it is focused on two main projects; (1) the use of imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) as greener media for the design of quasi-homogeneous nanoparticle catalysts and (2) the rational design of heterogeneous-supported nanoparticle catalysts from structured nanoparticle precursors. Each project has different studies associated with the main objective of the design of nanoparticle catalysts. In the first project, imidazolium-based ionic liquids have been used for the synthesis of nanoparticle catalysts. In particular, studies on recyclability, reuse, mode-of-stability, and long-term stability of these ionic-liquid supported nanoparticle catalysts have been done; all of which are important factors in determining the overall "greenness" of such synthetic routes. Three papers have been published/submitted for this project. In the first publication, highly stable polymer-stabilized Au, Pd and bimetallic Au-Pd nanoparticle catalysts have been synthesized in imidazolium-based 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIM]PF6) ionic liquid (Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical, 2008, 286, 114). The resulting nanoparticles were found to be effective and selective quasi-homogeneous catalysts towards a wide-range of hydrogenation reactions and the catalyst solution was reused for further catalytic reactions with minimal loss in activity. The synthesis of very pure and clean ILs has allowed a platform to study the effects of impurities in the imidazolium ILs on nanoparticle stability. In a later study, a new mode of stabilization was postulated where the presence of low amounts of 1-methylimidazole has substantial effects on the resulting stability of Au and Pd-Au nanoparticles in these ILs (Chemical Communications, 2009, 812). In further continuation of this study, a comparative study involving four stabilization protocols for nanoparticle

  5. Solid state synthesis, characterization, surface and catalytic properties of Pr2CoO4 and Pr2NiO4 catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The most interesting non-stoichiometric oxides are found in transition metal and rare earth oxides at higher temperatures. The role of Solid State properties in the catalysis using mixed metal oxide as catalyst have wide applications in fertilizer, Petro-chemical, Pharmaceutical, cosmetic, paint detergents, plastics and food-stuff industries and these are also resistive towards acids and alkalies. The use of catalyst has opened up new process routes or revolutioned the existing process in terms of economics and efficiency and has radically changed the industrial scenario. The use of catalyst is so pervasive today that nearly 70 % of modern chemical processes are based on it at some stage or other and 90% new processes developed are catalytic nature. A series of non-stoichiometric spinel type of oxide catalyst of Praseodymium with cobalt and nickel were synthesized by their oxalates through Solid State reaction technique at different activation temperatures i.e. 600, 700, 800 and 900 deg C. The characterization of catalyst was done by XRD, FTIR and ESR methods. X-ray powder diffraction study shows that catalysts are made up of well grown crystallinities mostly in single phase crystal and system is of orthorhombic structure. FTIR is related to inadequate decomposition of oxalate ion from the Catalyst. The kinetic decomposition of Urea was employed as a model reaction to study the catalytic potentiality of different catalysts. Surface and Catalytic Properties of catalysts were measured. A relation between activation temperature and surface properties like excess surface oxygen (E.S.O.), surface acidity and surface area was observed. A linear relationship between the surface area of the catalyst and the amount of ammonia gas evolved per gm of the sample was observed also. Nickel containing catalysts were found a bit more catalytic active in comparison to cobalt oxide catalysts. Transition metal ions (i.e. Ni2+and Co2+ ions) are mainly responsible for

  6. Direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate and propylene glycol using potassium bicarbonate as catalyst in supercritical CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Yicun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The improved one-pot synthesis of dimethyl carbonate and propylene glycol from propylene oxide, supercritical carbon dioxide, and methanol with potassium bicarbonate as the catalyst has been reported in this paper. As far as we know, it is the first time to use potassium bicarbonate only as the catalyst in the production process which is simple and cheap. Satisfactory conversion rate of propylene oxide and yield of the products could be achieved at the optimized conditions with quite a small amount of by-products. Our new method offers an attractive choice for the production of dimethyl carbonate in large-scale industry efficiently and environmental friendly.

  7. 17th European Conference on Mathematics for Industry

    CERN Document Server

    Günther, Michael; Marheineke, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the 17th European Conference on Mathematics for Industry, ECMI2012, held in Lund, Sweden, July 2012, at which ECMI celebrated its 25th anniversary. It covers mathematics in a wide range of applications and methods, from circuit and electromagnetic devices, environment, fibers, flow, medicine, robotics and automotive industry, further applications to methods and education. The book includes contributions from leading figures in business, science and academia who promote the application of mathematics to industry and emphasize industrial sectors that offer the most exciting opportunities. The contributions reinforce the role of mathematics as being a catalyst for innovation as well as an overarching resource for industry and business. The book features an accessible presentation of real-world problems in industry and finance, provides insight and tools for engineers and scientists which will help them to solve similar problems, and offers modeling and simulation techniques ...

  8. Synthesis H-Zeolite catalyst by impregnation KI/KIO3 and performance test catalyst for biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widayat, W.; Rizky Wicaksono, Adit; Hakim Firdaus, Lukman; Okvitarini, Ndaru

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this research is to produce H-catalyst catalyst that was impregnated with KI/KIO3. The catalyst was analyzed about surface area, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and performance test of catalyst for biodiesel production. An H-Zeolite catalyst was synthesized from natural zeolite with chemical treatment processing, impregnation KI/KIO3 and physical treatment. The results shows that the surface area of the catalyst by 27.236 m2/g at a concentration of 5% KI. XRD analysis shows peak 2-θ at 23.627o indicating that KI was impregnated on H-zeolite catalyst. The catalyst was tested in production of biodiesel using palm oil with conventional methods for 3 hour at temperature of 70-80 oC. The result for conversion Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) reached maximum value on 87.91% under production process using catalyst 5% KIO3-H zeolite.

  9. Industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industrial radiography is a non-destructive testing (NDT) method which allows components to be examined for flaws without interfering with their usefulness. It is one of a number of inspection methods which are commonly used in industry to control the quality of manufactured products and to monitor their performance in service. Because of its involvement in organizing training courses in all the common NDT methods in regional projects in Asia and the Pacific and Latin America and the Caribbean and in many country programmes, the Agency is aware of the importance of standardizing as far as possible the syllabi and training course notes used by the many experts who are involved in presenting the training courses. IAEA-TECDOC-628 ''Training Guidelines in Non-destructive Testing'' presents syllabi which were developed by an Agency executed UNDP project in Latin America and the Caribbean taking into account the developmental work done by the International Committee for Non-destructive Testing. Experience gained from using the radiography syllabi from TECDOC-628 at national and regional radiography training courses in the Agency executed UNDP project in Asia and the Pacific (RAS/86/073) showed that some guidance needed to be given to radiography experts engaged in teaching at these courses on the material which should be covered. The IAEA/UNDP Asia and Pacific Project National NDT Coordinators therefore undertook to prepare Radiography Training Course Notes which could be used by experts to prepare lectures for Level 1,2 and 3 radiography personnel. The notes have been expanded to cover most topics in a more complete manner than that possible at a Level 1, 2 or 3 training course and can now be used as source material for NDT personnel interested in expanding their knowledge of radiography. Refs, figs and tabs

  10. Steam dealkylation catalyst and a method for its activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of activating a supported catalyst containing oxides of a group viii metal and of a group 1 a metal which comprises heating said catalyst at a rate of 100 to 5000F/hr to a temperature of 6500 to 14000F in a hydrogen atmosphere; maintaining said heated catalyst in a hydrogen atmosphere at 6500 to 14000F for 2 to 30 hours thereby forming a hydrogen-treated catalyst; and maintaining the hydrogen-treated catalyst in a steam-hydrogen atmosphere at 6500 to 14000F for 2 to 20 hours thereby forming a steamed hydrogen-treated catalyst

  11. The Direction of Terengganu Tourism Industry in Sustaining Business Growth: A Conceptual Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Abi Sofian Abdul Halim; Zainuddin Zakaria; Mohd Tajul Hasnan; Syafini Muda

    2012-01-01

    Business sustainability is recognized as a crucial catalyst to the industrial direction and business growth in any industry. This paper focuses on the Terengganu tourism industry efforts to create long term business Sustainability through higher profitability, effective management, business performance, and competitive advantage. The state of Terengganu in the East-Coast of Peninsular Malaysia is strategically located as a tourist destination. Therefore, the state tourism board needs to incul...

  12. 3D-modelling of bifunctional core-shell catalysts for the production of fuels from biomass-based synthesis gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Wenjin; Lee, Seung Cheol; Li, Hui; Pfeifer, Peter; Dittmeyer, Roland [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. for Micro Process Engineering (IMVT)

    2013-09-01

    Until now, the main route for the production of DME from synthesis gas in industry is methanol synthesis on a metallic catalyst and subsequent dehydration of methanol on an acid catalyst (two-step process). A single-step process using bifunctional catalysts to perform the two steps simultaneously would be preferred e.g. due to thermodynamic considerations; but this is impeded by the higher volumetric heat release which may cause deactivation of the methanol synthesis catalyst function. Thus we propose to conduct the reaction in a microchannel reactor. However, in order to increase the productivity of the microchannel reactor and to lower the investment costs, we aim at a high selectivity and activity of the catalyst. The continuously removal of methanol by dehydration on an acidic ZSM-5 catalyst as shell improves the thermodynamic conditions of methanol synthesis in the CuO/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} core; thus, the synthesis gas conversion can be higher than that determined by the thermodynamics of pure methanol synthesis. The molecular sieving in the zeolite layer can further lead to higher selectivity of DME at milder reaction conditions. However, mass transport limitation of the synthesis gas to the catalyst core should not hinder the reaction, and therefore a more detailed investigation is required. In order to computer-aided optimize the catalyst structure and the operating conditions for core-shell catalysts, a simulation model should be developed to study the coupled reaction and transport processes in core-shell catalysts. In this simulation model the complicated interaction of diffusion and reaction in the zeolite layer (shell) must be detailed by a network model to describe its structure and the mechanisms effectively. In addition, suitable diffusion and kinetic models are required to describe the mass transport and reactions in the layer. Suitable networks, diffusion and kinetic models are discussed for 3D simulations in this contribution. (orig.)

  13. Silica-supported (nBuCp)2ZrCl2: Effect of catalyst active center distribution on ethylene-1-hexene copolymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Atiqullah, Muhammad

    2013-08-12

    Metallocenes are a modern innovation in polyolefin catalysis research. Therefore, two supported metallocene catalysts-silica/MAO/(nBuCp)2ZrCl2 (Catalyst 1) and silica/nBuSnCl3/MAO/(nBuCp)2ZrCl2 (Catalyst 2), where MAO is methylaluminoxane-were synthesized, and subsequently used to prepare, without separate feeding of MAO, ethylene-1-hexene Copolymer 1 and Copolymer 2, respectively. Fouling-free copolymerization, catalyst kinetic stability and production of free-flowing polymer particles (replicating the catalyst particle size distribution) confirmed the occurrence of heterogeneous catalysis. The catalyst active center distribution was modeled by deconvoluting the measured molecular weight distribution and copolymer composition distribution. Five different active center types were predicted for each catalyst, which was corroborated by successive self-nucleation and annealing experiments, as well as by an extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy report published in the literature. Hence, metallocenes impregnated particularly on an MAO-pretreated support may be rightly envisioned to comprise an ensemble of isolated single sites that have varying coordination environments. This study shows how the active center distribution and the design of supported MAO anions affect copolymerization activity, polymerization mechanism and the resulting polymer microstructures. Catalyst 2 showed less copolymerization activity than Catalyst 1. Strong chain transfer and positive co-monomer effect-both by 1-hexene-were common. Each copolymer demonstrated vinyl, vinylidene and trans-vinylene end groups, and compositional heterogeneity. All these findings were explained, as appropriate, considering the modeled active center distribution, MAO cage structure repeat units, proposed catalyst surface chemistry, segregation effects and the literature that concerns and supports this study. While doing so, new insights were obtained. Additionally, future research, along the direction

  14. The Epoxidation of Limonene over the TS-1 and Ti-SBA-15 Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Wróblewska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Limonene belongs to a group of very important intermediates used in the production of fine chemicals. This monoterpene compound can be obtained from peels of oranges or lemon which are a (biomass waste from the orange juice industry. Thus, limonene is a renewable, easy available and a relatively cheap compound. This work presents preliminary studies on the process of limonene epoxidation over zeolite type catalysts such as: TS-1 and Ti-SBA-15. In these studies methanol was used as a solvent and as an oxidizing agent a 60 wt % hydrogen peroxide solution was applied. The activity of each catalyst was investigated for four chosen temperatures (0 °C, 40 °C, 80 °C and 120 °C. The reaction time was changed from 0.5 to 24 h. For each catalyst the most beneficial conditions (the appropriate temperature and the reaction time have been established. The obtained results were compared and the most active catalyst was chosen. These studies have also shown different possible ways of limonene transformation, not only in the direction of 1,2-epoxylimonene and its corresponding diol, but also in direction of carveol, carvone and perillyl alcohol—compounds with a lot of applications. The possible mechanisms of formation of the allylic oxidation products were proposed.

  15. Bioleaching of nickel from spent petroleum catalyst using Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans DSM- 11478.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mohita; Bisht, Varsha; Singh, Bina; Jain, Pratiksha; Mandal, Ajoy K; Lal, Banwari; Sarma, Priyangshu M

    2015-06-01

    The present work deals with optimization of culture conditions and process parameters for bioleaching of spent petroleum catalyst collected from a petroleum refinery. The efficacy of Ni bioleaching from spent petroleum catalyst was determined using pure culture of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans DSM- 11478. The culture conditions of pH, temperature and headspace volume to media volume ratio were optimized. EDX analysis was done to confirm the presence of Ni in the spent catalyst after roasting it to decoke its surface. The optimum temperature for A. thiooxidans DSM-11478 growth was found to be 32 degrees C. The enhanced recovery of nickel at very low pH was attributed to the higher acidic strength of sulfuric acid produced in the culture medium by the bacterium. During the bioleaching process, 89% of the Ni present in the catalyst waste could be successfully recovered in optimized conditions. This environment friendly bioleaching process proved efficient than the chemical method. Taking leads from the lab scale results, bioleaching in larger volumes (1, 5 and 10 L) was also performed to provide guidelines for taking up this technology for in situ industrial waste management. PMID:26155679

  16. Bioleaching of nickel from spent petroleum catalyst using Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans DSM- 11478.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mohita; Bisht, Varsha; Singh, Bina; Jain, Pratiksha; Mandal, Ajoy K; Lal, Banwari; Sarma, Priyangshu M

    2015-06-01

    The present work deals with optimization of culture conditions and process parameters for bioleaching of spent petroleum catalyst collected from a petroleum refinery. The efficacy of Ni bioleaching from spent petroleum catalyst was determined using pure culture of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans DSM- 11478. The culture conditions of pH, temperature and headspace volume to media volume ratio were optimized. EDX analysis was done to confirm the presence of Ni in the spent catalyst after roasting it to decoke its surface. The optimum temperature for A. thiooxidans DSM-11478 growth was found to be 32 degrees C. The enhanced recovery of nickel at very low pH was attributed to the higher acidic strength of sulfuric acid produced in the culture medium by the bacterium. During the bioleaching process, 89% of the Ni present in the catalyst waste could be successfully recovered in optimized conditions. This environment friendly bioleaching process proved efficient than the chemical method. Taking leads from the lab scale results, bioleaching in larger volumes (1, 5 and 10 L) was also performed to provide guidelines for taking up this technology for in situ industrial waste management.

  17. Lewis Acidic Ionic Liquids As New Addition Catalyst For Oleic Acid To Monoestolide Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Farhana Adnan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Estolide compound has a large potential in many industrial applications such as biodegradable lubricants and in cosmetic formulation. In this study, monoestolide can be prepared by addition reaction of oleic acid under vacuum-reflux and solvent free condition for 10 hours at 85 °C in the presence of solid zinc chloride anhydrous (ZnCl2, choline chloride (ChCl and ionic liquids (IL ChCl-ZnCl2, ChCl-FeCl3, ChCl-SnCl2, ChCl-CuCl2 as homogenous acid catalysts. These reactions were compared with common homogenous catalyst namely sulfuric acid (H2SO4. The FTIR analysis show that addition reaction using the above catalysts showed the presence of three new peaks at 1732 cm-1 for C=O ester, 967.0 cm-1 for trans-CH=CH and 1176 cm-1 for C-O-C which confirmed the existence of monoestolide. The LC-MS results showed peak for the present of new monoestolides at retention time (tR 12.3 min corresponding to m/z 563.48. Among the IL, ChCl-ZnCl2 surprisingly exhibited higher activity which is 98 % acid oleic conversion and 80 % selective for the synthesis of monoestolides. As a result, this IL gave two potential functions as a solvent as well as a green catalyst for monoestolide synthesis from oleic acid.

  18. Biomimetic Catalysts for Oxidation of Veratryl Alcohol, a Lignin Model Compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelino Maneiro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Kraft pulp has to be bleached to eliminate the chromophoric structures, which cause a darkening of the pulp. In Nature, an equivalent role is assumed by ligninolytic enzymes such as lignin peroxidases, manganese peroxidases and laccases. The development of low molecular weight manganese peroxidase mimics may achieve environmentally-safe bleaching catalysts for the industry. Herein we report the synthesis and characterization of six manganese(III complexes 1–6, incorporating dianionic hexadentate Schiff base ligands (H2L1-H2L4 and different anions. Complex 4, Mn2L22(H2O2(DCA2 was crystallographically characterized. Complexes 1–4 behave as more efficient mimics of peroxidase in contrast to 5–6. We have studied the use of these complexes as catalysts for the degradation of the lignin model compound veratryl alcohol. The biomimetic catalysts were used in conjunction with chlorine-free inexpensive co-oxidants as dioxygen or hydrogen peroxide. Yields up to 30% of veratryl alcohol conversion to veratraldehyde have been achieved at room temperature in presence of air flow using 0.5% of catalyst.

  19. Cationic organobismuth complex as an effective catalyst for conversion of CO2 into cyclic carbonates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaowen ZHANG; Weili DAI; Shuangfeng YIN; Shenglian LUO; Chak-Tong AU

    2009-01-01

    In order to achieve high-efficiency conversion of CO2 into valuable chemicals, and to exploit new appli-cations of organobismuth compounds, cationic organo-bismuth complex with 5,6,7,12-tetrahydrodibenz[c,f] [ 1,5 ]azabismocine framework was examined for the first time for the coupling of CO2 into cyclic carbonates, using ter-minal epoxides as substrates and tetrabutylammonium halide as co-catalyst in a solvent-free environment under mild conditions. It is shown that the catalyst exhibited high activity and selectivity for the coupling reaction of CO2 with a wide range of terminal epoxide. The selectivity of propylene carbonates could reach 100%, and the max-imum turnover frequency was up to 10740 h-1 at 120℃ and 3 MPa CO2 pressure when tetrabutylammonium iod-ide was used as co-catalyst. Moreover, the catalyst is environment friendly, resistant to air and water, and can be readily reused and recycled without any loss of activity,demonstrating a potential in industrial application.

  20. Thermal decomposition of supported lithium nitrate catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, Maria Lucia [INTEQUI (CONICET-UNSL), 25 de Mayo 384, V. Mercedes, 5730, San Luis (Argentina); Lick, Ileana Daniela [CINDECA (CONICET-UNLP), Calle 47 No 257, La Plata, 1900, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ponzi, Marta Isabel [INTEQUI (CONICET-UNSL), 25 de Mayo 384, V. Mercedes, 5730, San Luis (Argentina); Castellon, Enrique Rodriguez; Jimenez-Lopez, Antonio [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Cristalografia y Mineralogia. Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Malaga, Campus de Teatinos, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Ponzi, Esther Natalia, E-mail: eponzi@quimica.unlp.edu.ar [CINDECA (CONICET-UNLP), Calle 47 No 257, La Plata, 1900, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2010-02-20

    New catalysts for soot combustion were prepared by impregnation of different supports (SiO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2}.nH{sub 2}O) with a LiNO{sub 3} solution and then characterized by means of FTIR, XPS, TGA and UV-vis spectroscopy, whereby the presence of lithium nitrate in the prepared catalysts was identified and quantified. The soot combustion rate using this series of catalysts (LiNO{sub 3}/support) was compared with the activity of a series of impregnated catalysts prepared using LiOH (Li{sub 2}O/supports). Catalysts prepared using LiNO{sub 3} are found to be more active than those prepared using LiOH. The catalytic performance was also studied with a NO/O{sub 2} mixture in the feed, demonstrating that NO increases the combustion rate of soot, probably as a consequence of lithium oxide forming an 'in situ' nitrate ion.

  1. New catalysts for exhaust gas cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haerkoenen, M. [Kemira Metalkat Oy, Oulu (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Major challenge for future catalyst systems was to develop thermally more stable washcoats for close coupled operating conditions and for engines operating under high speed and load conditions. To design these future emission systems extensive research and development was undertaken to develop methods to disperse and stabilize the key catalytic materials for operation at much higher temperatures. Second priority was to design catalysts that are more effective under low temperature exhaust conditions and have improved oxygen storage properties in the washcoats. Incorporating new materials and modified preparation technology a new generation of metallic catalyst formulations emerged, those being trimetallic K6 (Pt:Pd:Rh and bimetallic K7) (Pd+Pd:Rh). The target was to combine the best property of Pt:Rh (good NO{sub x} reduction) with that of the good HC oxidation activity of Pd and to ensure that precious metal/support interactions were positively maintained. Both K6 and K7 concepts contain special catalyst structures with optimized washcoat performance which can be brick converter configuration. Improvement in light-off, thermal stability and transient performance with these new catalyst formulations have clearly been shown in both laboratory and vehicle testing. (author) (20 refs.)

  2. Characterization of three-way automotive catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenik, E.A.; More, K.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); LaBarge, W. [Delphi Automotive Systems, Flint, MI (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    The CRADA between Delphi Automotive Systems (Delphi; formerly General Motors - AC Delco, Systems) and Lockheed Martin Energy Research (LMER) on automotive catalysts was completed at the end of FY96, after a ten month, no-cost extension. The CRADA was aimed at improved performance and lifetime of noble metal based three-way-catalysts (TWC), which are the primary catalytic system for automotive emission control systems. While these TWC can meet the currently required emission standards, higher than optimum noble metal loadings are often required to meet lifetime requirements. In addition, more stringent emission standards will be imposed in the near future, demanding improved performance and service life from these catalysts. Understanding the changes of TWC conversion efficiency with ageing is a critical need in improving these catalysts. Initially in a fresh catalyst, the active material is often distributed on a very fine scale, approaching single atoms or small atomic clusters. As such, a wide range of analytical techniques have been employed to provide high spatial resolution characterization of the evolving state of the catalytic material.

  3. Thermally Stable, Latent Olefin Metathesis Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Renee M.; Fedorov, Alexey; Keitz, Benjamin K.

    2011-01-01

    Highly thermally stable N-aryl,N-alkyl N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ruthenium catalysts were designed and synthesized for latent olefin metathesis. These catalysts showed excellent latent behavior toward metathesis reactions, whereby the complexes were inactive at ambient temperature and initiated at elevated temperatures, a challenging property to achieve with second generation catalysts. A sterically hindered N-tert-butyl substituent on the NHC ligand of the ruthenium complex was found to induce latent behavior toward cross-metathesis reactions, and exchange of the chloride ligands for iodide ligands was necessary to attain latent behavior during ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP). Iodide-based catalysts showed no reactivity toward ROMP of norbornene-derived monomers at 25 °C, and upon heating to 85 °C gave complete conversion of monomer to polymer in less than 2 hours. All of the complexes were very stable to air, moisture, and elevated temperatures up to at least 90 °C, and exhibited a long catalyst lifetime in solution at elevated temperatures. PMID:22282652

  4. Thermally Stable, Latent Olefin Metathesis Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Renee M; Fedorov, Alexey; Keitz, Benjamin K; Grubbs, Robert H

    2011-12-26

    Highly thermally stable N-aryl,N-alkyl N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ruthenium catalysts were designed and synthesized for latent olefin metathesis. These catalysts showed excellent latent behavior toward metathesis reactions, whereby the complexes were inactive at ambient temperature and initiated at elevated temperatures, a challenging property to achieve with second generation catalysts. A sterically hindered N-tert-butyl substituent on the NHC ligand of the ruthenium complex was found to induce latent behavior toward cross-metathesis reactions, and exchange of the chloride ligands for iodide ligands was necessary to attain latent behavior during ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP). Iodide-based catalysts showed no reactivity toward ROMP of norbornene-derived monomers at 25 °C, and upon heating to 85 °C gave complete conversion of monomer to polymer in less than 2 hours. All of the complexes were very stable to air, moisture, and elevated temperatures up to at least 90 °C, and exhibited a long catalyst lifetime in solution at elevated temperatures. PMID:22282652

  5. CATALYSIS SCIENCE INITIATIVE: From First Principles Design to Realization of Bimetallic Catalysts for Enhanced Selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MAVRIKAKIS, MANOS

    2007-05-03

    In this project, we have integrated state-of-the-art Density Functional Theory (DFT) models of heterogeneous catalytic processes with high-throughput screening of bimetallic catalytic candidates for important industrial problems. We have studied a new class of alloys characterized by a surface composition different from the bulk composition, and investigated their stability and activity for the water-gas shift reaction and the oxygen reduction reaction. The former reaction is an essential part of hydrogen production; the latter is the rate-limiting step in low temperature H2 fuel cells. We have identified alloys that have remarkable stability and activity, while having a much lower material cost for both of these reactions. Using this knowledge of bimetallic interactions, we have also made progress in the industrially relevant areas of carbohydrate reforming and conversion of biomass to liquid alkanes. One aspect of this work is the conversion of glycerol (a byproduct of biodiesel production) to synthesis gas. We have developed a bifunctional supported Pt catalyst that can cleave the carbon-carbon bond while also performing the water-gas shift reaction, which allows us to better control the H2:CO ratio. Knowledge gained from the theoretical metal-metal interactions was used to develop bimetallic catalysts that perform this reaction at low temperature, allowing for an efficient coupling of this endothermic reaction with other reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch or methanol synthesis. In our work on liquid alkane production from biomass, we have studied deactivation and selectivity in these areas as a function of metal-support interactions and reaction conditions, with an emphasis on the bifunctionality of the catalysts studied. We have identified a stable, active catalyst for this process, where the selectivity and yield can be controlled by the reaction conditions. While complete rational design of catalysts is still elusive, this work demonstrates the power of

  6. Effects of three industrial wastes on kinetic characteristics of petroleum coke-CO{sub 2} gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou Jian-hui; Zhou Zhi-jie; Dai Zheng-hua; Liu Hai-feng; Wang Fu-chen; Yu Zun-hong [East China University of Science & Technology, Shanghai (China). Institute of Clean Coal Technology

    2008-07-01

    Three industrial wastes including black liquor from papermaking industry, coal slag, and sludge were used as catalysts for petroleum coke-CO{sub 2} gasification. The gasification kinetics characteristics with and without a catalyst were studied using a pressurized thermo gravimetric analyzer (TGA). It is shown that gasification rate increases with increasing conversion and then decreases after reaching a maximal rate for noncatalytic gasification, while decreases in whole course for catalytic gasification. The proposed normal distribution function model describes well the kinetic curve for both noncatalytic and catalytic gasification. The calculated activation energy of noncatalytic petroleum coke-CO{sub 2} gasification is 197.7 kJ/mol, which is in accordance with the reported data. The activities of three catalysts are contributed to the content of metal species. The black liquor in papermaking industry rich in Na species has the best activity, and its gasification rate is six times as that of noncatalytic gasification. 19 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Productions of palm oil bio diesel whit heterogeneous basic catalysts compared to conventional homogeneous catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conventional process to produce biodiesel involves the presence of homogeneous basic catalysts. However, these catalysts have disadvantages associated to the need of purification steps, which increase the cost of the final product and generate pollution problems caused by the effluents. This paper compares different homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts for the biodiesel production from palm oil. For this, heterogeneous catalysts supported on alumina were prepared and characterized by nitrogen adsorption, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X ray spectroscopy and X ray diffraction. Transesterification of palm oil with methanol was accomplished at 60 celsius degrade and one hour, varying methanol/oil ratio, the type of catalyst and its concentration. Yields of the reaction and purity of the so obtained biodiesel were evaluated. Comparing the catalysts performance, based on the amount, was found that sodium methoxide (CH3 ONa) and potassium carbonate supported on alumina (K2 CO3 /Al2O3) were the catalysts that give the higher purity of biodiesel (96.8 and 95.85% respectively). When was determined the active site quality, by dividing the performance by each mole of active sites, it was found that calcined Na2SO4 /Al2O3 has the most active sites.

  8. 负载型柴油氧化脱硫催化剂的研究进展%Progress on Supported Catalysts for Oxidative Desulfurization of Diesel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢颖; 黄克明; 梁朝林

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the progresses on the supported catalysts for oxidative desulfurization of diesel were discussed, mainly including transition metal catalysts and supported heteropoly acid catalysts. The two kinds of catalysts were compared in support type, catalytic activity and industrial application. It was concluded that zeolite and activated carbon as the supports were suitable to the oxidative desulfurization catalysts. The supported heteropoly acid catalysts had a good industrial prospect due to their high activity, low active component loss, easy separation and multiple reuse for the oxidative desulfurization of diesel.%介绍了负载型柴油氧化脱硫催化剂的研究进展,主要包括负载型过渡金属催化剂和负载型杂多酸催化剂,从催化剂的载体种类、催化活性和工业应用等方面比较了这两种催化剂的优缺点.通过比较得出,分子筛和活性炭更适合作为氧化脱硫催化剂的载体;负载型杂多酸催化剂具有活性高、活性组分不易流失、便于分离回收循环使用的优点,具有很好的工业应用前景.

  9. Examining the surfaces in used platinum catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trumić B.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of finding more advanced platinum catalyst manufacturing technologies and achieving a higher degree of ammonia oxidation, metallographic characterization has been done on the surface of catalyst gauzes and catalyst gripper gauzes made from platinum and palladium alloys. For the examined samples of gauzes as well as the cross section of the wires, a chemical analysis was provided. The purpose of this paper is the metallographic characterization of examined alloys carried out by way of electronic microscopic scanning, X-rays as well as chemical assays which contributed greatly to a better understanding of the surface deactivation, in other words a better consideration of structural changes occurring on the wire surface.

  10. Heterogeneous Catalyst Deactivation and Regeneration: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris D. Argyle

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Deactivation of heterogeneous catalysts is a ubiquitous problem that causes loss of catalytic rate with time. This review on deactivation and regeneration of heterogeneous catalysts classifies deactivation by type (chemical, thermal, and mechanical and by mechanism (poisoning, fouling, thermal degradation, vapor formation, vapor-solid and solid-solid reactions, and attrition/crushing. The key features and considerations for each of these deactivation types is reviewed in detail with reference to the latest literature reports in these areas. Two case studies on the deactivation mechanisms of catalysts used for cobalt Fischer-Tropsch and selective catalytic reduction are considered to provide additional depth in the topics of sintering, coking, poisoning, and fouling. Regeneration considerations and options are also briefly discussed for each deactivation mechanism.

  11. Polypropylene obtained through zeolite supported catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queli C. Bastos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Propylene polymerizations were carried out with f2C(Flu(CpZrCl2 and SiMe2(Ind2ZrCl2 catalysts supported on silica, zeolite sodic mordenite (NaM and acid mordenite (HM. The polymerizations were performed at different temperatures and varying aluminium/zirconium molar ratios ([Al]/[Zr]. The effect of these reaction parameters on the catalyst activity was investigated using a proposed statistical experimental planning. In the case of f2C(Flu(CpZrCl2, SiO2 and NaM were used as support and the catalyst performance evaluated using toluene and pentane as polymerization solvent. The molecular weight, molecular weight distribution, melting point and crystallinity of the polymers were examined. The results indicate very high activities for the syndiospecific heterogeneous system. Also, the polymers obtained had superior Mw and stereoregularity.

  12. Protein Scaffolding for Small Molecule Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, David [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2014-09-14

    We aim to design hybrid catalysts for energy production and storage that combine the high specificity, affinity, and tunability of proteins with the potent chemical reactivities of small organometallic molecules. The widely used Rosetta and RosettaDesign methodologies will be extended to model novel protein / small molecule catalysts in which one or many small molecule active centers are supported and coordinated by protein scaffolding. The promise of such hybrid molecular systems will be demonstrated with the nickel-phosphine hydrogenase of DuBois et. al.We will enhance the hydrogenase activity of the catalyst by designing protein scaffolds that incorporate proton relays and systematically modulate the local environment of the catalyticcenter. In collaboration with DuBois and Shaw, the designs will be experimentally synthesized and characterized.

  13. Photocatalytic Denitrogenation over Modiifed Waste FCC Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Liuping; Lin Mei; Huang Yingying; Yan Guiyang; Zheng Binquan; Li Ling

    2013-01-01

    The strontium modiifed waste FCC catalyst was prepared by magnetic stirring method and characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), UV-Vis diffuse relfectance spectrometry (DRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Meanwhile, its photocatalytic denitrogenation performance was evaluated in terms of its ability to degrade the N-containing simulation oil under visible light. A mixture of strontium nitrate solution (with a concentration of 0.5 mol/L) and waste FCC catalyst was calcined at 400℃for 5 h prior to taking part in the photocatalytic denitrogenation reaction. The test results showed that the photocatalytic degradation rate of pyridine contained in simulation oil in the presence of the strontium modiifed FCC catalyst could reach 92.0%under visible light irradiation for 2.5 h.

  14. Polypropylene obtained through zeolite supported catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Propylene polymerizations were carried out with φ2C(Flu)(Cp)ZrCl2 and SiMe2(Ind)2ZrCl2 catalysts supported on silica, zeolite sodic mordenite (NaM) and acid mordenite (HM). The polymerizations were performed at different temperatures and varying aluminium/zirconium molar ratios ([Al]/[Zr]). The effect of these reaction parameters on the catalyst activity was investigated using a proposed statistical experimental planning. In the case of f2C(Flu)(Cp)ZrCl2, SiO2 and NaM were used as support and the catalyst performance evaluated using toluene and pentane as polymerization solvent. The molecular weight, molecular weight distribution, melting point and crystallinity of the polymers were examined. The results indicate very high activities for the syndiospecific heterogeneous system. Also, the polymers obtained had superior Mw and stereo regularity. (author)

  15. Industrial radiographies

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The Radiation Protection group wishes to remind CERN staff responsible for contractors performing X-ray inspections on the CERN sites that the firms must apply the legislation in force in their country of origin, in particular with regard to the prevention of risks relating to ionizing radiation. Industrial radiography firms called on to work on the CERN sites must also comply with the rules laid down in CERN's Radiation Safety Manual and be registered in the relevant CERN database. Since CERN is responsible for safety on its own site, a number of additional rules have been laid down for this kind of work, as set out in Radiation Protection Procedure PRP30 https://edms.cern.ch/file/346848/LAST_RELEASED/PRP30.pdf The CERN Staff Member responsible for the contract shall register the company and issue notification that an X-ray inspection is to be performed via the web interface at the following address: http://cern.ch/rp-radio

  16. Catalyst dispersion and activity under conditions of temperature- staged liquefaction. [Catalyst precursors for molybdenum-based catalyst and iron-based catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, A.; Schobert, H.H.; Mitchell, G.D.; Artok, L.

    1992-07-01

    Two coals, a Texas subbituminous C and a Utah high volatile A bituminous, were used to examine the effects of solvent swelling and catalyst impregnation on liquefaction conversion behavior in temperature staged reactions for 30 minutes each at 275{degree} and 425{degree}C in H{sub 2} and 95:5 H{sub 2}:H{sub 2}S atmospheres. Methanol, pyridine, tetrahydrofuran, and tetrabutylammonium hydroxide were used as swelling agents. Molybdenum-based catalyst precursors were ammonium tetrathiomolybdate, molybdenum trisulfide, molybdenum hexacarbonyl, and bis(tricarbonylcyclopentadienyl-molybdenum). Ferrous sulfate and bis(dicarbonylcyclo-pentadienyliron) served as iron-based catalyst precursors. In addition, ion exchange was used for loading iron onto the subbituminous coal. For most experiments, liquefaction in H{sub 2}:H{sub 2}S was superior to that in H{sub 2}, regardless of the catalyst precursor. The benefit of the H{sub 2}S was greater for the subbituminous, presumably because of its higher iron content relative to the hvab coal. Tetrabutylammonium hydroxide was the only swelling agent to enhance conversion of the hvab coal significantly; it also caused a remarkable increase in conversion of the subbituminous coal. The combined application of solvent swelling and catalyst impregnation also improves liquefaction, mainly through increased oil yields from the hvab coal and increased asphaltenes from the subbituminous. A remarkable effect from use of ammonium tetrathiomolybdate as a catalyst precursor is substantial increase in pristane and phytane yields. Our findings suggest that these compounds are, at least in part, bound to the coal matrix.

  17. Comparison of the activities of binder-added and binder-free Mo/HZSM-5 catalysts in methane dehydroaromatization at 1073 K in periodic CH4-H2 switch operation mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuebing Xu; Hongtao Ma; Yo Yamamoto; Yoshizo Suzuki; Zhanguo Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Three industry-supplied,well-shaped Mo/HZSM-5 catalysts,two binder-added and one binder-free,were tested for the first time in methane dehydroaromatization to benzene at 1073 K and 10000 mL/(g.h) in periodic CH4-H2 switch operation mode,and their catalytic performances were compared with those of three self-prepared,binder-free powder Mo/HZSM-5 catalysts.XRD,27Al NMR,SEM,BET and NH3-TPD characterizations of all the catalysts show that the zeolites in the two binder-added catalysts are comparable to those in the three binder-free powder catalysts in crystallinity,crystal size,micropore volume and Br(¢)nsted acidity.The test results,on the other hand,show that the catalytic performances of the two binder-added catalysts are worse than those of the four binder-free catalysts on both catalyst mass and zeolite mass bases.Then,TPO and BET measurements of all spent samples were conducted to get a deep insight into the negative effects of binder addition,and the results suggest that the binder additives functioned mainly to enhance the polyaromatization of formed aromatics to coke on their external surfaces and consequently lower the benzene formation activity and selectivity of the catalyst.

  18. Advanced Aqueous Phase Catalyst Development using Combinatorial Methods Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The use of combinatorial methods is proposed to rapidly screen catalyst formulations for the advanced development of aqueous phase oxidation catalysts with greater...

  19. Highly Durable Catalysts for Ignition of Advanced Monopropellants Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Monopropellants are readily ignited or decomposed over a bed of solid catalyst. A serious limitation of existing catalysts in the ignition of advanced...

  20. In situ Transmission Electron Microscopy of catalyst sintering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DeLaRiva, Andrew T.; Hansen, Thomas Willum; Challa, Sivakumar R.;

    2013-01-01

    Recent advancements in the field of electron microscopy, such as aberration correctors, have now been integrated into Environmental Transmission Electron Microscopes (TEMs), making it possible to study the behavior of supported metal catalysts under operating conditions at atomic resolution. Here......, we focus on in situ electron microscopy studies of catalysts that shed light on the mechanistic aspects of catalyst sintering. Catalyst sintering is an important mechanism for activity loss, especially for catalysts that operate at elevated temperatures. Literature from the past decade is reviewed...... along with our recent in situ TEM studies on the sintering of Ni/MgAl2O4 catalysts. These results suggest that the rapid loss of catalyst activity in the earliest stages of catalyst sintering could result from Ostwald ripening rather than through particle migration and coalescence. The smallest...

  1. Method of performing sugar dehydration and catalyst treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianli [Kennewick, WA; Holladay, Johnathan E [Kennewick, WA; Zhang, Xinjie [Burlington, MA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2010-06-01

    The invention includes a method of treating a solid acid catalyst. After exposing the catalyst to a mixture containing a sugar alcohol, the catalyst is washed with an organic solvent and is then exposed to a second reaction mixture. The invention includes a process for production of anhydrosugar alcohol. A solid acid catalyst is provided to convert sugar alcohol in a first sample to an anhydrosugar alcohol. The catalyst is then washed with an organic solvent and is subsequently utilized to expose a second sample. The invention includes a method for selective production of an anhydrosugar. A solid acid catalyst is provided within a reactor and anhydrosugar alcohol is formed by flowing a starting sugar alcohol into the reactor. The acid catalyst is then exposed to an organic solvent which allows a greater amount of additional anhydrosugar to be produced than would occur without exposing the acid catalyst to the organic solvent.

  2. Asymmetric synthesis of polypiperylene on a lanthanide-containing catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monakov, Yu.B.; Marina, N.G.; Kozlova, O.I.; Kanzafarov, F.Ya.; Tolstikov, G.A.

    1987-07-01

    The authors study the polymerization of piperylene and subsequent synthesis of polypiperylene on a neodymium chloride catalyst containing a sulfoxide and an aluminium complex. Specifics of the catalyst preparation and activity are given.

  3. Application of Ion Beam Processing Technology in Production of Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola G. Bannikov, Javed A. Chattha

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the applicability of Ion Beam Processing Technology for making catalysts has been inves-tigated. Ceramic substrates of different shapes and metal fibre tablets were implanted by platinum ions and tested in nitrogen oxides (NOx and carbon monoxide (CO conversion reactions. Effectiveness of the implanted catalysts was compared to that of the commercially produced platinum catalysts made by impregnation. Platinum-implanted catalyst having fifteen times less platinum content showed the same CO conversion efficiency as the commercially pro-duced catalyst. It was revealed that the effectiveness of the platinum-implanted catalyst has complex dependence on the process parameters and the optimum can be achieved by varying the ions energy and the duration of implantation. Investigation of the pore structure showed that ion implantation did not decrease the specific surface area of the catalyst.Key Words: Catalyst, Ion Implantation, Noble metals.

  4. Catalysts for oxidation of mercury in flue gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granite, Evan J.; Pennline, Henry W.

    2010-08-17

    Two new classes of catalysts for the removal of heavy metal contaminants, especially mercury (Hg) from effluent gases. Both of these classes of catalysts are excellent absorbers of HCl and Cl.sub.2 present in effluent gases. This adsorption of oxidizing agents aids in the oxidation of heavy metal contaminants. The catalysts remove mercury by oxidizing the Hg into mercury (II) moieties. For one class of catalysts, the active component is selected from the group consisting of iridium (Ir) and iridum-platinum (Ir/Pt) alloys. The Ir and Ir/Pt alloy catalysts are especially corrosion resistant. For the other class of catalyst, the active component is partially combusted coal or "Thief" carbon impregnated with Cl.sub.2. Untreated Thief carbon catalyst can be self-activating in the presence of effluent gas streams. The Thief carbon catalyst is disposable by means of capture from the effluent gas stream in a particulate collection device (PCD).

  5. n-BUTANE ISOMERIZATION OVER PERSULFATE-MODIFIED Al2 O3-ZrO2 CATALYSTS%过硫酸盐改性的Al2O3-ZrO2催化剂上的正丁烷异构化反应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏勇德; 华伟明; 高滋

    1999-01-01

    @@ The conversion of n-butane to isobutane over strong acid catalysts is an important process in the petrochemical refining industry, because isobutane is a valuable precursor to methyl-tert-butyl ether and other fuel additives. Many reports dealing with sulfate promoted zirconia as catalysts for n-butane isomerization have appeared[1, 2].

  6. Microwave-assisted Extraction of Rare Earth Elements from Petroleum Refining Catalysts and Ambient Fine Aerosols Prior to Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittlefehldt, David W.; Kulkarni, Pranav; Chellam, Shankar

    2006-01-01

    In the absence of a certified reference material, a robust microwave-assisted acid digestion procedure followed by inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was developed to quantify rare earth elements (REEs) in fluidized-bed catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts and atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM2.5). High temperature (200 C), high pressure (200 psig), acid digestion (HNO3, HF, and H3BO3) with 20 minute dwell time effectively solubilized REEs from six fresh catalysts, a spent catalyst, and PM2.5. This method was also employed to measure 27 non-REEs including Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Zr, Mo, Cd, Cs, Ba, Pb, and U. Complete extraction of several REEs (Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Tb, Dy, and Er) required HF indicating that they were closely associated with the aluminosilicate structure of the zeolite FCC catalysts. Internal standardization using 115In quantitatively corrected non-spectral interferences in the catalyst digestate matrix. Inter-laboratory comparison using ICP-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) demonstrated the applicability of the newly developed analytical method for accurate analysis of REEs in FCC catalysts. The method developed for FCC catalysts was also successfully implemented to measure trace to ultra-trace concentrations of La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Eu, and Dy in ambient PM2.5 in an industrial area of Houston, TX.

  7. Continuous hydrogenation of ethyl levulinate to γ-valerolactone and 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran over alumina doped Cu/SiO2 catalyst: the potential of commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Junlin; Zhu, Junhua; Xu, Xuan; Wang, Wanmin; Li, Jiwen; Zhao, Yan; Tang, Kangjian; Song, Qi; Qi, Xiaolan; Kong, Dejin; Tang, Yi

    2016-07-01

    Hydrogenation of levulinic acid (LA) and its esters to produce γ-valerolactone (GVL) and 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran (2-MTHF) is a key step for the utilization of cellulose derived LA. Aiming to develop a commercially feasible base metal catalyst for the production of GVL from LA, with satisfactory activity, selectivity, and stability, Al2O3 doped Cu/SiO2 and Cu/SiO2 catalysts were fabricated by co-precipitation routes in parallel. The diverse physio-chemical properties of these two catalysts were characterized by XRD, TEM, dissociative N2O chemisorptions, and Py-IR methods. The catalytic properties of these two catalysts were systematically assessed in the continuous hydrogenation of ethyl levulinate (EL) in a fixed-bed reactor. The effect of acidic property of the SiO2 substrate on the catalytic properties was investigated. To justify the potential of its commercialization, significant attention was paid on the initial activity, proper operation window, by-products control, selectivity, and stability of the catalyst. The effect of reaction conditions, such as temperature and pressure, on the performance of the catalyst was also thoroughly studied. The development of alumina doped Cu/SiO2 catalyst strengthened the value-chain from cellulose to industrially important chemicals via LA and GVL.

  8. Ruthenium-based olefin metathesis catalysts bearing pH-responsive ligands: External control of catalyst solubility and activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balof, Shawna Lynn

    2011-12-01

    Sixteen novel, Ru-based olefin metathesis catalysts bearing pH responsive ligands were synthesized. The pH-responsive groups employed with these catalysts included dimethylamino (NMe2) modified NHC ligands as well as N-donor dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) and 3-(o-pyridyl)propylidene ligands. These pH-responsive ligands provided the means by which the solubility and/or activity profiles of the catalysts produced could be controlled via acid addition. The main goal of this dissertation was to design catalyst systems capable of performing ring opening metathesis (ROMP) and ring closing metathesis (RCM) reactions in both organic and aqueous media. In an effort to quickly gain access to new catalyst structures, a template synthesis for functionalized NHC ligand precursors was designed, in addition to other strategies, to obtain ligand precursors with ancillary NMe2 groups. Kinetic studies for the catalysts produced from these precursors showed external control of catalyst solubility was afforded via protonation of the NMe2 groups of their NHC ligands. Additionally, this protonation afforded external control of catalyst propagation rates for several catalysts. This is the first known independent external control for the propagation rates of ROMP catalysts. The incorporation of pH-responsive N-donor ligands into catalyst structures also provided the means for the external control of metathesis activity, as the protonation of these ligands resulted in an increased initiation rate based on their fast and irreversible dissociation from the metal center. The enhanced external control makes these catalysts applicable to a wide range of applications, some of which have been explored by us and/or through collaboration. Three of the catalysts designed showed remarkable metathesis activity in aqueous media. These catalysts displayed comparable RCM activity in aqueous media to a class of water-soluble catalysts reported by Grubbs et al., considered to be the most active catalyst for

  9. Process Optimization of (Ni, Mo, Cu/Kieselguhr Catalyst by Response Surface Methodology for Glycerol Production by Hydrogenolysis of Sucrose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TANUJA SRIVASTAVA

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Sucrose hydrogenolysis is industrially important for the production of polyols. To provide high glycerol yield, a nickel catalyst promoted by molybdenum and copper supported on kieselguhr was used in the optimization of process variables viz., temperature, pressure, and sucrose and catalyst concentration using Response Surface Methodology. A 4 X 5 experimental design has been adopted to study the effect of process variables on glycerol yield. A linear second-order model has been developed to optimize and to study theinteraction effects on glycerol yield in the catalytic hydrogenolysis of sucrose. Maximum glycerol yield of 43.85% was identified at 161°C, 48.4 atm pressure, 14.8% sucrose concentration, and 12.23% catalystconcentration. The catalyst obtained by the optimized process has been characterized by the electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and magnetic measurement techniques.

  10. Selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide with ammonia on Fe-ZSM-5 catalysts prepared by different methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delahay, Gerard; Valade, David; Guzman-Vargas, Ariel; Coq, Bernard [Laboratoire de Materiaux Catalytiques et Catalyse en Chimie Organique, UMR CNRS-ENSCM 5618, ENSCM, 8 rue d l' Ecole Normale, 34296 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France)

    2005-01-28

    Fe-ZSM-5 catalysts, prepared by different methods, have been characterized by TPR and XRD and tested in the NO-SCR by NH{sub 3.} The sublimation method leads to the most active catalysts. Nevertheless the preparation starting from Fe(acac){sub 3}, which is a preparation easy to implement from an industrial point of view, seems to be a very attractive alternative way. On the most active catalyst, Fe(0.83){sub sub}ZSM-5, prepared starting from FeCl{sub 3}, a study of the mechanism was undertaken. In the initial step of the SCR reaction, the oxidation of NO in NO{sub 2}, the re-oxidation of Fe{sup II} species in the active iron oxo species is the slow phase.

  11. Ruthenium carbenes supported on mesoporous silicas as highly active and selective hybrid catalysts for olefin metathesis reactions under continuous flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bru, Miriam; Dehn, Richard; Teles, J Henrique; Deuerlein, Stephan; Danz, Manuel; Müller, Imke B; Limbach, Michael

    2013-08-26

    In the search for a highly active and selective heterogenized metathesis catalyst, we systematically varied the pore geometry and size of various silica-based mesoporous (i.e., MCM-41, MCM-48, and SBA-15) and microporous (ZSM-5 and MWW) versus macroporous materials (D11-10 and Aerosil 200), besides other process parameters (temperature, dilution, and mean residence time). The activity and, especially, selectivity of such "linker-free" supports for ruthenium metathesis catalysts were evaluated in the cyclodimerization of cis-cyclooctene to form 1,9-cyclohexadecadiene, a valuable intermediate in the flavor and fragrance industry. The optimized material showed not only exceptionally high selectivity to the valuable product, but also turned out to be a truly heterogeneous catalyst with superior activity relative to the unsupported homogeneous complex.

  12. Preparation and Catalytic Application of Novel Water Tolerant Solid Acid Catalysts of Zirconium Sulfate/HZSM-5

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Ya-jie; JUAN Joon Ching; MENG Xiu-juan; CAO Wei-liang; YARMO Mohd Ambar; ZHANG Jing-chang

    2007-01-01

    Esterification of acrylic acid(AA) to produce AA esters has widespread application in the chemical industry. A series of water tolerant solid acid catalysts was prepared, and characterized by XRD, nitrogen adsorption, TGA-DTA, XPS, and ammonia adsorption FTIR. The effects of Si/Al ratio, zirconium sulfate(ZS) loading on HZSM-5 and calcination temperature on the esterification were investigated. When 20%(mass fraction) ZS is loaded on HZSM-5, the conversion of AA reaches 100%. XRD analysis indicates that ZS is highly dispersed on HZSM-5 because no crystalline structure assigned to ZS is found. Catalytic activity and hydrophobicity of ZS supported on HZSM-5 are higher compared with those of parent ZS or HZSM-5. Results show that this kind of novel catalysts is an efficient water tolerant solid acid catalyst for esterification reactions.

  13. Ruthenium carbenes supported on mesoporous silicas as highly active and selective hybrid catalysts for olefin metathesis reactions under continuous flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bru, Miriam; Dehn, Richard; Teles, J Henrique; Deuerlein, Stephan; Danz, Manuel; Müller, Imke B; Limbach, Michael

    2013-08-26

    In the search for a highly active and selective heterogenized metathesis catalyst, we systematically varied the pore geometry and size of various silica-based mesoporous (i.e., MCM-41, MCM-48, and SBA-15) and microporous (ZSM-5 and MWW) versus macroporous materials (D11-10 and Aerosil 200), besides other process parameters (temperature, dilution, and mean residence time). The activity and, especially, selectivity of such "linker-free" supports for ruthenium metathesis catalysts were evaluated in the cyclodimerization of cis-cyclooctene to form 1,9-cyclohexadecadiene, a valuable intermediate in the flavor and fragrance industry. The optimized material showed not only exceptionally high selectivity to the valuable product, but also turned out to be a truly heterogeneous catalyst with superior activity relative to the unsupported homogeneous complex. PMID:23852995

  14. Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes as a Catalyst for Gas-Phase Oxidation of Ethanol to Acetaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Huang, Rui; Feng, Zhenbao; Liu, Hongyang; Su, Dangsheng

    2016-07-21

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were directly used as a sustainable and green catalyst to convert ethanol into acetaldehyde in the presence of molecular oxygen. The C=O groups generated on the nanocarbon surface were demonstrated as active sites for the selective oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde. The transformation of disordered carbon debris on the CNT surface to ordered graphitic structures induced by thermal-treatment significantly enhanced the stability of the active C=O groups, and thus the catalytic performance. A high reactivity with approximately 60 % ethanol conversion and 93 % acetaldehyde selectivity was obtained over the optimized CNT catalyst at 270 °C. More importantly, the catalytic performance was quite stable even after 500 h, which is comparable with a supported gold catalyst. The robust catalytic performance displayed the potential application of CNTs in the industrial catalysis field. PMID:27282126

  15. Preliminary toxicological study of Silastic 386 catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.M.; Drake, G.A.; Holland, L.M.; Jackson, D.E.; London, J.E.; Prine, J.R.; Thomas, R.G.

    1978-06-01

    The calculated acute oral LD/sub 50//sup 30/ values for Silastic 386 catalyst were 1225 mg/kg in mice and 4350 mg/kg in rats. According to classical guidelines, the compound would be slightly to moderately toxic in both species. Skin application studies in the rabbit demonstrated the compound to be mildly irritating. The eye irritation study disclosed the compound to be a severe irritant causing conjunctivitis, photophobia, corneal edema, corneal ulceration, anterior uveitis, and keratitis. The sensitization study in the guinea pig did not show Silastic 386 catalyst to be deleterious in this regard.

  16. Sintering of nickel steam reforming catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, Jens; Larsen, Niels Wessel; Falsig, Hanne;

    2014-01-01

    . In this paper, particle migration and coalescence in nickel steam reforming catalysts is studied. Density functional theory calculations indicate that Ni-OH dominate nickel transport at nickel surfaces in the presence of steam and hydrogen as Ni-OH has the lowest combined energies of formation and diffusion...... compared to other potential nickel transport species. The relation between experimental catalyst sintering data and the effective mass diffusion constant for Ni-OH is established by numerical modelling of the particle migration and coalescence process. Using this relation, the effective mass diffusion...

  17. Method for the production of methanation catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, H.; Hakim, I.

    1976-11-18

    A methanation catalyst is claimed which is produced by precipitation of nickel salts from alcoholic solutions. At the same time, these solutions contain aluminium or magnesium compounds and, in some cases, also a carrier medium. The precipitation agents are alkali boron hydride solutions and alkali carbonate solutions. The precipitate, which is preferably obtained at temperatures between -5 and +5/sup 0/C, consists of a fine mixture of nickel boride, oxide hydrates, and hydroxides of nickel, magnesium, or aluminium. In contrast to the known nickel catalyst masses, it may be processed in air without inert gas. Four examples of preparations with suitable methanation tests are given.

  18. Catalysis by nonmetals rules for catalyst selection

    CERN Document Server

    Krylov, Oleg V

    1970-01-01

    Catalysis by Non-metals: Rules of Catalyst Selection presents the development of scientific principles for the collection of catalysts. It discusses the investigation of the mechanism of chemosorption and catalysis. It addresses a series of properties of solid with catalytic activity. Some of the topics covered in the book are the properties of a solid and catalytic activity in oxidation-reduction reactions; the difference of electronegativities and the effective charges of atoms; the role of d-electrons in the catalytic properties of a solid; the color of solids; and proton-acid and proton-ba

  19. Ruthenium-Aryloxide Catalysts for Olefin Metathesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfette, Sebastien; Blacquiere, Johanna M.; Conrad, Jay C.; Beach, Nicholas J.; Fogg, Deryn E.

    : Advances in design of ruthenium aryloxide catalysts for olefin metathesis are described. The target complexes are accessible on reaction of RuCl2(NHC)(py)2 (CHPh) (NHC - N-heterocyclic carbene) with electron-deficient, monodentate aryl- oxides, or aryloxides that yield small, rigid chelate rings. The best of these catalysts offer activity comparable to or greater than that of the parent chloride (Grubbs) systems in ring-closing metathesis (RCM). Preliminary studies of the electronic nature of the Ru-X bond suggest that the metal center is more electropositive in the aryloxide complexes than in the Grubbs systems.

  20. Nickel catalysts for internal reforming in molten carbonate fuel cells

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, R.J.; Doesburg, E.B.M.; Ommen, van, B.; Ross, J.R.H.

    1996-01-01

    Natural gas may be used instead of hydrogen as fuel for the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) by steam reforming the natural gas inside the MCFC, using a nickel catalyst (internal reforming). The severe conditions inside the MCFC, however, require that the catalyst has a very high stability. In order to find suitable types of nickel catalysts and to obtain more knowledge about the deactivation mechanism(s) occurring during internal reforming, a series of nickel catalysts was prepared and subj...

  1. Fries Rearrangement of Phenyl Acetate over Solid Acid Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CanXiongGUO; YanLIU; 等

    2002-01-01

    A silica-supported zirconium based solid acid (ZS) has been used as catalyst for the Fries rearrangement of phenyl acetate (PA). The catalyst showed a higher PA conversion activity and a much higher selectivity for o-hydroxyacetophenone (o-HAP) than for strongly acidic zeolite catalysts. The supported catalyst was characterized by XRD,IR,XPS,pyridine-TPD and the surface area measurements. The catalytic properties were influenced significantly by pretreatment temperature.

  2. Thief carbon catalyst for oxidation of mercury in effluent stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granite, Evan J.; Pennline, Henry W.

    2011-12-06

    A catalyst for the oxidation of heavy metal contaminants, especially mercury (Hg), in an effluent stream is presented. The catalyst facilitates removal of mercury through the oxidation of elemental Hg into mercury (II) moieties. The active component of the catalyst is partially combusted coal, or "Thief" carbon, which can be pre-treated with a halogen. An untreated Thief carbon catalyst can be self-promoting in the presence of an effluent gas streams entrained with a halogen.

  3. Modelling cathode catalyst degradation in polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    OpenAIRE

    Rinaldo, Steven Giordano

    2013-01-01

    Nano-sized Pt particles in the cathode catalyst layer of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell afford a high initial electrochemically active surface-area. However, the gain in active surface area for desired surface reactions is offset in part by enhanced rates of degradation processes that cause losses in catalyst mass, catalyst surface-area, and electrocatalytic activity. The loss of electrochemically active surface-area of the catalyst causes severe performance degradation over relevant lifetim...

  4. Fries Rearrangement of Phenyl Acetate over Solid Acid Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A silica-supported zirconium based solid acid (ZS) has been used as catalyst for the Fries rearrangement of phenyl acetate (PA). The catalyst showed a higher PA conversion activity and a much higher selectivity for o-hydroxyacetophenone (o-HAP) than for strongly acidic zeolite catalysts. The supported catalyst was characterized by XRD, IR, XPS, pyridine-TPD and the surface area measurements. The catalytic properties were influenced significantly by pretreatment temperature.

  5. Synthesis of superparamagnetic carbon nanotubes immobilized Pt and Pd pincer complexes: highly active and selective catalysts towards cyclohexane oxidation with dioxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Kelly; Mishra, Jaya; Suzuki, Shinzo; Mishra, Gopal S

    2014-12-14

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with Ni/Co have been prepared using an arc discharge technique and Ni/Co-carbon composite rods in an inert atmosphere and were surface modified using 3-aminophenyl trimethoxysilane. These NH2-functionalized magnetic carbon nanotubes have been used as a novel support for Pd((II)) and Pt((II)) pincer complexes immobilized as magnetic nano-catalysts. The morphology of the support and the catalysts have been characterized by IR, EPR, SEM, TGA, TEM, XRD, AAS and EDS analysis. These magnetic nano-catalysts have been tested on the industrially important cyclohexane (Cy-hx) oxidation with O2 and significantly high TONs of 1678 to 1946 were achieved under solvent free and relatively mild conditions. The SWNTs/Pd catalyst provided the best conversion, 22.7%, but the SWNTs/Pt system also provided a good conversion of 20.7%. PMID:25340475

  6. An anodic alumina supported Ni-Pt bimetallic plate-type catalysts for multi-reforming of methane, kerosene and ethanol

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Lu

    2014-05-01

    An anodic alumina supported Ni-Pt bimetallic plate-type catalyst was prepared by a two-step impregnation method. The trace amount 0.08 wt% of Pt doping efficiently suppressed the nickel particle sintering and improved the nickel oxides reducibility. The prepared Ni-Pt catalyst showed excellent performance during steam reforming of methane, kerosene and ethanol under both 3000 h stationary and 500-time daily start-up and shut-down operation modes. Self-activation ability of this catalyst was evidenced, which was considered to be resulted from the hydrogen spillover effect over Ni-Pt alloy. In addition, an integrated combustion-reforming reactor was proposed in this study. However, the sintering of the alumina support is still a critical issue for the industrialization of Ni-Pt catalyst. Copyright © 2014, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Industrial Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    NASTRAN is an offshoot of the computer-design technique used in construction of airplanes and spacecraft. [n this technique engineers create a mathematical model of the aeronautical or space vehicle and "fly" it on the ground by means of computer simulation. The technique enables them to study performance and structural behavior of a number of different designs before settling on the final configuration and proceeding with construction. From this base of aerospace experience, NASA-Goddard developed the NASTRAN general purpose computer program, which offers an exceptionally wide range of analytic capability with regard to structures. NASTRAN has been applied to autos, trucks, railroad cars, ships, nuclear power reactors, steam turbines, bridges, and office buildings. NASA-Langley provides program maintenance services regarded as vital by many NASTRAN users. NASTRAN is essentially a predictive tool. It takes an electronic look at a computerire$.dedgn and reports how the structure will react under a great many different conditions. It can, for example, note areas where high stress levels will occur-potential failure points that need strengthening. Conversely, it can identify over-designed areas where weight and material might be saved safely. NASTRAN can tell how pipes stand up under strong fluid flow, how metals are affected by high temperatures, how a building will fare in an earthquake or how powerful winds will cause a bridge to oscillate. NASTRAN analysis is quick and inexpensive. It minimizes trial-and-error in the design process and makes possible better, safe, lighter structures affording large-scale savings in development time and materials. Some examples of the broad utility NASTRAN is finding among industrial firms are shown on these pages.

  8. Nano Catalysts for Diesel Engine Emission Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narula, Chaitanya Kumar [ORNL; Yang, Xiaofan [ORNL; Debusk, Melanie Moses [ORNL; Mullins, David R [ORNL; Mahurin, Shannon Mark [ORNL; Wu, Zili [ORNL

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this project was to develop durable zeolite nanocatalysts with broader operating temperature windows to treat diesel engine emissions to enable diesel engine based equipment and vehicles to meet future regulatory requirements. A second objective was to improve hydrothermal durability of zeolite catalysts to at least 675 C. The results presented in this report show that we have successfully achieved both objectives. Since it is accepted that the first step in NO{sub x} conversion under SCR (selective catalytic reduction) conditions involves NO oxidation to NO{sub 2}, we reasoned that catalyst modification that can enhance NO oxidation at low-temperatures should facilitate NO{sub x} reduction at low temperatures. Considering that Cu-ZSM-5 is a more efficient catalyst than Fe-ZSM-5 at low-temperature, we chose to modify Cu-ZSM-5. It is important to point out that the poor low-temperature efficiency of Fe-ZSM-5 has been shown to be due to selective absorption of NH{sub 3} at low-temperatures rather than poor NO oxidation activity. In view of this, we also reasoned that an increased electron density on copper in Cu-ZSM-5 would inhibit any bonding with NH{sub 3} at low-temperatures. In addition to modified Cu-ZSM-5, we synthesized a series of new heterobimetallic zeolites, by incorporating a secondary metal cation M (Sc{sup 3+}, Fe{sup 3+}, In{sup 3+}, and La{sup 3+}) in Cu exchanged ZSM-5, zeolite-beta, and SSZ-13 zeolites under carefully controlled experimental conditions. Characterization by diffuse-reflectance ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) does not permit conclusive structural determination but supports the proposal that M{sup 3+} has been incorporated in the vicinity of Cu(II). The protocols for degreening catalysts, testing under various operating conditions, and accelerated aging

  9. Biomass Conversion over Heteropoly Acid Catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Jizhe

    2015-04-01

    Biomass is a natural resource that is both abundant and sustainable. Its efficient utilization has long been the focus of research and development efforts with the aim to substitute it for fossil-based feedstock. In addition to the production of biofuels (e.g., ethanol) from biomass, which has been to some degree successful, its conversion to high value-added chemicals is equally important. Among various biomass conversion pathways, catalytic conversion is usually preferred, as it provides a cost-effective and eco-benign route to the desired products with high selectivities. The research of this thesis is focused on the conversion of biomass to various chemicals of commercial interest by selective catalytic oxidation. Molecular oxygen is chosen as the oxidant considering its low cost and environment friendly features in comparison with commonly used hydrogen peroxide. However, the activation of molecular oxygen usually requires high reaction temperatures, leading to over oxidation and thus lower selectivities. Therefore, it is highly desirable to develop effective catalysts for such conversion systems. We use kegging-type heteropoly acids (HPAs) as a platform for catalysts design because of their high catalytic activities and ease of medication. Using HPA catalysts allows the conversion taking place at relatively low temperature, which is beneficial to saving production cost as well as to improving the reaction selectivity. The strong acidity of HPA promotes the hydrolysis of biomass of giant molecules (e.g. cellulose), which is the first as well as the most difficult step in the conversion process. Under certain circumstances, a HPA combines the merits of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts, acting as an efficient homogeneous catalyst during the reaction while being easily separated as a heterogeneous catalyst after the reaction. We have successfully applied HPAs in several biomass conversion systems. Specially, we prepared a HPA-based bi-functional catalyst

  10. Tackling CO Poisoning with Single-Atom Alloy Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jilei; Lucci, Felicia R; Yang, Ming; Lee, Sungsik; Marcinkowski, Matthew D; Therrien, Andrew J; Williams, Christopher T; Sykes, E Charles H; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria

    2016-05-25

    Platinum catalysts are extensively used in the chemical industry and as electrocatalysts in fuel cells. Pt is notorious for its sensitivity to poisoning by strong CO adsorption. Here we demonstrate that the single-atom alloy (SAA) strategy applied to Pt reduces the binding strength of CO while maintaining catalytic performance. By using surface sensitive studies, we determined the binding strength of CO to different Pt ensembles, and this in turn guided the preparation of PtCu alloy nanoparticles (NPs). The atomic ratio Pt:Cu = 1:125 yielded a SAA which exhibited excellent CO tolerance in H2 activation, the key elementary step for hydrogenation and hydrogen electro-oxidation. As a probe reaction, the selective hydrogenation of acetylene to ethene was performed under flow conditions on the SAA NPs supported on alumina without activity loss in the presence of CO. The ability to maintain reactivity in the presence of CO is vital to other industrial reaction systems, such as hydrocarbon oxidation, electrochemical methanol oxidation, and hydrogen fuel cells. PMID:27167705

  11. Shining X-rays on catalysts at work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk

    2009-01-01

    Structure-performance relationships gained by studying catalysts at work are considered the key to further development of catalysts underlined here by a brief overview on our research in this area. The partial oxidation of methane to hydrogen and carbon monoxide over Pt- and Rh-based catalysts an...

  12. Moessbauer study of function of magnesium in iron oxide catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YangJie-Xin; MaoLian-Sheng; 等

    1997-01-01

    Moessbauer spectroscopy has been utilized for studying the action of Mg element in iron oxide catalysts used for the dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to sytrene.The experimental results show that the presence of opportune amount of Mg can enhance the stability and dispersion of catalysts,i.e.Mg is an sueful structure promoter in this kind of catalysts.

  13. 40 CFR 90.329 - Catalyst thermal stress test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Catalyst thermal stress test. 90.329... Equipment Provisions § 90.329 Catalyst thermal stress test. (a) Oven characteristics. The oven used for thermally stressing the test catalyst must be capable of maintaining a temperature of 500 ±5 °C and 1000...

  14. Monte Carlo simulation of the PEMFC catalyst layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hongxing; CAO Pengzhen; WANG Yuxin

    2007-01-01

    The performance of the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is greatly controlled by the structure of the catalyst layer.Low catalyst utilization is still a significant obstacle to the commercialization of the PEMFC.In order to get a fundamental understanding of the electrode structure and to find the limiting factor in the low catalyst utilization,it is necessary to develop the mechanical model on the effect of catalyst layer structure on the catalyst utilization and the performance of the PEMFC.In this work,the structure of the catalyst layer is studied based on the lattice model with the Monte Carlo simulation.The model can predict the effects of some catalyst layer components,such as Pt/C catalyst,electrolyte and gas pores,on the utilization of the catalyst and the cell performance.The simulation result shows that the aggregation of conduction grains can greatly affect the degree of catalyst utilization.The better the dispersion of the conduction grains,the larger the total effective area of the catalyst is.To achieve higher utilization,catalyst layer components must be distributed by means of engineered design,which can prevent aggregation.

  15. 40 CFR 91.427 - Catalyst thermal stress resistance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Catalyst thermal stress resistance... Procedures § 91.427 Catalyst thermal stress resistance evaluation. (a)(1) The purpose of the evaluation procedure specified in this section is to determine the effect of thermal stress on catalyst...

  16. 40 CFR 91.329 - Catalyst thermal stress test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Catalyst thermal stress test. 91.329....329 Catalyst thermal stress test. (a) Oven characteristics. The oven used for termally stressing the test catalyst must be capable of maintaining a temperature of 500 ±5 °C and 1000 ±10 °C. (b)...

  17. Hydrogenation of cottonseed oil with nickel, palladium and platinum catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    A number of commercial catalysts have been used to study hydrogenation of cottonseed oil, with the goal of minimizing trans fatty acid (TFA) content. Despite the different temperatures used, catalyst levels, and reaction times, the data from each catalyst type fall on the same curve when the TFA le...

  18. New improved hydrophobic Pt-catalyst for hydrogen isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the studies on preparation methods and applications of the hydrophobic catalysts in deuterium and tritium separation. The objectives of the paper are: (1) to provide a database for selection of the most appropriate catalyst and catalytic packing for above mentioned processes; (2) to evaluate the potentiality of hydrophobic Pt-catalysts in the deuterium and tritium separation; (3) to assess and to find a new procedure for preparation of a new improved hydrophobic catalyst. Unlike the conventional hydrophilic catalysts, the hydrophobic catalysts maintain a high catalytic activity and stability even under the direct contact to liquid water or in the presence of saturated humidity. A large diversity of catalyst types (over 100 catalysts) was prepared and tested for hydrogen isotope separation. The impregnation modes, the type of precursor of active metal, conditions of reduction and waterproofing methods are in detail analysed. As result of this assessment, platinum appears to be the most active catalytic metal and TEFLON is the most hydrophobic agent. A method for preparation of new improved hydrophobic Pt-catalysed has been proposed. The main steps and experimental conditions are largely discussed. The advantages of the hydrophobic catalysts are shown in comparison to hydrophilic catalysts. Some suggestions concerning the deuterium and tritium enrichment by means of hydrophobic catalysts are also discussed.The extension of hydrophobic Pt-catalysts' applications in environmental field is proposed. (author)

  19. Coke Accumulation on Catalysts used in a Fluidized Bed Pyrolyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have examined the impact of various solid catalysts on the product distribution resulting from the pyrolysis of biomass. Though catalysts do have a discernible impact, this impact is small. In our bench-top pyrolyzer designed as a catalyst screening tool, we measure bulk product distribution as...

  20. Thermo-Catalytic Methane Decomposition for Hydrogen Production: Effect of Palladium Promoter on Ni-based Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Lock Sow Mei

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen production from the direct thermo-catalytic decomposition of methane is a promising alternative for clean fuel production. However, thermal decomposition of methane can hardly be of any practical and empirical interest in the industry unless highly efficient and effective catalysts, in terms of both catalytic activity and operational lifetime have been developed. In this study, the effect of palladium (Pd as a promoter onto Ni supported on alumina catalyst has been investigated by using co-precipitation technique. The introduction of Pd promotes better catalytic activity, operational lifetime and thermal stability of the catalyst. As expected, highest methane conversion was achieved at reaction temperature of 800 °C while the bimetallic catalyst (1 wt.% Ni -1wt.% Pd/Al2O3 gave the highest methane conversion of 70% over 15 min of time-on-stream (TOS. Interestingly, the introduction of Pd as promoter onto Ni-based catalyst also has a positive effect on the operational lifetime and thermal stability of the catalyst as the methane conversion has improved significantly over 240 min of TOS. Copyright © 2016 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved Received: 21st January 2016; Revised: 6th February 2016; Accepted: 6th March 2016 How to Cite: Mei, I.L.S., Lock, S.S.M., Vo, D.V.N., Abdullah, B. (2016. Thermo-Catalytic Methane Decomposition for Hydrogen Production: Effect of Palladium Promoter on Ni-based Catalysts. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 11 (2: 191-199 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.11.2.550.191-199 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.11.2.550.191-199